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1

Single-Shot Readout of a Single Nuclear Spin

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Projective measurement of single electron and nuclear spins has evolved from a gedanken experiment to a problem relevant for applications in atomic-scale technologies like quantum computing. Although several approaches allow for detection of a spin of single atoms and molecules, multiple repetitions of the experiment that are usually required for achieving a detectable signal obscure the intrinsic quantum nature of the spin’s behavior. We demonstrated single-shot, projective measurement of a single nuclear spin in diamond using a quantum nondemolition measurement scheme, which allows real-time observation of an individual nuclear spin’s state in a room-temperature solid. Such an ideal measurement is crucial for realization of, for example, quantum error correction protocols in a quantum register.

Neumann, Philipp; Beck, Johannes; Steiner, Matthias; Rempp, Florian; Fedder, Helmut; Hemmer, Philip R.; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Jelezko, Fedor

2010-07-01

2

Single-shot readout of a single nuclear spin.

Projective measurement of single electron and nuclear spins has evolved from a gedanken experiment to a problem relevant for applications in atomic-scale technologies like quantum computing. Although several approaches allow for detection of a spin of single atoms and molecules, multiple repetitions of the experiment that are usually required for achieving a detectable signal obscure the intrinsic quantum nature of the spin's behavior. We demonstrated single-shot, projective measurement of a single nuclear spin in diamond using a quantum nondemolition measurement scheme, which allows real-time observation of an individual nuclear spin's state in a room-temperature solid. Such an ideal measurement is crucial for realization of, for example, quantum error correction protocols in a quantum register. PMID:20595582

Neumann, Philipp; Beck, Johannes; Steiner, Matthias; Rempp, Florian; Fedder, Helmut; Hemmer, Philip R; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Jelezko, Fedor

2010-07-30

3

Single-nuclear-spin cavity QED

We constructed a cavity QED system with a diamagnetic atom of {sup 171}Yb and performed projective measurements on a single nuclear spin. Since Yb has no electronic spin and has 1/2 nuclear spin, the procedure of spin polarization and state verification can be dramatically simplified compared with the pseudo-spin-1/2 system. By enhancing the photon emission rate of the {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 1} transition, projective measurement is implemented for an atom with the measurement time of T{sub meas}=30 {mu}s. Unwanted spin flip and dark counts of the detector lead to systematic error when the present technique is applied for the determination of diagonal elements of an unknown spin state, which is {delta}|{beta}|{sup 2{<=}}2x10{sup -2}. Fast measurement on a long-lived qubit is key to the realization of large-scale one-way quantum computing.

Takeuchi, Makoto; Takei, Nobuyuki; Zhang Peng [ERATO Macroscopic Quantum Control Project, JST, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Doi, Kodai; Kozuma, Mikio [ERATO Macroscopic Quantum Control Project, JST, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-Okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Ueda, Masahito [ERATO Macroscopic Quantum Control Project, JST, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

2010-06-15

4

Electrically driven nuclear spin resonance in single-molecule magnets.

Recent advances in addressing isolated nuclear spins have opened up a path toward using nuclear-spin-based quantum bits. Local magnetic fields are normally used to coherently manipulate the state of the nuclear spin; however, electrical manipulation would allow for fast switching and spatially confined spin control. Here, we propose and demonstrate coherent single nuclear spin manipulation using electric fields only. Because there is no direct coupling between the spin and the electric field, we make use of the hyperfine Stark effect as a magnetic field transducer at the atomic level. This quantum-mechanical process is present in all nuclear spin systems, such as phosphorus or bismuth atoms in silicon, and offers a general route toward the electrical control of nuclear-spin-based devices. PMID:24904159

Thiele, Stefan; Balestro, Franck; Ballou, Rafik; Klyatskaya, Svetlana; Ruben, Mario; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang

2014-06-01

5

Electronic read-out of a single nuclear spin using a molecular spin transistor

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thanks to recent advances of nanofabrication techniques, molecular electronics devices can address today the ultimate probing of electronic transport flowing through a single molecule. Not only this electronic current can show signatures of the molecular quantum levels but it can also detect the magnetic state of the molecule. As a consequence, an entirely novel research field called molecular spintronics in which quantum magnetism of molecular systems can be interfaced to nanoelectronics is now emerging. One of the recent challenges of this field was to probe by this current, not the only spin state of an electron, but the state of a single nuclear spin. Such an achievement was experimentally unimaginable a few years ago. Indeed, the magnetic signal carried by a single nuclear spin is a thousand times less than that of a single electron spin ... Using a Single Molecular Magnet (TbPc2) as a molecular spin transistor in a three terminals configuration, the experiment consists in measuring the current changes when ones sweep the external magnetic field applied to the molecule. When the magnetic spin of the molecule changes its quantum state, a change of current is recorded. Because of the well-defined relationship that exists between the electron spin and nuclear spin carried by the nuclei of the Terbium atom, it is possible to perform the electronic read-out of the electronic spin state which, in turn give information on the state of a single nuclear spin. Application of this effect for quantum information manipulation and storage can be envisioned, as the observation of energy level lifetimes on the order of tens of seconds opens the way to coherent manipulations of a single nuclear spin.[4pt] Reference:[0pt] ``Electronic read-out of a single nuclear spin using a molecular spin transistor,'' R. Vincent, S. Klyatskaya, M. Ruben, W. Wernsdorfer, F. Balestro, Nature, Vol. 488, p.357, (2012).

Balestro, Franck

2013-03-01

6

Repetitive readout of a single electronic spin via quantum logic with nuclear spin ancillae.

Robust measurement of single quantum bits plays a key role in the realization of quantum computation and communication as well as in quantum metrology and sensing. We have implemented a method for the improved readout of single electronic spin qubits in solid-state systems. The method makes use of quantum logic operations on a system consisting of a single electronic spin and several proximal nuclear spin ancillae in order to repetitively readout the state of the electronic spin. Using coherent manipulation of a single nitrogen vacancy center in room-temperature diamond, full quantum control of an electronic-nuclear system consisting of up to three spins was achieved. We took advantage of a single nuclear-spin memory in order to obtain a 10-fold enhancement in the signal amplitude of the electronic spin readout. We also present a two-level, concatenated procedure to improve the readout by use of a pair of nuclear spin ancillae, an important step toward the realization of robust quantum information processors using electronic- and nuclear-spin qubits. Our technique can be used to improve the sensitivity and speed of spin-based nanoscale diamond magnetometers. PMID:19745117

Jiang, L; Hodges, J S; Maze, J R; Maurer, P; Taylor, J M; Cory, D G; Hemmer, P R; Walsworth, R L; Yacoby, A; Zibrov, A S; Lukin, M D

2009-10-01

7

Electronic read-out of a single nuclear spin using a molecular spin transistor.

Quantum control of individual spins in condensed-matter devices is an emerging field with a wide range of applications, from nanospintronics to quantum computing. The electron, possessing spin and orbital degrees of freedom, is conventionally used as the carrier of quantum information in proposed devices. However, electrons couple strongly to the environment, and so have very short relaxation and coherence times. It is therefore extremely difficult to achieve quantum coherence and stable entanglement of electron spins. Alternative concepts propose nuclear spins as the building blocks for quantum computing, because such spins are extremely well isolated from the environment and less prone to decoherence. However, weak coupling comes at a price: it remains challenging to address and manipulate individual nuclear spins. Here we show that the nuclear spin of an individual metal atom embedded in a single-molecule magnet can be read out electronically. The observed long lifetimes (tens of seconds) and relaxation characteristics of nuclear spin at the single-atom scale open the way to a completely new world of devices in which quantum logic may be implemented. PMID:22895342

Vincent, Romain; Klyatskaya, Svetlana; Ruben, Mario; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Balestro, Franck

2012-08-16

8

Electronic readout of a single nuclear spin using a molecular spin transistor

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum control of individual spins in condensed matter devices is an emerging field with a wide range of applications ranging from nanospintronics to quantum computing [1,2]. The electron, with its spin and orbital degrees of freedom, is conventionally used as carrier of the quantum information in the devices proposed so far. However, electrons exhibit a strong coupling to the environment leading to reduced relaxation and coherence times. Indeed quantum coherence and stable entanglement of electron spins are extremely difficult to achieve. We propose a new approach using the nuclear spin of an individual metal atom embedded in a single-molecule magnet (SMM). In order to perform the readout of the nuclear spin, the quantum tunneling of the magnetization (QTM) of the magnetic moment of the SMM in a transitor-like set-up is electronically detected. Long spin lifetimes of an individual nuclear spin were observed and the relaxation characteristics were studied. The manipulation of the nuclear spin state of individual atoms embedded in magnetic molecules opens a completely new world, where quantum logic may be integrated.[4pt] [1] L. Bogani, W. Wernsdorfer, Nature Mat. 7, 179 (2008).[0pt] [2] M. Urdampilleta, S. Klyatskaya, J.P. Cleuziou, M. Ruben, W. Wernsdorfer, Nature Mat. 10, 502 (2011).

Vincent, R.; Klyastskaya, S.; Ruben, M.; Wernsdorfer, W.; Balestro, F.

2012-02-01

9

Faraday rotation with a single-nuclear-spin qubit in a high-finesse optical cavity

When an off-resonant light field is coupled with atomic spins, its polarization can rotate depending on the direction of the spins via Faraday rotation, which has been used for monitoring and controlling the atomic spins. We observed Faraday rotation by an angle of more than 10 deg for a single nuclear spin of 1/2 of a {sup 171}Yb atom in a high-finesse optical cavity. By employing the coupling between the single nuclear spin and a photon, we have also demonstrated that the spin can be projected or weakly measured through the projection of the transmitted single ancillary photon.

Takei, Nobuyuki; Takeuchi, Makoto; Zhang, Peng [ERATO Macroscopic Quantum Control Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Eto, Yujiro; Noguchi, Atsushi; Kozuma, Mikio [ERATO Macroscopic Quantum Control Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Ueda, Masahito [ERATO Macroscopic Quantum Control Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

2010-04-15

10

Quantum Computation Using the 13C Nuclear Spins Near the Single NV Defect Center in Diamond

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the possibility of realizing quantum computation on the basis of a cluster of single interacting nuclear spins in solids. This idea seems to be feasible because of the combination of two techniques—Single Molecule Spectroscopy and Optically Detected Electron Nuclear Double Resonance. Compared to the well-known bulk Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), the proposed method of quantum computation has the advantage that quantum computation is performed with pure spin states and the quantum processor is more easily scalable. At the same time, the advantages of NMR quantum computation are kept: long coherence time and easy construction of quantum gates. As a specific system to implement the above idea, we discuss the 13C-nuclear spins in the nearest vicinity of a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect center in diamond, which can be optically detected using the technique of scanning confocal microscopy. Owing to the hyperfine coupling of the ground state electron paramagnetic spin S=1 of the center to 13C nuclear spins in a diamond lattice, the states of nuclear spins in the vicinity of the defect-center can be addressed individually. Preliminary consideration shows that it should be possible to address up to 12 individual 13C nuclear spins. The dephasing time of the nuclear spin states at low temperatures allows realization up to 105 gates.

Wrachtrup, J.; Kilin, S. Ya.; Nizovtsev, A. P.

2001-09-01

11

Voltage control of electron-nuclear spin correlation time in a single quantum dot

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate bias control of the efficiency of the hyperfine coupling between a single electron in an InAs quantum dot and the surrounding nuclear spins monitored through the positively charged exciton X+ emission. In applied longitudinal magnetic fields, we vary simultaneously the correlation time of the hyperfine interaction and the nuclear spin relaxation time and thereby the amplitude of the achieved dynamic nuclear polarization under optical pumping conditions. In applied transverse magnetic fields, a change in the applied bias allows a switch from the anomalous Hanle effect to the standard electron spin depolarization curves.

Nilsson, J.; Bouet, L.; Bennett, A. J.; Amand, T.; Stevenson, R. M.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Kunz, S.; Marie, X.; Shields, A. J.; Urbaszek, B.

2013-08-01

12

Fast control of nuclear spin polarization in an optically pumped single quantum dot

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly polarized nuclear spins within a semiconductor quantum dot induce effective magnetic (Overhauser) fields of up to several Tesla acting on the electron spin, or up to a few hundred mT for the hole spin. Recently this has been recognized as a resource for intrinsic control of quantum-dot-based spin quantum bits. However, only static long-lived Overhauser fields could be used. Here we demonstrate fast redirection on the microsecond timescale of Overhauser fields on the order of 0.5 T experienced by a single electron spin in an optically pumped GaAs quantum dot. This has been achieved using coherent control of an ensemble of 105 optically polarized nuclear spins by sequences of short radiofrequency pulses. These results open the way to a new class of experiments using radiofrequency techniques to achieve highly correlated nuclear spins in quantum dots, such as adiabatic demagnetization in the rotating frame leading to sub-?K nuclear spin temperatures, rapid adiabatic passage, and spin squeezing.

Makhonin, M. N.; Kavokin, K. V.; Senellart, P.; Lemaître, A.; Ramsay, A. J.; Skolnick, M. S.; Tartakovskii, A. I.

2011-11-01

13

Optical superradiance from nuclear spin environment of single-photon emitters.

We show that superradiant optical emission can be observed from the polarized nuclear spin ensemble surrounding a single-photon emitter such as a single quantum dot or nitrogen-vacancy center. The superradiant light is emitted under optical pumping conditions and would be observable with realistic experimental parameters. PMID:20481939

Kessler, E M; Yelin, S; Lukin, M D; Cirac, J I; Giedke, G

2010-04-01

14

Protein carbon-13 spin systems by a single two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance experiment

By applying a two-dimensional double-quantum carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance experiment to a protein uniformly enriched to 26% carbon-13, networks of directly bonded carbon atoms were identified by virtue of their one-bond spin-spin couplings and were classified by amino acid type according to their particular single- and double-quantum chemical shift patterns. Spin systems of 75 of the 98 amino acid residues in a protein, oxidized Anabaena 7120 ferredoxin (molecular weight 11,000), were identified by this approach, which represents a key step in an improved methodology for assigning protein nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. Missing spin systems corresponded primarily to residues located adjacent to the paramagnetic iron-sulfur cluster. 25 references, 2 figures.

Oh, B.H.; Westler, W.M.; Darba, P.; Markley, J.L.

1988-05-13

15

High-resolution spectroscopy of single NV defects coupled with nearby 13C nuclear spins in diamond

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a systematic study of the hyperfine interaction between the electron spin of a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect in diamond and nearby 13C nuclear spins, by using pulsed electron-spin resonance spectroscopy. We isolate a set of discrete values of the hyperfine coupling strength ranging from 14 MHz to 400 kHz and corresponding to 13C nuclear spins placed at different lattice sites of the diamond matrix. For each lattice site, the hyperfine interaction is further investigated through nuclear-spin polarization measurements and by studying the magnetic field dependence of the hyperfine splitting. This work provides information that is relevant for the development of nuclear-spin-based quantum register in diamond.

Dréau, A.; Maze, J.-R.; Lesik, M.; Roch, J.-F.; Jacques, V.

2012-04-01

16

Nuclear-spin-dependent coherent population trapping of single nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coherent population trapping (CPT) provides a highly sensitive means for probing the energy-level structure of an atomic system. For a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond, the CPT offers an alternative to the standard optically detected magnetic resonance method for measuring the hyperfine structure of the electronic ground states. We show that the nuclear-spin-dependent CPT measures directly the hyperfine splitting of these states due to the 14N nuclear spin. The CPT spectral response obtained in the presence of a strong microwave field, resonant or nearly resonant with a ground-state spin transition, maps out the dynamic Stark splitting induced by the coherent spin excitation.

Golter, D. Andrew; Dinyari, Khodadad N.; Wang, Hailin

2013-03-01

17

High-dynamic-range magnetometry with a single nuclear spin in diamond.

Sensors based on the nitrogen-vacancy defect in diamond are being developed to measure weak magnetic and electric fields at the nanoscale. However, such sensors rely on measurements of a shift in the Lamor frequency of the defect, so an accumulation of quantum phase causes the measurement signal to exhibit a periodic modulation. This means that the measurement time is either restricted to half of one oscillation period, which limits accuracy, or that the magnetic field range must be known in advance. Moreover, the precision increases only slowly (as T(-0.5)) with measurement time T (ref. 3). Here, we implement a quantum phase estimation algorithm on a single nuclear spin in diamond to combine both high sensitivity and high dynamic range. By achieving a scaling of the precision with time to T(-0.85), we improve the sensitivity by a factor of 7.4 for an accessible field range of 16 mT, or, alternatively, we improve the dynamic range by a factor of 130 for a sensitivity of 2.5 µT Hz(-1/2). Quantum phase estimation algorithms have also recently been implemented using a single electron spin in a nitrogen-vacancy centre. These methods are applicable to a variety of field detection schemes, and do not require quantum entanglement. PMID:22179568

Waldherr, G; Beck, J; Neumann, P; Said, R S; Nitsche, M; Markham, M L; Twitchen, D J; Twamley, J; Jelezko, F; Wrachtrup, J

2012-02-01

18

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the optically pumped nuclear spin polarization in a single GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well in the quantum Hall system. We apply resistive detection via the contact hyperfine interaction, which provides high sensitivity and selectivity, to probe a small amount of polarized nuclear spins in a single well. The properties of the optical nuclear spin polarization are clearly observed. We theoretically discuss the nuclear spin dynamics accompanied with doped electrons to analyze the experimental data. The optical nuclear polarization spectra exhibit electron-spin-resolved lowest Landau level interband transitions. We find that the phonon emission process, which normally assists the optical pumping process, influences the optical nuclear spin polarization. We also discuss that the electron-electron interaction can play an important role in the optical nuclear spin polarization.

Akiba, K.; Yuge, T.; Kanasugi, S.; Nagase, K.; Hirayama, Y.

2013-06-01

19

Nuclear spin effects in semiconductor quantum dots

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of an electronic spin with its nuclear environment, an issue known as the central spin problem, has been the subject of considerable attention due to its relevance for spin-based quantum computation using semiconductor quantum dots. Independent control of the nuclear spin bath using nuclear magnetic resonance techniques and dynamic nuclear polarization using the central spin itself offer unique possibilities for manipulating the nuclear bath with significant consequences for the coherence and controlled manipulation of the central spin. Here we review some of the recent optical and transport experiments that have explored this central spin problem using semiconductor quantum dots. We focus on the interaction between 104-106 nuclear spins and a spin of a single electron or valence-band hole. We also review the experimental techniques as well as the key theoretical ideas and the implications for quantum information science.

Chekhovich, E. A.; Makhonin, M. N.; Tartakovskii, A. I.; Yacoby, A.; Bluhm, H.; Nowack, K. C.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.

2013-06-01

20

Electrical control of single spin dynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over ten years ago, Daniel Loss and David DiVincenzo proposed using the spin of a single electron as a quantum bit. At the time of the proposal, it was not possible to trap a single electron in a device and measure its spin, let alone demonstrate control of quantum coherence. In this talk I will describe recent progress in the field, focusing on two new methods for single spin control that have been developed by my group at Princeton. The first method is based on quantum interference and implements spin-interferometry on a chip. The second method utilizes the strong spin-orbit coupling of InAs. By shifting the orbital position of the electronic wavefunction at gigahertz frequencies, we can control the orientation of a single electron spin and measure the full g-tensor, which exhibits a large anisotropy due to spin-orbit interactions. Both methods for single spin control are orders of magnitude faster than conventional electron spin resonance and allow investigations of single spin coherence in the presence of fluctuating nuclear and spin-orbit fields. I will also describe recent efforts to transfer these methods to silicon quantum dots, where the effects of fluctuating nuclear fields are much smaller.

Petta, Jason

2012-02-01

21

A single-molecule magnet placed in a magnetic field perpendicular to its anisotropy axis can be truncated to an effective two-level system, with easily tunable energy splitting. The quantum coherence of the molecular spin is largely determined by the dynamics of the surrounding nuclear spin bath. Here we report the measurement of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1n in a single crystal of the single-molecule magnet Mn12-ac, at T ? 30 mK in perpendicular fields B? up to 9 T. The relaxation channel at B ? 0 is dominated by incoherent quantum tunneling of the Mn12-ac spin S, aided by the nuclear bath itself. However for B?>5 T we observe an increase of 1/T1n by several orders of magnitude up to the highest field, despite the fact that the molecular spin is in its quantum mechanical ground state. This striking observation is a consequence of the zero-point quantum fluctuations of S, which allow it to mediate the transfer of energy from the excited nuclear spin bath to the crystal lattice at much higher rates. Our experiment highlights the importance of quantum fluctuations in the interaction between an "effective two-level system" and its surrounding spin bath. PMID:24702408

Morello, A; Millán, A; de Jongh, L J

2014-03-21

22

Single spin asymmetries at CLAS

We present recent results from Jefferson Lab's CLAS detector on beam and target single-spin asymmetries in single pion electroproduction off unpolarized hydrogen and polarized NH 3 targets. Non-zero single-beam and single-target spin asymmetries are observed for the first time in semi-inclusive and exclusive pion production in hard-scattering kinematics.

Harut Avakian; Latifa Elouadrhiri

2003-05-19

23

Single-atom spin qubits in silicon

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spin qubits in silicon are excellent candidates for scalable quantum information processing (QIP) due to their long coherence times and the enormous investment in silicon MOS technology. Here I discuss qubits based upon single phosphorus (P) dopant atoms in Si [1]. Projective readout of such qubits had proved challenging until single-shot measurement of a single donor electron spin was demonstrated [2] using a silicon single electron transistor (Si-SET) and the process of spin-to-charge conversion. The measurement gave readout fidelities 90% and spin lifetimes T1e 6 s [2], opening the path to demonstration of electron and nuclear spin qubits in silicon. Integrating an on-chip microwave transmission line enabled single-electron spin resonance (ESR) of the P donor electron. We used this to demonstrate Rabi oscillations of the electron spin qubit, while a Hahn echo sequence revealed electron spin coherence times T2e 0.2 ms [3]. This time is expected to become much longer in isotopically enriched ^28Si devices. We also achieved single-shot readout of the ^31P nuclear spin (with fidelity 99.6%) by monitoring the two hyperfine-split ESR lines of the P donor system. By applying (local) NMR pulses we demonstrated coherent control of the nuclear spin qubit, giving a coherence time T2n 60 ms. [4pt] [1] B.E. Kane, Nature 393, 133 (1998). [2] A. Morello et al., Nature 467, 687 (2010). [3] J.J. Pla et al., Nature 489, 541 (2012).

Dzurak, Andrew

2013-03-01

24

Nuclear spin circular dichroism

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in magneto-optic spectroscopy techniques that use nuclear magnetization as the source of the magnetic field. Here we present a formulation of magnetic circular dichroism (CD) due to magnetically polarized nuclei, nuclear spin-induced CD (NSCD), in molecules. The NSCD ellipticity and nuclear spin-induced optical rotation (NSOR) angle correspond to the real and imaginary parts, respectively, of (complex) quadratic response functions involving the dynamic second-order interaction of the electron system with the linearly polarized light beam, as well as the static magnetic hyperfine interaction. Using the complex polarization propagator framework, NSCD and NSOR signals are obtained at frequencies in the vicinity of optical excitations. Hartree-Fock and density-functional theory calculations on relatively small model systems, ethene, benzene, and 1,4-benzoquinone, demonstrate the feasibility of the method for obtaining relatively strong nuclear spin-induced ellipticity and optical rotation signals. Comparison of the proton and carbon-13 signals of ethanol reveals that these resonant phenomena facilitate chemical resolution between non-equivalent nuclei in magneto-optic spectra.

Vaara, Juha; Rizzo, Antonio; Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick; Coriani, Sonia

2014-04-01

25

Nuclear spin circular dichroism.

Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in magneto-optic spectroscopy techniques that use nuclear magnetization as the source of the magnetic field. Here we present a formulation of magnetic circular dichroism (CD) due to magnetically polarized nuclei, nuclear spin-induced CD (NSCD), in molecules. The NSCD ellipticity and nuclear spin-induced optical rotation (NSOR) angle correspond to the real and imaginary parts, respectively, of (complex) quadratic response functions involving the dynamic second-order interaction of the electron system with the linearly polarized light beam, as well as the static magnetic hyperfine interaction. Using the complex polarization propagator framework, NSCD and NSOR signals are obtained at frequencies in the vicinity of optical excitations. Hartree-Fock and density-functional theory calculations on relatively small model systems, ethene, benzene, and 1,4-benzoquinone, demonstrate the feasibility of the method for obtaining relatively strong nuclear spin-induced ellipticity and optical rotation signals. Comparison of the proton and carbon-13 signals of ethanol reveals that these resonant phenomena facilitate chemical resolution between non-equivalent nuclei in magneto-optic spectra. PMID:24712776

Vaara, Juha; Rizzo, Antonio; Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick; Coriani, Sonia

2014-04-01

26

Detection and Control of Individual Nuclear Spins Using a Weakly Coupled Electron Spin

We experimentally isolate, characterize, and coherently control up to six individual nuclear spins that are weakly coupled to an electron spin in diamond. Our method employs multipulse sequences on the electron spin that resonantly amplify the interaction with a selected nuclear spin and at the same time dynamically suppress decoherence caused by the rest of the spin bath. We are able to address nuclear spins with interaction strengths that are an order of magnitude smaller than the electron spin dephasing rate. Our results provide a route towards tomography with single-nuclear-spin sensitivity and greatly extend the number of available quantum bits for quantum information processing in diamond.

Taminiau, T.H.; Wagenaar, J.J.T.; van der Sar, T.; Jelezko, F.; Dobrovitski, Viatcheslav V.; Hanson, R.

2012-09-28

27

Single-spin detection will be crucial for solid-state quantum computer architectures in which information is encoded in the spin-state of single nuclear or electron spins. The formidable problem of single-spin detection in a solid can be mapped to a more tractable problem of single-charge detection through spin-dependent electron transfer which may be observed using ultra-sensitive solid-state nanostructure electrometers. Here we describe

Tilo M. Buehler; Rolf Brenner; David J. Reilly; Alex R. Hamilton; Andrew S. Dzurak; Robert C. Clark

2001-01-01

28

Single-donor spin qubits in silicon

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea of using the spin of a single donor atom in silicon to encode quantum information goes back to the Kane proposal [1] in 1998. We have now resolved the technical challenges involved in the readout and control of the electron and nuclear spin of a single atom. The key breakthrough was the development of a device structure where the donor is tunnel-coupled to the island of an electrostatically-induced single-electron transistor [2]. This device allowed the single-shot readout of the electron spin with visibility > 90% and 3 ?s readout time [3]. More recently we have integrated the single-shot readout device with a broadband microwave transmission line to coherently control the electron and nuclear spins. The resonance frequency of the electron is found by monitoring the excess spin-up counts while sweeping the microwave frequency. At any time, one of two possible frequencies is found to be in resonance with the electron spin, depending on the state of the nuclear spin. Alternately probing the two frequencies yields the (quantum nondemolition) single-shot readout of the nucleus, with fidelity > 99.99%. Then we demonstrate the coherent control (Rabi oscillations) of both the electron and the nucleus, both detected in single-shot mode. The ?-pulse fidelity is ˜70% for the electron and ˜99% for the nucleus. Hahn echo and multi-pulse dynamical decoupling sequences allow us to explore the true coherence of the qubits, yielding T2e˜200 ?s for the electron, and T2n˜60 ms for the nucleus. These results are fully consistent with the bulk values for donors in a natural Si sample. Further improvements in qubit coherence can be expected by moving to isotopically pure ^28Si substrates.[4pt] [1] B. E. Kane, Nature 393, 133 (1998).[0pt] [2] A. Morello et al., Phys. Rev. B 80, 081307(R) (2009).[0pt] [3] A. Morello et al., Nature 467, 687 (2010).

Morello, Andrea

2012-02-01

29

Nuclear spin pumping and electron spin susceptibilities

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present a new formalism to evaluate the nuclear spin dynamics driven by hyperfine interaction with nonequilibrium electron spins. To describe the dynamics up to second order in the hyperfine coupling it suffices to evaluate the susceptibility and fluctuations of the electron spin. Our approach does not rely on a separation of electronic energy scales or the specific choice of electronic basis states, thereby overcoming practical problems which may arise in certain limits when using a more traditional formalism based on rate equations.

Danon, J.; Nazarov, Yu. V.

2011-06-01

30

Spin observables and nuclear geometry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new measurements of polarization P and spin rotation function Q in 500 MeV p-40Ca elastic scattering require geometric differences among the various parts of the p-nucleus interaction. We present a general analytic formalism which defines these differences and shows how the new experiments can be interpreted as interferometric determinations of them. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Closed form spin-dependent p-nucleus scattering amplitudes. Data-to-data relations for polarization and spin rotation.

McNeil, J. A.; Sparrow, D. A.; Amado, R. D.

1982-09-01

31

Polarization and readout of coupled single spins in diamond.

We study the coupling of a single nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond to a nearby single nitrogen defect at room temperature. The magnetic dipolar coupling leads to a splitting in the electron spin resonance frequency of the nitrogen-vacancy center, allowing readout of the state of a single nitrogen electron spin. At magnetic fields where the spin splitting of the two centers is the same, we observe a strong polarization of the nitrogen electron spin. The amount of polarization can be controlled by the optical excitation power. We combine the polarization and the readout in time-resolved pump-probe measurements to determine the spin relaxation time of a single nitrogen electron spin. Finally, we discuss indications for hyperfine-induced polarization of the nitrogen nuclear spin. PMID:17026336

Hanson, R; Mendoza, F M; Epstein, R J; Awschalom, D D

2006-08-25

32

Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with single spins in diamond

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single Nitrogen-Vacancy colour centers in diamond are gaining popularity because of its exceptional optical and spin properties. The single spin of the defect can be manipulated optically, providing a efficient way to entangle single electron spins and couple nuclear spins qubits in diamond.[1] Long spin coherence time of these single defects finds application as sensitive magnetic field probes. Using engineered diamond we can achieve ultrahigh sensitivity using which we will be able to detect a single external electron or nucelar spin.[2] Controlled creation of these color centers inside nanodiamonds offers diverse applications. By attaching these single spins to the tip of a scanning probe, we were able to perform sensitive scanning probe magnetometry at nanoscale.[3] Improving this device by using quantum grade diamond and synchronized NMR pulse sequences we would have the ability to perform nanoscale NMR/MRI of single molecules.[0pt] [1] Neumann, P. et al. Multipartite Entanglement Among Single Spins in Diamond. Science 320, 1326-1329 (2008).[0pt] [2] Maze, J. R. et al. Nanoscale magnetic sensing with an individual electronic spin in diamond. Nature 455, 644-647(2008).[0pt] [3] Balasubramanian, G. et al. Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions. Nature 455, 648-651(2008).

Balasubramanian, Gopalakrishnan; Tisler, Julia; Kolesov, Roman; Jelezko, Fedor; Wrachtrup, Joerg

2009-03-01

33

NMR excitation and relaxation in a ``single domain'' spin glass

Zero field NMR measurements of the spin lattice relaxation time T1 on copper satellite nuclei in a frozen CuMn ``single domain'' spin glass show that the longitudinal nuclear magnetization recovery is not purely exponential. Three possible causes for the observed nonexponentiality have been considered: The distribution of enhancement factors, the differences in neighbourhood experienced by the satellite nuclei and a

E. Tönsing; H. Jung; C. Tempelmann; H. Brömer

1991-01-01

34

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single electron spin plays a central role for spin-based quantum information science and electronic devices. One crucial requirement for the future success is to have a long quantum coherence time. It has been demonstrated that in III-V materials, the electron spin coherence time deteriorates rapidly due to the hyperfine coupling with the nuclear environment. Here, we report the increase of the electron spin coherence time by optical controlled suppression of nuclear spin fluctuations through coherent dark-state spectroscopy. The experiment is performed in a single negatively charged InAs self assembled quantum dot (SAQD). The dynamic nuclear spin polarization manifests itself as a hysteresis in the probe absorption spectrum and in the spectral position of the dark state as a function of the frequency scanning direction of the probe field. We demonstrated that the nuclear field can be locked to the maximum trion excitation by observing a flat-top of the trion absorption lineshape, and the switching of the nuclei from unstable to stable configurations by fixing the laser frequencies and monitoring the coherent optical response as a function of time. The optically controlled locking of the nuclear field leads to an enhancement of the electron spin coherence time, which is measured through dark state spectroscopy. The suppression of the nuclear field fluctuations result from a hole spin assisted dynamic nuclear spin polarization feed-back process. We further demonstrated the electron spin coherence enhancement by a three-beam measurement, where two-pump beams lock the nuclear field and the third probe measures the coherence time through the dark state. The inferred spin coherence time is increased by nearly 3 orders of magnitude compared to its thermal value. Our work lays the groundwork for the reproducible preparation of the nuclear spin environment for repetitive control and measurement of a single spin with minimal statistical broadening.

Xu, Xiaodong

2010-03-01

35

Electron spin decoherence in nuclear spin baths and dynamical decoupling

We introduce the quantum theory of the electron spin decoherence in a nuclear spin bath and the dynamical decoupling approach for protecting the electron spin coherence. These theories are applied to various solid-state systems, such as radical spins in molecular crystals and NV centers in diamond.

Zhao, N.; Yang, W.; Ho, S. W.; Hu, J. L.; Wan, J. T. K.; Liu, R. B. [Department of Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories (Hong Kong)

2011-12-23

36

Electrons trapped in single crystals of sucrose: Induced spin densities

Electrons are trapped at intermolecular sites in single crystals of sucrose {ital X} irradiated at 4.2 K. The coupling tensors for the hyperfine couplings between the electron and surrounding protons have been deduced from electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) data. Electron spin densities at nearby hydroxy protons are positive, whereas spin densities at the more remote protons of carbon-bound hydrogen atoms are negative. The origin of these negative spin densities is discussed.

Box, H.C.; Budzinski, E.E.; Freund, H.G. (Biophysics Department, Roswell Park Memorial Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263 (USA))

1990-07-01

37

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electron spin dephasing and decoherence by its interaction with nuclear spins in self-assembled quantum dots are investigated in the framework of the empirical tight-binding model. Electron spin dephasing in an ensemble of dots is induced by the inhomogeneous precession frequencies of the electron among dots, while electron spin decoherence in a single dot arises from the inhomogeneous precession frequencies of nuclear spins in the dot. For In(x)Ga(1-x) As self-assembled dots containing 30000 nuclei, the dephasing and decoherence times are predicted to be on the order of 100 ps and 1 (micro)s.

