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1

Prediction of clinical pregnancy in vitrified-warmed single blastocyst transfer cycles by pre-freeze morphology  

PubMed Central

Background: The selection of blastocyst warmed for transfer is based on pre-freeze morphology in vitrified-warmed single blastocyst transfer cycles. But, it is controversial which parameter of blastocyst morphology most closely related to the clinical outcomes. Objective: To estimate the effect of blastocoele expansion, trophectoderm (TE) morphology grade, and inner cell mass (ICM) morphology grade on clinical pregnancy in vitrified-warmed single blastocyst transfers. Materials and Methods: There were 172 vitrified-warmed single blastocyst transfer cycles during the year 2012 included in this analysis. Comparison of clinical results between pregnancy and no pregnancy group based on patient and blastocyst morphology characteristics was done. Then stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to select the best morphological predictor for clinical pregnancy. Last, comparison of patient characteristics and clinical outcomes separated by the best independent morphological predictor was done. Results: Comparison of clinical results between pregnancy and no pregnancy group and logistic regression showed the clinical pregnancy rate was affected by ICM. Comparison of patient characteristics separated by ICM grade, ICM grade A cycles got higher clinical pregnancy rate than ICM grade B cycles (54.3% vs. 35.0% respectively, p=0.037). Conclusion: Blastocyst with good ICM morphology could increase clinical pregnancy rate in vitrified-warmed single blastocyst transfer cycles.

Zhang, Huan; Zhou, Ying; Li, Yan; Zheng, Yi; Xiao, Shiquan; Wu, Yonggen; Wang, Haiqing; Huang, Xuefeng

2014-01-01

2

Women's age and embryo developmental speed accurately predict clinical pregnancy after single vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to establish a simple, objective blastocyst grading system using women's age and embryo developmental speed to predict clinical pregnancy after single vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer. A 6-year retrospective cohort study was conducted in a private infertility centre. A total of 7341 single vitrified-armed blastocyst transfer cycles were included, divided into those carried out between 2006 and 2011 (6046 cycles) and 2012 (1295 cycles). Clinical pregnancy rate, ongoing pregnancy rate and delivery rates were stratified by women's age (<35, 35-37, 38-39, 40-41, 42-45 years) and time to blastocyst expansion (<120, 120-129, 130-139, 140-149, >149?h) as embryo developmental speed. In all the age groups, clinical pregnancy rate, ongoing pregnancy rate and delivery rates decreased as the embryo developmental speed decreased (P < 0.0001). A simple five-grade score based on women's age and embryo developmental speed was determined by actual clinical pregnancy rates observed in the 2006-2011 cohort. Subsequently, the novel grading score was validated in the 2012 cohort (1295 cycles), finding an excellent association. In conclusion, we established a novel blastocyst grading system using women's age and embryo developmental speed as objective parameters. PMID:25129691

Kato, Keiichi; Ueno, Satoshi; Yabuuchi, Akiko; Uchiyama, Kazuo; Okuno, Takashi; Kobayashi, Tamotsu; Segawa, Tomoya; Teramoto, Shokichi

2014-10-01

3

Influence of blastocysts morphological score on pregnancy outcomes in frozen-thawed blastocyst transfers: a retrospective study of 741 cycles.  

PubMed

The influence of inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) score on pregnancy outcomes in frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer cycles was analyzed. A retrospective analysis of 741 cycles of frozen-thawed blastosysts transfer was performed. All cycles were divided into four groups based on the number and morphological score of blastocysts: S-ICM B/TE B group (n=91), the single blastocyst transfer of ICM B and TE B; D-ICM B/TE B group (n=579), double blastocysts transfer of ICM B/TE B; D-ICM B/TE C group (n=35), double blastocysts transfer of ICM B/TE C; and D-ICM C/TE B group (n=36), double blastocysts transfer of TE B/ICM C. The pregnancy outcomes were compared among the four groups. As compared with D-ICM B/TE C group, the clinical pregnancy rate, implantation rate and multiple pregnancy rate were increased in D-ICM B/TE B group (74.96% vs. 57.14%, 57.43% vs. 37.14%, and 48.62% vs. 25%, respectively, P<0.05 for all). Clinical pregnancy rate and implantation rate in D-ICM B/TE B group were also higher than in D-ICM C/TE B group (74.96% vs. 50%, and 57.43% vs. 33.33%, both P<0.05). Multivariable Logistic regression analysis indicated that ICM score was a better predictive parameter for clinical pregnancy (OR=3.05, CI 1.70-5.46, P<0.001), while the trophectoderm score was a better one for early abortion (OR=0.074, CI 0.03-0.19, P<0.001). Clinical pregnancy rate and multiple pregnancy rate in S-ICM B/TE B group were significantly lower than those in D-ICM B/TE B group (46.15% vs. 74.96%, and 2.38% vs. 48.62%, both P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in the implantation rate between the two groups. It was suggested that the higher score of ICM and TE may be indicative of the better pregnancy outcomes. The ICM score is a better predictor of clinical pregnancy than TE, while TE score is a better one in predicting early abortion. Single ICM B/TE B blastocyst transfer in frozen-thawed cycles can also get satisfactory pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25318888

Liu, Lin; Li, Yan-Hui; Ding, Xiao-Fang; Geng, Yu-Hong; Chen, Chun-Yan; Gao, Ying

2014-10-01

4

Successful frozen blastocyst transfers after failed fresh transfers in assisted reproductive technologies patients with hydrosalpinx.  

PubMed

Untreated hydrosalpinx is known to decrease in vitro fertilization success. We report on 4 patients with hydrosalpinx for whom fresh transfers of 11 good quality embryos did not produce a pregnancy; however, frozen blastocyst transfers in natural cycles resulted in several successful pregnancies, with an implantation rate of 60% (9/15 blastocysts implanted). PMID:22285169

Sueldo, Carolina M; Milki, Amin A; Lathi, Ruth B

2012-03-01

5

Neonatal outcomes after the transfer of vitrified blastocysts: closed versus open vitrification system  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing evidence indicates that closed vitrification has been successfully used in the cryopreservation of human oocytes and embryos. Little information is available regarding the neonatal outcome of closed blastocysts vitrification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of blastocyst vitrification using a high-security closed vitrification system compared with an open vitrification system. Methods A total of 332 vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer cycles between April 2010 and May 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. The post-thaw survival rate, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, live birth rate, and neonatal outcome were recorded. Results There were no significant differences between the open vitrification group and the close vitrification group regarding the post-thaw survival rate (98% versus 95.8%), clinical pregnancy rate (47.6% versus 42.2%), implantation rate (42.9% versus 35.6%), and live birth rate (39.8% versus 32.1%). In total, 332 warming cycles produced 131 healthy babies. There were no significant differences in the mean gestational age, the birth weight, and the birth length between the two groups. No adverse neonatal outcomes were observed in the children born after the transfer of closed vitrified blastocysts compared with the transfer of open vitrified blastocysts. Conclusions These data suggest that blastocyst vitrification using a closed vitrification device seems safe and effective with results comparable to those obtained through open vitrification. PMID:24256633

2013-01-01

6

Clinical outcome of fresh and vitrified-warmed blastocyst and cleavage-stage embryo transfers in ethnic Chinese ART patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study sought to evaluate the outcome of fresh and vitrified-warmed cleavage-stage and blastocyst-stage embryo transfers in patients undergoing ART treatment within an ethnic Chinese population. Study design We compared the clinical results of embryo transfer on the 3rd (cleavage stage) or 5th (blastocyst stage) day after oocyte retrieval, including clinical pregnancy rates, implantation rates and multiple pregnancy rates. Results Our data showed that blastocyst transfer on day 5 did not significantly increase clinical pregnancy rate (41.07% vs 47.08%, p>0.05) and implantation rate (31.8% vs 31.2%, p>0.05) in patients under 35 years of age, in comparison with day 3 cleavage stage embryo transfer. In patients older than 35 years of age, the clinical pregnancy rate after blastocyst transfer was slightly decreased compared with cleavage stage embryo transfer (33.33% vs 42.31%, p>0.05). Unexpectedly, It was found that vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer resulted in significantly higher clinical pregnancy rate (56.8%) and implantation rate (47%) compared with fresh blastocyst transfer in controlled stimulation cycles (41.07% and 31.8%, respectively). For patients under 35 years of age, the cumulative clinical pregnancy rate combining fresh and vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer cycles were significantly higher compared to just cleavage-stage embryo transfer (70.1% versus 51.8%, p<0.05). However, the cumulative multiple pregnancy rates showed no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions In an ethnic Chinese patient population, fresh blastocyst transfer does not significantly increase clinical pregnancy rate. However, subsequent vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer in a non-controlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycle dramatically improves clinical outcomes. Therefore, blastocyst culture in tandem with vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer is recommended as a favourable and promising protocol in human ART treatment, particularly for ethnic Chinese patients. PMID:23039212

2012-01-01

7

THE EFFECT OF CELLS TRANSFERRED INTO THE MOUSE BLASTOCYST ON SUBSEQUENT DEVELOPMENT  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow cells from CBA T6T6 mice and testicular teratocarcinoma cells from 129 SvSl mice were transferred into blastocysts from random-bred Swiss albino mice. The blastocysts were allowed to develop in foster mothers and the adults resulting from these blastocysts were studied for evidence of an effect of the transferred cells. A total of 137 adults resulted from the experiments, and one of the mice that had received teratocarcinoma cells in the blastocyst stage showed several thin stripes of agouti hair. All the adult animals received grafts of skin from animals identical to those supplying the cells. In all cases the animals that resulted from blastocysts into which cells had been transferred maintained skin grafts for a significantly longer period than controls. In a number of cases the graft developed agouti hair and in two cases the graft was maintained for approximately 2 mo. These experiments indicate that the transferred cells were able to establish small colonies in the embryos and that some of these cells persisted into the adult. PMID:4610074

Brinster, R. L.

1974-01-01

8

Developmentally retarded frozen blastocysts can be rescued by synchronizing culture prior to transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asynchrony between embryo development and endometrial differentiation is the limiting step of successful pregnancy in assisted reproduction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not post-thaw synchronization culture of day 5–6 frozen embryos, prior to transfer, with endometrial differentiation resulted in pregnancy. A total of 142 cycles of 134 patients were transferred in three protocols. Blastocysts with

Takafumi Utsunomiya; Hiroko Ito; Kaori Hirai; Eiko Otsu; Hirohiko Watanabe; Takahide Mori

2006-01-01

9

Development of serum-free media for the culture and transfer of human blastocysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The culture and transfer of the blastocyst stage embryo has several advant- ages for assisted reproduction in the human. However, due to inadequacies of present culture conditions in human in-vitro fertilization (IVF), embryos are routinely transferred to the uterus on either day 2 or day 3 of development around the 4- to 8-cell stage, with resultant implantation rates of only

David K. Gardner

10

Uncoupled Embryonic and ExtraEmbryonic Tissues Compromise Blastocyst Development after Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is the most efficient cell reprogramming technique available, especially when working with bovine species. Although SCNT blastocysts performed equally well or better than controls in the weeks following embryo transfer at Day 7, elongation and gastrulation defects were observed prior to implantation. To understand the developmental implications of embryonic\\/extra-embryonic interactions, the morphological and molecular features

Séverine A. Degrelle; Florence Jaffrezic; Evelyne Campion; Kim-Anh Lê Cao; Daniel Le Bourhis; Christophe Richard; Nathalie Rodde; Renaud Fleurot; Robin E. Everts; Jérôme Lecardonnel; Yvan Heyman; Xavier Vignon; Xiangzhong Yang; Xiuchun C. Tian; Harris A. Lewin; Jean-Paul Renard; Isabelle Hue

2012-01-01

11

Effect of bovine blastocyst size at embryo transfer on day 7 on conceptus length on day 14: can supplementary progesterone rescue small embryos?  

PubMed

Conceptus size on Day 14 after multiple embryo transfer of Day 7 in vitro-produced blastocysts varies greatly within animal. One explanation for this variation may be related to blastocyst cell number at the time of transfer. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Day 7 blastocyst cell number on Day 14 conceptus size and to examine the effect of progesterone (P4) supplementation on embryo development after the transfer of Day 7 blastocysts containing a low total cell number. The estrous cycles of crossbred beef heifers were synchronized using an 8-day progesterone (P4)-releasing intravaginal device (PRID) with the administration of a prostaglandin F2? analog on the day before device removal. Only those heifers recorded in standing estrus (Day 0) were used. Heifers were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: (1) control: large blastocysts (high total cell number), (2) control: small blastocysts (low total cell number), (3) small blastocysts plus a single intramuscular injection of 3000 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on Day 2 after estrus, or (4) small blastocysts plus insertion of a vaginal P4 insert (PRID, 1.55 g P4) between Days 3 and 5 after estrus. In vitro-produced blastocysts were transferred to each heifer on Day 7 (n = 10 blastocysts per heifer), and conceptuses were recovered at slaughter on Day 14. Daily blood samples were collected from Day 0 to 14 to measure serum P4 concentrations. Data were analyzed using the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS. Total cell number on Day 7 was significantly lower in small versus large blastocysts (72.4 ± 3.93 vs. 144.8 ± 3.90, P < 0.05). Conceptus recovery rate was 53.8% overall (140 of 260) and was highest in the large blastocyst group (68.3%, 41 of 60) compared with the other groups (45.7%-55.0%). Concentrations of serum P4 were similar in the two unmanipulated recipient groups but were significantly elevated (P < 0.05) by Day 8 in the hCG-treated heifers and on Days 4 and 5 in the PRID group (P < 0.003). In the absence of supplemental P4, Day 14 conceptuses resulting from the transfer of small blastocysts (2.48 ± 0.54 mm) were smaller than those from large blastocysts (3.32 ± 0.52 mm). Administration of hCG on Day 2 approximately doubled conceptus length on Day 14 (4.94 ± 1.15 mm; P < 0.05), whereas insertion of a PRID from Days 3 to 5 increased conceptus length approximately fivefold (13.09 ± 2.11 mm; P < 0.05) compared with controls. In conclusion, results indicate that supplemental P4 is capable of "rescuing" poor-quality blastocysts, presumably via the now well-described actions on the endometrium and consequent effects on uterine lumen fluid composition. PMID:24582375

O'Hara, Lydia; Forde, Niamh; Kelly, Alan K; Lonergan, Patrick

2014-05-01

12

Endometrial thickness, Caucasian ethnicity, and age predict clinical pregnancy following fresh blastocyst embryo transfer: a retrospective cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In-vitro fertilization (IVF) with blastocyst as opposed to cleavage stage embryos has been advocated to improve success rates. Limited information exists on which to predict which patients undergoing blastocyst embryo transfer (BET) will achieve pregnancy. This study's objective was to evaluate the predictive value of patient and cycle characteristics for clinical pregnancy following fresh BET. METHODS: This was a

Michael L Traub; Anne Van Arsdale; Lubna Pal; Sangita Jindal; Nanette Santoro

2009-01-01

13

Embryogenesis and blastocyst development after somatic cell nuclear transfer in nonhuman primates: overcoming defects caused by meiotic spindle extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Therapeutic cloning or nuclear transfer for stem cells (NTSC) seeks to overcome immune rejection through the development of embryonic stem cells (ES cells) derived from cloned blastocysts. The successful derivation of a human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line from blastocysts generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) provides proof-of-principle for “therapeutic cloning,” though immune matching of the differentiated NT-hES remains

Calvin Simerly; Christopher Navara; Sang Hwan Hyun; Byeong Chun Lee; Sung Keun Kang; Saverio Capuano; Gabriella Gosman; Tanja Dominko; Kowit-Yu Chong; Duane Compton; Woo Suk Hwang; Gerald Schatten

2004-01-01

14

Selection of euploid blastocysts for cryopreservation with array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) results in increased implantation rates in subsequent frozen and thawed embryo transfer cycles  

PubMed Central

Background In assisted reproductive treatments, embryos remaining after fresh embryo transfer are usually selected for cryopreservation based on traditional morphology assessment. Our previous report has demonstrated that array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) screening for IVF patients with good prognosis significantly improves clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates in fresh embryo transfer cycles. The current study further investigates the efficiency of applying aCGH in the selection of euploid embryos for cryopreservation as related to pregnancy and implantation outcomes in subsequent frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles. Methods First-time IVF patients with good prognosis undergoing fresh single embryo transfer and having at least one remaining blastocyst for cryopreservation were prospectively randomized into two groups: 1) Group A patients had embryos assessed by morphology first and then by aCGH screening of trophectoderm cells and 2) Group B patients had embryos evaluated by morphology alone. All patients had at least one blastocyst available for cryopreservation after fresh embryo transfer. There were 15 patients in Group A and 23 patients in Group B who failed to conceive after fresh embryo transfer and completed the FET cycles. Blastocyst survival and implantation rates were compared between the two groups. Results There were no significant differences in blastocyst survival rates between Group A and Group B (90.9% vs. 91.3%, respectively; p >0.05). However, a significantly higher implantation rate was observed in the morphology assessment plus aCGH screening group compared to the morphology assessment alone group (65.0% vs. 33.3%, respectively; p?=?0.038). There was no miscarriage observed in Group A while a 16.7% miscarriage rate was recorded in Group B (0% vs. 16.7%, respectively; p >0.05). Conclusions While aCGH screening has been recently applied to select euploid blastocysts for fresh transfer in young, low-risk IVF patients, this is the first prospective study on the impact of aCGH specifically on blastocyst survival and implantation outcomes in the subsequent FET cycles of IVF patients with good prognosis. The present study demonstrates that aCGH screening of blastocysts prior to cryopreservation significantly improves implantation rates and may reduce the risk of miscarriage in subsequent FET cycles. Further randomized clinical studies with a larger sample size are needed to validate these preliminary findings. PMID:23937723

2013-01-01

15

Selection of developmentally competent oocytes through brilliant cresyl blue stain enhances blastocyst development rate after bovine nuclear transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of oocyte selection on the efficiency of bovine nuclear transfer in terms of increased blastocyst production. For this purpose, prior to in vitro maturation (IVM), oocytes were selected for their developmental competence on the basis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity indicated by brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) staining. It has

S. Bhojwani; H. Alm; H. Torner; W. Kanitz; R. Poehland

2007-01-01

16

Vitamin C supplementation enhances compact morulae formation but reduces the hatching blastocyst rate of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.  

PubMed

Vitamin C, an antioxidant that reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells, is capable of significantly improving the developmental competence of porcine and mouse somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos, both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, the effects of vitamin C on the developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos were investigated. The results indicated that vitamin C (40 ?g/mL) positively affected the scavenging of intracellular ROS, cleavage rate at 24 h (76.67 vs. 68.26%, p<0.05), compact morulae formation (60.83 vs. 51.30%, p<0.05), and the blastomere apoptosis index (3.70 ± 1.41 vs. 4.43% ± 1.65, p<0.05) of bovine SCNT embryos. However, vitamin C supplementation did not significantly affect the blastocyst formation rate and proportion of inner cell mass over total cells per blastocyst on day 7. Moreover, vitamin C supplementation obviously impaired the total cell numbers per blastocyst (97.20 ± 11.35 vs. 88.57 ± 10.43, p<0.05) on day 7 and the hatching blastocysts formation rate on day 9 (26.51 vs. 50.65%, p<0.05) compared with that of the untreated group. Vitamin C supplementation preferentially improved the viability of bovine SCNT embryos prior to the blastocyst stage, but did not enhance the formation and quality of blastocysts in vitro. In conclusion, the effect of vitamin C on the development of bovine SCNT embryos is complex, and vitamin C is not a suitable antioxidant chemical for the in vitro culture of bovine SCNT embryos. PMID:24960527

Li, Qian; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Li-Jun; Zhang, Hui; Li, Rui-Zhe; Cui, Chen-Chen; Li, Wen-Zhe; Zhang, Yong; Jin, Ya-Ping

2014-08-01

17

Coasting, embryo development and outcomes of blastocyst transfer: a case-control study.  

PubMed

This study compared the effect on blastocyst development and clinical outcome of coasting in women at increased risk of moderate-severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS; n=389) with a control group matched for age and basal FSH that did not undergo coasting (n=386) in IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. The main outcome measures were rate of blastocyst development and live birth. More cycles progressed to the blastocyst stage in the coasted group (n=169) compared with the control group (n=83; 43.4% versus 21.5%; P<0.001). The biochemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were similar (46.5% versus 42.0%; 40.6% versus 37.8%; 31.6% versus 30.1%). The duration of coasting up to 4 days did not affect progression to blastocyst stage. The multivariate model showed that coasting (OR 1.73, P=0.004) and the number of oocytes retrieved (OR 1.17, P=0.001) were positively correlated with blastocyst formation. Coasting, a measure to reduce the risk of OHSS, does not impair blastocyst development or clinical outcome. Coasting should remain an effective measure to prevent OHSS. PMID:24912420

Talebi Chahvar, Solmas; Zosmer, Ariel; Caragia, Alina; Balestrini, Simona; Sabatini, Luca; Tranquilli, Andrea Luigi; Al-Shawaf, Talha

2014-08-01

18

Blastocyst Transfer Ameliorates Live Birth Rate Compared with Cleavage-Stage Embryos Transfer in Fresh In Vitro Fertilization or Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycles: Reviews and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose Blastocyst transfer has been recommended to raise the implantation rate without affecting the pregnancy rate. The objective of this meta-analysis is to systematically evaluate whether the live birth rate and other pregnancy outcomes can be improved by blastocyst transfer compared with cleavage-stage embryos transfer. Materials and Methods EMBASE and MEDLINE databases were searched for papers published between March 2004 and March 2013. An extensive range of the electronic databases yielded initially 317 studies from which seven trials met the inclusion criteria for further analysis. Our outcome measures were the live birth rate, clinical pregnancy rate, implantation rate, ongoing pregnancy rate, multiple pregnancy rate, first trimester miscarriage rate and ectopic pregnancy rate. Fixed effects models were chosen to calculate the odds ratio (OR). Results Seven trials (n=1446 cases) were finally analyzed. Compared with cleavage-stage embryos transfer, the blastocyst transfer was statistically significantly associated with an increase in clinical pregnancy rate [OR 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-1.78], implantation rate (OR 1.38; 95% CI, 1.09-1.74) and ongoing pregnancy rate (OR 2.15; 95% CI, 1.57-2.94), and also a reduction in the probability of first trimester miscarriage rate (OR 0.51; 95% CI, 0.30-0.87). The improvement in the live birth rate was also observed (OR 1.77; 95% CI, 1.32-2.37). Moreover, there was no evidence of difference in multiple pregnancy and ectopic pregnancy rates. Conclusion The available evidences suggest that live birth and other pregnancy outcomes after fresh in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) are significantly improved following blastocyst transfer as compared to cleavage-stage embryo transfer. PMID:24719153

Wang, Shan-Shan

2014-01-01

19

Forced collapse of the blastocoel enhances survival of cryotop vitrified bovine hatching/hatched blastocysts derived from in vitro fertilization and somatic cell nuclear transfer.  

PubMed

Freezing of bovine blastocysts has been widely used to improve the feasibility of cattle production by the embryo transfer technique. However, the low survival of vitrified-warmed embryos and their further development are crucial problems. Particularly, the production of offspring in vitrified-warmed bovine hatching/hatched blastocysts derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is very low. Thus, we examined the effects of forced blastocoel collapse (FBC) before vitrification of bovine IVF- and SCNT-derived hatching/hatched embryos on the survival rate and apoptosis index after warming. Under optimal conditions, the overall survival rates in vitrified-warmed bovine IVF- and SCNT-derived hatching/hatched blastocysts were higher in FBC groups than in non-FBC groups (p<0.05). The total cell numbers of vitrified-warmed hatching/hatched blastocysts were higher in FBC groups than in non-FBC groups (p<0.05). Otherwise, the number of apoptotic positive cells of vitrified-warmed hatching/hatched blastocysts was lower in FBC groups than in non-FBC groups (p<0.05). Taken together, these findings suggest that forced collapse of the blastocoel using a pulled Pasteur pipette is an effective pretreatment technique for vitrification of bovine IVF- and SCNT-derived hatching/hatched blastocysts. PMID:23376491

Min, Sung-Hun; Lee, Enok; Son, Hyeong-Hoon; Yeon, Ji-Yeong; Koo, Deog-Bon

2013-04-01

20

Improved blastocyst development of single cow OPU-derived presumptive zygotes by group culture with agarose-embedded helper embryos  

PubMed Central

Background The in vitro culture of presumed zygotes derived from single cow ovum pick-up (OPU) is important for the production of quality blastocysts maintaining pedigree. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the agar chip-embedded helper embryo coculture system for single cow OPU-derived zygotes by assessing embryo quality. Methods Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected from Hanwoo cows with high genetic merit twice a week using the ultra-sound guided OPU technique and from slaughterhouse ovaries. The Hanwoo cow COCs and slaughterhouse ovaries were matured in vitro, fertilized in vitro with thawed Hanwoo sperm and cultured for 24 h. The presumed zygotes were subsequently placed in three different culture systems: (1) control OPU (controlOPU) with single cow OPU-derived presumed zygotes (2~8); (2) agar chip-embedded slaughterhouse helper embryo coculture (agarOPU) with ten presumed zygotes including all presumed zygotes from a cow (2~8) and the rest from agar chip-embedded slaughterhouse presumed zygotes (8~2); and (3) slaughterhouse in vitro embryo production (sIVP) with ten slaughterhouse ovary-derived presumed zygotes, each in 50 ?L droplets. Day 8 blastocysts were assayed for apoptosis and gene expression using real time PCR. Results The coculture system promoted higher blastocyst development in OPU zygotes compared to control OPU zygotes cultured alone (35.2 vs. 13.9%; P < 0.01). Genes predicted to be involved in implantation failure and/or embryo resorption were down-regulated (P < 0.05) in control OPU zygotes (CD9, 0.4-fold; AKRAB1, 0.3-fold) and in cocultured zygotes (CD9, 0.3-fold; AKRAB1, 0.3-fold) compared to sIVP blastocysts (1.0-fold). Moreover, genes involved in implantation and/or normal calf delivery were up-regulated (P < 0.05 to P < 0.01) in control OPU zygotes (PGSH2, 5.0-fold; TXN, 4.3-fold; PLAU, 1.7-fold) and cocultured zygotes (PGSH2, 14.5-fold; TXN, 3.2-fold; PLAU, 6.8-fold) compared to sIVP (1.0-fold) blastocysts. However, the expression of PLAC8, TGF-?1, ODC1, ATP5A1 and CASP3 did not differ between the three culture groups. Conclusions Results show that the agar chip-embedded helper embryo coculture system enhances developmental competence and embryo quality in cultures of limited numbers of high pedigree single cow OPU presumed zygotes. PMID:21864328

2011-01-01

21

Effect of Sperm DNA Fragmentation on Clinical Outcome of Frozen-Thawed Embryo Transfer and on Blastocyst Formation  

PubMed Central

During the last decades, many studies have shown the possible influence of sperm DNA fragmentation on assisted reproductive technique outcomes. However, little is known about the impact of sperm DNA fragmentation on the clinical outcome of frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) from cycles of conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In the present study, the relationship between sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) and FET clinical outcomes in IVF and ICSI cycles was analyzed. A total of 1082 FET cycles with cleavage stage embryos (C-FET) (855 from IVF and 227 from ICSI) and 653 frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer cycles (B-FET) (525 from IVF and 128 from ICSI) were included. There was no significant change in clinical pregnancy, biochemical pregnancy and miscarriage rates in the group with a SDF >30% compared with the group with a SDF ?30% in IVF and ICSI cycles with C-FET or B-FET. Also, there was no significant impact on the FET clinic outcome in IVF and ICSI when different values of SDF (such as 10%, 20%, 25%, 35%, and 40%) were taken as proposed threshold levels. However, the blastulation rates were significantly higher in the SDF ?30% group in ICSI cycle. Taken together, our data show that sperm DNA fragmentation measured by Sperm Chromatin Dispersion (SCD) test is not associated with clinical outcome of FET in IVF and ICSI. Nonetheless, SDF is related to the blastocyst formation in ICSI cycles. PMID:24733108

Ni, Wuhua; Xiao, Shiquan; Qiu, Xiufang; Jin, Jianyuan; Pan, Chengshuang; Li, Yan; Fei, Qianjin; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Liya; Huang, Xuefeng

2014-01-01

22

A comparative study between cleavage stage embryo transfer at day 3 and blastocyst stage transfer at day 5 in in-vitro fertilization/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection on clinical pregnancy rates  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of blastocyst transfer in comparison with cleavage stage transfer. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, prospective study was conducted in Infertility clinic, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mahatma Gandhi Hospital, Jaipur on 300 patients aged 25-40 years undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF)/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle from May 2010-April 2011. When three or more Grade-I embryos were observed on day 2 of culture, patients were divided randomly into two study groups, cleavage stage transfer and blastocyst transfer group having 150 patients each. Primary outcomes evaluated were, Clinical pregnancy rate and Implantation rate. The results were analyzed using proportions, standard deviation and Chi-square test. RESULTS: Both the groups were similar for age, indication and number of embryos transferred. Clinical pregnancies after blastocyst transfer were significantly higher 66 (44.0%) compared to cleavage stage embryo transfer 44 (29.33%) (P < 0.01). Implantation rate for blastocyst transfer group was also significantly higher (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Blastocyst transfer having higher implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate lead to reduction in multiple pregnancies.

Kaur, Prabhleen; Swarankar, M. L.; Maheshwari, Manju; Acharya, Veena

2014-01-01

23

Different perspectives of patients and health care professionals on the potential benefits and risks of blastocyst culture and multiple embryo transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A trade-off exists between the risk of multiple pregnancy and prospects of pregnancy itself in assisted reproduction. Blastocyst culture and embryo transfer after ~5 days may be one method of reconciling this dilemma, although a controversial one. METHODS AND RESULTS: We presented a questionnaire to groups of patients, embryologists and clinicians to solicit views on the potential benefits and

G. M. Hartshorne; R. J. Lilford

2002-01-01

24

Effect of Glucose Concentration During in Vitro Culture of Mouse Embryos on Development to Blastocyst, Success of Embryo Transfer and Litter Sex Ratio  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY A high glucose concentration in the reproductive tract during early development may result in aberrant embryo or fetal development, with effects that could have a greater impact on one sex than the other. Here, we determine whether a high glucose concentration impacts embryo development and pregnancy outcomes in a sex-specific manner in the mouse. Zygotes were cultured in KSOM medium, which typically contains 0.2 mM D-glucose with and without additional glucose supplementation to a concentration of 28 mM. Zygote cleavage and blastocyst rate did not differ between treatments but total and trophectoderm cell counts were reduced in blastocysts cultured in a high glucose. No differences between sexes nor inner cell mass cell number were observed within each treatment. Blastocysts developed in both media were transferred to recipients. The percentage of blastocysts resulting in viable pups was significantly reduced when the blastocysts were cultured in 28 mM glucose (74±4 %, controls vs 55.8±7.1 %, 28 mM glucose), but conceptus loss affected both sexes equally, as litter sex ratio did not differ between treatments (52.7 % and 52.2 % males for controls and high glucose, respectively). Pup body weight at birth was higher for males than females, but was not affected by earlier culture in high glucose. In conclusion, in vitro culture in medium with a glucose concentration approximating that of diabetic serum reduces total and trophectoderm cell numbers at the blastocyst stage and conceptus development to term, but these detrimental effects are not sex-specific. PMID:22461414

Bermejo-Alvarez, P.; Roberts, R. M.; Rosenfeld, C.S.

2014-01-01

25

Comparative pluripotency analysis of mouse embryonic stem cells derived from wild-type and infertile hermaphrodite somatic cell nuclear transfer blastocysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Therapeutic cloning, whereby embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived from patient-specific cloned blastocysts via somatic\\u000a cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), holds great promise for treating many human diseases using regenerative medicine. Teratoma formation\\u000a and germline transmission have been used to confirm the pluripotency of mouse stem cells, but human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)\\u000a have not been proven to be fully pluripotent

Yong Fan; Man Tong; ChunLi Zhao; ChenHui Ding; Jie Hao; Zhuo Lv; XiangPeng Dai; Tang Hai; XueMei Li; RuQiang Yao; Yang Yu; ZanDong Li; Liu Wang; Jouneau Alice; Qi Zhou

2008-01-01

26

Generation of SV40-transformed rabbit tracheal-epithelial-cell-derived blastocyst by somatic cell nuclear transfer  

PubMed Central

The prospect of developing large animal models for the study of inherited diseases, such as cystic fibrosis (CF), through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has opened up new opportunities for enhancing our understanding of disease pathology and for identifying new therapies. Thus, the development of species-specific in vitro cell systems that will provide broader insight into organ- and cell-type-specific functions relevant to the pathology of the disease is crucial. Studies have been undertaken to establish transformed rabbit airway epithelial cell lines that display differentiated features characteristic of the primary airway epithelium. This study describes the successful establishment and characterization of two SV40-transformed rabbit tracheal epithelial cell lines. These cell lines, 5RTEo- and 9RTEo-, express the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, retain epithelial-specific differentiated morphology and show CFTR-based cAMP-dependent Cl? ion transport across the apical membrane of a confluent monolayer. Immunocytochemical analysis indicates the presence of airway cytokeratins and tight-junction proteins in the 9RTEo- cell line after multiple generations. However, the tight junctions appear to diminish in their efficacy in both cell lines after at least 100 generations. Initial SCNT studies with the 9RTEo- cells have revealed that SV40-transformed rabbit airway epithelial donor cells can be used to generate blastocysts. These cell systems provide valuable models for studying the developmental and metabolic modulation of CFTR gene expression and rabbit airway epithelial cell biology. PMID:22234514

de Semir, D.; Maurisse, R.; Du, F.; Xu, J.; Yang, X.; Illek, B.; Gruenert, D. C.

2013-01-01

27

Development of Human Cloned Blastocysts Following Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer with Adult Fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear transfer stem cells (NTSC) holds considerable promise in the field of regenerative medicine and cell- based drug discovery. In this study, a total of 29 oocytes were obtained from three young (20-24 y) reproductive egg donors who had been successful in previous cycles. These oocytes, deemed by intended parents to be in excess of their reproductive needs, were donated

Andrew J. French; Catharine A. Adams; Linda S. Anderson; John R. Kitchen; Marcus R. Hughes; Samuel H. Wood

2008-01-01

28

An Earlier Uterine Environment Favors the In Vivo Development of Fresh Pig Morulae and Blastocysts Transferred by a Nonsurgical Deep-uterine Method  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of recipient-donor estrous cycle synchrony on recipient reproductive performance after nonsurgical deep-uterine (NsDU) embryo transfer (ET). The transfers (N=132) were conducted in recipients sows that started estrus 24 h before (–24 h; N=9) or 0 h (synchronous; N=31), 24 h (+24 h; N=74) or 48 h (+48 h; N=18) after the donors. A total of 30 day 5 morulae or day 6 blastocysts (day 0=onset of estrus) were transferred per recipient. The highest farrowing rates (FRs) were achieved when estrus appeared in recipients 24 h later than that in the donors (81.1%), regardless of the embryonic stage used for the transfers. The FR notably decreased (P<0.05) when recipients were –24 h asynchronous (0%), synchronous (61.3%) or +48 h asynchronous (50%) relative to the donors. No differences in litter size (LS) and piglet birth weights were observed among the synchronous and +24 h or +48 h asynchronous groups. While a +24 h asynchronous recipient was suitable for transfers performed with either morulae (FR, 74.3%; LS, 9.2 ± 0.6 piglets) or blastocysts (FR, 84.6%; LS, 9.8 ± 0.6 piglets), a + 48 h asynchronous recipient was adequate for blastocysts (FR, 87.5%; LS, 10.4 ± 0.7 piglets) but not for morulae (FR, 30.0%; LS, 7.3 ± 2.3 piglets). In conclusion, this study confirms the effectiveness of the NsDU-ET technology and shows that porcine embryos tolerate better a less advanced uterine environment if they are nonsurgically transferred deep into the uterine horn. PMID:25030061

ANGEL, Miguel Angel; GIL, Maria Antonia; CUELLO, Cristina; SANCHEZ-OSORIO, Jonatan; GOMIS, Jesus; PARRILLA, Inmaculada; VILA, Jordi; COLINA, Ignacio; DIAZ, Marta; REIXACH, Josep; VAZQUEZ, Jose Luis; VAZQUEZ, Juan Maria; ROCA, Jordi; MARTINEZ, Emilio A.

2014-01-01

29

An Earlier Uterine Environment Favors the In Vivo Development of Fresh Pig Morulae and Blastocysts Transferred by a Nonsurgical Deep-uterine Method.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of recipient-donor estrous cycle synchrony on recipient reproductive performance after nonsurgical deep-uterine (NsDU) embryo transfer (ET). The transfers (N=132) were conducted in recipients sows that started estrus 24 h before (-24 h; N=9) or 0 h (synchronous; N=31), 24 h (+24 h; N=74) or 48 h (+48 h; N=18) after the donors. A total of 30 day 5 morulae or day 6 blastocysts (day 0=onset of estrus) were transferred per recipient. The highest farrowing rates (FRs) were achieved when estrus appeared in recipients 24 h later than that in the donors (81.1%), regardless of the embryonic stage used for the transfers. The FR notably decreased (P<0.05) when recipients were -24 h asynchronous (0%), synchronous (61.3%) or +48 h asynchronous (50%) relative to the donors. No differences in litter size (LS) and piglet birth weights were observed among the synchronous and +24 h or +48 h asynchronous groups. While a +24 h asynchronous recipient was suitable for transfers performed with either morulae (FR, 74.3%; LS, 9.2 ± 0.6 piglets) or blastocysts (FR, 84.6%; LS, 9.8 ± 0.6 piglets), a + 48 h asynchronous recipient was adequate for blastocysts (FR, 87.5%; LS, 10.4 ± 0.7 piglets) but not for morulae (FR, 30.0%; LS, 7.3 ± 2.3 piglets). In conclusion, this study confirms the effectiveness of the NsDU-ET technology and shows that porcine embryos tolerate better a less advanced uterine environment if they are nonsurgically transferred deep into the uterine horn. PMID:25030061

Angel, Miguel Angel; Gil, Maria Antonia; Cuello, Cristina; Sanchez-Osorio, Jonatan; Gomis, Jesus; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Vila, Jordi; Colina, Ignacio; Diaz, Marta; Reixach, Josep; Vazquez, Jose Luis; Vazquez, Juan Maria; Roca, Jordi; Martinez, Emilio A

2014-10-23

30

Passage number of porcine embryonic germ cells affects epigenetic status and blastocyst rate following somatic cell nuclear transfer.  

PubMed

Epigenetic instability of donor cells due to long-term in vitro culture may influence the success rate of subsequent somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Therefore, the present study was designed (1) to investigate the epigenetic changes after prolonged culture in vitro of porcine embryonic germ (EG) cells, including differences in expression levels of both DNA methylation and demethylation-related genes and catalyses of histone modifications, and (2) to assess the efficiency of SCNT using EG cells from different passages. Results showed that genes either associated with DNA demethylation including DNMTs and TET1 or genes related to histone acetylation including HDACs were highly expressed in EG cells at higher passages when compared to EG cells at lower passages. In addition, the expression level of H3K27me3 functional methylase EZH2 increased while no changes were observed on H3K27me3 demethylase JMJD3 in relation to passage number. Moreover, the expression levels of both the H3K4me3 methylase MLL1 and the H3K4me3 demethylase RBP2 were increased at high passages. By using lower passage (numbers 3-5) EG cells as donor cells, the SCNT efficiency was significantly lower compared with use of fetal fibroblast donor cells. However, similar blastocyst rates were achieved when using higher passage (numbers 9-12) EG cells as donor cells. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the epigenetic status of EG cells change with increasing passage numbers, and that higher passage number EG cells are better primed for SCNT. PMID:24726409

Li, Juan; Gao, Yu; Petkov, Stoyan; Purup, Stig; Hyttel, Poul; Callesen, Henrik

2014-06-10

31

Establishment of a bovine blastocyst-derived cell line collection for the comparative analysis of embryos created in vivo and by in vitro fertilization, somatic cell nuclear transfer, or parthenogenetic activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tools and methods for analyzing differences in embryos resulting from somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) in comparison to\\u000a those derived from normal fertilization are needed to define better the nature of the nuclear reprogramming that occurs after\\u000a NT. To this end, a collection of bovine blastocyst-derived cell lines was created. In vitro expanded or hatched blastocysts,\\u000a used as primary culture

Neil C. Talbot; Anne M. Powell; Mary Camp; Alan D. Ealy

2007-01-01

32

Birth of a healthy baby following vitrification of human blastocysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess vitrification of human blastocysts.Design: Retrospective study of blastocyst vitrification.Setting: A private clinic.Patient(s): Twenty couples with different types of infertility.Intervention(s): Blastocysts were frozen with rapid vitrification and then transferred after thawing. We vitrified blastocysts using a modification of Ishimori’s vitrification solution of ethylene glycol and dimethyl sulfoxide (VSED).Main Outcome Measure(s): After thawing, survival was defined by the embryo’s

Yoshimasa Yokota; Setsuko Sato; Mikako Yokota; Hidemi Yokota; Yasuhisa Araki

2001-01-01

33

Comparative Genomic Hybridization Selection of Blastocysts for Repeated Implantation Failure Treatment: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to determine if the use of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) by array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) and transfer of a single euploid blastocyst in patients with repeated implantation failure (RIF) can improve clinical results. Three patient groups are compared: 43 couples with RIF for whom embryos were selected by array CGH (group RIF-PGS), 33 couples with the same history for whom array CGH was not performed (group RIF NO PGS), and 45 good prognosis infertile couples with array CGH selected embryos (group NO RIF PGS). A single euploid blastocyst was transferred in groups RIF-PGS and NO RIF PGS. Array CGH was not performed in group RIF NO PGS in which 1-2 blastocysts were transferred. One monoembryonic sac with heartbeat was found in 28 patients of group RIF PGS and 31 patients of group NO RIF PGS showing similar clinical pregnancy and implantation rates (68.3% and 70.5%, resp.). In contrast, an embryonic sac with heartbeat was only detected in 7 (21.2%) patients of group RIF NO PGS. In conclusion, PGS by array CGH with single euploid blastocyst transfer appears to be a successful strategy for patients with multiple failed IVF attempts. PMID:24779011

Greco, Ermanno; Bono, Sara; Ruberti, Alessandra; Lobascio, Anna Maria; Greco, Pierfrancesco; Biricik, Anil; Spizzichino, Letizia; Greco, Alessia; Tesarik, Jan; Minasi, Maria Giulia; Fiorentino, Francesco

2014-01-01

34

Changes in the DNA methylation status of bovine embryos from the blastocyst to elongated stage derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer.  

PubMed

The epigenetic reprogramming of the donor cell nucleus is an important factor in the development of embryos and production of normal offspring derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT-SC). During early development, a dramatic reduction in methylation levels occurs in mouse. In early embryos, this process makes it possible to erase gamete-specific methylation patterns and induce de novo methylation at defined developmental time-points. To clarify changes in DNA methylation in bovine NT-SC embryos, we examined satellite I sequences in bovine embryos derived in vivo (Vivo) and by NT-SC at the blastocyst (BC) and elongated (EL) stages. Because the EL stage embryo consists of the embryo disc (ED) and trophectoderm (TE), the methylation status of each part was analyzed with respect to the progress of differentiation. DNA methylation levels in Vivo embryos were increased during the elongation stage. In contrast, DNA methylation levels in NT-SC embryos remained unchanged in the ED and significantly decreased in the TE. Real-time PCR analysis showed that Dnmt-1 expression in BC embryos derived by NT-SC was significantly lower than that in Vivo embryos; thus, differences in the DNA methylation status may reflect transcript levels of Dnmt-1. Our results suggest that the aberrant methylation level of bovine NT-SC embryos in the satellite I region is corrected as a result of demethylation and retention of methylation as the embryo develops and differentiates. PMID:19780699

Sawai, Ken; Takahashi, Masashi; Moriyasu, Satoru; Hirayama, Hiroki; Minamihashi, Akira; Hashizume, Tsutomu; Onoe, Sadao

2010-02-01

35

Successful Same-Cycle Blastocyst Transfer following Laparoscopic Ovarian Detorsion: A Report of Two Cases and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Ovarian stimulation increases the risk of ovarian torsion. During an in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle, the effects of ovarian torsion on retrieved oocytes and subsequent pregnancy chances are not clear. Moreover, no cases of ovarian torsion occurring following oocyte retrieval but prior to same-cycle embryo transfer have been reported. Such cases present a clinical dilemma with respect to optimal timing of embryo transfer. We report two cases of a 41-year-old and a 32-year-old infertility patients undergoing IVF who were diagnosed with ovarian torsion within several days following oocyte retrieval. Both patients were treated by early laparoscopic evaluation and detorsion followed by day five embryo transfer, resulting in successful pregnancies. Therefore, after prompt laparoscopic ovarian untwisting of a torsed ovary following egg retrieval, embryo transfer may be performed as originally scheduled during the concurrent cycle leading to favorable pregnancy outcomes. PMID:24864219

Seifer, David B.; Grazi, Richard V.

2014-01-01

36

The Effects of 5-Aza-2?- Deoxycytidine and Trichostatin A on Gene Expression and DNA Methylation Status in Cloned Bovine Blastocysts  

PubMed Central

Abstract We previously found that treatment of both donor cells and early cloned embryos with combination of 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) and trichostatin A (TSA) significantly improve the in vitro and full-term development of nuclear transfer (NT) bovine embryos. To investigate how this treatment improved the epigenetic reprogramming of somatic cell nuclei, we compared the expression levels of DNA methylation-, chromatin structure-, and development-related genes in in vitro fertilized (IVF group), NT (C-NT group), and 5-aza-dC and TSA-treated NT (T-NT group) single blastocyst using quantitative real-time PCR. We also compared the DNA methylation status of satellite I among three groups using bisulfite sequencing analysis and combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA). There were significantly lower levels of DNMT1, DNMT3b, HDAC2, and IGF2 transcripts in T-NT blastocysts than in C-NT blastocysts, whereas the relative abundance of OCT4 and SOX2 mRNA was significantly increased in T-NT blastocysts compared to C-NT blastocysts. In addition, the treatment also reduced the DNA methylation levels of NT blastocysts on satellite I sequence. It is likely that TSA may act synergistically with 5-aza-dC to exert such modifications in gene expression and DNA methylation, subsequently enhancing developmental potential (in vitro and full-term) of treated cloned embryos. PMID:21486115

Wang, Yongsheng; Su, Jianmin; Wang, Lijun; Xu, Wenbing; Quan, Fusheng; Liu, Jun

2011-01-01

37

The effects of 5-aza-2'- deoxycytidine and trichostatin A on gene expression and DNA methylation status in cloned bovine blastocysts.  

PubMed

We previously found that treatment of both donor cells and early cloned embryos with combination of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) and trichostatin A (TSA) significantly improve the in vitro and full-term development of nuclear transfer (NT) bovine embryos. To investigate how this treatment improved the epigenetic reprogramming of somatic cell nuclei, we compared the expression levels of DNA methylation-, chromatin structure-, and development-related genes in in vitro fertilized (IVF group), NT (C-NT group), and 5-aza-dC and TSA-treated NT (T-NT group) single blastocyst using quantitative real-time PCR. We also compared the DNA methylation status of satellite I among three groups using bisulfite sequencing analysis and combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA). There were significantly lower levels of DNMT1, DNMT3b, HDAC2, and IGF2 transcripts in T-NT blastocysts than in C-NT blastocysts, whereas the relative abundance of OCT4 and SOX2 mRNA was significantly increased in T-NT blastocysts compared to C-NT blastocysts. In addition, the treatment also reduced the DNA methylation levels of NT blastocysts on satellite I sequence. It is likely that TSA may act synergistically with 5-aza-dC to exert such modifications in gene expression and DNA methylation, subsequently enhancing developmental potential (in vitro and full-term) of treated cloned embryos. PMID:21486115

Wang, Yongsheng; Su, Jianmin; Wang, Lijun; Xu, Wenbing; Quan, Fusheng; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Yong

2011-08-01

38

Parthenogenic Blastocysts Derived from Cumulus-Free In Vitro Matured Human Oocytes  

PubMed Central

Background Approximately 20% of oocytes are classified as immature and discarded following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) procedures. These oocytes are obtained from gonadotropin-stimulated patients, and are routinely removed from the cumulus cells which normally would mature the oocytes. Given the ready access to these human oocytes, they represent a potential resource for both clinical and basic science application. However culture conditions for the maturation of cumulus-free oocytes have not been optimized. We aimed to improve maturation conditions for cumulus-free oocytes via culture with ovarian paracrine/autocrine factors identified by single cell analysis. Methodology/Principal Finding Immature human oocytes were matured in vitro via supplementation with ovarian paracrine/autocrine factors that were selected based on expression of ligands in the cumulus cells and their corresponding receptors in oocytes. Matured oocytes were artificially activated to assess developmental competence. Gene expression profiles of parthenotes were compared to IVF/ICSI embryos at morula and blastocyst stages. Following incubation in medium supplemented with ovarian factors (BDNF, IGF-I, estradiol, GDNF, FGF2 and leptin), a greater percentage of oocytes demonstrated nuclear maturation and subsequently, underwent parthenogenesis relative to control. Similarly, cytoplasmic maturation was also improved as indicated by development to blastocyst stage. Parthenogenic blastocysts exhibited mRNA expression profiles similar to those of blastocysts obtained after IVF/ICSI with the exception for MKLP2 and PEG1. Conclusions/Significance Human cumulus-free oocytes from hormone-stimulated cycles are capable of developing to blastocysts when cultured with ovarian factor supplementation. Our improved IVM culture conditions may be used for obtaining mature oocytes for clinical purposes and/or for derivation of embryonic stem cells following parthenogenesis or nuclear transfer. PMID:20539753

McElroy, Sohyun L.; Byrne, James A.; Chavez, Shawn L.; Behr, Barry; Hsueh, Aaron J.; Westphal, Lynn M.; Reijo Pera, Renee A.

2010-01-01

39

Utility of FT-IR imaging spectroscopy in estimating differences between the quality of bovine blastocysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was conducted to verify whether the FT-IR spectroscopy and Focal Plane Array (FPA) imaging can be successfully applied to estimate the quality of bovine blastocysts (on the basis of the concentration of nucleic acids and amides). The FT-IR spectra of inner cell mass from blastocysts of three different culture systems were examined. The spectral changes between blastocysts were analyzed in DNA (spectral range of 1240-950 cm-1) and protein amides (1800-1400 cm-1). Blastocyst 1 (BL1-HA) was developed from the fertilized oocyte cultured with low concentration of hialuronian (HA), Blastocyst 2 and 3 were developed from the oocytes cultured in standard conditions. Cleavage stage blastocyst 2 (BL2-SOF) has been cultured in SOF medium while blastocyst 3 (BL3-VERO) was cultured in co-culture with VERO cells. The multivariate statistical analysis (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis - HCA and Principal Component Analysis - PCA) of single cells spectra showed high similarity of cells forming the inner cell mass within single blastocyst. The main variance between the three examined blastocysts was related to amides bands. Differences in the intensities of the amides' peaks between the bovine blastocysts derived from different culture systems indicated that specific proteins reflecting the appearance of a new phenotype were produced. However, for the three blastocysts, the ?-helix typical peak was twice more intensive than the ?-sheet typical peak suggesting that the differentiation processes had been started. Taking into account the quantitative and qualitative composition of the protein into examined blastocysts, it can be assumed, that the quality of the BL1-HA turned out much more similar to BL3-VERO than to BL2-SOF. FT-IR spectroscopy can be successfully applied in reproductive biology research for quality estimation of oocytes and embryos at varied stages of their development. Moreover this technique proved to be particularly useful when the quantity of the available material for research purposes is limited.

Wieche?, A.; Opiela, J.; Lipiec, E.; Kwiatek, W. M.

2013-10-01

40

Maternal and Genetic Effects on the Acoustic Startle Reflex and its Sensitization in C3H\\/HeN, DBA\\/2JHd and NMRI Mice Following Blastocyst Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, reciprocal embryo transfers were conducted to examine genetic and maternal effects on the baseline and\\u000a fear-sensitized acoustic startle response (ASR) in the two inbred strains C3H\\/HeN and DBA\\/2JHd and the outbred strain NMRI.\\u000a The largest differences in the ASR were found in untreated strains (effect size 0.6). The transfer procedure per se had a\\u000a significant effect

Claudia Rose; Friedrich-Wilhelm Röhl; Joachim Hanke; Herbert Schwegler; Deniz M. Yilmazer-Hanke

2008-01-01

41

Epigallocatechin gallate induces embryonic toxicity in mouse blastocysts through apoptosis.  

PubMed

Catechins, a family of polyphenols found in tea, evoke various responses, including cell death. However, the side effects of these compounds, particularly those on embryonic development, have not been characterized in detail. A previous study by our group showed that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a catechin highly abundant in green tea, induces different cell-death modes in MCF-7 cells, depending on the treatment dosage. In the current study, we examined the effects of EGCG on mouse embryos at the blastocyst stage, subsequent embryonic attachment and outgrowth in vitro and in vivo implantation by embryo transfer. Blastocysts treated with 25-50 ?M of EGCG exhibited a significant increase in apoptosis and a corresponding decrease in total cell number. Notably, the implantation success rate of blastocysts pretreated with EGCG was lower than that of their control counterparts. Moreover, in vitro treatment with 25-50 ?M of EGCG led to increased resorption of postimplantation embryos and decreased fetal weight. EGCG appeared to induce injury in mouse blastocysts through intrinsic apoptotic signaling processes to impair sequent embryonic development. These results collectively highlight the potential of EGCG to induce embryonic cytotoxicity. PMID:24164432

Fan, Yu-Ching; Chan, Wen-Hsiung

2014-07-01

42

Successful Production of Piglets Derived from Expanded Blastocysts Vitrified Using a Micro Volume Air Cooling Method without Direct Exposure to Liquid Nitrogen  

PubMed Central

Abstract This study was conducted to clarify the feasibility of newly developed vitrification techniques for porcine embryos using the micro volume air cooling (MVAC) method without direct contact with liquid nitrogen (LN2). Expanded blastocysts were vitrified in a solution containing 6 M ethylene glycol, 0.6 M trehalose and 2% (wt/vol) polyethylene glycol in 10% HEPES-buffered PZM-5. The blastocysts were collected from gilts and vitrified using the new device (MVAC) or a Cryotop (CT). Blastocysts were stored in LN2 for at least 1 month. After warming, cryoprotective agents were removed using a single step. Survival of the embryos was assessed by in vitro culture (Experiment 1) and by embryo transfer to recipients (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, the embryos vitrified by the MVAC or CT and fresh embryos without vitrification (Control) were used. The survival rates of embryos in the MVAC, CT and Control groups were 88.9% (32/36), 91.7% (33/36) and 100% (34/34), respectively, after 48 h culture, and the hatching rates of embryos after 48 h incubation were 69.4% (25/36), 63.9% (23/36) and 94.1% (32/34), respectively. In Experiment 2, 64 vitrified embryos were transferred to 5 recipient gilts, and 8 healthy piglets were produced from 3 recipients in the MVAC group. Similarly, 66 vitrified embryos were transferred to 5 recipient gilts, and 9 healthy piglets were produced from 2 recipients in the CT group. These results indicated that porcine expanded blastocysts can be cryopreserved using the MVAC method without potential pathogen contamination from LN2. PMID:23955236

MISUMI, Koji; HIRAYAMA, Yuri; EGAWA, Sachiko; YAMASHITA, Shoko; HOSHI, Hiroyoshi; IMAI, Kei

2013-01-01

43

An improved culture medium for mouse blastocysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Eagle's basal medium, modified to contain essential amino acids at the concentrations optimal for mouse blastocyst hatching,\\u000a attachment, and outgrowth, supported in vitro development of the mouse blastocyst better than other tissue culture media tested.\\u000a This medium was improved for growth and differentiation of the inner cell mass by doubling the concentration of amino acids\\u000a and glucose and by adding

Akiko Spindle

1980-01-01

44

Forced collapse of the blastocoel cavity improves developmental potential in cryopreserved bovine blastocysts by slow-rate freezing and vitrification.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of forced collapse of the blastocoel before slow-rate freezing and vitrification of bovine blastocysts. Cryopreservation of bovine blastocysts has been proposed as a tool to improve the feasibility of cattle production using the embryo transfer technique. However, the low efficiency of frozen-thawed embryos survival and further development is a crucial problem. In this study, bovine in vitro and in vivo blastocysts were slow-rate frozen and vitrified after forced blastocoele collapse (FBC) of the blastocyst cavity by puncturing the blastocoele with a pulled Pasteur pipet. Differences in the developmental potential of frozen-thawed blastocysts derived from FBC and non-FBC groups were found in both slow-rate freezing and vitrification. Furthermore, we found that the total cell number of blastocysts in FBC groups was increased and the index of apoptosis in FBC groups was decreased. Consistent with these results, real-time RT-PCR analysis data showed that expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL gene was significantly increased by FBC groups, whereas expression of the pro-apoptotic Bax gene was significantly decreased by FBC groups. Our results also showed that pregnancy outcomes in both slow-rate frozen and vitrified bovine in vivo blastocysts could be improved by reducing the fluid content after FBC of the blastocyst cavity. Therefore, we suggest that FBC of the blastocyst cavity with a pulled Pasteur pipet is an effective pre-treatment technique for both slow-rate freezing and vitrification of bovine blastocysts. PMID:24942049

Min, S-H; Kim, J-W; Lee, Y-H; Park, S-Y; Jeong, P-S; Yeon, J-Y; Park, H; Chang, K-T; Koo, D-B

2014-08-01

45

SMOOTH HOMOTOPIES FOR SINGLE-INPUT TIME OPTIMAL ORBITAL TRANSFER  

E-print Network

: This article deals with the time minimal transfer of a satellite between Keplerian orbits with control alongSMOOTH HOMOTOPIES FOR SINGLE-INPUT TIME OPTIMAL ORBITAL TRANSFER Bernard Bonnard ,1 Jean conditions can be applied to compute numerically the optimal solution to transfer #12;the satellite

Caillau, Jean-Baptiste

46

Progesterone replacement with vaginal gel versus i.m. injection: cycle and pregnancy outcomes in IVF patients receiving vitrified blastocysts  

PubMed Central

STUDY QUESTION Does the type of luteal support affect pregnancy outcomes in recipients of vitrified blastocysts? SUMMARY ANSWER Luteal support with vaginal progesterone gel or i.m. progesterone (IMP) results in comparable implantation and pregnancy rates in IVF patients receiving vitrified blastocysts. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY In fresh IVF cycles, both IMP and vaginal progesterone have become the standard of care for luteal phase support. Due to conflicting data in replacement cycles, IMP is often considered to be the standard of care. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Retrospective analysis of 920 frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles between 1 January 2010 and 1 September 2012. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Patients from a large, private practice undergoing autologous and donor FET using IMP or vaginal progesterone gel for luteal support were included in the analysis. IMP was used for luteal support in 682 FET cycles and vaginal progesterone gel was used in 238 FET cycles. Standard clinical outcomes of positive serum hCG levels, implantation, clinical pregnancy, spontaneous abortion and live birth were reported. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE The IMP and vaginal progesterone gel groups had similar patient demographics for all characteristics assessed. Implantation rates (46.4 versus 45.6%, P = 0.81), clinical pregnancy rates (61.7 versus 60.5%, P = 0.80) and live birth rates (49.1 versus 48.9%, P > 0.99) were not significantly different between IMP and vaginal progesterone gel, respectively. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION This study is limited by its retrospective design and by its lack of randomization to the type of luteal support. In addition, because no a priori expected rates of success could be provided for this retrospective investigation, it was not possible to estimate statistical power associated with the various outcomes presented. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS With the recent trends toward single embryo transfer (SET) and use of vitrified blastocysts in FET cycles, our data with ?40% of cycles being SET and use of exclusively vitrified blastocysts are more relevant to current practices than previous studies. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) Support for data collection and analysis was provided by Actavis, Inc. D.S. has received honoraria for lectures and participation in Scientific Advisory Boards for Actavis, Inc. J.P. is an employee of Actavis, Inc. N.E. has received payment from Actavis, Inc., for her time for data collection. H.H. has received payment from Actavis, Inc., for statistical analyses. Z.P.N. has nothing to disclose. PMID:24847018

Shapiro, Daniel B.; Pappadakis, Jennifer A.; Ellsworth, Nancy M.; Hait, Howard I.; Nagy, Zsolt Peter

2014-01-01

47

Effect of ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 on bovine blastocyst implantation.  

