Sample records for single blastocyst transfer

  1. Selective single blastocyst transfer study: 604 cases in 6 years

    PubMed Central

    Sadasivam, Nirmala; Sadasivam, Narayanan M.

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the credibility of single blastocyst transfer (SBT) method in selected group of patients. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of SBT cases based on computerized data in a private Fertility research centre. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 604 cases of SBTs, done during June 2000 to June 2006, have been analyzed retrospectively to assess the credibility of the method as a method of choice in selective high fertile group of patients. Women between 28 and 42 years have been included in the retrospective analysis, who had adequate number of eggs for fertilization, between 6 and 12. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Grade I blastocyst transfer resulted in 46.6% of clinical pregnancy and grade II blastocyst transfer resulted in 17.4% of clinical pregnancy rates. Overall pregnancy rate was 64%. Pregnancy loss, as early and late fetal wastages, was 11.06%. PMID:19562057

  2. A theoretical model for single blastocyst transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Teranishi; A. Kuwata; T. Fumino; H. Hamai; M. Shigeta

    2009-01-01

    Objective  To elucidate the relationship between embryo grade and ART outcomes and determine how to decrease multiple pregnancy rates\\u000a by assigning patients to single embryo transfer (SET) instead of dual embryo transfer (DET) according to embryo grade and\\/or\\u000a availability.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Retrospective medical record review.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting  IVF fertility center.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients  247 women undergoing day?5 DET after in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We

  3. Prediction of clinical pregnancy in vitrified-warmed single blastocyst transfer cycles by pre-freeze morphology

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huan; Zhou, Ying; Li, Yan; Zheng, Yi; Xiao, Shiquan; Wu, Yonggen; Wang, Haiqing; Huang, Xuefeng

    2014-01-01

    Background: The selection of blastocyst warmed for transfer is based on pre-freeze morphology in vitrified-warmed single blastocyst transfer cycles. But, it is controversial which parameter of blastocyst morphology most closely related to the clinical outcomes. Objective: To estimate the effect of blastocoele expansion, trophectoderm (TE) morphology grade, and inner cell mass (ICM) morphology grade on clinical pregnancy in vitrified-warmed single blastocyst transfers. Materials and Methods: There were 172 vitrified-warmed single blastocyst transfer cycles during the year 2012 included in this analysis. Comparison of clinical results between pregnancy and no pregnancy group based on patient and blastocyst morphology characteristics was done. Then stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to select the best morphological predictor for clinical pregnancy. Last, comparison of patient characteristics and clinical outcomes separated by the best independent morphological predictor was done. Results: Comparison of clinical results between pregnancy and no pregnancy group and logistic regression showed the clinical pregnancy rate was affected by ICM. Comparison of patient characteristics separated by ICM grade, ICM grade A cycles got higher clinical pregnancy rate than ICM grade B cycles (54.3% vs. 35.0% respectively, p=0.037). Conclusion: Blastocyst with good ICM morphology could increase clinical pregnancy rate in vitrified-warmed single blastocyst transfer cycles. PMID:25408707

  4. Should a single blastocyst transfer policy be a clinical decision or should it depend on the embryological evaluation on day 3?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominic Stoop; Lisbet Van Landuyt; Etienne Van den Abbeel; Michel Camus; Greta Verheyen; Paul Devroey

    2011-01-01

    Background  Single blastocyst transfer has the advantage of maximizing the fresh single pregnancy rate. However, in patients with a low\\u000a number of good quality embryos on day 3, it remains unclear whether immediate embryo transfer or further embryo culture with\\u000a blastocyst transfer is the most preferable option.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A retrospective cohort study was carried out in which the outcome of 590 fresh

  5. Transfers of fresh blastocysts and blastocysts cultured from thawed cleavage embryos are associated with fewer miscarriages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yueping Alex Wang; Michael Costello; Michael Chapman; Deborah Black; Elizabeth Anne Sullivan

    The literature shows an inconsistent relationship between miscarriage and assisted reproduction treatment factors. This study assessed the association between miscarriage and transfer of fresh or thawed embryos at cleavage\\/blastocyst stages. A population study included 52,874 pregnancies following autologous cycles. The miscarriage rate was compared by groups of transferred embryos (fresh cleavage embryo, fresh blastocyst, thawed cleavage embryo, blastocyst from thawed

  6. Ovarian pregnancy resulting from cryopreserved blastocyst transfer.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Katsunori; Yahata, Tetsuro; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Fujita, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Kenichi

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian pregnancy very rarely occurs and its exact mechanism is unclear. Here, we report a case of ovarian pregnancy resulting from cryopreserved blastocyst transfer. The patient was a 34-year-old woman who had undergone bilateral ovarian cystectomy for endometriosis. Both fallopian tubes indicated normal findings on laparoscopic surgery, and we removed the gestational product of the right ovary. Pathological analysis confirmed the diagnosis of right ovarian pregnancy. Ectopic pregnancy is one of the major complications of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer. Although ovarian pregnancy is an extremely rare occurrence, the possibility of developing this event after cryopreserved blastocyst transfer should be recognized. PMID:22844999

  7. RNA-seq analysis of single bovine blastocysts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Use of RNA-Seq presents unique benefits in terms of gene expression analysis because of its wide dynamic range and ability to identify functional sequence variants. This technology provides the opportunity to assay the developing embryo, but the paucity of biological material available from individual embryos has made this a challenging prospect. Results We report here the first application of RNA-Seq for the analysis of individual blastocyst gene expression, SNP detection, and characterization of allele specific expression (ASE). RNA was extracted from single bovine blastocysts (n = 5), amplified, and analyzed using high-throughput sequencing. Approximately 38 million sequencing reads were generated per embryo and 9,489 known bovine genes were found to be expressed, with a high correlation of expression levels between samples (r > 0.97). Transcriptomic data was analyzed to identify SNP in expressed genes, and individual SNP were examined to characterize allele specific expression. Expressed biallelic SNP variants with allelic imbalances were observed in 473 SNP, where one allele represented between 65-95% of a variant’s transcripts. Conclusions This study represents the first application of RNA-seq technology in single bovine embryos allowing a representation of the embryonic transcriptome and the analysis of transcript sequence variation to describe specific allele expression. PMID:23705625

  8. Blastocyst transfer for multiple prior IVF failure: a five year descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Walsh, A P H; Shkrobot, L V; Coull, G D; Peirce, K L; Walsh, D J; Salma, U; Sills, E S

    2009-10-01

    Patients with recurrent IVF failure are generally regarded as having a poor prognosis, and when female age exceeds 35 yrs such patients face a particularly bleak outlook. This study reported on blastocyst transfer (BT) performed over a five-year interval in patients seeking "second opinion" after multiple failed IVF cycles. Clinical features and reproductive outcomes were compared between two sets of poor-prognosis IVF patients undergoing BT for the first time, the initial group underwent treatment in 2002 (n=66) and a second group presented five years later (n=392). The two clinical sets had no patients in common. The 2002 group had an average of 3.5 (+/- 1.1) prior failed IVF cycles at baseline, and mean (+/- SD) patient age was 36.4 (+/- 3.9) yrs. Average number of oocytes retrieved in this group was 10.4 (+/- 5.3) with a fertilisation rate of 58.8%. Although embryo arrest resulted in no transfer for 19 patients (28.8%), clinical pregnancy was achieved for 59.6% of transfers. Five years later, 392 patients underwent BT, but this group had an average of 4.5 (+/- 2.3) prior failed IVF cycles. Mean (+/- SD) female age was 36.0 (+/- 3.9) yrs, and the average number of oocytes retrieved in this group was 9.1 (+/- 5.4); the fertilisation rate was 59.5%. No blastocysts were available for transfer in 99 cases (25.3%); clinical pregnancy was achieved for 50.0% of transfers. The number of blastocysts transferred was similar in the two groups (1.6 vs. 1.3; p=0.06); the twinning rate rose slightly from 8.2% to 15.1% (p=0.12) despite an increased utilisation of single embryo transfer in 2007 (19.7% vs. 22.2%; p=0.40). Comparisons from 2002 and 2007 found no important differences between the two patient groups, except for a significantly higher rate of prior failed cycles in the 2007 group (p<0.001). This refractoriness was accompanied by a somewhat reduced blastocyst cryopreservation rate in 2007, compared to 2002 (27.6% vs. 29.5%; p=0.44). Clinical pregnancy rates are not adversely affected by application of BT in patients with multiple prior unsuccessful IVF cycles. For these patients, our data suggest that extended embryo culture and BT should be considered. Further controlled studies are needed to document more precisely the role of BT in this sub-set of refractory IVF patients. PMID:19902645

  9. Aberrant DNA Methylation in Porcine in vitro-, Parthenogenetic-, and Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer-Produced Blastocysts

    PubMed Central

    Bonk, Aaron J.; Li, Rongfeng; Lai, Liangxue; Hao, Yanhong; Liu, Zhonghua; Samuel, Melissa; Fergason, Emily A.; Whitworth, Kristin M.; Murphy, Clifton N.; Antoniou, Eric; Prather, Randall S.

    2008-01-01

    Early embryonic development in the pig requires DNA methylation remodeling of the maternal and paternal genomes. Aberrant remodeling, which can be exasperated by in vitro technologies, is detrimental to development and can result in physiological and anatomic abnormalities in the developing fetus and offspring. Here, we developed and validated a microarray based approach to characterize on a global scale the CpG methylation profiles of porcine gametes and blastocyst stage embryos. The relative methylation in the gamete and blastocyst samples showed that 18.5% (921/4992) of the DNA clones were found to be significantly different (P<0.01) in at least one of the samples. Furthermore, for the different blastocyst groups, the methylation profile of the in vitro-produced blastocysts was less similar to the in vivo-produced blastocysts as compared to the parthenogenetic- and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)-produced blastocysts. The microarray results were validated by using bisulfite sequencing for 12 of the genomic regions in liver, sperm, and in vivo-produced blastocysts. These results suggest that a generalized change in global methylation is not responsible for the low developmental potential of blastocysts produced by using in vitro techniques. Instead, the appropriate methylation of a relatively small number of genomic regions in the early embryo may enable early development to occur. PMID:17595009

  10. Piglets born after non-surgical deep intrauterine transfer of vitrified blastocysts in gilts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Cuello; F. Berthelot; F. Martinat-Botté; E. Venturi; P. Guillouet; J. M. Vázquez; J. Roca; E. A. Mart??nez

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to evaluate the effect of the number of previous estrus of recipient gilts on effectiveness of intrauterine insertion of a flexible catheter designed for non-surgical deep intrauterine catheterization during diestrus in pigs; and (2) to determine the farrowing rate and the litter size after non-surgical deep intrauterine embryo transfer (ET) of porcine blastocysts

  11. Is blastocyst transfer useful as an alternative treatment for patients with multiple in vitro fertilization failures?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose R Cruz; Anil K Dubey; Jay Patel; Doug Peak; Beth Hartog; Paul R Gindoff

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether blastocyst transfer is of benefit to patients with multiple IVF failures.Design: Retrospective cohort study.Setting: The George Washington University Medical Center.Patient(s): Patients undergoing IVF between October 1, 1997, and November 30, 1998, who had previously undergone three or more unsuccessful IVF cycles. Patients who had at least three embryos at the 8- to 12-cell stage available on

  12. Selection of euploid blastocysts for cryopreservation with array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) results in increased implantation rates in subsequent frozen and thawed embryo transfer cycles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In assisted reproductive treatments, embryos remaining after fresh embryo transfer are usually selected for cryopreservation based on traditional morphology assessment. Our previous report has demonstrated that array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) screening for IVF patients with good prognosis significantly improves clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates in fresh embryo transfer cycles. The current study further investigates the efficiency of applying aCGH in the selection of euploid embryos for cryopreservation as related to pregnancy and implantation outcomes in subsequent frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles. Methods First-time IVF patients with good prognosis undergoing fresh single embryo transfer and having at least one remaining blastocyst for cryopreservation were prospectively randomized into two groups: 1) Group A patients had embryos assessed by morphology first and then by aCGH screening of trophectoderm cells and 2) Group B patients had embryos evaluated by morphology alone. All patients had at least one blastocyst available for cryopreservation after fresh embryo transfer. There were 15 patients in Group A and 23 patients in Group B who failed to conceive after fresh embryo transfer and completed the FET cycles. Blastocyst survival and implantation rates were compared between the two groups. Results There were no significant differences in blastocyst survival rates between Group A and Group B (90.9% vs. 91.3%, respectively; p >0.05). However, a significantly higher implantation rate was observed in the morphology assessment plus aCGH screening group compared to the morphology assessment alone group (65.0% vs. 33.3%, respectively; p?=?0.038). There was no miscarriage observed in Group A while a 16.7% miscarriage rate was recorded in Group B (0% vs. 16.7%, respectively; p >0.05). Conclusions While aCGH screening has been recently applied to select euploid blastocysts for fresh transfer in young, low-risk IVF patients, this is the first prospective study on the impact of aCGH specifically on blastocyst survival and implantation outcomes in the subsequent FET cycles of IVF patients with good prognosis. The present study demonstrates that aCGH screening of blastocysts prior to cryopreservation significantly improves implantation rates and may reduce the risk of miscarriage in subsequent FET cycles. Further randomized clinical studies with a larger sample size are needed to validate these preliminary findings. PMID:23937723

  13. Culture and transfer of human blastocysts increases implantation rates and reduces the need for multiple embryo transfers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David K. Gardner; Pauline Vella; Lyla Wagley; Terry Schlenker; William B. Schoolcraft

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the transfer of blastocysts on day 5, developed in sequential culture media, resulted in an increase in implantation rate compared with embryos transferred on day 3.Design: Comparative study of embryo culture regimes.Setting: Private practice assisted reproductive technology center.Patient(s): Twenty-three patients undergoing routine IVF cycles.Intervention(s): Culture of embryos to day 3 in either standard culture conditions or

  14. Histone Modification of Embryonic Stem Cells Produced by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer and Fertilized Blastocysts

    PubMed Central

    Farifteh, Fattaneh; Salehi, Mohammad; Bandehpour, Mojgan; Nariman, Mosaffa; Ghafari Novin, Marefat; Hosseini, Taher; Nematollahi, Sedigheh; Noroozian, Mohsen; Keshavarzi, Somayeh; Hosseini, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Objective Nuclear transfer-embryonic stem cells (NT-ESCs) are genetically identical to the donor’s cells; provide a renewable source of tissue for replacement, and therefore, decrease the risk of immune rejection. Trichostatin A (TSA) as a histone deacetylase in- hibitor (HDACi) plays an important role in the reorganization of the genome and epigenetic changes. In this study, we examined whether TSA treatment after somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) can improve the developmental rate of embryos and establishment rate of NT-ESCs line, as well as whether TSA treatment can improve histone modification in NT-ESCs lines. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, mature oocytes were recovered from BDF1 [C57BL/6×DBA/2) F 1 mice] mice and enucleated by micromanipulator. Cumulus cells were injected into enucleated oocytes as donor. Reconstructed embryos were ac- tivated in the presence or absence of TSA and cultured for 5 days. Blastocysts were transferred on inactive mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF), so ESCs lines were estab- lished. ESCs markers were evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Histone modifications were analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Result of this study showed that TSA treatment after SCNT can improve devel- opmental rate of embryos (21.12 ± 3.56 vs. 8.08 ± 7.92), as well as establishment rate of NT-ESCs line (25 vs. 12.5). We established 6 NT-ESCs in two experimental groups, and three embryonic stem cells (ESCs) lines as control group. TSA treatment has no effect in H3K4 acetylation and H3K9 tri-methylation in ESCs. Conclusion TSA plays a key role in the developmental rate of embryos, establishment rate of ESC lines after SCNT, and regulation of histone modification in NT-ESCs, in a man- ner similar to that of ESCs established from normal blastocysts. PMID:24381856

  15. Uncoupled Embryonic and Extra-Embryonic Tissues Compromise Blastocyst Development after Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Degrelle, Séverine A.; Jaffrezic, Florence; Campion, Evelyne; Lê Cao, Kim-Anh; Le Bourhis, Daniel; Richard, Christophe; Rodde, Nathalie; Fleurot, Renaud; Everts, Robin E.; Lecardonnel, Jérôme; Heyman, Yvan; Vignon, Xavier; Tian, Xiuchun C.; Lewin, Harris A.; Renard, Jean-Paul; Hue, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is the most efficient cell reprogramming technique available, especially when working with bovine species. Although SCNT blastocysts performed equally well or better than controls in the weeks following embryo transfer at Day 7, elongation and gastrulation defects were observed prior to implantation. To understand the developmental implications of embryonic/extra-embryonic interactions, the morphological and molecular features of elongating and gastrulating tissues were analysed. At Day 18, 30 SCNT conceptuses were compared to 20 controls (AI and IVP: 10 conceptuses each); one-half of the SCNT conceptuses appeared normal while the other half showed signs of atypical elongation and gastrulation. SCNT was also associated with a high incidence of discordance in embryonic and extra-embryonic patterns, as evidenced by morphological and molecular “uncoupling”. Elongation appeared to be secondarily affected; only 3 of 30 conceptuses had abnormally elongated shapes and there were very few differences in gene expression when they were compared to the controls. However, some of these differences could be linked to defects in microvilli formation or extracellular matrix composition and could thus impact extra-embryonic functions. In contrast to elongation, gastrulation stages included embryonic defects that likely affected the hypoblast, the epiblast, or the early stages of their differentiation. When taking into account SCNT conceptus somatic origin, i.e. the reprogramming efficiency of each bovine ear fibroblast (Low: 0029, Med: 7711, High: 5538), we found that embryonic abnormalities or severe embryonic/extra-embryonic uncoupling were more tightly correlated to embryo loss at implantation than were elongation defects. Alternatively, extra-embryonic differences between SCNT and control conceptuses at Day 18 were related to molecular plasticity (high efficiency/high plasticity) and subsequent pregnancy loss. Finally, because it alters re-differentiation processes in vivo, SCNT reprogramming highlights temporally and spatially restricted interactions among cells and tissues in a unique way. PMID:22701625

  16. Deoxyribonucleic acid methylation profiling of single human blastocysts by methylated CpG-island amplification coupled with CpG-island microarray

    PubMed Central

    Huntriss, John; Hemmings, Karen; Baskaran, Praveen; Hazelwood, Lee; Elder, Kay; Virtanen, Carl; Miller, David; Picton, Helen M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study whether methylated CpG-island (CGI) amplification coupled with microarray (MCAM) can be used to generate DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) methylation profiles from single human blastocysts. Design A pilot microarray study with methylated CpG-island amplification applied to human blastocyst genomic DNA and hybridized on CpG-island microarrays. Setting University research laboratory. Patient(s) Five cryopreserved sibling 2-pronuclear zygotes that were surplus to requirements for clinical treatment by in vitro fertilization were donated with informed consent from a patient attending Bourn Hall Clinic, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Intervention(s) None. Main Outcome Measure(s) Successful generation of genome-wide DNA methylation profiles at CpG islands from individual human blastocysts, with common genomic regions of DNA methylation identified between embryos. Result(s) Between 472 and 734 CpG islands were methylated in each blastocyst, with 121 CpG islands being commonly methylated in all 5 blastocysts. A further 159 CGIs were commonly methylated in 4 of the 5 tested blastocysts. Methylation was observed at a number of CGIs within imprinted-gene, differentially methylated regions (DMRs), including placental and preimplantation-specific DMRs. Conclusion(s) The MCAM method is capable of providing comprehensive DNA methylation data in individual human blastocysts. PMID:25914096

  17. Comparison between Cleavage Stage versus Blastocyst Stage Embryo Transfer in an Egyptian Cohort Undergoing in vitro Fertilization: A Possible Role for Laser Assisted Hatching

    PubMed Central

    Hendawy, Sherif F.; Raafat, TA

    2011-01-01

    Background Extended in vitro embryo culture and blastocyst transfer have emerged as essential components of the advanced reproductive technology armamentarium, permitting selection of more advanced embryos considered best suited for transfer. Aim of study The aim of this study was to compare between cleavage stage and blastocyst stage embryo transfer in patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and to assess the role of assisted hatching technique in patients undergoing blastocyst transfer. Patients and methods This study was carried out on two groups. Group I: 110 patients who underwent 120 cycles of intracytoplasmic sperm injection with day 2–3 embryo transfer—for unexplained infertility or male factor within the previous 3 years. Their data obtained retrospectively from medical records. Group II: 46 age matched infertile female patients undergoing 51 intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles for similar causes. Patients in Group II were further subdivided into 2 equal subgroups; Group IIa (23 patients), which had laser assisted hatching and Group IIb (23 patients), which did not have assisted hatching. All patients had an infertility workup including basal hormonal profile, pelvic ultrasound, hysterosalpingogram and/or laparoscope and semen analysis of the patient’s partner. All patients underwent controlled ovarian hyperstimulation: Using long protocol of ovulation induction. Laser assisted hatching was done for blastocysts of 23 patients. Results Comparison between both groups as regards the reproductive outcome showed a significant difference in pregnancy and implantation rates, both being higher in group II (P < 0.05) Comparison between both subgroups as regards the reproductive outcome showed a highly significant difference in pregnancy and implantation rates, both being higher in Group IIa (P < 0.01). There was also a significantly higher rate of multiple pregnancies among Group IIa (P < 0.05). Conclusion Blastocyst transfer is a successful and improved alternative for patients with multiple failed in vitro fertilization attempts, associated with a significant increase in pregnancy and implantation rates. Furthermore, laser assisted hatching increases implantation and clinical pregnancy rates. PMID:24453510

  18. Intrafollicular Oocyte Transfer (IFOT) of Abattoir-Derived and In Vitro-Matured Oocytes Results in Viable Blastocysts and Birth of Healthy Calves.

    PubMed

    Kassens, Ana; Held, Eva; Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Sieme, Harald; Wrenzycki, Christine; Tesfaye, Dawit; Schellander, Karl; Hoelker, Michael

    2015-06-01

    There are still major differences between in vitro production (IVP)-derived and in vivo-derived bovine blastocysts. Therefore, intrafollicular oocyte transfer (IFOT) was used in the present study to allow early embryonic development within the physiological oviductal environment, in order to avoid subsequent harmful effects of the in vitro culture environment. Using modified ovum pickup equipment, in vitro-matured oocytes were transferred into the preovulatory follicle of synchronized heifers (follicular recipients), enabling subsequent ovulation, in vivo fertilization, and in vivo development. When 1646 in vitro-matured oocytes were transferred to 28 follicular recipients, a total of 583 embryos (35.2%) were recovered in excess after uterine flushing at Day 7. Although numbers of generated extra embryos were highly variable, preovulatory follicles with a diameter of 13-14 mm delivered significantly (P < 0.05) larger amounts of extra embryos (34.3 vs. 7.3), as well as extra morulae and blastocysts (8.3 vs. 0.8), compared with follicles with a diameter of 9-10 mm. Nevertheless, the developmental rate to the blastocyst stage was lower in IFOT compared with in vitro-derived control (Vitro) embryos at Day 7 (8.0% vs. 36.5%). Likewise, cumulative developmental rates to the morula or blastocyst stage until Day 7 were lower in IFOT-derived embryos when related to the number of transferred (8.4% vs. 51.7%) or flushed (22.8% vs. 51.7%) embryos. Of the latter, IFOT-derived embryos yielded significantly lower cleavage rates compared with the Vitro controls (63.2% vs. 88.8%), and developmental rate to the morula or blastocyst stage were lower even when related to the proportion of cleaved embryos (36.8% vs. 58.2%). In contrast, lipid content and cryotolerance did not differ between IFOT and fully IVP embryos; but IFOT-derived embryos showed significantly lower lipid content (P < 0.05) and significantly higher cryotolerance compared with IVP-derived embryos cultured in CR1aa medium supplemented with estrus cow serum (ECS), but not when cultured in SOFaa medium supplemented with fatty acid-free BSA (BSA-FFA). Finally, transfer of 19 frozen-thawed IFOT-derived blastocysts to synchronized recipients (uterine recipients) resulted in pregnancy rates comparable with those obtained after transfer of fully in vivo-derived embryos or IVP-derived embryos cultured in SOFaa + BSA-FFA, whereas pregnancy rate following transfer of IVP-derived blastocysts was significantly lower when they were cultured in CR1aa + ECS (42.1% vs. 13.8%). All in all, seven pregnancies presumed to be IFOT derived went to term, and microsatellite analysis confirmed that five calves were indeed derived from IFOT. To our knowledge, these are the first calves born after IFOT in cattle. Interestingly, the average birth weight of IFOT-derived calves was lower than that of IVP-derived calves, even when embryos were cultured in SOFaa + BSA-FFA, indicating that the environment during early embryo development might cause fetal overgrowth. Taken together, for the first time we were able to show that IFOT is a feasible technique to generate bovine blastocysts by transferring in vitro-matured oocytes derived from slaughterhouse ovaries. These IFOT-derived blastocysts closely resemble in vivo-derived blastocysts in terms of lipid content and freeze survival. Thus, the present study laid the groundwork for newly created scientific experiments enabling novel analytical possibilities. Nevertheless, IFOT-derived embryos still reached lower pregnancy rates by trend compared with in vivo-derived embryos, also implicating an important role for the maturational environment in further developmental characteristics. PMID:25926438

  19. Development of Human Cloned Blastocysts Following Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer with Adult Fibroblasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. French; Catharine A. Adams; Linda S. Anderson; John R. Kitchen; Marcus R. Hughes; Samuel H. Wood

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear transfer stem cells (NTSC) holds considerable promise in the field of regenerative medicine and cell- based drug discovery. In this study, a total of 29 oocytes were obtained from three young (20-24 y) reproductive egg donors who had been successful in previous cycles. These oocytes, deemed by intended parents to be in excess of their reproductive needs, were donated

  20. Transfer of sexed caprine blastocysts freshly collected or derived from cultured morulae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. El-Gayar; W. Holtz

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a simplified method for biopsying goat embryos for sex determination, followed by the transfer of these embryos to recipient does. A 90° angle holding pipet is described, which permits holding the embryo in position and, with minimal effort, open the zona pellucida and excise 5–10 trophoblast cells with the aid of a microsurgical blade. Twenty-four embryos were

  1. Production of transgenic blastocyst by nuclear transfer from different types of somatic cells in cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guochun Gong; Yunping Dai; Baoliang Fan; Huabing Zhu; Haiping Wang; Lili Wang; Changge Fang; Rong Wan; Ying Liu; Rong Li; Ning Li

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of genetic manipulation to the donor cell and different types of transgenic donor cells\\u000a on developmental potential of bovine nuclear transfer (NT) embryos. Four types of bovine somatic cells, including granulosa\\u000a cells, fetal fibroblasts, fetal oviduct epithelial cells and fetal ovary epithelial cells, were transfected with a plasmid\\u000a (pCE-EGFP-Ires-Neo-dNdB) containing the enhanced green fluorescent

  2. Selection of competent blastocysts for transfer by combining time-lapse monitoring and array CGH testing for patients undergoing preimplantation genetic screening: a prospective study with sibling oocytes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent advances in time-lapse monitoring in IVF treatment have provided new morphokinetic markers for embryonic competence. However, there is still very limited information about the relationship between morphokinetic parameters, chromosomal compositions and implantation potential. Accordingly, this study aimed at investigating the effects of selecting competent blastocysts for transfer by combining time-lapse monitoring and array CGH testing on pregnancy and implantation outcomes for patients undergoing preimplantation genetic screening (PGS). Methods A total of 1163 metaphase II (MII) oocytes were retrieved from 138 PGS patients at a mean age of 36.6 ± 2.4 years. These sibling MII oocytes were then randomized into two groups after ICSI: 1) Group A, oocytes (n = 582) were cultured in the time-lapse system and 2) Group B, oocytes (n = 581) were cultured in the conventional incubator. For both groups, whole genomic amplification and array CGH testing were performed after trophectoderm biopsy on day 5. One to two euploid blastocysts within the most predictive morphokinetic parameters (Group A) or with the best morphological grade available (Group B) were selected for transfer to individual patients on day 6. Ongoing pregnancy and implantation rates were compared between the two groups. Results There were significant differences in clinical pregnancy rates between Group A and Group B (71.1% vs. 45.9%, respectively, p = 0.037). The observed implantation rate per embryo transfer significantly increased in Group A compared to Group B (66.2% vs. 42.4%, respectively, p = 0.011). Moreover, a significant increase in ongoing pregnancy rates was also observed in Group A compared to Group B (68.9% vs. 40.5%. respectively, p = 0.019). However, there was no significant difference in miscarriage rate between the time-lapse system and the conventional incubator (3.1% vs. 11.8%, respectively, p = 0.273). Conclusions This is the first prospective investigation using sibling oocytes to evaluate the efficiency of selecting competent blastocysts for transfer by combining time-lapse monitoring and array CGH testing for PGS patients. Our data clearly demonstrate that the combination of these two advanced technologies to select competent blastocysts for transfer results in improved implantation and ongoing pregnancy rates for PGS patients. PMID:24954518

  3. Comparative Genomic Hybridization Selection of Blastocysts for Repeated Implantation Failure Treatment: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Ermanno; Bono, Sara; Ruberti, Alessandra; Lobascio, Anna Maria; Greco, Pierfrancesco; Biricik, Anil; Spizzichino, Letizia; Greco, Alessia; Tesarik, Jan; Minasi, Maria Giulia; Fiorentino, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if the use of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) by array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) and transfer of a single euploid blastocyst in patients with repeated implantation failure (RIF) can improve clinical results. Three patient groups are compared: 43 couples with RIF for whom embryos were selected by array CGH (group RIF-PGS), 33 couples with the same history for whom array CGH was not performed (group RIF NO PGS), and 45 good prognosis infertile couples with array CGH selected embryos (group NO RIF PGS). A single euploid blastocyst was transferred in groups RIF-PGS and NO RIF PGS. Array CGH was not performed in group RIF NO PGS in which 1-2 blastocysts were transferred. One monoembryonic sac with heartbeat was found in 28 patients of group RIF PGS and 31 patients of group NO RIF PGS showing similar clinical pregnancy and implantation rates (68.3% and 70.5%, resp.). In contrast, an embryonic sac with heartbeat was only detected in 7 (21.2%) patients of group RIF NO PGS. In conclusion, PGS by array CGH with single euploid blastocyst transfer appears to be a successful strategy for patients with multiple failed IVF attempts. PMID:24779011

  4. Production of genetically modified porcine blastocysts by somatic cell nuclear transfer: preliminary results toward production of xenograft-competent miniature pigs.

    PubMed

    Himaki, Takehiro; Watanabe, Satoshi; Chi, Haiei; Yoshida, Mitsutoshi; Miyoshi, Kazuchika; Sato, Masahiro

    2010-12-01

    Gal?1-3Gal (?-Gal epitope) is the major xenoantigenic epitope responsible for hyperacute rejection upon pig-to-human xenotransplantation. Endo-?-galactosidase C (EndoGalC) from Clostridium perfringens can digest the ?-Gal epitope. In this study, gene-engineered primary cultured porcine embryonic fibroblasts (PEF) expressing EndoGalC were obtained and subjected to somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to test whether xenograft-competent pigs can be created. The EndoGalC-expressing PEF clones exhibited highly reduced expression of ?-Gal epitope, as revealed by cytochemical staining with BS-I-B(4) isolectin, a lectin that specifically binds to ?-Gal epitope, and FACS analysis. The pattern of low level of ?-Gal epitope expression continued for at least 6 months (more than 10 generations) after isolation. SCNT of nuclei from these cells resulted in the generation of blastocysts that displayed nearly complete loss of ?-Gal epitope from their cell surface. This is the first study to demonstrate that SCNT using EndoGalC-expressing PEFs as donors would be useful for production of genetically modified cloned pigs suitable for xenotransplantation. PMID:20814171

  5. Blastocyst microinjection automation.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Leonardo S; Grant, Edward; Thresher, Randy; Kluckman, Kimberly

    2009-09-01

    Blastocyst microinjections are routinely involved in the process of creating genetically modified mice for biomedical research, but their efficiency is highly dependent on the skills of the operators. As a consequence, much time and resources are required for training microinjection personnel. This situation has been aggravated by the rapid growth of genetic research, which has increased the demand for mutant animals. Therefore, increased productivity and efficiency in this area are highly desired. Here, we pursue these goals through the automation of a previously developed teleoperated blastocyst microinjection system. This included the design of a new system setup to facilitate automation, the definition of rules for automatic microinjections, the implementation of video processing algorithms to extract feedback information from microscope images, and the creation of control algorithms for process automation. Experimentation conducted with this new system and operator assistance during the cells delivery phase demonstrated a 75% microinjection success rate. In addition, implantation of the successfully injected blastocysts resulted in a 53% birth rate and a 20% yield of chimeras. These results proved that the developed system was capable of automatic blastocyst penetration and retraction, demonstrating the success of major steps toward full process automation. PMID:19493853

  6. Survival of rapidly frozen hatched mouse blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Pribenszky, Csaba; Cseh, Sándor; Abonyi-Tóth, Zsolt; Solti, László

    2003-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of rapid freezing on the in vitro and in vivo survival of zona-pellucida-free hatched mouse blastocysts. Hatched blastocysts were rapidly frozen in a freezing medium containing either ethylene glycol (EG) or glycerol (G) in 1.5 M or 3 M concentration. Prior to freezing, embryos were equilibrated in the freezing medium for 2 min, 10 min, 20 min or 30 min at room temperature. To freeze them, embryos were held in liquid nitrogen vapour [approximately 1 cm above the surface of the liquid nitrogen (LN2)] for 2 minutes and then immersed into LN2. After thawing, embryos were transferred either to rehydration medium (DPBS + 10% foetal calf serum +0.5 M sucrose) for 10 minutes or rehydrated directly in DPBS supplemented with foetal calf serum. In vitro survival of embryos frozen with EG was higher than those frozen with G. The highest survival was obtained with 3 M EG and 2 min or 10 min equilibration prior to freezing, combined with direct rehydration after thawing. Frozen blastocysts developed into normal foetuses as well as unfrozen control ones did, with averages of 30% (control), 26% (EG) and 15% (G). The results show that hatching and hatched mouse blastocysts can be cryopreserved by a simple rapid freezing protocol in EG without significant loss of viability. Our data indicate that the mechanical protection of the zona pellucida is not needed during freezing in these stages. PMID:15085737

  7. Blastocyst cryopreservation using solid surface vitrification: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Mohan S; Mangalaraj, Ann M; Muthukumar, K; Cullinan, Rosemary; Aleyamma, TK; George, Korula

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a blastocyst cryopreservation program using solid surface vitrification. SETTING: This study took place in a university teaching hospital. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women undergoing frozen embryo transfer cycles over a 4-year period between 2006 and 2010 were studied. The cryopreservation policy followed was a vitrification protocol performed at the blastocyst stage, using a solid surface (nonimmersion) method. The post-thaw survival rate, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, live birth rate, and neonatal outcome were recorded. RESULTS: Eighty-one women underwent 86 frozen embryo transfer cycles. Of the 240 blastocysts warmed, 204 survived giving a cryosurvival rate of 85% (204/240). The clinical pregnancy, implantation, miscarriage, ongoing pregnancy, and live birth rates per transfer were 47%, 29%, 12%, 16%, and 23% respectively. Of the 20 live births, there were 16 singletons and 4 twins. Eleven boys and 13 girls were delivered with no major or minor abnormality detected. CONCLUSION(S): The blastocyst vitrification protocol using the solid surface method is effective with results comparable to fresh blastocyst transfers. While retaining the rapid cooling effect, the nonimmersion technique eliminates the risk of contamination and disease transmission. Larger studies with long-term follow-up data would further confirm the efficacy and safety of this method of vitrification. PMID:22346077

  8. Optimization of a Dilution Method for Human Expanded Blastocysts Vitrified Using EM Grids After Artificial Shrinkage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    So-Young Lee; Hyung-Jun Kim; Sung-Jin Park; Hye-Jin Yoon; San-Hyun Yoon; Kyung-Hoon Lee; Won-Don Lee; Jin-Ho Lim

    2006-01-01

      \\u000a Purpose: To verify a more effective dilution method that can be applied to human expanded blastocysts that are vitrified after artificial\\u000a shrinkage.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Surplus expanded blastocysts that remained after embryo transfer (ET) in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles, were cryopreserved.\\u000a The blastocysts were vitrified on EM grids following artificial shrinkage. After thawing the blastocysts, cryoprotectants\\u000a were diluted using either

  9. Utility of FT-IR imaging spectroscopy in estimating differences between the quality of bovine blastocysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieche?, A.; Opiela, J.; Lipiec, E.; Kwiatek, W. M.

    2013-10-01

    This study was conducted to verify whether the FT-IR spectroscopy and Focal Plane Array (FPA) imaging can be successfully applied to estimate the quality of bovine blastocysts (on the basis of the concentration of nucleic acids and amides). The FT-IR spectra of inner cell mass from blastocysts of three different culture systems were examined. The spectral changes between blastocysts were analyzed in DNA (spectral range of 1240-950 cm-1) and protein amides (1800-1400 cm-1). Blastocyst 1 (BL1-HA) was developed from the fertilized oocyte cultured with low concentration of hialuronian (HA), Blastocyst 2 and 3 were developed from the oocytes cultured in standard conditions. Cleavage stage blastocyst 2 (BL2-SOF) has been cultured in SOF medium while blastocyst 3 (BL3-VERO) was cultured in co-culture with VERO cells. The multivariate statistical analysis (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis - HCA and Principal Component Analysis - PCA) of single cells spectra showed high similarity of cells forming the inner cell mass within single blastocyst. The main variance between the three examined blastocysts was related to amides bands. Differences in the intensities of the amides' peaks between the bovine blastocysts derived from different culture systems indicated that specific proteins reflecting the appearance of a new phenotype were produced. However, for the three blastocysts, the ?-helix typical peak was twice more intensive than the ?-sheet typical peak suggesting that the differentiation processes had been started. Taking into account the quantitative and qualitative composition of the protein into examined blastocysts, it can be assumed, that the quality of the BL1-HA turned out much more similar to BL3-VERO than to BL2-SOF. FT-IR spectroscopy can be successfully applied in reproductive biology research for quality estimation of oocytes and embryos at varied stages of their development. Moreover this technique proved to be particularly useful when the quantity of the available material for research purposes is limited.

  10. Morphological and Gene Expression Changes in Cattle Embryos from Hatched Blastocyst to Early Gastrulation Stages after Transfer of In Vitro Produced Embryos

    PubMed Central

    van Leeuwen, Jessica; Berg, Debra K.; Pfeffer, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    A detailed morphological staging system for cattle embryos at stages following blastocyst hatching and preceding gastrulation is presented here together with spatiotemporal mapping of gene expression for BMP4, BRACHYURY, CERBERUS1 (CER1), CRIPTO, EOMESODERMIN, FURIN and NODAL. Five stages are defined based on distinct developmental events. The first of these is the differentiation of the visceral hypoblast underlying the epiblast, from the parietal hypoblast underlying the mural trophoblast. The second concerns the formation of an asymmetrically positioned, morphologically recognisable region within the visceral hypoblast that is marked by the presence of CER1 and absence of BMP4 expression. We have termed this the anterior visceral hypoblast or AVH. Intra-epiblast cavity formation and the disappearance of the polar trophoblast overlying the epiblast (Rauber’s layer) have been mapped in relation to AVH formation. The third chronological event involves the transition of the epiblast into the embryonic ectoderm with concomitant onset of posterior NODAL, EOMES and BRACHYURY expression. Lastly, gastrulation commences as the posterior medial embryonic ectoderm layer thickens to form the primitive streak and cells ingress between the embryonic ectoderm and hypoblast. At this stage a novel domain of CER1 expression is seen whereas the AVH disappears. Comparison with the mouse reveals that while gene expression patterns at the onset of gastrulation are well conserved, asymmetry establishment, which relies on extraembryonic tissues such as the hypoblast and trophoblast, has diverged in terms of both gene expression and morphology. PMID:26076128

  11. Semi-automated Blastocyst Microinjection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonardo Mattos; Edward Grant; Randy Thresher

    2006-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the design and development of a semi-automated system for microinjection of embryonic stem cells into blastocysts. Semi-automation is achieved through treating cell microinjection as a computer game. In this first phase, cell manipulation and microinjection is carried out using a joystick and an interactive graphical user interface (GUI). For this system to be developed

  12. Controlled transfer of single charge carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Urbina, C.; Pothier, H.; Lafarge, P.; Orfila, P.F.; Esteve, D.; Devoret, M. (SPSRM, Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (FR)); Geerlings, L.J.; Anderegg, V.F.; Holweg, P.A.M.; Nooij, J.E. (Dept. of Applied Physics, Delft Univ. of Technology, P.O. Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (NL))

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports on the design and operation of two devices, the turnstile and the pump, that transfer electrons one by one. They are both based on the existence of stable electrostatic configurations in arrays of ultrasmall tunnel junctions. While the turnstile only works in the normal state the pump could in principle achieve the transfer of single Cooper pairs.

  13. Speeding Up Video Processing for Blastocyst Microinjection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonardo Mattos; Edward Grant; Randy Thresher

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes machine vision techniques that provide fast visual feedback for an automatic blastocyst microinjection system. The goals of the vision processing were to locate and track both the blastocysts and manipulation pipettes within the images and throughout the microinjection process. This was successfully accomplished using Hough transforms and cross-correlation template matching. Emphasis here is placed on a detailed

  14. Single Molecule Spectroscopy of Electron Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Holman; Ling Zang; Ruchuan Liu; David M. Adams

    2009-10-20

    The objectives of this research are threefold: (1) to develop methods for the study electron transfer processes at the single molecule level, (2) to develop a series of modifiable and structurally well defined molecular and nanoparticle systems suitable for detailed single molecule/particle and bulk spectroscopic investigation, (3) to relate experiment to theory in order to elucidate the dependence of electron transfer processes on molecular and electronic structure, coupling and reorganization energies. We have begun the systematic development of single molecule spectroscopy (SMS) of electron transfer and summaries of recent studies are shown. There is a tremendous need for experiments designed to probe the discrete electronic and molecular dynamic fluctuations of single molecules near electrodes and at nanoparticle surfaces. Single molecule spectroscopy (SMS) has emerged as a powerful method to measure properties of individual molecules which would normally be obscured in ensemble-averaged measurement. Fluctuations in the fluorescence time trajectories contain detailed molecular level statistical and dynamical information of the system. The full distribution of a molecular property is revealed in the stochastic fluctuations, giving information about the range of possible behaviors that lead to the ensemble average. In the case of electron transfer, this level of understanding is particularly important to the field of molecular and nanoscale electronics: from a device-design standpoint, understanding and controlling this picture of the overall range of possible behaviors will likely prove to be as important as designing ia the ideal behavior of any given molecule.

  15. Cytotoxic Effects of Dillapiole on Embryonic Development of Mouse Blastocysts in Vitro and in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wen-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    We examined the cytotoxic effects of dillapiole, a phenylpropanoid with antileishmanial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and acaricidal activities, on the blastocyst stage of mouse embryos, subsequent embryonic attachment and outgrowth in vitro, and in vivo implantation via embryo transfer. Blastocysts treated with 2.5–10 ?M dillapiole exhibited a significant increase in apoptosis and corresponding decrease in total cell number. Notably, the implantation success rates of blastocysts pretreated with dillapiole were lower than those of their control counterparts. Moreover, in vitro treatment with 2.5–10 ?M dillapiole was associated with increased resorption of post-implantation embryos and decreased fetal weight. Our results collectively indicate that dillapiole induces apoptosis and retards early post-implantation development, both in vitro and in vivo. However, the extent to which this organic compound exerts teratogenic effects on early human development is not known at present. Further studies are required to establish effective protection strategies against the cytotoxic effects of dillapiole. PMID:24933639

  16. Diverse Roles of Prostaglandins in Blastocyst Implantation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs), derivatives of arachidonic acid, play an indispensable role in embryo implantation. PGs have been reported to participate in the increase in vascular permeability, stromal decidualization, blastocyst growth and development, leukocyte recruitment, embryo transport, trophoblast invasion, and extracellular matrix remodeling during implantation. Deranged PGs syntheses and actions will result in implantation failure. This review summarizes up-to-date literatures on the role of PGs in blastocyst implantation which could provide a broad perspective to guide further research in this field. PMID:24616654

  17. Cytotoxic effects of 2-bromopropane on embryonic development in mouse blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wen-Hsiung

    2010-01-01

    2-Bromopropane (2-BP), an alternative to ozone-depleting solvents, is used as a cleaning solvent. Here, we examined the cytotoxic effects of 2-bromopropane (2-BP) on mouse embryos at the blastocyst stage, subsequent embryonic attachment and outgrowth in vitro, and in vivo implantation via embryo transfer. Mouse blastocysts were incubated in medium with or without 2-BP (2.5, 5 or 10 microM) for 24 h. Cell proliferation and growth were investigated with dual differential staining, apoptosis was analyzed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analysis, and implantation and post-implantation development of embryos were assessed using in vitro development analysis and in vivo embryo transfer, respectively. Blastocysts treated with 5 or 10 microM 2-BP displayed significantly increased apoptosis, and decreased inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) cell number. Additionally, the implantation success rates of 2-BP-pretreated blastocysts were lower than those of untreated controls. In vitro treatment with 5 or 10 microM 2-BP was associated with increased resorption of postimplantation embryos, and decreased placental and fetal weights. Our results collectively indicate that in vitro exposure to 2-BP induces apoptosis, suppresses implantation rates after transfer to host mice, and retards early postimplantation development. PMID:20386664

  18. The Role of Mitochondria from Mature Oocyte to Viable Blastocyst

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The oocyte requires a vast supply of energy after fertilization to support critical events such as spindle formation, chromatid separation, and cell division. Until blastocyst implantation, the developing zygote is dependent on the existing pool of mitochondria. That pool size within each cell decreases with each cell division. Mitochondria obtained from oocytes of women of advanced reproductive age harbor DNA deletions and nucleotide variations that impair function. The combination of lower number and increased frequency of mutations and deletions may result in inadequate mitochondrial activity necessary for continued embryo development and cause pregnancy failure. Previous reports suggested that mitochondrial activity within oocytes may be supplemented by donor cytoplasmic transfer at the time of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Those reports showed success; however, safety concerns arose due to the potential of two distinct populations of mitochondrial genomes in the offspring. Mitochondrial augmentation of oocytes is now reconsidered in light of our current understanding of mitochondrial function and the publication of a number of animal studies. With a better understanding of the role of this organelle in oocytes immediately after fertilization, blastocyst and offspring, mitochondrial augmentation may be reconsidered as a method to improve oocyte quality. PMID:23766762

  19. Single-molecule electron transfer reactions in nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Dehong; Lei, Chenghong; Ackerman, Eric J.

    2009-07-26

    Here we report the study of single molecule electron transfer dynamics by coupling fluorescence microscopy at a conventional electrochemical cell. The single-molecule fluorescence spectroelectrochemistry of cresyl violet in aqueous solution and on nanoparticle surface were studied. We observed that the single-molecule fluorescence intensity of cresyl violet is modulated synchronously with the cyclic voltammetric potential scanning. We attribute the fluorescence intensity change of single cresyl violet molecules to the electron transfer reaction driven by the electrochemical potential.

  20. Patient selection criteria for blastocyst culture in IVF/ICSI treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wells, V.; Abdalla, H.

    2010-01-01

    Background The development and refinement of blastocyst media in recent years has allowed embryos to be cultured in-vitro for 5 or 6 days post oocyte retrieval and has been established as an effective selection tool to aid embryo selection for IVF treatment. It is generally accepted that blastocyst culture is not an appropriate option for all patients but the criteria for patient selection varies between clinics. Our blastocyst culture programme started in February 2005; the patient criteria was set at a minimum of 4 oocytes retrieved, a minimum of 4 2PN pronuclear embryos and at least 4 8-cell embryos of any quality on Day 3 where the female patient was 34 years and under. In the female age group of 35 years and over the criteria was at least 6 oocytes retrieved, a minimum of 6 2PN pronuclear embryos and at least 6 8-cell embryos of any quality on day 3. Improvements in pregnancy rates demonstrated the effectiveness of blastocyst transfer and clinical opinion was that the criteria should be adjusted to allow this option to be available to an increased patient population. From February 2007 the blastocyst patient selection criteria was changed to at least 4 oocytes retrieved, at least 4 2PN pronuclear embryos and at least 2 8-cell and 2 6-cell or 7-cell embryos of top quality on Day 3 in women 38 years and under. For women 39 years and over the criteria was lowered to at least 5 eggs retrieved, at least 5 2PN and at least 3 8-cell embryos and 2 6-cell embryos of top quality on Day 3. Methods Retrospective statistical analysis was carried out to determine the pregnancy rates, live birth rates and twin rate for the period under the initial criteria and to examine the impact that lowering the criteria for patient selection for blastocyst culture had on these parameters. Results There was an overall fall in the ongoing pregnancy/live birth rate from 50.9% under the old criteria to 45.0% under the new criteria. However, the patients who had blastocyst culture under the new criteria but would have had day-3 embryo transfer under the initial criteria had a significantly increased live birth/ongoing pregnancy rate from 22.7% to 40.7%. There is an increase in the number of blastocyst culture cycles from 26.4% under the old criteria to 39.1% with the refined criteria. The twin pregnancy rate was reduced from 25.2% to 17.5%. Conclusion The result of this cohort study revealed that lowering the blastocyst selection criteria may lead to a lower overall clinical live birth rate from blastocyst culture; however, it will benefit a specific group of patients to achieve a better pregnancy and live birth rate. Furthermore, it increases the number of patients who will benefit from the blastocyst culture programme and also reduces multiple pregnancy rate. PMID:20676752

  1. New Developments Towards Automated Blastocyst Microinjections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonardo Mattos; Edward Grant; Randy Thresher; Kim Kluckman

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents results related to our latest semi-automated blastocyst microinjection system. Here, the improvements made to the microinjection system are described and evaluated. First, after replacing the original piezo-electric kinematic stage by a DC motor-based robot manipulator, experimentation showed that the speed and the precise motion control of pipettes were improved. Second, by introducing an X-Y stage into the

  2. Rho-Associated Kinase Activity Is Required for Proper Morphogenesis of the Inner Cell Mass in the Mouse Blastocyst1

    PubMed Central

    Laeno, Arlene May A.; Tamashiro, Dana Ann A.; Alarcon, Vernadeth B.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The blastocyst consists of the outer layer of trophectoderm and pluripotent inner cell mass (ICM), the precursor of the placenta and fetus, respectively. During blastocyst expansion, the ICM adopts a compact, ovoidal shape, whose proper morphology is crucial for normal embryogenesis. Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), an effector of small GTPase RHO signaling, mediates the diverse cellular processes of morphogenesis, but its role in ICM morphogenesis is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that ROCK is required for cohesion of ICM cells and formation of segregated tissues called primitive endoderm (PrE) and epiblast (Epi) in the ICM of the mouse blastocyst. Blastocyst treatment with ROCK inhibitors Y-27632 and Fasudil caused widening or spreading of the ICM, and intermingling of PrE and Epi. Widening of ICM was independent of trophectoderm because isolated ICMs as well as colonies of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) also spread upon Y-27632 treatment. PrE, Epi, and trophectoderm cell numbers were similar between control and treated blastocysts, suggesting that ROCK inhibition affected ICM morphology but not lineage differentiation. Rock1 and Rock2 knockdown via RNA interference in mESC also induced spreading, supporting the conclusion that morphological defects caused by the pharmacological inhibitors were due to ROCK inactivation. When blastocysts were transferred into surrogates, implantation efficiencies were unaffected by ROCK inhibition, but treated blastocysts yielded greater fetal loss. These results show that proper ICM morphology is dependent on ROCK activity and is crucial for fetal development. Our studies have wider implication for improving efficiencies of human assisted reproductive technologies that diminish pregnancy loss and promote successful births. PMID:23946538

  3. Blastocyst rate of in vitro embryo production in sheep is affected by season.

    PubMed

    Mara, L; Sanna, D; Casu, S; Dattena, M; Muñoz, I M Mayorga

    2014-08-01

    It has been reported that the number and quality of in vitro produced embryos is season related. This study was conducted to assess the effect of season on cleavage, blastocyst and lambing rates of in vitro produced ovine embryos during 3 years of collection data. Ovaries of Sarda sheep were collected from a slaughterhouse. In total, 5035 oocytes were recovered and matured in TCM-199 with 4 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (BSA), 100 ?M cysteamine, 0.3 mM Na pyruvate, 0.1 UI/ml recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (r-FSH), 0.1 UI/ml recombinant luteinising hormone (r-LH), and 1 ?g/ml estradiol-17?. Matured oocytes were fertilized with fresh semen in synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF) with 20% heat inactivated estrous sheep serum. The presumptive zygotes were cultured for 6-7 days (blastocyst stage) in SOF medium supplemented with 1% Basel Medium Eagle (BME), 1% Minimum Essential Medium, 1 mM glutamine and 8 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA. The embryos produced were vitrified and a total of 165 blastocysts (80 from the breeding season and 85 from the anoestrous season) were transferred in pairs into recipient ewes during the reproductive period. There were no significant differences in cleavage rates between seasons in any of the 3 years examined (84% versus 83%, 81% versus 80% and 80% versus 79%, respectively). The blastocyst rate varied significantly between seasons in 2005 and 2007 (P < 0.05), and in 2006 (P < 0.001). There were no differences in pregnancy and lambing rates between embryos during anoestrous versus during the breeding season. In conclusion, only the blastocyst rate appeared to have been affected by season, possibly due to variation in the number of developmentally competent oocytes. PMID:23458093

  4. Single-phase heat transfer in micro-fin tubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baik Young Chung

    1997-01-01

    Micro-fin tubes are typically used for tube-side condensation and evaporation. This study provides heat transfer and friction characteristics for single-phase flow in single-grooved and cross-grooved micro-fin tubes. Data were taken for turbulent flow with 0.70 ? Pr ? 7.85 for three single-grooved and three cross-grooved geometries. The cross-grooved tube provides higher performance than the best single-grooved tube. A key element

  5. Oblivious transfer based on single-qubit rotations

    E-print Network

    J. Rodrigues; P. Mateus; N. Paunkovi?; A. Souto

    2014-07-30

    We present a bit-string quantum oblivious transfer protocol based on single-qubit rotations. The proposed protocol does not violate the Lo's no-go theorem that prevents the unconditional security of $1$-out-of-$2$ oblivious transfer. Our protocol is based on a previously proposed quantum public key protocol and its security relies on the laws of Quantum Mechanics. We also present a single-bit oblivious transfer based on the proposed bit-string protocol. The protocol can be implemented with current technology based on optics.

  6. Role of Nuclear Receptors in Blastocyst Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, YM; DeMayo, FJ

    2013-01-01

    The regulation of blastocyst implantation in the uterus is orchestrated by the ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone. These hormones act via their nuclear receptors to direct the transcriptional activity of the endometrial compartments and create a defined period in which the uterus is permissive to embryo implantation termed the “window of receptivity”. Additional members of the nuclear receptor family have also been described to have a potential role in endometrial function. Much of what we know about the function of these nuclear receptors during implantation we have learned from the use of mouse models. Transgenic murine models with targeted gene ablation have allowed us to identify a complex network of paracrine signaling between the endometrial epithelium and stroma. While some of the critical molecules have been identified, the mechanism underlying the intricate communication between endometrial compartments during the implantation window has not been fully elucidated. Defining this mechanism will help identify markers of a receptive uterine environment, ultimately providing a useful tool to help improve the fertility outlook for reproductively challenged couples. The aim of this review is to outline our current understanding of how nuclear receptors and their effector molecules regulate blastocyst implantation in the endometrium. PMID:23994285

  7. Aqueous proton transfer across single-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achtyl, Jennifer L.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Xu, Lijun; Cai, Yu; Raju, Muralikrishna; Zhang, Weiwei; Sacci, Robert L.; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Fulvio, Pasquale F.; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Wesolowski, David J.; Dai, Sheng; van Duin, Adri C. T.; Neurock, Matthew; Geiger, Franz M.

    2015-03-01

    Proton transfer across single-layer graphene proceeds with large computed energy barriers and is therefore thought to be unfavourable at room temperature unless nanoscale holes or dopants are introduced, or a potential bias is applied. Here we subject single-layer graphene supported on fused silica to cycles of high and low pH, and show that protons transfer reversibly from the aqueous phase through the graphene to the other side where they undergo acid–base chemistry with the silica hydroxyl groups. After ruling out diffusion through macroscopic pinholes, the protons are found to transfer through rare, naturally occurring atomic defects. Computer simulations reveal low energy barriers of 0.61–0.75?eV for aqueous proton transfer across hydroxyl-terminated atomic defects that participate in a Grotthuss-type relay, while pyrylium-like ether terminations shut down proton exchange. Unfavourable energy barriers to helium and hydrogen transfer indicate the process is selective for aqueous protons.

  8. Modelling of Heat Transfer in Single Crystal Growth

    E-print Network

    Zhmakin, Alexander I

    2014-01-01

    An attempt is made to review the heat transfer and the related problems encountered in the simulation of single crystal growth. The peculiarities of conductive, convective and radiative heat transfer in the different melt, solution, and vapour growth methods are discussed. The importance of the adequate description of the optical crystal properties (semitransparency, specular reflecting surfaces) and their effect on the heat transfer is stresses. Treatment of the unknown phase boundary fluid/crystal as well as problems related to the assessment of the quality of the grown crystals (composition, thermal stresses, point defects, disclocations etc.) and their coupling to the heat transfer/fluid flow problems is considered. Differences between the crystal growth simulation codes intended for the research and for the industrial applications are indicated. The problems of the code verification and validation are discussed; a brief review of the experimental techniques for the study of heat transfer and flow structu...

  9. Correlated Single Quantum Dot Blinking and Interfacial Electron Transfer Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shengye; Hsiang, Jung-Cheng; Zhu, Haiming; Song, Nianhui; Dickson, Robert M.; Lian, Tianquan

    2011-01-01

    The electron transfer (ET) dynamics from core/multi-shell (CdSe/CdS3MLZnCdS2MLZnS2ML) quantum dots (QDs) to adsorbed Fluorescein (F27) molecules have been studied by single particle spectroscopy to probe the relationship between single QD interfacial electron transfer and blinking dynamics. Electron transfer from the QD to F27 and the subsequent recombination were directly observed by ensemble-averaged transient absorption spectroscopy. Single QD-F27 complexes show correlated fluctuation of fluorescence intensity and lifetime, similar to those observed in free QDs. With increasing ET rate (controlled by F27-to-QD ratio), the lifetime of on states decreases and relative contribution of off states increases. It was shown that ET is active for QDs in on states, the excited state lifetime of which reflects the ET rate, whereas in the off state QD excitons decay by Auger relaxation and ET is not a competitive quenching pathway. Thus, the blinking dynamics of single QDs modulate their interfacial ET activity. Furthermore, interfacial ET provides an additional pathway for generating off states, leading to correlated single QD interfacial ET and blinking dynamics in QD-acceptor complexes. Because blinking is a general phenomenon of single QDs, it appears that the correlated interfacial ET and blinking and the resulting intermittent ET activity are general phenomena for single QDs. PMID:21915369

  10. Single neutron transfer induced by massive heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltz, A. J.; Bond, P. D.; Hansen, Ole; Cheng-Lie, Jiang; Christensen, P. R.; Pontoppidan, S.; Videbaek, F.; Schüll, D.; Wen-Qing, Shen; Freiesleben, H.

    1984-06-01

    Quasielastic pickup and stripping reactions have been measured for the reaction 86Kr+208Pb at 695 MeV with a magnetic spectrometer. The angular distributions observed for single neutron pickup are analyzed with the distorted-wave Born approximation, which accounts well for the absolute differential cross sections. Quasielastic transfer reactions account for about 20% of the total reaction cross section.

  11. Decreased Blastocyst Production in Mice Exposed to Increased Rack Noise

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Bernadette M; Jiang, Meisheng; Wang, Ying; Chai, Minghua; Lawson, P Timothy; Lawson, Gregory W

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the possible effect of rack type on the blastocyst yield of mouse embryo donors. The first phase of the study consisted of housing some mice (group A) in a ventilated rack and others (group B) in a static rack in the same room for 3 d, followed by euthanasia for blastocyst collection and corticosterone assay. Parametric tests were used to compare groups. The number of blastocysts per donor was lower in group A (5.0 ± 1.4 blastocysts) than group B (13.1 ± 3.7 blastocysts). Mean noise was higher in the ventilated rack (80.4 dBC) than in the static rack (69.2 dBC). Serum corticosterone concentrations did not differ between groups. For the second phase of the study, a third group of mice (group C) was housed in a static rack without a ventilated rack in the same room. The noise level for group C was even lower (45.18 ± 2.91 dBC), and the blastocyst count per donor (16.4 ± 2.4) was higher than that of group B. The mean noise levels of empty ventilated and static racks differed significantly between groups for 10 different sound frequencies. Plotting mean blastocyst production against mean rack noise revealed a negative linear relationship with good strength of correlation. These results support the earlier observation that decreased blastocyst count occurs following housing of bred C57BL/6 donor mice in ventilated cages. PMID:19807968

  12. Single phase forced convection heat transfer in microgeometries -- A review

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, D.K.; Ameel, T.A.; Warrington, R.O. Jr.; Savoie, T.I. [Louisiana Technological Univ., Ruston, LA (United States). Inst. for Micromanufacturing

    1995-12-31

    As the field of microfluids and heat transfer continues to grow, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the mechanisms and fundamental differences involved with heat transfer and fluid flow in microgeometries. This paper presents a summary of the research in the area of single phase convective heat transfer in microtubes and microchannels with applications in devices such as micro heat pumps and heat exchangers that may be used for electronic equipment cooling, in biomedical applications, and potentially for macroscale cooling systems through many parallel configurations. While conclusive evidence is lacking, it appears that the friction factor for flow in microgeometries is less than that predicted by macroscale theory while heat transfer coefficients may increase relative to traditional correlations. The Reynolds analogy also appears to be invalid when the scale of the flow passages is on the order of 100 pm or less.

  13. Single dye molecule laser via energy transfer mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Guangcun; Huang, Wei

    2008-11-01

    Motivated by the recent progresses in one-atom laser and single-molecule manipulation, this work presents the model and simulations of a single dye molecule laser device, which consists of a single dye molecule as an acceptor in a microcavity pumped by multiple donors via the intermolecular resonance energy transfer mechanism. The photon intensity is calculated at the emission peaks of donor and acceptor dyes for different pump rates and donor numbers. Finally, it is demonstrated that stimulated emission gains a distinct advantage over spontaneous emission under appropriate conditions. This work would have many important applications in a wide range of fields from physics and chemistry to nanotechnology in future.

  14. The Prevalence of Chromosomal Deletions Relating to Developmental Delay and/or Intellectual Disability in Human Euploid Blastocysts

    PubMed Central

    He, Wenyin; Sun, Xiaofang; Liu, Lian; Li, Man; Jin, Hua; Wang, Wei-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal anomalies in human embryos produced by in vitro fertilization are very common, which include numerical (aneuploidy) and structural (deletion, duplication or others) anomalies. Our previous study indicated that chromosomal deletion(s) is the most common structural anomaly accounting for approximately 8% of euploid blastocysts. It is still unknown if these deletions in human euploid blastocysts have clinical significance. In this study, we analyzed 15 previously diagnosed euploid blastocysts that had chromosomal deletion(s) using Agilent oligonucleotide DNA microarray platform and localized the gene location in each deletion. Then, we used OMIM gene map and phenotype database to investigate if these deletions are related with some important genes that cause genetic diseases, especially developmental delay or intellectual disability. As results, we found that the detectable chromosomal deletion size with Agilent microarray is above 2.38 Mb, while the deletions observed in human blastocysts are between 11.6 to 103 Mb. With OMIM gene map and phenotype database information, we found that deletions can result in loss of 81-464 genes. Out of these genes, 34–149 genes are related with known genetic problems. Furthermore, we found that 5 out of 15 samples lost genes in the deleted region, which were related to developmental delay and/or intellectual disability. In conclusion, our data indicates that all human euploid blastocysts with chromosomal deletion(s) are abnormal and transfer of these embryos may cause birth defects and/or developmental and intellectual disabilities. Therefore, the embryos with chromosomal deletion revealed by DNA microarray should not be transferred to the patients, or further gene map and/or phenotype seeking is necessary before making a final decision. PMID:24409323

  15. Si Multidot FETs for Single-Electron Transfer and Single-Photon Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabe, M.; Nuryadi, R.; Moraru, D.; Burhanudin, Z. A.; Yokoi, K.; Ikeda, H.

    2008-03-01

    Recently, there have been increasing demands for controlling individual electrons, photons, and dopants in developing nm scale Si devices. Our most recent results on Si single-electron nano-devices will be presented. We have demonstrated single-electron transfer in random-tunnel-junctions by a cycle of ac gate bias, detection of photons and detection of individual acceptor ions by Si single-hole transistor.

  16. Si Multidot FETs for Single-Electron Transfer and Single-Photon Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Tabe; R. Nuryadi; D. Moraru; Z. A. Burhanudin; K. Yokoi; H. Ikeda

    2008-01-01

    Recently, there have been increasing demands for controlling individual electrons, photons, and dopants in developing nm scale Si devices. Our most recent results on Si single-electron nano-devices will be presented. We have demonstrated single-electron transfer in random-tunnel-junctions by a cycle of ac gate bias, detection of photons and detection of individual acceptor ions by Si single-hole transistor.