Lee, Seungwon; vonAllmen, Paul; Oyafuso, Fabiano; Klimeck, Gerhard; Whale, K. Birgitta

2004-01-01

38

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid-state spin qubits are promising candidates for quantum computation and quantum communication applications, for which long coherence times are a prerequisite. In the case of single Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) centers, the coherence times are often limited by interactions with the surrounding nuclear environment. In this poster we present recent experimental results demonstrating the detection of individual nuclear spins weakly coupled to single electronic spin defects beyond the ``T2-star'' limit using dynamical decoupling pulse sequences. We take advantage of the coherent nature of the hyperfine interaction to probe the nuclear environment of individual NV centers, and to identify the nearby nuclear spins and determine their coupling strengths and relative positions to the NV. We observe coupling strengths ranging from 2 MHz down to 46 kHz, well below the limit imposed by ``T2-star,'' and observe multiple nuclei coupled to a single NV. We discuss potential applications of this technique in magnetometry and quantum information science.

Unterreithmeier, Quirin; Kolkowitz, Shimon; Bennett, Steven; Lukin, Mikhail

2012-06-01

39

Coherent properties of single rare-earth spin qubits.

Rare-earth-doped crystals are excellent hardware for quantum storage of photons. Additional functionality of these materials is added by their waveguiding properties allowing for on-chip photonic networks. However, detection and coherent properties of rare-earth single-spin qubits have not been demonstrated so far. Here we present experimental results on high-fidelity optical initialization, effcient coherent manipulation and optical readout of a single-electron spin of Ce(3+) ion in a yttrium aluminium garnet crystal. Under dynamic decoupling, spin coherence lifetime reaches T2=2?ms and is almost limited by the measured spin-lattice relaxation time T1=4.5?ms. Strong hyperfine coupling to aluminium nuclear spins suggests that cerium electron spins can be exploited as an interface between photons and long-lived nuclear spin memory. Combined with high brightness of Ce(3+) emission and a possibility of creating photonic circuits out of the host material, this makes cerium spins an interesting option for integrated quantum photonics. PMID:24826968

Siyushev, P; Xia, K; Reuter, R; Jamali, M; Zhao, N; Yang, N; Duan, C; Kukharchyk, N; Wieck, A D; Kolesov, R; Wrachtrup, J

2014-01-01

40

Coherent properties of single rare-earth spin qubits

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare-earth-doped crystals are excellent hardware for quantum storage of photons. Additional functionality of these materials is added by their waveguiding properties allowing for on-chip photonic networks. However, detection and coherent properties of rare-earth single-spin qubits have not been demonstrated so far. Here we present experimental results on high-fidelity optical initialization, effcient coherent manipulation and optical readout of a single-electron spin of Ce3+ ion in a yttrium aluminium garnet crystal. Under dynamic decoupling, spin coherence lifetime reaches T2=2?ms and is almost limited by the measured spin-lattice relaxation time T1=4.5?ms. Strong hyperfine coupling to aluminium nuclear spins suggests that cerium electron spins can be exploited as an interface between photons and long-lived nuclear spin memory. Combined with high brightness of Ce3+ emission and a possibility of creating photonic circuits out of the host material, this makes cerium spins an interesting option for integrated quantum photonics.

Siyushev, P.; Xia, K.; Reuter, R.; Jamali, M.; Zhao, N.; Yang, N.; Duan, C.; Kukharchyk, N.; Wieck, A. D.; Kolesov, R.; Wrachtrup, J.

2014-05-01

41

A single-spin-current thermal generator

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We theoretically propose a single-spin-current thermal generator consisting of a Rashba quantum dot (QD), one hot electrode and two cold electrodes. The Rashba QD is directly coupled to the three electrodes, and there exists a bridge channel between the two cold electrodes. Our results show the QD device can be used to generate pure spin-up or spin-down currents in cold electrodes in the absence of bias voltages and magnetic materials. The underlying reason is a cooperative effect of the spin-dependent quantum interference effects originating from Rashba spin-orbit interaction in the QD and temperature gradients among the three electrodes. The working conditions for the single-spin-current thermal generator are also clearly presented. Moreover, we also find that the device can be converted from n-type to p-type or vice versa by a gate voltage.

Liu, Y. S.; Yang, X. F.; Hong, X. K.; Chi, F.

2012-07-01

42

Electrical control of single hole spins in nanowire quantum dots.

The development of viable quantum computation devices will require the ability to preserve the coherence of quantum bits (qubits). Single electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots are a versatile platform for quantum information processing, but controlling decoherence remains a considerable challenge. Hole spins in III-V semiconductors have unique properties, such as a strong spin-orbit interaction and weak coupling to nuclear spins, and therefore, have the potential for enhanced spin control and longer coherence times. A weaker hyperfine interaction has previously been reported in self-assembled quantum dots using quantum optics techniques, but the development of hole-spin-based electronic devices in conventional III-V heterostructures has been limited by fabrication challenges. Here, we show that gate-tunable hole quantum dots can be formed in InSb nanowires and used to demonstrate Pauli spin blockade and electrical control of single hole spins. The devices are fully tunable between hole and electron quantum dots, which allows the hyperfine interaction strengths, g-factors and spin blockade anisotropies to be compared directly in the two regimes. PMID:23416794

Pribiag, V S; Nadj-Perge, S; Frolov, S M; van den Berg, J W G; van Weperen, I; Plissard, S R; Bakkers, E P A M; Kouwenhoven, L P

2013-03-01

43

Single Spin Asymmetry in High Energy QCD

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first steps in an effort to incorporate the physics of transverse spin asymmetries into the saturation formalism of high energy QCD. We consider a simple model in which a transversely polarized quark scatters on a proton or nuclear target. Using the light-cone perturbation theory the hadron production cross section can be written as a convolution of the light-cone wave function squared and the interaction with the target. To generate the single transverse spin asymmetry (STSA) either the wave function squared or the interaction with the target has to be T-odd. In this work we use the lowest-order q ? q G wave function squared, which is T-even, generating the STSA from the T-odd interaction with the target mediated by an odderon exchange. We study the properties of the obtained STSA, some of which are in qualitative agreement with experiment: STSA increases with increasing projectile xF and is a non-monotonic function of the transverse momentum kT. Our mechanism predicts that the quark STSA in polarized proton-nucleus collisions should be much smaller than in polarized proton-proton collisions. We also observe that the STSA for prompt photons due to our mechanism is zero within the accuracy of the approximation.

Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Sievert, Matthew D.

44

Tunneling spin injection into single layer graphene.

We achieve tunneling spin injection from Co into single layer graphene (SLG) using TiO? seeded MgO barriers. A nonlocal magnetoresistance (?R(NL)) of 130??? is observed at room temperature, which is the largest value observed in any material. Investigating ?R(NL) vs SLG conductivity from the transparent to the tunneling contact regimes demonstrates the contrasting behaviors predicted by the drift-diffusion theory of spin transport. Furthermore, tunnel barriers reduce the contact-induced spin relaxation and are therefore important for future investigations of spin relaxation in graphene. PMID:21231003

Han, Wei; Pi, K; McCreary, K M; Li, Yan; Wong, Jared J I; Swartz, A G; Kawakami, R K

2010-10-15

45

Room-temperature entanglement between single defect spins in diamond

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entanglement is the central yet fleeting phenomenon of quantum physics. Once being considered a peculiar counter-intuitive property of quantum theory, it has developed into the most central element of quantum technology. Consequently, there have been a number of experimental demonstrations of entanglement between photons, atoms, ions and solid-state systems such as spins or quantum dots, superconducting circuits and macroscopic diamond. Here we experimentally demonstrate entanglement between two engineered single solid-state spin quantum bits (qubits) at ambient conditions. Photon emission of defect pairs reveals ground-state spin correlation. Entanglement (fidelity=0.67+/-0.04) is proved by quantum state tomography. Moreover, the lifetime of electron spin entanglement is extended to milliseconds by entanglement swapping to nuclear spins. The experiments mark an important step towards a scalable room-temperature quantum device being of potential use in quantum information processing as well as metrology.

Dolde, F.; Jakobi, I.; Naydenov, B.; Zhao, N.; Pezzagna, S.; Trautmann, C.; Meijer, J.; Neumann, P.; Jelezko, F.; Wrachtrup, J.

2013-03-01

46

Nuclear spin qubits in a trapped-ion quantum computer

Physical systems must fulfill a number of conditions to qualify as useful quantum bits (qubits) for quantum-information processing, including ease of manipulation, long decoherence times, and high fidelity readout operations. Since these conditions are hard to satisfy with a single system, it may be necessary to combine different degrees of freedom. Here we discuss a possible system based on electronic and nuclear spin degrees of freedom in trapped ions. The nuclear spin yields long decoherence times, while the electronic spin, in a magnetic field gradient, provides efficient manipulation, and the optical transitions of the ions assure a selective and efficient initialization and readout.

Feng, M. [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Center for Cold Atom Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Xu, Y. Y.; Zhou, F. [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Center for Cold Atom Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Suter, D. [Fakultaet Physik, Technische Universitaet Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany)

2009-05-15

47

Single spin asymmetries in electroproduction at CLAS

We present measurements of spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive processes in hard scattering kinematics using a 5.7 GeV electron beam and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at JLab. Scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons of an unpolarized liquid-hydrogen and off a polarized NH{sub 3} targets was studied over a wide range of kinematics. Non-zero single-beam and single-target spin asymmetries have been observed in semi-inclusive pion production in hard-scattering kinematics (Q{sup 2} > 1.2 GeV{sup 2}, W{sup 4} > 4 GeV{sup 2}). Systematic studies of factorization of x and z dependences have been done for different spin-dependent and spin-independent observables. No significant x/z dependence has been observed within statistical uncertainties, which is consistent with factorization of hard scattering and fragmentation processes.

Harut Avakian; Latifa Elouadrhiri

2004-06-02

48

Polarization of nuclear spins by a cold nanoscale resonator

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cold nanoscale resonator coupled to a system of nuclear spins can induce spin relaxation. In the low-temperature limit where spin-lattice interactions are “frozen out,” spontaneous emission by nuclear spins into a resonant mechanical mode can become the dominant mechanism for cooling the spins to thermal equilibrium with their environment. We provide a theoretical framework for the study of resonator-induced cooling of nuclear spins in this low-temperature regime. Relaxation equations are derived from first principles, in the limit where energy donated by the spins to the resonator is quickly dissipated into the cold bath that damps it. A physical interpretation of the processes contributing to spin polarization is given. For a system of spins that have identical couplings to the resonator, the interaction Hamiltonian conserves spin angular momentum, and the resonator cannot relax the spins to thermal equilibrium unless this symmetry is broken by the spin Hamiltonian. The mechanism by which such a spin system becomes “trapped” away from thermal equilibrium can be visualized using a semiclassical model, which shows how an indirect spin-spin interaction arises from the coupling of multiple spins to one resonator. The internal spin Hamiltonian can affect the polarization process in two ways: (1) By modifying the structure of the spin-spin correlations in the energy eigenstates, and (2) by splitting the degeneracy within a manifold of energy eigenstates, so that zero-frequency off-diagonal terms in the density matrix are converted to oscillating coherences. Shifting the frequencies of these coherences sufficiently far from zero suppresses the development of resonator-induced correlations within the manifold during polarization from a totally disordered state. Modification of the spin-spin correlations by means of either mechanism affects the strength of the fluctuating spin dipole that drives the resonator. In the case where product states can be chosen as energy eigenstates, spontaneous emission from eigenstate populations into the resonant mode can be interpreted as independent emission by individual spins, and the spins relax exponentially to thermal equilibrium if the development of resonator-induced correlations is suppressed. When the spin Hamiltonian includes a significant contribution from the homonuclear dipolar coupling, the energy eigenstates entail a correlation specific to the coupling network. Simulations of dipole-dipole coupled systems of up to five spins suggest that these systems contain weakly emitting eigenstates that can trap a fraction of the population for time periods ?100/R0, where R0 is the rate constant for resonator-enhanced spontaneous emission by a single spin 1/2. Much of the polarization, however, relaxes with rates comparable to R0. A distribution of characteristic high-field chemical shifts tends to increase the relaxation rates of weakly emitting states, enabling transitions to states that can quickly relax to thermal equilibrium. The theoretical framework presented in this paper is illustrated with discussions of spin polarization in the contexts of force-detected nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectroscopy and magnetic-resonance force microscopy.

Butler, Mark C.; Weitekamp, Daniel P.

2011-12-01

49

Spin excitations in di-nuclear systems

The spin excitations of products from two-body reactions have two sources: transfer of orbital motion into intrinsic spins via tangential friction and thermal excitations of di-nuclear spin modes. The relative importance of these two mechanisms is discussed for deep inelastic scattering, quasi-fission and spontaneous fission processes. The results of simple model calculations are compared to measured {gamma}-multiplicities in {sup 238}U induced quasi-fission reactions and it is concluded that the spin-excitation are only partially equilibrated during the interaction. 11 refs., 5 figs.

Back, B.B.

1990-01-01

50

Single-Spin Asymmetries and Transversity in QCD

Initial- and final-state interactions from gluon exchange, normally neglected in the parton model, have a profound effect in QCD hard-scattering reactions, leading to leading-twist single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, diffractive hard hadronic reactions, as well as nuclear shadowing and antishadowing-leading-twist physics not incorporated in the light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. The physics of such processes thus require the understanding of QCD at the amplitude level; in particular, the physics of spin requires an understanding of the phase structure of final-state and initial-state interactions, as well as the structure of the basic wavefunctions of hadrons themselves. I also discuss transversity in exclusive channels, including how one can use single-spin asymmetries to determine the relative phases of the timelike baryon form factors, as well as the anomalous physics of the normal-normal spin-spin correlation observed in large-angle proton-proton elastic scattering. As an illustration of the utility of light-front wavefunctions, the transversity distribution of a single electron is computed, as defined from its two-particle QED quantum fluctuations.

Brodsky, S.J.; /SLAC

2005-12-14

51

Neutron single target spin asymmetries in SIDIS

The experiment E06-010 in Hall A at Jefferson Lab took data between November 2008 and February 2009 to directly measure, for the first time, the pion (and kaon) single "neutron" target-spin asymmetry (SSA) in semi-inclusive DIS from a polarized 3He target. Collins, Sivers (and Pretzelosity) neutron asymmetries are going to be extracted from the measured SSA. Details of the experiment are described together with the preliminary results of the ongoing analysis. Near future Hall A experiments on transverse nucleon spin structure are shorty reviewed.

Evaristo Cisbani

2010-04-01

52

Dipolar broadening of nuclear spin resonance under dynamical pumping

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the polarization dependence of the homogeneously broadened nuclear spin resonance in a crystal. We employ a combinatorial method to restrict the nuclear states to a fixed polarization and show that the center of the resonance is shifted linearly with the nuclear polarization by up to the zero polarization line width. The width shrinks from its maximum value at zero polarization to zero at full polarization. This suggests to use the line shape as a direct measure of nuclear polarization reached under dynamical pumping. In the limit of single quantum of excitation above the fully ferromagnetic state, we provide an explicit solution to the problem of nuclear spin dynamics which links a bound on the fastest decay rate to the observable width of the resonance line.

Tsyplyatyev, O.; Whittaker, D. M.

2012-03-01

53

We show how to construct a universal set of quantum logic gates using control over exchange interactions and single- and two-spin measurements only. Single-spin unitary operations are teleported between neighboring spins instead of being executed directly, thus potentially eliminating a major difficulty in the construction of several of the most promising proposals for solid-state quantum computation, such as spin-coupled quantum dots, donor-atom nuclear spins in silicon, and electrons on helium. Contrary to previous proposals dealing with this difficulty, our scheme requires no encoding redundancy. We also discuss an application to superconducting phase qubits.

Wu, L.-A.; Lidar, Daniel A. [Chemical Physics Theory Group, Chemistry Department, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada)

2003-05-01

54

The spin-temperature theory of dynamic nuclear polarization and nuclear spin-lattice relaxation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed derivation of the equations governing dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and nuclear spin lattice relaxation by use of the spin temperature theory has been carried to second order in a perturbation expansion of the density matrix. Nuclear spin diffusion in the rapid diffusion limit and the effects of the coupling of the electron dipole-dipole reservoir (EDDR) with the nuclear spins are incorporated. The complete expression for the dynamic nuclear polarization has been derived and then examined in detail for the limit of well resolved solid effect transitions. Exactly at the solid effect transition peaks, the conventional solid-effect DNP results are obtained, but with EDDR effects on the nuclear relaxation and DNP leakage factor included. Explicit EDDR contributions to DNP are discussed, and a new DNP effect is predicted.

Byvik, C. E.; Wollan, D. S.

1974-01-01

55

Collins Mechanism Contributions to Single Spin Asymmetry

We present recent developments on the single transverse spin physics, in particular, the Collins mechanism contributions in various hadronic reactions, such as semi-inclusive hadron production in DIS process, azimuthal distribution of hadron in high energy jet in pp collisions. We will demonstrate that the transverse momentum dependent and collinear factorization approaches are consistent with each other in the description of the Collins effects in the semi-inclusive hadron production in DIS process.

Yuan,F.

2009-05-25

56

Collins Mechanism Contributions to Single Spin Asymmetry

We present recent developments on the single transverse spin physics,in particular, the Collins mechanism contributions in various hadronic reactions,such as semi-inclusive hadron production in DIS process, azimuthal distributionof hadron in high energy jet in pp collisions. We will demonstrate thatthe transverse momentum dependent and collinear factorization approaches areconsistentwith each other in the description of the Collins effects in the semi-inclusivehadron production in DIS process.

Yuan, Feng

2009-09-11

57

Collins Mechanism Contributions to Single Spin Asymmetry

We present recent developments on the single transverse spin physics, in particular, the Collins mechanism contributions in various hadronic reactions, such as semi-inclusive hadron production in DIS process, azimuthal distribution of hadron in high energy jet in pp collisions. We will demonstrate that the transverse momentum dependent and collinear factorization approaches are consistent with each other in the description of the Collins effects in the semi-inclusive hadron production in DIS process.

Yuan,F.

2009-05-26

58

This work outlines the calculation of indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling constants with spin-orbit corrections using density functional response theory. The nonrelativistic indirect nuclear spin-spin couplings are evaluated using the linear response method, whereas the relativistic spin-orbit corrections are computed using quadratic response theory. The formalism is applied to the homologous systems H2X (X=O,S,Se,Te) and XH4 (X=C,Si,Ge,Sn,Pb) to calculate the indirect

Corneliu I. Oprea; Zilvinas Rinkevicius; Olav Vahtras; Hans Gren; Kenneth Ruud

2005-01-01

59

Spin observables and nuclear geometry

The new measurements of polarization P and spin rotation function Q in 500 MeV p- /sup 40/Ca elastic scattering require geometric differences among the various parts of the p-nucleus interaction. We present a general analytic formalism which defines these differences and shows how the new experiments can be interpreted as interferometric determinations of them.

McNeil, J.A.; Sparrow, D.A.; Amado, R.D.

1982-09-01

60

Nuclear Spin Effect in a Metallic Spin Valve

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study electronic transport through a ferromagnet normal-metal ferromagnet system and we investigate the effect of hyperfine interaction between electrons and nuclei in the normal-metal part. A switching of the magnetization directions of the ferromagnets causes nuclear spins to precess. We show that the effect of this precession on the current through the system is large enough to be observed in experiment.

Danon, J.; Nazarov, Yu. V.

2006-10-01

61

Coherent, mechanical control of a single electronic spin.

We demonstrate coherent quantum control of a single spin driven by the motion of a mechanical resonator. The motion of a mechanical resonator is magnetically coupled to the electronic spin of a single nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. Synchronization of spin-addressing protocols to the motion of the driven oscillator is used to fully exploit the coherence of this hybrid mechanical-spin system. We demonstrate applications of this coherent mechanical spin-control technique to nanoscale scanning magnetometry. PMID:22800099

Hong, Sungkun; Grinolds, Michael S; Maletinsky, Patrick; Walsworth, Ronald L; Lukin, Mikhail D; Yacoby, Amir

2012-08-01

62

Optical switching of nuclear spin-spin couplings in semiconductors

Two-qubit operation is an essential part of quantum computation. However, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computing has not been able to fully implement this functionality, because it requires a switchable inter-qubit coupling that controls the time evolutions of entanglements. Nuclear dipolar coupling is beneficial in that it is present whenever nuclear–spin qubits are close to each other, while it complicates two-qubit operation because the qubits must remain decoupled to prevent unwanted couplings. Here we introduce optically controllable internuclear coupling in semiconductors. The coupling strength can be adjusted externally through light power and even allows on/off switching. This feature provides a simple way of switching inter-qubit couplings in semiconductor-based quantum computers. In addition, its long reach compared with nuclear dipolar couplings allows a variety of options for arranging qubits, as they need not be next to each other to secure couplings.

Goto, Atsushi; Ohki, Shinobu; Hashi, Kenjiro; Shimizu, Tadashi

2011-01-01

63

Transverse single spin asymmetry measurements at STAR

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transverse single spin asymmetries A N are expected to be sensitive to par-ton polarization and orbital angular momentum contributions to the nucleon spin. Significantly large A N has been observed in different collision systems such as semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and polarized proton-proton ( pp) collisions, indicating a dominant contribution of partonic interactions in the non-perturbative regime. Therefore it's critical to measure A N in various channels of polarized pp collisions in order to complement SIDIS data and to constrain theoretical models. We report STAR asymmetry measurements on mid-rapidity hadron-jet and di-hadron correlations at ? s = 200 GeV and forward rapidity inclusive hadron production at ? s = 500 GeV polarized pp collisions.

Pan, Yuxi

2014-01-01

64

Spin accumulation and spin precession in single layer graphene are studied by nonlocal spin valve measurements at room temperature. The dependence of the nonlocal magnetoresistance on electrode spacing is investigated and the results indicate a spin diffusion length of ~1.6 mum and a spin injection\\/detection efficiency of 0.013. Electrical detection of the spin precession confirms that the nonlocal signal originates

Wei Han; K. Pi; W. Bao; K. M. McCreary; Yan Li; W. H. Wang; C. N. Lau; R. K. Kawakami

2009-01-01

65

Quantum-dot-spin single-photon interface.

Using background-free detection of spin-state-dependent resonance fluorescence from a single-electron charged quantum dot with an efficiency of 0.1%, we realize a classical single spin-photon interface where the detection of a scattered photon with 300 ps time resolution projects the quantum dot spin to a definite spin eigenstate with fidelity exceeding 99%. The bunching of resonantly scattered photons reveals information about electron spin dynamics. High-fidelity fast spin-state initialization heralded by a single photon enables the realization of quantum information processing tasks such as nondeterministic distant spin entanglement. Given that we could suppress the measurement backaction to well below the natural spin-flip rate, realization of a quantum nondemolition measurement of a single spin could be achieved by increasing the fluorescence collection efficiency by a factor exceeding 10 using a photonic nanostructure. PMID:20867763

Yilmaz, S T; Fallahi, P; Imamo?lu, A

2010-07-16

66

Quantum-Dot-Spin Single-Photon Interface

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using background-free detection of spin-state-dependent resonance fluorescence from a single-electron charged quantum dot with an efficiency of 0.1%, we realize a classical single spin-photon interface where the detection of a scattered photon with 300 ps time resolution projects the quantum dot spin to a definite spin eigenstate with fidelity exceeding 99%. The bunching of resonantly scattered photons reveals information about electron spin dynamics. High-fidelity fast spin-state initialization heralded by a single photon enables the realization of quantum information processing tasks such as nondeterministic distant spin entanglement. Given that we could suppress the measurement backaction to well below the natural spin-flip rate, realization of a quantum nondemolition measurement of a single spin could be achieved by increasing the fluorescence collection efficiency by a factor exceeding 10 using a photonic nanostructure.

Y?lmaz, S. T.; Fallahi, P.; Imamo?lu, A.

2010-07-01

67

Nuclear binding energy at high spin

A method to calculate absolute values of the total nuclear binding energy in the high-spin regime is briefly described. Applications to test the position of specific orbitals are examplified on Z = 36 Kr isotopes with N 36 - 38. Calculated binding energies of possible configurations for one dipole band in 199Pb are compared with experiment.

Carlsson, B. G.; Ragnarsson, I. [Div. of Mathematical Physics, LTH, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

2006-04-26

68

Nuclear spin state relaxation in formaldehyde

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of ortho- to para-formaldehyde conversion rate constants are described. They are based on the fact that a clean photolysis of one nuclear spin modification is possible in the natural mixture with the help of narrow band UV laser radiation. Rate constants are of the order of k1 = 5 × 10 -3 s -1 under the experimental conditions used in our measurements.

Kern, J.; Schwahn, H.; Schramm, B.

1989-01-01

69

Nuclear Spin Ordering Observed by Neutron Diffraction.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review is given of recent neutron scattering experiments which have been carried out at milli-Kelvin temperatures to study the hyperfine-enhanced nuclear-spin ordering in the singlet electronic ground state compounds PrSn sub 3 , PrCu sub 2 , and HoVO s...

R. M. Nicklow R. M. Moon S. Kawarazaki N. Kunitomi H. Suzuki

1984-01-01

70

Nuclear spin physics in quantum dots: An optical investigation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mesoscopic spin system formed by the 104-106 nuclear spins in a semiconductor quantum dot offers a unique setting for the study of many-body spin physics in the condensed matter. The dynamics of this system and its coupling to electron spins is fundamentally different from its bulk counterpart or the case of individual atoms due to increased fluctuations that result from reduced dimensions. In recent years, the interest in studying quantum-dot nuclear spin systems and their coupling to confined electron spins has been further fueled by its importance for possible quantum information processing applications. The fascinating nonlinear (quantum) dynamics of the coupled electron-nuclear spin system is universal in quantum dot optics and transport. In this article, experimental work performed over the last decade in studying this mesoscopic, coupled electron-nuclear spin system is reviewed. Here a special focus is on how optical addressing of electron spins can be exploited to manipulate and read out the quantum-dot nuclei. Particularly exciting recent developments in applying optical techniques to efficiently establish nonzero mean nuclear spin polarizations and using them to reduce intrinsic nuclear spin fluctuations are discussed. Both results critically influence the preservation of electron-spin coherence in quantum dots. This overall recently gained understanding of the quantum-dot nuclear spin system could enable exciting new research avenues such as experimental observations of spontaneous spin ordering or nonclassical behavior of the nuclear spin bath.

Urbaszek, Bernhard; Marie, Xavier; Amand, Thierry; Krebs, Olivier; Voisin, Paul; Maletinsky, Patrick; Högele, Alexander; Imamoglu, Atac

2013-01-01

71

QCD Resummation for Single Spin Asymmetries

We study the transverse momentum dependent factorization for single spin asymmetries in Drell-Yan and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering processes at one-loop order. The next-to-leading order hard factors are calculated in the Ji-Ma-Yuan factorization scheme. We further derive the QCD resummation formalisms for these observables following the Collins-Soper-Sterman method. The results are expressed in terms of the collinear correlation functions from initial and/or final state hadrons coupled with the Sudakov form factor containing all order soft-gluon resummation effects. The scheme-independent coefficients are calculated up to one-loop order.

Kang Zhongbo [RIKEN/BNL Research Center, Building 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Xiao Bowen [Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Yuan Feng [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); RIKEN/BNL Research Center, Building 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

2011-10-07

72

Quantum physics: The right ambience for a single spin

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-lived single electron spins are crucial for quantum computation and for understanding spin dynamics. A remarkably long lifetime -- of the order of minutes -- has now been obtained for a solid-state system. See Letter p.242

Flatté, Michael E.

2013-11-01

73

Ultralong spin decoherence times in graphene quantum dots with a small number of nuclear spins

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the dynamics of an electron spin in a graphene quantum dot, which is interacting with a bath of less than ten nuclear spins via the anisotropic hyperfine interaction. Due to substantial progress in the fabrication of graphene quantum dots, the consideration of such a small number of nuclear spins is experimentally relevant. This choice allows us to use exact diagonalization to calculate the long-time average of the electron spin as well as its decoherence time. We investigate the dependence of spin observables on the initial states of nuclear spins and on the position of nuclear spins in the quantum dot. Moreover, we analyze the effects of the anisotropy of the hyperfine interaction for different orientations of the spin quantization axis with respect to the graphene plane. Interestingly, we then predict remarkable long decoherence times of more than 10 ms in the limit of few nuclear spins.

Fuchs, Moritz; Schliemann, John; Trauzettel, Björn

2013-12-01

74

The scattering of protons off individual nucleons in the nucleus, known as 'quasi-free' scattering, gives information on the modification of the nuclear force inside the nuclear medium. In order to extract this information, we need to know the nucleon-nucleon (N-N) interaction in free space, and the propagation of the proton through the nucleus (from elastic scattering). Direct comparison of the analyzing powers and polarizations for quasi-free scattering as opposed to N-N scattering show large (40%) differences. Conventional (non-relativistic) calculations are unable to reproduce this effect. Relativistic calculations, which use large, opposing vector and scalar potentials reproduce this effect for both isoscalar and isovector inclusive reactions and for exclusive (p, 2p) reactions.

Hicks, K.H.

1988-11-20

75

Dynamically generated pure spin current in single-layer graphene

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conductance mismatch problem limits the spin-injection efficiency significantly, and spin injection into graphene usually requires high-quality tunnel barriers to circumvent the conductance mismatch. We introduce an approach which enables the generation of pure spin current into single-layer graphene (SLG) that is free from electrical conductance mismatch by using dynamical spin injection. An experimental demonstration of spin-pumping-induced spin current generation and spin transport in SLG at room temperature was successfully achieved, and the spin coherence length was estimated to be 1.36 ?m by using a conventional theoretical model based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. The spin coherence length is proportional to the quality of SLG, which indicates that spin relaxation in SLG is governed by the Elliot-Yafet mechanism, as was reported.

Tang, Zhenyao; Shikoh, Eiji; Ago, Hiroki; Kawahara, Kenji; Ando, Yuichiro; Shinjo, Teruya; Shiraishi, Masashi

2013-04-01

76

Single-shot readout and microwave control of an electron spin in silicon

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electron spin of a donor in silicon is an excellent candidate for a solid-state qubit. It is known to have very long coherence and relaxation times in bulk [1], and several architectures have been proposed to integrate donor spin qubits with classical silicon microelectronics [2]. Here we show the first experimental proof of single-shot readout of an electron spin in silicon. The device consists of implanted phosphorus donors, tunnel-coupled to a silicon Single-Electron Transistor (SET), where the SET island is used as a reservoir for spin-to-charge conversion [3]. The large charge transfer signals allow readout fidelity >90% with 3 ?s response time. By measuring the occurrence of excited spin states as a function of wait time, we find spin lifetimes (T1) up to ˜ 6 s at B = 1.5 T, and a magnetic-field dependence T1-1 B^5 consistent with that of phosphorus donors in silicon [4]. In a subsequent experiment we have integrated the single-shot spin readout device with an on-chip microwave transmission line for coherent control of the electron spin. We have detected the spin resonance of a single electron, and observed two hyperfine-split resonance lines, consistent with Stark-shifted coupling to the ^31P nuclear spin. Further experiments are underway to demonstrate coherent spin control and observe Rabi oscillations. This demonstrates the microwave control of a single spin, combined -- for the first time in the same experiment -- with electrically detected single-shot spin readout. [1] A. M. Tyryshkin et al., Phys. Rev. B 68, 193207 (2003). [2] L. C. L. Hollenberg et al., Phys. Rev. B. 74, 045311 (2006). [3] A. Morello et al., Phys. Rev. B 80, 081307(R) (2009). [4] A. Morello et al., Nature 467, 687 (2010).

Morello, Andrea

2011-03-01

77

Optically driven Rabi oscillations and adiabatic passage of single electron spins in diamond.

Rabi oscillations and adiabatic passage of single electron spins in a diamond nitrogen vacancy center are demonstrated with two Raman-resonant optical pulses that are detuned from the respective dipole optical transitions. We show that the optical spin control is nuclear-spin selective and can be robust against rapid decoherence, including radiative decay and spectral diffusion, of the underlying optical transitions. A direct comparison between the Rabi oscillation and the adiabatic passage, along with a detailed theoretical analysis, provides significant physical insights into the connections and differences between these coherent spin processes and also elucidates the role of spectral diffusion in these processes. The optically driven coherent spin processes enable the use of nitrogen vacancy excited states to mediate coherent spin-phonon coupling, opening the door to combining optical control of both spin and mechanical degrees of freedom. PMID:24702393

Golter, D Andrew; Wang, Hailin

2014-03-21

78

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the dynamic nuclear spin polarization in an n-GaAs lateral channel induced by electrical spin injection from a (Ga,Mn)As/n-GaAs spin Esaki diode. Signatures of nuclear spin polarization are studied in both three-terminal and non-local voltage signals, where a strong electron spin depolarization feature is observed close to zero magnetic field. This is due to the large nuclear field induced in the channel through hyperfine interaction between injected electron spins and localized nuclear spins. We study the time evolution of the dynamic nuclear spin polarization and evaluate polarization and relaxation times of nuclear spins in the channel.

Shiogai, J.; Ciorga, M.; Utz, M.; Schuh, D.; Arakawa, T.; Kohda, M.; Kobayashi, K.; Ono, T.; Wegscheider, W.; Weiss, D.; Nitta, J.

2012-11-01

79

Schematic model of nuclear spin excitations

A simple model to estimate the strength of spin and nonspin collective states is presented. The model was inspired by early schematic models based on energy-weighted sum rules and is a useful tool for interpreting experimental data without the complexities of realistic microscopic calculations. The strength of collective states is calculated by assuming that a single collective state completely exhausts the energy-weighted sum rule. 19 refs.

Boucher, P.M.

1990-01-01

80

Spin phase coherence of donor nuclear spins in silicon: the influence of electrical readout

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Storing information in spin underpins the operation of a wide range of emerging technologies. However, the ability to interact with, and thus control electron spin implies a reasonable coupling to the environment, and a correspondingly limited spin coherence time. This problem can be overcome by using nuclear spins for long term information storage, and significant experimental progress in this direction has been seen recently. Readout of stored information can be achieved in a variety of ways, with electrical approaches offering substantial benefit with regard to integration of spintronic and classical electronic applications. Here, we discuss electrical readout of coherent nuclear spin states of donor nuclei in silicon. By utilizing nuclear Hahn echo sequences, we are able to demonstrate that nuclear spin phase coherence can exceed 3 ms with electrical readout. We find that the spin phase coherence is in this case limited by the spin lifetime of the donor electron which mediates our readout scheme, and discuss approaches to ameliorate this effect.