PubMed

The ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1) is an efflux transporter that excretes xenobiotics and waste matter. High expression of ABCB1 induced by forskolin (FSK) and rifampicin (RIF) in the bovine blastocysts reportedly improves the cellular quality. In the present study, interferon-?, similar to FSK and RIF, was highly potent in inducing the expression of ABCB1 in the bovine blastocysts but did not exhibit an additive effect with FSK and RIF. Bovine blastocysts stimulated by the combined treatment with FSK, RIF, and interferon-? to express high levels of ABCB1 displayed better freezing resistance as indicated by higher cell numbers in post thawing cultures. On transfer to recipients, such embryos established pregnancies with significantly higher frequencies in repeat breeder cows rather than normal ones. PMID:24411494

Mori, M; Kuwano, T; Kamori, T; Isozaki, Y; Nishihara, T; Yamauchi, N; Hattori, M-A

2014-03-15

48

Single transferable vote resists strategic voting  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give evidence that Single Tranferable Vote (STV) is computationally resistant to manipulation: It is NP-complete to determine whether there exists a (possibly insincere) preference that will elect a favored candiate, even in an election for a single seat. Thus strategic voting under STV is qualitatively more difficult than under other commonly-used voting schemes. Furthermore, this resistance to manipulation is

John J. Bartholdi; James B. Orlin

1991-01-01

49

The effect of biopsy during precompacted morula stage on post vitrification development of blastocyst derived bovine embryos.  

PubMed

Improvements on embryo micromanipulation techniques led to the use of embryo biopsy in commercial embryo transfer programs for genetic analysis of preimplantation bovine embryos. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of bovine blastocyst derived from embryos biopsied at different pre-compacted morulae stages by assessment of cryosurvivability of the resulting blastocysts. The in vitro produced bovine embryos were subjected to biopsy at days 2, 3, and 4 post-insemination with different cell numbers (4 to 16-cells). Embryo cell biopsy was carried out in a 100 µl drop of H-SOF following pronase drilling by aspiration of one blastomere. The biopsied embryos were then cultured in SOFaaBSA co-cultured with oviduct cells-monolayer until blastocyst formation. The blastocysts were cryopreserved at room temperature after exposure of equilibration (glycerol 1.4 M for 5 min and then glycerol 1.4 M and ethylene glycol 3.6 M for 5 min) and vitrification solutions (3.4 M glycerol and 4.6 M ethylene glycol). The blastocysts were loaded into the center of 0.25 ml straws separated by air bubbles from 2 columns of sucrose 0.5 M and plunged immediately into liquid nitrogen. There was no significant difference in cryosurvivability of vitrified-warmed blastocysts derived form biopsied embryos at different pre-compacted morula stages. The quality of biopsy derived blastocysts was identical to that of non-biopsy derived ones in terms of post vitrifcation survival and hatching rates. In conclusion there was no preference between different times of embryo biopsy at precompacted morula stages in term of cryosurvivability of biopsy derived bovine blastocysts. PMID:23407866

Shirazi, Abolfazl; Borjian, Sara; Ahmadi, Ebrahim; Nazari, Hassan; Heidari, Banafsheh

2010-04-01

50

Probing the interaction between two single molecules: fluorescence resonance energy transfer between a single donor and a single acceptor.  

PubMed Central

We extend the sensitivity of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to the single molecule level by measuring energy transfer between a single donor fluorophore and a single acceptor fluorophore. Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) is used to obtain simultaneous dual color images and emission spectra from donor and acceptor fluorophores linked by a short DNA molecule. Photodestruction dynamics of the donor or acceptor are used to determine the presence and efficiency of energy transfer. The classical equations used to measure energy transfer on ensembles of fluorophores are modified for single-molecule measurements. In contrast to ensemble measurements, dynamic events on a molecular scale are observable in single pair FRET measurements because they are not canceled out by random averaging. Monitoring conformational changes, such as rotations and distance changes on a nanometer scale, within single biological macromolecules, may be possible with single pair FRET. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:8692803

Ha, T; Enderle, T; Ogletree, D F; Chemla, D S; Selvin, P R; Weiss, S

1996-01-01

51

Modelling of Heat Transfer in Single Crystal Growth  

E-print Network

An attempt is made to review the heat transfer and the related problems encountered in the simulation of single crystal growth. The peculiarities of conductive, convective and radiative heat transfer in the different melt, solution, and vapour growth methods are discussed. The importance of the adequate description of the optical crystal properties (semitransparency, specular reflecting surfaces) and their effect on the heat transfer is stresses. Treatment of the unknown phase boundary fluid/crystal as well as problems related to the assessment of the quality of the grown crystals (composition, thermal stresses, point defects, disclocations etc.) and their coupling to the heat transfer/fluid flow problems is considered. Differences between the crystal growth simulation codes intended for the research and for the industrial applications are indicated. The problems of the code verification and validation are discussed; a brief review of the experimental techniques for the study of heat transfer and flow structu...

Zhmakin, Alexander I

2014-01-01

52

Differential gene expression profile in bovine blastocysts resulting from hyperglycemia exposure during early cleavage stages.  

PubMed

To understand the compromised survival of embryos derived from assisted reproductive techniques, transcriptome survey of early embryonic development has shown the impact of in vitro culture environment on gene expression in bovine or other living species. However, how the differentially expressed genes translate into developmentally compromised embryos is unresolved. We therefore aimed to characterize transcriptomic markers expressed by bovine blastocysts cultured in conditions that are known to impair embryo development. As increasing glucose concentrations has been shown to be stressful for early cleavage stages of mammalian embryos and to decrease subsequent blastocyst survival, in vitro-matured/fertilized bovine zygotes were cultured in control (0.2 mM) or high-glucose (5 mM) conditions until the 8- to 16-cell stage, and then transferred to control media until they reached the blastocyst stage. The concentration of 5 mM glucose was chosen as a stress treatment because there was a significant effect on blastocyst rate without the treatment's being lethal as with 10 mM. Microarray analysis revealed gene expression differences unrelated to embryo sex or hatching. Overrepresented processes among differentially expressed genes in treated blastocysts were extracellular matrix signalling, calcium signaling, and energy metabolism. On a pathophysiological level, higher glucose treatment impacts pathways associated with diabetes and tumorigenesis through genes controlling the Warburg effect, i.e., emphasis on use of anaerobic glycolysis rather than oxidative phosphorylation. These results allowed us to conclude that disruption of in vitro preattachment development is concomitant with gene expression modifications involved in metabolic control. PMID:22075474

Cagnone, Gaël L M; Dufort, Isabelle; Vigneault, Christian; Sirard, Marc-André

2012-02-01

53

Production of calves by transfer of nuclei from cultured inner cell mass cells.  

PubMed Central

We report here the isolation and in vitro culture of bovine inner cell mass (ICM) cells and the use of ICM cells in nuclear transfer to produce totipotent blastocysts that resulted in calves born. Of 15 cell lines represented in this study, 13 were derived from immunosurgically isolated ICM of 3 in vitro produced day 9-10 bovine blastocysts, while 2 lines were derived from single blastocysts. Approximately 70% of attempted cell lines became established cell lines when started from 3 ICMs. The ability to establish cell lines was dependent on the number of ICMs starting the line. Sire differences were noted in the ability of ICMs to establish cell lines and to form blastocysts. The cell lines were cultured as a low cell density suspension in the medium CR1aa plus selenium, insulin, and transferrin (SIT) and 5% fetal calf serum (FCS) for 6-101 days before use in nuclear transfer, at which time some had multiplied to more than 2000 cells. If allowed to aggregate, cells of established cell lines formed embryoid bodies. A total of 659 nuclear transfer clones were made by fusing the ES cells into enucleated oocytes with polyethylene glycol; 460 of these fused, based on cleavage (70%). After culture of the clones for 7 days in vitro in CR1aa/SIT/5% FCS, 109 (24%) of those fused became blastocysts. Thirty-four blastocysts were transferred into uteri of 27 cows, and 13 cows (49%) became pregnant. Four of the 13 cows gave birth to 4 normal calves. DNA typing showed the calves to be derived from the respective sires of the cell lines. The calves were derived from cultures of less than 28 days. Images PMID:8016127

Sims, M; First, N L

1994-01-01

54

Role of Nuclear Receptors in Blastocyst Implantation  

PubMed Central

The regulation of blastocyst implantation in the uterus is orchestrated by the ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone. These hormones act via their nuclear receptors to direct the transcriptional activity of the endometrial compartments and create a defined period in which the uterus is permissive to embryo implantation termed the “window of receptivity”. Additional members of the nuclear receptor family have also been described to have a potential role in endometrial function. Much of what we know about the function of these nuclear receptors during implantation we have learned from the use of mouse models. Transgenic murine models with targeted gene ablation have allowed us to identify a complex network of paracrine signaling between the endometrial epithelium and stroma. While some of the critical molecules have been identified, the mechanism underlying the intricate communication between endometrial compartments during the implantation window has not been fully elucidated. Defining this mechanism will help identify markers of a receptive uterine environment, ultimately providing a useful tool to help improve the fertility outlook for reproductively challenged couples. The aim of this review is to outline our current understanding of how nuclear receptors and their effector molecules regulate blastocyst implantation in the endometrium. PMID:23994285

Vasquez, YM; DeMayo, FJ

2013-01-01

55

In vitro culture of mouse blastocysts beyond the implantation stages.  

PubMed

The implanting mouse blastocyst invades the uterine stroma and undergoes a dramatic transformation into an egg cylinder. The morphogenetic and signaling events during this transition are largely unexplored, as the uterine tissues engulf the embryo. Here we describe a protocol supporting the development of the mouse embryo beyond the blastocyst stage in vitro. We established two types of medium to be applied sequentially, and we used a substrate permitting high-resolution imaging of the transition from blastocyst to egg cylinder. We developed two variants of this protocol: the first starts with intact early blastocysts that upon zona removal can attach to the substrate and develop into egg cylinders after 5 d, and the second starts with late blastocysts that upon dissection of the mural trophectoderm form egg cylinders in only 3 d. This method allows observation of a previously hidden period of development, and it provides a platform for novel research into peri-implantation embryogenesis and beyond. PMID:25356584

Bedzhov, Ivan; Leung, Chuen Yan; Bialecka, Monika; Zernicka-Goetz, Magdalena

2014-12-01

56

Promotion of human early embryonic development and blastocyst outgrowth in vitro using autocrine/paracrine growth factors.  

PubMed

Studies using animal models demonstrated the importance of autocrine/paracrine factors secreted by preimplantation embryos and reproductive tracts for embryonic development and implantation. Although in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) is an established procedure, there is no evidence that present culture conditions are optimal for human early embryonic development. In this study, key polypeptide ligands known to be important for early embryonic development in animal models were tested for their ability to improve human early embryo development and blastocyst outgrowth in vitro. We confirmed the expression of key ligand/receptor pairs in cleavage embryos derived from discarded human tri-pronuclear zygotes and in human endometrium. Combined treatment with key embryonic growth factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, colony-stimulating factor, epidermal growth factor, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor, and artemin) in serum-free media promoted >2.5-fold the development of tri-pronuclear zygotes to blastocysts. For normally fertilized embryos, day 3 surplus embryos cultured individually with the key growth factors showed >3-fold increases in the development of 6-8 cell stage embryos to blastocysts and >7-fold increase in the proportion of high quality blastocysts based on Gardner's criteria. Growth factor treatment also led to a 2-fold promotion of blastocyst outgrowth in vitro when day 7 surplus hatching blastocysts were used. When failed-to-be-fertilized oocytes were used to perform somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using fibroblasts as donor karyoplasts, inclusion of growth factors increased the progression of reconstructed SCNT embryos to >4-cell stage embryos. Growth factor supplementation of serum-free cultures could promote optimal early embryonic development and implantation in IVF-ET and SCNT procedures. This approach is valuable for infertility treatment and future derivation of patient-specific embryonic stem cells. PMID:23152897

Kawamura, Kazuhiro; Chen, Yuan; Shu, Yimin; Cheng, Yuan; Qiao, Jie; Behr, Barry; Pera, Renee A Reijo; Hsueh, Aaron J W

2012-01-01

57

Maternal and Genetic Effects on Anxiety-Related Behavior of C3H\\/HeN, DBA\\/2J and NMRI Mice in a Motility-Box Following Blastocyst Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reciprocal embryo transfers were conducted to examine genetic and maternal effects on the behavior of inbred C3H\\/HeN and DBA\\/2J mice, and outbred NMRI mice using a motility-box. The behavioral variables measured were (i) horizontal locomotor activity assessed as the path and time spent during traveling; (ii) vertical activity assessed as the time spent with and numbers of rearings\\/leanings; (iii) and

Claudia Rose; Friedrich-Wilhelm Röhl; Herbert Schwegler; Joachim Hanke; Deniz M. Yilmazer-Hanke

2006-01-01

58

Single Electron Transfer Living Radical Polymerization via a New Initiator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research and development of novel initiating system such as single electron transfer living radical polymerization (SET-LRP) is of high importance in polymer chemistry. A new SET-LRP initiator was synthesized and applied to prepare end-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in this study. ?-Trichloromethyl benzyl alcohol was firstly synthesized, followed by preparation of PMMA under SET-LRP conditions. Conversion of MMA was 81.9%, and the molecular weight of PMMA was about 2.5 kDa at 60 °C for 1 h. Consistency of the number-average molecular weight of PMMA from NMR, GPC and theoretical calculation indicated that the polymerization featured controllable property. Broad molecular weight distribution (MWD) may be ascribed to branched polymers formed by initiation and chain transfer.

Bai, Xiongxiong; Hu, Ying; Zhang, Xu; Ai, Lingling; Cheng, Chuanjie

2014-08-01

59

The Prevalence of Chromosomal Deletions Relating to Developmental Delay and/or Intellectual Disability in Human Euploid Blastocysts  

PubMed Central

Chromosomal anomalies in human embryos produced by in vitro fertilization are very common, which include numerical (aneuploidy) and structural (deletion, duplication or others) anomalies. Our previous study indicated that chromosomal deletion(s) is the most common structural anomaly accounting for approximately 8% of euploid blastocysts. It is still unknown if these deletions in human euploid blastocysts have clinical significance. In this study, we analyzed 15 previously diagnosed euploid blastocysts that had chromosomal deletion(s) using Agilent oligonucleotide DNA microarray platform and localized the gene location in each deletion. Then, we used OMIM gene map and phenotype database to investigate if these deletions are related with some important genes that cause genetic diseases, especially developmental delay or intellectual disability. As results, we found that the detectable chromosomal deletion size with Agilent microarray is above 2.38 Mb, while the deletions observed in human blastocysts are between 11.6 to 103 Mb. With OMIM gene map and phenotype database information, we found that deletions can result in loss of 81-464 genes. Out of these genes, 34–149 genes are related with known genetic problems. Furthermore, we found that 5 out of 15 samples lost genes in the deleted region, which were related to developmental delay and/or intellectual disability. In conclusion, our data indicates that all human euploid blastocysts with chromosomal deletion(s) are abnormal and transfer of these embryos may cause birth defects and/or developmental and intellectual disabilities. Therefore, the embryos with chromosomal deletion revealed by DNA microarray should not be transferred to the patients, or further gene map and/or phenotype seeking is necessary before making a final decision. PMID:24409323

He, Wenyin; Sun, Xiaofang; Liu, Lian; Li, Man; Jin, Hua; Wang, Wei-Hua

2014-01-01

60

Caprine blastocyst formation following intracytoplasmic sperm injection and defined culture.  

PubMed

Experiments were undertaken to develop intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) to produce caprine embryos out of the normal breeding season. Oocytes were obtained from 2-6 mm ovarian follicles at slaughter. Selected oocytes with two to four layers of cumulus cells were incubated in 1 ml of H-TCM199 supplemented with 10 micrograms each of oFSH and bLH (NHPP, NIDDK, NICHD, USDA) and 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS) in a thermos (38.5 degrees C) for 4.5 h during transportation. Then, oocytes were transferred into 75 microliters of freshly prepared maturation medium under paraffin oil and a mixture of 5% O2, 5% CO2 and 90% N2. Approximately 26 h after recovery oocytes were denuded by incubation with hyaluronidase (100 IU/ml) and pipetting and held at 38.5 degrees C for 90 min. Spermatozoa frozen in egg yolk extender were thawed in a 37 degrees C water bath for 15 s. Motile fractions were selected by swim-up, then incubated for 90 min in TALP with 10 micrograms heparin/ml. Each oocyte was positioned with its first polar body at 6 or 12 o'clock by a holding pipette. Sperm (1 microliter) were added to 10 microliters medium containing 10% polyvinylpyrrolidone. A sperm cell was aspirated into a pipette, and then injected head-first into the cytoplasm of an oocyte maintained in H-TCM199 + 20% FBS at 37 degrees C. Injected oocytes were transferred to HM and, after 90 min, cultured in 50 microliters of BSA-free synthetic oviduct fluid plus polyvinyl alcohol, citrate and non-essential amino acids. Results demonstrate that caprine blastocysts can be produced outside the breeding season by the use of frozen-thawed semen and injection of sperm cells with broken tails into ova followed by culture in defined medium. PMID:9460911

Keskintepe, L; Morton, P C; Smith, S E; Tucker, M J; Simplicio, A A; Brackett, B G

1997-08-01

61

Single nozzle spray cooling heat transfer mechanisms Bohumil Horacek, Kenneth T. Kiger, Jungho Kim *  

E-print Network

), kimjh@umd.edu (J. Kim). International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 48 (2005) 1425­1438 wwwSingle nozzle spray cooling heat transfer mechanisms Bohumil Horacek, Kenneth T. Kiger, Jungho Kim Abstract An investigation into single nozzle spray cooling heat transfer mechanisms with varying amounts

Kim, Jungho

62

Energy transfer from a single semiconductor nanocrystal to dye molecules.  

PubMed

In an energy transfer (ET) process, it is the optical responses of donor and acceptor materials on the single-particle level that ultimately determine its overall performance. Here we conduct time-tagged, time-resolved optical measurements to correlate the photoluminescence (PL) intensities and lifetimes of a donor semiconductor nanocrystal (NC) and acceptor dye molecules linked to its surface. We reveal that the PL intensity of dye molecules follows exactly the blinking behavior of the donor NC and shows a step-like quenching behavior due to the photobleaching effect. The corresponding recovery of the NC PL intensity has allowed us to realize the textbook definition of PL quantum efficiency measurement in dye molecules upon absorbing a single exciton. Our theoretical fitting of the lifetime data demonstrates that the buildup time of acceptor PL could be solely determined by the radiative lifetime of dye molecules when it is any shorter than the NC lifetime, thus confirming the long-existing Förster theory on ET dynamics. PMID:24901293

Hua, Zheng; Xu, Qinfeng; Huang, Xiangnan; Zhang, Chunfeng; Wang, Xiaoyong; Xiao, Min

2014-07-22

63

On-Site Array CGH Applications in Clinical In Vitro Fertilization: Reproductive Outcomes and Impact on Cryopreservation of Non-transferred Human Embryos  

PubMed Central

Background: IVF pregnancy rates have trended upward although gains have been accompanied by unwelcome increases in pre-term delivery and multiple gestation. These adverse outcomes happen because multiple embryos are typically transferred during IVF. Integrating newer molecular cytogenetic techniques with IVF can optimize selection of a single embryo for transfer. Methods: The SurePlex DNA amplification system (BlueGnome Ltd; Cambridge, UK) was used on-site for whole genome amplification of human blastocyst trophectoderm (TE) cells obtained by biopsy. IVF patients (initial cycle, age <35, no prior miscarriage, normal karyotype) were prospectively randomized into two groups: In Group 1, embryos were selected on the basis of morphology and comprehensive chromosomal screening via array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) from d5 TE biopsy, while Group 2 embryos were assessed by morphology only. All patients underwent a single fresh blastocyst transfer on d6. For embryos in the aCGH group, only one euploid blastocyst was selected for transfer and surplus euploid blastocysts were vitrified. In the non-aCGH (control) group, a single blastocyst was selected for fresh transfer based on appearance only, with vitrification of any surplus blastocysts with satisfactory morphology. Results: Aneuploidy was identified in 191/425 of Group 1 balstocysts (44.9%). Control embryos (n=389) were assessed by microscopy only. A higher clinical pregnancy rate was observed in Group 1 patients compared to the control group (70.9 vs. 45.8%; p = 0.017). Only 64 (28.3%) surplus euploid embryos were frozen in Group 1 while 157 (40.4%) blastocysts were cryopreserved for Group 2 (p=0.017). Conclusion: These data underscore the intrinsic imprecision of IVF when conventional morphology is used alone to select embryos for transfer. Embryos evaluated with aCGH implant with greater efficiency and achieve clinical pregnancy more often than those selected without aCGH. Patients should be advised that aCGH screening may reduce the number of surplus embryos for cryopreservation.

Liu, J.; Salem, S. A.; Peck, A. C.; Yang, Z.; Salem, R. D.; Sills, E. S.

2013-01-01

64

Controlling energy transfer between multiple dopants within a single nanoparticle  

PubMed Central

Complex core-shell architectures are implemented within LaF3 nanoparticles to allow for a tailored degree of energy transfer (ET) between different rare earth dopants. By constraining specific dopants to individual shells, their relative distance to one another can be carefully controlled. Core-shell LaF3 nanoparticles doped with Tb3+ and Eu3+ and consisting of up to four layers were synthesized with an outer diameter of ?10 nm. It is found that by varying the thicknesses of an undoped layer between a Tb3+-doped layer and a Eu3+-doped layer, the degree of ET can be engineered to allow for zero, partial, or total ET from a donor ion to an acceptor ion. More specifically, the ratio of the intensities of the 541-nm Tb3+ and 590 nm Eu3+ peaks was tailored from <0.2 to ?2.4 without changing the overall composition of the particles but only by changing the internal structure. Further, the emission spectrum of a blend of singly doped nanoparticles is shown to be equivalent to the spectra of co-doped particles when a core-shell configuration that restricts ET is used. Beyond simply controlling ET, which can be limiting when designing materials for optical applications, this approach can be used to obtain truly engineered spectral features from nanoparticles and composites made from them. Further, it allows for a single excitation source to yield multiple discrete emissions from numerous lanthanide dopants that heretofore would have been quenched in a more conventional active optical material. PMID:18250307

DiMaio, Jeffrey R.; Sabatier, Clement; Kokuoz, Baris; Ballato, John

2008-01-01

65

The rate of blastocysts production following vitrification with step-wise equilibration of immature mouse oocytes  

PubMed Central

Background: Cryopreservation and in vitro maturation (IVM) of oocyte is becoming an important technique in infertility treatment and fertility preservation. Also it has been proposed to establish a genetic resource bank for endangered or commercially important animal species. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate viability, maturation and fertilization rate of mouse immature oocytes after single and stepwise vitrification procedure. Materials and Methods: Oocytes were obtained from 4 weeks old female mice 48h after intraperitoneal injection of 7.5 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG). Collected oocytes before vitrification were exposed to cryoprotectant, which was composed of 30% (v/v) ethylene glycol, 18% (w/v) Ficoll-70, and 0.3 M sucrose, either by single step or in a step-wise way. After vitrification and storage in liquid nitrogen, the oocytes were warmed and washed two times in medium TCM199 and then subjected to IVM, fertilization and subsequent development to blastocysts. Results: The oocytes survival rates after vitrifying-warming (88.96%), maturation rate (73.23%), the capacity of fertilization (57.80%) and embryonic development to blastocyst (16.41%) in the step-wise exposure were significantly higher (p<0.001) compared with corresponding rate in the single step procedure. Conclusion: The results suggest that vitrification with step-wise procedure has positive effects on maturation and developmental capacity of mice germinal vesicle oocytes in compare with single step vitrification procedure.

Mahmoudi, Reza; Rajaei, Farzad; Ragardi Kashani, Iraj; Abbasi, Mehdi; Amidi, Fardin; Sobhani, Aligholi; Amiri, Iraj

2012-01-01

66

Charge Transfer through Single-Stranded Peptide Nucleic Acid Composed of Thymine Nucleotides  

E-print Network

Charge Transfer through Single-Stranded Peptide Nucleic Acid Composed of Thymine Nucleotides Amit; In Final Form: February 18, 2008 Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of single-stranded peptide nucleic acids. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is an analo

Borguet, Eric

67

Single-collision studies of energy transfer and chemical reaction  

SciTech Connect

The research focus in this group is state-to-state dynamics of reaction and energy transfer in collisions of free radicals such as H, OH, and CH{sub 3} with H{sub 2}, alkanes, alcohols and other hydrogen-containing molecules. The motivation for the work is the desire to provide a detailed understanding of the chemical dynamics of prototype reactions that are important in the production and utilization of energy sources, most importantly in combustion. The work is primarily experimental, but with an important and growing theoretical/computational component. The focus of this research program is now on reactions in which at least one of the reactants and one of the products is polyatomic. The objective is to determine how the high dimensionality of the reactants and products differentiates such reactions from atom + diatom reactions of the same kinematics and energetics. The experiments use highly time-resolved laser spectroscopic methods to prepare reactant states and analyze the states of the products on a single-collision time scale. The primary spectroscopic tool for product state analysis is coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy. CARS is used because of its generality and because the extraction of quantum state populations from CARS spectra is straightforward. The combination of the generality and easy analysis of CARS makes possible absolute cross section measurements (both state-to-state and total), a particularly valuable capability for characterizing reactive and inelastic collisions. Reactant free radicals are produced by laser photolysis of appropriate precursors. For reactant vibrational excitation stimulated Raman techniques are being developed and implemented.

Valentini, J.J. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

1993-12-01

68

Vitrification solution without sucrose for cryopreservation in mouse blastocysts  

PubMed Central

Objective This study was designed to investigate the survival rate of vitrified mouse blastocysts depending on the presence or absence of sucrose in vitrification solution. Methods Mouse two-cell embryos were collected and cultured to blastocysts. Two vitrification solutions were prepared. The control solution was composed of 25% glycerol, 25% ethylene glycol, and 0.5 M sucrose (G25E250.5S) containing 2.5 mL glycerol, 2.5 mL ethylene glycol, 2 mL SSS, and 0.855 g sucrose in 5 mL PB1. The experimental solution was composed of 25% glycerol and 25% ethylene glycol (G25E25) and contained 2.5 mL glycerol and 2.5 mL ethylene glycol in 5 mL PB1. Artificial shrinkage was conducted by aspirating the blastocoelic fluid using an ICSI pipette. To examine the effect of sucrose in the vitrification solution on the survival rate of mouse blastocysts, the shrunken-equilibrated blastocysts were rehydrated or vitrified after being exposed to one of the two vitrification solutions. After exposure and the vitrification-thawing process, the re-expansion rate and hatching rate were evaluated after 6 hours of in vitro culture. Results The re-expansion rate of mouse blastocysts exposed to vitrification solution with and without sucrose were not different in the experimental solution (without sucrose) (98%) and the control solution (with sucrose) (92%) (p>0.05). The hatching rate was higher in the experimental solution (95%) than in the control solution (88%), but did not differ across two treatments (p>0.05). The re-expansion rate of mouse blastocysts vitrified in the control solution was 92% and 94%, respectively (p>0.05), and the hatching rate was higher in the experimental solution (90%) than in the control solution (74%) (p<0.05). Conclusion Sucrose need not be added in vitrification solution for freezing of artificially shrunken mouse blastocysts. PMID:25309855

Joo, Jong Kil; Lee, Young Ju; Jeong, Ju Eun; Kim, Seung Chul; Ko, Gyoung Rae

2014-01-01

69

Visualization of convective boiling heat transfer in single microchannels with different shaped cross-sections  

E-print Network

.elsevier.com/locate/ijhmt International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 49 (2006) 3884­3894 #12;the effects of interactions betweenVisualization of convective boiling heat transfer in single microchannels with different shaped of the local heat transfer coefficient. Two types of microchannels were tested: a circular Pyrex glass

Tokyo, University of

70

Single top quality embryo transfer as a model for prediction of early pregnancy outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Single embryo transfer (particularly of a top quality embryo) is an excellent model to correlate embryo quality in terms of morphological criteria to early pregnancy. We investigated whether this model could provide us with more information on what happens after implantation in the first trimester of pregnancy. METHODS: The outcome of 370 consecutive single top quality embryo transfers in

D. De Neubourg; J. Gerris; K. Mangelschots; E. Van Royen; M. Vercruyssen; M. Elseviers

2004-01-01

71

Communication Single-scan 2D NMR correlations by multiple coherence transfers  

E-print Network

Communication Single-scan 2D NMR correlations by multiple coherence transfers Maayan Gal 1 , Lucio: Multidimensional spectroscopy Ultrafast 2D NMR HSQC Coherence transfer processes a b s t r a c t A new scheme for the acquisition of heteronuclear 2D correlations in NMR spectroscopy within a single scan, is proposed

Frydman, Lucio

72

Valproic acid treatment from the 4-cell stage improves Oct4 expression and nuclear distribution of histone H3K27me3 in mouse cloned blastocysts.  

PubMed

We examined effects of treatment with valproic acid (0, 0.2, 1 or 2 mM, VPA), an inhibitor of class I and IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs), of mouse somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos for 24 h from 48 h (4-cell stage), 24 h (2-cell stage) or immediately after oocyte activation on blastocyst formation rates and qualities of the resultant blastocysts. Blastocyst formation rates (33.4-37.0%) were not improved by VPA treatments compared with the untreated control (35.1-36.4%). However, immunofluorescence staining revealed that Oct4 expression levels, evaluated from percentages of embryos expressing Oct4 strongly and having more than 10 Oct4-positive cells, in blastocysts from SCNT embryos treated with 1 mM VPA for 24 h from the 4-cell stage (VPA-4C) were highest among all the groups and that the proportion of cells with a normal nuclear distribution of histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 27 (H3K27me3), a marker of the state of X-chromosome inactivation, significantly increased in the VPA-4C group (36.6%) compared with the control group (12.4%, P<0.05). Treatments with scriptaid and sodium butyrate, inhibitors of class I and IIa/b HDACs, for 24 h from the 4-cell stage also had beneficial effects on SCNT blastocysts. These findings indicate that treatment with 1 mM VPA from the 4-cell stage improves the Oct4 expression and nuclear distribution of H3K27me3 in mouse SCNT blastocysts and suggest that the inhibition of class I and IIa HDACs from the 4-cell stage plays an important role in these effects. PMID:23337102

Isaji, Yuuki; Murata, Moeko; Takaguchi, Naoya; Mukai, Toshita; Tajima, Yosuke; Imai, Hiroshi; Yamada, Masayasu

2013-01-01

73

The accuracy of chromosomal microarray testing for identification of embryonic mosaicism in human blastocysts  

PubMed Central

Background Most previous studies of chromosomal mosaicism in IVF embryos were performed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) methods. While there are reports implicating chromosome aneuploidy in implantation failure following transfer and pregnancy loss by spontaneous miscarriage, the significance of mosaicism for the developmental potential of growing embryos is unknown. However, the low prevalence of chromosomal mosaicism in chorionic villus sampling and amniotic fluid specimens suggests the presence of selection against mosaic embryos for implantation and early pregnancy. The absence of evidence for selective allocation of abnormal cells to the trophectoderm (TE) of mosaic blastocysts permits these cells to be a good proxy for embryonic mosaicism detection by chromosomal microarrays (CMA). The purpose of this study was to establish the limits of detection and the prevalence of chromosome mosaicism in day 5/6 human embryos using CMA with TE biopsies. Results From reconstitution experiments we established log2 ratio thresholds for mosaicism detection. These studies indicated that chromosomal mosaicism at levels as low as between 25-37% can be consistently identified. Follow-up studies by FISH on non-transferred abnormal embryos confirmed the diagnostic accuracy of CMA testing. The number of cells in a TE biopsy can influence mosaicism detection. Conclusions Chromosomal microarrays can detect mosaicism in TE biopsies when present at levels as low as between 25-37% and the prevalence of day 5/6 blastocysts which were mosaic and had no other abnormalities reached 15% among a cohort of 551 embryos examined. Validated protocols for establishing detection thresholds for mosaicism are important to reduce the likelihood of transferring abnormal embryos. PMID:24581286

2014-01-01

74

Effect of the afterloaded external guidance embryo transfer technique on pregnancy rates in single embryo transfer cycles  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate effect of the afterloaded external guidance embryo transfer technique on pregnancy rates in single embryo transfer intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Material and Methods This retrospective study was performed at the Dr. Zekai Tahir Burak Women’s Health Research and Education Hospital. Three hundred and thirteen women who underwent ICSI were included in the study. Subjects were categorized according to the embryo transfer technique; Group 1 (n: 232): easy transfer with a soft catheter, Group 2 (n: 45): after external guidance transfer, and Group 3 (n: 36): difficult transfer with a stylet. Basal parameters, clinical and laboratory IVF outcomes and pregnancy rates were studied. Results Infertility etiology, basal follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels, antral follicle count, duration of stimulation, total dose of gonadotropin, peak estradiol levels, endometrial thickness, oocyte number, 2 PN, and fertilization rate were similar between the three groups (p>0.05). Despite the decreased pregnancy rate in Group 3, there were no differences in clinical pregnancy rates among the groups (p=0.204). Conclusion Embryo transfer is one of the critical steps in assisted reproduction procedures. Using the afterloaded external guidance embryo transfer technique did not improve pregnancy rates. PMID:24592095

Y?lmaz, Nafiye; Oruc, Ayla Sarg?n; Zeyrek, Tugba; Gorkem, Umit; Inal, Hasan Ali; Engin-Ustun, Yaprak; Gulerman, Cavidan

2013-01-01

75

Relationship between reactive oxygen species and autophagy in dormant mouse blastocysts during delayed implantation  

PubMed Central

Objective Under estrogen deficiency, blastocysts cannot initiate implantation and enter dormancy. Dormant blastocysts live longer in utero than normal blastocysts, and autophagy has been suggested as a mechanism underlying the sustained survival of dormant blastocysts during delayed implantation. Autophagy is a cellular degradation pathway and a central component of the integrated stress response. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced within cells during normal metabolism, but their levels increase dramatically under stressful conditions. We investigated whether heightened autophagy in dormant blastocysts is associated with the increased oxidative stress under the unfavorable condition of delayed implantation. Methods To visualize ROS production, day 8 (short-term dormancy) and day 20 (long-term dormancy) dormant blastocysts were loaded with 1-µM 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA). To block autophagic activation, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and wortmannin were used in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Results We observed that ROS production was not significantly affected by the status of dormancy; in other words, both dormant and activated blastocysts showed high levels of ROS. However, ROS production was higher in the dormant blastocysts of the long-term dormancy group than in those of the short-term group. The addition of wortmannin to dormant blastocysts in vitro and 3-MA injection in vivo significantly increased ROS production in the short-term dormant blastocysts. In the long-term dormant blastocysts, ROS levels were not significantly affected by the treatment of the autophagy inhibitor. Conclusion During delayed implantation, heightened autophagy in dormant blastocysts may be operative as a potential mechanism to reduce oxidative stress. Further, ROS may be one of the potential causes of compromised developmental competence of long-term dormant blastocysts after implantation. PMID:25309857

Shin, Hyejin; Choi, Soyoung

2014-01-01

76

Limitations of a time-lapse blastocyst prediction model: a large multicentre outcome analysis.  

PubMed

The goal of embryo selection models is to select embryos with the highest reproductive potential, whilst minimizing the rejection of viable embryos. Ultimately, any embryo selection model must be tested on clinical outcome. We therefore retrospectively tested a published blastocyst prediction model on a large combined set of transferred embryos with known clinical outcome. The model was somewhat effective in that we found a relative increase of 30% for implantation in the model-selected group of embryos. There was, however, a concomitant large rejection of embryos from our test cohort, which actually resulted in pregnancy. This hypothetical experiment highlights the limitations of predicting blastulation only. Crucially, it illustrates that both sensitivity and specificity are important parameters when developing embryo selection models for prospective clinical use. PMID:24912418

Kirkegaard, Kirstine; Campbell, Alison; Agerholm, Inge; Bentin-Ley, Ursula; Gabrielsen, Anette; Kirk, John; Sayed, Shabana; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob

2014-08-01

77

Hydrodynamics and heat transfer during flow boiling instabilities in a single microchannel  

E-print Network

Hydrodynamics and heat transfer during flow boiling instabilities in a single microchannel July 2008 Keywords: Boiling Microchannels Visualisation Flow boiling instabilities Heat transfer a b s t r a c t Boiling in microchannels is widely considered as one of the front runners in process

Aussillous, Pascale

78

Heat transfer to a single particle exposed to a thermal plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with an analytical study of the heat and mass transfer process of a single particle exposed to a thermal plasma, with emphasis on the effects which evaporation imposes on heat transfer from the plasma to the particle. The results refer mainly to an atmospheric-pressure argon plasma and, for comparison purposes, an argon-hydrogen mixture and a nitrogen

Xi Chen; E. Pfender

1982-01-01

79

Single crystalline BaTiO3 thin films synthesized using ion implantation induced layer transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Layer transfer of BaTiO3 thin films onto silicon-based substrates has been investigated. Hydrogen and helium ions were co-implanted to facilitate ion-implantation-induced layer transfer of films from BaTiO3 single crystals. From thermodynamic equilibrium calculations, we suggest that the dominant species during cavity nucleation and growth are H2, H+, H2O, Ba2+ and Ba-OH, and that the addition of hydrogen to the Ba-Ti-O system can effectively suppress volatile oxide formation during layer transfer and subsequent annealing. After ion implantation, BaTiO3 layers contain microstructural defects and hydrogen precipitates in the lattice, but after layer transfer, the single crystal is found to be stoichiometric. Using direct wafer bonding and layer splitting, single crystal BaTiO3 thin films were transferred onto amorphous Si3N4 and Pt substrates. Micro-Raman spectroscopy indicated that the density of defects generated by ion implantation in BaTiO3 can be significantly reduced during post-transfer annealing, returning the transferred layer to its single crystal state. Characterization using piezoresponse force microscopy shows that the layer transferred thin films are ferroelectric, with domain structures and piezoresponse characteristics similar to that of bulk crystals.

Park, Young-Bae; Diest, Kenneth; Atwater, Harry A.

2007-10-01

80

Single-Pair FÖrster Resonance Energy Transfer With Multiparametric Excitation and Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between a donor and an acceptor dye molecule is a common method to study the distances between single molecules in living cells in the nanometer range. Quantitative distance measurements are difficult to obtain in spite of the strong distance dependency of the energy transfer efficiency. One problem is the incomplete fluorescent labeling of the molecules,

Benedikt Kramer; Steffen Ruttinger; Martin Roos; Felix Koberling

2007-01-01

81

Heat transfer to a single explosive particle injected into SCB plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned on the interaction of SCB plasma with Lead Azide, Lead Styphnate (LTNR) and Nickel Hydrazine Nitrate (NHN) primary explosive particles, with emphasis on the effects which the heat of explosive imposes on heat transfer from SCB plasma. The heat transfer from SCB plasma to a single spherical particle is calculated by simple calculation method. The effect

Hongyan Feng; Lin Zhang; Shunguan Zhu; Yan Li; Ruiqi Shen

2011-01-01

82

Analytical method of load-transfer of single pile under expansive soil swelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elastic differential equations of load-transfer of single pile either with applied loads on pile-top or only under the\\u000a soil swelling were established, respectively, based on the theory of pile-soil interaction and the shear-deformation method.\\u000a The derivation of analytic solution to load-transfer for single pile in expansive soil could hereby be obtained by means of\\u000a superposition principle under expansive soils

Zhen-hui Fan; Yong-he Wang; Hong-bin Xiao; Chun-shun Zhang

2007-01-01

83

77 FR 49837 - Transfer of Outbound Single-Piece First-Class Mail International Packages and Rolls to...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SERVICE Transfer of Outbound Single-Piece First-Class Mail International Packages and...Commission to transfer Outbound Single-Piece First-Class Mail International Packages (Small...Service to transfer Outbound Single-Piece First-Class Mail Packages (Small...

2012-08-17

84

Cryotolerance and global gene-expression patterns of Bos taurus indicus and Bos taurus taurus in vitro- and in vivo-produced blastocysts.  

PubMed

In a 2×2 factorial experimental design, embryo development, cryotolerance and global gene expression of Nellore (Bos taurus indicus) and Simmental (Bos taurus taurus) blastocysts produced in vitro (IVP) and in vivo (multiple ovulation derived embryo, MODE) were assessed. Blastocyst production was higher in Nellore than in Simmental (47.7±2.0% vs 27.0±2.0%) cows. The total numbers of ova or embryos recovered (5.5±0.9 vs 3.7±0.8) and transferable embryos (3.8±1.0 vs 2.3±0.8) per cow were not different between breeds. Simmental and MODE (34.6% and 38.5%, n=75 and 70) blastocysts had higher survival rates after cryopreservation compared with Nellore and IVP (20.2% and 18.1%, n=89 and 94) embryos, respectively. Differences between transcriptomes were addressed by principal-component analysis, which indicated that gene expression was affected by subspecies (158 genes), origin (532 genes) and interaction between both subspecies and origin (53 genes). Several functional processes and pathways relevant to lipid metabolism and embryo viability involving differentially expressed genes were identified. The lipid metabolism-related genes were upregulated in Simmental (AUH and ELOVL6) and IVP (ACSL3 and ACSL6) blastocysts. The expression profiles of genes related to mitochondrial metabolism (ATP5B), oxidative stress (GPX4), apoptosis (DAD1, DAP, PRDX2), heat shock (HSPA5), pregnancy (IFNT2, PAG2) and cell differentiation (KRT18) varied between experimental groups. PMID:24025608

Sudano, Mateus J; Caixeta, Ester S; Paschoal, Daniela M; Martins, Alicio; Machado, Rui; Buratini, José; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda D C

2014-10-01

85

Stability of reference genes for normalization of reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) data in bovine blastocysts produced by IVF, ICSI and SCNT.  

PubMed

Summary Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a sensitive and accurate tool for quantitative estimation of gene transcription levels in preimplantation embryos. To control for possible experimental variations, gene expression data must be normalized using internal control genes commonly known as reference genes. However, the stability of reference genes can vary depending on the state of development and/or experimental conditions; hence the assessment of their stability is essential before initiating a gene expression analysis. In the present study, we used RT-qPCR to measure the transcript levels of 10 commonly used reference genes and analyzed their expression stability in bovine blastocysts produced by in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Using the geNorm program, we found the best combination of genes to normalize gene expression data in bovine embryos at the blastocyst stage produced by IVF (HMBS, SF3A1, and HPRT1), ICSI (H2A, HMBS, and GAPDH), SCNT (ACTB, SF3A1, and SDHA) and/or between blastocysts produced by these methods (GAPDH, HMBS and EEF1A2). We also demonstrated that not only the culture conditions may affect the expression patterns in bovine blastocysts but also the choice of embryo production method may have an important effect. PMID:23731783

Luchsinger, Charlotte; Arias, María Elena; Vargas, Tamara; Paredes, Marcos; Sánchez, Raúl; Felmer, Ricardo

2014-11-01

86

Transferring color to single-band intensified night vision images  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method to give single band intensified nightvision imagery a natural day-time color appearance. For input, the method requires a true color RGB source image and a grayscale nightvision target image. The source and target image are both transformed into a perceptually decorrelated color space. In this color space a best matching source pixel is determined for each

Alexander Toet

2004-01-01

87

Activation of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) promotes blastocyst hatching in mice.  

PubMed

Prostaglandins participate in a variety of female reproductive processes, including ovulation, fertilization, embryo implantation and parturition. In particular, maternal prostacyclin (PGI(2)) is critical for embryo implantation and the action of PGI(2) is not mediated via its G-protein-coupled membrane receptor, IP, but its nuclear receptor, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?). Recently, several studies have shown that PGI(2) enhances blastocyst development and/or hatching rate in vitro, and subsequently implantation and live birth rates in mice. However, the mechanism by which PGI(2) improves preimplantation embryo development in vitro remains unclear. Using molecular, pharmacologic and genetic approaches, we show that PGI(2)-induced PPAR? activation accelerates blastocyst hatching in mice. mRNAs for PPAR?, retinoid X receptor (heterodimeric partners of PPAR?) and PGI(2) synthase (PGIS) are temporally induced after zygotic gene activation, and their expression reaches maximum levels at the blastocyst stage, suggesting that functional complex of PPAR? can be formed in the blastocyst. Carbaprostacyclin (a stable analogue of PGI(2)) and GW501516 (a PPAR? selective agonist) significantly accelerated blastocyst hatching but did not increase total cell number of cultured blastocysts. Whereas U51605 (a PGIS inhibitor) interfered with blastocyst hatching, GW501516 restored U51605-induced retarded hatching. In contrast to the improvement of blastocyst hatching by PPAR? agonists, PPAR antagonists significantly inhibited blastocyst hatching. Furthermore, deletion of PPAR? at early stages of preimplantation mouse embryos caused delay of blastocyst hatching, but did not impair blastocyst development. Taken together, PGI(2)-induced PPAR? activation accelerates blastocyst hatching in mice. PMID:21511721

Kang, Hee Jung; Hwang, Soo Jin; Yoon, Jung Ah; Jun, Jin Hyun; Lim, Hyunjung Jade; Yoon, Tae Ki; Song, Haengseok

2011-10-01

88

Rescue of Developmental Defects by Blastocyst Stem Cell Injection: Towards Elucidation of Neomorphic Corrective Pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cell-based therapy is an exciting area of high potential for regenerative medicine. To study disease prevention, we inject\\u000a mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into a variety of mouse blastocysts, most of which harbor mutations. Mice derived from these\\u000a mutant blastocysts develop human-like diseases, either at developmental stages or in the adult, but blastocyst injection of\\u000a ESCs prevents disease from

Qingshi Zhao; Amanda Beck; Joseph M. Vitale; Joel S. Schneider; Andre Terzic; Diego Fraidenraich

2010-01-01

89

Vitrification of in vitro produced goat blastocysts: effects of oocyte donor age and development stage.  

PubMed

This study examines the effectiveness of the cryotop vitrification method for the cryopreservation of goat blastocysts. To determine the effects of embryo development stage and donor age on in vitro survival rates, good-quality blastocysts from adult and prepubertal goats were sorted into non-expanded, expanded, hatching and completely hatched. In vitro produced (IVP) blastocysts were derived from prepubertal goat oocytes by slicing of ovaries from slaughtered animals while adult goat oocytes were collected by the laparoscopic ovum pick up (LOPU) method. Blastocysts were vitrified/warmed using the cryotop technique. Survival rates were determined in terms of blastocoele re-expansion at 3 and 20 h post-warming. For prepubertal goats, survival rates at 3h post-warming were significantly higher when expanded blastocysts (78.3%) were vitrified/warmed compared to hatched blastocysts (57.4%), whereas non-expanded (62.5%) or hatching blastocysts (71.4%) showed similar rates. For adult goats, survival rates were significantly higher after warming in expanded (36.4%), hatching (75%) or hatched (50%) blastocysts when compared to non-expanded (0%) blastocysts. When survival rates were assessed at 20 h post-warming, no differences were observed when we compared non-expanded (45.8%), expanded (56.5%), hatching (64.3%) and hatched (50.5%) blastocysts from prepubertal goats; and for blastocysts from adult goats, survival rates were only significantly lower for the non-expanded stage (0%) compared to the other stages. For adult versus prepubertal blastocysts at the same developmental stage, our data indicate significantly higher survival rates at 3 h post-warming for non-expanded and expanded blastocysts from prepubertal goats over their counterparts from adult goats. At 20 h post warming, survival rates were only higher for non-expanded blastocysts from prepubertal goats versus adult goats. Collectively, our data reveal that blastocysts produced in vitro from prepubertal goats return similar survival rates regardless of their development stage, whereas blastocysts derived from adult goats are best for vitrification at the expanded, hatching or hatched stage. PMID:21963380

Morató, Roser; Romaguera, Roser; Izquierdo, Dolors; Paramio, Maria Teresa; Mogas, Teresa

2011-12-01

90

Chemical reaction fouling model for single-phase heat transfer  

SciTech Connect

A fouling model was developed on the premise that the chemical reaction for generation of precursor can take place in the bulk fluid, in the thermalboundary layer, or at the fluid/wall interface, depending upon the interactive effects of flu id dynamics, heat and mass transfer, and the controlling chemical reaction. The analysis was used to examine the experimental data for fouling deposition of polyperoxides produced by autoxidation of indene in kerosene. The effects of fluid and wall temperatures for two flow geometries were analyzed. The results showed that the relative effects of physical parameters on the fouling rate would differ for the three fouling mechanisms; therefore, it is important to identify the controlling mechanism in applying the closed-flow-loop data to industrial conditions.

Panchal, C.B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Watkinson, A.P. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

1993-08-01

91

Paraffin-embedded manipulated blastocysts: a tool to demonstrate stem cell plasticity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the big question marks in current stem cell research is whether there is true plasticity of adult progenitor cells (APC) or if cell fusion is the principle source of the supposed plasticity. The generation of chimeras by injecting adult progenitor cells into blastocysts is not new. This paper describes an efficient embedding technique for murine blastocysts injected with

NH Zech; S Koestenbauer; P Vanderzwalmen; L Schoonjans; S Danloy; H Zech; A Blaschitz; G Dohr

2005-01-01

92

Nitric oxide metabolite production in the human preimplantation embryo and successful blastocyst  

E-print Network

36 hours later. After oocyte retrieval, metaphase II oocytes were placed in individual 80 mL droplets that progressed to blastocysts by culture day 5 than in those that did not. A comparison of the receiver operating). Unfortunately, culture day 3 morphological assessment is not optimal for the prediction of blastocyst

Terasaki, Mark

93

Estrogen-Dependent Uterine Secretion of Osteopontin Activates Blastocyst Adhesion Competence  

PubMed Central

Embryo implantation is a highly orchestrated process that involves blastocyst-uterine interactions. This process is confined to a defined interval during gestation referred to as the “window of embryo implantation receptivity”. In mice this receptive period is controlled by ovarian estrogen and involves a coordination of blastocyst adhesion competence and uterine receptivity. Mechanisms coordinating the acquisition of blastocyst adhesion competence and uterine receptivity are largely unknown. Here, we show that ovarian estrogen indirectly regulates blastocyst adhesion competence. Acquisition of blastocyst adhesion competence was attributed to integrin activation (e.g. formation of adhesion complexes) rather than de novo integrin synthesis. Osteopontin (OPN) was identified as an estrogen-dependent uterine endometrial gland secretory factor responsible for activating blastocyst adhesion competence. Increased adhesion complex assembly in OPN-treated blastocysts was mediated through focal adhesion kinase (FAK)- and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent signaling pathways. These findings define for the first time specific regulatory components of an estrogen-dependent pathway coordinating blastocyst adhesion competence and uterine receptivity. PMID:23152823

Egashira, Mahiro; Bai, Rulan; Nomura, Nana; Nomura, Shintaro; Hirota, Yasushi; Sakurai, Toshihiro; Imakawa, Kazuhiko

2012-01-01

94

X chromosome regulation of autosomal gene expression in bovine blastocysts.  

PubMed

Although X chromosome inactivation in female mammals evolved to balance the expression of X chromosome and autosomal genes in the two sexes, female embryos pass through developmental stages in which both X chromosomes are active in somatic cells. Bovine blastocysts show higher expression of many X genes in XX than XY embryos, suggesting that X inactivation is not complete. Here, we reanalyzed bovine blastocyst microarray expression data from a network perspective with a focus on interactions between X chromosome and autosomal genes. Whereas male-to-female ratios of expression of autosomal genes were distributed around a mean of 1, X chromosome genes were clearly shifted towards higher expression in females. We generated gene coexpression networks and identified a major module of genes with correlated gene expression that includes female-biased X genes and sexually dimorphic autosomal genes for which the sexual dimorphism is likely driven by the X genes. In this module, expression of X chromosome genes correlates with autosome genes, more than the expression of autosomal genes with each other. Our study identifies correlated patterns of autosomal and X-linked genes that are likely influenced by the sexual imbalance of X gene expression when X inactivation is inefficient. PMID:24817096

Itoh, Yuichiro; Arnold, Arthur P

2014-10-01

95

Diameter selective electron transfer from encapsulated ferrocenes to single-walled carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

The diameter selective photoluminescence quenching of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is observed upon ferrocene encapsulation, which can be attributed to electron transfer from the encapsulated ferrocenes to the SWCNTs. Interestingly, the dependence of the electron transfer process on the nanotube diameter is governed by the molecular orientation of the ferrocenes in the SWCNT rather than the reduction potentials of the SWCNT. PMID:25310793

Iizumi, Yoko; Suzuki, Hironori; Tange, Masayoshi; Okazaki, Toshiya

2014-10-24

96

Nanophotonic enhancement of the F\\"orster resonance energy transfer rate on single DNA molecules  

E-print Network

Nanophotonics achieves accurate control over the luminescence properties of a single quantum emitter by tailoring the light-matter interaction at the nanoscale and modifying the local density of optical states (LDOS). This paradigm could also benefit to F\\"orster resonance energy transfer (FRET) by enhancing the near-field electromagnetic interaction between two fluorescent emitters. Despite the wide applications of FRET in nanosciences, using nanophotonics to enhance FRET remains a debated and complex challenge. Here, we demonstrate enhanced energy transfer within single donor-acceptor fluorophore pairs confined in gold nanoapertures. Experiments monitoring both the donor and the acceptor emission photodynamics at the single molecule level clearly establish a linear dependence of the FRET rate on the LDOS in nanoapertures. These findings are applied to enhance the FRET rate in nanoapertures up to six times, demonstrating that nanophotonics can be used to intensify the near-field energy transfer and improve t...