  17. Aqueous proton transfer across single-layer graphene.

    PubMed

    Achtyl, Jennifer L; Unocic, Raymond R; Xu, Lijun; Cai, Yu; Raju, Muralikrishna; Zhang, Weiwei; Sacci, Robert L; Vlassiouk, Ivan V; Fulvio, Pasquale F; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Wesolowski, David J; Dai, Sheng; van Duin, Adri C T; Neurock, Matthew; Geiger, Franz M

    2015-01-01

    Proton transfer across single-layer graphene proceeds with large computed energy barriers and is therefore thought to be unfavourable at room temperature unless nanoscale holes or dopants are introduced, or a potential bias is applied. Here we subject single-layer graphene supported on fused silica to cycles of high and low pH, and show that protons transfer reversibly from the aqueous phase through the graphene to the other side where they undergo acid-base chemistry with the silica hydroxyl groups. After ruling out diffusion through macroscopic pinholes, the protons are found to transfer through rare, naturally occurring atomic defects. Computer simulations reveal low energy barriers of 0.61-0.75?eV for aqueous proton transfer across hydroxyl-terminated atomic defects that participate in a Grotthuss-type relay, while pyrylium-like ether terminations shut down proton exchange. Unfavourable energy barriers to helium and hydrogen transfer indicate the process is selective for aqueous protons. PMID:25781149

  18. Aqueous proton transfer across single-layer graphene

    PubMed Central

    Achtyl, Jennifer L.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Xu, Lijun; Cai, Yu; Raju, Muralikrishna; Zhang, Weiwei; Sacci, Robert L.; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Fulvio, Pasquale F.; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Wesolowski, David J.; Dai, Sheng; van Duin, Adri C. T.; Neurock, Matthew; Geiger, Franz M.

    2015-01-01

    Proton transfer across single-layer graphene proceeds with large computed energy barriers and is therefore thought to be unfavourable at room temperature unless nanoscale holes or dopants are introduced, or a potential bias is applied. Here we subject single-layer graphene supported on fused silica to cycles of high and low pH, and show that protons transfer reversibly from the aqueous phase through the graphene to the other side where they undergo acid–base chemistry with the silica hydroxyl groups. After ruling out diffusion through macroscopic pinholes, the protons are found to transfer through rare, naturally occurring atomic defects. Computer simulations reveal low energy barriers of 0.61–0.75?eV for aqueous proton transfer across hydroxyl-terminated atomic defects that participate in a Grotthuss-type relay, while pyrylium-like ether terminations shut down proton exchange. Unfavourable energy barriers to helium and hydrogen transfer indicate the process is selective for aqueous protons. PMID:25781149

  19. Identification of four genes required for mammalian blastocyst formation.

    PubMed

    Maserati, Marc; Dai, Xiangpeng; Walentuk, Melanie; Mager, Jesse

    2014-08-01

    RNA transcription, processing and translation are fundamental molecular processes required for development, growth and cell viability. Towards the functional annotation of the genome, we are engaged in a reverse genetic screen using mammalian preimplantation embryos as a model system. Here we report the essential function of four RNA processing/splicing factors (Sf3b14, Sf3b1, Rpl7l1, and Rrp7a) and show that each of these genes is required for blastocyst formation in the mouse. As very little information is known about these genes, we characterized their normal expression and localization in mouse embryos as well as phenotypic analysis of loss of function during preimplantation development. Functional knockdown of each gene product results in normal morula development but there is failure to form a blastocoel cavity or morphologically differentiated trophectoderm. We show that zygotic genome activation does occur as well as initial lineage specification in the absence of each factor. Consistent with a role in RNA splicing, we demonstrate that the absence of Sf3b14 and Sf3b1 in 8-cell and morula-stage embryos results in a specific reduction of intron containing transcripts, but no reduction single-exon genes. Taken together, we show critical developmental and molecular requirements of Sf3b14, Sf3b1, Rpl7l1, and Rrp7a during mammalian preimplantation. PMID:23211737

  20. Single neutron transfer induced by massive heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Baltz, A.J.; Bond, P.D.; Hansen, O.; Cheng-Lie, J.; Christensen, P.R.; Pontoppidan, S.; Videbaek, F.; Schuell, D.; Wen-Qing, S.; Freiesleben, H.

    1984-06-01

    Quasielastic pickup and stripping reactions have been measured for the reaction /sup 86/Kr+ /sup 208/Pb at 695 MeV with a magnetic spectrometer. The angular distributions observed for single neutron pickup are analyzed with the distorted-wave Born approximation, which accounts well for the absolute differential cross sections. Quasielastic transfer reactions account for about 20% of the total reaction cross section.

  1. Spin-transfer torque in a single ferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yi

    2004-03-01

    A spin polarized current, with sufficiently high current density, is able to switch a magnet or induce magnetization precession. This is the consequence of the ¡°spin-transfer torque¡+/- that originates from spin angular momentum transfer between conduction electrons and the magnetization. Previously most theories and experiments explore F/N/F trilayer and F/N multilayer structures, where F denotes a ferromagnet and N denotes a nonmagnetic metal. These structures have been generally presumed indispensable, since non-collinear magnetizations between a polarizing layer and a free layer are required to generate spin torques, and the GMR effect is essential in detecting magnetization variations. In this work, spin-transfer torque effects in a single ferromagnetic layer are demonstrated, using current injection through a point-contact at 4.2 K. Firstly, differential resistance peaks, generally regarded as signatures of spin-wave excitations, are observed in a single ferromagnetic layer in high magnetic fields [1]. The current values corresponding to the peak positions linearly depend on the external field in the range of 2 to 9 Tesla. Secondly, hysteretic current-induced switching is observed in a single ferromagnet in low magnetic fields. Both experiments can be interpreted by a simple model based on heterogeneous current distribution and domain wall scattering. Systematic variations between low field and high field regions have been investigated and the implications will be discussed. [1] Y. Ji, C. L. Chien and M. D. Stiles, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 106601 (2003)

  2. Conformation and energy transfer in single conjugated polymers.

    PubMed

    Bolinger, Joshua C; Traub, Matthew C; Brazard, Johanna; Adachi, Takuji; Barbara, Paul F; Vanden Bout, David A

    2012-11-20

    In contrast to the detailed understanding of inorganic materials, researchers lack a comprehensive view of how the properties of bulk organic materials arise from their individual components. For conjugated polymers to eventually serve as low cost semiconductor layers in electronic devices, researchers need to better understand their functionality. For organics, traditional materials science measurements tend to destroy the species of interest, especially at low concentrations. However, fluorescence continues to be a remarkably flexible, relatively noninvasive tool for probing the properties of individual molecules and allows researchers to carry out a broad range of experiments based on a relatively simple concept. In addition, the sensitivity of single-molecule spectroscopy allows researchers to see the properties of an individual component that would be masked in the bulk phase. In this Account, we examine several photophysical properties of different conjugated polymers using single-molecule spectroscopy. In these experiments, we probed the relationship between the conformation of single conjugated polymer chains and the distance scale and efficiency of energy transfer within the polymer. Recent studies used polarization anisotropy measurements on single polymer chains to study chain folding following spin-casting from solution. This Account summarizes the effects of monomer regioregularity and backbone rigidity, by comparing a regiorandom phenylene vinylene (MEH-PPV) with both a regiorandom and regioregular thiophene (P3HT). Synthesis of novel polymers allowed us to explore the role of different conformation-directing inclusions in a PPV backbone. We showed that these inclusions control the conformation of individual chains and that molecular dynamics can predict these structural effects. In situ solvent vapor annealing studies explored the dynamics of polymer chains as well as the effect of solvent evaporation on the structural equilibrium of the polymer. We observed that a slower rate of solvent evaporation results in a narrow population of highly ordered polymer chains. These highly ordered single chains serve as a model system to probe the effect of conformation on energy transfer following excitation in single MEH-PPV polymer chains in two distinct experiments. In the first, we correlated the anisotropy of the fluorescence emission of individual chains with the anisotropy of their fluorescence excitation. Using this data, we derived a model for energy transfer in a conjugated polymer, simulating chromophores along a chain, coupled via Förster energy transfer. In the second experiment, super-resolution measurements demonstrated the ability of single-molecule spectroscopy to directly visualize energy transfer along a polymer chain embedded in a model device environment. A capacitive device allowed for controlled localization of hole polarons onto the polymer chain. These positive charges subsequently quenched local excitations, providing insight into the range of energy transfer in these single polymer molecules. As researchers continue to characterize conjugated polymer films and develop methods for creating multichain systems, single-molecule techniques will provide a greater understanding of how polymer morphology influences interchain interactions and will lead to a richer description of the electronic properties of bulk conjugated polymer films. PMID:22775295

  3. Hydrodynamics and heat transfer during flow boiling instabilities in a single microchannel

    E-print Network

    Aussillous, Pascale

    Hydrodynamics and heat transfer during flow boiling instabilities in a single microchannel July 2008 Keywords: Boiling Microchannels Visualisation Flow boiling instabilities Heat transfer a b intensification heat removal. Flow boiling heat transfer in microchannel geometry and the associated flow

  4. Comparison of array comparative genomic hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR-based aneuploidy screening of blastocyst biopsies.

    PubMed

    Capalbo, Antonio; Treff, Nathan R; Cimadomo, Danilo; Tao, Xin; Upham, Kathleen; Ubaldi, Filippo Maria; Rienzi, Laura; Scott, Richard T

    2015-07-01

    Comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS) methods are being extensively used to select chromosomally normal embryos in human assisted reproduction. Some concerns related to the stage of analysis and which aneuploidy screening method to use still remain. In this study, the reliability of blastocyst-stage aneuploidy screening and the diagnostic performance of the two mostly used CCS methods (quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH)) has been assessed. aCGH aneuploid blastocysts were rebiopsied, blinded, and evaluated by qPCR. Discordant cases were subsequently rebiopsied, blinded, and evaluated by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array-based CCS. Although 81.7% of embryos showed the same diagnosis when comparing aCGH and qPCR-based CCS, 18.3% (22/120) of embryos gave a discordant result for at least one chromosome. SNP array reanalysis showed that a discordance was reported in ten blastocysts for aCGH, mostly due to false positives, and in four cases for qPCR. The discordant aneuploidy call rate per chromosome was significantly higher for aCGH (5.7%) compared with qPCR (0.6%; P<0.01). To corroborate these findings, 39 embryos were simultaneously biopsied for aCGH and qPCR during blastocyst-stage aneuploidy screening cycles. 35 matched including all 21 euploid embryos. Blinded SNP analysis on rebiopsies of the four embryos matched qPCR. These findings demonstrate the high reliability of diagnosis performed at the blastocyst stage with the use of different CCS methods. However, the application of aCGH can be expected to result in a higher aneuploidy rate than other contemporary methods of CCS. PMID:25351780

  5. Single Electron Transfer Living Radical Polymerization via a New Initiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xiongxiong; Hu, Ying; Zhang, Xu; Ai, Lingling; Cheng, Chuanjie

    2014-08-01

    Research and development of novel initiating system such as single electron transfer living radical polymerization (SET-LRP) is of high importance in polymer chemistry. A new SET-LRP initiator was synthesized and applied to prepare end-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in this study. ?-Trichloromethyl benzyl alcohol was firstly synthesized, followed by preparation of PMMA under SET-LRP conditions. Conversion of MMA was 81.9%, and the molecular weight of PMMA was about 2.5 kDa at 60 °C for 1 h. Consistency of the number-average molecular weight of PMMA from NMR, GPC and theoretical calculation indicated that the polymerization featured controllable property. Broad molecular weight distribution (MWD) may be ascribed to branched polymers formed by initiation and chain transfer.

  6. Avoidance of multiple pregnancy by use of single embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Hamberger, L; Hardarson, T; Nygren, K G

    2005-02-01

    The benefits of single embryo transfer (SET) for both mother and child are evident. Already twin pregnancies constitute a relatively serious problem exemplified by the incidence of cerebral palsy, which will increase significantly as well as a risk for premature birth. Selective embryo reduction in countries where this is allowed may be one way to acutely solve the situation. In the beginning the use of natural cycle in vitro fertilization (IVF) avoided the problem, but with the introduction of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation predominantly by use of gonadotrophins in the early 1980ies the temptation to replace more than 1 embryo at a time became too strong. SET with maintenance of acceptable pregnancy rates can only be achieved if tools (improved morphological criteria, biomarkers, preimplantation genetic screening) to select the most viable/normal embryos are at hand together with improved cryopreservation procedures. In reports from Finland and Belgium already 5 years ago, elective single embryo transfer (eSET) was shown to reach almost the same success rates as double embryo transfer (DET) in selective patient groups (age under 37, good quality embryos). The indications for eSET have increased during the last years. In Finland the initiative came from the IVF clinics while in Sweden a legislative process (in act from January 2003) resulted in the recommendation that eSET should be used in the vast majority of the IVF cycles. In both these Nordic countries around 60% of the transfers are today eSET and the multiple pregnancy rate below 10% with no triplets. From an economical point of view, it is of course evident that multiple pregnancies with the numerous potential complications should be avoided altogether. Countries where IVF is included in the government health insurance will thus most likely show the way towards an even more successful, safer and cheaper treatment of infertile couples in the future. PMID:15758862

  7. Conventional freezing of in vitro-produced and biopsied bovine blastocysts in the presence of a low concentration of glycerol and sucrose.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Keiichiro; Iwaki, Fumiyuki; Hochi, Shinichi

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a practical cryopreservation method for in vitro-produced (IVP) and sex-predetermined bovine blastocysts that will be applicable to direct transfer of the post-thaw embryos. Blastocysts were harvested 7 days after IVF and allocated to either an intact or biopsy group. The cryoprotective solution contained 0.7 M glycerol and 0, 0.05 or 0.1 M sucrose. Slow cooling at a rate of -0.5 C/min was terminated at -25, -30, or -35 C, and rapid cooling in liquid nitrogen was followed. After one-step thawing and dilution, the IVP blastocysts were cultured for 3 days to assess their survival. The post-thaw survival rate of intact blastocysts after termination of slow cooling at -30 C in 0.7 M glycerol plus 0.1 M sucrose (96.2%) was significantly higher than that at -25 C in 0.7 M glycerol alone (44.4%). The post-thaw survival rate of biopsied bovine blastocysts after termination of slow cooling at -25 C in 0.7 M glycerol alone (53.8%) tended to be lower than that at -25 C in 0.7 M glycerol plus 0.05 M sucrose (91.3%) or -30 C in 0.7 M glycerol plus 0.1 M sucrose (92.3%). Thus, addition of a small amount of sucrose to 0.7 M glycerol cryoprotective solution shortened the process of slow cooling for both the intact and biopsied bovine embryos. Judged from the survival levels in vitro after thawing and one-step dilution of embryos (>80%), this is an improved method of cryopreservation for subsequent direct transfer of IVP and biopsied bovine blastocysts. PMID:17135713

  8. Single Molecule Studies of Energy Transfer in Semiconductor Nanocrystal Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Douglas; Whitcomb, Kevin; Goodwin, Peter; Gelfand, Martin; van Orden, Alan

    2010-03-01

    Enhanced fluorescence intermittency has been reported in single molecule fluorescence experiments on small clusters of semiconductor nanocrystals^1 (NCs). We report here on studies of small clusters of NCs by single molecule time-correlated single photon counting. According to this analysis, clusters typically blink on a microsecond to millisecond time scale; whereas, isolated NCs blink on a much longer millisecond to second time scale. A fast-decay component in the cluster fluorescence lifetime, not present in single NCs, is correlated with low fluorescence intensity. A model based on nonradiative energy transfer to NCs with smaller bandgap, combined with independent blinking for the NCs in the cluster, accounts for the main experimental features. In this model the smallest-gap NC dominates the emission properties, in particular the ``off'' time distribution of the cluster, which experimentally resembles that for a single NC. [1] Yu, M. and A. Van Orden, Enhanced Fluorescence Intermittency of CdSe-ZnS Quantum-Dot Cluster, Physical Review Letters, 2006 237402-4

  9. Rescuing Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research: The Blastocyst Transfer Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Matthew Liao

    2005-01-01

    Despite the therapeutic potential of human embryonic stem (HES) cells, many people believe that HES cell research should be banned. The reason is that the present method of extracting HES cells involves the destruction of the embryo, which for many is the beginning of a person. This paper examines a number of compromise solutions such as parthenogenesis, the use of

  10. Voltage sensing by fluorescence resonance energy transfer in single cells.

    PubMed Central

    González, J E; Tsien, R Y

    1995-01-01

    A new mechanism has been developed for achieving fast ratiometric voltage-sensitive fluorescence changes in single cells using fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The mechanism is based on hydrophobic fluorescent anions that rapidly redistribute from one face of the plasma membrane to the other according to the Nernst equation. A voltage-sensitive fluorescent readout is created by labeling the extracellular surface of the cell with a second fluorophore, here a fluorescently labeled lectin, that can undergo energy transfer with the membrane-bound sensor. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the two fluorophores is disrupted when the membrane potential is depolarized, because the anion is pulled to the intracellular surface of the plasma membrane far from the lectin. Bis-(1,3-dialkyl-2-thiobarbiturate)-trimethineoxonols, where alkyl is n-hexyl and n-decyl (DiSBA-C6-(3) and DiSBA-C10-(3), respectively) can function as donors to Texas Red labeled wheat germ agglutinin (TR-WGA) and acceptors from fluorescein-labeled lectin (FI-WGA). In voltage-clamped fibroblasts, the translocation of these oxonols is measured as a displacement current with a time constant of approximately 2 ms for 100 mV depolarization at 20 degrees C, which equals the speed of the fluorescence changes. Fluorescence ratio changes of between 4% and 34% were observed for a 100-mV depolarization in fibroblasts, astrocytoma cells, beating cardiac myocytes, and B104 neuroblastoma cells. The large fluorescence changes allow high-speed confocal imaging. Images FIGURE 10 PMID:8534797

  11. SINGLE-PHASE LIQUID HEAT TRANSFER IN PLAIN AND ENHANCED MICROCHANNELS Mark E. Steinke

    E-print Network

    Kandlikar, Satish

    SINGLE-PHASE LIQUID HEAT TRANSFER IN PLAIN AND ENHANCED MICROCHANNELS Mark E. Steinke Systems for such applications as microprocessor cooling. An enhanced microchannel heat exchanger (EMCHX) that uses single active discussion about what mode of heat transfer, single-phase or two-phase flow, will be the best

  12. Derivation of human embryonic stem cell lines from parthenogenetic blastocysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qingyun Mai; Yang Yu; Tao Li; Liu Wang; Mei-jue Chen; Shu-zhen Huang; Canquan Zhou; Qi Zhou

    2007-01-01

    Parthenogenesis is one of the main, and most useful, methods to derive embryonic stem cells (ESCs), which may be an important source of histocompatible cells and tissues for cell therapy. Here we describe the derivation and characterization of two ESC lines (hPES-1 and hPES-2) from in vitro developed blastocysts following parthenogenetic activation of human oocytes. Typical ESC morphology was seen,

  13. Charge Transfer through Single-Stranded Peptide Nucleic Acid Composed of Thymine Nucleotides

    E-print Network

    Borguet, Eric

    Charge Transfer through Single-Stranded Peptide Nucleic Acid Composed of Thymine Nucleotides Amit; In Final Form: February 18, 2008 Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of single-stranded peptide nucleic acids. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is an analo

  14. Limitations of a time-lapse blastocyst prediction model: a large multicentre outcome analysis.

    PubMed

    Kirkegaard, Kirstine; Campbell, Alison; Agerholm, Inge; Bentin-Ley, Ursula; Gabrielsen, Anette; Kirk, John; Sayed, Shabana; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob

    2014-08-01

    The goal of embryo selection models is to select embryos with the highest reproductive potential, whilst minimizing the rejection of viable embryos. Ultimately, any embryo selection model must be tested on clinical outcome. We therefore retrospectively tested a published blastocyst prediction model on a large combined set of transferred embryos with known clinical outcome. The model was somewhat effective in that we found a relative increase of 30% for implantation in the model-selected group of embryos. There was, however, a concomitant large rejection of embryos from our test cohort, which actually resulted in pregnancy. This hypothetical experiment highlights the limitations of predicting blastulation only. Crucially, it illustrates that both sensitivity and specificity are important parameters when developing embryo selection models for prospective clinical use. PMID:24912418

  15. Stability of reference genes for normalization of reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) data in bovine blastocysts produced by IVF, ICSI and SCNT.

    PubMed

    Luchsinger, Charlotte; Arias, María Elena; Vargas, Tamara; Paredes, Marcos; Sánchez, Raúl; Felmer, Ricardo

    2014-11-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a sensitive and accurate tool for quantitative estimation of gene transcription levels in preimplantation embryos. To control for possible experimental variations, gene expression data must be normalized using internal control genes commonly known as reference genes. However, the stability of reference genes can vary depending on the state of development and/or experimental conditions; hence the assessment of their stability is essential before initiating a gene expression analysis. In the present study, we used RT-qPCR to measure the transcript levels of 10 commonly used reference genes and analyzed their expression stability in bovine blastocysts produced by in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Using the geNorm program, we found the best combination of genes to normalize gene expression data in bovine embryos at the blastocyst stage produced by IVF (HMBS, SF3A1, and HPRT1), ICSI (H2A, HMBS, and GAPDH), SCNT (ACTB, SF3A1, and SDHA) and/or between blastocysts produced by these methods (GAPDH, HMBS and EEF1A2). We also demonstrated that not only the culture conditions may affect the expression patterns in bovine blastocysts but also the choice of embryo production method may have an important effect. PMID:23731783

  16. Blastocyst Axis Is Specified Independently of Early Cell Lineage But Aligns with the ZP Shape

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoko Kurotaki; Kohei Hatta; Kazuki Nakao; Yo-ichi Nabeshima; Toshihiko Fujimori

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms controlling the establishment of the embryonic-abembryonic (E-Ab) axis of the mammalian blastocyst are controversial. We used in vitro time-lapse imaging and in vivo lineage labeling to provide evidence that the E-Ab axis of the mouse blastocyst is generated independently of early cell lineage. Rather, both the boundary between two-cell blastomeres and the E-Ab axis of the blastocyst align

  17. Local Field Effects in the Energy Transfer between a Chromophore and a Carbon Nanotube : a Single

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Local Field Effects in the Energy Transfer between a Chromophore and a Carbon Nanotube : a Single-covalently bound porphyrin / carbon nanotube compounds is in- vestigated at the single nano-compound scale-2Jun2013 #12;Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) have attracted much attention in the last decades due

  18. The Influence of Polyvinylpyrrolidone on Freezing of Bovine IVF Blastocysts Following Biopsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Suzuki; S. Saha; C. Sumantri; M. Takagi; A. Boediono

    1995-01-01

    A study was conducted to develop a better freezing protocol for in vitro developed biopsied bovine blastocysts. Biopsied blastocysts were exposed to 1.8 M ethylene glycol (EG) + 0.05 M trehalose (T) and different concentration (5, 10, and 20%) of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Exposure to the solutions alone did not affect their in vitro development (Experiment 1). Experiments 2, 3, and

  19. Telomere lengths in human oocytes, cleavage stage embryos and blastocysts

    PubMed Central

    Turner, S.; Wong, H.P.; Rai, J.; Hartshorne, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Telomeres are repeated sequences that protect the ends of chromosomes and harbour DNA repair proteins. Telomeres shorten during each cell division in the absence of telomerase. When telomere length becomes critically short, cell senescence occurs. Telomere length therefore reflects both cellular ageing and capacity for division. We have measured telomere length in human germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes and preimplantation embryos, by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (Q-FISH), providing baseline data towards our hypothesis that telomere length is a marker of embryo quality. The numbers of fluorescent foci suggest that extensive clustering of telomeres occurs in mature GV stage oocytes, and in preimplantation embryos. When calculating average telomere length by assuming that each signal presents one telomere, the calculated telomere length decreased from the oocyte to the cleavage stages, and increased between the cleavage stages and the blastocyst (11.12 versus 8.43 versus 12.22 kb, respectively, P < 0.001). Other methods of calculation, based upon expected maximum and minimum numbers of telomeres, confirm that telomere length in blastocysts is significantly longer than cleavage stages. Individual blastomeres within an embryo showed substantial variation in calculated average telomere length. This study implies that telomere length changes according to the stage of preimplantation embryo development. PMID:20573647

  20. Human Endometrial CD98 Is Essential for Blastocyst Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Francisco; Simón, Carlos; Quiñonero, Alicia; Ramírez, Miguel Ángel; González-Muñoz, Elena; Burghardt, Hans; Cervero, Ana; Martínez, Sebastián; Pellicer, Antonio; Palacín, Manuel; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Yáñez-Mó, María

    2010-01-01

    Background Understanding the molecular basis of embryonic implantation is of great clinical and biological relevance. Little is currently known about the adhesion receptors that determine endometrial receptivity for embryonic implantation in humans. Methods and Principal Findings Using two human endometrial cell lines characterized by low and high receptivity, we identified the membrane receptor CD98 as a novel molecule selectively and significantly associated with the receptive phenotype. In human endometrial samples, CD98 was the only molecule studied whose expression was restricted to the implantation window in human endometrial tissue. CD98 expression was restricted to the apical surface and included in tetraspanin-enriched microdomains of primary endometrial epithelial cells, as demonstrated by the biochemical association between CD98 and tetraspanin CD9. CD98 expression was induced in vitro by treatment of primary endometrial epithelial cells with human chorionic gonadotropin, 17-?-estradiol, LIF or EGF. Endometrial overexpression of CD98 or tetraspanin CD9 greatly enhanced mouse blastocyst adhesion, while their siRNA-mediated depletion reduced the blastocyst adhesion rate. Conclusions These results indicate that CD98, a component of tetraspanin-enriched microdomains, appears to be an important determinant of human endometrial receptivity during the implantation window. PMID:20976164

  1. Effect of the afterloaded external guidance embryo transfer technique on pregnancy rates in single embryo transfer cycles

    PubMed Central

    Y?lmaz, Nafiye; Oruç, Ayla Sarg?n; Zeyrek, Tugba; Görkem, Ümit; ?nal, Hasan Ali; Engin-Üstün, Yaprak; Gülerman, Cavidan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate effect of the afterloaded external guidance embryo transfer technique on pregnancy rates in single embryo transfer intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Material and Methods This retrospective study was performed at the Dr. Zekai Tahir Burak Women’s Health Research and Education Hospital. Three hundred and thirteen women who underwent ICSI were included in the study. Subjects were categorized according to the embryo transfer technique; Group 1 (n: 232): easy transfer with a soft catheter, Group 2 (n: 45): after external guidance transfer, and Group 3 (n: 36): difficult transfer with a stylet. Basal parameters, clinical and laboratory IVF outcomes and pregnancy rates were studied. Results Infertility etiology, basal follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels, antral follicle count, duration of stimulation, total dose of gonadotropin, peak estradiol levels, endometrial thickness, oocyte number, 2 PN, and fertilization rate were similar between the three groups (p>0.05). Despite the decreased pregnancy rate in Group 3, there were no differences in clinical pregnancy rates among the groups (p=0.204). Conclusion Embryo transfer is one of the critical steps in assisted reproduction procedures. Using the afterloaded external guidance embryo transfer technique did not improve pregnancy rates. PMID:24592095

  2. Encapsidation and transfer of phage DNA into host cells: From in vivo to single particles studies

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud 11, Université de

    with which their genome is ejected from the phage particle and transferred into the host bacteria to describe DNA ejection at the level of single phage particles. Theoretical models of encapsidation the phage particle and transferred into the host bacteria. If molecular biology and genetics have been

  3. Energy Transfer from Nucleic Acids to Tb(III): Selective Emission Enhancement by Single DNA Mismatches

    E-print Network

    Turro, Claudia

    Energy Transfer from Nucleic Acids to Tb(III): Selective Emission Enhancement by Single DNA energy transfer (EnT) from nucleic acids to Tb3+ has been utilized to investigate the binding of the ions in nucleic acid hybridization assays with applications that range from the determination of genetic

  4. Single crystalline BaTiO3 thin films synthesized using ion implantation induced layer transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Young-Bae; Diest, Kenneth; Atwater, Harry A.

    2007-10-01

    Layer transfer of BaTiO3 thin films onto silicon-based substrates has been investigated. Hydrogen and helium ions were co-implanted to facilitate ion-implantation-induced layer transfer of films from BaTiO3 single crystals. From thermodynamic equilibrium calculations, we suggest that the dominant species during cavity nucleation and growth are H2, H+, H2O, Ba2+ and Ba-OH, and that the addition of hydrogen to the Ba-Ti-O system can effectively suppress volatile oxide formation during layer transfer and subsequent annealing. After ion implantation, BaTiO3 layers contain microstructural defects and hydrogen precipitates in the lattice, but after layer transfer, the single crystal is found to be stoichiometric. Using direct wafer bonding and layer splitting, single crystal BaTiO3 thin films were transferred onto amorphous Si3N4 and Pt substrates. Micro-Raman spectroscopy indicated that the density of defects generated by ion implantation in BaTiO3 can be significantly reduced during post-transfer annealing, returning the transferred layer to its single crystal state. Characterization using piezoresponse force microscopy shows that the layer transferred thin films are ferroelectric, with domain structures and piezoresponse characteristics similar to that of bulk crystals.

  5. Single breath transfer factor for carbon monoxide in an asymptomatic population of never smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Gulsvik; P Bakke; S Humerfelt; E Omenaas; T Tosteson; S T Weiss; F E Speizer

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on reference values of transfer factor variables in general populations of asymptomatic never smokers are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between test variables and age, height, haemoglobin concentration and carboxyhaemoglobin concentration. METHODS: Measurements of single breath transfer factor for carbon monoxide (TLCO) were obtained for a randomly selected sample of never smokers

  6. Single-Phase Liquid Jet Impingement Heat Transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C.-F. Ma

    1995-01-01

    Impinging liquid jets have been demonstrated to be an effective means of providing high heat\\/mass transfer rates in industrial transport processes. When a liquid jet strikes a surface, thin hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layers from in the region directly beneath due to the jet deceleration and the resulting increase in pressure. The flow is then forced to accelerate in a

  7. Single-molecule near-field optical energy transfer microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Trabesinger; A. Kramer; M. Kreiter; B. Hecht; U. P. Wild

    2002-01-01

    The nano-optical interaction between a sharp tip and a single dipolar emitter is investigated. Changes of the excited state lifetime and the fluorescence rate of single molecules are recorded simultaneously as a function of the tip position relative to the molecule. A subdiffraction-limited area of decreased fluorescence and shortened lifetime is observed for gold-coated Si3N4 tips. The results are discussed

  8. Revealing competitive Förster-type resonance energy-transfer pathways in single bichromophoric molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofkens, Johan; Cotlet, Mircea; Vosch, Tom; Tinnefeld, Philip; Weston, Kenneth D.; Ego, Christophe; Grimsdale, Andrew; Müllen, Klaus; Beljonne, David; Brédas, Jean Luc; Jordens, Sven; Schweitzer, Gerd; Sauer, Markus; de Schryver, Frans

    2003-11-01

    We demonstrate measurements of the efficiency of competing Förster-type energy-transfer pathways in single bichromophoric systems by monitoring simultaneously the fluorescence intensity, fluorescence lifetime, and the number of independent emitters with time. Peryleneimide end-capped fluorene trimers, hexamers, and polymers with interchromophore distances of 3.4, 5.9, and on average 42 nm, respectively, served as bichromophoric systems. Because of different energy-transfer efficiencies, variations in the interchromophore distance enable the switching between homo-energy transfer (energy hopping), singlet-singlet annihilation, and singlet-triplet annihilation. The data suggest that similar energy-transfer pathways have to be considered in the analysis of single-molecule trajectories of donor/acceptor pairs as well as in natural and synthetic multichromophoric systems such as light-harvesting antennas, oligomeric fluorescent proteins, and dendrimers. Here we report selectively visualization of different energy-transfer pathways taking place between identical fluorophores in individual bichromophoric molecules.

  9. 1 Copyright 2006 by ASME PRESSURE DROP AND HEAT TRANSFER IN A SINGLE-PHASE

    E-print Network

    Qu, Weilin

    margin. These findings point to the need for further study of single-phase thermal/fluid transport boiling of liquid coolant occurs. Key merits of single-phase micro- channel heat sinks as demonstrated by previous studies include: low thermal resistance to dissipative heat flux, high heat transfer area

  10. The optical control of electronic energy transfer through single and dual auxiliary beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, David S.; Andrews, David L.

    2008-04-01

    The electronic transfer of energy from a donor particle to an acceptor is a mechanism that plays a key role in a wide range of optical and photophysical phenomena. The ability to exert control on this transfer is of immense importance. It now emerges that there are all-optical routes which can be introduced to achieve this very purpose. We demonstrate the possibility of promoting energy transfer, in the optical near field, that is rigorously forbidden (on geometric or symmetric grounds) in the absence of laser light. The effect operates through coupled stimulated Raman scattering by the donor-acceptor pair. The absorption of a photon takes place at one particle and stimulated emission at either, coupled with energy transfer between the pair. At this fundamental level, transfer phenomena arise for both single and dual input auxiliary beams. In the latter case the emitted photon may differ from the absorbed photon. In either situation energy transfer will not occur in the absence of auxiliary radiation, if either the donor or acceptor transition is single-quantum forbidden. By engaging input laser light, energy transfer may proceed through two or three quantum allowed transitions. The results for this novel type of optical control suggest transfer efficiency levels comparable to Förster transfer. Many applications are envisaged, chief of which is the potential for all-optical switching.

  11. Single-electron transfer from NADH analogues to singlet oxygen.

    PubMed

    Peters, G; Rodgers, M A

    1981-08-12

    Laser flash photolysis techniques have yielded rate constants for physical and reactive quenching modes of O2(1 delta g) by nicotine, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (oxidized and reduced forms) and the reduced forms of nicotinamide mononucleotide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and nicotinamide hypoxanthine dinucleotide. In the case of the last four named compounds, kinetic spectroscopy furnished evidence for one-electron transfers to O2(1 delta g). Specifically, production of O2 was demonstrated unequivocally by reaction with 1,4-benzoquinone. Quantitative determinations revealed the extent of reactive quenching to be near 60% in each case. PMID:7284356

  12. Stress Transfer in Single Fiber\\/ Resin Tensile Tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. D. Bascom; R. M. Jensen

    1986-01-01

    Microscale (25 mm gauge length) “dogbone” resin specimens with single carbon fibers embedded through the length of the specimen have been studied as a method for determining the fiber-resin interphase strength. The specimens are pulled in tension until the fiber fragments to a critical length, lc. Evidence is presented here, based primarily on the relaxation of stress birefringence around the

  13. Single-nucleon transfer reactions on (18)F

    SciTech Connect

    Adekola, A. S. [Ohio University, Athens; Brune, C. R. [Ohio University; Heinen, Z. [Ohio University; Hornish, M. J. [Ohio University; Massey, T. N. [Ohio University; Voinov, A. V. [Ohio University; Bardayan, Daniel W [ORNL; Blackmon, Jeff C [ORNL; Nesaraja, Caroline D [ORNL; Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL; Chae, Kyung Yuk [ORNL; Domizioli, C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ma, Z. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Moazen, Brian [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Livesay, R. J. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Greife, U. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Jones, K. L. [Rutgers University; Pain, S. D. [Rutgers University; Thomas, J. S. [Rutgers University; Kozub, R. L. [Tennessee Technological University; ShrinerJr., J. F. [Tennessee Technological University; Smith, N. D. [Tennessee Technological University; Visser, D. W. [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of the proton-transfer {sup 18}F(d, n){sup 19}Ne and neutron-transfer {sup 18}F(d, p){sup 19}F reactions were performed with a {sup 18}F radioactive beam at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The experiments clarify the nuclear structure of {sup 19}Ne near the proton threshold, which is relevant for understanding the rates of proton-induced reactions on {sup 18}F in novae. Analogs for several states in the mirror nucleus {sup 19}F have not yet been identified in {sup 19}Ne, indicating that the level structure of {sup 19}Ne in this region is incomplete. We observed 15 levels in {sup 19}Ne from the {sup 18}F(d, n){sup 19}Ne measurement and 18 levels in {sup 19}F from the {sup 18}F(d, p){sup 19}F measurement. Angular distributions were extracted for all strongly populated states and compared to distorted-wave Born approximation calculations. The angular distributions for all the known states in the two nuclei determined in this work are consistent with their previously assigned spins and parities. The spectroscopic factors determined for these levels in the two nuclei are reported.

  14. [Ultrastructural study of the intercellular junction and lanthanum penetration in the mouse blastocyst].

    PubMed

    Uehara, S; Oikawa, N; Chida, S; Yohkaichiya, T; Tsuiki, A; Hoshiai, H; Yajima, A

    1986-12-01

    Cell junctions in mouse blastocyst were ultrastructurally investigated with or without lanthanum tracer. Tight junctions, gap junctions and desmosomes were observed in the trophectoderm. The tight junction was located near the zona pellucida in all trophoblast interspaces, whereas the gap junction and the desmosome, which were infrequently observed, were localized far from the zona pellucida. However, the desmosomes in the trophectoderm of the expanded blastocyst after culture increased in number and came to be located near the zona pellucida. The trophoblast layer excluded lanthanum whose invasion was interrupted by the tight junction. There were a few intermediate junctions in the interspace between the trophoblast and the inner cell mass cell as well as between the inner cell mass cells. These findings indicate that a substances whose molecular weight exceeds that of lanthanum (138.9) may not flow into the blastocyst through the intercellular space. Moreover, it is speculated that the intercellular connection is strengthened during the expansion of the blastocyst. PMID:3805829

  15. Diameter selective electron transfer from encapsulated ferrocenes to single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizumi, Yoko; Suzuki, Hironori; Tange, Masayoshi; Okazaki, Toshiya

    2014-10-01

    The diameter selective photoluminescence quenching of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is observed upon ferrocene encapsulation, which can be attributed to electron transfer from the encapsulated ferrocenes to the SWCNTs. Interestingly, the dependence of the electron transfer process on the nanotube diameter is governed by the molecular orientation of the ferrocenes in the SWCNT rather than the reduction potentials of the SWCNT.The diameter selective photoluminescence quenching of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is observed upon ferrocene encapsulation, which can be attributed to electron transfer from the encapsulated ferrocenes to the SWCNTs. Interestingly, the dependence of the electron transfer process on the nanotube diameter is governed by the molecular orientation of the ferrocenes in the SWCNT rather than the reduction potentials of the SWCNT. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Calculated binding energies of FeCp2@SWCNTs and additional spectroscopic characterization are described in ESI. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04398g

  16. Early cleavage predicts the viability of human embryos in elective single embryo transfer procedures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andres Salumets; Christel Hyden-Granskog; Sirpa Makinen; Anne-Maria Suikkari; Aila Tiitinen; Timo Tuuri

    BACKGROUND: The reduction of multiple pregnancies by using elective single embryo transfers (eSET) requires critical and careful selection of the embryo for transfer. The current study was undertaken to assess whether early cleavage could be used as a marker of embryo competence in eSET procedures. METHODS: The study included analysis of 178 eSET procedures. All embryos were checked for early

  17. Generalized transfer function: A simple model applied to active single-mode microring resonators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. G. Boucher; P. Féron

    2009-01-01

    The spectral properties of an active single-mode microring resonator are investigated in the frame of the generalized transfer function (GTF) approach, as derived from extended scattering and\\/or transfer matrix formalism. Spontaneous emission, looked upon as the driving source of the radiation, is described in a semi-classical way in the spectral domain. The internal and emitted fields are filtered into the

  18. Diameter selective electron transfer from encapsulated ferrocenes to single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Iizumi, Yoko; Suzuki, Hironori; Tange, Masayoshi; Okazaki, Toshiya

    2014-11-21

    The diameter selective photoluminescence quenching of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is observed upon ferrocene encapsulation, which can be attributed to electron transfer from the encapsulated ferrocenes to the SWCNTs. Interestingly, the dependence of the electron transfer process on the nanotube diameter is governed by the molecular orientation of the ferrocenes in the SWCNT rather than the reduction potentials of the SWCNT. PMID:25310793

  19. Electronic energy transfer in highly aligned MEH-PPV single chains.

    PubMed

    Traub, Matthew C; Lakhwani, Girish; Bolinger, Joshua C; Vanden Bout, David; Barbara, Paul F

    2011-08-25

    This paper describes the simultaneous measurement of excitation and emission anisotropy to visualize energy transfer in single chains of the prototypical conjugated polymer MEH-PPV, for samples with >70% of the single chains organized into extended, rod-like conformations. The uniformity and high degree of order of the single molecules in these experiments has allowed direct comparison of our experimental data to energy-transfer simulations in model polymer chains. Increases in average anisotropy from 0.62 to 0.74 from excitation to emission and average changes of <15° to the in-plane dipole principal orientation axis confirmed that energy was transferred to a relatively small number of sites in these highly ordered chains. This organization persisted even at large molecular weights (M(n) = 850 kDa). Electronic energy transfer in highly anisotropic model chains was simulated using an incoherent Fo?rster-type mechanism to generate modulation depth histograms in good agreement with the observed data, as well as ensemble emission energies consistent with previously reported results. In these ordered model chains, excitons migrated an average of 6 nm before emission. This distance, far larger than the radius for single-step FRET, implies that energy transfer in MEH-PPV is a multistep funneling process. PMID:21812493

  20. In vitro development of OPU-derived bovine embryos cultured either individually or in groups with the silk protein sericin and the viability of frozen-thawed embryos after transfer.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Tomohiro; Ikebata, Yoshihisa; Do, Lanh Thi Kim; Tanihara, Fuminori; Taniguchi, Masayasu; Otoi, Takeshige

    2014-12-01

    The optimization of single-embryo culture conditions is very important, particularly in the in vitro production of bovine embryos using the ovum pick-up (OPU) procedure. The purpose of this study was to examine the development of embryos derived from oocytes obtained by OPU that were cultured either individually or in groups in medium supplemented with or without sericin and to investigate the viability of the frozen-thawed embryos after a direct transfer. When two-cell-stage embryos were cultured either individually or in groups for 7 days in CR1aa medium supplemented with or without 0.5% sericin, the rates of development to blastocysts and freezable blastocysts were significantly lower for the embryos cultured individually without sericin than for the embryos cultured in groups with or without sericin. Moreover, the rate of development to freezable blastocysts of the embryos cultured individually with sericin was significantly higher than that of the embryos cultured without sericin. When the frozen-thawed embryos were transferred directly to recipients, the rates of pregnancy, abortion, stillbirth and normal calving in the recipients were similar among the groups, irrespective of the culture conditions and sericin supplementation. Our findings indicate that supplementation with sericin during embryo culture improves the quality of the embryos cultured individually but not the viability of the frozen-thawed embryos after transfer to recipients. PMID:25488699

  1. Single and double charge transfer of He(2+) ions with molecules at near-thermal energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tosh, R. E.; Johnsen, R.

    1993-01-01

    Rate coefficients were measured for charge-transfer reactions of He(2+) ions with H2, N2, O2, CO, CO2, and H2O. The experiments were carried out using a selected-ion drift-tube mass spectrometer. Total rate coefficients are found to be very large and are generally close to the limiting Langevin capture rate coefficients or the corresponding ADO-model (Su and Bowers, 1973) coefficients. The product-ion spectra indicate that both single and double charge transfer and possibly transfer ionization occur in these reactions.

  2. Solving the atmospheric scattering optical transfer function using the multi-coupled single scattering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bin; Hong, Jin; Sun, Xiao-Bing

    2014-09-01

    The atmospheric scattering optical transfer function (OTF) is solved by applying the multi-coupled single scattering (MCSS) method to the three-dimensional radiative transfer equation (RTE) under the periodic ground condition. This approach is a direct hit to the atmospheric scattering OTF using the same original context of modulation transfer function (MTF) measurement, i.e., images of sinusoidal grating at different spatial frequencies. Both the amplitude and phase shift of the OTF at various zenith and azimuth angles can be obtained at an arbitrary spatial frequency.

  3. Single-photon router: enhancing the transfer rate by the boundary

    E-print Network

    Jing Lu; Z. H. Wang; Lan Zhou

    2014-09-10

    We study the transport property of single photon scattered by a two-level system (TLS) in a T-shaped waveguide, which are made of an infinite coupled-resonator waveguide (CRW) and a semi-infinite CRW. The spontaneous emission of the TLS directs single photons form one CRW to the other. Although the transfer rate is different for the wave incident from different CRW, the transfer rate could be unit for the wave incident from the semi-infinite CRW due to the break of the translational symmetry by the presence of boundary.

  4. The single electron transfer chemistry of coals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, J.W.; Flowers, R.A. II

    1994-12-31

    This research addressed electron donar properties and radical reactions in coal. Solid residues from pyridine Soxhlet extractions of Pocahontas No. 3, Upper Freeport, Pittsburgh No. 8, Illinois No. 6 and Wyodak coals were exposed to 4-vinylpyridine vapors and swelled. All of the 4-vinylpyridine could not be removed under vacuum at 100{degree}C. Diffuse reflectance FTIR revealed the presence of poly-(4-vinylpyridine) in the Illinois No. 6 and Wyodak coals. EPR spectra displayed the loss of inertinite radicals in Upper Freeport, Illinois No. 6 and Wyodak residues after exposure to 4-vinylpyridine. There was little change in the vitrinite radical density or environment. The molecule N,N{prime}-Diphenyl-p-phenylene diamine (DPPD) was exposed to the solid residues from pyridine Soxhlet extractions of the above coals. Diffuse reflectance FTIR failed to detect the imine product from radical reaction with DPPD. EPR spectra displayed the loss of inertinite radicals in Upper Freeport and Wyodak residues. 7,7,8,8-Tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) and Tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) were deposited into coals in pyridine. FTIR indicated complete conversion of TCNQ to a material with a singly occupied LUMO. In TCNE the LUMO is about 30% occupied. TCNQ and TCNE were deposited into the pyridine extracts and residues of Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh No. 8 coals. Only a small amount of the TCNQ and TCNE displayed nitrile shifts in the IR spectrum of a material with an occupied LUMO. It has been concluded that TCNQ must be part of the aromatic stacks in coal and the TCNQ LUMO is part of an extended band.

  5. Spectroscopy of single phycoerythrocyanin monomers: dark state identification and observation of energy transfer heterogeneities.

    PubMed Central

    Zehetmayer, P; Hellerer, Th; Parbel, A; Scheer, H; Zumbusch, A

    2002-01-01

    Phycoerythrocyanin (PEC) is part of the light harvesting system of cyanobacteria. The PEC monomer contains one phycoviolobilin chromophore, which transfers excitation energy onto two phycocyanobilin chromophores. Many spectroscopical methods have been used in the past to study the bulk properties of PEC. These methods average over many molecules. Therefore, differences in the behavior of individual molecules remain hidden. The energy transfer within photosynthetic complexes is however sensitive to changes in the spectroscopic properties of the participating subunits. Knowledge about heterogeneities is therefore important for the description of the energy transfer in photosynthetic systems. Here, the recording of the fluorescence emission of single PEC molecules is used as a tool to obtain such information. Spectrally resolved detection as well as double resonance excitation of single PEC molecules is used to investigate their bleaching behavior. The trans isomer of the phycoviolobilin chromophore is identified as a short-lived dark state of monomeric PEC. Polarization sensitive single molecule detection is used for the direct observation of the energy transfer in individual PEC molecules. The experiments reveal that more than one-half of the PEC molecules exhibit an energy transfer behavior significantly different from the bulk. These heterogeneities persist on a time scale of several seconds. Model calculations lead to the conclusion that they are caused by minor shifts in the spectra of the chromophores. PMID:12080129

  6. Single-molecule protein folding: Diffusion fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies

    E-print Network

    Croquette, Vincent

    Single-molecule protein folding: Diffusion fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies for protein folding studies and has been extensively stud- ied, both experimentally (at the ensemble level concentration. It is shown that new infor- mation about different aspects of the protein folding reaction can

  7. Dynamic modeling of single tubular SOFC combining heat\\/mass transfer and electrochemical reaction effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Xue; J. Tang; N. Sammes; Y. Du

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a dynamic model of a single tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) unit is developed using the control volume (CV) approach. The heat transfer, species transportation, and electrochemical reaction effects are taken into account in a collective manner. Using this model, we study the spatial distributions of a series of state variables under both steady-state and transient

  8. Unexpected Hole Transfer Leads to High Efficiency Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube

    E-print Network

    Zhong, Zhaohui

    external quantum efficiency (EQE) after taking into account the exciton diffusion length is measured. Importantly, the devices exhibit greater than 90% effective external quantum efficiency. These key findingsUnexpected Hole Transfer Leads to High Efficiency Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Photovoltaic

  9. Frictional and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Single-Phase Microchannel Liquid Flows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ranabir Dey; Tamal Das; Suman Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we review the literature on flow frictional and heat transfer characteristics of single-phase liquid flows through microchannels. The work accentuates the existing discord between experimental observations of microscale transport process characteristics and the corresponding theoretical predictions on the basis of the classical paradigms. The role of microscale effects in inducing such disparity between experimental and theoretical frameworks,

  10. Frictional and heat transfer characteristics of single-phase microchannel liquid flows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ranabir Dey; Tamal Das; Suman Chakraborty

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we review the literature on flow frictional and heat transfer characteristics of single-phase liquid flows through microchannels. The work accentuates the existing discord between experimental observations of microscale transport process characteristics and the corresponding theoretical predictions on the basis of the classical paradigms. The role of microscale effects in inducing such disparity between experimental and theoretical frameworks,

  11. Polarization Transfer in Wide-Angle Compton Scattering and Single-Pion Photoproduction from the Proton

    E-print Network

    C. Fanelli; E. Cisbani; D. J. Hamilton; G. Salme; B. Wojtsekhowski; A. Ahmidouch; J. R. M. Annand; H. Baghdasaryan; J. Beaufait; P. Bosted; E. J. Brash; C. Butuceanu; P. Carter; E. Christy; E. Chudakov; S. Danagoulian; D. Day; P. Degtyarenko; R. Ent; H. Fenker; M. Fowler; E. Frlez; D. Gaskell; R. Gilman; T. Horn; G. M. Huber; C. W. de Jager; E. Jensen; M. K. Jones; A. Kelleher; C. Keppel; M. Khandaker; M. Kohl; G. Kumbartzki; S. Lassiter; Y. Li; R. Lindgren; H. Lovelace; W. Luo; D. Mack; V. Mamyan; D. J. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; J. Maxwell; G. Mbianda; D. Meekins; M. Meziane; J. Miller; A. Mkrtchyan; H. Mkrtchyan; J. Mulholland; V. Nelyubin; L. Pentchev; C. F. Perdrisat; E. Piasetzky; Y. Prok; A. J. R. Puckett; V. Punjabi; M. Shabestari; A. Shahinyan; K. Slifer; G. Smith; P. Solvignon; R. Subedi; F. R. Wesselmann; S. Wood; Z. Ye; X. Zheng

    2015-06-12

    Wide-angle exclusive Compton scattering and single-pion photoproduction from the proton have been investigated via measurement of the polarization transfer from a circularly polarized photon beam to the recoil proton. The WACS polarization transfer was analyzed at an incident photon energy of 3.7 GeV at a proton scattering angle of \\cma$= 70^\\circ$. The longitudinal transfer \\KLL, measured to be $0.645 \\pm 0.059 \\pm 0.048$, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic, has the same sign as predicted for the reaction mechanism in which the photon interacts with a single quark carrying the spin of the proton. However, the observed value is $\\sim$3 times larger than predicted by the GPD-based calculations, which indicates a significant unknown contribution to the scattering amplitude.

  12. Polarization Transfer in Wide-Angle Compton Scattering and Single-Pion Photoproduction from the Proton

    E-print Network

    Fanelli, C; Hamilton, D J; Salme, G; Wojtsekhowski, B; Ahmidouch, A; Annand, J R M; Baghdasaryan, H; Beaufait, J; Bosted, P; Brash, E J; Butuceanu, C; Carter, P; Christy, E; Chudakov, E; Danagoulian, S; Day, D; Degtyarenko, P; Ent, R; Fenker, H; Fowler, M; Frlez, E; Gaskell, D; Gilman, R; Horn, T; Huber, G M; de Jager, C W; Jensen, E; Jones, M K; Kelleher, A; Keppel, C; Khandaker, M; Kohl, M; Kumbartzki, G; Lassiter, S; Li, Y; Lindgren, R; Lovelace, H; Luo, W; Mack, D; Mamyan, V; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Maxwell, J; Mbianda, G; Meekins, D; Meziane, M; Miller, J; Mkrtchyan, A; Mkrtchyan, H; Mulholland, J; Nelyubin, V; Pentchev, L; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Prok, Y; Puckett, A J R; Punjabi, V; Shabestari, M; Shahinyan, A; Slifer, K; Smith, G; Solvignon, P; Subedi, R; Wesselmann, F R; Wood, S; Ye, Z; Zheng, X

    2015-01-01

    Wide-angle exclusive Compton scattering and single-pion photoproduction from the proton have been investigated via measurement of the polarization transfer from a circularly polarized photon beam to the recoil proton. The WACS polarization transfer was analyzed at an incident photon energy of 3.7 GeV at a proton scattering angle of \\cma$= 70^\\circ$. The longitudinal transfer \\KLL, measured to be $0.645 \\pm 0.059 \\pm 0.048$, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic, has the same sign as predicted for the reaction mechanism in which the photon interacts with a single quark carrying the spin of the proton. However, the observed value is $\\sim$3 times larger than predicted by the GPD-based calculations, which indicates a significant unknown contribution to the scattering amplitude.

  13. Vitrification of human single pronuclear oocytes following two approaches to polar body biopsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ervin Macas; Min Xie; Sara Schaufelberger; Gabriele S. Merki-Feld; Ruth Stiller; Bruno Imthurn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the size of the opening in the zona pellucida (ZP) of human single pronuclear (1PN) oocytes made by laser and partial zona dissection (PZD) techniques might interfere with the survival and subsequent development to blastocyst stage upon vitrification and warming. Moreover, the viability of these blastocysts was evaluated by comparing

  14. Atypical protein kinase C couples cell sorting with primitive endoderm maturation in the mouse blastocyst.

    PubMed

    Saiz, Néstor; Grabarek, Joanna B; Sabherwal, Nitin; Papalopulu, Nancy; Plusa, Berenika

    2013-11-01

    During mouse pre-implantation development, extra-embryonic primitive endoderm (PrE) and pluripotent epiblast precursors are specified in the inner cell mass (ICM) of the early blastocyst in a 'salt and pepper' manner, and are subsequently sorted into two distinct layers. Positional cues provided by the blastocyst cavity are thought to be instrumental for cell sorting; however, the sequence of events and the mechanisms that control this segregation remain unknown. Here, we show that atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), a protein associated with apicobasal polarity, is specifically enriched in PrE precursors in the ICM prior to cell sorting and prior to overt signs of cell polarisation. aPKC adopts a polarised localisation in PrE cells only after they reach the blastocyst cavity and form a mature epithelium, in a process that is dependent on FGF signalling. To assess the role of aPKC in PrE formation, we interfered with its activity using either chemical inhibition or RNAi knockdown. We show that inhibition of aPKC from the mid blastocyst stage not only prevents sorting of PrE precursors into a polarised monolayer but concomitantly affects the maturation of PrE precursors. Our results suggest that the processes of PrE and epiblast segregation, and cell fate progression are interdependent, and place aPKC as a central player in the segregation of epiblast and PrE progenitors in the mouse blastocyst. PMID:24067354

  15. Single mutations that redirect internal proton transfer in the ba3 oxidase from Thermus thermophilus

    PubMed Central

    Smirnova, Irina; Chang, Hsin-Yang; von Ballmoos, Christoph; Ädelroth, Pia; Gennis, Robert B.; Brzezinski, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The ba3-type cytochrome c oxidase from Thermus thermophilus is a membrane-bound proton pump. Results from earlier studies have shown that with the aa3-type oxidases proton uptake to the catalytic site and “pump site” occur simultaneously. However, with the ba3 oxidase the pump site is loaded before proton transfer to the catalytic site because the proton transfer to the latter is slower than with the aa3 oxidases. In addition, the timing of formation and decay of catalytic intermediates is different in the two types of oxidases. In the present study, we have investigated two mutant ba3 CytcOs in which residues of the proton pathway leading to the catalytic site as well as the pump site were exchanged, Thr312Val and Tyr244Phe. Even though the ba3 CytcO uses only a single proton pathway for transfer of the substrate and “pumped” protons, the amino-acid residue substitutions had distinctly different effects on the kinetics of proton transfer to the catalytic site and the pump site, respectively. The results indicate that the rates of these reactions can be modified independently by replacement of single residues within the proton pathway. Furthermore, the data suggest that the Thr312Val and Tyr244Phe mutations interfere with a structural rearrangement in the proton pathway that is rate limiting for proton transfer to the catalytic site. PMID:24004023

  16. Single-molecule spectroscopy to probe competitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer pathways in bichromophoric synthetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotlet, Mircea; Vosch, Tom; Masuo, Sadahiro; Sauer, Marcus; Muellen, Klaus; Hofkens, Johan; De Schryver, Frans

    2004-07-01

    Using single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy we have investigated fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) occurring between two peryleneimide (PI) chromophores in a series of synthetic systems: PI end-capped fluorene trimers, hexamers and polymers for which the interchromophoric distance vary from 3.4 to 5.9 and 42 nm, respectively. By monitoring in parallel the fluorescence intensity and the number of independent emitting chromophores from each molecule, we could discriminate between competitive Foerster-type energy transfer processes such as energy hopping, singlet-singlet annihilation and singlet-triplet annihilation for the PI end-capped fluorine compounds. Due to different energy transfer efficiencies, variations in the interchromophoric distance enable switching between these processes. The single molecule fluorescence data reported here suggest that similar energy transfer pathways have to be considered in the analysis of single molecule trajectories of donor/acceptor pairs, as well as in the case of more complex systems like natural multichromophoric systems, such as light harvesting antennas or oligomeric fluorescent proteins.

  17. Convective heat and mass transfer from single evaporating water, methanol and ethanol droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Yearling, P.R.; Gould, R.D. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The experimental measurements of convective heat and mass transfer rates from single evaporating water, methanol and ethanol droplets suspended in a turbulent air flow are considered. This study is a continuation of the work presented by Yearling and Gould (1993). Specifically, this paper considers the effects of Reynolds number, mass transfer number and turbulence intensity of the upstream air on the evaporation rate of liquid droplets. For a turbulence intensity of 5% these measurements show that the Nusselt number increases by up to 30% over that for a laminar flow at the same droplet Reynolds number. At 10% turbulence intensity the Nusselt number increases by up to 50%.

  18. Fundamental theory for prediction of multicomponent mass transfer in single-liquid drops at intermediate Reynolds numbers (10? Re?250)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Uribe-Ramirez; W. J. Korchinsky

    2000-01-01

    A solution of the problem of low flux, multicomponent, mass transfer in single, circulating liquid drops is presented in this work. The prediction from fundamental theory of single-component mass transfer for drops travelling at intermediate Reynolds numbers (10?Re?250), reported by the authors (Uribe-Ram??rez & Korchinsky (2000) Chemical Engineering Science, in press), is extended to the case of several solutes transferring

  19. Lactate production by the mammalian blastocyst: Manipulating the microenvironment for uterine implantation and invasion?

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, David K

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian blastocyst exhibits a high capacity for aerobic glycolysis, a metabolic characteristic of tumours. It has been considered that aerobic glycolysis is a means to ensure a high carbon flux to fulfil biosynthetic demands. Here, alternative explanations for this pattern of metabolism are considered. Lactate creates a microenvironment of low pH around the embryo to assist the disaggregation of uterine tissues to facilitate trophoblast invasion. Further it is proposed that lactate acts as a signalling molecule (especially at the reduced oxygen tension present at implantation) to elicit bioactive VEGF recruitment from uterine cells, to promote angiogenesis. Finally it is suggested that the region of high lactate/low pH created by the blastocyst modulates the activity of the local immune response, helping to create immune tolerance. Consequently, the mammalian blastocyst offers a model to study the role of microenvironments, and how metabolites and pH are used in signalling. PMID:25619853

  20. Cell lineage allocation in equine blastocysts produced in vitro under varying glucose concentrations.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Ho; Ross, Pablo; Velez, Isabel C; Macías-García, B; Riera, Fernando L; Hinrichs, Katrin

    2015-07-01

    Equine embryos develop in vitro in the presence of high glucose concentrations, but little is known about their requirements for development. We evaluated the effect of glucose concentrations in medium on blastocyst development after ICSI. In experiment 1, there were no significant differences in rates of blastocyst formation among embryos cultured in our standard medium (DMEM/F-12), which contained >16?mM glucose, and those cultured in a minimal-glucose embryo culture medium (<1?mM; Global medium, GB), with either 0 added glucose for the first 5 days, then 20?mM (0-20) or 20?mM for the entire culture period (20-20). In experiment 2, there were no significant differences in the rates of blastocyst development (31-46%) for embryos cultured in four glucose treatments in GB (0-10, 0-20, 5-10, or 5-20). Blastocysts were evaluated by immunofluorescence for lineage-specific markers. All cells stained positively for POU5F1. An inner cluster of cells was identified that included presumptive primitive endoderm cells (GATA6-positive) and presumptive epiblast (EPI) cells. The 5-20 treatment resulted in a significantly lower number of presumptive EPI-lineage cells than the 0-20 treatment did. GATA6-positive cells appeared to be allocated to the primitive endoderm independent of the formation of an inner cell mass, as was previously hypothesized for equine embryos. These data demonstrate that equine blastocyst development is not dependent on high glucose concentrations during early culture; rather, environmental glucose may affect cell allocation. They also present the first analysis of cell lineage allocation in in vitro-fertilized equine blastocysts. These findings expand our understanding of the factors that affect embryo development in the horse. PMID:25852156

  1. Low female birth weight and advanced maternal age programme alterations in next-generation blastocyst development.

    PubMed

    Master, Jordanna S; Thouas, George A; Harvey, Alexandra J; Sheedy, John R; Hannan, Natalie J; Gardner, David K; Wlodek, Mary E

    2015-05-01

    Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk for adult disease development with recent studies highlighting transmission to subsequent generations. However, the mechanisms and timing of programming of disease transmission to the next generation remain unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of low birth weight and advanced maternal age on second-generation preimplantation blastocysts. Uteroplacental insufficiency or sham surgery was performed in late-gestation WKY pregnant rats, giving rise to first-generation (F1) restricted (born small) and control offspring respectively. F1 control and restricted females, at 4 or 12 months of age, were naturally mated with normal males. Second-generation (F2) blastocysts from restricted females displayed reduced expression of genes related to growth compared with F2 control (P<0.05). Following 24 h culture, F2 restricted blastocysts had accelerated development, with increased total cell number, a result of increased trophectoderm cells compared with control (P<0.05). There were alterations in carbohydrate and serine utilisation in F2 restricted blastocysts and F2 restricted outgrowths from 4-month-old females respectively (P<0.05). F2 blastocysts from aged restricted females were developmentally delayed at retrieval, with reduced total cell number attributable to reduced trophectoderm number with changes in carbohydrate utilisation (P<0.05). Advanced maternal age resulted in alterations in a number of amino acids in media obtained from F2 blastocyst outgrowths (P<0.05). These findings demonstrate that growth restriction and advanced maternal age can alter F2 preimplantation embryo physiology and the subsequent offspring growth. PMID:25667431

  2. Single-step transfer or exchange of multipartite quantum entanglement with minimum resources

    E-print Network

    Chui-Ping Yang; Qi-Ping Su; Shi-Biao Zheng; Siyuan Han

    2014-10-12

    The transfer or exchange of multipartite quantum states is critical to the realization of large-scale quantum information processing and quantum communication. A challenging question in this context is: What is the minimum resource required and how to simultaneously transfer or exchange multipartite quantum entanglement between two sets of qubits. Finding the answer to these questions is of great importance to quantum information science. In this work, we demonstrate that by using a single quantum two-level system - the simplest quantum object - as a coupler arbitrary multipartite quantum states (either entangled or separable) can be transferred or exchanged simultaneously between two sets of qubits. Our findings offer the potential to significantly reduce the resources needed to construct and operate large-scale quantum information networks consisting of many multi-qubit registers, memory cells, and processing units.

  3. Light-induced heat and mass transfer in a single-component gas in a capillary

    SciTech Connect

    Chermyaninov, I. V., E-mail: vladimir.chernyak@usu.ru; Chernyak, V. G.; Vilisova, E. A. [Ural State University (Russian Federation)

    2007-10-15

    A theoretical analysis is presented of light-induced heat and mass transfer in a single-component gas in a capillary tube at arbitrary Knudsen numbers. Surface and collisional mechanisms of transfer are analyzed, due to differences in accommodation coefficient and collision cross section between excited-and ground-state particles, respectively. Analytical expressions for kinetic coefficients characterizing the gas drift and heat transfer in a capillary tube are obtained in the limits of low and high Knudsen numbers. Numerical computations are performed for intermediate Knudsen numbers. Both drift and heat fluxes are determined as functions of the light beam frequency. In the case of an inhomogeneously broadened absorption line, the light-induced fluxes are found to depend not only on the sign, but also on the amount, of light beam detuning from the absorption line center frequency.

  4. Single electron transfer between selectfluor and chloride: A mass spectrometric and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang

    2013-10-01

    The reaction between 1-chloromethyl-4-fluoro-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane bis-tetrafluoroborate (selectfluor) and chloride has been studied experimentally and modeled computationally at the ab initio levels. Based on the interception experiments by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), it is found that only 5,5-dimethyl-l-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) succeeds in trapping the chlorine free radical. This result indicates that the single electron transfer (SET) is likely to occur between selectfluor and chloride. According to the Marcus' theory, the activation and reaction free energies for this electron transfer have been calculated. The theoretical study shows that the electron transfer reaction is both thermodynamically and kinetically beneficial, which is consistent with the experiment.

  5. Charge transfer dynamics from adsorbates to surfaces with single active electron and configuration interaction based approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, Raghunathan; Nest, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    We employ wavepacket simulations based on many-body time-dependent configuration interaction (TD-CI), and single active electron theories, to predict the ultrafast molecule/metal electron transfer time scales, in cyano alkanethiolates bonded to model gold clusters. The initial states represent two excited states where a valence electron is promoted to one of the two virtual ?? molecular orbitals localized on the cyanide fragment. The ratio of the two time scales indicate the efficiency of one charge transfer channel over the other. In both our one-and many-electron simulations, this ratio agree qualitatively with each other as well as with the previously reported experimental time scales (Blobner et al., 2012), measured for a macroscopic metal surface. We study the effect of cluster size and the description of electron correlation on the charge transfer process.