McCamey, Dane; van Tol, Johan; Morley, Gavin; Boehme, Christoph

2012-02-01

81

Detection and manipulation of nuclear spin states in fermionic strontium

Fermionic {sup 87}Sr has a nuclear spin of I=9/2, higher than any other element with a similar electronic structure. This large nuclear spin has many applications in quantum simulation and computation, for which preparation and detection of the spin state are requirements. For an ultracold {sup 87}Sr cloud, we show two complementary methods to characterize the spin-state mixture: optical Stern-Gerlach state separation and state-selective absorption imaging. We use these methods to optimize the preparation of a variety of spin-state mixtures by optical pumping and to measure an upper bound of the {sup 87}Sr spin-relaxation rate.

Stellmer, Simon; Grimm, Rudolf [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation (IQOQI), Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Institut fuer Experimentalphysik und Zentrum fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Schreck, Florian [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation (IQOQI), Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

2011-10-15

82

Fast nuclear spin conversion in water clusters and ices: a matrix isolation study.

Single water molecules have been isolated in solid Ar matrices at 4 K and studied by rovibrational spectroscopy using FTIR in the regions of the ?(1), ?(2), and ?(3) modes. Upon nuclear spin conversion at 4 K, essentially pure para-H(2)O was prepared, followed by subsequent fast annealing generating ice particles. FTIR studies of the vapor above the condensed water upon annealing to T ? 250 K indicate fast reconversion of nuclear spin to equilibrium conditions. Our results indicate that nuclear spin conversion is fast in water dimers and larger clusters, which preclude preparation of concentrated samples of para-H(2)O, such as in ice or vapor. PMID:21671631

Sliter, Russell; Gish, Melissa; Vilesov, Andrey F

2011-09-01

83

Electron spin dephasing due to hyperfine interactions with a nuclear spin bath.

We investigate pure dephasing decoherence (free induction decay and spin echo) of a spin qubit interacting with a nuclear spin bath. While for infinite magnetic field B the only decoherence mechanism is spectral diffusion due to dipolar flip-flops of nuclear spins, with decreasing B the hyperfine-mediated interactions between the nuclear spins become important. We give a theory of decoherence due to these interactions which takes advantage of their long-range nature. For a thermal uncorrelated bath we show that our theory is applicable down to B approximately 10 mT, allowing for comparison with recent experiments in GaAs quantum dots. PMID:19257553

Cywi?ski, Lukasz; Witzel, Wayne M; Das Sarma, S

2009-02-01

84

Adiabatic refocusing of nuclear spins in Tm3+:YAG

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the optical absorbance detection of nuclear spin echo gives direct access to the spin concentration, unlike most coherent signal detection techniques where the signal intensity/amplitude is difficult to connect experimentally with the spin concentration. This way we measure the spin-refocusing efficiency in a crystal of Tm3+:YAG. Given the large inhomogeneous broadening of the spin transition in this material, rephasing the spins with the usual hard pulse procedure would require excessively high radiofrequency power. Instead we resort to an adiabatic pulse sequence that perfectly returns the spins to their initial common orientation, at low power cost.

Lauro, R.; Chanelière, T.; Le Gouët, J.-L.

2011-01-01

85

Nuclear spin polarized H and D by means of spin-exchange optical pumping

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optically pumped spin-exchange sources for polarized hydrogen and deuterium atoms have been demonstrated to yield high atomic flow and high electron spin polarization. For maximum nuclear polarization the source has to be operated in spin temperature equilibrium, which has already been demonstrated for hydrogen. In spin temperature equilibrium the nuclear spin polarization PI equals the electron spin polarization PS for hydrogen and is even larger than PS for deuterium. We discuss the general properties of spin temperature equilibrium for a sample of deuterium atoms. One result are the equations PI=4PS/(3+PS2) and Pzz=PS.PI, where Pzz is the nuclear tensor polarization. Furthermore we demonstrate that the deuterium atoms from our source are in spin temperature equilibrium within the experimental accuracy.

Stenger, Jörn; Grosshauser, Carsten; Kilian, Wolfgang; Nagengast, Wolfgang; Ranzenberger, Bernd; Rith, Klaus; Schmidt, Frank

1998-01-01

86

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single electron or hole spins in III-V semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are promising candidates for solid-state qubits. Their coherence properties are typically governed by the hyperfine coupling between these ``central'' electronic spins and the dense surrounding bath of lattice nuclear spins. Theoretically this is a challenging problem due to its many-body and strongly-correlated nature. Here we measure the spin dynamics of holes in InGaAs quantum dots by detecting their intrinsic, random spin fluctuations while in thermal equilibrium, which reveals the spin correlation time scales ?h and the functional form of bath-induced spin relaxation. In zero magnetic field, ?h is very long (˜400 ns) and decays exponentially, in marked contrast with recent theories. ?h increases to ˜5 ?s in small (100 G) longitudinal fields, and the spin dynamics evolve to a very slow ˜1/ln(t) decay [1]. We model the influence of nuclear quadrupolar coupling on spin dynamics in these strained QDs for both electrons and holes [2], and find a good agreement with experimental data when the quadrupolar coupling exceeds the hyperfine coupling strength. [1] Yan Li, N. Sinitsyn, et al., PRL 108, 186603 (2012). [2] N. Sinitsyn, Yan Li, et al., PRL 109, 166605 (2012).

Li, Yan; Sinitsyn, N. A.; Saxena, A.; Smith, D. L.; Reuter, D.; Wieck, A. D.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Manfred, B.; Crooker, S. A.

2013-03-01

87

General theory of feedback control of a nuclear spin ensemble in quantum dots

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a microscopic theory of the nonequilibrium nuclear spin dynamics driven by the electron and/or hole under continuous-wave pumping in a quantum dot. We show the correlated dynamics of the nuclear spin ensemble and the electron and/or hole under optical excitation as a quantum feedback loop and investigate the dynamics of the many nuclear spins as a nonlinear collective motion. This gives rise to three observable effects: (i) hysteresis, (ii) locking (avoidance) of the pump absorption strength to (from) the natural resonance, and (iii) suppression (amplification) of the fluctuation of weakly polarized nuclear spins, leading to prolonged (shortened) electron-spin coherence time. A single nonlinear feedback function is constructed which determines the different outcomes of the three effects listed above depending on the feedback being negative or positive. The general theory also helps to put in perspective the wide range of existing theories on the problem of a single electron spin in a nuclear spin bath.

Yang, Wen; Sham, L. J.

2013-12-01

88

Self-quenching of nuclear spin dynamics in the central spin problem

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider, in the framework of the central spin s =1/2 model, driven dynamics of two electrons in a double quantum dot subject to hyperfine interaction with nuclear spins and spin-orbit coupling. The nuclear subsystem dynamically evolves in response to Landau-Zener singlet-triplet transitions of the electronic subsystem controlled by external gate voltages. Without noise and spin-orbit coupling, subsequent Landau-Zener transitions die out after about 104 sweeps, the system self-quenches, and nuclear spins reach one of the numerous glassy dark states. We present an analytical model that captures this phenomenon. We also account for the multi-nuclear-specie content of the dots and numerically determine the evolution of around 107 nuclear spins in up to 2×105 Landau-Zener transitions. Without spin-orbit coupling, self-quenching is robust and sets in for arbitrary ratios of the nuclear spin precession times and the waiting time between Landau-Zener sweeps as well as under moderate noise. In the presence of spin-orbit coupling of a moderate magnitude, and when the waiting time is in resonance with the precession time of one of the nuclear species, the dynamical evolution of nuclear polarization results in stroboscopic screening of spin-orbit coupling. However, small deviations from the resonance or strong spin-orbit coupling destroy this screening. We suggest that the success of the feedback loop technique for building nuclear gradients is based on the effect of spin-orbit coupling.

Brataas, Arne; Rashba, Emmanuel I.

2014-01-01

89

Spin and charge transport study in single crystal organic semiconductors

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spin transport studies in amorphous rubrene films have shown exciting and promising results [1]. A large spin diffusion length in these amorphous films has increased the motivation to perform spin transport study in high purity single crystal rubrene. This will provide the fundamental understanding on the spin transport behavior in OS; not influenced by defects or traps. We will present work on small channel single crystal rubrene FET device with magnetic electrodes. For example, our preliminary studies have show mobility for FET with Co electrode to be 0.014cm^2/V-s. A study on the spin and charge transport properties in single crystals of OS with magnetic electrodes is being done and the results will be reported. The influence of gate voltage and applied magnetic field on the transport properties will be discussed. [1] J.H. Shim et al., PRL 100, 226603 (2008)

Raman, Karthik V.; Mulder, Carlijn L.; Baldo, Marc A.; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.

2009-03-01

90

Optically enhanced nuclear spin polarization in InP

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optically induced nuclear spin polarization is studied via time-resolved magnetooptical Kerr effect in Voigt configuration in n-doped InP. The hyperfine field acting on electrons is detected via a phase shift of the electron spin precession. The dependence of the hyperfine field on external field and the polarization time of the nuclei are discussed within a simple model neglecting nuclear spin diffusion.

Brunetti, A.; Vladimirova, M.; Scalbert, D.; Folliot, H.; Lecorre, A.

2007-04-01

91

Excited-State Spectroscopy and Control of Single Spins in Diamond

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen Vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond are a promising system for spin-based applications in quantum information and communication at room temperature. Using a combination of optical microscopy and spin resonance, the spin of individual NV centers can be initialized, manipulated and read out. These techniques have been used to study the long room temperature spin coherence times of NV centers as well as their interactions with nearby electrical and nuclear spins. There remain significant challenges, however, both in understanding the physics of these defects as well as the development of technologies based on their quantum properties. In particular, knowledge of the detailed structure of the orbital excited-state, which continues to be an active research area, is critical to ultra-fast quantum control schemes. Here we present recent experiments using single-spin resonant spectroscopy of the excited-state of an NV center at room temperature.ootnotetextG. D. Fuchs, V. V. Dobrovitski, R. Hanson, A. Batra, C. D. Weis, T. Schenkel, and D. D. Awschalom, Phys. Rev. Lett 101, 117601 (2008). We observe these spin levels over a broad range of magnetic fields allowing for a direct measurement of the zero-field splitting, g-factor and transverse anisotropy splitting. The latter of these is nearly zero in the ground-state spin levels, but plays an important role in the excited-state. In addition, we find strong hyperfine coupling between the nitrogen nuclear spin and the NV electronic spin in the excited-state. These findings will be discussed in the context of quantum control of single and coupled spins in diamond.

Fuchs, G. D.

2009-03-01

92

OSP Quantum Mechanics: Single Measurments of Spin States Worksheet

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of tutorial worksheets, based on the OSP Quantum Mechanics Simulations, help students explore the measurement of quantum spins. The tutorial starts with an introduction of the physics of spins, and then presents the results of a single measurement on pure, mixed, and superposition states.

Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang

2010-01-11

93

Searching for spin coherence in single quantum dots

Quantum dots form the basis of many spin-based quantum computing architectures, yet the transverse coherence time T2 of a single electron spin in a quantum dot has not been measured. These measurements are challenging, due to the relatively weak interaction with light and the difficulty of resolving signatures from large ensembles of quantum dots. We describe our efforts to isolate

Petru Fodor; Gilberto Medeiros-Ribeiro; Jeremy Levy

2004-01-01

94

Detection of atomic spin labels in a lipid bilayer using a single-spin nanodiamond probe

Magnetic field fluctuations arising from fundamental spins are ubiquitous in nanoscale biology, and are a rich source of information about the processes that generate them. However, the ability to detect the few spins involved without averaging over large ensembles has remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate the detection of gadolinium spin labels in an artificial cell membrane under ambient conditions using a single-spin nanodiamond sensor. Changes in the spin relaxation time of the sensor located in the lipid bilayer were optically detected and found to be sensitive to near-individual (4 ± 2) proximal gadolinium atomic labels. The detection of such small numbers of spins in a model biological setting, with projected detection times of 1 s [corresponding to a sensitivity of ?5 Gd spins per Hz1/2], opens a pathway for in situ nanoscale detection of dynamical processes in biology.

Kaufmann, Stefan; Simpson, David A.; Hall, Liam T.; Perunicic, Viktor; Senn, Philipp; Steinert, Steffen; McGuinness, Liam P.; Johnson, Brett C.; Ohshima, Takeshi; Caruso, Frank; Wrachtrup, Jorg; Scholten, Robert E.; Mulvaney, Paul; Hollenberg, Lloyd

2013-01-01

95

Detection of atomic spin labels in a lipid bilayer using a single-spin nanodiamond probe.

Magnetic field fluctuations arising from fundamental spins are ubiquitous in nanoscale biology, and are a rich source of information about the processes that generate them. However, the ability to detect the few spins involved without averaging over large ensembles has remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate the detection of gadolinium spin labels in an artificial cell membrane under ambient conditions using a single-spin nanodiamond sensor. Changes in the spin relaxation time of the sensor located in the lipid bilayer were optically detected and found to be sensitive to near-individual (4 ± 2) proximal gadolinium atomic labels. The detection of such small numbers of spins in a model biological setting, with projected detection times of 1 s [corresponding to a sensitivity of ?5 Gd spins per Hz(1/2)], opens a pathway for in situ nanoscale detection of dynamical processes in biology. PMID:23776230

Kaufmann, Stefan; Simpson, David A; Hall, Liam T; Perunicic, Viktor; Senn, Philipp; Steinert, Steffen; McGuinness, Liam P; Johnson, Brett C; Ohshima, Takeshi; Caruso, Frank; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Scholten, Robert E; Mulvaney, Paul; Hollenberg, Lloyd

2013-07-01

96

Spin Modes in Nuclei and Nuclear Forces

Spin modes in stable and unstable exotic nuclei are studied and important roles of tensor and three-body forces on nuclear structure are discussed. New shell model Hamiltonians, which have proper tensor components, are shown to explain shell evolutions toward drip-lines and spin properties of both stable and exotic nuclei, for example, Gamow-Teller transitions in {sup 12}C and {sup 14}C and an anomalous M1 transition in {sup 17}C. The importance and the necessity of the repulsive monopole corrections in isospin T = 1 channel to the microscopic two-body interactions are pointed out. The corrections are shown to lead to the proper shell evolutions in neutron-rich isotopes. The three-body force, in particular the Fujita-Miyazawa force induced by {Delta} excitations, is pointed out to be responsible for the repulsive corrections among the valence neutrons. The important roles of the three-body force on the energies and transitions in exotic oxygen and calcium isotopes are demonstrated.

Suzuki, Toshio [Department of Physics and Graduate School of Integrated Basic Sciences, College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, Sakurajosui 3-25-40, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan) and Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Otsuka, Takaharu [Department of Physics and Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

2011-05-06

97

Nanoscale magnetometry using a single-spin system in diamond

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a protocol to estimate magnetic fields using a single nitrogen-vacancy (N-V) center in diamond, where the estimate precision scales inversely with time, ?B~1/T, rather than the square-root of time, ?B~1/T. The method is based on converting the task of magnetometry into phase estimation, performing quantum phase estimation on a single N-V nuclear spin using either adaptive or nonadaptive feedback control, and the recently demonstrated capability to perform single-shot readout within the N-V [P. Neumann , ScienceSCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1189075 329, 542 (2010)]. We present numerical simulations to show that our method provides an estimate whose precision scales close to ~1/T (T~ the total estimation time), and moreover will give an unambiguous estimate of the static magnetic field experienced by the N-V. By combining this protocol with recent proposals for scanning magnetometry using an N-V, our protocol will provide a significant decrease in signal acquisition time while providing an unambiguous spatial map of the magnetic field.

Said, R. S.; Berry, D. W.; Twamley, J.

2011-03-01

98

Collins Fragmentation and the Single Transverse Spin Asymmetry

We study the Collins mechanism for the single transverse spin asymmetry in the collinear factorization approach. The correspondent twist-three fragmentation function is identified. We show that the Collins function calculated in this approach is universal.We further examine its contribution to the single transverse spin asymmetry of semi-inclusive hadron production in deep inelastic scattering and demonstrate that the transverse momentum dependent and twist-three collinear approaches are consistent in the intermediate transverse momentum region where both apply.

Yuan, Feng; Zhou, Jian

2009-03-26

99

Sensitive magnetic control of ensemble nuclear spin hyperpolarization in diamond

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic nuclear polarization, which transfers the spin polarization of electrons to nuclei, is routinely applied to enhance the sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance. This method is particularly useful when spin hyperpolarization can be produced and controlled optically or electrically. Here we show complete polarization of nuclei located near optically polarized nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond. Close to the ground-state level anti-crossing condition of the nitrogen-vacancy electron spins, 13C nuclei in the first shell are polarized in a pattern that depends sensitively upon the magnetic field. Based on the anisotropy of the hyperfine coupling and of the optical polarization mechanism, we predict and observe a reversal of the nuclear spin polarization with only a few millitesla change in the magnetic field. This method of magnetic control of high nuclear polarization at room temperature can be applied in sensitivity enhanced nuclear magnetic resonance of bulk nuclei, nuclear-based spintronics, and quantum computation in diamond.

Wang, Hai-Jing; Shin, Chang S.; Avalos, Claudia E.; Seltzer, Scott J.; Budker, Dmitry; Pines, Alexander; Bajaj, Vikram S.

2013-06-01

100

Room temperature hyperpolarization of nuclear spins in bulk.

Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), a means of transferring spin polarization from electrons to nuclei, can enhance the nuclear spin polarization (hence the NMR sensitivity) in bulk materials at most 660 times for (1)H spins, using electron spins in thermal equilibrium as polarizing agents. By using electron spins in photo-excited triplet states instead, DNP can overcome the above limit. We demonstrate a (1)H spin polarization of 34%, which gives an enhancement factor of 250,000 in 0.40 T, while maintaining a bulk sample (?0.6 mg, ?0.7 × 0.7 × 1 mm(3)) containing >10(19) (1)H spins at room temperature. Room temperature hyperpolarization achieved with DNP using photo-excited triplet electrons has potentials to be applied to a wide range of fields, including NMR spectroscopy and MRI as well as fundamental physics. PMID:24821773

Tateishi, Kenichiro; Negoro, Makoto; Nishida, Shinsuke; Kagawa, Akinori; Morita, Yasushi; Kitagawa, Masahiro

2014-05-27

101

Preparation of nuclear spin singlet states using spin-lock induced crossing.

We introduce a broadly applicable technique to create nuclear spin singlet states in organic molecules and other many-atom systems. We employ a novel pulse sequence to produce a spin-lock induced crossing (SLIC) of the spin singlet and triplet energy levels, which enables triplet-singlet polarization transfer and singlet-state preparation. We demonstrate the utility of the SLIC method by producing a long-lived nuclear spin singlet state on two strongly coupled proton pairs in the tripeptide molecule phenylalanine-glycine-glycine dissolved in D(2)O and by using SLIC to measure the J couplings, chemical shift differences, and singlet lifetimes of the proton pairs. We show that SLIC is more efficient at creating nearly equivalent nuclear spin singlet states than previous pulse sequence techniques, especially when triplet-singlet polarization transfer occurs on the same time scale as spin-lattice relaxation. PMID:24206484

DeVience, Stephen J; Walsworth, Ronald L; Rosen, Matthew S

2013-10-25

102

Preparation of Nuclear Spin Singlet States Using Spin-Lock Induced Crossing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a broadly applicable technique to create nuclear spin singlet states in organic molecules and other many-atom systems. We employ a novel pulse sequence to produce a spin-lock induced crossing (SLIC) of the spin singlet and triplet energy levels, which enables triplet-singlet polarization transfer and singlet-state preparation. We demonstrate the utility of the SLIC method by producing a long-lived nuclear spin singlet state on two strongly coupled proton pairs in the tripeptide molecule phenylalanine-glycine-glycine dissolved in D2O and by using SLIC to measure the J couplings, chemical shift differences, and singlet lifetimes of the proton pairs. We show that SLIC is more efficient at creating nearly equivalent nuclear spin singlet states than previous pulse sequence techniques, especially when triplet-singlet polarization transfer occurs on the same time scale as spin-lattice relaxation.

DeVience, Stephen J.; Walsworth, Ronald L.; Rosen, Matthew S.

2013-10-01

103

Quantum Control over Single Spins in Diamond

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond have recently emerged as a unique platform for fundamental studies in quantum information and nanoscience. The special properties of these impurity centers allow robust, room-temperature operation of solid-state qubits and have enabled several remarkable demonstrations in quantum information processing and precision nanoscale sensing. This article reviews the recent advances in magnetic and optical manipulation of the NV center’s quantum spin and their importance for prospective applications. We discuss how quantum control of individual centers can be harnessed for the protection of NV-center spin coherence, for multiqubit quantum operations in the presence of decoherence, and for high-fidelity initialization and readout. We also discuss the progress in resonant optical control, which has led to interfaces between spin and photonic qubits and may lead to spin networks based on diamond photonics. Many of these recently developed diamond-based technologies constitute critical components for the future leap toward practical multiqubit devices.

Dobrovitski, V. V.; Fuchs, G. D.; Falk, A. L.; Santori, C.; Awschalom, D. D.

2013-04-01

104

A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study was performed with n-type silicon single crystals containing {sup 29}Si isotope abundance f ranges from 1.2% to 99.2%. The nuclear spin diffusion coefficient D has been determined from the linewidth of significantly enhanced {sup 29}Si NMR signals utilizing a developed dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) method. The {sup 29}Si NMR linewidth depends linearly on f, at least when f<10%, and approaches {proportional_to}f{sup 1/2} dependence when f>50%. The estimated {sup 29}Si nuclear spin diffusion time T{sub sd} between phosphorus atoms used for DNP is more than ten times shorter than the nuclear polarization time T{sub 1}{sup p} of {sup 29}Si nuclei around phosphorus. Therefore, the regime of 'rapid spin diffusion' is realized in the DNP experiments.

Hayashi, Hiroshi; Itoh, Kohei M.; Vlasenko, Leonid S. [Department of Applied Physics and Physico-Informatics, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); A. F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, 194021 Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2008-10-15

105

Solid-state nuclear-spin quantum computer based on magnetic resonance force microscopy

We propose a nuclear-spin quantum computer based on magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM). It is shown that an MRFM single-electron spin measurement provides three essential requirements for quantum computation in solids: (a) preparation of the ground state, (b) one- and two-qubit quantum logic gates, and (c) a measurement of the final state. The proposed quantum computer can operate at temperatures up to 1 K. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

Berman, G. P. [Theoretical Division and CNLS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Theoretical Division and CNLS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Doolen, G. D. [Theoretical Division and CNLS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Theoretical Division and CNLS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Hammel, P. C. [MST-10, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS K764, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [MST-10, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS K764, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Tsifrinovich, V. I. [IDS Department, Polytechnic University, Six Metrotech Center, Brooklyn, New York 11201 (United States)] [IDS Department, Polytechnic University, Six Metrotech Center, Brooklyn, New York 11201 (United States)

2000-06-01

106

Single-particle spin effect on fission fragment angular momentum

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Independent isomeric yield ratios (IYR) of 128Sb, 130Sb, 132Sb, 131Te, 133Te, 132I, 134I, 136I, 135Xe, and 138Cs have been determined in the fast neutron-induced fission of 243Am using the radiochemical and ?-ray spectrometric technique. From the IYR, fragment angular momenta (J rms) have been deduced using the spin-dependent statistical model analysis. From the J rms-values and experimental kinetic energy data deformation parameters (?) have been deduced using the pre-scission bending mode oscillation model and the statistical model. The J rms- and ?-values of fission fragments from the present and earlier work in the odd-Z fissioning systems ( 238Np * , 242Am * and 244Am * ) are compared with the literature data in the even-Z fissioning systems ( 230, 233Th * , 233, 234, 236, 239U * , 239, 240, 241, 242Pu * , 244Cm(SF), 245, 246Cm * , 250Cf * and 252Cf(SF)) to examine the role of single-particle (proton) spin effect. It was observed that i) in all the fissioning systems J rms- and ?-values of the fragments with spherical 82n shell and even-Z products are lower than the fragments away from the spherical neutron shell and odd-Z products, which indicate the effect of nuclear structure. ii) For both even-Z and odd-Z fission products J rms-values increase with Z F 2/A F due to increase in Coulomb torque. iii) The J rms- and ?-values of even-Z fission products are comparable in all the fissioning systems. However, for odd-Z fission products they are slightly higher in the odd-Z fissioning systems compared to their adjacent even-Z fissioning systems. This is possible due to the contribution of the extra single-particle (proton) spin of the odd-Z fissioning systems to their odd-Z fragments. iv) The yield-weighted fragment angular momentum and elemental yields profile shows an anti-correlation in even-Z fissioning systems but not in the odd-Z fissioning systems.

Naik, H.; Dange, S. P.; Singh, R. J.; Reddy, A. V. R.

2007-02-01

107

Nondemolition measurements of a single quantum spin using Josephson oscillations.

We consider a single localized spin-1/2 between the singlet superconducting leads of a Josephson junction (e.g., a superconducting STM). For the spin subject to a dc magnetic field B parallel z, we study the spin dynamics and the possibility to measure the spin state via transport through the junction embedded in a dissipative circuit. Turning on the tunneling or a voltage bias induces oscillations of the Josephson current, with an amplitude sensitive to the initial value of the z component of the spin, S(z)=+/-1/2. At low temperatures, when effects of quasiparticles are negligible, this procedure realizes a quantum nondemolition measurement of S(z). PMID:15169182

Bulaevskii, L; Hruska, M; Shnirman, A; Smith, D; Makhlin, Yu

2004-04-30

108

Spin-transfer torque on a single magnetic adatom

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We theoretically show how the spin orientation of a single magnetic adatom can be controlled by spin polarized electrons in a scanning tunnelling microscope configuration. The underlying physical mechanism is spin assisted inelastic tunnelling. Experiments with Mn adatoms deposited on a Cu2N surface have been reported for non-polarized currents [1-2]. We show that by changing the direction of the applied current, the orientation of the magnetic adatom can be completely reversed on a time scale that ranges from a few nanoseconds to microseconds, depending on bias and temperature. The changes in the adatom magnetization direction are, in turn, reflected in the tunnelling conductance. Therefore, this effect opens the possibility of writing/reading a single spin without the need of a local magnetic field.[4pt] [1] C.F. Hirjibehedin, C. P. Lutz, A. J. Heinrich, Science 312, 1021 (2006).[0pt] [2] C. Hirjibehedin et al., Science 317, 1199 (2007).

Delgado, Fernando; José Palacios, Juan; Fernández-Rossier, Joaquín

2010-03-01

109

Nuclear Spin Gyroscope Based on an Atomic Comagnetometer

We describe a nuclear spin gyroscope based on an alkali-metal-noble-gas comagnetometer. Optically pumped alkali-metal vapor is used to polarize the noble-gas atoms and detect their gyroscopic precession. Spin precession due to magnetic fields as well as their gradients and transients can be cancelled in this arrangement. The sensitivity is enhanced by using a high-density alkali-metal vapor in a spin-exchange relaxation

T. W. Kornack; R. K. Ghosh; M. V. Romalis

2005-01-01

110

K-band single-chip electron spin resonance detector.

We report on the design, fabrication, and characterization of an integrated detector for electron spin resonance spectroscopy operating at 27 GHz. The microsystem, consisting of an LC-oscillator and a frequency division module, is integrated onto a single silicon chip using a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. The achieved room temperature spin sensitivity is about 10(8)spins/G Hz(1/2), with a sensitive volume of about (100 ?m)(3). Operation at 77K is also demonstrated. PMID:22405529

Anders, Jens; Angerhofer, Alexander; Boero, Giovanni

2012-04-01

111

Spin Saturation and Thermal Properties of Nuclear Matter.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The binding energy and the incompressibility of nuclear matter with degree of spin saturation D is calculated using the Skyrme interaction and two forms of a velocity dependent effective potential. The effect of the degree of spin saturation D on the ther...

M. Y. M. Hassan S. Ramadan

1983-01-01

112

A single-atom electron spin qubit in silicon.

A single atom is the prototypical quantum system, and a natural candidate for a quantum bit, or qubit--the elementary unit of a quantum computer. Atoms have been successfully used to store and process quantum information in electromagnetic traps, as well as in diamond through the use of the nitrogen-vacancy-centre point defect. Solid-state electrical devices possess great potential to scale up such demonstrations from few-qubit control to larger-scale quantum processors. Coherent control of spin qubits has been achieved in lithographically defined double quantum dots in both GaAs (refs 3-5) and Si (ref. 6). However, it is a formidable challenge to combine the electrical measurement capabilities of engineered nanostructures with the benefits inherent in atomic spin qubits. Here we demonstrate the coherent manipulation of an individual electron spin qubit bound to a phosphorus donor atom in natural silicon, measured electrically via single-shot read-out. We use electron spin resonance to drive Rabi oscillations, and a Hahn echo pulse sequence reveals a spin coherence time exceeding 200?µs. This time should be even longer in isotopically enriched (28)Si samples. Combined with a device architecture that is compatible with modern integrated circuit technology, the electron spin of a single phosphorus atom in silicon should be an excellent platform on which to build a scalable quantum computer. PMID:22992519

Pla, Jarryd J; Tan, Kuan Y; Dehollain, Juan P; Lim, Wee H; Morton, John J L; Jamieson, David N; Dzurak, Andrew S; Morello, Andrea

2012-09-27

113

Spin-transfer torque in a single ferromagnet

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spin polarized current, with sufficiently high current density, is able to switch a magnet or induce magnetization precession. This is the consequence of the ¡°spin-transfer torque¡+/- that originates from spin angular momentum transfer between conduction electrons and the magnetization. Previously most theories and experiments explore F/N/F trilayer and F/N multilayer structures, where F denotes a ferromagnet and N denotes a nonmagnetic metal. These structures have been generally presumed indispensable, since non-collinear magnetizations between a polarizing layer and a free layer are required to generate spin torques, and the GMR effect is essential in detecting magnetization variations. In this work, spin-transfer torque effects in a single ferromagnetic layer are demonstrated, using current injection through a point-contact at 4.2 K. Firstly, differential resistance peaks, generally regarded as signatures of spin-wave excitations, are observed in a single ferromagnetic layer in high magnetic fields [1]. The current values corresponding to the peak positions linearly depend on the external field in the range of 2 to 9 Tesla. Secondly, hysteretic current-induced switching is observed in a single ferromagnet in low magnetic fields. Both experiments can be interpreted by a simple model based on heterogeneous current distribution and domain wall scattering. Systematic variations between low field and high field regions have been investigated and the implications will be discussed. [1] Y. Ji, C. L. Chien and M. D. Stiles, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 106601 (2003)

Ji, Yi

2004-03-01

114

Distinction of Nuclear Spin States with the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate rotational excitation spectroscopy with the scanning tunneling microscope for physisorbed H2 and its isotopes HD and D2. The observed excitation energies are very close to the gas phase values and show the expected scaling with the moment of inertia. Since these energies are characteristic for the molecular nuclear spin states we are able to identify the para and ortho species of hydrogen and deuterium, respectively. We thereby demonstrate nuclear spin sensitivity with unprecedented spatial resolution.

Natterer, Fabian Donat; Patthey, François; Brune, Harald

2013-10-01

115

Coherent dynamics of a single spin interacting with an adjustable spin bath.

Phase coherence is a fundamental concept in quantum mechanics. Understanding the loss of coherence is paramount for future quantum information processing. We studied the coherent dynamics of a single central spin (a nitrogen-vacancy center) coupled to a bath of spins (nitrogen impurities) in diamond. Our experiments show that both the internal interactions of the bath and the coupling between the central spin and the bath can be tuned in situ, allowing access to regimes with surprisingly different behavior. The observed dynamics are well explained by analytics and numerical simulations, leading to valuable insight into the loss of coherence in spin systems. These measurements demonstrate that spins in diamond provide an excellent test bed for models and protocols in quantum information. PMID:18339902

Hanson, R; Dobrovitski, V V; Feiguin, A E; Gywat, O; Awschalom, D D

2008-04-18

116

Nanomagnetism: Spin doctors play with single electrons

It is now possible to prepare a semiconductor quantum dot that contains a single magnetic atom, and then add just one extra electron or 'hole' to it, opening up the possibility of a new era in spintronics.

Steven C. Erwin

2006-01-01

117

Single electron-spin memory with a semiconductor quantum dot

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show storage of the circular polarization of an optical field, transferring it to the spin-state of an individual electron confined in a single semiconductor quantum dot. The state is subsequently read out through the electronically-triggered emission of a single photon. The emitted photon shares the same polarization as the initial pulse but has a different energy, making the transfer of quantum information between different physical systems possible. With an applied magnetic field of 2 T, spin memory is preserved for at least 1000 times more than the exciton's radiative lifetime.

Young, Robert J.; Dewhurst, Samuel J.; Stevenson, R. Mark; Atkinson, Paola; Bennett, Anthony J.; Ward, Martin B.; Cooper, Ken; Ritchie, David A.; Shields, Andrew J.

2007-10-01

118

Nuclear spin relaxation induced by a mechanical resonator.

We report on measurements of the spin lifetime of nuclear spins strongly coupled to a micromechanical cantilever as used in magnetic resonance force microscopy. We find that the rotating-frame correlation time of the statistical nuclear polarization is set by the magnetomechanical noise originating from the thermal motion of the cantilever. Evidence is based on the effect of three parameters: (1) the magnetic field gradient (the coupling strength), (2) the Rabi frequency of the spins (the transition energy), and (3) the temperature of the low-frequency mechanical modes. Experimental results are compared to relaxation rates calculated from the spectral density of the magnetomechanical noise. PMID:18517996

Degen, C L; Poggio, M; Mamin, H J; Rugar, D

2008-04-01

119

Spin- and isospin-polarized states of nuclear matter in the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock model

Spin-polarized isospin asymmetric nuclear matter is studied within the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach. After a brief review of the formalism, we present and discuss the self-consistent single-particle potentials at various levels of spin and isospin asymmetry. We then move to predictions of the energy per particle, also under different conditions of isospin and spin polarization. Comparison with the energy per particle in isospin symmetric or asymmetric unpolarized nuclear matter shows no evidence for a phase transition to a spin-ordered state, neither ferromagnetic nor antiferromagnetic.

Sammarruca, Francesca [Physics Department, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844-0903 (United States)

2011-06-15

120

An endohedral fullerene-based nuclear spin quantum computer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new scalable quantum computer architecture based on endohedral fullerene molecules. Qubits are encoded in the nuclear spins of the endohedral atoms, which posses even longer coherence times than the electron spins which are used as the qubits in previous proposals. To address the individual qubits, we use the hyperfine interaction, which distinguishes two modes (active and passive) of the nuclear spin. Two-qubit quantum gates are effectively implemented by employing the electronic dipolar interaction between adjacent molecules. The electron spins also assist in the qubit initialization and readout. Our architecture should be significantly easier to implement than earlier proposals for spin-based quantum computers, such as the concept of Kane [B.E. Kane, Nature 393 (1998) 133].