Ghenuche, Petru; Moparthi, Satish Babu; Grigoriev, Victor; Wenger, Jérôme

2014-01-01

97

Electronic energy transfer in highly aligned MEH-PPV single chains.  

PubMed

This paper describes the simultaneous measurement of excitation and emission anisotropy to visualize energy transfer in single chains of the prototypical conjugated polymer MEH-PPV, for samples with >70% of the single chains organized into extended, rod-like conformations. The uniformity and high degree of order of the single molecules in these experiments has allowed direct comparison of our experimental data to energy-transfer simulations in model polymer chains. Increases in average anisotropy from 0.62 to 0.74 from excitation to emission and average changes of <15° to the in-plane dipole principal orientation axis confirmed that energy was transferred to a relatively small number of sites in these highly ordered chains. This organization persisted even at large molecular weights (M(n) = 850 kDa). Electronic energy transfer in highly anisotropic model chains was simulated using an incoherent Fo?rster-type mechanism to generate modulation depth histograms in good agreement with the observed data, as well as ensemble emission energies consistent with previously reported results. In these ordered model chains, excitons migrated an average of 6 nm before emission. This distance, far larger than the radius for single-step FRET, implies that energy transfer in MEH-PPV is a multistep funneling process. PMID:21812493

Traub, Matthew C; Lakhwani, Girish; Bolinger, Joshua C; Vanden Bout, David; Barbara, Paul F

2011-08-25

98

Single-photon router: enhancing the transfer rate by the boundary  

E-print Network

We study the transport property of single photon scattered by a two-level system (TLS) in a T-shaped waveguide, which are made of an infinite coupled-resonator waveguide (CRW) and a semi-infinite CRW. The spontaneous emission of the TLS directs single photons form one CRW to the other. Although the transfer rate is different for the wave incident from different CRW, the transfer rate could be unit for the wave incident from the semi-infinite CRW due to the break of the translational symmetry by the presence of boundary.

Jing Lu; Z. H. Wang; Lan Zhou

2014-09-10

99

Time-resolved energy transfer from single chloride terminated nanocrystals to graphene  

E-print Network

We examine the time-resolved resonance energy transfer of excitons from single n-butyl amine-bound, chloride-terminated nanocrystals to two-dimensional graphene through time-correlated single photon counting. The radiative biexponential lifetime kinetics and blinking statistics of the individual surface-modified nanocrystal elucidate the non-radiative decay channels. Blinking modification as well as a 4 times reduction in spontaneous emission were observed with the short chloride and n-butylamine ligands, probing the energy transfer pathways for the development of graphene-nanocrystal nanophotonic devices.

Ajayi, O A; Cotlet, M; Petrone, N; Gu, T; Wolcott, A; Gesuele, F; Hone, J; Owen, J S; Wong, C W

2014-01-01

100

Comparison of clinical outcomes between fresh embryo transfers and frozen-thawed embryo transfers  

PubMed Central

Background: Advances in embryo culture technology and cryopreservation have led to a shift in in vitro fertilization (IVF) from early fresh or frozen-thawed cleavage embryo transfer to fresh or frozen-thawed blastocyst stage transfer. Objective: To compare the clinical outcomes of fresh embryo transfers and frozen-thawed embryo transfers. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective case control study, patients undergoing IVF cycles from January 2012 to December 2012 were enrolled in Assisted Reproduction of Wuhan Union Hospital were enrolled. A total of 1891 cycle contains 1150 fresh embryo transfers and 741 frozen-thawed embryo transfers were studied. All data were transferred directly to SPSS 18 and analyzed. Results: Clinical pregnancy rates of fresh cleavage-stage embryo transfers compared with fresh blastocyst transfers, frozen-thawed cleavage-stage embryo transfers, post thaw cleavage-stage extended blastocyst culture transfers and frozen-thawed blastocyst transfers were 52.7%, 35.88%, 35.29%, 47.75%, 59.8% in patients under 35 years of ages and 41.24%, 26.92%, 11.32%, 46.15%, 55.8% in patients older than 35 years old, respectively. The multiple pregnancy rates, abortion rates and ectopic pregnancy rates did not differ significantly among the five groups. Conclusion: The clinical pregnancy rates were not different significantly between fresh cleavage-stage embryo transfers and fresh blastocyst transfers. But the clinical pregnancy rate of frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer was the highest among fresh/frozen-thawed embryo transfers. PMID:25071849

Shen, Chunjuan; Shu, Defeng; Zhao, Xiaojie; Gao, Ying

2014-01-01

101

Genetic and environmental determinants of interferon-tau secretion by in vivo- and in vitro-derived bovine blastocysts.  

PubMed

Several experiments were conducted to assess the effects of genotype and various culture media on interferon-tau secretion by in vitro-derived bovine blastocysts and to compare these values with interferon released by blastocysts flushed from superovulated cows. In experiment 1, oocytes were inseminated with semen from three different bulls. While paternal genotype had no effect on cleavage rate, the size or hatching ability of blastocysts, it was a significant determinant of the embryo's ability to develop to the blastocyst stage and of subsequent interferon-tau secretion. In the second experiment, embryos were cultured in synthetic oviductal fluid containing either polyvinyl alcohol, bovine serum albumin or fetal bovine serum. While there was no effect of supplement on the percentage of embryos developing to the blastocyst stage, blastocysts which formed in medium with polyvinyl alcohol had significantly fewer cells, were older at blastocyst formation and produced significantly more interferon-tau. In the third experiment, embryos were cultured to the blastocyst stage in either TCM199 alone or in co-culture with buffalo rat liver, bovine oviductal or bovine uterine epithelial cells. Culture with oviductal or buffalo rat liver cells increased blastocyst cell number, although secretion of interferon-tau was not affected. In the final experiment, bovine blastocysts were flushed from superovulated cows on Day 7 following insemination. Overall, secretion of interferon-tau by in vivo-produced blastocysts did not differ from that of age-matched blastocysts produced in vitro. PMID:11343838

Kubisch, H M; Larson, M A; Ealy, A D; Murphy, C N; Roberts, R M

2001-04-30

102

Proton transfer and photoluminescence intermittency of single emitters in dyed crystals.  

PubMed

The role of proton transfer in the photoluminescence intermittency (PI) of single molecules of violamine R (VR) overgrown in potassium acid phthalate (KAP) crystals is evaluated in comparisons of protonated (KAP) and deuterated (DKAP) mixed crystals between 23 and 60 °C. The PI is analyzed by the construction of cumulative distribution functions that are statistically compared. We find that the on- and off-interval duration distributions change with isotopic substitution consistent with proton transfer contributing to the PI of VR. The on- and off-interval duration distributions have distinct temperature dependencies consistent with different mechanisms for dark state production and decay. Additional evidence for proton-transfer is provided by distributions of single molecule emission-energy maxima that reflect emission from protonated and deprotonated VR. A mechanism for the PI of KAP is presented, where the dark state is assigned to formation of the colorless, leuco form of VR, formed by proton transfer from VR to the KAP lattice, and decay of the dark state involves ring-opening promoted by proton transfer from KAP to VR. The distributed kinetics for dark-state production and decay are modeled using a log-normal distribution for the PI data in preference to a power-law previously assumed. A discussion of the log-normal distribution with regards to PI and proton transfer is presented. PMID:22913588

Riley, Erin A; Hess, Chelsea M; Pioquinto, Jan Rey L; Kaminsky, Werner; Kahr, Bart; Reid, Philip J

2013-04-25

103

Dynamic modeling of single tubular SOFC combining heat\\/mass transfer and electrochemical reaction effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a dynamic model of a single tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) unit is developed using the control volume (CV) approach. The heat transfer, species transportation, and electrochemical reaction effects are taken into account in a collective manner. Using this model, we study the spatial distributions of a series of state variables under both steady-state and transient

X. Xue; J. Tang; N. Sammes; Y. Du

2005-01-01

104

Hybrid charge transfer complexes based on archaeal glycolipids wrapping single walled carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

SWNTs have been functionalized with an archaeal glycolipid which wraps around the nano-objects in a single layer or bilayer, as a function of the nanotube diameter. Hydrogen bonds between the lipid glucose rings and the aromatic SWNT walls are involved in the formation of hybrid complexes resulting in electron transfer from the glycolipid to the nanotubes. PMID:23736836

Ingrosso, C; Bianco, G V; Corricelli, M; Corcelli, A; Lobasso, S; Bruno, G; Agostiano, A; Striccoli, M; Curri, M L

2013-08-11

105

Expression of HSG is essential for mouse blastocyst formation  

SciTech Connect

It has been shown recently that hyperplasia suppressor gene (HSG) is a powerful regulator for cell proliferation and has a critical role in mitochondrial fusion in many cells. However, little is known about its expression, localization, and function during oocyte maturation and early embryogenesis. In this study, with indirect immunofluorescent staining and Western blotting, we found that HSG was expressed in mouse oocytes and preimplantation embryos which primarily exhibited a submembrane distribution pattern in the cytoplasm. Moreover, HSG mainly associated with {beta}-tubulin during oocyte maturation and early embryonic development. When mouse zygotes were injected with HSG antisense plasmid and cultured in vitro, their capacity to form blastocysts was severely impaired. Our results indicate that HSG plays an essential role in mouse preimplantation development.

Jiang Guangjian [Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Institute of Basic Medicine, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050017 (China); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, North China Coal Medical College, Tangshan 063000 (China); Pan Lei [Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Huang Xiuying [Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Han Mei [Institute of Basic Medicine, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050017 (China); Wen Jinkun [Institute of Basic Medicine, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050017 (China)]. E-mail: wjk@hebmu.edu.cn; Sun Fangzhen [Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)]. E-mail: fzsun@genetics.ac.cn

2005-09-23

106

Blastocyst development after sperm selection at high magnification is associated with size and number of nuclear vacuoles.  

PubMed

Spermatozoa selection at high magnification before intracytoplasmic sperm injection seems to be positively associated with pregnancy rates after day 3 embryo transfers. The aim was to demonstrate an association between the presence of vacuoles in sperm nuclei and the competence of embryos to develop to day 5. Grading of spermatozoa at x 6000-x 12,500 magnification: grade I, no vacuoles; grade II, or=1 large vacuole; grade IV, large vacuoles with other abnormalities. The outcome of embryo development in a group of 25 patients after sibling oocyte injection with the four different grades of spermatozoa showed no significant difference in embryo quality up to day 3. However, the occurrence of blastocyst formation was 56.3 and 61.4% with grade I and II spermatozoa respectively, compared with 5.1% with grade III and 0% with grade IV respectively (P < 0.001). Spermatozoa selection at high magnification using Nomarski interference contrast is useful to identify more precisely the size and the number of nuclear vacuoles that greatly exert a negative effect on embryo development to the blastocyst stage. These observations confirm previous studies pointing to possible 'early and late paternal effects', both of which may have an impact on early embryonic development. PMID:18983745

Vanderzwalmen, Pierre; Hiemer, Antje; Rubner, Paul; Bach, Magnus; Neyer, Anton; Stecher, Astrid; Uher, Petr; Zintz, Martin; Lejeune, Bernard; Vanderzwalmen, Sabine; Cassuto, Guy; Zech, Nicolas H

2008-11-01

107

Interfacial charge transfer events of BODIPY molecules: single molecule spectroelectrochemistry and substrate effects.  

PubMed

We present single molecule fluorescence and spectroelectrochemistry characteristics of 4,4'-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (BODIPY) bearing two carboxylic acid groups at its 2 and 6 positions. Our study shows a heterogeneous half redox potential distribution for the BODIPY molecules embedded in polystyrene film because of the heterogeneity in their charge transfer rates. Single molecules adsorbed onto a TiO2 surface with ordered nanostructures show surprising fluorescence blinking activity with the shortest ON duration time in comparison to bare glass and indium-tin oxide (ITO) surfaces. Single molecule stability tests show longer ON duration time and a stable fluorescence feature when dispersed in polystyrene thin film than molecules exposed to air. Shorter ON times are observed for molecules. In intimate contact with ITO in comparison to glass substrates. Such a decrease in their fluorescence stability or intensity is explained by charge transfer activities from the dye molecules to the metal oxide surface. Electron transfer and back transfer rates are calculated to illustrate the substrate effects by using a well-established model. PMID:25252244

Liu, Jia; Hill, Caleb M; Pan, Shanlin; Liu, Haiying

2014-10-01

108

Indoor demonstration of free-space picosecond two-way time transfer on single photon level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The practical demonstration of an optical two-way time transfer based on single photon signal level has been completed. This approach enables to reach extreme timing stabilities and minimal systematic errors using existing electrooptic technologies. The crucial condition to almost eliminate systematic errors and to reach picosecond time transfer accuracy over free space communication channel is the maximum symmetry in experimental setup. In our indoor experiment we have achieved sub-picosecond precison and 3 ps accuracy. The entire system is compact and relatively simple.

Blazej, Josef; Prochazka, Ivan; Kodet, Jan; Linhart, Pavel

2014-10-01

109

Experimental and numerical study of pressure drop and heat transfer in a single-phase micro-channel heat sink  

E-print Network

drop. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 45 (2002) 2549­2565 www the attributes of very high surface area to volume ratio, large convective heat transfer coefficient, small massExperimental and numerical study of pressure drop and heat transfer in a single-phase micro

Qu, Weilin

110

Microjet array single-phase and flow boiling heat transfer with R134a Eric A. Browne a  

E-print Network

Microjet array single-phase and flow boiling heat transfer with R134a Eric A. Browne a , Gregory J boiling a b s t r a c t An experimental study of single-phase and flow boiling heat transfer:6 6 Nud 6 128. Boiling experiments were conducted with liquid subcoolings of 10, 20, and 30 °C at jet

Peles, Yoav

111

Generalized transfer function: A simple model applied to active single-mode microring resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectral properties of an active single-mode microring resonator are investigated in the frame of the generalized transfer function (GTF) approach, as derived from extended scattering and/or transfer matrix formalism. Spontaneous emission, looked upon as the driving source of the radiation, is described in a semi-classical way in the spectral domain. The internal and emitted fields are filtered into the resonance modes of the whole structure. The generalized transfer function expresses the spectral density of internal saturating intensity and includes all essential mechanisms at work in a laser oscillator: gain, losses and sources. The active zone is saturated through amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), integrated over its whole spectral range. Continuously valid across threshold, the method enables one to derive in a simple way the main steady-state properties of the laser oscillation, with the pumping rate as the only external parameter.

Boucher, Y. G.; Féron, P.

2009-10-01

112

Transfer doping of single isolated nanodiamonds, studied by scanning probe microscopy techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transfer doping of diamond surfaces has been applied in various novel two-dimensional electronic devices. Its extension to nanodiamonds (ND) is essential for ND-based applications in many fields. In particular, understanding the influence of the crystallite size on transfer doping is desirable. Here, we report the results of a detailed study of the electronic energetic band structure of single, isolated transfer-doped nanodiamonds with nanometric resolution using a combination of scanning tunneling spectroscopy and Kelvin force microscopy measurements. The results show how the band gap, the valence band maximum, the electron affinity and the work function all depend on the ND’s size and nanoparticle surface properties. The present analysis, which combines information from both scanning tunneling spectroscopy and Kelvin force microscopy, should be applicable to any nanoparticle or surface that can be measured with scanning probe techniques.

Bolker, Asaf; Saguy, Cecile; Kalish, Rafi

2014-09-01

113

Electron Transfer-Based Single Molecule Fluorescence as a Probe for Nano-Environment Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Electron transfer (ET) is one of the most important elementary processes that takes place in fundamental aspects of biology, chemistry, and physics. In this review, we discuss recent research on single molecule probes based on ET. We review some applications, including the dynamics of glass-forming systems, surface binding events, interfacial ET on semiconductors, and the external field-induced dynamics of polymers. All these examples show that the ET-induced changes of fluorescence trajectory and lifetime of single molecules can be used to sensitively probe the surrounding nano-environments. PMID:24496314

Chen, Ruiyun; Wu, Ruixiang; Zhang, Guofeng; Gao, Yan; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang

2014-01-01

114

Cross-validation of techniques for measuring lipid content of bovine oocytes and blastocysts.  

PubMed

The main objective was to test and validate a fluorescence approach to quantify lipid content of individual bovine oocytes and blastocysts. For Experiment 1, denuded oocytes were evaluated, as well as in vitro-produced blastocysts in a factorial design: cows versus feedlot heifers; three additives during Days 2.5-7.5 of culture (Control; 10% FCS; 0.3 ?M phenazine ethosulfate (PES), an electron acceptor that oxidizes NADPH); and two blastocyst stages (early versus expanded). All blastocysts were graded subjectively for darkness (1 = clear … 4 = dark). In Experiment 2, denuded oocytes were used to measure lipid content in a factorial design of: cows versus heifers and four subjective darkness grades (1 = clear … 4 = dark). To quantify lipids, oocytes and 7.5 d blastocysts were fixed and then stained with 1 ?g/mL Nile Red dye in mPBS overnight. A digital photograph of the equatorial part of the oocyte and embryo was taken at 200×, and fluorescence intensity (Arbitrary Fluorescence Units, AFU) was measured with Image Pro software. Reverse images of the same photographs were used to count numbers of cytoplasmic lipid droplets of various sizes (LC). The linear regression equation of LC with AFU in oocytes had an r(2) = 0.84, and for blastocysts r(2) = 0.91. The LC and AFU also had similar coefficients of variation from the ANOVA for blastocysts (38 vs 44%, respectively). Treatment differences were of similar magnitude with both procedures: lipid content in oocytes and blastocysts from heifers and cows was similar (P > 0.1); PES reduced lipid accumulation, and FCS increased it relative to the Control for AFU (18.6 vs 46.6 vs 36.9 units, respectively), and LC (1763 vs 4081 vs 3310, respectively; all, P < 0.01). Early blastocysts resulted in more lipid accumulation per unit area than expanded ones based on AFU (41.5 vs 26.6) and LC (3519 vs 2583; both P <0.01). There was a strong relationship (P < 0.01) between subjective oocyte and blastocyst darkness and lipid content. The less labor intensive fluorescence staining was a reliable technique for quantifying lipid droplets in oocytes and blastocysts. PMID:21111465

Barceló-Fimbres, M; Seidel, G E

2011-02-01

115

Screening Single Phase Laminar Convective Heat Transfer of Nanofluids in a Micro-tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nano scale solid particles dispersed in base fluids are a new class of engineered colloidal solutions called nanofluids. Several studies reported enhancement of heat transfer by using nanofluids. This article reports convective single-phase heat transfer coefficients in an open 30 cm long, 0.50 mm internal diameter stainless steel test section. The setup is used for screening single phase laminar convective heat transfer with water and three different nanofluids: water based Al2O3, ZrO2, and TiO2 (all with 9 wt% of particles). A syringe pump with adjustable pumping speed is used to inject fluids into the test section. Thirteen T-type thermocouples are attached on the outer surface of the test section to record the local wall temperatures. Furthermore, two T-type thermocouples are used to measure inlet and outlet fluid temperatures. A DC power supply is used to heat up the test section and a differential pressure transducer is used to measure the pressure drop across the tube. Furthermore, the effective thermal conductivities of these nanofluids are measured using the Transient Plane Source (TPS) method at a temperature range of 20 - 50°C. The experimental average values of heat transfer coefficients for nanofluids are compared with water. Enhancement in heat transfer of nanofluids is observed only when compared at constant Reynolds number (Due to higher viscosity for nanofluids, higher velocity or mass flow rate is required for nanofluids to reach the same Reynolds number). The other methods of comparison: equal mass flow rate, volume flow rate, pressure drop and pumping power did not show any augmentation of the heat transfer coefficient for the tested nanofluids compared to water.

Bitaraf Haghighi, Ehsan; Anwar, Zahid; Lumbreras, Itziar; Aliakbar Mirmohammadi, Seyed; Behi, Mohammadreza; Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah; Palm, Björn

2012-11-01

116

A boiling heat transfer surface for creating a single stream of vapor bubbles.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high heat transfer rate characteristic of boiling is limited by the vapor-bubble removal rate and a critical transition to film boiling. External forces, such as acoustic waves, can be used to enhance vapor-bubble removal and improve heat transfer. In order to explore such enhanced vapor-bubble removal processes, a boiling heat transfer surface has been designed to control the location, growth, and detachment of a single stream of vapor bubbles. The device consists of an insulating annulus surrounding a thermally conductive pin 1 mm in radius. The upper surfaces of the annulus and the pin have a thin polished electro-plated copper coating. When heated from below, the pin provides a thermal conduit that creates a local hot spot on the copper surface. The majority of all bubble nucleations occur within 3 mm of the center of the pin. A thin hydrophobic coating centered on the hot spot encourages the formation of a single vapor bubble that grows to a size determined by the radius of the hydrophobic coating. When the bubble detaches from the surface, a new vapor bubble forms in the same location. High-speed video and bubble-size and thermal measurements will be presented to document the characteristics and performance of this heat transfer surface.

Douglas, Zachary W.; Smith, Marc K.; Glezer, Ari

2006-11-01

117

Method of calculating gas dynamics and heat transfer in single stage refrigeration units  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A generalized mathematical model of gas-dynamic and heat transfer processes in single-stage regenerative installations operating in Stirling, MacMahon, Gifford-MacMahon, and pulsating tube cycles is proposed. A numerical method os solving initial equations on a digital computer is given. This makes it possible to calculate the change in the thermodynamic parameters in the working cycle in different machine components, as well as the dependence of cold productivity on the temperature level in the steady regime.

Zhitomirskiy, I. S.; Popolskiy, A. B.

1974-01-01

118

Placental transfer and pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of [ 14 C] p -nitrophenol in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pharmacokinetics and placental transfer of a single oral dose of 100 mg\\/kg (10 µCi\\/kg, 16% of acute oral LD50) of uniformly phenyl-labeled [14C]p-nitrophenol were investigated in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at 14-18 days of gestation. Three animals were killed on gestation day 18, at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 12, 24, and 48 h after dosing. Radioactivity was rapidly absorbed and

Aqel W. Abu-Qare; Cecil F. Brownie; Mohamed B. Abou-Donia

2000-01-01

119

Fast electron transfer through a single molecule natively structured redox protein  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electron transfer properties of proteins are normally measured as molecularly averaged ensembles. Through these and related measurements, proteins are widely regarded as macroscopically insulating materials. Using scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), we present new measurements of the conductance through single-molecules of the electron transfer protein cytochrome b562 in its native conformation, under pseudo-physiological conditions. This is achieved by thiol (SH) linker pairs at opposite ends of the molecule through protein engineering, resulting in defined covalent contact between a gold surface and a platinum-iridium STM tip. Two different orientations of the linkers were examined: a long-axis configuration (SH-LA) and a short-axis configuration (SH-SA). In each case, the molecular conductance could be `gated' through electrochemical control of the heme redox state. Reproducible and remarkably high conductance was observed in this relatively complex electron transfer system, with single-molecule conductance values peaking around 18 nS and 12 nS for the SH-SA and SH-LA cytochrome b562 molecules near zero electrochemical overpotential. This strongly points to the important role of the heme co-factor bound to the natively structured protein. We suggest that the two-step model of protein electron transfer in the STM geometry requires a multi-electron transfer to explain such a high conductance. The model also yields a low value for the reorganisation energy, implying that solvent reorganisation is largely absent.The electron transfer properties of proteins are normally measured as molecularly averaged ensembles. Through these and related measurements, proteins are widely regarded as macroscopically insulating materials. Using scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), we present new measurements of the conductance through single-molecules of the electron transfer protein cytochrome b562 in its native conformation, under pseudo-physiological conditions. This is achieved by thiol (SH) linker pairs at opposite ends of the molecule through protein engineering, resulting in defined covalent contact between a gold surface and a platinum-iridium STM tip. Two different orientations of the linkers were examined: a long-axis configuration (SH-LA) and a short-axis configuration (SH-SA). In each case, the molecular conductance could be `gated' through electrochemical control of the heme redox state. Reproducible and remarkably high conductance was observed in this relatively complex electron transfer system, with single-molecule conductance values peaking around 18 nS and 12 nS for the SH-SA and SH-LA cytochrome b562 molecules near zero electrochemical overpotential. This strongly points to the important role of the heme co-factor bound to the natively structured protein. We suggest that the two-step model of protein electron transfer in the STM geometry requires a multi-electron transfer to explain such a high conductance. The model also yields a low value for the reorganisation energy, implying that solvent reorganisation is largely absent. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental methods, DNA and protein sequences, additional STM statistical analysis and images, electrochemical data and It-z data analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32131a

Della Pia, Eduardo Antonio; Chi, Qijin; MacDonald, J. Emyr; Ulstrup, Jens; Jones, D. Dafydd; Elliott, Martin

2012-10-01

120

Blinking photoluminescence properties of single TiO2 nanodiscs: interfacial electron transfer dynamics.  

PubMed

Blinking photoluminescence was observed in single TiO2 nanodiscs (NDs) by using a laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM)-coupled steady-state and ps-time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic system, while it was not significantly observed for TiO2 quantum dots (QDs). Analysis of the PL blinking time trajectories revealed single-exponential kinetics with the average lifetimes of on-state (approximately 286 ms) and off-state (approximately 58 ms), implying the existence of inherent surface-trap sites which can be filled by photogenerated electron or hole. The PL spectra of single TiO2 NDs exhibited broad surface emissions with four decay times, which may be due to diffusion of the energies of electron or hole trap states related to surface structural changes by modification of TiO2 QDs. These results and the surface structural analysis (IR and XPS) suggests a simple model for the PL blinking of single TiO2 NDs that is based on repetitive interfacial electron transfer to the inherent surface trap sites (4Ti4+-OH) with Auger-assisted hole trapping in the multiple surface states as modified by the diffusive coordinate model and the surface-trap-filling model. Based on this blinking mechanism and kinetics, the rates of the interfacial electron transfer and the back electron transfer in TiO2 NDs were determined to be 18 ns and 58 ms, respectively, which are slow enough to keep the polarization of e-h pairs at the surface for efficient photocatalysis and photovoltaic activities. The present methodology and results may be applicable to obtain surface exciton dynamics of various photoelectronic semiconductor nanostructures. PMID:19283271

Jeon, Ki-Seok; Oh, Seung-Do; Suh, Yung Doug; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki; Masuhara, Hiroshi; Yoon, Minjoong

2009-01-21

121

Charge transfer structure-reactivity dependence of fullerene-single-walled carbon nanotube heterojunctions.  

PubMed

Charge transfer at the interface between single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) of distinct chiral vectors and fullerenes of various molecular weights is of interest both fundamentally and because of its importance in emerging photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. One approach for generating isolated, discretized fullerene-SWCNT heterojunctions for spectroscopic investigation is to form an amphiphile, which is able to disperse the latter at the single-SWCNT level in aqueous solution. Herein, we synthesize a series of methanofullerene amphiphiles, including derivatives of C60, C70, and C84, and investigated their electron transfer with SWCNT of specific chirality, generating a structure-reactivity relationship. In the cases of two fullerene derivatives, lipid-C61-polyethylene glycol (PEG) and lipid-C71-PEG, band gap dependent, incomplete quenching was observed across all SWCNT species, indicating that the driving force for electron transfer is small. This is further supported by a variant of Marcus theory, which predicts that the energy offsets between the nanotube conduction bands and the C61 and C71 LUMO levels are less than the exciton binding energy in SWCNT. In contrast, upon interfacing nanotubes with C85 methanofullerene, a complete quenching of all semiconducting SWCNT is observed. This enhancement in quenching efficiency is consistent with the deeper LUMO level of C85 methanofullerene in comparison with the smaller fullerene adducts, and suggests its promise as for SWCNT-fullerene heterojunctions. PMID:23848070

Hilmer, Andrew J; Tvrdy, Kevin; Zhang, Jingqing; Strano, Michael S

2013-08-14

122

Fast macromolecular proton fraction mapping from a single off-resonance magnetization transfer measurement.  

PubMed

A new method was developed for fast quantitative mapping of the macromolecular proton fraction defined within the two-pool model of magnetization transfer. The method utilizes a single image with off-resonance saturation, a reference image for data normalization, and T(1), B(0), and B(1) maps with the total acquisition time ~10 min for whole-brain imaging. Macromolecular proton fraction maps are reconstructed by iterative solution of the matrix pulsed magnetization transfer equation with constrained values of other model parameters. Theoretical error model describing the variance due to noise and the bias due to deviations of constrained parameters from their actual values was formulated based on error propagation rules. The method was validated by comparison with the conventional multiparameter multipoint fit of the pulsed magnetization transfer model based on data from two healthy subjects and two multiple sclerosis patients. It was demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that accuracy of the method depends on the offset frequency and flip angle of the saturation pulse, and optimal ranges of these parameters are 4-7 kHz and 600°-900°, respectively. At optimal sampling conditions, the single-point method enables <10% relative macromolecular proton fraction errors. Comparison with the multiparameter fitting method revealed very good agreement with no significant bias and limits of agreement around ± 0.7%. PMID:22190042

Yarnykh, Vasily L

2012-07-01

123

Widespread Horizontal Gene Transfer from Circular Single-stranded DNA Viruses to Eukaryotic Genomes  

PubMed Central

Background In addition to vertical transmission, organisms can also acquire genes from other distantly related species or from their extra-chromosomal elements (plasmids and viruses) via horizontal gene transfer (HGT). It has been suggested that phages represent substantial forces in prokaryotic evolution. In eukaryotes, retroviruses, which can integrate into host genome as an obligate step in their replication strategy, comprise approximately 8% of the human genome. Unlike retroviruses, few members of other virus families are known to transfer genes to host genomes. Results Here we performed a systematic search for sequences related to circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses in publicly available eukaryotic genome databases followed by comprehensive phylogenetic analysis. We conclude that the replication initiation protein (Rep)-related sequences of geminiviruses, nanoviruses and circoviruses have been frequently transferred to a broad range of eukaryotic species, including plants, fungi, animals and protists. Some of the transferred viral genes were conserved and expressed, suggesting that these genes have been coopted to assume cellular functions in the host genomes. We also identified geminivirus-like and parvovirus-like transposable elements in genomes of fungi and lower animals, respectively, and thereby provide direct evidence that eukaryotic transposons could derive from ssDNA viruses. Conclusions Our discovery extends the host range of circular ssDNA viruses and sheds light on the origin and evolution of these viruses. It also suggests that ssDNA viruses act as an unforeseen source of genetic innovation in their hosts. PMID:21943216

2011-01-01

124

Transcriptomic signature to oxidative stress exposure at the time of embryonic genome activation in bovine blastocysts.  

PubMed

In order to understand how in vitro culture affects embryonic quality, we analyzed survival and global gene expression in bovine blastocysts after exposure to increased oxidative stress conditions. Two pro-oxidant agents, one that acts extracellularly by promoting reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (0.01 mM 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride [AAPH]) or another that acts intracellularly by inhibiting glutathione synthesis (0.4 mM buthionine sulfoximine [BSO]) were added separately to in vitro culture media from Day 3 (8-16-cell stage) onward. Transcriptomic analysis was then performed on resulting Day-7 blastocysts. In the literature, these two pro-oxidant conditions were shown to induce delayed degeneration in a proportion of Day-8 blastocysts. In our experiment, no morphological difference was visible, but AAPH tended to decrease the blastocyst rate while BSO significantly reduced it, indicating a differential impact on the surviving population. At the transcriptomic level, blastocysts that survived either pro-oxidant exposure showed oxidative stress and an inflammatory response (ARRB2), although AAPH induced higher disturbances in cellular homeostasis (SERPINE1). Functional genomics of the BSO profile, however, identified differential expression of genes related to glycine metabolism and energy metabolism (TPI1). These differential features might be indicative of pre-degenerative blastocysts (IGFBP7) in the AAPH population whereas BSO exposure would select the most viable individuals (TKDP1). Together, these results illustrate how oxidative disruption of pre-attachment development is associated with systematic up-regulation of several metabolic markers. Moreover, it indicates that a better capacity to survive anti-oxidant depletion may allow for the survival of blastocysts with a quieter metabolism after compaction. PMID:23426876

Cagnone, Gael L M; Sirard, Marc-André

2013-04-01

125

The new Rapid-i carrier is an effective system for human embryo vitrification at both the blastocyst and cleavage stage  

PubMed Central

Background The Rapid-i is a new FDA cleared closed carrier for embryo vitrification. The cooling rate of - 1220°C/min is far lower than that reported with open vitrification systems such as the cryoloop (?15,000°C/min). Little published data is currently available on this device. This study presents our initial clinical data, as well as live birth outcomes, with the Rapid-i. The efficacy of this device for the cryopreservation of cleavage, as well as blastocyst stage human embryos is also analyzed. We further compare outcomes to those achieved with the cryoloop, an “open” vitrification system routinely used in our laboratory. Methods Human embryos were vitrified at either the 8–10 cell stage or else the blastocyst stage. The vitrification protocol was: 7.5% DMSO/7.5% ethylene glycol (EG) (2–3 min) followed by incubation in 15% DMSO /15% EG (45 sec) before loading on the vitrification carrier. Cryoprotectant was removed during warming by sequential washes in 0.25 M and 0.125 M sucrose in culture medium. Clinical outcome data for frozen cycles between January 2011 and August 2012 were stratified according to carrier and cell stage. The student t-test and chi square test were used to compare results. P value of?transferred. The clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) and implantation rate (IR) with Rapid-i vitrified blastocysts were 59% and 49%, versus 47% and 37%, respectively for cleavage stage embryos. This was not statistically different from results with the cryoloop vitrified blastocysts (CPR 46%, IR 38%) nor the cleavage stage vitrified embryos (CPR 49%, IR 35%). To date, there have been 31 deliveries of 34 healthy infants from Rapid-i vitrified embryos, with another 12 pregnancies still on-going. Conclusions The Rapid-i offers an excellent alternative to existing open vitrification devices for embryo cryopreservation at the 8–10 cell stage as well as the blastocyst stage. Use of this type of “closed” sealed system that prevents direct contact between the embryos and liquid nitrogen reduces the potential risk of sample cross-contamination or infection. These preliminary data and live birth outcomes have paved the way toward transitioning to a closed vitrification system in our own IVF program. PMID:23672340

2013-01-01

126

Interplay between single-particle and collective excitations in argon isotopes populated by transfer reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New ? transitions have been identified in argon isotopes in 40Ar + 208Pb multiple transfer reactions by exploiting, in a fragment-? measurement, the new generation of magnetic spectrometers based on trajectory reconstruction coupled to large ? arrays. The coupling of single-particle degrees of freedom to nuclear vibration quanta was discussed. The interpretation of the newly observed states within a particle-phonon coupling picture was used to consistently follow, via their excitation energies, the evolution of collectivity in odd Ar isotopes. The proposed level schemes are supported by the results of sd-pf shell-model calculations, which have been also employed to evaluate the strength functions of the populated states.

Szilner, S.; Corradi, L.; Haas, F.; Lebhertz, D.; Pollarolo, G.; Ur, C. A.; Angus, L.; Beghini, S.; Bouhelal, M.; Chapman, R.; Caurier, E.; Courtin, S.; Farnea, E.; Fioretto, E.; Gadea, A.; Goasduff, A.; Jelavi?-Malenica, D.; Kumar, V.; Lunardi, S.; M?rginean, N.; Mason, P.; Mengoni, D.; Montagnoli, G.; Nowacki, F.; Recchia, F.; Sahin, E.; Salsac, M.-D.; Scarlassara, F.; Silvestri, R.; Smith, J. F.; Soi?, N.; Stefanini, A. M.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.

2011-07-01

127

Studies of Single-Particle Structure in the N=16 Region Using Transfer Reactions  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a new experimental setup based at the GANIL/SPIRAL facility in Caen, France to measure one-nucleon transfer reactions in inverse kinematics in order to study the evolution of the single particle structure of exotic nuclei. The setup couples together three state-of-the-art detection systems: the TIARA Si array, the large-acceptance magnetic spectrometer VAMOS and the high-efficiency segmented Ge {gamma}-ray array EXOGAM. In a first experiment, the 24Ne(d,p)25Ne reaction has been studied to probe the N=16 shell closure. Details of the setup, data analysis and preliminary results are presented.

Lemmon, R. C.; Pucknell, V. P. E.; Warner, D. D. [CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Chartier, M. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Timis, C.; Catford, W. N.; Baldwin, T. D.; Gelletly, W.; Pain, S. D.; Rejmund, M. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Labiche, M.; Amzal, N.; Burns, M.; Chapman, R.; Liang, X.; Spohr, K. [Institute of Physical Research, University of Paisley, Paisley PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Ashwood, N.; Curtis, N.; Freer, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)] (and others)

2006-08-14

128

Dramatic effect of N-substituents in viologens on single electron transfer from tributylphosphine.  

PubMed

A single electron transfer (SET) takes place from tributylphosphine (1a) to 1-alkyl-1'-methylviologens in acetonitrile containing a large amount of methanol under an argon atmosphere. In contrast, no SET takes place from 1a to viologens whose alkyl groups on the nitrogens are larger than the methyl group under the same conditions, 1a instead nucleophilically attacking the viologen to form a covalent adduct. This dramatic substituent effect is discussed in terms of SET occurring within a tight encounter complex formed between the phosphine and the viologen. PMID:16294246

Yasui, Shinro; Itoh, Kenji; Ohno, Atsuyoshi; Tokitoh, Norihiro

2005-12-01

129

Laser-induced forward transfer of single-walled carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this work is the application of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) for the fabrication of chemiresistor sensors. The receiver substrate is an array with metal electrodes and the active materials placed by LIFT are single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). The functionality of such sensors depends on the geometry of the active material onto the metallic electrodes. First the best geometry for the sensing materials and electrodes was determined, including the optimization of the process parameters for printing uniform pixels of SWCNT onto the sensor electrodes. The sensors were characterized in terms of their sensing characteristics, i.e., upon exposure to ammonia, proving the feasibility of LIFT.

Palla-Papavlu, A.; Dinescu, M.; Wokaun, A.; Lippert, T.

2014-10-01

130

Single scattering solution for radiative transfer through Rayleigh and aerosol atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solution is presented to the radiative transfer of the solar irradiation through a turbid atmosphere, based on the single-scattering approximation, i.e., an assumption that a photon that underwent scattering either leaves the top of the atmosphere or strikes the surface. The solution depends on a special idealization of the scattering phase function of the aerosols. The equations developed are subsequently applied to analyze quantitatively the enhancement of the surface irradiation and the enhancement of the scattered radiant emittance as seen from above the atmosphere, caused by the surface reflectance and atmospheric back scattering. An order of magnitude error analysis is presented.

Otterman, J.

1977-01-01

131

Mass transfer of a solute by diffusion with convection around a single hollow-fiber membrane for hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus was developed to measure mass transfer rate of a solute through a single hollow-fiber membrane fixed on the axis of a circular tube. Mass transfer rates of three solutes for four hemodialysis membranes were measured with the apparatus at a constant flow rate of a solution in the lumen and at various flow rates of pure water in

Toshiyuki Kanamori; Toshio Shinbo

2000-01-01

132

Pressure drop, gas hold-up and heat transfer during single and two-phase flow through porous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressure drop, bubble size, gas hold-up and convective heat transfer have been studied both experimentally and theoretically at constant wall heat flux for single and two-phase flow through unconsolidated porous media. Single-phase pressure drop and heat transfer coefficients have been measured over a wide range of particle size, heat flux and liquid flow rate. The conservation equations and the Kozeny-Carman

M. Jamialahmadi; H. Müller-Steinhagen; M. R. Izadpanah

2005-01-01

133

Chiral selectivity in the charge-transfer bleaching of single-walled carbon-nanotube spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chiral selective reactivity and redox chemistry of carbon nanotubes are two emerging fields of nanoscience. These areas hold strong promise for producing methods for isolating nanotubes into pure samples of a single electronic type, and for reversible doping of nanotubes for electronics applications. Here, we study the selective reactivity of single-walled carbon nanotubes with organic acceptor molecules. We observe spectral bleaching of the nanotube electronic transitions consistent with an electron-transfer reaction occurring from the nanotubes to the organic acceptors. The reaction kinetics are found to have a strong chiral dependence, with rates being slowest for large-bandgap species and increasing for smaller-bandgap nanotubes. The chiral-dependent kinetics can be tuned to effectively freeze the reacted spectra at a fixed chiral distribution. Such tunable redox chemistry may be important for future applications in reversible non-covalent modification of nanotube electronic properties and in chiral selective separations.

O'Connell, Michael J.; Eibergen, Ezra E.; Doorn, Stephen K.

2005-05-01

134

Generation and transfer of single photons on a photonic crystal chip  

E-print Network

We present a basic building block of a quantum network consisting of a quantum dot coupled to a source cavity, which in turn is coupled to a target cavity via a waveguide. The single photon emission from the high-Q/V source cavity is characterized by a twelve-fold spontaneous emission (SE) rate enhancement that results in a SE coupling efficiency near 0.98 into the source cavity mode. Single photons are efficiently transferred into the target cavity through the waveguide, with a source/target field intensity ratio of 0.12 (up to 0.49 observed in other structures without coupled quantum dots). This system shows great promise as a building block of future on-chip quantum information processing systems.

Dirk Englund; Andrei Faraon; Bingyang Zhang; Yoshihisa Yamamoto; Jelena Vuckovic

2006-09-07

135

Ooplast transfer of triploid pronucleus zygote improve reconstructed human-goat embryonic development  

PubMed Central

Poor development of the interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) embryos was due to nuclear-mitochondrial incompatibility. In humans, it has been known that ooplast transfer (OT) could support normal fertilization, the development of embryos and prevents the transmission of mtDNA disease. To investigate whether OT could support development of the iSCNT embryos, the ooplast of Triploid Pronucleus (3PN) zygote which would be discarded in IVF lab was transferred into the enucleated goat oocytes to construct humanized iSCNT embryos in our study. The results showed the 3PN-OT could significantly improve the early development of humanized iSCNT embryos. The percentage of blastocyst development of OT group was also higher than that of the control group. Interestingly, the morphology of some OT-iSCNT blastocysts was similar to normal human blastocysts in vitro fertilization, while the morphology of iSCNT blastocysts from control group was similar to goat blastocysts. Importantly, the pluripotent marker Oct4 of the OT-iSCNT blastocyst was expressed stronger than that of the control group. These results suggested that 3PN-OT could improve the developmental potency of human iSCNT embryos and would facilitate establishing ESCs from iSCNT blastocysts.

Yao, Ling; Wang, Pu; Liu, Jia; Chen, Jianquan; Tang, Hailiang; Sha, Hongying

2014-01-01

136

Microcell-mediated transfer of a single human chromosome complements xeroderma pigmentosum group A fibroblasts  

SciTech Connect

Chromosomes from an immortalized aneuploid human fibroblast cell line were randomly tagged with the selectable marker neo by transfection with the plasmid pSV2neo. Somatic cell fusions between transfected human cells and mouse A9 cells generated pools of G418-resistant human-mouse hybrid clones containing various numbers of human chromosomes. Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer from the hybrid pools to xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XP-A) cells in culture and selection for G418-resistant colonies resulted in the identification of XP cells with enhanced resistance to ultraviolet radiation. Screening of subclones from selected pools of human-mouse hybrids facilitated the identification of hybrids containing a single neo-tagged human chromosome. Transfer of this chromosome to XP-A cells (but not to XP-F or XP-C cells) results in enhanced resistance to ultraviolet light and enhanced excision repair capacity. The identification of a single human chromosome that complements the phenotype of XP-A cells in culture provides the potential for genetic mapping of the complementing gene and for its isolation by molecular cloning.

Schultz, R.A.; Saxon, P.J.; Glover, T.W.; Friedberg, E.C.

1987-06-01

137

Single PWR spent fuel assembly heat transfer data for computer code evaluations  

SciTech Connect

The descriptions and results of two separate heat transfer tests designed to investigate the dry storage of commercial PWR spent fuel assemblies are presented. Presented first are descriptions and selected results from the Fuel Temperature Test performed at the Engine Maintenance and Disassembly facility on the Nevada Test Site. An actual spent fuel assembly from the Turkey Point Unit Number 3 Reactor with a decay heat level of 1.17 KW, was installed vertically in a test stand mounted canister/liner assembly. The boundary temperatures were controlled and the canister backfill gases were alternated between air, helium and vacuum to investigate the primary heat transfer mechanisms of convection, conduction and radiation. The assembly temperature profiles were experimentally measured using installed thermocouple instrumentation. Also presented are the results from the Single Assembly Heat Transfer Test designed and fabricated by Allied General Nuclear Services, under contract to the Department of Energy, and ultimately conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. For this test, an electrically heated 15 x 15 rod assembly was used to model a single PWR spent fuel assembly. The electrically heated model fuel assembly permitted various ''decay heat'', levels to be tested; 1.0 KW and 0.5 KW were used for these tests. The model fuel assembly was positioned within a prototypic fuel tube and in turn placed within a double-walled sealed cask. The complete test assembly could be positioned at any desired orientation (horizontal, vertical, and 25/sup 0/ from horizontal for the present work) and backfilled as desired (air, helium, or vacuum). Tests were run for all combinations of ''decay heat,'' backfill, and orientation. Boundary conditions were imposed by temperature controlled guard heaters installed on the cask exterior surface.

Bates, J.M.

1986-01-01

138

Short communication Birth of piglets after OPS vitrification and transfer  

E-print Network

Short communication Birth of piglets after OPS vitrification and transfer of compacted morula stage as blastocysts, to be able to cryopreserve all the day 5­6 embryos. Previously, the birth of piglets has been transfer, which is not in accordance with general quality control practices for embryo transfer [5]. Only

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

139

Multiorgan engraftment of human somatic cells in swine foetuses after intra-blastocyst transplantation.  

PubMed

Adult human stem cells, mainly from hematopoietic lineage, have been injected into developing pre-immune animal foetuses, and xenogenic engraftment of liver and other organs has been reported. We isolated a rare cell population from adult human liver, fat and skin. Colonies with few cells became visible as early as 2-3 days, and a fully formed colony took 10-14 days to form. These colonies were named as liver-derived cell lines (LDCs), fat-derived cell lines (FDCs) and skin-derived cell lines (SDCs). All these cells express few pluripotency markers like Klf4, c-myc and Sox2. Pig blastocysts were injected with LDCs, FDCs and SDCs and transferred to recipient pigs. We achieved an overall pregnancy rate of 71.4% at day 35. The foetuses were analysed for human cell chimerism in liver, kidney and heart both by RT-PCR and real-time PCR using primers specific to human and pig mitochondrial DNA. The percentage of foetuses showing chimerism was 17.4% (4/23), 12.5% (2/16) and 11.1% (1/9) for LDCs, FDCs and SDCs, respectively. Of these, 42.9% (three out of seven) showed chimerism in liver and 71.4% (five out of seven) showed kidney chimerism. However, we did not detect any chimerism in the heart. The level of chimerism varied and was in the range of one human cell per one hundred thousand to one million pig cells. PMID:21092066

Estrada, J; Li, P; Mir, B

2011-08-01

140

A model of groundwater seepage and heat transfer for single-well ground source heat pump systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In China, for the limitation of land, many buildings intending to utilize ground source heat pump systems install “single-well” systems, which drill only one well for both the pumping and reinjection of the groundwater. A model of groundwater seepage and heat transfer for single-well ground source heat pump systems has been established and validated against the experiment conducted in Denmark.

Long Ni; Haorong Li; Yiqiang Jiang; Yang Yao; Zuiliang Ma

2011-01-01

141

Large work function difference driven electron transfer from electrides to single-walled carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A difference in work function plays a key role in charge transfer between two materials. Inorganic electrides provide a unique opportunity for electron transfer since interstitial anionic electrons result in a very low work function of 2.4-2.6 eV. Here we investigated charge transfer between two different types of electrides, [Ca2N]+.e- and [Ca24Al28O64]4+.4e-, and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with a work function of 4.73-5.05 eV. [Ca2N]+.e- with open 2-dimensional electron layers was more effective in donating electrons to SWNTs than closed cage structured [Ca24Al28O64]4+.4e- due to the higher electron concentration (1.3 × 1022 cm-3) and mobility (~200 cm2 V-1 s-1 at RT). A non-covalent conjugation enhanced near-infrared fluorescence of SWNTs as high as 52%. The field emission current density of electride-SWNT-silver paste dramatically increased by a factor of 46 000 (14.8 mA cm-2) at 2 V ?m-1 (3.5 wt% [Ca2N]+.e-) with a turn-on voltage of 0.85 V ?m-1.A difference in work function plays a key role in charge transfer between two materials. Inorganic electrides provide a unique opportunity for electron transfer since interstitial anionic electrons result in a very low work function of 2.4-2.6 eV. Here we investigated charge transfer between two different types of electrides, [Ca2N]+.e- and [Ca24Al28O64]4+.4e-, and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with a work function of 4.73-5.05 eV. [Ca2N]+.e- with open 2-dimensional electron layers was more effective in donating electrons to SWNTs than closed cage structured [Ca24Al28O64]4+.4e- due to the higher electron concentration (1.3 × 1022 cm-3) and mobility (~200 cm2 V-1 s-1 at RT). A non-covalent conjugation enhanced near-infrared fluorescence of SWNTs as high as 52%. The field emission current density of electride-SWNT-silver paste dramatically increased by a factor of 46 000 (14.8 mA cm-2) at 2 V ?m-1 (3.5 wt% [Ca2N]+.e-) with a turn-on voltage of 0.85 V ?m-1. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The acronyms of base materials and synthesized specimens, field emission characteristics of PSWNT-Ag paste and HSWNT-Ag paste, additional XPS and Raman data, estimation of transferred electrons from electrides to nanotubes, optical images of C12A7:e--HSWNT films, a SEM image of the tape-activated PSWNT-Ag paste, and comparison of field emission properties. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01629g

Menamparambath, Mini Mol; Park, Jong-Ho; Yoo, Ho-Sung; Patole, Shashikant P.; Yoo, Ji-Beom; Kim, Sung Wng; Baik, Seunghyun

2014-07-01

142

Cellular composition and viability of demi- and quarter-embryos made from bisected bovine morulae and blastocysts produced in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cellular composition and viability of intact, IVP embryos were compared with those of demi- and quarter-embryos produced by bisection of IVP morulae and blastocysts. Embryos were produced by established techniques from oocytes harvested from slaughterhouse ovaries. In Experiment 1, morulae at Day 6 or blastocysts at Day 7 were bisected on an inverted microscope using a microsurgical steel blade.

Gyu-Jin Rho; Walter H Johnson; Keith J Betteridge

1998-01-01

143

Beneficial effects of dithiothreitol on relative levels of glutathione S-transferase activity and thiols in oocytes, and cell number, DNA fragmentation and allocation at the blastocyst stage in the mouse.  

PubMed

We analyzed the effect of in vitro aging of mouse oocytes in the presence of dithiothreitol (DTT) on relative levels of glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and thiols in oocytes, and cell number, DNA fragmentation and cellular allocation to the inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) lineage at the blastocyst stage. Ovulated oocytes from gonadotropin primed hybrid female mice of 6-8 weeks of age were aged in vitro in the presence of 0, 5, 50, or 500 microM DTT for 6 hr prior to insemination. Relative levels of GST activity and thiols in oocytes were determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy, DNA fragmentation using a single-step TUNEL method, and cell allocation to the ICM and TE lineage by blastocyst staining with propidium iodide and Hoechst 33258. Non-aged oocytes exhibited higher relative levels of GST activity and thiols when compared to oocytes aged in the presence of 0, 5, and 50 microM DTT. Day 5 blastocysts from the 5, 50, and 500 microM DTT groups exhibited higher total number of cells, number of ICM cells, and ICM/TE ratio, but lower percentage of number of nuclei with DNA fragmentation/number of ICM cells than blastocyst from the 0 microM DTT group. These data show that DTT counteracts the negative effects of a post-ovulatory aging of mouse oocytes in vitro on relative levels of GST activity and thiols in oocytes, and percentage of number of nuclei with DNA fragmentation/number of ICM cells, total number of cells, number of ICM cells and ICM/TE ratio in Day 5 blastocysts. PMID:17186547

Rausell, Francisco; Pertusa, José F; Gómez-Piquer, Vanessa; Hermenegildo, Carlos; García-Pérez, Miguel A; Cano, Antonio; Tarín, Juan J

2007-07-01

144

A real-life prospective health economic study of elective single embryo transfer versus two-embryo transfer in first IVF\\/ICSI cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We analysed the difference in maternal, neonatal and total costs after single (SET) versus double day 3 embryo transfer (DET). METHODS: We performed a two-centre prospective study of women in their first IVF\\/ICSI cycle choosing between SET or DET. Infertility treatment data were gathered from a database; maternal and neonatal outcome data from a case report form (CRF); health

J. Gerris; P. De Sutter; D. De Neubourg; E. Van Royen; J. Vander Elst; K. Mangelschots; M. Vercruyssen; P. Kok; M. Elseviers; L. Annemans; P. Pauwels; M. Dhont

2004-01-01

145

Heat transfer from combustion gases to a single row of closely spaced tubes in a swirl crossflow Stirling engine heater  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an experimental program to determine the heat-transfer characteristics of a combustor and heat-exchange system in a hybrid solar receiver which utilizes a Stirling engine. The system consists of a swirl conbustor with a crossflow heat exchanger composed of a single row of 48 closely spaced curved tubes. In the present study, heat-transfer characteristics of the combustor/heat-exchanger system without a Stirling engine have been studied over a range of operating conditions and output levels using water as the working fluid. Non-dimensional heat-transfer coefficients based on total heat transfer have been obtained and are compared with available literature data. The results show significantly enhanced heat transfer for the present geometry and test conditions. Also, heat transfer along the length of the tubes is found to vary, the effect depending upon test condition.

Bankston, C.P.; Back, L.H.

1982-02-01

146

Heat transfer from combustion gases to a single row of closely spaced tubes in a swirl crossflow Stirling engine heater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an experimental program to determine the heat-transfer characteristics of a combustor and heat-exchanger system in a hybrid solar receiver which utilizes a Stirling engine. The system consists of a swirl combustor with a crossflow heat exchanger composed of a single row of 48 closely spaced curved tubes. In the present study, heat-transfer characteristics of the combustor/heat-exchanger system without a Stirling engine have been studied over a range of operating conditions and output levels using water as the working fluid. Nondimensional heat-transfer coefficients based on total heat transfer have been obtained and are compared with available literature data. The results show significantly enhanced heat transfer for the present geometry and test conditions. Also, heat transfer along the length of the tubes is found to vary, the effect depending upon test condition.

Bankston, C. P.; Back, L. H.

1982-01-01

147

Experimental Study on Heat Transfer of Single-Phase Flow and Boiling Two-Phase Flow in Vertical Narrow Annuli  

SciTech Connect

Water single-phase and nucleate boiling heat transfer were experimentally investigated in vertical annuli with narrow gaps. The experimental data about water single-phase flow and boiling two-phase flow heat transfer in narrow annular channel were accumulated by two test sections with the narrow gaps of 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm. Empirical correlations to predict the heat transfer of the single-phase flow and boiling two-phase flow in the narrow annular channel were obtained, which were arranged in the forms of the Dittus-Boelter for heat transfer coefficients in a single-phase flow and the Jens-Lottes formula for a boiling two-phase flow in normal tubes, respectively. The mechanism of the difference between the normal channel and narrow annular channel were also explored. From experimental results, it was found that the turbulent heat transfer coefficients in narrow gaps are nearly the same to the normal channel in the experimental range, and the transition Reynolds number from a laminar flow to a turbulent flow in narrow annuli was much lower than that in normal channel, whereas the boiling heat transfer in narrow annular gap was greatly enhanced compared with the normal channel. (authors)

Suizheng Qiu; Guanghui Su; Dounan Jia [Xi'an Jiaotong University, No.28, Xianning West Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710049 (China); Minoru Takahashi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152 (Japan)

2002-07-01

148

Effect of structural change in viologen acceptors on the rate of single electron transfer from tributylphosphine.  