  6. Generation of parthenogenetic goat blastocysts: effects of different activation methods and culture media.

    PubMed

    Malik, Hruda Nanda; Singhal, Dinesh Kumar; Saugandhika, Shrabani; Dubey, Amit; Mukherjee, Ayan; Singhal, Raxita; Kumar, Sudarshan; Kaushik, Jai Kumar; Mohanty, Ashok Kumar; Das, Bikash Chandra; Bag, Sadhan; Bhanja, Subrata Kumar; Malakar, Dhruba

    2015-06-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of different activation methods and culture media on the in vitro development of parthenogenetic goat blastocysts. Calcium (Ca2+) ionophore, ethanol or a combination of the two, used as activating reagents, and embryo development medium (EDM), modified Charles Rosenkrans (mCR2a) medium and research vitro cleave (RVCL) medium were used to evaluate the developmental competence of goat blastocysts. Quantitative expression of apoptosis, stress and developmental competence-related genes were analysed in different stages of embryos. In RVCL medium, the cleavage rate of Ca2+ ionophore-treated oocytes (79.61 ± 0.86) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than in ethanol (74.90 ± 1.51) or in the combination of both Ca2+ ionophore and ethanol. In mCR2a or EDM, hatched blastocyst production rate of Ca2+ ionophore-treated oocytes (8.33 ± 1.44) was significantly higher than in ethanol (6.46 ± 0.11) or in the combined treatment (6.70 ± 0.24). In ethanol, the cleavage, blastocyst and hatched blastocyst production rates in RVCL medium (74.90 ± 1.51, 18.30 ± 1.52 and 8.24 ± 0.15, respectively) were significantly higher than in EDM (67.81 ± 3.21, 14.59 ± 0.27 and 5.59 ± 0.42) or mCR2a medium (65.09 ± 1.57, 15.36 ± 0.52 and 6.46 ± 0.11). The expression of BAX, Oct-4 and GlUT1 transcripts increased gradually from 2-cell stage to blastocyst-stage embryos, whereas the transcript levels of Bcl-2 and MnSOD were significantly lower in blastocysts. In addition, different activation methods and culture media had little effect on the pattern of variation and relative abundance of the above genes in different stages of parthenogenetic activated goat embryos. In conclusion, Ca2+ ionophore as the activating agent, and RVCL as the culture medium are better than other tested options for development of parthenogenetic activated goat blastocysts. PMID:24405529

  7. A boiling heat transfer surface for creating a single stream of vapor bubbles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Zachary W.; Smith, Marc K.; Glezer, Ari

    2006-11-01

    The high heat transfer rate characteristic of boiling is limited by the vapor-bubble removal rate and a critical transition to film boiling. External forces, such as acoustic waves, can be used to enhance vapor-bubble removal and improve heat transfer. In order to explore such enhanced vapor-bubble removal processes, a boiling heat transfer surface has been designed to control the location, growth, and detachment of a single stream of vapor bubbles. The device consists of an insulating annulus surrounding a thermally conductive pin 1 mm in radius. The upper surfaces of the annulus and the pin have a thin polished electro-plated copper coating. When heated from below, the pin provides a thermal conduit that creates a local hot spot on the copper surface. The majority of all bubble nucleations occur within 3 mm of the center of the pin. A thin hydrophobic coating centered on the hot spot encourages the formation of a single vapor bubble that grows to a size determined by the radius of the hydrophobic coating. When the bubble detaches from the surface, a new vapor bubble forms in the same location. High-speed video and bubble-size and thermal measurements will be presented to document the characteristics and performance of this heat transfer surface.

  8. Flow boiling heat transfer of alumina nanofluids in single microchannels and the roles of nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saeid Vafaei; Dongsheng Wen

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates flow boiling heat transfer of aqueous alumina nanofluids in single microchannels with particular focuses\\u000a on the critical heat flux (CHF) and the potential dual roles played by nanoparticles, i.e., (i) modification of the heating\\u000a surface through particle deposition and (ii) modification of bubble dynamics through particles suspended in the liquid phase.\\u000a Low concentrations of nanofluids (0.001–0.1 vol.%) are

  9. Distance Dependence of the Energy Transfer Rate from a Single Semiconductor Nanostructure to Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federspiel, François; Froehlicher, Guillaume; Nasilowski, Michel; Pedetti, Silvia; Mahmood, Ather; Doudin, Bernard; Park, Serin; Lee, Jeong-O.; Halley, David; Dubertret, Benoît; Gilliot, Pierre; Berciaud, Stéphane

    2015-02-01

    The near-field Coulomb interaction between a nano-emitter and a graphene monolayer results in strong F\\"orster-type resonant energy transfer and subsequent fluorescence quenching. Here, we investigate the distance dependence of the energy transfer rate from individual, i) zero-dimensional CdSe/CdS nanocrystals and ii) two-dimensional CdSe/CdS/ZnS nanoplatelets to a graphene monolayer. For increasing distances $d$, the energy transfer rate from individual nanocrystals to graphene decays as $1/d^4$. In contrast, the distance dependence of the energy transfer rate from a two-dimensional nanoplatelet to graphene deviates from a simple power law, but is well described by a theoretical model, which considers a thermal distribution of free excitons in a two-dimensional quantum well. Our results show that accurate distance measurements can be performed at the single particle level using graphene-based molecular rulers and that energy transfer allows probing dimensionality effects at the nanoscale.

  10. Distance dependence of the energy transfer rate from a single semiconductor nanostructure to graphene.

    PubMed

    Federspiel, François; Froehlicher, Guillaume; Nasilowski, Michel; Pedetti, Silvia; Mahmood, Ather; Doudin, Bernard; Park, Serin; Lee, Jeong-O; Halley, David; Dubertret, Benoît; Gilliot, Pierre; Berciaud, Stéphane

    2015-02-11

    The near-field Coulomb interaction between a nanoemitter and a graphene monolayer results in strong Förster-type resonant energy transfer and subsequent fluorescence quenching. Here, we investigate the distance dependence of the energy transfer rate from individual, (i) zero-dimensional CdSe/CdS nanocrystals and (ii) two-dimensional CdSe/CdS/ZnS nanoplatelets to a graphene monolayer. For increasing distances d, the energy transfer rate from individual nanocrystals to graphene decays as 1/d(4). In contrast, the distance dependence of the energy transfer rate from a two-dimensional nanoplatelet to graphene deviates from a simple power law but is well described by a theoretical model, which considers a thermal distribution of free excitons in a two-dimensional quantum well. Our results show that accurate distance measurements can be performed at the single particle level using graphene-based molecular rulers and that energy transfer allows probing dimensionality effects at the nanoscale. PMID:25607231

  11. Fast electron transfer through a single molecule natively structured redox protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Pia, Eduardo Antonio; Chi, Qijin; MacDonald, J. Emyr; Ulstrup, Jens; Jones, D. Dafydd; Elliott, Martin

    2012-10-01

    The electron transfer properties of proteins are normally measured as molecularly averaged ensembles. Through these and related measurements, proteins are widely regarded as macroscopically insulating materials. Using scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), we present new measurements of the conductance through single-molecules of the electron transfer protein cytochrome b562 in its native conformation, under pseudo-physiological conditions. This is achieved by thiol (SH) linker pairs at opposite ends of the molecule through protein engineering, resulting in defined covalent contact between a gold surface and a platinum-iridium STM tip. Two different orientations of the linkers were examined: a long-axis configuration (SH-LA) and a short-axis configuration (SH-SA). In each case, the molecular conductance could be `gated' through electrochemical control of the heme redox state. Reproducible and remarkably high conductance was observed in this relatively complex electron transfer system, with single-molecule conductance values peaking around 18 nS and 12 nS for the SH-SA and SH-LA cytochrome b562 molecules near zero electrochemical overpotential. This strongly points to the important role of the heme co-factor bound to the natively structured protein. We suggest that the two-step model of protein electron transfer in the STM geometry requires a multi-electron transfer to explain such a high conductance. The model also yields a low value for the reorganisation energy, implying that solvent reorganisation is largely absent.The electron transfer properties of proteins are normally measured as molecularly averaged ensembles. Through these and related measurements, proteins are widely regarded as macroscopically insulating materials. Using scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), we present new measurements of the conductance through single-molecules of the electron transfer protein cytochrome b562 in its native conformation, under pseudo-physiological conditions. This is achieved by thiol (SH) linker pairs at opposite ends of the molecule through protein engineering, resulting in defined covalent contact between a gold surface and a platinum-iridium STM tip. Two different orientations of the linkers were examined: a long-axis configuration (SH-LA) and a short-axis configuration (SH-SA). In each case, the molecular conductance could be `gated' through electrochemical control of the heme redox state. Reproducible and remarkably high conductance was observed in this relatively complex electron transfer system, with single-molecule conductance values peaking around 18 nS and 12 nS for the SH-SA and SH-LA cytochrome b562 molecules near zero electrochemical overpotential. This strongly points to the important role of the heme co-factor bound to the natively structured protein. We suggest that the two-step model of protein electron transfer in the STM geometry requires a multi-electron transfer to explain such a high conductance. The model also yields a low value for the reorganisation energy, implying that solvent reorganisation is largely absent. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental methods, DNA and protein sequences, additional STM statistical analysis and images, electrochemical data and It-z data analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32131a

  12. Developmental ability of chromosomally abnormal human embryos to develop to the blastocyst stage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sandalinas; S. Sadowy; M. Alikani; G. Calderon; J. Cohen

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A correlation between morphology, developmental competence and chromosome abnormalities is established. However, since absolute correlations are rare, embryo selection remains one of the most arduous tasks in assisted reproduction. This study was undertaken in order to determine which chromosomal abnormalities are compatible with development to the blastocyst stage. METHODS: Embryos diagnosed by preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) as chromosomally abnormal

  13. Individual demands of human embryos on IVF culture medium: influence on blastocyst development and pregnancy outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Wirleitner; P. Vanderzwalmen; A. Stecher; M. H. Zech; M. Zintz; N. H. Zech

    2010-01-01

    The elucidation of the metabolic requirements of human embryos in vivo or in vitro remains, despite being intensively investigated, a work in progress. The adoption of extended embryo culture to the blastocyst stage during the last decade has entailed new challenges. With the increased attention to culture media formulations, more evidence on the sensitivity of embryos to their early environmental

  14. Ultrastructural characterization of in vivo-produced ovine morulae and blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Bettencourt, E M V; Bettencourt, C M V; E Silva, J N Chagas; Ferreira, P; Oliveira, E; Romão, R; Rocha, A; Sousa, M

    2015-08-01

    The ultrastructure of in vivo-produced ovine embryos, at the morula, early blastocyst and late blastocyst stages, was evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Embryonic cells were characterized by the presence of intact intercellular junctions, numerous mitochondria, smooth endoplasmic reticulum cisternae and light vesicles. Polyribosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, secondary lysosomes, Golgi complexes and lipid droplets were also observed in the cytoplasm. The nucleus was well defined and organized, with an intact envelope rich in nuclear pore complexes, and one or more reticular nucleoli. Microvilli were present in external blastomeres of morulae and became more abundant in trophectoderm cells of early and late blastocysts. Light vesicles seemed to be associated with small cisternae of Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum origin. These cisternae fused and created light vesicles with engulfed heterogeneous cytosolic structures, small cisternae and vesicles. Their labile membrane enabled them to rapidly coalesce into medium-sized vesicles that began to engulf mitochondria and lipid droplets, forming giant vacuoles mostly filled with fat. Incomplete matured secretory vesicles were observed to exocytose into the perivitelline space of morulae, whereas fully matured secretory vesicles appeared only in trophectoderm cells, being exocytosed into the blastocoelic cavity. These observations suggested that these endoplasmic-/Golgi-derived vesicles behave as active autophagic organelles presenting probably a maturation process from compact morulae to blastocyst. PMID:25076424

  15. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PORCINE VISCERAL ENDODERM CELL LINES DERIVED FROM IN VIVO 11-DAY BLASTOCYSTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two porcine cell lines of yolk-sac visceral endoderm, designated PE-1 and PE-2, were derived from in vivo 11-day porcine blastocysts that were either ovoid (PE-1) or at the early tubular stage of elongation (PE-2). Primary and secondary culture of cell lines was done on STO feeder cells. The PE-1 ...

  16. Nitric oxide metabolite production in the human preimplantation embryo and successful blastocyst

    E-print Network

    Terasaki, Mark

    Nitric oxide metabolite production in the human preimplantation embryo and successful blastocyst. Mean nitric oxide metabolite levels in the insemination media were 2.6 times higher in embryos characteristic curves between morphological predictors and nitric oxide metabolite levels revealed a trend toward

  17. Embryonic stem cell lines from human blastocysts: somatic differentiation in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin E. Reubinoff; Chui-Yee Fong; Alan Trounson; Ariff Bongso; Martin F. Pera

    2000-01-01

    We describe the derivation of pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells from human blastocysts. Two diploid ES cell lines have been cultivated in vitro for extended periods while maintaining expression of markers characteristic of pluripotent primate cells. Human ES cells express the transcription factor Oct-4, essential for development of pluripotential cells in the mouse. When grafted into SCID mice, both lines

  18. Heat transfer enhancement due to a longitudinal vortex produced by a single winglet in a pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Oyakawa, Kenyu; Senaha, Izuru; Ishikawa, Shuji; Hokama, Mashashige

    1999-07-01

    Longitudinal vortices were artificially generated by a single winglet vortex generator in a pipe. The purpose of this study is to analyze the motion of longitudinal vortices and their effects on heat transfer enhancement. The flow pattern was visualized by means of both fluorescein and rhodamine B as traces in a water flow. The main vortex was moved spirally along the circumference and the behavior of the other vortices was observed. Streamwise and circumferential heat transfer coefficients on the wall, wall static pressure, and velocity distribution in an overall cross section were also measured for the air flow in a range of Reynolds numbers from 18,800 to 62,400. The distributions of the streamwise heat transfer coefficient had a periodic pattern, and the peaks in the distribution were circumferentially moved due to the spiral motion of the main vortex. Lastly, the relationships between the iso-velocity distribution, wall static pressure, and heat transfer characteristics was shown. In the process of forming the vortex behind the winglet vortex generator, behaviors of both the main vortex and the corner vortex were observed as streak lines. The vortex being raised along the end of the winglet, and the vortex ring being rolled up to the main vortex were newly observed. Both patterns of the streamwise velocity on a cross-section and the static pressure on the wall show good correspondences to phenomena of the main vortex spirally flowing downstream. The increased ratio of the heat transfer is similar to that of the friction factor based on the shear stress on the wall surface of the pipe. The quantitative analogy between the heat transfer and the shear stress is confirmed except for some regions, where the effects of the down-wash or blow-away of the secondary flows is caused due to the main vortex.

  19. Factors affecting the efficiency of embryo transfer in the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

    E-print Network

    Engelhardt, John F.

    Factors affecting the efficiency of embryo transfer in the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo 19 July 2005; accepted 30 October 2005 Abstract Embryo transfer (ET) to recipient females of transferred embryo were investigated. Unilateral and bilateral transfer of zygotes or blastocysts

  20. Widespread Horizontal Gene Transfer from Circular Single-stranded DNA Viruses to Eukaryotic Genomes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In addition to vertical transmission, organisms can also acquire genes from other distantly related species or from their extra-chromosomal elements (plasmids and viruses) via horizontal gene transfer (HGT). It has been suggested that phages represent substantial forces in prokaryotic evolution. In eukaryotes, retroviruses, which can integrate into host genome as an obligate step in their replication strategy, comprise approximately 8% of the human genome. Unlike retroviruses, few members of other virus families are known to transfer genes to host genomes. Results Here we performed a systematic search for sequences related to circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses in publicly available eukaryotic genome databases followed by comprehensive phylogenetic analysis. We conclude that the replication initiation protein (Rep)-related sequences of geminiviruses, nanoviruses and circoviruses have been frequently transferred to a broad range of eukaryotic species, including plants, fungi, animals and protists. Some of the transferred viral genes were conserved and expressed, suggesting that these genes have been coopted to assume cellular functions in the host genomes. We also identified geminivirus-like and parvovirus-like transposable elements in genomes of fungi and lower animals, respectively, and thereby provide direct evidence that eukaryotic transposons could derive from ssDNA viruses. Conclusions Our discovery extends the host range of circular ssDNA viruses and sheds light on the origin and evolution of these viruses. It also suggests that ssDNA viruses act as an unforeseen source of genetic innovation in their hosts. PMID:21943216

  1. Ultrafast spectroscopic signature of charge transfer between single-walled carbon nanotubes and C60.

    PubMed

    Dowgiallo, Anne-Marie; Mistry, Kevin S; Johnson, Justin C; Blackburn, Jeffrey L

    2014-08-26

    The time scales for interfacial charge separation and recombination play crucial roles in determining efficiencies of excitonic photovoltaics. Near-infrared photons are harvested efficiently by semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) paired with appropriate electron acceptors, such as fullerenes (e.g., C60). However, little is known about crucial photochemical events that occur on femtosecond to nanosecond time scales at such heterojunctions. Here, we present transient absorbance measurements that utilize a distinct spectroscopic signature of charges within SWCNTs, the absorbance of a trion quasiparticle, to measure both the ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer time (?pet) and yield (?pet) in photoexcited SWCNT–C60 bilayer films. The rise time of the trion-induced absorbance enables the determination of the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) time of ?pet ? 120 fs, while an experimentally determined trion absorbance cross section reveals the yield of charge transfer (?pet ? 38 ± 3%). The extremely fast electron transfer times observed here are on par with some of the best donor:acceptor pairs in excitonic photovoltaics and underscore the potential for efficient energy harvesting in SWCNT-based devices. PMID:25019648

  2. Single molecule studies of a ladder type conjugated polymer: vibronic spectra, line widths, and energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Zickler, Martin F; Feist, Florian A; Jacob, Josemon; Müllen, Klaus; Basché, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Confocal fluorescence microscopy and spectroscopy are employed to investigate single poly(ladder-type pentaphenylene) (LPPentP) molecules dispersed in thin poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films at 1.2 K. Emission spectra of single chains show single as well as multi-chromophore emission indicating variegated communication along the chains. The vibronic structure in the emission spectra resembles the one found for other ladder-type polymers. Purely electronic zero-phonon lines in emission are substantially broadened, most probably due to fast spectral diffusion. By surmounting the limitations of emission spectroscopy, nonemitting donor chromophores, which transfer their excitation energy in a radiationless manner to emitting chromophores, are accessed by excitation spectroscopy. Remarkably, by comparing the data of emitting and nonemitting chromophores a contribution to the zero-phonon excitation line width has to be considered which places a lower limit on the estimated energy transfer time of several picoseconds between adjacent chromophores. Finally, the data indicate qualitatively a restricted flexibility of LPPentP compared to poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV). PMID:25823880

  3. Charge Transfer in Single Chains of a Donor-Acceptor Conjugated Tri-Block Copolymer.

    PubMed

    Hooley, Emma N; Jones, David J; Greenham, Neil C; Ghiggino, Kenneth P; Bell, Toby D M

    2015-06-18

    The photophysics of a conjugated triblock copolymer comprising poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-bis-N,N'-(4-methylphenyl)-bis-N,N'-phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine) (PFM) electron donor and poly(4-(9,9-dioctyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]-thiadiazole) (F8BT) electron acceptor blocks has been studied in solution, in films, and as single chains. While an additional long-wavelength emission apparent in neat films of the copolymer is attributed to interchain exciplex formation, no such long-wavelength emission is apparent in solution or from single molecules. However, in these cases, time-resolved fluorescence measurements indicate the presence of a delayed fluorescence. The kinetics of the delayed emission can be interpreted in terms of an equilibrium between a locally excited and a charge-transfer state at the interface of the copolymer block components. Rate constants and thermodynamic quantities associated with these processes have been evaluated. The single-molecule results allow the assignment of an intramolecular charge-transfer state in an isolated conjugated block copolymer chain. PMID:25417793

  4. Pressure drop, gas hold-up and heat transfer during single and two-phase flow through porous media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jamialahmadi; H. Müller-Steinhagen; M. R. Izadpanah

    2005-01-01

    Pressure drop, bubble size, gas hold-up and convective heat transfer have been studied both experimentally and theoretically at constant wall heat flux for single and two-phase flow through unconsolidated porous media. Single-phase pressure drop and heat transfer coefficients have been measured over a wide range of particle size, heat flux and liquid flow rate. The conservation equations and the Kozeny-Carman

  5. The single-breath transfer factor for carbon monoxide and respiratory symptoms in a Norwegian community sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Welle; G. E. Eide; P. S. Bakke; A. Gulsvik

    1999-01-01

    Relationship between the single-breath transfer factor for carbon monoxide and res- piratory symptoms in a Norwegian community sample. I. Welle, G.E. Eide, P.S. Bakke, A. Gulsvik. #ERS Journals Ltd 1999. ABSTRACT: Reduced single-breath transfer factors of the lung for carbon monoxide are seen in a number of conditions. The hypothesis of the present study was that self- reported respiratory symptoms

  6. Nonenzymatic sequence-specific methyl transfer to single-stranded DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Iverson, B L; Dervan, P B

    1988-01-01

    2'-Deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate with a methylthioether moiety at the 5 position can be incorporated into a primer-template DNA complex with Klenow enzyme. Activation with CNBr at 25 degrees C, pH 5.5, followed by treatment with piperidine produces sequence-specific cleavage on the template DNA predominantly at a single guanine position. The mechanism involves methyl-group transfer from sulfur on the modified deoxyuridine of the extended primer to N-7 of guanine on the template DNA. This raises the possibility for the design and synthesis of a nonenzymatic class of sequence-specific methyltransferases for DNA. Images PMID:3387429

  7. Energy partitioning in single-electron transfer events between gaseous dications and their neutral counterparts.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    Electron-transfer reactions between hydrocarbon dications and neutral hydrocarbons lead to an unequal deposition of the excess energy from the reaction in the pair of monocations formed. The initial observation of this phenomenon was explained by the different states accessible upon single-electron capture by a dication compared to single-electron ejection from a neutral compound. Alternatively, however, isomeric structures of the dicationic species, pronounced Franck-Condon effects, as well as excess energy in the dicationic precursors could cause the asymmetric energy partitioning in such dication/neutral collisions. Here, the investigation of this phenomenon in an interdisciplinary cooperation is described, shedding light not only upon a possible solution of the problem at hand, but also providing an example for the synergistic benefits of international research networks applying complementary approaches. PMID:22641725

  8. Stress transfer in microdroplet tensile test: PVC-coated and uncoated Kevlar-29 single fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhenkun, Lei; Quan, Wang; Yilan, Kang; Wei, Qiu; Xuemin, Pan

    2010-11-01

    The single fiber/microdroplet tensile test is applied for evaluating the interfacial mechanics between a fiber and a resin substrate. It is used to investigate the influence of a polymer coating on a Kevlar-29 fiber surface, specifically the stress transfer between the fiber and epoxy resin in a microdroplet. Unlike usual tests, this new test ensures a symmetrical axial stress on the embedded fiber and reduces the stress singularity that appears at the embedded fiber entry. Using a homemade loading device, symmetrical tensile tests are performed on a Kevlar-29 fiber with or without polyvinylchloride (PVC) coating, the surface of which is in contact with two epoxy resin microdroplets during curing. Raman spectra on the embedded fiber are recorded by micro-Raman Spectroscopy under different strain levels. Then they are transformed to the distributions of fiber axis stress based on the relationship between stress and Raman shift. The Raman results reveal that the fiber axial stresses increase with the applied loads, and the antisymmetric interfacial shear stresses, obtained by a straightforward balance of shear-to-axial forces argument, lead to the appearance of shear stress concentrations at a distance to the embedded fiber entry. The load is transferred from the outer fiber to the embedded fiber in the epoxy microdroplet. As is observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), the existence of a flexible polymer coating on the fiber surface reduces the stress transfer efficiency.

  9. Accuracy evaluation and mechanism crossover of single-electron transfer in Si tunable-barrier turnstiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamahata, Gento; Nishiguchi, Katsuhiko; Fujiwara, Akira

    2014-04-01

    Using an error-counting scheme, we evaluated the accuracy of single-electron (SE) transfer in Si tunable-barrier turnstiles in a dilution refrigerator. The error counting was performed by shuttling SEs between a lead and a charge-accumulating node and detecting in real time the number of electrons in the node with an SE-resolution charge sensor. The best experimentally obtained error rate is about 100 parts per million (ppm), where the SE capture in the SE island occurs in thermal equilibrium due to the heating effect on SEs caused by pulse voltages applied to modulate the potential barrier. When we reduce the heating effect by suppressing the pulse voltages, there is a change in the SE transfer mechanism to nonequilibrium SE capture. We theoretically discuss the crossover point of the change. Moreover, at the minimum pulse voltage, the theoretical lower bound of the error rate estimated by fitting is on the order of 0.01 ppm. This suggests that Si SE-transfer devices are promising candidates for use as quantum current standards in metrology.

  10. Quick Cooling and Filling Through a Single Port for Cryogenic Transfer Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. R.; Fesmire, James E.; MacDowell, L. G. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Improved technology for the efficient transfer of cryogens is needed for future on-orbit fueling and remote Lunar/Mars operations. The cooling and filling of a liquid nitrogen (LN2) test vessel through a single port were investigated in a series of experiments. A new 'in-space' transfer tube design concept was used to demonstrate the ability to quickly cool and load cryogens through a single feed-through connection. Three different fill tube configurations with three different diameters were tested. The tubes providing the quickest cooldown time and the quickest fill time for the test article tank were determined. The results demonstrated a clear trade-off between cooling time and filling time for the optimum tube design. This experimental study is intended to improve technology for future flight tank designs by reducing fill system size, complexity, heat leak rate, and operations time. These results may be applied to Space Shuttle Power Reactant Storage and Distribution (PRSD) System upgrades and other future applications. Further study and experimental analysis for optimization of the fill tube design are in progress.

  11. Polymer Brushes on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of n-Butyl Methacrylate

    E-print Network

    Resasco, Daniel

    Polymer Brushes on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of n-mail: wtford@okstate.edu Abstract: Polymer brushes with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) as backbones were the brush preparation to control growth of the brushes and to monitor the polymerization kinetics. Size

  12. A model of groundwater seepage and heat transfer for single-well ground source heat pump systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Long Ni; Haorong Li; Yiqiang Jiang; Yang Yao; Zuiliang Ma

    2011-01-01

    In China, for the limitation of land, many buildings intending to utilize ground source heat pump systems install “single-well” systems, which drill only one well for both the pumping and reinjection of the groundwater. A model of groundwater seepage and heat transfer for single-well ground source heat pump systems has been established and validated against the experiment conducted in Denmark.

  13. Production of transgenic blastocyst of sheep by somatic cell cloning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaorong An; Kemian Gou; Yongfu Chen

    2001-01-01

    Five samples from primary cultures of five sheep ovarian granulosa cells were transfected by pEGFP-N1 DNA. Five transgenic\\u000a positive cell lines, each from one of the five samples above, were used as donor nuclei for somatic nucleus transfer. A total\\u000a of 352in vitro matured and enucleated sheep oocytes were fused electrically with transgenic granulosa cells and 329 reconstructed embryos\\u000a were

  14. Repeated growth and bubbling transfer of graphene with millimetre-size single-crystal grains using platinum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Libo Gao; Wencai Ren; Huilong Xu; Li Jin; Zhenxing Wang; Teng Ma; Lai-Peng Ma; Zhiyong Zhang; Qiang Fu; Lian-Mao Peng; Xinhe Bao; Hui-Ming Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Large single-crystal graphene is highly desired and important for the applications of graphene in electronics, as grain boundaries between graphene grains markedly degrade its quality and properties. Here we report the growth of millimetre-sized hexagonal single-crystal graphene and graphene films joined from such grains on Pt by ambient-pressure chemical vapour deposition. We report a bubbling method to transfer these single

  15. Improvement in post-thaw viability of in vitro-produced bovine blastocysts vitrified by glass micropipette (GMP).

    PubMed

    Cho, Seong-Keun; Cho, Seong-Gyun; Bae, In-Hyu; Park, Choong-Saeng; Kong, Il-Keun

    2002-10-16

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of a glass micropipette (GMP) as a vessel for vitrification of in vitro-produced (IVP) bovine blastocysts and to compare the results with post-thaw survival rate of bovine blastocysts frozen in GMP with those frozen in open pulled straw (OPS) that have been previously investigated. The GMP vessel permitted higher freezing and warming rates than the OPS due to the higher heat conductivity of the glass and the lower mass of the solution that contained the embryos. Groups of three bovine IVP blastocysts were sequentially placed into vitrification solution before being loaded into either the OPS or GMP vessels and they immersed into LN(2) within 20-25 s. Post-thaw blastocysts were serially washed in 0.25 and 0.15 M sucrose in a holding medium (HM: D-PBS supplemented with 5% FCS) and then in TCM-199 for 5 min in both cases. They was then cultured in TCM 199 supplemented with 10% FCS for 24 or 48 h. The rate of blastocyst re-expansion was significantly different between OPS (79.6%) and GMP (90.4%) methods. Neither was the hatching rate significantly different among OPS (51.8%), GMP (57.1%) methods and non-vitrified group (67.3%). Only the rate of post-thaw re-expanding of blastocysts loaded in narrow column was significantly higher than that of the wide column (83.3% versus 56.7%) (P < 0.05), although the GMP straw was loaded with three blastocysts per vessel. These results indicated that the GMP vessels provided high survival rates of bovine IVP blastocysts. The location of the embryos loaded into a narrow or wide portion was considered to be a limiting factor to the viability of bovine IVP embryos. PMID:12363439

  16. Comparison of two co-culture systems to assess the survival of in vitro produced bovine blastocysts after vitrification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kaidi; I. Donnay; A. Van Langendonckt; F. Dessy; A. Massip

    1998-01-01

    The ability of bovine blastocysts to recover after cryopreservation and thawing procedures is often assessed by evaluating their re-expansion during in vitro co-culture. However, the influence of factors such as feeder cell type and gas atmosphere on blastocyst survival and evolution have never been considered. This study therefore compared two cell co-culture systems and two different gas atmospheres to assess

  17. Single cell genomics indicates horizontal gene transfer and viral infections in a deep subsurface Firmicutes population

    PubMed Central

    Labonté, Jessica M.; Field, Erin K.; Lau, Maggie; Chivian, Dylan; Van Heerden, Esta; Wommack, K. Eric; Kieft, Thomas L.; Onstott, Tullis C.; Stepanauskas, Ramunas

    2015-01-01

    A major fraction of Earth's prokaryotic biomass dwells in the deep subsurface, where cellular abundances per volume of sample are lower, metabolism is slower, and generation times are longer than those in surface terrestrial and marine environments. How these conditions impact biotic interactions and evolutionary processes is largely unknown. Here we employed single cell genomics to analyze cell-to-cell genome content variability and signatures of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and viral infections in five cells of Candidatus Desulforudis audaxviator, which were collected from a 3 km-deep fracture water in the 2.9 Ga-old Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa. Between 0 and 32% of genes recovered from single cells were not present in the original, metagenomic assembly of Desulforudis, which was obtained from a neighboring subsurface fracture. We found a transposable prophage, a retron, multiple clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and restriction-modification systems, and an unusually high frequency of transposases in the analyzed single cell genomes. This indicates that recombination, HGT and viral infections are prevalent evolutionary events in the studied population of microorganisms inhabiting a highly stable deep subsurface environment. PMID:25954269

  18. Uptake and accumulation of tritiated uteroglobin by day-6 rabbit blastocysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Dannhorn; C. Kirchner

    1990-01-01

    Uptake of uteroglobin (UGL) by day-6 rabbit blastocysts and the intracellular fate of this protein were studied by light- and electron-microscopic autoradiography, immunocytochemistry and acid-phosphatase cytochemistry. UGL, labelled with N-succinimidyl-(2-3-3H)-propionate, was administered to embryos in vitro for 15 min to 4 h. The kinetics, determined from light-microscopic autoradiographs, showed a continuous uptake of the labeled protein over a 4-h period

  19. Evaluation of a laser technique to isolate the inner cell mass of murine blastocysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Cobo; Purificaci ´ on Catalina; Ana Nieto; Carmen Cabrera; Rosa Montes; Ángel Concha; Pablo Menendez

    2007-01-01

    hESCs (human embryonic stem cells) are pluripotent cells derived from the ICM (inner cell mass) of blastocysts that can be used to derive several kinds of cells of the human body for the treatment of some previously untreated diseases. In considering the future use of hESCs in regenerative medicine and cell-therapy programmes, several research centres have begun projects involving the

  20. Effects of culture milieus on the development of mouse blastocysts in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernhard H. J. Juurlink; Sergey Fedoroff

    1977-01-01

    Summary  Various culture milieus were examined for their support of mouse blastocyst development. Two important variables were the\\u000a time at which human cord serum was added to the medium and the concentration of amino acids. In the best medium, Eagle's Minimum\\u000a Essential Medium (fortified with six times the usual amino-acid concentration plus 20% fetal bovine serum, replaced after\\u000a 48 hr with

  1. Resveratrol Protects against 2-Bromopropane-Induced Apoptosis and Disruption of Embryonic Development in Blastocysts

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wen-Hsiung

    2011-01-01

    2-Bromopropane (2-BP) is used as an alternative to ozone-depleting cleaning solvents. Previously, we reported that 2-BP has cytotoxic effects on mouse blastocysts and is associated with defects in subsequent development. In the present work, we show that 2-BP induces apoptosis in the inner cell mass of mouse blastocysts, and inhibits cell proliferation. Both effects are suppressed by resveratrol, a grape-derived phytoalexin with known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. 2-BP-treated blastocysts displayed lower levels of implantation (compared to controls) when plated on culture dishes in vitro, and a reduced ability to proceed to later stages of embryonic development. Pretreatment with resveratrol prevented 2-BP-induced disruption of embryonic development, both in vitro and in vivo. Further investigation of these processes revealed that 2-BP directly promotes ROS generation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and activation of caspase-3, whereas resveratrol effectively blocks 2-BP-induced ROS production and the accompanying apoptotic biochemical changes. Our results collectively imply that 2-BP triggers the mitochondrion-dependent apoptotic pathway via ROS generation, and the antioxidant activity of resveratrol prevents 2-BP-induced toxicity. PMID:21954340

  2. Resveratrol protects against 2-bromopropane-induced apoptosis and disruption of embryonic development in blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wen-Hsiung

    2011-01-01

    2-Bromopropane (2-BP) is used as an alternative to ozone-depleting cleaning solvents. Previously, we reported that 2-BP has cytotoxic effects on mouse blastocysts and is associated with defects in subsequent development. In the present work, we show that 2-BP induces apoptosis in the inner cell mass of mouse blastocysts, and inhibits cell proliferation. Both effects are suppressed by resveratrol, a grape-derived phytoalexin with known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. 2-BP-treated blastocysts displayed lower levels of implantation (compared to controls) when plated on culture dishes in vitro, and a reduced ability to proceed to later stages of embryonic development. Pretreatment with resveratrol prevented 2-BP-induced disruption of embryonic development, both in vitro and in vivo. Further investigation of these processes revealed that 2-BP directly promotes ROS generation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and activation of caspase-3, whereas resveratrol effectively blocks 2-BP-induced ROS production and the accompanying apoptotic biochemical changes. Our results collectively imply that 2-BP triggers the mitochondrion-dependent apoptotic pathway via ROS generation, and the antioxidant activity of resveratrol prevents 2-BP-induced toxicity. PMID:21954340

  3. Photoinduced charge transfer and acetone sensitivity of single-walled carbon nanotube-titanium dioxide hybrids.

    PubMed

    Ding, Mengning; Sorescu, Dan C; Star, Alexander

    2013-06-19

    The unique physical and chemical properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) make them ideal building blocks for the construction of hybrid nanostructures. In addition to increasing the material complexity and functionality, SWNTs can probe the interfacial processes in the hybrid system. In this work, SWNT-TiO2 core/shell hybrid nanostructures were found to exhibit unique electrical behavior in response to UV illumination and acetone vapors. By experimental and theoretical studies of UV and acetone sensitivities of different SWNT-TiO2 hybrid systems, we established a fundamental understanding on the interfacial charge transfer between photoexcited TiO2 and SWNTs as well as the mechanism of acetone sensing. We further demonstrated a practical application of photoinduced acetone sensitivity by fabricating a microsized room temperature acetone sensor that showed fast, linear, and reversible detection of acetone vapors with concentrations in few parts per million range. PMID:23734594

  4. Impact of a single base pair substitution on the charge transfer rate along short DNA hairpins

    PubMed Central

    Renaud, Nicolas; Berlin, Yuri A.; Ratner, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical studies of hole migration along short DNA hairpins were performed with a particular emphasis on the variations of the rate and quantum yield of the charge separation process with the location of a single guanine:cytosine (G:C) base pair. Our calculations show that the hole arrival rate increases as the position of the guanine:cytosine base pair shifts from the beginning to the end of the sequence. Although these results are in agreement with recent experimental findings, the mechanism governing the charge migration along these sequences is revisited here. Instead of the phenomenological two-step hopping mechanism via the guanine base, the charge propagation occurs through a delocalization of the hole density along the base pair stack. Furthermore, the variations of the charge transfer with the position of the guanine base are explained by the impact of the base pair substitutions on the delocalized conduction channels. PMID:23980166

  5. Accuracy of two-way time transfer via a single coaxial cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pánek, Petr; Kodet, Jan; Procházka, Ivan

    2013-02-01

    In order to find limits of the accuracy of the two-way time transfer (TWTT) via a single coaxial cable, we have carried out a detailed analysis which is presented in this paper. We applied the TWTT concept when a transmission line is driven by pulse current drivers and the times of arrival of the pulses are measured at the ends of the line. In addition to the estimation of the accuracy, the analysis provides several rules for proper design of a TWTT system with optimal performance. Based on this concept, a TWTT system for highly accurate time distribution or comparison has been designed and realized. For distances up to 1 km the accuracy was better than 100 ps without any additional correction or adjustment. After the influence of the non-symmetry of input-output circuits was corrected, the errors were lower than 20 ps for distances up to 2 km. The TWTT system is designated for keeping unified time in a net of event timers distributed in one building or in a relatively small area. The timing units forming the system guarantee the time transfer parallel to the time tagging of external pulses.

  6. Raman spectroscopy of charge transfer interactions between single wall carbon nanotubes and [FeFe] hydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Jeffrey L; Svedruzic, Drazenka; McDonald, Timothy J; Kim, Yong-Hyun; King, Paul W; Heben, Michael J

    2008-10-28

    We report a Raman spectroscopy study of charge transfer interactions in complexes formed by single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and [FeFe] hydrogenase I (CaHydI) from Clostridium acetobutylicum. The choice of Raman excitation wavelength and sample preparation conditions allows differences to be observed for complexes involving metallic (m) and semiconducting (s) species. Adsorbed CaHydI can reversibly inject electronic charge into the LUMOs of s-SWNTs, while charge can be injected and removed from m-SWNTs at lower potentials just above the Fermi energy. Time-dependent enzymatic assays demonstrated that the reduced and oxidized forms of CaHydI are deactivated by oxygen, but at rates that varied by an order of magnitude. The time evolution of the oxidative decay of the CaHydI activity reveals different time constants when complexed with m-SWNTs and s-SWNTs. The correlation of enzymatic assays with time-dependent Raman spectroscopy provides a novel method by which the charge transfer interactions may be investigated in the various SWNT-CaHydI complexes. Surprisingly, an oxidized form of CaHydI is apparently more resistant to oxygen deactivation when complexed to m-SWNTs rather than s-SWNTs. PMID:19082027

  7. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Alter Cytochrome C Electron Transfer and Modulate Mitochondrial Function

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaowei; Zhang, Li-Hua; Wang, Li-Rong; Xue, Xue; Sun, Ji-Hong; Wu, Yan; Zou, Guozhang; Wu, Xia; Wang, Paul C.; Wamer, Wayne G.; Yin, Jun-Jie; Zheng, Kaiyuan; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are broadly used for various biomedical applications such as drug delivery, in vivo imaging and cancer photothermal therapy due to their unique physiochemical properties. However, once they enter the cells, the effects of SWCNTs to the intracellular organelles and macromolecules are not comprehensively understood. Cytochrome c (Cyt c), as a key component of the electron transport chain in mitochondria, plays an essential role in cellular energy consumption, growth and differentiation. In this study, we found the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and mitochondrial oxygen uptake were greatly decreased in human epithelial KB cells treated with SWCNTs, which accompanies the reduction of Cyt c. SWCNTs deoxidized Cyt c in a pH dependent manner as evidenced by the appearance of a 550 nm characteristic absorption peak, which intensity increased as pH increase. Circular dichroism measurement confirmed the pH-dependent conformational change, which facilitated closer association of SWCNTs with the heme pocket of Cyt c and thus expedited the reduction of Cyt c. The electron transfer of Cyt c is also disturbed by SWCNTs, as measured with electron spin resonance spectroscopy. In conclusion, the redox activity of Cyt c was affected by SWCNTs treatment due to attenuated electron transfer and conformational change of Cyt c, which consequently changed mitochondrial respiration of SWCNTs treated cells. This work is significant to SWCNTs research because it provided novel understanding to the disruption of SWCNTs to the mitochondria and has important implications for biomedical applications of SWCNTs. PMID:23171082

  8. Assessment of the effectiveness of nanofluids for single-phase and two-phase heat transfer in micro-channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaeseon Lee; Issam Mudawar

    2007-01-01

    Experiments were performed to explore the micro-channel cooling benefits of water-based nanofluids containing small concentrations of Al2O3. The high thermal conductivity of nanoparticles is shown to enhance the single-phase heat transfer coefficient, especially for laminar flow. Higher heat transfer coefficients were achieved mostly in the entrance region of micro-channels. However, the enhancement was weaker in the fully developed region, proving

  9. Ultrafast single-electron transfer in coupled quantum dots driven by a few-cycle chirped pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Wen-Xing, E-mail: wenxingyang2@126.com [Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Institute of Photonics Technologies, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ai-Xi [Department of Applied Physics, School of Basic Science, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang 330013 (China); Bai, Yanfeng [Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Lee, Ray-Kuang [Institute of Photonics Technologies, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2014-04-14

    We theoretically study the ultrafast transfer of a single electron between the ground states of a coupled double quantum dot (QD) structure driven by a nonlinear chirped few-cycle laser pulse. A time-dependent Schrödinger equation without the rotating wave approximation is solved numerically. We demonstrate numerically the possibility to have a complete transfer of a single electron by choosing appropriate values of chirped rate parameters and the intensity of the pulse. Even in the presence of the spontaneous emission and dephasing processes of the QD system, high-efficiency coherent transfer of a single electron can be obtained in a wide range of the pulse parameters. Our results illustrate the potential to utilize few-cycle pulses for the excitation in coupled quantum dot systems through the nonlinear chirp parameter control, as well as a guidance in the design of experimental implementation.

  10. Toward automated denoising of single molecular Fo?rster resonance energy transfer data.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hao-Chih; Lin, Bo-Lin; Chang, Wei-Hau; Tu, I-Ping

    2012-01-01

    A wide-field two-channel fluorescence microscope is a powerful tool as it allows for the study of conformation dynamics of hundreds to thousands of immobilized single molecules by Fo?rster resonance energy transfer (FRET) signals. To date, the data reduction from a movie to a final set containing meaningful single-molecule FRET (smFRET) traces involves human inspection and intervention at several critical steps, greatly hampering the efficiency at the post-imaging stage. To facilitate the data reduction from smFRET movies to smFRET traces and to address the noise-limited issues, we developed a statistical denoising system toward fully automated processing. This data reduction system has embedded several novel approaches. First, as to background subtraction, high-order singular value decomposition (HOSVD) method is employed to extract spatial and temporal features. Second, to register and map the two color channels, the spots representing bleeding through the donor channel to the acceptor channel are used. Finally, correlation analysis and likelihood ratio statistic for the change point detection (CPD) are developed to study the two channels simultaneously, resolve FRET states, and report the dwelling time of each state. The performance of our method has been checked using both simulation and real data. PMID:22352641

  11. Drug transport mechanism of P-glycoprotein monitored by single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, S.; Verhalen, B.; Zarrabi, N.; Wilkens, S.; Börsch, M.

    2011-03-01

    In this work we monitor the catalytic mechanism of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Pgp, a member of the ATP binding cassette family of transport proteins, is found in the plasma membrane of animal cells where it is involved in the ATP hydrolysis driven export of hydrophobic molecules. When expressed in the plasma membrane of cancer cells, the transport activity of Pgp can lead to the failure of chemotherapy by excluding the mostly hydrophobic drugs from the interior of the cell. Despite ongoing effort, the catalytic mechanism by which Pgp couples MgATP binding and hydrolysis to translocation of drug molecules across the lipid bilayer is poorly understood. Using site directed mutagenesis, we have introduced cysteine residues for fluorescence labeling into different regions of the nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) of Pgp. Double-labeled single Pgp molecules showed fluctuating FRET efficiencies during drug stimulated ATP hydrolysis suggesting that the NBDs undergo significant movements during catalysis. Duty cycle-optimized alternating laser excitation (DCO-ALEX) is applied to minimize FRET artifacts and to select the appropriate molecules. The data show that Pgp is a highly dynamic enzyme that appears to fluctuate between at least two major conformations during steady state turnover.

  12. Miniature fiber optic spectrometer-based quantitative fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurement in single living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Liuying; Zhang, Jianwei; Zhang, Lili; Chen, Tongsheng

    2015-03-01

    Spectral measurement of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), spFRET, is a widely used FRET quantification method in living cells today. We set up a spectrometer-microscope platform that consists of a miniature fiber optic spectrometer and a widefield fluorescence microscope for the spectral measurement of absolute FRET efficiency (E) and acceptor-to-donor concentration ratio (RC) in single living cells. The microscope was used for guiding cells and the spectra were simultaneously detected by the miniature fiber optic spectrometer. Moreover, our platform has independent excitation and emission controllers, so different excitations can share the same emission channel. In addition, we developed a modified spectral FRET quantification method (mlux-FRET) for the multiple donors and multiple acceptors FRET construct (mD˜nA) sample, and we also developed a spectra-based 2-channel acceptor-sensitized FRET quantification method (spE-FRET). We implemented these modified FRET quantification methods on our platform to measure the absolute E and RC values of tandem constructs with different acceptor/donor stoichiometries in single living Huh-7 cells.

  13. A transferable H2O interaction potential based on a single center multipole expansion: SCME.

    PubMed

    Wikfeldt, K T; Batista, E R; Vila, F D; Jónsson, H

    2013-10-21

    A transferable potential energy function for describing the interaction between water molecules is presented. The electrostatic interaction is described rigorously using a multipole expansion. Only one expansion center is used per molecule to avoid the introduction of monopoles. This single center approach turns out to converge and give close agreement with ab initio calculations when carried out up to and including the hexadecapole. Both dipole and quadrupole polarizability are included. All parameters in the electrostatic interaction as well as the dispersion interaction are taken from ab initio calculations or experimental measurements of a single water molecule. The repulsive part of the interaction is parametrized to fit ab initio calculations of small water clusters and experimental measurements of ice Ih. The parametrized potential function was then used to simulate liquid water and the results agree well with experiment, even better than simulations using some of the point charge potentials fitted to liquid water. The evaluation of the new interaction potential for condensed phases is fast because point charges are not present and the interaction can, to a good approximation, be truncated at a finite range. PMID:23949215

  14. Single-embryo transfer reduces clinical pregnancy rates and live births in fresh IVF and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) cycles: a meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo LR Baruffi; Ana L Mauri; Claudia G Petersen; Andréia Nicoletti; Anagloria Pontes; João Batista A Oliveira; José G Franco Jr

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has become an accepted procedure to transfer more than one embryo to the patient to achieve acceptable ongoing pregnancy rates. However, transfers of more than a single embryo increase the probability of establishing a multiple gestation. Single-embryo transfer can minimize twin pregnancies but may also lower live birth rates. This meta-analysis aimed to compare current data on single-embryo

  15. Metabolic Induction and Early Responses of Mouse Blastocyst Developmental Programming following Maternal Low Protein Diet Affecting Life-Long Health

    PubMed Central

    Eckert, Judith J.; Porter, Richard; Watkins, Adam J.; Burt, Elizabeth; Brooks, Suzanne; Leese, Henry J.; Humpherson, Peter G.; Cameron, Iain T.; Fleming, Tom P.

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that a maternal low protein diet, fed exclusively during the preimplantation period of mouse development (Emb-LPD), is sufficient to induce by the blastocyst stage a compensatory growth phenotype in late gestation and postnatally, correlating with increased risk of adult onset cardiovascular disease and behavioural dysfunction. Here, we examine mechanisms of induction of maternal Emb-LPD programming and early compensatory responses by the embryo. Emb-LPD induced changes in maternal serum metabolites at the time of blastocyst formation (E3.5), notably reduced insulin and increased glucose, together with reduced levels of free amino acids (AAs) including branched chain AAs leucine, isoleucine and valine. Emb-LPD also caused reduction in the branched chain AAs within uterine fluid at the blastocyst stage. These maternal changes coincided with an altered content of blastocyst AAs and reduced mTORC1 signalling within blastocysts evident in reduced phosphorylation of effector S6 ribosomal protein and its ratio to total S6 protein but no change in effector 4E-BP1 phosphorylated and total pools. These changes were accompanied by increased proliferation of blastocyst trophectoderm and total cells and subsequent increased spreading of trophoblast cells in blastocyst outgrowths. We propose that induction of metabolic programming following Emb-LPD is achieved through mTORC1signalling which acts as a sensor for preimplantation embryos to detect maternal nutrient levels via branched chain AAs and/or insulin availability. Moreover, this induction step associates with changes in extra-embryonic trophectoderm behaviour occurring as early compensatory responses leading to later nutrient recovery. PMID:23300778

  16. Spin transfer and current-induced switching in a ferromagnetic single-electron transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalil, M. B. A.; Tan, S. G.

    2005-12-01

    We propose a theoretical model of current-induced magnetization (CIMS) switching in a ferromagnetic single electron tunneling (FM-SET) transistor. The CIMS effect arises from the transfer of spin angular momentum from the net spin accumulation ?S on the island electrode to the local magnetic moments via s-d exchange coupling. Based on the single-domain model, we derive an analytical expression for the critical spin accumulation ?Ssw on the island for CIMS, and calculate the M-?S hysteresis curves which represent the effect of ?S on the island moments. This magnetization response is then related to the charge and spin transport model in the SET transistor. We extend the Korotkov scheme spin-dependent “orthodox” theory of single charge tunneling, by linking the transport I-V and ?S-V characteristics to the M-?S hysteresis. We thus determine ?S as a function of external bias or current and hence obtain the switching current density jsw for CIMS. For a typical spin polarization P=60% of the source electrode, jsw is calculated to be of the order of 105A/cm2 , and this falls to just ˜3×104A/cm2 when a near half-metal (P=90%) is used. This value is several orders of magnitude smaller than jsw observed in multilayer and magnetic tunnel junction structures. The SET transistor is an ideal device for the CIMS effect since (i) a small amount of moments (on the island) need to be switched to generate a large change in conduction and (ii) the island electrode being isolated from the rest of the circuit by spin-dependent tunnel barriers effectively confines the spin accumulation ?S in the vicinity of these moments.

  17. Repeated growth and bubbling transfer of graphene with millimetre-size single-crystal grains using platinum

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Libo; Ren, Wencai; Xu, Huilong; Jin, Li; Wang, Zhenxing; Ma, Teng; Ma, Lai-Peng; Zhang, Zhiyong; Fu, Qiang; Peng, Lian-Mao; Bao, Xinhe; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Large single-crystal graphene is highly desired and important for the applications of graphene in electronics, as grain boundaries between graphene grains markedly degrade its quality and properties. Here we report the growth of millimetre-sized hexagonal single-crystal graphene and graphene films joined from such grains on Pt by ambient-pressure chemical vapour deposition. We report a bubbling method to transfer these single graphene grains and graphene films to arbitrary substrate, which is nondestructive not only to graphene, but also to the Pt substrates. The Pt substrates can be repeatedly used for graphene growth. The graphene shows high crystal quality with the reported lowest wrinkle height of 0.8 nm and a carrier mobility of greater than 7,100 cm2 V?1 s?1 under ambient conditions. The repeatable growth of graphene with large single-crystal grains on Pt and its nondestructive transfer may enable various applications. PMID:22426220

  18. Origin of stray grain formation in single-crystal superalloy weld pools from heat transfer and fluid flow modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. D. Anderson; J. N. DuPont; T. DebRoy

    2010-01-01

    Stray grain formation in laser and electron beam welds on single-crystal alloy CMSX-4 was investigated through heat transfer and fluid flow simulations. The results were combined with a single-crystal growth model and stray grain calculations to investigate the influence of welding parameters on stray grain formation. Stray grain contents were also experimentally measured on laser and electron beam welds prepared

  19. NUMERICAL STUDY OF HEAT TRANSFER OF A SINGLE U-TUBE IN VERTICAL GROUND-COUPLED HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C F Ma; Y T Wu

    The heat transfer rate of a single U-tube ground heat exchanger was studied numerically. First, a 3D 60-m full scale computational model of a working single U-tube ground heat exchanger was built and numerical simulation was performed. The simulation was validated by comparing numerically calculated results with experimental results. After that, two models are built to compute the heat extraction

  20. Establishment of a single-step hybridoma cloning protocol using an automated cell transfer system: comparison with limiting dilution.

    PubMed

    Wewetzer, K; Seilheimer, B

    1995-02-13

    An easy-to-standardize single-step protocol of hybridoma cloning has been established using a recently introduced, commercially available cell transfer system. By controlling the volume of air within a sealed glass micropipette by means of a Peltier device, single cells are gently collected or ejected. The transfer of cells from a source dish to the wells of a target microplate is controlled by a microprocessor. Since collection as well as expulsion of cells is done under microscopic control seeding of single cells can be guaranteed. Monoclonality is therefore reproducibly achieved in a single step, reducing the time required for cloning enormously, and conserving man-power and material. Since the automated transfer of cells is time-saving and easy-to-standardize, it substantially facilitates cloning of hybridoma. The present protocol therefore represents an alternative to limiting-dilution cloning as well as to other previously introduced techniques of single-cell cloning. It is easily adapted to a wide spectrum of other cell types and can therefore be used in many other applications involving single cell manipulation. PMID:7868926

  1. Effects of Trichostatin A on In vitro Development of Porcine Embryos Derived from Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Yeon Ik; Park, Chi Hun; Kim, Huen Suk; Jeong, Yeon Woo; Lee, Jong Yun; Park, Sun Woo; Lee, Se Yeong; Hyun, Sang Hwan; Kim, Yeun Wook; Shin, Taeyoung; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2013-01-01

    Many different approaches have been developed to improve the efficiency of animal cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), one of which is to modify histone acetylation levels using histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) such as trichostatin A (TSA). In the present study, we examined the effect of TSA on in vitro development of porcine embryos derived from SCNT. We found that TSA treatment (50 nM) for 24 h following oocyte activation improved blastocyst formation rates (to 22.0%) compared with 8.9% in the non-treatment group and total cell number of the blastocysts for determining embryo quality also increased significantly (88.9?114.4). Changes in histone acetylation levels as a result of TSA treatment were examined using indirect immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy scanning. Results showed that the histone acetylation level in TSA-treated embryos was higher than that in controls at both acetylated histone H3 lysine 9 (AcH3K9) and acetylated histone H4 lysine 12 (AcH4K12). Next, we compared the expression patterns of seven genes (OCT4, ID1; the pluripotent genes, H19, NNAT, PEG1; the imprinting genes, cytokeratin 8 and 18; the trophoblast marker genes). The SCNT blastocysts both with and without TSA treatment showed lower levels of OCT4, ID1, cytokeratin 8 and 18 than those of the in vivo blastocysts. In the case of the imprinting genes H19 and NNAT, except PEG1, the SCNT blastocysts both with and without TSA treatment showed higher levels than those of the in vivo blastocysts. Although the gene expression patterns between cloned blastocysts and their in vivo counterparts were different regardless of TSA treatment, it appears that several genes in NT blastocysts after TSA treatment showed a slight tendency toward expression patterns of in vivo blastocysts. Our results suggest that TSA treatment may improve preimplantation porcine embryo development following SCNT. PMID:25049758

  2. DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201300760 Single-Molecule Metal-Induced Energy Transfer (smMIET)

    E-print Network

    Enderlein, Jörg

    DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201300760 Single-Molecule Metal-Induced Energy Transfer (smMIET): Resolving the size of its image on the detector, that is, the point- spread function (PSF) of the microscope.[6 of the detector. Under typical conditions, at room temperature, and by using conventional organic fluoro- phores

  3. Inner-Sphere Electron-Transfer Single Iodide Mechanism for Dye Regeneration in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    Goddard III, William A.

    the regeneration of the oxidized dye in dye-sensitized solar cells, the redox couple of I- /I3 - reduces the photo dye- sensitized solar cell (DSSC) in 1991,1 DSSCs have been considered as promising alternativesInner-Sphere Electron-Transfer Single Iodide Mechanism for Dye Regeneration in Dye-Sensitized Solar

  4. Transfer-matrix simulations of electronic transport in single-wall and multi-wall carbon nanotubes

    E-print Network

    Mayer, Alexandre

    transport properties of carbon nano- tubes are another interesting aspect of these structures (see [7 law [1­4] with an emitter work function around 5eV depending on the type of nano- tube. They are alsoTransfer-matrix simulations of electronic transport in single-wall and multi-wall carbon nanotubes

  5. Dimensional feature weighting utilizing multiple kernel learning for single-channel talker location discrimination using the acoustic transfer function.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Ryoichi; Takiguchi, Tetsuya; Ariki, Yasuo

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents a method for discriminating the location of the sound source (talker) using only a single microphone. In a previous work, the single-channel approach for discriminating the location of the sound source was discussed, where the acoustic transfer function from a user's position is estimated by using a hidden Markov model of clean speech in the cepstral domain. In this paper, each cepstral dimension of the acoustic transfer function is newly weighted, in order to obtain the cepstral dimensions having information that is useful for classifying the user's position. Then, this paper proposes a feature-weighting method for the cepstral parameter using multiple kernel learning, defining the base kernels for each cepstral dimension of the acoustic transfer function. The user's position is trained and classified by support vector machine. The effectiveness of this method has been confirmed by sound source (talker) localization experiments performed in different room environments. PMID:23363107

  6. Direct transfer of bovine embryos frozen-thawed in the presence of propylene glycol or ethylene glycol under on-farm conditions in an integrated embryo transfer program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O Dochi; Y Yamamoto; H Saga; N Yoshiba; N Kano; J Maeda; K Miyata; A Yamauchi; K Tominaga; Y Oda; T Nakashima; S Inohae

    1998-01-01

    An integrated bovine embryo transfer program was conducted in collaboration with 11 Japanese prefectural livestock experiment stations. The program was conducted to evaluate the practicability of the direct transfer method for bovine embryos frozen-thawed in the presence of propylene glycol (PG) or ethylene glycol (EG) under on-farm conditions. Embryos at the compacted morula to expanded blastocyst stages were collected from

  7. Mediated Electron Transfer at Vertically Aligned Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Electrodes During Detection of DNA Hybridization.

    PubMed

    Wallen, Rachel; Gokarn, Nirmal; Bercea, Priscila; Grzincic, Elissa; Bandyopadhyay, Krisanu

    2015-12-01

    Vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotube (VASWCNT) assemblies are generated on cysteamine and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME)-functionalized gold surfaces through amide bond formation between carboxylic groups generated at the end of acid-shortened single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and amine groups present on the gold surfaces. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging confirms the vertical alignment mode of SWCNT attachment through significant changes in surface roughness compared to bare gold surfaces and the lack of any horizontally aligned SWCNTs present. These SWCNT assemblies are further modified with an amine-terminated single-stranded probe-DNA. Subsequent hybridization of the surface-bound probe-DNA in the presence of complementary strands in solution is followed using impedance measurements in the presence of Fe(CN)6 (3-/4-) as the redox probe in solution, which show changes in the interfacial electrochemical properties, specifically the charge-transfer resistance, due to hybridization. In addition, hybridization of the probe-DNA is also compared when it is attached directly to the gold surfaces without any intermediary SWCNTs. Contrary to our expectations, impedance measurements show a decrease in charge-transfer resistance with time due to hybridization with 300 nM complementary DNA in solution with the probe-DNA attached to SWCNTs. In contrast, an increase in charge-transfer resistance is observed with time during hybridization when the probe-DNA is attached directly to the gold surfaces. The decrease in charge-transfer resistance during hybridization in the presence of VASWCNTs indicates an enhancement in the electron transfer process of the redox probe at the VASWCNT-modified electrode. The results suggest that VASWCNTs are acting as mediators of electron transfer, which facilitate the charge transfer of the redox probe at the electrode-solution interface. PMID:26105789

  8. Development of a Novel Bidimensional Spectroelectrochemistry Cell Using Transfer Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Films as Optically Transparent Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Garoz-Ruiz, Jesus; Heras, Aranzazu; Palmero, Susana; Colina, Alvaro

    2015-06-16

    A really easy method to transfer commercial single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) to different substrates is proposed. In this paper, a homogeneous transference of SWCNTs films to nonconductor and transparent supports, such as polyethylene terephthalate, glass, and quartz, and to conductor supports, such as indium tin oxide, aluminum, highly ordered pyrolytic graphite, and glassy carbon, was achieved using a very fast, reproducible, and clean methodology. In order to test these transferences, SWCNTs films transferred on quartz were used as working optically UV-vis transparent electrodes due to their optimal electrical and optical properties. A new easy-to-use, homemade optical fiber based cell for bidimensional spectroelectrochemistry was developed, offering the possibility to measure in normal and parallel configuration. The cell was tested with ferrocenemethanol, a compound widely used in electrochemistry but scarcely studied by spectroelectrochemistry, covering the UV-vis spectral region. PMID:25989247

  9. Comparison of blastocyst and Sage media for in vitro maturation of human immature oocytes.

    PubMed

    Pongsuthirak, Pallop; Songveeratham, Sorramon; Vutyavanich, Teraporn

    2015-03-01

    In vitro maturation (IVM) of human oocytes is an attractive alternative to conventional assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment, as it involves no or minimal ovarian stimulation. Currently, commercialized media specifically designed for IVM are often used. These media are expensive, have limited shelf life, and must be ordered in advance. If standard culture media can be used in place of the specialized IVM media, it would simplify management and make IVM more feasible and more widely employed in ART centers around the world, especially in developing countries where resources are scarce. This study was, therefore, conducted to test the hypothesis that blastocyst medium was as good as commercial IVM medium to support maturation and developmental competence of human immature oocytes as previously shown in the mouse system. Immature oocytes were obtained by needle aspiration from 89 pregnant women during cesarean deliveries between April 2012 and February 2013. Sibling oocytes were allocated to Sage IVM media (512 oocytes) or blastocyst medium (520 oocytes) and assessed for maturation 36 hours later. Mature oocytes were inseminated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection and cultured up to 144 hours. There was no difference in maturation rate (65.0% vs 68.7%; P = .218) or fertilization rate (66.9% vs 66.4%; P = .872) of oocytes matured in vitro in both media. There was also no difference in the formation of good-quality blastocysts (46.6% vs 45.9%; P = .889) in the 2 groups. Further study should be done to ascertain implantation and pregnancy potential of these embryos. PMID:25015901

  10. Construction of a mouse blastocyst cDNA library by PCR amplification from total RNA.

    PubMed

    Corrick, C M; Silvestro, M J; Lahoud, M H; Allen, G J; Tymms, M J; Kola, I

    1996-01-01

    Studies of the development and differentiation of early mammalian embryos have been severely limited by the paucity of material. Such studies have been largely restricted to the examination of abundant genes/proteins or to developmental expression studies of known genes for which DNA sequence data are available, allowing the use of reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction amplification (RT-PCR). To eliminate the need for hundreds or thousands of oocytes or embryos in the construction of representative cDNA libraries, we describe a technique for generating and cloning cDNA using small caesium chloride gradient centrifugation to isolate total RNA from oocytes or embryos, followed by RT-PCR of mRNA from this total RNA. Total RNA was isolated from 70 mouse blastocysts. A portion of the cDNA generated (equivalent to seven blastocysts) was cloned, yielding a mouse blastocyst cDNA library of 1 million clones. We show that the library is representative in that it contains beta-actin, intracisternal A-type particles, tissue plasminogen activator, and B1 and B2 repetitive elements in frequencies comparable with published data from conventionally constructed libraries and estimates of mRNA abundance from expression studies. Furthermore, DNA sequencing of 22 clones chosen at random and compared with DNA sequence databases shows that approximately half are novel sequences. These data demonstrate that representative cDNA libraries can be constructed in situations where cell numbers are limiting and will facilitate the isolation of novel and interesting clones. PMID:8720109

  11. Investigating photoinduced charge transfer in double- and single-emission PbS@CdS core@shell quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haiguang; Liang, Hongyan; Gonfa, Belete Atomsa; Chaker, Mohamed; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki; Tijssen, Peter; Vidal, François; Ma, Dongling

    2014-01-01

    We present for the first time detailed investigation of the charge transfer behavior of PbS@CdS core@shell quantum dots (QDs) showing either a single emission peak from the core or intriguing double emission peaks from the core and shell, respectively. A highly non-concentric core@shell structure model was proposed to explain the origin of double emissions from monodisperse QDs. Their charge transfer behavior was investigated by monitoring photoluminescence (PL) intensity variation with the introduction of electron or hole scavengers. It was found that the PL quenching of the PbS core is more efficient than that of the CdS shell, suggesting more efficient charge transfer from the core to scavengers, although the opposite was expected. Further measurements of the PL lifetime followed by wave function calculations disclosed that the time scale is the critical factor explaining the more efficient charge transfer from the core than from the shell. The charge transfer behavior was also examined on a series of single-emission core@shell QDs with either different core sizes or different shell thicknesses and dominant factors were identified. Towards photovoltaic applications, these PbS@CdS QDs were attached onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and their charge transfer behavior was compared with that in the PbS-QD/MWCNT system. Results demonstrate that although the CdS shell serves as an electron transfer barrier, the electrons excited in the PbS cores can still be transferred into the MWCNTs efficiently when the shell thickness is ?0.7 nm. Considering their higher stability, these core@shell QDs are very promising for the development of highly efficient QD-based photovoltaic devices. PMID:24132400

  12. Single-molecule-sensitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer in freely-diffusing attoliter droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmanseresht, Sheema; Milas, Peker; Ramos, Kieran P.; Gamari, Ben D.; Goldner, Lori S.