Ju, Chenyong; Suter, Dieter; Du, Jiangfeng

2011-03-01

121

Spin-current autocorrelations from single pure-state propagation.

We demonstrate that the concept of quantum typicality allows for significant progress in the study of real-time spin dynamics and transport in quantum magnets. To this end, we present a numerical analysis of the spin-current autocorrelation function of the antiferromagnetic and anisotropic spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain as inferred from propagating only a single pure state, randomly chosen as a "typical" representative of the statistical ensemble. Comparing with existing time-dependent density-matrix renormalization group data, we show that typicality is fulfilled extremely well, consistent with an error of our approach, which is perfectly under control and vanishes in the thermodynamic limit. In the long-time limit, our results provide for a new benchmark for the enigmatic spin Drude weight, which we obtain from chains as long as L=33 sites, i.e., from Hilbert spaces of dimensions almost O(104) larger than in existing exact-diagonalization studies. PMID:24724642

Steinigeweg, Robin; Gemmer, Jochen; Brenig, Wolfram

2014-03-28

122

Calculation of nuclear spin-spin coupling constants using frozen density embedding.

We present a method for a subsystem-based calculation of indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling tensors within the framework of current-spin-density-functional theory. Our approach is based on the frozen-density embedding scheme within density-functional theory and extends a previously reported subsystem-based approach for the calculation of nuclear magnetic resonance shielding tensors to magnetic fields which couple not only to orbital but also spin degrees of freedom. This leads to a formulation in which the electron density, the induced paramagnetic current, and the induced spin-magnetization density are calculated separately for the individual subsystems. This is particularly useful for the inclusion of environmental effects in the calculation of nuclear spin-spin coupling constants. Neglecting the induced paramagnetic current and spin-magnetization density in the environment due to the magnetic moments of the coupled nuclei leads to a very efficient method in which the computationally expensive response calculation has to be performed only for the subsystem of interest. We show that this approach leads to very good results for the calculation of solvent-induced shifts of nuclear spin-spin coupling constants in hydrogen-bonded systems. Also for systems with stronger interactions, frozen-density embedding performs remarkably well, given the approximate nature of currently available functionals for the non-additive kinetic energy. As an example we show results for methylmercury halides which exhibit an exceptionally large shift of the one-bond coupling constants between (199)Hg and (13)C upon coordination of dimethylsulfoxide solvent molecules. PMID:24628152

Götz, Andreas W; Autschbach, Jochen; Visscher, Lucas

2014-03-14

123

Calculation of nuclear spin-spin coupling constants using frozen density embedding

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method for a subsystem-based calculation of indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling tensors within the framework of current-spin-density-functional theory. Our approach is based on the frozen-density embedding scheme within density-functional theory and extends a previously reported subsystem-based approach for the calculation of nuclear magnetic resonance shielding tensors to magnetic fields which couple not only to orbital but also spin degrees of freedom. This leads to a formulation in which the electron density, the induced paramagnetic current, and the induced spin-magnetization density are calculated separately for the individual subsystems. This is particularly useful for the inclusion of environmental effects in the calculation of nuclear spin-spin coupling constants. Neglecting the induced paramagnetic current and spin-magnetization density in the environment due to the magnetic moments of the coupled nuclei leads to a very efficient method in which the computationally expensive response calculation has to be performed only for the subsystem of interest. We show that this approach leads to very good results for the calculation of solvent-induced shifts of nuclear spin-spin coupling constants in hydrogen-bonded systems. Also for systems with stronger interactions, frozen-density embedding performs remarkably well, given the approximate nature of currently available functionals for the non-additive kinetic energy. As an example we show results for methylmercury halides which exhibit an exceptionally large shift of the one-bond coupling constants between 199Hg and 13C upon coordination of dimethylsulfoxide solvent molecules.

Götz, Andreas W.; Autschbach, Jochen; Visscher, Lucas

2014-03-01

124

Gigahertz dynamics of a strongly driven single quantum spin.

Two-level systems are at the core of numerous real-world technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging and atomic clocks. Coherent control of the state is achieved with an oscillating field that drives dynamics at a rate determined by its amplitude. As the strength of the field is increased, a different regime emerges where linear scaling of the manipulation rate breaks down and complex dynamics are expected. By calibrating the spin rotation with an adiabatic passage, we have measured the room-temperature "strong-driving" dynamics of a single nitrogen vacancy center in diamond. With an adiabatic passage to calibrate the spin rotation, we observed dynamics on sub-nanosecond time scales. Contrary to conventional thinking, this breakdown of the rotating wave approximation provides opportunities for time-optimal quantum control of a single spin. PMID:19965386

Fuchs, G D; Dobrovitski, V V; Toyli, D M; Heremans, F J; Awschalom, D D

2009-12-11

125

Calculation of TMD Evolution for Transverse Single Spin Asymmetry Measurements

In this letter, we show that it is necessary to include the full treatment of QCD evolution of Transverse Momentum Dependent parton densities to explain discrepancies between HERMES data and recent COMPASS data on a proton target for the Sivers transverse single spin asymmetry in Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS). Calculations based on existing fits to TMDs in SIDIS, and

Mert Aybat; Ted Rogers; Alexey Prokudin

2012-01-01

126

Quantum nondemolition measurements of single donor spins in semiconductors

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a technique for measuring the state of a single donor-electron spin using a field-effect transistor induced two-dimensional electron gas and electrically detected magnetic-resonance techniques. The scheme is facilitated by hyperfine coupling to the donor nucleus. We analyze the potential sensitivity and outline experimental requirements. Our measurement provides a single-shot, projective, and quantum nondemolition measurement of an electron-encoded qubit state.

Sarovar, Mohan; Young, Kevin C.; Schenkel, Thomas; Whaley, K. Birgitta

2008-12-01

127

Using nanoscale transistors to measure single donor spins in semiconductors

We propose a technique for measuring the state of a single donor electron spin usinga field-effect transistor induced two-dimensional electron gas and electrically detected magnetic resonance techniques. The scheme is faciltated by hyperfine coupling to the donor nucleus. We analyze the potential sensitivity and outlne experimental reqiurements. Our measurement provides a single-shot, projective, and quantum non-demoltion measurement of an electron-encoded qubit state.

Sarovar, M.; Young, K. C.; Whaley, K. B.; Schenkel, Thomas

2008-12-01

128

Nonlinear Single-Spin Spectrum Analyzer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Qubits have been used as linear spectrum analyzers of their environments. Here we solve the problem of nonlinear spectral analysis, required for discrete noise induced by a strongly coupled environment. Our nonperturbative analytical model shows a nonlinear signal dependence on noise power, resulting in a spectral resolution beyond the Fourier limit as well as frequency mixing. We develop a noise characterization scheme adapted to this nonlinearity. We then apply it using a single trapped ion as a sensitive probe of strong, non-Gaussian, discrete magnetic field noise. Finally, we experimentally compared the performance of equidistant vs Uhrig modulation schemes for spectral analysis.

Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Ozeri, Roee

2013-03-01

129

Spin constraints on nuclear energy density functionals

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gallagher-Moszkowski rule in the spectroscopy of odd-odd nuclei imposes a new spin constraint on the energy functionals for self-consistent mean field theory. The commonly used parametrization of the effective three-body interaction in the Gogny and Skyrme families of energy functionals is ill suited to satisfy the spin constraint. In particular, the Gogny parametrization of the three-body interaction has the spin dependence opposite to that required by the observed spectra. The two-body part has a correct sign, but in combination the rule is violated as often as not. We conclude that a new functional form is needed for the effective three-body interaction that can take into better account the different spin-isospin channels of the interaction.

Robledo, L. M.; Bernard, R. N.; Bertsch, G. F.

2014-02-01

130

We show that electron-nuclear spin coupling in semiconductor heterostructures is strongly modified by their potential inversion asymmetry. This is demonstrated in a GaAs quantum well, where we observe that the current-induced nuclear spin polarization at Landau-level filling factor nu=2/3 is completely suppressed when the quantum well is made largely asymmetric with gate voltages. Furthermore, we find that the nuclear spin relaxation rate is also modified by the potential asymmetry. These findings strongly suggest that even a very weak Rashba spin-orbit interaction can play a dominant role in determining the electron-nuclear spin coupling. PMID:15904087

Hashimoto, Katsushi; Muraki, Koji; Kumada, Norio; Saku, Tadashi; Hirayama, Yoshiro

2005-04-15

131

The Nuclear Cusp Condition in Spin-Polarized Thomas - Theory.

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thomas-Fermi theory, which was introduced in the 1920s, was developed into rigorous mathematics in the 1970s by Lieb, Simon, Benilan, Brezis, and others. Later, Goldstein and Rieder extended rigorous Thomas-Fermi theory to a spin polarized context, to include the nuclear cusp condition, and to the case where a magnetic field is present. But they did not investigate incorporating the nuclear cusp condition into the spin polarized context. The purpose of my thesis is to do precisely that. I proved the existence and uniqueness of the problem of minimizing the energy functional by solving a non-linear elliptic partial differential equation on { bf R}^3 which arose from the Euler -Lagrange equation. A topological argument then related the Lagrange multipliers to the numbers of spin up and spin down electrons.

Lung, Chien-An.

132

High precision quantum control of single donor spins in silicon.

The Stark shift of the hyperfine coupling constant is investigated for a P donor in Si far below the ionization regime in the presence of interfaces using tight-binding and band minima basis approaches and compared to the recent precision measurements. In contrast with previous effective mass-based results, the quadratic Stark coefficient obtained from both theories agrees closely with the experiments. It is also shown that there is a significant linear Stark effect for an impurity near the interface, whereas, far from the interface, the quadratic Stark effect dominates. This work represents the most sensitive and precise comparison between theory and experiment for single donor spin control. Such precise control of single donor spin states is required particularly in quantum computing applications of single donor electronics, which forms the driving motivation of this work. PMID:17678301

Rahman, Rajib; Wellard, Cameron J; Bradbury, Forrest R; Prada, Marta; Cole, Jared H; Klimeck, Gerhard; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L

2007-07-20

133

Combustion resistance of the 129Xe hyperpolarized nuclear spin state.

Using a methane-xenon mixture for spin exchange optical pumping, MRI of combustion was enabled. The (129)Xe hyperpolarized nuclear spin state was found to sufficiently survive the complete passage through the harsh environment of the reaction zone. A velocity profile (V(z)(z)) of a flame was recorded to demonstrate the feasibility of MRI velocimetry of transport processes in combustors. PMID:23165418

Stupic, Karl F; Six, Joseph S; Olsen, Michael D; Pavlovskaya, Galina E; Meersmann, Thomas

2013-01-01

134

Single-Spin Asymmetries in SIDIS at JLab

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of spin and azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive processes emerged as an important tool to access Transverse Momentum Dependent (TMD) parton distributions containing information on both the longitudinal and transverse motion of partons inside a fast moving nucleon. CLAS collaboration at Jefferson Lab collected recently approximately 19 billion electron triggers with hydrogen and 7 billion electron triggers with deuterium using solid state ammonia and deuterated ammonia targets. Kinematical dependences of single and double spin asymmetries have been measured for a longitudinally polarized proton target, providing access to transverse momentum distributions of quarks and spin orbit correlations in the nucleon. In this talk we present latest studies of TMDs and discuss newly released results, ongoing activities, as well as planed near term and future measurements.

Avagyan, Harut

2012-03-01

135

Single-chip detector for electron spin resonance spectroscopy

We have realized an innovative integrated detector for electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The microsystem, consisting of an LC oscillator, a mixer, and a frequency division module, is integrated onto a single silicon chip using a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. The implemented detection method is based on the measurement of the variation of the frequency of the integrated LC oscillator as a function of the applied static magnetic field, caused by the presence of a resonating sample placed over the inductor of the LC-tank circuit. The achieved room temperature spin sensitivity is about 10{sup 10} spins/GHz{sup 1/2} with a sensitive volume of about (100 {mu}m){sup 3}.

Yalcin, T. [Hochschule fuer Technik und Architektur Luzern (HTA), 6048 Horw (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechninque Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Boero, G. [Ecole Polytechninque Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2008-09-15

136

Single-chip detector for electron spin resonance spectroscopy.

We have realized an innovative integrated detector for electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The microsystem, consisting of an LC oscillator, a mixer, and a frequency division module, is integrated onto a single silicon chip using a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. The implemented detection method is based on the measurement of the variation of the frequency of the integrated LC oscillator as a function of the applied static magnetic field, caused by the presence of a resonating sample placed over the inductor of the LC-tank circuit. The achieved room temperature spin sensitivity is about 10(10) spinsGHz(12) with a sensitive volume of about (100 microm)(3). PMID:19044436

Yalcin, T; Boero, G

2008-09-01

137

Three-dimensional optical manipulation of a single electron spin.

Nitrogen vacancy (NV) centres in diamond are promising elemental blocks for quantum optics, spin-based quantum information processing and high-resolution sensing. However, fully exploiting the capabilities of these NV centres requires suitable strategies to accurately manipulate them. Here, we use optical tweezers as a tool to achieve deterministic trapping and three-dimensional spatial manipulation of individual nanodiamonds hosting a single NV spin. Remarkably, we find that the NV axis is nearly fixed inside the trap and can be controlled in situ by adjusting the polarization of the trapping light. By combining this unique spatial and angular control with coherent manipulation of the NV spin and fluorescence lifetime measurements near an integrated photonic system, we demonstrate individual optically trapped NV centres as a novel route for both three-dimensional vectorial magnetometry and sensing of the local density of optical states. PMID:23396312

Geiselmann, Michael; Juan, Mathieu L; Renger, Jan; Say, Jana M; Brown, Louise J; de Abajo, F Javier García; Koppens, Frank; Quidant, Romain

2013-03-01

138

Three-dimensional optical manipulation of a single electron spin

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen vacancy (NV) centres in diamond are promising elemental blocks for quantum optics, spin-based quantum information processing and high-resolution sensing. However, fully exploiting the capabilities of these NV centres requires suitable strategies to accurately manipulate them. Here, we use optical tweezers as a tool to achieve deterministic trapping and three-dimensional spatial manipulation of individual nanodiamonds hosting a single NV spin. Remarkably, we find that the NV axis is nearly fixed inside the trap and can be controlled in situ by adjusting the polarization of the trapping light. By combining this unique spatial and angular control with coherent manipulation of the NV spin and fluorescence lifetime measurements near an integrated photonic system, we demonstrate individual optically trapped NV centres as a novel route for both three-dimensional vectorial magnetometry and sensing of the local density of optical states.

Geiselmann, Michael; Juan, Mathieu L.; Renger, Jan; Say, Jana M.; Brown, Louise J.; de Abajo, F. Javier García; Koppens, Frank; Quidant, Romain

2013-03-01

139

Imaging mesoscopic nuclear spin noise with a diamond magnetometer.

Magnetic resonance imaging can characterize and discriminate among tissues using their diverse physical and biochemical properties. Unfortunately, submicrometer screening of biological specimens is presently not possible, mainly due to lack of detection sensitivity. Here we analyze the use of a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond as a magnetic sensor for nanoscale nuclear spin imaging and spectroscopy. We examine the ability of such a sensor to probe the fluctuations of the "classical" dipolar field due to a large number of neighboring nuclear spins in a densely protonated sample. We identify detection protocols that appropriately take into account the quantum character of the sensor and find a signal-to-noise ratio compatible with realistic experimental parameters. Through various example calculations we illustrate different kinds of image contrast. In particular, we show how to exploit the comparatively long nuclear spin correlation times to reconstruct a local, high-resolution sample spectrum. PMID:20886922

Meriles, Carlos A; Jiang, Liang; Goldstein, Garry; Hodges, Jonathan S; Maze, Jeronimo; Lukin, Mikhail D; Cappellaro, Paola

2010-09-28

140

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study nuclear spin dynamics in a quantum dot close to the conditions of electron spin resonance. We show that at a small frequency mismatch, the nuclear field detunes the resonance. Remarkably, at larger frequency mismatch, its effect is opposite: The nuclear system is bistable, and in one of the stable states, the field accurately tunes the electron spin splitting to resonance. In this state, the nuclear field fluctuations are strongly suppressed, and nuclear spin relaxation is accelerated.

Danon, Jeroen; Nazarov, Yuli V.

2008-02-01

141

Electric-field sensing using single diamond spins

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to sensitively detect individual charges under ambient conditions would benefit a wide range of applications across disciplines. However, most current techniques are limited to low-temperature methods such as single-electron transistors, single-electron electrostatic force microscopy and scanning tunnelling microscopy. Here we introduce a quantum-metrology technique demonstrating precision three-dimensional electric-field measurement using a single nitrogen-vacancy defect centre spin in diamond. An a.c. electric-field sensitivity reaching 202+/-6Vcm-1Hz-1/2 has been achieved. This corresponds to the electric field produced by a single elementary charge located at a distance of ~150nm from our spin sensor with averaging for one second. The analysis of the electronic structure of the defect centre reveals how an applied magnetic field influences the electric-field-sensing properties. We also demonstrate that diamond-defect-centre spins can be switched between electric- and magnetic-field sensing modes and identify suitable parameter ranges for both detector schemes. By combining magnetic- and electric-field sensitivity, nanoscale detection and ambient operation, our study should open up new frontiers in imaging and sensing applications ranging from materials science to bioimaging.

Dolde, F.; Fedder, H.; Doherty, M. W.; Nöbauer, T.; Rempp, F.; Balasubramanian, G.; Wolf, T.; Reinhard, F.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.; Jelezko, F.; Wrachtrup, J.

2011-06-01

142

Quantum Information Transport in Nuclear Spin Chains

In many solid-state proposals for quantum computers, the transport of information over relatively short distances inside the quantum processor itself is an essential task, and one for which relying on photons, and therefore on a frequent exchanging of information between solid-state and light qubits, could be too costly. Quantum wires based on spins could be a viable alternative leading to

Paola Cappellaro; David Cory

2007-01-01

143

Quantum chaos and fluctuations in isolated nuclear-spin systems

Using numerical simulations we investigate dynamical quantum chaos in isolated nuclear spin systems. We determine the structure of quantum states, investigate the validity of the Curie law for magnetic susceptibility and find the spectrum of magnetic noise. The spectrum is the same for positive and negative temperatures. The study is motivated by recent interest in condensed-matter experiments for searches of fundamental parity- and time-reversal-invariance violations. In these experiments nuclear spins are cooled down to microkelvin temperatures and are completely decoupled from their surroundings. A limitation on statistical sensitivity of the experiments arises from the magnetic noise.

Ludlow, J. A.; Sushkov, O. P. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

2007-01-15

144

Quantum chaos and fluctuations in isolated nuclear-spin systems.

Using numerical simulations we investigate dynamical quantum chaos in isolated nuclear spin systems. We determine the structure of quantum states, investigate the validity of the Curie law for magnetic susceptibility and find the spectrum of magnetic noise. The spectrum is the same for positive and negative temperatures. The study is motivated by recent interest in condensed-matter experiments for searches of fundamental parity- and time-reversal-invariance violations. In these experiments nuclear spins are cooled down to microkelvin temperatures and are completely decoupled from their surroundings. A limitation on statistical sensitivity of the experiments arises from the magnetic noise. PMID:17358232

Ludlow, J A; Sushkov, O P

2007-01-01

145

Theoretical Study of Interaction between Photons and Single Spins

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spin is a promising candidate for new resources of information technology. The major applications of spin-based technology are quantum computation, quantum communication and high-sensitive magnetometry. Optical control and detection of spin coherence are important techniques for such applications. In quantum communication and distributed quantum computing, quantum networks consisting of local nodes which are connected by quantum channels are essential. They provide platforms for transmission of flying qubits from one node to another. Within physical implementation of such networks, local nodes consist of clusters of stationary qubits. A single photon can form the flying qubit. The quantum information carried by the flying qubits can be conducted between local nodes through waveguides. Therefore quantum interfacing is the key element for the scalability in the quantum network. In the first two chapters of the thesis, we focus on the strong coupling region of the quantum interfacing. Solid-state systems have the advantages of stability and integratability. In solid-state systems, one-dimensional waveguides serve as an outstanding medium for transporting photons. Waveguides provide suitable circumstance for the strong interaction between photons and atoms for the small interaction section. This strong coupling between the atom and waveguide allows the photons to be directionally emitted into one optical channel connecting different quantum nodes. First, we follow the control scheme of the interplay between a stationary qubit and a flying qubit at an interface, which is composed of a ?-type system coupled to a one-dimensional waveguide. It shows that the sending and receiving process can be independently controlled by changing the driving laser pulses. We extend a general control scheme of a spin-photon quantum interface. Our scheme removes the constraints of Markovian process and therefore can be applied to the atom-waveguide devices for quantum network applications. In the three-level system, the exact solution for the driving pulse shows Markovian approximation applies for relatively slow pulses, while non-Markovian dynamics is essential for rapid operation near the cut-off frequency of the waveguide. Secondly, we investigate the dynamic evolution of a single two-level system embedded in the one-dimensional waveguide. It is well known that if the transition frequency of the two-level system is below the cut-off frequency of the one-dimensional waveguide, the spontaneous emission decay will be totally inhibited. However, we find that even the transition frequency is set above the cut-off frequency, the decay is partly suppressed due to the existence of an exciton bound state. When the transition frequency is tuned to the edge of the cut-off frequency, the decay rate is remarkably enhanced. And the Rabi oscillation appears between the discrete bound state and a resonance with finite lifetime. The Non-Markovian spontaneous emission near the band edge reveals the strong coupling between the atom and the continuum. The trapped polariton makes the optical system behave like a cavity without mirror. And the individual quantum dot has shown to be potential to serve as the deterministic single-photon source. Another limit of spin-photon interaction is the weak interaction regime, which often occurs in optical detection of single spins. The interaction between a single spin and a probe device is extremely weak, making measurement difficult. The measurement thus is weak. But disturbance caused by the measurement is also weak. In the weak interaction region, correlations of sequential or continuous weak measurement reveal faithfully dynamics of a single spin. We study the weak measurement of a single spin by a continuouswave light, which is based on the weak Faraday rotation effect. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Chen, Ting

146

Dynamic nuclear polarization of single nitrogen isoelectronic centers in GaAs

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to their very long coherence time, nuclear spins of atomic systems represent good candidates for spin-based qubits in semiconductors. In this work, the dynamic nuclear polarization of isoelectronic centers formed from two nitrogen impurities in GaAs is investigated as a function of the external magnetic field and the polarization ellipticity of the exciting light. The nuclear spins of a single center are probed by the Overhauser shift of the neutral exciton and negatively charged exciton bound states. A nuclear magnetic field of 25 mT is measured at low external magnetic field and it decreases with this external field, indicating an efficiency loss in the exciton-nucleus spin-flip process. A peculiar Overhauser shift, scaling as the square of the ellipticity, is found for the exciton. A strong hysteretic behavior is also observed for both the neutral and charged excitons. These effects are believed to originate from the complex dynamic of the hyperfine interaction between the different excitonic spin states and nuclei. Our results show that dynamic nuclear polarization, much studied in quantum dots, is scalable to a single atomic-sized system. These results represent a first step towards the optical control of single nuclear spins in semiconductors.

Ethier-Majcher, Gabriel; St-Jean, Philippe; Francoeur, Sebastien

2013-03-01

147

Direct Observation of a Nuclear Spin Excitation in Ho2Ti2O7

A single nondispersive excitation is observed by means of neutron backscattering, at E{sub 0} = 26.3 {micro}eV in the spin ice Ho{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} but not in the isotopically enriched {sup 162}Dy{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} analogue. The intensity of this excitation is rather small, {approx}< 0.2% of the elastic intensity. It is clearly observed below 80 K but resolution limited only below {approx}65 K. The application of a magnetic field up to {mu}{sub 0}H = 4.5 T, at 1.6 K, has no measurable effect on the energy or intensity. This nuclear excitation is believed to perturb the electronic, Ising spin system resulting in the persistent spin dynamics observed in spin ice compounds.

Ehlers, Georg [ORNL; Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; Zamponi, Michaela M [ORNL

2009-01-01

148

Direct observation of a nuclear spin excitation in Ho2Ti2O7.

A single nondispersive excitation is observed by means of neutron backscattering, at E_{0}=26.3 microeV in the spin ice Ho2Ti2O7 but not in the isotopically enriched 162Dy2Ti2O7 analogue. The intensity of this excitation is rather small, less, similar0.2% of the elastic intensity. It is clearly observed below 80 K but resolution limited only below approximately 65 K. The application of a magnetic field up to micro_{0}H=4.5 T, at 1.6 K, has no measurable effect on the energy or intensity. This nuclear excitation is believed to perturb the electronic, Ising spin system resulting in the persistent spin dynamics observed in spin ice compounds. PMID:19257221

Ehlers, G; Mamontov, E; Zamponi, M; Kam, K C; Gardner, J S

2009-01-01

149

Single-spin superconductivity: Formulation and Ginzburg-Landau theory

We describe a superconducting phase that arises due to a pairing instability of the half-metallic antiferromagnetic (HM AFM) normal state. This single-spin superconducting (SSS) phase contains broken time-reversal symmetry in addition to broken gauge symmetry, the former due to the underlying magnetic order in the normal state. A classification of normal-state symmetries leads to the conclusion that the HM AFM

Robert E. Rudd; Warren E. Pickett

1998-01-01

150

Single transverse-spin asymmetry in hadronic dijet production

We study the single-transverse-spin asymmetry for dijet production in hadronic collisions in both the collinear QCD factorization approach and the Brodsky-Hwang-Schmidt model. We show that a nonvanishing asymmetry is generated by both initial-state and final-state interactions, and that the final-state interactions dominate. We find that in the leading kinematic region where the transverse momentum imbalance of the two jets, q-vector{sub

Jian-Wei Qiu; Werner Vogelsang; Feng Yuan

2007-01-01

151

Single transverse-spin asymmetry in hadronic dijet production

We study the single-transverse-spin asymmetry for dijet production in hadronic collisions in both the collinear QCD factorization approach and the Brodsky-Hwang-Schmidt model. We show that a nonvanishing asymmetry is generated by both initial-state and final-state interactions, and that the final-state interactions dominate. We find that in the leading kinematic region where the transverse momentum imbalance of the two jets, q-->?=P-->1?+P-->2?,

Jian-Wei Qiu; Werner Vogelsang; Feng Yuan

2007-01-01

152

Towards force detected single electron spin resonance at room temperature

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) spectroscopy has shown that electron tunneling at or within silicon dioxide layers is strongly dependent on spin-selection rules [1]. Also demonstrated is the detection of single electron tunneling events by electrostatic force with sub-nanometer spatial resolution [2,3]. Here we propose to combine force detected single electron tunneling microscopy with EDMR to demonstrate a new kind of single spin force microscope. This approach has much better sensitivity than magnetic force based single spin microscopes [4], since electrostatic forces are much larger than corresponding magnetic forces. In this method, a paramagnetic state in an oxidized AFM probe tip is brought within tunneling range of a paramagnetic state in an oxide surface [5]. Under appropriate energy conditions, one of the unpaired electrons can randomly tunnel between the two states causing a random telegraph signal (RTS) to appear on the AFM cantilever frequency. Simulations predict that if magnetic resonance conditions are achieved, a measurable change in the RTS signal is detectable at room temperature. The theory and a quantitative simulation of this atomic scale spin resonance measurement will be presented, along with experimentally observed random telegraph signals.[4pt] [1] D. R. McCamey, et al., Phys. Rev. B, 78, 045302 (2008). [2] L. J. Klein and C.C. Williams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1828 (2001). [3] E. Bussmann and D.J. Kim, and C.C. Williams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2538 (2004). [4] D. Rugar et al., Nature 430, 329 (2004). [5] J.P. Johnson, Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. of Physics, University of Utah (2010).

Williams, C. C.; Payne, A.; Ambal, K.; Boehme, C.

2013-03-01

153

High fidelity readout of a single electron spin

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the two spin states of the valence electron of a single trapped ^88Sr^+ ion as a physical qubit implementation. For qubit readout one of the qubit states is shelved to a metastable D level using a narrow linewidth 674nm diode laser followed by state-selective fluorescence detection. Careful analysis of the resulting photon detection statistics allows for a minimal detection error of 2 . 10-3, compatible with recent estimates of the fault-tolerance required error threshold.

Keselman, Anna; Glickman, Yinnon; Akerman, Nitzan; Kotler, Shlomi; Dallal, Yehonatan; Ozeri, Roee

2010-03-01

154

Optical Spin Noise of a Single Hole Spin Localized in an (InGa)As Quantum Dot

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We advance spin noise spectroscopy to the ultimate limit of single spin detection. This technique enables the measurement of the spin dynamic of a single heavy hole localized in a flat (InGa)As quantum dot. Magnetic field and light intensity dependent studies reveal even at low magnetic fields a strong magnetic field dependence of the longitudinal heavy hole spin relaxation time with an extremely long T1 of ?180 ?s at 31 mT and 5 K. The wavelength dependence of the spin noise power discloses for finite light intensities an inhomogeneous single quantum dot spin noise spectrum which is explained by charge fluctuations in the direct neighborhood of the quantum dot. The charge fluctuations are corroborated by the distinct intensity dependence of the effective spin relaxation rate.

Dahbashi, Ramin; Hübner, Jens; Berski, Fabian; Pierz, Klaus; Oestreich, Michael

2014-04-01

155

The equation-of-motion coupled cluster singles and doubles (EOM-CCSD) method for general second-order properties is derived providing a quadratic, CI-like approximation and its linked form from coupled cluster (CC) energy derivative theory. The effects of the quadratic contribution, of the atomic basis set employed, and of electron correlation on NMR spin–spin coupling constant calculations using EOM-CCSD methods are investigated for a

S. Ajith Perera; Marcel Nooijen; Rodney J. Bartlett

1996-01-01

156

A METHOD FOR NUCLEAR SPIN STATISTICS IN MOLECULAR SPECTROSCOPY

Using spin projection operator methods generating functions are developed for nuclear spin species. These operators also generate elegantly the irreducible representations spanned by a{sub 1}{sup b{sub 1}}, a{sub 2}{sup b{sub 2}} .... a{sub t}{sup b{sub t}} nuclear spin functions where a{sub i} is the number of possible spin states of the b{sub i} nuclei of the same kind in the molecule. From these generating functions the statistical weights of the rovibronic levels of any polyatomic molecule can be obtained easily. The method is illustrated with SF{sub 6}, C{sup 13}-Triphenylene and triphenylene with protons replaced by D. For C{sup 13}-Triphenylene there are 1073741824 nuclear spin functions from which we determine the statistical weights of the rovibronic levels A{sub 1}, A{sub 2}, E, A{sub 1}', A{sub 2}' and E' to be 178940928, 178973696, 357913600, 178940928, 178973696, and 357913600, respectively.

Balasubramanian, K.

1980-10-01

157

Creating nuclear spin entanglement using an optical degree of freedom

Molecular nanostructures are promising building blocks for future quantum technologies, provided methods of harnessing their multiple degrees of freedom can be identified and implemented. Due to low decoherence rates, nuclear spins are considered ideal candidates for storing quantum information, while optical excitations can give rise to fast and controllable interactions for information processing. A recent paper [M. Schaffry et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 200501 (2010)] proposed a method for entangling two nuclear spins through their mutual coupling to a transient optically excited electron spin. Building on the same idea, we present here an extended and much more detailed theoretical framework, showing that this method is in fact applicable to a much wider class of molecular structures than previously discussed in the original proposal.

Schaffry, Marcus [Department of Materials, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Lovett, Brendon W. [Department of Materials, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); SUPA, Department of Physics, Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Gauger, Erik M. [Department of Materials, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)

2011-09-15

158

Spin squeezing of a cold atomic ensemble with the nuclear spin of one-half.

In order to establish an applicable system for advanced quantum information processing based on the interaction between light and atoms, we have demonstrated a quantum nondemolition measurement with a collective spin of cold ytterbium atoms (171Yb), and have observed 1.8(-1.5)+2.4 dB spin squeezing. Since 171Yb atoms have only a nuclear spin of one-half in the ground state, the system constitutes the simplest spin ensemble and is thus robust against decoherence. We used very short pulses with a width of 100 ns, and as a result the interaction time became much shorter than the decoherence time, which is important for multistep quantum information processing. PMID:19257352

Takano, T; Fuyama, M; Namiki, R; Takahashi, Y

2009-01-23

159

Spin Squeezing of a Cold Atomic Ensemble with the Nuclear Spin of One-Half

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to establish an applicable system for advanced quantum information processing based on the interaction between light and atoms, we have demonstrated a quantum nondemolition measurement with a collective spin of cold ytterbium atoms (Yb171), and have observed 1.8-1.5+2.4dB spin squeezing. Since Yb171 atoms have only a nuclear spin of one-half in the ground state, the system constitutes the simplest spin ensemble and is thus robust against decoherence. We used very short pulses with a width of 100 ns, and as a result the interaction time became much shorter than the decoherence time, which is important for multistep quantum information processing.

Takano, T.; Fuyama, M.; Namiki, R.; Takahashi, Y.

2009-01-01

160

Single transverse-spin asymmetry in hadronic dijet production

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the single-transverse-spin asymmetry for dijet production in hadronic collisions in both the collinear QCD factorization approach and the Brodsky-Hwang-Schmidt model. We show that a nonvanishing asymmetry is generated by both initial-state and final-state interactions, and that the final-state interactions dominate. We find that in the leading kinematic region where the transverse momentum imbalance of the two jets, q??=P?1?+P?2?, is much less than the momentum of either jet, the contribution from the lowest nontrivial perturbative order to both the spin-averaged and the spin-dependent dijet cross sections can be factorized into a hard part that is a function only of the averaged jet momentum P??=(P?1?-P?2?)/2, and perturbatively generated transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distributions. We show that the spin asymmetry at this nontrivial perturbative order can be described by the TMD parton distributions defined in either semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering or the Drell-Yan process. We derive the same hard parts from both the collinear factorization approach and in the context of the Brodsky-Hwang-Schmidt model, verifying that they are not sensitive to details of the factorized long-distance physics.