PubMed

The "flexible" 3 and "rigid" cyclic viologens 4, diquarternary salts of 2,2'-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline, respectively, were treated with tributylphosphine (1) in acetonitrile containing a large amount of methanol under an argon atmosphere. A single electron transfer (SET) easily occurred from the latter to the former, the SET to 4 being 10(5)-10(6) times faster than the SET to 3. The reorganization energy lambda for the latter SET is thought to be larger than that for the former SET, because 3 undergoes a structural change upon the one-electron reduction to its radical cation, whereas the one-electron reduction of 4 takes place without a structural change. Taking into account the difference in lambda, and also taking into account the bond formation energy brought about by the follow-up reaction of the phosphine radical cation 1*(+) with methanol, the observed kinetics were well interpreted in terms of the Marcus theory. PMID:16855741

Yasui, Shinro; Itoh, Kenji; Ohno, Atsuyoshi; Tokitoh, Norihiro

2006-08-01

149

Interplay between single-particle and collective excitations in argon isotopes populated by transfer reactions  

SciTech Connect

New {gamma} transitions have been identified in argon isotopes in {sup 40}Ar + {sup 208}Pb multiple transfer reactions by exploiting, in a fragment-{gamma} measurement, the new generation of magnetic spectrometers based on trajectory reconstruction coupled to large {gamma} arrays. The coupling of single-particle degrees of freedom to nuclear vibration quanta was discussed. The interpretation of the newly observed states within a particle-phonon coupling picture was used to consistently follow, via their excitation energies, the evolution of collectivity in odd Ar isotopes. The proposed level schemes are supported by the results of sd-pf shell-model calculations, which have been also employed to evaluate the strength functions of the populated states.

Szilner, S.; Jelavic-Malenica, D.; Soic, N. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Corradi, L.; Fioretto, E.; Sahin, E.; Silvestri, R.; Stefanini, A. M.; Valiente-Dobon, J. J. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro (Italy); Haas, F.; Lebhertz, D.; Bouhelal, M.; Caurier, E.; Courtin, S.; Goasduff, A.; Nowacki, F. [IPHC, CNRS/IN2P3 and Universite de Strasbourg, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Pollarolo, G. [INFN and Universita di Torino, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Ur, C. A.; Beghini, S.; Farnea, E. [INFN and Universita di Padova, I-67037 Padova (Italy)

2011-07-15

150

Kinematically complete investigation of momentum transfer for single ionization in fast proton-helium collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of singly ionizing proton-helium collisions have been studied experimentally for several energies of the projectile (0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.3 MeV) with the technique of cold target recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy (COLTRIMS). The complete final-state distribution in momentum space of all three particles was determined by measuring the three momentum components of the emitted electron and the coincident recoiling target ion. The momentum transfer and energy loss of the outgoing projectile was determined by momentum and energy conservation laws. Doubly differential cross sections of the kinematically complete experimental investigation are presented. The present data are compared with results from fast highly charged heavy-ion impact experiments.

Weber, Th; Khayyat, Kh; Dörner, R.; Mergel, V.; Jagutzki, O.; Schmidt, L.; Afaneh, F.; Gonzalez, A.; Cocke, C. L.; Landers, A. L.; Schmidt-Böcking, H.

2000-09-01

151

Modeling of heat and mass transfer during thermal decomposition of a single solid fuel particle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to investigate the heat and mass transfer during thermal decomposition of a single solid fuel particle. The problem regards the pyrolysis process which occurs in the absence of oxygen in the first stage of fuel oxidation. Moreover, the mass transfer during heating of the solid fuels is the basic phenomenon in the pyrolysis-derived alternative fuels (gas, liquid and solid phase) and in the gasification process which is focused on the generation of syngas (gas phase) and char (solid phase). Numerical simulations concern pyrolysis process of a single solid particle which occurs as a consequence of the particle temperature increase. The research was aimed at an analysis of the influence of particle physical properties on the devolatilization process. In the mathematical modeling the fuel grain is treated as an ideal sphere which consists of porous material (solid and gaseous phase), so as to simplify the final form of the partial differential equations. Assumption that the physical properties change only in the radial direction, reduces the partial derivatives of the angular coordinates. This leads to obtaining the equations which are only the functions of the radial coordinate. The model consists of the mass, momentum and energy equations for porous spherical solid particle heated by the stream of hot gas. The mass source term was determined in the wide range of the temperature according to the experimental data. The devolatilization rate was defined by the Arrhenius formula. The results of numerical simulation show that the heating and devolatilization time strongly depend on the physical properties of fuel. Moreover, proposed model allows to determine the pyrolysis process direction, which is limited by the equilibrium state.

Wardach-?wi?cicka, Izabela; Karda?, Dariusz

2013-06-01

152

CORRELATION OF DEVELOPMENTAL DIFFERENCES OF NUCLEAR TRANSFER EMBRYOS CELLS TO THE METHYLATION PROFILES OF NUCLEAR TRANSFER DONOR CELLS IN SWINE  

PubMed Central

Methylation of DNA is the most commonly studied epigenetic mechanism of developmental competence and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Previous studies of epigenetics and the SCNT procedures have examined the effects of different culture media on donor cells and reconstructed embryos, and the methylation status of specific genes in the fetus or live offspring. Here we used a microarray based approach to identify the methylation profiles of SCNT donor cells including three clonal porcine fetal fibroblast-like cell sublines and adult somatic cells selected from kidney and mammary tissues. The methylation profiles of the donor cells were then analyzed with respect to their ability to direct development to the blastocyst stage after nuclear transfer. Clonal cell lines A2, A7, and A8 had blastocyst rates of 11.7%a, 16.7%ab, and 20.0%b, respectively (ab P<0.05). Adult somatic cells included kidney, mammary (large), and mammary (small) also had different blastocyst rates (ab P<0.05) of 4.2% a, 10.7% ab, and 18.3% b, respectively. For clonal donor cells and for adult somatic cell groups the donor cells with the highest blastocyst rates also had methylation profiles with the lowest similarity to the methylation profiles of the in vivo-produced blastocysts. Conversely, the donor cells with the lowest blastocyst rates had methylation profiles with the highest similarity to the methylation profiles of the in vivo-produced blastocysts. Our findings show there is an inverse correlation to the similarity of the methylation profiles of the donor cells and the in vivo-produced embryos, and to the blastocyst rates following SCNT. PMID:17965590

Bonk, Aaron J.; Cheong, Hee-Tae; Li, Rongfeng; Lai, Liangxue; Hao, Yanhong; Liu, Zhonghua; Samuel, Melissa; Fergason, Emily A.; Whitworth, Kristin M.; Murphy, Clifton N.; Antoniou, Eric; Prather, Randall S.

2008-01-01

153

Embryonic stem cell lines from human blastocysts: somatic differentiation in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the derivation of pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells from human blastocysts. Two diploid ES cell lines have been cultivated in vitro for extended periods while maintaining expression of markers characteristic of pluripotent primate cells. Human ES cells express the transcription factor Oct-4, essential for development of pluripotential cells in the mouse. When grafted into SCID mice, both lines

Benjamin E. Reubinoff; Chui-Yee Fong; Alan Trounson; Ariff Bongso; Martin F. Pera

2000-01-01

154

Individual demands of human embryos on IVF culture medium: influence on blastocyst development and pregnancy outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elucidation of the metabolic requirements of human embryos in vivo or in vitro remains, despite being intensively investigated, a work in progress. The adoption of extended embryo culture to the blastocyst stage during the last decade has entailed new challenges. With the increased attention to culture media formulations, more evidence on the sensitivity of embryos to their early environmental

B. Wirleitner; P. Vanderzwalmen; A. Stecher; M. H. Zech; M. Zintz; N. H. Zech

2010-01-01

155

Transgenesis by means of Blastocyst-Derived Embryonic Stem Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study demonstrates that blastocyst-derived embryonic stem cells (ED cells) can be used as a vehicle for transgenesis. The method is nearly as efficient as other methods, and the introduced neomycin phosphotransferase (neo) gene is stably transmitted through several generations with no apparent loss in G418 resistance. An important factor contributing to the efficiency of this process is the rigorous

Achim Gossler; Thomas Doetschman; Reinhard Korn; Edgar Serfling; Rolf Kemler

1986-01-01

156

Derivation and transcriptional profiling analysis of pluripotent stem cell lines from rat blastocysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from blastocyst-stage embryos. Their unique properties of self-renewal and pluripotency make them an attractive tool for basic research and a potential cell resource for therapy. ES cells of mouse and human have been successfully generated and applied in a wide range of research. However, no genuine ES cell lines have been obtained from rat

Chunliang Li; Ying Yang; Junjie Gu; Yu Ma; Ying Jin

2009-01-01

157

Global gene expression of the inner cell mass and trophectoderm of the bovine blastocyst  

PubMed Central

Background The first distinct differentiation event in mammals occurs at the blastocyst stage when totipotent blastomeres differentiate into either pluripotent inner cell mass (ICM) or multipotent trophectoderm (TE). Here we determined, for the first time, global gene expression patterns in the ICM and TE isolated from bovine blastocysts. The ICM and TE were isolated from blastocysts harvested at day 8 after insemination by magnetic activated cell sorting, and cDNA sequenced using the SOLiD 4.0 system. Results A total of 870 genes were differentially expressed between ICM and TE. Several genes characteristic of ICM (for example, NANOG, SOX2, and STAT3) and TE (ELF5, GATA3, and KRT18) in mouse and human showed similar patterns in bovine. Other genes, however, showed differences in expression between ICM and TE that deviates from the expected based on mouse and human. Conclusion Analysis of gene expression indicated that differentiation of blastomeres of the morula-stage embryo into the ICM and TE of the blastocyst is accompanied by differences between the two cell lineages in expression of genes controlling metabolic processes, endocytosis, hatching from the zona pellucida, paracrine and endocrine signaling with the mother, and genes supporting the changes in cellular architecture, stemness, and hematopoiesis necessary for development of the trophoblast. PMID:23126590

2012-01-01

158

Assessment of the effectiveness of nanofluids for single-phase and two-phase heat transfer in micro-channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were performed to explore the micro-channel cooling benefits of water-based nanofluids containing small concentrations of Al2O3. The high thermal conductivity of nanoparticles is shown to enhance the single-phase heat transfer coefficient, especially for laminar flow. Higher heat transfer coefficients were achieved mostly in the entrance region of micro-channels. However, the enhancement was weaker in the fully developed region, proving

Jaeseon Lee; Issam Mudawar

2007-01-01

159

Combining MFD and PIE for accurate single-pair Förster resonance energy transfer measurements.  

PubMed

Single-pair Förster resonance energy transfer (spFRET) experiments using single-molecule burst analysis on a confocal microscope are an ideal tool to measure inter- and intramolecular distances and dynamics on the nanoscale. Different techniques have been developed to maximize the amount of information available in spFRET burst analysis experiments. Multiparameter fluorescence detection (MFD) is used to monitor a variety of fluorescence parameters simultaneously and pulsed interleaved excitation (PIE) employs direct excitation of the acceptor to probe its presence and photoactivity. To calculate accurate FRET efficiencies from spFRET experiments with MFD or PIE, several calibration measurements are usually required. Herein, we demonstrate that by combining MFD with PIE information regarding all calibration factors as well as an accurate determination of spFRET histograms can be performed in a single measurement. In addition, the quality of overlap of the different detection volumes as well as the detection of acceptor photophysics can be investigated with MFD-PIE. Bursts containing acceptor photobleaching can be identified and excluded from further investigation while bursts that contain FRET dynamics are unaffected by this analysis. We have employed MFD-PIE to accurately analyze the effects of nucleotides and substrate on the interdomain separation in DnaK, the major bacterial heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70). The interdomain distance increases from 47 Å in the ATP-bound state to 84 Å in the ADP-bound state and slightly contracts to 77 Å when a substrate is bound. This is in contrast to what was observed for the mitochondrial member of the Hsp70s, Ssc1, supporting the notion of evolutionary specialization of Hsp70s for different cellular functions in different organisms and cell organelles. PMID:22383292

Kudryavtsev, Volodymyr; Sikor, Martin; Kalinin, Stanislav; Mokranjac, Dejana; Seidel, Claus A M; Lamb, Don C

2012-03-01

160

Single Rod Heat Transfer Tests to Study the Effects of Crud Deposition  

SciTech Connect

Researchers have performed many studies to try to understand crud formation on the fuel pin clad surfaces, which has been observed in pressurized water reactors (PWR) as a result of sub-cooled nucleate boiling and precipitation reactions. Crud deposits, may cause an unexpected change in core power distribution known as crud induced power shift (CIPS) or axial offset anomaly (AOA) if boron species accumulate in the deposits. If the crud deposit is thick enough, the potential exists for fuel rod surface dryout. The Westinghouse Advanced Loop Tester (WALT) at the George Westinghouse Science and Technology Center (STC) will be utilized to examine the effects of crud formation on fuel pin clad dryout. This paper describes a single heated rod test facility designed and fabricated by Westinghouse to study the effects of crud deposition at PWR reactor operating conditions. This test loop is a single rod facility with or without grid support structures on the heater rod and can be used for forced convection and sub-cooled boiling tests with and without crud deposition. Sub-cooled boiling experiments at PWR reactor operating conditions are currently being performed at this facility. The single electrical heated rod in this test facility is instrumented with four movable thermocouples to measure the inside wall temperatures at four azimuthal locations within the rod. In addition, there are two fixed thermocouples to measure the inlet and outlet temperatures of the water flowing on the outside of the heated rod such that an overall energy balance (i.e. comparing the heat absorbed by the water coolant to the measured rod electrical power) can be performed on the facility. This paper will present forced convection and boiling heat transfer curves for clean rod surfaces. Comparison with forced convection correlations and sub-cooled boiling correlations are also presented in this paper. (authors)

Wang, G.; Byers, W.A.; Karoutas, Z.E.; Young, M.Y.; Jacko, R.J. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. (United States); Hochreiter, L.E. [The Pennsylvania State University, 302 Walker Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

2006-07-01

161

Complete transfer of populations from a single state to a preselected superposition of states using piecewise adiabatic passage: Experiment  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate a method of adiabatic population transfer from a single quantum state into a coherent superposition of states. The transfer is executed with femtosecond pulses, spectrally shaped in a simple and intuitive manner, which does not require iterative feedback-controlled loops. In contrast to nonadiabatic methods of excitation, our approach is not sensitive to the exact value of laser intensity. We show that the population transfer is complete, and analyze the possibility of controlling the relative phases and amplitudes of the excited eigenstates. We discuss the limitations of the proposed control methods due to the dynamic level shifts and suggest ways of reducing their influence.

Zhdanovich, S. [Departments of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Laboratory for Advanced Spectroscopy and Imaging Research (LASIR), University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Shapiro, E. A. [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Hepburn, J. W.; Shapiro, M.; Milner, V. [Departments of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Laboratory for Advanced Spectroscopy and Imaging Research (LASIR), University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

2009-12-15

162

Effects of partial or complete laser-assisted hatching on the hatching of mouse blastocysts and their cell numbers  

PubMed Central

Background It is still debatable whether a full-thickness assisted hatching (AH) is better than the partial zona thinning. In this research, we used a mouse model to study the effect of partial and complete laser-AH on the rate of completely hatched blastocyst and their cell numbers. Methods In experiment 1, mouse morulae had 0, 1, 2 or 3 full-thickness openings of 10 microns created in the zona pellucida with an infrared laser beam. In the second experiment, 0, 1 and 2 openings of 20 microns were studied. In the third experiment, a full-thickness opening of 20 microns or quarter-thinning of the zonal circumference to a depth of 90% was compared with non-AH controls. Results No difference in blastocyst formation was found in laser-treated groups and in the controls. In experiment 1, the rate of completely hatched blastocysts was significantly lower than the controls. In experiment 2 when the size of the opening was increased, blastocysts completely hatched at a significantly higher rate than that in the controls. In experiment 3, the rate of completely hatched blastocysts was the highest in the full-thickness group. Cell numbers in completely hatched blastocysts from both AH groups were significantly fewer than those in the controls. Conclusions Full-thickness opening resulted in a higher rate of completely hatched blastocysts than quarter zonal-thinning and controls, but the cell numbers were significantly decreased. PMID:23510434

2013-01-01

163

Understanding Contemporary Transfer Pathways: A Multiple Case Analysis of Two to Four-Year Transfer in a Single State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three quarters of community college students enter higher education with the goal of transferring to a four-year institution to pursue a bachelor's degree and as few as 11% succeed. Scholars cite four main reasons for why this gap in baccalaureate completion matters: (1) community colleges today are educating approximately one-half of all…

Cullop, Ashley M.

2012-01-01

164

Electron Transport, Energy Transfer, and Optical Response in Single Molecule Junctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last decade has seen incredible growth in the quality of experiments being done on single molecule junctions. Contemporary experimental measurements have expanded far beyond simple electron transport. Measurement of vibronic eects, quantum interference and decoherence eects, molecular optical response (Raman spectroscopy), and molecular spintronics are just some of the continuing areas of research in single molecule junctions. Experimental advancements demand advanced theoretical treatments, which can be used accurately within appropriate physical regimes, in order to understand measured phenomena and predict interesting directions for future study. In this dissertation we will study systems with strong intra-system interactions using a many-body states based approach. We will be focused on three related processes in molecular junctions: electron transport, electronic energy transfer, and molecular excitation. Inelastic electron transport in the regime of strong and nonlinear electron-vibration coupling within and outside of the Born-Oppenheimer regime will be investigated. To understand their appropriateness, we will compare simple semi-classical approximations in molecular redox junctions and electron-counting devices to fully quantum calculations based on many-body system states. The role of coherence and quantum interference in energy and electron transfer in molecular junctions is explored. Experiments that simultaneously measure surface enhanced Raman scattering and electron conduction have revealed a strong interaction between conducting electrons and molecular excitation. We investigate the role of the molecular response to a classical surface plasmon enhanced electric eld considering the back action of the oscillating molecular dipole. Raman scattering is quantum mechanical by nature and involves strong interaction between surface plasmons in the contacts and the molecular excitation. We develop a scheme for treating strong plasmon-molecular excitation interactions quantum mechanically within nonequilibrium molecular junctions. Finally we perform preliminary calculations of the Raman spectrum of a three-ring oligophenylene vinylene terminating in amine functional groups molecule in a molecular junction and compare our results to experimental measurements. This work is the rst steps towards full calculations of the optical response of current-carrying molecular junction, which should combine classical calculations of the plasmon enhanced electric field with quantum calculations for the plasmon-molecular exciton interaction and nonequilibrium Raman scattering.

White, Alexander James

165

Transfer-matrix simulations of electronic transport in single-wall and multi-wall carbon nanotubes  

E-print Network

transport properties of carbon nano- tubes are another interesting aspect of these structures (see [7 law [1­4] with an emitter work function around 5eV depending on the type of nano- tube. They are alsoTransfer-matrix simulations of electronic transport in single-wall and multi-wall carbon nanotubes

Mayer, Alexandre

166

Quantitative Correlation between Defect Density and Heterogeneous Electron Transfer Rate of Single Layer Graphene.  

PubMed

Improving electrochemical activity of graphene is crucial for its various applications, which requires delicate control over its geometric and electronic structures. We demonstrate that precise control of the density of vacancy defects, introduced by Ar(+) irradiation, can improve and finely tune the heterogeneous electron transfer (HET) rate of graphene. For reliable comparisons, we made patterns with different defect densities on a same single layer graphene sheet, which allows us to correlate defect density (via Raman spectroscopy) with HET rate (via scanning electrochemical microscopy) of graphene quantitatively, under exactly the same experimental conditions. By balancing the defect induced increase of density of states (DOS) and decrease of conductivity, the optimal HET rate is attained at a moderate defect density, which is in a critical state; that is, the whole graphene sheet becomes electronically activated and, meanwhile, maintains structural integrity. The improved electrochemical activity can be understood by a high DOS near the Fermi level of defective graphene, as revealed by ab initio simulation, which enlarges the overlap between the electronic states of graphene and the redox couple. The results are valuable to promote the performance of graphene-based electrochemical devices. Furthermore, our findings may serve as a guide to tailor the structure and properties of graphene and other ultrathin two-dimensional materials through defect density engineering. PMID:25350471

Zhong, Jin-Hui; Zhang, Jie; Jin, Xi; Liu, Jun-Yang; Li, Qiongyu; Li, Mao-Hua; Cai, Weiwei; Wu, De-Yin; Zhan, Dongping; Ren, Bin

2014-11-26

167

Magnetic field enhanced thermal conductivity in heat transfer nanofluids containing Ni coated single wall carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report that the thermal conductivity (TC) of heat transfer nanofluids containing Ni coated single wall carbon nanotube can be enhanced by applied magnetic field. A reasonable explanation for these interesting results is that Ni coated nanotubes form aligned chains under applied magnetic field, which improves thermal conductivity via increased contacts. On longer holding in magnetic field, the nanotubes gradually move and form large clumps of nanotubes, which eventually decreases the TC. When we reduce the magnetic field strength and maintain a smaller field right after TC reaches the maximum, the TC value can be kept longer compared to without magnetic field. We attribute gradual magnetic clumping to the gradual cause of the TC decrease in the magnetic field. We also found that the time to reach the maximum peak value of TC is increased as the applied magnetic field is reduced. Scanning electron microscopy images show that the Ni coated nantubes are aligned well under the influence of a magnetic field. Transmission electron microscopy images indicate that nickel remains attached onto the nanotubes after the magnetic field exposure.

Wright, Brian; Thomas, Dustin; Hong, Haiping; Groven, Lori; Puszynski, Jan; Duke, Edward; Ye, Xiangrong; Jin, Sungho

2007-10-01

168

Smooth approximations of single-input opti-mal orbital transfer using continuation and  

E-print Network

with the optimal transfer of a satellite between Keplerian orbits when the control is oriented along the tangential control problems are the time-optimal control problem (the transfer time can take several months conditions. #12;Smooth approximations of optimal transfer 3 2. The time-minimal control problem 2

Caillau, Jean-Baptiste

169

Epigenetic Reprogramming by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer in Primates  

PubMed Central

We recently demonstrated that somatic cells from adult primates could be reprogrammed into a pluripotent state by somatic cell nuclear transfer. However, the low efficiency with donor cells from one monkey necessitated the need for large oocyte numbers. Here, we demonstrate nearly threefold higher blastocyst development and embryonic stem (ES) cell derivation rates with different nuclear donor cells. Two ES cell lines were isolated using adult female rhesus macaque skin fibroblasts as nuclear donors and oocytes retrieved from one female, following a single controlled ovarian stimulation. In addition to routine pluripotency tests involving in vitro and in vivo differentiation into various somatic cell types, primate ES cells derived from reprogrammed somatic cells were also capable of contributing to cells expressing markers of germ cells. Moreover, imprinted gene expression, methylation, telomere length, and X-inactivation analyses were consistent with accurate and extensive epigenetic reprogramming of somatic cells by oocyte-specific factors. PMID:19489081

Sparman, Michelle; Dighe, Vikas; Sritanaudomchai, Hathaitip; Ma, Hong; Ramsey, Cathy; Pedersen, Darlene; Clepper, Lisa; Nighot, Prashant; Wolf, Don; Hennebold, Jon; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

2009-01-01

170

Investigating photoinduced charge transfer in double- and single-emission PbS@CdS core@shell quantum dots.  

PubMed

We present for the first time detailed investigation of the charge transfer behavior of PbS@CdS core@shell quantum dots (QDs) showing either a single emission peak from the core or intriguing double emission peaks from the core and shell, respectively. A highly non-concentric core@shell structure model was proposed to explain the origin of double emissions from monodisperse QDs. Their charge transfer behavior was investigated by monitoring photoluminescence (PL) intensity variation with the introduction of electron or hole scavengers. It was found that the PL quenching of the PbS core is more efficient than that of the CdS shell, suggesting more efficient charge transfer from the core to scavengers, although the opposite was expected. Further measurements of the PL lifetime followed by wave function calculations disclosed that the time scale is the critical factor explaining the more efficient charge transfer from the core than from the shell. The charge transfer behavior was also examined on a series of single-emission core@shell QDs with either different core sizes or different shell thicknesses and dominant factors were identified. Towards photovoltaic applications, these PbS@CdS QDs were attached onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and their charge transfer behavior was compared with that in the PbS-QD/MWCNT system. Results demonstrate that although the CdS shell serves as an electron transfer barrier, the electrons excited in the PbS cores can still be transferred into the MWCNTs efficiently when the shell thickness is ?0.7 nm. Considering their higher stability, these core@shell QDs are very promising for the development of highly efficient QD-based photovoltaic devices. PMID:24132400

Zhao, Haiguang; Liang, Hongyan; Gonfa, Belete Atomsa; Chaker, Mohamed; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki; Tijssen, Peter; Vidal, François; Ma, Dongling

2014-01-01

171

HIPPO Pathway Members Restrict SOX2 to the Inner Cell Mass Where It Promotes ICM Fates in the Mouse Blastocyst.  

PubMed

Pluripotent epiblast (EPI) cells, present in the inner cell mass (ICM) of the mouse blastocyst, are progenitors of both embryonic stem (ES) cells and the fetus. Discovering how pluripotency genes regulate cell fate decisions in the blastocyst provides a valuable way to understand how pluripotency is normally established. EPI cells are specified by two consecutive cell fate decisions. The first decision segregates ICM from trophectoderm (TE), an extraembryonic cell type. The second decision subdivides ICM into EPI and primitive endoderm (PE), another extraembryonic cell type. Here, we investigate the roles and regulation of the pluripotency gene Sox2 during blastocyst formation. First, we investigate the regulation of Sox2 patterning and show that SOX2 is restricted to ICM progenitors prior to blastocyst formation by members of the HIPPO pathway, independent of CDX2, the TE transcription factor that restricts Oct4 and Nanog to the ICM. Second, we investigate the requirement for Sox2 in cell fate specification during blastocyst formation. We show that neither maternal (M) nor zygotic (Z) Sox2 is required for blastocyst formation, nor for initial expression of the pluripotency genes Oct4 or Nanog in the ICM. Rather, Z Sox2 initially promotes development of the primitive endoderm (PE) non cell-autonomously via FGF4, and then later maintains expression of pluripotency genes in the ICM. The significance of these observations is that 1) ICM and TE genes are spatially patterned in parallel prior to blastocyst formation and 2) both the roles and regulation of Sox2 in the blastocyst are unique compared to other pluripotency factors such as Oct4 or Nanog. PMID:25340657

Wicklow, Eryn; Blij, Stephanie; Frum, Tristan; Hirate, Yoshikazu; Lang, Richard A; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Ralston, Amy

2014-10-01

172

HIPPO Pathway Members Restrict SOX2 to the Inner Cell Mass Where It Promotes ICM Fates in the Mouse Blastocyst  

PubMed Central

Pluripotent epiblast (EPI) cells, present in the inner cell mass (ICM) of the mouse blastocyst, are progenitors of both embryonic stem (ES) cells and the fetus. Discovering how pluripotency genes regulate cell fate decisions in the blastocyst provides a valuable way to understand how pluripotency is normally established. EPI cells are specified by two consecutive cell fate decisions. The first decision segregates ICM from trophectoderm (TE), an extraembryonic cell type. The second decision subdivides ICM into EPI and primitive endoderm (PE), another extraembryonic cell type. Here, we investigate the roles and regulation of the pluripotency gene Sox2 during blastocyst formation. First, we investigate the regulation of Sox2 patterning and show that SOX2 is restricted to ICM progenitors prior to blastocyst formation by members of the HIPPO pathway, independent of CDX2, the TE transcription factor that restricts Oct4 and Nanog to the ICM. Second, we investigate the requirement for Sox2 in cell fate specification during blastocyst formation. We show that neither maternal (M) nor zygotic (Z) Sox2 is required for blastocyst formation, nor for initial expression of the pluripotency genes Oct4 or Nanog in the ICM. Rather, Z Sox2 initially promotes development of the primitive endoderm (PE) non cell-autonomously via FGF4, and then later maintains expression of pluripotency genes in the ICM. The significance of these observations is that 1) ICM and TE genes are spatially patterned in parallel prior to blastocyst formation and 2) both the roles and regulation of Sox2 in the blastocyst are unique compared to other pluripotency factors such as Oct4 or Nanog. PMID:25340657

Frum, Tristan; Hirate, Yoshikazu; Lang, Richard A.; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Ralston, Amy

2014-01-01

173

Developmental Competence of Frozen-thawed Blastocysts from Fair-quality Bovine Embryos Cultured with ?-Mercaptoethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-hundred-and-thirty-one fair-quality embryos at the compacted morula stage collected from 89 superovulated cows were cultured in TCM199 or Brinster’s BMOC-3 medium with or without 100 ?M ?-mercaptoethanol (?-ME). After 24 h culture, a total of 142 fair-quality embryos developed to the blastocyst stage, of which 106 were subsequently frozen with 1.8 M ethylene glycol. The mean cell number and development

T. OTOI; N. KOYAMA; K. YAMAMOTO; N. HORIKITA; S. TACHIKAWA; T. SUZUKI

2000-01-01

174

The effects of Vitamin A administration on the development of vitrified-warmed mouse blastocyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the development of vitrified-warmed mouse blastocysts following a period of Vitamin A administration. Four to six weeks old BALB\\/c mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of either 0.1ml paraffin oil alone (control, Con) or paraffin oil containing 250IU of Vitamin A (experiment, Exp). Ten days later the mice were given second paraffin

H. Babaei; S. N. Nematallahi-Mahani; A. Kheradmand

2006-01-01

175

Single breath xenon polarization transfer contrast (SB-XTC): implementation and initial results in healthy humans  

PubMed Central

Purpose To implement and characterize a single-breath xenon transfer contrast (SB-XTC) method to assess the fractional diffusive gas transport F in the lung: to study the dependence of F and its uniformity as a function of lung volume; to estimate local alveolar surface area per unit gas volume SA/VGas from multiple diffusion time measurements of F; to evaluate the reproducibility of the measurements and the necessity of B1 correction in cases of centric and sequential encoding. Materials and Methods In SB-XTC three or four gradient echo images separated by inversion/saturation pulses were collected during a breath-hold in eight healthy volunteers, allowing the mapping of F (thus SA/VGas) and correction for other contributions such as T1 relaxation, RF depletion and B1 inhomogeneity from inherently registered data. Results Regional values of F and its distribution were obtained; both the mean value and heterogeneity of F increased with the decrease of lung volume. Higher values of F in the bases of the lungs in supine position were observed at lower volumes in all volunteers. Local SA/VGas (with a mean ± standard deviation of SA/VGas¯=89±30cm-1) was estimated in vivo near functional residual capacity. Calibration of SB-XTC on phantoms highlighted the necessity for B1 corrections when k-space is traversed sequentially; with centric ordering B1 distribution correction is dispensable. Conclusion SB-XTC technique is implemented and validated for in vivo measurements of local SA/VGas. PMID:23011916

Muradyan, Iga; Butler, James P; Dabaghyan, Mikayel; Hrovat, Mirko; Dregely, Isabel; Ruset, Iulian; Topulos, George P; Frederick, Eric; Hatabu, Hiroto; Hersman, William F; Patz, Samuel

2012-01-01

176

Feasibility for a Single-Stage-to-Orbit Launch to a Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit by Pulse Laser Propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An air-breathing pulse laser powered launcher has been proposed as an alternative to conventional chemical launch systems. The trajectory from the ground to a geosynchronous transfer orbit by pulse laser propulsion is calculated by modeling the thrust during pulsejet, ramjet and rocket flight modes, and the launch cost is estimated. The results show that the pulse laser powered launcher can transfer 0.085kg payload per 1MW beam power to a geosynchronous orbit, and the cost becomes quarter of existing systems if one can divide a single launch into 22,500 multiple launches.

Katsurayama, Hiroshi; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Arakawa, Yoshihiro

177

UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 1a Enzymes Are Present and Active in the Mouse Blastocyst.  

PubMed

The UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes are critical for regulating nutrients, hormones, and endobiotics, as well as for detoxifying xenobiotics. Human and murine fetuses are known to express glucuronidation enzymes, but there are currently no data prior to implantation. Here we addressed this gap in knowledge and tested whether Ugt enzymes are already present in preimplantation-stage embryos. Blastocysts were obtained after in vitro fertilization with gametes from B6D2F1 hybrid mice and from embryo culture. Protein expression and localization were determined using pan-specific UGT1A and UGT2B, as well as anti-human isoform-specific antibodies. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that blastocysts expressed Ugt1a globally, in the cytoplasm and nuclei of all of the cells. Western blots demonstrated the presence of Ugt1a6 but not Ugt1a1, Ugt1a3, Ugt1a4, or Ugt1a9. The Ugt2b proteins were not detected by either assay. The level of Ugt activity in murine blastocysts was comparable with that of the adult human liver (per milligram of protein), but the activity of ?-glucuronidase, an Ugt-partnering enzyme responsible for substrate regeneration, was lower. Altogether, these data confirm that Ugt1a proteins are present and active in preimplantation murine embryos and point to a potential role for these proteins in implantation and early embryonic and fetal development. PMID:25200869

Collier, Abby C; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Sato, Brittany L M; Rougée, Luc R A; Ward, Monika A

2014-11-01

178

Ovarian Stimulation by Exogenous Gonadotropin Decreases the Implantation Rate and Expression of Mouse Blastocysts Integrins  

PubMed Central

Background: Integrins are heterodimeric glycoprotein receptors that regulate the interaction of cells with extracellular matrix and may have a critical role in implantation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ovulation induction on the expression of ?4, ?v, ?1, and ?3 integrins in mouse blastocyst at the time of implantation. Methods: The ovarian stimulated and non-stimulated pregnant mice were sacrificed on the morning of 5th day of pregnancy. The blastocysts were collected, and the expression of ?v, ?4, ?1, and ?3 integrins was examined using real-time RT-PCR and immunocytochemical techniques, then their ovarian hormones were analyzed at the same time. The implantation sites in uterine horns of other pregnant mice in both groups were determined under a stereomicroscope on the 7th day of pregnancy. Results: The results showed that the expression of ?v, ?1, and ?3 integrins in both mRNA and protein levels was significantly lower in the ovarian stimulated group than the control group, and the maximum ratio of expression was belonged to ?1 molecule (P>0.05). Conclusion: The implantation rate in superovulated mice was significantly lower than control mice. It was suggested that ovulation induction decreased the expression of ?v, ?1, and ?3 integrins of mouse blastocysts. PMID:24375157

Fayazi, Mehri; Beigi Boroujeni, Mandana; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Khansarinejad, Behzad

2014-01-01

179

Refuting a misguided campaign against the goal of single-embryo transfer and singleton birth in assisted reproduction.  

PubMed

Much recent progress has been made by assisted reproductive technology (ART) professionals toward minimizing the incidence of multiple pregnancy following ART treatment. While a healthy singleton birth is widely considered to be the ideal outcome of such treatment, a vocal minority continues a campaign to advocate the benefits of multiple embryo transfer as treatment and twin pregnancy as outcome for most ART patients. Proponents of twinning argue four points: that patients prefer twins, that multiple embryo transfer maximizes success rates, that the costs per infant are lower with twins and that one twin pregnancy and birth is associated with no higher risk than two consecutive singleton pregnancies and births. We find fault with the reasoning and data behind each of these tenets. First, we respect the principle of patient autonomy to choose the number of embryos for transfer but counter that it has been shown that better patient education reduces their desire for twins. In addition, reasonable and evidentially supported limits may be placed on autonomy in exchange for public or private insurance coverage for ART treatment, and counterbalancing ethical principles to autonomy exist, especially beneficence (doing good) and non-maleficence (doing no harm). Second, comparisons between success rates following single-embryo transfer (SET) and double-embryo transfers favor double-embryo transfers only when embryo utilization is not comparable; cumulative pregnancy and birth rates that take into account utilization of cryopreserved embryos (and the additional cryopreserved embryo available with single fresh embryo transfer) consistently demonstrate no advantage to double-embryo transfer. Third, while comparisons of costs are system dependent and not easy to assess, several independent studies all suggest that short-term costs per child (through the neonatal period alone) are lower with transfers of one rather than two embryos. And, finally, abundant evidence conclusively demonstrates that the risks to both mother and especially to children are substantially greater with one twin birth compared with two singleton births. Thus, the arguments used by some to promote multiple embryo transfer and twinning are not supported by the facts. They should not detract from efforts to further promote SET and thus reduce ART-associated multiple pregnancy and its inherent risks. PMID:23904468

Stillman, Robert J; Richter, Kevin S; Jones, Howard W

2013-10-01

180

Local field effects in the energy transfer between a chromophore and a carbon nanotube: a single-nanocompound investigation.  

PubMed

Energy transfer in noncovalently bound porphyrin/carbon nanotube compounds is investigated at the single-nanocompound scale. Excitation spectroscopy of the luminescence of the nanotube shows two resonances arising from intrinsic excitation of the nanotube and from energy transfer from the porphyrin. Polarization diagrams show that both resonances are highly anisotropic, with a preferred direction along the tube axis. The energy transfer is thus strongly anisotropic despite the almost isotropic absorption of porphyrins. We account for this result by local field effects induced by the large optical polarizability of nanotubes. We show that the local field correction extends over several nanometers outside the nanotubes and drives the overall optical response of functionalized nanotubes. PMID:23005601

Roquelet, Cyrielle; Vialla, Fabien; Diederichs, Carole; Roussignol, Philippe; Delalande, Claude; Deleporte, Emmanuelle; Lauret, Jean-Sébastien; Voisin, Christophe

2012-10-23

181

Er3+ ~ Ho3+ energy transfer mechanisms at room temperature in YLiF4 single crystals  

E-print Network

1761 Er3+ ~ Ho3+ energy transfer mechanisms at room temperature in YLiF4 single crystals J. Rubin sensibilisateurs Er3+ et activateurs Ho3+ dans des monocristaux YLiF4 : Er3+ , Ho3 + .Cette étude est réalisée à excitations laser dans les états excités de Er3+ situés dans les domaines optiques visible et proche infra

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

182

Use of the 2A Peptide for Generation of Multi-Transgenic Pigs through a Single Round of Nuclear Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple genetic modifications in pigs can essentially benefit research on agriculture, human disease and xenotransplantation. Most multi-transgenic pigs have been produced by complex and time-consuming breeding programs using multiple single-transgenic pigs. This study explored the feasibility of producing multi-transgenic pigs using the viral 2A peptide in the light of previous research indicating that it can be utilized for multi-gene transfer

Wei Deng; Dongshan Yang; Bentian Zhao; Zhen Ouyang; Jun Song; Nana Fan; Zhaoming Liu; Yu Zhao; Qinghong Wu; Bayaer Nashun; Jiangjing Tang; Zhenfang Wu; Weiwang Gu; Liangxue Lai

2011-01-01

183

Mothers, Workers and Students: Examining the Experiences of Single Mothers Transferring from Community Colleges into Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Single parent households are on the rise, and female headed households are more likely to live in poverty than other single parent households (Holyfield, 2002). Many single mothers who do not have an undergraduate degree see education as a way out of poverty (Holyfield, 2002; Heller & Bjorklund, 2004). This research was undertaken to highlight…

Robinson, Emily Erin Peterson

2010-01-01

184

Prepubertal goat oocytes from large follicles result in similar blastocyst production and embryo ploidy than those from adult goats.  

PubMed

Developmental competence of oocytes from prepubertal females is lower than those from adult females. Oocyte development competence is positively related to follicular diameter. Most of the follicles of prepubertal goat ovaries are smaller than 3 mm. The aim of this study was to compare oocytes of two follicle sizes (< 3 mm and ? 3 mm) from prepubertal goats with oocytes from adult goats in relation to their in vitro production and quality of blastocysts. Oocytes from prepubertal goats were obtained from slaughterhouse ovaries and selected according to the follicle diameter whereas oocytes from adult goats were recovered in vivo by LOPU technique without prior selection of follicle size. COCs were IVM for 27 h, IVF at the conventional conditions with fresh semen and presumptive zygotes were cultured in SOF medium for 8 days. Blastocysts obtained were vitrified and after warming their blastocoele re-expansion and the ploidy by FISH technique were assessed. We found significant differences between blastocysts yield of oocytes recovered from follicles smaller than 3 mm of prepubertal goats compared to those from adult goats (5.45% vs 20. 83%, respectively) however, these differences disappear if oocytes were recovered form large follicles (18.07%). A total of 28 blastocysts were analysed and 96.43% showed mixoploidy. Age did not affect the number of embryos with abnormal ploidy or blastocyst re-expansion after warming. Furthermore, the percentage of diploid blastomeres per embryo was similar in the 3 groups studied, adult, prepubertal from follicles ? 3 mm and < 3 mm (68.6%, 80.8% and 73.6%, respectively). In conclusion, IVP of blastocysts coming from follicles larger than 3 mm of goats 45 days old were not different to the blastocysts produced from adult goats, both in terms of quantity and quality. PMID:21295839

Romaguera, R; Moll, X; Morató, R; Roura, M; Palomo, M J; Catalá, M G; Jiménez-Macedo, A R; Hammami, S; Izquierdo, D; Mogas, T; Paramio, M T

2011-07-01

185

Effects of Trichostatin A on In vitro Development of Porcine Embryos Derived from Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer.  

PubMed

Many different approaches have been developed to improve the efficiency of animal cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), one of which is to modify histone acetylation levels using histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) such as trichostatin A (TSA). In the present study, we examined the effect of TSA on in vitro development of porcine embryos derived from SCNT. We found that TSA treatment (50 nM) for 24 h following oocyte activation improved blastocyst formation rates (to 22.0%) compared with 8.9% in the non-treatment group and total cell number of the blastocysts for determining embryo quality also increased significantly (88.9?114.4). Changes in histone acetylation levels as a result of TSA treatment were examined using indirect immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy scanning. Results showed that the histone acetylation level in TSA-treated embryos was higher than that in controls at both acetylated histone H3 lysine 9 (AcH3K9) and acetylated histone H4 lysine 12 (AcH4K12). Next, we compared the expression patterns of seven genes (OCT4, ID1; the pluripotent genes, H19, NNAT, PEG1; the imprinting genes, cytokeratin 8 and 18; the trophoblast marker genes). The SCNT blastocysts both with and without TSA treatment showed lower levels of OCT4, ID1, cytokeratin 8 and 18 than those of the in vivo blastocysts. In the case of the imprinting genes H19 and NNAT, except PEG1, the SCNT blastocysts both with and without TSA treatment showed higher levels than those of the in vivo blastocysts. Although the gene expression patterns between cloned blastocysts and their in vivo counterparts were different regardless of TSA treatment, it appears that several genes in NT blastocysts after TSA treatment showed a slight tendency toward expression patterns of in vivo blastocysts. Our results suggest that TSA treatment may improve preimplantation porcine embryo development following SCNT. PMID:25049758

Jeong, Yeon Ik; Park, Chi Hun; Kim, Huen Suk; Jeong, Yeon Woo; Lee, Jong Yun; Park, Sun Woo; Lee, Se Yeong; Hyun, Sang Hwan; Kim, Yeun Wook; Shin, Taeyoung; Hwang, Woo Suk

2013-12-01

186

A Simple Approach for COnsumption and RElease (CORE) Analysis of Metabolic Activity in Single Mammalian Embryos  

PubMed Central

Non-invasive assay of the consumption and release of metabolites by individual human embryos could allow selection at the cleavage stage of development and facilitate Single Embryo Transfer in clinical IVF but will require simple, high throughput, sensitive methods applicable to small volume samples. A rapid, simple, non-invasive method has therefore been devised using a standard fluorescence plate reader, and used to measure the consumption of pyruvate and glucose, and release of lactate by single bovine embryos at all stages of preimplantation development in culture; amino acid profiles have been determined using HPLC. Early embryos with an ‘intermediate’ level (6.14±0.27 pmol/embryo/h) of pyruvate uptake were associated with the highest rate (68.3%) of blastocyst development indicating that a mid “optimum” range of pyruvate consumption correlates with high viability in this bovine model. PMID:23967049

Guerif, Fabrice; McKeegan, Paul; Leese, Henry J.; Sturmey, Roger G.

2013-01-01

187

Investigating photoinduced charge transfer in double- and single-emission PbS@CdS core@shell quantum dots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present for the first time detailed investigation of the charge transfer behavior of PbS@CdS core@shell quantum dots (QDs) showing either a single emission peak from the core or intriguing double emission peaks from the core and shell, respectively. A highly non-concentric core@shell structure model was proposed to explain the origin of double emissions from monodisperse QDs. Their charge transfer behavior was investigated by monitoring photoluminescence (PL) intensity variation with the introduction of electron or hole scavengers. It was found that the PL quenching of the PbS core is more efficient than that of the CdS shell, suggesting more efficient charge transfer from the core to scavengers, although the opposite was expected. Further measurements of the PL lifetime followed by wave function calculations disclosed that the time scale is the critical factor explaining the more efficient charge transfer from the core than from the shell. The charge transfer behavior was also examined on a series of single-emission core@shell QDs with either different core sizes or different shell thicknesses and dominant factors were identified. Towards photovoltaic applications, these PbS@CdS QDs were attached onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and their charge transfer behavior was compared with that in the PbS-QD/MWCNT system. Results demonstrate that although the CdS shell serves as an electron transfer barrier, the electrons excited in the PbS cores can still be transferred into the MWCNTs efficiently when the shell thickness is ~0.7 nm. Considering their higher stability, these core@shell QDs are very promising for the development of highly efficient QD-based photovoltaic devices.We present for the first time detailed investigation of the charge transfer behavior of PbS@CdS core@shell quantum dots (QDs) showing either a single emission peak from the core or intriguing double emission peaks from the core and shell, respectively. A highly non-concentric core@shell structure model was proposed to explain the origin of double emissions from monodisperse QDs. Their charge transfer behavior was investigated by monitoring photoluminescence (PL) intensity variation with the introduction of electron or hole scavengers. It was found that the PL quenching of the PbS core is more efficient than that of the CdS shell, suggesting more efficient charge transfer from the core to scavengers, although the opposite was expected. Further measurements of the PL lifetime followed by wave function calculations disclosed that the time scale is the critical factor explaining the more efficient charge transfer from the core than from the shell. The charge transfer behavior was also examined on a series of single-emission core@shell QDs with either different core sizes or different shell thicknesses and dominant factors were identified. Towards photovoltaic applications, these PbS@CdS QDs were attached onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and their charge transfer behavior was compared with that in the PbS-QD/MWCNT system. Results demonstrate that although the CdS shell serves as an electron transfer barrier, the electrons excited in the PbS cores can still be transferred into the MWCNTs efficiently when the shell thickness is ~0.7 nm. Considering their higher stability, these core@shell QDs are very promising for the development of highly efficient QD-based photovoltaic devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The PL and absorption spectra of PbS@CdS QDs in solution and in films with and without the combination of MWCNTs, Gaussian curve fit to the PL spectra of representative QD film samples, PL lifetime and charge transfer rate from QDs to electron or hole scavengers, radial distribution functions for 1s electron levels of the PbS@CdS core@shell QD with a different core size and constant shell thickness. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03691j

Zhao, Haiguang; Liang, Hongyan; Gonfa, Belete Atomsa; Chaker, Mohamed; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki; Tijssen, Peter; Vidal, François; Ma, Dongling

2013-12-01

188

Experimental study of single-phase pressure drop and heat transfer in a micro-fin tube  

SciTech Connect

The single-phase pressure drop and heat transfer in a micro-fin tube were measured using oil and water as the working fluids. The Prandtl number varied from 3.2 to 220 and the Reynolds number ranged from 2500 to 90,000. The results show that there is a critical Reynolds number, Re{sub cr}, for heat transfer enhancement. For Retransfer in the micro-fin tube is the same as that in a smooth tube, but for Reynolds numbers higher than Re{sub cr}, the heat transfer in the micro-fin tube is gradually enhanced compared with a smooth tube. It reaches more than twice that in a smooth tube for Reynolds numbers greater than 30,000 with water as the working fluid. The Nusselt number is proportional to Pr {sup 0.56} in the enhanced region and is proportional to Pr {sup 0.3} in the non-enhanced region. For the high Prandtl number working fluid (oil, 80< Pr <220), the critical Reynolds number for heat transfer enhancement is about 6000, while for the low Prandtl number working fluid (water, 3.2< Pr <5.8), the critical Reynolds number for heat transfer enhancement is about 10,000. The friction factors in the micro-fin tube are almost the same as for a smooth tube for Reynolds numbers below 10,000. For Reynolds numbers higher than 30,000, the friction factor is about 40-50% higher than for a smooth tube. (author)

Li, Xiao-Wei; Meng, Ji-An; Li, Zhi-Xin [School of Aerospace, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2007-11-15

189

Pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics for single-phase developing flow of water in rectangular microchannels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were conducted to investigate the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of single-phase flow of de-ionized water in single copper microchannels of hydraulic diameters 0.438 mm, 0.561 mm and 0.635 mm. The channel length was 62 mm. The experimental conditions covered a range of mass flux from 500 to 5000 kg/m2 s in the laminar, transitional and low Reynolds number turbulent regimes. Pressure drop was measured for adiabatic flows with fluid inlet temperatures of 30°C, 60°C and 90°C. In the heat transfer tests, the heat flux ranged from 256 kW/m2 to 519 kW/m2. Friction factors and Nusselt numbers determined from the measurements were higher than for fully-developed conditions, but in reasonable agreement with predictions made using published solutions for hydrodynamically and thermally developing flow. When entrance effects, experimental uncertainties, heat losses, inlet and exit losses, thermal boundary conditions and departure from laminar flow were considered, the results indicate that equations developed for flow and heat transfer in conventional size channels are applicable for water flows in microchannels of these sizes.

Mirmanto; Kenning, D. B. R.; Lewis, J. S.; Karayiannis, T. G.

2012-11-01

190

Accumulation of advanced glycation end products in the rabbit blastocyst under maternal diabetes.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus (DM) during pregnancy is one of the leading causes of perinatal morbidity and birth defects. The mechanism by which maternal hyperglycemia, the major teratogenic factor, induces embryonic malformations remains unclear. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are known to accumulate during the course of DM and contribute to the development of diabetic complications. Employing a diabetic rabbit model, we investigated the influence of maternal hyperglycemia during the preimplantation period on AGE formation (pentosidine, argpyrimidine, and N(?)-carboxymethyllysine (CML)) in the reproductive tract and the embryo itself. As a consequence of type 1 DM, the AGE levels in blood plasma increased up to 50%, correlating closely with an AGE accumulation in the endometrium of diabetic females. Embryos from diabetic mothers had increased protein-bound CML levels and showed enhanced fluorescent signals for AGE-specific fluorescence in the blastocyst cavity fluid (BCF). The quantification of CML by HPLC-mass spectrometry (MS/MS) showed a higher amount of soluble CML in the BCF of blastocysts from diabetic rabbits (0.26±0.05??mol/l) compared with controls (0.18±0.02??mol/l). The high amount of AGEs in blastocysts from diabetic mothers correlates positively with an increased AGER (receptor for AGE (RAGE)) mRNA expression. Our study gives alarming insights into the consequences of poorly controlled maternal diabetes for AGE formation in the embryo. Maternal hyperglycemia during the preimplantation period is correlated with an increase in AGE formation in the uterine environment and the embryo itself. This may influence the development of the embryo through increased AGE-mediated cellular stress by RAGEs. PMID:24821834

Haucke, Elisa; Navarrete Santos, Alexander; Simm, Andreas; Henning, Christian; Glomb, Marcus A; Gürke, Jacqueline; Schindler, Maria; Fischer, Bernd; Navarrete Santos, Anne

2014-08-01

191

Origin of the red sites and energy transfer rates in single MEH-PPV chains at low temperature.  

PubMed

Single poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) molecules dispersed in thin poly(methylmethacrylate) films have been investigated by fluorescence emission, excitation and time-resolved spectroscopy at 1.2 K. For the molecular weight studied (?200 kDa) a bimodal distribution of emission maxima is observed. Based on a comparison of the spectroscopic properties of blue and red sites and on polarisation-resolved measurements, we argue in agreement with recent quantum-chemical calculations that the red subpopulation most probably does not arise from interchromophoric excitation delocalisation but is to be attributed to longer chromophoric units originating from ordered regions of a polymer chain, where due to constraints on the chain conformation larger conjugation lengths can be realised. In excitation spectra within the red spectral region we can identify multiple chromophoric units, among them chromophores without correspondence in the emission spectrum-donors of the intramolecular energy transfer. Zero-phonon lines of donor chromophores proved to be significantly broadened, indicating fast excited-state population decay due to energy transfer. Thus, a distribution of energy transfer times within MEH-PPV chains could be determined from donor zero-phonon line widths, with an average value of 3.9 ps. Our study represents the first direct measurement of energy transfer times in conjugated polymers, parameters that are crucial for the performance of many technical applications based on this class of material. PMID:21472962

Feist, Florian A; Zickler, Martin F; Basché, Thomas

2011-06-01

192

Polarised single crystal infra-red spectra and optical indicatrix rotation in an organic charge transfer molecule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polarised infrared reflectance spectra have been obtained for oriented single crystals of the polar organic nonlinear optical material 2-(?-methylbenzylamino)-5-nitropyridine (MBANP). The strong charge transfer electronic absorption was measured in several solvents and as a thin solid film. DFT calculations of vibrational frequencies and eigenvectors were used to assign relevant vibrational features and to derive useful information about the molecular structure. The intensities of the bands associated with the donor and acceptor groups are increased by electron phonon coupling with the strong charge transfer transition. This results in unusually strong NO2 and N-H stretching vibrations. The spectra are consistent with a large rotation of the optical indicatrix with increasing wavelength due to the bent shape and strong electron-phonon coupling in the molecule.

Bailey, R. T.; Bourhill, G. H.; Cruickshank, F. R.; Sherwood, J. N.; Tedford, M. C.

2013-09-01

193

Theoretical and simulation tools for electron transfer and chain reactions in single walled carbon nanotubes  

E-print Network

Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) are cylindrical sheets of graphene whose electronic structures and diameters are determined by their chiralities. Current synthetic methods produce batches of nanotubes containing a ...

Nair, Nitish

2009-01-01

194

Flame transfer function measurements and mechanisms in a single-nozzle combustor.  