    2015-05-01

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from individual, dye-labeled RNA molecules confined in freely-diffusing attoliter-volume aqueous droplets is carefully compared to FRET from unconfined RNA in solution. The use of freely-diffusing droplets is a remarkably simple and high-throughput technique that facilitates a substantial increase in signal-to-noise for single-molecular-pair FRET measurements. We show that there can be dramatic differences between FRET in solution and in droplets, which we attribute primarily to an altered pH in the confining environment. We also demonstrate that a sufficient concentration of a non-ionic surfactant mitigates this effect and restores FRET to its neutral-pH solution value. At low surfactant levels, even accounting for pH, we observe differences between the distribution of FRET values in solution and in droplets which remain unexplained. Our results will facilitate the use of nanoemulsion droplets as attoliter volume reactors for use in biophysical and biochemical assays, and also in applications such as protein crystallization or nanoparticle synthesis, where careful attention to the pH of the confined phase is required.

  13. High-resolution single-neutron transfer measurements in 131Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bey, A.; Jones, K. L.; Ayres, A.; Ahn, S. H.; Allmond, J. M.; Bardayan, D. W.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Liang, J. F.; Nesaraja, C. D.; Radford, D. C.; Pain, S. D.; Pittman, S. T.; Shapira, D.; Schmitt, K. T.; Smith, M. S.; Stracener, D. W.; Varner, R. L.; Kozub, R. L.; Garcia-Ruiz, R.; Howard, M. E.; Manning, B. M.; O'Malley, P. D.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Matos, M.; Padilla-Rodal, E.

    2013-10-01

    The r-process accounts for the production of approximately half of the elements heavier than iron, but most of the (n, ?) cross-sections are unknown. Near shell-closures, the level density becomes low in neutron-rich nuclei and the process is dominated by direct neutron capture involving primarily shell model orbitals. Precise information on these states is essential to reduce uncertainties in nucleosynthesis models. Below the N = 82 shell, a large amount of 130Sn accumulates at late times of the freeze-out, and subsequent individual captures are predicted to influence the final abundance distribution. Spectroscopic studies of 131Sn have been performed at HRIBF using the (9Be,8Be- ?) and (13C,12C- ?) reactions with a 4MeV/u 130 g , mSn beam. Channel selectivity was obtained by measuring particle- ? coincidences in the HyBall and CLARION arrays. Strongly populated single-neutron excitations were identified and a detailed level structure of 131Sn has emerged, including the yrast structure arising from neutron transfer onto the 7- isomer of 130Sn. Details and results of the experiments will be presented. Supported by the U.S. DOE and the NSF.

  14. Visualization of Temperature Distribution and Clarification of Heat and Mass Transfer Mechanism in a Single Cell of PEFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Akira; Shibuya, Kenichi; Takeuchi, Masayuki; Hirota, Masafumi; Kato, Seizo; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Tachi, Hironari; Narita, Masahiko

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) has been developing as clean power generation technology. However, there are some subjects to spread PEFC among industries and homes in the world. The one of such subjects is drop in power generation performance and durability caused by heat and mass distribution in a single cell of PEFC. The purpose of this study is to point out the dominant factor of heat and mass transfer phenomena and clarify the reason for heat and mass distribution in a single cell. With the aid of observation window, the in-plane temperature distribution in single cell under power generation was measured by thermograph. The influence of operation conditions on temperature distribution was investigated. Moreover, to clarify the heat and mass transfer mechanism theoretically, the simulations to investigate the factor needed for the ideal reaction and evaluate the influence of separator structure on heat and mass distribution were carried out.

  15. Chromosomally abnormal cells are not selected for the extra-embryonic compartment of the human preimplantation embryo at the blastocyst stage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josien G. Derhaag; Edith Coonen; Marijke Bras; J. Marij; Bergers Janssen; Rosie Ignoul-Vanvuchelen; Joep P. M. Geraedts; Johannes L. H. Evers; John C. M. Dumoulin

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although well defined for embryos at cleavage stages, the occurrence and frequency of chromosomal aberrations in human blastocysts is relatively unknown. It has been reported that only one in four blastocysts is comprised totally of chromosomally normal cells. One of the selection mechanisms for the embryo proper to become free of these chromosomally abnormal cells would be to sequester

  16. Embryonic stem cells generated by nuclear transfer of human somatic nuclei into rabbit oocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying CHEN; Zhi Xu HE; Ailian LIU; Kai WANG; Wen Wei MAO; Jian Xin CHU; Yong LU; Zheng Fu FANG; Ying Tang SHI; Qing Zhang YANG; Da Yuan CHEN; Min Kang WANG; Jin Song LI; Shao Liang HUANG; Xiang Yin KONG; Yao Zhou SHI; Zhi Qiang WANG; Jia Hui XIA; Zhi Gao LONG; Zhi Gang XUE; Wen Xiang DING; Hui Zhen SHENG

    2003-01-01

    To solve the problem of immune incompatibility, nuclear transplantation has been envisaged as a means to produce cells or tissues for human autologous transplantation. Here we have derived embryonic stem cells by the transfer of human somatic nuclei into rabbit oocytes. The number of blastocysts that developed from the fused nuclear transfer was comparable among nuclear donors at ages of

  17. Insulin growth factor adjustment in preimplantation rabbit blastocysts and uterine tissues in response to maternal type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Thieme, René; Schindler, Maria; Ramin, Nicole; Fischer, Sünje; Mühleck, Britta; Fischer, Bernd; Navarrete Santos, Anne

    2012-07-01

    Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are well-known regulators of embryonic growth and differentiation. IGF function is closely related to insulin action. IGFs are available to the preimplantation embryo through maternal blood (endocrine action), uterine secretions (paracrine action) and by the embryo itself (autocrine action). In rabbit blastocysts, embryonic IGF1 and IGF2 are specifically strong in the embryoblast (ICM). Signalling of IGFs and insulin in blastocysts follows the classical pathway with Erk1/2 and Akt kinase activation. The aim of this study was to analyse signalling of IGFs in experimental insulin dependent diabetes (exp IDD) in pregnancy, employing a diabetic rabbit model with uterine hypoinsulinemia and hyperglycaemia. Exp IDD was induced in female rabbits by alloxan treatment prior to mating. At 6 days p.c., the maternal and embryonic IGFs were quantified by RT-PCR and ELISA. In pregnant females, hepatic IGF1 expression and IGF1 serum levels were decreased while IGF1 and IGF2 were increased in endometrium. In blastocysts, IGF1 RNA and protein was approx. 7.5-fold and 2-fold higher, respectively, than in controls from normoglycemic females. In cultured control blastocysts supplemented with IGF1 or insulin in vitro for 1 or 12 h, IGF1 and insulin receptors as well as IGF1 and IGF2 were downregulated. In cultured T1D blastocysts activation of Akt and Erk1/2 was impaired with lower amounts of total Akt and Erk1/2 protein and a reduced phosphorylation capacity after IGF1 supplementation. Our data show that the IGF axis is severely altered in embryo-maternal interactions in exp IDD pregnancy. Both, the endometrium and the blastocyst produce more IGF1 and IGF2. The increased endogenous IGF1 and IGF2 expression by the blastocyst compensates for the loss of systemic insulin and IGF. However, this counterbalance does not fill the gap of the reduced insulin/IGF sensitivity, leading to a developmental delay of blastocysts in exp IDD pregnancy. PMID:22465205

  18. Silencing or Amplification of Endocannabinoid Signaling in Blastocysts via CB1 Compromises Trophoblast Cell Migration*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Huirong; Sun, Xiaofei; Piao, Yulan; Jegga, Anil G.; Handwerger, Stuart; Ko, Minoru S. H.; Dey, Sudhansu K.

    2012-01-01

    Endocannabinoid signaling plays key roles in multiple female reproductive events. Previous studies have shown an interesting phenomenon, that mice with either silenced or elevated endocannabinoid signaling via Cnr1 encoding CB1 show similar defects in several pregnancy events, including preimplantation embryo development. To unravel the downstream signaling of this phenomenon, microarray studies were performed using RNAs collected from WT, Cnr1?/?, and Faah?/? mouse blastocysts on day 4 of pregnancy. The results indicate that about 100 genes show unidirectional changes under either silenced or elevated anandamide signaling via CB1. Functional enrichment analysis of the microarray data predicted that multiple biological functions and pathways are affected under aberrant endocannabinoid signaling. Among them, genes enriched in cell migration are suppressed in Cnr1?/? or Faah?/? blastocysts. Cell migration assays validated the prediction of functional enrichment analysis that cell mobility and spreading of either Cnr1?/? or Faah?/? trophoblast stem cells are compromised. Either silenced or elevated endocannabinoid signaling via CB1 causes similar changes in downstream targets in preimplantation embryos and trophoblast stem cells. This study provides evidence that a tightly regulated endocannabinoid signaling is critical to normal preimplantation embryo development and migration of trophoblast stem cells. PMID:22833670

  19. Gene targeting in C57BL/6 ES cells. Successful germ line transmission using recipient BALB/c blastocysts developmentally matured in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Lemckert, F A; Sedgwick, J D; Körner, H

    1997-01-01

    There are significant advantages to the production of gene-knockout mice directly in mouse strains other than 129. The availability now of ES cells derived from the C57BL/6 mouse strain presents workers with a valuable alternative. A major difficulty, however, is the requirement for BALB/c blastocysts as recipients for ES cell injection. Using standard procedures, few BALB/c blastocysts can be obtained. This limitation has now been resolved by harvesting BALB/c embryos at the early morula stage and maturing these to blastocysts by in vitro culture. Of early morulae harvested and cultured, over 70% were recovered as fully expanded and injectable blastocysts. C57BL/6 ES cell injection of these blastocysts has enabled the production of a number of gene-knockout mice with a success rate similar to that reported for ES cells derived from the 129 mouse strains. PMID:9016649

  20. Refuting a misguided campaign against the goal of single-embryo transfer and singleton birth in assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Stillman, Robert J; Richter, Kevin S; Jones, Howard W

    2013-10-01

    Much recent progress has been made by assisted reproductive technology (ART) professionals toward minimizing the incidence of multiple pregnancy following ART treatment. While a healthy singleton birth is widely considered to be the ideal outcome of such treatment, a vocal minority continues a campaign to advocate the benefits of multiple embryo transfer as treatment and twin pregnancy as outcome for most ART patients. Proponents of twinning argue four points: that patients prefer twins, that multiple embryo transfer maximizes success rates, that the costs per infant are lower with twins and that one twin pregnancy and birth is associated with no higher risk than two consecutive singleton pregnancies and births. We find fault with the reasoning and data behind each of these tenets. First, we respect the principle of patient autonomy to choose the number of embryos for transfer but counter that it has been shown that better patient education reduces their desire for twins. In addition, reasonable and evidentially supported limits may be placed on autonomy in exchange for public or private insurance coverage for ART treatment, and counterbalancing ethical principles to autonomy exist, especially beneficence (doing good) and non-maleficence (doing no harm). Second, comparisons between success rates following single-embryo transfer (SET) and double-embryo transfers favor double-embryo transfers only when embryo utilization is not comparable; cumulative pregnancy and birth rates that take into account utilization of cryopreserved embryos (and the additional cryopreserved embryo available with single fresh embryo transfer) consistently demonstrate no advantage to double-embryo transfer. Third, while comparisons of costs are system dependent and not easy to assess, several independent studies all suggest that short-term costs per child (through the neonatal period alone) are lower with transfers of one rather than two embryos. And, finally, abundant evidence conclusively demonstrates that the risks to both mother and especially to children are substantially greater with one twin birth compared with two singleton births. Thus, the arguments used by some to promote multiple embryo transfer and twinning are not supported by the facts. They should not detract from efforts to further promote SET and thus reduce ART-associated multiple pregnancy and its inherent risks. PMID:23904468

  1. Single-pair fluorescence resonance energy transfer of nucleosomes in free diffusion: optimizing stability and resolution of subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Gansen, Alexander; Hauger, Florian; Tóth, Katalin; Langowski, Jörg

    2007-09-15

    We applied fluorescence detection methods on the single-molecule level to study structural variations and dynamic processes occurring within nucleosomes. Four fluorescent nucleosome constructs were made by attaching donor and acceptor fluorophores to different positions of two nucleosome positioning sequences and reconstituting nucleosomes by salt dialysis. The photochemical and biochemical stability of nucleosomes under single-molecule conditions was optimized by adding inert protein and free radical capturing additives, allowing us to define the best experimental conditions for single-molecule spectroscopy on highly diluted solutions of nucleosome complexes. We could demonstrate for the first time the resolution of conformational subpopulations of nucleosomes by single-pair fluorescence resonance energy transfer in a freely diffusing system and could show the effect of thermally induced nucleosome repositioning. PMID:17553453

  2. Instationary momentum and mass transfer at accelerated motion of single particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Hilprecht

    1976-01-01

    Unsteady flow and heat and mass transfer were calculated and interpreted in the light of accelerated movement of a rigid individual particle moving under gravity. For the purposes of the calculation, the complete transport equations were solved numerically. Both the instationary movement of the particle and the flow as well as the heat and mass transfer in the vicinity of

  3. Electron transfer behaviour of single-walled carbon nanotubes electro-decorated with nickel and nickel oxide layers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abolanle S. Adekunle; Kenneth I. Ozoemena

    2008-01-01

    The electron transfer behaviour of nickel film-decorated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-Ni) at edge plane pyrolytic graphite electrodes (EPPGEs) was investigated. The impact of SWCNTs on the redox properties of the nickel film was investigated with cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). From EIS data, obtained using ferrocyanide\\/ferricyanide as a redox probe, we show that the electrodes based on nickel

  4. Single-molecule conductance of a chemically modified, ?-extended tetrathiafulvalene and its charge-transfer complex with F4TCNQ

    PubMed Central

    García, Raúl; Herranz, M Ángeles; González, M Teresa; Bollinger, Gabino Rubio; Bürkle, Marius; Zotti, Linda A; Asai, Yoshihiro; Pauly, Fabian; Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Agraït, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    Summary We describe the synthesis and single-molecule electrical transport properties of a molecular wire containing a ?-extended tetrathiafulvalene (exTTF) group and its charge-transfer complex with F4TCNQ. We form single-molecule junctions using the in situ break junction technique using a homebuilt scanning tunneling microscope with a range of conductance between 10 G0 down to 10?7 G0. Within this range we do not observe a clear conductance signature of the neutral parent molecule, suggesting either that its conductance is too low or that it does not form a stable junction. Conversely, we do find a clear conductance signature in the experiments carried out on the charge-transfer complex. Due to the fact we expected this species to have a higher conductance than the neutral molecule, we believe this supports the idea that the conductance of the neutral molecule is very low, below our measurement sensitivity. This idea is further supported by theoretical calculations. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first reported single-molecule conductance measurements on a molecular charge-transfer species. PMID:26199662

  5. Non-invasive imaging of human embryos before embryonic genome activation predicts development to the blastocyst stage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Connie C Wong; Kevin E Loewke; Nancy L Bossert; Barry Behr; Christopher J De Jonge; Thomas M Baer; Renee A Reijo Pera

    2010-01-01

    We report studies of preimplantation human embryo development that correlate time-lapse image analysis and gene expression profiling. By examining a large set of zygotes from in vitro fertilization (IVF), we find that success in progression to the blastocyst stage can be predicted with >93% sensitivity and specificity by measuring three dynamic, noninvasive imaging parameters by day 2 after fertilization, before

  6. A study of the roles of the mother and the embryo in rat egg implantation using blastocyst substitution

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A study of the roles of the mother and the embryo in rat egg implantation using blastocyst, 76130 Mont Saint Aignan, France Summary. The roles played by the mother and the embryo in egg distribution along the uterine horns and in decidualization were studied in rats using resin artificial eggs

  7. Derivation of embryonic stem cells from Kunming mice IVF blastocyst in feeder- and serum-free condition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaokun; Wei, Qiang; Zhang, Junhong; Yang, Wanli; Zhao, Xiaoe; Ma, Baohua

    2015-06-01

    Kunming mice are widely used in China; however, it is difficult to isolate embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in conventional derivation condition containing feeder cells and serum. 6-Bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (BIO), a glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) inhibitor, could facilitate the maintenance of pluripotency of ESCs. Therefore, BIO could be considered as a candidate to replace feeder cells and serum. On the other hand, in vitro fertilization (IVF) is an important technology in assisted reproduction. It is reported that there was some difference in gene expression between IVF and in vivo developed blastocyst. ESCs derived from IVF blastocyst could provide a valuable tool to research the effect of IVF on differentiation and development. In the present study, we established two novel ESC lines from IVF blastocyst of Kunming mice in a feeder- and serum-free condition containing 2.5 ?M BIO. In this condition, expanded IVF blastocyst could spontaneously hatch from zonae pellucidae and attached to the gelatin-coated bottom of dishes. ESC-like outgrowth could be observed without overfull trophoblast cells. After further propagation, two Kunming mice ESC lines, designated as KMES1 and KMES2, were obtained. These two novel ESCs shared common morphological characteristics with other rodent ESCs, showed strong alkaline phosphatase activity, and expressed pluripotent markers, including Oct-4, Nanog, and SSEA-1. Embryoid body (EB) and teratoma test indicated that these ESCs could spontaneously differentiate into cells representative of all three embryonic germ layers. PMID:25592083

  8. Tutorial on Quantification of Differences between Single- and Two-Component Two-Phase Flow and Heat Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delil, A. A. M.

    2003-01-01

    Single-component two-phase systems are envisaged for aerospace thermal control applications: Mechanically Pumped Loops, Vapour Pressure Driven Loops, Capillary Pumped Loops and Loop Heat Pipes. Thermal control applications are foreseen in different gravity environments: Micro-g, reduced-g for Mars or Moon bases, 1-g during terrestrial testing, and hyper-g in rotating spacecraft, during combat aircraft manoeuvres and in systems for outer planets. In the evaporator, adiabatic line and condenser sections of such single-component two-phase systems, the fluid is a mixture of the working liquid (for example ammonia, carbon dioxide, ethanol, or other refrigerants, etc.) and its saturated vapour. Results of two-phase two-component flow and heat transfer research (pertaining to liquid-gas mixtures, e.g. water/air, or argon or helium) are often applied to support research on flow and heat transfer in two-phase single-component systems. The first part of the tutorial updates the contents of two earlier tutorials, discussing various aerospace-related two-phase flow and heat transfer research. It deals with the different pressure gradient constituents of the total pressure gradient, with flow regime mapping (including evaporating and condensing flow trajectories in the flow pattern maps), with adiabatic flow and flashing, and with thermal-gravitational scaling issues. The remaining part of the tutorial qualitatively and quantitatively determines the differences between single- and two-component systems: Two systems that physically look similar and close, but in essence are fully different. It was already elucidated earlier that, though there is a certain degree of commonality, the differences will be anything but negligible, in many cases. These differences (quantified by some examples) illustrates how careful one shall be in interpreting data resulting from two-phase two-component simulations or experiments, for the development of single-component two-phase thermal control systems for various gravity environments.

  9. TallyHO obese female mice experience poor reproductive outcomes and abnormal blastocyst metabolism which is reversed by metformin

    PubMed Central

    Louden, Erica D.; Luzzo, Kerri M.; Jimenez, Patricia T.; Chi, Tiffany; Chi, Maggie; Moley, Kelle H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Obese women experience worse reproductive outcomes compared to normal weight women, specifically infertility, pregnancy loss, fetal malformations and developmental delay. The objective of this study was to use a genetic mouse model of obesity in order to recapitulate the human reproductive phenotype and further examine potential mechanisms and therapies. Methods New inbred, polygenic Type 2 diabetic TallyHO mice and age matched control C57BL/6 mice were superovulated to obtain morulae or blastocysts stage embryos which were cultured in human tubal fluid media. Deoxyglucose uptake was performed on insulin-stimulated individual blastocysts. Apoptosis was detected by confocal microscopy using TUNEL assay and Topro-3 nuclear dye. Embryos were scored for %TUNEL positive/total nuclei. AMPK activation, TNF? expression, and adiponectin expression were analyzed by western immunoblot and confocal immunofluorescent microscopy. Lipid accumulation was assayed by Bodipy. Finally all measured parameters were compared between TallyHO mice in morulaes cultured to blastocyst embryos in either human tubal fluid (HTF) media or HTF with 25ug/ml metformin added. Results TallyHo mice developed whole body abnormal insulin tolerance, decreased litter number and increased NEFA. Blastocysts demonstrated increased apoptosis, decreased insulin sensitivity, and decreased activation of AMP activated protein-kinase (AMPK). As a possible cause of the insulin resistance/abnormal P-AMPK, we found that Tumor necrosis Factor (TNF?) expression and lipid accumulation as detected by BODIPY were increased in TallyHO blastocysts and adiponectin was decreased. Culturing TallyHO morulae with the AMPK activator, metformin lead to a reversal of all abnormal findings, including increased p-AMPK, improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and normalization of lipid accumulation. Conclusions Women with obesity and insulin resistance experience poor pregnancy outcomes. Previously we have shown in mouse models of insulin resistance that AMPK activity is decreased and that activators of AMPK reverse the poor embryo outcomes. Here, we show for the first time using a genetically altered obese model, not a diet-induced model, that metformin reverses many of the adverse effects of obesity at the level of the blastocyst. Expanding on this we determine that activation of AMPK via metformin reduces lipid droplet accumulation, presumably by eliminating the inhibitory effects of TNF?, resulting in normalization of fatty acid oxidation and HADH2 activity. Metformin exposure in vitro was able to partially reversing these effects, at the level of the blastocyst and thus may be effective in preventing the adverse effects of obesity on pregnancy and reproductive outcomes. PMID:25472042

  10. Mothers, Workers and Students: Examining the Experiences of Single Mothers Transferring from Community Colleges into Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Emily Erin Peterson

    2010-01-01

    Single parent households are on the rise, and female headed households are more likely to live in poverty than other single parent households (Holyfield, 2002). Many single mothers who do not have an undergraduate degree see education as a way out of poverty (Holyfield, 2002; Heller & Bjorklund, 2004). This research was undertaken to highlight…

  11. Tutorial on single- and two-component two-phase flow and heat transfer: Commonality and difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delil, A. A. M.

    2002-01-01

    It is assessed to what extent the results of two-phase two-component flow and heat transfer research can be usefully applied to support research on the flow and heat transfer in two-phase single-component systems. The latter single-component two-phase systems, envisaged for spacecraft thermal control applications, are Mechanically Pumped and Vapor Pressure Driven Loops, Capillary Pumped Loops, and Loop Heat Pipes. In these single-component systems the working fluid is a mixture of a liquid (for example ammonia, carbon dioxide, ethanol, or other refrigerants, etc.) and its saturated vapor. The two-component systems considered consist of liquid-gas mixtures, e.g. water-air. Various aspects are discussed qualitatively and quantitatively to determine commonality and difference between two physically looking similar and close, but essentially different systems. It is focused on the different pressure gradient constituents and total pressure gradients, on flow regime mapping (including evaporating and condensing flow trajectories in the flow pattern maps), on adiabatic flow and the impact of flashing, and on thermal-gravitational scaling issues. It is elucidated that, though there is a certain degree of commonality, the differences are appreciable. The conclusion is that one shall be very careful in interpreting two-component outcomes to develop single-component two-phase thermal control systems. .

  12. Growth, transfer, structural, optical, and electrical properties of large-size transition-metal dichalcogenide monolayer single-crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zheng; Hsu, Bo; Xiao, Jiao; Poulos, George; YANG Research Group Team

    2015-03-01

    We report growth, transfer process, as well as structural, optical, and electrical properties of large-size and high-quality two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenide MX2 (M=Mo, W; X=S, Se) single-crystalline triangular-shape nanosheets composed of one to a few monolayers. A vapor-trapping enhanced chemical vapor deposition approach was employed for the MX2 monlayer single crystal growth. The number of layers, crystallinity, and uniformity of the as-grown MX2 were characterized and confirmed by Raman and photoluminescence measurements. The MX2 monlayer single-crystal triangles show comparable size and uniformity to the state-of-the-art results reported as of now. The optical properties of the MX2 were studied based on the analysis of the photoluminescence results. The electrical properties including resistivity, mobility, carrier type and concentration, and contact resistance of the MX2 were characterized by both three-terminal field-effect transistor and Hall effect transport measurements. The Hall bar devices were fabricated by lithography and dry-etching of the as-grown single-crystalline MX2. The transfer process of the MX2 from growth substrate (SiO2-on-Si) to various substrates was successfully demonstrated. Acknowledgement to the funding support from Ignite Award.

  13. Oct4 cell-autonomously promotes primitive endoderm development in the mouse blastocyst

    PubMed Central

    Frum, Tristan; Halbisen, Michael A.; Wang, Chaoyang; Amiri, Hossein; Robson, Paul; Ralston, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Summary In embryonic stem (ES) cells and in early mouse embryos, the transcription factor Oct4 is an essential regulator of pluripotency. Oct4 transcriptional targets have been described in ES cell lines; however, the molecular mechanisms by which Oct4 regulates establishment of pluripotency in the epiblast (EPI) have not been fully elucidated. Here we show that neither maternal nor zygotic Oct4 are required for formation of EPI cells in the blastocyst. Rather, Oct4 is first required for development of the primitive endoderm (PE), an extraembryonic lineage. EPI cells promote PE fate in neighboring cells by secreting Fgf4, and Oct4 is required for expression of Fgf4, but we show that Oct4 promotes PE development cell-autonomously, downstream of Fgf4 and Mapk. Finally, we show that Oct4 is required for expression of multiple EPI and PE genes, as well as multiple metabolic pathways essential for the continued growth of the preimplantation embryo. PMID:23747191

  14. Mouse and human blastocyst-derived stem cells: vive les differences.

    PubMed

    Rossant, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Lessons learned from conserved vertebrate developmental pathways have catalyzed rapid advances in pluripotent stem cell differentiation towards therapeutically relevant cell types. The most highly conserved phases of development are associated with the early patterning of the body plan - the so-called phylotypic stage. Both prior to and after this stage there is much more divergence across species. Developmental differences between human and mouse at the blastocyst and early post-implantation stages might help explain the differences among the different stem cell lines derived from these embryos. A better understanding of these early stages of human development will aid our ability to generate and manipulate human stem cells and their derivatives. PMID:25516964

  15. Biodynamic imaging of live porcine oocytes, zygotes and blastocysts for viability assessment in assisted reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    An, Ran; Wang, Chunmin; Turek, John; Machaty, Zoltan; Nolte, David D

    2015-03-01

    The success of assisted reproductive technologies relies on accurate assessment of reproductive viability at successive stages of development for oocytes and embryos. The current scoring system used to select good-quality oocytes relies on morphologically observable traits and hence is indirect and subjective. Biodynamic imaging may provide an objective approach to oocyte and embryo assessment by measuring physiologically-relevant dynamics. Biodynamic imaging is a coherence-gated approach to 3D tissue imaging that uses digital holography to perform low-coherence speckle interferometry to capture dynamic light scattering from intracellular motions. The changes in intracellular activity during cumulus oocyte complex maturation, before and after in vitro fertilization, and the subsequent development of the zygote and blastocyst provide a new approach to the assessment of preimplant candidates. PMID:25798318

  16. Investigating photoinduced charge transfer in double- and single-emission PbS@CdS core@shell quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Haiguang; Liang, Hongyan; Gonfa, Belete Atomsa; Chaker, Mohamed; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki; Tijssen, Peter; Vidal, François; Ma, Dongling

    2013-12-01

    We present for the first time detailed investigation of the charge transfer behavior of PbS@CdS core@shell quantum dots (QDs) showing either a single emission peak from the core or intriguing double emission peaks from the core and shell, respectively. A highly non-concentric core@shell structure model was proposed to explain the origin of double emissions from monodisperse QDs. Their charge transfer behavior was investigated by monitoring photoluminescence (PL) intensity variation with the introduction of electron or hole scavengers. It was found that the PL quenching of the PbS core is more efficient than that of the CdS shell, suggesting more efficient charge transfer from the core to scavengers, although the opposite was expected. Further measurements of the PL lifetime followed by wave function calculations disclosed that the time scale is the critical factor explaining the more efficient charge transfer from the core than from the shell. The charge transfer behavior was also examined on a series of single-emission core@shell QDs with either different core sizes or different shell thicknesses and dominant factors were identified. Towards photovoltaic applications, these PbS@CdS QDs were attached onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and their charge transfer behavior was compared with that in the PbS-QD/MWCNT system. Results demonstrate that although the CdS shell serves as an electron transfer barrier, the electrons excited in the PbS cores can still be transferred into the MWCNTs efficiently when the shell thickness is ~0.7 nm. Considering their higher stability, these core@shell QDs are very promising for the development of highly efficient QD-based photovoltaic devices.We present for the first time detailed investigation of the charge transfer behavior of PbS@CdS core@shell quantum dots (QDs) showing either a single emission peak from the core or intriguing double emission peaks from the core and shell, respectively. A highly non-concentric core@shell structure model was proposed to explain the origin of double emissions from monodisperse QDs. Their charge transfer behavior was investigated by monitoring photoluminescence (PL) intensity variation with the introduction of electron or hole scavengers. It was found that the PL quenching of the PbS core is more efficient than that of the CdS shell, suggesting more efficient charge transfer from the core to scavengers, although the opposite was expected. Further measurements of the PL lifetime followed by wave function calculations disclosed that the time scale is the critical factor explaining the more efficient charge transfer from the core than from the shell. The charge transfer behavior was also examined on a series of single-emission core@shell QDs with either different core sizes or different shell thicknesses and dominant factors were identified. Towards photovoltaic applications, these PbS@CdS QDs were attached onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and their charge transfer behavior was compared with that in the PbS-QD/MWCNT system. Results demonstrate that although the CdS shell serves as an electron transfer barrier, the electrons excited in the PbS cores can still be transferred into the MWCNTs efficiently when the shell thickness is ~0.7 nm. Considering their higher stability, these core@shell QDs are very promising for the development of highly efficient QD-based photovoltaic devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The PL and absorption spectra of PbS@CdS QDs in solution and in films with and without the combination of MWCNTs, Gaussian curve fit to the PL spectra of representative QD film samples, PL lifetime and charge transfer rate from QDs to electron or hole scavengers, radial distribution functions for 1s electron levels of the PbS@CdS core@shell QD with a different core size and constant shell thickness. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03691j

  17. Transcervical Embryo Transfer in Horses: An Application in an Equestrian Teaching Center

    PubMed Central

    Sirois, Jean; Betteridge, Keith J.; Brault, A.

    1987-01-01

    Embryo transfer was used in an equestrian teaching center in order to produce as many foals as possible from their preferred mares during a single breeding season. Embryo collection by uterine lavage was attempted in five donor mares on 25 occasions 6.5 days after ovulation. Sixteen of the collection attempts (64%) yielded a total of 17 blastocysts. Of these 17 embryos, 13 were immediately transferred transcervically into recipient mares that had ovulated within two days of the time of ovulation in the donors, three were frozen for later transfer, and one was lost. Eight of the freshly transferred embryos (61%) developed and were detected on ultrasonography on day 11.5; five of these continued to develop normally and gave rise to healthy foals (38%), but three were lost at 14.5, 22.5 and 24.5 days gestation. Two of the frozen embryos were judged viable when thawed the following year and produced one additional pregnancy after transcervical transfer. Thus the five donor mares have produced five foals and a sixth 90-day pregnancy1 with only a three-month interruption of their use for competition and teaching. 1While this paper was in press, the sixth pregnancy also terminated in the production of a healthy foal. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:17422935

  18. Development of General Correlation for Heat Transfer in Single-Phase Turbulent Flow Inside Internally Helical-Grooved Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Masao; Inoue, Norihiro; Siromoto, Keiko; Emoto, Yukiyasu; Li, Yu; Sato, Masaaki; Kiyotani, Akihiro

    An experimental study of heat transfer in single-phase turbulent flow inside an internally helical-grooved tube was carried out using thirteen different kinds of grooved tubes and a smooth tube with 6.35mm outer diameter and1000mm working length. The range of geometric parameters of grooved test tubes were number of grooves (45 to 65), helix angle (10 t o 35deg.) and fm height (0.15 to 0.3 mm). In the experiments, each of test tubes was heated at constant heat input of 1.4 kW by an electric heater. The inlet cooling water temperature was kept between 16 and 18 °C, and the flow rate was varied from 0.03 to 0.11kg/s. The obtained data indicated that heat transfer coefficients were from110 to 200% higher than those of smooth tube and increased with increasing the ratio of inner surface area of grooved tube to that of smooth tube and helix angle, while decreased with increasing the number of grooves. The correlations to predict the heat transfer coefficients were developed based on the measured data, which predicted the experimental data within ±20% and correlated the data reported in literature within ±30% and the analogy between heat transfer and pressure drop for the grooved tube was discussed.

  19. Oxidative catalysis using the stoichiometric oxidant as a reagent: an efficient strategy for single-electron-transfer-induced tandem anion-radical reactions.

    PubMed

    Kafka, František; Holan, Martin; Hidasová, Denisa; Pohl, Radek; Císa?ová, Ivana; Klepetá?ová, Blanka; Jahn, Ullrich

    2014-09-01

    Oxidative single-electron transfer-catalyzed tandem reactions consisting of a conjugate addition and a radical cyclization are reported, which incorporate the mandatory terminal oxidant as a functionality into the product. PMID:25070407

  20. Transferring the spatial state of an entangled photon pair to a single photon by photon detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ki-Young Cho; Yoon-Shik Kang; Chang-Hyuck Lee; Jaewoo Noh

    2010-01-01

    We show theoretically that the spatial state of entangled photons generated by parametric down-conversion can be transferred to the spatial state of an idler photon by signal photon detection. This study considered the general condition with an arbitrary pump field profile and the detection of a signal photon at an arbitrary distance from a nonlinear crystal where the entangled photons

  1. Single-channel Head Orientation Estimation Based on Discrimination of Acoustic Transfer Function

    E-print Network

    Takiguchi, Tetsuya

    of this method has been confirmed by talker localiza- tion and head orientation estimation experiments performed transfer function 1. Introduction For human-human or human-computer interaction, the talker's head on the talker's head orientation. Other approaches focus on the radiation pat- tern of the magnitude for each

  2. Dual gene transfer of bFGF and PDGF in a single plasmid for the treatment of myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    CUI, KAIJUN; ZHOU, XIKUN; LUO, JINGWEN; FENG, JIAYUE; ZHENG, MINGXIA; HUANG, DEJIA; JIANG, JIAN; CHEN, XIAOPING; WEI, YUQUAN; LI, JIONG; YANG, LI

    2014-01-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) have been shown to be involved in a spectrum of cellular processes. In a previous study, we constructed a novel multigenic vector that contained two separate transcription units, each consisting of a strong promoter and an efficient polyadenylation signal. The two promoters were chosen for their ability to work simultaneously. Dual gene transfer of bFGF and PDGF in a single plasmid resulted in a significant increase in collateral blood vessel formation in a rabbit model of hind limb ischemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of this dual gene transfer strategy in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). AMI was induced in rats by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The animals were randomly divided into four groups and treated with the following therapeutic strategies: Empty plasmid (control), plasmid encoding bFGF (PL-bFGF), plasmid encoding PDGF (PL-PDGF) or plasmid encoding bFGF and PDGF (PL-F-P). Echocardiography and histological examinations were performed 28 days subsequent to gene transfer. Dual gene therapy with bFGF and PDGF resulted in a significant angiogenic effect accompanied by vessel maturation, along with a significant reduction in infarct size and improvement in cardiac function. In a rat model of AMI, single plasmid-mediated dual gene therapy with bFGF and PDGF decreased infarct size and improved cardiac function due to the formation of functionally and morphologically mature vasculature. These results are relevant to the ongoing clinical trials involving the use of single plasmid-mediated angiogenic factors for the treatment of myocardial ischemic disease. PMID:24520269

  3. Theoretical and simulation tools for electron transfer and chain reactions in single walled carbon nanotubes

    E-print Network

    Nair, Nitish

    2009-01-01

    Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) are cylindrical sheets of graphene whose electronic structures and diameters are determined by their chiralities. Current synthetic methods produce batches of nanotubes containing a ...

  4. Synthesis, Transfer, and Devices of Single and Few-Layer Graphene by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lewis Gomez De Arco; Yi Zhang; Akshay Kumar; Chongwu Zhou

    2009-01-01

    The advance of graphene-based nanoelectronics has been hampered due to the difficulty in producing single- or few-layer graphene over large areas. We report a simple, scalable, and cost-efficient method to prepare graphene using methane-based CVD on nickel films deposited over complete Si\\/SiO2 wafers. By using highly diluted methane, single- and few-layer graphene were obtained, as confirmed by micro-Raman spectroscopy. In

  5. Harvesting and Transferring Vertical Pillar Arrays of Single-Crystal Semiconductor Devices to Arbitrary Substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. J. Logeeswaran; Aaron M. Katzenmeyer; M. Saif Islam

    2010-01-01

    Development of devices that can be fabricated on amorphous substrates using multiple single-crystal semiconductors with different physical, electrical, and optical characteristics is important for highly efficient portable and flexible electronics, optoelectronics, and energy conversion devices. Reducing the use of single-crystal substrates can contribute to low-cost and environmentally benign devices covering a large area. We demonstrate a technique to harvest and

  6. The oxidation of sulfur dioxide by single and double oxygen transfer paths.

    PubMed

    Troiani, Anna; Rosi, Marzio; Salvitti, Chiara; de Petris, Giulia

    2014-09-15

    The oxidation of SO2 by nonmetal oxoanions in the gas phase is investigated in an experimental and theoretical study of the structure of the species involved and the reaction kinetics and mechanism. SO3 , SO3(.-) and SO4(.-) are efficiently produced by reaction of On XO(-) anions (X=Cl, Br, and I; n=0 and 1) with SO2 ; XO(-) ions mainly react to give SO3 by oxygen-atom transfer, whereas OXO(-) ions mainly give SO3(.-) by oxygen-anion transfer. On descending the halogen group from chlorine to iodine, the SO3 /SO3(.-) ratio decreases and increases for reactions involving XO(-) and OXO(-) anions, respectively, whereas the formation of SO4(.-) is particularly significant with OIO(-). Kinetic factors play a major role in the reactions of On XO(-), depending on the halogen atom and its oxidation state. PMID:24953698

  7. Transfer of self-aligned spacer patterns for single-digit nanofabrication.

    PubMed

    Doerk, Gregory S; Gao, He; Wan, Lei; Lille, Jeff; Patel, K C; Chapuis, Yves-Andre; Ruiz, Ricardo; Albrecht, Thomas R

    2015-02-27

    We report the transfer of sub-10 nm half-pitch grating patterns created through a combination of block copolymer directed self-assembly and sidewall spacer-based self-aligned double patterning into Si substrates. Low substrate bias reactive ion etching of TiOx conformally deposited onto carbon mandrels using atomic layer deposition renders distinct, pitch-halved spacers with minimal etch byproduct redeposition. Independent spacer and mandrel width control and the use of an underlying CrNx hard mask deposited by reactive sputtering facilitates etching of Si lines with low roughness and fine placement control. The insights into pattern transfer presented here are directly applicable to the fabrication of rectangular bit pattern nanoimprint templates at densities above 1.5 Td in(-2). PMID:25656564

  8. Transfer of self-aligned spacer patterns for single-digit nanofabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerk, Gregory S.; Gao, He; Wan, Lei; Lille, Jeff; Patel, K. C.; Chapuis, Yves-Andre; Ruiz, Ricardo; Albrecht, Thomas R.

    2015-02-01

    We report the transfer of sub-10 nm half-pitch grating patterns created through a combination of block copolymer directed self-assembly and sidewall spacer-based self-aligned double patterning into Si substrates. Low substrate bias reactive ion etching of TiOx conformally deposited onto carbon mandrels using atomic layer deposition renders distinct, pitch-halved spacers with minimal etch byproduct redeposition. Independent spacer and mandrel width control and the use of an underlying CrNx hard mask deposited by reactive sputtering facilitates etching of Si lines with low roughness and fine placement control. The insights into pattern transfer presented here are directly applicable to the fabrication of rectangular bit pattern nanoimprint templates at densities above 1.5 Td in?2.

  9. Melatonin Improves the Quality of In Vitro Produced (IVP) Bovine Embryos: Implications for Blastocyst Development, Cryotolerance, and Modifications of Relevant Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Tian, XiuZhi; Zhou, YanHua; Tan, DunXian; Zhu, ShiEn; Dai, YunPing; Liu, GuoShi

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the potential effects of melatonin on the kinetics of embryo development and quality of blastocyst during the process of in vitro bovine embryo culture. Bovine cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) were fertilized after in vitro maturation. The presumed zygotes were cultured in in vitro culture medium supplemented with or without 10?7 M melatonin. The cleavage rate, 8-cell rate and blastocyst rate were examined to identify the kinetics of embryo development. The hatched blastocyst rate, mortality rate after thawing and the relevant transcript abundance were measured to evaluate the quality of blastocyst. The results showed that melatonin significantly promoted the cleavage rate and 8-cell embryo yield of in vitro produced bovine embryo. In addition, significantly more blastocysts were observed by Day 7 of embryo culture at the presence of melatonin. These results indicated that melatonin accelerated the development of in vitro produced bovine embryos. Following vitrification at Day 7 of embryo culture, melatonin (10?7 M) significantly increased the hatched blastocyst rate from 24 h to 72 h and decreased the mortality rate from 48 h to 72 h after thawing. The presence of melatonin during the embryo culture resulted in a significant increase in the gene expressions of DNMT3A, OCC, CDH1 and decrease in that of AQP3 after thawing. In conclusion, melatonin not only promoted blastocyst yield and accelerated in vitro bovine embryo development, but also improved the quality of blastocysts which was indexed by an elevated cryotolerance and the up-regulated expressions of developmentally important genes. PMID:24695534

  10. Automated Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Electron Transfer Dissociation High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Measured at Single-Amide Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Rachelle R.; Chalmers, Michael J.; Griffin, Patrick R.

    2012-02-01

    Hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is a well established method for the measurement of solution-phase deuterium incorporation into proteins, which can provide insight into protein conformational mobility. However, most HDX measurements are constrained to regions of the protein where pepsin proteolysis allows detection at peptide resolution. Recently, single-amide resolution deuterium incorporation has been achieved by limiting gas-phase scrambling in the mass spectrometer. This was accomplished by employing a combination of soft ionization and desolvation conditions coupled with the radical-driven fragmentation technique electron transfer dissociation (ETD). Here, a hybrid LTQ-Orbitrap XL is systematically evaluated for its utility in providing single-amide deuterium incorporation for differential HDX analysis of a nuclear receptor upon binding small molecule ligands. We are able to show that instrumental parameters can be optimized to minimize scrambling and can be incorporated into an established and fully automated HDX platform making differential single-amide HDX possible for bottom-up analysis of complex systems. We have applied this system to determine differential single amide resolution HDX data for the peroxizome proliferator activated receptor bound with two ligands of interest.

  11. Debating Elective Single Embryo Transfer after in vitro Fertilization: A Plea for a Context-Sensitive Approach.

    PubMed

    Ezugwu, Ec; der Burg, S Van

    2015-01-01

    The number of embryos transferred after in vitro fertilization (IVF) have been a topic of debate for over a decade now. Due to the risk associated with multiple pregnancy, there has been a global effort at reducing the multiple pregnancy rates to a minimum while maintaining an acceptable level of successful IVF pregnancy rate. Elective single embryo transfer (eSET) is advocated in most European countries. In Belgium and Sweden, eSET is mandatory for couples with a good prognosis. However, despite clinical recommendations and policy statements, patients in clinical practice frequently do request for the transfer of multiple embryos in order to have twins. Such requests conflict with policy guidelines and create an ethical dilemma for physicians: Should the physician do as the couple requests, and there with respect the autonomy of patients, or adhere to medical policy that takes the health of the mother and children at heart? This article provides an exploration of the arguments found in the literature that plays a role in the discussion on this topic and eventually argues that what a physician should do depends on the specificities of the context in which patients and physicians are implicated. These contextual issues can be taken into account in a shared decision-making procedure, which allows reflections and the responsibilities of both patients and physicians to be attended in decision about assisted reproduction. PMID:25745568

  12. SCC-DFTB Energy Barriers for Single and Double Proton Transfer Processes in the Model Molecular Systems Malonaldehyde and Porphycene

    SciTech Connect

    Walewski, L. [Warsaw University; Krachtus, D [University of Heidelberg; Fischer, S. [University of Heidelberg; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Bala, P. [Institute of Physics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toru?, Poland; Lesyng, B. [Warsaw University

    2005-09-01

    Self-consistent charge-density functional tight-binding SCC-DFTB is a computationally efficient method applicable to large (bio)molecular systems in which (bio)chemical reactions may occur. Among these reactions are proton transfer processes. This method, along with more advanced ab initio techniques, is applied in this study to compute intramolecular barriers for single and double proton transfer processes in the model systems, malonaldehyde and porphycene, respectively. SCC-DFTB is compared with experimental data and higher-level ab initio calculations. For malonaldehyde, the SCC-DFTB barrier height is 3.1 kcal/mol in vacuo and 4.2 kcal/mol in water solution. In the case of porphycene, the minimum energy pathways for double intramolecular proton transfer were determined using the conjugate peak refinement (CPR) method. Six isomers of porphycene were ordered according to energy. The only energetically allowed pathway was found to connect two symmetrical trans states via an unstable cis-A isomer. The SCC-DFTB barrier heights are 11.1 kcal/mol for the trans-cis-A process, and 7.4 kcal/mol for the reverse cis-A-trans one with the energy difference of 3.7 kcal/mol between the trans- and cis-A states. The method provides satisfactory energy results when compared with reference ab initio and experimental data.

  13. Experimental Investigation of the Discharge Coefficient and Impingement Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Single Jet in Cross Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Brian

    This experimentation investigates the local heat transfer characteristics of an impinging jet with the effects of cross flow. The jet is formed by a single round hole with a diameter of 0.25 inches, sharp edges and a length to diameter ratio of 4. For one combination of impingement plate spacing and cross flow to jet flow mass velocity ratio, detailed photographs of a sheet of liquid crystal were taken. These photographs were then used to create a Nusselt number contour plot. Observations are made regarding the comparison of the Nusselt number contour plots with and without cross flow. Comparisons are also made to data in open literature citing the degradation of the average Nusselt number with cross flow to that without cross flow. While the main focus of this study was the heat transfer of an impinging jet, a large amount of discharge coefficient data was also gathered for a single, sharp edged, round hole in the presence of cross flow. It compared very well to other investigator's data and a correlation relating the discharge coefficient to the mass velocity ratio is reported.

  14. Abstract--In order to transfer the CVD process from a single-wafer epitaxial reactor to a batch furnace system, several issues

    E-print Network

    Technische Universiteit Delft

    1 Abstract-- In order to transfer the CVD process from a single- wafer epitaxial reactor to a batch of native oxide and oxidation must be prevented during wafer loading. In addition, the use of hydrogen the deposition in a commercial single-wafer epitaxial chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor under atmospheric

  15. Maternal-zygotic knockout reveals a critical role of Cdx2 in the morula to blastocyst transition.

    PubMed

    Jedrusik, Agnieszka; Cox, Andy; Wicher, Krzysztof; Glover, David M; Zernicka-Goetz, Magdalena

    2015-02-15

    The first lineage segregation in the mouse embryo generates the inner cell mass (ICM), which gives rise to the pluripotent epiblast and therefore the future embryo, and the trophectoderm (TE), which will build the placenta. The TE lineage depends on the transcription factor Cdx2. However, when Cdx2 first starts to act remains unclear. Embryos with zygotic deletion of Cdx2 develop normally until the late blastocyst stage leading to the conclusion that Cdx2 is important for the maintenance but not specification of the TE. In contrast, down-regulation of Cdx2 transcripts from the early embryo stage results in defects in TE specification before the blastocyst stage. Here, to unambiguously address at which developmental stage Cdx2 becomes first required, we genetically deleted Cdx2 from the oocyte stage using a Zp3-Cre/loxP strategy. Careful assessment of a large cohort of Cdx2 maternal-zygotic null embryos, all individually filmed, examined and genotyped, reveals an earlier lethal phenotype than observed in Cdx2 zygotic null embryos that develop until the late blastocyst stage. The developmental failure of Cdx2 maternal-zygotic null embryos is associated with cell death and failure of TE specification, starting at the morula stage. These results indicate that Cdx2 is important for the correct specification of TE from the morula stage onwards and that both maternal and zygotic pools of Cdx2 are required for correct pre-implantation embryogenesis. PMID:25512302

  16. Maternal-zygotic knockout reveals a critical role of Cdx2 in the morula to blastocyst transition

    PubMed Central

    Jedrusik, Agnieszka; Cox, Andy; Wicher, Krzysztof; Glover, David M.; Zernicka-Goetz, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    The first lineage segregation in the mouse embryo generates the inner cell mass (ICM), which gives rise to the pluripotent epiblast and therefore the future embryo, and the trophectoderm (TE), which will build the placenta. The TE lineage depends on the transcription factor Cdx2. However, when Cdx2 first starts to act remains unclear. Embryos with zygotic deletion of Cdx2 develop normally until the late blastocyst stage leading to the conclusion that Cdx2 is important for the maintenance but not specification of the TE. In contrast, down-regulation of Cdx2 transcripts from the early embryo stage results in defects in TE specification before the blastocyst stage. Here, to unambiguously address at which developmental stage Cdx2 becomes first required, we genetically deleted Cdx2 from the oocyte stage using a Zp3-Cre/loxP strategy. Careful assessment of a large cohort of Cdx2 maternal-zygotic null embryos, all individually filmed, examined and genotyped, reveals an earlier lethal phenotype than observed in Cdx2 zygotic null embryos that develop until the late blastocyst stage. The developmental failure of Cdx2 maternal-zygotic null embryos is associated with cell death and failure of TE specification, starting at the morula stage. These results indicate that Cdx2 is important for the correct specification of TE from the morula stage onwards and that both maternal and zygotic pools of Cdx2 are required for correct pre-implantation embryogenesis. PMID:25512302

  17. Both the folate cycle and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase contribute methyl groups for DNA methylation in mouse blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baohua; Denomme, Michelle M; White, Carlee R; Leung, Kit-Yi; Lee, Martin B; Greene, Nicholas D E; Mann, Mellissa R W; Trasler, Jacquetta M; Baltz, Jay M

    2015-03-01

    The embryonic pattern of global DNA methylation is first established in the inner cell mass (ICM) of the mouse blastocyst. The methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is produced in most cells through the folate cycle, but only a few cell types generate SAM from betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) via betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), which is expressed in the mouse ICM. Here, mean ICM cell numbers decreased from 18-19 in controls to 11-13 when the folate cycle was inhibited by the antifolate methotrexate and to 12-14 when BHMT expression was knocked down by antisense morpholinos. Inhibiting both pathways, however, much more severely affected ICM development (7-8 cells). Total SAM levels in mouse blastocysts decreased significantly only when both pathways were inhibited (from 3.1 to 1.6 pmol/100 blastocysts). DNA methylation, detected as 5-methylcytosine (5-MeC) immunofluorescence in isolated ICMs, was minimally affected by inhibition of either pathway alone but decreased by at least 45-55% when both BHMT and the folate cycle were inhibited simultaneously. Effects on cell numbers and 5-MeC levels in the ICM were completely rescued by methionine (immediate SAM precursor) or SAM. Both the folate cycle and betaine/BHMT appear to contribute to a methyl pool required for normal ICM development and establishing initial embryonic DNA methylation. PMID:25466894

  18. Injection of wild type embryonic stem cells into Mst1 transgenic blastocysts prevents adult-onset cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qingshi; Beck, Amanda J; Vitale, Joseph M; Schneider, Joel S; Chang, Corey; Gao, Shumin; del Re, Dominic; Bhaumik, Mantu; Yehia, Ghassan; Sadoshima, Junichi; Fraidenraich, Diego

    2011-06-01

    Embryonic stem cells have the capacity to differentiate into a wide range of cell types. We previously described that blastocyst injection of wild type (WT) embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into various knockout (KO) mouse models of human disease prevents disease from occurring. In this study we ask if the blastocyst approach can also correct defects in a mouse model of transgenic (Tg) overexpression of a pro-apoptotic factor. We injected ROSA26 (LacZ-marked) WT ESCs into human mammalian sterile 20 like-kinase 1 (Mst1) Tg blastocysts. Mst1 Tg mice overexpress Mst1, a pro-apoptotic factor, in a cardiac-specific manner. As a result, Mst1 Tg mice develop adult dilated cardiomyopathy driven by apoptosis, reduction in cell density and no hypertrophic compensation. Incorporation of WT ESCs generated WT/Mst1 chimeric mice with normal hearts at histological and functional levels. Accordingly, apoptosis and cell density parameters were normalized. The experiments suggest that an adult-onset cardiac myopathy induced by overexpression of the pro-apoptotic Mst1 can be reversed by developmental incorporation of WT ESCs. The findings also suggest that since forced expression of the Mst1 transgene is not abolished in the rescued chimeras, the WT ES-derived cells normalize pathways that lie downstream of Mst1. The results expand the therapeutic capability of the ESCs to mouse models that overproduce detrimental proteins. PMID:21086068

  19. Injection of Wild Type Embryonic Stem Cells into Mst1 Transgenic Blastocysts Prevents Adult-Onset Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qingshi; Beck, Amanda J.; Vitale, Joseph M.; Schneider, Joel S.; Chang, Corey; Gao, Shumin; del Re, Dominic; Bhaumik, Mantu; Yehia, Ghassan; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2011-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells have the capacity to differentiate into a wide range of cell types. We previously described that blastocyst injection of wild type (WT) embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into various knockout (KO) mouse models of human disease prevents disease from occurring. In this study we ask if the blastocyst approach can also correct defects in a mouse model of transgenic (Tg) overexpression of a pro-apoptotic factor. We injected ROSA26 (LacZ-marked) WT ESCs into human mammalian sterile 20 like-kinase 1 (Mst1) Tg blastocysts. Mst1 Tg mice overexpress Mst1, a pro-apoptotic factor, in a cardiac-specific manner. As a result, Mst1 Tg mice develop adult dilated cardiomyopathy driven by apoptosis, reduction in cell density and no hypertrophic compensation. Incorporation of WT ESCs generated WT/Mst1 chimeric mice with normal hearts at histological and functional levels. Accordingly, apoptosis and cell density parameters were normalized. The experiments suggest that an adult-onset cardiac myopathy induced by overexpression of the pro-apoptotic Mst1 can be reversed by developmental incorporation of WT ESCs. The findings also suggest that since forced expression of the Mst1 transgene is not abolished in the rescued chimeras, the WT ES-derived cells normalize pathways that lie downstream of Mst1. The results expand the therapeutic capability of the ESCs to mouse models that overproduce detrimental proteins. PMID:21086068

  20. Energy dependence of 12C+12C single-neutron transfer cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winfield, J. S.; Austin, Sam M.; Crawley, G. M.; Djalali, C.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Smith, R. J.; Chen, Ziping; Torres, M.

    1988-04-01

    The one-neutron transfer reaction induced by 25, 35 and 50 MeV/nucleon 12C beams on a 12C target has been studied. The observed angular distributions for the 13Cg.s-11Cg.s. final state agree in shape and magnitude with predictions of the exact finite- range distorted wave Born approximation. Above roughly 30 MeV/nucleon, the angel integrated cross section falls off with an approximately exponential slope in accordance with the expectations of the reaction dynamics at high bombarding energies. Present address: Department of Health Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

  1. Studies of Nuclei Close to 132Sn Using Single-Neutron Transfer Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K. L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Pain, S. D. [Rutgers University; Kozub, R. L. [Tennessee Technological University; Adekola, Aderemi S [ORNL; Bardayan, Daniel W [ORNL; Blackmon, Jeff C [ORNL; Catford, Wilton N [ORNL; Chae, K. Y. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chipps, K. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Cizewski, J. A. [Rutgers University; Erikson, Luke [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Gaddis, A. L. [Furman University; Greife, U. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Grzywacz, R. K. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Harlin, Christopher W [ORNL; Hatarik, Robert [Rutgers University; Howard, Joshua A [ORNL; James, J. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Kapler, R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Krolas, W. [University of Warsaw; Liang, J Felix [ORNL; Ma, Zhanwen [ORNL; Matei, Catalin [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU); Moazen, Brian [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nesaraja, Caroline D [ORNL; O'Malley, Patrick [Rutgers University; Patterson, N. P. [University of Surrey, UK; Paulauskas, Stanley [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Shapira, Dan [ORNL; ShrinerJr., J. F. [Tennessee Technological University; Sikora, M. [Rutgers University; Sissom, D. J. [Tennessee Technological University; Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL; Swan, T. P. [University of Surrey, UK; Thomas, J. S. [Rutgers University; Wilson, Gemma L [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Neutron transfer reactions were performed in inverse kinematics using radioactive ion beams of 132Sn, 130Sn, and 134Te and deuterated polyethylene targets. Preliminary results are presented. The Q-value spectra for 133Sn, 131Sn and 135Te reveal a number of previously unobserved peaks. The angular distributions are compatible with the expected lf7/2 nature of the ground state of 133Sn, and 2p3/2 for the 3.4 MeV state in 131Sn.

  2. Probing Single-Neutron Levels in 127,129Sn via Transfer Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, B.; Cizewski, J. A.; Howard, M. E.; O'Malley, P. D.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Kozub, R. L.; Ahn, S.; Jones, K. L.; Pittman, S. T.; Allmond, J. M.; Bardayan, D. W.; Beene, J. R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Liang, J. F.; Nesaraja, C. D.; Pain, S. D.; Radford, D. C.; Schmitt, K. T.; Shapira, D.; Smith, M. S.; Chae, K. Y.; Chipps, K. A.; Matos, M.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Peters, W. A.

    2014-09-01

    The (d,p) reaction was measured with radioactive ion beams of 126Sn and 128Sn (~5 MeV/u) in inverse kinematics at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, utilizing the SuperORRUBA silicon detector array. Angular distributions of reaction protons were measured for several states in 127Sn and 129Sn in order to determine angular momentum transfers and deduce spectroscopic factors. Combined with previous experiments on 130Sn and 132Sn, these results provide a complete set of (d,p) reaction data on even tin isotopes between stable 124Sn and doubly magic 132Sn.

  3. Introduction and Description The GTP (GRAVITE Transfer Protocol) is a system designed to provide a single,

    E-print Network

    a single, consistent interface for data discovery and retrieval among one or more disparate information records from the server database. The other mode provides a means of downloading the physical files is to provide a persistent communications gateway to the data server in the background while enabling the user

  4. Transferring Electrons One by One in Single Electron Devices with Long Arrays of Tunnel Junctions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Y. Hu; R. F. O'Connell; Young Bong Kang; Jai Yon Ryu

    1996-01-01

    We review recent theoretical work on an analytical approach to the charge dynamics of electron tunneling in single electron devices consisting of long arrays with equal stray capacitances and equal junction capacitances. Our approach to the problem has two basic steps. First, we find the exact solution for the potential profiles and the associated Gibbs free energy, based on a

  5. On the definition of dominant force regimes for flow boiling heat transfer by using single mini-tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Soumei; Sawada, Kenichiro; Kubota, Chisato; Kawanami, Osamu; Asano, Hitoshi; Inoue, Koichi; Ohta, Haruhiko

    Recent increase in the size of space platforms requires the management of larger amount of waste heat under high heat flux conditions and the transportation of it along a long distance to the radiator. Flow boiling applied to the thermal management system in space attracts much attention as promising means to realize high-performance heat transfer and transport because of large latent heat of vaporization. In microgravity two-phase flow phenomena are quite different from those under 1-g condition because buoyancy effects are significantly reduced and surface tension becomes dominant. By the similar reason, flow boiling characteristics in mini channels are not the same as those in channels of normal sizes. In the present stage, however, the boundary between the regimes of body force dominated and of surface tension dominated is not clear. The design of space thermal devices, operated under the conditions where no effect of gravity is expected, will improve the reliability of their ground tests, provided that the boundaries of dominant force regimes are clarified quantitatively in advance. In flow boiling in mini channels or in parallel channels, back flow could be occurred because of rapid growth of bubbles in a confined space, resulting flow rate fluctuation. Flow boiling heat transfer characteristics in mini channels can be changed considerably by the existence of inlet flow rate fluctuation. It is important to pay attention to experimental accuracy and to use a single circular mini-tube to compare heat transfer characteristics with those of normal size tubes. In the present paper, effects of tube orientations, i.e. vertical upward flow, vertical downward flow and horizontal flow, on flow boiling heat transfer characteristics is investigated for FC72 flowing in single mini-tubes with inner diameters of 0.13 and 0.51 mm to establish a reliable dominant force regime map. If the regime map is described by using dimensionless groups of Bond, Weber and Froude numbers, the boundary of dominant forces of inertia and body force is examined by using the mini-tube of the larger diameter at constant Bond number Bo = 0.51, and the boundary of inertia and surface tension by using the mini-tube of smaller diameter at Bo = 0.033. The influence of inertia is varied by the change of vapor quality, i.e. ratio of vapor mass flow rate to the total, under constant mass velocities, where the velocity of liquid-vapor mixtures is increased with increasing vapor quality. For the tube diameter of 0.51 mm, under low inertia conditions at Froude number Fr < 5, heat transfer coefficients were influenced by the tube orientation, while the heat transfer coefficients were almost independent of the orientation for Fr > 5. The results indicated that the boundary between the body force dominated and the inertia force dominated regimes was given by Froude number as Fr ˜ 5. On the other hand, for tube diameter of 0.13 mm, almost no effect of tube = orientation was observed for all combinations of mass velocity and vapor quality, and heat transfer coefficients were independent of vapor quality under low inertia conditions at Weber number We < 5, and vice versa. The results implied the boundary between the surface tension dominated and the inertia force dominated regimes was represented by We ˜ 5. = In addition, by the reflection of both results on the two-dimensional regime map, the boundary between the surface tension dominated and the body force dominated regimes was approx-imately evaluated as Bo ˜ 0.25 from the crossing point of two boundary lines. This value = located in the range of 0.033 < Bo < 0.51 is consistent with the boundaries between the sur-face tension dominated and the body force dominated regimes classified for the smaller and larger mini-tubes, respectively, under low inertia conditions.

  6. Single-molecule near-field optical energy transfer microscopy with dielectric tips.

    PubMed

    Trabesinger, W; Kramer, A; Kreiter, M; Hecht, B; Wild, U P

    2003-03-01

    The fluorescence lifetime and the fluorescence rate of single molecules are recorded as a function of the position of a Si3N4 atomic force microscopy tip with respect to the molecule. We observe a decrease of the excited state lifetime and the fluorescence rate when the tip apex is in close proximity to the molecule. These effects are attributed to the fact that the dielectric tip converts non-propagating near-fields to propagating fields within the dielectric tip effectively quenching the fluorescence. The spatial extension of the quenching area is of subwavelength dimensions. The results are discussed in terms of molecular fluorescence in a system of stratified media. The experiment provides surprising new insights into the interactions between a fluorescent molecule and a dielectric tip. The methodology holds promise for applications in ultra high-resolution near-field optical imaging at the level of single fluorophores. PMID:12641770

  7. Transfer of European mink (Mustela lutreola) embryos into hybrid recipients.

    PubMed

    Amstislavsky, Sergei; Aalto, Jussi; Järvinen, Mikko; Lindeberg, Heli; Valtonen, Maija; Zudova, Galina; Ternovskaya, Yulia

    2004-08-01

    The European mink is considered as a highly endangered Mustelidae species. The objective of this study was to explore the intriguing possibility of embryo transfer from European mink to closely related Mustelidae recipient females. To overcome interspecies pregnancy failure, embryos of European mink (Mustela lutreola) were transferred into hybrid females obtained after mating of European polecat (Mustela putorius) males and European mink (M. lutreola) females and vice versa. A total of 32 blastocysts were surgically flushed from the uteri of nine European mink donors and surgically transferred into six pseudopregnant hybrid recipients. One of the recipients received a single embryo and did not whelp. The remaining five recipients each received five to eight embryos and delivered kits. The overall success rate was 50% (16 kits/32 transferred embryos). For both male and female offspring, the average birth weight was lower in ET group when compared with naturally bred control population of European mink. The postnatal mortality rate was significantly higher in ET group as compared to controls: only 9 of 16 kits survived past the first week. At 10 days of age, the average weight for male offspring from the ET and control groups did not differ, although differences still persisted at this age for female offspring. At 3 months of age, the weight of male and female offspring in the ET group did not differ from European minks born after natural mating. We propose that transfer of European mink embryos to hybrid recipients be considered as a new experimental tool within the framework of ex situ approach conservation of this aboriginal European mustelid. PMID:15226002

  8. Impact of transient single-phase heat transfer modeling on predicted BWR fuel stability margins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Taleyarkhan; A. F. McFarlane; M. Z. Podowski; R. T. Jr. Lahey

    1987-01-01

    Boiling flow instabilities must be considered in the design and analysis of many devices in energy production, e.g., boiling water nuclear reactors (BWRs). The most common thermal-hydraulic instability mechanism of interest to BWR operation in known as density-wave oscillations. An important aspect of analytically investigating density-wave oscillations deals with heater wall dynamic modeling in the single- and two-phase regions, respectively.