Qiu, Jian-Wei; Vogelsang, Werner; Yuan, Feng

2007-10-01

161

Single transverse-spin asymmetry in hadronic dijet production

We study the single-transverse-spin asymmetry for dijet production in hadronic collisions in both the collinear QCD factorization approach and the Brodsky-Hwang-Schmidt model. We show that a nonvanishing asymmetry is generated by both initial-state and final-state interactions, and that the final-state interactions dominate. We find that in the leading kinematic region where the transverse momentum imbalance of the two jets, q-vector{sub perpendicular}=P-vector{sub 1perpendicular}+P-vector{sub 2perpendicular}, is much less than the momentum of either jet, the contribution from the lowest nontrivial perturbative order to both the spin-averaged and the spin-dependent dijet cross sections can be factorized into a hard part that is a function only of the averaged jet momentum P-vector{sub perpendicular}=(P-vector{sub 1perpendicular}-P-vector{sub 2perpendicular})/2, and perturbatively generated transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distributions. We show that the spin asymmetry at this nontrivial perturbative order can be described by the TMD parton distributions defined in either semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering or the Drell-Yan process. We derive the same hard parts from both the collinear factorization approach and in the context of the Brodsky-Hwang-Schmidt model, verifying that they are not sensitive to details of the factorized long-distance physics.

Qiu, Jian-Wei [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Vogelsang, Werner [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Yuan, Feng [RIKEN BNL Research Center, Building 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

2007-10-01

162

Pulse FT NMR of non-equilibrium states of half-integer spin quadrupolar nuclei in single crystals.

For quadrupolar nuclei with spin quantum numbers equal to 3/2, 5/2 and 7/2, the intensities of the NMR transitions in a single crystal are examined as a function of the rf excitation flip angle. Single-quantum NMR intensities are calculated using density matrix theory beginning under various non-equilibrium conditions and are compared with those determined experimentally. As a representative spin-3/2 system, the flip-angle dependence of the (23)Na NMR intensities of a single crystal of NaNO(3) was investigated beginning with the inversion of the populations associated with one of the satellite transitions. Subsequently, the populations of both satellite transitions were inverted using highly frequency-selective hyperbolic secant pulses. Calculated and experimental intensities are in good agreement. As an example of a spin-5/2 system, the flip-angle dependence of the (27)Al NMR transition intensities was determined using a single crystal of sapphire, Al(2)O(3), starting under different nuclear spin population conditions. The experimental trends mimicked those predicted by the density matrix calculations but the agreement was not as good as for the spin-3/2 case. Some SIMPSON simulations were also carried out to confirm the results generated by our density matrix calculations. The theoretical flip-angle behavior of the NMR transition intensities obtained from a spin-7/2 spin system is also discussed. PMID:19962334

Nakashima, Thomas T; Harris, Kristopher J; Wasylishen, Roderick E

2010-02-01

163

Spin Anisotropy Effects in Dimer Single Molecule Magnets

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a model of equal spin s1 dimer single molecule magnets. The spins within each dimer interact via the Heisenberg and the most general set of four quadratic anisotropic spin interactions with respective strengths J and Jj, and with the magnetic induction B. For antiferromagnetic Heisenberg couplings (J<0) and weak anisotropy interactions (|Jj/J|1), the low temperature T magnetization M(B) exhibits 2s1 steps, the height and midpoint slope of the sth step differing from their isotropic limits by corrections of O(Jj/J)^2, but the position occurring at the energy level-crossing magnetic induction Bs,s1^lc(,), where , define the direction of B. We solve the model exactly for s1=1/2, 1, and 5/2. For weakly anisotropic dimers, the Hartree approximation yields analytic formulas for M(B) and CV(B) at arbitrary s1 that accurately fit the exact solutions at sufficiently low T or large B. Low-T formulas for the inelastic neutron scattering S(q,?) and the EPR ?(?) in an extended Hartree approximation are given. Our results are discussed with regard to existing experiments on s1=5/2 Fe2 dimers, suggesting further experiments on single crystals of these and some s1=9/2 [Mn4]2 dimers are warranted.

Efremov, Dmitri; Klemm, Richard

2006-03-01

164

Fluorescence and spin properties of defects in single digit nanodiamonds.

This article reports stable photoluminescence and high-contrast optically detected electron spin resonance (ODESR) from single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect centers created within ultrasmall, disperse nanodiamonds of radius less than 4 nm. Unexpectedly, the efficiency for the production of NV fluorescent defects by electron irradiation is found to be independent of the size of the nanocrystals. Fluorescence lifetime imaging shows lifetimes with a mean value of around 17 ns, only slightly longer than the bulk value of the defects. After proper surface cleaning, the dephasing times of the electron spin resonance in the nanocrystals approach values of some microseconds, which is typical for the type Ib diamond from which the nanoparticle is made. We conclude that despite the tiny size of these nanodiamonds the photoactive nitrogen-vacancy color centers retain their bulk properties to the benefit of numerous exciting potential applications in photonics, biomedical labeling, and imaging. PMID:21452865

Tisler, Julia; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrishnan; Naydenov, Boris; Kolesov, Roman; Grotz, Bernhard; Reuter, Rolf; Boudou, Jean-Paul; Curmi, Patrick A; Sennour, Mohamed; Thorel, Alain; Börsch, Michael; Aulenbacher, Kurt; Erdmann, Rainer; Hemmer, Philip R; Jelezko, Fedor; Wrachtrup, Jörg

2009-07-28

165

Nuclear spin polarization induced by ultrashort laser pulses

We theoretically show that the use of the hyperfine interaction together with a static electric field leads to ultrafast nuclear spin polarization. The idea is specifically applied to the isotopes of alkaline-earth atoms such as 27Mg (I = 1/2) and 37 Ca (I = 3/2), and we find that spin polarization as high as 88 % and 62 %, respectively, can be attained within the time scale of a few to tens of ns. This technique can be very effective not only for stable nuclei but also unstable nuclei.

Nakajima, Takashi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

2007-06-13

166

Investigation of the Possibility of Using Nuclear Magnetic Spin Alignment

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the program to investigate a "Gasdynamic fusion propulsion system for space exploration" is to develop a fusion propulsion system for a manned mission to the planet mars. A study using Deuterium and Tritium atoms are currently in progress. When these atoms under-go fusion, the resulting neutrons and alpha particles are emitted in random directions (isotropically). The probable direction of emission is equal for all directions, thus resulting in wasted energy, massive shielding and cooling requirements, and serious problems with the physics of achieving fusion. If the nuclear magnetic spin moments of the deuterium and tritium nuclei could be precisely aligned at the moment of fusion, the stream of emitted neutrons could be directed out the rear of the spacecraft for thrust and the alpha particles directed forward into an electromagnet ot produce electricity to continue operating the fusion engine. The following supporting topics are discussed: nuclear magnetic moments and spin precession in magnetic field, nuclear spin quantum mechanics, kinematics of nuclear reactions, and angular distribution of particles.

Dent, William V., Jr.

1998-01-01

167

Dynamics of a Single Spin-1/2 Coupled to x- and y-Spin Baths: Algorithm and Results

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The real-time dynamics of a single spin-1/2 particle, called the central spin, coupled to the x(y)-components of the spins of one or more baths is simulated. The bath Hamiltonians contain interactions of x(y)-components of the bath spins only but are general otherwise. An efficient algorithm is described which allows solving the time-dependent Schr’odinger equation for the central spin, even if the x(y) baths contain hundreds of spins. The algorithm requires storage for 2 × 2 matrices only, no matter how many spins are in the baths. We calculate the expectation value of the central spin, as well as its von Neumann entropy S(t), the quantum purity P(t), and the off-diagonal elements of the quantum density matrix. In the case of coupling the central spin to both x- and y- baths the relaxation of S(t) and P(t) with time is a power law, compared to an exponential if the central spin is only coupled to an x-bath. The effect of different initial states for the central spin and bath is studied. Comparison with more general spin baths is also presented.

Novotny, M. A.; Guerra, Marta L.; De Raedt, Hans; Michielsen, Kristel; Jin, Fengping

168

Selective polarization of nuclear spins in a wire-like quantum Hall system

Nuclear spins are polarized selectively in a mesoscopic wire-like quantum Hall system by using the fractional quantum Hall system at Landau level filling factor nu = 2/3. The nuclear spin polarized region is limited by setting the filling factor in the wire to 2/3, while leaving the filling factor in the bulk away from 2/3. The longitudinal relaxation rate of selectively polarized nuclear spins probes electron spin properties in the wire.

Kobayashi, Takashi; Sasaki, Satoshi [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Kumada, Norio; Ota, Takeshi [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Hirayama, Yoshiro [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); ERATO-JST Nuclear Spin Electronics Project, 468-15 Aramaki Aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-0845 (Japan)

2010-01-04

169

Reconfigurable Logic Gates Using Single-Electron Spin Transistors

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose and numerically analyze novel reconfigurable logic gates using “single-electron spin transistors” (SESTs), which are single-electron transistors (SETs) with ferromagnetic electrodes and islands. The output characteristics of a SEST depend on the relative magnetization configuration of the ferromagnetic island with respect to the magnetization of the source and the drain, i.e., high current drive capability in parallel magnetization and low current drive capability in antiparallel magnetization. The summation of multiple input signals can be achieved by directly coupling multiple input gate electrodes to the SEST island, without using a floating gate. A Tucker-type inverter with a variable threshold voltage, a reconfigurable AND/OR logic gate, and a reconfigurable logic gate for all symmetric Boolean functions are proposed and simulated using the Monte Carlo method.

Hai, Pham Nam; Sugahara, Satoshi; Tanaka, Masaaki

2007-10-01

170

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new polarization propagator approach to indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling constantans is formulated within the framework of the algebraic-diagrammatic construction (ADC) approximation and implemented at the level of the strict second-order approximation scheme, ADC(2). The ADC approach possesses transparent computational procedure operating with Hermitian matrix quantities defined with respect to physical excitations. It is size-consistent and easily extendable to higher orders via the hierarchy of available ADC approximation schemes. The ADC(2) method is tested in the first applications to HF, N2, CO, H2O, HCN, NH3, CH4, C2H2, PH3, SiH4, CH3F, and C2H4. The calculated indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling constants are in good agreement with the experimental data and results of the second-order polarization propagator approximation method. The computational effort of the ADC(2) scheme scales as n5 with respect to the number of molecular orbitals n, which makes this method promising for applications to larger molecules.

Rusakova, I. L.; Krivdin, L. B.; Rusakov, Yu. Yu.; Trofimov, A. B.

2012-07-01

171

Controlling Single-Particle Coherence and Spin Squeezing with Stimulated Raman Transition

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a scheme for controlling single-particle coherence and spin squeezing of atom-photon with stimulated Raman transition. Here we are focus on the dependence of spin squeezing parameter on the mean photon number. We first derive the effective Hamiltonian and then obtain the analytical solution for state vector, the single-particle coherence and spin squeezing parameter. The stronger spin squeezing can be created by adding the mean photon number.

Yi, Xiao-Jie; Huang, Guo-Qiang; Wang, Jian-Min

2013-10-01

172

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxation Studies of 51V in BiVO4 Single Crystal

Temperature dependences of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time of 51V in BiVO4 single crystals, undoped and doped with 1 mol% of Eu2O3, respectively, were measured in the temperature range of 140-400 K. The spin-lattice relaxation times, T1s, of both samples were divided into the long and short components. For the doped crystal, the long component of the relaxation time is

I. G. Kim; T. H. Yeom; D. Y. Jeong; A. R. Lim; S. H. Choh; K. S. Hong

2002-01-01

173

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling is rationalized via electronic current densities induced by nuclear magnetic dipoles. The coupling-density tensor, a function in real space obtained from the current density, visualizes fundamental aspects of the coupling mechanism. Magnetic group theory and current-density plots are used for discussing the Dirac-van Vleck vector model in the contact interaction. The Biot-Savart law is useful for understanding the sign of the contributions to the magnetic field at a nucleus from a given point of the current field. These tools are used to analyze the vicinal spin-spin coupling in ethane.

Soncini, A.; Lazzeretti, P.

2005-06-01

174

Quantum logic readout and cooling of a single dark electron spin

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a single dark N2 electron spin defect in diamond, which is magnetically coupled to a nearby nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center. We perform pulsed electron spin resonance on this single spin by mapping its state to the NV center spin and optically reading out the latter. Moreover, we show that the NV center's spin polarization can be transferred to the electron spin by combined two decoupling control-NOT gates. These two results allow us to extend the NV center's two key properties—optical spin polarization and detection—to any electron spin in its vicinity. This enables dark electron spins to be used as local quantum registers and engineerable memories.

Shi, Fazhan; Zhang, Qi; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor; Du, Jiangfeng; Reinhard, Friedemann; Wrachtrup, Jörg

2013-05-01

175

High-dynamic-range magnetometry with a single electronic spin in diamond.

Magnetic sensors capable of detecting nanoscale volumes of spins allow for non-invasive, element-specific probing. The error in such measurements is usually reduced by increasing the measurement time, and noise averaging the signal. However, achieving the best precision requires restricting the maximum possible field strength to much less than the spectral linewidth of the sensor. Quantum entanglement and squeezing can then be used to improve precision (although they are difficult to implement in solid-state environments). When the field strength is comparable to or greater than the spectral linewidth, an undesirable trade-off between field strength and signal precision occurs. Here, we implement novel phase estimation algorithms on a single electronic spin associated with the nitrogen-vacancy defect centre in diamond to achieve an ?8.5-fold improvement in the ratio of the maximum field strength to precision, for field magnitudes that are large (?0.3 mT) compared to the spectral linewidth of the sensor (?4.5 µT). The field uncertainty in our approach scales as 1/T(0.88), compared to 1/T(0.5) in the standard measurement approach, where T is the measurement time. Quantum phase estimation algorithms have also recently been implemented using a single nuclear spin in a nitrogen-vacancy centre. Besides their direct impact on applications in magnetic sensing and imaging at the nanoscale, these results may prove useful in improving a variety of high-precision spectroscopy techniques. PMID:22179565

Nusran, N M; Momeen, M Ummal; Dutt, M V Gurudev

2012-02-01

176

Hanle effect in (In,Ga)As quantum dots: Role of nuclear spin fluctuations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of nuclear spin fluctuations in the dynamic polarization of nuclear spins by electrons is investigated in (In,Ga)As/GaAs quantum dots. The photoluminescence polarization under circularly polarized optical pumping in transverse magnetic fields (Hanle effect) is studied. A weak additional magnetic field parallel to the optical axis is used to control the efficiency of nuclear spin cooling and the sign of nuclear spin temperature. The shape of the Hanle curve is drastically modified when changing this control field, as observed earlier in bulk semiconductors and quantum wells. However, the standard nuclear spin cooling theory, operating with the mean nuclear magnetic field (Overhauser field), fails to describe the experimental Hanle curves in a certain range of control fields. This controversy is resolved by taking into account the nuclear spin fluctuations owed to the finite number of nuclei in the quantum dot. We propose a model considering cooling of the nuclear spin system by electron spins experiencing fast vector precession in the random Overhauser fields of nuclear spin fluctuations. The model allows us to accurately describe the measured Hanle curves and to evaluate the parameters of the electron-nuclear spin system of the studied quantum dots.

Kuznetsova, M. S.; Flisinski, K.; Gerlovin, I. Ya.; Ignatiev, I. V.; Kavokin, K. V.; Verbin, S. Yu.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Reuter, D.; Wieck, A. D.; Bayer, M.

2013-06-01

177

Persistent Narrowing of Nuclear-Spin Fluctuations in InAs Quantum Dots Using Laser Excitation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the suppression of nuclear-spin fluctuations in an InAs quantum dot and measure the timescales of the spin narrowing effect. By initializing for tens of milliseconds with two continuous wave diode lasers, fluctuations of the nuclear spins are suppressed via the hole-assisted dynamic nuclear polarization feedback mechanism. The fluctuation narrowed state persists in the dark (absent light illumination) for well over 1 s even in the presence of a varying electron charge and spin polarization. Enhancement of the electron spin coherence time (T2*) is directly measured using coherent dark state spectroscopy. By separating the calming of the nuclear spins in time from the spin qubit operations, this method is much simpler than the spin echo coherence recovery or dynamic decoupling schemes.

Sun, Bo; Chow, Colin Ming Earn; Steel, Duncan G.; Bracker, Allan S.; Gammon, Daniel; Sham, L. J.

2012-05-01

178

Single Transverse-Spin Asymmetries at Large-x

The large-x behavior of the transverse-momentum dependent quark distributions is analyzed in the factorization-inspired perturbative QCD framework, particularly for the naive time-reversal-odd quark Sivers function which is responsible for the single transverse-spin asymmetries in various semi-inclusive hard processes. By examining the dominant hard gluon exchange Feynman diagrams, and using the resulting power counting rule, we find that the Sivers function has power behavior (1-x){sup 4} at x {yields} 1, which is one power of (1-x) suppressed relative to the unpolarized quark distribution. These power-counting results provide important guidelines for the parameterization of quark distributions and quark-gluon correlations.

Brodsky, Stanley J.; Yuan, Feng

2006-10-24

179

Global fitting of single spin asymmetry: an attempt

We present an attempt of global analysis of Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS) $\\ell p^\\uparrow \\to \\ell' \\pi X$ data on single spin asymmetries and data on left-right asymmetry $A_N$ in $p^\\uparrow p \\to \\pi X$ in order to simultaneously extract information on Sivers function and twist-three quark-gluon Efremov-Teryaev-Qiu-Sterman (ETQS) function. We explore different possibilities such as node of Sivers function in $x$ or $k_\\perp$ in order to explain ``sign mismatch'' between these functions. We show that $\\pi^\\pm$ SIDIS data and $\\pi^0$ STAR data can be well described in a combined TMD and twist-3 fit, however $\\pi^\\pm$ BRAHMS data are not described in a satisfactory way. This leaves open a question to the solution of the ``sign mismatch''. Possible explanations are then discussed.

Alexey Prokudin,Zhong-Bo Kang

2012-04-01

180

Solid effect in magic angle spinning dynamic nuclear polarization.

For over five decades, the solid effect (SE) has been heavily utilized as a mechanism for performing dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). Nevertheless, it has not found widespread application in contemporary, high magnetic field DNP experiments because SE enhancements display an ?(0)(-2) field dependence. In particular, for nominally forbidden zero and double quantum SE transitions to be partially allowed, it is necessary for mixing of adjacent nuclear spin states to occur, and this leads to the observed field dependence. However, recently we have improved our instrumentation and report here an enhancement of ? = 91 obtained with the organic radical trityl (OX063) in magic angle spinning experiments performed at 5 T and 80 K. This is a factor of 6-7 higher than previous values in the literature under similar conditions. Because the solid effect depends strongly on the microwave field strength, we attribute this large enhancement to larger microwave field strengths inside the sample volume, achieved with more efficient coupling of the gyrotron to the sample chamber. In addition, we develop a theoretical model to explain the dependence of the buildup rate of enhanced nuclear polarization and the steady-state enhancement on the microwave power. Buildup times and enhancements were measured as a function of (1)H concentration for both trityl and Gd-DOTA. Comparison of the results indicates that for trityl the initial polarization step is the slower, rate-determining step. However, for Gd-DOTA the spread of nuclear polarization via homonuclear (1)H spin diffusion is rate-limiting. Finally, we discuss the applicability of the solid effect at fields > 5 T and the requirements to address the unfavorable field dependence of the solid effect. PMID:22894339

Corzilius, Björn; Smith, Albert A; Griffin, Robert G

2012-08-01

181

Model for the coherent optical manipulation of a single spin state in a charged quantum dot

The optically driven coherent dynamics associated with the single-shot initialization and readout of a localized spin in a charged semiconductor quantum dot embedded in a realistic structure is theoretically studied using a new Maxwell-pseudospin model. Generalized pseudospin master equation is derived for description of the time evolution of spin coherences and spin populations in terms of the real state pseudospin

G. Slavcheva

2008-01-01

182

Generation and manipulation of spin current via a hybrid four-terminal single-molecule junction

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new device which consists of a molecular quantum dot (MQD) attached to a normal-metal, two ferromagnetic (FM), and a superconducting leads. The spin-related Andreev reflection (AR) current and the spin-dependent single-particle tunneling current through the normal-metal terminal are obtained, and it is found that the spin current exhibits the transistor-like behavior. The joint effects of the coherent spin flip and the angle between magnetic moments of the two FM leads on the spin current are also studied, these results provide the possibility to manipulate the spin current with the system parameters.

Zhang, Rong; Bai, Long; Duan, Chen-Long

2012-07-01

183

Nuclear Hydrogen for Peak Electricity Production and Spinning Reserve

Nuclear energy can be used to produce hydrogen. The key strategic question is this: ''What are the early markets for nuclear hydrogen?'' The answer determines (1) whether there are incentives to implement nuclear hydrogen technology today or whether the development of such a technology could be delayed by decades until a hydrogen economy has evolved, (2) the industrial partners required to develop such a technology, and (3) the technological requirements for the hydrogen production system (rate of production, steady-state or variable production, hydrogen purity, etc.). Understanding ''early'' markets for any new product is difficult because the customer may not even recognize that the product could exist. This study is an initial examination of how nuclear hydrogen could be used in two interconnected early markets: the production of electricity for peak and intermediate electrical loads and spinning reserve for the electrical grid. The study is intended to provide an initial description that can then be used to consult with potential customers (utilities, the Electric Power Research Institute, etc.) to better determine the potential real-world viability of this early market for nuclear hydrogen and provide the starting point for a more definitive assessment of the concept. If this set of applications is economically viable, it offers several unique advantages: (1) the market is approximately equivalent in size to the existing nuclear electric enterprise in the United States, (2) the entire market is within the utility industry and does not require development of an external market for hydrogen or a significant hydrogen infrastructure beyond the utility site, (3) the technology and scale match those of nuclear hydrogen production, (4) the market exists today, and (5) the market is sufficient in size to justify development of nuclear hydrogen production techniques independent of the development of any other market for hydrogen. These characteristics make it an ideal early market for nuclear hydrogen.

Forsberg, C.W.

2005-01-20

184

Single Spin Asymmetries in Elastic Electron-Nucleon Scattering.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We discuss the target and beam normal spin asymmetries in elastic electron-nucleon scattering which depend on the imaginary part of two-photon exchange processes between electron and nucleon. In particular, we estimate these transverse spin asymmetries fo...

B. Pasquini

2004-01-01

185

The enhancement of the spin-lattice relaxation rate for nuclear spins in a ligand bound to a paramagnetic metal ion [known as the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE)] arises primarily through the dipole-dipole (DD) interaction between the nuclear spins and the electron spins. In solution, the DD interaction is modulated mostly by reorientation of the nuclear spin-electron spin axis and by electron

Elie Belorizky; Pascal H. Fries; Lothar Helm; Jozef Kowalewski; Danuta Kruk; Robert R. Sharp; Per-Olof Westlund

2008-01-01

186

Electron-Nuclear Spin Dynamics in a Mesoscopic Solid-State Quantum Computer

We numerically simulate the process of nuclear spin measurement in Kane's quantum computer. For this purpose, we model the quantum dynamics of two coupled nuclear spins located on {sup 31}P donors implanted in Si. We estimate the minimum time of measurement necessary for the reliable transfer of quantum information from the nuclear spin subsystem to the electronic one and the probability of error for typical values of external noise.

Berman, G.P.; Campbell, D.K.; Doolen, G.D.; Nagaev, K.E.

1998-12-07

187

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the results of various investigations using various techniques of hyperpolarizing the nuclei of atoms. Hyperpolarization implies magnetic order in excess of the thermal order obtained naturally as described by Curie's law. The main portion of this work presents the results of a detailed experimental exploration of predictions arising from a new model of transverse nuclear spin relaxation in quantum systems, based on possible manifestations of microscopic chaos in quantum systems. Experiments have been carried out on a number of hyperpolarized xenon samples, each differing in its relative percentage of xenon isotopes in order to vary the homonuclear and heteronuclear dipole couplings in the spin system. The experiments were performed under a variety of conditions in an attempt to observe the behaviors predicted by the model. Additionally, much more extensive measurements were made on a number of samples of solid CaF2 in both single crystal and powder forms. These samples, although thermally polarized, were observed with superior signal to noise ratios than even the hyperpolarized xenon solids, allowing for more precise measurements for comparison to the theory. This work thus contains the first experimental evidence for the majority of the model's predictions. Additionally, this work contains the first precise measurements of the frequency-shift enhancement parameters for 129Xe and krypton in the presence of spin-polarized Rb. The determination of these important numbers will be useful to many groups who utilize spin-exchange optical pumping in their labs. This work built on the prior knowledge of a precise number for the frequency-shift enhancement parameter of 3He in Rb vapor. Finally, I detail work using NMR to detect nuclear-spin polarization enhancement in silicon phosphorus by a novel, photo-induced hyperpolarization technique developed by the Boehme research group at the University of Utah. Significant nuclear polarization enhancements were observed by the Boehme group due to electron-photon interactions in semiconductor soilds; these enhancements were observed by their effects on the ambient electrons and measured with electron spin resonance techniques. The work described here details experiments to observe the enhanced nuclear polarization by directly measuring the intensity increase in an NMR measurement. I will conclude this dissertation with a brief appendix giving a summary of one additional project involving the use of high pressure fluorinated gas NMR to measure the internal topology and characteristics of energy-rich oil shales.

Sorte, Eric G.

188

The water-endofullerene H2O@C60 provides a unique chemical system in which freely rotating water molecules are confined inside homogeneous and symmetrical carbon cages. The spin conversion between the ortho and para species of the endohedral H2O was studied in the solid phase by low-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance. The experimental data are consistent with a second-order kinetics, indicating a bimolecular spin conversion process. Numerical simulations suggest the simultaneous presence of a spin diffusion process allowing neighbouring ortho and para molecules to exchange their angular momenta. Cross-polarization experiments found no evidence that the spin conversion of the endohedral H2O molecules is catalysed by (13)C nuclei present in the cages. PMID:24852537

Mamone, Salvatore; Concistrè, Maria; Carignani, Elisa; Meier, Benno; Krachmalnicoff, Andrea; Johannessen, Ole G; Lei, Xuegong; Li, Yongjun; Denning, Mark; Carravetta, Marina; Goh, Kelvin; Horsewill, Anthony J; Whitby, Richard J; Levitt, Malcolm H

2014-05-21

189

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water-endofullerene H2O@C60 provides a unique chemical system in which freely rotating water molecules are confined inside homogeneous and symmetrical carbon cages. The spin conversion between the ortho and para species of the endohedral H2O was studied in the solid phase by low-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance. The experimental data are consistent with a second-order kinetics, indicating a bimolecular spin conversion process. Numerical simulations suggest the simultaneous presence of a spin diffusion process allowing neighbouring ortho and para molecules to exchange their angular momenta. Cross-polarization experiments found no evidence that the spin conversion of the endohedral H2O molecules is catalysed by 13C nuclei present in the cages.

Mamone, Salvatore; Concistrè, Maria; Carignani, Elisa; Meier, Benno; Krachmalnicoff, Andrea; Johannessen, Ole G.; Lei, Xuegong; Li, Yongjun; Denning, Mark; Carravetta, Marina; Goh, Kelvin; Horsewill, Anthony J.; Whitby, Richard J.; Levitt, Malcolm H.

2014-05-01

190

Estimation of optical chemical shift in nuclear spin optical rotation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recently proposed optical chemical shift in nuclear spin optical rotation (NSOR) is studied by theoretical comparison of NSOR magnitude between chemically non-equivalent or different element nuclei in the same molecule. Theoretical expressions of the ratio R between their NSOR magnitudes are derived by using a known semi-empirical formula of NSOR. Taking methanol, tri-ethyl-phosphite and 2-methyl-benzothiazole as examples, the ratios R are calculated and the results approximately agree with the experiments. Based on those, the important influence factors on R and chemical distinction by NSOR are discussed.

Chen, Fang; Yao, Guo-hua; He, Tian-jing; Chen, Dong-ming; Liu, Fan-chen

2014-05-01

191

Spin Instability in Nuclear Matter and the Skyrme Interaction

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work the problem of spin instability of nuclear matter with the Skyrme interaction is analyzed. The three-body part of the interaction is replaced by using a density dependent potential which is a modification to that given previously by Dabrowski. The symmetry energies are calculated and their rearrangement corrections. Good agreement is obtained with previous calculations.Translated AbstractSpininstabilität in Kernmaterie und Skyrme-WechselwirkungDie vorliegende Arbeit analysiert die Spininstabilität von Kernmaterie mit Skyrme-Wechselwirkung. Der Dreikörperanteil der Wechselwirkung ist durch ein dichteabhängiges Potential ersetzt. Die Symmetrieenergien und ihre Umordnungskorrekturen werden berechnet. Sie stimmen gut mit vorhergehenden Rechnungen überein.

Mansour, H. M. M.

192

Coherent Population Trapping of Single Spins in Diamond under Optical Excitation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nitrogen-vacancy (N-V) center in diamond has long-lived electronic and nuclear spin coherence combined with optical addressability, making it an attractive candidate system for building a photonic network for quantum information applications. However, realizing such schemes will require control over the N-V energy level structure and integration into high-quality microphotonic structures operating at visible wavelengths. In this talk I will describe experiments on optical manipulation of N-V centers in low-nitrogen diamond samples. Typically the optical transitions of NV^- are spin-conserving, so that if the N-V begins in the ms=0 ground state, it can undergo many optical excitation/fluorescence cycles before transitioning to ms=±1. However, by applying stress to the crystal, or by using strain already present, it is possible to realize a ?-type system with one excited state coupled by optical transitions to multiple ground states. By this technique we have observed coherent population trapping both in N-V ensembles and in single N-V centers. These results demonstrate the potential for all-optical spin manipulation in this system. I will also describe initial work on coupling N-V centers to photonic structures with the goal of enhancing emission into the zero-phonon line, as needed for applications such as quantum repeaters.

Santori, Charles

2008-03-01

193

Efficient room-temperature nuclear spin hyperpolarization of a defect atom in a semiconductor

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear spin hyperpolarization is essential to future solid-state quantum computation using nuclear spin qubits and in highly sensitive magnetic resonance imaging. Though efficient dynamic nuclear polarization in semiconductors has been demonstrated at low temperatures for decades, its realization at room temperature is largely lacking. Here we demonstrate that a combined effect of efficient spin-dependent recombination and hyperfine coupling can facilitate strong dynamic nuclear polarization of a defect atom in a semiconductor at room temperature. We provide direct evidence that a sizeable nuclear field (~150?Gauss) and nuclear spin polarization (~15%) sensed by conduction electrons in GaNAs originates from dynamic nuclear polarization of a Ga interstitial defect. We further show that the dynamic nuclear polarization process is remarkably fast and is completed in <5??s at room temperature. The proposed new concept could pave a way to overcome a major obstacle in achieving strong dynamic nuclear polarization at room temperature, desirable for practical device applications.

Puttisong, Y.; Wang, X. J.; Buyanova, I. A.; Geelhaar, L.; Riechert, H.; Ptak, A. J.; Tu, C. W.; Chen, W. M.

2013-04-01

194

A new method for measuring the spin of the electrically charged ground state excitations m the Q$j~j quantum Hall effect ia proposed and demonstmted for the tirst time in GaAs/AIGaAs nndtiquantum wells. The method is &sed on the nuclear spin orientation dependence of" the 2D dc conductivity y in the quantum Hall regime due to the nuclear hyperfine interaction. As a demonstration of this method the spin of the electrically charged excitations of the ground state is determined at filling factor v = 1.

Bowers, C.R.; Reno, J.L.; Simmons, J.A.; Vitkalov, S.A.

1998-12-01

195

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrons with the spin quantum number 1/2, as physical qubits, have naturally been anticipated for implementing quantum computing and information processing (QC/QIP). Recently, electron spin-qubit systems in organic molecular frames have emerged as a hybrid spin-qubit system along with a nuclear spin-1/2 qubit. Among promising candidates for QC/QIP from the materials science side, the reasons for why electron spin-qubits such as molecular spin systems, i.e., unpaired electron spins in molecular frames, have potentialities for serving for QC/QIP will be given in the lecture (Chapter), emphasizing what their advantages or disadvantages are entertained and what technical and intrinsic issues should be dealt with for the implementation of molecular-spin quantum computers in terms of currently available spin manipulation technology such as pulse-based electron-nuclear double resonance (pulsed or pulse ENDOR) devoted to QC/QIP. Firstly, a general introduction and introductory remarks to pulsed ENDOR spectroscopy as electron-nuclear spin manipulation technology is given. Super dense coding (SDC) experiments by the use of pulsed ENDOR are also introduced to understand differentiating QC ENDOR from QC NMR based on modern nuclear spin technology. Direct observation of the spinor inherent in an electron spin, detected for the first time, will be shown in connection with the entanglement of an electron-nuclear hybrid system. Novel microwave spin manipulation technology enabling us to deal with genuine electron-electron spin-qubit systems in the molecular frame will be introduced, illustrating, from the synthetic strategy of matter spin-qubits, a key-role of the molecular design of g-tensor/hyperfine-(A-)tensor molecular engineering for QC/QIP. Finally, important technological achievements of recently-emerging CD ELDOR (Coherent-Dual ELectron-electron DOuble Resonance) spin technology enabling us to manipulate electron spin-qubits are described.

Sato, Kazuo; Nakazawa, Shigeki; Rahimi, Robabeh D.; Nishida, Shinsuke; Ise, Tomoaki; Shimoi, Daisuke; Toyota, Kazuo; Morita, Yasushi; Kitagawa, Masahiro; Carl, Parick; Höfner, Peter; Takui, Takeji

2009-06-01

196

Quantum limit for nuclear spin polarization in semiconductor quantum dots

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent experiment [E. A. Chekhovich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 066804 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.066804] has demonstrated that high nuclear spin polarization can be achieved in self-assembled quantum dots by exploiting an optically forbidden transition between a heavy hole and a trion state. However, a fully polarized state is not achieved as expected from a classical rate equation. Here, we theoretically investigate this problem with the help of a quantum master equation and we demonstrate that a fully polarized state cannot be achieved due to formation of a nuclear dark state. Moreover, we show that the maximal degree of polarization depends on structural properties of the quantum dot.

Hildmann, Julia; Kavousanaki, Eleftheria; Burkard, Guido; Ribeiro, Hugo

2014-05-01

197

Radioactive nuclear beams and the North American IsoSpin Laboratory (ISL) initiative

Radioactive nuclear beams (RNBs) offer exciting new research opportunities in fields as diverse as nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, astrophysics atomic, materials, and applied science. Their realization in new accelerator complexes also offers important technical challenges. Some of the nuclear physics possibilities afforded by RNBs, with emphasis on low spin nuclear structure, are discussed, accompanied by an outline of the ISL initiative and its status.

Casten, R.F.

1992-01-01

198

Radioactive nuclear beams and the North American IsoSpin Laboratory (ISL) initiative

Radioactive nuclear beams (RNBs) offer exciting new research opportunities in fields as diverse as nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, astrophysics atomic, materials, and applied science. Their realization in new accelerator complexes also offers important technical challenges. Some of the nuclear physics possibilities afforded by RNBs, with emphasis on low spin nuclear structure, are discussed, accompanied by an outline of the ISL initiative and its status.