E-print Network

??The response of a fully-premixed flame to velocity fluctuations was experimentally measured in a single-nozzle, swirl-stabilized, model gas turbine combustor. Flame response was quantified in… (more)

Bunce, Nicholas

2013-01-01

195

Pregnancies, calves and calf viability after transfer of in vitro produced bovine embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregnancy, parturition and calf survival following the transfer of embryos produced in vitro were monitored. A total of 44 blastocysts was transferred in pairs to 1 uterine horn ipsilateral to the corpus luteum (CL) of 22 synchronized heifers. At Day 42 of development 14 recipients (64%) were pregnant; the calving rate was also 64%. The twinning rate was 9\\/14 at

M. Schmidt; T. Greve; B. Avery; J. F. Beckers; J. Sulon; H. B. Hansen

1996-01-01

196

Embryonic stem cells generated by nuclear transfer of human somatic nuclei into rabbit oocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To solve the problem of immune incompatibility, nuclear transplantation has been envisaged as a means to produce cells or tissues for human autologous transplantation. Here we have derived embryonic stem cells by the transfer of human somatic nuclei into rabbit oocytes. The number of blastocysts that developed from the fused nuclear transfer was comparable among nuclear donors at ages of

Ying CHEN; Zhi Xu HE; Ailian LIU; Kai WANG; Wen Wei MAO; Jian Xin CHU; Yong LU; Zheng Fu FANG; Ying Tang SHI; Qing Zhang YANG; Da Yuan CHEN; Min Kang WANG; Jin Song LI; Shao Liang HUANG; Xiang Yin KONG; Yao Zhou SHI; Zhi Qiang WANG; Jia Hui XIA; Zhi Gao LONG; Zhi Gang XUE; Wen Xiang DING; Hui Zhen SHENG

2003-01-01

197

Interspecies Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Is Dependent on Compatible Mitochondrial DNA and Reprogramming Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) involves the transfer of a nucleus or cell from one species into the cytoplasm of an enucleated oocyte from another. Once activated, reconstructed oocytes can be cultured in vitro to blastocyst, the final stage of preimplantation development. However, they often arrest during the early stages of preimplantation development; fail to reprogramme the somatic nucleus;

Yan Jiang; Richard Kelly; Amy Peters; Helena Fulka; Adam Dickinson; Daniel A. Mitchell; Justin C. St. John; Joanna Mary Bridger

2011-01-01

198

Low Levels of X-Inactive Specific Transcript in Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos Derived from Female Bovine Freemartin Donor Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study compared developmental potential, telomerase activity and transcript levels of X-linked genes (HPRT, MECP2, RPS4X, SLC25A6, XIAP, XIST and ZFX) in bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos reconstructed with cells derived from a freemartin (female with a male co-twin) or from normal female cattle (control). The rates of cleavage, development to blastocyst and hatched blastocyst stage, and

B.-G. Jeon; G.-J. Rho; D. H. Betts; J. J. Petrik; L. A. Favetta; W. A. King

2012-01-01

199

Charge transfer through single molecule contacts: How reliable are rate descriptions?  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: The trend for the fabrication of electrical circuits with nanoscale dimensions has led to impressive progress in the field of molecular electronics in the last decade. However, a theoretical description of molecular contacts as the building blocks of future devices is challenging, as it has to combine the properties of Fermi liquids in the leads with charge and phonon degrees of freedom on the molecule. Outside of ab initio schemes for specific set-ups, generic models reveal the characteristics of transport processes. Particularly appealing are descriptions based on transfer rates successfully used in other contexts such as mesoscopic physics and intramolecular electron transfer. However, a detailed analysis of this scheme in comparison with numerically exact solutions is still elusive. Results: We show that a formulation in terms of transfer rates provides a quantitatively accurate description even in domains of parameter space where strictly it is expected to fail, e.g., at lower temperatures. Typically, intramolecular phonons are distributed according to a voltage driven steady state that can only roughly be captured by a thermal distribution with an effective elevated temperature (heating). An extension of a master equation for the charge–phonon complex, to effectively include the impact of off-diagonal elements of the reduced density matrix, provides very accurate solutions even for stronger electron–phonon coupling. Conclusion: Rate descriptions and master equations offer a versatile model to describe and understand charge transfer processes through molecular junctions. Such methods are computationally orders of magnitude less expensive than elaborate numerical simulations that, however, provide exact solutions as benchmarks. Adjustable parameters obtained, e.g., from ab initio calculations allow for the treatment of various realizations. Even though not as rigorously formulated as, e.g., nonequilibrium Green’s function methods, they are conceptually simpler, more flexible for extensions, and from a practical point of view provide accurate results as long as strong quantum correlations do not modify the properties of the relevant subunits substantially. PMID:22003449

Kecke, L; Ankerhold, J

2011-01-01

200

SEARCH. Single-Phase, Turbulent Heat-Transfer Friction-Factor Data Base Flow Enhanced Tb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat-exchanger designers need to know what type of performance improvement can be obtained before they will consider enhanced tubes. In particular, they need access to the heat-transfer coefficients and friction-factor values of enhanced tube types that are commercially available. To compile these data from the numerous publications and reports in the open literature is a formidable task that can discourage

T. S. Ravigurguran; T. J. Rabas

1993-01-01

201

Lysophosphatidic Acid Signaling in Late Cleavage and Blastocyst Stage Bovine Embryos  

PubMed Central

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a known cell signaling lipid mediator in reproductive tissues. In the cow, LPA is involved in luteal and early pregnancy maintenance. Here, we evaluated the presence and role of LPA in bovine early embryonic development. In relevant aspects, bovine embryos reflect more closely the scenario occurring in human embryos than the mouse model. Transcription of mRNA and protein expression of enzymes involved in LPA synthesis (ATX and cPLA2) and of LPA receptors (LPAR1–4) were detected in Days 5 and 8 in vitro produced embryos. Embryonic LPA production into culture medium was also detected at both stages of development. Supplementation of culture medium with LPA (10?5?M) between Days 2 and 8 had no effect on embryo yield and quality and on blastocyst relative mRNA abundance of genes involved in prostaglandin synthesis (PTGS2, PGES, and PGFS) and steroidogenesis (3?HSD). However, LPA treatment affected transcription levels of embryo quality markers, decreasing BAX (apoptotic) and increasing BCL2 (antiapoptotic) and IGF2R (growth marker) gene transcription levels. Blastocyst transcription of OCT4 (pluripotency marker) was not affected by LPA stimulation. In conclusion, LPA is an early bovine embryonic autocrine/paracrine signaling mediator, and LPA action may be relevant in early embryo-maternal interactions leading to embryonic survival. PMID:24833815

Torres, Ana Catarina; Boruszewska, Dorota; Batista, Mariana; Kowalczyk-Zieba, Ilona; Sinderewicz, Emilia; Saulnier-Blache, Jean Sebastian; Woclawek-Potocka, Izabela; Lopes-da-Costa, Luis

2014-01-01

202

Probing Single-Neutron Levels in 127,129Sn via Transfer Reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The (d,p) reaction was measured with radioactive ion beams of 126Sn and 128Sn (~5 MeV/u) in inverse kinematics at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, utilizing the SuperORRUBA silicon detector array. Angular distributions of reaction protons were measured for several states in 127Sn and 129Sn in order to determine angular momentum transfers and deduce spectroscopic factors. Combined with previous experiments on 130Sn and 132Sn, these results provide a complete set of (d,p) reaction data on even tin isotopes between stable 124Sn and doubly magic 132Sn.

Manning, B.; Cizewski, J. A.; Howard, M. E.; O'Malley, P. D.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Kozub, R. L.; Ahn, S.; Jones, K. L.; Pittman, S. T.; Allmond, J. M.; Bardayan, D. W.; Beene, J. R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Liang, J. F.; Nesaraja, C. D.; Pain, S. D.; Radford, D. C.; Schmitt, K. T.; Shapira, D.; Smith, M. S.; Chae, K. Y.; Chipps, K. A.; Matos, M.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Peters, W. A.

2014-09-01

203

Studies of Nuclei Close to 132Sn Using Single-Neutron Transfer Reactions  

SciTech Connect

Neutron transfer reactions were performed in inverse kinematics using radioactive ion beams of 132Sn, 130Sn, and 134Te and deuterated polyethylene targets. Preliminary results are presented. The Q-value spectra for 133Sn, 131Sn and 135Te reveal a number of previously unobserved peaks. The angular distributions are compatible with the expected lf7/2 nature of the ground state of 133Sn, and 2p3/2 for the 3.4 MeV state in 131Sn.

Jones, K. L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Pain, S. D. [Rutgers University; Kozub, R. L. [Tennessee Technological University; Adekola, Aderemi S [ORNL; Bardayan, Daniel W [ORNL; Blackmon, Jeff C [ORNL; Catford, Wilton N [ORNL; Chae, K. Y. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chipps, K. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Cizewski, J. A. [Rutgers University; Erikson, Luke [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Gaddis, A. L. [Furman University; Greife, U. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Grzywacz, R. K. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Harlin, Christopher W [ORNL; Hatarik, Robert [Rutgers University; Howard, Joshua A [ORNL; James, J. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Kapler, R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Krolas, W. [University of Warsaw; Liang, J Felix [ORNL; Ma, Zhanwen [ORNL; Matei, Catalin [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU); Moazen, Brian [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nesaraja, Caroline D [ORNL; O'Malley, Patrick [Rutgers University; Patterson, N. P. [University of Surrey, UK; Paulauskas, Stanley [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Shapira, Dan [ORNL; ShrinerJr., J. F. [Tennessee Technological University; Sikora, M. [Rutgers University; Sissom, D. J. [Tennessee Technological University; Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL; Swan, T. P. [University of Surrey, UK; Thomas, J. S. [Rutgers University; Wilson, Gemma L [ORNL

2009-01-01

204

Heat-Mass Transfer and Structure Formation During Drying of Single Food Droplets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, some fundamental aspects of research on the subject are briefly reviewed. These aspects include that the major mathematical models proposed for single droplet drying, the major experimental techniques for measuring drying kinetics, the micro-structural aspects of the particle formed in lab and in commercial spray dryers, the solid\\/solute segregation phenomena and their relation to functional properties of

Xiao Dong Chen

2004-01-01

205

Film transfer and bonding techniques for covering single-chip ejector array with microchannels and reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel covering technique for an MEMS ejector array that is integrated with liquid reservoirs and microchannels on a single chip. The covering technique is based on wicking of a low viscous epoxy through the gap between the ejector wafer and a plate containing a parylene film, and allows the integrated ejector array to be fully covered

Jae Wan Kwon; Hongyu Yu; Eun Sok Kim

2005-01-01

206

Study of Sequential Dexter Energy Transfer in High Efficient Phosphorescent White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Single Emissive Layer  

PubMed Central

In this study, we report our effort to realize high performance single emissive layer three color white phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) through sequential Dexter energy transfer of blue, green and red dopants. The PHOLEDs had a structure of; ITO(1500 Å)/NPB(700 Å)/mCP:Firpic-x%:Ir(ppy)3-0.5%:Ir(piq)3-y%(300 Å)/TPBi(300 Å)/Liq(20 Å)/Al(1200 Å). The dopant concentrations of FIrpic, Ir(ppy)3 and Ir(piq)3 were adjusted and optimized to facilitate the preferred energy transfer processes attaining both the best luminous efficiency and CIE color coordinates. The presence of a deep trapping center for charge carriers in the emissive layer was confirmed by the observed red shift in electroluminescent spectra. White PHOLEDs, with phosphorescent dopant concentrations of FIrpic-8.0%:Ir(ppy)3-0.5%:Ir(piq)3-0.5% in the mCP host of the single emissive layer, had a maximum luminescence of 37,810?cd/m2 at 11?V and a luminous efficiency of 48.10?cd/A at 5?V with CIE color coordinates of (0.35, 0.41). PMID:25388087

Kim, Jin Wook; You, Seung Il; Kim, Nam Ho; Yoon, Ju-An; Cheah, Kok Wai; Zhu, Fu Rong; Kim, Woo Young

2014-01-01

207

Study of sequential dexter energy transfer in high efficient phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diodes with single emissive layer.  

PubMed

In this study, we report our effort to realize high performance single emissive layer three color white phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) through sequential Dexter energy transfer of blue, green and red dopants. The PHOLEDs had a structure of; ITO(1500 Å)/NPB(700 Å)/mCP:Firpic-x%:Ir(ppy)3-0.5%:Ir(piq)3-y%(300 Å)/TPBi(300 Å)/Liq(20 Å)/Al(1200 Å). The dopant concentrations of FIrpic, Ir(ppy)3 and Ir(piq)3 were adjusted and optimized to facilitate the preferred energy transfer processes attaining both the best luminous efficiency and CIE color coordinates. The presence of a deep trapping center for charge carriers in the emissive layer was confirmed by the observed red shift in electroluminescent spectra. White PHOLEDs, with phosphorescent dopant concentrations of FIrpic-8.0%:Ir(ppy)3-0.5%:Ir(piq)3-0.5% in the mCP host of the single emissive layer, had a maximum luminescence of 37,810?cd/m(2) at 11?V and a luminous efficiency of 48.10?cd/A at 5?V with CIE color coordinates of (0.35, 0.41). PMID:25388087

Kim, Jin Wook; You, Seung Il; Kim, Nam Ho; Yoon, Ju-An; Cheah, Kok Wai; Zhu, Fu Rong; Kim, Woo Young

2014-01-01

208

An experimental investigation of heat transfer and flow friction characteristics of louvered fin surfaces by the modified single blow technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development of an experimental facility to determine the heat transfer and flow friction characteristics of heat exchange surfaces by the modified single blow technique and the application of this transient technique to evaluate the performance characteristics of louvered fin heat exchangers. The reliability of implementing the modified single blow technique on the developed test facility is borne out by the good agreement in the heat transfer and flow friction data for the parallel plate test core when compared with theoretical and empirical correlations available in the literature. Performance evaluation of two louvered fin surfaces used mainly for cooling of large land and marine based electrical power generator sets is carried out and compared with similar louvered fin surfaces available in the literature. On the basis of dimensionless area and power factors, it was found that the flat fin is slightly superior in overall performance than its corrugated counterpart for low Reynolds numbers. Both surfaces are however inferior in performance when compared with the flat fin surface of Achaichia and Cowell and the corrugated fin surface of Davenport. Use of the j/f ratio as an approximate figure of merit led to an inaccurate assessment of the performance of the louvered fin heat exchanger surfaces evaluated in this study.

Leong, K. C.; Toh, K. C.

209

A simplified one-step nuclear transfer procedure alters the gene expression patterns and developmental potential of cloned porcine embryos  

PubMed Central

Various somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) techniques for mammalian species have been developed to adjust species-specific procedures to oocyte-associated differences among species. Species-specific SCNT protocols may result in different expression levels of developmentally important genes that may affect embryonic development and pregnancy. In the present study, porcine oocytes were treated with demecolcine that facilitated enucleation with protruding genetic material. Enucleation and donor cell injection were performed either simultaneously with a single pipette (simplified one-step SCNT; SONT) or separately with different pipettes (conventional two-step SCNT; CTNT) as the control procedure. After blastocysts from both groups were cultured in vitro, the expression levels of developmentally important genes (OCT4, NANOG, EOMES, CDX2, GLUT-1, PolyA, and HSP70) were analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Both the developmental rate according to blastocyst stage as well as the expression levels CDX2, EOMES, and HSP70 were elevated with SONT compared to CTNT. The genes with elevated expression are known to influence trophectoderm formation and heat stress-induced arrest. These results showed that our SONT technique improved the development of SCNT porcine embryos, and increased the expression of genes that are important for placental formation and stress-induced arrest. PMID:23820223

Park, Sang Kyu

2014-01-01

210

Ultrastructure of IVM-IVF bovine blastocysts vitrified after equilibration in glycerol 1,2-propanediol using 2-step and 16-step procedures.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the relationship between survival rates and ultrastructural appearance, using the freeze-replica technique, of bovine blastocysts after vitrification. In experiment 1, blastocysts obtained from in vitro-matured and in vitro-fertilized (IVM-IVF) bovine oocytes were either equilibrated in a stepwise manner in a vitrification solution (VS; 22.5% glycerol + 22.5% 1,2-propanediol) using 16 steps for 18 min in total (the 16-step method) or equilibrated with 10% glycerol + 20% 1,2-propanediol for 10 min and then exposed to VS (the 2-step method). The blastocysts were then vitrified by plunging them into liquid nitrogen. All samples were subsequently thawed in a water bath at 37 degrees C and cultured in vitro with a monolayer of cumulus cells. The survival rate obtained for blastocysts equilibrated by the 16-step method was 83.3% (25/30). In contrast, no blastocysts survived by the 2-step method (0/30). In experiment 2, freeze-replica observations were carried out on blastocysts vitrified by the 16-step method and the 2-step method. In all the blastocysts, no ice crystals were observed in the cytoplasm, blastocoelic cavity, or extracellular areas, which confirmed the occurrence of complete vitrification. Little ultrastructural change was observed in the plasma membrane of the blastocysts equilibrated by the 16-step method. In contrast, small vesicles and distinct intramembrane particle (IMP) aggregation were frequently observed in the plasma membranes of blastocysts equilibrated by the 2-step method. These results indicate that the successful cryopreservation of blastocysts following the 16-step equilibration requires not only complete vitrification, but also minimization of ultrastructural damage to the plasma membrane. PMID:7988150

Kuwayama, M; Fujikawa, S; Nagai, T

1994-10-01

211

Alignable lift-off transfer of device arrays via a single polymeric carrier membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report epitaxial liftoff and direct bonding of GaAs\\/Alx Ga1-xAs heterostructure device arrays and continuous films, using a single, transparent polymer membrane to support the material during the etch of the sacrificial layer and to manipulate it into position for bonding in minutes. Au-Sn eutectic alloy bonding leads to a metallurgical bond in minutes. Absorption and current-voltage characteristics show that

John J. Callahan; Rainer Dohle; K. P. Martin; T. J. Drabik

1995-01-01

212

Electron Transfer between Cytochrome C and Cytochome C Peroxidase in Single Crystals  

SciTech Connect

Cytochrome c (Cc) and cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) form an important redox pair for understanding interprotein electron transfer (ET). Measurements of ET rates from photoexcited CcP substituted with Zn porphyrin to either yeast Fe(III)Cc or horse Fe(III)Cc in crystals reveal that the molecular associations found in the respective crystal structures determine solution reactivity. Similar forward rates for yeast isozyme-1 Cc (yCc) and yCc homologue horse Cc (hCc), despite different orientations relative to CcP, suggest small-amplitude conformational gating of ET even in the crystalline state; faster back ET in the yCc compared to the hCc complex agrees with the relative coupling between redox sites predicted by the structures.

Kang, Seong A.; Marjavaara, Pieti J.; Crane, Brian R. (Cornell)

2010-11-10

213

Single-Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications  

SciTech Connect

Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance. To understand the power flow through the system this paper presents a novel approach to the system model and the impact of different control parameters on the load power. The implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation is also discussed.

Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL] [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL] [ORNL; Miller, John M [ORNL] [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

214

Manipulation of a single Mn spin using excitation transfer between two coupled CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A semiconductor quantum dot (QD) containing a single Mn atom is a promising system from the point of view of future information processing and storage devices. An efficient optical read-out of the single Mn spin state in a CdTe/ZnTe quantum dot, as well as studies of dynamics of this state, were recently reported by L. Besombes and co-workers. However, to construct the building blocks of future memory devices basing on single magnetic atoms the ability to control a single spin is still needed. This work is focused on the advancement in writing and storing of information on the Mn spin state. We demonstrate optical writing of information on the spin state of a single Mn ion embedded in a CdTe QD and we test the storage time in the range of a few tenths of a millisecond. A spin-conserving excitation transfer between two coupled QDs is used as a tool for optical manipulation of the Mn spin. Excitons resonantly created in a dot without magnetic atom by circularly polarized light tunnel to the dot with the Mn ion in a few picoseconds. Then they act on the Mn ion via the sp-d exchange interaction and orient its spin. The orientation is much more efficient in presence of a magnetic field of about 1T, due to suppression of fast spin relaxation channels. Dynamics of the Mn spin under polarized excitation as well as the information storage time on the Mn spin was measured in a time-resolved experiment, in which the intensity and polarization of excitation were modulated. Observed dynamics can be described with a simple rate equation model. The storage time was enhanced by the magnetic field and reached about half a millisecond at 1T.

Goryca, Mateusz

2010-02-01

215

The impact of exposure to serum lipids during in vitro culture on the transcriptome of bovine blastocysts.  

PubMed

In vitro culture has a detrimental impact on early embryonic development, and serum addition to IVC is recognized to compromise blastocyst quality. Particularly, serum fatty acids affect embryonic lipid composition and reduce cryopreservation survival. To understand the molecular pathways of serum-induced embryonic stress, this study examined the early development of bovine embryos produced in different protein- or lipid-supplemented culture media: BSA alone (control), BSA + serum lipid fraction (SELF), delipidated serum and total serum. These protein-lipid treatments were applied from the eight to 16 cell stages to the blastocyst stage. As planned, SELF treatment increased the fatty acid concentration in the medium compared with control medium but did not induce embryo toxicity. However, microarray comparison between blastocysts cultured in BSA without or with SELF revealed differential transcriptomic profile associated with ceramide-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. Moreover, the SELF treatment had a significant impact on genes involved in cholesterol metabolism (LDLR, HMGCS1), with the potential upstream control of the transcription factors SREBP and PPARA, two major regulators of cholesterol metabolism. In addition, the expression of pluripotence-related genes (APEX, CLDN6) was downregulated in blastocysts subjected to either SELF or total serum. Taken together, these results illustrate how the early embryonic transcriptome responds to increased lipid exposure through an inflammatory and metabolic signature. PMID:24439163

Cagnone, Gael; Sirard, Marc-André

2014-03-15

216

On the definition of dominant force regimes for flow boiling heat transfer by using single mini-tubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent increase in the size of space platforms requires the management of larger amount of waste heat under high heat flux conditions and the transportation of it along a long distance to the radiator. Flow boiling applied to the thermal management system in space attracts much attention as promising means to realize high-performance heat transfer and transport because of large latent heat of vaporization. In microgravity two-phase flow phenomena are quite different from those under 1-g condition because buoyancy effects are significantly reduced and surface tension becomes dominant. By the similar reason, flow boiling characteristics in mini channels are not the same as those in channels of normal sizes. In the present stage, however, the boundary between the regimes of body force dominated and of surface tension dominated is not clear. The design of space thermal devices, operated under the conditions where no effect of gravity is expected, will improve the reliability of their ground tests, provided that the boundaries of dominant force regimes are clarified quantitatively in advance. In flow boiling in mini channels or in parallel channels, back flow could be occurred because of rapid growth of bubbles in a confined space, resulting flow rate fluctuation. Flow boiling heat transfer characteristics in mini channels can be changed considerably by the existence of inlet flow rate fluctuation. It is important to pay attention to experimental accuracy and to use a single circular mini-tube to compare heat transfer characteristics with those of normal size tubes. In the present paper, effects of tube orientations, i.e. vertical upward flow, vertical downward flow and horizontal flow, on flow boiling heat transfer characteristics is investigated for FC72 flowing in single mini-tubes with inner diameters of 0.13 and 0.51 mm to establish a reliable dominant force regime map. If the regime map is described by using dimensionless groups of Bond, Weber and Froude numbers, the boundary of dominant forces of inertia and body force is examined by using the mini-tube of the larger diameter at constant Bond number Bo = 0.51, and the boundary of inertia and surface tension by using the mini-tube of smaller diameter at Bo = 0.033. The influence of inertia is varied by the change of vapor quality, i.e. ratio of vapor mass flow rate to the total, under constant mass velocities, where the velocity of liquid-vapor mixtures is increased with increasing vapor quality. For the tube diameter of 0.51 mm, under low inertia conditions at Froude number Fr < 5, heat transfer coefficients were influenced by the tube orientation, while the heat transfer coefficients were almost independent of the orientation for Fr > 5. The results indicated that the boundary between the body force dominated and the inertia force dominated regimes was given by Froude number as Fr ˜ 5. On the other hand, for tube diameter of 0.13 mm, almost no effect of tube = orientation was observed for all combinations of mass velocity and vapor quality, and heat transfer coefficients were independent of vapor quality under low inertia conditions at Weber number We < 5, and vice versa. The results implied the boundary between the surface tension dominated and the inertia force dominated regimes was represented by We ˜ 5. = In addition, by the reflection of both results on the two-dimensional regime map, the boundary between the surface tension dominated and the body force dominated regimes was approx-imately evaluated as Bo ˜ 0.25 from the crossing point of two boundary lines. This value = located in the range of 0.033 < Bo < 0.51 is consistent with the boundaries between the sur-face tension dominated and the body force dominated regimes classified for the smaller and larger mini-tubes, respectively, under low inertia conditions.

Baba, Soumei; Sawada, Kenichiro; Kubota, Chisato; Kawanami, Osamu; Asano, Hitoshi; Inoue, Koichi; Ohta, Haruhiko

217

Probing Single-Molecule T4 Lysozyme Conformational Dynamics by Intramolecular Fluorescence Energy Transfer  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate the use of single-molecule spectroscopy to study enzyme conformational motions of T4 lysozyme under hydrolysis reaction of the polysaccharide walls of E. Coli B cells.By attaching a donoracceptor pair of dye molecules site-specifically to noninterfering sites on the enzyme, the hinge-bending motions of the enzyme are measured by monitoring the donor-acceptor emission intensity as a function of time. The overall enzymatic reaction rate constants are found to vary widely from molecule to molecule. The dominant contribution to this static inhomogeneity is attributed to enzyme searching for reactive sites on the substrate.

Chen, Yu; Hu, Dehong; Vorpagel, Erich R.; Lu, H PETER.

2003-07-16

218

Bi and Cu valence characterization and charge transfer in single-phase Bi-2212 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samples with 0953-2048/11/1/023/img1 composition were synthesized by an original process based on the spray drying of a nitrate solution of Bi, Sr, Ca and Cu cations complexed with EDTA at pH > 6. After calcination at 0953-2048/11/1/023/img2 and grinding, the samples were sintered in the range 0953-2048/11/1/023/img3 in air and annealed between 0953-2048/11/1/023/img4 and 0953-2048/11/1/023/img5 in nitrogen. The relationships between critical temperature (0953-2048/11/1/023/img6 and 0953-2048/11/1/023/img7), Bi and Cu valences (determined by permanganate and iodometric titration) and cell parameter c were investigated. The relatively weak variation of Bi with respect to that of Cu as a function of the oxygen excess 0953-2048/11/1/023/img8 in the BiO planes provides evidence for a `buffer' effect in these planes induced by the charge transfer from the 0953-2048/11/1/023/img9 planes.

Duvigneaud, P. H.; DeBoeck, C.; Guo, Y. F.

1998-01-01

219

Oct4 cell-autonomously promotes primitive endoderm development in the mouse blastocyst  

PubMed Central

Summary In embryonic stem (ES) cells and in early mouse embryos, the transcription factor Oct4 is an essential regulator of pluripotency. Oct4 transcriptional targets have been described in ES cell lines; however, the molecular mechanisms by which Oct4 regulates establishment of pluripotency in the epiblast (EPI) have not been fully elucidated. Here we show that neither maternal nor zygotic Oct4 are required for formation of EPI cells in the blastocyst. Rather, Oct4 is first required for development of the primitive endoderm (PE), an extraembryonic lineage. EPI cells promote PE fate in neighboring cells by secreting Fgf4, and Oct4 is required for expression of Fgf4, but we show that Oct4 promotes PE development cell-autonomously, downstream of Fgf4 and Mapk. Finally, we show that Oct4 is required for expression of multiple EPI and PE genes, as well as multiple metabolic pathways essential for the continued growth of the preimplantation embryo. PMID:23747191

Frum, Tristan; Halbisen, Michael A.; Wang, Chaoyang; Amiri, Hossein; Robson, Paul; Ralston, Amy

2014-01-01

220

Blastocyst Injection of Wild Type Embryonic Stem Cells Induces Global Corrections in Mdx Mice  

PubMed Central

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an incurable neuromuscular degenerative disease, caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene. Mdx mice recapitulate DMD features. Here we show that injection of wild-type (WT) embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into mdx blastocysts produces mice with improved pathology and function. A small fraction of WT ESCs incorporates into the mdx mouse nonuniformly to upregulate protein levels of dystrophin in the skeletal muscle. The chimeric muscle shows reduced regeneration and restores dystrobrevin, a dystrophin-related protein, in areas with high and with low dystrophin content. WT ESC injection increases the amount of fat in the chimeras to reach WT levels. ESC injection without dystrophin does not prevent the appearance of phenotypes in the skeletal muscle or in the fat. Thus, dystrophin supplied by the ESCs reverses disease in mdx mice globally in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:19277212

Beck, Amanda; Schneider, Joel; Khadim, Farah; Elson, Genie; Altaf, Aneela; Yehia, Ghassan; Dong, Jia-hui; Liu, Jing; Mark, Willie; Bhaumik, Mantu; Grange, Robert; Fraidenraich, Diego

2009-01-01

221

Ouabain Stimulates a Na+/K+-ATPase-Mediated SFK-Activated Signalling Pathway That Regulates Tight Junction Function in the Mouse Blastocyst  

PubMed Central

The Na+/K+-ATPase plays a pivotal role during preimplantation development; it establishes a trans-epithelial ionic gradient that facilitates the formation of the fluid-filled blastocyst cavity, crucial for implantation and successful pregnancy. The Na+/K+-ATPase is also implicated in regulating tight junctions and cardiotonic steroid (CTS)-induced signal transduction via SRC. We investigated the expression of SRC family kinase (SFK) members, Src and Yes, during preimplantation development and determined whether SFK activity is required for blastocyst formation. Embryos were collected following super-ovulation of CD1 or MF1 female mice. RT-PCR was used to detect SFK mRNAs encoding Src and Yes throughout preimplantation development. SRC and YES protein were localized throughout preimplantation development. Treatment of mouse morulae with the SFK inhibitors PP2 and SU6656 for 18 hours resulted in a reversible blockade of progression to the blastocyst stage. Blastocysts treated with 10?3 M ouabain for 2 or 10 minutes and immediately immunostained for phosphorylation at SRC tyr418 displayed reduced phosphorylation while in contrast blastocysts treated with 10?4 M displayed increased tyr418 fluorescence. SFK inhibition increased and SFK activation reduced trophectoderm tight junction permeability in blastocysts. The results demonstrate that SFKs are expressed during preimplantation development and that SFK activity is required for blastocyst formation and is an important mediator of trophectoderm tight junction permeability. PMID:21901128

Giannatselis, Holly; Calder, Michele; Watson, Andrew J.

2011-01-01

222

Biological construction of single-walled carbon nanotube electron transfer pathways in dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

We designed and mass-produced a versatile protein supramolecule that can be used to manufacture a highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Twelve single-walled carbon-nanotube (SWNT)-binding and titanium-mineralizing peptides were genetically integrated on a cage-shaped dodecamer protein (CDT1). A process involving simple mixing of highly conductive SWNTs with CDT1 followed by TiO2 biomineralization produces a high surface-area/weight TiO2 -(anatase)-coated intact SWNT nanocomposite under environmentally friendly conditions. A DSSC with a TiO2 photoelectrode containing 0.2?wt?% of the SWNT-TiO2 nanocomposite shows a current density improvement by 80?% and a doubling of the photoelectric conversion efficiency. The SWNT-TiO2 nanocomposite transfers photon-generated electrons from dye molecules adsorbed on the TiO2 to the anode electrode swiftly. PMID:25111295

Inoue, Ippei; Watanabe, Kiyoshi; Yamauchi, Hirofumi; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Yasueda, Hisashi; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Yamashita, Ichiro

2014-10-01

223

SiC MOSFET Based Single Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications  

SciTech Connect

Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges the utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance due to variable parameters such as battery state-of-charge, coupling factor, and coil misalignment. This paper presents the implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation. The proposed SiC MOSFET based single phase active front end rectifier with PFC resulted in >97% efficiency at 137mm air-gap and >95% efficiency at 160mm air-gap.

Onar, Omer C [ORNL] [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL] [ORNL; Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL] [ORNL; Campbell, Steven L [ORNL] [ORNL; Miller (JNJ), John M. [JNJ-Miller PLC] [JNJ-Miller PLC

2014-01-01

224

A single gold nanorod as a plasmon resonance energy transfer based nanosensor for high-sensitivity Cu(ii) detection.  

PubMed

Plasmon resonance energy transfer (PRET) has been widely applied in the detection of bio-recognition, heavy metal ions and cellular reactions with high sensitivity, based on the overlap between the plasmon resonance scattering band of nanoparticles and the absorption band of the surface-modified chromophore molecules. Previous sensors based on PRET were all implemented on gold nanospheres with scattering light in the range of 530 to 600 nm. In this work, a PRET-based nanosensor was developed on a thiol-di(2-picolyl)amine-modified single gold nanorod for the detection of Cu(2+) ions in aqueous solution with high sensitivity and selectivity. Compared to nanospheres, gold nanorods with tunable and wide plasmon resonance bands from the near-infrared to the infrared region exhibit promising potential for development as sensing probes. PMID:25338009

Jing, Chao; Shi, Lei; Liu, Xiaoyuan; Long, Yi-Tao

2014-11-10

225

Probing nucleation, reverse annealing, and chaperone function along the reaction path of HIV-1 single-strand transfer  

PubMed Central

Reverse transcription of the HIV-1 genome involves several nucleic acid rearrangement steps that are catalyzed (chaperoned) by the nucleocapsid protein (NC), including the annealing of the transactivation response region (TAR) RNA of the genome to the complementary sequence (TAR DNA) in minus-strand strong-stop DNA. It has been extremely challenging to obtain unambiguous mechanistic details on the annealing process at the molecular level because of the kinetic involvement of a complex and heterogeneous set of nucleic acid/protein complexes of variable structure and variable composition. Here, we investigate the in vitro annealing mechanism using a multistep single-molecule spectroscopy kinetic method. In this approach, an immobilized hairpin is exposed to a multistep programmed concentration sequence of NC, model complementary targeted-oligonucleotides, and buffer-only solutions. The sequence controllably “drags” single immobilized TAR hairpins among the kinetic stable states of the reaction mechanism; i.e., reactants, intermediates, and products. This single-molecule spectroscopy method directly probes kinetic reversibility and the chaperone (catalytic) role of NC at various stages along the reaction sequence, giving access to previously inaccessible kinetic processes and rate constants. By employing target oligonucleotides for specific TAR regions, we kinetically trap and investigate structural models for putative nucleation complexes for the annealing process. The new results lead to a more complete and detailed understanding of the ability of NC to promote nucleic acid/nucleic acid rearrangement processes. This includes information on the ability of NC to chaperone “reverse annealing” in single-strand transfer and the first observation of partially annealed, conformational substates in the annealing mechanism. PMID:17578926

Zeng, Yining; Liu, Hsiao-Wei; Landes, Christy F.; Kim, Yoen Joo; Ma, Xiaojing; Zhu, Yongjin; Musier-Forsyth, Karin; Barbara, Paul F.

2007-01-01

226

Somatic cell nuclear transfer in horses: effect of oocyte morphology, embryo reconstruction method and donor cell type  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present work was to investigate and clarify the factors affecting the efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) in the horse, including embryo reconstruction, in vitro culture to the blastocyst stage, embryo transfer, preg- nancy monitoring and production of offspring. Matured oocytes, with zona pellucida or after zona removal, were fused to cumulus cells, granulosa cells,

Irina Lagutina; Giovanna Lazzari; Roberto Duchi; Silvia Colleoni; Nunzia Ponderato; Paola Turini; Gabriella Crotti; Cesare Galli

2005-01-01

227

Spectroscopic Factors from the Single Neutron Transfer Reaction 111Cd(d,p)112Cd  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cadmium isotopes have been cited as excellent examples of vibrational nuclei for decades, with multi-phonon quadrupole, quadrupole-octupole, and mixed-symmetry states proposed. From a variety of experimental studies, a large amount of spectroscopic data has been obtained, recently focused on ?-ray studies. In the present work, the single-particle structure of 112Cd has been investigated using the 111Cd(?cd, p)112Cd reaction. The investigation was carried out using a 22 MeV beam of polarized deuterons obtained from the Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory at Garching, Germany. The reaction ejectiles were momentum analyzed using a Q3D spectrograph, and 115 levels have been identified up to 4.2 MeV of excitation energy. Spin-parity has been assigned to each analyzed level, and angular distributions for the reaction cross sections and analyzing powers were obtained. Many additional levels have been observed compared with the previous (d,p) study performed with 8 MeV deuterons,1 including strongly populated 5- and 6- states. The former was previously assigned as a member of the quadrupole-octupole quintuplet, based on a strongly enhanced B(E2) value to the 3- state, but is now re-assigned as being predominately s1/2 ? h11/2 configuration.

Jamieson, D. S.; Garrett, P. E.; Demand, G. A.; Finlay, P.; Green, K. L.; Leach, K. G.; Phillips, A. A.; Svensson, C. E.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Triambak, S.; Wong, J.; Ball, G.; Faestermann, T.; Krücken, R.; Hertenberger, R.; Wirth, H.-F.

2013-03-01

228

Molecular cytogenetic analysis of human blastocysts andcytotrophoblasts by multi-color FISH and Spectra Imaging analyses  

SciTech Connect

Numerical chromosome aberrations in gametes typically lead to failed fertilization, spontaneous abortion or a chromosomally abnormal fetus. By means of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), we now can screen human embryos in vitro for aneuploidy before transferring the embryos to the uterus. PGD allows us to select unaffected embryos for transfer and increases the implantation rate in in vitro fertilization programs. Molecular cytogenetic analyses using multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of blastomeres have become the major tool for preimplantation genetic screening of aneuploidy. However, current FISH technology can test for only a small number of chromosome abnormalities and hitherto failed to increase the pregnancy rates as expected. We are in the process of developing technologies to score all 24 chromosomes in single cells within a 3 day time limit, which we believe is vital to the clinical setting. Also, human placental cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) at the fetal-maternal interface acquire aneuploidies as they differentiate to an invasive phenotype. About 20-50% of invasive CTB cells from uncomplicated pregnancies were found aneuploidy, suggesting that the acquisition of aneuploidy is an important component of normal placentation, perhaps limiting the proliferative and invasive potential of CTBs. Since most invasive CTBs are interphase cells and possess extreme heterogeneity, we applied multi-color FISH and repeated hybridizations to investigate individual CTBs. In summary, this study demonstrates the strength of Spectral Imaging analysis and repeated hybridizations, which provides a basis for full karyotype analysis of single interphase cells.

Weier, Jingly F.; Ferlatte, Christy; Baumgartner, Adolf; Jung,Christine J.; Nguyen, Ha-Nam; Chu, Lisa W.; Pedersen, Roger A.; Fisher,Susan J.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

2006-02-08

229

Experimental and theoretical studies of the He(2+)-He system - Differential cross sections for direct, single-, and double-charge-transfer scattering at keV energies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements and calculations of differential cross sections for direct scattering, single-charge transfer, and double-charge transfer in collisions of 1.5-, 2.0-, 6.0-, and 10.0-keV (He-3)2+ with an He-4 target are reported. The measurements cover laboratory scattering angles below 1.5 deg with an angular resolution of about 0.03 deg. A quantum-mechanical molecular-state representation is employed in the calculations; in the case of single-charge transfer a two-state close-coupling calculation is carried out taking into account electron-translation effects. The theoretical calculations agree well with the experimental results for direct scattering and double-charge transfer. The present calculation identifies the origins of oscillatory structures observed in the differential cross sections.

Gao, R. S.; Dutta, C. M.; Lane, N. F.; Smith, K. A.; Stebbings, R. F.; Kimura, M.

1992-01-01

230

Sodium current in single cells from bullfrog atrium: voltage dependence and ion transfer properties.  

PubMed Central

1. Whole-cell and patch-clamp techniques (Hamill, Marty, Neher, Sakmann & Sigworth, 1981) have been used to make quantitative measurements of the transient inward sodium current (INa) in single cells from bullfrog atrium. This preparation is particularly suitable for the study of INa: (i) the current density is relatively low, (ii) the cells lack a transverse tubule system, (iii) isolated myocytes can be maintained at reduced temperatures (approximately 8-12 degrees C); therefore kinetics can be studied quantitatively. 2. INa was pharmacologically and kinetically isolated from other transmembrane currents by blocking ICa with CdCl2 (0.2-0.5 mM) or LaCl3 (5 x 10(-6) M), and by using only relatively short voltage-clamp depolarizations which did not activate IK (the delayed rectifier). 3. The voltage dependence of INa in bullfrog atrium is similar to that in amphibian node of Ranvier or fast skeletal muscle. The threshold for activation is approximately -50 mV. The peak of the INa vs. membrane potential relation is near -5 to -10 mV. The reversal potential in 'normal' (115 mM-Na+) Ringer solution is +59.0 mV (S.D. +/- 3.4, n = 10). Reduction of external Na+ concentration to one-third of normal resulted in an approximately -27 mV shift of the reversal potential, close to that expected for a highly Na+-selective conductance. 4. Steady-state inactivation of INa (h infinity), measured with a conventional two-pulse voltage-clamp protocol, spanned the membrane potential range from -90 to -50 mV. The potential dependence of h infinity was well described by a single Boltzmann function with half-inactivation at -71 mV and maximum slope of 6.0 mV. 5. Steady-state activation of INa (m infinity) was determined from fits of INa records to a Hodgkin-Huxley model. The potential dependence of m infinity was fitted to a Boltzmann function with half-activation at -33 mV and maximum slope of 9.5 mV. Thus at temperatures around 10 degrees C there was very little overlap of the m infinity and h infinity curves, and only very small steady-state 'window' currents are predicted. 6. The activation time constant, tau m, had a 'bell-shaped' dependence on membrane potential. The peak value of tau m was about 4.2 ms, at a membrane potential of -35 mV (9 degrees C). 7. The time course of inactivation of INa was consistently better described by the sum of two exponentials than by one exponential.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2451006

Clark, R B; Giles, W

1987-01-01

231

Sodium current in single cells from bullfrog atrium: voltage dependence and ion transfer properties.  

PubMed

1. Whole-cell and patch-clamp techniques (Hamill, Marty, Neher, Sakmann & Sigworth, 1981) have been used to make quantitative measurements of the transient inward sodium current (INa) in single cells from bullfrog atrium. This preparation is particularly suitable for the study of INa: (i) the current density is relatively low, (ii) the cells lack a transverse tubule system, (iii) isolated myocytes can be maintained at reduced temperatures (approximately 8-12 degrees C); therefore kinetics can be studied quantitatively. 2. INa was pharmacologically and kinetically isolated from other transmembrane currents by blocking ICa with CdCl2 (0.2-0.5 mM) or LaCl3 (5 x 10(-6) M), and by using only relatively short voltage-clamp depolarizations which did not activate IK (the delayed rectifier). 3. The voltage dependence of INa in bullfrog atrium is similar to that in amphibian node of Ranvier or fast skeletal muscle. The threshold for activation is approximately -50 mV. The peak of the INa vs. membrane potential relation is near -5 to -10 mV. The reversal potential in 'normal' (115 mM-Na+) Ringer solution is +59.0 mV (S.D. +/- 3.4, n = 10). Reduction of external Na+ concentration to one-third of normal resulted in an approximately -27 mV shift of the reversal potential, close to that expected for a highly Na+-selective conductance. 4. Steady-state inactivation of INa (h infinity), measured with a conventional two-pulse voltage-clamp protocol, spanned the membrane potential range from -90 to -50 mV. The potential dependence of h infinity was well described by a single Boltzmann function with half-inactivation at -71 mV and maximum slope of 6.0 mV. 5. Steady-state activation of INa (m infinity) was determined from fits of INa records to a Hodgkin-Huxley model. The potential dependence of m infinity was fitted to a Boltzmann function with half-activation at -33 mV and maximum slope of 9.5 mV. Thus at temperatures around 10 degrees C there was very little overlap of the m infinity and h infinity curves, and only very small steady-state 'window' currents are predicted. 6. The activation time constant, tau m, had a 'bell-shaped' dependence on membrane potential. The peak value of tau m was about 4.2 ms, at a membrane potential of -35 mV (9 degrees C). 7. The time course of inactivation of INa was consistently better described by the sum of two exponentials than by one exponential.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2451006

Clark, R B; Giles, W

1987-10-01

232

Communication: Adjusting charge transfer state energies for configuration interaction singles: Without any parameterization and with minimal cost  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent article, we showed that configuration interaction singles (CIS) has a systematic bias against charge-transfer (CT) states: CT vertical excitation energies are consistently too high (by 1-2 eV) as compared with non-CT energies [J. E. Subotnik, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 071104 (2011)]. We now show that this CIS error can be corrected approximately by performing a single Newton-Raphson step to reoptimize orbitals, thus establishing a new set of orbitals which better balances ground and excited state energies. The computational cost of this correction is exactly that of one coupled-perturbed Hartree-Fock calculation, which is effectively the cost of the CIS calculation itself. In other words, for twice the computational cost of a standard CIS calculation, or roughly the same cost as a linear-response time-dependent Hartree-Fock calculation, one can achieve a balanced, size-consistent description of CT versus non-CT energies, ideally with the accuracy of a much more expensive doubles CIS(D) calculation.

Liu, Xinle; Fatehi, Shervin; Shao, Yihan; Veldkamp, Brad S.; Subotnik, Joseph E.

2012-04-01

233

Communication: Adjusting charge transfer state energies for configuration interaction singles: without any parameterization and with minimal cost.  

PubMed

In a recent article, we showed that configuration interaction singles (CIS) has a systematic bias against charge-transfer (CT) states: CT vertical excitation energies are consistently too high (by 1-2 eV) as compared with non-CT energies [J. E. Subotnik, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 071104 (2011)]. We now show that this CIS error can be corrected approximately by performing a single Newton-Raphson step to reoptimize orbitals, thus establishing a new set of orbitals which better balances ground and excited state energies. The computational cost of this correction is exactly that of one coupled-perturbed Hartree-Fock calculation, which is effectively the cost of the CIS calculation itself. In other words, for twice the computational cost of a standard CIS calculation, or roughly the same cost as a linear-response time-dependent Hartree-Fock calculation, one can achieve a balanced, size-consistent description of CT versus non-CT energies, ideally with the accuracy of a much more expensive doubles CIS(D) calculation. PMID:22559462

Liu, Xinle; Fatehi, Shervin; Shao, Yihan; Veldkamp, Brad S; Subotnik, Joseph E

2012-04-28

234

The role of matrix cracks and fibre\\/matrix debonding on the stress transfer between fibre and matrix in a single fibre fragmentation test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The single fibre fragmentation test is commonly used to characterise the fibre\\/matrix interface. During fragmentation, the stored energy is released resulting in matrix cracking and\\/or fibre\\/matrix debonding.Axisymmetric finite element models were formulated to study the impact of matrix cracks and fibre\\/matrix debonding on the effective stress transfer efficiency (EST) and stress transfer length (STL). At high strains, plastic deformation in

Anbu Clemensis Johnson; Simon A. Hayes; Frank R. Jones

235

Chirality transfer from a single chiral molecule to 2D superstructures in alaninol on the Cu(100) surface.  

PubMed

The formation of 2D chiral monolayers obtained by self-assembly of chiral molecules on surfaces has been widely reported in the literature. Control of chirality transfer from a single molecule to surface superstructures is a challenging and important aspect for tailoring the properties of 2D nanostructures. However, despite the wealth of investigations performed in recent years, how chiral transfer takes place on a large scale still remains an open question. In this paper we report a coupling of scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction measurements with an original theoretical approach, combining molecular dynamics and essential dynamics with density functional theory, to investigate self-assembled chiral structures formed when alaninol adsorbs on Cu(100). The peculiarity of this system is related to the formation of tetrameric molecular structures which constitute the building blocks of the self-assembled chiral monolayer. Such characteristics make alaninol/Cu(100) a good candidate to reveal chiral expression changes. We find that the deposition of alaninol enantiomers results in the formation of isolated tetramers that are aligned along the directions of the substrate at low coverage or when geometrical confinement prevents long-range order. Conversely, a rotation of 14° with respect to the Cu(100) unit vectors is observed when small clusters of tetramers are formed. An insight to the process leading to a 2D globally chiral surface has been obtained by monitoring molecular assemblies as they grow from the early stages of adsorption, suggesting that the distinctive orientation of the self-assembled monolayer originates from a balance of cooperating forces which start acting only when tetramers pack together to form small clusters. PMID:21604683

Contini, G; Gori, P; Ronci, F; Zema, N; Colonna, S; Aschi, M; Palma, A; Turchini, S; Catone, D; Cricenti, A; Prosperi, T

2011-06-21

236

Description of electron transfer in the ground and excited states of organic donor-acceptor systems by single-reference and multi-reference density functional methods.  

PubMed

Electron transfer in the ground and excited states of a model donor-acceptor (D-A) system is investigated using the single-reference and multi-reference density functional theory (DFT) methods. To analyze the results of the calculations, a simple two-site multi-reference model was derived that predicts a stepwise electron transfer in the S0 state and a wave-like dependence of the S1 electron transfer on the external stimulus. The standard single-reference Kohn-Sham (KS) DFT approach and the time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) method failed to describe the correct dependence of the S0 and S1 electron transfer on the external electric field applied along the donor-acceptor system. The multi-reference DFT approach, the spin-restricted ensemble-referenced KS (REKS) method, was able to successfully reproduce the correct behavior of the S0 and S1 electron transfer on the applied field. The REKS method was benchmarked against experimentally measured gas phase charge transfer excitations in a series of organic donor-acceptor complexes and displayed its ability to describe this type of electronic transitions with a very high accuracy, mean absolute error of 0.05 eV with the use of the standard range separated density functionals. On the basis of the calculations undertaken in this work, it is suggested that the non-adiabatic coupling between the S0 and S1 states may interfere with the electron transfer in a weakly coupled donor-acceptor system. It is also suggested that the electronic excitation of a D(+)-A(-) system may play a dual role by assisting the further electron transfer at certain magnitudes of the applied electric field and causing the backward transfer at lower electric field strengths. PMID:25273428

Filatov, Michael

2014-09-28

237

Description of electron transfer in the ground and excited states of organic donor-acceptor systems by single-reference and multi-reference density functional methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron transfer in the ground and excited states of a model donor-acceptor (D-A) system is investigated using the single-reference and multi-reference density functional theory (DFT) methods. To analyze the results of the calculations, a simple two-site multi-reference model was derived that predicts a stepwise electron transfer in the S0 state and a wave-like dependence of the S1 electron transfer on the external stimulus. The standard single-reference Kohn-Sham (KS) DFT approach and the time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) method failed to describe the correct dependence of the S0 and S1 electron transfer on the external electric field applied along the donor-acceptor system. The multi-reference DFT approach, the spin-restricted ensemble-referenced KS (REKS) method, was able to successfully reproduce the correct behavior of the S0 and S1 electron transfer on the applied field. The REKS method was benchmarked against experimentally measured gas phase charge transfer excitations in a series of organic donor-acceptor complexes and displayed its ability to describe this type of electronic transitions with a very high accuracy, mean absolute error of 0.05 eV with the use of the standard range separated density functionals. On the basis of the calculations undertaken in this work, it is suggested that the non-adiabatic coupling between the S0 and S1 states may interfere with the electron transfer in a weakly coupled donor-acceptor system. It is also suggested that the electronic excitation of a D+-A- system may play a dual role by assisting the further electron transfer at certain magnitudes of the applied electric field and causing the backward transfer at lower electric field strengths.

Filatov, Michael

2014-09-01

238

Transcriptional reprogramming of gene expression in bovine somatic cell chromatin transfer embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Successful reprogramming of a somatic genome to produce a healthy clone by somatic cells nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a rare event and the mechanisms involved in this process are poorly defined. When serial or successive rounds of cloning are performed, blastocyst and full term development rates decline even further with the increasing rounds of cloning. Identifying the \\

Nelida Rodriguez-Osorio; Zhongde Wang; Poothappillai Kasinathan; Grier P Page; James M Robl; Erdogan Memili

2009-01-01

239

A newton-Raphson method for calculating condenser performance based on the ASME single tube heat transfer data  

SciTech Connect

The calculation of condenser performance should include the response of the LP stage of the turbo-generator. The set of operating conditions for this subsystem, given a set of boundary conditions (e.g. MW load, cooling water inlet temperature and/or flow rate), recognizes the simultaneous presence of three heat transport mechanisms. Under steady state conditions, (1) the latent heat to be removed from the vapor equals (2) the amount of heat transferred through the thermal resistances consisting of the tube walls and film boundary layers; and this must also equal (3) the amount of heat acquired by the cooling water. This set of simultaneous equations is non-linear and is most readily solved by using the Newton-Raphson algorithm. With fossil plants the objective is to calculate the change in condenser duty due to fouling, given the present generated load. However, with nuclear plants the change in condenser duty now reflects a certain amount of generated power which has had to be foregone. In both cases, a reduction in condenser duty translates into a reduction in unit heat rate. With both types of plant there are a number of condenser configurations, including single compartment condensers with either single or double passes; and multi-compartment condensers, often with each compartment operating at a different pressure. Clearly, the equation set must be adjusted to take these variations into account. The attractiveness of the Newton-Raphson approach is that accurate loss estimates for any configuration can be achieved by merely modifying the set of variables and equations involved in the calculations, and adjusting the associated set of input/output data displays to suit. In this way the same basic software structure can be used to solve this whole family of problems.

Putman, R.E.; Saxon, G.E. Jr. [Conco Consulting Corp., Verona, PA (United States)

1996-05-01

240

A Newton-Raphson method for calculating condenser performance based on ASME single tube heat transfer data  

SciTech Connect

The calculation of condenser performance should include the response of the LP stage of the turbo-generator. The set of operating conditions for this subsystem, given a set of boundary conditions (e.g. MW load, cooling water inlet temperature and/or flow rate), recognizes the simultaneous presence of three heat transport mechanisms. Under steady state conditions, (1) the latent heat to be removed from the vapor equals; (2) the amount of heat transferred through the thermal resistances consisting of the tube walls and film boundary layers; and this must also equal; and (3) the amount of heat acquired by the cooling water. This set of simultaneous equations is non-linear and is most readily solved by using the Newton-Raphson algorithm. With fossil plants the objective is to calculate the change in condenser duty due to fouling, given the present generated load. However, with nuclear plants the change in condenser duty now reflects a certain amount of generated power which has had to be foregone. In both cases, a reduction in condenser duty translates into a reduction in unit heat rate. With both types of plant there are a number of condenser configurations, including single compartment condensers with either single or double passes; and multi-compartment condensers, often with each compartment operating at a different pressure. Clearly, the equation set must be adjusted to take these variations into account. The attractiveness of the Newton-Raphson approach is that accurate loss estimates for any configuration can be achieved by merely modifying the set of variables and equations involved in the calculations, and adjusting the associated set of input/output data displays to suit. In this way the same basic software structure can be used to solve this whole family of problems. 12 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

Putman, R.E.; Saxon, G.E. Jr. [Conco Consulting Corp., Verona, PA (United States)

1996-08-01

241

Effects of oocyte quality, semen donor and embryo co-culture system on the efficiency of blastocyst production in goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to determine whether the selection of immature oocytes by a combination of cumulus–oocyte-complexes (COCs) morphology and staining with brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) would be helpful in selecting developmentally competent oocytes, and thereby increase the efficiency of blastocyst production from ovarian oocytes of FSH-primed, adult goats. In a second experiment the interaction between oocyte quality

L. K?tska-Ksi??kiewicz; J. Opiela; B. Ry?ska

2007-01-01

242

Osteopontin Is Expressed in the Mouse Uterus during Early Pregnancy and Promotes Mouse Blastocyst Attachment and Invasion In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Embryo implantation into the maternal uterus is a decisive step for successful mammalian pregnancy. Osteopontin (OPN) is a member of the small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoprotein family and participates in cell adhesion and invasion. In this study, we showed that Opn mRNA levels are up-regulated in the mouse uterus on day 4 and at the implantation sites on days 5 and 8 of pregnancy. Immunohistochemistry localized the OPN protein to the glandular epithelium on day 4 and to the decidual zone on day 8 of pregnancy. OPN mRNA and proteins are induced by in vivo and in vitro decidualization. OPN expression in the endometrial stromal cells is regulated by progesterone, a key regulator during decidualization. As a secreted protein, the protein level of OPN in the uterine cavity is enriched on day 4, and in vitro embryo culturing has indicated that OPN can facilitate blastocyst hatching and adhesion. Knockdown of OPN attenuates the adhesion and invasion of blastocysts in mouse endometrial stromal cells by suppressing the expression and enzymatic activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in the trophoblast. Our data indicated that OPN expression in the mouse uterus during early pregnancy is essential for blastocyst hatching and adhesion and that the knockdown of OPN in mouse endometrial stroma cells could lead to a restrained in vitro trophoblast invasion. PMID:25133541

Qi, Qian-Rong; Xie, Qing-Zhen; Liu, Xue-Li; Zhou, Yun

2014-01-01

243

33 CFR 150.445 - When is oil in a single point mooring-oil transfer system (SPM-OTS) displaced with water?  

33 ? Navigation and Navigable Waters ? 2 ? 2014-07-01 ? 2014-07-01 ? false ? When is oil in a single point mooring-oil transfer system (SPM-OTS) displaced with water? ? 150.445 ? Section 150.445 ? Navigation and Navigable Waters ? COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ?...

2014-07-01

244

Pregnancy rates and gravid uterine parameters in single, twin and triplet pregnancies in naturally bred ewes and ewes after transfer of in vitro produced embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to: (1) evaluate the pregnancy rates after transfer of embryos produced in the presence or absence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) during in vitro maturation, and (2) compare several variables of the gravid uterus on day 140 after fertilization in single, twin and triplet pregnancies in ewes (n=12) bred naturally and in ewes (n=18)

Anna T. Grazul-Bilska; Disha Pant; Justin S. Luther; Pawel P. Borowicz; Chainarong Navanukraw; Joel S. Caton; Marcy A. Ward; Dale A. Redmer; Lawrence P. Reynolds

2006-01-01

245

Charge transfer of single laser crystallized intrinsic and phosphorus-doped Si-nanocrystals visualized by Kelvin probe force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isolated intrinsic and phosphorus doped (P-doped) Si-nanocrystals (Si-NCs) on n- and p-Si substrates are fabricated by excimer laser crystallization techniques. The formation of Si-NCs is confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and conductive AFM measurements. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) is then carried out to visualize the trapped charges in a single Si-NC dot which derives from the charge transfer between Si-NCs and Si substrates due to their different Fermi levels. The laser crystallized P-doped Si-NCs have a similar Fermi level around the mid-gap to the intrinsic counterparts, which might be caused by the inactivated impurity atoms or the surface states-related Fermi level pinning. A clear rise of the Fermi level in P-doped Si-NCs is observed after a short time thermal annealing treatment, indicating the activation of dopants in Si-NCs. Moreover, the surface charge quantity can be estimated using a simple parallel plate capacitor model for a quantitative understanding of the KPFM results at the nanoscale.

Xu, Jie; Xu, Jun; Lu, Peng; Shan, Dan; Li, Wei; Chen, Kunji

2014-10-01

246

An EPR study of the transfer and trapping of holes produced by radiation in guanine(thioguanine) hydrochloride single crystals.  