  9. Device study, chemical doping, and logic circuits based on transferred aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chuan; Ryu, Koungmin; Badmaev, Alexander; Patil, Nishant; Lin, Albert; Mitra, Subhasish; Wong, H.-S. Philip; Zhou, Chongwu

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, high-performance back-gated carbon nanotube field-effect transistors based on transferred aligned carbon nanotubes were fabricated and studies found that the on/off ratio can reach 107 and the current density can reach 1.6?A/?m after electrical breakdown. In addition, chemical doping with hydrazine was used to convert the p-type aligned nanotube devices into n-type. These devices were further utilized to demonstrate various logic circuits, including p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor inverters, diode-loaded inverters, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor inverters, NAND, and NOR gates. This approach could work as the platform for future nanotube-based nanoelectronics.

  10. Multiple Reflection Effect on Spin-Transfer Torque Dynamics in Spin Valves with a Single or Dual Polarizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Weiwei; Zhang, Zongzhi; Zhang, Jianwei; Liu, Yaowen

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, spin-dependent multiple reflection effect on spin-transfer torque (STT) has been theoretically and numerically studied in a spin valve nanopillar with a single or dual spin-polarizer. By using a scattering matrix method, we formulate an analytical expression of STT that contains the multiple interfacial reflection effect. It is found that the multiple reflections could enhance the STT efficiency and reduce the critical switching current. The STT efficiency depends on the spin polarization of both the free layer and polarizer. In the nanopillars with a dual spin polarizer, the multiple reflections would cause an asymmetric frequency dependence on the applied current, albeit exactly the same parameters are used in all three ferromagnetic layers, indicating that the frequency in the negative current varies much faster than that in the positive case.

  11. Optical horn antennas for efficiently transferring photons from a quantum emitter to a single-mode optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Grosjean, T; Mivelle, M; Burr, G W; Baida, F I

    2013-01-28

    We theoretically demonstrate highly efficient optical coupling between a single quantum emitter and a monomode optical fiber over remarkably broad spectral ranges by extending the concept of horn antenna to optics. The optical horn antenna directs the radiation from the emitter toward the optical fiber and efficiently phase-matches the photon emission with the fiber mode. Numerical results show that an optical horn antenna can funnel up to 85% of the radiation from a dipolar source within an emission cone semi-angle as small as 7 degrees (antenna directivity of 300). It is also shown that 50% of the emitted power from the dipolar source can be collected and coupled to an SMF-28 fiber mode over spectral ranges larger than 1000 nm, with a maximum energy transfer reaching 70 %. This approach may open new perspectives in quantum optics and sensing. PMID:23389160

  12. Platinum and Palladium transfer to milk, organs and tissues after a single oral administration to lactating goats.

    PubMed

    Ducoulombier-Crépineau, Cécile; Feidt, Cyril; Rychen, Guido

    2007-06-01

    Platinum (Pt) and Palladium (Pd) are massively used in catalytic converters, emitted with exhaust fumes and deposited on roadsides in particle sizes. If they are ingested by ruminants grazing in agricultural fields located along roads they may enter the food chain. The objective of this study is to assess the potential transfer of Pt (PtCl(2)) and Pd (PdCl(2)) towards milk, tissues (muscle) and organs (kidney, liver and mammary gland). Three lactating goats received orally a single dose of 200mg of Pd and 200mg of Pt at the beginning of the experiment. The milk was collected each day during eight days. On the eighth day, organs and tissues were sampled to analyse the metal concentrations by ICP-MS (quantification limit of 0.25ng/g for Pd and Pt, detection limit of 0.08ng/g). The experiment demonstrated a significant transfer of Pd and Pt to kidney. The detected concentration was, respectively, of 73.9ng/g DW and 268.5n/g DW (factor 22 and factor 73 compared to the control kidney). The amounts of metals were : in the liver,18.1ng/g DW for the Pd and 8.1ng/g DW for the Pt, in the mammary gland, 14.9ng/g DW fort the Pd and 2.5ng/g DW for the Pt and in the muscle, 4.9ng/g DW for the Pd and 0.6ng/g DW for the Pt. The Pd concentration detected in milk was higher (from 5ng/g DW to 9ng/g DW) than in control milk but the transfer factor remained very low (0.02%). The Pt in milk could not be detected because it was below the quantification limit (<0.25ng/g DW). PMID:17336367

  13. Phase transfer catalysts drive diverse organic solvent solubility of single-walled carbon nanotubes helically wrapped by ionic, semiconducting polymers.

    PubMed

    Deria, Pravas; Sinks, Louise E; Park, Tae-Hong; Tomezsko, Diana M; Brukman, Matthew J; Bonnell, Dawn A; Therien, Michael J

    2010-10-13

    Use of phase transfer catalysts such as 18-crown-6 enables ionic, linear conjugated poly[2,6-{1,5-bis(3-propoxysulfonicacidsodiumsalt)}naphthylene]ethynylene (PNES) to efficiently disperse single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in multiple organic solvents under standard ultrasonication methods. Steady-state electronic absorption spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveal that these SWNT suspensions are composed almost exclusively of individualized tubes. High-resolution TEM and AFM data show that the interaction of PNES with SWNTs in both protic and aprotic organic solvents provides a self-assembled superstructure in which a PNES monolayer helically wraps the nanotube surface with periodic and constant morphology (observed helical pitch length = 10 ± 2 nm); time-dependent examination of these suspensions indicates that these structures persist in solution over periods that span at least several months. Pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy reveals that the excited state lifetimes and exciton binding energies of these well-defined nanotube-semiconducting polymer hybrid structures remain unchanged relative to analogous benchmark data acquired previously for standard sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS)-SWNT suspensions, regardless of solvent. These results demonstrate that the use of phase transfer catalysts with ionic semiconducting polymers that helically wrap SWNTs provide well-defined structures that solubulize SWNTs in a wide range of organic solvents while preserving critical nanotube semiconducting and conducting properties. PMID:20809609

  14. Analyzing conformational dynamics of single P-glycoprotein transporters by Förster resonance energy transfer using hidden Markov models

    PubMed Central

    Zarrabi, Nawid; Ernst, Stefan; Verhalen, Brandy; Wilkens, Stephan; Börsch, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Single-molecule Förster resonance energy (smFRET) transfer has become a powerful tool for observing conformational dynamics of biological macromolecules. Analyzing smFRET time trajectories allows to identify the state transitions occuring on reaction pathways of molecular machines. Previously, we have developed a smFRET approach to monitor movements of the two nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) during ATP hydrolysis driven drug transport in solution. One limitation of this initial work was that single-molecule photon bursts were analyzed by visual inspection with manual assignment of individual FRET levels. Here a fully automated analysis of Pgp smFRET data using hidden Markov models (HMM) for transitions up to 9 conformational states is applied. We propose new estimators for HMMs to integrate the information of fluctuating intensities in confocal smFRET measurements of freely diffusing lipid bilayer bound membrane proteins in solution. HMM analysis strongly supports that under conditions of steady state turnover, conformational states with short NBD distances and short dwell times are more populated compared to conditions without nucleotide or transport substrate present. PMID:23891547

  15. Improvement in the blastocyst quality and efficiency of putative embryonic stem cell line derivation from porcine embryos produced in vitro using a novel culturing system.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Seung A; Kim, Eunhye; Kwak, Seong-Sung; Jeon, Yubyeol; Hyun, Sang-Hwan

    2015-08-01

    Porcine embryonic stem cells (pESCs) have great potential for application in translational biomedical research, including xenotransplantation and disease models. Obtaining high?quality blastocysts is the most important factor in the isolation and colonization of primary ESCs and the establishment of ESC lines. In pigs, in vitro?derived blastocysts have a limited cell number compared to in vivo?derived blastocysts and show an indefinite inner cell mass, which may result in failure to establish pESC lines. In the present study, the effects of resveratrol (RES), granulocyte?macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM?CSF) and ??mercaptoethanol (??ME) on the quality of blastocysts and the efficiency of colony derivation were investigated for the establishment of ESCs. A novel culturing system was developed in which 2 µM RES was added to the oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) medium, and 10 ng/ml pGM?CSF and 10 µM ??ME were added to embryo in vitro culture (IVC) medium. This novel system showed significantly more parthenogenetic activation (PA) blastocysts (54.5±1.8% vs. 43.4±1.2%; P<0.05) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) blastocysts (36.9±3.3% vs. 26.2±2.9%; P<0.06) at day seven as compared with that in the control system. The PA and IVF blastocysts from the novel system showed a significantly greater hatching rate (P<0.05) and greater cell numbers (55.1±2.0 vs. 45.6±2.0; P<0.05 and 78.9±6.8 vs. 58.5±7.2; P<0.06, for PA and IVF, respectively) at day seven compared to that in the control system. After seeding on feeder cells, the PA blastocysts produced by the novel system showed a significantly increased rate of attachment (28.8±3.9% vs. 17.2±2.4%; P<0.062). Finally, two putative pESC lines from PA embryos produced by the novel system and one by the control system were established. In conclusion, the novel system improved blastocyst quality and increased the derivation efficiency of putative pESC lines from porcine PA and IVF embryos produced in vitro. PMID:25892608

  16. Improvement of a porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer technique by optimizing donor cell and recipient oocyte preparations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gab-sang Lee; Sang-hwan Hyun; Hye-soo Kim; Dae-young Kim; So-hyun Lee; Jeong-mook Lim; Eun-song Lee; Sung-keun Kang; Byeong-chun Lee; Woo-suk Hwang

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to improve a porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technique by optimizing donor cell and recipient oocyte preparations. Adult and fetal fibroblasts, and cumulus and oviduct cells were used as donor cells, and in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes were employed as recipient oocytes. The percentages of fusion and development to the blastocyst stage, the ratio

  17. Production of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos using in vitro-grown and in vitro-matured oocytes in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Hironobu; Kida, Yuta; Oh, Noriyoshi; Kitada, Kensaku; Matsumoto, Kazuya; Saeki, Kazuhiro; Taniguchi, Takeshi; Hosoi, Yoshihiko

    2015-08-01

    We examined growing oocytes collected from follicles remaining in superovulated rabbit ovaries, that were grown (in vitro growth, IVG) and matured (in vitro maturation, IVM) in vitro. We produced somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos using the mature oocytes and examined whether these embryos have the ability to develop to the blastocyst stage. In addition, we examined the effects of trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), on the developmental competence of SCNT embryos derived from IVG-IVM oocytes. After growth for 7 days and maturation for 14-16 h in vitro, the growing oocytes reached the metaphase II stage (51.4%). After SCNT, these reconstructed embryos reached the blastocyst stage (20%). Furthermore, the rate of development to the blastocyst stage and the number of cells in the blastocysts in SCNT embryos derived from IVG-IVM oocytes were significantly higher for TSA-treated embryos compared with TSA-untreated embryos (40.6 versus 21.4% and 353.1 ± 59.1 versus 202.5 ± 54.6, P < 0.05). These results indicate that rabbit SCNT embryos using IVG-IVM oocytes have the developmental competence to reach the blastocyst stage. PMID:24666637

  18. Sodium current in single cells from bullfrog atrium: voltage dependence and ion transfer properties.

    PubMed

    Clark, R B; Giles, W

    1987-10-01

    1. Whole-cell and patch-clamp techniques (Hamill, Marty, Neher, Sakmann & Sigworth, 1981) have been used to make quantitative measurements of the transient inward sodium current (INa) in single cells from bullfrog atrium. This preparation is particularly suitable for the study of INa: (i) the current density is relatively low, (ii) the cells lack a transverse tubule system, (iii) isolated myocytes can be maintained at reduced temperatures (approximately 8-12 degrees C); therefore kinetics can be studied quantitatively. 2. INa was pharmacologically and kinetically isolated from other transmembrane currents by blocking ICa with CdCl2 (0.2-0.5 mM) or LaCl3 (5 x 10(-6) M), and by using only relatively short voltage-clamp depolarizations which did not activate IK (the delayed rectifier). 3. The voltage dependence of INa in bullfrog atrium is similar to that in amphibian node of Ranvier or fast skeletal muscle. The threshold for activation is approximately -50 mV. The peak of the INa vs. membrane potential relation is near -5 to -10 mV. The reversal potential in 'normal' (115 mM-Na+) Ringer solution is +59.0 mV (S.D. +/- 3.4, n = 10). Reduction of external Na+ concentration to one-third of normal resulted in an approximately -27 mV shift of the reversal potential, close to that expected for a highly Na+-selective conductance. 4. Steady-state inactivation of INa (h infinity), measured with a conventional two-pulse voltage-clamp protocol, spanned the membrane potential range from -90 to -50 mV. The potential dependence of h infinity was well described by a single Boltzmann function with half-inactivation at -71 mV and maximum slope of 6.0 mV. 5. Steady-state activation of INa (m infinity) was determined from fits of INa records to a Hodgkin-Huxley model. The potential dependence of m infinity was fitted to a Boltzmann function with half-activation at -33 mV and maximum slope of 9.5 mV. Thus at temperatures around 10 degrees C there was very little overlap of the m infinity and h infinity curves, and only very small steady-state 'window' currents are predicted. 6. The activation time constant, tau m, had a 'bell-shaped' dependence on membrane potential. The peak value of tau m was about 4.2 ms, at a membrane potential of -35 mV (9 degrees C). 7. The time course of inactivation of INa was consistently better described by the sum of two exponentials than by one exponential.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2451006

  19. A role for PDGF signaling in expansion of the extra-embryonic endoderm lineage of the mouse blastocyst

    PubMed Central

    Artus, Jérôme; Panthier, Jean-Jacques; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina

    2010-01-01

    The inner cell mass (ICM) of the implanting mammalian blastocyst comprises two lineages: the pluripotent epiblast (EPI) and primitive endoderm (PrE). We have identified platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFR?) as an early marker of the PrE lineage and its derivatives in both mouse embryos and ex vivo paradigms of extra-embryonic endoderm (ExEn). By combining live imaging of embryos and embryo-derived stem cells expressing a histone H2B-GFP fusion reporter under the control of Pdgfra regulatory elements with the analysis of lineage-specific markers, we found that Pdgfra expression coincides with that of GATA6, the earliest expressed transcriptional regulator of the PrE lineage. We show that GATA6 is required for the activation of Pdgfra expression. Using pharmacological inhibition and genetic inactivation we addressed the role of the PDGF pathway in the PrE lineage. Our results demonstrate that PDGF signaling is essential for the establishment, and plays a role in the proliferation, of XEN cells, which are isolated from mouse blastocyst stage embryos and represent the PrE lineage. Implanting Pdgfra mutant blastocysts exhibited a reduced number of PrE cells, an effect that was exacerbated by delaying implantation. Surprisingly, we also noted an increase in the number of EPI cells in implantation-delayed Pdgfra-null mutants. Taken together, our data suggest a role for PDGF signaling in the expansion of the ExEn lineage. Our observations also uncover a possible role for the PrE in regulating the size of the pluripotent EPI compartment. PMID:20826533

  20. Description of electron transfer in the ground and excited states of organic donor–acceptor systems by single-reference and multi-reference density functional methods

    SciTech Connect

    Filatov, Michael, E-mail: mike.filatov@gmail.com [Mulliken Center for Theoretical Chemistry, Institut für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universität Bonn, Beringstr. 4, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-09-28

    Electron transfer in the ground and excited states of a model donor–acceptor (D–A) system is investigated using the single-reference and multi-reference density functional theory (DFT) methods. To analyze the results of the calculations, a simple two-site multi-reference model was derived that predicts a stepwise electron transfer in the S{sub 0} state and a wave-like dependence of the S{sub 1} electron transfer on the external stimulus. The standard single-reference Kohn-Sham (KS) DFT approach and the time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) method failed to describe the correct dependence of the S{sub 0} and S{sub 1} electron transfer on the external electric field applied along the donor–acceptor system. The multi-reference DFT approach, the spin-restricted ensemble-referenced KS (REKS) method, was able to successfully reproduce the correct behavior of the S{sub 0} and S{sub 1} electron transfer on the applied field. The REKS method was benchmarked against experimentally measured gas phase charge transfer excitations in a series of organic donor–acceptor complexes and displayed its ability to describe this type of electronic transitions with a very high accuracy, mean absolute error of 0.05 eV with the use of the standard range separated density functionals. On the basis of the calculations undertaken in this work, it is suggested that the non-adiabatic coupling between the S{sub 0} and S{sub 1} states may interfere with the electron transfer in a weakly coupled donor–acceptor system. It is also suggested that the electronic excitation of a D{sup +}–A{sup ?} system may play a dual role by assisting the further electron transfer at certain magnitudes of the applied electric field and causing the backward transfer at lower electric field strengths.

  1. In vitro development of bison embryos using interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Seaby, R P; Alexander, B; King, W A; Mastromonaco, G F

    2013-12-01

    Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (interspecies SCNT) has been explored in many domestic and non-domestic animal species. However, problems arise during the development of these embryos, which may be related to species-specific differences in nuclear-cytoplasmic communication. The objectives of this study were to investigate the possibility of producing bison embryos in vitro using interspecies SCNT and assess the developmental potential of these embryos. Treatment groups consisted of cattle in vitro fertilization (IVF) and cattle SCNT as controls and wood bison SCNT, plains bison SCNT and wisent SCNT as experimental groups. Cleavage and blastocyst rates were assessed, and blastocyst quality was determined using total cell number, apoptotic incidence and relative quantification of mitochondria-related genes NRF1, MT-CYB and TFAM. These results indicate that embryos can be produced by interspecies SCNT in all bison species/subspecies (13.34-33.54% blastocyst rates). Although increased incidence of apoptosis was observed in bison SCNT blastocysts compared to cattle SCNT controls (10.45-12.69 vs 8.76, respectively) that corresponded with significantly lower cell numbers (80-87 cells vs >100 cells, respectively), no major differences were observed in the expression of NRF1, MT-CYB and TFAM. This study is the first to report the production of bison embryos by interspecies SCNT. Blastocyst development in all three bison species/subspecies was greater than the rates obtained in previous studies by IVF, which supports the potential role of SCNT for in vitro embryo production in this species. Yet, further investigation of developmental competence and the factors influencing blastocyst quality and viability is required. PMID:23692072

  2. 33 CFR 150.445 - When is oil in a single point mooring-oil transfer system (SPM-OTS) displaced with water?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    33 ? Navigation and Navigable Waters ? 2 ? 2014-07-01 ? 2014-07-01 ? false ? When is oil in a single point mooring-oil transfer system (SPM-OTS) displaced with water? ? 150.445 ? Section 150.445 ? Navigation and Navigable Waters ? COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ?...

  3. Production, freezing and transfer of bovine IVF embryos and subsequent calving results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Hasler; W. B. Henderson; P. J. Hurtgen; Z. Q. Jin; A. D. McCauley; S. A. Mower; B. Neely; L. S. Shuey; J. E. Stokes; S. A. Trimmer

    1995-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided oocyte aspirations were performed repeatedly, on a weekly basis, on 155 different cows. An average of 4.9 oocytes with 4.1 classified as usable were collected. Following in vitro maturation (IVM), fertilization (IVF) and culture (IVC), a few Day 7 morulae, and all Day 7 and most Day 8 blastocysts were either transferred or frozen. The transfer of 2268 fresh

  4. Single pulse excimer laser nanostructuring of thin silicon films: Nanosharp cones formation and a heat transfer problem

    SciTech Connect

    Eizenkop, Julia; Avrutsky, Ivan; Auner, Gregory; Georgiev, Daniel G.; Chaudhary, Vipin [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606-3390 (United States); Department of Computer Science and Engineering, The State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States)

    2007-05-01

    We present analytical and computer modeling along with an experiment on the formation of sharp conical tips on monocrystalline silicon thin films, silicon-on-insulator, subjected to irradiation by single 25 ns pulses from a KrF excimer laser focused into a spot several micrometers in diameter. These fabricated structures have heights of about 1 {mu}m and apical radii of curvature of several tens of nanometers. We offer a simplified analytical model for the formation of these structures. The computer simulation includes two-dimensional time-dependant heat transfer and phase transformations in Si films on SiO{sub 2} substrates that result from the laser irradiation (the Stefan problem). It is shown that upon irradiation and initial melting, the liquid/solid interface remains mainly parallel to the surface of the film. After the laser pulse, the molten material self-cools and resolidifies. The solid/liquid interface moves predominately laterally toward the center of the irradiated spot, forming an almost vertical front. We discuss the relation between the dynamics of the melting/freezing front movement and the displacement of material in the irradiated spot.

  5. Nonspherical Nanoparticles with Controlled Morphologies via Seeded Surface-Initiated Single Electron Transfer Radical Polymerization in Soap-Free Emulsion.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jinfeng; Wang, Lixia; Zhu, Lei; Pan, Mingwang; Wang, Wenjie; Liu, Ying; Liu, Gang

    2015-04-14

    This work reports a facile novel approach to prepare asymmetric poly(vinylidene fluoride)/polystyrene (PVDF/PS) composite latex particles with controllable morphologies using one-step soap-free seeded emulsion polymerization, i.e., surface-initiated single electron transfer radical polymerization (SET-RP) of styrene (St) at the surface of PVDF seed particles. It was observed that the morphology was influenced mainly by the St/PVDF feed ratio, the polymerization temperature, and the length of the catalyst Cu(0) wire (? 1.00 mm). When the feed ratio was St/PVDF = 5.0 g/1.0 g, snowman-like Janus particles were exclusively obtained. Raspberry-like and popcorn-like composite particles were observed at a higher reaction temperature or a shorter length of the catalyst wire. The reaction kinetics plots demonstrated some unique features. The formation of nonspherical composite nanoparticles can be ascribed to the surface nucleation of PS bulges following the SET-RP. PMID:25797695

  6. Charge transfer of single laser crystallized intrinsic and phosphorus-doped Si-nanocrystals visualized by Kelvin probe force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jie; Xu, Jun, E-mail: junxu@nju.edu.cn; Lu, Peng; Shan, Dan; Li, Wei; Chen, Kunji [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-10-07

    Isolated intrinsic and phosphorus doped (P-doped) Si-nanocrystals (Si-NCs) on n- and p-Si substrates are fabricated by excimer laser crystallization techniques. The formation of Si-NCs is confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and conductive AFM measurements. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) is then carried out to visualize the trapped charges in a single Si-NC dot which derives from the charge transfer between Si-NCs and Si substrates due to their different Fermi levels. The laser crystallized P-doped Si-NCs have a similar Fermi level around the mid-gap to the intrinsic counterparts, which might be caused by the inactivated impurity atoms or the surface states-related Fermi level pinning. A clear rise of the Fermi level in P-doped Si-NCs is observed after a short time thermal annealing treatment, indicating the activation of dopants in Si-NCs. Moreover, the surface charge quantity can be estimated using a simple parallel plate capacitor model for a quantitative understanding of the KPFM results at the nanoscale.

  7. Structural variability of nucleosomes detected by single-pair Förster resonance energy transfer: histone acetylation, sequence variation, and salt effects.

    PubMed

    Gansen, Alex; Tóth, Katalin; Schwarz, Nathalie; Langowski, Jörg

    2009-03-01

    Nucleosomes were reconstituted from 170 bp long fragments of 5S rDNA and an optimal positioning sequence, the Selex 601, with recombinant histones. In free-solution single pair Förster resonance energy transfer (spFRET) measurements of the distance between fluorescently labeled bases in the nucleosomal DNA, the samples exhibited structural diversity. The structural heterogeneity correlated with the stability of the complexes and depended on the DNA sequence and histone acetylation. The stability of the nucleosomes was assessed via dilution-driven disruption: histone acetylation decreased nucleosome stability. The spFRET experiments used a new approach for data acquisition and analysis that we term "deliberately detuned detection" (D3). This permits the separation of subpopulations in the samples even for the low-FRET regime characteristic for the linker-DNA labeled nucleosomes. Thus, it became possible to study in more detail histone acetylation- and salt-dependent structural variations using either end- or internally labeled DNAs on the nucleosome. We found that the distance distribution of the fluorophore pairs on the linker DNA ends was much more sensitive to histone acetylation or sequence variation than that of labels on the internal part of the DNA, which was more tightly associated with the histone core. spFRET on freely diffusing nucleosomes allows us therefore to localize the influence of histone modifications and DNA sequence variations on the nucleosome structure and dynamics. PMID:18950220

  8. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Single atoms transferring between a magneto-optical trap and a far-off-resonance optical dipole trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jun; Wang, Jing; Yang, Bao-Dong; Zhang, Tian-Cai; Wang, Jun-Min

    2009-08-01

    Based on our work on single cesium atoms trapped in a large-magnetic-gradient vapour-cell magneto-optical trap (MOT), the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is remarkably improved. Also a far-off-resonance optical dipole trap (FORT) formed by a strongly-focused 1064 nm single frequency Nd:YVO4 laser beam is introduced. One cesium atom is prepared in the MOT, and then it can transfer successfully between the MOT and the FORT which is overlapped with the MOT. Utilizing the effective transfer, the lifetime of single atoms trapped in the FORT is measured to be 6.9 ± 0.3 s. Thus we provide a system where the atomic qubit can be coherently manipulated.

  9. Placental transfer and pharmacokinetics of a single dermal dose of [14C]methyl parathion in rats.

    PubMed

    Abu-Qare, A W; Abdel-Rahman, A A; Kishk, A M; Abou-Donia, M B

    2000-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics and placental transfer of a single dermal 10.0 mg (10microCi)/kg dose of uniformly phenyl-labeled [14C] methyl parathion (0,0-dimethyl 0-4-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate) were investigated in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at 14-18 days of gestation. Three rats were killed at each time interval: 1, 2, 4, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after dosing. Radioactivity disappeared biexponentially from the administration sites, which retained 50% and 3% of the dose after 1 h and 96 h, respectively. Most of the absorbed radioactivity was excreted in the urine (91%). Only 3% of the 14C was recovered in the feces. One h after the administration, radioactivity was detected in all tissues, including fetal tissue. The peak maternal plasma concentration of radioactivity (ng methyl parathion equivalent/ml) was 1005 at 2 h, compared to 318 ng for fetal plasma at 12 h. The maximum concentrations of radioactivity (ng methyl parathion equivalent/g), detected in most tissues within 12 h of dosing, were, in descending order: adipose tissue (67,532), kidney (1,571), spleen (1,256), spinal cord (1,004), heart (729), liver (706), brain (546), placenta (389), and fetus (256). The metabolism studies showed that methyl parathion, detected by HPLC, was the major compound identified in plasma and tissues. The maximum concentration detected was in plasma, at 513 ng/ml, and in the following tissues (ng/g fresh tissue): kidney (819), fetus (668), placenta (394), liver (375), and brain (282). The metabolite methyl paraoxon was detected in maternal brain and liver at maximum concentrations (ng/g fresh tissue) of 135 and 64 after 12 h and 4 h respectively, while p-nitrophenol was only detected in liver at a maximum concentration of 21 ng/g 72 h after dosing. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that methyl parathion disappeared monoexponentially from plasma and tissues. The half-life of elimination of methyl parathion from plasma was 11 h corresponding to a constant rate value of 0.06 h(-1). The results indicate that skin and placenta are poor barriers against methyl parathion permeability, resulting in a rapid and extensive dermal absorption of this insecticide and extensive placental transfer. This is indicated by the relative residence (R(R)) of methyl parathion in the plasma, which was largest in the placenta followed by the fetus. This study suggests that pregnant women and fetuses may be at risk of cholinergic toxicity following dermal exposure to methyl parathion. PMID:10653515

  10. The Role of Data Transfer on the Selection of a Single vs Multiple Mesh Architecture for Tightly Coupled Multiphysics Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Richard W. Johnson; Glen A. Hansen; Christopher K Newman

    2011-07-01

    Data transfer from one distinct mesh to another may be necessary in any number of applications, including prolongation operations supporting multigrid solution methods, spatial adaptation, remeshing, and arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) and multiphysics simulation. This data transfer process is also referred to as remapping, rezoning and interpolation. Intermesh data transfer has the potential to introduce error into a simulation; the magnitude and importance of which depends on the transfer scenario and the algorithm used to perform the transfer. For a transient analysis, data transfer may occur many times during a simulation, with possible error accumulation at each transfer. The present study develops selected scenarios that illustrate data transfer error and how it might impact an analysis. This study examines remapping error by using static analytical functions to compare various remapping schemes. It also investigates the significance and nature of data transfer error for a simple multiphysics system involving a transient coupled system of partial differential equations. It concludes that remapping error can be significant both for static functions and for coupled multiphysics systems. Aggregate error is shown to be a function of remapping scheme, mesh coarseness, nature of the remapped function and mesh disparity. In cases of extreme mesh disparity, this study shows that remapping can lead to excessive error and even to solution instability. Further, this work motivates that remapping error should be included in the estimation of numerical error, if data transfer is employed in a numerical simulation.

  11. Polymer brushes on single-walled carbon nanotubes by atom transfer radical polymerization of n-butyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shuhui; Qin, Dongqi; Ford, Warren T; Resasco, Daniel E; Herrera, Jose E

    2004-01-14

    Polymer brushes with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) as backbones were synthesized by grafting n-butyl methacrylate (nBMA) from the ends and sidewalls of SWNT via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Carboxylic acid groups on SWNT were formed by nitric acid oxidation. The ATRP initiators were covalently attached to the SWNT by esterification of 2-hydroxyethyl 2'-bromopropionate with carboxylic acid groups. Methyl 2-bromopropionate (MBP) was added as free initiator during the brush preparation to control growth of the brushes and to monitor the polymerization kinetics. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) results show that the molecular weight of free poly(n-butyl methacrylate) (PnBMA) increased linearly with nBMA monomer conversion. PnBMA cleaved from the SWNT after high conversion had the same molecular weight as PnBMA produced in solution. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) show that the amount of PnBMA grown from the SWNT increased linearly with the molecular weight of the free PnBMA. The most highly PnBMA-functionalized SWNT dissolve in 1,2-dichlorobenzene, chloroform, and tetrahydrofuran, and solubility increases with the amount of PnBMA bound to SWNT. Near-infrared and Raman spectra indicate that the side walls of the SWNT were lightly functionalized by the nitric acid treatment and that the degree of functionalization of the SWNT did not change significantly during the formation of initiator or during the polymerization. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images show contour lengths of the SWNT brushes on a mica surface from 200 nm to 2.0 microm and an average height of the backbone of 2-3 nm, indicating that the bundles of original SWNT were broken into individual tubes by functionalization and polymerization. PMID:14709081

  12. Polymerization Induced Self-Assembly of Alginate Based Amphiphilic Graft Copolymers Synthesized by Single Electron Transfer Living Radical Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Kapishon, Vitaliy; Whitney, Ralph A; Champagne, Pascale; Cunningham, Michael F; Neufeld, Ronald J

    2015-07-13

    Alginate-based amphiphilic graft copolymers were synthesized by single electron transfer living radical polymerization (SET-LRP), forming stable micelles during polymerization induced self-assembly (PISA). First, alginate macroinitiator was prepared by partial depolymerization of native alginate, solubility modification and attachment of initiator. Depolymerized low molecular weight alginate (?12?000 g/mol) was modified with tetrabutylammonium, enabling miscibility in anhydrous organic solvents, followed by initiator attachment via esterification yielding a macroinitiator with a degree of substitution of 0.02, or 1-2 initiator groups per alginate chain. Then, methyl methacrylate was polymerized from the alginate macroinitiator in mixtures of water and methanol, forming poly(methyl methacrylate) grafts, prior to self-assembly, of ?75?000 g/mol and polydispersity of 1.2. PISA of the amphiphilic graft-copolymer resulted in the formation of micelles with diameters of 50-300 nm characterized by light scattering and electron microscopy. As the first reported case of LRP from alginate, this work introduces a synthetic route to a preparation of alginate-based hybrid polymers with a precise macromolecular architecture and desired functionalities. The intended application is the preparation of micelles for drug delivery; however, LRP from alginate can also be applied in the field of biomaterials to the improvement of alginate-based hydrogel systems such as nano- and microhydrogel particles, islet encapsulation materials, hydrogel implants, and topical applications. Such modified alginates can also improve the function and application of native alginates in food and agricultural applications. PMID:26068280

  13. Chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer imaging on magnetic particles for single-nucleotide polymorphism detection based on ligation chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Bi, Sai; Zhang, Zhipeng; Dong, Ying; Wang, Zonghua

    2014-10-17

    A novel ligation chain reaction (LCR) methodology for single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection was developed based on luminol-H2O2-horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mimicking DNAzyme-fluorescein chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) imaging on magnetic particles. For LCR, four unique target-complement probes (X and X(?), YG and Y(?)) for the amplification of K-ras (G12C) were designed by modifying G-quadruplex sequence at 3'-end of YG and fluorescein at 5'-end of Y(?). After the LCR, the resulting products of XYG/X(?)Y(?) with biotin-labeled X(?) were captured onto streptavidin-coated magnetic particles (SA-MPs) via specific biotin-SA interaction, which stimulated the CRET reaction from hemin/G-quadruplex-catalyzed luminol-H2O2 CL system to fluorescein. By collecting signals by a cooled low-light CCD, a CRET imaging method was proposed for visual detection and quantitative analysis of SNP. As low as 0.86fM mutant DNA was detected by this assay, and positive mutation detection was achieved with a wild-type to mutant ratio of 10,000:1. This high sensitivity and specificity could be attributed to not only the exponential amplification and excellent discrimination of LCR but also the employment of SA-MPs. SA-MPs ensured the feasibility of the proposed strategy, which also simplified the operations through magnetic separation and separated the reaction and detection procedures to improve sensitivity. The proposed LCR-CRET imaging strategy extends the application of signal amplification techniques to SNP detection, providing a promising platform for effective and high-throughput genetic diagnosis. PMID:25461149

  14. Blastocyst implantation is vulnerable to stress-induced rises in endogenous estrogens and also to excretions of estrogens by proximate males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denys deCatanzaro

    2011-01-01

    Although estrogens help to prepare the uterus for blastocyst implantation, small elevations above optimal levels can prevent implantation. In diverse mammals, stressors including extreme temperatures, physical restraint, environment changes, and predator exposure can impede implantation. This can be mimicked by treating inseminated females with exogenous estrogens. Peri-implantation stressors can elevate estradiol levels, while exogenous estrogen antibodies can mitigate the influences

  15. In vitro production of bovine embryos in medium supplemented with a serum replacer: Effects on blastocyst development, cryotolerance and survival to term

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Moore; C. J. Rodríguez-Sallaberry; J. M. Kramer; S. Johnson; E. Wroclawska; S. Goicoa; A. Niasari-Naslaji

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated a serum replacer (SR; Knockout SR®, Invitrogen) in our in vitro culture systems. We hypothesized that SR would benefit bovine embryo development, since SR supported survival of embryonic stem cells (which originate from embryos). Experiment 1 compared oocyte maturation with SR versus fetal bovine serum (FBS). Following fertilization, blastocyst development was lower for oocytes matured

  16. Advanced oviductal development, transport to the preferred implantation site, and attachment of the blastocyst in captive-bred, short-tailed fruit bats, Carollia perspicillata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio F. Oliveira; John J. Rasweiler; Nilima K. Badwaik

    2000-01-01

    The final stages of embryonic development in the oviduct, transport of the embryo to the uterus, and the initial stages of implantation have been examined in captive-bred Carollia perspicillata at the light and electron microscopic levels. Development progressed to the expanded, zona pellucida-free, blastocyst stage in the oviduct. The abundance of microvilli on the exterior of the trophoblast varied with

  17. Limited value of morphological assessment at days 1 and 2 to predict blastocyst development potential: A prospective study based on 4042 embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Guerif; A. Le Gouge; B. Giraudeau; J. Poindron; R. Bidault; O. Gasnier; D. Royere

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-invasive and routine developmental markers are available to select the most viable embryo; however their respective values in terms of blastocyst development potential remain difficult to distinguish. METHODS: During this prospective study, the sequential growth of 4042 embryos individually cultured from day 1 to day 5\\/6 was recorded. Pronuclear morphology on day 1, and early cleavage, cell number and

  18. Establishment of bovine trophoblast stem-like cells from in vitro-produced blastocyst-stage embryos using two inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xianghua; Han, Xuejie; Uyunbilig, Borjigin; Zhang, Manling; Duo, Shuguang; Zuo, Yongchun; Zhao, Yuhang; Yun, Ting; Tai, Dapeng; Wang, Chen; Li, Jinhua; Li, Xueling; Li, Rongfeng

    2014-07-01

    The trophoblast (TR) is the first to differentiate during mammalian embryogenesis and play a pivotal role in the development of the placenta. We used a dual inhibitor system (PD0325901 and CHIR99021) with mixed feeders to successfully obtain bovine trophoblast stem-like (bTS) cells, which were similar in phenotype to mouse trophoblast stem cells (TSCs). The bTS cells that were generated using this system continually proliferated, displayed a normal diploid karyotype, and had no signs of altered morphology or differentiation even after 150 passages. These cells exhibited alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and expressed pluripotency markers, such as OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, SSEA-1, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81, and TR lineage markers such as CDX2, as determined by both immunofluorescence and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Additionally, these cells generated dome-like structures, formed teratomas when injected into NOD-SCID mice, and differentiated into placenta TR cells in vitro. The microarray analysis of bTS cells showed high expression levels of many TR markers, such as TEAD4, EOMES, GATA3, ETS2, TFAP2A, ELF5, SMARCA4 (BRG1), CDH3, MASH2, HSD17B1, CYP11A1, PPARG, ID2, GCM1, HAND1, TDK, PAG, IFN-?, and THAP11. The expression of many pluripotency markers, such as OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, and GDF3, was lower in bTS cells compared with in vitro-produced blastocysts; however, compared with bovine fetal fibroblasts, the expression of these pluripotency markers was elevated in bTS cells. The DNA methylation status of the promoter regions of OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2 was investigated, which were significantly higher in bTS cells (OCT4 23.90%, NANOG 74.40%, and SOX2 8.50%) compared with blastocysts (OCT4 8.90%, NANOG 34.4%, and SOX2 3.80%). In contrast, two promoter regions of CDX2 were hypomethylated in bTS cells (13.80% and 3.90%) compared with blastocysts (18.80% and 9.10%). The TSC lines that were established in this study may be used either for basic research that is focused on peri-implantation and placenta development or as donor cells for transgenic animal production. PMID:24605918

  19. The Effect of Anandamide on Uterine Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity Depends on the Presence of the Blastocyst

    PubMed Central

    Sordelli, Micaela S.; Beltrame, Jimena S.; Burdet, Juliana; Zotta, Elsa; Pardo, Romina; Cella, Maximiliano; Franchi, Ana M.; Ribeiro, Maria Laura

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide production, catalyzed by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), should be strictly regulated to allow embryo implantation. Thus, our first aim was to study NOS activity during peri-implantation in the rat uterus. Day 6 inter-implantation sites showed lower NOS activity (0.19±0.01 pmoles L-citrulline mg prot?1 h?1) compared to days 4 (0.34±0.03) and 5 (0.35±0.02) of pregnancy and to day 6 implantation sites (0.33±0.01). This regulation was not observed in pseudopregnancy. Both dormant and active blastocysts maintained NOS activity at similar levels. Anandamide (AEA), an endocannabinoid, binds to cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1) and type 2 (CB2), and high concentrations are toxic for implantation and embryo development. Previously, we observed that AEA synthesis presents an inverted pattern compared to NOS activity described here. We adopted a pharmacological approach using AEA, URB-597 (a selective inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase, the enzyme that degrades AEA) and receptor selective antagonists to investigate the effect of AEA on uterine NOS activity in vitro in rat models of implantation. While AEA (0.70±0.02 vs 0.40±0.04) and URB-597 (1.08±0.09 vs 0.83±0.06) inhibited NOS activity in the absence of a blastocyst (pseudopregnancy) through CB2 receptors, AEA did not modulate NOS on day 5 pregnant uterus. Once implantation begins, URB-597 decreased NOS activity on day 6 implantation sites via CB1 receptors (0.25±0.04 vs 0.40±0.05). While a CB1 antagonist augmented NOS activity on day 6 inter-implantation sites (0.17±0.02 vs 0.27±0.02), a CB2 antagonist decreased it (0.17±0.02 vs 0.12±0.01). Finally, we described the expression and localization of cannabinoid receptors during implantation. In conclusion, AEA levels close to and at implantation sites seems to modulate NOS activity and thus nitric oxide production, fundamental for implantation, via cannabinoid receptors. This modulation depends on the presence of the blastocyst. These data establish cannabinoid receptors as an interesting target for the treatment of implantation deficiencies. PMID:21559512

  20. The effect of anandamide on uterine nitric oxide synthase activity depends on the presence of the blastocyst.

    PubMed

    Sordelli, Micaela S; Beltrame, Jimena S; Burdet, Juliana; Zotta, Elsa; Pardo, Romina; Cella, Maximiliano; Franchi, Ana M; Ribeiro, Maria Laura

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide production, catalyzed by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), should be strictly regulated to allow embryo implantation. Thus, our first aim was to study NOS activity during peri-implantation in the rat uterus. Day 6 inter-implantation sites showed lower NOS activity (0.19±0.01 pmoles L-citrulline mg prot(-1) h(-1)) compared to days 4 (0.34±0.03) and 5 (0.35±0.02) of pregnancy and to day 6 implantation sites (0.33±0.01). This regulation was not observed in pseudopregnancy. Both dormant and active blastocysts maintained NOS activity at similar levels. Anandamide (AEA), an endocannabinoid, binds to cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1) and type 2 (CB2), and high concentrations are toxic for implantation and embryo development. Previously, we observed that AEA synthesis presents an inverted pattern compared to NOS activity described here. We adopted a pharmacological approach using AEA, URB-597 (a selective inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase, the enzyme that degrades AEA) and receptor selective antagonists to investigate the effect of AEA on uterine NOS activity in vitro in rat models of implantation. While AEA (0.70±0.02 vs 0.40±0.04) and URB-597 (1.08±0.09 vs 0.83±0.06) inhibited NOS activity in the absence of a blastocyst (pseudopregnancy) through CB2 receptors, AEA did not modulate NOS on day 5 pregnant uterus. Once implantation begins, URB-597 decreased NOS activity on day 6 implantation sites via CB1 receptors (0.25±0.04 vs 0.40±0.05). While a CB1 antagonist augmented NOS activity on day 6 inter-implantation sites (0.17±0.02 vs 0.27±0.02), a CB2 antagonist decreased it (0.17±0.02 vs 0.12±0.01). Finally, we described the expression and localization of cannabinoid receptors during implantation. In conclusion, AEA levels close to and at implantation sites seems to modulate NOS activity and thus nitric oxide production, fundamental for implantation, via cannabinoid receptors. This modulation depends on the presence of the blastocyst. These data establish cannabinoid receptors as an interesting target for the treatment of implantation deficiencies. PMID:21559512

  1. Meaning and Measurability of Single-Ion Activities, the Thermodynamic Foundations of pH, and the Gibbs Free Energy for the Transfer of Ions between Dissimilar Materials

    PubMed Central

    Rockwood, Alan L

    2015-01-01

    Considering the relationship between concentration and vapor pressure (or the relationship between concentration and fugacity) single-ion activity coefficients are definable in purely thermodynamic terms. The measurement process involves measuring a contact potential between a solution and an external electrode. Contact potentials are measurable by using thermodynamically reversible processes. Extrapolation of an equation to zero concentration and ionic strength enables determination of single-ion activity coefficients. Single-ion activities can be defined and measured without using any extra-thermodynamic assumptions, concepts, or measurements. This method could serve as a gold standard for the validation of extra-thermodynamic methods for determining single-ion activities. Furthermore, it places the concept of pH on a thermodynamically solid foundation. Contact potential measurements can also be used to determine the Gibbs free energy for the transfer of ions between dissimilar materials. PMID:25919971

  2. Meaning and Measurability of Single-Ion Activities, the Thermodynamic Foundations of pH, and the Gibbs Free Energy for the Transfer of Ions between Dissimilar Materials.

    PubMed

    Rockwood, Alan L

    2015-06-22

    Considering the relationship between concentration and vapor pressure (or the relationship between concentration and fugacity) single-ion activity coefficients are definable in purely thermodynamic terms. The measurement process involves measuring a contact potential between a solution and an external electrode. Contact potentials are measurable by using thermodynamically reversible processes. Extrapolation of an equation to zero concentration and ionic strength enables determination of single-ion activity coefficients. Single-ion activities can be defined and measured without using any extra-thermodynamic assumptions, concepts, or measurements. This method could serve as a gold standard for the validation of extra-thermodynamic methods for determining single-ion activities. Furthermore, it places the concept of pH on a thermodynamically solid foundation. Contact potential measurements can also be used to determine the Gibbs free energy for the transfer of ions between dissimilar materials. PMID:25919971

  3. Primate model of MI oocyte in vitro maturation and the effects of a novel glutathione donor on maturation, fertilization and blastocyst development

    PubMed Central

    Curnow, Eliza C.; Ryan, John P.; Saunders, Douglas M.; Hayes, Eric S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of glutathione ethyl ester (GSH-OEt) on the development of macaque MI oocytes as a model for human MI oocyte in vitro maturation. Design Prospective cohort study Setting Non-human primate ART program. Animal(s) 23 Macaca fascicularis females aged 6.5-12.5 years Intervention(s) Ovarian stimulation and maturation of MI oocytes in i) HTF, ii) mCMRL-1066, iii) mCMRL-1066+GSH-OEt 3mM or iv) mCMRL-1066+GSH-OEt 5mM. Oocytes were assessed for maturation after 4-6 h (early) and 18-20 h (late) of culture. Mature oocytes were inseminated or subjected to glutathione (GSH) assay. Zygotes were cultured to the blastocyst stage for total differential cell counts. Main Outcome Measure(s) Oocyte maturation rate, GSH content, pronuclear formation and blastocyst development and cell number were compared between IVM treatment groups and sibling in vivo matured (IVO) MII oocytes. Result(s) Compared to HTF, mCMRL-1066 supported higher rates of normal fertilization and blastocyst development in early but not late maturing MI-MII oocytes. 5 mM GSH-OEt significantly increased blastocyst total cell and ICM cell number in early MI-MII oocytes compared to IVO and IVM controls. GSH-OEt significantly increased oocyte GSH content and fertilization in late maturing oocytes but not blastocyst development. Conclusion(s) GSH-OEt positively effects development of early and late maturing IVM oocytes. PMID:20667536

  4. Measurement of the Mass Transfer into Single Drops in the System of Water\\/Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Zappe; Arno Wesch; Klaus Heinrich Ebert

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for the measurement of mass transfer in isolated water drops. The transport of a component in the water drop can be detected by a change in electrical conductivity. Measurements were performed using a new type of sensor design. In particular the transfer of CO2 from a continuous fluid phase into the water drop was

  5. Midgestational abnormalities associated with in vitro preimplantation N-methyl-N-nitrosourea exposure with subsequent transfer to surrogate mothers.

    PubMed Central

    Bossert, N L; Iannaccone, P M

    1985-01-01

    Mouse blastocyst functions have been shown to be disrupted by in vitro exposure to N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MeNU). After exposure, the chemically treated blastocysts were transferred to the uteri of pseudopregnant surrogate mothers. Implantation rate and birth rate have been shown previously to decrease in a concentration-dependent manner. Because of the large progressive decrease in the 50% effective concentration (EC50) for cytotoxicity, implantation rate, and live birth rate, we have investigated the midgestational effects of preimplantation exposure to MeNU after the transfer of treated embryos to surrogate mothers. A concentration-dependent decrease in normal implantation and a concurrent concentration-dependent increase in resorption number was observed in surrogates sacrificed at gestational age day 12 or day 15. Gross malformations were significantly increased by preimplantation exposure, in vitro, to MeNU. Fetal body length did not differ between fetuses developed from solvent-treated blastocysts and those that developed from natural pregnancies (nontransferred control) at either gestational age examined. Fetal body length was significantly shorter in fetuses developed from MeNU-treated blastocysts. Images PMID:3866250

  6. INO80 facilitates pluripotency gene activation in embryonic stem cell self-renewal, reprogramming, and blastocyst development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Du, Ying; Ward, James M; Shimbo, Takashi; Lackford, Brad; Zheng, Xiaofeng; Miao, Yi-liang; Zhou, Bingying; Han, Leng; Fargo, David C; Jothi, Raja; Williams, Carmen J; Wade, Paul A; Hu, Guang

    2014-05-01

    The master transcription factors play integral roles in the pluripotency transcription circuitry of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). How they selectively activate expression of the pluripotency network while simultaneously repressing genes involved in differentiation is not fully understood. Here, we define a requirement for the INO80 complex, a SWI/SNF family chromatin remodeler, in ESC self-renewal, somatic cell reprogramming, and blastocyst development. We show that Ino80, the chromatin remodeling ATPase, co-occupies pluripotency gene promoters with the master transcription factors, and its occupancy is dependent on OCT4 and WDR5. At the pluripotency genes, Ino80 maintains an open chromatin architecture and licenses recruitment of Mediator and RNA polymerase II for gene activation. Our data reveal an essential role for INO80 in the expression of the pluripotency network and illustrate the coordination among chromatin remodeler, transcription factor, and histone-modifying enzyme in the regulation of the pluripotent state. PMID:24792115

  7. Isolation and characterization of embryonic stem-like cells derived from in vivo-produced cat blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xianfeng; Jin, Guangzhen; Yin, Xijun; Cho, Sujin; Jeon, Jintae; Lee, Sangsuk; Kong, Ilkeun

    2008-09-01

    Embryonic stem (ES)-like cells were isolated from in vivo-produced cat embryos. Total of 101 blastocysts were collected from female cats. The inner cell mass (ICM) were mechanically isolated and cultured on mitomycin-C-treated cat embryonic fibroblast feeder layers in medium supplemented with knockouttrade mark Serum Replacement (KSR-medium) or fetal bovine serum (FBS-medium). Putative ES-like cell colonies developed in both KSR- and FBS-medium conditions, but formed domed and flat colonies, respectively. ICM cell attachment and ES-like cell colony formation were significantly higher in KSR-medium, but subsequent cell proliferation was significantly lower than in FBS-medium. For passaging, 32 and 18 colonies in KSR- and FBS-medium were separated by enzymatic dissociation or mechanical disaggregation. Enzymatic dissociation resulted in cell differentiation; however, mechanical disaggregation generated cells that remained undifferentiated over more than four passages and yielded two cat ES-like cell lines that continued to grow for up to eight passages in FBS-medium. These cells had typical stem cell morphology, expressed high levels of alkaline phosphatase activity, and were positive for the ES cell-markers Oct-4, stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA-1), SSEA-3, and SSEA-4. These cells formed embryoid bodies (EBs) in suspension culture after extended suspension culture. When simple EBs were cultured on tissue culture plates, they differentiated into several cell types, including epithelium-like and neuron-like cells. In addition, EBs were positive for mesoderm marker, desmin. After prolonged in vitro culture, some colonies spontaneously differentiated into beating myocardiocytes, and were positive for alpha-actinin. These observations indicate that cat ES-like cells were successfully isolated and characterized from in vivo-produced blastocysts. PMID:18196569

  8. Transcript abundance and apoptosis in day-7 porcine blastocyst cultured with exogenous insulin-like growth factor-I.

    PubMed

    Wasielak, Marta; Fujii, Takashi; Ohsaki, Tsubasa; Hashizume, Tsutomu; Bogacki, Marek; Sawai, Ken

    2013-03-01

    Exogenous growth factors may increase the efficiency of embryo development in vitro. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I on porcine embryo development. Porcine embryos obtained by in vitro fertilization were cultured for seven days in the presence of IGF-I (50, 100 or 150ng/ml). Subsequently, relative transcript abundance (RA) of IGF-related genes (IGFR1, IGFBP2, and IGFBP3), glucose transporter genes (SLC2A4 and SLC2A8), and apoptosis-related genes (BAX and BCL-XL) was analyzed. No differences were observed in the cleavage rate on day 2 post insemination (pi) and blastocysts rate on day 7pi between IGF-treated and control embryos. IGF-I treatment did not affect RA of IGFR1, IGFBP3, and SLC2A4 genes, but decreased RA of IGFBP2 and SLC2A8 genes. The percentage of TUNEL-positive nuclei in blastocysts did not differ between the experimental groups. However, RA of BAX and BCL-XL genes decreased in response to all IGF-I concentrations, whereas the BCL-XL/BAX RA ratio was enhanced when embryos were cultured in medium containing 150ng/ml of IGF-I. These results indicate that IGF-I did not stimulate in vitro development of porcine embryos through the IGF signaling system, nor did IGF-I stimulate RA of glucose transporter genes. However, IGF-I at the highest dose was able to increase the BCL-XL/BAX transcript expression ratio. This may indicate that the primary role of IGF-I during the first days of embryo development in the pig is associated with anti-apoptotic actions rather than with growth stimulation. PMID:23522072

  9. Long term costs and effects of reducing the number of twin pregnancies in IVF by single embryo transfer: the TwinSing study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pregnancies induced by in vitro fertilisation (IVF) often result in twin gestations, which are associated with both maternal and perinatal complications. An effective way to reduce the number of IVF twin pregnancies is to decrease the number of embryos transferred from two to one. The interpretation of current studies is limited because they used live birth as outcome measure and because they applied limited time horizons. So far, research on long-term outcomes of IVF twins and singletons is scarce and inconclusive. The objective of this study is to investigate the short (1-year) and long-term (5 and 18-year) costs and health outcomes of IVF singleton and twin children and to consider these in estimating the cost-effectiveness of single embryo transfer compared with double embryo transfer, from a societal and a healthcare perspective. Methods/Design A multi-centre cohort study will be performed, in which IVF singletons and IVF twin children born between 2003 and 2005 of whom parents received IVF treatment in one of the five participating Dutch IVF centres, will be compared. Data collection will focus on children at risk of health problems and children in whom health problems actually occurred. First year of life data will be collected in approximately 1,278 children (619 singletons and 659 twin children). Data up to the fifth year of life will be collected in approximately 488 children (200 singletons and 288 twin children). Outcome measures are health status, health-related quality of life and costs. Data will be obtained from hospital information systems, a parent questionnaire and existing registries. Furthermore, a prognostic model will be developed that reflects the short and long-term costs and health outcomes of IVF singleton and twin children. This model will be linked to a Markov model of the short-term cost-effectiveness of single embryo transfer strategies versus double embryo transfer strategies to enable the calculation of the long-term cost-effectiveness. Discussion This is, to our knowledge, the first study that investigates the long-term costs and health outcomes of IVF singleton and twin children and the long-term cost-effectiveness of single embryo transfer strategies versus double embryo transfer strategies. PMID:20961411

  10. Optically enhanced charge transfer between C60 and single-wall carbon nanotubes in hybrid electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Allen, Christopher S; Liu, Guoquan; Chen, Yabin; Robertson, Alex W; He, Kuang; Porfyrakis, Kyriakos; Zhang, Jin; Briggs, G Andrew D; Warner, Jamie H

    2014-01-01

    In this article we probe the nature of electronic interactions between the components of hybrid C60-carbon nanotube structures. Utilizing an aromatic mediator we selectively attach C60 molecules to carbon nanotube field-effect transistor devices. Structural characterization via atomic force and transmission electron microscopy confirm the selectivity of this attachment. Charge transfer from the carbon nanotube to the C60 molecules is evidenced by a blue shift of the Raman G(+) peak position and increased threshold voltage of the transistor transfer characteristics. We estimate this charge transfer to increase the device density of holes per unit length by up to 0.85 nm(-1) and demonstrate further optically enhanced charge transfer which increases the hole density by an additional 0.16 nm(-1). PMID:24241690

  11. Multiple immunoblots after non-electrophoretic bidirectional transfer of a single SDS–PAGE gel with multiple antigens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biji T Kurien; R. Hal Scofield

    1997-01-01

    Western blotting is a very sensitive and powerful fundamental technique in immunology that has been used to detect and characterize proteins of low abundance. This technique employs the transfer of proteins separated on SDS–PAGE to nitrocellulose sheets for further detection using antibodies. Here we report the non-electrophoretic transfer of the 60-kDa Ro (or SSA) autoantigen, 240 and 220 kDa spectrin

  12. Single Oocyte Bisulfite Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Denomme, Michelle M.; Zhang, Liyue; Mann, Mellissa R.W.

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetics encompasses all heritable and reversible modifications to chromatin that alter gene accessibility, and thus are the primary mechanisms for regulating gene transcription1. DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that acts predominantly as a repressive mark. Through the covalent addition of a methyl group onto cytosines in CpG dinucleotides, it can recruit additional repressive proteins and histone modifications to initiate processes involved in condensing chromatin and silencing genes2. DNA methylation is essential for normal development as it plays a critical role in developmental programming, cell differentiation, repression of retroviral elements, X-chromosome inactivation and genomic imprinting. One of the most powerful methods for DNA methylation analysis is bisulfite mutagenesis. Sodium bisulfite is a DNA mutagen that deaminates cytosines into uracils. Following PCR amplification and sequencing, these conversion events are detected as thymines. Methylated cytosines are protected from deamination and thus remain as cytosines, enabling identification of DNA methylation at the individual nucleotide level3. Development of the bisulfite mutagenesis assay has advanced from those originally reported4-6 towards ones that are more sensitive and reproducible7. One key advancement was embedding smaller amounts of DNA in an agarose bead, thereby protecting DNA from the harsh bisulfite treatment8. This enabled methylation analysis to be performed on pools of oocytes and blastocyst-stage embryos9. The most sophisticated bisulfite mutagenesis protocol to date is for individual blastocyst-stage embryos10. However, since blastocysts have on average 64 cells (containing 120-720 pg of genomic DNA), this method is not efficacious for methylation studies on individual oocytes or cleavage-stage embryos. Taking clues from agarose embedding of minute DNA amounts including oocytes11, here we present a method whereby oocytes are directly embedded in an agarose and lysis solution bead immediately following retrieval and removal of the zona pellucida from the oocyte. This enables us to bypass the two main challenges of single oocyte bisulfite mutagenesis: protecting a minute amount of DNA from degradation, and subsequent loss during the numerous protocol steps. Importantly, as data are obtained from single oocytes, the issue of PCR bias within pools is eliminated. Furthermore, inadvertent cumulus cell contamination is detectable by this method since any sample with more than one methylation pattern may be excluded from analysis12. This protocol provides an improved method for successful and reproducible analyses of DNA methylation at the single-cell level and is ideally suited for individual oocytes as well as cleavage-stage embryos. PMID:22782232

  13. Centrosomal protein centrin is not detectable during early pre-implantation development but reappears during late blastocyst stage in porcine embryos.

    PubMed

    Manandhar, G; Feng, D; Yi, Y-J; Lai, L; Letko, J; Laurincik, J; Sutovsky, M; Salisbury, J L; Prather, R S; Schatten, H; Sutovsky, P

    2006-09-01

    Centrin is an evolutionarily conserved 20 kDa, Ca+2-binding, calmodulin-related protein associated with centrioles and basal bodies of phylogenetically diverse eukaryotic cells. Earlier studies have shown that residual centrosomes of non-rodent mammalian spermatozoa retain centrin and, in theory, could contribute this protein for the reconstruction of the zygotic centrosome after fertilization. The present work shows that CEN2 and CEN3 mRNA were detected in germinal vesicle-stage (GV) oocytes, MII oocytes, and pre-implantation embryos from the two-cell through the blastocyst stage, but not in spermatozoa. Boar ejaculated spermatozoa possess centrin as revealed by immunofluorescence microscopy and western blotting. Immature, GV oocytes possess speckles of centrin particles in the perinuclear area, visualized by immunofluorescence microscopy and exhibit a 19 kDa band revealed by western blotting. Mature MII stage oocytes lacked centrin that could be detected by immunofluorescence or western blotting. The sperm centrin was lost in zygotes after in vitro fertilization. It was not detectable in embryos by immunofluorescence microscopy until the late blastocyst stage. Embryonic centrin first appeared as fine speckles in the perinuclear area of some interphase blastocyst cells and as putative centrosomes of the spindle poles of dividing cells. The cells of the hatched blastocysts developed centrin spots comparable with those of the cultured cells. Some blastomeres displayed undefined curved plate-like centrin-labeled structures. Anti-centrin antibody labeled interphase centrosomes of cultured pig embryonic fibroblast cells as distinct spots in the juxtanuclear area. Enucleated pig oocytes reconstructed by electrofusion with pig fibroblasts displayed centrin of the donor cell during the early stages of nuclear decondensation but became undetectable in the late pronuclear or cleavage stages. These observations suggest that porcine zygotes and pre-blastocyst embryonic cells lack centrin and do not retain exogenously incorporated centrin. The early embryonic centrosomes function without centrin. Centrin in the blastocyst stage embryos is likely a result of de novo synthesis at the onset of differentiation of the pluripotent blastomeres. PMID:16940283

  14. Single-Scattering Properties of Mixed-Phase Arctic Clouds at Solar Wavelengths: Impacts on Radiative Transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg M. McFarquhar; Stewart G. Cober

    2004-01-01

    In situ observations of the sizes, shapes, and phases of Arctic clouds were obtained during the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Regional Experiment (FIRE) Arctic Clouds Experiment (ACE). These particle distributions were then combined with a library of single-scattering properties, calculated using Mie theory and improved geometric ray optics, to determine the corresponding single-scattering properties (single-scattering albedo omega0, phase

  15. Single-Scattering Properties of Mixed-Phase Arctic Clouds at Solar Wavelengths: Impacts on Radiative Transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg M. McFarquhar; Stewart G. Cober

    2004-01-01

    In situ observations of the sizes, shapes, and phases of Arctic clouds were obtained during the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Regional Experiment (FIRE) Arctic Clouds Experiment (ACE). These particle distributions were then combined with a library of single-scattering properties, calculated using Mie theory and improved geometric ray optics, to determine the corresponding single-scattering properties (single-scattering albedo v 0,

  16. Factors affecting the efficiency of embryo transfer in the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo).

    PubMed

    Li, Ziyi; Sun, Xingshen; Chen, Juan; Leno, Gregory H; Engelhardt, John F

    2006-07-15

    Embryo transfer (ET) to recipient females is a foundational strategy for a number of assisted reproductive technologies, including cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer. In an attempt to develop efficient ET in domestic ferrets, factors affecting development of transferred embryo were investigated. Unilateral and bilateral transfer of zygotes or blastocysts in the oviduct or uterus was evaluated in recipient nulliparous or primiparous females. Developing fetuses were collected from recipient animals 21 days post-copulation and examined. The percentage of fetal formation was different (P<0.05) for unilateral and bilateral transfer of zygotes (71%) in nulliparous females with bilateral transfer (56%) in primiparous recipients. The percentage (90%) of fetal formation in nulliparous recipients following unilateral transfer of blastocysts was higher (P<0.05) than that observed in primiparous recipients with bilateral ET (73%). Notably, the percentage of fetal formation was higher (P<0.05) when blastocyts were transferred as compared to zygotes (90% versus 71%). Transuterine migration of embryos occurred following all unilateral transfers and also in approximately 50% of bilateral transfers with different number of embryos in each uterine horn. These data will help to facilitate the development of assisted reproductive strategies in the ferret and could lead to the use of this species for modeling human disease and for conservation of the endangered Mustelidae species such as black-footed ferret and European mink. PMID:16330092

  17. Birth of calves after direct transfer of thawed bovine embryos stored frozen in ethylene glycol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O Dochi; K Imai; H Takakura

    1995-01-01

    The present study investigated the use of ethylene glycol (EG) as a cryoprotectant before the direct transfer of frozen-thawed bovine embryos. Embryos at the morula to blastocyst stages collected on Days 6–8 (estrus designated Day 0) in phosphate buffered saline+20% newborn calf serum were placed into 1.8 M EG or in 1.8 MEG+0.25 M sucrose (EG+SUC), and equilibrated for 13–93

  18. Rabbit embryonic stem cell lines derived from fertilized, parthenogenetic or somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhen F. Fang; Hui Gai; You Z. Huang; Shan G. Li; Xue J. Chen; Jian J. Shi; Li Wu; Ailian Liu; Ping Xu; Hui Z.. Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells were isolated from rabbit blastocysts derived from fertilization (conventional rbES cells), parthenogenesis (pES cells) and nuclear transfer (ntES cells), and propagated in a serum-free culture system. Rabbit ES (rbES) cells proliferated for a prolonged time in an undifferentiated state and maintained a normal karyotype. These cells grew in a monolayer with a high nuclear\\/cytoplasm ratio and contained

  19. Preliminary clinical experience with human blastocyst development in vitro without co-culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Behr; T. B. Pool; A. A. Milki; D. Moore; J. Gebhardt; D. Dasig

    1999-01-01

    3To whom correspondence should be addressed This preliminary analysis was designed to quantify blasto- cyst development of supernumerary embryos without the use of feeder cells, conditioned medium or whole serum. Embryos derived from in-vitro fertilization (IVF) that were not transferred or cryopreserved were included in this study. Ova were harvested for IVF after a standard ovarian stimulation with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone

  20. In vitro assessment of a direct transfer vitrification procedure for bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Campos-Chillòn, L F; Walker, D J; de la Torre-Sanchez, J F; Seidel, G E

    2006-04-01

    We developed a simple vitrification technique for bovine embryos that could permit direct transfer. Embryos were produced in-vitro by standard procedures. The base medium for cryopreservation was a chemically defined medium similar to SOF + 25 mM Hepes and 0.25% fatty acid free bovine serum albumin (FAF-BSA) (HCDM2). In experiment 1, embryos were first exposed to 3.5M ethylene glycol (V1) for 1, 2 or 3 min at room temperature (20-24 degrees C), and then moved to 7 M ethylene glycol (V2) at 4 or 20-24 degrees C and loaded in 0.25-mL straws. After 45 s in 7 M ethylene glycol, straws were placed in liquid nitrogen. Embryos that were loaded at 20-24 degrees C had higher survival rates than those loaded at 4 degrees C (P<0.05). Exposure for 1 min was best for morulae, while 3 min was best for blastocysts. In experiment 2, blastocysts were handled at 24 degrees C and exposed to two concentrations of ethylene glycol in V1 (3.5 or 5 M) followed by V2 as in experiment 1, two warming temperatures (20 or 37 degrees C) and two post-warming holding times until culture (5 or 15 min). Exposure to 5 M ethylene glycol and warming at 37 degrees C was the optimal combination of procedures, and embryos survived well after 15 min in straws if warmed at 37 degrees C. In experiment 3, ethylene glycol concentration (3, 4 or 5 M) and exposure time (0.5 or 1 min) during two-step addition of cryoprotectant were studied for bovine morulae. In experiment 4, morulae were exposed to V2 for 30 or 45 s in HCDM2 or Vigro holding medium and then held in 22-24 degrees C air or 37 degrees C water post-warming. Experiment 5 was like experiment 4 except blastocysts were used. Overall survival rates of blastocysts in experiment 5 averaged 80% of non-vitrified controls after 48 h culture. The survival rates with in vitro-produced morulae in experiments 1, 3 and 4 were unacceptable. Vitrification solutions based on Vigro tended to result in higher survival than HCDM2 for blastocysts, but not morulae. In experiment 6, the survival rate in vitro of in vivo-produced morulae and blastocysts after two-step vitrification was nearly 100%. Our vitrification technique was very effective for in vitro produced blastocysts, but not for in vitro-produced morulae. PMID:16169072

  1. Note: Electronic circuit for two-way time transfer via a single coaxial cable with picosecond accuracy and precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochazka, Ivan; Kodet, Jan; Panek, Petr

    2012-11-01

    We have designed, constructed, and tested the overall performance of the electronic circuit for the two-way time transfer between two timing devices over modest distances with sub-picosecond precision and a systematic error of a few picoseconds. The concept of the electronic circuit enables to carry out time tagging of pulses of interest in parallel to the comparison of the time scales of these timing devices. The key timing parameters of the circuit are: temperature change of the delay is below 100 fs/K, timing stability time deviation better than 8 fs for averaging time from minutes to hours, sub-picosecond time transfer precision, and a few picoseconds time transfer accuracy.