Casten, R.F.

1992-12-01

199

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spin-polarized transport in a single-molecule magnet Fe4 sandwiched between two gold electrodes is studied, using nonequilibrium Green's functions in combination with the density-functional theory. We predict that the device possesses spin filter effect (SFE), spin valve effect (SVE), and negative differential resistance (NDR) behavior. Moreover, we also find that the appropriate chemical ligand, coupling the single molecule to leads, is a key factor for manipulating spin-dependent transport. The device containing the methyl ligand behaves as a nearly perfect spin filter with efficiency approaching 100%, and the transport is dominated by transmission through the Fe4 metal center. However, in the case of phenyl ligand, the spin filter effect seems to be reduced, but the spin valve effect is significantly enhanced with a large magnetoresistance ratio, reaching 1800%. This may be attributed to the blocking effect of the phenyl ligands in mediating transport. Our findings suggest that such a multifunctional molecular device, possessing SVE, NDR and high SFE simultaneously, would be an excellent candidate for spintronics of molecular devices.

Zu, Fengxia; Liu, Zuli; Yao, Kailun; Gao, Guoying; Fu, Huahua; Zhu, Sicong; Ni, Yun; Peng, Li

2014-05-01

200

The spin-polarized transport in a single-molecule magnet Fe4 sandwiched between two gold electrodes is studied, using nonequilibrium Green's functions in combination with the density-functional theory. We predict that the device possesses spin filter effect (SFE), spin valve effect (SVE), and negative differential resistance (NDR) behavior. Moreover, we also find that the appropriate chemical ligand, coupling the single molecule to leads, is a key factor for manipulating spin-dependent transport. The device containing the methyl ligand behaves as a nearly perfect spin filter with efficiency approaching 100%, and the transport is dominated by transmission through the Fe4 metal center. However, in the case of phenyl ligand, the spin filter effect seems to be reduced, but the spin valve effect is significantly enhanced with a large magnetoresistance ratio, reaching 1800%. This may be attributed to the blocking effect of the phenyl ligands in mediating transport. Our findings suggest that such a multifunctional molecular device, possessing SVE, NDR and high SFE simultaneously, would be an excellent candidate for spintronics of molecular devices.

Zu, Fengxia; Liu, Zuli; Yao, Kailun; Gao, Guoying; Fu, Huahua; Zhu, Sicong; Ni, Yun; Peng, Li

2014-01-01

201

Summary. ?Using the quadratic response function at the ab initio SCF level of approximation we have calculated the relativistic corrections from the spin–orbit Hamiltonian, H\\u000a SO, to the indirect nuclear spin–spin coupling constants of XH4 (X=C, Si, Ge, and Sn). We find that the spin–orbit contributions to J\\u000a X–H are small, amounting only to about 1% for J\\u000a Sn–H. For the

Sheela Kirpekar; Hans Jørgen Aagaard Jensen; Jens Oddershede

1997-01-01

202

Summary Using the quadratic response function at theab initio SCF level of approximation we have calculated the relativistic corrections from the spin-orbit Hamiltonian,H\\u000a SO, to the indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling constants of XH4 (X = C, Si, Ge, and Sn). We find that the spin-orbit contributions toJ\\u000a X-H are small, amounting only to about 1% forJ\\u000a Sn-H. For the geminal H-H

Sheela Kirpekar; Hans Jørgen Aagaard Jensen; Jens Oddershede

1997-01-01

203

Nonequilibrium intrinsic spin torque in a single nanomagnet

The spin transfer torque usually observed in metallic and tunneling spin-valves, as well as magnetic domain walls, comes from the transfer of the transverse spin-current of conduction electrons to the magnetization [1]. Therefore, it requires both a non collinear configuration of the magnetic structure (or inhomogeneous magnetic texture in the case of domain walls) and magneto-resistive effects. However, a number

Aurelien Manchon

2009-01-01

204

Efficient route to high-bandwidth nanoscale magnetometry using single spins in diamond

Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond is a promising quantum metrology tool finding applications across disciplines. The spin sensor measures magnetic fields, electric fields and temperature with nano-scale precision and is fully operable under ambient conditions. Moreover, it achieves precision scaling inversely with total measurement time ?B ? 1/T (Heisenberg scaling) rather than as the inverse of the square root of T, with the Shot-Noise limit. This scaling can be achieved by means of phase estimation algorithms (PEAs), in combination with single-shot read-out. Despite their accuracy, the range of applicability of PEAs is limited to sensing single frequencies with negligible temporal fluctuations. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) signals from molecules often contain multifrequency components and sensing them using PEA is ruled out. Here we propose an alternative method for precision magnetometry in frequency multiplexed signals via compressive sensing (CS) techniques focusing on nanoscale NMR. We show that CS can provide for precision scaling approximately as ?B ? 1/T, as well as for a 5-fold increase in sensitivity over dynamic-range gain, in addition to reducing the total number of resources required. We illustrate our method by taking model solid-state spectra of Glycine acquired under Magic Angle Spinning conditions.

Puentes, Graciana; Waldherr, Gerald; Neumann, Philipp; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrishnan; Wrachtrup, Jorg

2014-01-01

205

Efficient route to high-bandwidth nanoscale magnetometry using single spins in diamond

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond is a promising quantum metrology tool finding applications across disciplines. The spin sensor measures magnetic fields, electric fields and temperature with nano-scale precision and is fully operable under ambient conditions. Moreover, it achieves precision scaling inversely with total measurement time ?B ~ 1/T (Heisenberg scaling) rather than as the inverse of the square root of T, with the Shot-Noise limit. This scaling can be achieved by means of phase estimation algorithms (PEAs), in combination with single-shot read-out. Despite their accuracy, the range of applicability of PEAs is limited to sensing single frequencies with negligible temporal fluctuations. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) signals from molecules often contain multifrequency components and sensing them using PEA is ruled out. Here we propose an alternative method for precision magnetometry in frequency multiplexed signals via compressive sensing (CS) techniques focusing on nanoscale NMR. We show that CS can provide for precision scaling approximately as ?B ~ 1/T, as well as for a 5-fold increase in sensitivity over dynamic-range gain, in addition to reducing the total number of resources required. We illustrate our method by taking model solid-state spectra of Glycine acquired under Magic Angle Spinning conditions.

Puentes, Graciana; Waldherr, Gerald; Neumann, Philipp; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrishnan; Wrachtrup, Jörg

2014-04-01

206

Efficient route to high-bandwidth nanoscale magnetometry using single spins in diamond.

Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond is a promising quantum metrology tool finding applications across disciplines. The spin sensor measures magnetic fields, electric fields and temperature with nano-scale precision and is fully operable under ambient conditions. Moreover, it achieves precision scaling inversely with total measurement time ?B ? 1/T (Heisenberg scaling) rather than as the inverse of the square root of T, with ?B = ?T the Shot-Noise limit. This scaling can be achieved by means of phase estimation algorithms (PEAs), in combination with single-shot read-out. Despite their accuracy, the range of applicability of PEAs is limited to sensing single frequencies with negligible temporal fluctuations. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) signals from molecules often contain multifrequency components and sensing them using PEA is ruled out. Here we propose an alternative method for precision magnetometry in frequency multiplexed signals via compressive sensing (CS) techniques focusing on nanoscale NMR. We show that CS can provide for precision scaling approximately as ?B ? 1/T, as well as for a 5-fold increase in sensitivity over dynamic-range gain, in addition to reducing the total number of resources required. We illustrate our method by taking model solid-state spectra of Glycine acquired under Magic Angle Spinning conditions. PMID:24728454

Puentes, Graciana; Waldherr, Gerald; Neumann, Philipp; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrishnan; Wrachtrup, Jörg

2014-01-01

207

Experimental demonstration of a stimulated polarization wave in a chain of nuclear spins

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stimulated wave of polarization, which implements a simple mechanism of quantum amplification, is experimentally demonstrated in a chain of four J-coupled nuclear spins, irradiated by a weak radio-frequency transverse field. The 'quantum domino' dynamics, a wave of flipped spins triggered by a flip of the first spin, has been observed in fully 13C-labelled sodium butyrate.

Lee, Jae-Seung; Adams, Travis; Khitrin, A. K.

2007-04-01

208

Experimental Study of Single Spin Asymmetries and TMDs

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single Spin Asymmetries and Transverse Momentum Dependent (TMD) distribution study has been one of the main focuses of hadron physics in recent years. The initial exploratory Semi-Inclusive Deep-Inelastic-Scattering (SIDIS) experiments with transversely polarized proton and deuteron targets from HERMES and COMPASS attracted great attention and lead to very active efforts in both experiments and theory. A SIDIS experiment on the neutron with a polarized 3He target was performed at JLab. Recently published results as well as new preliminary results are shown. Precision TMD experiments are planned at JLab after the 12 GeV energy upgrade. Three approved experiments with a new SoLID spectrometer on both the proton and neutron will provide high precision TMD data in the valence quark region. In the long-term future, an Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) as proposed in US (MEIC@JLab and E-RHIC@BNL) will provide precision TMD data of the gluons and the sea. A new opportunity just emerged in China that a low-energy EIC (1st stage EIC@HIAF) may provide precision TMD data in the sea quark region, complementary to the proposed EIC in US.

Chen, Jian-Ping

2014-01-01

209

Spin-path entanglement in single-neutron interferometer experiments

There are two powerful arguments against the possibility of extending quantum mechanics (QM) into a more fundamental theory yielding a deterministic description of nature. One is the experimental violation of Bell inequalities, which discards local hidden-variable theories as a possible extension to QM. The other is the Kochen-Specker (KS) theorem, which stresses the incompatibility of QM with a larger class of hidden-variable theories, known as noncontextual hidden-variable theories. We performed experiments with neutron interferometer, which exploits spin-path entanglements in single neutrons. A Bell-like state is generated to demonstrate a violation of the Bell-like inequality and phenomena in accordance with KS theorem: both experiments study quantum contextuality and show clear evidence of the incompatibility of noncontextual hidden variable theories with QM. The value S = 2.202{+-}0.007 Neither-Less-Than-Nor-Equal-To 2 is obtained in the new measurement of the Bell-like inequality, which shows a larger violation than the previous measurement. For the study of KS theorem, the obtained violation 2.291{+-}0.008 Neither-Less-Than-Nor-Equal-To 1 clearly shows that quantum mechanical predictions cannot be reproduced by noncontextual hidden variable theories.

Hasegawa, Yuji; Erdoesi, Daniel [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, A-1020 Wien (Austria)

2011-09-23

210

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stimulated-echo spectroscopy has recently been applied to study the ultra-slow dynamics of nuclear spin-3/2 probes such as 7Li and 9Be in solids. Apart from the dominant first-order quadrupolar interaction in the present article also the impact of the homonuclear dipolar interactions is considered in a simple way: the time evolution of a dipole coupled pair of spins with I=3/2 is calculated in an approximation, which takes into account that the satellite transitions usually do not overlap. Explicit analytical expressions describing various aspects of a coupled quadrupolar pair subjected to a Jeener-Broekaert pulse sequence are derived. Extensions to larger spin systems are also briefly discussed. These results are compared with experimental data on a single-crystalline Li ion conductor.

Qi, F.; Diezemann, G.; Böhm, H.; Lambert, J.; Böhmer, R.

2004-08-01

211

Stimulated-echo spectroscopy has recently been applied to study the ultra-slow dynamics of nuclear spin-3/2 probes such as 7Li and 9Be in solids. Apart from the dominant first-order quadrupolar interaction in the present article also the impact of the homonuclear dipolar interactions is considered in a simple way: the time evolution of a dipole coupled pair of spins with I = 3/2 is calculated in an approximation, which takes into account that the satellite transitions usually do not overlap. Explicit analytical expressions describing various aspects of a coupled quadrupolar pair subjected to a Jeener-Broekaert pulse sequence are derived. Extensions to larger spin systems are also briefly discussed. These results are compared with experimental data on a single-crystalline Li ion conductor. PMID:15261617

Qi, F; Diezemann, G; Böhm, H; Lambert, J; Böhmer, R

2004-08-01

212

Coherent dynamics of coupled electron and nuclear spin qubits in diamond.

Understanding and controlling the complex environment of solid-state quantum bits is a central challenge in spintronics and quantum information science. Coherent manipulation of an individual electron spin associated with a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond was used to gain insight into its local environment. We show that this environment is effectively separated into a set of individual proximal 13C nuclear spins, which are coupled coherently to the electron spin, and the remainder of the 13C nuclear spins, which cause the loss of coherence. The proximal nuclear spins can be addressed and coupled individually because of quantum back-action from the electron, which modifies their energy levels and magnetic moments, effectively distinguishing them from the rest of the nuclei. These results open the door to coherent manipulation of individual isolated nuclear spins in a solid-state environment even at room temperature. PMID:16973839

Childress, L; Gurudev Dutt, M V; Taylor, J M; Zibrov, A S; Jelezko, F; Wrachtrup, J; Hemmer, P R; Lukin, M D

2006-10-13

213

Progress towards single spin optoelectronics using quantum dot nanostructures

We summarise recent progress in our understanding of the physics of fundamental charge and spin excitations in quantum dot semiconductor nanostructures. Many novel potential applications of these nanostructures have arisen from the strong optical non-linearities that exist in the few-particle quantum dot absorption spectrum. By comparison, the interaction of the electron spin with other localised charges in the dot and

Domink Heiss; Miro Kroutvar; Jonathan J. Finley; Gerhard Abstreiter

2005-01-01

214

Single cell elemental analysis using nuclear microscopy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) to provide quantitative elemental analysis of single cells is an area which has high potential, particularly when the trace elements such as Ca, Fe, Zn and Cu can be monitored. We describe the methodology of sample preparation for two cell types, the procedures of cell imaging using STIM, and the quantitative elemental analysis of single cells using RBS and PIXE. Recent work on single cells at the Nuclear Microscopy Research Centre,National University of Singapore has centred around two research areas: (a) Apoptosis (programmed cell death), which has been recently implicated in a wide range of pathological conditions such as cancer, Parkinson's disease etc, and (b) Malaria (infection of red blood cells by the malaria parasite). Firstly we present results on the elemental analysis of human Chang liver cells (ATTCC CCL 13) where vanadium ions were used to trigger apoptosis, and demonstrate that nuclear microscopy has the capability of monitoring vanadium loading within individual cells. Secondly we present the results of elemental changes taking place in individual mouse red blood cells which have been infected with the malaria parasite and treated with the anti-malaria drug Qinghaosu (QHS).

Ren, M. Q.; Thong, P. S. P.; Kara, U.; Watt, F.

1999-04-01

215

Spin-polarized transport through single-molecule magnet Mn6 complexes.

The coherent transport properties of a device, constructed by sandwiching a Mn6 single-molecule magnet between two gold surfaces, are studied theoretically by using the non-equilibrium Green's function approach combined with density functional theory. Two spin states of such Mn6 complexes are explored, namely the ferromagnetically coupled configuration of the six Mn(III) cations, leading to the S = 12 ground state, and the low S = 4 spin state. For voltages up to 1 volt the S = 12 ground state shows a current one order of magnitude larger than that of the S = 4 state. Furthermore this is almost completely spin-polarized, since the Mn6 frontier molecular orbitals for S = 12 belong to the same spin manifold. As such the high-anisotropy Mn6 molecule appears as a promising candidate for implementing, at the single molecular level, both spin-switches and low-temperature spin-valves. PMID:23599124

Cremades, Eduard; Pemmaraju, C D; Sanvito, Stefano; Ruiz, Eliseo

2013-06-01

216

Mechanism for electric field driven single spin manipulation of a Mn dopant in GaAs

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the spin orientation of a J=1 (Mn + hole) complex in GaAs can be manipulated using only electrical control fields. The spin degeneracy of the compound spin can be split by a dc electric field due to inversion symmetry breaking. The resonances, corresponding to transitions between the split levels, can be driven by an ac electric field. As the bound hole has an anisotropic shape that depends on the compound spin orientation, we propose that the resonance of a single spin can be detected in the tunneling current with scanning tunneling microscopy. The visibility of the resonance is high, as the total (not spin-resolved) local density of states can change as much as 90% for sites near the Mn dopant as the compound spin orientation is changed. This work is supported by ARO MURI DAAD19-01-1-0541 and DARPA QuIST DAAD-19-01-1-0650.

Tang, Jian-Ming; Levy, Jeremy; Flatté, Michael E.

2005-03-01

217

Single-Quantum Coherence Filter for Strongly Coupled Spin Systems for Localized 1H NMR Spectroscopy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pulse sequence for localized in vivo1H NMR spectroscopy is presented, which selectively filters single-quantum coherence built up by strongly coupled spin systems. Uncoupled and weakly coupled spin systems do not contribute to the signal output. Analytical calculations using a product operator description of the strongly coupled AB spin system as well as in vitro tests demonstrate that the proposed filter produces a signal output for a strongly coupled AB spin system, whereas the resonances of a weakly coupled AX spin system and of uncoupled spins are widely suppressed. As a potential application, the detection of the strongly coupled AA'BB' spin system of taurine at 1.5 T is discussed.

Trabesinger, Andreas H.; Mueller, D. Christoph; Boesiger, Peter

2000-08-01

218

Frequency selective detection of nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spin echoes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) is a radio frequency (RF) technique that can be used to detect the presence of quadrupolar nuclei, such as the 14N nucleus prevalent in many explosives and narcotics. The technique has been hampered by low signal-to-noise ratios and is further aggravated by the presence of RF interference (RFI). To ensure accurate detection, proposed detectors should exploit the rich form of the NQR signal. Furthermore, the detectors should also be robust to any remaining residual interference, left after suitable RFI mitigation has been employed. In this paper, we propose a new NQR data model, particularly for the realistic case where multiple pulse sequences are used to generate trains of spin echoes. Furthermore, we refine two recently proposed approximative maximum likelihood (AML) detectors, enabling the algorithm to optimally exploit the data model of the entire echo train and also incorporate knowledge of the temperature dependent spin-echo decay time. The AML-based detectors ensure accurate detection and robustness against residual RFI, even when the temperature of the sample is not precisely known, by exploiting the dependencies of the NQR resonant lines on temperature. Further robustness against residual interference is gained as the proposed detector is frequency selective; exploiting only those regions of the spectrum where the NQR signal is expected. Extensive numerical evaluations based on both simulated and measured NQR data indicate that the proposed Frequency selective Echo Train AML (FETAML) detector offers a significant improvement as compared to other existing detectors.

Somasundaram, Samuel D.; Jakobsson, Andreas; Smith, John A. S.; Althoefer, Kaspar A.

2006-06-01

219

A co-magnetometer-based nuclear spin gyroscope

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a new atomic gyroscope based on an alkali metal--noble gas co-magnetometer. Unlike atomic and laser gyroscopes based on the Sagnac effect, nuclear spin gyroscopes do not require a large enclosed area and can be made quite compact. A high density alkali-metal magnetometer operating in a spin-exchange relaxation free (SERF) regime is used to polarize the noble gas atoms and detect their gyroscopic precession. In this arrangement it is also possible to cancel the response to the magnetic fields as well as their gradients and transients between the two atomic species, giving a clean signal proportional to the rotation. Using a K--^3He co-magnetometer we demonstrated rotation sensitivity of 2 x10-7 rad/sec/Hz^1/2. The rotation signal can be increased by an order of magnitude using Ne-21 atoms which have a smaller magnetic moment, while the fundamental limit on the gyroscope sensitivity is about 10-10 rad/sec/ Hz^1/2 for a 10 cm^3 measurement cell. We will also present data on the long-term stability of the gyroscope obtained during a search for Lorentz violation using the K--^3He co-magnetometer.

Kornack, Thomas

2005-05-01

220

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an experimental study of the longitudinal relaxation time (T1) of the electron spin associated with single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defects hosted in nanodiamonds (NDs). We first show that T1 decreases over three orders of magnitude when the ND size is reduced from 100 to 10 nm owing to the interaction of the NV electron spin with a bath of paramagnetic centers lying on the ND surface. We next tune the magnetic environment by decorating the ND surface with Gd3+ ions and observe an efficient T1 quenching, which demonstrates magnetic noise sensing with a single electron spin. We estimate a sensitivity down to ?14 electron spins detected within 10 s, using a single NV defect hosted in a 10-nm-size ND. These results pave the way towards T1-based nanoscale imaging of the spin density in biological samples.

Tetienne, J.-P.; Hingant, T.; Rondin, L.; Cavaillès, A.; Mayer, L.; Dantelle, G.; Gacoin, T.; Wrachtrup, J.; Roch, J.-F.; Jacques, V.

2013-06-01

221

Spin state of spin-crossover complexes: From single molecules to ultrathin films

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growth of spin-crossover Fe(1,10-phenanthroline)2(NCS)2 molecules on Cu(100) surfaces in the coverage range from 0.1 to 1.8 molecular layers was studied using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) operated in ultrahigh vacuum at low temperature (?4 K). STM imaging allowed us to extract the molecular adsorption geometry. While the first-layer molecules point their NCS groups toward the surface and their phenanthroline groups upwards, the adsorption geometry is reversed for the molecules in the second layer. For submonolayer coverages, a coexistence of molecules in the high- and low-spin states was found that is not correlated with the coverage. This coexistence is reduced for second-layer molecules, leading to a dominant spin state at low temperatures. Differential conductance spectra acquired at negative bias voltage on first- and second-layer molecules suggest that second-layer molecules are in the high-spin state and are partially electronically decoupled from the substrate. Furthermore, increasing the tip-to-sample voltage reduces the distance between the two lobes of the molecule. The current dependence of this effect suggests that a smooth spin crossover from a high- to a low-spin state occurs with increasing sample voltage. This analog spin-state switching is well described within a simple transition-state model involving modifications to the energy barriers between low- and high-spin states due to a tip-induced electric field through the Stark effect.

Gruber, Manuel; Davesne, Vincent; Bowen, Martin; Boukari, Samy; Beaurepaire, Eric; Wulfhekel, Wulf; Miyamachi, Toshio

2014-05-01

222

Understanding electron and nuclear spin dynamics in Cr^5+ doped K3NbO8

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chromium(V) doped in the diamagnetic host potassium niobate, a simple spin S=.5ex1-.1em/ -.15em.25ex2 , I = 0 system, has been proposed as an alternative standard for field calibration and g-standard for high-field EPR [1]. This system constitutes a dilute two-level model relevant for use as a electron spin qubit [2] and as such coherent electron spin manipulation at X-band (˜9.5 GHz) was observed over a wide range temperature. Rabi oscillations are observed for the first time in a spin system based on transition metal oxides up to room temperature. At 4 K, a Rabi frequency ?R of 20 MHz together with the phase coherence relaxation (spin-spin relaxation) time, T2 of ˜10 ?s results in the single qubit figure of merit QM (=?RT2/?) as about 500, showing that a diluted ensemble of Cr(V) (S = 1/2) doped K3NbO8 is a potential candidate for solid-state quantum information processing. Also, the field and temperature dependence of the T1 (spin-lattice relaxation) and T2 times was investigated [3] for a further understanding of the relaxation mechanisms governing the phase decoherence in this system. These studies show that the coupling of the electron spin with the neighboring ^39K nuclei (I = 3/2) is one of the prominent T2 mechanisms. The hyperfine and quadrupole interactions with ^39K nuclei was resolved by using the high-frequency (240 GHz) pulsed electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR). [3pt] [1]. B. Cage, A. Weekley, L. -C. Brunel and N. S. Dalal, Anal. Chem. 71, 1951 (1999). [0pt] [2]. S. Nellutla, K.-Y. Choi, M. Pati, J. van Tol, I. Chiroescu and N. S. Dalal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 137601 (2007). [0pt] [3]. S. Nellutla, G. W. Morley, M. Pati, N. S. Dalal and J. van Tol, Phys. Rev. B. 78, 054426 (2008).

Nellutla, Saritha

2009-03-01

223

Measurement of the Target Single-Spin Asymmetry in Quasi-Elastic ^3He^(e,e')

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear and nucleon structure are often studied by measuring form factors using the Born approximation, which assumes one-photon exchange, with multiple-photon exchanges neglected, so the target single-spin asymmetry is expected to be zero in the Born approximation. The Jefferson Lab experiment E05-015 was devoted to the measurement of the neutron target single-spin asymmetry, A^ny, using the inclusive quasi-elastic ^3He^(e,e') reaction with a vertically polarized ^3He target and standard Hall A high resolution spectrometers at Q^2=0.13, 0.46 and 0.97 (GeV/c)^2. The non-zero results from this experiment clearly demonstrate the contribution of two-photon exchange, providing new constraints on Generalized Parton Distribution Models and new information on the dynamics of the two-photon exchange process. Details of this experiment and a very preliminary result will be presented.

Zhang, Yawei

2011-04-01

224

Ultrafast Spin-Motion Entanglement and Interferometry with a Single Atom.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We report entanglement of a single atom's hyperfine spin state with its motional state on a timescale of order 15 ns. We engineer a short train of intense laser pulses to impart a spin-dependent momentum transfer of +/-2hk. We further create an atomic int...

C. Senko C. W. Conover J. Mizrahi K. G. Johnson W. C. Campbell

2012-01-01

225

Phase-Sensitive Probes of Nuclear Polarization in Spin-Blockaded Quantum Dots

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semiconducting quantum dots provide a platform for investigating the quantum many-body dynamics of coupled electron and nuclear spins. The phenomenon of spin blockade, wherein the Pauli exclusion principle requires electrons to flip their spins in order to pass through the system [1], is an invaluable tool in this pursuit. We describe a new regime of coupled electron and nuclear spin dynamics in spin-blockaded quantum dots where the hyperfine coupling to nuclear spins competes with a purely electronic spin-flip mechanism, such as the spin-orbit interaction or coupling to an inhomogeneous Zeeman field [M. S. Rudner et al., arXiv:0909.0060]. We show that the long-lived coherence of the nuclear spin bath plays a crucial role and leads to a range of new surprising phenomena. In particular, a purely electrical detection of coherent nuclear precession can be realized. Recent results of Foletti et al. [arXiv:0801.3613] suggest that this interesting new regime is now within experimental reach. [1] K. Ono et al. Science 297, 1313 (2002).

Rudner, Mark; Neder, Izhar; Levitov, Leonid; Halperin, Bertrand

2010-03-01

226

Active nuclear spin maser oscillation with double cell

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncertainty in the frequency precision of the planned experiment to search for a 129Xe atomic electric dipole moment is dominated by drifts in the frequency shift due to contact interaction of 129Xe with polarized Rb valence electrons. In order to suppress the frequency shift, a double-cell geometry has been adopted for the confinement of 129Xe gas. A new process has been identified to take part in the optical detection of spin precession. The parameters controlling the oscillation of the maser in this new double-cell arrangement were optimized. As a result, the frequency shift has been reduced by a factor of 10 or more from the former single-cell geometry.

Hikota, E.; Chikamori, M.; Ichikawa, Y.; Ohtomo, Y.; Sakamoto, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Bidinosti, C. P.; Inoue, T.; Furukawa, T.; Yoshimi, A.; Suzuki, K.; Nanao, T.; Miyatake, H.; Tsuchiya, M.; Yoshida, N.; Shirai, H.; Ino, T.; Ueno, H.; Matsuo, Y.; Fukuyama, T.; Asahi, K.

2014-03-01

227

Spin-dependent quantum interference within a single Co nanostructure

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of a combined experimental and theoretical study of spin-polarized electron confinement on individual nm small Co islands on Cu(111). Spin-polarized low-temperature STM in magnetic fields is used to identify and prepare parallel (P) and anti-parallel (AP) states of the magnetization orientation between a Co island and the magnetic tip of the STM. We find a pronounced spatial modulation of the differential conductance within one island, which is ascribed to electron confinement. The analysis of these modulation patterns for P and AP magnetization states between tip and island reveals a strong variation between both states. Maps of the asymmetry of the differential conductance, (GAP-GP)/(GAP+GP), show strong spatial variations, where the contrast depends on the gap voltage. These results are ascribed to a spatial modulation of the spin-polarization within the Co islands. In conjunction with theory we conclude that the modulation of the spin- polarization, and its variation with energy, can be described by the relative magnitudes of the spin-resolved density of states, where the spatial modulation is mainly due to electron confinement of majority electrons.

Sander, D.; Oka, H.; Wedekind, S.; Rodary, G.; Niebergall, L.; Ignatiev, P.; Stepanyuk, V.; Kirschner, J.

2010-03-01

228

Spin-orbit-induced strong coupling of a single spin to a nanomechanical resonator.

We theoretically investigate the deflection-induced coupling of an electron spin to vibrational motion due to spin-orbit coupling in suspended carbon nanotube quantum dots. Our estimates indicate that, with current capabilities, a quantum dot with an odd number of electrons can serve as a realization of the Jaynes-Cummings model of quantum electrodynamics in the strong-coupling regime. A quantized flexural mode of the suspended tube plays the role of the optical mode and we identify two distinct two-level subspaces, at small and large magnetic field, which can be used as qubits in this setup. The strong intrinsic spin-mechanical coupling allows for detection, as well as manipulation of the spin qubit, and may yield enhanced performance of nanotubes in sensing applications. PMID:23003173

Pályi, András; Struck, P R; Rudner, Mark; Flensberg, Karsten; Burkard, Guido

2012-05-18

229

Frequency-stepped acquisition in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy under magic angle spinning

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nuclear magnetic resonance of paramagnetic solids is usually characterized by the presence of large chemical shifts and shift anisotropies due to hyperfine interactions. Frequently the resulting spectra cover a frequency range of several megahertz, which is greater than the bandwidth of commercially available radio-frequency (RF) probes, making it impossible to acquire the whole spectrum in a single experiment. In these cases it common to record a series of spectra, in which the probe is tuned to a different frequency for each, and then sum the results to give the ``true'' spectrum. While this method is very widely used on static samples, the application of frequency stepping under magic-angle spinning (MAS) is less common, owing to the increased complexity of the spin dynamics when describing the interplay of the RF irradiation with the mechanical rotation of the shift tensor. In this paper, we present a theoretical description, based on the jolting frame formalism of Caravatti et al. [J. Magn. Reson. 55, 88 (1983)], for describing the spin dynamics of a powder sample under MAS when subjected to a selective pulse of low RF-field amplitude. The formalism is used to describe the frequency stepping method under MAS, and under what circumstances the true spectrum is reproduced. We also present an experimental validation of the methodology under ultra-fast MAS with the paramagnetic materials LiMnPO4 and TbCsDPA.

Pell, Andrew J.; Clément, Raphaële J.; Grey, Clare P.; Emsley, Lyndon; Pintacuda, Guido

2013-03-01

230

Frequency-stepped acquisition in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy under magic angle spinning.

The nuclear magnetic resonance of paramagnetic solids is usually characterized by the presence of large chemical shifts and shift anisotropies due to hyperfine interactions. Frequently the resulting spectra cover a frequency range of several megahertz, which is greater than the bandwidth of commercially available radio-frequency (RF) probes, making it impossible to acquire the whole spectrum in a single experiment. In these cases it common to record a series of spectra, in which the probe is tuned to a different frequency for each, and then sum the results to give the "true" spectrum. While this method is very widely used on static samples, the application of frequency stepping under magic-angle spinning (MAS) is less common, owing to the increased complexity of the spin dynamics when describing the interplay of the RF irradiation with the mechanical rotation of the shift tensor. In this paper, we present a theoretical description, based on the jolting frame formalism of Caravatti et al. [J. Magn. Reson. 55, 88 (1983)], for describing the spin dynamics of a powder sample under MAS when subjected to a selective pulse of low RF-field amplitude. The formalism is used to describe the frequency stepping method under MAS, and under what circumstances the true spectrum is reproduced. We also present an experimental validation of the methodology under ultra-fast MAS with the paramagnetic materials LiMnPO4 and TbCsDPA. PMID:23534632

Pell, Andrew J; Clément, Raphaële J; Grey, Clare P; Emsley, Lyndon; Pintacuda, Guido

2013-03-21

231

Optical manipulation of nuclear spin by a two-dimensional electron gas.

Conduction electrons are used to optically polarize, detect, and manipulate nuclear spin in a (110) GaAs quantum well. Using optical Larmor magnetometry, we find that nuclear spin can be polarized along or against the applied magnetic field, depending on field polarity and tilting of the sample with respect to the optical pump beam. Periodic optical excitation of the quantum-confined electron spin reveals a complete spectrum of optically induced and quadrupolar-split nuclear resonances, as well as evidence for Deltam = 2 transitions. PMID:11290009

Salis, G; Fuchs, D T; Kikkawa, J M; Awschalom, D D; Ohno, Y; Ohno, H

2001-03-19

232

Downconversion quantum interface for a single quantum dot spin and 1550-nm single-photon channel.

Long-distance quantum communication networks require appropriate interfaces between matter qubit-based nodes and low-loss photonic quantum channels. We implement a downconversion quantum interface, where the single photons emitted from a semiconductor quantum dot at 910 nm are downconverted to 1560 nm using a fiber-coupled periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide and a 2.2-?m pulsed pump laser. The single-photon character of the quantum dot emission is preserved during the downconversion process: we measure a cross-correlation g(2)(? = 0) = 0.17 using resonant excitation of the quantum dot. We show that the downconversion interface is fully compatible with coherent optical control of the quantum dot electron spin through the observation of Rabi oscillations in the downconverted photon counts. These results represent a critical step towards a long-distance hybrid quantum network in which subsystems operating at different wavelengths are connected through quantum frequency conversion devices and 1.5-?m quantum channels. PMID:23262701

Pelc, Jason S; Yu, Leo; De Greve, Kristiaan; McMahon, Peter L; Natarajan, Chandra M; Esfandyarpour, Vahid; Maier, Sebastian; Schneider, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven; Hadfield, Robert H; Forchel, Alfred; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Fejer, M M

2012-12-01

233

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) is a type of radio-frequency (rf) spectroscopy which can detect quadrupolar nuclei (I > 1/2), such as nitrogen, in crystalline solids. NQR spectroscopy is useful for the detection of the many types of explosives containing 14N, however it suffers from a low signal to noise ratio (SNR) particularly in samples with long spin-lattice relaxation times. To improve the SNR the nuclear quadrupole spin dynamics are exploited in two limiting cases: systems with long spin relaxation times and systems where the excitation power is limited. The former is addressed through double resonance effects and the latter through spin echoes created by weak rf pulses. The double resonance effect occurs in samples that also contain a second faster relaxing nuclear species, such as 1H in ammonium nitrate. In this sample an 1H-14N double resonance can be created between the species that improves the SNR. While the focus is on the common case of solids containing both nitrogen and hydrogen, the theory is generally applicable to solids containing spin-1 and spin-1/2 nuclei. A model of this system is developed that treats the motionally averaged secular dipolar Hamiltonian as a perturbation of the combined quadrupole and Zeeman Hamiltonians. This model reveals three types of double resonance conditions, involving static and rf fields, and predicts expressions for the cross-relaxation rate (Wd) between the two species. Using this cross-relaxation rate, in addition to the hydrogen and nitrogen autorelaxation rates, expressions governing the relaxation back to equilibrium in a spin-1/2 and spin-1 system are determined. The three different types of double resonance conditions are created experimentally; one of them for the first time in any system and another for the first time in a solid. Under these double resonance conditions, the increase in Wd and improvements in SNR are explored both theoretically and experimentally using ammonium nitrate. The second effect investigated is the NQR spin echo that forms after excitation of a powder sample by a single weak resonant radio-frequency pulse. This single-pulse echo is identified for the first time, and when applications are limited by a weak rf field, can be used effectively to increase the SNR over conventional detection techniques.