PubMed

Single crystals of guanine hydrochloride monohydrate, guanine hydrochloride dihydrate and anhydrous guanine dihydrochloride, doped with thioguanine, were irradiated with X and gamma rays. In all three systems the dominant radicals were associated with thioguanine. In the former two systems the stabilized species is the thiyl radical, formed by initial loss of an electron at some of the guanines in the crystal lattice, followed by hole migration to thioguanine and subsequent deprotonation of the radical formed. In the anhydrous guanine(thioguanine) dihydrochloride, that process is followed by acquisition of a chlorine ion. In the guanine hydrochloride monohydrate and guanine hydrochloride dihydrate lattices, systems of interacting closely spaced stacked bases and strings of chloride ions might support the migration of electrons and/or holes. In anhydrous guanine dihydrochloride, neither the bases nor the Cl- ions alone are capable of providing the means for the long-range electron, energy and spin transfer. It is the interchangeable sequence of the charged bases and the Cl- ions that makes the supporting strings or networks. The ultimate chlorination of the thioguanine-centered electron-loss radicals depends mainly on the availability of the Cl- ions and the space for their accommodation in the vicinity of the sulfur atom. PMID:10073670

Herak, J N; Sankovi?, K; Krilov, D; Hüttermann, J

1999-03-01

247

IVF with planned single-embryo transfer versus IUI with ovarian stimulation in couples with unexplained subfertility: an economic analysis.  

PubMed

Couples with unexplained subfertility are often treated with intrauterine insemination (IUI) with ovarian stimulation, which carries the risk of multiple pregnancies. An explorative randomized controlled trial was performed comparing one cycle of IVF with elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) versus three cycles of IUI-ovarian stimulation in couples with unexplained subfertility and a poor prognosis for natural conception, to assess the economic burden of the treatment modalities. The main outcome measures were ongoing pregnancy rates and costs. This study randomly assigned 58 couples to IVF-eSET and 58 couples to IUI-ovarian stimulation. The ongoing pregnancy rates were 24% in with IVF-eSET versus 21% with IUI-ovarian stimulation, with two and three multiple pregnancies, respectively. The mean cost per included couple was significantly different: €2781 with IVF-eSET and €1876 with IUI-ovarian stimulation (P<0.01). The additional costs per ongoing pregnancy were €2456 for IVF-eSET. In couples with unexplained subfertility, one cycle of IVF-eSET cost an additional €900 per couple compared with three cycles of IUI-ovarian stimulation, for no increase in ongoing pregnancy rates or decrease in multiple pregnancies. When IVF-eSET results in higher ongoing pregnancy rates, IVF would be the preferred treatment. Couples that have been trying to conceive unsuccessfully are often treated with intrauterine insemination (IUI) and medication to improve egg production (ovarian stimulation). This treatment carries the risk of multiple pregnancies like twins. We performed an explorative study among those couples that had a poor prognosis for natural conception. One cycle of IVF with transfer of one selected embryo (elective single-embryo transfer, eSET) was compared with three cycles of IUI-ovarian stimulation. The aim of this study was to assess the economic burden of both treatments. The Main outcome measures were number of good pregnancies above 12weeks and costs. We randomly assigned 58 couples to IVF-eSET and 58 couples to IUI-ovarian stimulation. The ongoing pregnancy rates were comparable: 24% with IVF-eSET versus 21% with IUI-ovarian stimulation. There were two multiple pregnancies with IVF-eSET and three multiple pregnancies with IUI-ovarian stimulation. The mean cost per included couple was significantly different, €2781 with IVF-eSET and €1876 with IUI-ovarian stimulation. The additional costs per ongoing pregnancy were €2456 for IVF-eSET. In couples with unexplained subfertility, one cycle of IVF-eSET costed an additional €900 per couple compared to three cycles of IUI-ovarian stimulation, for no increase in ongoing pregnancy rates or decrease in multiple pregnancies. We conclude that IUI-ovarian stimulation is the preferred treatment to start with. When IVF-eSET results in a higher ongoing pregnancy rate (>38%), IVF would be the preferred treatment. PMID:24456703

van Rumste, Minouche M E; Custers, Inge M; van Wely, Madelon; Koks, Carolien A; van Weering, Hans G I; Beckers, Nicole G M; Scheffer, Gabrielle J; Broekmans, Frank J M; Hompes, Peter G A; Mochtar, Monique H; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben W J

2014-03-01

248

2184 J . Phys. Chem. 1989, 93, 2184-2187 Other workers report charge transfer corresponding to a single  

E-print Network

transfers such as SN2 reaction^.^ With a few exception^,^" it is usually assumed that the force constant k for electron-transfer rate-reaction free energy gap behavior are discussed. Introduction In the presence; examples include electron-transfer reactions,' time-dependent fluorescence,*and heavy particle charge

Carter, Emily A.

249

A High-yield Two-step Transfer Printing Method for Large-scale Fabrication of Organic Single-crystal Devices on Arbitrary Substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-crystal organic nanostructures show promising applications in flexible and stretchable electronics, while their applications are impeded by the large incompatibility with the well-developed photolithography techniques. Here we report a novel two-step transfer printing (TTP) method for the construction of organic nanowires (NWs) based devices onto arbitrary substrates. Copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) NWs are first transfer-printed from the growth substrate to the desired receiver substrate by contact-printing (CP) method, and then electrode arrays are transfer-printed onto the resulting receiver substrate by etching-assisted transfer printing (ETP) method. By utilizing a thin copper (Cu) layer as sacrificial layer, microelectrodes fabricated on it via photolithography could be readily transferred to diverse conventional or non-conventional substrates that are not easily accessible before with a high transfer yield of near 100%. The ETP method also exhibits an extremely high flexibility; various electrodes such as Au, Ti, and Al etc. can be transferred, and almost all types of organic devices, such as resistors, Schottky diodes, and field-effect transistors (FETs), can be constructed on planar or complex curvilinear substrates. Significantly, these devices can function properly and exhibit closed or even superior performance than the device counterparts fabricated by conventional approach.

Deng, Wei; Zhang, Xiujuan; Pan, Huanhuan; Shang, Qixun; Wang, Jincheng; Zhang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Xiwei; Jie, Jiansheng

2014-06-01

250

Development of an optimized zona-free method of somatic cell nuclear transfer in the goat.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop an improved zona-free method of goat somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) that has both ease of operation and efficiency. The main steps involved were: (1) optimization of in vitro oocyte maturation, (2) parthenogenetic activation of zona-free oocytes, (3) SCNT of zona-free anaphase II-telophase II (AII-TII) oocytes that subverted the need for long term UV-exposure of the oocytes, and (4) in vitro culture of groups of cloned embryos in wells in a highly efficient continuous serum-free embryo medium to the blastocyst stage before transfer to the recipients. Percentages of transgenic blastocyst production were 22.3 and 33.1% for adult and fetal cell lines, respectively. After transfer of cloned and transgenic blastocysts, 28.6 and 36.4% of the recipients were confirmed pregnant and 75 and 33.3% of the pregnancies resulted in the delivery of viable offspring, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful live and survived birth of cloned and transgenic offspring through a whole procedure of in vitro oocyte maturation and embryo development to the blastocyst stage, and in this study the in vitro efficiencies of cloned and transgenic embryo production were higher than the available reports. PMID:21473692

Nasr-Esfahani, M H; Hosseini, S M; Hajian, M; Forouzanfar, M; Ostadhosseini, S; Abedi, P; Khazaie, Y; Dormiani, K; Ghaedi, K; Forozanfar, M; Gourabi, H; Shahverdi, A H; Vosough, A D; Vojgani, H

2011-04-01

251

Pregnancy Prediction in Single Embryo Transfer Cycles after ICSI Using QPCR: Validation in Oocytes from the Same Cohort  

PubMed Central

Cumulus cell (CC) gene expression is being explored as an additional method to morphological scoring to choose the embryo with the highest chance to pregnancy. In 47 ICSI patients with single embryo transfer (SET), from which individual CC samples had been stored, 12 genes using QPCR were retrospectively analyzed. The CC samples were at the same occasion also used to validate a previously obtained pregnancy prediction model comprising three genes (ephrin-B2 (EFNB2), calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ID, stanniocalcin 1). Latter validation yielded a correct pregnant/non-pregnant classification in 72% of the samples. Subsequently, 9 new genes were analyzed on the same samples and new prediction models were built. Out of the 12 genes analyzed a combination of the best predictive genes was obtained by stepwise multiple regression. One model retained EFNB2 in combination with glutathione S-transferase alpha 3 and 4, progesterone receptor and glutathione peroxidase 3, resulting in 93% correct predictions when 3 patient and treatment cycle characteristics were included into the model. This large patient group allowed to do an intra-patient analysis for 7 patients, an analysis mimicking the methodology that would ultimately be used in clinical routine. CC related to a SET that did not give pregnancy and CC related to their subsequent frozen/thawed embryos which ended in pregnancy were analyzed. The models obtained in the between-patient analysis were used to rank the oocytes within-patients for their chance to pregnancy and resulted in 86% of correct predictions. In conclusion, prediction models built on selected quantified transcripts in CC might help in the decision making process which is currently only based on subjective embryo morphology scoring. The validity of our current models for routine application still need prospective assessment in a larger and more diverse patient population allowing intra-patient analysis. PMID:23573182

Wathlet, Sandra; Adriaenssens, Tom; Segers, Ingrid; Verheyen, Greta; Van Landuyt, Lisbet; Coucke, Wim; Devroey, Paul; Smitz, Johan

2013-01-01

252

Light-Independent Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Formation through Electron Transfer from Carboxylated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Water.  

PubMed

Promising developments in application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have raised concern regarding potential biological and environmental effects upon their inevitable release to the environment. Although some CNTs have been reported to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) under light, limited information exists on ROS generation by these materials in the dark. In this study, generation of ROS was examined, initiated by electron transfer from biological electron donors through carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes (C-SWCNT) to molecular oxygen in water in the dark. In the presence of C-SWCNT, the oxidation of NADH (?-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced form) and DTTre (DL-dithiothreitol, reduced form) was confirmed by light absorbance shifts (340 nm to 260 nm during oxidation of NADH to NAD(+), and increased light absorbance at 280 nm during oxidation of DTTre). Production of superoxide anion (O2(•-)) was detected by its selective reaction with a tetrazolium salt (NBT(2+)), forming a formazan product that is visible at 530 nm. A modified acid-quenched N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPD) assay was used to measure the accumulation of H2O2 in C-SWCNT suspensions containing O2 and NADH. In the same suspensions (i.e., containing C-SWCNT, NADH, and O2), pBR322 DNA plasmid was cleaved, although •OH was not detected when using •OH scavenging molecular probes. These results indicate that the oxidation of electron donors by C-SWCNT can be a light-independent source of ROS in water, and that electron shuttling through CNTs to molecular oxygen may be a potential mechanism for DNA damage by this specific CNT and potentially other carbon-based nanomaterials. PMID:25171301

Hsieh, Hsin-Se; Wu, Renren; Jafvert, Chad T

2014-10-01

253

A study of heat transfer in the case of single-phase convection in a duct with a porous insert  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of a porous matrix on heat transfer in a plane channel under conditionss of forced convection is investigated by the integral method using a two-temperature model, with allowance made for coolant mixing. Analytical expressions for the heat transfer coefficient are obtained which are in good agreement with experimental data. It is shown that heat flow inhomogeneity leads to a significant reduction in the local heat transfer coefficient, particularly at a large distance from the heat flow maximum.

Gortyshov, Iu. F.; Ashikhmin, S. R.; Nadyrov, I. N.

254

Determination of blade-to-coolant heat-transfer coefficients on a forced-convection, water-cooled, single-stage turbine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blade-to-coolant convective heat-transfer coefficients were obtained on a forced-convection water-cooled single-stage turbine over a large laminar flow range and over a portion of the transition range between laminar and turbulent flow. The convective coefficients were correlated by the general relation for forced-convection heat transfer with laminar flow. Natural-convection heat transfer was negligible for this turbine over the Grashof number range investigated. Comparison of turbine data with stationary tube data for the laminar flow of heated liquids showed good agreement. Calculated average midspan blade temperatures using theoretical gas-to-blade coefficients and blade-to-coolant coefficients from stationary-tube data resulted in close agreement with experimental data.

Freche, John C; Schum, Eugene F

1951-01-01

255

Improvement of a porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer technique by optimizing donor cell and recipient oocyte preparations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to improve a porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technique by optimizing donor cell and recipient oocyte preparations. Adult and fetal fibroblasts, and cumulus and oviduct cells were used as donor cells, and in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes were employed as recipient oocytes. The percentages of fusion and development to the blastocyst stage, the ratio

Gab-sang Lee; Sang-hwan Hyun; Hye-soo Kim; Dae-young Kim; So-hyun Lee; Jeong-mook Lim; Eun-song Lee; Sung-keun Kang; Byeong-chun Lee; Woo-suk Hwang

2003-01-01

256

Autologous somatic cell nuclear transfer in pigs using recipient oocytes and donor cells from the same animal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to examine the feasibility of the production of autologous porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) blastocysts using oocytes and donor cells from slaughtered ovaries. Therefore, we at- tempted to optimize autologous SCNT by examining the effects of electrical fusion conditions and donor cell type on cell fusion and the development of SCNT embryos.

Eunsong Lee; Kilyoung Song

2007-01-01

257

A cathepsin B inhibitor, E-64, improves the preimplantation development of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.  

PubMed

Bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is an important and powerful tool for basic research and biomedical and agricultural applications, however, the efficiency of SCNT has remained extremely low. In this study, we investigated the effects of cathepsin B inhibitor (E-64) supplementation of culture medium on in vitro development of bovine SCNT embryos. We initially used three concentrations of E-64 (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 ?m), among which 0.5 ?m resulted in the highest rate of blastocysts production after in vitro fertilization (IVF), and was therefore used for further experiments. Blastocyst development of SCNT embryos in the E-64 treatment group also increased relative to the control. Moreover, the cryosurvival rates of IVF and SCNT blastocysts were increased in E-64 treatment groups when compared with the control. On the other hand, we found that IVF and SCNT blastocysts derived from E-64-treated groups had increased total cell numbers and decreased apoptotic nuclei. Furthermore, assessment of the expression of apoptosis-related genes (Bax and Bcl-xL) in bovine IVF and SCNT blastocysts treated with E-64 by real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed suppressed expression of the pro-apoptotic gene Bax and stimulated expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-xL. Taken together, these finding indicate that addition of E-64 to embryo culture medium may have important implications for improving developmental competence and preimplantation quality in bovine IVF and SCNT embryos. PMID:24240170

Min, Sung-Hun; Song, Bong-Seok; Yeon, Ji-Yeong; Kim, Jin-Woo; Bae, Jung-Ho; Park, Soo-Yong; Lee, Yong-Hee; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Koo, Deog-Bon

2014-03-01

258

Analysis of Acoustic Feedback\\/Echo Cancellation in Multiple-Microphone and Single-Loudspeaker Systems Using a Power Transfer Function Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we analyze a general multiple-micro- phone and single-loudspeaker audio processing system, where a multichannel adaptive system is used to cancel the effect of acoustic feedback\\/echo, and a beamformer processes the feed- back\\/echo canceled signals. We introduce and derive an accurate approximation of a frequency domain measure—the power transfer function—and show how it can be used to predict

Meng Guo; Thomas Bo Elmedyb; Søren Holdt Jensen; Jesper Jensen

2011-01-01

259

A segment of a plasmid gene required for conjugal transfer encodes a site-specific, single-strand DNA endonuclease and ligase.  

PubMed Central

The polypeptide encoded by a segment of a gene required for the conjugal mobilization of the broad host-range plasmid R1162 has been purified as a beta-galactosidase fusion protein. The hybrid protein binds specifically to a small, double-stranded DNA fragment containing the origin of transfer (oriT), and specifically cleaves oriT single-stranded DNA at the position cleaved during transfer. Only one of the two DNA strands is a substrate. A fraction of the digested DNA is resistant to lambda exonuclease digestion, indicating that some molecules have protein covalently attached at the 5' end. After prolonged incubation with fusion protein, some of the cleaved molecules are religated. In vivo, M13 phage DNA containing two, directly-repeated copies of oriT recombine in cells containing the fusion protein. The single-stranded viral DNA forms are the probable substrates for the protein, the cleaved DNA being subsequently religated to form recombinant molecules. Cleavage of the DNA might be the reverse reaction of the ligation that normally takes place after conjugative transfer of a single, linear plasmid DNA strand. Images PMID:1850512

Bhattacharjee, M K; Meyer, R J

1991-01-01

260

Conceptus development during blastocyst elongation in lines of pigs selected for increased uterine capacity or ovulation rate.  

PubMed

Lines of pigs selected for increased uterine capacity have improved conceptus survival, whereas pigs selected for increased ovulation rate have decreased conceptus survival relative to an unselected control line. The objective of this study was to evaluate conceptus development during blastocyst elongation as a potential contributing factor to differences in conceptus survival rate among these pig lines. Conceptuses were recovered from pregnant control, uterine capacity, and ovulation rate line gilts at d 10 and 12 of gestation. At d 10 of gestation, conceptus morphologic diversity was assessed by comparing within-litter average conceptus diameter and the standard deviation of conceptus diameters. At d 12 of gestation, conceptus morphologic diversity was assessed by comparing blastocyst populations obtained from individual gilts. Real-time PCR analyses for transcripts involved in steroidogenesis, cellular differentiation, and immune responsiveness were performed on spherical, ovoid, and filamentous conceptuses recovered from these selection lines. Uterine flushings were also assayed for total protein and estradiol-17beta at d 10 and 12 of gestation. Morphological data were analyzed using ANOVA with the fixed effects of line, farrowing season, and their interactions. Conceptus mortality, uterine flushing, and real-time PCR data were analyzed using ANOVA with the fixed effects of line, day or blastocyst morphology, farrowing season, and their interactions. Conceptus mortality, measured as the ratio of conceptus recovery to ovulation rate, was not different between the lines on d 10 and 12 of gestation. There were no significant line effects for conceptus morphologic diversity at d 10 and 12 of gestation. Expression of transcripts associated with steroidogenesis (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage, and aromatase), cellular differentiation (cytokeratin-18 and vimentin), and immune responsiveness (interleukin-1beta) in spherical, ovoid, and filamentous conceptuses was not different between the lines. Furthermore, protein and estradiol-17beta in uterine flushings at d 10 and 12 of gestation were not different between the selection lines. These findings indicate limited, if any, deviations between these lines of pigs in conceptus development during blastocyst elongation and suggest that mechanisms involved in generating line differences in survival rate likely are manifested later in gestation. PMID:18469062

Miles, J R; Freking, B A; Blomberg, L A; Vallet, J L; Zuelke, K A

2008-09-01

261

Optically enhanced charge transfer between C60 and single-wall carbon nanotubes in hybrid electronic devices.  

PubMed

In this article we probe the nature of electronic interactions between the components of hybrid C60-carbon nanotube structures. Utilizing an aromatic mediator we selectively attach C60 molecules to carbon nanotube field-effect transistor devices. Structural characterization via atomic force and transmission electron microscopy confirm the selectivity of this attachment. Charge transfer from the carbon nanotube to the C60 molecules is evidenced by a blue shift of the Raman G(+) peak position and increased threshold voltage of the transistor transfer characteristics. We estimate this charge transfer to increase the device density of holes per unit length by up to 0.85 nm(-1) and demonstrate further optically enhanced charge transfer which increases the hole density by an additional 0.16 nm(-1). PMID:24241690

Allen, Christopher S; Liu, Guoquan; Chen, Yabin; Robertson, Alex W; He, Kuang; Porfyrakis, Kyriakos; Zhang, Jin; Briggs, G Andrew D; Warner, Jamie H

2014-01-01

262

Production, freezing and transfer of bovine IVF embryos and subsequent calving results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasound-guided oocyte aspirations were performed repeatedly, on a weekly basis, on 155 different cows. An average of 4.9 oocytes with 4.1 classified as usable were collected. Following in vitro maturation (IVM), fertilization (IVF) and culture (IVC), a few Day 7 morulae, and all Day 7 and most Day 8 blastocysts were either transferred or frozen. The transfer of 2268 fresh

J. F. Hasler; W. B. Henderson; P. J. Hurtgen; Z. Q. Jin; A. D. McCauley; S. A. Mower; B. Neely; L. S. Shuey; J. E. Stokes; S. A. Trimmer

1995-01-01

263

Optically enhanced charge transfer between C60 and single-wall carbon nanotubes in hybrid electronic devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we probe the nature of electronic interactions between the components of hybrid C60-carbon nanotube structures. Utilizing an aromatic mediator we selectively attach C60 molecules to carbon nanotube field-effect transistor devices. Structural characterization via atomic force and transmission electron microscopy confirm the selectivity of this attachment. Charge transfer from the carbon nanotube to the C60 molecules is evidenced by a blue shift of the Raman G+ peak position and increased threshold voltage of the transistor transfer characteristics. We estimate this charge transfer to increase the device density of holes per unit length by up to 0.85 nm-1 and demonstrate further optically enhanced charge transfer which increases the hole density by an additional 0.16 nm-1.In this article we probe the nature of electronic interactions between the components of hybrid C60-carbon nanotube structures. Utilizing an aromatic mediator we selectively attach C60 molecules to carbon nanotube field-effect transistor devices. Structural characterization via atomic force and transmission electron microscopy confirm the selectivity of this attachment. Charge transfer from the carbon nanotube to the C60 molecules is evidenced by a blue shift of the Raman G+ peak position and increased threshold voltage of the transistor transfer characteristics. We estimate this charge transfer to increase the device density of holes per unit length by up to 0.85 nm-1 and demonstrate further optically enhanced charge transfer which increases the hole density by an additional 0.16 nm-1. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: AFM line scans of the substrate before and after functionalization; scheme for measuring amorphous carbon coverage from TEM images; diameter comparisons of ac-TEM image and simulation of C60 molecule; Raman spectra D peak comparison; optical response of transfer properties of pristine devices; comparison between swept and pulsed Vg measurements; functionalization effect and optical response of the transfer characteristics of a 550 nm and a 450 nm CNTFET device. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04314b

Allen, Christopher S.; Liu, Guoquan; Chen, Yabin; Robertson, Alex W.; He, Kuang; Porfyrakis, Kyriakos; Zhang, Jin; Briggs, G. Andrew D.; Warner, Jamie H.

2013-12-01

264

Response of blastocyst-endometrium interactions in albino rats to sublethal doses of biological and synthetic insecticides.  

PubMed

The present study compared morphological, histochemical and histomorphometric characteristics of the sublethal effects of XenTari® and deltamethrin in blastocyst-endometrium interactions in female rats. Pregnant rats received 185, 1850 and 3700mg of XenTari® or 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0mg of deltamethrin (all doses per kg of body weight) and were sacrificed on the seventh day of pregnancy. The rats treated with the higher doses of insecticides exhibited a significant reduction in the number of implantation sites, vacuolated trophoblast cells, rare cytotrophoblasts, accentuated leukocyte infiltration, increase in vascularization of sites and blood in the uterine lumen. The decidua was more fibrous, particularly in the rats treated with the highest dose of XenTari®. In conclusion, sublethal doses of both XenTari® and deltamethrin produced qualitative/quantitative alterations in the blastocyst-endometrium interaction in female rats, thereby compromising the implantation process. Further studies are needed particularly at verifying the effects of these insecticides in the pregnancy to term in rats, order to investigate possible correlated effects on women working or living near agricultural fields. PMID:21745526

Lemos, Ana Janaína Jeanine M; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valeria; Teixeira, Alvaro Aguiar C; Silva, Fernanda das Chagas A; Oliveira, José V; de Siqueira, Herbert Álvaro A

2011-10-01

265

Novel energy transfer mechanism in single-phased color-tunable Sr2CeO4:Eu3+ phosphors for WLEDs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of color-tunable Sr2CeO4:Eu3+ phosphors have been successfully synthesized. The Rietveld refinement was firstly used to probe the phase purity and the structure of Sr2CeO4:Eu3+. The photoluminescence excitation spectra exhibit that the phosphors show a broad excitation band from 200 to 400 nm, which concurs well with the commercial near-UV LED. The photoluminescence spectra vary with the dopant content due to the energy transfer and the tunable blue-red color can be simply achieved by altering the doped Eu3+ ions concentrations. On the basis of the Inokuti-Hirayama theory, we obtained that the dipole-dipole interaction type takes charge for the energy transfer from the Ce4+-O2- charge-transfer state transition to Eu3+ ions and the schematic was plotted to illuminate the possible energy transfer process. The experimental results indicate that Sr2CeO4:Eu3+ phosphors may be potentially used as promising single-phased phosphors for near-UV white light-emitting diodes applications.

Li, Haifeng; Jia, Yonglei; Sun, Wenzhi; Zhao, Ran; Fu, Jipeng; Jiang, Lihong; Zhang, Su; Pang, Ran; Li, Chengyu

2014-09-01

266

Porous media simplified simulation of single- and two-phase flow heat transfer in micro-channel heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical tool to simulate micro-channel flow and heat transfer in compact heat exchangers is developed. The method is based on a forced convection porous body approach combined with conventional pipe flow closure correlations. The proposed technique aims to provide developers of micro-channel heat exchangers with a fast efficient tool to estimate the thermodynamic behaviour dependent on geometry and operation

U Imke

2004-01-01

267

A Single Transition State Serves Two Mechanisms: An ab Initio Classical Trajectory Study of the Electron Transfer and Substitution  

E-print Network

with the alkyl carbon. Substitution by oxygen, SUB(O), occurs by way of a separate SN2 transition Wayne State of the Electron Transfer and Substitution Mechanisms in Reactions of Ketyl Radical Anions with Alkyl Halides: Molecular dynamics has been used to investigate the reaction of a series of ketyl anion radicals and alkyl

Schlegel, H. Bernhard

268

Transfer-printing of single DNA molecule arrays on graphene for high resolution electron imaging and analysis  

PubMed Central

Graphene represents the ultimate substrate for high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, but the deposition of biological samples on this highly hydrophobic material has until now been a challenge. We present a reliable method for depositing ordered arrays of individual elongated DNA molecules on single-layer graphene substrates for high resolution electron beam imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy analysis. This method is a necessary step towards the observation of single elongated DNA molecules with single base spatial resolution to directly read genetic and epigenetic information. PMID:21919532

Cerf, Aline; Alava, Thomas; Barton, Robert A.; Craighead, Harold G.

2011-01-01

269

Fabrication of N-channel single crystalline silicon (100) thin-film transistors on glass substrate by meniscus force-mediated layer transfer technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel low-temperature layer transfer of single crystalline silicon (100) to glass substrate using meniscus force and midair cavity structure. Local transfer of thermally-oxidized silicon-on-insulator (SOI) layer to glass was successfully carried out at 80 °C. N-channel thin-film transistor (TFT) fabricated on glass at 300 °C showed a field-effect mobility of 1097 cm2 V−1 s−1, a threshold voltage of 1.1 V and a subthreshold swing value of 78 mV/dec. Raman scattering analysis suggests such a high mobility of TFT is originated from tensile strain introduced after gate SiO2 film deposition.

Akazawa, Muneki; Sakaike, Kohei; Nakamura, Shogo; Higashi, Seiichiro

2014-10-01

270

Reduced Dielectric Screening and Enhanced Energy Transfer in Single- and Few-Layer MoS2.  

PubMed

We report highly efficient nonradiative energy transfer from cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots to monolayer and few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). The quenching of the donor quantum dot photoluminescence increases as the MoS2 flake thickness decreases with the highest efficiency (>95%) observed for monolayer MoS2. This counterintuitive result arises from reduced dielectric screening in thin layer semiconductors having unusually large permittivity and a strong in-plane transition dipole moment, as found in MoS2. Excitonic energy transfer between a zero-dimensional emitter and a two-dimensional absorber is fundamentally interesting and enables a wide range of applications including broadband optical down-conversion, optical detection, photovoltaic sensitization, and color shifting in light-emitting devices. PMID:25289461

Prins, Ferry; Goodman, Aaron J; Tisdale, William A

2014-11-12

271

Cytochrome P450-catalyzed dealkylation of atrazine by Rhodococcus sp. strain NI86/21 involves hydrogen atom transfer rather than single electron transfer.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 enzymes are responsible for a multitude of natural transformation reactions. For oxidative N-dealkylation, single electron (SET) and hydrogen atom abstraction (HAT) have been debated as underlying mechanisms. Combined evidence from (i) product distribution and (ii) isotope effects indicate that HAT, rather than SET, initiates N-dealkylation of atrazine to desethyl- and desisopropylatrazine by the microorganism Rhodococcus sp. strain NI86/21. (i) Product analysis revealed a non-selective oxidation at both the ?C and ?C-atom of the alkyl chain, which is expected for a radical reaction, but not SET. (ii) Normal (13)C and (15)N as well as pronounced (2)H isotope effects (?carbon: -4.0‰ ± 0.2‰; ?nitrogen: -1.4‰ ± 0.3‰, KIEH: 3.6 ± 0.8) agree qualitatively with calculated values for HAT, whereas inverse (13)C and (15)N isotope effects are predicted for SET. Analogous results are observed with the Fe(iv)[double bond, length as m-dash]O model system [5,10,15,20-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin-iron(iii)-chloride + NaIO4], but not with permanganate. These results emphasize the relevance of the HAT mechanism for N-dealkylation by P450. PMID:24851834

Meyer, Armin H; Dybala-Defratyka, Agnieszka; Alaimo, Peter J; Geronimo, Inacrist; Sanchez, Ariana D; Cramer, Christopher J; Elsner, Martin

2014-08-28

272

Experimental investigation of fluid flow and heat transfer in a single-phase liquid flow micro-heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents an experimental analysis of the hydrodynamic and thermal performance of micro-heat exchangers. Two micro-heat exchangers, characterized by microchannels of 100×100 and 200×200?m square cross-sections, were designed for that purpose. The fluid used was deionized water and there was no phase change along the fluid circuit. The fluid pressure drop along the heat exchanger and the heat transfer

N. García-Hernando; A. Acosta-Iborra; U. Ruiz-Rivas; M. Izquierdo

2009-01-01

273

Transition metal and rare-earth metal atoms on single-layer graphene: Estimations of the charge transfer and adsorption energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Hamiltonian accounting for s- and d( f)-states of adatoms has been proposed to describe adsorption of atoms of d- and f-metals on single-sheet graphene. It has been shown that s-electrons mainly contribute to the charge transfer ? n a between the adatom and graphene substrate. Analytical formulas proposed previously within the M-model of the graphene density of states are used for ? n a calculations. To estimate the adsorption energy, a simple analytical expression is proposed. Calculations are performed for 3 d-, 4 d-, 5 d-, and 4 f-adatoms. The results of calculations are compared with the data obtained by other authors.

Davydov, S. Yu.

2013-07-01

274

Patient-Specific Embryonic Stem Cells Derived from Human SCNT Blastocysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patient-specific, immune-matched human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are anticipated to be of great biomedical importance for studies of disease and development and to advance clinical deliberations regarding stem cell transplantation. Eleven hESC lines were established by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) of skin cells from patients with disease or injury into donated oocytes. These lines, nuclear transfer (NT)-hESCs, grown on

Woo Suk Hwang; Sung Il Roh; Byeong Chun Lee; Sung Keun Kang; Dae Kee Kwon; Sue Kim; Sun Jong Kim; Sun Woo Park; Hee Sun Kwon; Chang Kyu Lee; Jung Bok Lee; Jin Mee Kim; Curie Ahn; Sun Ha Paek; Sang Sik Chang; Jung Jin Koo; Hyun Soo Yoon; Jung Hye Hwang; Youn Young Hwang; Ye Soo Park; Sun Kyung Oh; Hee Sun Kim; Jong Hyuk Park; Shin Yong Moon; Gerald Schatten

2005-01-01

275

Evidence for heterodimeric association of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) receptor and gp130 in the mouse uterus for LIF signaling during blastocyst implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implantation failure in mice lacking leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) establishes that this cytokine is crucial to this process. LIF transcripts are expressed in the uterus in a biphasic manner: LIF is expressed in the gland on the morning of day 4 and again in stromal cells surrounding the blastocyst with the onset of implantation in the evening of day 4

Haengseok Song; Hyunjung Lim

2006-01-01

276

Advanced oviductal development, transport to the preferred implantation site, and attachment of the blastocyst in captive-bred, short-tailed fruit bats, Carollia perspicillata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The final stages of embryonic development in the oviduct, transport of the embryo to the uterus, and the initial stages of implantation have been examined in captive-bred Carollia perspicillata at the light and electron microscopic levels. Development progressed to the expanded, zona pellucida-free, blastocyst stage in the oviduct. The abundance of microvilli on the exterior of the trophoblast varied with

Sergio F. Oliveira; John J. Rasweiler; Nilima K. Badwaik

2000-01-01

277

Silver transfer in proustite Ag3AsS3 at high temperatures: Conductivity and single-crystal X-ray studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of proustite Ag3AsS3 have been characterised by impedance spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction in the temperature ranges of 295-543 and 295-695 K, respectively. An analysis of the one-particle potential of silver atoms shows that in the whole measuring temperature range defects in the silver substructure play a major role in the conduction mechanism. Furthermore, the silver transfer is equally probable within silver chains and spirals, as well as between chains and spirals. The trigonal R3c room temperature phase does not change until the decomposition of the crystal. The electric anomaly of the first-order character which appears near 502 K is related to an increase in the electronic component of the total conductivity resulting from Ag2S deposition at the sample surface.

Ga?or, Anna; Paw?owski, Antoni; Pietraszko, Adam

2009-03-01

278

Silver transfer in proustite Ag{sub 3}AsS{sub 3} at high temperatures: Conductivity and single-crystal X-ray studies  

SciTech Connect

Single crystals of proustite Ag{sub 3}AsS{sub 3} have been characterised by impedance spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction in the temperature ranges of 295-543 and 295-695 K, respectively. An analysis of the one-particle potential of silver atoms shows that in the whole measuring temperature range defects in the silver substructure play a major role in the conduction mechanism. Furthermore, the silver transfer is equally probable within silver chains and spirals, as well as between chains and spirals. The trigonal R3c room temperature phase does not change until the decomposition of the crystal. The electric anomaly of the first-order character which appears near 502 K is related to an increase in the electronic component of the total conductivity resulting from Ag{sub 2}S deposition at the sample surface. - Joint probability density function map of silver atoms at T=695 K.

Gagor, Anna [W. Trzebiatowski Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research PAS, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw (Poland)], E-mail: a.gagor@int.pan.wroc.pl; Pawlowski, Antoni [Institute of Molecular Physics PAS, Mariana Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznan (Poland); Pietraszko, Adam [W. Trzebiatowski Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research PAS, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw (Poland)

2009-03-15

279

MT3 melatonin binding site, MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors are present in oocyte, but only MT1 is present in bovine blastocyst produced in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Melatonin inclusion into in vitro oocyte maturation (IVM) protocols has been suggested because it possesses a powerful free radical scavenger capability that improves the quality of the oocyte used in in vitro embryo production (IVP). The aim of our study was to investigate the presence of melatonin membrane receptors (MT1and MT2) and MT3, which is the melatonin binding site of NQO2 enzyme, in both oocytes and hatched blastocysts to consider an additional subcellular mechanism responsible for the effects of melatonin on IVP. Methods The presence of the high affinity melatonin receptors was investigated through an autoradiographic binding assay, using the non-permeable ligand [125I]-iodomelatonin (17 pM) in embryos. The kind of melatonin site was investigated in oocytes and embryos by immunocytochemistry. In vitro fertilized bovine embryos produced from in vitro maturated oocytes supplemented with melatonin (0.0001 to 1000 nM) were analysed to determine their cleavage and blastocyst formation rates. Results The [125I]-iodomelatonin (17 pM) binding in blastocysts was blocked by pre-incubation with melatonin (30000 nM), showing the presence of the high affinity melatonin receptors. MT1, MT2 and NQO2 immunoreactivity was observed in oocytes. MT1 immunoreactivity was observed in hatched blastocysts, however MT2 and NQO2 were not observed in this embryonic stage. Melatonin (pM) triggered significant difference in both cleavage and blastocysts formation rates. Conclusions The high affinity MT1 melatonin receptor must be taking part in IVM events; furthermore it is the first melatonin receptor to appear during bovine embryo development in vitro. PMID:23207065

2012-01-01

280

Evidence of electron-transfer in the SERS spectra of a single iron-protoporphyrin IX molecule  

E-print Network

molecule iron-protoporphyrin IX, adsorbed on silver colloidal surfaces. If on one hand, drastic, random at the interface between molecules and electrodes in hybrid nano-devices [4]. SERS is assumed to originate from two bioelectronic and photonic nano-devices [15­17]. Spectroscopic detection down to the level of single molecule

Tuscia, Università Degli Studi Della

281

Single-Molecule FRET Studies of Important Intermediates in the Nucleocapsid-Protein-Chaperoned Minus-Strand Transfer Step in HIV-1 Reverse Transcription  

PubMed Central

The minus-strand transfer step of HIV-1 reverse transcription is chaperoned by the nucleocapsid protein (NC), which has been shown to facilitate the annealing between the transactivation response element (TAR) RNA and complementary TAR DNA stem-loop structures. In this work, potential intermediates in the mechanism of NC-chaperoned TAR DNA/TAR RNA annealing have been examined using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The interaction between TAR DNA and various DNA oligonucleotides designed to mimic the initial annealing step was monitored to capture potential intermediates along the reaction pathway. Two possible mechanisms of annealing were examined, namely nucleation through the 3?/5? termini, termed the “zipper” complex, or nucleation through the hairpin loops in a “kissing” complex. Intermediates associated with both mechanisms were observed in the presence of NC, and the kinetics of formation of these intermediates were also measured. Thus, the single-molecule experiments support the notion that NC-assisted annealing of TAR DNA:TAR RNA may occur through multiple pathways. PMID:16100256

Liu, Hsiao-Wei; Cosa, Gonzalo; Landes, Christy F.; Zeng, Yining; Kovaleski, Brandie J.; Mullen, Daniel G.; Barany, George; Musier-Forsyth, Karin; Barbara, Paul F.

2005-01-01

282

Significant improvement of mouse cloning technique by treatment with trichostatin A after somatic nuclear transfer  

SciTech Connect

The low success rate of animal cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is believed to be associated with epigenetic errors including abnormal DNA hypermethylation. Recently, we elucidated by using round spermatids that, after nuclear transfer, treatment of zygotes with trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, can remarkably reduce abnormal DNA hypermethylation depending on the origins of transferred nuclei and their genomic regions [S. Kishigami, N. Van Thuan, T. Hikichi, H. Ohta, S. Wakayama. E. Mizutani, T. Wakayama, Epigenetic abnormalities of the mouse paternal zygotic genome associated with microinsemination of round spermatids, Dev. Biol. (2005) in press]. Here, we found that 5-50 nM TSA-treatment for 10 h following oocyte activation resulted in more efficient in vitro development of somatic cloned embryos to the blastocyst stage from 2- to 5-fold depending on the donor cells including tail tip cells, spleen cells, neural stem cells, and cumulus cells. This TSA-treatment also led to more than 5-fold increase in success rate of mouse cloning from cumulus cells without obvious abnormality but failed to improve ES cloning success. Further, we succeeded in establishment of nuclear transfer-embryonic stem (NT-ES) cells from TSA-treated cloned blastocyst at a rate three times higher than those from untreated cloned blastocysts. Thus, our data indicate that TSA-treatment after SCNT in mice can dramatically improve the practical application of current cloning techniques.

Kishigami, Satoshi [Laboratory for Genomic Reprogramming, Center for Developmental Biology, RIKEN Kobe, 2-2-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan)]. E-mail: kishigami@cdb.riken.jp; Mizutani, Eiji [Laboratory for Genomic Reprogramming, Center for Developmental Biology, RIKEN Kobe, 2-2-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan); Ohta, Hiroshi [Laboratory for Genomic Reprogramming, Center for Developmental Biology, RIKEN Kobe, 2-2-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan); Hikichi, Takafusa [Laboratory for Genomic Reprogramming, Center for Developmental Biology, RIKEN Kobe, 2-2-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan); Thuan, Nguyen Van [Laboratory for Genomic Reprogramming, Center for Developmental Biology, RIKEN Kobe, 2-2-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan); Wakayama, Sayaka [Laboratory for Genomic Reprogramming, Center for Developmental Biology, RIKEN Kobe, 2-2-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan); Bui, Hong-Thuy [Laboratory for Genomic Reprogramming, Center for Developmental Biology, RIKEN Kobe, 2-2-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan); Wakayama, Teruhiko [Laboratory for Genomic Reprogramming, Center for Developmental Biology, RIKEN Kobe, 2-2-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan)

2006-02-03

283

Production of rhesus monkey cloned embryos expressing monomeric red fluorescent protein by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer.  

PubMed

Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is a promising method to clone endangered animals from which oocytes are difficult to obtain. Monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) is an excellent selection marker for transgenically modified cloned embryos during somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In this study, mRFP-expressing rhesus monkey cells or porcine cells were transferred into enucleated porcine oocytes to generate iSCNT and SCNT embryos, respectively. The development of these embryos was studied in vitro. The percentage of embryos that underwent cleavage did not significantly differ between iSCNT and SCNT embryos (P>0.05; 71.53% vs. 80.30%). However, significantly fewer iSCNT embryos than SCNT embryos reached the blastocyst stage (2.04% vs. 10.19%, P<0.05). Valproic acid was used in an attempt to increase the percentage of iSCNT embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage. However, the percentages of embryos that underwent cleavage and reached the blastocyst stage were similar between untreated iSCNT embryos and iSCNT embryos treated with 2mM valproic acid for 24h (72.12% vs. 70.83% and 2.67% vs. 2.35%, respectively). These data suggest that porcine-rhesus monkey interspecies embryos can be generated that efficiently express mRFP1. However, a significantly lower proportion of iSCNT embryos than SCNT embryos reach the blastocyst stage. Valproic acid does not increase the percentage of porcine-rhesus monkey iSCNT embryos that reach the blastocyst stage. The mechanisms underling nuclear reprogramming and epigenetic modifications in iSCNT need to be investigated further. PMID:24491539

Zhu, Hai-Ying; Kang, Jin-Dan; Li, Suo; Jin, Jun-Xue; Hong, Yu; Jin, Long; Guo, Qing; Gao, Qing-Shan; Yan, Chang-Guo; Yin, Xi-Jun

2014-02-21

284

Slow Proton Transfer Coupled to Unfolding Explains the Puzzling Results of Single-Molecule Experiments on BBL, a Paradigmatic Downhill Folding Protein  

PubMed Central

A battery of thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural approaches has indicated that the small ?-helical protein BBL folds-unfolds via the one-state downhill scenario. Yet, single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy offers a more conflicting view. Single-molecule experiments at pH 6 show a unique half-unfolded conformational ensemble at mid denaturation, whereas other experiments performed at higher pH show a bimodal distribution, as expected for two-state folding. Here we use thermodynamic and laser T-jump kinetic experiments combined with theoretical modeling to investigate the pH dependence of BBL stability, folding kinetics and mechanism within the pH 6–11 range. We find that BBL unfolding is tightly coupled to the protonation of one of its residues with an apparent pKa of ?7. Therefore, in chemical denaturation experiments around neutral pH BBL unfolds gradually, and also converts in binary fashion to the protonated species. Moreover, under the single-molecule experimental conditions (denaturant midpoint and 279 K), we observe that proton transfer is much slower than the ?15 microseconds folding-unfolding kinetics of BBL. The relaxation kinetics is distinctly biphasic, and the overall relaxation time (i.e. 0.2–0.5 ms) becomes controlled by the proton transfer step. We then show that a simple theoretical model of protein folding coupled to proton transfer explains quantitatively all these results as well as the two sets of single-molecule experiments, including their more puzzling features. Interestingly, this analysis suggests that BBL unfolds following a one-state downhill folding mechanism at all conditions. Accordingly, the source of the bimodal distributions observed during denaturation at pH 7–8 is the splitting of the unique conformational ensemble of BBL onto two slowly inter-converting protonation species. Both, the unprotonated and protonated species unfold gradually (one-state downhill), but they exhibit different degree of unfolding at any given condition because the native structure is less stable for the protonated form. PMID:24205082

Cerminara, Michele; Campos, Luis A.; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Munoz, Victor

2013-01-01

285

Slow proton transfer coupled to unfolding explains the puzzling results of single-molecule experiments on BBL, a paradigmatic downhill folding protein.  

PubMed

A battery of thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural approaches has indicated that the small ?-helical protein BBL folds-unfolds via the one-state downhill scenario. Yet, single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy offers a more conflicting view. Single-molecule experiments at pH 6 show a unique half-unfolded conformational ensemble at mid denaturation, whereas other experiments performed at higher pH show a bimodal distribution, as expected for two-state folding. Here we use thermodynamic and laser T-jump kinetic experiments combined with theoretical modeling to investigate the pH dependence of BBL stability, folding kinetics and mechanism within the pH 6-11 range. We find that BBL unfolding is tightly coupled to the protonation of one of its residues with an apparent pKa of ~ 7. Therefore, in chemical denaturation experiments around neutral pH BBL unfolds gradually, and also converts in binary fashion to the protonated species. Moreover, under the single-molecule experimental conditions (denaturant midpoint and 279 K), we observe that proton transfer is much slower than the ~ 15 microseconds folding-unfolding kinetics of BBL. The relaxation kinetics is distinctly biphasic, and the overall relaxation time (i.e. 0.2-0.5 ms) becomes controlled by the proton transfer step. We then show that a simple theoretical model of protein folding coupled to proton transfer explains quantitatively all these results as well as the two sets of single-molecule experiments, including their more puzzling features. Interestingly, this analysis suggests that BBL unfolds following a one-state downhill folding mechanism at all conditions. Accordingly, the source of the bimodal distributions observed during denaturation at pH 7-8 is the splitting of the unique conformational ensemble of BBL onto two slowly inter-converting protonation species. Both, the unprotonated and protonated species unfold gradually (one-state downhill), but they exhibit different degree of unfolding at any given condition because the native structure is less stable for the protonated form. PMID:24205082

Cerminara, Michele; Campos, Luis A; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Muñoz, Victor

2013-01-01

286

BRET3: a red-shifted bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)-based integrated platform for imaging protein-protein interactions from single live cells and living animals.  

PubMed

Taking advantage of the bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) phenomenon, we report the development of a highly photon-efficient, self-illuminating fusion protein combining a mutant red fluorescent protein (mOrange) and a mutant Renilla reniformis luciferase (RLuc8). This new BRET fusion protein (BRET3) exhibits severalfold improvement in light intensity in comparison with existing BRET fusion proteins. BRET3 also exhibits the most red-shifted light output (564-nm peak wavelength) of any reported bioluminescent protein that utilizes its natural substrate coelenterazine, a benefit of which is demonstrated at various tissue depths in small animals. The imaging utility of BRET3 at the single-cell level is demonstrated using an intramolecular sensor incorporating two mammalian target of rapamycin pathway proteins (FKBP12 and FRB) that dimerize only in the presence of rapamycin. With its increased photon intensity, red-shifted light output, and good spectral resolution (approximately 85 nm), BRET3 shows improved spatial and temporal resolution for measuring intracellular events in single cells and in living small animal models. The development of further BRET3-based assays will allow imaging of protein-protein interactions using a single assay directly scalable from intact living cells to small living subjects, allowing accelerated drug discovery. PMID:19351700

De, Abhijit; Ray, Pritha; Loening, Andreas Markus; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam

2009-08-01

287

Effect of melatonin treatment on developmental potential of somatic cell nuclear-transferred mouse oocytes in vitro.  

PubMed

Summary The beneficial effect of supplementing culture medium with melatonin has been reported during in vitro embryo development of species such as mouse, bovine and porcine. However, the effect of melatonin on mouse somatic cell nuclear transfer remains unknown. In this study, we assessed the effects of various concentrations of melatonin (10-6 to 10-12 M) on the in vitro development of mouse somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos for 96 h. Embryos cultured without melatonin were used as control. There was no significant difference in cleavage rates between the groups supplemented with melatonin, dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and the control. The rate of development to blastocyst stage was significantly higher in the group supplemented with 10-12 M melatonin compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Thus, our data demonstrated that adding melatonin to pre-implantation mouse nuclear-transferred embryos can accelerate blastocyst formation. PMID:24040915

Salehi, Mohammad; Kato, Yoko; Tsunoda, Yukio

2014-05-01

288

Dynamics of single and multiple bubbles and associated heat transfer in nucleate boiling under low gravity conditions.  

PubMed

Experimental studies and numerical simulation of growth and lift-off processes of single bubbles formed on designed nucleation sites have been conducted under low-gravity conditions. Merging of multiple bubbles and lift-off processes during boiling of water in the parabola flights of KC-135 aircraft were also experimentally studied. The heating area of the flat heater surface was discretized and equipped with a number of small heating elements that were separately powered in the temperature-control mode. As such, the wall superheat remained nearly constant during the growth and departure of the bubbles, whereas the local heat flux varied during the boiling process. From numerical calculation it is found that peak of heat flux occurs locally at the contact line of bubble and heater surface. Dry conditions exist inside the bubble base area, which is characterized through a zero heat flux region in the numerical calculation and a lower heat flux period in the experimental results. During the merger of multiple bubbles, dry-out continues. In both the numerical calculations and experimental results, the bubble lift-off is associated with an apparent increase in heat flux. Wall heat flux variation with time and spatial distribution during the growth of a single bubble from numerical simulations are compared with experimental data. PMID:12446337

Qiu, D; Son, G; Dhir, V K; Chao, D; Logsdon, K

2002-10-01

289

Offspring resulting from direct transfer of cryopreserved bovine embryos produced in vitro in chemically defined media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work was designed to study the in vitro and in vivo viability, as assessed by blastocyst formation, pregnancy rate and term delivery of bovine embryos produced under completely defined conditions with or without insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) following direct transfer after cryopreservation. Slaughterhouse-derived bovine oocytes were matured for 24h, fertilized with frozen-thawed spermatozoa and cultured in vitro

H. J. Hernandez-Fonseca; S. Sirisathien; P. Bosch; H. S. Cho; J. D. Lott; L. L. Hawkins; R. B. Hollett; S. L. Coley; B. G. Brackett

2002-01-01

290

Rabbit embryonic stem cell lines derived from fertilized, parthenogenetic or somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryonic stem cells were isolated from rabbit blastocysts derived from fertilization (conventional rbES cells), parthenogenesis (pES cells) and nuclear transfer (ntES cells), and propagated in a serum-free culture system. Rabbit ES (rbES) cells proliferated for a prolonged time in an undifferentiated state and maintained a normal karyotype. These cells grew in a monolayer with a high nuclear\\/cytoplasm ratio and contained

Zhen F. Fang; Hui Gai; You Z. Huang; Shan G. Li; Xue J. Chen; Jian J. Shi; Li Wu; Ailian Liu; Ping Xu; Hui Z.. Sheng

2006-01-01

291

Excitation energy transfer in natural photosynthetic complexes and chlorophyll trefoils: hole-burning and single complex/trefoil spectroscopic studies  

SciTech Connect

In this project we studied both natural photosynthetic antenna complexes and various artificial systems (e.g. chlorophyll (Chl) trefoils) using high resolution hole-burning (HB) spectroscopy and excitonic calculations. Results obtained provided more insight into the electronic (excitonic) structure, inhomogeneity, electron-phonon coupling strength, vibrational frequencies, and excitation energy (or electron) transfer (EET) processes in several antennas and reaction centers. For example, our recent work provided important constraints and parameters for more advanced excitonic calculations of CP43, CP47, and PSII core complexes. Improved theoretical description of HB spectra for various model systems offers new insight into the excitonic structure and composition of low-energy absorption traps in very several antenna protein complexes and reaction centers. We anticipate that better understanding of HB spectra obtained for various photosynthetic complexes and their simultaneous fits with other optical spectra (i.e. absorption, emission, and circular dichroism spectra) provides more insight into the underlying electronic structures of these important biological systems. Our recent progress provides a necessary framework for probing the electronic structure of these systems via Hole Burning Spectroscopy. For example, we have shown that the theoretical description of non-resonant holes is more restrictive (in terms of possible site energies) than those of absorption and emission spectra. We have demonstrated that simultaneous description of linear optical spectra along with HB spectra provides more realistic site energies. We have also developed new algorithms to describe both nonresonant and resonant hole-burn spectra using more advanced Redfield theory. Simultaneous description of various optical spectra for complex biological system, e.g. artificial antenna systems, FMO protein complexes, water soluble protein complexes, and various mutants of reaction centers continues; this work is supported by the new DOE BES grant.

Ryszard Jankowiak, Kansas State University, Department of Chemistry, CBC Bldg., Manhattan KS, 66505; Phone: (785) 532-6785

2012-09-12

292

Clinical outcomes of vitrified-thawed embryo transfer using a pull and cut straw method  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the clinical outcomes of patients with vitrified-thawed embryos transferred using either the 0.25 mL straw method and the pull and cut straw (PNC) method. To evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients with transferred embryos that underwent assisted hatching at the cleaved embryo (day 3) or the blastocyst (day 5) stage. Methods The study population consisted of women who underwent vitrified-warmed embryo transfer between May 2000 and December 2011 and assisted hatching was performed after warming of embryos. Cycles of thawing between assisted hatching treated and non treated groups were compared for survival and pregnancy rates. Results The PNC vitrification method improved survival and pregnancy rates in partial lysed embryos. While assisted hatching did not affect the developmental and clinical pregnancy rates of the vitrified-warmed blastocyst group, it did increase the pregnancy rate of poor quality vitrified-warmed cleaved embryos. Conclusion These results suggest that PNC may increase the number of clinical pregnancies via the vitrification of both cleaved embryos and blastocysts. In addition, selective assisted hatching treatment of embryos that show a poor prognosis after warming may increase the rate of clinical pregnancy. PMID:24327999

Lim, Joon Gyo; Heo, Young Tae; Min, Seung Gi; Min, Byeong Yeol; Uhm, Sang Jun

2013-01-01

293

In vitro development of porcine transgenic nuclear-transferred embryos derived from newborn Guangxi Bama mini-pig kidney fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Porcine transgenic cloning has potential applications for improving production traits and for biomedical research purposes. To produce a transgenic clone, kidney fibroblasts from a newborn Guangxi Bama mini-pig were isolated, cultured, and then transfected with red and green fluorescent protein genes using lipofectamine for nuclear transfer. The results of the present study show that the kidney fibroblasts exhibited excellent proliferative capacity and clone-like morphology, and were adequate for generation of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)-derived embryos, which was confirmed by their cleavage activity and blastocyst formation rate of 70.3% and 7.9%, respectively. Cells transfected with red fluorescent protein genes could be passed more than 35 times. Transgenic embryos cloned with fluorescent or blind enucleation methods were not significantly different with respect to cleavage rates (92.5% vs. 86.8%, p?>?0.05) and blastocyst-morula rates (26.9% vs. 34.0%, p?>?0.05), but were significantly different with respect to blastocyst rates (3.0% vs. 13.2%, p??0.05), blastocyst (14.1%, 16.1% vs. 23.1%, p?>?0.05) and morula/blastocyst rates (43.5%, 47.0% vs. 57.6%, p?>?0.05) were not significantly different between the groups of transgenic cloned embryos, cloned embryos, and parthenogenetic embryos. This indicates that long-time screening by G418 caused no significant damage to kidney fibroblasts. Thus, kidney fibroblasts represent a promising new source for transgenic SCNT, and this work lays the foundation for the production of genetically transformed cloned Guangxi Bama mini-pigs. PMID:24879084

Liu, Hongbo; Lv, Peiru; Zhu, Xiangxing; Wang, Xianwei; Yang, Xiaogan; Zuo, Erwei; Lu, Yangqing; Lu, Shengsheng; Lu, Kehuan

2014-10-01

294

Thermal single-well injection-withdrawal tracer tests for determining fracture-matrix heat transfer area  

SciTech Connect

Single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tracer tests involve injection of traced fluid and subsequent tracer recovery from the same well, usually with some quiescent time between the injection and withdrawal periods. SWIW are insensitive to variations in advective processes that arise from formation heterogeneities, because upon withdrawal, fluid parcels tend to retrace the paths taken during injection. However, SWIW are sensitive to diffusive processes, such as diffusive exchange of conservative or reactive solutes between fractures and rock matrix. This paper focuses on SWIW tests in which temperature itself is used as a tracer. Numerical simulations demonstrate the sensitivity of temperature returns to fracture-matrix interaction. We consider thermal SWIW response to the two primary reservoir improvements targeted with stimulation, (1) making additional fractures accessible to injected fluids, and (2) increasing the aperture and permeability of pre-existing fractures. It is found that temperature returns in SWIW tests are insensitive to (2), while providing a strong signal of more rapid temperature recovery during the withdrawal phase for (1).

Pruess, K.; Doughty, C.