  2. Extending light-harvesting of poly(3-hexylthiophene) through efficient energy transfer from infra-red absorbing nanocrystals: Single nanoparticle study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzelak, Justyna; Ciszak, Kamil; Nyk, Marcin; Mackowski, Sebastian; Piatkowski, Dawid

    2014-10-01

    We report on single nanocrystal fluorescence microscopy of blends composed of colloidal up-converting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with rare-earth ions embedded in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) polymer. By probing both steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence properties of individual nanocrystals excited with infra-red 980 nm laser, we demonstrate that upon up-conversion to the visible spectral range, the energy is efficiently transferred from the nanocrystals to P3HT. From the analysis of fluorescence lifetimes, the energy transfer efficiency for 550 nm emission of the nanocrystals was estimated to be 60%. This observation renders the up-converting nanocrystals as potential structures for improving light-harvesting efficiency of polymers in the near-infrared spectral region.

  3. Single pulse excimer laser nanostructuring of thin silicon films: Nanosharp cones formation and a heat transfer problem

    E-print Network

    Avrutsky, Ivan

    Single pulse excimer laser nanostructuring of thin silicon films: Nanosharp cones formation and computer modeling along with an experiment on the formation of sharp conical tips on monocrystalline silicon thin films, silicon-on-insulator, subjected to irradiation by single 25 ns pulses from a Kr

  4. Single-pair fluorescence resonance energy transfer of nucleosomes in free diffusion: Optimizing stability and resolution of subpopulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Gansen; Florian Hauger; Katalin Tóth; Jörg Langowski

    2007-01-01

    We applied fluorescence detection methods on the single-molecule level to study structural variations and dynamic processes occurring within nucleosomes. Four fluorescent nucleosome constructs were made by attaching donor and acceptor fluorophores to different positions of two nucleosome positioning sequences and reconstituting nucleosomes by salt dialysis. The photochemical and biochemical stability of nucleosomes under single-molecule conditions was optimized by adding inert

  5. A novel blastocyst-derived stem cell line reveals an active role for growth factor signaling in the induction of stem cell pluripotency

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Yu-Fen; Chen, Hsu-Hsin; Eijpe, Maureen; Yabuuchi, Akiko; Chenoweth, Joshua G.; Lu, Jun; McKay, Ronald D.G.; Geijsen, Niels

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Pluripotent stem cell lines can be derived from blastocyst embryos, which yield embryonic stem cell lines (ES cells), as well as the post-implantation epiblast, which gives rise to epiblast stem cell lines (EpiSCs). Remarkably, ES cells and EpiSCs display profound differences in the combination of growth factors that maintain their pluripotent state. Molecular and functional differences between these two stem cell types demonstrate that the tissue of origin and/or the growth factor milieu may be important determinants of the stem cell identity. We explored how developmental stage of the tissue of origin and culture growth factor conditions affect the stem cell pluripotent state. Our findings reveal that novel stem cell lines can be generated from blastocyst embryos with unique functional and molecular properties. We demonstrate that the culture growth factor environment and cell-cell interaction play a critical role in defining several unique and stable stem cell ground states. PMID:18984157

  6. Advantages of the two-step embryo transfer strategy in human IVF/ICSI cycles.

    PubMed

    Yazbeck, Chadi; Ben Jamaa, Nadia; Hazout, André; Cohen-Bacrie, Paul; Junca, Anne-Marie; Rougier, Nathalie

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the advantages of the two-step embryo transfer (ET) strategy combining a day 2/3 ET with a day 5/6 blastocyst transfer. In an observational comparative study, 400 infertile women were enrolled from two assisted reproductive technology (ART) units according to inclusion criteria: age below 42 years and at least three embryos obtained on day 2 thus allowing an extended in vitro culture. Two groups were defined according to the ET strategy adopted: group 1 had a two-step ET; and group 2 had a day 2/3 ET with (subgroup 2a) or without (subgroup 2b) blastocysts cryopreserved on day 5/6. Live birth rate was significantly higher in group 1 than in subgroups 2a and 2b (36.5% versus 29.4% and 13.4%, respectively; p < 10(-3)). Multiple pregnancy rates were comparable between groups. After adjusting on major prognostic factors, the two-step ET strategy was still associated with a significantly higher live birth rate than the day 2/3 ET (OR = 2.23; 95% CI: 1.32-3.77). The two-step ET provides better live birth rates than the cleavage-stage ET. It does not increase multiple pregnancy rates if the number of embryos transferred is limited. It also prevents cycle loss when embryos fail to develop into blastocysts. PMID:22008412

  7. Single-Pair Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (spFRET) for the High Sensitivity Analysis of Low-Abundance Proteins Using Aptamers as Molecular Recognition Elements

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wonbae; Obubuafo, Anne; Lee, Yong-Ill; Davis, Lloyd M.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a strategy for the detection of single protein molecules, which uses single-pair fluorescence resonance energy transfer (spFRET) as the readout modality and provides exquisite analytical sensitivity and reduced assay turn-around-time by eliminating various sample pre-processing steps. The single-protein detection assay uses two independent aptamer recognition events to form an assembly conducive to intramolecular hybridization of oligonucleotide complements that are tethered to the aptamers. This hybridization brings a donor-acceptor pair within the Förster distance to create a fluorescence signature indicative of the presence of the protein-aptamer(s) association complex. As an example of spFRET, we demonstrate the technique for the analysis of serum thrombin. The assay requires co-association of two distinct epitope-binding aptamers, each of which is labeled with a donor or acceptor fluorescent dye (Cy3 or Cy5, respectively) to produce a FRET response. The FRET response between Cy3 and Cy5 was monitored by single-molecule photon-burst detection, which provides high analytical sensitivity when the number of single-molecule events is plotted versus the target concentration. We are able to identify thrombin with high efficiency based on photon burst events transduced in the Cy5 detection channel. We also demonstrate that the technique can discriminate thrombin molecules from its analogue prothrombin. The analytical sensitivity was >200-fold better than an ensemble measurement. PMID:19802688

  8. Experimental Analysis of the Single-Phase Heat Transfer and Friction Factor inside the Horizontal Internally Micro-Fin Tube

    E-print Network

    Ghajar, Afshin J.

    Internally Micro-Fin Tube H. K. Tam*,1 , L. M. Tam1,2 , W. W. Chu1 1 Department of Electromechanical transfer, internally micro-fin tubes are widely used in commercial HVAC applications. It is commonly with the data of a plain tube. From the results, the transition from laminar to turbulent was clearly

  9. HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER DURING DRYING OF A LIQUID FILM FROM THE SURFACE OF A SINGLE INERT PARTICLE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Leontieva; K. V. Bryankin; V. I. Konovalov; N. P. Utrobin

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the results of theoretical and experimental studies on drying of aqueous suspensions of finely dispersed solids sprayed over the surface of an inert ceramic sphere. The effects of temperature and air velocity on kinetics of heat and mass transfer as well as peeling off the layer of a dry material from the sphere surface are described. The

  10. Derivation, characterization and differentiation of a new human embryonic stem cell line from a Chinese hatched blastocyst assisted by a non-contact laser system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rongrong Wu; Chenming Xu; Fan Jin; Zhou Tan; Bin Gu; Liangbiao Chen; Xing Yao; Ming Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Currently worldwide attention has focused on the derivation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) for future therapeutic medicine.\\u000a However, the majority of existing hESCs are directly or indirectly exposed to non-human materials during their derivation\\u000a and\\/or propagation, which greatly restrict their therapeutic potential. Besides the efforts to improve culture systems, the\\u000a derivation procedure, especially blastocyst manipulation, needs to be optimized.

  11. Expression of ?4, ?v, ?1 and ?3 integrins during the implantation window on blastocyst of a mouse model of polycystic ovarian syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Peyghambari, Fatemeh; Amanpour, Saeid; Fayazi, Mehri; Haddadi, Mahnaz; Muhammadnejad, Samad; Muhammadnejad, Ahad; Salimi, Mehdi; Mazaheri, Zohreh

    2014-01-01

    Background: It has been hypothesized that blastocyst integrin expression changes can affect the spontaneous miscarriage in polycystic ovarian syndromes (PCOS). Objective: In this study, the profile of integrin genes and proteins was investigated on blastocyst of the PCOS experimental mouse model. Materials and Methods: 30 NMRI female mice were equally divided into 3 groups: control, experimental [PCOS that was injected estradiol valerate (40 mg/kg)]. After 8 weeks, each group was hyper stimulated by PMSG and HCG. Vaginal plaque was checked, and mice were investigated 5 days after the test. Progesterone and estradiol levels were determined; ?4, ?v, ?1 and ?3 integrin genes and protein of blastocysts were examined by real time PCR method and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results: Estradiol level was significantly increased (p?0.035) in PCOS group. Based on our finding, the ratio of genes' expressions ?v, ?3, ?1 and ?4 in PCOS to control group was 0.479±0.01, 0.5±0.001, 2.7±0.4 and 1.023±0.2 respectively. Genes expression showed a great difference (p?0.001) between ?3, ?1 and ?v in PCOS compared to other groups. ?v and ?3 integrin proteins expressed in all groups but intensity of these proteins in PCOS groups, was lower than other groups. Conclusion: Pattern of ?v and ?3 integrins expression on the mouse blastocyst surface has an important effect during the implantation window. This pattern has changed in PCOS model and might have a great influence on implantation failure. Therefore, this experimental study suggests that a great attention to this problem may be essential in patients who are involved. PMID:25469135

  12. Single electron transfer (SET) activity of the dialkyl-amido sodium zincate [(TMEDA)·Na(?-TMP)(?-tBu)Zn(tBu)] towards TEMPO and chalcone.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, D R; Balloch, L; Crawford, J J; Fleming, B J; Hogg, L M; Kennedy, A R; Klett, J; Mulvey, R E; O'Hara, Charles T; Orr, S A; Robertson, S D

    2012-02-01

    More usually thought of as a base, the sodium zincate [(TMEDA)·Na(?-TMP)(?-(t)Bu)Zn((t)Bu)] 1 can undergo single electron transfer with TEMPO to give [(TMEDA)·Na(?-TMP)(?-TEMPO(-))Zn((t)Bu)] 2 and [(TMEDA)·Na(?-TEMPO(-))(2)Zn((t)Bu)] 3; and with chalcone [PhCOCH=CHPh] gives [{(TMEDA)·Na(?-TMP)Zn((t)Bu)}(2)(?-OCPhCH=CHPhCHPhCH=CPh-?-O)] which contains two chalcone units C-C coupled though their benzylic C atoms. PMID:21687848

  13. Gene expression regulating epithelial intercellular junction biogenesis during human blastocyst development in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Reza Ghassemifar; Judith J. Eckert; Franchesca D. Houghton; Helen M. Picton; Henry J. Leese; Tom P. Fleming

    2003-01-01

    We investigated gene expression associated with trophectoderm epithelial intercellular junction formation in single human embryos at different stages of cleavage using RT-PCR methods based upon magnetic bead separation of polyA+ RNA. Trophectoderm tight junction (TJ) and desmosome biogenesis contribute to intercellular sealing and tissue integrity, critical for vectorial transport and blastocoel cavity formation. Expression of the various genes throughout human

  14. Expression patterns of long noncoding RNAs from Dlk1-Dio3 imprinted region and the potential mechanisms of Gtl2 activation during blastocyst development.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhengbin; Yu, Changwei; Tian, Yijun; Zeng, Tiebo; Cui, Wei; Mager, Jesse; Wu, Qiong

    2015-07-31

    The function of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in cell differentiation and development have begun to be revealed in recent years. However, the expression pattern and mechanisms regulating lncRNAs are largely unknown during mammalian preimplantation development. LncRNAs expressed from Dlk1-Dio3 imprinted region have been linked to pluripotency of induced pluripotent cells (iPSCs). In this study we show that these lncRNAs (Gtl2, Rian and Mirg) are first expressed at the morula stage and gradually restricted to the inner cell mass (ICM) as the embryo differentiates into the blastocyst. Analysis of DNA methylation at IG-DMR and Gtl2-DMR showed no change during preimplantation while the presence of the activating histone modification H3K4me3 increased significantly from 8-cell to blastocyst stage, which may explain the expression activation. Additionally, knockdown of transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog) in blastocyst reduced the expression of Gtl2, indicating pluripotency factors regulate transcription of these lncRNAs. This study provides the spatiotemporal expression and dynamic changes of lncRNAs from Dlk1-Dio3 imprinted region in mouse preimplantation stage embryos and offers insight into the potential mechanisms responsible for Gtl2 activation. PMID:26005002

  15. Effects of leukemia inhibitory factor and insulin-like growth factor-I on the cell allocation and cryotolerance of bovine blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Kocyigit, Alper; Cevik, Mesut

    2015-08-01

    The present study examined the developmental capacity and cryotolerance of cultured bovine embryos in defined media (synthetic oviduct fluid, SOF) supplemented with insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and leukemia inhibitor factor (LIF). The objectives of the present study were: (1) to examine the effects IGF-I and LIF on bovine embryo development potential and (2) to investigate the cryotolerance and survivability of vitrified blastocysts obtained from embryos cultured in a defined media. We studied the development of bovine embryos produced in vitro and cultured (in four different treatments) until Day 7 after fertilization. In Experiment 1, zygotes were cultured to the blastocyst stage and differentially stained for determine the count of cells. In Experiment 2, zygotes were vitrified before staining. LIF alone or combined with IGF-I was significantly effective on in vitro bovine embryo development especially ratio to reach blastocyst. The cells for both ICM and TE decreased by the effect of freezing in all treatment groups in the Experiment 2 compared with Experiment 1. Interestingly, the LIF treatment showed fewest variations. In addition to this, for average number of ICM and TE cells, LIF treatment showed fewest variation compared with other treatments (ICM: 23.5 vs 19.5, TE: 53.6 vs 51). These results are the first to demonstrate that the addition of IGF-I along with LIF to the culture medium was found to be beneficial for bovine embryonic development based on cellular cryotolerance after vitrification. PMID:26025880

  16. 2.0-?m emission and energy transfer of Ho3+/Yb3+ co-doped LiYF4 single crystal excited by 980 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuo; Xia, Hai-Ping; Jiang, Yong-Zhang; Zhang, Jia-Zhong; Jiang, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Cheng; Feng, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Jian; Gu, Xue-Mei; Zhang, Jian-Li; Jiang, Hao-Chuan; Chen, Bao-Jiu

    2015-06-01

    Ho3+/Yb3+ co-doped LiYF4 single crystals with various Yb3+ concentrations and ? 0.98 mol% Ho3+ concentration are grown by the Bridgman method under the conditions of taking LiF and YF3 as raw materials and a temperature gradient (40 °C/cm–50 °C/cm) for the solid–liquid interface. The luminescent performances of the crystals are investigated through emission spectra, infrared transmittance spectrum, emission cross section, and decay curves under excitation by 980 nm. Compared with the Ho3+ single-doped LiYF4 crystal, the Ho3+/Yb3+ co-doped LiYF4 single crystal has an obviously enhanced emission band from 1850 nm to 2150 nm observed when excited by a 980-nm diode laser. The energy transfer from Yb3+ to Ho3+ and the optimum fluorescence emission around 2.0 ?m of Ho3+ ions are investigated. The maximum emission cross section of the above sample at 2.0 ?m is calculated to be 1.08×10?20 cm2 for the LiYF4 single crystal of 1-mol% Ho3+ and 6-mol% Yb3+ according to the measured absorption spectrum. The high energy transfer efficiency of 88.9% from Yb3+ to Ho3+ ion in the sample co-doped by Ho3+ (1 mol%) and Yb3+ (8 mol%) demonstrates that the Yb3+ ions can efficiently sensitize the Ho3+ ions. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51472125 and 51272109) and the K.C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University, China (Grant No. NBUWC001).

  17. Sensitivity function analysis of gravitational wave detection with single-laser and large-momentum-transfer atomic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Biao; Zhang, Bao-Cheng; Zhou, Lin; Wang, Jin; Zhan, Ming-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    Recently, a configuration using atomic interferometers (AIs) had been suggested for the detection of gravitational waves. A new AI with some additional laser pulses for implementing large momentum transfer was also put forward, in order to reduce the effect of shot noise and laser frequency noise. We use a sensitivity function to analyze all possible configurations of the new AI and to distinguish how many momenta are transferred in a specific configuration. By analyzing the new configuration, we further explore a detection scheme for gravitational waves, in particular, that ameliorates laser frequency noise. We find that the amelioration occurs in such a scheme, but novelly, in some cases, the frequency noise can be canceled completely by using a proper data processing method. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  18. Prediction of heat transfer coefficient during condensation of water and R-134a on single horizontal integral-fin tubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ravi Kumar; H. K. Varma; Bikash Mohanty; K. N. Agrawal

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a few salient features of an investigation carried out to study the heat transfer augmentation during condensation of water and R-134a vapor on horizontal integral-fin tubes. The experimental investigation was performed on two different experimental set-ups for water and R-134a. The test-sections were manufactured by machining fins over plain copper tubes of 24.4 ± 0.6 mm outside

  19. Codon and amino-acid specificities of a transfer RNA are both converted by a single post-transcriptional modification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomonari Muramatsu; Kazuya Nishikawa; Fumiko Nemoto; Yoshiyuki Kuchino; Susumu Nishimura; Tatsuo Miyazawa; Shigeyuki Yokoyama

    1988-01-01

    An Escherichia coli isoleucine transfer RNA specific for the codon AUA (tRNA2Ile or tRNAminorIle (ref. 1) has a novel modified nucleo-side, lysidine (L; ref. 2) (Fig. la) in the first position of the anticodon (position 34), which is essential for the specific recognition of the codon AUA (ref. 1). We isolated the gene for tRNA2Ile (ileX) and found that the

  20. Cytochrome P450-catalyzed dealkylation of atrazine by Rhodococcus sp. strain NI86/21 involves hydrogen atom transfer rather than single electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Armin H; Dybala-Defratyka, Agnieszka; Alaimo, Peter J; Geronimo, Inacrist; Sanchez, Ariana D; Cramer, Christopher J; Elsner, Martin

    2014-08-28

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes are responsible for a multitude of natural transformation reactions. For oxidative N-dealkylation, single electron (SET) and hydrogen atom abstraction (HAT) have been debated as underlying mechanisms. Combined evidence from (i) product distribution and (ii) isotope effects indicate that HAT, rather than SET, initiates N-dealkylation of atrazine to desethyl- and desisopropylatrazine by the microorganism Rhodococcus sp. strain NI86/21. (i) Product analysis revealed a non-selective oxidation at both the ?C and ?C-atom of the alkyl chain, which is expected for a radical reaction, but not SET. (ii) Normal (13)C and (15)N as well as pronounced (2)H isotope effects (?carbon: -4.0‰ ± 0.2‰; ?nitrogen: -1.4‰ ± 0.3‰, KIEH: 3.6 ± 0.8) agree qualitatively with calculated values for HAT, whereas inverse (13)C and (15)N isotope effects are predicted for SET. Analogous results are observed with the Fe(iv)[double bond, length as m-dash]O model system [5,10,15,20-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin-iron(iii)-chloride + NaIO4], but not with permanganate. These results emphasize the relevance of the HAT mechanism for N-dealkylation by P450. PMID:24851834

  1. PDGF signaling is required for primitive endoderm cell survival in the inner cell mass of the mouse blastocyst.

    PubMed

    Artus, Jérôme; Kang, Minjung; Cohen-Tannoudji, Michel; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina

    2013-09-01

    At the end of the preimplantation period, the inner cell mass (ICM) of the mouse blastocyst is composed of two distinct cell lineages, the pluripotent epiblast (EPI) and the primitive endoderm (PrE). The current model for their formation involves initial co-expression of lineage-specific markers followed by mutual-exclusive expression resulting in a salt-and-pepper distribution of lineage precursors within the ICM. Subsequent to lineage commitment, cell rearrangements and selective apoptosis are thought to be key processes driving and refining the emergence of two spatially distinct compartments. Here, we have addressed a role for Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) signaling in the regulation of programmed cell death during early mouse embryonic development. By combining genetic and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrate that embryos lacking PDGF activity exhibited caspase-dependent selective apoptosis of PrE cells. Modulating PDGF activity did not affect lineage commitment or cell sorting, suggesting that PDGF is involved in the fine-tuning of patterning information. Our results also indicate that PDGF and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) tyrosine kinase receptors exert distinct and non-overlapping functions in PrE formation. Taken together, these data uncover an early role of PDGF signaling in PrE cell survival at the time when PrE and EPI cells are segregated. PMID:23733391

  2. 200 mm wafer-scale epitaxial transfer of single crystal Si on glass by anodic bonding of silicon-on-insulator wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teh, W. H.; Trigg, Alastair; Tung, C. H.; Kumar, R.; Balasubramanian, N.; Kwong, D. L.

    2005-08-01

    We report a low-temperature (350 °C) anodic bonding followed by grind/etch-back method for a 200 mm wafer-scale epitaxial transfer of ultrathin (1.9 kÅ) single crystalline Si on Pyrex glass. Standard back-end-of-line 3 kÅ SiN/3 kÅ undoped silicon glass passivating films were used as the buffer layers between the silicon-on-insulator wafer and the glass wafer. The quality and strain-free state of the transferred transparent Si film to glass was characterized by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and high-resolution XRD. Complete removal of the bulk Si after bonding was ascertained by Auger electron spectroscopy spectra and depth profiling. Strong adhesion between the transferred film and the glass wafer was verified by standard tape adhesion tests. This process will pave the way for future generations of Si-based microelectronics including bioelectronics.

  3. Single-molecule spectroscopy and femtosecond transient absorption studies on the excitation energy transfer process in ApcE(1-240) dimers.

    PubMed

    Long, Saran; Zhou, Meng; Tang, Kun; Zeng, Xiao-Li; Niu, Yingli; Guo, Qianjin; Zhao, Kai-Hong; Xia, Andong

    2015-05-13

    ApcE(1-240) dimers with one intrinsic phycocyanobilin (PCB) chromophore in each monomer that is truncated from the core-membrane linker (ApcE) of phycobilisomes (PBS) in Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 show a sharp and significantly red-shifted absorption. Two explanations either conformation-dependent Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) or the strong exciton coupling limit have been proposed for red-shifted absorption. This is a classic example of the special pair in the photosynthetic light harvesting proteins, but the mechanism of this interaction is still a matter of intense debate. We report the studies using single-molecule and transient absorption spectra on the interaction in the special pair of ApcE dimers. Our results demonstrate the presence of conformation-dependent FRET between the two PCB chromophores in ApcE dimers. The broad distributions of fluorescence intensities, lifetimes and polarization difference from single-molecule measurements reveal the heterogeneity of local protein-pigment environments in ApcE dimers, where the same molecular structures but different protein environments are the main reason for the two PCB chromophores with different spectral properties. The excitation energy transfer rate between the donor and the acceptor about (110 ps)(-1) is determined from transient absorption measurements. The red-shifted absorption in ApcE dimers could result from more extending conformation, which shows another type of absorption redshift that does not depend on strong exciton coupling. The results here stress the importance of conformation-controlled spectral properties of the chemically identical chromophores, which could be a general feature to control energy/electron transfer, widely existing in the light harvesting complexes. PMID:25925197

  4. Slow Proton Transfer Coupled to Unfolding Explains the Puzzling Results of Single-Molecule Experiments on BBL, a Paradigmatic Downhill Folding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Cerminara, Michele; Campos, Luis A.; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Muñoz, Victor

    2013-01-01

    A battery of thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural approaches has indicated that the small ?-helical protein BBL folds-unfolds via the one-state downhill scenario. Yet, single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy offers a more conflicting view. Single-molecule experiments at pH 6 show a unique half-unfolded conformational ensemble at mid denaturation, whereas other experiments performed at higher pH show a bimodal distribution, as expected for two-state folding. Here we use thermodynamic and laser T-jump kinetic experiments combined with theoretical modeling to investigate the pH dependence of BBL stability, folding kinetics and mechanism within the pH 6–11 range. We find that BBL unfolding is tightly coupled to the protonation of one of its residues with an apparent pKa of ?7. Therefore, in chemical denaturation experiments around neutral pH BBL unfolds gradually, and also converts in binary fashion to the protonated species. Moreover, under the single-molecule experimental conditions (denaturant midpoint and 279 K), we observe that proton transfer is much slower than the ?15 microseconds folding-unfolding kinetics of BBL. The relaxation kinetics is distinctly biphasic, and the overall relaxation time (i.e. 0.2–0.5 ms) becomes controlled by the proton transfer step. We then show that a simple theoretical model of protein folding coupled to proton transfer explains quantitatively all these results as well as the two sets of single-molecule experiments, including their more puzzling features. Interestingly, this analysis suggests that BBL unfolds following a one-state downhill folding mechanism at all conditions. Accordingly, the source of the bimodal distributions observed during denaturation at pH 7–8 is the splitting of the unique conformational ensemble of BBL onto two slowly inter-converting protonation species. Both, the unprotonated and protonated species unfold gradually (one-state downhill), but they exhibit different degree of unfolding at any given condition because the native structure is less stable for the protonated form. PMID:24205082

  5. Large aperture deformable mirror with a transferred single-crystal silicon membrane actuated using large-stroke PZT Unimorph Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hishinumat, Yoshikazu; Yang, Eui - Hyeok (EH)

    2005-01-01

    We have demonstrated a large aperture (50 mm x 50 mm) continuous membrane deformable mirror (DM) with a large-stroke piezoelectric unimorph actuator array. The DM consists of a continuous, large aperture, silicon membrane 'transferred' in its entirety onto a 20 x 20 piezoelectric unimorph actuator array. A PZT unimorph actuator, 2.5 mm in diameter with optimized PZT/Si thickness and design showed a deflection of 5.7 [m at 20V. An assembled DM showed an operating frequency bandwidth of 30 kHz and influence function of approximately 30%.

  6. A single intravenous dose of endotoxin rapidly alters serum lipoproteins and lipid transfer proteins in normal volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa C. Hudgins; Thomas S. Parker; Daniel M. Levine; Bruce R. Gordon; Stuart S. Saal; Xian-cheng Jiang; Cindy E. Seidman; Jolanta D. Tremaroli; Julie Lai; Albert L. Rubin

    2003-01-01

    Endotoxemia is associated with rapid and marked declines in serum levels of LDL and HDL by unknown mechanisms. Six normal volunteers received a single, small intravenous (iv) dose of endotoxin ( Escherichia coli 0113, 2 ng\\/ kg) or saline in a random order, cross-over design. After en- dotoxin treatment, volunteers had mild, transient flu-like symptoms and markedly increased serum levels

  7. Evidence of electron-transfer in the SERS spectra of a single iron-protoporphyrin IX molecule

    E-print Network

    Tuscia, Università Degli Studi Della

    molecule iron-protoporphyrin IX, adsorbed on silver colloidal surfaces. If on one hand, drastic, random by adsorb- ing molecules onto nanometer-sized metallic particles [7,8]. SERS signals from single molecules at the interface between molecules and electrodes in hybrid nano-devices [4]. SERS is assumed to originate from two

  8. Superovulation and embryo transfer in wood bison (Bison bison athabascae).

    PubMed

    Toosi, Behzad M; Tribulo, Andres; Lessard, Carl; Mastromonaco, Gabriela F; McCorkell, Robert B; Adams, Gregg P

    2013-09-15

    Two experiments were done to develop an effective superovulatory treatment protocol in wood bison for the purpose of embryo collection and transfer. In experiment 1, donor bison were assigned randomly to four treatment groups (N = 5 per group) to examine the effects of method of synchronization (follicular ablation vs. estradiol-progesterone treatment) and ovarian follicular superstimulation (single slow-release vs. split dose of FSH). Recipient bison were synchronized with donor bison by either follicular ablation (N = 8) or estradiol-progesterone treatment (N = 9). In experiment 2, bison were assigned randomly to four treatment groups (N = 5 per group) to examine the ovarian response to two versus four doses of FSH, and the effect of progesterone (ovarian superstimulation with or without an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device). Donor bison were inseminated with fresh chilled wood bison semen 12 and 24 hours after treatment with GnRH (experiment 1) or LH (experiment 2). The ovarian response was assessed using ultrasonography. In experiment 1, the number of large follicles (? 7 mm) increased in response to both FSH treatments, but the diameter of the largest follicle detected 4 and 5 days after the start of ovarian superstimulation was greater in bison treated with a single dose of FSH than in those treated with two doses (P < 0.05). A total of 10 ova and/or embryos were collected. One blastocyst was transferred to each of five recipient bison resulting in the birth of two live wood bison calves. In experiment 2, two doses of FSH resulted in a greater number of large follicles (? 9 mm) on Days 4, 5, and 6 (P < 0.05) after beginning of superstimulation (Day 0), and more ovulations than four doses of FSH (11.2 ± 2.4 vs. 6.4 ± 0.8; P < 0.05). Embryo collection was performed on only five donors, and a total of 19 ova and/or embryos were recovered. In summary, fewer FSH treatments were as good or better than multiple treatments, consistent with the notion that minimizing handling stress improves the superovulatory response in bison. Follicular ablation and estradiol plus progesterone treatment were effective for inducing ovarian synchronization in embryo donor and recipient bison, and an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device during superstimulatory treatment did not influence the superovulatory response or embryo collection. Delaying ovulation-inducing treatment (GnRH or LH) to 5 days after superstimulatory treatment resulted in a greater number of ovulations and improved embryo collection efficiency (experiment 2). Embryo collection and transfer resulted in live offspring from wild wood bison. PMID:23831114

  9. Cumulus-specific genes are transcriptionally silent following somatic cell nuclear transfer in a mouse model*

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Guo-qing; Heng, Boon-chin; Ng, Soon-chye

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether four cumulus-specific genes: follicular stimulating hormone receptor (FSHr), hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2), prostaglandin synthase 2 (Ptgs2) and steroidogenic acute regulator protein (Star), were correctly reprogrammed to be transcriptionally silent following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in a murine model. Cumulus cells of C57×CBA F1 female mouse were injected into enucleated oocytes, followed by activation in 10 µmol/L strontium chloride for 5 h and subsequent in vitro culture up to the blastocyst stage. Expression of cumulus-specific genes in SCNT-derived embryos at 2-cell, 4-cell and day 4.5 blastocyst stages was compared with corresponding in vivo fertilized embryos by real-time PCR. It was demonstrated that immediately after the first cell cycle, SCNT-derived 2-cell stage embryos did not express all four cumulus-specific genes, which continually remained silent at the 4-cell and blastocyst stages. It is therefore concluded that all four cumulus-specific genes were correctly reprogrammed to be silent following nuclear transfer with cumulus donor cells in the mouse model. This would imply that the poor preimplantation developmental competence of SCNT embryos derived from cumulus cells is due to incomplete reprogramming of other embryonic genes, rather than cumulus-specific genes. PMID:17657853

  10. In vitro development of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in different culture media

    PubMed Central

    No, Jin-Gu; Choi, Mi-Kyung; Yeom, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Kyo; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Yoo, Jae Gyu; Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Hong-Tea

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of three different culture media on the development of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. Canine cloned embryos were cultured in modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOF), porcine zygote medium-3 (PZM-3), or G1/G2 sequential media. Our results showed that the G1/G2 media yielded significantly higher morula and blastocyst development in canine SCNT embryos (26.1% and 7.8%, respectively) compared to PZM-3 (8.5% and 0%) or mSOF (2.3% and 0%) media. In conclusion, this study suggests that blastocysts can be produced more efficiently using G1/G2 media to culture canine SCNT embryos. PMID:25549216

  11. Quantitative analyses for elucidating mechanisms of cell fate commitment in the mouse blastocyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz, Néstor; Kang, Minjung; Puliafito, Alberto; Schrode, Nadine; Xenopoulos, Panagiotis; Lou, Xinghua; Di Talia, Stefano; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina

    2015-03-01

    In recent years we have witnessed a shift from qualitative image analysis towards higher resolution, quantitative analyses of imaging data in developmental biology. This shift has been fueled by technological advances in both imaging and analysis software. We have recently developed a tool for accurate, semi-automated nuclear segmentation of imaging data from early mouse embryos and embryonic stem cells. We have applied this software to the study of the first lineage decisions that take place during mouse development and established analysis pipelines for both static and time-lapse imaging experiments. In this paper we summarize the conclusions from these studies to illustrate how quantitative, single-cell level analysis of imaging data can unveil biological processes that cannot be revealed by traditional qualitative studies.

  12. Effect of delayed supplementation of fetal calf serum to culture medium on bovine embryo development in vitro and following transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G Thompson; N. W Allen; L. T McGowan; A. C. S Bell; M. G Lambert; H. R Tervit

    1998-01-01

    Supplementation of synthetic oviduct fluid (SOF) medium plus amino acids and bovine serum albumin (BSA) with either fetal calf serum (FCS) or charcoal-treated FCS (CT-FCS) from Day 5 of development was investigated to determine if either in vitro or post-transfer development was altered. Development to the compact morula stage or beyond was similar for all 3 treatments. However, blastocyst development

  13. Agrobacterium-Mediated Gene Transfer Results Mainly in Transgenic Plants Transmitting T-DNA as a Single Mendelian Factor

    PubMed Central

    Budar, F.; Thia-Toong, L.; Van Montagu, M.; Hernalsteens, J.-P.

    1986-01-01

    Forty-four independent transformed tobacco plants were obtained from a cocultivation experiment with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains carrying modified Ti-plasmids. The transformed plants were either self-fertilized or crossed with nontransformed plants or with other transformed plants. The segregation of a phenotypic marker (kanamycin resistance) in the progenies of these plants was determined. In 40 cases out of 44, the segregation of the kanamycin resistance marker is consistent with Mendelian genetics. Among these 40 clones, 35 contain a single kanamycin resistance locus. The five others segregate two independent resistance loci. In two of the single insert clones, the segregation ratio after selfing indicates that the T-DNA insertion may have caused a recessive lethal mutation. PMID:17246346

  14. Numerical Simulation of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Single-Screw Extruder for Non-Newtonian Fluids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mukund V. Karwe; Yogesh Jaluria

    1990-01-01

    Thermal transport within the channel of a single-screw extruder has been studied numerically for non-Newtonian fluids, the computations art carried out for a given barrel temperature distribution and adiabatic screw. Numerical results are obtained using finite-difference techniques. The results indicate that the temperature variation in the downstream direction has a small effect on the corresponding velocity field, which is determined

  15. Beyond the single-file fluid limit using transfer matrix method: Exact results for confined parallel hard squares.

    PubMed

    Gurin, Péter; Varga, Szabolcs

    2015-06-14

    We extend the transfer matrix method of one-dimensional hard core fluids placed between confining walls for that case where the particles can pass each other and at most two layers can form. We derive an eigenvalue equation for a quasi-one-dimensional system of hard squares confined between two parallel walls, where the pore width is between ? and 3? (? is the side length of the square). The exact equation of state and the nearest neighbor distribution functions show three different structures: a fluid phase with one layer, a fluid phase with two layers, and a solid-like structure where the fluid layers are strongly correlated. The structural transition between differently ordered fluids develops continuously with increasing density, i.e., no thermodynamic phase transition occurs. The high density structure of the system consists of clusters with two layers which are broken with particles staying in the middle of the pore. PMID:26071716

  16. Beyond the single-file fluid limit using transfer matrix method: Exact results for confined parallel hard squares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurin, Péter; Varga, Szabolcs

    2015-06-01

    We extend the transfer matrix method of one-dimensional hard core fluids placed between confining walls for that case where the particles can pass each other and at most two layers can form. We derive an eigenvalue equation for a quasi-one-dimensional system of hard squares confined between two parallel walls, where the pore width is between ? and 3? (? is the side length of the square). The exact equation of state and the nearest neighbor distribution functions show three different structures: a fluid phase with one layer, a fluid phase with two layers, and a solid-like structure where the fluid layers are strongly correlated. The structural transition between differently ordered fluids develops continuously with increasing density, i.e., no thermodynamic phase transition occurs. The high density structure of the system consists of clusters with two layers which are broken with particles staying in the middle of the pore.

  17. Modified transfer matrix method model for a fiber Bragg grating strain sensor in polarization maintaining single mode optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana, Joel; Rumpf, Raymond; Gonzalez, Virgilio

    2014-03-01

    Fiber-Bragg Gratings (FBG) for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) have been studied extensively as they offer electrically passive operation, EMI immunity, high sensitivity, and multiple multiplexing schemes, as compared to conventional electricity based strain sensors. FBG sensors written in Polarization Maintaining (PM) optical fiber offer an additional dimension of strain measurement simplifying sensor implementation within a structure. This simplification however, adds complexity to the detection of the sensor's optical response to its corresponding applied strain. We propose a modified Transfer Matrix Method model to simulate a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in a polarization maintaining optical fiber. We study the effects of the reflected Bragg wavelength to the changes in shape of the optical fiber core waveguide and compare the results to the existing literature.

  18. Reversal of Hyperglycemia by Insulin-Secreting Rat Bone Marrow- and Blastocyst-Derived Hypoblast Stem Cell-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anujith; Lo Nigro, Antonio; Gysemans, Conny; Cai, Qing; Esguerra, Camila; Nelson-Holte, Molly; Heremans, Yves; Jiménez-González, María; Porciuncula, Angelo; Mathieu, Chantal; Binas, Bert; Heimberg, Harry; Prosper, Felipe; Hering, Bernhard; Verfaillie, Catherine M.; Barajas, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    ?-cell replacement may efficiently cure type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients whose insulin-secreting ?-cells have been selectively destroyed by autoantigen-reactive T cells. To generate insulin-secreting cells we used two cell sources: rat multipotent adult progenitor cells (rMAPC) and the highly similar rat extra-embryonic endoderm precursor (rXEN-P) cells isolated under rMAPC conditions from blastocysts (rHypoSC). rMAPC/rHypoSC were sequentially committed to definitive endoderm, pancreatic endoderm, and ?-cell like cells. On day 21, 20% of rMAPC/rHypoSC progeny expressed Pdx1 and C-peptide. rMAPCr/HypoSC progeny secreted C-peptide under the stimulus of insulin agonist carbachol, and was inhibited by the L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel blocker nifedipine. When rMAPC or rHypoSC differentiated d21 progeny were grafted under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic nude mice, hyperglycemia reversed after 4 weeks in 6/10 rMAPC- and 5/10 rHypoSC-transplanted mice. Hyperglycemia recurred within 24 hours of graft removal and the histological analysis of the retrieved grafts revealed presence of Pdx1-, Nkx6.1- and C-peptide-positive cells. The ability of both rMAPC and HypoSC to differentiate to functional ?-cell like cells may serve to gain insight into signals that govern ?-cell differentiation and aid in developing culture systems to commit other (pluripotent) stem cells to clinically useful ?-cells for cell therapy of T1D. PMID:23671681

  19. Synthesis, transfer printing, electrical and optical properties, and applications of materials composed of self-assembled, aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pint, Cary L.

    Super growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) has emerged as a unique method for synthesizing self-assembled, pristine, aligned SWNT materials composed of ultra-long (millimeter-long) nanotubes. This thesis focuses on novel routes of synthesizing such self-assembled SWNTs and the challenges that arise in integrating this material into next-generation applications. First of all, this work provides unique insight into growth termination of aligned SWNTs, emphasizing the mechanism that inhibits the growth of infinitely long nanotubes. Exhaustive real-time growth studies, combined with ex-situ and in-situ TEM characterization emphasizes that Ostwald ripening and subsurface diffusion of catalyst particles play a key role in growth termination. As a result, rational steps to solving this problem can enhance growth, and may ultimately lead to the meter or kilometer-long SWNTs that are necessary for a number of applications. In addition, other novel synthesis routes are discussed, such as the ability to form macroscopic fibrils of SWNTs, called "flying carpets" from 40 nm thick substrates, and the ability to achieve supergrowth of SWNTs that are controllably doped with nitrogen. In the latter case, molecular heterojunctions of doped and undoped sections in a single strand of ultralong SWNTs are demonstrated Secondly, as supergrowth is conducted on alumina coated SiO2 substrates, any applications will require that one can transfer the SWNTs to host surfaces with minimal processing. This work demonstrates a unique contact transfer route by which both patterned arrays of SWNTs, or homogenous SWNT carpets, can be transferred to any host surface. In the first case, the SWNTs are grown vertically aligned, and transferred in patterns of horizontally aligned SWNT. This transfer process relies on simple water-vapor etching of amorphous carbons at the catalyst following growth, and strong van der Waals adhesion of the high surface-area SWNT to host surfaces (gecko effect). Next, as the SWNTs produced in supergrowth are notably large in diameter (2-5 nm), this work provides the first characterization of these SWNTs using combined microscopy and infrared polarized absorption studies. Perfectly aligned SWNTs are transferred to infrared optical windows and mounted in a rotatable vacuum cell in which polarization dependent characterization is carried out. By modeling features observed in absorption to expected optical excitonic transition energies, diameter distributions are rapidly extracted. In addition, other concepts of optical characterization in ultra-long aligned SWNTs are explored. For example, the concept of using polarized near-IR characterization for such SWNT samples is inadequate to characterize the bulk alignment due to the mismatch of the excitation wavelength and the SWNT length. Therefore, comparing anisotropy in polarized near-IR Raman or absorption gives substantially different results than anisotropic electrical transport measurements. In addition to optical characterization, this work uniquely finds that the electrical transport properties of SWNTs is ultimately limited by SWNT-SWNT junctions. This is evident in temperature-dependent DC and AC conductivity measurements that emphasize localization-induced transport characteristics. A number of non-classical electrical transport features are observed that can simply be related to the sensitivity of electrical transport to SWNT-SWNT junctions. This means that despite the incredible electrical properties of individual SWNTs, it is necessary to focus on the growth and processing of ultra-long SWNTs in order to realistically make nanotube-based materials comparable in transport characteristics to conventional materials. Finally, this work concludes by demonstrating progress on the fabrication of new SWNT-based applications. First of all, a new type of solid-state supercapacitor material is fabricated where vertically aligned SWNT are coated with metal-oxide dielectric and counterelectrode layers to form efficient supercapacitors. This design benefits from the

  20. Tracer Tests in a Fractured Dolomite: 3. Analysis of Mass Transfer in Single-Well Injection-Withdrawal Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Haggerty, R.; Fleming, S.W.; Meigs, L.C.; McKenna, S.A.

    1999-03-04

    We investigated multiple-rate diffusion as a possible explanation for observed behavior in a suite of single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tests conducted in a fractured dolomite. We first investigated the ability of a conventional double-porosity model and a multirate diffusion model to explain the data. This revealed that the multirate diffusion hypothesis/model is most consistent with all available data, and is the only model to date that is capable of matching each of the recovery curves entirely. Second, we studied the sensitivity of the SWIW recovery curves to the distribution of diffusion rate coefficients and other parameters. We concluded that the SWIW test is very sensitive to the distribution of rate coefficients, but is relatively insensitive to other flow and transport parameters such as advective porosity and dispersivity. Third, we examined the significance of the constant double-log late-time slopes ({minus}2. 1 to {minus}2.8), which are present in several data sets. The observed late-time slopes are significantly different than would be predicted by either conventional double-porosity or single-porosity media, and are found to be a distinctive feature of multirate diffusion under SWIW test conditions. Fourth, we found that the estimated distributions of diffusion rate coefficients are very broad, with the distributions spanning a range of at least 3.6 to 5.7 orders of magnitude.

  1. Single-phased white-light-emitting Ca4(PO4)2O:Ce(3+),Eu(2+) phosphors based on energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yonglei; Pang, Ran; Li, Haifeng; Sun, Wenzhi; Fu, Jipeng; Jiang, Lihong; Zhang, Su; Su, Qiang; Li, Chengyu; Liu, Ru-Shi

    2015-06-17

    A novel single-composition Ca4(PO4)2O:Ce(3+),Eu(2+) phosphor emitting white light was synthesized by conventional solid-state reaction for light-emitting diode applications. X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence spectra, and luminescence decay spectra were used to characterize the samples. Energy transfer from Ce(3+) to Eu(2+) ions was observed in the co-doped samples, and the transfer mechanism in the Ca4(PO4)2O:Ce(3+),Eu(2+) phosphors was dipole-dipole interaction. The emission hue of Ca4(PO4)2O:Ce(3+),Eu(2+) was found to vary from blue (0.165, 0.188) to white (0.332, 0.300) and eventually to orange (0.519, 0.366) by precisely controlling the ratio of Ce(3+) to Eu(2+). The combination of a 380 nm near-ultraviolet chip with a Ca4(PO4)2O:0.02Ce(3+),0.012Eu(2+) phosphor produced a diode emitting white light with ultra-wideband emission and a correlated color temperature of 4124 K. Overall, results indicated that the prepared samples may be potentially applied in white-light-emitting diodes. PMID:26017804

  2. Transferring the state of a quantum register to a single oscillator: a simple circuit verses numerical optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Kurt; Wang, Xiaoting; Strauch, Frederick

    2012-02-01

    We consider the problem of swapping a quantum state between a register of qubits and a single quantum oscillator. We design a mesoscopic quantum circuit to do this, using an off-resonant interaction, based on the concept of coherent feedback control. We consider an explicit realization of this circuit, and perform simulations of its performance. We then take a different approach, in which we couple the register directly to the resonator, including inter-qubit couplings and local controls, and use numerical optimization to search for a control protocol that will achieve the swap with very high fidelity. Our results show that the protocols found using numerical searches are superior in speed and fidelity to the manually-designed circuit. We also explore how the time and complexity of the protocols increases with the problem size.

  3. Excitation energy transfer in natural photosynthetic complexes and chlorophyll trefoils: hole-burning and single complex/trefoil spectroscopic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ryszard Jankowiak, Kansas State University, Department of Chemistry, CBC Bldg., Manhattan KS, 66505; Phone: (785) 532-6785

    2012-09-12

    In this project we studied both natural photosynthetic antenna complexes and various artificial systems (e.g. chlorophyll (Chl) trefoils) using high resolution hole-burning (HB) spectroscopy and excitonic calculations. Results obtained provided more insight into the electronic (excitonic) structure, inhomogeneity, electron-phonon coupling strength, vibrational frequencies, and excitation energy (or electron) transfer (EET) processes in several antennas and reaction centers. For example, our recent work provided important constraints and parameters for more advanced excitonic calculations of CP43, CP47, and PSII core complexes. Improved theoretical description of HB spectra for various model systems offers new insight into the excitonic structure and composition of low-energy absorption traps in very several antenna protein complexes and reaction centers. We anticipate that better understanding of HB spectra obtained for various photosynthetic complexes and their simultaneous fits with other optical spectra (i.e. absorption, emission, and circular dichroism spectra) provides more insight into the underlying electronic structures of these important biological systems. Our recent progress provides a necessary framework for probing the electronic structure of these systems via Hole Burning Spectroscopy. For example, we have shown that the theoretical description of non-resonant holes is more restrictive (in terms of possible site energies) than those of absorption and emission spectra. We have demonstrated that simultaneous description of linear optical spectra along with HB spectra provides more realistic site energies. We have also developed new algorithms to describe both nonresonant and resonant hole-burn spectra using more advanced Redfield theory. Simultaneous description of various optical spectra for complex biological system, e.g. artificial antenna systems, FMO protein complexes, water soluble protein complexes, and various mutants of reaction centers continues; this work is supported by the new DOE BES grant.

  4. Synthesis, single-crystal characterization, antimicrobial activity and remarkable in vitro DNA interaction of hydrogen-bonded proton-transfer complex of 1,10-phenanthroline with 2,4,6-trinitrophenol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ishaat M. Khan; Afaq Ahmad; Mohammad Aatif

    2011-01-01

    A new charge transfer complex as a result of interaction between 1,10-phenanthroline (donor) with 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (picric acid), acceptor, was synthesized and characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectroscopy, single-crystal X-ray diffraction and elemental analysis. The single crystal structure indicates that the cation and anion are joined together by strong N+H?O? type hydrogen bonds. This has been attributed to

  5. Transcriptional reprogramming of gene expression in bovine somatic cell chromatin transfer embryos

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Osorio, Nelida; Wang, Zhongde; Kasinathan, Poothappillai; Page, Grier P; Robl, James M; Memili, Erdogan

    2009-01-01

    Background Successful reprogramming of a somatic genome to produce a healthy clone by somatic cells nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a rare event and the mechanisms involved in this process are poorly defined. When serial or successive rounds of cloning are performed, blastocyst and full term development rates decline even further with the increasing rounds of cloning. Identifying the "cumulative errors" could reveal the epigenetic reprogramming blocks in animal cloning. Results Bovine clones from up to four generations of successive cloning were produced by chromatin transfer (CT). Using Affymetrix bovine microarrays we determined that the transcriptomes of blastocysts derived from the first and the fourth rounds of cloning (CT1 and CT4 respectively) have undergone an extensive reprogramming and were more similar to blastocysts derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF) than to the donor cells used for the first and the fourth rounds of chromatin transfer (DC1 and DC4 respectively). However a set of transcripts in the cloned embryos showed a misregulated pattern when compared to IVF embryos. Among the genes consistently upregulated in both CT groups compared to the IVF embryos were genes involved in regulation of cytoskeleton and cell shape. Among the genes consistently upregulated in IVF embryos compared to both CT groups were genes involved in chromatin remodelling and stress coping. Conclusion The present study provides a data set that could contribute in our understanding of epigenetic errors in somatic cell chromatin transfer. Identifying "cumulative errors" after serial cloning could reveal some of the epigenetic reprogramming blocks shedding light on the reprogramming process, important for both basic and applied research. PMID:19393066

  6. Population and coherence transfer in half-integer quadrupolar spin systems induced by simultaneous rapid passages of the satellite transitions: A static and spinning single crystal nuclear magnetic resonance study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Hartmut; Iuga, Dinu; Verhagen, Rieko; Kentgens, Arno P. M.

    2001-02-01

    We have recently shown that utilizing double frequency sweeps (DFSs) instead of pulses can lead to increased efficiencies in population and coherence transfer in half-integer quadrupolar spin systems. Cosine modulation of the carrier amplitude corresponds to the simultaneous irradiation of two frequencies symmetrically around the rf-carrier frequency. Convergent or divergent DFSs can be generated by appropriate time-dependent cosine modulation of the rf field. Population and coherence transfer induced by sweeping the modulation frequency through the quadrupolar satellite transitions is investigated in detail. The time dependence of such passages determines the adiabaticity of the transfer processes. Insight into the involved spin dynamics is of utmost importance in the design and optimization of experiments based on amplitude modulation, such as DFS enhanced multiple-quantum magic angle spanning, where multiple to single-quantum conversion is performed by a DFS. Vega and co-workers have provided a theoretical basis of adiabatic coherence transfer in spin-3/2 systems induced by the combined action of simple time independent cosine amplitude modulation (CAM) of the rf field and sample spinning [Madhu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 112, 2377 (2000)]. In our report we will extend this theory to DFS induced adiabatic transfer phenomena in spin-3/2 and spin-5/2 systems. A fully analytical description will be presented covering the whole adiabaticity range resulting in an accurate description of actual experiments. In this context it will be shown that both population and coherence transfer are governed by the same principles and one unique adiabaticity parameter for each pair of spectral satellites. The transfer phenomena derived for spin-3/2 systems will be studied and quantified experimentally for 23Na in a single crystal of NaNO3. In a static and spinning sample the combination with DFS and CAM irradiation will be studied showing the equivalence of the transfer in all these situations. Further we will demonstrate the greater flexibility of a DFS compared to a CAM pulse to manipulate the adiabaticity and thus to maximize the transfer efficiency. Finally, the 27Al resonance in an ?-Al2O3 single crystal will be inspected to demonstrate that the efficiency of DFS-induced population and coherence transfer in spin-5/2 systems depends on the direction of the DFS.

  7. INO80 Dependent Promoter Access Facilitates Activation of Pluripotency Genes in Embryonic Stem Cell Self-Renewal, Reprogramming, and Blastocyst Development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Du, Ying; Ward, James M.; Shimbo, Takashi; Lackford, Brad; Zheng, Xiaofeng; Miao, Yi-liang; Zhou, Bingying; Han, Leng; Fargo, David C.; Jothi, Raja; Williams, Carmen J.; Wade, Paul A.; Hu, Guang

    2014-01-01

    Summary The master transcription factors play integral roles in the pluripotency transcription circuitry of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). How they selectively activate expression of the pluripotency network while simultaneously repressing genes involved in differentiation is not fully understood. Here we define a requirement for the INO80 complex, a SWI/SNF family chromatin remodeler, in ESC self-renewal, somatic cell reprogramming, and blastocyst development. We show that Ino80, the chromatin remodeling ATPase, co-occupies pluripotency gene promoters with the master transcription factors, and its occupancy is dependent on Oct4 and Wdr5. At the pluripotency genes, Ino80 maintains open chromatin architecture and licenses recruitment of Mediator and RNA Polymerase II for gene activation. Our data reveal an essential role for INO80 in the expression of the pluripotency network, and illustrate the coordination among chromatin remodeler, transcription factor, and histone modifying enzyme in the regulation of the pluripotent state. PMID:24792115

  8. Pregnancy and delivery after in vitro maturation of naked ICSI GV oocytes with GH and transfer of a frozen thawed blastocyst: case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yves J. R. Menezo; Bernard Nicollet; Jacques Rollet; André Hazout

    2006-01-01

      \\u000a Purpose\\u000a : To determine if GV oocytes, collected at the time of ICSI, can be matured in vitro and rescued for therapeutic treatment.\\u000a A patient for whom all the collected oocytes at the GV stage after a classical COH protocol were matured in vitro with GH.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method\\u000a : All the naked oocytes were matured in a culture medium (ISM2)

  9. Embryo transfer and embryonic capsules in the bobcat (Lynx rufus).

    PubMed

    Miller, D L; Waldhalm, S J; Leopold, B D; Estill, C

    2002-04-01

    Bobcats (Lynx rufus) (n=22) were used to test a surgical embryo transfer protocol for wild felines. Five blastocysts were collected 8-14 days post-initial copulation (PIC). Translucent capsule-like structures were recovered at 12 days PIC and are the first report of such a structure in a felid. Endometrial fibrosis was observed in one cat but, in general, post-surgical fibrosis of the uterus did not seem to impede ova or embryo transport. One embryo underwent cryopreservation and this embryo plus two other transferrable embryos were placed in recipient cats during the course of the study. No pregnancies were maintained; but one non-cryopreserved embryo was detected by ultrasound examination at 2 weeks post-transfer. This study provides valuable groundwork for future studies and warrants optimism for continued research in this area. PMID:12047248

  10. WWC Review of the Report "Transfer Incentives for High-Performing Teachers: Final Results from a Multisite Randomized Experiment." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    For the 2013 study, "Transfer Incentives for High-Performing Teachers: Final Results from a Multisite Randomized Experiment," researchers examined the impact of the Talent Transfer Initiative (TTI) on students' reading and mathematics achievement in 10 school districts. The TTI enabled principals of low-performing schools to provide…

  11. A single arginine residue is required for the interaction of the electron transferring flavoprotein (ETF) with three of its dehydrogenase partners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antony R. Parker

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of several dehydrogenases with the electron transferring flavoprotein (ETF) is a crucial step required for the successful transfer of electrons into the electron transport chain. The exact determinants regarding the interaction of ETF with its dehydrogenase partners are still unknown. Chemical modification of ETF with arginine-specific reagents resulted in the loss, to varying degrees, of activity with medium

  12. Establishment of hESC lines from the inner cell mass of blastocyst-stage embryos and single blastomeres of 4-cell stage embryos.

    PubMed

    Mateizel, Ileana; Geens, Mieke; Van de Velde, Hilde; Sermon, Karen

    2012-01-01

    More than 600 human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines have been reported today at the human European Embryonic Stem Cell Registry ( http://www.hescreg.eu/ ). Despite these high numbers, there are currently no general protocols for derivation, culture, and characterization of hESC. Moreover, data on the culture of the embryo used for the derivation (medium, day of ICM isolation) are usually not available but can have an impact on the derivation rate. We present here the protocols for derivation, culture and characterization as we applied them for the 22 hESC lines (named VUB-hESC) in our laboratory. PMID:22528350

  13. Heat transfer enhancement in single-phase forced convection with blockages and in two-phase pool boiling with nano-structured surfaces 

    E-print Network

    Ahn, Hee Seok

    2007-09-17

    The first study researched turbulent forced convective heat (mass) transfer down- stream of blockages with round and elongated holes in a rectangular channel. The blockages and the channel had the same cross section, and ...

  14. Study of turbulent single-phase heat transfer and onset of nucleate boiling in high aspect ratio mini-channels to support the MITR LEU conversion/

    E-print Network

    Forrest, Eric Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Heat transfer in high aspect ratio mini-channels has important applications for materials test reactors using plate-type fuel. These fuel plates typically possess coolant channels with hydraulic diameters on the order of ...

  15. Identification and characterization of the origin of conjugative transfer (oriT) and a gene (nes) encoding a single-stranded endonuclease on the staphylococcal plasmid pGO1.

    PubMed Central

    Climo, M W; Sharma, V K; Archer, G L

    1996-01-01

    The genes mediating the conjugative transfer of the 52-kb staphylococcal plasmid pGO1 are within a 14.4-kb gene cluster designated trs. However, a clone containing trs alone cannot transfer independently and no candidate oriT has been found within or contiguous to trs. In this study, we identified a 1,987-bp open reading frame (ORF) 24 kb 3' and 13 kb 5' to trs that was essential for conjugative transfer: transposon insertions into the ORF abolished transfer and a plasmid containing the ORF could complement these transposon-inactivated pGO1 mutants for transfer. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of this ORF revealed significant homology between the amino terminus of its predicted protein and those of several single-stranded endonucleases. In addition, a 12-bp DNA sequence located 100 bp 5' to the ORF's translational start site was identical to the oriT sequences of the conjugative or mobilizable plasmids RSF1010, pTF1, R1162, pSC101, and pIP501. The ability of the ORF, designated nes (for nicking enzyme of staphylococci), to generate a single-stranded nick at the oriT was demonstrated in Escherichia coli by alkaline gel and DNA sequence analysis of open circular plasmid DNA. Plasmids that could be converted to the open circular form by the presence of oriT and nes could also be mobilized at high frequency into Staphylococcus aureus recipients with a second plasmid containing only trs. We propose that the 14.4 kb of trs and the approximately 2.2 kb of the oriT-nes region, coupled with an origin of replication, make up the minimal staphylococcal conjugative replicon. PMID:8759863

  16. Heat-treated (in single aliquot or batch) colostrum outperforms non-heat-treated colostrum in terms of quality and transfer of immunoglobulin G in neonatal Jersey calves.

    PubMed

    Kryzer, A A; Godden, S M; Schell, R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this randomized clinical trial was to describe the effect on colostrum characteristics and passive transfer of IgG in neonatal calves when using the Perfect Udder colostrum management system (single-aliquot treatment; Dairy Tech Inc., Greeley, CO) compared with a negative control (fresh refrigerated or fresh frozen colostrum) and a positive control (batch heat-treated colostrum). First-milking Jersey colostrum was pooled to achieve 31 unique batches with a minimum of 22.8 L per batch. The batch was then divided into 4 with 3.8 L allocated to each treatment group: (1) heat-treated in Perfect Udder bag at 60°C for 60 min and then stored at -20°C (PU); (2) heat-treated in a batch pasteurizer (Dairy Tech Inc.) at 60°C for 60 min and then stored at -20°C in Perfect Udder bag (DTB; positive control); (3) fresh frozen colostrum stored at -20°C in Perfect Udder bag (FF; negative control); and (4) fresh refrigerated colostrum stored at 4°C in Perfect Udder bag (FR; negative control). Colostrum from all treatments was sampled for analysis of IgG concentration and bacterial culture immediately after batch assembly, after processing, and before feeding. Newborn Jersey calves were randomly assigned to be fed 3.8 L of colostrum from 1 of the 4 treatment groups. A prefeeding, 0-h blood sample was collected, calves were fed by esophageal tube within 2 h of birth, and then a 24-h postfeeding blood sample was collected. Paired serum samples from 0- and 24-h blood samples were analyzed for IgG concentration (mg/mL) using radial immunodiffusion analysis. The overall mean IgG concentration in colostrum was 77.9 g/L and was not affected by treatment. Prefeeding total plate counts (log10 cfu/mL) were significantly different for all 4 treatments and were lower for heat-treated colostrum (PU=4.23, DTB=3.63) compared with fresh colostrum (FF=5.68, FR=6.53). Total coliform counts (log10 cfu/mL) were also significantly different for all 4 treatments and were lower for heat-treated colostrum (PU=0.45, DTB=1.08) compared with fresh colostrum (FF=3.82, FR=4.80). Mean 24-h serum IgG concentrations were significantly higher for calves in the PU (41.0 mg/mL) and DTB (40.6 mg/mL) groups compared with FF (35.1 mg/mL) and FR (35.5 mg/mL) groups. Mean apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG was significantly higher for the PU (37%) and DTB (37%) groups compared with the FF (32%) and FR (32%) groups. Calves fed heat-treated colostrum (PU or DTB) experienced significantly improved AEA and serum IgG concentrations. PMID:25597970

  17. FGF4 is a limiting factor controlling the proportions of primitive endoderm and epiblast in the ICM of the mouse blastocyst.

    PubMed

    Krawchuk, Dayana; Honma-Yamanaka, Nobuko; Anani, Shihadeh; Yamanaka, Yojiro

    2013-12-01

    The primitive endoderm (PE) and epiblast (EPI) are two lineages derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of the E3.5 blastocyst. Although it has been shown that FGF signaling is necessary and sufficient for PE specification in the ICM, it is unknown what mechanisms control the PE/EPI proportion in the embryo. Because modulation of FGF signaling alone is sufficient to convert all ICM cells to either PE or EPI, a model has been proposed in which the amount of FGF in the embryo controls the PE/EPI proportion. To test this model, we reduced the amount of FGF4, the major FGF in the preimplantation embryo, using various genotypes of Fgf4 mutants. We observed a maternal contribution of Fgf4 in PE specification, but it was dispensable for development. In addition, upon treatment of Fgf4 mutant embryos with exogenous FGF4, we observed a progressive increase of PE proportions in an FGF4 dose dependent manner, regardless of embryo genotype. We conclude that the amount of FGF4 is limited and regulates PE/EPI proportions in the mouse embryo. PMID:24063807

  18. Effects of Multimodal Analgesia on the Success of Mouse Embryo Transfer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Parker, John M.; Austin, Jamie; Wilkerson, James; Carbone, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Multimodal analgesia is promoted as the best practice pain management for invasive animal research procedures. Universal acceptance and incorporation of multimodal analgesia requires assessing potential effects on study outcome. The focus of this study was to assess effects on embryo survival after multimodal analgesia comprising an opioid and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) compared with opioid-only analgesia during embryo transfer procedures in transgenic mouse production. Mice were assigned to receive either carprofen (5 mg/kg) with buprenorphine (0.1 mg/kg; CB) or vehicle with buprenorphine (0.1 mg/kg; VB) in a prospective, double-blinded placebo controlled clinical trial. Data were analyzed in surgical sets of 1 to 3 female mice receiving embryos chimeric for a shared targeted embryonic stem-cell clone and host blastocyst cells. A total of 99 surgical sets were analyzed, comprising 199 Crl:CD1 female mice and their 996 offspring. Neither yield (pups weaned per embryo implanted in the surgical set) nor birth rate (average number of pups weaned per dam in the set) differed significantly between the CB and VB conditions. Multimodal opioid–NSAID analgesia appears to have no significant positive or negative effect on the success of producing novel lines of transgenic mice by blastocyst transfer. PMID:21838973

  19. A spectral transfer procedure for application of a single class-model to spectra recorded by different near-infrared spectrometers for authentication of olives in brine.