Prescott, David

234

Coherent Storage of Photoexcited Triplet States Using Si29 Nuclear Spins in Silicon

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of the photoexcited, metastable triplet state of the oxygen-vacancy center in silicon reveals that the lifetime of the ms=±1 sublevels differs significantly from that of the ms=0 state. We exploit this significant difference in decay rates to the ground singlet state to achieve nearly ˜100% electron-spin polarization within the triplet. We further demonstrate the transfer of a coherent state of the triplet electron spin to, and from, a hyperfine-coupled, nearest-neighbor Si29 nuclear spin. We measure the coherence time of the Si29 nuclear spin employed in this operation and find it to be unaffected by the presence of the triplet electron spin and equal to the bulk value measured by nuclear magnetic resonance.

Akhtar, Waseem; Filidou, Vasileia; Sekiguchi, Takeharu; Kawakami, Erika; Itahashi, Tatsumasa; Vlasenko, Leonid; Morton, John J. L.; Itoh, Kohei M.

2012-03-01

235

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NMR quantum computing with qubit systems represented by nuclear spins (I=12) in small molecules in liquids has led to the most successful experimental quantum information processors so far. We use the quadrupolar spin-32 sodium nuclei of a NaNO3 single crystal as a virtual two-qubit system. The large quadrupolar coupling in comparison with the environmental interactions and the usage of strongly modulating pulses allow us to manipulate the system fast enough and at the same time keeping the decoherence reasonably slow. The experimental challenge is to characterize the ``calculation'' behavior of the quantum processor by process tomography which is here adapted to the quadrupolar spin system. The results of a selection of quantum gates and algorithms are presented as well as a detailed analysis of experimental results.

Kampermann, H.; Veeman, W. S.

2005-06-01

236

The Study of High Spin States in Nuclear Rotation by the Cranked Nilsson Strutinsky Model

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A heavy-ion reaction can populate nuclear states of very high angular momentum with values of the order of I = 60 achievable. The reaction produces such configurations with a considerable internal excitation, but the emission of a few neutrons reduces the excitation energy effectively while not decreasing the spin by much. At sufficiently high spin the pairing is destroyed completely and the rigid-body moment of inertia becomes a good approximation. Even in this regime, however, the single-particle structure remains important and shell effects can be studied in terms of a rotating phenomenological shell model. On the theoretical side the cranked Nilsson strutinsky model has proved to be a successful tool to describe rapidly rotating nucleus. Indeed, this model gives a microscopic description of the influence of rotation on single-particle motion. This paper will concentrate on introduction to the cranked Nilsson strutinsky model in details. First, we explain the cranking model and the rotating liquid-drop model, then introduce the shell correction method. Also, we describe terminating bands, which show a continuous transition from high collectivity to a pure particle-hole state.

Kardan, A.; Miri-Hakimabad, H.; Rafat-Motevalli, L.

2010-11-01

237

A light-induced spin crossover actuated single-chain magnet

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both spin-crossover complexes and molecular nanomagnets display bistable magnetic states, potentially behaving as elementary binary units for information storage. It is a challenge to introduce spin-crossover units into molecular nanomagnets to switch the bistable state of the nanomagnets through external stimuli-tuned spin crossover. Here we report an iron(II) spin-crossover unit and paramagnetic iron(III) ions that are incorporated into a well-isolated double-zigzag chain. The chain exhibits thermally induced reversible spin-crossover and light-induced excited spin-state trapping at the iron(II) sites. Single-chain magnet behaviour is actuated accompanying the synergy between light-induced excited spin-state trapping at the iron(II) sites and ferromagnetic interactions between the photoinduced high-spin iron(II) and low-spin iron(III) ions in the chain. The result provides a strategy to switch the bistable state of molecular nanomagnets using external stimuli such as light and heat, with the potential to erase and write information at a molecular level.

Liu, Tao; Zheng, Hui; Kang, Soonchul; Shiota, Yoshihito; Hayami, Shinya; Mito, Masaki; Sato, Osamu; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Kanegawa, Shinji; Duan, Chunying

2013-11-01

238

Shell Structure at High Spin and the Influence on Nuclear Shapes.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nuclear structure at high spin is influenced by a combination of liquid-drop and shell-structure effects. For N < 86 both contribute towards the occurrence along the yrast line of high-spin oblate aligned-particle configurations. Shell effects are mainly ...

T. L. Khoo P. Chowdhury I. Ahmad

1982-01-01

239

Nuclear Spin Relaxation Study of the Electronic Structure of Lead Telluride.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurements of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time (T1), the free induction decay time (T2*), and the spin echo decay time (T2) are reported for 207Pb in n- and p-type PbTe, for 105-295K. The measurements are related to a parameterized (k dot pi) no...

C. R. Hewes M. N. Alexander P. L. Sagalyn S. D. Senturia

1972-01-01

240

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aug-cc-pVTZ-J series of basis sets for indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling constants has been extended to the atoms B, Al, Si, P, and Cl. The basis sets were obtained according to the scheme previously described by Provasi et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 115, 1324 (2001)]. First, the completely uncontracted correlation consistent aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets were extended with four tight s and three tight d functions. Second, the s and p basis functions were contracted with the molecular orbital coefficients of self-consistent-field calculations performed with the uncontracted basis sets on the simplest hydrides of each atom. As a first illustration, we have calculated the one-bond indirect spin-spin coupling constants in BH4-, BF, AlH, AlF, SiH4, SiF4, PH3, PF3, H2S, SF6, HCl, and ClF at the level of density functional theory using the Becke three parameter Lee-Yang-Parr and the second order polarization propagator approximation with coupled cluster singles and doubles amplitudes.

Provasi, Patricio F.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

2010-08-01

241

Single crystals of the {Fe (II)(pyrazine)[Pt(CN) 4]} spin crossover complex were synthesized by a slow diffusion method. The crystals exhibit a thermal spin transition around room temperature (298 K), which is accompanied by a 14 K wide hysteresis loop. X-ray single-crystal analysis confirms that this compound crystallizes in the tetragonal P4/ mmm space group in both spin states. Within the thermal hysteresis region a complete bidirectional photoconversion was induced between the two phases (high spin right arrow over left arrow low spin) when a short single laser pulse (4 ns, 532 nm) was shined on the sample. PMID:18570417

Cobo, Saioa; Ostrovskii, Denis; Bonhommeau, Sébastien; Vendier, Laure; Molnár, Gábor; Salmon, Lionel; Tanaka, Koichiro; Bousseksou, Azzedine

2008-07-16

242

Nuclear spin selection rules in chemical reactions by angular momentum algebra

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detailed selection rules for reactive collisions reported by Quack using molecular symmetry group are derived by using angular momentum algebra. Instead of the representations of the permutation-inversion group for both nuclear spin and rovibronic coordinate wavefunctions, those of the rotation group for nuclear spin wavefunction only are used. The method allows more straightforward derivation of Quack's results and further extension of the calculation for separating elementary reactions and application to higher proton systems.

Oka, Takeshi

2004-12-01

243

Local Spin Anisotropy Effects upon the Magnetization of Dimer Single Molecule Magnets

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an exactly soluble model of equal spin s1 dimer single molecule magnets. The dimer spins interact via the Heisenberg, Zeeman, and the most general quadratic local and global anisotropic exchange interactions. We derive the Hamiltonian matrix for the general case with each type of anisotropy. For antiferromagnetic couplings and s1 > 1/2, the low temperature T magnetization exhibits a strong influence of single-ion anisotropy. Our results suggest a substantial presence of axial single-ion anisotropy in the s1 = 5/2 Fe2 dimer, [Fe(salen)Cl]2.

Klemm, Richard A.; Efremov, Dmitri V.

2006-09-01

244

Spin coherence during optical excitation of a single nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond.

We examine the quantum spin state of a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond at room temperature as it makes a transition from the orbital ground state (GS) to the orbital excited state (ES) during nonresonant optical excitation. While the fluorescence readout of NV-center spins relies on conservation of the longitudinal spin projection during optical excitation, the question of quantum phase preservation has not been examined. Using Ramsey measurements and quantum process tomography of the optical excitation process, we measure a trace fidelity of F=0.87±0.03, which includes ES spin dephasing during measurement. Extrapolation to the moment of optical excitation yields F?0.95. This result provides insight into the interaction between spin coherence and nonresonant optical absorption through a vibronic sideband. PMID:22587283

Fuchs, G D; Falk, A L; Dobrovitski, V V; Awschalom, D D

2012-04-13

245

We investigate the spin- and energy-dependent tunneling through a single organic molecule (CoPc) adsorbed on a ferromagnetic Fe thin film, spatially resolved by low-temperature spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy. Interestingly, the metal ion as well as the organic ligand show a significant spin dependence of tunneling current flow. State-of-the-art ab initio calculations including also van der Waals interactions reveal a strong hybridization of molecular orbitals and substrate 3d states. The molecule is anionic due to a transfer of one electron, resulting in a nonmagnetic (S=0) state. Nevertheless, tunneling through the molecule exhibits a pronounced spin dependence due to spin-split molecule-surface hybrid states. PMID:20867880

Brede, Jens; Atodiresei, Nicolae; Kuck, Stefan; Lazi?, Predrag; Caciuc, Vasile; Morikawa, Yoshitada; Hoffmann, Germar; Blügel, Stefan; Wiesendanger, Roland

2010-07-23

246

Steady-State Entanglement in the Nuclear Spin Dynamics of a Double Quantum Dot

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a scheme for the deterministic generation of steady-state entanglement between the two nuclear spin ensembles in an electrically defined double quantum dot. Due to quantum interference in the collective coupling to the electronic degrees of freedom, the nuclear system is actively driven into a two-mode squeezed-like target state. The entanglement build-up is accompanied by a self-polarization of the nuclear spins towards large Overhauser field gradients. Moreover, the feedback between the electronic and nuclear dynamics leads to multi-stability and criticality in the steady-state solutions.

Schuetz, M. J. A.; Kessler, E. M.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.; Cirac, J. I.; Giedke, G.

2013-12-01

247

Spin-dependent negative differential conductance in transport through single-molecule magnets

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transport properties are theoretically studied through an anisotropy single-molecule magnet symmetrically connected to two identical ferromagnetic leads. It is found that even though in parallel configuration of leads' magnetizations, the total current still greatly depends on the spin polarization of leads at certain particular bias region, and thus for large polarization a prominent negative differential conductance (NDC) emerges. This originates from the joint effect of single-direction transitions and spin polarization, which removes the symmetry between spin-up and spin-down transitions. The present mechanism of NDC is remarkably different from the previously reported mechanisms. To clarify the physics of the NDC, we further monitored the shot noise spectroscopy and found that the appearance of the NDC is accompanied by the rapid decrease of Fano factor.

Luo, Wei; Wang, Rui-Qiang; Hu, Liang-Bin; Yang, Mou

2013-04-01

248

Recent Results of Target Single-Spin Asymmetry Experiments at Jefferson Lab

We report recent results from Jefferson Lab Hall A “Neutron Transversity” experiment (E06-010). Transversely polarized target single-spin asymmetry AUT and beam-target double-spin asymmetry A{sub LT} have been measured in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (SIDIS) reactions on a polarized neutron ({sup 3}He) target. Collins-type and Sivers-type asymmetries have been extracted from A{sub UT} for charged pion SIDIS productions, which are sensitive to quark transversity and Sivers distributions, correspondingly. Double spin asymmetry A{sub LT} is sensitive to a specific quark transverse momentum dependent parton distribution (TMD), the so-called “ transverse helicity” (g{sub 1T} ) distributions. In addition, target single-spin asymmetries A{sub y} in inclusive electron scattering on a transversely polarized {sup 3}He target in quasi-elastic and deep inelastic kinematics were also measured in Hall A.

Jiang, Xiaodong [Los Alamos National Lab

2013-08-01

249

Coherent sensing of a mechanical resonator with a single-spin qubit.

Mechanical systems can be influenced by a wide variety of small forces, ranging from gravitational to optical, electrical, and magnetic. When mechanical resonators are scaled down to nanometer-scale dimensions, these forces can be harnessed to enable coupling to individual quantum systems. We demonstrate that the coherent evolution of a single electronic spin associated with a nitrogen vacancy center in diamond can be coupled to the motion of a magnetized mechanical resonator. Coherent manipulation of the spin is used to sense driven and Brownian motion of the resonator under ambient conditions with a precision below 6 picometers. With future improvements, this technique could be used to detect mechanical zero-point fluctuations, realize strong spin-phonon coupling at a single quantum level, and implement quantum spin transducers. PMID:22362881

Kolkowitz, Shimon; Jayich, Ania C Bleszynski; Unterreithmeier, Quirin P; Bennett, Steven D; Rabl, Peter; Harris, J G E; Lukin, Mikhail D

2012-03-30

250

Single-spin asymmetries in inclusive DIS and in hadronic collisions

Transverse single-spin asymmetries in inclusive deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering can be generated through multi-photon exchange between the leptonic and the hadronic part of the process. Here we consider two-photon exchange and mainly focus on the transverse target spin asymmetry. In particular, we investigate the case where two photons couple to different quarks. Such a contribution involves a quark-photon-quark correlator in the nucleon, which has a (modeldependent) relation to the Efremov-Teryaev-Qiu-Sterman quark-gluon-quark correlator T{sub F}. Using different parameterizations for T{sub F} we compute the transverse target spin asymmetries for both a proton and a neutron target and compare the results to recent experimental data. In addition, potential implications for our general understanding of single-spin asymmetries in hard scattering processes are discussed.

Metz, Andreas; Pitonyak, Daniel [Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122 (United States); Schaefer, Andreas; Zhou, Jian [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Regensburg University, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Schlegel, Marc; Vogelsang, Werner [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Tuebingen University, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

2013-04-15

251

Single-shot readout of spin qubits in Si/SiGe quantum dots

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Si/SiGe quantum dots are an attractive option for spin qubit development, because of the long coherence times for electron spins in silicon, arising from weak hyperfine interaction and low spin orbit coupling. I will present measurements of gate-defined single and double quantum dots formed in Si/SiGe semiconductor heterostuctures. Control of the gate voltages on these dots enables tuning of the tunnel coupling to the leads and to other dots. Careful tuning of these tunnel rates, in combination with fast, pulsed-gate manipulation and spin-to-charge conversion, allow spin state measurement using an integrated quantum point contact as a local charge detector. Single spin qubit readout relies on the Zeeman energy splitting from an external magnetic field for spin-to-charge conversion. Two-electron singlet-triplet qubits, on the other hand, can be measured by using Pauli spin blockade of tunneling between the dots to readout the qubit even at zero magnetic field. I will present real-time, single-shot readout measurements of both individual spin [1] and singlet-triplet qubits [2] in gated Si/SiGe quantum dots. Work performed in collaboration with J. R. Prance, Zhan Shi, B. J. Van Bael, Teck Seng Koh, D. E. Savage, M. G. Lagally, R. Joynt, L. R. Schreiber, L. M. K. Vandersypen, M. Friesen, S. N. Coppersmith, and M. A. Eriksson. [4pt] [1] C. B. Simmons et al. Physical Review Letters 106, 156804 (2011). [0pt] [2] J. R. Prance, et al., e-print: http://lanl.arxiv.org/abs/1110.6431

Simmons, Christie

2012-02-01

252

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on pulsed-field magnetization, Q -band electron spin resonance (ESR), and Na23 NMR measurements of the S=1/2 spin triangle clusters Na9[Cu3Na3(H2O)9(?-XW9O33)2] ( X=As and Sb). The pulsed-field magnetization shows pronounced hysteresis loops and magnetization steps including the half-step magnetization. The detailed magnetization behavior depends substantially on the diamagnetic heteroatom X . The angular dependence of ESR parameters necessitates Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. The temperature dependence of the Na23 spin-lattice relaxation rate, 1/T1 , scales well to ?(T)T , where ?(T) is the static susceptibility. The spin-spin relaxation rate, 1/T2 , increases rapidly for temperatures below 15K due to dipolar interactions between the Na23 nuclei and Cu2+ spins. The two clusters exhibit a markedly different field dependence of 1/T1 at antilevel crossing points. The enhancement of 1/T1 is noticeable only for X=Sb . Since the spin configurations of both clusters are nearly the same, the dependence of magnetization and 1/T1 on X is ascribed to the strong coupling of the spins to a lattice vibration, leading to an enhanced mixing of the S=1/2 chiral state.

Choi, Kwang-Yong; Dalal, Naresh S.; Reyes, Arneil P.; Kuhns, Philip L.; Matsuda, Yasuhiro H.; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Mal, Sib Sankar; Kortz, Ulrich

2008-01-01

253

Measurements of Kondo and Spin Splitting in Single-Electron Transistors

We measure the spin splitting in a magnetic field B of localized states in single-electron transistors using a new method, inelastic spin-flip cotunneling. Because it involves only internal excitations, this technique gives the most precise value of the Zeeman energy Delta=|g|muBB. In the same devices we also measure the splitting with B of the Kondo peak in differential conductance. The

A. Kogan; S. Amasha; D. Goldhaber-Gordon; G. Granger; M. A. Kastner; Hadas Shtrikman

2004-01-01

254

Efficient Organometallic Spin Filter between Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube or Graphene Electrodes

We present a theoretical study of spin transport in a class of molecular systems consisting of an organometallic benzene-vanadium cluster placed in between graphene or single-wall carbon-nanotube-model contacts. Ab initio modeling is performed by combining spin density functional theory and nonequilibrium Green's function techniques. We consider weak and strong cluster-contact bonds. Depending on the bonding we find from 73% (strong

Mohammad Koleini; Magnus Paulsson; Mads Brandbyge

2007-01-01

255

Spin-polarized transport through single-molecule magnet Mn6 complexes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coherent transport properties of a device, constructed by sandwiching a Mn6 single-molecule magnet between two gold surfaces, are studied theoretically by using the non-equilibrium Green's function approach combined with density functional theory. Two spin states of such Mn6 complexes are explored, namely the ferromagnetically coupled configuration of the six MnIII cations, leading to the S = 12 ground state, and the low S = 4 spin state. For voltages up to 1 volt the S = 12 ground state shows a current one order of magnitude larger than that of the S = 4 state. Furthermore this is almost completely spin-polarized, since the Mn6 frontier molecular orbitals for S = 12 belong to the same spin manifold. As such the high-anisotropy Mn6 molecule appears as a promising candidate for implementing, at the single molecular level, both spin-switches and low-temperature spin-valves.The coherent transport properties of a device, constructed by sandwiching a Mn6 single-molecule magnet between two gold surfaces, are studied theoretically by using the non-equilibrium Green's function approach combined with density functional theory. Two spin states of such Mn6 complexes are explored, namely the ferromagnetically coupled configuration of the six MnIII cations, leading to the S = 12 ground state, and the low S = 4 spin state. For voltages up to 1 volt the S = 12 ground state shows a current one order of magnitude larger than that of the S = 4 state. Furthermore this is almost completely spin-polarized, since the Mn6 frontier molecular orbitals for S = 12 belong to the same spin manifold. As such the high-anisotropy Mn6 molecule appears as a promising candidate for implementing, at the single molecular level, both spin-switches and low-temperature spin-valves. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Calculated total and projected density of states of an isolated [Mn6O2(Et-sao)6{O2CPh(Me)2}2(EtOH)6] original SMM complex (Fig. S1). Calculated total and projected density of states of an isolated [Mn6O2(Me-sao)6{O2CPh(SH)}2(MeOH)6] model complex (Fig. S2). Transmission spectra calculated at different voltages corresponding to the S = 12 and S = 4 ground states for the Mn6-Au(111) layer system (Fig. S3). Cell parameters and Cartesian coordinates of the Mn6-Au(111) layer system. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00054k

Cremades, Eduard; Pemmaraju, C. D.; Sanvito, Stefano; Ruiz, Eliseo

2013-05-01

256

Magnetic field induced discontinuous spin reorientation in ErFeO3 single crystal

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spin reorientation of ErFeO3 that spontaneously occurs at low temperature has been previously determined to be a process involving the continuous rotation of Fe3+ spins. In this work, the dynamic process of spin reorientation in ErFeO3 single crystal has been investigated by AC susceptibility measurements at various frequencies and static magnetic fields. Interestingly, two completely discontinuous steps are induced by a relatively large static magnetic field due to the variation in the magnetic anisotropy during this process. It provides deeper insights into the intriguing magnetic exchange interactions which dominate the sophisticated magnetic phase transitions in the orthoferrite systems.

Shen, Hui; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Hong, Fang; Xu, Jiayue; Yuan, Shujuan; Cao, Shixun; Wang, Xiaolin

2013-11-01

257

Spin-wave instability threshold in single-crystal yttrium iron garnet for oblique pumping

The spin-wave instability threshold h/sub crit/ for oblique pumping in high-quality single-crystal yttrium iron garnet (YIG) at room temperature and 9.317 GHz, has been examined. The experimental dependence of h/sub crit/ on the pump angle indicates that the microwave field components parallel and perpendicular to the dc field operate independently in exciting spin-wave instability. Theoretical fits to the data, based on this result, indicate that the spin-wave linewidth is strongly wave vector dependent and that the wave vector dependence varies with the pump angle.

Liu, Y.H.; Patton, C.E.

1982-07-01

258

Search for electric dipole moment in 129Xe atom using active nuclear spin maser

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental search for an electric dipole moment in the diamagnetic atom 129Xe is in progress through the precision measurement of spin precession frequency using an active nuclear spin maser. A 3He comagnetometer has been incorporated into the active spin maser system in order to cancel out the long-term drifts in the external magnetic field. Also, a double-cell geometry has been adopted in order to suppress the frequency shifts due to interaction with polarized Rb atoms. The first EDM measurement with the 129Xe active spin maser and the 3He comagnetometer has been conducted.

Ichikawa, Y.; Chikamori, M.; Ohtomo, Y.; Hikota, E.; Sakamoto, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Bidinosti, C. P.; Inoue, T.; Furukawa, T.; Yoshimi, A.; Suzuki, K.; Nanao, T.; Miyatake, H.; Tsuchiya, M.; Yoshida, N.; Shirai, H.; Ino, T.; Ueno, H.; Matsuo, Y.; Fukuyama, T.; Asahi, K.

2014-03-01

259

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of tail design on spin and recovery were investigated in a spin tunnel. A 1/11-scale model of a research airplane which represents a typical low-wing, single engine, light general aviation airplane was used. A tail design criterion for satisfactory spin recovery for light airplanes was evaluated. The effects of other geometric design features on the spin and recovery characteristics were also determined. Results indicate that the existing tail design criterion for light airplanes, which uses the tail damping power factor as a parameter, cannot be used to predict spin-recovery characteristics.

Burk, S. M., Jr.; Bowman, J. S., Jr.; White, W. L.

1977-01-01

260

Gauge invariance of the nuclear spin/electron orbit interaction and NMR spectral parameters.

A gauge transformation of the vector potential A(m(I)), associated to the magnetic dipole m(I) of nucleus I in a molecule, has been studied. The conditions for gauge invariance of nuclear magnetic shielding, nuclear spin/electron orbit contribution to spin-spin coupling between two nuclei, I and J, and electronic current density induced by m(I), have been expressed via quantum mechanical sum rules that are identically satisfied for exact and optimal variational wavefunctions. It is shown that separate diamagnetic and paramagnetic contributions to the properties transform into one another in the gauge transformation, whereas their sum is invariant. Therefore, only total response properties have a physical meaning. In particular, the disjoint diamagnetic and paramagnetic components of nuclear spin/electron orbit contributions to coupling constants are not uniquely defined. The diamagnetic contribution to the nuclear spin-spin coupling tensor, evaluated as an expectation value in the Ramsey theory, can alternatively be expressed as a sum-over-states formula, by rewriting the second-order Hamiltonian in commutator form à la Geertsen, as previously reported by Sauer. Other sum-over-states formulae are obtained via a gauge transformation, by a procedure formally allowing for a continuous translation of the origin of the m(I)-induced current density, analogous to those previously proposed for magnetizabilities and nuclear magnetic shielding. PMID:22920104

Lazzeretti, Paolo

2012-08-21

261

The birthrate and initial spin period of single radio pulsars

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A statistical analysis of radio pulsar data is presented. The basic theory behind the analysis is discussed, and all the selection effects of the major pulsar surveys are considered in detail, paying particular attention to those that depend on pulsar period. The birthrate of pulsars is estimated to be one pulsar in about 56 years, and the local rate in the solar neighborhood is estimated to be one pulsar in about 90,000 yr/sq kpc. The calculations confirm an earlier result from Vivekanand and Narayan (1981) that many pulsars are born with initial periods as slow as 0.5 s. Three possibilities are discussed for the correlation between initial spin period and magnetic field. The issue of a luminosity model for radio pulsars is also addressed, and the model of Lyne et al. (1985) is rejected in favor of a power-law model, which fits the data better.

Narayan, Ramesh

1987-08-01

262

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of theoretical and experimental studies of Zeeman-perturbed nuclear quadrupole spin echo envelope modulations (ZSEEM) for spin 3/2 nuclei in polycrystalline specimens are presented. The response of the Zeeman-perturbed spin ensemble to resonant two pulse excitations has been calculated using the density matrix formalism. The theoretical calculation assumes a parallel orientation of the external r.f. and static Zeeman fields and an arbitrary orientation of these fields to the principal axes system of the electric field gradient. A numerical powder averaging procedure has been adopted to simulate the response of the polycrystalline specimens. Using a coherent pulsed nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrometer the ZSEEM patterns of the 35Cl nuclei have been recorded in polycrystalline specimens of potassium chlorate, barium chlorate, mercuric chloride (two sites) and antimony trichloride (two sites) using the ?/2-?-?/2 sequence. The theoretical and experimental ZSEEM patterns have been compared. In the case of mercuric chloride, the experimental 35Cl ZSEEM patterns are found to be nearly identical for the two sites and correspond to a near-zero value of the asymmetry parameter, ?, of the electric field gradient tensor. The difference in the ? values for the two 35Cl sites (? ˜0·06 and ?˜0·16) in antimony trichloride is clearly reflected in the experimental and theoretical ZSEEM patterns. The present study indicates the feasibility of evaluating ? for spin 3/2 nuclei in polycrystalline specimens from ZSEEM investigations.

Ramachandran, R.; Narasimhan, P. T.

263

Soft-Fermion-Pole Mechanism to Single Spin Asymmetry in Hadronic Pion Production

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single spin asymmetry (SSA) is a twist-3 observable in the collinear factorization approach. We present a twist-3 single-spin-dependent cross section formula for the pion production in pp-collision, p?p-->?X, relevant to RHIC experiments. In particular, we calculate the soft-fermion-pole (SFP) contribution to the cross section from the quark-gluon correlation functions. We show that its effect can be as large as the soft-gluon-pole (SGP) contribution owing to the large SFP partonic hard cross section, even though the derivative of the SFP function does not participate in the cross section.

Koike, Yuji; Tomita, Tetsuya

2009-08-01

264

Soft-Fermion-Pole Mechanism to Single Spin Asymmetry in Hadronic Pion Production

Single spin asymmetry (SSA) is a twist-3 observable in the collinear factorization approach. We present a twist-3 single-spin-dependent cross section formula for the pion production in pp-collision, p{sup a}rrow upp->piX, relevant to RHIC experiments. In particular, we calculate the soft-fermion-pole (SFP) contribution to the cross section from the quark-gluon correlation functions. We show that its effect can be as large as the soft-gluon-pole (SGP) contribution owing to the large SFP partonic hard cross section, even though the derivative of the SFP function does not participate in the cross section.

Koike, Yuji; Tomita, Tetsuya [Department of Physics, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)

2009-08-04

265

Single Spin Asymmetry in Inclusive Hadron Production in pp Scattering from Collins Mechanism

We study the Collins mechanism contribution to the single transverse spin asymmetry in inclusive hadron production in pp scattering p{up_arrow}p {yields} {pi}X from the leading jet fragmentation. The azimuthal asymmetric distribution of hadron in the jet leads to a single spin asymmetry for the produced hadron in the Lab frame. The effect is evaluated in a transverse momentum dependent model that takes into account the transverse momentum dependence in the fragmentation process. We find the asymmetry is comparable in size to the experimental observation at RHIC at {radical}s = 200GeV.

Yuan, Feng; Yuan, Feng

2008-04-14

266

Single-transverse-spin asymmetries: From deep inelastic scattering to hadronic collisions

We study single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering with transversely polarized target. Based on the QCD factorization approach, we consider Sivers and Collins contributions to the asymmetries. We fit simple parametrizations for the Sivers and Collins functions to the recent HERMES data, and compare to results from COMPASS. Using the fitted parametrizations for the Sivers functions, we predict the single-transverse-spin asymmetries for various processes in pp collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, including the Drell-Yan process and angular correlations in dijet and jet-plus-photon production. These asymmetries are found to be sizable at forward rapidities.

Vogelsang, Werner [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); RIKEN BNL Research Center, Building 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Yuan Feng [RIKEN BNL Research Center, Building 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

2005-09-01

267

Distribution of spacings of nuclear energy levels of mixed spin and parity

An experimental spacing distribution for nuclear levels of mixed spin and parity is derived for 980 levels of 18 different nuclei. The experimental nuclear energy levels, taken from recent literature, were all determined by analyses of particles from (p, p') and\\/or (p, alpha) reactions with magnetic spectrographs. When proper account is taken of the experimental enrgy resolution, the spacing distribution

J. R. Huizenga; A. A. Katsanos

1967-01-01

268

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NMR group defined by Woodman is shown to be the generalized wreath product group of the NMR graph which is constructed with protons as vertices and edges representing nuclear couplings. The NMR graph can be expressed as a generalized composition of its quotient graph and various types. It is shown that the NMR group is the automorphism group of the NMR graph that preserves the coupling matrix defined here. Using the representation theory of generalized wreath product groups developed in an earlier paper of the present author, the character tables of NMR groups can be obtained. The character tables of certain NMR groups are presented. The quotient graph of the NMR graph is shown to be the composite particle graph. The automorphism group of the quotient NMR graph is the symmetry group of the composite particles, preserving the NMR coupling constants. An iterative algorithm is formulated for obtaining the automorphism group of the composite particle tree. A combinatorial approach is expounded for identifying the nuclear spin species of nonrigid and rigid molecules. The coalescence diagrams describing the effect of nonrigidity on nuclear spin species are introduced and obtained to exemplify the utility of the proposed method. It is shown that using the automorphism group of the quotient graph, the symmetry adapted composite particle spin functions can be constructed. We illustrate this method with 2,3-dimethylbutane. The nuclear spin Hamiltonian matrix of 2,3-dimethylbutane of order 214×214 is reduced to a matrix of order 64×64 by the composite particle method. This matrix can be blocked in the symmetry adapted basis set constructed through the automorphism group of the quotient graph into 40 matrices of order 1×1 and 12 matrices of order 2×2.

Balasubramanian, K.

1980-10-01

269

A theoretical analysis of the optically driven spin dynamics of a single Mn atom in a quantum dot in the presence of magnetic fields in different geometries is presented. When a magnetic field in Faraday configuration is applied, the Mn spin can be flipped from its initial state into each of its six spin eigenstates via optical excitation and manipulation

D. E. Reiter; T. Kuhn; V. M. Axt; P. Machnikowski

2009-01-01

270

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer program was developed for studying transferred nuclear Overhauser effects in complex spin systems. It permits quantitative analysis of nuclear Overhauser effects observed in biologically important systems, such as ligands interacting with transmembrane receptors in the presence of lipid bilayers. The full generalized relaxation matrix approach takes into account the local mobility, spin equivalence, finite exchange rates, and spectral overlap. The program can be used either to simulate theoretical nuclear Overhauser effect buildup curves or to fit a relaxation matrix of a given model to experimental data. Selected examples illustrate the program's performance.

Czaplicki, J.; Milon, A.

2006-07-01

271

Liquidlike correlations in single-crystalline Y2Mo2O7: An unconventional spin glass

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spin-glass behavior of Y2Mo2O7 has remained a puzzle for nearly three decades. Free of bulk disorder within the resolution of powder diffraction methods, it is thought that this material is a rare realization of a spin glass resulting from weak disorder such as bond disorder or local lattice distortions. Here we report on the single-crystal growth of Y2Mo2O7. Using neutron scattering, we present isotropic magnetic diffuse scattering occurring below the spin-glass transition. Our attempts to model the diffuse scattering using a computationally exhaustive search of a class of simple spin Hamiltonians show no agreement with the experimentally observed energy-integrated (diffuse) neutron scattering. This suggests that spin degrees of freedom are insufficient to describe this system. Indeed, a T2 temperature dependence in the heat capacity and density functional theory calculations hint at the presence of a significant frozen degeneracy in both the spin and orbital degrees of freedom resulting from spin-orbital coupling (Kugel-Khomskii type) and random fluctuations in the Mo environment at the local level.

Silverstein, H. J.; Fritsch, K.; Flicker, F.; Hallas, A. M.; Gardner, J. S.; Qiu, Y.; Ehlers, G.; Savici, A. T.; Yamani, Z.; Ross, K. A.; Gaulin, B. D.; Gingras, M. J. P.; Paddison, J. A. M.; Foyevtsova, K.; Valenti, R.; Hawthorne, F.; Wiebe, C. R.; Zhou, H. D.