2010-01-15

295

Internal structure of flux transfer events produced by the onset of merging at a single X line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new, higher-order, two-dimensional, magnetohydrodynamic model for the detailed internal structure of bubbles produced by the onset of merging along a single subsolar X line. The key feature of the model is to implement a nonlinear filter to postprocess results provided by the pseudospectral element method. The devised nonlinear filter (1) eliminates only the high-frequency oscillations, (2) retains conservation laws, and (3) enforces a total variation diminished criterion to guarantee the elimination of spurious oscillations near discontinuities. For realistic parameters, the model predicts that satellites which remain in the magnetosheath will observe asymmetric bipolar magnetic field signatures normal to the magnetopause, magnetic field strength increases, density and temperature decreases, and velocities opposite the motion of the events. Satellites in the magnetosheath which enter the events observe asymmetric bipolar signatures normal to the magnetopause, magnetic field strength decreases, densities intermediate between those in the magnetosheath and magnetosphere, temperature increases, and velocities in the direction of event motion. Satellites initially located just outside the magnetopause observe greatly depressed densities and enhanced temperatures (but no significant bipolar signatures normal to the magnetopause) followed by velocity jets of magnetosheath-like plasma on northward magnetospheric magnetic field lines. Satellites in the magnetosphere which enter the events observe depressed magnetic field strengths, enhanced densities and temperatures, and accelerated flows surrounding a core region of accelerated magnetosheath-like plasma. Neither they nor satellites which remain in the magnetosphere observe any significant bipolar signatures normal to the nominal magnetopause.

Ku, Hwar C.; Sibeck, David G.

1997-02-01

296

Charge transfer in single and multiple scattering events at metal surfaces: a wavepacket study of the Na + /Cu(100) system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resonant neutralization of hyperthermal energy Na + ions impinging on Cu(100) surfaces is studied, focusing on two specific collision events: one in which the projectile is reflected off the surface, the other in which the incident atom penetrates the outer surface layers initiating a series of scattering processes, within the target, and coming out together with a single surface atom. A semi-empirical model potential is adopted that embeds: (i) the electronic structure of the sample, (ii) the central field of the projectile, and (iii) the contribution of the Cu atom ejected in multiple scattering events. The evolution of the ionization orbital of the scattered atom is simulated, backwards in time, using a wavepacket propagation algorithm. The output of the approach is the neutralization probability, obtained by projecting the time-reversed valence wavefunction of the projectile onto the initially filled conduction band states. The results are in agreement with available data from the literature (Keller et al 1995 Phys. Rev. Lett. 75 1654) indicating that the motion of surface atoms, exiting the targets with kinetic energies of the order of a few electronvolts, plays a significant role in the final charge state of projectiles.

Sindona, A.; Pisarra, M.; Maletta, S.; Riccardi, P.; Falcone, G.

2010-12-01

297

Comparison of male chimeric mice generated from microinjection of JM8.N4 embryonic stem cells into C57BL/6J and C57BL/6NTac blastocysts  

PubMed Central

To identify ways to improve the efficiency of generating chimeric mice via microinjection of blastocysts with ES cells, we compared production and performance of ES-cell derived chimeric mice using blastocysts from two closely related and commonly used sub-strains of C57BL/6. Chimeras were produced by injection of the same JM8.N4 (C57BL/6NTac) derived ES cell line into blastocysts of mixed sex from either C57BL/6J (B6J) or C57BL/6NTac (B6NTac) mice. Similar efficiency of production and sex-conversion of chimeric animals was observed with each strain of blastocyst. However, B6J chimeric males had fewer developmental abnormalities involving urogenital and reproductive tissues (1/12, 8%) compared with B6NTac chimeric males (7/9, 78%). The low sample size did not permit determination of statistical significance for many parameters. However, in each category analyzed the B6J-derived chimeric males performed as well, or better, than their B6NTac counterparts. Twelve of 14 (86%) B6J male chimeras were fertile compared with 6 of 11 (55%) B6NTac male chimeras. Ten of 12 (83%) B6J chimeric males sired more than 1 litter compared with only 3 of 6 (50%) B6NTac chimeras. B6J male chimeras produced more litters per productive mating (3.42 ± 1.73, n=12) compared to B6NTac chimeras (2.17 ± 1.33, n=6). Finally, a greater ratio of germline transmitting chimeric males was obtained using B6J blastocysts (9/14; 64%) compared with chimeras produced using B6NTac blastocysts (4/11; 36%). Use of B6J host blastocysts for microinjection of ES cells may offer improvements over blastocysts from B6NTac and possibly other sub-strains of C57BL/6 mice. PMID:22422470

Fielder, Thomas J.; Yi, Charles S.; Masumi, Juliet; Waymire, Katrina G.; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Wang, Shuling; Shi, Kai-Xuan; Wallace, Douglas C.; MacGregor, Grant R.

2012-01-01

298

Multiple conformations of full-length p53 detected with single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer  

PubMed Central

The tumor suppressor p53 is a member of the emerging class of proteins that have both folded and intrinsically disordered domains, which are a challenge to structural biology. Its N-terminal domain (NTD) is linked to a folded core domain, which has a disordered link to the folded tetramerization domain, which is followed by a disordered C-terminal domain. The quaternary structure of human p53 has been solved by a combination of NMR spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and the NTD ensemble structure has been solved by NMR and SAXS. The murine p53 is reported to have a different quaternary structure, with the N and C termini interacting. Here, we used single-molecule FRET (SM-FRET) and ensemble FRET to investigate the conformational dynamics of the NTD of p53 in isolation and in the context of tetrameric full-length p53 (flp53). Our results showed that the isolated NTD was extended in solution with a strong preference for residues 66–86 forming a polyproline II conformation. The NTD associated weakly with the DNA binding domain of p53, but not the C termini. We detected multiple conformations in flp53 that were likely to result from the interactions of NTD with the DNA binding domain of each monomeric p53. Overall, the SM-FRET results, in addition to corroborating the previous ensemble findings, enabled the identification of the existence of multiple conformations of p53, which are often averaged and neglected in conventional ensemble techniques. Our study exemplifies the usefulness of SM-FRET in exploring the dynamic landscape of multimeric proteins that contain regions of unstructured domains. PMID:19933326

Huang, Fang; Rajagopalan, Sridharan; Settanni, Giovanni; Marsh, Richard J.; Armoogum, Daven A.; Nicolaou, Nick; Bain, Angus J.; Lerner, Eitan; Haas, Elisha; Ying, Liming; Fersht, Alan R.

2009-01-01

299

Patient-specific embryonic stem cells derived from human SCNT blastocysts.  

PubMed

Patient-specific, immune-matched human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are anticipated to be of great biomedical importance for studies of disease and development and to advance clinical deliberations regarding stem cell transplantation. Eleven hESC lines were established by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) of skin cells from patients with disease or injury into donated oocytes. These lines, nuclear transfer (NT)-hESCs, grown on human feeders from the same NT donor or from genetically unrelated individuals, were established at high rates, regardless of NT donor sex or age. NT-hESCs were pluripotent, chromosomally normal, and matched the NT patient's DNA. The major histocompatibility complex identity of each NT-hESC when compared to the patient's own showed immunological compatibility, which is important for eventual transplantation. With the generation of these NT-hESCs, evaluations of genetic and epigenetic stability can be made. Additional work remains to be done regarding the development of reliable directed differentiation and the elimination of remaining animal components. Before clinical use of these cells can occur, preclinical evidence is required to prove that transplantation of differentiated NT-hESCs can be safe, effective, and tolerated. PMID:15905366

Hwang, Woo Suk; Roh, Sung Il; Lee, Byeong Chun; Kang, Sung Keun; Kwon, Dae Kee; Kim, Sue; Kim, Sun Jong; Park, Sun Woo; Kwon, Hee Sun; Lee, Chang Kyu; Lee, Jung Bok; Kim, Jin Mee; Ahn, Curie; Paek, Sun Ha; Chang, Sang Sik; Koo, Jung Jin; Yoon, Hyun Soo; Hwang, Jung Hye; Hwang, Youn Young; Park, Ye Soo; Oh, Sun Kyung; Kim, Hee Sun; Park, Jong Hyuk; Moon, Shin Yong; Schatten, Gerald

2005-06-17

300

Noncytopathogenic and cytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease viruses do not affect in vitro embryonic development into the blastocyst stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine oocytes enclosed within follicular epithelial (FE) cells were exposed to noncytopathogenic or cytopathogenic strains of bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease virus (BVD-MDV). After culture at 39°C in humidified air with 5% CO2 for 24 h, the oocytes matured and then in vitro fertilization was performed. Some of the fertilized oocytes developed into blastocysts from day 8 to day 10 (day

T. Tsuboi; T. Imada

1996-01-01

301

Mitochondrial DNA in Day 3 embryo culture medium is a novel, non-invasive biomarker of blastocyst potential and implantation outcome.  

PubMed

In assisted reproduction technology, embryo competence is routinely evaluated on morphological criteria. Over the last decade, efforts in improving non-invasive embryo assessment have looked into the secretome of embryos. Human embryos release genomic DNA (gDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into the culture medium, and the mtDNA/gDNA ratio is significantly correlated with embryo fragmentation. Here, we investigate whether mtDNA/gDNA ratio in embryo spent medium is correlated with blastulation potential and implantation. The mtDNA/gDNA ratio was assessed in 699 Day 3 culture media by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to investigate its correlation with embryo morphology, blastocyst development and implantation. A logistic regression model evaluated whether mtDNA/gDNA ratio in the secretome may improve the prediction of blastulation. We found that embryos that successfully developed into blastocysts exhibited a significantly higher mtDNA/gDNA ratio in the culture medium compared with those that arrest (P = 0.0251), and mtDNA/gDNA, combined with morphological grading, has the potential to predict blastulation better than morphology alone (P = 0.02). Moreover, mtDNA/gDNA ratio was higher in the media from good-quality embryos that reached the full blastocyst stage on Day 5 compared with those that developed more slowly (P < 0.0001). With respect to blastocyst morphology, higher trophectoderm quality was associated with a higher mtDNA/gDNA ratio in the culture medium. Finally, a high mtDNA/gDNA ratio in spent medium was associated with successful implantation outcome (P = 0.0452) of good-quality embryos. In summary, the mtDNA/gDNA ratio in the Day 3 embryo secretome, in combination with morphological grading, may be a novel, non-invasive, early biomarker to improve identification of viable embryos with high developmental potential. PMID:25232043

Stigliani, S; Persico, L; Lagazio, C; Anserini, P; Venturini, P L; Scaruffi, P

2014-12-01

302

Derivation, characterization and differentiation of a new human embryonic stem cell line from a Chinese hatched blastocyst assisted by a non-contact laser system.  

PubMed

Currently worldwide attention has focused on the derivation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) for future therapeutic medicine. However, the majority of existing hESCs are directly or indirectly exposed to non-human materials during their derivation and/or propagation, which greatly restrict their therapeutic potential. Besides the efforts to improve culture systems, the derivation procedure, especially blastocyst manipulation, needs to be optimized. We adopted a non-contact laser-assisted hatching system in combination with sequential culture process to obtain hatched blastocysts as materials for hESC derivation, and derived a hESC line ZJUhES-1 of a Chinese population without exposure to any non-human materials during blastocyst manipulation. ZJUhES-1 satisfies the criteria of pluripotent hESCs: typically morphological characteristics; the expression of alkaline phosphatase, human telomerase reverse transcriptase and multiple hESC-specific markers including SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, OCT-4, Nanog, Rex-1, Sox-2, UTF-1, Connexins 43 and 45, TERF-1 and TERF-2, Glut-1, BCRP-1/ABCG-2, GDF3, LIN28, FGF4, Thy-1, Cripto1/TDGF1, AC133 as well as SMAD1/2/3/5; extended proliferative capacity; maintenance of a stable male karyotype after long-term cultivation; and robust multiple-lineage developmental potentials both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, ZJUhES-1 has distinct identity revealed from DNA fingerprinting. Our xeno-free blastocyst manipulation procedure may promote the progression toward clinical-grade hESC derivation. PMID:20973834

Wu, Rongrong; Xu, Chenming; Jin, Fan; Tan, Zhou; Gu, Bin; Chen, Liangbiao; Yao, Xing; Zhang, Ming

2010-08-01

303

Developmental potential of pig embryos reconstructed by use of sow versus pre-pubertal gilt oocytes after somatic cell nuclear transfer.  

PubMed

In this study, the developmental ability of cloned embryos using gilt versus sow oocytes was evaluated under the hypothesis that the efficiency of nuclear transfer using gilt oocytes was lower than that of sow oocytes, but that it could be optimized. Five experiments were performed with routine production of cloned embryos with sow oocytes serving as the control. Results showed that: Experiment 1: Blastocyst rates of cloned embryos with gilt oocytes was about half compared with control. Experiment 2: An extended maturation time of 48 h used for gilt oocytes resulted in lower blastocyst rates after cloning. Experiment 3: Development of cloned embryos with gilt oocytes was improved by co-culture with sow oocytes. Experiment 4: After maturation of gilt oocytes using follicular fluid from gilt instead of sow, the oocytes were sorted into large and small oocytes, and after cloning, blastocyst rates were higher using large gilt oocytes compared with small oocytes; however, the rate remained lower compared with control. Experiment 5: Six sow recipients received a total of 503 morulae and blastocysts cloned from gilt oocytes (four recipients) and 190 cloned from sow oocytes (two recipients). All recipients became pregnant and went to term, resulting in 26 (gilt oocytes) and six (sow oocytes) piglets. In conclusion, results confirmed that nuclear transfer efficiency was higher using sow versus gilt oocytes, but the use of gilt oocytes can be optimized by sorting after ooplasm size following maturation and by maturing gilt and sow oocytes together. PMID:23331714

Li, Juan; Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard; Li, Rong; Adamsen, Janne; Liu, Ying; Schmidt, Mette; Purup, Stig; Callesen, Henrik

2014-08-01

304

Supplementation of sperm cryopreservation media with cell permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic agent (MnTE) improves goat blastocyst formation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess whether a cell permeable superoxide dismutase agent such as MnTE, can further improve the quality of frozen/thawed semen sample using a commercially optimized sperm cryopreservation media (Bioxcell). Bioxcell was supplemented with different concentration of MnTE. Sperm membrane integrity, motility, viability and acrosomal status were assessed after freezing. Optimized concentration of MnTE was defined and used to assess fertilization and developmental potential. 0.1 ?M MnTE significantly improved membrane integrity while 0.01 ?M MnTE significantly improved acrosomal integrity post thawing. Addition of 0.01 ?M MnTE also improved blastocyst formation rate. Supplementation of commercially optimized cryopreservation media with MnTE further improves the quality of goat frozen semen sample and may have important consequence of future embryo development. This effect may be attributed to cell permeable behavior of this antioxidant which may protect sperm genome from ROS-induced DNA damage. PMID:23981864

Forouzanfar, Mohsen; Abid, Abdolah; Hosseini, Sayyed Morteza; Hajian, Mehdi; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

2013-12-01

305

On the sensitivity of long-term magnetotelluric monitoring in Southern Italy and source-dependent robust single station transfer function variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2007, a permanent magnetotelluric (MT) monitoring station has been working in the seismic area of the Agri Valley (Basilicata region, southern Italy) in order to investigate the stability of the MT transfer function. The station was installed in a rural area near the supposed seismogenic fault of the strong earthquake (Mw = 6.9) that struck the Agri Valley in 1857. Analysing about 4 yr of MT data characterized by a low seismic activity, the long-term systematic variations of robust single station MT transfer function estimates were observed in two different sounding period ranges. First, a significant seasonal component of variability for short periods was noted; these short periods were up to 16 s and were linked to variations in wetting/drying of soil moisture in the shallower layers. Second, a connection between the monitored estimates and global geomagnetic activity, Ap index, was found, particularly in the [20-100 s] period range. Analysing remote reference results and tipper estimates in shorter monitoring window, it was shown that such effect cannot be explained by a local or incoherent noise, and a large-scale coherent source should be claimed. We show that this effect is subtle because it produces smooth estimates, satisfying the dispersion relationship between apparent resistivity and phase, with small error bars. As the global geomagnetic activity level increases, robust estimators, like the median value, can be considered as a representative of the estimates due to the natural source, and they tend to stabilize when the Ap index approaches 10. It is also worth noting that our monitored time window includes the recent global minimum of solar activity which occurred in 2009, thus enhancing the estimate dependence on the Ap index.

Romano, Gerardo; Balasco, Marianna; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Siniscalchi, Agata; Telesca, Luciano; Tripaldi, Simona

2014-06-01

306

Effect of delayed supplementation of fetal calf serum to culture medium on bovine embryo development in vitro and following transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supplementation of synthetic oviduct fluid (SOF) medium plus amino acids and bovine serum albumin (BSA) with either fetal calf serum (FCS) or charcoal-treated FCS (CT-FCS) from Day 5 of development was investigated to determine if either in vitro or post-transfer development was altered. Development to the compact morula stage or beyond was similar for all 3 treatments. However, blastocyst development

J. G Thompson; N. W Allen; L. T McGowan; A. C. S Bell; M. G Lambert; H. R Tervit

1998-01-01

307

First births with a simplified culture system for clinical IVF and embryo transfer.  

PubMed

This study reports the outcome results from a pilot clinical trial using a simplified laboratory method for human IVF. This system reproducibly generates de novo the atmospheric and culture conditions that support normal fertilization and preimplantation embryogenesis to the hatched blastocyst stage without the need for specialized medical-grade gases or equipment. Development from insemination to the hatched blastocyst stage occurs undisturbed in a completely closed system that enables timed performance assessments for embryo selection in situ that, in this study, involved single-embryo transfers on day 3. With the simplified culture system, 8/23 embryos implanted, one miscarried at 8weeks of gestation and seven healthy babies have been born. The methodology and results are discussed with regard to how this simplified system can be adopted worldwide to meet the growing need for accessible and affordable IVF. A common notion concerning the demographics of infertility is that it is largely a phenomenon associated with developed countries, where infertility treatments are commonplace. In fact, most infertile couples reside in developing/low-resource countries where infertility diagnosis and treatment is nonexistent, inaccessible or unaffordable by the vast majority of young men and women in need. The irony of this situation is that bilateral tubal occlusions, for which IVF was originally indicated and is the most effective treatment, is by far the most common cause of their infertility. We have addressed one aspect of this issue, the IVF laboratory, as part of a wider effort by the Walking Egg Project to design and establish small, dedicated centres in developing countries to provide assisted reproduction technologies that are affordable and accessible to a wider proportion of the population in need. The methods for conventional IVF designed to addresses tubal obstructions are relatively simple and free of complex instrumentation and the highly developed infrastructure common to high-resource centres. This simplified IVF system self-generates culture conditions in a closed system. After prolonged preclinical testing, a pilot clinical study was initiated in 2012 in Genk, Belgium. The findings suggest that a significant first step has been achieved in the effort to bring advanced assisted reproduction to developed countries using a low-resource but highly effective IVF system capable of bringing modern reproductive medicine to infertile couples in low-resource societies. PMID:24456702

Van Blerkom, Jonathan; Ombelet, Willem; Klerkx, Elke; Janssen, Mia; Dhont, Nathalie; Nargund, Geeta; Campo, Rudi

2014-03-01

308

Thermochemical hole burning on a triethylammonium bis-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane charge-transfer complex using single-walled carbon nanotube scanning tunneling microscopy tips.  

PubMed

The present article describes a thermochemical hole burning (THB) effect on a charge-transfer complex triethylammonium bis-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TEA(TCNQ)(2)) using single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) tips, which demonstrates the possibility of optimizing the THB storage materials and the writing tips for ultrahigh-density data storage. TEA(TCNQ)(2) is proven to be a high-performance THB storage material, which gives deeper holes and larger hole depth-to-diameter ratio as compared to the previous materials dipropylammonium bis-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane and N-methyl-N-ethylmorpholinium bis-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane. Instead of conventional Pt/Ir STM tips, SWNT tips made by a unique chemical assembly technique we developed have been shown to be excellent writing tips for greatly decreasing the hole sizes and increasing the storage density. Possible reasons for the improvements on the storage performance were discussed. PMID:16851389

Peng, Hailin; Chen, Zhuo; Tong, Lianming; Yu, Xuechun; Ran, Chunbo; Liu, Zhongfan

2005-03-01

309

High-resolution temperature-concentration diagram of ?-synuclein conformation obtained from a single F?rster resonance energy transfer image in a microfluidic device  

PubMed Central

We present a microfluidic device for rapid and efficient determination of protein conformations in a range of medium conditions and temperatures. The device generates orthogonal gradients of concentration and temperature in an interrogation area that fits into the field of view of an objective lens with a numerical aperture of 0.45. A single Föster resonance energy transfer (FRET) image of the interrogation area containing a dual-labeled protein provides a 100×100 point map of the FRET efficiency that corresponds to a diagram of protein conformations in the coordinates of temperature and medium conditions. The device is used to explore the conformations of ?–synuclein, an intrinsically disordered protein linked to Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, in the presence of a binding partner, the lipid-mimetic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The experiment provides a diagram of conformations of ?–synuclein with 10,000 individual data points in a range of 21 – 47 °C and 0 – 2.5 mM SDS. The diagram is consistent with previous reports, but also reveals new conformational transitions that would be difficult to detect with conventional techniques. The microfluidic device can potentially be used to study other biomolecular and soft-matter systems. PMID:19555081

Vandelinder, Virginia; Ferreon, Allan Chris M.; Gambin, Yann; Deniz, Ashok A.; Groisman, Alex

2009-01-01

310

Dynamical simulation of optical phonon transfer in the GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs single-barrier structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamical transfer of optical phonons in the GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs single-barrier structure is simulated using a classical three-dimensional lattice-dynamics model, fully taking into account the random arrangement of Ga and Al atoms in the alloy barrier. The transmission coefficient of GaAs optical phonons through the alloy barrier exhibits, for given barrier thickness, an exponential decay with x in the small-x regime, and remains at a small constant value for x>=0.3. The exponential decay is interpreted as incoherent scattering by random scatterers (Al atoms), and the small constant value presumably originates from the fluctuations induced by acoustic and localized modes. On the other hand, when the phonon lifetime and the clustering effect are considered, the transmission coefficient is enhanced, and the x dependence of the coefficient is significantly modified. In particular, the saturation of the transmission coefficient for x<~0.3 reported in a recent experiment is shown to be explainable in terms of the clustering of like atoms in the alloy barrier.

Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Ihm, Jisoon

1996-12-01

311

Reversal of hyperglycemia by insulin-secreting rat bone marrow- and blastocyst-derived hypoblast stem cell-like cells.  

PubMed

?-cell replacement may efficiently cure type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients whose insulin-secreting ?-cells have been selectively destroyed by autoantigen-reactive T cells. To generate insulin-secreting cells we used two cell sources: rat multipotent adult progenitor cells (rMAPC) and the highly similar rat extra-embryonic endoderm precursor (rXEN-P) cells isolated under rMAPC conditions from blastocysts (rHypoSC). rMAPC/rHypoSC were sequentially committed to definitive endoderm, pancreatic endoderm, and ?-cell like cells. On day 21, 20% of rMAPC/rHypoSC progeny expressed Pdx1 and C-peptide. rMAPCr/HypoSC progeny secreted C-peptide under the stimulus of insulin agonist carbachol, and was inhibited by the L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel blocker nifedipine. When rMAPC or rHypoSC differentiated d21 progeny were grafted under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic nude mice, hyperglycemia reversed after 4 weeks in 6/10 rMAPC- and 5/10 rHypoSC-transplanted mice. Hyperglycemia recurred within 24 hours of graft removal and the histological analysis of the retrieved grafts revealed presence of Pdx1-, Nkx6.1- and C-peptide-positive cells. The ability of both rMAPC and HypoSC to differentiate to functional ?-cell like cells may serve to gain insight into signals that govern ?-cell differentiation and aid in developing culture systems to commit other (pluripotent) stem cells to clinically useful ?-cells for cell therapy of T1D. PMID:23671681

Kumar, Anujith; Lo Nigro, Antonio; Gysemans, Conny; Cai, Qing; Esguerra, Camila; Nelson-Holte, Molly; Heremans, Yves; Jiménez-González, María; Porciuncula, Angelo; Mathieu, Chantal; Binas, Bert; Heimberg, Harry; Prosper, Felipe; Hering, Bernhard; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Barajas, Miguel

2013-01-01

312

Reversal of Hyperglycemia by Insulin-Secreting Rat Bone Marrow- and Blastocyst-Derived Hypoblast Stem Cell-Like Cells  

PubMed Central

?-cell replacement may efficiently cure type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients whose insulin-secreting ?-cells have been selectively destroyed by autoantigen-reactive T cells. To generate insulin-secreting cells we used two cell sources: rat multipotent adult progenitor cells (rMAPC) and the highly similar rat extra-embryonic endoderm precursor (rXEN-P) cells isolated under rMAPC conditions from blastocysts (rHypoSC). rMAPC/rHypoSC were sequentially committed to definitive endoderm, pancreatic endoderm, and ?-cell like cells. On day 21, 20% of rMAPC/rHypoSC progeny expressed Pdx1 and C-peptide. rMAPCr/HypoSC progeny secreted C-peptide under the stimulus of insulin agonist carbachol, and was inhibited by the L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel blocker nifedipine. When rMAPC or rHypoSC differentiated d21 progeny were grafted under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic nude mice, hyperglycemia reversed after 4 weeks in 6/10 rMAPC- and 5/10 rHypoSC-transplanted mice. Hyperglycemia recurred within 24 hours of graft removal and the histological analysis of the retrieved grafts revealed presence of Pdx1-, Nkx6.1- and C-peptide-positive cells. The ability of both rMAPC and HypoSC to differentiate to functional ?-cell like cells may serve to gain insight into signals that govern ?-cell differentiation and aid in developing culture systems to commit other (pluripotent) stem cells to clinically useful ?-cells for cell therapy of T1D. PMID:23671681

Kumar, Anujith; Lo Nigro, Antonio; Gysemans, Conny; Cai, Qing; Esguerra, Camila; Nelson-Holte, Molly; Heremans, Yves; Jimenez-Gonzalez, Maria; Porciuncula, Angelo; Mathieu, Chantal; Binas, Bert; Heimberg, Harry; Prosper, Felipe; Hering, Bernhard; Verfaillie, Catherine M.; Barajas, Miguel

2013-01-01

313

Phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin profiles vary in Bos taurus indicus and Bos taurus taurus in vitro- and in vivo-produced blastocysts.  

PubMed

Lipid droplets, subspecies (Bos taurus indicus vs. Bos taurus taurus), and in vitro culture are known to influence cryopreservation of bovine embryos. Limited information is available regarding differences in membrane lipids in embryo, such as phosphatidylcholines (PC) and sphingomyelins (SM). The objective of the present study was to compare the profiles of several PC and SM species and relate this information to cytoplasmic lipid levels present in Nellore (B. taurus indicus) and Simmental (B. taurus taurus) blastocysts produced in vitro (IVP) or in vivo (ET). Simmental and IVP embryos had more cytoplasmic lipid content than Nellore and ET embryos (n = 30). Blastocysts were submitted to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Differences in the PC profile were addressed by principal component analysis. The lipid species with PC (32:1) and PC (34:1) had higher ion abundances in Nellore embryos, whereas PC (34:2) was higher in Simmental embryos. IVP embryos had less abundant ions of PC (32:1), PC (34:2), and PC (36:5) compared to ET embryos. Moreover, ion abundance of PC (32:0) was higher in both Nellore and Simmental IVP embryos compared to ET embryos. Therefore, mass spectrometry profiles of PC and SM species significantly differ with regard to unsaturation level and carbon chain composition in bovine blastocysts due to subspecies and in vitro culture conditions. Because PC abundances of Nellore and Simmental embryos were distinct (34:1 vs. 34:2), as were those of IVP and ET embryos (32:0 vs. 36:5), they are potential markers of postcryopreservation embryonic survival. PMID:23053436

Sudano, Mateus J; Santos, Vanessa G; Tata, Alessandra; Ferreira, Christina R; Paschoal, Daniela M; Machado, Rui; Buratini, José; Eberlin, Marcos N; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda D C

2012-06-01

314

SNAI1 and SNAI2 Are Asymmetrically Expressed at the 2-Cell Stage and Become Segregated to the TE in the Mouse Blastocyst  

PubMed Central

SNAI1 and SNAI2 are transcription factors that initiate Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal cell transitions throughout development and in cancer metastasis. Here we show novel expression of SNAI1 and SNAI2 throughout mouse preimplantation development revealing asymmetrical localization of both SNAI1 and SNAI2 in individual blastomeres beginning at the 2-cell stage through to the 8-cell stage where SNAI1 and SNAI2 are then only detected in outer cells and not inner cells of the blastocyst. This study implicates SNAI1 and SNAI2 in the lineage segregation of the trophectoderm and inner cell mass, and provides new insight into these oncogenes. PMID:20046880

Bell, Christine E.; Watson, Andrew J.

2009-01-01

315

Live Birth Sex Ratio after In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer in China - An Analysis of 121,247 Babies from 18 Centers  

PubMed Central

In order to study the impact of procedures of IVF/ICSI technology on sex ratio in China, we conducted this multi-center retrospective study including 121,247 babies born to 93,895 women in China. There were 62,700 male babies and 58,477 female babies, making the sex ratio being 51.8% (Male: Female ?=?107?100). In univariate logistic regression analysis, sex ratio was imbalance toward females of 50.3% when ICSI was preformed compared to 47.7% when IVF was used (P<0.01). The sex ratio in IVF/ICSI babies was significantly higher toward males in transfers of blastocyst (54.9%) and thawed embryo (52.4%) when compared with transfers of cleavage stage embryo (51.4%) and fresh embryo (51.5%), respectively. Multiple delivery was not associated with sex ratio. However, in multivariable logistic regression analysis after controlling for related factors, only ICSI (adjusted OR?=?0.90, 95%CI: 0.88–0.93; P<0.01) and blastocyst transfer (adjusted OR?=?1.14, 95% CI: 1.09–1.20; P<0.01) were associated with sex ratio in IVF/ICSI babies. In conclusion, the live birth sex ratio in IVF/ICSI babies was influenced by the use of ICSI, which may decrease the percentage of male offspring, or the use of blastocyst transfer, which may increase the percentage of male offspring. PMID:25412419

Bu, Zhiqin; Chen, Zi-Jiang; Huang, Guoning; Zhang, Hanwang; Sun, Haixiang; Sun, Yingpu

2014-01-01

316

Transfer form  

Cancer.gov

10/02 Transfer Investigational Agent Form This form is to be used for an intra-institutional transfer, one transfer/form. Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute National Institutes of Health TRANSFER FROM: Investigator transferring agent:

317

A single arginine residue is required for the interaction of the electron transferring flavoprotein (ETF) with three of its dehydrogenase partners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of several dehydrogenases with the electron transferring flavoprotein (ETF) is a crucial step required for the successful transfer of electrons into the electron transport chain. The exact determinants regarding the interaction of ETF with its dehydrogenase partners are still unknown. Chemical modification of ETF with arginine-specific reagents resulted in the loss, to varying degrees, of activity with medium

Antony R. Parker

2003-01-01

318

Fabricating metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate by applying low-temperature layer transfer of a single-crystalline silicon layer by meniscus force  

SciTech Connect

A low-temperature local-layer technique for transferring a single-crystalline silicon (c-Si) film by using a meniscus force was proposed, and an n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) was fabricated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. It was demonstrated that it is possible to transfer and form c-Si films in the required shape at the required position on PET substrates at extremely low temperatures by utilizing a meniscus force. The proposed technique for layer transfer was applied for fabricating high-performance c-Si MOSFETs on a PET substrate. The fabricated MOSFET showed a high on/off ratio of more than 10{sup 8} and a high field-effect mobility of 609 cm{sup 2} V{sup ?1} s{sup ?1}.

Sakaike, Kohei; Akazawa, Muneki; Nakamura, Shogo [Department of Semiconductor Electronics and Integration Science, Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashihiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan)] [Department of Semiconductor Electronics and Integration Science, Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashihiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Higashi, Seiichiro [Department of Semiconductor Electronics and Integration Science, Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashihiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan) [Department of Semiconductor Electronics and Integration Science, Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashihiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Research Institute for Nanodevice and Bio Systems, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-4-2, Higashihiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan)

2013-12-02

319

Antiapoptotic and embryotrophic effects of ?-tocopherol and l-ascorbic acid on porcine embryos derived from in vitro fertilization and somatic cell nuclear transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to determine optimal concentrations of ?-tocopherol and l-ascorbic acid for development of porcine embryos derived from in vitro-fertilization (IVF) or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The frequency of blastocyst formation in IVF embryos was 17.6, 28.6, 32.4 and 21.4% for control, 50, 100 and 200?M ?-tocopherol, respectively, whereas in SCNT embryos, the frequency was 12.8, 19.0, 24.8

Yeon Woo Jeong; Sun Woo Park; Mohammad Shamim Hossein; Sue Kim; Ji Hye Kim; So Hyun Lee; Sung Keun Kang; Byeong Chun Lee; Woo Suk Hwang

2006-01-01

320

Simultaneous analyses of photoinduced electron transfer in the wild type and four single substitution isomers of the FMN binding protein from Desulfovibrio vulgaris, Miyazaki F.  

PubMed

The mechanism of photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from the aromatic amino acids (Trp32, Tyr35 and Trp106) to the excited flavin mononucleotide (FMN) in the wild type (WT) and four single amino acid substitution isomers (E13T, E13Q, W32A and W32Y) of FMN binding protein (FBP) from the Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Miyazaki F) were simultaneously analyzed (Method A) with the Marcus-Hush (MH) theory and Kakitani-Mataga (KM) theory using ultrafast fluorescence dynamics of these proteins. In addition, the PET mechanism of the WT, E13T and E13Q FBP systems (Method B) were also analyzed with both MH and KM theories. The KM theory could describe all of the experimental fluorescence decays better than the MH theory by both Methods A and B. The PET rates were found to largely depend on the electrostatic energies between photo-products, isoalloxazine (Iso) anion and the PET donor cations, and the other ionic groups, and hence on static dielectric constants. The dielectric constant (?(0)(DA)) around the PET donors and acceptor was separately determined from those (?(0)(j), j = WT, E13T, E13Q, W32Y and W32A) in the domain between the Iso anion or the donor cations and the other ionic groups in the proteins. The values of ?(0)(DA) were always lower than those of ?(0)(j), which is reasonable because no amino acid exists between the PET donors and acceptor in all systems. The values of the dielectric constants ?(0)(j) (j = WT, E13T and E13Q) were similar to those obtained previously from the analysis of the crystal structures and the average lifetimes of these FBP proteins. Energy gap law in the FBP systems was examined. An excellent parabolic function of the logarithms of the PET rates was obtained against the total free energy gap. The PET in these FBP isomers mostly took place in the so-called normal region, and partly in the inverted region. PMID:21347481

Nunthaboot, Nadtanet; Pianwanit, Somsak; Kokpol, Sirirat; Tanaka, Fumio

2011-04-01

321

Pregnancy and delivery after in vitro maturation of naked ICSI GV oocytes with GH and transfer of a frozen thawed blastocyst: case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

  \\u000a Purpose\\u000a : To determine if GV oocytes, collected at the time of ICSI, can be matured in vitro and rescued for therapeutic treatment.\\u000a A patient for whom all the collected oocytes at the GV stage after a classical COH protocol were matured in vitro with GH.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method\\u000a : All the naked oocytes were matured in a culture medium (ISM2)

Yves J. R. Menezo; Bernard Nicollet; Jacques Rollet; André Hazout

2006-01-01

322

Interspecies Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Is Dependent on Compatible Mitochondrial DNA and Reprogramming Factors  

PubMed Central

Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) involves the transfer of a nucleus or cell from one species into the cytoplasm of an enucleated oocyte from another. Once activated, reconstructed oocytes can be cultured in vitro to blastocyst, the final stage of preimplantation development. However, they often arrest during the early stages of preimplantation development; fail to reprogramme the somatic nucleus; and eliminate the accompanying donor cell's mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in favour of the recipient oocyte's genetically more divergent population. This last point has consequences for the production of ATP by the electron transfer chain, which is encoded by nuclear and mtDNA. Using a murine-porcine interspecies model, we investigated the importance of nuclear-cytoplasmic compatibility on successful development. Initially, we transferred murine fetal fibroblasts into enucleated porcine oocytes, which resulted in extremely low blastocyst rates (0.48%); and failure to replicate nuclear DNA and express Oct-4, the key marker of reprogramming. Using allele specific-PCR, we detected peak levels of murine mtDNA at 0.14±0.055% of total mtDNA at the 2-cell embryo stage and then at ever-decreasing levels to the blastocyst stage (<0.001%). Furthermore, these embryos had an overall mtDNA profile similar to porcine embryos. We then depleted porcine oocytes of their mtDNA using 10 µM 2?,3?-dideoxycytidine and transferred murine somatic cells along with murine embryonic stem cell extract, which expressed key pluripotent genes associated with reprogramming and contained mitochondria, into these oocytes. Blastocyst rates increased significantly (3.38%) compared to embryos generated from non-supplemented oocytes (P<0.01). They also had significantly more murine mtDNA at the 2-cell stage than the non-supplemented embryos, which was maintained throughout early preimplantation development. At later stages, these embryos possessed 49.99±2.97% murine mtDNA. They also exhibited an mtDNA profile similar to murine preimplantation embryos. Overall, these data demonstrate that the addition of species compatible mtDNA and reprogramming factors improves developmental outcomes for iSCNT embryos. PMID:21556135

Jiang, Yan; Kelly, Richard; Peters, Amy; Fulka, Helena; Dickinson, Adam; Mitchell, Daniel A.; St. John, Justin C.

2011-01-01

323

Comparison of two sequential media for culturing cleavage-stage embryos and blastocysts: embryo characteristics and clinical outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to compare the outcome of day 3, day 5, and frozen–thawed embryo transfer cycles where embryo culture was undertaken using the G1.2–G2.2 versus GIII series sequential media. A total of 400 day 3, 73 day 5 and 126 frozen–thawed embryo transfer cycles were analysed. Treatment cycles were quasi-randomized on the day of oocyte retrieval to embryo

Basak Balaban; Bulent Urman

2005-01-01

324

In vitro and in vivo survival of frozen-thawed bovine oocytes after IVF, nuclear transfer, and parthenogenetic activation.  

PubMed

Cryopreservation of bovine oocytes would be beneficial both for nuclear transfer and for preservation efforts. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the viability as well as the cryodamage to the nucleus vs. cytoplasm of bovine oocytes following freezing-thawing of oocytes at immature (GV) and matured (MII) stages using in vitro fertilization (IVF), parthenogenetic activation, or nuclear transfer assays. Oocytes were collected from slaughterhouse ovaries. Oocytes at the GV, MII, or MII but enucleated (MIIe) stages were cryopreserved in 5% (v/v) ethylene glycol; 6% (v/v) 1,2-propanediol; and 0.1-M sucrose in PBS supplemented with 20% (v/v) fetal bovine serum. Frozen-thawed oocytes were subjected to IVF, parthenogenetic activation, or nuclear transfer assays. Significantly fewer GV oocytes survived (i.e., remained morphologically intact during freezing-thawing) than did MII oocytes (47% vs. 84%). Subsequent development of the surviving frozen-thawed GV and MII oocytes was not different (58% and 60% cleavage development; 7% and 12% blastocyst development at Day 9, respectively, P > 0.05). Parthenogenetic activation of frozen-thawed oocytes resulted in significantly lower rates of blastocyst development for the GV than the MII oocyte groups (1% vs. 14%). Nuclear transfer with cytoplasts derived from frozen-thawed GV, MII, MIIe, and fresh-MII control oocytes resulted in 5%, 16%, 14%, and 17% blastocyst development, respectively. However, results of preliminary embryo transfer trials showed that fewer pregnancies were produced from cloned embryos derived from frozen oocytes or cytoplasts (9%, n = 11 embryos) than from fresh ones (19%, n = 21 embryos). Transfer of embryos derived by IVF from cryopreserved GV and MII oocytes also resulted in term development of calves. Our results showed that both GV and MII oocytes could survive freezing and were capable of developing into offspring following IVF or nuclear transfer. However, blastocyst development of frozen-thawed oocytes remains poorer than that of fresh oocytes, and our nuclear transfer assay suggests that this poorer development was likely caused by cryodamage to the oocyte cytoplasm as well as to the nucleus. PMID:9771648

Kubota, C; Yang, X; Dinnyes, A; Todoroki, J; Yamakuchi, H; Mizoshita, K; Inohae, S; Tabara, N

1998-11-01

325

Blade-to-coolant heat-transfer results and operating data from a natural-convection water-cooled single-stage turbine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blade-to-coolant heat-transfer data and operating data were obtained with a natural-convection water-cooled turbine over range of turbine speeds and inlet-gas temperatures. The convective coefficients were correlated by the general relation for natural-convection heat transfer. The turbine data were displaced from a theoretical equation for natural convection heat transfer in the turbulent region and from natural-convection data obtained with vertical cylinders and plates; possible disruption of natural convection circulation within the blade coolant passages was thus indicated. Comparison of non dimensional temperature-ratio parameters for the blade leading edge, midchord, and trailing edge indicated that the blade cooling effectiveness is greatest at the midchord and least at the trailing edge.

Diaguila, Anthony J; Freche, John C

1951-01-01

326

Embryo transfer and embryonic capsules in the bobcat (Lynx rufus).  

PubMed

Bobcats (Lynx rufus) (n=22) were used to test a surgical embryo transfer protocol for wild felines. Five blastocysts were collected 8-14 days post-initial copulation (PIC). Translucent capsule-like structures were recovered at 12 days PIC and are the first report of such a structure in a felid. Endometrial fibrosis was observed in one cat but, in general, post-surgical fibrosis of the uterus did not seem to impede ova or embryo transport. One embryo underwent cryopreservation and this embryo plus two other transferrable embryos were placed in recipient cats during the course of the study. No pregnancies were maintained; but one non-cryopreserved embryo was detected by ultrasound examination at 2 weeks post-transfer. This study provides valuable groundwork for future studies and warrants optimism for continued research in this area. PMID:12047248

Miller, D L; Waldhalm, S J; Leopold, B D; Estill, C

2002-04-01

327

Transgenic Chicken, Mice, Cattle, and Pig Embryos by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer into Pig Oocytes  

PubMed Central

Abstract This study explored the possibility of producing transgenic cloned embryos by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) of cattle, mice, and chicken donor cells into enucleated pig oocytes. Enhanced green florescent protein (EGFP)-expressing donor cells were used for the nuclear transfer. Results showed that the occurrence of first cleavage did not differ significantly when pig, cattle, mice, or chicken cells were used as donor nuclei (p>0.05). However, the rate of blastocyst formation was significantly higher in pig (14.9±2.1%; p<0.05) SCNT embryos than in cattle (6.3±2.5%), mice (4.2±1.4%), or chicken (5.1±2.4%) iSCNT embryos. The iSCNT embryos also contained a significantly less number of cells per blastocyst than those of SCNT pig embryos (p<0.05). All (100%) iSCNT embryos expressed the EGFP gene, as evidenced by the green florescence under ultraviolet (UV) illumination. Microinjection of purified mitochondria from cattle somatic cells into pig oocytes did not have any adverse effect on their postfertilization in vitro development and embryo quality (p>0.05). Moreover, NCSU23 medium, which was designed for in vitro culture of pig embryos, was able to support the in vitro development of cattle, mice, and chicken iSCNT embryos up to the blastocyst stage. Taken together, these data suggest that enucleated pig oocytes may be used as a universal cytoplast for production of transgenic cattle, mice, and chicken embryos by iSCNT. Furthermore, xenogenic transfer of mitochondria to the recipient cytoplast may not be the cause for poor embryonic development of cattle–pig iSCNT embryos. PMID:23808879

Gupta, Mukesh Kumar; Das, Ziban Chandra; Heo, Young Tae; Joo, Jin Young; Chung, Hak-Jae; Song, Hyuk; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Lee, Hoon Taek; Ko, Dae Hwan

2013-01-01

328

Transgenic chicken, mice, cattle, and pig embryos by somatic cell nuclear transfer into pig oocytes.  

PubMed

This study explored the possibility of producing transgenic cloned embryos by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) of cattle, mice, and chicken donor cells into enucleated pig oocytes. Enhanced green florescent protein (EGFP)-expressing donor cells were used for the nuclear transfer. Results showed that the occurrence of first cleavage did not differ significantly when pig, cattle, mice, or chicken cells were used as donor nuclei (p>0.05). However, the rate of blastocyst formation was significantly higher in pig (14.9±2.1%; p<0.05) SCNT embryos than in cattle (6.3±2.5%), mice (4.2±1.4%), or chicken (5.1±2.4%) iSCNT embryos. The iSCNT embryos also contained a significantly less number of cells per blastocyst than those of SCNT pig embryos (p<0.05). All (100%) iSCNT embryos expressed the EGFP gene, as evidenced by the green florescence under ultraviolet (UV) illumination. Microinjection of purified mitochondria from cattle somatic cells into pig oocytes did not have any adverse effect on their postfertilization in vitro development and embryo quality (p>0.05). Moreover, NCSU23 medium, which was designed for in vitro culture of pig embryos, was able to support the in vitro development of cattle, mice, and chicken iSCNT embryos up to the blastocyst stage. Taken together, these data suggest that enucleated pig oocytes may be used as a universal cytoplast for production of transgenic cattle, mice, and chicken embryos by iSCNT. Furthermore, xenogenic transfer of mitochondria to the recipient cytoplast may not be the cause for poor embryonic development of cattle-pig iSCNT embryos. PMID:23808879

Gupta, Mukesh Kumar; Das, Ziban Chandra; Heo, Young Tae; Joo, Jin Young; Chung, Hak-Jae; Song, Hyuk; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Lee, Hoon Taek; Ko, Dae Hwan; Uhm, Sang Jun

2013-08-01

329

Long-Term Restoration of Rod and Cone Vision by Single Dose rAAV-Mediated Gene Transfer to the Retina  

E-print Network

October 2005 The short- and long-term effects of gene therapy using AAV-mediated RPE65 transfer to canine degeneration, gene therapy, RPE65 protein, dogs, Leber congenital amaurosis, viral vectors INTRODUCTION Leber of the RPE65 gene, which encodes a protein of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) with a key role

Palczewski, Krzysztof

330

Inhibition of RHO-ROCK signaling enhances ICM and suppresses TE characteristics through activation of Hippo signaling in the mouse blastocyst.  

PubMed

Specification of the trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM) lineages in the mouse blastocyst correlates with cell position, as TE derives from outer cells whereas ICM from inner cells. Differences in position are reflected by cell polarization and Hippo signaling. Only in outer cells, the apical-basal cell polarity is established, and Hippo signaling is inhibited in such a manner that LATS1 and 2 (LATS1/2) kinases are prevented from phosphorylating YAP, a key transcriptional co-activator of the TE-specifying gene Cdx2. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate these events are not fully understood. Here, we showed that inhibition of RHO-ROCK signaling enhances ICM and suppresses TE characteristics through activation of Hippo signaling and disruption of apical-basal polarity. Embryos treated with ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 exhibited elevated expression of ICM marker NANOG and reduced expression of CDX2 at the blastocyst stage. Y-27632-treated embryos failed to accumulate YAP in the nucleus, although it was rescued by concomitant inhibition of LATS1/2. Segregation between apical and basal polarity regulators, namely PARD6B, PRKCZ, SCRIB, and LLGL1, was dampened by Y-27632 treatment, whereas some of the polarization events at the late 8-cell stage such as compaction and apical localization of p-ERM and tyrosinated tubulin occurred normally. Similar abnormalities of Hippo signaling and apical-basal polarization were also observed in embryos that were treated with RHO GTPases inhibitor. These results suggest that RHO-ROCK signaling plays an essential role in regulating Hippo signaling and cell polarization to enable proper specification of the ICM and TE lineages. PMID:24997360

Kono, Kanako; Tamashiro, Dana Ann A; Alarcon, Vernadeth B

2014-10-01

331

Effects of pendant ligand binding affinity on chain transfer for 1-hexene polymerization catalyzed by single-site zirconium amine bis-phenolate complexes.  

PubMed

The kinetics of 1-hexene polymerization using a family of five zirconium amine bis-phenolate catalysts, Zr[tBu-ON(X)O]Bn2 (where X = THF (1), pyridine (2), NMe2 (3), furan (4), and SMe (5)), has been investigated to uncover the mechanistic effect of varying the pendant ligand X. A model-based approach using a diverse set of data including monomer consumption, evolution of molecular weight, and end-group analysis was employed to determine each of the reaction specific rate constants involved in a given polymerization process. The mechanism of polymerization for 1-5 was similar and the necessary elementary reaction steps included initiation, normal propagation, misinsertion, recovery from misinsertion, and chain transfer. The latter reaction, chain transfer, featured monomer independent ?-H elimination in 1-3 and monomer dependent ?-H transfer in 4 and 5. Of all the rate constants, those for chain transfer showed the most variation, spanning 2 orders of magnitude (ca. (0.1-10) × 10(-3) s(-1) for vinylidene and (0.5-87) × 10(-4) s(-1) for vinylene). A quantitative structure-activity relationship was uncovered between the logarithm of the chain transfer rate constants and the Zr-X bond distance for catalysts 1-3. However, this trend is broken once the Zr-X bond distance elongates further, as is the case for catalysts 4 and 5, which operate primarily through a different mechanistic pathway. These findings underscore the importance of comprehensive kinetic modeling using a diverse set of multiresponse data, enabling the determination of robust kinetic constants and reaction mechanisms of catalytic olefin polymerization as part of the development of structure-activity relationships. PMID:23517426

Steelman, D Keith; Xiong, Silei; Pletcher, Paul D; Smith, Erin; Switzer, Jeffrey M; Medvedev, Grigori A; Delgass, W Nicholas; Caruthers, James M; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M

2013-04-24

332

Effects of 3-hydroxyflavone on the cellular and molecular characteristics of bovine embryos produced by somatic-cell nuclear transfer.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the effects of 3-hydroxyflavone, a natural antioxidant pigment enriched in vegetables, on the developmental cellular and molecular characteristics of bovine somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. There were no significant differences in the cleavage rate at 48 hr of culture or in the inner cell mass (ICM)-to-trophectoderm (TE) ratio between 3-hydroxyflavone addition and untreated (control) groups (P > 0.05). 3-hydroxyflavone (20 µM) did, however, increase the cleavage rate at 24 hr of culture and the blastocyst-formation rate on Days 6 and 7 (P < 0.05); decrease the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species in two-, four-, and eight-cell stage embryos (P < 0.05); increase H3K9ac levels in two- and four-cell stages (P < 0.05); increase the total cell number; and decrease the apoptosis index in Day-7 blastocysts. Furthermore, the addition of 3-hydroxyflavone resulted in lower expression of the stress-related gene HSP70.1 and pro-apoptotic gene BAX, as well as higher expression of the anti-apoptotic gene BCL-xL and pluripotency-related genes OCT4 and SOX2 in Day-7 blastocysts produced by SCNT (P < 0.05). The addition of 3-hydroxyflavone during in vitro culture thus exerted beneficial effects on preimplantation development of bovine SCNT embryos both at the cellular and molecular levels. PMID:24347534

Su, Jianmin; Wang, Yongsheng; Li, Wenzhe; Gao, Mingqing; Ma, Yefei; Hua, Song; Quan, Fusheng; Zhang, Yong

2014-03-01

333

Long-Term Restoration of Rod and Cone Vision by Single Dose rAAV-Mediated Gene Transfer to the Retina in a Canine Model of Childhood Blindness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The short- and long-term effects of gene therapy using AAV-mediated RPE65 transfer to canine retinal pigment epithelium were investigated in dogs affected with disease caused by RPE65 deficiency. Results with AAV 2\\/2, 2\\/1, and 2\\/5 vector pseudotypes, human or canine RPE65 cDNA, and constitutive or tissue-specific promoters were similar. Subretinally administered vectors restored retinal function in 23 of 26 eyes,

Gregory M. Acland; Gustavo D. Aguirre; Jean Bennett; Tomas S. Aleman; Artur V. Cideciyan; Jeannette Bennicelli; Nadine S. Dejneka; Susan E. Pearce-Kelling; Albert M. Maguire; Krzysztof Palczewski; William W. Hauswirth; Samuel G. Jacobson

2005-01-01

334

Exciton generation/dissociation/charge-transfer enhancement in inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells by robust single nanocrystalline LnPxOy (Ln = Eu, Y) doping.  

PubMed

Low-temperature solution-processed photovoltaics suffer from low efficiencies because of poor exciton or electron-hole transfer. Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cell, although still in its infancy, has attracted great interest thus far. One of the promising ways to enhance exciton dissociation or electron-hole transport is the doping of lanthanide phosphate ions. However, the underlying photophysical mechanism remains poorly understood. Herein, by applying femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, we successfully distinguished hot electron, less energetic electron, hole transport from electron-hole recombination. Concrete evidence has been provided that lanthanide phosphate doping improves the efficiency of both hot electron and "less energetic" electron transfers from donor to acceptor, but the hole transport almost remains unchanged. In particular, the hot electron transfer lifetime was shortened from 30.2 to 12.7 ps, that is, more than 60% faster than pure TiO2 acceptor. Such improvement was ascribed to the facts that the conduction band (CB) edge energy level of TiO2 has been elevated by 0.2 eV, while the valence band level almost remains unchanged, thus not only narrowing the energy offset between CB levels of TiO2 and P3HT, but also meanwhile enlarging the band gap of TiO2 itself that permits one to inhibit electron-hole recombination within TiO2. Consequently, lanthanide phosphate doped TiO2/P3HT bulk-heterojunction solar cell has been demonstrated to be a promising hybrid solar cell, and a notable power conversion efficiency of 2.91% is therefore attained. This work indicates that lanthanide compound ions can efficiently facilitate exciton generation, dissociation, and charge transport, thus enhancing photovoltaic performance. PMID:24835845

Jin, Xiao; Sun, Weifu; Chen, Zihan; Wei, Taihuei; Chen, Chuyang; He, Xingdao; Yuan, Yongbiao; Li, Yue; Li, Qinghua

2014-06-11

335

Single Transition State Serves Two Mechanisms. Ab Initio Classical Trajectory Calculations of the Substitution-Electron Transfer Branching Ratio in CH2O-+ CH3Cl  

E-print Network

are the SN2-SN1 spectrum and the -elimination E2-E1 spectrum,3-5 with their borderline regions, which possess of Computational Chemistry, Hebrew UniVersity, Jerusalem 91904, Israel ReceiVed: July 16, 2004 The reaction of a formaldehyde radical anion with methyl chloride is an example of a reaction in which a single transition state

Schlegel, H. Bernhard

336

Triple genetic identities for the complete hydatidiform mole, placenta and co-existing fetus after transfer of a single in vitro fertilized oocyte: Case report and possible mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We found different genotypes for the complete hydatidiform mole (CHM), placenta and co-existing fetus derived from a single in vitro fertilized human oocyte by the analysis of short tandem repeat (STR) DNA markers. The molar tissue was found to be heterozygously androgenetic. The fetus and placenta contained identical maternal, but different paternal genomes. Two models were proposed to account for

Chao-Chin Hsu; I-Wen Lee; Mei-Tzu Su; Yi-Chien Lin; Christine Hsieh; Pei-Yi Chen; Hung-Wen Tsai; Pao-Lin Kuo

337

School Privatization by Way of a Comprehensive Management Contract: A Single Case Study of the Extent to Which Privatization Theory Transfers to Practice in a Public Charter School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents findings from a case study of a single charter school operated by Edison Schools, Inc. (The particular school remains anonymous.) The study, grounded on the assumption that privatization improves efficiency, was done to document the relationship between the theory and practice of school privatization. The study relied on…

Rhim, Lauren Morando

338

Cyclic polarization transfer and a new technique for volume-selective single-scan spectral editing and relaxometry of proton spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pulse sequence is described serving the volume-selective editing of resonances in biomedical NMR spectroscopy. The editing principle is the temporary transfer of polarization of the spins to be detected to other spin species coupled to them. The pulse sequence providing this cyclic polarization transfer (CYCLPOT) can be used as a module to be incorporated in general pulse sequence frames. An example is the VOSY family of volume-selective spectroscopy techniques applied for the localized detection of the lactate methyl proton line while spoiling coherences of the lipid nuclei otherwise overlapping the lactate resonance. The whole-line editing and coherence spoiling procedure takes place completely in each scan of any accumulation or phase-cycling series. The technique has been tested under artificial as well as under simulated in vivo conditions. Furthermore the measurement of the longitudinal and transverse relaxation times of the volume selectively edited resonance line is demonstrated. Thus parameters promising additional information of biomedical interest become accessible. This also provides the possibility to correct line intensities for relaxation effects as an essential prerequisite for the precise determination of concentrations.

Knüttel, A.; Kimmich, R.

339

Specific binding of MobA, a plasmid-encoded protein involved in the initiation and termination of conjugal DNA transfer, to single-stranded oriT DNA.  