    PubMed

    Oliveri, Paolo; Casolino, Maria Chiara; Casale, Monica; Medini, Luca; Mare, Francesca; Lanteri, Silvia

    2013-01-25

    Analytical methods for confirmation of food authenticity claims should be rapid, economic, non-destructive and should not require highly skilled personnel for their deployment. All such conditions are satisfied by spectroscopic techniques. In order to be extensively implemented in routine controls, an ideal method should also give a response independent of the particular equipment used. In the present study, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was used for verifying authenticity of commercial olives in brine of cultivar Taggiasca. Samples were analysed in two laboratories with different NIR spectrometers and a mathematical spectral transfer correction - the boxcar signal transfer (BST) - was developed, allowing to minimise the systematic differences existing between signals recorded with the two instruments. Class models for the verification of olive authenticity were built by the unequal dispersed classes (UNEQ) method, after data compression by disjoint principal component analysis (PCA). Models were validated on an external test set. PMID:23312313

  20. Ovine induced pluripotent stem cells are resistant to reprogramming after nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    German, Sergio D; Campbell, Keith H S; Thornton, Elisabeth; McLachlan, Gerry; Sweetman, Dylan; Alberio, Ramiro

    2015-02-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) share similar characteristics of indefinite in vitro growth with embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and may therefore serve as a useful tool for the targeted genetic modification of farm animals via nuclear transfer (NT). Derivation of stable ESC lines from farm animals has not been possible, therefore, it is important to determine whether iPSCs can be used as substitutes for ESCs in generating genetically modified cloned farm animals. We generated ovine iPSCs by conventional retroviral transduction using the four Yamanaka factors. These cells were basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)- and activin A-dependent, showed persistent expression of the transgenes, acquired chromosomal abnormalities, and failed to activate endogenous NANOG. Nonetheless, iPSCs could differentiate into the three somatic germ layers in vitro. Because cloning of farm animals is best achieved with diploid cells (G1/G0), we synchronized the iPSCs in G1 prior to NT. Despite the cell cycle synchronization, preimplantation development of iPSC-NT embryos was lower than with somatic cells (2% vs. 10% blastocysts, p<0.01). Furthermore, analysis of the blastocysts produced demonstrated persistent expression of the transgenes, aberrant expression of endogenous SOX2, and a failure to activate NANOG consistently. In contrast, gene expression in blastocysts produced with the parental fetal fibroblasts was similar to those generated by in vitro fertilization. Taken together, our data suggest that the persistent expression of the exogenous factors and the acquisition of chromosomal abnormalities are incompatible with normal development of NT embryos produced with iPSCs. PMID:25513856

  1. Vitamin C enhances in vitro and in vivo development of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yongye; Tang, Xiaochun; Xie, Wanhua; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dong; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Jianguo; Yuan, Ting; Lai, Liangxue [Jilin Province Key Laboratory of Animal Embryo Engineering, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi An DaLu, Changchun 130062 (China)] [Jilin Province Key Laboratory of Animal Embryo Engineering, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi An DaLu, Changchun 130062 (China); Pang, Daxin, E-mail: pdx@jlu.edu.cn [Jilin Province Key Laboratory of Animal Embryo Engineering, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi An DaLu, Changchun 130062 (China)] [Jilin Province Key Laboratory of Animal Embryo Engineering, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi An DaLu, Changchun 130062 (China); Ouyang, Hongsheng, E-mail: ouyh@jlu.edu.cn [Jilin Province Key Laboratory of Animal Embryo Engineering, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi An DaLu, Changchun 130062 (China)] [Jilin Province Key Laboratory of Animal Embryo Engineering, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi An DaLu, Changchun 130062 (China)

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Report for the first time that vitamin C has a beneficial effect on the development of porcine SCNT embryos. {yields} The level of acH4K5 and Oct4 expression at blastocyst-stage was up-regulated after treatment. {yields} A higher rate of gestation and increased number of piglets born were harvested in the treated group. -- Abstract: The reprogramming of differentiated cells into a totipotent embryonic state through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is still an inefficient process. Previous studies revealed that the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse and human fibroblasts could be significantly enhanced with vitamin C treatment. Here, we investigated the effects of vitamin C, to our knowledge for the first time, on the in vitro and in vivo development of porcine SCNT embryos. The rate of blastocyst development in SCNT embryos treated with 50 {mu}g/mL vitamin C 15 h after activation (36.0%) was significantly higher than that of untreated SCNT embryos (11.5%). The enhanced in vitro development rate of vitamin C-treated embryos was associated with an increased acetylation level of histone H4 lysine 5 and higher Oct4, Sox2 and Klf4 expression levels in blastocysts, as determined by real-time PCR. In addition, treatment with vitamin C resulted in an increased pregnancy rate in pigs. These findings suggest that treatment with vitamin C is beneficial for enhancement of the in vitro and in vivo development of porcine SCNT embryos.

  2. Kinetic studies on the single electron transfer reaction between 2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine oxoammonium ions and phenothiazines: the application of Marcus theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Longmin Wu; Xia Guo; Jun Wang; Qingxiang Guo; Zhongli Liu; Youcheng Liu

    1999-01-01

    Electron transfer reactions take place readily between 2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine oxoammonium ions (la,lb) and phenothiazines (2a—2g), giving corresponding nitroxides (3a,3b) and phenothiazine radical cations (4a—4g). The rate constants for the electron self-exchange reactions between1 and3, as well as between2 and4, are determined by EPR and1HNMR line-broadening effect in acetonitrile. By application of the Marcus theory, the kinetics of the

  3. Exciton generation/dissociation/charge-transfer enhancement in inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells by robust single nanocrystalline LnPxOy (Ln = Eu, Y) doping.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiao; Sun, Weifu; Chen, Zihan; Wei, Taihuei; Chen, Chuyang; He, Xingdao; Yuan, Yongbiao; Li, Yue; Li, Qinghua

    2014-06-11

    Low-temperature solution-processed photovoltaics suffer from low efficiencies because of poor exciton or electron-hole transfer. Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cell, although still in its infancy, has attracted great interest thus far. One of the promising ways to enhance exciton dissociation or electron-hole transport is the doping of lanthanide phosphate ions. However, the underlying photophysical mechanism remains poorly understood. Herein, by applying femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, we successfully distinguished hot electron, less energetic electron, hole transport from electron-hole recombination. Concrete evidence has been provided that lanthanide phosphate doping improves the efficiency of both hot electron and "less energetic" electron transfers from donor to acceptor, but the hole transport almost remains unchanged. In particular, the hot electron transfer lifetime was shortened from 30.2 to 12.7 ps, that is, more than 60% faster than pure TiO2 acceptor. Such improvement was ascribed to the facts that the conduction band (CB) edge energy level of TiO2 has been elevated by 0.2 eV, while the valence band level almost remains unchanged, thus not only narrowing the energy offset between CB levels of TiO2 and P3HT, but also meanwhile enlarging the band gap of TiO2 itself that permits one to inhibit electron-hole recombination within TiO2. Consequently, lanthanide phosphate doped TiO2/P3HT bulk-heterojunction solar cell has been demonstrated to be a promising hybrid solar cell, and a notable power conversion efficiency of 2.91% is therefore attained. This work indicates that lanthanide compound ions can efficiently facilitate exciton generation, dissociation, and charge transport, thus enhancing photovoltaic performance. PMID:24835845

  4. Layer-by-layer transfer of multiple, large area sheets of graphene grown in multilayer stacks on a single SiC wafer.

    PubMed

    Unarunotai, Sakulsuk; Koepke, Justin C; Tsai, Cheng-Lin; Du, Frank; Chialvo, Cesar E; Murata, Yuya; Haasch, Rick; Petrov, Ivan; Mason, Nadya; Shim, Moonsub; Lyding, Joseph; Rogers, John A

    2010-10-26

    Here we report a technique for transferring graphene layers, one by one, from a multilayer deposit formed by epitaxial growth on the Si-terminated face of a 6H-SiC substrate. The procedure uses a bilayer film of palladium/polyimide deposited onto the graphene coated SiC, which is then mechanically peeled away and placed on a target substrate. Orthogonal etching of the palladium and polyimide leaves isolated sheets of graphene with sizes of square centimeters. Repeating these steps transfers additional sheets from the same SiC substrate. Raman spectroscopy, scanning tunneling spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, together with scanning tunneling, atomic force, optical, and scanning electron microscopy reveal key properties of the materials. The sheet resistances determined from measurements of four point probe devices were found to be ?2 k?/square, close to expectation. Graphene crossbar structures fabricated in stacked configurations demonstrate the versatility of the procedures. PMID:20843091

  5. Utero-tubal embryo transfer and vasectomy in the mouse model.

    PubMed

    Bermejo-Alvarez, Pablo; Park, Ki-Eun; Telugu, Bhanu P

    2014-01-01

    The transfer of preimplantation embryos to a surrogate female is a required step for the production of genetically modified mice or to study the effects of epigenetic alterations originated during preimplantation development on subsequent fetal development and adult health. The use of an effective and consistent embryo transfer technique is crucial to enhance the generation of genetically modified animals and to determine the effect of different treatments on implantation rates and survival to term. Embryos at the blastocyst stage are usually transferred by uterine transfer, performing a puncture in the uterine wall to introduce the embryo manipulation pipette. The orifice performed in the uterus does not close after the pipette has been withdrawn, and the embryos can outflow to the abdominal cavity due to the positive pressure of the uterus. The puncture can also produce a hemorrhage that impairs implantation, blocks the transfer pipette and may affect embryo development, especially when embryos without zona are transferred. Consequently, this technique often results in very variable and overall low embryo survival rates. Avoiding these negative effects, utero-tubal embryo transfer take advantage of the utero-tubal junction as a natural barrier that impedes embryo outflow and avoid the puncture of the uterine wall. Vasectomized males are required for obtaining pseudopregnant recipients. A technique to perform vasectomy is described as a complement to the utero-tubal embryo transfer. PMID:24637845

  6. Embryo collection and transfer in the dog

    E-print Network

    Kinney, Gail Marie

    1979-01-01

    in TC Medium 199 containing fetal calf serum and antibiotics. Their data indicate that canine oocytes will mature in culture but, capacitated sperm are capable of penetration of the zona pellucida and vitellus and decon- densation of the sperm... Norula Early Blastocyst Late Blastocyst 18 23 Hatched 22 Empty Zona Pellucida Unfertilized 22 29 TABLE 2. Numbers of corpora lutea estimated by ovarian palpation and actual number of embryos collected. Animal No. 8139 5493 7561 88851...

  7. Transfer Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Stephen Pollock

    2011-01-01

    In statistical time-series analysis, signal processing and control engineering, a transfer function is a mathematical relationship between a numerical input to a dynamic system and the resulting output. The theory of transfer functions describes how the input\\/output relationship is affected by the structure of the transfer function. The theory of the transfer functions of linear time-invariant (LTI) systems has been

  8. Phase behavior of block copolymers in compressed carbon dioxide and as single domain-layer, nanolithographic etch resists for sub-10 nm pattern transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Curran Matthew

    Diblock copolymers have many interesting properties, which first and foremost include their ability to self-assemble into various ordered, regularly spaced domains with nanometer-scale feature sizes. The work in this dissertation can be logically divided into two parts -- the first and the majority of this work describes the phase behavior of certain block copolymer systems, and the second discusses real applications possible with block copolymer templates. Many compressible fluids have solvent-like properties dependent on fluid pressure and can be used as processing aids similar to liquid solvents. Here, compressed CO2 was shown to swell several thin homopolymer films, including polystyrene and polyisoprene, as measured by high pressure ellipsometry at elevated temperatures and pressures. The ellipsometric technique was modified to produce accurate data at these conditions through a custom pressure vessel design. The order-disorder transition (ODT) temperatures of several poly(styrene-bisoprene) diblock copolymers were also investigated by static birefringence when dilated with compressed CO2. Sorption of CO2 in each copolymer resulted in significant depressions of the ODT temperature as a function of fluid pressure, and the data above was used to estimate the quantitative amount of solvent in each of the diblock copolymers. These depressions were not shown to follow dilution approximation, and showed interesting, exaggerated scaling of the ODT at near-bulk polymer concentrations. The phase behavior of block copolymer surfactants was studied when blended with polymer or small molecule additives capable of selective hydrogen bonds. This work used small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to identify several low molecular weight systems with strong phase separation and ordered domains as small as 2--3 nanometers upon blending. One blend of a commercially-available surfactant with a small molecule additive was further developed and showed promise as a thin-film pattern transfer template. In this scenario, block copolymer thin films on domain thick with self-assembled feature sizes of only 6--7 nm were used as plasma etch resists. Here the block copolymer's pattern was successfully transferred into the underlying SiO2 substrate using CF4--based reactive ion etching. The result was a parallel, cylindrical nanostructure etched into SiO2.

  9. Pragmatic Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasper, Gabriele

    1992-01-01

    Attempting to clarify the concept of pragmatic transfer, this article proposes as a basic distinction Leech/Thomas' dichotomy of sociopragmatics versus pragmalinguistics, presenting evidence for transfer at both levels. Issues discussed include pragmatic universals in speech act realization, conditions for pragmatic transfer, communicative…

  10. Human embryonic stem cell lines derived from single blastomeres of two 4-cell stage embryos

    PubMed Central

    Geens, Mieke; Mateizel, Ileana; Sermon, Karen; De Rycke, Martine; Spits, Claudia; Cauffman, Greet; Devroey, Paul; Tournaye, Herman; Liebaers, Inge; Van de Velde, Hilde

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recently, we demonstrated that single blastomeres of a 4-cell stage human embryo are able to develop into blastocysts with inner cell mass and trophectoderm. To further investigate potency at the 4-cell stage, we aimed to derive pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESC) from single blastomeres. METHODS Four 4-cell stage embryos were split on Day 2 of preimplantation development and the 16 blastomeres were individually cultured in sequential medium. On Day 3 or 4, the blastomere-derived embryos were plated on inactivated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). RESULTS Ten out of sixteen blastomere-derived morulae attached to the MEFs, and two produced an outgrowth. They were mechanically passaged onto fresh MEFs as described for blastocyst ICM-derived hESC, and shown to express the typical stemness markers by immunocytochemistry and/or RT–PCR. In vivo pluripotency was confirmed by the presence of all three germ layers in the teratoma obtained after injection in immunodeficient mice. The first hESC line displays a mosaic normal/abnormal 46, XX, dup(7)(q33qter), del(18)(q23qter) karyotype. The second hESC line displays a normal 46, XY karyotype. CONCLUSION We report the successful derivation and characterization of two hESC lines from single blastomeres of four split 4-cell stage human embryos. These two hESC lines were derived from distinct embryos, proving that at least one of the 4-cell stage blastomeres is pluripotent. PMID:19633307

  11. A universal power transfer curve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Hansen; James McSpadden; James N. Benford

    2005-01-01

    Power transfer between circular apertures at far-field distances is calculated using a widely applicable aperture distribution with adjustable sidelobe ratio. Power transfer efficiency is obtained by integrating the pattern out to the angle subtended by the receiving aperture. Efficiency is parameterized such that a single curve results for each sidelobe ratio, independent of transmit D\\/?, over a range of 5

  12. Interacting chain model for poly(ethylene glycol) from first principles—stretching of a single molecule using the transfer matrix approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livadaru, L.; Netz, R. R.; Kreuzer, H. J.

    2003-01-01

    Based on ab initio quantum-mechanical calculations on short segments (up to four subunits) of poly(ethylene glycol), we construct n-state interacting chain models with n=3 or 7 with nearest-neighbor interactions that also account fully for the geometrical structure of the molecule (bond lengths, bond angles, and dihedral angles). For chains up to N=21 subunits we construct, in the three-state model, all 3N conformers exactly. For longer chains we apply the transfer matrix method in the Gibbs ensemble in the presence of an external force. The force-extension curve is calculated with high accuracy by both methods, and the results are compared with each other and with experimental data. We show that the infinite chain length limit is reached at about N=200. We analyze the effect of variation of geometrical and energy parameters in the model, as well as the effect of chain length on our final results. Chain end distribution functions, probabilities of rotational states and the persistence length are calculated. We show that additional rotational states beyond those of the potential minima used in the rotational-isomeric-state approximation must be included for an accurate description.

  13. Recovery of time evolution of Grad-Shafranov equilibria from single-spacecraft data: Benchmarking and application to a flux transfer event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Sonnerup, Bengt U. Ã.-.; Nakamura, Takuma K. M.

    2010-11-01

    First results are presented of a method, developed by Sonnerup and Hasegawa (2010), for analyzing time evolution of magnetohydrostatic Grad-Shafranov (GS) equilibria, using data recorded by an observing probe as it traverses a quasi-static, two-dimensional (2D), magnetic-field/plasma structure. The method recovers spatial initial values used in the classical GS reconstruction for an interval before and after the time of actual measurements, by advancing them backward and forward in time based on a set of equations for an incompressible plasma; the consequence is generation of multiple GS maps or a movie of the 2D field structure. The method is successfully benchmarked by use of a 2D magnetohydrodynamic simulation of time-dependent magnetic reconnection, and then is applied to a flux transfer event (FTE) seen by the Cluster spacecraft at the dayside high-latitude magnetopause. The application shows that the field lines constituting the FTE flux rope were contracting toward its center as a result of modest convective flow in the region around the core of the flux rope.

  14. Recovery of evolution of Grad-Shafranov equilibria from single-spacecraft data: Benchmarking and application to a flux transfer event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnerup, B. U.; Hasegawa, H.; Nakamura, T.

    2010-12-01

    Even after the advent of multi-spacecraft missions such as Cluster and THEMIS, it has been difficult to distinguish between time evolution of, and spatial variation within, a space plasma structure on the basis of in situ measurements. We present a method for analyzing time evolution of two-dimensional (2D) and magnetohydrostatic, namely Grad-Shafranov equilibria, using data recorded by an observing probe as it traverses a quasi-static, 2D magnetic-field/plasma structure. The method recovers spatial initial values used in the classical Grad-Shafranov (GS) reconstruction [Sonnerup et al., JGR, 2006] for an interval before and after the time of actual measurements, by advancing them backward and forward in time based on a set of equation for an incompressible plasma; the consequence is generation of multiple GS maps or a movie of the 2D field structure. The method is successfully benchmarked by use of a 2D magnetohydrodynamic simulation of time-dependent magnetic reconnection, and then is applied to a magnetic flux transfer event (FTE) seen by Cluster at the dayside high-latitude magnetopause, which has been analyzed with the GS method [Hasegawa et al., Ann. Geophys., 2006]. The application shows that the field lines constituting the FTE flux rope were contracting toward its center as a result of modest convective flow in the region around the core of the flux rope.

  15. Long-Term Restoration of Rod and Cone Vision by Single Dose rAAV-Mediated Gene Transfer to the Retina in a Canine Model of Childhood Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Acland, Gregory M.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Bennett, Jean; Aleman, Tomas S.; Cideciyan, Artur V.; Bennicelli, Jeannette; Dejneka, Nadine S.; Pearce-Kelling, Susan E.; Maguire, Albert M.; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Hauswirth, William W.; Jacobson, Samuel G.

    2010-01-01

    The short- and long-term effects of gene therapy using AAV-mediated RPE65 transfer to canine retinal pigment epithelium were investigated in dogs affected with disease caused by RPE65 deficiency. Results with AAV 2/2, 2/1, and 2/5 vector pseudotypes, human or canine RPE65 cDNA, and constitutive or tissue-specific promoters were similar. Subretinally administered vectors restored retinal function in 23 of 26 eyes, but intravitreal injections consistently did not. Photoreceptoral and postreceptoral function in both rod and cone systems improved with therapy. In dogs followed electroretinographically for 3 years, responses remained stable. Biochemical analysis of retinal retinoids indicates that mutant dogs have no detectable 11-cis-retinal, but markedly elevated retinyl esters. Subretinal AAV-RPE65 treatment resulted in detectable 11-cis-retinal expression, limited to treated areas. RPE65 protein expression was limited to retinal pigment epithelium of treated areas. Subretinal AAV-RPE65 vector is well tolerated and does not elicit high antibody levels to the vector or the protein in ocular fluids or serum. In long-term studies, wild-type cDNA is expressed only in target cells. Successful, stable restoration of rod and cone photoreceptor function in these dogs has important implications for treatment of human patients affected with Leber congenital amaurosis caused by RPE65 mutations. PMID:16226919

  16. Analysis of Stress Transfer from the Matrix to the Fiber Through an Imperfect Interface: Application to Raman Data and the Single-Fiber Fragmentation Test REFERENCE: Nairn, J. A., Liu, Y. C., and Galiotis, C., \\\\Analysis of Stress Transfer from the Matrix to the Fiber Through an Imperfect Interface: Application to Raman Data and the Single-Fiber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Nairn; Yung Ching Liu; Costas Galiotis

    A new analysis for stress transfer from the flber to the matrix through an imperfect interface was derived using a Bessel-Fourier series. The new analysis is speciflc for the fragmentation test. It satisfles equilibrium and compatible every place and satisfles most boundary conditions exactly. The only approximation is the axial stress boundary condition in the flber which is satisfled in

  17. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Gene And Recurrent Coronary Heart Disease or Mortality in Patients with Established Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Virani, Salim S.; Lee, Vei-Vei; Brautbar, Ariel; Grove, Megan L.; Nambi, Vijay; Alam, Mahboob; Elayda, MacArthur; Wilson, James M.; Willerson, James T.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Ballantyne, Christie M.

    2013-01-01

    It is not known whether genetic variants in the cholesteryl-ester-transfer-protein (CETP) gene are associated with recurrent coronary heart disease events or mortality in secondary prevention patients. Among 3717 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients enrolled in a prospective genetic registry; we evaluated whether CETP gene variants previously shown to be associated with reduced CETP activity and high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol increase (“A” allele for both TaqIB [rs708272] and rs12149545) are associated with a reduction in recurrent myocardial infarction [MI], recurrent revascularization or death. At 4.5 years of follow-up; 439 recurrent MI, 698 recurrent revascularizations and 756 deaths occurred. Using an additive model of inheritance, the “A” allele for rs708272 was not associated with recurrent MI (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.78-1.17 for AG; HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.67-1.19 for AA; compared with GG genotype), recurrent revascularization (HR 1.13, 95% CI 0.95-1.33 for AG; HR 1.05, 95% CI 0.84-1.32 for AA) or mortality (HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.86-1.19 for AG; HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.91-1.37 for AA) in the overall cohort. Similar results were seen for the “A” allele for rs12149545. In the CABG subgroup, AG genotype for rs708272 was associated with an increased mortality (HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.06-1.79) compared to GG genotype. Results remained consistent using dominant model of inheritance. In conclusion, genetic CETP variants were not associated with recurrent MI or recurrent revascularization in overall cohort with a possible mortality increase in CABG patients. PMID:23891427

  18. Aneuploidy in the Human Blastocyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Fragouli; D. Wells

    2011-01-01

    Studies of human cleavage stage embryos, 3 days after fertilization of the oocyte, have revealed remarkably high levels of chromosome abnormality. In addition to meiotic errors derived from the gametes, principally the oocyte, mitotic errors occurring after fertilization are also common, leading to widespread chromosomal mosaicism. The prevalence of chromosome anomalies in embryos may explain the relatively poor fertility and

  19. Development of in vitro matured, in vitro fertilized domestic cat embryos following cryopreservation, culture and transfer.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Martha C; Pope, Earle; Harris, Rebecca; Mikota, Susan; Dresser, Betsy L

    2003-07-01

    The ability of embryos to successfully survive cryopreservation is dependent on both morphological and developmental characteristics. Domestic cat oocytes matured in vitro exhibit alterations in nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation that may affect developmental competence, particularly after cryopreservation. In Experiment 1, we evaluated the developmental competence of in vitro produced (IVM/IVF) cat embryos after cryopreservation on Days 2, 4 or 5 of IVC. In Experiment 2, in vivo viability was examined by transfer of cryopreserved embryos into recipient queens. Oocytes recovered from minced ovaries were cultured in TCM-199 with hCG/eCG and EGF at 38 degrees C in 5% O(2), 5% CO(2), 90% N(2) for 24h. In Experiment 1, after IVM/IVF, on Day 2 (n=56), Day 4 (n=48) and Day 5 (n=42) of IVC, embryos were equilibrated for 10 min at 22 degrees C in HEPES (15m M) Tyrode's (HeTy) with 1.4M propylene glycol (PG), 0.125 M sucrose (S), 10% dextran and 10% FBS, loaded into 0.25 ml straws, cooled at 2.0 degrees C/min to -6.0 degrees C and held for 10 min. After seeding, cooling resumed at 0.3 degrees C/min to -30 degrees C and after a 10 min hold, straws were plunged into liquid nitrogen (LN(2)). Straws were thawed in air for 2 min and cryoprotectant was removed by a five-step rinse consisting of 3 min each in HeTY with 0.95 M PG/0.25 M S; 0.95 M PG/0.125 M S; 0.45 M PG/0.125 M S; 0 PG/0.125 M S; 0 PG/0.0625 M S. Contemporary IVM/IVF embryos were used as nonfrozen controls (Day 2, n=14; Day 4, n=26; Day 5, n=35). After 8 days of IVC, the number of embryos developing to blastocysts was recorded and blastocyst cell numbers were counted after staining with Hoechst 33342. In Experiment 1, developmental stage did not affect the survival rate after thawing (Day 2=79%, Day 4=90%, Day 5=98%) and was not different from that of controls (Day 2=89%, Day 4=88%, Day 5=96%). Blastocyst development was similar among days both after cryopreservation (Day 2=59%, Day 4=54%, Day 5=63%) and in controls (Day 2=55%, Day 4=54%, Day 5=58%). Mean (+/-S.D.) cell number of blastocysts was slightly lower (NS) in cryopreserved embryos (Day 2=152+/-19, Day 4=124+/-20, Day 5=121+/-24) than in controls (Day 2=141+/-25, Day 4=169+/-21, Day 5=172+/-19). In Experiment 2, embryos frozen on Day 2 (n=68), Day 4 (n=49) or Day 5 (n=73) were thawed and cultured for 3, 1, or 0 days before transfer by laparotomy to 5 (mean=12.6+/-2.4), 4 (mean=12.2+/-3.7) and 6 (mean=12.0+/-1.6) recipients, respectively. Four recipients were pregnant on Day 21; two from embryos frozen on Day 4 and two from Day 5. Two live kittens were born at 66 days, a third kitten died during parturition at 64 days and a fourth pregnancy aborted by Day 45. In summary, we have shown that a controlled rate cryopreservation technique can be successfully applied to cat embryos produced by IVM/IVF. In vitro development to the blastocyst stage was not affected by the age of embryos at cryopreservation. The births of live kittens after ET of cryopreserved embryos is additional validation of progress toward applying assisted reproductive technology to preservation of endangered felids. PMID:12749937

  20. A Single-well ("push-pull") test for investigation of mass transfer properties of deep groundwater in a coastal basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheytt, T.; Hebig, K. H.; Ito, N.; Marui, A.

    2010-12-01

    Recently, investigations were conducted for geological and hydrogeological charac-terization of the Horonobe site, located at the north-western coast of the northern Japanese main island of Hokkaido. Horonobe is part of a sedimentary coastal basin, which is composed of poorly compacted neozoic sand-, silt- and mudrocks. The base of the basin consists of volcanic sediments. Some recent tectonic activities were re-ported frequently. Due to the periglacial influence the landscape is very gently. How-ever, Hokkaido was not glaciated in the past. The region is sparsely populated. In Japan, coastal basins are the main sources for groundwater. The main settlement areas of Japan are located in coastal basins. Groundwater systems in coastal areas, like the sedimentary basin of Horonobe, develop some special characteristics as salt-fresh-water interfaces and significant discharge zones of groundwater into the sea. As the knowledge and the understanding of the history and the evolution of such a groundwater system is crucial for questions that have to be solved, e.g. assumed groundwater velocities at depths of about 1,000 m below ground surface; the "age" of groundwater; and the evolution of these systems depending on different sea levels, etc. In our project, which was conducted as a collaboration between the Technische Uni-versität Berlin (TUB, Germany) und the Advanced Institute of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST, Japan), the hydraulic and hydrochemical properties of an aquifer in about 1,000 m depth should be investigated. In the first phase a Single-well ("push-pull") test was conducted as a preliminary study in the 100 m deep well DD-2. First a tracer-groundwater mix was pumped into the aquifer ("push-phase"), and af-terwards the resulting plume was pumped back ("pull-phase"). The retardation of sev-eral different ions and their recoveries in relation to conservative tracers were used to characterize the transport characteristics of dissolved substances within a potential sedimentary host rock. The results and the experiences of this study should be used for a Single-well test in the 1,000 m deep borehole DD-1. The findings of both tests are part of a better un-derstanding of deep groundwater systems, and its previous and future evolution. The final goal of the project is a numerical model to make predictions about the long-term behaviour of groundwater flow and transport depending on parameters that change significantly at our time (e.g. sea level changes due to man-made climate change or regular Ice Ages; changing recharge and discharge areas due to sea level changes; changing amounts of precipitation).

  1. Photoluminescence, Dual-donor Energy Transfer and Single X-ray Crystallographic Studies of Eu3+ and Tb3+ complexes with pyridines and triazaphosphaadamantane oxide (TPAO) ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forcha, Derick Akaju

    Coordination of several chromophoric ligands capable of sensitizing Tb 3+ and Eu3+ ions have been studied. Four new complexes of Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions were achieved by coordinating Eu with 4', 4''''- (1-4 phenylene) bis (2, 2':6', 2-terpyridine) , pyridino [2-3-b] pyrazines and 6,6??-dibromo-2,2?:6?,2??-terpyridine.The crystal structure of [Tb(TPAO)2(H2O) 4(Au(CN)2)3], was determined and shows a polymeric three-dimensional coordination with a monoclinic space group Cc, Z=4. The unit cell parameters are a = 17.4266(14) A, b = 10.8224(10) A, c = 18.0270(16) A, ? = 90° beta = 109.309(3)° gamma = 90°. The structure exhibits an equilateral Au-Au-Au interaction bridged to a terbium core by the C-N groups. Three other complexes, viz [Eu(ppz) 2(H2O)n]Cl3, [Eu(ptpy)(H2O) n]Cl3 and [Eu(bbterp)(H2O)n]Cl 3, have also been synthesized and characterized using IR and luminescence spectroscopy, although no crystal was obtained suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis. The ligand tetra(2'-pyridyl)pyrazine (tppz) was also crystallized and its crystal structure solved. The results herein, elaborate the mode of dual donor sensitization from ligand groups to the lanthanide ions. The efficiency of energy transfer that occurs in the Ln3+ complexes has been calculated, taking into account the radiative and non radiative relaxation processes, and the limitation encountered. A broad excitation spectrum at 369, 366 and 380 nm were observed for [Eu(ppz)2(H2O) n]Cl3, [Eu(bbterp)(H2O)n]Cl3 and [Eu(ptpy)(H2O)n]Cl3 complexes, respectively upon monitoring the Eu3+ emission indicating the presence of ET in a donor-acceptor type interaction.

  2. Photostimulated electron transfer and its action on paramagnetism of Sp3Cr(C2O4)3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgunov, R. B.; Mushenok, F. B.; Aldoshin, S. M.; Sanina, N. A.

    2009-10-01

    The effect of irradiation by ultraviolet light on the effective magnetic moment of a paramagnetic single crystal based on photochrome spiropyran (Sp) and chromium oxalates Sp3Cr(C2O4)3 molecules is detected. It is shown that the deviation of the temperature dependence of the magnetic moment from the Curie law is caused not by the exchange interaction, but by electron redistribution between Cr3+ and Cr4+ ions and spiropyran molecules Sp0 and Sp+. Analysis of the angular dependence of EPR spectra makes it possible to determine the contribution of Cr3+ ions to the magnetic properties of the crystals and to determine the crystal field parameters D = 0.619 cm-1 and E = 0.024 cm-1. Irradiation of hydrated samples by ultraviolet light leads to intensity redistribution of EPR lines attributed to Cr3+ and Sp0. Thermally stimulated paramagnetism of triplet states of spiropyran ions Sp+ and the SpI salt is observed.

  3. Investigations of Spectroscopic Factors and Sum Rules from the Single Neutron Transfer Reaction 111Cd(overrightarrow {{d}} ,p)112Cd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, D. S.; Garrett, P. E.; Ball, G. C.; Demand, G. A.; Faestermann, T.; Finlay, P.; Green, K. L.; Hertenberger, R.; Krücken, R.; Leach, K. G.; Phillips, A. A.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Triambak, S.; Wirth, H.-F.

    2014-03-01

    Cadmium isotopes have been presented for decades as excellent examples of vibrational nuclei, with low-lying levels interpreted as multi-phonon quadrupole, octupole, and mixed-symmetry states. A large amount of spectroscopic data has been obtained through various experimental studies of cadmiumisotopes. In the present work, the 111Cd(overrightarrow {{d}} ,p)112Cd reaction was used to investigate the single-particle structure of the 112Cd nucleus. A 22 MeV beam of polarized deuterons was obtained at the Maier-Leibnitz laboratory in Garching, Germany. The reaction ejectiles were momentum analyzed using a Q3D spectrograph, and 130 levels have been identified up to 4.2 MeV of excitation energy. Using DWBA analysis with optical model calculations, spin-parity assignments have been made for observed levels, and spectroscopic factors have been extracted from the experimental angular distributions of differential cross section and analyzing power. In this high energy resolution investigation, many additional levels have been observed compared with the previous (d,p) study using 8 MeV deuterons [1]. There were a total of 44 new levels observed, and the parity assignments of 34 levels were improved.

  4. Intermolecular energy-transfer processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E. K. C.

    1983-10-01

    Equipment used for the fluorescence excitation and emission spectroscopy are described. The following were studied: singlet electronic energy transfer, photophysics of single vibrational levels (H2CO), photophysics of single rotational levels (H2CO and SO2), rotation-vibration interaction by Coriolis perturbation, and matrix isolation photochemistry and spectroscopy (SO2, H2CO, H2C2O2).

  5. Heat Transfer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students explore heat transfer and energy efficiency using the context of energy efficient houses. They gain a solid understanding of the three types of heat transfer: radiation, convection and conduction, which are explained in detail and related to the real world. They learn about the many ways solar energy is used as a renewable energy source to reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses and operating costs. Students also explore ways in which a device can capitalize on the methods of heat transfer to produce a beneficial result. They are given the tools to calculate the heat transferred between a system and its surroundings.

  6. Somatic cell nuclear transfer in horses.

    PubMed

    Galli, Cesare; Lagutina, Irina; Duchi, Roberto; Colleoni, Silvia; Lazzari, Giovanna

    2008-07-01

    The cloning of equids was achieved in 2003, several years after the birth of Dolly the sheep and also after the cloning of numerous other laboratory and farm animal species. The delay was because of the limited development in the horse of more classical-assisted reproductive techniques required for successful cloning, such as oocyte maturation and in vitro embryo production. When these technologies were developed, the application of cloning also became possible and cloned horse offspring were obtained. This review summarizes the main technical procedures that are required for cloning equids and the present status of this technique. The first step is competent oocyte maturation, this is followed by oocyte enucleation and reconstruction, using either zona-enclosed or zona-free oocytes, by efficient activation to allow high cleavage rates and finally by a suitable in vitro embryo culture technique. Cloning of the first equid, a mule, was achieved using an in vivo-matured oocytes and immediate transfer of the reconstructed embryo, i.e. at the one cell stage, to the recipient oviduct. In contrast, the first horse offspring was obtained using a complete in vitro procedure from oocyte maturation to embryo culture to the blastocyst stage, followed by non-surgical transfer. Later studies on equine cloning report high efficiency relative to that for other species. Cloned equid offspring reported to date appear to be normal and those that have reached puberty have been confirmed to be fertile. In summary, horse cloning is now a reproducible technique that offers the opportunity to preserve valuable genetics and notably to generate copies of castrated champions and therefore, offspring from those champions that would be impossible to obtain otherwise. PMID:18638143

  7. Transcriptome-wide Variability in Single Embryonic Development Cells

    PubMed Central

    Piras, Vincent; Tomita, Masaru; Selvarajoo, Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Molecular heterogeneity of individual molecules within single cells has been recently shown to be crucial for cell fate diversifications. However, on a global scale, the effect of molecular variability for embryonic developmental stages is largely underexplored. Here, to understand the origins of transcriptome-wide variability of oocytes to blastocysts in human and mouse, we examined RNA-Seq datasets. Evaluating Pearson correlation, Shannon entropy and noise patterns (?2 vs. ?), our investigations reveal a phase transition from low to saturating levels of diversity and variability of transcriptome-wide expressions through the development stages. To probe the observed behaviour further, we utilised a stochastic transcriptional model to simulate the global gene expressions pattern for each development stage. From the model, we concur that transcriptome-wide regulation initially begins from 2-cell stage, and becomes strikingly variable from 8-cell stage due to amplification and quantal transcriptional activity. PMID:25409746

  8. Transcriptome-wide variability in single embryonic development cells.

    PubMed

    Piras, Vincent; Tomita, Masaru; Selvarajoo, Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Molecular heterogeneity of individual molecules within single cells has been recently shown to be crucial for cell fate diversifications. However, on a global scale, the effect of molecular variability for embryonic developmental stages is largely underexplored. Here, to understand the origins of transcriptome-wide variability of oocytes to blastocysts in human and mouse, we examined RNA-Seq datasets. Evaluating Pearson correlation, Shannon entropy and noise patterns (?(2) vs. ?), our investigations reveal a phase transition from low to saturating levels of diversity and variability of transcriptome-wide expressions through the development stages. To probe the observed behaviour further, we utilised a stochastic transcriptional model to simulate the global gene expressions pattern for each development stage. From the model, we concur that transcriptome-wide regulation initially begins from 2-cell stage, and becomes strikingly variable from 8-cell stage due to amplification and quantal transcriptional activity. PMID:25409746

  9. CROSS SITE TRANSFER SYSTEM DISPOSITION STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    LEE, T.A.

    2004-07-14

    This document describes the cross-site transfer system and evaluates alternative regulatory process for closing the cross-site transfer system. The cross-site transfer system is a component of the single shell tank (SST) system. This document is intended to promote integration and coordination of removal and closure actions for the cross-site transfer system with U Plant closure activities and other facilities on the Central Plateau.

  10. Expression Profile of Genes as Indicators of Developmental Competence and Quality of In Vitro Fertilization and Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Bovine Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Monteleone, Melisa Carolina; Mucci, Nicolas; Kaiser, German Gustavo; Brocco, Marcela; Mutto, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive biotechnologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) enable improved reproductive efficiency of animals. However, the birth rate of in vitro-derived embryos still lags behind that of their in vivo counterparts. Thus, it is critical to develop an accurate evaluation and prediction system of embryo competence, both for commercial purposes and for scientific research. Previous works have demonstrated that in vitro culture systems induce alterations in the relative abundance (RA) of diverse transcripts and thus compromise embryo quality. The aim of this work was to analyze the RA of a set of genes involved in cellular stress (heat shock protein 70-kDa, HSP70), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein, Bip; proteasome subunit ?5, PSMB5) and apoptosis (BCL-2 associated X protein, Bax; cysteine aspartate protease-3, Caspase-3) in bovine blastocysts produced by IVF or SCNT and compare it with that of their in vivo counterparts. Poly (A) + mRNA was isolated from three pools of 10 blastocysts per treatment and analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The RA of three of the stress indicators analyzed (Bax, PSMB5 and Bip) was significantly increased in SCNT embryos as compared with that of in vivo-derived blastocysts. No significant differences were found in the RA of HSP70 and Caspase-3 gene transcripts. This study could potentially complement morphological analyses in the development of an effective and accurate technique for the diagnosis of embryo quality, ultimately aiding to improve the efficiency of assisted reproductive techniques (ART). PMID:25269019

  11. Evaluation of the Hydraulic Performance and Mass Transfer Efficiency of the CSSX Process with the Optimized Solvent in a Single Stage of 5.5-Cm Diameter Centrifugal Contactor

    SciTech Connect

    Law, J.D.; Tillotson, R.D.; Todd, T.A.

    2002-09-19

    The Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process has been selected for the separation of cesium from Savannah River Site high-level waste. The solvent composition used in the CSSX process was recently optimized so that the solvent is no longer supersaturated with respect to the calixarene crown ether extractant. Hydraulic performance and mass transfer efficiency testing of a single stage of 5.5-cm ORNL-designed centrifugal contactor has been performed for the CSSX process with the optimized solvent. Maximum throughputs of the 5.5-cm centrifugal contactor, as a function of contactor rotor speed, have been measured for the extraction, scrub, strip, and wash sections of the CSSX flowsheet at the baseline organic/aqueous flow ratios (O/A) of the process, as well as at O/A's 20% higher and 20% lower than the baseline. Maximum throughputs are comparable to the design throughput of the contactor, as well as with throughputs obtained previously in a 5-cm centrifugal contactor with the non-optimized CSSX solvent formulation. The 20% variation in O/A had minimal effect on contactor throughput. Additionally, mass transfer efficiencies have been determined for the extraction and strip sections of the flowsheet. Efficiencies were lower than the process goal of greater than or equal to 80%, ranging from 72 to 75% for the extraction section and from 36 to 60% in the strip section. Increasing the mixing intensity and/or the solution level in the mixing zone of the centrifugal contactor (residence time) could potentially increase efficiencies. Several methods are available to accomplish this including (1) increasing the size of the opening in the bottom of the rotor, resulting in a contactor which is partially pumping instead of fully pumping, (2) decreasing the number of vanes in the contactor, (3) increasing the vane height, or (4) adding vanes on the rotor and baffles on the housing of the contactor. The low efficiency results obtained stress the importance of proper design of a centrifugal contactor for use in the CSSX process. A prototype of any centrifugal contactors designed for future pilot-scale or full-scale processing should be thoroughly tested prior to implementation.

  12. Evaluation of the Hydraulic Capacity and Mass Transfer Efficiency of the CSSX Process with the Optimized Solvent in a Single Stage of 5.5-cm-Diameter Centrifugal Contactor

    SciTech Connect

    Law, Jack Douglas; Tillotson, Richard Dean; Todd, Terry Allen

    2002-09-01

    The Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process has been selected for the separation of cesium from Savannah River Site high-level waste. The solvent composition used in the CSSX process was recently optimized so that the solvent is no longer supersaturated with respect to the calixarene crown ether extractant. Hydraulic performance and mass transfer efficiency testing of a single stage of 5.5-cm ORNL-designed centrifugal contactor has been performed for the CSSX process with the optimized solvent. Maximum throughputs of the 5.5-cm centrifugal contactor, as a function of contactor rotor speed, have been measured for the extraction, scrub, strip, and wash sections of the CSSX flowsheet at the baseline organic/aqueous flow ratios (O/A) of the process, as well as at O/A’s 20% higher and 20% lower than the baseline. Maximum throughputs are comparable to the design throughput of the contactor, as well as with throughputs obtained previously in a 5-cm centrifugal contactor with the non-optimized CSSX solvent formulation. The 20% variation in O/A had minimal effect on contactor throughput. Additionally, mass transfer efficiencies have been determined for the extraction and strip sections of the flowsheet. Efficiencies were lower than the process goal of greater than or equal to 80%, ranging from 72 to 75% for the extraction section and from 36 to 60% in the strip section. Increasing the mixing intensity and/or the solution level in the mixing zone of the centrifugal contactor (residence time) could potentially increase efficiencies. Several methods are available to accomplish this including (1) increasing the size of the opening in the bottom of the rotor, resulting in a contactor which is partially pumping instead of fully pumping, (2) decreasing the number of vanes in the contactor, (3) increasing the vane height, or (4) adding vanes on the rotor and baffles on the housing of the contactor. The low efficiency results obtained stress the importance of proper design of a centrifugal contactor for use in the CSSX process. A prototype of any centrifugal contactors designed for future pilot-scale or full-scale processing should be thoroughly tested prior to implementation.

  13. Tubing for augmented heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Yampolsky, J.S.; Pavlics, P.

    1983-08-01

    The objectives of the program reported were: to determine the heat transfer and friction characteristics on the outside of spiral fluted tubing in single phase flow of water, and to assess the relative cost of a heat exchanger constructed with spiral fluted tubing with one using conventional smooth tubing. An application is examined where an isolation water/water heat exchanger was used to transfer the heat from a gaseous diffusion plant to an external system for energy recovery. (LEW)

  14. Experimental evaluation of heat transfer characteristics of silica nanofluid

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Zihao, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    The laminar convective heat transfer characteristics were investigated for silica nanofluid. An experimental loop was built to obtain heat transfer coefficients for single-phase nanofluids in a circular conduit in laminar ...

  15. Embryo development and embryo transfer in the European mink (Mustela lutreola), an endangered mustelid species.

    PubMed

    Amstislavsky, S; Kizilova, E; Ternovskaya, Y; Zudova, G; Lindeberg, H; Aalto, J; Valtonen, M

    2006-01-01

    The European mink is an endangered Mustelidae species and thus requires effective conservation measures, although little is known about reproduction in this species. In particular, preimplantation development has not been studied and, therefore, embryonic development and the growth of embryos was documented in the present study for European mink using light and fluorescent microscopy. Embryos develop in the oviducts and then migrate into the uterus on Day 6 post coitum (p.c.) at the morula stage. Embryos expanded as blastocysts from Day 7 until implantation on Day 12 p.c. Based on these findings, the use of embryo transfer for a conservation programme for the European mink was evaluated. Embryos were flushed from European mink resource females and transferred into the uterine horns of recipient hybrid females (honoriks and nohoriks). These hybrids were obtained by mating European polecat males with European mink females and vice versa. A total of 40 embryos was transferred and 20 live kits were born. The rates of pre- and postnatal survival were 50% and 70%, respectively. Both male and female offspring were lighter at birth in the embryo transfer group compared with naturally born controls, but there was no difference at 3 months of age. PMID:16737639

  16. Nuclear transfer of synchronized African wild cat somatic cells into enucleated domestic cat oocytes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomez, M.C.; Jenkins, J.A.; Giraldo, A.; Harris, R.F.; King, A.; Dresser, B.L.; Pope, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    The African wild cat is one of the smallest wild cats and its future is threatened by hybridization with domestic cats. Nuclear transfer, a valuable tool for retaining genetic variability, offers the possibility of species continuation rather than extinction. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of somatic cell nuclei of the African wild cat (AWC) to dedifferentiate within domestic cat (DSH) cytoplasts and to support early development after nuclear transplantation. In experiment 1, distributions of AWC and DSH fibroblasts in each cell-cycle phase were assessed by flow cytometry using cells cultured to confluency and disaggregated with pronase, trypsin, or mechanical separation. Trypsin (89.0%) and pronase (93.0%) yielded higher proportions of AWC nuclei in the G0/G1 phase than mechanical separation (82.0%). In contrast, mechanical separation yielded higher percentages of DSH nuclei in the G0/G1 phase (86.6%) than pronase (79.7%) or trypsin (74.2%) treatments. In both species, pronase induced less DNA damage than trypsin. In experiment 2, the effects of serum starvation, culture to confluency, and exposure to roscovitine on the distribution of AWC and DSH fibroblasts in various phases of the cell cycle were determined. Flow cytometry analyses revealed that the dynamics of the cell cycle varied as culture conditions were modified. Specifically, a higher percentage of AWC and DSH nuclei were in the G0/G1 phase after cells were serum starved (83% vs. 96%) than were present in cycling cells (50% vs. 64%), after contact inhibition (61% vs. 88%), or after roscovitine (56% vs. 84%) treatment, respectively. In experiment 3, we evaluated the effects of cell synchronization and oocyte maturation (in vivo vs. in vitro) on the reconstruction and development of AWC-DSH- and DSH-DSH-cloned embryos. The method of cell synchronization did not affect the fusion and cleavage rate because only a slightly higher percentage of fused couplets cleaved when donor nuclei were synchronized by serum starvation (83.0%) than after roscovitine (80.0%) or contact-inhibition (80.0%). The fusion efficiency of in vivo and in vitro matured oocytes used as recipient cytoplasts of AWC donor nuclei (86.6% vs. 85.2%) was similar to the rates obtained with DSH donor nuclei, 83.7% vs. 73.0%, respectively. The only significant effect of source of donor nucleus (AWC vs. DSH) was on the rate of blastocyst formation in vitro. A higher percentage of the embryos derived from AWC nuclei developed to the blastocyst stage than did embryos produced from DSH nuclei, 24.2% vs. 3.3%, respectively (P < 0.05). In experiment 4, the effect of calcium in the fusion medium on induction of oocyte activation and development of AWC-DSH-cloned embryos was determined. The presence of calcium in the fusion medium induced a high incidence of cleavage of DSH oocytes (54.3%), while oocyte cleavage frequency was much lower in the absence of calcium (16.6%). The presence or absence of calcium in the fusion medium did not affect the fusion, cleavage, and blastocyst development of AWC-DSH-cloned embryos. In experiment 5, AWC-DSH-cloned embryos were transferred to the uteri of 11 synchronized domestic cat recipients on Day 6 or 7 after oocyte aspiration. Recipients were assessed by ultrasonography on Day 21 postovulation, but no pregnancies were observed. In the present study, after NT, AWC donor nuclei were able to dedifferentiate in DSH cytoplasts and support high rates of blastocyst development in vitro. Incomplete reprogramming of the differentiated nucleus may be a major constraint to the in vivo developmental potential of the embryos.

  17. Animal Transfer Agreement -1 ANIMAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Animal Transfer Agreement - 1 ANIMAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT This Animal Transfer Agreement has been adopted for use by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for use in transferring animals for research transferring the animal) Recipient: (name of laboratory/institution receiving the animal) The Provider agrees

  18. Dynamic transfer 1 DYNAMIC TRANSFER

    E-print Network

    Zollman, Dean

    : Dynamic transfer N. Sanjay Rebello Physics Department, 116 Cardwell Hall, Kansas State University Physics Department, 116 Cardwell Hall, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506. Phone: (785) 532 1619@rit.edu Paula V. Engelhardt Physics Department, 116 Cardwell Hall, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506

  19. Photon trapping and transfer with solitons

    E-print Network

    Steiglitz, Ken

    We show, numerically, that a single photon trapped by a soliton in a Kerr nonlinear medium can be transferred from one soliton to another when the captor soliton undergoes collision with a second soliton. Soliton collisions ...

  20. Heat transfer from interrupted plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenka, R. L.; Loehrke, R. I.

    1983-02-01

    Heat transfer coefficients were measured in single and multiple flat plates equipped with interior heating elements and immersed in low Re flows in a wind tunnel. The plates were located successively in the tunnel and spanned the width of the channel. Attention was initially given to blunt leading edges, which were gradually reshaped in order to study various flow separation conditions over the course of the trials. Each plate was heated to 6 C over room temperature. The average value of a heat transfer coefficient for a single plate was determined to depend on the plate length and thickness, and may be inhibited by the leading edge separation bubble in the case of a blunt leading edge. Higher Re enhances the value of the coefficient. Turbulence induced by the presence of the first plate was observed to enhance heat transfer from the second plate.

  1. Heat Transfer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Leslie Van (Montgomery Blair High School)

    2006-04-01

    In this inquiry activity students explore how heat transfers from one substance to another This inquiry activity was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÂ?s 2006 Frontiers in Physiology Program. The NSES Standards addressed by this activity are current as of the year of development. For more information on the Frontiers in Physiology Program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

  2. Load transfer mechanism in carbon nanotube ropes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Qian; Rodney S. Ruoff

    2003-01-01

    We used molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics to study the nature of load transfer in a single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) bundle consisting of seven (10,10) SWCNTs: one core tube surrounded by six tubes on the perimeter. The surface tension and the inter-tube corrugation are identified as the two factors that contribute to load transfer. The surface tension effectively acts

  3. How We Make Mass Transfer Seem Difficult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cussler, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    Indicates that teaching of mass transfer can be improved by: (1) using a single, simple definition of mass transfer coefficients; (2) altering use of analogies; and (3) repeatedly stressing differences between mathematical models used for chemical reactions and the actual chemistry of these reactions. Examples for undergraduate/graduate courses…

  4. 3-D Heterogeneous Electronics by Transfer Printing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Bower; E. Menard; J. Carr; J. A. Rogers

    2007-01-01

    Here we describe an approach, called transfer printing, to allow the combination of broad classes of materials into three-dimensional (3-D) heterogeneously integrated electronic devices. The process involves fabrication of source wafers that contain high performance single crystal devices from materials including, but not limited to, silicon, gallium arsenide and gallium nitride. These devices are then delineated and transferred to a

  5. Surgical transfer of in vivo produced farmed European polecat (Mustela putorius) embryos.

    PubMed

    Lindeberg, Heli; Amstislavsky, Sergei; Järvinen, Mikko; Aalto, Jussi; Valtonen, Maija

    2002-06-01

    Surgical embryo transfer of farmed European polecat (Mustela putorius) was investigated as part of an ex situ preservation project. The long-term objective of the project is to develop effective technology for ex situ conservation of the European mink (Mustela lutreola), which is a highly endangered aboriginal European species. Twenty European polecat females, which served as a model species for the European mink, were humanely killed 4-9 days after first mating and embryos were recovered from oviducts and uteri. Donor-recipient pairs (n = 16) were generated by mating the donors (n = 20) once a day for 2 consecutive days with fertile males and by mating the corresponding recipients (n = 16) on the same days with vasectomized males. An embryo recovery rate of 70% (200 recovered embryos/284 corpora lutea) was achieved from 20 donors. Morulae and blastocysts were recovered between Days 5 and 9 after first mating and were regarded as the best developmental stages for uterine embryo transfer. A total of 172 embryos were transferred surgically under general anaesthesia into the ovarian third of the left uterine horn of 16 recipients with a thin glass capillary. Eleven recipients (69%) produced 72 pups equivalent to an average success rate of 42% (72 pups/172 transferred embryos). The average litter size was 4.5 (range 0-9). These results with this model species, farmed European polecat, demonstrate the potential of embryo transfer as an effective method for the preservation of the endangered European mink (M. lutreola). These species are closely related and have a similar reproductive physiology. However, success of applying embryo transfer in conserving European mink is still dependent on further studies both into its reproductive physiology and developing of improved flushing techniques for anaesthetized donors and the successful transfer of frozen-thawed embryos. PMID:12141567

  6. [Noninduced single-stranded breaks in DNA in murine F9 teratocarcinoma cells].

    PubMed

    Kisliakova, T V; Kustova, M E; Lianguzova, M S; Malashcheva, A B; Strunnikova, M A; Suchkova, I O; Pospelov, V A; Patkin, E L

    2000-01-01

    Our previous study demonstrated the high incidence of non-induced DNA single strand breaks (SSB) in preimplantation mouse embryo genom (Patkin et al., 1994). F9 mouse teratocarcinoma cell line is an in vitro model for early embryonal differentiation, since F9 cells remind in many respects the inner cell mass cells of mouse blastocyst and are capable of differentiation under retinoic acid (RA) and dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP) treatment. Using gap filling reaction of F9 metaphase chromosomes and single-cell DNA electrophoresis, we have observed multiple SSB in undifferentiated F9 cells as well as in F9 cells at the early steps of RA-induced differentiation (days of RA treatment), but not in terminally differentiated F9 cells and in mouse embryonal fibroblasts. Rad51 nuclear protein that binds specifically single stranded DNA is highly expressed in all cells of undifferentiated F9 population and is not expressed in terminally differentiated F9 population. Multiple SSB could lead to enhanced rate of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in F9 cells. In undifferentiated F9 population the level of SCE was 9.6 +/- 0.44 per metaphase, that was not higher than in NIH 3T3 cell line. However, RA treatment for 48 h led to rising the SCE level up to 16.68 +/- 0.72 followed by its decrease to the initial rate by 72 h of RA treatment. Since the enhanced level of SSB in undifferentiated F9 cells and in mouse blastocyst does not normally lead to chromosomal instability, we consider SSB to be a natural consequence of fast-going DNA replication in these cells. PMID:11204650

  7. Mass transfer andMass transfer and Mass transfer andMass transfer and

    E-print Network

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    eknik Mass transfer andMass transfer and arationste Mass transfer andMass transfer and separationSepa Massöverföring och separationsteknikMassöverföring och separationsteknik ("MÖF("MÖF--ST")ST") 4 erföringo 6. Mass transfer and convection6. Mass transfer and convection Massöve Ron Zevenhoven Åbo Akademi Universityy

  8. Mass transfer andMass transfer and Mass transfer andMass transfer and

    E-print Network

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    eknik Mass transfer andMass transfer and arationste Mass transfer andMass transfer and separationSepa Massöverföring och separationsteknikMassöverföring och separationsteknik ("MÖF("MÖF--ST")ST") 4 erföringo 8. Mass transfer8. Mass transfer with chemical reactionwith chemical reaction Massöve with chemical reactionwith

  9. Electric power distribution and load transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Michael P. (Inventor); Parkinson, Gerald W. (Inventor); Grant, Ross M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A power distribution system includes a plurality of power sources and load transfer units including transistors and diodes connected in series and leading to a common power output, each of the transistors being controller switchable subject to voltage levels of the respective input and output sides of said transistors, and the voltage and current level of said common power output. The system is part of an interconnection scheme in which all but one of the power sources is connected to a single load transfer unit, enabling the survival of at least a single power source with the failure of one of the load transfer units.

  10. Electric power distribution and load transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Michael P. (Inventor); Parkinson, Gerald W. (Inventor); Grant, Ross M. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A power distribution system includes a plurality of power sources and load transfer units including transistors and diodes connected in series and leading to a common power output, each of the transistors being controller switchable subject to voltage levels of the respective input and output sides of said transistors, and the voltage and current level of said common power output. The system is part of an interconnection scheme in which all but one of the power sources is connected to a single load transfer unit, enabling the survival of at least a single power source with the failure of one of the load transfer units.

  11. Quantum State Transfer Between Matter and Light

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. N. Matsukevich; A. Kuzmich

    2004-01-01

    We report on the coherent quantum state transfer from a two-level atomic system to a single photon. Entanglement between a single photon (signal) and a two-component ensemble of cold rubidium atoms is used to project the quantum memory element (the atomic ensemble) onto any desired state by measuring the signal in a suitable basis. The atomic qubit is read out

  12. Proceeding of the 1st International Forum on Heat Transfer

    E-print Network

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Proceeding of the 1st International Forum on Heat Transfer November 24-26, 2004, Kyoto, Japan Paper No. HEAT TRANSFER PROBLEMS RELATED WITH CARBON NANOTUBES BY MOLECULAR DYNAMICS-BASED SIMULATIONS Dynamics Simulation, Thermal Conductance ABSTRACT Several heat transfer problems related to single

  13. DE PAUL UNIVERSITY MATH AND SCIENCE DEGREES FOR TRANSFER STUDENTS

    E-print Network

    Schaefer, Marcus

    DE PAUL UNIVERSITY MATH AND SCIENCE DEGREES FOR TRANSFER STUDENTS College of Liberal Arts and more. But one single factor can give you the edge: the school's commitment to transfer students. That's where our expertise comes in. DePaul welcomes transfer students; they make up almost half

  14. Cross-Domain Knowledge Transfer Using Structured Representations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samarth Swarup; Sylvian R. Ray

    2006-01-01

    Previous work in knowledge transfer in machine learn- ing has been restricted to tasks in a single domain. How- ever, evidence from psychology and neuroscience sug- gests that humans are capable of transferring knowl- edge across domains. We present here a novel learn- ing method, based on neuroevolution, for transferring knowledge across domains. We use many-layered, sparsely-connected neural networks in

  15. Nanochannel Based Single Molecule Recycling

    PubMed Central

    Lesoine, John F.; Venkataraman, Prahnesh A.; Maloney, Peter C.; Dumont, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We present a method for measuring the fluorescence from a single molecule hundreds of times without surface immobilization. The approach is based on the use of electroosmosis to repeatedly drive a single target molecule in a fused silica nanochannel through a stationary laser focus. Single molecule fluorescence detected during the transit time through the laser focus is used to repeatedly reverse the electrical potential controlling the flow direction. Our method does not rely on continuous observation and therefore is less susceptible to fluorescence blinking than existing fluorescence-based trapping schemes. The variation in the turnaround times can be used to measure the diffusion coefficient on a single molecule level. We demonstrate the ability to recycle both proteins and DNA in nanochannels and show that the procedure can be combined with single-pair Förster energy transfer. Nanochannel-based single molecule recycling holds promise for studying conformational dynamics on the same single molecule in solution and without surface tethering. PMID:22662745

  16. Quantum state transfer between remote nanomechanical qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Fang-Yu; Chen, Lei; Fu, Jing-Li; Zhu, Zhi-Yan

    2015-05-01

    We present a scheme for quantum interfaces between nanomechanical and flying photon qubits. The quantum interface can accomplish many network operations such as generating or absorbing a single photon, distributing entanglement and transfer quantum states between nanomechanical and photon qubits. Based on this interface we can transfer quantum states and generate entanglement between two remote nanomechanical qubits. Numerical simulations show that near unity operation fidelities may be obtainable under realistic experimental circumstances.

  17. Heat Transfer Measurements for a Horizontal Micro-Tube Using Liquid Crystal Thermography

    E-print Network

    Ghajar, Afshin J.

    62 TC02-007 Heat Transfer Measurements for a Horizontal Micro-Tube Using Liquid Crystal-tube and 1000m micro-tube. In the single-phase heat transfer experiments, the fully-developed flow heat transfer were also measured using thermocouples (TC). The results showed that the heat transfer coefficient

  18. Single molecule laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atta, Diaa; Okasha, Ali

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we discussed some single molecule spectroscopy techniques and methods. We have chosen the simplicity in this survey based on our laboratory experience in this field. We concentrated on the imaging by both techniques the wide field and the scanning microscopes. Other imaging enhancements on the technique like extended resolution wide field, the total internal reflection imaging, and its derivatives are also reviewed. In addition to the imaging techniques, some diffusion techniques also are discussed like fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The related methods like Forester resonance transfer, photo-induced electron transfer and anisotropy (steady state and time decay) are also discussed. In addition, we elucidated some simple details about the theory behind the FCS and its resulting curve fitting. This review is preceded by general introduction and ended with the conclusion.

  19. A study on fatigue crack growth behavior subjected to a single tensile overload: Part II. Transfer of stress concentration and its role in overload-induced transient crack growth

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. Y. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Choo, Hahn [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Liaw, Peter K [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); An, Ke [ORNL; Hubbard, Camden R [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The combined effects of overload-induced enlarged compressive residual stresses and crack tip blunting with secondary cracks are suggested to be responsible for the observed changes in the crack opening load and resultant post-overload transient crack growth behavior [Lee SY, Liaw PK, Choo H, Rogge RB, Acta Mater 2010;59:485-94]. In this article, in situ neutron diffraction experiments were performed to quantify the influence of the combined effects by investigating the internal-stress evolution at various locations away from the crack tip. In the overload-retardation period, stress concentration occurs in the crack blunting region (an overload point) until a maximum crack arrest load is reached. The stress concentration is then transferred from the blunting region to the propagating crack tip (following the overload), requiring a higher applied load, as the closed crack is gradually opened. The transfer phenomena of the stress concentration associated with a crack opening process account for the nonlinearity of strain response in the vicinity of the crack tip. The delaying action of stress concentration at the crack tip is understood in conjunction with the concept of a critical stress (i.e. the stress required to open the closed crack behind the crack tip). A linear relationship between {Delta}{var_epsilon}{sub eff} and {Delta}K{sub eff} provides experimental support for the hypothesis that {Delta}K{sub eff} can be considered as the fatigue crack tip driving force.

  20. Applying Transfer in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminski, Karen; Foley, Jeffrey M.; Kaiser, Leann M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the chapters in this issue, the authors have cited various definitions for learning transfer. For educators, in its simplest form, transfer of learning occurs when students put to practical use the knowledge and skills they gained in the classroom (near transfer). Chapter 1 defines near transfer and then goes into detail on the levels…

  1. Plant-derived transfer DNAs.

    PubMed

    Rommens, Caius M; Bougri, Oleg; Yan, Hua; Humara, Jaime M; Owen, Joanna; Swords, Kathy; Ye, Jingsong

    2005-11-01

    The transfer of DNA from Agrobacterium to plant cell nuclei is initiated by a cleavage reaction within the 25-bp right border of Ti plasmids. In an effort to develop all-native DNA transformation vectors, 50 putative right border alternatives were identified in both plant expressed sequence tags and genomic DNA. Efficacy tests in a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) model system demonstrated that 14 of these elements displayed at least 50% of the activity of conventional Agrobacterium transfer DNA borders. Four of the most effective plant-derived right border alternatives were found to be associated with intron-exon junctions. Additional elements were embedded within introns, exons, untranslated trailers, and intergenic DNA. Based on the identification of a single right border alternative in Arabidopsis and three in rice (Oryza sativa), the occurrence of this motif was estimated at a frequency of at least 0.8x10(-8). Modification of plasmid DNA sequences flanking the alternative borders demonstrated that both upstream and downstream sequences play an important role in initiating DNA transfer. Optimal DNA transfer required the elements to be preceded by pyrimidine residues interspaced by AC-rich trinucleotides. Alteration of this organization lowered transformation frequencies by 46% to 93%. Despite their weaker resemblance with left borders, right border alternatives also functioned effectively in terminating DNA transfer, if both associated with an upstream A[C/T]T[C/G]A[A/T]T[G/T][C/T][G/T][C/G]A[C/T][C/T][A/T] domain and tightly linked cytosine clusters at their junctions with downstream DNA. New insights in border region requirements were used to construct an all-native alfalfa (Medicago sativa) transfer DNA vector that can be used for the production of intragenic plants. PMID:16244143

  2. Single Molecules

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A new molecular science journal, Single Molecules, from Wiley Interscience, "will provide researchers with a broad overview of current methods and techniques, recent applications and shortcomings of present techniques in the field of single molecules." With temporary free access, the journal's latest issue contains a few full-text articles, with more articles being regularly added. This journal is currently calling for papers.