PubMed Central

MobA protein, encoded by the broad host-range plasmid R1162, is required for conjugal mobilization of this plasmid. The protein is an essential part of the relaxosome, and is also necessary for the termination of strand transfer. In vitro, MobA is a nuclease specific for one of the two DNA strands of the origin of transfer (oriT). The protein can cleave this strand at the same site that is nicked in the relaxosome, and can also ligate the DNA. We show here that purified MobA protein forms a complex that is specific for this single oriT strand. The complex is unusually stable, with a half-life of approximately 95 min, is not disrupted by hybridization with the complementary strand, and reforms rapidly after boiling. Both the inverted repeat within oriT, and the eight bases between this repeat and the site cleaved by MobA, are required for binding by the protein. Mutations reducing base complementarity between the arms of the inverted repeat also decrease binding. This effect is partially suppressed by second-site mutations restoring complementarity. These results parallel the effects of these mutations on termination. Footprinting experiments with P1 nuclease indicate that the DNA between the inverted repeat and the nick site is protected by MobA, but that pairing between the arms of the repeat, which occurs in the absence of protein, is partially disrupted. Our results suggest that termination of strand transfer during conjugation involves tight binding of the MobA protein to the inverted repeat and adjacent oriT DNA. This complex positions the protein for ligation of the ends of the transferred strand, to reform a circular plasmid molecule. Images PMID:8233790

Bhattacharjee, M K; Meyer, R J

1993-01-01

340

Color-tunable and white luminescence properties via energy transfer in single-phase KNaCa2(PO4)2:A (A = Ce3+, Eu2+, Tb3+, Mn2+, Sm3+) phosphors.  

PubMed

A series of single-phase phosphors based on KNaCa2(PO4)2 (KNCP):A (A = Ce(3+), Eu(2+), Tb(3+), Mn(2+), Sm(3+)) have been prepared via the Pechini-type sol-gel method. Photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) properties of Ce(3+)-, Eu(2+)-, Tb(3+)-, Mn(2+)-, and Sm(3+)-activated KNCP phosphors were investigated. For the A singly doped KNCP samples, they exhibit the characteristic emissions of the A activator. Na(+) ions exhibit the best charge compensation result among Li(+), Na(+), and K(+) ions for Ce(3+)-, Tb(3+)-, and Sm(3+)-doped KNCP samples. The energy transfers from Ce(3+) to Tb(3+) and Mn(2+) ions as well as Eu(2+) to Tb(3+) and Mn(2+) have been validated. The emission colors of KNCP:Ce(3+)/Eu(2+), Tb(3+)/Mn(2+), Na(+) samples can be adjusted by energy transfer process and changing the Tb(3+)/Mn(2+) concentration. More importantly, white light emission in KNCP:Eu(2+), Mn(2+) system has been obtained. The KNCP:Tb(3+), Na(+) sample shows tunable luminescence from blue to cyan and then to green with the change of Tb(3+) concentration due to the cross-relaxation from (5)D3 to (5)D4. A white emission can also be realized in the single-phase KNCP host by reasonably adjusting the doping concentrations of Tb(3+) and Sm(3+) (reddish-orange emission) under low-voltage electron beam excitation. Additionally, the temperature-dependent PL properties of as-prepared phosphors reveal that the KNCP host has good thermal stability. Therefore, the KNCP:A (A = Ce(3+), Eu(2+), Tb(3+), Mn(2+), Sm(3+)) phosphors could be regarded as good candidates for UV W-LEDs and FEDs. PMID:24187980

Geng, Dongling; Shang, Mengmeng; Zhang, Yang; Lian, Hongzhou; Lin, Jun

2013-12-01

341

Nonsurgical embryo transfer device compared with surgery for embryo transfer in mice.  

PubMed

The use of a murine nonsurgical embryo transfer (NSET) device had been described previously for the transfer of blastocysts, morulae, DNA-microinjected embryos, and embryonic stem cell-containing embryos to create genetically modified mice. However, physiologic effects of the NSET device and traditional surgical methods had not been compared directly. Here we used electrocardiography and fecal corticosterone levels to monitor pseudopregnant mice that underwent anesthesia only, the NSET procedure with or without anesthesia, or surgery. These procedures were performed without the use of actual embryos, to focus on effects of the procedures themselves rather than on any physiologic effects due to the deposition of embryos. As compared with surgery and anesthesia, the NSET procedure was associated with less fluctuation in cardiac rhythm and lower levels of the stress biomarker fecal corticosterone. These results indicate that use of the NSET device avoids these physi- ological perturbations as well as other disadvantages of surgery (for example, postoperative pain and need for postoperative analgesia) and therefore provides a valuable refinement of existing mouse embryo transfer procedures. PMID:23562028

Steele, Kendra H; Hester, James M; Stone, Barbara J; Carrico, Kimberly M; Spear, Brett T; Fath-Goodin, Angelika

2013-01-01

342

Dynamic transfer 1 DYNAMIC TRANSFER  

E-print Network

Dynamic transfer 1 DYNAMIC TRANSFER: A PERSPECTIVE FROM PHYSICS EDUCATION RESEARCH Running head: Dynamic transfer N. Sanjay Rebello Physics Department, 116 Cardwell Hall, Kansas State University. Phone: (760) 768 5606 Fax: (785) 768 5631 Email: sitza@mail.sdsu.edu #12;Dynamic transfer 2 ABSTRACT We

Zollman, Dean

343

Important aspects of placental-specific gene transfer.  

PubMed

The placenta is a unique and highly complex organ that develops only during pregnancy and is essential for growth and survival of the developing fetus. The placenta provides the vital exchange of gases and wastes, the necessary nutrients for fetal development, acts as immune barrier that protects against maternal rejection, and produces numerous hormones and growth factors that promote fetal maturity to regulate pregnancy until parturition. Abnormal placental development is a major underlying cause of pregnancy-associated disorders that often result in preterm birth. Defects in placental stem cell propagation, growth, and differentiation are the major factors that affect embryonic and fetal well-being and dramatically increase the risk of pregnancy complications. Understanding the processes that regulate placentation is important in determining the underlying factors behind abnormal placental development. The ability to manipulate genes in a placenta-specific manner provides a unique tool to analyze development and eliminates potentially confounding results that can occur with traditional gene knockouts. Trophoblast stem cells and mouse embryos are not overly amenable to traditional gene transfer techniques. Most viral vectors, however, have a low infection rate and often lead to mosaic transgenesis. Although the traditional method of embryo transfer is intrauterine surgical implantation, the methodology reported here, combining lentiviral blastocyst infection and nonsurgical embryo transfer, leads to highly efficient and placental-specific gene transfer. Numerous advantages of our optimized procedures include increased investigator safety, a reduction in animal stress, rapid and noninvasive embryo transfer, and higher a rate of pregnancy and live birth. PMID:25110063

Kaufman, Melissa R; Albers, Renee E; Keoni, Chanel; Kulkarni-Datar, Kashmira; Natale, David R; Brown, Thomas L

2014-10-15

344

Long-term restoration of rod and cone vision by single dose rAAV-mediated gene transfer to the retina in a canine model of childhood blindness.  

PubMed

The short- and long-term effects of gene therapy using AAV-mediated RPE65 transfer to canine retinal pigment epithelium were investigated in dogs affected with disease caused by RPE65 deficiency. Results with AAV 2/2, 2/1, and 2/5 vector pseudotypes, human or canine RPE65 cDNA, and constitutive or tissue-specific promoters were similar. Subretinally administered vectors restored retinal function in 23 of 26 eyes, but intravitreal injections consistently did not. Photoreceptoral and postreceptoral function in both rod and cone systems improved with therapy. In dogs followed electroretinographically for 3 years, responses remained stable. Biochemical analysis of retinal retinoids indicates that mutant dogs have no detectable 11-cis-retinal, but markedly elevated retinyl esters. Subretinal AAV-RPE65 treatment resulted in detectable 11-cis-retinal expression, limited to treated areas. RPE65 protein expression was limited to retinal pigment epithelium of treated areas. Subretinal AAV-RPE65 vector is well tolerated and does not elicit high antibody levels to the vector or the protein in ocular fluids or serum. In long-term studies, wild-type cDNA is expressed only in target cells. Successful, stable restoration of rod and cone photoreceptor function in these dogs has important implications for treatment of human patients affected with Leber congenital amaurosis caused by RPE65 mutations. PMID:16226919

Acland, Gregory M; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Bennett, Jean; Aleman, Tomas S; Cideciyan, Artur V; Bennicelli, Jeannette; Dejneka, Nadine S; Pearce-Kelling, Susan E; Maguire, Albert M; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Hauswirth, William W; Jacobson, Samuel G

2005-12-01

345

Novel male exposure reduces uterine e-cadherin, increases uterine luminal area, and diminishes progesterone levels while disrupting blastocyst implantation in inseminated mice.  

PubMed

Exposure to novel male mice disrupts blastocyst implantation in inseminated female mice, and evidence increasingly implicates the female's absorption of male urinary estrogens. We observed implantation sites in male-exposed and isolated control female mice during gestation days (GD) 2-8, observing a significant reduction in male-exposed females compared to controls, particularly on GD 6 and 8. We also measured transitions in uterine luminal area and e-cadherin expression, as these processes are modulated by estrogens. Luminal area was greater in male-exposed females than in controls during the post-implantation period (GD 5-7). E-cadherin levels were suppressed by male exposure, particularly during GD 4-6 Serum progesterone levels were also reduced in male-exposed females. The effects of male exposure on uterine closure and e-cadherin levels are consistent with established effects of estrogens, and suggest a possible mechanism that could contribute to implantation failure. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Pregnancy and Steroids'. PMID:23962793

Rajabi, Nazanin; Thorpe, Joelle B; Foster, Warren G; deCatanzaro, Denys

2014-01-01

346

Towards a TWSTFT network time transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

TWSTFT (Two Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer, TW hereafter) is a major technique used in TAI (International Atomic Time) generation. More than two-thirds of TAI clocks and almost all the primary frequency standards are transferred using TW. Up to now, the only geometry in TAI time transfer is single-link. However, the TAI TW time transfer data are highly redundant.

Z. Jiang

2008-01-01

347

A single-phase white-emitting Ca2SrAl2O6:Ce3+,Li+,Mn2+ phosphor with energy transfer for UV-excited WLEDs.  

PubMed

A series of Ca2SrAl2O6:Ce(3+),Li(+),Mn(2+) phosphors have been synthesized by traditional solid state reactions. The structure and photoluminescence properties of the samples together with the energy transfer from Ce(3+) to Mn(2+) ions have been investigated in detail. The obtained phosphors can be excited efficiently by UV excitation and exhibit a broad blue-green emission band peaking at 470 nm and an orange-red emission band at 610 nm, which result from the f-d transition of the Ce(3+) and the (4)T1-(6)A1 transition of the Mn(2+) ions, respectively. By varying the doping concentration of the Mn(2+) ion, a series of tunable colors including white are obtained at an irradiation of 355 nm. The possible energy transfer mechanism was proposed in terms of the experimental results and analysis of photoluminescence spectra and decay curves of the phosphors. The critical distance between the Ce(3+) and Mn(2+) ions has been calculated by both the concentration quenching method and the spectral overlap method. Preliminary studies on the properties of the phosphor indicated that our prepared Ca2SrAl2O6:Ce(3+),Li(+),Mn(2+) phosphor might have potential application as a single-phase white-emitting phosphor for WLEDs. PMID:24352378

Jiao, Mengmeng; Jia, Yongchao; Lü, Wei; Lv, Wenzhen; Zhao, Qi; Shao, Baiqi; You, Hongpeng

2014-02-28

348

Engineering nanocarbon interfaces for electron transfer  

E-print Network

Electron-transfer reactions at nanometer-scale interfaces, such as those presented by single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), are important for emerging optoelectronic and photovoltaic technologies. Electron transfer also ...

Hilmer, Andrew J. (Andrew Joseph)

2013-01-01

349

Telomere elongation facilitated by trichostatin a in cloned embryos and pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer.  

PubMed

Telomere attrition and genomic instability are associated with organism aging. Concerns still exist regarding telomere length resetting in cloned embryos and ntES cells, and possibilities of premature aging of cloned animals achieved by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, effectively improves the developmental competence of cloned embryos and animals, and recently contributes to successful generation of human ntES cells by SCNT. To test the function of TSA on resetting telomere length, we analyzed telomeres in cloned blastocysts and pigs following treatment of SCNT embryos with TSA. Here, we show that telomeres of cloned pigs generated by standard SCNT methods are not effectively restored, compared with those of donor cells, however TSA significantly increases telomere lengths in cloned pigs. Telomeres elongate in cloned porcine embryos during early cleavage from one-cell to four-cell stages. Notably, TSA facilitates telomere lengthening of cloned embryos mainly at morula-blastocyst stages. Knockdown of pTert by shRNA in donor cells reduces telomerase activity in cloned blastocysts but does not abrogate telomere elongation in the TSA-treated embryos (p?>?0.05). However, genes associated with recombination or telomerase-independent mechanism of alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) Rad50 and BLM show increased expression in TSA-treated embryos. These data suggest that TSA may promote telomere elongation of cloned porcine embryos by ALT. Together, TSA can elongate telomeres in cloned embryos and piglets, and this could be one of the mechanisms underlying improved development of cloned embryos and animals treated with TSA. PMID:24510582

Kong, Qingran; Ji, Guangzhen; Xie, Bingteng; Li, Jingyu; Mao, Jian; Wang, Juan; Liu, Shichao; Liu, Lin; Liu, Zhonghua

2014-06-01

350

Vitamin C enhances in vitro and in vivo development of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} Report for the first time that vitamin C has a beneficial effect on the development of porcine SCNT embryos. {yields} The level of acH4K5 and Oct4 expression at blastocyst-stage was up-regulated after treatment. {yields} A higher rate of gestation and increased number of piglets born were harvested in the treated group. -- Abstract: The reprogramming of differentiated cells into a totipotent embryonic state through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is still an inefficient process. Previous studies revealed that the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse and human fibroblasts could be significantly enhanced with vitamin C treatment. Here, we investigated the effects of vitamin C, to our knowledge for the first time, on the in vitro and in vivo development of porcine SCNT embryos. The rate of blastocyst development in SCNT embryos treated with 50 {mu}g/mL vitamin C 15 h after activation (36.0%) was significantly higher than that of untreated SCNT embryos (11.5%). The enhanced in vitro development rate of vitamin C-treated embryos was associated with an increased acetylation level of histone H4 lysine 5 and higher Oct4, Sox2 and Klf4 expression levels in blastocysts, as determined by real-time PCR. In addition, treatment with vitamin C resulted in an increased pregnancy rate in pigs. These findings suggest that treatment with vitamin C is beneficial for enhancement of the in vitro and in vivo development of porcine SCNT embryos.

Huang, Yongye; Tang, Xiaochun; Xie, Wanhua; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dong; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Jianguo; Yuan, Ting; Lai, Liangxue [Jilin Province Key Laboratory of Animal Embryo Engineering, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi An DaLu, Changchun 130062 (China)] [Jilin Province Key Laboratory of Animal Embryo Engineering, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi An DaLu, Changchun 130062 (China); Pang, Daxin, E-mail: pdx@jlu.edu.cn [Jilin Province Key Laboratory of Animal Embryo Engineering, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi An DaLu, Changchun 130062 (China)] [Jilin Province Key Laboratory of Animal Embryo Engineering, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi An DaLu, Changchun 130062 (China); Ouyang, Hongsheng, E-mail: ouyh@jlu.edu.cn [Jilin Province Key Laboratory of Animal Embryo Engineering, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi An DaLu, Changchun 130062 (China)] [Jilin Province Key Laboratory of Animal Embryo Engineering, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi An DaLu, Changchun 130062 (China)

2011-07-29

351

Photoluminescence, Dual-donor Energy Transfer and Single X-ray Crystallographic Studies of Eu3+ and Tb3+ complexes with pyridines and triazaphosphaadamantane oxide (TPAO) ligands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coordination of several chromophoric ligands capable of sensitizing Tb 3+ and Eu3+ ions have been studied. Four new complexes of Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions were achieved by coordinating Eu with 4', 4''''- (1-4 phenylene) bis (2, 2':6', 2-terpyridine) , pyridino [2-3-b] pyrazines and 6,6??-dibromo-2,2?:6?,2??-terpyridine.The crystal structure of [Tb(TPAO)2(H2O) 4(Au(CN)2)3], was determined and shows a polymeric three-dimensional coordination with a monoclinic space group Cc, Z=4. The unit cell parameters are a = 17.4266(14) A, b = 10.8224(10) A, c = 18.0270(16) A, ? = 90° beta = 109.309(3)° gamma = 90°. The structure exhibits an equilateral Au-Au-Au interaction bridged to a terbium core by the C-N groups. Three other complexes, viz [Eu(ppz) 2(H2O)n]Cl3, [Eu(ptpy)(H2O) n]Cl3 and [Eu(bbterp)(H2O)n]Cl 3, have also been synthesized and characterized using IR and luminescence spectroscopy, although no crystal was obtained suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis. The ligand tetra(2'-pyridyl)pyrazine (tppz) was also crystallized and its crystal structure solved. The results herein, elaborate the mode of dual donor sensitization from ligand groups to the lanthanide ions. The efficiency of energy transfer that occurs in the Ln3+ complexes has been calculated, taking into account the radiative and non radiative relaxation processes, and the limitation encountered. A broad excitation spectrum at 369, 366 and 380 nm were observed for [Eu(ppz)2(H2O) n]Cl3, [Eu(bbterp)(H2O)n]Cl3 and [Eu(ptpy)(H2O)n]Cl3 complexes, respectively upon monitoring the Eu3+ emission indicating the presence of ET in a donor-acceptor type interaction.

Forcha, Derick Akaju

352

Investigations of Spectroscopic Factors and Sum Rules from the Single Neutron Transfer Reaction 111Cd(overrightarrow {{d}} ,p)112Cd  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cadmium isotopes have been presented for decades as excellent examples of vibrational nuclei, with low-lying levels interpreted as multi-phonon quadrupole, octupole, and mixed-symmetry states. A large amount of spectroscopic data has been obtained through various experimental studies of cadmiumisotopes. In the present work, the 111Cd(overrightarrow {{d}} ,p)112Cd reaction was used to investigate the single-particle structure of the 112Cd nucleus. A 22 MeV beam of polarized deuterons was obtained at the Maier-Leibnitz laboratory in Garching, Germany. The reaction ejectiles were momentum analyzed using a Q3D spectrograph, and 130 levels have been identified up to 4.2 MeV of excitation energy. Using DWBA analysis with optical model calculations, spin-parity assignments have been made for observed levels, and spectroscopic factors have been extracted from the experimental angular distributions of differential cross section and analyzing power. In this high energy resolution investigation, many additional levels have been observed compared with the previous (d,p) study using 8 MeV deuterons [1]. There were a total of 44 new levels observed, and the parity assignments of 34 levels were improved.

Jamieson, D. S.; Garrett, P. E.; Ball, G. C.; Demand, G. A.; Faestermann, T.; Finlay, P.; Green, K. L.; Hertenberger, R.; Krücken, R.; Leach, K. G.; Phillips, A. A.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Triambak, S.; Wirth, H.-F.

2014-03-01

353

Charge transfer in single and multiple scattering events at metal surfaces: a wavepacket study of the Na(+)/Cu(100) system.  

PubMed

Resonant neutralization of hyperthermal energy Na(+) ions impinging on Cu(100) surfaces is studied, focusing on two specific collision events: one in which the projectile is reflected off the surface, the other in which the incident atom penetrates the outer surface layers initiating a series of scattering processes, within the target, and coming out together with a single surface atom. A semi-empirical model potential is adopted that embeds: (i) the electronic structure of the sample, (ii) the central field of the projectile, and (iii) the contribution of the Cu atom ejected in multiple scattering events. The evolution of the ionization orbital of the scattered atom is simulated, backwards in time, using a wavepacket propagation algorithm. The output of the approach is the neutralization probability, obtained by projecting the time-reversed valence wavefunction of the projectile onto the initially filled conduction band states. The results are in agreement with available data from the literature (Keller et al 1995 Phys. Rev. Lett. 75 1654) indicating that the motion of surface atoms, exiting the targets with kinetic energies of the order of a few electronvolts, plays a significant role in the final charge state of projectiles. PMID:21386623

Sindona, A; Pisarra, M; Maletta, S; Riccardi, P; Falcone, G

2010-12-01

354

Transcriptional regulators TRIM28, SETDB1, and TP53 are aberrantly expressed in porcine embryos produced by in vitro fertilization in comparison to in vivo- and somatic-cell nuclear transfer-derived embryos.  

PubMed

In vitro embryo production is important for research in animal reproduction, embryo transfer, transgenics, and cloning. Yet, in vitro-fertilized (IVF) embryos are generally developmentally delayed and are inferior to in vivo-derived (IVV) embryos; this discrepancy is likely a result of aberrant gene expression. Transcription of three genes implicated to be important in normal preimplantation embryo development, TRIM28, SETDB1, and TP53, was determined by quanitative PCR in IVF, somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), parthenogenetic, and IVV porcine oocytes and embryos. There was no difference in TRIM28 or SETDB1 abundance between oocytes matured in vitro versus in vivo (P > 0.05), whereas TP53 levels were higher in in vitro-matured oocytes. TRIM28 increased from metaphase-II oocytes to the 4-cell and blastocyst stages in IVF embryos, whereas IVV embryos showed a reduction in TRIM28 abundance from maturation throughout development. The relative abundance of TP53 increased by the blastocyst stage in all treatment groups, but was higher in IVF embryos compared to IVV and SCNT embryos. In contrast, SETDB1 transcript levels decreased from the 2-cell to blastocyst stage in all treatments. For each gene analyzed, SCNT embryos of both hard-to-clone and easy-to-clone cell lines were more comparable to IVV than IVF embryos. Knockdown of TRIM28 also had no effect on blastocyst development or expression of SETDB1 or TP53. Thus, TRIM28, SETDB1, and TP53 are dynamically expressed in porcine oocytes and embryos. Furthermore, TRIM28 and TP53 abundances in IVV and SCNT embryos are similar, but different from quantities in IVF embryos. PMID:24659575

Hamm, Jennifer; Tessanne, Kim; Murphy, Clifton N; Prather, Randall S

2014-06-01

355

Technology transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements for a successful technology transfer program and what such a program would look like are discussed. In particular, the issues associated with technology transfer in general, and within the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) environment specifically are addressed. The section on background sets the stage, identifies the barriers to successful technology transfer, and suggests actions to address the barriers either generally or specifically. The section on technology transfer presents a process with its supporting management plan that is required to ensure a smooth transfer process. Viewgraphs are also included.

Handley, Thomas

1992-01-01

356

A universal power transfer curve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power transfer between circular apertures at far-field distances is calculated using a widely applicable aperture distribution with adjustable sidelobe ratio. Power transfer efficiency is obtained by integrating the pattern out to the angle subtended by the receiving aperture. Efficiency is parameterized such that a single curve results for each sidelobe ratio, independent of transmit D\\/?, over a range of 5

R. C. Hansen; James McSpadden; James N. Benford

2005-01-01

357

Successful non-surgical deep uterine transfer of porcine morulae after 24 hour culture in a chemically defined medium.  

PubMed

Excellent fertility and prolificacy have been reported after non-surgical deep uterine transfers of fresh in vivo-derived porcine embryos. Unfortunately, when this technology is used with vitrified embryos, the reproductive performance of recipients is low. For this reason and because the embryos must be stored until they are transferred to the recipient farms, we evaluated the potential application of non-surgical deep uterine transfers with in vivo-derived morulae cultured for 24 h in liquid stage. In Experiment 1, two temperatures (25 °C and 37 °C) and two media (one fully defined and one semi-defined) were assessed. Morulae cultured in culture medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin and fetal calf serum at 38.5 °C in 5% CO2 in air were used as controls. Irrespective of medium, the embryo viability after 24 h of culture was negatively affected (P<0.05) at 25 °C but not at 37 °C compared with the controls. Embryo development was delayed in all experimental groups compared with the control group (P<0.001). Most of the embryos (95.7%) cultured at 37 °C achieved the full or expanded blastocyst stage, and unlike the controls, none of them hatched at the end of culture. In Experiment 2, 785 morulae were cultured in the defined medium at 37 °C for 24 h, and the resulting blastocysts were transferred to the recipients (n = 24). Uncultured embryos collected at the blastocyst stage (n = 750) were directly transferred to the recipients and used as controls (n = 25). No differences in farrowing rates (91.7% and 92.0%) or litter sizes (9.0 ± 0.6 and 9.4 ± 0.8) were observed between the groups. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that high reproductive performance can be achieved after non-surgical deep uterine transfers with short-term cultured morulae in a defined medium, which opens new possibilities for the sanitary, safe national and international trade of porcine embryos and the commercial use of embryo transfer in pigs. PMID:25118944

Martinez, Emilio A; Angel, Miguel Angel; Cuello, Cristina; Sanchez-Osorio, Jonatan; Gomis, Jesus; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Vila, Jordi; Colina, Ignaci; Diaz, Marta; Reixach, Josep; Vazquez, Jose Luis; Vazquez, Juan Maria; Roca, Jordi; Gil, Maria Antonia

2014-01-01

358

Comparison of G1.2\\/G2.2 and Sydney IVF cleavage\\/blastocyst sequential media for the culture of human embryos: a prospective, randomized, comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare two commercially available sequential media, G1.2\\/G2.2 and Sydney IVF cleavage\\/blastocyst media, as supports for human embryo culture.Design: Prospective randomized study.Setting: University-based IVF clinic.Patient(s): Two hundred forty-nine patients undergoing IVF treatment for the first or second time, randomly allocated at the time of oocyte retrieval, to either culture in G1.2\\/G2.2 or Sydney IVF media.Intervention(s): Oocyte recovery, IVF or

Anne Van Langendonckt; Dominique Demylle; Christine Wyns; Michelle Nisolle; Jacques Donnez

2001-01-01

359

Technology transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: international comparison of R&D expenditures in 1989; NASA Technology Transfer Program; NASA Technology Utilization Program thrusts for FY 1992 and FY 1993; National Technology Transfer Network; and NTTC roles.

Penaranda, Frank E.

1992-01-01

360

Whole-body imaging of adoptively transferred T cells using magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography techniques, with a focus on regulatory T cells  

PubMed Central

Cell-based therapies using natural or genetically modified regulatory T cells (Tregs) have shown significant promise as immune-based therapies. One of the main difficulties facing the further advancement of these therapies is that the fate and localization of adoptively transferred Tregs is largely unknown. The ability to dissect the migratory pathway of these cells in a non-invasive manner is of vital importance for the further development of in-vivo cell-based immunotherapies, as this technology allows the fate of the therapeutically administered cell to be imaged in real time. In this review we will provide an overview of the current clinical imaging techniques used to track T cells and Tregs in vivo, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET)/single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In addition, we will discuss how the finding of these studies can be used, in the context of transplantation, to define the most appropriate Treg subset required for cellular therapy. PMID:23574314

Leech, J M; Sharif-Paghaleh, E; Maher, J; Livieratos, L; Lechler, R I; Mullen, G E; Lombardi, G; Smyth, L A

2013-01-01

361

"Transfer Shock" or "Transfer Ecstasy?"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The alleged characteristic drop in grade point average (GPA) of transfer students and the subsequent rise in GPA was investigated in this study. No statistically significant difference was found in first term junior year GPA between junior college transfers and native Florida State University students after the variance accounted for by the…

Nickens, John M.

362

The development and expression of pluripotency genes in embryos derived from nuclear transfer and in vitro fertilization.  

PubMed

Summary Somatic cell nuclear transfer can be used to produce embryonic stem (ES) cells, cloned animals, and can even increase the population size of endangered animals. However, the application of this technique is limited by the low developmental rate of cloned embryos, a situation that may result from abnormal expression of some zygotic genes. In this study, sheep-sheep intra-species cloned embryos, goat-sheep inter-species cloned embryos, or sheep in vitro fertilized embryos were constructed and cultured in vitro and the developmental ability and expression of three pluripotency genes, SSEA-1, Nanog and Oct4, were examined. The results showed firstly that the developmental ability of in vitro fertilized embryos was significantly higher than that of cloned embryos. In addition, the percentage of intra-species cloned embryos that developed to morula or blastocyst stages was also significantly higher than that of the inter-species cloned embryos. Secondly, all three types of embryos expressed SSEA-1 at the 8-cell and morula stages. At the 8-cell stage, a higher percentage of in vitro fertilized embryos expressed SSEA-1 than occurred for cloned embryos. However, at the morula stage, all detected embryos could express SSEA-1. Thirdly, the three types of embryos expressed Oct4 mRNA at the morula and blastocyst stages, and embryos at the blastocyst stage expressed Nanog mRNA. The rate of expression of Oct4 and Nanog mRNA at these developmental stages was higher in in vitro fertilized embryos than in cloned embryos. These results indicated that, during early development, the failure to reactivate some pluripotency genes maybe is a reason for the low cloning efficiency found with cloned embryos. PMID:23731893

Ma, Li-Bing; He, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Feng-Mei; Cao, Jun-Wei; Cheng, Teng

2014-11-01

363

Evaluation of the Hydraulic Performance and Mass Transfer Efficiency of the CSSX Process with the Optimized Solvent in a Single Stage of 5.5-Cm Diameter Centrifugal Contactor  

SciTech Connect

The Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process has been selected for the separation of cesium from Savannah River Site high-level waste. The solvent composition used in the CSSX process was recently optimized so that the solvent is no longer supersaturated with respect to the calixarene crown ether extractant. Hydraulic performance and mass transfer efficiency testing of a single stage of 5.5-cm ORNL-designed centrifugal contactor has been performed for the CSSX process with the optimized solvent. Maximum throughputs of the 5.5-cm centrifugal contactor, as a function of contactor rotor speed, have been measured for the extraction, scrub, strip, and wash sections of the CSSX flowsheet at the baseline organic/aqueous flow ratios (O/A) of the process, as well as at O/A's 20% higher and 20% lower than the baseline. Maximum throughputs are comparable to the design throughput of the contactor, as well as with throughputs obtained previously in a 5-cm centrifugal contactor with the non-optimized CSSX solvent formulation. The 20% variation in O/A had minimal effect on contactor throughput. Additionally, mass transfer efficiencies have been determined for the extraction and strip sections of the flowsheet. Efficiencies were lower than the process goal of greater than or equal to 80%, ranging from 72 to 75% for the extraction section and from 36 to 60% in the strip section. Increasing the mixing intensity and/or the solution level in the mixing zone of the centrifugal contactor (residence time) could potentially increase efficiencies. Several methods are available to accomplish this including (1) increasing the size of the opening in the bottom of the rotor, resulting in a contactor which is partially pumping instead of fully pumping, (2) decreasing the number of vanes in the contactor, (3) increasing the vane height, or (4) adding vanes on the rotor and baffles on the housing of the contactor. The low efficiency results obtained stress the importance of proper design of a centrifugal contactor for use in the CSSX process. A prototype of any centrifugal contactors designed for future pilot-scale or full-scale processing should be thoroughly tested prior to implementation.

Law, J.D.; Tillotson, R.D.; Todd, T.A.

2002-09-19

364

Evaluation of the Hydraulic Capacity and Mass Transfer Efficiency of the CSSX Process with the Optimized Solvent in a Single Stage of 5.5-cm-Diameter Centrifugal Contactor  

SciTech Connect

The Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process has been selected for the separation of cesium from Savannah River Site high-level waste. The solvent composition used in the CSSX process was recently optimized so that the solvent is no longer supersaturated with respect to the calixarene crown ether extractant. Hydraulic performance and mass transfer efficiency testing of a single stage of 5.5-cm ORNL-designed centrifugal contactor has been performed for the CSSX process with the optimized solvent. Maximum throughputs of the 5.5-cm centrifugal contactor, as a function of contactor rotor speed, have been measured for the extraction, scrub, strip, and wash sections of the CSSX flowsheet at the baseline organic/aqueous flow ratios (O/A) of the process, as well as at O/A’s 20% higher and 20% lower than the baseline. Maximum throughputs are comparable to the design throughput of the contactor, as well as with throughputs obtained previously in a 5-cm centrifugal contactor with the non-optimized CSSX solvent formulation. The 20% variation in O/A had minimal effect on contactor throughput. Additionally, mass transfer efficiencies have been determined for the extraction and strip sections of the flowsheet. Efficiencies were lower than the process goal of greater than or equal to 80%, ranging from 72 to 75% for the extraction section and from 36 to 60% in the strip section. Increasing the mixing intensity and/or the solution level in the mixing zone of the centrifugal contactor (residence time) could potentially increase efficiencies. Several methods are available to accomplish this including (1) increasing the size of the opening in the bottom of the rotor, resulting in a contactor which is partially pumping instead of fully pumping, (2) decreasing the number of vanes in the contactor, (3) increasing the vane height, or (4) adding vanes on the rotor and baffles on the housing of the contactor. The low efficiency results obtained stress the importance of proper design of a centrifugal contactor for use in the CSSX process. A prototype of any centrifugal contactors designed for future pilot-scale or full-scale processing should be thoroughly tested prior to implementation.

Law, Jack Douglas; Tillotson, Richard Dean; Todd, Terry Allen

2002-09-01

365

Transcriptome-wide Variability in Single Embryonic Development Cells.  

PubMed

Molecular heterogeneity of individual molecules within single cells has been recently shown to be crucial for cell fate diversifications. However, on a global scale, the effect of molecular variability for embryonic developmental stages is largely underexplored. Here, to understand the origins of transcriptome-wide variability of oocytes to blastocysts in human and mouse, we examined RNA-Seq datasets. Evaluating Pearson correlation, Shannon entropy and noise patterns (?(2) vs. ?), our investigations reveal a phase transition from low to saturating levels of diversity and variability of transcriptome-wide expressions through the development stages. To probe the observed behaviour further, we utilised a stochastic transcriptional model to simulate the global gene expressions pattern for each development stage. From the model, we concur that transcriptome-wide regulation initially begins from 2-cell stage, and becomes strikingly variable from 8-cell stage due to amplification and quantal transcriptional activity. PMID:25409746

Piras, Vincent; Tomita, Masaru; Selvarajoo, Kumar

2014-01-01

366

Transcriptome-wide Variability in Single Embryonic Development Cells  

PubMed Central

Molecular heterogeneity of individual molecules within single cells has been recently shown to be crucial for cell fate diversifications. However, on a global scale, the effect of molecular variability for embryonic developmental stages is largely underexplored. Here, to understand the origins of transcriptome-wide variability of oocytes to blastocysts in human and mouse, we examined RNA-Seq datasets. Evaluating Pearson correlation, Shannon entropy and noise patterns (?2 vs. ?), our investigations reveal a phase transition from low to saturating levels of diversity and variability of transcriptome-wide expressions through the development stages. To probe the observed behaviour further, we utilised a stochastic transcriptional model to simulate the global gene expressions pattern for each development stage. From the model, we concur that transcriptome-wide regulation initially begins from 2-cell stage, and becomes strikingly variable from 8-cell stage due to amplification and quantal transcriptional activity. PMID:25409746

Piras, Vincent; Tomita, Masaru; Selvarajoo, Kumar

2014-01-01

367

Comparison of a single dose of moxidectin and a five-day course of fenbendazole to reduce and suppress cyathostomin fecal egg counts in a herd of embryo transfer-recipient mares.  

PubMed

Objective-To compare larvicidal regimens of fenbendazole and moxidectin for reduction and suppression of cyathostomin fecal egg counts (FEC) in a transient herd of embryo transfer-recipient mares. Design-Randomized, complete block, clinical trial. Animals-120 mares from 21 states, residing on 1 farm. Procedures-An initial fecal sample was collected from each mare; mares with an FEC ? 200 eggs/g were assigned to treatment groups. Eighty-two horses received fenbendazole (10.0 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h for 5 days) or moxidectin (0.4 mg/kg [0.18 mg/lb], PO, once); FEC data were analyzed 14, 45, and 90 days after treatment. Results-Mean FEC reduction was 99.9% for moxidectin-treated mares and 41.9% for fenbendazole-treated mares 14 days after treatment. By 45 days, mean FEC of fenbendazole-treated mares exceeded pretreatment counts; however, FECs of moxidectin-treated mares remained suppressed below pretreatment values for the duration of the 90-day study. Fecal egg counts were significantly different between groups at 14, 45, and 90 days after treatment. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Failure of the 5-day regimen of fenbendazole to adequately reduce or suppress FEC suggested inadequate adulticidal and larvicidal effects. In contrast, a single dose of moxidectin effectively reduced and suppressed FEC for an extended period. Given the diverse geographic origins of study mares, these results are likely representative of cyathostomin-infected mares in much of the United States, confirming previous findings indicating that fenbendazole resistance in cyathostomins is widespread and that moxidectin remains an effective treatment for control of these important parasites. PMID:25285937

Mason, Maren E; Voris, Nathan D; Ortis, Hunter A; Geeding, Amy A; Kaplan, Ray M

2014-10-15

368

Tubing for augmented heat transfer  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the program reported were: to determine the heat transfer and friction characteristics on the outside of spiral fluted tubing in single phase flow of water, and to assess the relative cost of a heat exchanger constructed with spiral fluted tubing with one using conventional smooth tubing. An application is examined where an isolation water/water heat exchanger was used to transfer the heat from a gaseous diffusion plant to an external system for energy recovery. (LEW)

Yampolsky, J.S.; Pavlics, P.

1983-08-01

369

Femtosecond laser based enucleation of porcine oocytes for somatic cell nuclear transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloning of several mammalian species has been achieved by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in recent years. However, this method still results in very low efficiencies around 1% which originate from suboptimal culture conditions and highly invasive techniques for oocyte enucleation and injection of the donor cell using micromanipulators. In this paper, we present a new minimal invasive method for oocyte imaging and enucleation based on the application of femtosecond (fs) laser pulses. After imaging of the oocyte with multiphoton microscopy, ultrashort pulses are focused onto the metaphase plate of MII-oocytes in order to ablate the DNA molecules. We show that fs laser based enucleation of porcine oocytes completely inhibits the first mitotic cleavage after parthenogenetic activation while maintaining intact oocyte morphology in most cases. In contrast, control groups without previous irradiation of the metaphase plate are able to develop to the blastocyst stage. Further experiments have to clarify the suitability of fs laser based enucleated oocytes for SCNT.

Kütemeyer, K.; Lucas-Hahn, A.; Petersen, B.; Hassel, P.; Lemme, E.; Niemann, H.; Heisterkamp, A.

2009-07-01

370

Effect of polyethylene glycol and dimethyl sulfoxide on the fusion of bovine nuclear transfer using mammary gland epithelial cells.  

PubMed

The effects of polyethylene glycol and dimethyl sulfoxide (PEG/DMSO) treatment of donor cells on the fusion and subsequent development of bovine nuclear transfer embryos using mammary gland epithelial (MGE) cells before electrofusion (fresh MGE cells) was studied. The same study was conducted on those cells that were frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen, and then thawed (frozen-thawed MGE cells). Experiment 1 showed that the exposure time and pH of PEG/DMSO solution affected the fusion of nuclear transfer, and that a higher fusion rate was obtained when fresh MGE cells were exposed to PEG/DMSO solution at pH 8.0 for 5 min. In Experiment 2, the proportion of fused oocytes with fresh PEG/DMSO-treated cells (70 +/- 6%) was significantly higher than that with non-treated cells (50 +/- 13%, p < 0.05). The same tendency was observed when frozen-thawed cells as donor nuclei were used (48 +/- 6% vs. 34 +/- 12%, p < 0.05). In addition, PEG/DMSO treatment has neither harmful nor beneficial effects on the cleavage and development of the blastocyst stage of reconstructed embryos (p > 0.05). The fusion and cleavage rates of frozen-thawed cells were significantly lower than those of fresh cells (p < 0.05). After 10 blastocysts, derived from fresh PEG/DMSO-treated cells, were transferred to five recipient heifers, one live female calf was obtained. Experiment 3 showed that PEG/DMSO treatment reduced the viability of both fresh and frozen-thawed MGE cells (p < 0.05). We conclude that the PEG/DMSO treatment of fresh MGE cells, as well as the frozen-thawed cells, before electrofusion has a positive effect on the fusion of nuclear transfer without decreasing the in vitro development of reconstructed embryos. PMID:12713700

Kishi, Masao; Itagaki, Yasuharu; Takakura, Ryo; Sudo, Tomoko; Teranishi, Masatoshi

2003-01-01

371

Mass transfer andMass transfer and Mass transfer andMass transfer and  

E-print Network

eknik Mass transfer andMass transfer and arationste Mass transfer andMass transfer and separation / mass transfer analogy7. Heat / mass transfer analogy Massöve Ron Zevenhoven �bo Akademi Universityy.1 Heat / mass transfer analogy7.1 Heat / mass transfer analogy 4 erföringo gygy Massöve RoNzfebruari 2012

Zevenhoven, Ron

372

Valproic acid enhances early development of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos by alleviating endoplasmic reticulum stress.  

PubMed

Despite the positive roles of histone deacetylase inhibitors in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), few studies have evaluated valproic acid (VPA) and its associated developmental events. Thus, the present study was conducted to elucidate the effect of VPA on the early development of bovine SCNT embryos and the underlying mechanisms of action. The histone acetylation level of SCNT embryos was successfully restored by VPA, with optimal results obtained by treatment with 3mM VPA for 24h. Importantly, the increases in blastocyst formation rate and inner cell mass and trophectoderm cell numbers were not different between the VPA and trichostatin A treatment groups, whereas cell survival was notably improved by VPA, indicating the improvement of developmental competence of SCNT embryos by VPA. Interestingly, VPA markedly reduced the transcript levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers, including sXBP-1 and CHOP. In contrast, the levels of GRP78/BiP, an ER stress-alleviating transcript, were significantly increased by VPA. Furthermore, VPA greatly reduced cell apoptosis in SCNT blastocysts, which was further evidenced by the increased levels of the anti-apoptotic transcript Bcl-xL and decreased level of the pro-apoptotic transcript Bax. Collectively, these results suggest that VPA enhances the developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos by alleviating ER stress and its associated developmental damage. PMID:23506644

Song, Bong-Seok; Yoon, Seung-Bin; Sim, Bo-Woong; Kim, Young-Hyun; Cha, Jae-Jin; Choi, Seon-A; Jeong, Kang-Jin; Kim, Ji-Su; Huh, Jae-Won; Lee, Sang-Rae; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Sun-Uk; Chang, Kyu-Tae

2014-03-01

373

[Technology Transfer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some authorities on technolgoy transfer feel that industry is not fully capitalizing on the inventive output of universities and nonprofit organizations. From the point of view of the government, the stakes are high. The magnitude of federal support of research and development in these organizations demands evidence of useful results if it is to…

Latker, Norman J.

374

Production of transgenic cashmere goat embryos expressing red fluorescent protein and containing IGF1 hair-follicle-cell specific expression cassette by somatic cell nuclear transfer.  

PubMed

In the present study, cashmere goat fetal fibroblasts were transfected with pCDsR-KI, a hair-follicle-cell specific expression vector for insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) that contains two markers for selection (red fluorescent protein gene and neomycin resistant gene). The transgenic fibroblasts cell lines were obtained after G418 selection. Prior to the somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), the maturation rate of caprine cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) was optimized to an in vitro maturation time of 18 h. Parthenogenetic ooctyes were used as a model to investigate the effect of two activation methods, one with calcium ionophore IA23187 plus 6-DMAP and the other with ethanol plus 6-DMAP. The cleavage rates after 48 h were respectively 88.7% and 86.4%, with no significant difference (P>0.05). There was no significant difference between the cleavage rate and the blastocyst rate in two different media (SO-Faa and CR1aa; 86.3% vs 83.9%, P>0.05 and 23.1% vs 17.2%, P>0.05). The fusion rate of a 190 V/mm group (62.4%) was significantly higher than 130 V/mm (32.8%) and 200 V/mm (42.9%), groups (P>0.05). After transgenic somatic cell nuclear transfer (TSCNT) manipulation, 203 reconstructed embryos were obtained in which the cleavage rate after in vitro development (IVD) for 48 h was 79.3% (161/203). The blastocyst rate after IVD for 7 to 9 d was 15.3% (31/203). There were 17 embryos out of 31 strongly expressing red fluorescence. Two of the red fluorescent blastocysts were randomly selected to identify transgene by polymerase chain reaction. Both were positive. These results showed that: (i) RFP and Neo ( r ) genes were correctly expressed indicating that transgenic somatic cell lines and positive transgenic embryos were obtained; (ii) one more selection at the blastocyst stage was necessary although the donor cells were transgenic positive, because only partially transgenic embryos expressing red fluorescence were obtained; and (iii) through TSCNT manipulation and optimization, transgenic cashmere goat embryos expressing red fluorescence and containing an IGF1 expression cassette were obtained, which was sufficient for production of transgenic cashmere goats. PMID:19381465

Guo, XuDong; Yang, DongShan; Ao, XuDong; Wu, Xia; Li, GuangPeng; Wang, LingLing; Bao, Ming-Tao; Xue, Lian; Bou, ShorGan

2009-04-01

375

Teacher Transfer and Teacher Satisfaction in Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project analyzed the dynamics of intra-district transfer and the consequences such transfers have on members of the organization. Intra-district transfers are transfers within a single school district from one teaching assignment to another. The purpose of this project was to describe the current practices regarding intra-district teacher…

Cascone, Vincent M.

2010-01-01

376

Transfer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transfer cells are a specialized cell type that can be found in many exchange surfaces in plants,\\u000a including branching points, hydathodes, or phloem loading and unloading areas. The developing seeds are\\u000a strong sinks with no symplastic connection with the mother plant, as they are distinct individuals. Consequently,\\u000a during the grain filling phase seed storage organs must develop specialized structures to facilitate

J. Royo; E. Gómez; G. Hueros

377

Heat Transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this inquiry activity students explore how heat transfers from one substance to another This inquiry activity was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÃÂs 2006 Frontiers in Physiology Program. The NSES Standards addressed by this activity are current as of the year of development. For more information on the Frontiers in Physiology Program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

Ms. Leslie Van (Montgomery Blair High School)

2006-04-01

378

Animal Transfer Agreement -1 ANIMAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT  

E-print Network

intellectual property rights in the animal(s), the Government retains these rights. Additionally, to the extent in the animal(s), these rights are not transferred to the recipient. · Provider is transferring the animal(sAnimal Transfer Agreement - 1 ANIMAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT This Animal Transfer Agreement has been

Bandettini, Peter A.

379

Experimental evaluation of heat transfer characteristics of silica nanofluid  

E-print Network

The laminar convective heat transfer characteristics were investigated for silica nanofluid. An experimental loop was built to obtain heat transfer coefficients for single-phase nanofluids in a circular conduit in laminar ...

Zhang, Zihao, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

380

Expression Profile of Genes as Indicators of Developmental Competence and Quality of In Vitro Fertilization and Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Bovine Embryos  

PubMed Central

Reproductive biotechnologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) enable improved reproductive efficiency of animals. However, the birth rate of in vitro-derived embryos still lags behind that of their in vivo counterparts. Thus, it is critical to develop an accurate evaluation and prediction system of embryo competence, both for commercial purposes and for scientific research. Previous works have demonstrated that in vitro culture systems induce alterations in the relative abundance (RA) of diverse transcripts and thus compromise embryo quality. The aim of this work was to analyze the RA of a set of genes involved in cellular stress (heat shock protein 70-kDa, HSP70), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein, Bip; proteasome subunit ?5, PSMB5) and apoptosis (BCL-2 associated X protein, Bax; cysteine aspartate protease-3, Caspase-3) in bovine blastocysts produced by IVF or SCNT and compare it with that of their in vivo counterparts. Poly (A) + mRNA was isolated from three pools of 10 blastocysts per treatment and analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The RA of three of the stress indicators analyzed (Bax, PSMB5 and Bip) was significantly increased in SCNT embryos as compared with that of in vivo-derived blastocysts. No significant differences were found in the RA of HSP70 and Caspase-3 gene transcripts. This study could potentially complement morphological analyses in the development of an effective and accurate technique for the diagnosis of embryo quality, ultimately aiding to improve the efficiency of assisted reproductive techniques (ART). PMID:25269019

Monteleone, Melisa Carolina; Mucci, Nicolas; Kaiser, German Gustavo; Brocco, Marcela; Mutto, Adrian

2014-01-01

381

DNA methylation at a bovine alpha satellite I repeat CpG site during development following fertilization and somatic cell nuclear transfer.  

PubMed

Incomplete epigenetic reprogramming is postulated to contribute to the low developmental success following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Here, we describe the epigenetic reprogramming of DNA methylation at an alpha satellite I CpG site (?satI-5) during development of cattle generated either by artificial insemination (AI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) and SCNT. Quantitative methylation analysis identified that SCNT donor cells were highly methylated at ?satI-5 and resulting SCNT blastocysts showed significantly more methylation than IVF blastocysts. At implantation, no difference in methylation was observed between SCNT and AI in trophoblast tissue at ?satI-5, however, SCNT embryos were significantly hyper-methylated compared to AI controls at this time point. Following implantation, DNA methylation at ?satI-5 decreased in AI but not SCNT placental tissues. In contrast to placenta, the proportion of methylation at ?satI-5 remained high in adrenal, kidney and muscle tissues during development. Differences in the average proportion of methylation were smaller in somatic tissues than placental tissues but, on average, SCNT somatic tissues were hyper-methylated at ?satI-5. Although sperm from all bulls was less methylated than somatic tissues at ?satI-5, on average this site remained hyper-methylated in sperm from cloned bulls compared with control bulls. This developmental time course confirms that epigenetic reprogramming does occur, at least to some extent, following SCNT. However, the elevated methylation levels observed in SCNT blastocysts and cellular derivatives implies that there is either insufficient time or abundance of appropriate reprogramming factors in oocytes to ensure complete reprogramming. Incomplete reprogramming at this CpG site may be a contributing factor to low SCNT success rates, but more likely represents the tip of the iceberg in terms of incompletely reprogramming. Until protocols ensure the epigenetic signature of a differentiated somatic cell is reset to a state resembling totipotency, the efficiency of SCNT is likely to remain low. PMID:23383311

Couldrey, Christine; Wells, David N

2013-01-01

382

Effect of the time interval between fusion and activation on epigenetic reprogramming and development of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that the time interval between fusion and activation (FA interval) play an important role in nuclear remodeling and in vitro development of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. However, the effects of FA interval on the epigenetic reprogramming and in vivo developmental competence of SCNT embryos remain unknown. In the present study, the effects of different FA intervals (0 h, 2 h, and 4 h) on the epigenetic reprogramming and developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos were assessed. The results demonstrated that H3 lysine 9 (H3K9ac) levels decreased rapidly after fusion in all three groups. H3K9ac was practically undetectable 2 h after fusion in the 2-h and 4-h FA interval groups. However, H3K9ac was still evidently detectable in the 0-h FA interval group. The H3K9ac levels increased 10 h after fusion in all three groups, but were higher in the 2-h and 4-h FA interval groups than that in the 0-h FA interval group. The methylation levels of the satellite I region in day-7 blastocysts derived from the 2-h or 4-h FA interval groups was similar to that of in vitro fertilization blastocysts and is significantly lower than that of the 0-h FA interval group. SCNT embryos derived from 2-h FA interval group showed higher developmental competence than those from the 0-h and 4-h FA interval groups in terms of cleavage rate, blastocyst formation rate, apoptosis index, and pregnancy and calving rates. Hence, the FA interval is an important factor influencing the epigenetic reprogramming and developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos. PMID:23461480

Liu, Jun; Wang, Yongsheng; Su, Jianmin; Wang, Lijun; Li, Ruizhe; Li, Qian; Wu, Yongyan; Hua, Song; Quan, Fusheng; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

2013-04-01

383

Expression profile of genes as indicators of developmental competence and quality of in vitro fertilization and somatic cell nuclear transfer bovine embryos.  

PubMed

Reproductive biotechnologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) enable improved reproductive efficiency of animals. However, the birth rate of in vitro-derived embryos still lags behind that of their in vivo counterparts. Thus, it is critical to develop an accurate evaluation and prediction system of embryo competence, both for commercial purposes and for scientific research. Previous works have demonstrated that in vitro culture systems induce alterations in the relative abundance (RA) of diverse transcripts and thus compromise embryo quality. The aim of this work was to analyze the RA of a set of genes involved in cellular stress (heat shock protein 70-kDa, HSP70), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein, Bip; proteasome subunit ?5, PSMB5) and apoptosis (BCL-2 associated X protein, Bax; cysteine aspartate protease-3, Caspase-3) in bovine blastocysts produced by IVF or SCNT and compare it with that of their in vivo counterparts. Poly (A) + mRNA was isolated from three pools of 10 blastocysts per treatment and analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The RA of three of the stress indicators analyzed (Bax, PSMB5 and Bip) was significantly increased in SCNT embryos as compared with that of in vivo-derived blastocysts. No significant differences were found in the RA of HSP70 and Caspase-3 gene transcripts. This study could potentially complement morphological analyses in the development of an effective and accurate technique for the diagnosis of embryo quality, ultimately aiding to improve the efficiency of assisted reproductive techniques (ART). PMID:25269019

Cánepa, Maria Jesús; Ortega, Nicolás Matías; Monteleone, Melisa Carolina; Mucci, Nicolas; Kaiser, German Gustavo; Brocco, Marcela; Mutto, Adrián

2014-01-01

384

Heat transfer and thermal energy transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat storage in geological strata (geostorage) is considered with attention given to single phase hat transfer in porous media, reservoir stability and heat transfer by conduction in rocks and soils. Also considered are solid and liquid heat storage systems, heat exchanger design, phase change systems for low and high temperature applications (melting and solidification, and encapsulation (of molten salts), fluidized

J. L. Peube; G. F. Hewitt; E. R. G. Eckert; E. Hahne; H. W. Hoffman; P. Le Goff; H. Sandner; D. G. Stephenson; A. C. Gringarten; N. Kurti

1976-01-01

385

Calculating Spacecraft Single Event Environments with FLUKA: Investigating the Effects of Spacecraft Material Atomic Number on Secondary Particle Showers, Nuclear Reactions, and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) Spectra, Internal to Spacecraft Avionics Materials, at High Shielding Mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution, to spacecraft avionics single event effect (SEE), nuclear reaction (NR), and total ionizing dose (TID) environments, of space radiation induced nuclear reactions and secondary particle showers in spacecraft materials is explored using the FLUKA Monte Carlo energetic particle transport code. Estimates of spacecraft single event upset rates produced using FLUKA based methods are compared to flight data. The

Steve Koontz; Brandon Reddell; Paul Boeder

2011-01-01

386

Nuclear transfer of synchronized African wild cat somatic cells into enucleated domestic cat oocytes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The African wild cat is one of the smallest wild cats and its future is threatened by hybridization with domestic cats. Nuclear transfer, a valuable tool for retaining genetic variability, offers the possibility of species continuation rather than extinction. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of somatic cell nuclei of the African wild cat (AWC) to dedifferentiate within domestic cat (DSH) cytoplasts and to support early development after nuclear transplantation. In experiment 1, distributions of AWC and DSH fibroblasts in each cell-cycle phase were assessed by flow cytometry using cells cultured to confluency and disaggregated with pronase, trypsin, or mechanical separation. Trypsin (89.0%) and pronase (93.0%) yielded higher proportions of AWC nuclei in the G0/G1 phase than mechanical separation (82.0%). In contrast, mechanical separation yielded higher percentages of DSH nuclei in the G0/G1 phase (86.6%) than pronase (79.7%) or trypsin (74.2%) treatments. In both species, pronase induced less DNA damage than trypsin. In experiment 2, the effects of serum starvation, culture to confluency, and exposure to roscovitine on the distribution of AWC and DSH fibroblasts in various phases of the cell cycle were determined. Flow cytometry analyses revealed that the dynamics of the cell cycle varied as culture conditions were modified. Specifically, a higher percentage of AWC and DSH nuclei were in the G0/G1 phase after cells were serum starved (83% vs. 96%) than were present in cycling cells (50% vs. 64%), after contact inhibition (61% vs. 88%), or after roscovitine (56% vs. 84%) treatment, respectively. In experiment 3, we evaluated the effects of cell synchronization and oocyte maturation (in vivo vs. in vitro) on the reconstruction and development of AWC-DSH- and DSH-DSH-cloned embryos. The method of cell synchronization did not affect the fusion and cleavage rate because only a slightly higher percentage of fused couplets cleaved when donor nuclei were synchronized by serum starvation (83.0%) than after roscovitine (80.0%) or contact-inhibition (80.0%). The fusion efficiency of in vivo and in vitro matured oocytes used as recipient cytoplasts of AWC donor nuclei (86.6% vs. 85.2%) was similar to the rates obtained with DSH donor nuclei, 83.7% vs. 73.0%, respectively. The only significant effect of source of donor nucleus (AWC vs. DSH) was on the rate of blastocyst formation in vitro. A higher percen