  3. Heat-transfer augmentation in rod bundles near grid spacers

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, S.C.; Hochreiter, L.E.; Leech, W.J.

    1982-02-01

    Heat-transfer augmentation by straight grid spacers in rod bundles is studied for single-phase flow and for post-critical heat flux dispersed flow. The heat transfer effect of swirling grid spacers in single-phase flow is also examined. Governing heat-transfer mechanisms are analyzed, and predictive formulations are established. For single-phase flow, the local heat transfer at a straight spacer and at its upstream or downstream locations are treated separately. The effect of local velocity increasing near swirling spacer is considered. For post critical heat flux (CHF) dispersed flow, the heat transfer by thermal radiation, fin cooling, and vapor convection near the spacer are calculated. The predictions are compared with experimental data with satisfactory agreement.

  4. Polarization Transfer in Proton Compton Scattering at High Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, D.J.; Annand, J.R.M. [University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Mamyan, V.H. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States); Aniol, K.A.; Margaziotis, D.J. [California State University Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90032 (United States); Bertin, P.Y.; Camsonne, A.; Laveissiere, G. [Universite Blaise Pascal/IN2P3, F-63177 Aubiere (France); Bimbot, L. [IPN, Orsay B.P. no. 1 F-91406, Orsay (France); Bosted, P.; Paschke, K. [University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); Calarco, J.R. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824 (United States); Chang, G.C.; Horn, T.; Savvinov, N. [University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Chang, T.-H.; Danagoulian, A.; Nathan, A.M.; Roedelbronn, M. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States); Chen, J.-P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)] [and others

    2005-06-24

    Compton scattering from the proton was investigated at s=6.9 GeV{sup 2} and t=-4.0 GeV{sup 2} via polarization transfer from circularly polarized incident photons. The longitudinal and transverse components of the recoil proton polarization were measured. The results are in disagreement with a prediction of perturbative QCD based on a two-gluon exchange mechanism, but agree well with a prediction based on a reaction mechanism in which the photon interacts with a single quark carrying the spin of the proton.

  5. Single Marriage

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2010-11-03

    Broadcast Transcript: Taiwan, like many modern countries, finds itself with a heckuva lot more single older women than ever before. Women on career tracks are less likely to get married, not wanting to interrupt their job trajectories and, also...

  6. Single-nucleon experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandre Deur

    2009-12-01

    We discuss the Jefferson Lab low momentum transfer data on moments of the nucleon spin structure functions $g_1$ and $g_2$ and on single charged pion electroproduction off polarized proton and polarized neutron. A wealth of data is now available, while more is being analyzed or expected to be taken in the upcoming years. Given the low momentum transfer selected by the experiments, these data can be compared to calculations from Chiral Perturbation theory, the effective theory of strong force that should describe it at low momentum transfer. The data on various moments and the respective calculations do not consistently agree. In particular, experimental data for higher moments disagree with the calculations.The absence of contribution from the $\\Delta$ resonance in the various observables was expected to facilitate the calculations and hence make the theory predictions either more robust or valid over a larger $Q^2$ range. Such expectation is verified only for the Bjorken sum, but not for other observables in which the $\\Delta$ is suppressed. Preliminary results on pion electroproduction off polarized nucleons are also presented and compared to phenomenological models for which contributions from different resonances are varied. Chiral Perturbation calculations of these observables, while not yet available, would be valuable and, together with these data, would provide an extensive test of the effective theory.

  7. Efficiency of asynchronously in vitro-matured oocytes as recipients for nuclear transfer and of blind enucleation in zona-free bovine cloning.

    PubMed

    Malenko, Galina P; Stepanov, Oleg I; Komissarov, Andrey V; Antipova, Tatyana A; Pinyugina, Marina V; Prokofiev, Michael I

    2009-06-01

    We studied the dynamics of in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes, the efficiency of asynchronously matured oocytes as recipients for the generation of embryos produced by nuclear transfer, and the potential for using blind enucleation of zona-free bovine oocytes in bovine cloning. At 15 h after the initiation of maturation (hpm), oocytes were freed from both cumulus cells and the zona pellucida, and the dynamics of oocyte maturation were monitored every 30 min through the criterion of extrusion of the first polar body (PB1). More than 41% of bovine oocytes had extruded PB1 by 16.5 hpm, and were designated as representing a group of rapidly maturing oocytes. A second group, comprising about 25% of all oocytes, had extruded PB1 by 18.5-20.0 hpm. Examination of Hoechst 33342-stained samples demonstrated that PB1 on the surfaces of zona-free bovine oocytes were always located near the maternal chromosomes. Zona-free oocytes were enucleated by removing PB1 and about 3% of the adjacent oocyte cytoplasm without chromatin staining. Successful enucleation of zona-free bovine oocytes was achieved in 96.9% of cases. The rate of development to the blastocyst stage was significantly greater in embryos reconstructed from rapidly maturing oocytes (47.8%) than with oocytes maturing at 18.0-20.0 hpm (33.3%). Overall, two large groups of bovine oocytes could be distinguished during in vitro maturation by the time required to reach the second stage of metaphase. Bovine embryos reconstructed from rapidly maturing enucleated oocytes had a significantly greater rate of development to the blastocyst stage than did embryos derived from later-maturing oocytes. We conclude that blind enucleation is a simple and efficient method for preparing cytoplasts in zona-free bovine cloning. PMID:19508117

  8. Nonsurgical deep uterine transfer of vitrified, in vivo-derived, porcine embryos is as effective as the default surgical approach

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Emilio A.; Martinez, Cristina A; Nohalez, Alicia; Sanchez-Osorio, Jonatan; Vazquez, Juan M.; Roca, Jordi; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Gil, Maria A.; Cuello, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Surgical procedures are prevalent in porcine embryo transfer (ET) programs, where the use of vitrified embryos is quasi non-existent. This study compared the effectiveness of surgical vs nonsurgical deep uterine (NsDU) ET using vitrified, in vivo-derived embryos (morulae and blastocysts) on the reproductive performance and welfare of the recipients. The recipient sows (n?=?122) were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: surgical ET with 30 vitrified-warmed embryos (S-30 group, control); NsDU-ET with 30 vitrified-warmed embryos (NsDU-30 group) and NsDU-ET with 40 vitrified-warmed embryos (NsDU-40 group). Regardless of embryo stage, the NsDU-ET with 40 embryos presented similar rates of farrowing (72.7%) and litter size (9.9?±?2.1 piglets) as the customary surgical procedure (75.0% and 9.6?±?2.7 piglets). Numbers of ET-embryos appeared relevant, since the NsDU-ET with 30 embryos resulted in a decrease (P?transferred vitrified embryos, with fertility equalizing that obtained with the invasive surgical approach. The results open new possibilities for the widespread use of non-invasive ET in pigs. PMID:26030839

  9. Graphene\\/substrate charge transfer characterized by inverse photoelectron spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lingmei Kong; Cameron Bjelkevig; Sneha Gaddam; Mi Zhou; Younghee Lee; Ganghee Han; Haekyung Jeong; Ning Wu; Zhengzheng Zhang; Jie Xiao; Peter Dowben; Jeffry Kelber

    2011-01-01

    Wave vector-resolved inverse photoelectron spectroscopy (IPES) measurements demonstrate that there is a large variation of interfacial charge transfer between graphene and various substrates. IPES measurements of CVD single layer graphene on BN(0001)\\/Ru(0001), Ru, Ni(poly), and Cu(poly) indicate a substrate-to-graphene charge transfer of approximately 0.07, 0.06, 0.03 e- per carbon atom respectively and a charge transfer of 0.02 e- from graphene

  10. Heat Transfer Guest Editorial

    E-print Network

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Journal of Heat Transfer Guest Editorial We are indeed delighted in bringing out this special issue was showcased in diverse areas such as traditional heat and mass transfer, lab-on-chip, sensors, biomedical applica- tions, micromixers, fuel cells, and microdevices. Selected papers in the field of heat transfer

  11. A new model for nucleate boiling heat transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Stephan; J. Hammer

    1994-01-01

    A new model to calculate heat transfer coefficients in nucleate boiling is presented. Heat transfer and fluid flow around a single bubble are investigated taking into account the influence of meniscus curvature, adhesion forces and interfacial thermal resistance on the thermodynamic equilibrium at the gas-liquid interface. The model requires only bubble site densities and departure diameters. Further quantities except the

  12. Coherence transfer between spy nuclei and nitrogen-14 in solids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simone Cavadini; Anuji Abraham; Geoffrey Bodenhausen

    2008-01-01

    Coherence transfer from ‘spy nuclei’ such as 1H or 13C (S=1\\/2) was used to excite single- or double-quantum coherences of 14N nuclei (I=1) while the S spins were aligned along the static field, in the manner of heteronuclear single-quantum correlation (HSQC) spectroscopy. For samples spinning at the magic angle, coherence transfer can be achieved through a combination of scalar couplings

  13. Rat liver proteins capable of transferring phosphatidylethanolamine. Purification and transfer activity for other phospholipids and cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Bloj, B; Zilversmit, D B

    1977-03-10

    Two proteins, one in a highly purified form, have been isolated from the soluble fraction of rat liver homogenate. These proteins accelerate the transfer of labeled phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, sphingomyelin, and cholesterol from liposomes to mitochondria or erythrocyte ghosts. The fraction obtained after ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration on Sephadex G-75, ion-exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose, ampholyte displacement chromatography, and heat treatment exhibited an 876-fold increase in its phosphatidylethanolamine transfer activity as compared with the postmitochondrial supernatant adjusted to pH 5.1. Isoelectric focusing on polyacrylamide gels shows a single band between pH 8.6 and 9.0. The transfer activity is abolished by trypsin, but withstands 5-min heating at 90 degrees. After heat treatment, a single major band is seen on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by two minor ones. The molecular weight of the major band is 12,500, as determined by electrophoresis on 15% polyacrylamide gels in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. A molecular weight of 13,500 was calculated from molecular filtration through Sephadex G-50. The relative transfer activities toward the different phospholipids remain constant throughout the last three steps of the purification procedure in spite of the extensive change in the electrophoretic profile of the protein mixture. The cholesterol transfer activity remains unchanged after the final heat treatment as well. This indicates that all of the transfer activities are present in a single protein. PMID:838732

  14. Heat transfer system

    DOEpatents

    McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA)

    1982-01-01

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  15. Heat transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1980-03-07

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor is described. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  16. Coupled electron transfers in artificial photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hammarström, Leif; Styring, Stenbjörn

    2007-01-01

    Light-induced charge separation in molecular assemblies has been widely investigated in the context of artificial photosynthesis. Important progress has been made in the fundamental understanding of electron and energy transfer and in stabilizing charge separation by multi-step electron transfer. In the Swedish Consortium for Artificial Photosynthesis, we build on principles from the natural enzyme photosystem II and Fe-hydrogenases. An important theme in this biomimetic effort is that of coupled electron-transfer reactions, which have so far received only little attention. (i) Each absorbed photon leads to charge separation on a single-electron level only, while catalytic water splitting and hydrogen production are multi-electron processes; thus there is the need for controlling accumulative electron transfer on molecular components. (ii) Water splitting and proton reduction at the potential catalysts necessarily require the management of proton release and/or uptake. Far from being just a stoichiometric requirement, this controls the electron transfer processes by proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET). (iii) Redox-active links between the photosensitizers and the catalysts are required to rectify the accumulative electron-transfer reactions, and will often be the starting points of PCET. PMID:17954432

  17. A new family of nucleophiles for photoinduced, copper-catalyzed cross-couplings via single-electron transfer: reactions of thiols with aryl halides under mild conditions (O °C).

    PubMed

    Uyeda, Christopher; Tan, Yichen; Fu, Gregory C; Peters, Jonas C

    2013-06-26

    Building on the known photophysical properties of well-defined copper-carbazolide complexes, we have recently described photoinduced, copper-catalyzed N-arylations and N-alkylations of carbazoles. Until now, there have been no examples of the use of other families of heteroatom nucleophiles in such photoinduced processes. Herein, we report a versatile photoinduced, copper-catalyzed method for coupling aryl thiols with aryl halides, wherein a single set of reaction conditions, using inexpensive CuI as a precatalyst without the need for an added ligand, is effective for a wide range of coupling partners. As far as we are aware, copper-catalyzed C-S cross-couplings at 0 °C have not previously been achieved, which renders our observation of efficient reaction of an unactivated aryl iodide at -40 °C especially striking. Mechanistic investigations are consistent with these photoinduced C-S cross-couplings following a SET/radical pathway for C-X bond cleavage (via a Cu(I)-thiolate), which contrasts with nonphotoinduced, copper-catalyzed processes wherein a concerted mechanism is believed to occur. PMID:23697882

  18. Single-component and warm-white-emitting phosphor NaGd(WO4)2:Tm3+, Dy3+, Eu3+: synthesis, luminescence, energy transfer, and tunable color.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Liu, Guixia; Wang, Jinxian; Dong, Xiangting; Yu, Wensheng

    2014-11-01

    Tm(3+), Dy(3+), and Eu(3+) codoped NaGd(WO4)2 phosphors were prepared by a facile hydrothermal process; they were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), photoluminescence spectra, and fluorescence lifetime. The results show that the novel octahedral microcrystals with a mean side length of 2 ?m are obtained. Under the excitation of ultraviolet, individual RE(3+) ion (Tm(3+), Dy(3+), and Eu(3+)) activated NaGd(WO4)2 phosphors exhibit excellent emission properties in their respective regions. Moreover, when codoping Dy(3+) and Eu(3+)/Tm(3+) in the single component, the energy migration from Dy(3+) to Eu(3+) has been demonstrated to be a resonant type via a dipole-quadrupole mechanism as well as that from Tm(3+) to Dy(3+) ions, of which the critical distance (R(Dy-Eu)) is calculated to be 11.08 Å. More significantly, in the Tm(3+), Dy(3+), and Eu(3+) tridoped NaGd(WO4)2 phosphors, the energy migration of Tm(3+)-Dy(3+)-Eu(3+), utilized for sensitizing Eu(3+) ions besides compensating the red component at low Eu(3+) doping concentration, has been discussed first. In addition, under 365 nm near-ultraviolet radiation (nUV), the color-tunable emissions in octahedral NaGd(WO4)2 microcrystals are realized by giving abundant blue, green, white, yellow, and red emissions, especially warm white emission, and could be favorable candidates in full-color phosphors for nUV-LEDs. PMID:25303406

  19. Single rotor turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Platts, David A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented a turbine engine with a single rotor which cools the engine, functions as a radial compressor, pushes air through the engine to the ignition point, and acts as an axial turbine for powering the compressor. The invention engine is designed to use a simple scheme of conventional passage shapes to provide both a radial and axial flow pattern through the single rotor, thereby allowing the radial intake air flow to cool the turbine blades and turbine exhaust gases in an axial flow to be used for energy transfer. In an alternative embodiment, an electric generator is incorporated in the engine to specifically adapt the invention for power generation. Magnets are embedded in the exhaust face of the single rotor proximate to a ring of stationary magnetic cores with windings to provide for the generation of electricity. In this alternative embodiment, the turbine is a radial inflow turbine rather than an axial turbine as used in the first embodiment. Radial inflow passages of conventional design are interleaved with radial compressor passages to allow the intake air to cool the turbine blades.

  20. Single-electron transistor of a single organic molecule with access to several redox states

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergey Kubatkin; Andrey Danilov; Mattias Hjort; Jérôme Cornil; Jean-Luc Brédas; Nicolai Stuhr-Hansen; Per Hedegård; Thomas Bjørnholm

    2003-01-01

    A combination of classical Coulomb charging, electronic level spacings, spin, and vibrational modes determines the single-electron transfer reactions through nanoscale systems connected to external electrodes by tunnelling barriers. Coulomb charging effects have been shown to dominate such transport in semiconductor quantum dots, metallic and semiconducting nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and single molecules. Recently, transport has been shown to be also influenced

  1. Hidden Markov Modelling of Single Molecule FRET Trajectories

    E-print Network

    Goldschmidt, Christina

    Hidden Markov Modelling of Single Molecule FRET Trajectories Life Sciences Interface DTC Short The development of single-molecule fluorescence energy transfer (FRET) microscopy has provided ground-by-eye. In this project, the application of Hidden Markov Modelling (HMM) for the anal- ysis of single-molecule FRET

  2. Fuel transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, H.E.; Barbanti, G.

    1994-03-01

    A nuclear fuel bundle fuel transfer system includes a transfer pool containing water at a level above a reactor core. A fuel transfer machine therein includes a carriage disposed in the transfer pool and under the water for transporting fuel bundles. The carriage is selectively movable through the water in the transfer pool and individual fuel bundles are carried vertically in the carriage. In a preferred embodiment, a first movable bridge is disposed over an upper pool containing the reactor core, and a second movable bridge is disposed over a fuel storage pool, with the transfer pool being disposed therebetween. A fuel bundle may be moved by the first bridge from the reactor core and loaded into the carriage which transports the fuel bundle to the second bridge which picks up the fuel bundle and carries it to the fuel storage pool. 6 figures.

  3. Fuel transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, Harold E. (Campbell, CA); Barbanti, Giancarlo (Cupertino, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A nuclear fuel bundle fuel transfer system includes a transfer pool containing water at a level above a reactor core. A fuel transfer machine therein includes a carriage disposed in the transfer pool and under the water for transporting fuel bundles. The carriage is selectively movable through the water in the transfer pool and individual fuel bundles are carried vertically in the carriage. In a preferred embodiment, a first movable bridge is disposed over an upper pool containing the reactor core, and a second movable bridge is disposed over a fuel storage pool, with the transfer pool being disposed therebetween. A fuel bundle may be moved by the first bridge from the reactor core and loaded into the carriage which transports the fuel bundle to the second bridge which picks up the fuel bundle and carries it to the fuel storage pool.

  4. Calculating proper transfer prices

    SciTech Connect

    Dorkey, F.C. (Meliora Research Associates, Rochester, NY (United States)); Jarrell, G.A. (Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States))

    1991-01-01

    This article deals with developing a proper transfer pricing method. Decentralization is as American as baseball. While managers laud the widespread benefits of both decentralization and baseball, they often greet the term transfer price policy with a yawn. Since transfer prices are as critical to the success of decentralized firms as good pitchers are to baseball teams, this is quite a mistake on the part of our managers. A transfer price is the price charged to one division for a product or service that another division produced or provided. In many, perhaps most, decentralized organizations, the transfer pricing policies actually used are grossly inefficient and sacrifice the potential advantages of decentralization. Experience shows that far too many companies have transfer pricing policies that cost them significantly in foregone growth and profits.

  5. Distributed high-precision time transfer through passive optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guiling; Hu, Liang; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Jianping

    2014-09-01

    We propose a one-point to multipoint distributed time transfer through passive optical networks using a time division multiple access (TDMA) based two-way time transfer. The clock at each clock user node is, in turn, compared with the high-precision reference clock at a master node by a two-way time transfer during assigned subperiods. The corresponding TDMA control protocol and time transfer units for the proposed scheme are designed and implemented. A 1×8 experimental system with a 20 km single-mode fiber in each subpath is demonstrated. The results show that a standard deviation of <60 ps can be reached in each comparison subperiod.

  6. Information transfer with small-amplitude signals

    E-print Network

    Kostal, Lubomir; 10.1103/PhysRevE.81.050901

    2010-01-01

    We study the optimality conditions of information transfer in systems with memory in the low signal-to-noise ratio regime of vanishing input amplitude. We find that the optimal mutual information is represented by a maximum-variance of the signal time course, with correlation structure determined by the Fisher information matrix. We provide illustration of the method on a simple biologically-inspired model of electro-sensory neuron. Our general results apply also to the study of information transfer in single neurons subject to weak stimulation, with implications to the problem of coding efficiency in biological systems.

  7. Information transfer for small-amplitude signals.

    PubMed

    Kostal, Lubomir; Lansky, Petr

    2010-05-01

    We study the optimality conditions of information transfer in systems with memory in the low signal-to-noise ratio regime of vanishing input amplitude. We find that the optimal mutual information is represented by a maximum variance of the signal time course, with correlation structure determined by the Fisher information matrix. We provide illustration of the method on a simple biologically inspired model of electrosensory neuron. Our general results apply also to the study of information transfer in single neurons subject to weak stimulation, with implications to the problem of coding efficiency in biological systems. PMID:20866176

  8. Sound velocity measurement using transfer function method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baosheng; Chen, Kevin; Kung, Jennifer; Liebermann, Robert C.; Weidner, Donald J.

    2002-11-01

    The transfer function of a piezoelectric transducer, buffer rod and sample assembly is used to measure the sound velocity of solid materials. From the recorded transfer function, pulse echo patterns at frequencies of the passband of the input signal are reproduced after convoluting with monochromatic RF input signals. The time delay is obtained by performing pulse echo overlap and phase comparison measurements on reproduced signals. Results for a single crystal of MgO along the [100] direction from this study are in good agreement with previous measurements but have the advantage of offline data analysis and fast data acquisition.

  9. Synthesis of compositionally-defined single-crystalline Eu³?-activated molybdate-tungstate solid solution composite nanowires and observation of charge transfer in a novel class of 1D CaMoO?-CaWO?: Eu³? – 0D CdS/CdSe QD nanoscale heterostructures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Han, Jinkyi; McBean, Coray; Wang, Lei; Jaye, Cherno; Liu, Haiqing; Fischer, Daniel A.; Wong, Stanislaus S.

    2015-02-19

    As a first step, we have synthesized and optically characterized a systematic series of one-dimensional (1D) single-crystalline Eu³?-activated alkaline-earth metal tungstate/molybdate solid solution composite CaW??xMoxO? (0 ? ‘x’ ? 1) nanowires of controllable chemical composition using a modified template-directed methodology under ambient room-temperature conditions. Extensive characterization of the resulting nanowires has been performed using X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and optical spectroscopy. The crystallite size and single crystallinity of as-prepared 1D CaW??xMoxO?: Eu³? (0 ? ‘x’ ? 1) solid solution composite nanowires increase with increasing Mo component (‘x’). We note a clear dependence of luminescence output upon nanowire chemical composition withmore »our 1D CaW??xMoxO?: Eu³? (0 ? ‘x’ ? 1) evincing the highest photoluminescence (PL) output at ‘x’ = 0.8, amongst samples tested. Subsequently, coupled with either zero-dimensional (0D) CdS or CdSe quantum dots (QDs), we successfully synthesized and observed charge transfer processes in 1D CaW1-xMoxO4: Eu3+ (‘x’ = 0.8) – 0D QD composite nanoscale heterostructures. Our results show that CaW??xMoxO?: Eu³? (‘x’ = 0.8) nanowires give rise to PL quenching when CdSe QDs and CdS QDs are anchored onto the surfaces of 1D CaW??xMoxO?: Eu³? nanowires. The observed PL quenching is especially pronounced in CaW??xMoxO?: Eu³? (‘x’ = 0.8) – 0D CdSe QD heterostructures. Conversely, the PL output and lifetimes of CdSe and CdS QDs within these heterostructures are not noticeably altered as compared with unbound CdSe and CdS QDs. The difference in optical behavior between 1D Eu³? activated tungstate and molybdate solid solution nanowires and the semiconducting 0D QDs within our heterostructures can be correlated with the relative positions of their conduction and valence energy band levels. We propose that the PL quenching can be attributed to a photo-induced electron transfer process from CaW??xMoxO?: Eu³? (‘x’ = 0.8) to both CdSe and CdS QDs, an assertion supported by complementary NEXAFS measurements.« less

  10. Synthesis of compositionally-defined single-crystalline Eu³?-activated molybdate-tungstate solid solution composite nanowires and observation of charge transfer in a novel class of 1D CaMoO?-CaWO?: Eu³? – 0D CdS/CdSe QD nanoscale heterostructures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Han, Jinkyi [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); McBean, Coray [State Univ. of Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Wang, Lei [State Univ. of Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Jaye, Cherno [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Liu, Haiqing [State Univ. of Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Fischer, Daniel A. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Wong, Stanislaus S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); State Univ. of Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2015-02-19

    As a first step, we have synthesized and optically characterized a systematic series of one-dimensional (1D) single-crystalline Eu³?-activated alkaline-earth metal tungstate/molybdate solid solution composite CaW??xMoxO? (0 ? ‘x’ ? 1) nanowires of controllable chemical composition using a modified template-directed methodology under ambient room-temperature conditions. Extensive characterization of the resulting nanowires has been performed using X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and optical spectroscopy. The crystallite size and single crystallinity of as-prepared 1D CaW??xMoxO?: Eu³? (0 ? ‘x’ ? 1) solid solution composite nanowires increase with increasing Mo component (‘x’). We note a clear dependence of luminescence output upon nanowire chemical composition with our 1D CaW??xMoxO?: Eu³? (0 ? ‘x’ ? 1) evincing the highest photoluminescence (PL) output at ‘x’ = 0.8, amongst samples tested. Subsequently, coupled with either zero-dimensional (0D) CdS or CdSe quantum dots (QDs), we successfully synthesized and observed charge transfer processes in 1D CaW1-xMoxO4: Eu3+ (‘x’ = 0.8) – 0D QD composite nanoscale heterostructures. Our results show that CaW??xMoxO?: Eu³? (‘x’ = 0.8) nanowires give rise to PL quenching when CdSe QDs and CdS QDs are anchored onto the surfaces of 1D CaW??xMoxO?: Eu³? nanowires. The observed PL quenching is especially pronounced in CaW??xMoxO?: Eu³? (‘x’ = 0.8) – 0D CdSe QD heterostructures. Conversely, the PL output and lifetimes of CdSe and CdS QDs within these heterostructures are not noticeably altered as compared with unbound CdSe and CdS QDs. The difference in optical behavior between 1D Eu³? activated tungstate and molybdate solid solution nanowires and the semiconducting 0D QDs within our heterostructures can be correlated with the relative positions of their conduction and valence energy band levels. We propose that the PL quenching can be attributed to a photo-induced electron transfer process from CaW??xMoxO?: Eu³? (‘x’ = 0.8) to both CdSe and CdS QDs, an assertion supported by complementary NEXAFS measurements.

  11. Heat transfer and friction characteristics of air flow in microtubes Chien-Yuh Yang a,

    E-print Network

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Heat transfer and friction characteristics of air flow in microtubes Chien-Yuh Yang a, , Chia September 2011 Keywords: Microtube Heat transfer Liquid Crystal Thermography a b s t r a c t Several researches dealing with the single-phase forced convection heat transfer inside microchannels have been

  12. X-ray transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Castor, J.I.

    1992-03-01

    The computational techniques for treating radiative transfer in general, and x-ray transfer in particular, are reviewed, with emphasis on the difficult problems associated with systems that are not in local thermodynamic equilibrium. Some special aspects of x-ray transfer are mentioned. The computer code ALTAIR, developed at LLNL to solve such problems, is described briefly, with an example of x-ray fluorescence in a Seyfert galaxy. Some of the prospects for experimental tests of x-ray radiative transfer theory are considered.

  13. Settled Cryogenic Propellant Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutter, Bernard F.; Zegler, Frank; Sakla, Steve; Wall, John; Hopkins, Josh; Saks, Greg; Duffey, Jack; Chato, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Cryogenic propellant transfer can significantly benefit NASA s space exploration initiative. LMSSC parametric studies indicate that "Topping off" the Earth Departure Stage (EDS) in LEO with approx.20 mT of additional propellant using cryogenic propellant transfer increases the lunar delivered payload by 5 mT. Filling the EDS to capacity in LEO with 78 mT of propellants increases the delivered payload by 20 mT. Cryogenic propellant transfer is directly extensible to Mars exploration in that it provides propellant for the Mars Earth Departure stage and in-situ propellant utilization at Mars. To enable the significant performance increase provided by cryogenic propellant transfer, the reliability and robustness of the transfer process must be guaranteed. By utilizing low vehicle acceleration during the cryogenic transfer the operation is significantly simplified and enables the maximum use of existing, reliable, mature upper stage cryogenic-fluid-management (CFM) techniques. Due to settling, large-scale propellant transfer becomes an engineering effort, and not the technology development endeavor required with zero-gravity propellant transfer. The following key CFM technologies are all currently implemented by settling on both the Centaur and Delta IV upper stages: propellant acquisition, hardware chilldown, pressure control, and mass gauging. The key remaining technology, autonomous rendezvous and docking, is already in use by the Russians, and must be perfected for NASA whether the use of propellant transfer is utilized or not.

  14. Nonparametric Transfer Function Models

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun M.; Chen, Rong; Yao, Qiwei

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a class of nonparametric transfer function models is proposed to model nonlinear relationships between ‘input’ and ‘output’ time series. The transfer function is smooth with unknown functional forms, and the noise is assumed to be a stationary autoregressive-moving average (ARMA) process. The nonparametric transfer function is estimated jointly with the ARMA parameters. By modeling the correlation in the noise, the transfer function can be estimated more efficiently. The parsimonious ARMA structure improves the estimation efficiency in finite samples. The asymptotic properties of the estimators are investigated. The finite-sample properties are illustrated through simulations and one empirical example. PMID:20628584

  15. Two-Electron Transfer Pathways.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiaxing; Balamurugan, D; Zhang, Peng; Skourtis, Spiros S; Beratan, David N

    2015-06-18

    The frontiers of electron-transfer chemistry demand that we develop theoretical frameworks to describe the delivery of multiple electrons, atoms, and ions in molecular systems. When electrons move over long distances through high barriers, where the probability for thermal population of oxidized or reduced bridge-localized states is very small, the electrons will tunnel from the donor (D) to acceptor (A), facilitated by bridge-mediated superexchange interactions. If the stable donor and acceptor redox states on D and A differ by two electrons, it is possible that the electrons will propagate coherently from D to A. While structure-function relations for single-electron superexchange in molecules are well established, strategies to manipulate the coherent flow of multiple electrons are largely unknown. In contrast to one-electron superexchange, two-electron superexchange involves both one- and two-electron virtual intermediate states, the number of virtual intermediates increases very rapidly with system size, and multiple classes of pathways interfere with one another. In the study described here, we developed simple superexchange models for two-electron transfer. We explored how the bridge structure and energetics influence multielectron superexchange, and we compared two-electron superexchange interactions to single-electron superexchange. Multielectron superexchange introduces interference between singly and doubly oxidized (or reduced) bridge virtual states, so that even simple linear donor-bridge-acceptor systems have pathway topologies that resemble those seen for one-electron superexchange through bridges with multiple parallel pathways. The simple model systems studied here exhibit a richness that is amenable to experimental exploration by manipulating the multiple pathways, pathway crosstalk, and changes in the number of donor and acceptor species. The features that emerge from these studies may assist in developing new strategies to deliver multiple electrons in condensed-phase redox systems, including multiple-electron redox species, multimetallic/multielectron redox catalysts, and multiexciton excited states. PMID:25583181

  16. Potential of primary kidney cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer mediated transgenesis in pig

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is currently the most efficient and precise method to generate genetically tailored pig models for biomedical research. However, the efficiency of this approach is crucially dependent on the source of nuclear donor cells. In this study, we evaluate the potential of primary porcine kidney cells (PKCs) as cell source for SCNT, including their proliferation capacity, transfection efficiency, and capacity to support full term development of SCNT embryos after additive gene transfer or homologous recombination. Results PKCs could be maintained in culture with stable karyotype for up to 71 passages, whereas porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFFs) and porcine ear fibroblasts (PEFs) could be hardly passaged more than 20 times. Compared with PFFs and PEFs, PKCs exhibited a higher proliferation rate and resulted in a 2-fold higher blastocyst rate after SCNT and in vitro cultivation. Among the four transfection methods tested with a GFP expression plasmid, best results were obtained with the NucleofectorTM technology, resulting in transfection efficiencies of 70% to 89% with high fluorescence intensity, low cytotoxicity, good cell proliferation, and almost no morphological signs of cell stress. Usage of genetically modified PKCs in SCNT resulted in approximately 150 piglets carrying at least one of 18 different transgenes. Several of those pigs originated from PKCs that underwent homologous recombination and antibiotic selection before SCNT. Conclusion The high proliferation capacity of PKCs facilitates the introduction of precise and complex genetic modifications in vitro. PKCs are thus a valuable cell source for the generation of porcine biomedical models by SCNT. PMID:23140586

  17. Production of transgenic dairy goat expressing human ?-lactalbumin by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiujing; Cao, Shaoxian; Wang, Huili; Meng, Chunhua; Li, Jingxin; Jiang, Jin; Qian, Yong; Su, Lei; He, Qiang; Zhang, Qingxiao

    2015-02-01

    Production of human ?-lactalbumin (h?-LA) transgenic cloned dairy goats has great potential in improving the nutritional value and perhaps increasing the yield of dairy goat milk. Here, a mammary-specific expression vector 5A, harboring goat ?-lactoglobulin (?LG) promoter, the h?-LA gene, neo(r) and EGFP dual markers, was constructed. Then, it was effectively transfected into goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs) and the expression of h?-LA was investigated. Both the h?-LA transcript and protein were detected in the transfected GMECs after the induction of hormonal signals. In addition, the 5A vector was introduced into dairy goat fetal fibroblasts (transfection efficiency ?60-70%) to prepare competent transgenic donor cells. A total of 121 transgenic fibroblast clones were isolated by 96-well cell culture plates and screened with nested-PCR amplification and EGFP fluorescence. After being frozen for 8 months, the transgenic cells still showed high viabilities, verifying their ability as donor cells. Dairy goat cloned embryos were produced from these h?-LA transgenic donor cells by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and the rates of fusion, cleavage, and the development to blastocyst stages were 81.8, 84.4, and 20.0%, respectively. A total of 726 reconstructed embryos derived from the transgenic cells were transferred to 74 recipients and pregnancy was confirmed at 90 days in 12 goats. Of six female kids born, two carried h?-LA and the h?-LA protein was detected in their milk. This study provides an effective system to prepare SCNT donor cells and transgenic animals for human recombinant proteins. PMID:25139669

  18. Technology Transfer Issues and a New Technology Transfer Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hee Jun

    2009-01-01

    The following are major issues that should be considered for efficient and effective technology transfer: conceptions of technology, technological activity and transfer, communication channels, factors affecting transfer, and models of transfer. In particular, a well-developed model of technology transfer could be used as a framework for…

  19. Low-stress transfer of graphene and its tuneable resistance by remote plasma treatments in hydrogen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Waileong Chen; Chia-hao Tu; Keng-chih Liang; Chih-Yi Liu; Chuan-Pu Liu; Yonhua Tzeng

    2011-01-01

    A novel low-stress process for transferring thermal CVD single-layer graphene from copper foils to destination substrates is demonstrated. Electrical and optical characteristics of as-transferred graphene and the hydrogen remote-plasma modified graphene are presented. Although graphene is mechanically very strong considering its atomically thin structure, large-area single-layer graphene is practically very fragile especially during handling and transfer from one substrate to

  20. Bioheat Transfer Valvano, page 1 Bioheat Transfer

    E-print Network

    Engineering The University of Texas at Austin Austin, TX 78712-1084 IV. TISSUE THERMAL TRANSPORT PROPERTIES A phenomenological mechanisms including conduction, convection, radiation, metabolism, evaporation, and phase change Transfer Valvano, page 2 microcomputer-based instrument. When the initial tissue temperature is just below

  1. Wireless adiabatic power transfer

    E-print Network

    A. A. Rangelov; H. Suchowski; Y. Silberberg; N. V. Vitanov

    2010-10-30

    We propose a technique for efficient mid-range wireless power transfer between two coils, by adapting the process of adiabatic passage for a coherently driven two-state quantum system to the realm of wireless energy transfer. The proposed technique is shown to be robust to noise, resonant constraints, and other interferences that exist in the neighborhood of the coils.

  2. Electron transfer in quinoproteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor L. Davidson

    2004-01-01

    Soluble quinoprotein dehydrogenases oxidize a wide range of sugar, alcohol, amine, and aldehyde substrates. The physiological electron acceptors for these enzymes are not pyridine nucleotides but are other soluble redox proteins. This makes these enzymes and their electron acceptors excellent systems with which to study mechanisms of long-range interprotein electron transfer reactions. The tryptophan tryptophylquinone (TTQ)-dependent methylamine dehydrogenase (MADH) transfers

  3. Transfer of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document consists of three papers presented at a symposium on transfer of training moderated by Gene Roth at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Validation of a Transfer Climate Instrument" (Reid A. Bates et al.) reports a study that attempted to validate Rouiller and Goldstein's (1993) eight-factor…

  4. Technology Transfer at Motorola

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor R. Basili; Michael Daskalantonakis; Robert H. Yacobellis

    1994-01-01

    While developing a formal software-review process, a working group at Motorola devised a technology-transfer model that is built on process packages, each one targeted to a different user group. Their model allows for tailoring, makes training and consulting widely available, and relies on champions. The approach helps development organizations focus on the technology they really need, devise solutions, and transfer

  5. Transfer Study Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David

    Longitudinal data are presented relating to Bakersfield College (BC) students who transferred to public four-year colleges and universities. Highlighted findings include the following: (1) first-time transfers from BC to the California State University and College (CSUC) system increased by 19.4% from fall 1987 to fall 1988, the highest since the…

  6. Structural basis of transfer between lipoproteins by cholesteryl ester transfer protein

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Yan, Feng; Zhang, Shengli; Lei, Dongsheng; Charles, M. Arthur; Cavigiolio, Giorgio; Oda, Michael; Krauss, Ronald M.; Weisgraber, Karl H.; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Pownall, Henry J.; Qiu, Xiayang; Ren, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Human cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mediates the net transfer of cholesteryl ester mass from atheroprotective high-density lipoproteins to atherogenic low-density lipoproteins by an unknown mechanism. Delineating this mechanism would be an important step toward the rational design of new CETP inhibitors for treating cardiovascular diseases. Using EM, single-particle image processing and molecular dynamics simulation, we discovered that CETP bridges a ternary complex with its N-terminal ?-barrel domain penetrating into high-density lipoproteins and its C-terminal domain interacting with low-density lipoprotein or very-low-density lipoprotein. In our mechanistic model, the CETP lipoprotein-interacting regions, which are highly mobile, form pores that connect to a hydrophobic central cavity, thereby forming a tunnel for transfer of neutral lipids from donor to acceptor lipoproteins. These new insights into CETP transfer provide a molecular basis for analyzing mechanisms for CETP inhibition. PMID:22344176

  7. Resonant transfer and excitation by crystal channeling

    SciTech Connect

    Feagin, J.M. (Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Freiburg, 7800 Freiburg (Gemany)); Wanser, K.H. (Department of Physics, California State University, Fullerton, Fullerton, California (USA))

    1991-10-01

    A transition amplitude for resonant transfer and excitation (RTE) in a crystal channel is derived and compared with observations of Belkacem {ital et} {ital al}. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 380 (1990)) of titanium ions channeled in a thin gold crystal. Using a one-dimensional tight-binding model of the gold lattice, the RTE cross section is shown to be proportional to the Compton profile of {ital atomic} gold multiplied by a crystal-structure factor, analogous to multislit interference of light with diffraction. It is suggested that Belkacem {ital et} {ital al}. observed a single (principal) maximum with a very narrow width determined by the crystal's Fermi energy. It is found that the observed shift in the RTE peak, relative to that expected for a quasifree crystal electron, can be accounted for by a change in the Coulomb energy of the transferred electron caused by the highly charged impurity'' ion prior to transfer.

  8. International Student Advisor's Transfer Report (Transfer to Texas Tech University)

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    International Student Advisor's Transfer Report (Transfer to Texas Tech University) Section One (to: _______________________ Semester Last Attended ________ Semester intended to transfer to Texas Tech University: Fall _____ Spring Tech University. Student's Signature __________________________ Date

  9. Urban Sewage Delivery Heat Transfer System (2): Heat Transfer 

    E-print Network

    Zhang, C.; Wu, R.; Li, X.; Li, G.; Zhuang, Z.; Sun, D.

    2006-01-01

    The thimble delivery heat-transfer (TDHT) system is one of the primary modes to utilize the energy of urban sewage. Using the efficiency-number of transfer units method ( ), the heat-transfer efficiencies of the parallel-flow ...

  10. Frame-assisted membrane transfer for large area optoelectronic devices on flexible substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weiquan Yang; Hongjun Yang; Santhad Chuwongin; Jung-Hun Seo; Zhenqiang Ma; Jesper Berggren; Mattias Hammar; Weidong Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Frame assisted membrane transfer process was developed to transfer large area crystalline semiconductor nanomembranes on flexible plastic substrates. InP nanomembranes as large as 2cm×2cm was transferred successfully. Large area flexible photodetectors, solar cells and LED arrays all have been demonstrated experimentally, based on transferred InP nanomembranes. Flexible optoelectronics devices based on single crystal semiconductor nanomembranes (NM), which combine the advantages

  11. Investigation of flow and heat transfer of nanofluid in microchannel with variable property approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaei, Mostafa; Dehghan, Maziar

    2013-12-01

    Laminar flow and heat transfer of water-Al2O3 nanofluid under constant heat flux have been investigated numerically. Single-phase with temperature dependant effective properties has been assumed for fluid. Enhancement in heat transfer and increase in friction factor have been obtained by the use of nanofluid. Heat transfer enhancement is more obvious by the use of variable properties. Also, effects of temperature variation on nanofluid heat transfer are greater than the pure water.

  12. a Study of BORON-11 Induced Single-Nucleon Transfer Reactions on CALCIUM-40 and Cross-Section Measurements for the 11.08 Mev (3-PLUS) and 11.096 Mev (4-PLUS) States in OXYGEN-16 Populated by CARBON-12(LITHIUM-6, Deuteron) and CARBON-13(LITHIUM-6, Triton) Reactions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Charles Wayne

    1981-06-01

    In heavy-ion induced proton pickup reaction existing theories sometimes describe the data and sometimes they do not. No consistent patterns of failure or success has yet emerged. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether the structure of the projectile-ejectile is important in determining the phasing of the transfer angular distributions, and to investigate the influence of different radially shaped distorting potentials on the transfer reactionn calculations, angular distributions were measured for: ('40)Ca(('11)B,('12)C)('39)K(J('(pi)) = 3/2('+) and 1/2('+)) and ('40)Ca(('11)B, ('10)B{J('(pi)) =3('+) and 1('+) })('41)Ca single-nucleon transfer reactions, ('11)B + ('40)Ca(J('(pi)) = 2('+),3('-) and 5('-)) and ('11)B(J('(pi)) = 1/2('-)) + ('40)Ca inelastic reactions, and ('10,11)B + ('40)Ca and ('12)C + ('39)K elastic scattering data. The analysis of all the new data taken proceeds in two steps. First, the Woods-Saxon distorting potential that describes the elastic scattering data are extracted and used as the distorting potentials in the DWBA calculations for the inelastic and transfer reactions. Then, this same procedure is repeated but different radially shaped double -folding distorting potentials are used instead of the Woods -Saxon potentials. The DWBA calculations using the Woods-Saxon potentials reproduce the forward angle transfer data measured in this study but overpredict the back-angle data. The DWBA calculations carried out with double-folding distorted potentials were in much better agreement with the data. For both types of DWBA calculations the extracted spectroscopic factors for the proton pickup reactions are much larger than those obtained from light-ion data; while they are in agreement for the neutron stripping case. The inelastic scattering data of ('11)B + ('40)Ca is described equally well by the DWBA and coupled channels calculations; this indicates that higher-order processes (i.e. more complicated reaction mechanisms) are not important for this scattering system. The DWBA calculations employing the double-folding model results in fits to the data comparable in quality to that obtained with a Woods-Saxon potential. The extracted folding-model deformation lengths for the inelastic transitions agree well with the charge deformation lengths obtained from the experimental B(EL) values. Finally, the DWBA calculations using either the Woods-Saxon or the double-folding potentials reproduced the phase of all the angular distributions measured in the transfer and inelastic reactions. From the analysis of measured data, the calculations employing double-folding model distorted waves are in better agreement with the data than the calculations using Woods-Saxon model distorted waves. The (('6)Li,d) reaction has been used to determine the presence of alpha-particle clustering in nuclei. The interpretation of the (('6)Li,d) reaction study as proceeding by a direct one-step (alpha) particle transfer has recently been questioned because of the non-(alpha) particle 11.096 MeV (4('+)) state is populated 50 times stronger by the (('6)Li,d) reaction than expected from ('12)C((alpha),(alpha)(,0)) studies. It is difficult to determine the ('12)C(('6)Li,d)('16)O 11.096 MeV (4('+)) cross section because the close lying 11.08 MeV (3('+)) state cannot be resolved in the ('12)C(('6)Li,d) spectra. In the second investigation, particle-(gamma) -ray measurements were done to determine the 3('+) state's cross section by both ('12)C(('6)Li,d) and ('13)C(('6)Li,t) reactions. Excitation functions were measured for the 3('+) and 4('+) states in 2 MeV steps from 20-34 MeV. It is generally assumed that the 3('+), 4('+) doublet is populated by the compound nuclear reaction process. The Hauser-Feshbach theory of statistical compound nuclear reactions was used to calculate the cross section for the states. It is found that population of the 3('+) state by both reactions is almost entirely due to the compound nuclear reaction mechanism, while this reaction mechanism accounts for only 20% of the 4('+) strength. The present

  13. Chemically assisted somatic cell nuclear transfer without micromanipulator in the goat: effects of demecolcine, cytochalasin-B, and MG-132 on the efficiency of a manual method of oocyte enucleation using a pulled Pasteur pipette.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, S M; Hajian, M; Forouzanfar, M; Ostadhosseini, S; Moulavi, F; Ghanaei, H R; Gourbai, H; Shahverdi, A H; Vosough, A D; Nasr-Esfahani, M H

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to facilitate widespread application of a previously described manual method of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) by investigating the effects of demecolcine (a microtubule-depolymerizing chemical), cytochalasin-B (a microfilament-depolymerizing chemical: 2.5?g/ml for 15min) and MG-132 (a proteasome inhibitor chemical) on the (i) incidence of cytoplasmic protrusion of MII chromosomes, (ii) improvement of manual oocyte enucleation, and (iii) in vitro and in vivo developmental competence of SCNT embryos in the goat. Following in vitro maturation, around 65% of goat oocytes contained a characteristic cytoplasmic protrusion of MII-chromosomes. Treatment with demecolcine (0.4?g/ml for 30min) significantly increased this rate to 92.2±4.5%. Treatment with MG-132 (2?M for 30min) could not improve this rate when used alone (61.4±11.5%), but when combined with demecolcine (86.4±8.1%). Treatment with cytochalasin-B completely suppressed this rate whenever used, either alone (7.7±5.1%) or in combination with demecolcine (3.9±1.3%). In a direct comparison, there was no significant difference in quantity and quality of embryos propagated by the manual vs. micromanipulation-based methods of SCNT (cleavage: 85.3±4.5 vs. 89.5±8.9%, blastocyst: 19.5±4.3 vs. 24.3±4.4%, grade 1 and 2 blastocyst: 33.8±7.1 vs. 29.5±6.3%, total cell count: 125±11.1 vs. 122±10.5, respectively). Furthermore, development to live kids at term was not significant between the two SCNT methods. From both technical and economical points of view, the overall in vitro and in vivo efficiency of this manual method of SCNT proved it a simple, fast and efficient alternative for large scale production of cloned goats. PMID:25956201

  14. Single photon interference Single photon interference

    E-print Network

    Spagnolo, Filippo

    Single photon interference Single photon interference with a Fresnel biprism Contacts: Jean-François Roch François Treussart Philippe Grangier Introduction Single photon source Interference fringes Anticorrelation Archives Single-photon interference Single photons emitted by the N-V colour centre are sent

  15. Membrane-integrated superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    E-print Network

    Najafi, Faraz

    We integrated superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors on sub-400-nm-thick silicon nitride membranes, which can then be transferred and aligned to photonic structures on a secondary chip with sub-micron placement accuracy.

  16. Classical to quantum transfer of optical vortices

    E-print Network

    Veronica Vicuna-Hernandez; Hector Cruz-Ramirez; Roberto Ramirez-Alarcon; Alfred B. U'Ren

    2014-08-07

    We show that an optical vortex beam, implemented classically, can be transferred to the transverse amplitude of a heralded single photon. For this purpose we have relied on the process of spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC) for the generation of signal and idler photon pairs, using a pump in the form of a Bessel-Gauss (BG) beam with orbital angular momentum (specifically, with topological charge l = 1 and l = 2). We have designed our source so that it operates within the short SPDC crystal regime for which, the amplitude and phase of the pump may be transferred to a heralded single photon. In order to verify the vortex nature of our heralded single photon, we have shown that the conditional angular spectrum and the transverse intensity at the single-photon level match similar measurements carried out for the pump. In addition, we have shown that when our heralded single photon is diffracted through a triangular aperture, the far-field singlephoton transverse intensity exhibits the expected triangular arrangement of intensity lobes associated with the presence of orbital angular momentum.

  17. Controlling the quantum state of a single photon emitted from a single polariton

    SciTech Connect

    Stanojevic, Jovica; Parigi, Valentina; Bimbard, Erwan; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Grangier, Philippe [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d'Optique, CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, Campus Polytechnique, RD 128, FR-91127 Palaiseau cedex (France)

    2011-11-15

    We investigate in detail the optimal conditions for a high fidelity transfer from a single-polariton state to a single-photon state and subsequent homodyne detection of the single photon. We assume that, using various possible techniques, the single polariton has initially been stored as a spin-wave grating in a cloud of cold atoms inside a low-finesse cavity. This state is then transferred to a single-photon optical pulse using an auxiliary beam. We optimize the retrieval efficiency and determine the mode of the local oscillator that maximizes the homodyne efficiency of such a photon. We find that both efficiencies can have values close to one in a large region of experimental parameters.

  18. Heat transfer in turbulent bubbly flow in channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabiri, Sadegh; Tryggvason, Gretar

    2013-11-01

    In many applications convective heat transfer occurs in the presence of a multiphase turbulent flow such as in boilers and bubble column reactors. Turbulence in channel and pipe flows significantly increases the heat transfer rate. Here we examine the effect of turbulent bubbly flows on the heat transfer inside a vertical channel with uniform heat flux on the walls and compare it with the heat transfer in single phase flow. Both bubbles and the turbulence are fully resolved through Direct Numerical Simulation. The distribution of the bubbles in the channel is affected by the deformability of the bubbles. A wall-peaked distribution is observed for nearly spherical bubbles and a core-peaked distribution is observed for deformable bubbles. This change in distribution of the bubbles significantly affects the flow rate in the channel and the heat transfer rate as well. The results of heat transfer for different flow configurations are presented and compared to the heat transfer in a single phase channel flow. In many applications convective heat transfer occurs in the presence of a multiphase turbulent flow such as in boilers and bubble column reactors. Turbulence in channel and pipe flows significantly increases the heat transfer rate. Here we examine the effect of turbulent bubbly flows on the heat transfer inside a vertical channel with uniform heat flux on the walls and compare it with the heat transfer in single phase flow. Both bubbles and the turbulence are fully resolved through Direct Numerical Simulation. The distribution of the bubbles in the channel is affected by the deformability of the bubbles. A wall-peaked distribution is observed for nearly spherical bubbles and a core-peaked distribution is observed for deformable bubbles. This change in distribution of the bubbles significantly affects the flow rate in the channel and the heat transfer rate as well. The results of heat transfer for different flow configurations are presented and compared to the heat transfer in a single phase channel flow. This research is partially supported by CASL project.

  19. Tendon lengthening and transfer.

    PubMed

    Fitoussi, F; Bachy, M

    2015-02-01

    Tendon lengthening and transfer are usually indicated for certain neuromuscular disorders, peripheral or central nerve injury, congenital disorder or direct traumatic or degenerative musculotendinous lesion. In musculotendinous lengthening, technique depends on muscle anatomy, degree of correction required, and the need to avoid excessive loss of force. Lengthening within the muscle or aponeurosis is stable. In the tendon, however, it may provide greater gain but is not stable and requires postoperative immobilization to avoid excessive lengthening. Tendon transfer consists in displacing a muscle's tendon insertion in order to restore function. The muscle to be transferred is chosen according to strength, architecture and course, contraction timing, intended direction, synergy and the joint moment arm to be restored. Functions to be restored have to be prioritized, and alternatives to transfer should be identified. The principles of tendon transfer require preoperative assessment of the quality of the tissue through which the transfer is to pass and of the suppleness of the joints concerned. During the procedure, transfer tension should be optimized and the neurovascular bundle should be protected. The method of fixation, whether tendon-to-bone or tendon-to-tendon suture, should be planned according to local conditions and the surgeon's experience. PMID:25572471

  20. Numerical Radiative Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkofen, Wolfgang

    2009-07-01

    Preface; Introduction; Part I. Operator Perturbation: 1. Survey of operator perturbation methods W. Kalkofen; 2. Line formation in expanding atmospheres: multilevel calculations using approximate lambda operators W. R. Hamann; 3. Stellar atmospheres in non-LTE: model construction and line formation calculations using approximate lambda operators K. Werner; 4. Acceleration of convergence L. H. Auer; 5. Line formation in a time-dependent atmosphere W. Kalkofen; 6. Iterative solution of multilevel transfer problems Eugene H. Avrett and Rudolf Loeser; 7. An algorithm for the simultaneous solution of thousands of transfer equations under global constraints Lawrence S. Anderson; 8. Operator perturbation for differential equations W. Kalkofen; Part II. Polarised Radiation: 9. A gentle introduction to polarised radiative transfer David E. Rees; 10. Non-LTE polarised radiative transfer in special lines David E. Rees and Graham A. Murphy; 11. Transfer of polarised radiation using 4x4 matrices E. Landi Degli'Innocenti; 12. Radiative transfer in the presence of strong magnetic fields A. A. van Ballegooijen; 13. An integral operator technique of radiative transfer in spherical symmetry A. Peraiah; 14. Discrete ordinate matrix method M. Schmidt and R. Wehrse.

  1. Determining heat transfer coefficients using evolutionary algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Tesch; M. A. Atherton; T. G. Karayiannis; M. W. Collins; P. Edwards

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a way of determining heat transfer calibrations for multi-objective and single-objective optimization by means of genetic algorithms. The need for optimization arises from the necessity for mathematical model validation and is very relevant to practical applications. The SPEA algorithm is used for multi-objective optimization. Scalarization of the fitness function is also addressed in combination with a small

  2. Heat transfer in pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbach, T.

    1985-04-01

    The heat transfer from hot water to a cold copper pipe in laminar and turbulent flow condition is determined. The mean flow through velocity in the pipe, relative test length and initial temperature in the vessel were varied extensively during tests. Measurements confirm Nusselt's theory for large test lengths in laminar range. A new equation is derived for heat transfer for large starting lengths which agrees satisfactorily with measurements for large starting lengths. Test results are compared with the new Prandtl equation for heat transfer and correlated well. Test material for 200- and to 400-diameter test length is represented at four different vessel temperatures.

  3. Heat transfer in pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbach, T.

    1985-01-01

    The heat transfer from hot water to a cold copper pipe in laminar and turbulent flow condition is determined. The mean flow through velocity in the pipe, relative test length and initial temperature in the vessel were varied extensively during tests. Measurements confirm Nusselt's theory for large test lengths in laminar range. A new equation is derived for heat transfer for large starting lengths which agrees satisfactorily with measurements for large starting lengths. Test results are compared with the new Prandtl equation for heat transfer and correlated well. Test material for 200- and to 400-diameter test length is represented at four different vessel temperatures.

  4. Ames Lab 101: Technology Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Covey, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Ames Laboratory Associate Laboratory Director, Sponsored Research Administration, Debra Covey discusses technology transfer. Covey also discusses Ames Laboratory's most successful transfer, lead-free solder.

  5. Ames Lab 101: Technology Transfer

    ScienceCinema

    Covey, Debra

    2012-08-29

    Ames Laboratory Associate Laboratory Director, Sponsored Research Administration, Debra Covey discusses technology transfer. Covey also discusses Ames Laboratory's most successful transfer, lead-free solder.

  6. Spectrally Invariant Approximation within Atmospheric Radiative Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, A.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Chiu, J. C.; Wiscombe, W. J.

    2011-01-01

    Certain algebraic combinations of single scattering albedo and solar radiation reflected from, or transmitted through, vegetation canopies do not vary with wavelength. These spectrally invariant relationships are the consequence of wavelength independence of the extinction coefficient and scattering phase function in vegetation. In general, this wavelength independence does not hold in the atmosphere, but in cloud-dominated atmospheres the total extinction and total scattering phase function vary only weakly with wavelength. This paper identifies the atmospheric conditions under which the spectrally invariant approximation can accurately describe the extinction and scattering properties of cloudy atmospheres. The validity of the assumptions and the accuracy of the approximation are tested with 1D radiative transfer calculations using publicly available radiative transfer models: Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer (DISORT) and Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART). It is shown for cloudy atmospheres with cloud optical depth above 3, and for spectral intervals that exclude strong water vapor absorption, that the spectrally invariant relationships found in vegetation canopy radiative transfer are valid to better than 5%. The physics behind this phenomenon, its mathematical basis, and possible applications to remote sensing and climate are discussed.

  7. Mississippi Technology Transfer Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Mississippi Technology Transfer Center at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., was officially dedicated in 1987. The center is home to several state agencies as well as the Center For Higher Learning.

  8. Investment casting heat transfer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Powell, Adam C., IV

    2004-12-15

    Calculate temperature profile and Biot number in mixed conduction and convection/radiation heat transfer from liquid metal through a ceramic mold to the environment, and suggest a design change to reduce the probability of shattering due to thermal stress.

  9. Intercellular Transfer of Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Plotnikov, E Y; Babenko, V A; Silachev, D N; Zorova, L D; Khryapenkova, T G; Savchenko, E S; Pevzner, I B; Zorov, D B

    2015-05-01

    Recently described phenomenon of intercellular transfer of mitochondria attracts the attention of researchers in both fundamental science and translational medicine. In particular, the transfer of mitochondria results in the initiation of stem cell differentiation, in reprogramming of differentiated cells, and in the recovery of the lost mitochondrial function in recipient cells. However, the mechanisms of mitochondria transfer between cells and conditions inducing this phenomenon are studied insufficiently. It is still questionable whether this phenomenon exists in vivo. Moreover, it is unclear, how the transfer of mitochondria into somatic cells is affected by the ubiquitination system that, for example, is responsible for the elimination of "alien" mitochondria of the spermatozoon in the oocyte during fertilization. Studies on these processes can provide a powerful incentive for development of strategies for treatment of mitochondria-associated pathologies and give rise a new avenue for therapeutic approaches based on "mitochondrial transplantation". PMID:26071771

  10. Integrating proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) and excited states

    SciTech Connect

    Gagliardi, Christopher J.; Westlake, Brittany C.; Kent, Caleb A.; Paul, Jared J.; Papanikolas, John M.; Meyer, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    In many of the chemical steps in photosynthesis and artificial photosynthesis, proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) plays an essential role. An important issue is how excited state reactivity can be integrated with PCET to carry out solar fuel reactions such as water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen or water reduction of CO{sub 2} to methanol or hydrocarbons. The principles behind PCET and concerted electron–proton transfer (EPT) pathways are reasonably well understood. In Photosystem II antenna light absorption is followed by sensitization of chlorophyll P{sub 680} and electron transfer quenching to give P{sub 680}{sup +}. The oxidized chlorophyll activates the oxygen evolving complex (OEC), a CaMn4 cluster, through an intervening tyrosine–histidine pair, Y{sub Z}. EPT plays a major role in a series of four activation steps that ultimately result in loss of 4e{sup ?}/4H{sup +} from the OEC with oxygen evolution. The key elements in photosynthesis and artificial photosynthesis – light absorption, excited state energy and electron transfer, electron transfer activation of multiple-electron, multiple-proton catalysis – can also be assembled in dye sensitized photoelectrochemical synthesis cells (DS-PEC). In this approach, molecular or nanoscale assemblies are incorporated at separate electrodes for coupled, light driven oxidation and reduction. Separate excited state electron transfer followed by proton transfer can be combined in single semi-concerted steps (photo-EPT) by photolysis of organic charge transfer excited states with H-bonded bases or in metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited states in pre-associated assemblies with H-bonded electron transfer donors or acceptors. In these assemblies, photochemically induced electron and proton transfer occur in a single, semi-concerted event to give high-energy, redox active intermediates.

  11. Adaptive transfer functions

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, J.R. (Portland State Univ., OR (USA))

    1991-01-01

    This paper details the approach and methodology used to build adaptive transfer functions in a feed-forward Back-Propagation neural network, and provides insight into the structure dependent properties of using non-scaled analog inputs. The results of using adaptive transfer functions are shown to outperform conventional architectures in the implementation of a mechanical power transmission gearbox design expert system knowledge base. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Computational heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaluria, Yogesh; Torrance, Kenneth E.

    Numerical approaches to heat-transfer problems are examined in an introductory text for senior and graduate engineering students. The emphasis is on the application of physical criteria in selecting the computational method. Chapters are devoted to the mathematics of the governing equations, finite differences, and finite elements; the simulation of transport processes; numerical methods for convective and radiative heat transfer; and combined modes and process applications. Graphs, diagrams, flow charts, problems, tables of material parameters, and sample computer programs are provided.

  13. Symbolic Transfer Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniek, Matthäus; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2008-04-01

    We propose to estimate transfer entropy using a technique of symbolization. We demonstrate numerically that symbolic transfer entropy is a robust and computationally fast method to quantify the dominating direction of information flow between time series from structurally identical and nonidentical coupled systems. Analyzing multiday, multichannel electroencephalographic recordings from 15 epilepsy patients our approach allowed us to reliably identify the hemisphere containing the epileptic focus without observing actual seizure activity.

  14. Shielded cells transfer automation

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J J

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear waste from shielded cells is removed, packaged, and transferred manually in many nuclear facilities. Radiation exposure is absorbed by operators during these operations and limited only through procedural controls. Technological advances in automation using robotics have allowed a production waste removal operation to be automated to reduce radiation exposure. The robotic system bags waste containers out of glove box and transfers them to a shielded container. Operators control the system outside the system work area via television cameras. 9 figures.

  15. Proceedings of Heat Transfer 2003: ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conference

    E-print Network

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Proceedings of Heat Transfer 2003: ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conference Las Vegas, Nevada, USA July 21-23, 2003 HT2003-47449 HEAT TRANSFER FROM A MOVING AND EVAPORATING MENISCUS ON A HEATED SURFACE meniscus with complete evaporation of water without any meniscus break-up. The experimental heat transfer

  16. Probing nucleon-nucleon correlations via heavy ion transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szilner, S.

    2015-01-01

    The revival of transfer reaction studies benefited from the construction of the new generation large solid angle spectrometers, coupled to large ? arrays. The recent results of ?-particle coincident measurements demonstrate a strong interplay between single-particle and collective degrees of freedom that is pertinent to the reaction dynamics. By studies of transfer of pairs, valuable information on the component responsible for particle correlations has been derived.

  17. Experimental investigation of oxide nanofluids laminar flow convective heat transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Zeinali Heris; S. Gh. Etemad; M. Nasr Esfahany

    2006-01-01

    In the present investigation nanofluids containing CuO and Al2O3 oxide nanoparticles in water as base fluid in different concentrations produced and the laminar flow convective heat transfer through circular tube with constant wall temperature boundary condition were examined. The experimental results emphasize that the single phase correlation with nanofluids properties (Homogeneous Model) is not able to predict heat transfer coefficient

  18. Post-Dryout Heat Transfer to a Refrigerant Flowing in Horizontal Evaporator Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Hideo; Yoshida, Suguru; Kakimoto, Yasushi; Ohishi, Katsumi; Fukuda, Kenichi

    Studies of the post-dryout heat transfer were made based on the experimental data for HFC-134a flowing in horizontal smooth and spiral1y grooved (micro-fin) tubes and the characteristics of the post-dryout heat transfer were c1arified. The heat transfer coefficient at medium and high mass flow rates in the smooth tube was lower than the single-phase heat transfer coefficient of the superheated vapor flow, of which mass flow rate was given on the assumption that the flow was in a thermodynamic equilibrium. A prediction method of post-dryout heat transfer coefficient was developed to reproduce the measurement satisfactorily for the smooth tube. The post dryout heat transfer in the micro-fin tube can be regarded approximately as a superheated vapor single-phase heat transfer.

  19. Pretty good state transfer of entangled states through quantum spin chains

    E-print Network

    Rúben Sousa; Yasser Omar

    2014-12-03

    The XX model with uniform couplings represents the most natural choice for quantum state transfer through spin chains. Given that it has long been established that single-qubit states cannot be transferred with perfect fidelity in this model, the notion of pretty good state transfer has been recently introduced as a relaxation of the constraints on fidelity. In this paper, we study the transfer of multi-qubit entangled and unentangled states through unmodulated spin chains, and we prove that it is possible to have pretty good state transfer of any multi-particle state. This significantly generalizes the previous results on single-qubit state transfer, and opens way to using uniformly coupled spin chains as quantum channels for the transfer of arbitrary states of any dimension. Our results could be tested with current technology.

  20. Single-metalloprotein wet biotransistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandrini, Andrea; Salerno, Marco; Frabboni, Stefano; Facci, Paolo

    2005-03-01

    Metalloproteins are redox molecules naturally shuttling electrons with high efficiency between molecular partners. As such, they are candidates of choice for bioelectronics. In this work, we have used bacterial metalloprotein azurin, hosted in a nanometer gap between two electrically biased gold electrodes, to demonstrate an electrochemically gated single-molecule transistor operating in an aqueous environment. Gold-chemisorbed azurin shows peaks in tunneling current upon changing electrode potential and a related variation in tunneling barrier transparency which can be exploited to switch an electron current through it. These results suggest the wet approach to molecular electronics as a viable method for exploiting electron transfer of highly specialized biomolecules.