2014-02-01

272

The 3d-4f mixed metallacrowns frequently show single-molecule magnetic behavior. We have used magnetic Compton scattering to characterize the spin structure and orbital interactions in three isostructural metallacrowns: Gd2Mn4, Dy2Mn4, and Y2Mn4. These data allow the direct determination of the spin only contribution to the overall magnetic moment. We find that the lanthanide 4f spin in Gd2Mn4 and Dy2Mn4 is aligned parallel to the Mn 3d spin. For Y2Mn4 (manganese-only spin) we find evidence for spin delocalization into the O 2p orbitals. Comparing the magnetic Compton scattering data with SQUID studies that measure the total magnetic moment suggests that Gd2Mn4 and Y2Mn4 have only a small orbital contribution to the moment. In contrast, the total magnetic moment for Dy2Mn4 MCs is much larger than the spin-only moment, demonstrating a significant orbital contribution to the overall magnetic moment. Overall, these data provide direct insight into the correlation of molecular design with molecular magnetic properties. PMID:24625070

Deb, Aniruddha; Boron, Thaddeus T; Itou, Masayoshi; Sakurai, Yoshiharu; Mallah, Talal; Pecoraro, Vincent L; Penner-Hahn, James E

2014-04-01

273

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We theoretically study the nuclear spin dynamics driven by electron transport and hyperfine interaction in an electrically defined double quantum dot in the Pauli-blockade regime. We derive a master-equation-based framework and show that the coupled electron-nuclear system displays an instability towards the buildup of large nuclear spin polarization gradients in the two quantum dots. In the presence of such inhomogeneous magnetic fields, a quantum interference effect in the collective hyperfine coupling results in sizable nuclear spin entanglement between the two quantum dots in the steady state of the evolution. We investigate this effect using analytical and numerical techniques, and demonstrate its robustness under various types of imperfections.

Schuetz, M. J. A.; Kessler, E. M.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.; Cirac, J. I.; Giedke, G.

2014-05-01

274

Intrinsic spin-relaxation induced negative tunnel magnetoresistance in a single-molecule magnet

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate theoretically the effects of intrinsic spin-relaxation on the spin-dependent transport through a single-molecule magnet (SMM), which is weakly coupled to ferromagnetic leads. The tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) is obtained by means of the rate-equation approach including not only the sequential but also the cotunneling processes. It is shown that the TMR is strongly suppressed by the fast spin-relaxation in the sequential region and can vary from a large positive to slight negative value in the cotunneling region. Moreover, with an external magnetic field along the easy-axis of SMM, a large negative TMR is found when the relaxation strength increases. Finally, in the high bias voltage limit the TMR for the negative bias is slightly larger than its characteristic value of the sequential region; however, it can become negative for the positive bias caused by the fast spin-relaxation.

Xie, Haiqing; Wang, Qiang; Xue, Hai-Bin; Jiao, HuJun; Liang, J.-Q.

2013-06-01

275

All-optical spin manipulation of a single manganese atom in a quantum dot.

For a CdTe quantum dot doped with a single Mn atom we analyze the dynamics of the Mn spin when the dot is excited by ultrashort laser pulses. Because of the exchange interaction with the Mn atom, electron and hole spins can flip and induce a change of the Mn spin. Including both heavy and light-hole excitons and using suitable pulse sequences, angular momentum can be transferred from the light to the Mn system while the exciton system returns to its ground state. We show that by a series of ultrashort laser pulses the Mn spin can be selectively driven into each of its six possible orientations on a picosecond timescale. By applying a magnetic field the total switching time and the required number of pulses can be strongly reduced. PMID:19518830

Reiter, D E; Kuhn, T; Axt, V M

2009-05-01

276

Spin-Polarized Electron Scattering at Single Oxygen Adsorbates on a Magnetic Surface

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) on the system of isolated oxygen atoms adsorbed on the double layer of Fe on W(110) shows highly anisotropic spatial oscillations in the local density of states in the vicinity of the adsorbates. We explain this in terms of a single-particle model as electron waves being scattered by the potential induced by the presence of the oxygen atoms. Analysis of the wavelength of the standing electron waves and comparison with ab initio spin-resolved electronic structure calculations reveal that minority-spin bands of d-like symmetry are involved in the scattering process. By applying spin-polarized STS, we observe this standing wave pattern on one particular type of magnetic domain of Fe on W(110) only, thereby proving that the standing electron waves are highly spin polarized.

von Bergmann, K.; Bode, M.; Kubetzka, A.; Heide, M.; Blügel, S.; Wiesendanger, R.

2004-01-01

277

Dynamic nuclear spin polarization of liquids and gases in contact with nanostructured diamond.

Optical pumping of spin polarization can produce almost complete spin order but its application is restricted to select atomic gases and condensed matter systems. Here, we theoretically investigate a novel route to nuclear spin hyperpolarization in arbitrary fluids in which target molecules are exposed to polarized paramagnetic centers located near the surface of a host material. We find that adsorbed nuclear spins relax to positive or negative polarization depending on the average paramagnetic center depth and nanoscale surface topology. For the particular case of optically pumped nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond, we calculate strong nuclear spin polarization at moderate magnetic fields provided the crystal surface is engineered with surface roughness in the few-nanometer range. The equilibrium nuclear spin temperature depends only weakly on the correlation time describing the molecular adsorption dynamics and is robust in the presence of other, unpolarized paramagnetic centers. These features could be exploited to polarize flowing liquids or gases, as we illustrate numerically for the model case of a fluid brought in contact with an optically pumped diamond nanostructure. PMID:24754755

Abrams, Daniel; Trusheim, Matthew E; Englund, Dirk R; Shattuck, Mark D; Meriles, Carlos A

2014-05-14

278

Observation of entanglement between a quantum dot spin and a single photon.

Entanglement has a central role in fundamental tests of quantum mechanics as well as in the burgeoning field of quantum information processing. Particularly in the context of quantum networks and communication, a main challenge is the efficient generation of entanglement between stationary (spin) and propagating (photon) quantum bits. Here we report the observation of quantum entanglement between a semiconductor quantum dot spin and the colour of a propagating optical photon. The demonstration of entanglement relies on the use of fast, single-photon detection, which allows us to project the photon into a superposition of red and blue frequency components. Our results extend the previous demonstrations of single-spin/single-photon entanglement in trapped ions, neutral atoms and nitrogen-vacancy centres to the domain of artificial atoms in semiconductor nanostructures that allow for on-chip integration of electronic and photonic elements. As a result of its fast optical transitions and favourable selection rules, the scheme we implement could in principle generate nearly deterministic entangled spin-photon pairs at a rate determined ultimately by the high spontaneous emission rate. Our observation constitutes a first step towards implementation of a quantum network with nodes consisting of semiconductor spin quantum bits. PMID:23151586

Gao, W B; Fallahi, P; Togan, E; Miguel-Sanchez, J; Imamoglu, A

2012-11-15

279

Chip-Scale Nanofabrication of Single Spins and Spin Arrays in Diamond.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We demonstrate a technique to nanofabricate nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond based on broad-beam nitrogen implantation through apertures in electron beam lithography resist. This method enables high-throughput nanofabrication of single NV centers ...

C. D. Weis D. D. Awschalom D. M. Toyli G. D. Fuchs T. Schenkel

2011-01-01

280

Spin gap in the single spin-1/2 chain cuprate Sr1.9Ca0.1CuO3

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report Cu63 nuclear magnetic resonance and muon spin rotation measurements on the S =1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin chain compound Sr1.9Ca0.1CuO3. An exponentially decreasing spin-lattice relaxation rate T1-1 indicates the opening of a spin gap. This behavior is very similar to what has been observed for the cognate zigzag spin chain compound Sr0.9Ca0.1CuO2, and it confirms that the occurrence of a spin gap upon Ca doping is independent of the interchain exchange coupling J'. Our results therefore suggest that the appearance of a spin gap in an antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin chain is induced by a local bond disorder of the intrachain exchange coupling J. A low-temperature upturn of T1-1 evidences growing magnetic correlations. However, zero-field muon spin rotation measurements down to 1.5 K confirm the absence of magnetic order in this compound, which is most likely suppressed by the opening of the spin gap.

Hammerath, F.; Brüning, E. M.; Sanna, S.; Utz, Y.; Beesetty, N. S.; Saint-Martin, R.; Revcolevschi, A.; Hess, C.; Büchner, B.; Grafe, H.-J.

2014-05-01

281

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report solid state 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments with magic-angle spinning (MAS) on frozen solutions containing nitroxide-based paramagnetic dopants that indicate significant perturbations of nuclear spin polarizations without microwave irradiation. At temperatures near 25 K, 1H and cross-polarized 13C NMR signals from 15N,13C-labeled L-alanine in trinitroxide-doped glycerol/water are reduced by factors as large as six compared to signals from samples without nitroxide doping. Without MAS or at temperatures near 100 K, differences between signals with and without nitroxide doping are much smaller. We attribute most of the reduction of NMR signals under MAS near 25 K to nuclear spin depolarization through the cross-effect dynamic nuclear polarization mechanism, in which three-spin flips drive nuclear polarizations toward equilibrium with spin polarization differences between electron pairs. When T1e is sufficiently long relative to the MAS rotation period, the distribution of electron spin polarization across the nitroxide electron paramagnetic resonance lineshape can be very different from the corresponding distribution in a static sample at thermal equilibrium, leading to the observed effects. We describe three-spin and 3000-spin calculations that qualitatively reproduce the experimental observations.

Thurber, Kent R.; Tycko, Robert

2014-05-01

282

We report solid state (13)C and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments with magic-angle spinning (MAS) on frozen solutions containing nitroxide-based paramagnetic dopants that indicate significant perturbations of nuclear spin polarizations without microwave irradiation. At temperatures near 25 K, (1)H and cross-polarized (13)C NMR signals from (15)N,(13)C-labeled L-alanine in trinitroxide-doped glycerol/water are reduced by factors as large as six compared to signals from samples without nitroxide doping. Without MAS or at temperatures near 100 K, differences between signals with and without nitroxide doping are much smaller. We attribute most of the reduction of NMR signals under MAS near 25 K to nuclear spin depolarization through the cross-effect dynamic nuclear polarization mechanism, in which three-spin flips drive nuclear polarizations toward equilibrium with spin polarization differences between electron pairs. When T1e is sufficiently long relative to the MAS rotation period, the distribution of electron spin polarization across the nitroxide electron paramagnetic resonance lineshape can be very different from the corresponding distribution in a static sample at thermal equilibrium, leading to the observed effects. We describe three-spin and 3000-spin calculations that qualitatively reproduce the experimental observations. PMID:24832263

Thurber, Kent R; Tycko, Robert

2014-05-14

283

Electron-Nuclear Quantum Information Processing.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We devised a novel scheme for electron-nuclear quantum information processing that exploits the anisotropic hyperfine coupling. This scheme enables universal control over a 1-electron, N-nuclear spin system, addressing only a single electron spin transiti...

C. Ramanathan D. G. Cory

2008-01-01

284

ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE OF AN X-RAY IRRADIATED SINGLE CRYSTAL OF DIKETOPIPERAZINE

The electron spin resonance of an x irradiated single crystal of ; diketopiperazine was measured at 9 Gc\\/sec for various orientations of the crystal ; in the static magnetic field. From an analysis of the hyperfine structure ; observed, the components of the hyperfine interaction tensor for the radical ; produced by the irradiation were calculated. The principal values for

W. C. Lin; C. A. McDowell

1963-01-01

285

Spin polarization of the neutral exciton in a single quantum dot

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While efficient nuclear polarization has earlier been reported for the charged exciton in InAs/GaAs quantum dots at zero external magnetic field, we report here on a surprisingly high degree of circular polarization, up to ?60%, for the neutral exciton emission in individual InAs/GaAs dots. This high degree of polarization is explained in terms of the appearance of an effective nuclear magnetic field which stabilizes the electron spin. The nuclear polarization is manifested in experiments as a detectable Overhauser shift. In turn, the nuclei located inside the dot are exposed to an effective electron magnetic field, the Knight field. This nuclear polarization is understood as being due to the dynamical nuclear polarization by an electron localized in the QD. The high degree of polarization for the neutral exciton is also suggested to be due to separate in-time capture of electrons and holes into the QD.

Moskalenko, E. S.; Larsson, L. A.; Holtz, P. O.

2011-03-01

286

g tensor modulation resonance and single-spin manipulation in semiconductor quantum dots

We explore how electric fields can be used to drive single spin resonance in quantum dots without AC magnetic fields. We calculate the g tensor for a single electron in a semiconductor quantum dot as a function of electric field along the growth direction of the dot. The calculations are based on an eight-band envelope-function formalism[1]. The growth-direction g factor

Joseph Pingenot

2005-01-01

287

The Spin Dependence of Nuclear Muon Capture by Laser Polarized HELIUM3

Using the muon beam at TRIUMF, we have made the first measurement of the spin dependence of the reaction: mu^- + ^3He tonu +^3H. This spin dependence is quite sensitive to the induced pseudoscalar form factor, F_{P}, a piece of the weak charged nuclear current of ^3He about which, experimentally, relatively little is known. The ratio of F_{P} to F

Paul Lev Bogorad

1995-01-01

288

Invalidity of Geometrical Interpretation of F-Spin Structure of Nuclear Rotations by Otsuka's View

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Otsuka's view of nuclear rotations neutrons and protons are not rotating around a common axis, but rather around separate axis. In this letter, we pointed out that this invalidates the geometrical interpretation of F-spin structure of the neutron-proton interacting boson model, where the angle between the axis of symmetries of neutron ellipsoid and proton ellipsoid is used to determine whether a state is F-spin symmetric or mixed symmetric.

Long, Guilu

1995-06-01

289

Robust control of entanglement in a nitrogen-vacancy center coupled to a C13 nuclear spin in diamond

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address the problem of generating a robust entangling gate between electronic and nuclear spins in a system of a single nitrogen-vacancy center coupled to a nearest C13 atom in diamond against certain types of systematic errors such as pulse-length and off-resonance errors. We analyze the robustness of various control schemes: sequential pulses, composite pulses and numerically optimized pulses. We find that numerically optimized pulses, produced by the modified gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE) algorithm, are more robust than the composite pulses and the sequential pulses. The optimized pulses can also be implemented in a faster time than the composite pulses.

Said, R. S.; Twamley, J.

2009-09-01

290

Electronic spin transport and spin precession in single graphene layers at room temperature

Electronic transport in single or a few layers of graphene is the subject of intense interest at present. The specific band structure of graphene, with its unique valley structure and Dirac neutrality point separating hole states from electron states, has led to the observation of new electronic transport phenomena such as anomalously quantized Hall effects, absence of weak localization and

Nikolaos Tombros; Csaba Jozsa; Mihaita Popinciuc; Harry T. Jonkman; Bart J. van Wees

2007-01-01

291

Single-level resonance parameters fit nuclear cross-sections

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Least squares analyses of experimental differential cross-section data for the U-235 nucleus have yielded single level Breit-Wigner resonance parameters that fit, simultaneously, three nuclear cross sections of capture, fission, and total.

Drawbaugh, D. W.; Gibson, G.; Miller, M.; Page, S. L.

1970-01-01

292

All-electrical control of quantum gates for single heavy-hole spin qubits

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper several nanodevices which realize basic single heavy-hole qubit operations are proposed and supported by time-dependent self-consistent Poisson-Schrödinger calculations using a four band heavy-hole-light-hole model. In particular we propose a set of nanodevices which can act as Pauli X, Y, Z quantum gates and as a gate that acts similar to a Hadamard gate (i.e., it creates a balanced superposition of basis states but with an additional phase factor) on the heavy-hole spin qubit. We also present the design and simulation of a gated semiconductor nanodevice which can realize an arbitrary sequence of all these proposed single quantum logic gates. The proposed devices exploit the self-focusing effect of the hole wave function which allows for guiding the hole along a given path in the form of a stable solitonlike wave packet. Thanks to the presence of the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling, the motion of the hole along a certain direction is equivalent to the application of an effective magnetic field which induces in turn a coherent rotation of the heavy-hole spin. The hole motion and consequently the quantum logic operation is initialized only by weak static voltages applied to the electrodes which cover the nanodevice. The proposed gates allow for an all electric and ultrafast (tens of picoseconds) heavy-hole spin manipulation and give the possibility to implement a scalable architecture of heavy-hole spin qubits for quantum computation applications.

Szumniak, P.; Bednarek, S.; Paw?owski, J.; Partoens, B.

2013-05-01

293

Spin-waves in Antiferromagnetic Single-crystal LiFePO_{4}

Spin-wave dispersions in the antiferromagnetic state of single-crystal LiFePO{sub 4} were determined by inelastic neutron scattering measurements. The dispersion curves measured from the (0,1,0) reflection along both a* and b* reciprocal-space directions reflect the anisotropic coupling of the layered Fe{sup 2+} (S=2) spin system. The spin-wave dispersion curves were theoretically modeled using linear spin-wave theory by including in the spin Hamiltonian in-plane nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor interactions (J{sub 1} and J{sub 2}), inter-plane nearest-neighbor interactions (J{perpendicular}) and a single-ion anisotropy (D). A weak (0,1,0) magnetic peak was observed in elastic neutron scattering studies of the same crystal indicating that the ground state of the staggered iron moments is not along the (0,1,0) direction, as previously reported from polycrystalline samples studies, but slightly rotated away from this axis.

Li, Jiying [Ames Laboratory; Garlea, Vasile O [ORNL; Zarestky, Jarel [Ames Laboratory; Vaknin, D. [Ames Laboratory

2006-01-01

294

Locking electron spins into magnetic resonance by electron-nuclear feedback

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum information processing requires accurate coherent control of quantum-mechanical two-level systems, but is hampered in practice by their coupling to an uncontrolled environment. For electron spins in III-V quantum dots, the random environment is mostly given by the nuclear spins in the quantum-dot host material; they collectively act on the electron spin through the hyperfine interaction, much like a random magnetic field. Here we show that the same hyperfine interaction can be harnessed such that partial control of the normally uncontrolled environment becomes possible. In particular, we observe that the electron-spin-resonance frequency remains locked to the frequency of an applied microwave magnetic field, even when the external magnetic field or the excitation frequency are changed. The nuclear field thereby adjusts itself such that the electron-spin-resonance condition remains satisfied. General theoretical arguments indicate that this spin-resonance locking might be accompanied by a significant reduction of the randomness in the nuclear field.

Vink, Ivo T.; Nowack, Katja C.; Koppens, Frank H. L.; Danon, Jeroen; Nazarov, Yuli V.; Vandersypen, Lieven M. K.

2009-10-01

295

Nuclear-spin selection rules in the chemistry of interstellar nitrogen hydrides.

Nitrogen hydrides are at the root of the nitrogen chemistry in interstellar space. The detailed modeling of their gas phase formation, however, requires the knowledge of nuclear-spin branching ratios for chemical reactions involving multiprotonated species. We investigate in this work the nuclear-spin selection rules in both exothermic and near thermoneutral ion–molecule reactions involved in the synthesis of ammonia, assuming full scrambling of protons in the reaction complexes. The formalism of Oka [ J. Mol. Spectrosc. 2004, 228, 635] is employed for highly exothermic ion–molecule and dissociative recombination reactions. For thermoneutral reactions, a simple state-to-state statistical approach is suggested, which is in qualitative agreement with both quantum scattering and microcanonical statistical calculations. This model is applied to the seven atom reaction NH4(+) + H2, of possible importance in the nuclear-spin thermalization of ammonia. PMID:23461639

Rist, Claire; Faure, Alexandre; Hily-Blant, Pierre; Le Gal, Romane

2013-10-01

296

Nuclear-Spin Selection Rules in the Chemistry of Interstellar Nitrogen Hydrides

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen hydrides are at the root of the nitrogen chemistry in interstellar space. The detailed modeling of their gas phase formation, however, requires the knowledge of nuclear-spin branching ratios for chemical reactions involving multiprotonated species. We investigate in this work the nuclear-spin selection rules in both exothermic and near thermoneutral ion-molecule reactions involved in the synthesis of ammonia, assuming full scrambling of protons in the reaction complexes. The formalism of Oka [ J. Mol. Spectrosc. 2004, 228, 635 ] is employed for highly exothermic ion-molecule and dissociative recombination reactions. For thermoneutral reactions, a simple state-to-state statistical approach is suggested, which is in qualitative agreement with both quantum scattering and microcanonical statistical calculations. This model is applied to the seven atom reaction NH4+ + H2, of possible importance in the nuclear-spin thermalization of ammonia.

Rist, Claire; Faure, Alexandre; Hily-Blant, Pierre; Le Gal, Romane

2013-10-01

297

Quantum oscillations and polarization of nuclear spins in photoexcited triplet states.

The unique physical properties of photoexcited triplet states have been explored in numerous spectroscopic studies employing electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). So far, however, no quantum interference effects were found in these systems in the presence of a magnetic field. In this study, we report the successful EPR detection of nuclear quantum oscillations in an organic triplet state subject to an external magnetic field. The observed quantum coherences can be rationalized using an analytical theory. Analysis suggests that the nuclear spins are actively involved in the intersystem crossing process. The novel mechanism also acts as a source of oscillatory nuclear spin polarization that gives rise to large signal enhancement in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). This opens new perspectives for the analysis of chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization in mechanistic studies of photoactive proteins. PMID:20666450

Kothe, Gerd; Yago, Tomoaki; Weidner, Jörg-Ulrich; Link, Gerhard; Lukaschek, Michail; Lin, Tien-Sung

2010-11-18

298

The transverse electron spin magnetization of a paramagnetic center with effective spin S=? interacting with nonquadrupolar nuclei may be presented as a function of pairs of nuclei magnetization vectors which process around the effective magnetic field directions. Each vector of the pair starts its precession perpendicular to both effective fields. The FID signal is proportional to the scalar product of the vectors for nuclear spin I=?. The ESE signal can be described using two pairs of magnetization vectors. The ESE shape is not equal to two back-to-back FID signals except in the absence of ESE envelope modulation. A recursion relation is obtained which allows calculation of ESE signals for larger nuclear spins in the absence of NQI. This relation can be used to calculate the time course of the ESE signal for arbitrary nuclear spin as a function of the nuclear magnetization vectors. Although this formalism allows quantitative calculation of modulation from nuclei, it also provides a qualitative means of visualizing the modulation based on simple magnetization vectors.

Maryasov, Alexander G. (OFFICE OF FELLOWSHIP PROG); Bowman, Michael K. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Tsvetkov, Yuri D. (OFFICE OF FELLOWSHIP PROG)

2002-12-01

299

We present theoretical calculations of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) due to the cross effect in nuclear magnetic resonance under magic-angle spinning (MAS). Using a three-spin model (two electrons and one nucleus), cross effect DNP with MAS for electron spins with a large g-anisotropy can be seen as a series of spin transitions at avoided crossings of the energy levels, with varying degrees of adiabaticity. If the electron spin-lattice relaxation time T1e is large relative to the MAS rotation period, the cross effect can happen as two separate events: (i) partial saturation of one electron spin by the applied microwaves as one electron spin resonance (ESR) frequency crosses the microwave frequency and (ii) flip of all three spins, when the difference of the two ESR frequencies crosses the nuclear frequency, which transfers polarization to the nuclear spin if the two electron spins have different polarizations. In addition, adiabatic level crossings at which the two ESR frequencies become equal serve to maintain non-uniform saturation across the ESR line. We present analytical results based on the Landau-Zener theory of adiabatic transitions, as well as numerical quantum mechanical calculations for the evolution of the time-dependent three-spin system. These calculations provide insight into the dependence of cross effect DNP on various experimental parameters, including MAS frequency, microwave field strength, spin relaxation rates, hyperfine and electron-electron dipole coupling strengths, and the nature of the biradical dopants.

Thurber, Kent R.; Tycko, Robert

2012-01-01

300

We present theoretical calculations of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) due to the cross effect in nuclear magnetic resonance under magic-angle spinning (MAS). Using a three-spin model (two electrons and one nucleus), cross effect DNP with MAS for electron spins with a large g-anisotropy can be seen as a series of spin transitions at avoided crossings of the energy levels, with varying degrees of adiabaticity. If the electron spin-lattice relaxation time T(1e) is large relative to the MAS rotation period, the cross effect can happen as two separate events: (i) partial saturation of one electron spin by the applied microwaves as one electron spin resonance (ESR) frequency crosses the microwave frequency and (ii) flip of all three spins, when the difference of the two ESR frequencies crosses the nuclear frequency, which transfers polarization to the nuclear spin if the two electron spins have different polarizations. In addition, adiabatic level crossings at which the two ESR frequencies become equal serve to maintain non-uniform saturation across the ESR line. We present analytical results based on the Landau-Zener theory of adiabatic transitions, as well as numerical quantum mechanical calculations for the evolution of the time-dependent three-spin system. These calculations provide insight into the dependence of cross effect DNP on various experimental parameters, including MAS frequency, microwave field strength, spin relaxation rates, hyperfine and electron-electron dipole coupling strengths, and the nature of the biradical dopants. PMID:22938251

Thurber, Kent R; Tycko, Robert

2012-08-28

301

High-spin states in the single-closed-shell nucleus 142Nd

The excited states of 14260Nd82 have been studied using the 140Ce(alpha, 2ngamma)142Nd and 142Ce(alpha, 4gamma)142Nd reactions. Singles gamma-ray, gamma-gamma coincidence spectra and angular distributions of gamma-rays with respect to the beam direction have been measured. Excited states up to 6.7 MeV with spin values up to 14 are populated. The energy spacings between the lower excited states with spin values

L.-E. de Geer; A. Kerek; Z. Haratym; J. Kownacki; J. Ludziejewski

1975-01-01

302

Final-state interaction as origin of single-spin asymmetry in semi-inclusive DIS

Recent measurements from the HERMES, SMC, CLAS and COMPASS collaborations show a remarkably large azimuthal single-spin asymmetries of the proton in semi-inclusive pion leptoproduction {gamma}*(q)p{up_arrow} {yields} {pi}X. The existence of such single-spin asymmetries requires a phase difference between two amplitudes coupling the proton target with J{sub p}{sup z} = {+-}(1/2) to the same final-state, the same amplitudes which are necessary to produce a nonzero proton anomalous magnetic moment. We show that the exchange of gauge particles between the outgoing quark and the proton spectators produces a Coulomb-like complex phase which depends on the angular momentum Lz of the proton's constituents and is thus distinct for different proton spin amplitudes. We then find that final-state interactions from gluon exchange between the outgoing quark and the target spectator system lead to single-spin asymmetries at leading twist in perturbative QCD; i.e., the rescattering corrections are not power-law suppressed at large photon virtuality Q2 at fixed xbj.

Hwang, D.S. [Department of Physics, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

2005-05-06

303

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The binding energy of nuclear matter with an excess of neutrons, of spin-up neutrons, and of spin-up protons (characterized by the corresponding parameters, alpha sub(tau)=(N-Z/A), alpha sub(n)=(Nup-Ndown)/A, and alpha sub(rho)=(Zup-Zdown)/A), contains th...

M. Y. M. Hassan S. Ramadan

1983-01-01

304

UNIQUE DESCRIPTION FOR SINGLE TRANSVERSE SPIN ASYMMETRIES IN DIS AND HADRONIC COLLISIONS.

We derive a unique formula for the single-transverse-spin asymmetry in semi-inclusive hadron production in deep inelastic scattering, valid for all transverse momentum region. Based on this, we further study the integrated asymmetry weighted with transverse-momentum. They can be evaluated in terms of the twist-three quark-gluon correlation functions, which are responsible for the single spin asymmetry in single inclusive hadron production in hadronic collisions. By using the fitted twist-three functions from the hadronic collision data, we find a consistent description for SSAs in deep inelastic scattering. This demonstrates that we have a unique picture for SSAs in these two processes, and shall provide important guidelines for future studies.

YUAN, F.

2006-12-18

305

Electron spin resonance signal of Luttinger liquids and single-wall carbon nanotubes.

A comprehensive theory of electron spin resonance (ESR) for a Luttinger liquid state of correlated metals is presented. The ESR measurables such as the signal intensity and the linewidth are calculated in the framework of Luttinger liquid theory with broken spin rotational symmetry as a function of magnetic field and temperature. We obtain a significant temperature dependent homogeneous line broadening which is related to the spin-symmetry breaking and the electron-electron interaction. The result crosses over smoothly to the ESR of itinerant electrons in the noninteracting limit. These findings explain the absence of the long-sought ESR signal of itinerant electrons in single-wall carbon nanotubes when considering realistic experimental conditions. PMID:18851238

Dóra, B; Gulácsi, M; Koltai, J; Zólyomi, V; Kürti, J; Simon, F

2008-09-01

306

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions encode information on the transverse motion of quarks and gluons inside the nucleon, and may help us understand their orbital angular momentum. The TMDs can be accessed from the target and double spin asymmetries of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) reactions, where the asymmetries, AUL and ALL are convolutions of the fragmentation functions and the TMDs. The EG1-DVCS experiment with CLAS at Jefferson Lab measured semi-inclusive pion production on longitudinally polarized proton and deuteron targets with polarized electrons of 6 GeV. We will show preliminary results on target single spin asymmetries and target-beam double spin asymmetries for these reactions.

Koirala, Suman; Kuhn, Sebastian

2013-04-01

307

Random spin freezing in single crystalline Ce2CuSi3

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of ac and dc susceptibility, magnetization and magnetic relaxation measurements performed on single crystalline Ce2CuSi3, a hexagonal AlB2-type nonmagnetic atom disorder compound, with the magnetic field applied along two typical crystallographic directions, i.e. H?c-axis and H//c-axis. For both the directions, spin-glass state is confirmed to form at low temperature with almost the same spin freezing temperature Tf (~2.07K), initial frequency shift ?Tf (~0.015) and activation energy Ea/kB (~10.04 K) in zero dc field. Strong magnetic anisotropy is also found to be a significant feature of this compound. The experimental results and the dynamical analyses suggest that spin-glass behavior is intrinsic to the title compound.

Li, D. X.; Nimori, S.; Ohta, S.; Yamamura, Y.; Shikama, Y.

2012-12-01

308

Evidence for a single-spin azimuthal asymmetry in semi-inclusive pion electroproduction

Single-spin asymmetries for semi-inclusive pion production in deep-inelastic scattering have been measured for the first time. A significant target-spin asymmetry of the distribution in the azimuthal angle straight phi of the pion relative to the lepton scattering plane was formed for pi(+) electroproduction on a longitudinally polarized hydrogen target. The corresponding analyzing power in the sinstraight phi moment of the cross section is 0.022+/-0.005+/-0.003. This result can be interpreted as the effect of terms in the cross section involving chiral-odd spin distribution functions in combination with a chiral-odd fragmentation function that is sensitive to the transverse polarization of the fragmenting quark. PMID:10990607

2000-05-01

309

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxation Studies of 51V in BiVO4 Single Crystal

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature dependences of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time of 51V in BiVO4 single crystals, undoped and doped with 1 mol% of Eu2O3, respectively, were measured in the temperature range of 140-400 K. The spin-lattice relaxation times, T1s, of both samples were divided into the long and short components. For the doped crystal, the long component of the relaxation time is much shorter than those of the undoped crystal since the paramagnetic relaxation through Eu3+ ions was dominant. From data of the undoped BiVO4, it is found that the slow motion leads to the phase transition starting at 260 K, and its thermal activation energy is 0.033 eV. That is, we observed the thermally activated motion in ferroelastic which precedes the paraelastic phase transition.

Kim, I. G.; Yeom, T. H.; Jeong, D. Y.; Lim, A. R.; Choh, S. H.; Hong, K. S.

2002-10-01

310

We report the first measurement of the transverse momentum dependence of double spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive production of pions in deep inelastic scattering off the longitudinally polarized proton. Data have been obtained using a polarized electron beam of 5.7 GeV with the CLAS detector at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). A significant non-zero $\\sin2\\phi$ single spin asymmetry was also observed for the first time indicating strong spin-orbit correlations for transversely polarized quarks in the longitudinally polarized proton. The azimuthal modulations of single spin asymmetries have been measured over a wide kinematic range.

Avakian, H; Bosted, P; Elouadrhiri, L; Adhikari, K P; Aghasyan, M; Amaryan, M; Anghinolfi, M; Baghdasaryan, H; Ball, J; Battaglieri, M; Bedlinskiy, I; Biselli, A S; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W; Carman, D S; Casey, L; Cole, P L; Collins, P; Crabb, D; Crede, V; D& #x27; Angelo, A; Daniel, A; Dashyan, N; DeVita, R; DeSanctis, E; Deur, A; Dey, B; Dhamija, S; Dickson, R; Djalali, C; Dodge, G; Doughty, D; Dupre, R; El Alaoui, A; Eugenio, P; Fegan, S; Fersch, M; Guler, N; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Hassall, N; Heddle, D; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Isupov, E L; Jawalkar, S S; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Khetarpal,; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Konczykowski, P; Kubarovsky, V; Kuhn, S E; Kuleshov, S V; Kuznetsov, V; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; Markov, N; Mayer, M; McAndrew, J; McCracken, M E; McKInnon, B; Meyer, C A; Mineeva, T; Mirazita, M; Mokeev, V; Moreno, B; Moriya, K; Morrison, B; Moutarde, H; Munevar, E; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nasseripour, R; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niroula, M R; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Paremuzyan, R; Park, K; Park, S; Pasyuk, E; Anefalos Pereira, S; Perrin, Y; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Prok, Protopopescu; Raue, B A; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Sabatie, F; Saini, M S; Salamanca, J; Salgado, C; Schumacher, R A; Seder, E; Seraydaryan, H; Sharabian, Y G; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Stapanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strauch, S; Suleiman, R; Taiuti, M; Tedeschi, D J; Tkachenko, S; Ungaro, M; Vernarsky, B; Vineyard, M F; Voutier, E; Watts, D P; Weinstein, L B; Weygand, D P; Wood, M H; Zhang, J; Zhao, B

2010-12-01

311

Determination of Spin Polarization of Half-Metallic Single Crystal CrO2

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly spin-polarized materials play a crucial role in magnetoelectronic devices. The tunneling magnetoresistance of a magnetic tunnel junction scales with the spin polarization (P) of the ferromagnetic electrodes. Of particular interest are the half-metallic ferromagnets with P = 100%, which can be verified by the determination of their P values. Recently, it has been shown that a superconductor/metal point contact can be used to measure the spin-polarization P of the conduction electrons in the metal.^1,2 The point contact Andreev reflection (PCAR) technique is based on the fact that Andreev reflection probabilities are suppressed by the imbalance of the density of states for two spin directions in the ferromagnet. Accurate quantitative determination of spin polarization value, however, requires analyses of the entire conductance curves and taking into account interfacial scattering barrier.^3 Using this technique with quantitative analyses, we have measured the spin polarization of a number of common ferromagnets (Fe, Co, and Ni), La_0.7Sr_0.3MnO3 and CrO_2. Most importantly, we have found P in excess of 96% in single-crystal CrO2 films.^4 To date, CrO2 is the first and only half-metallic ferromagnet confirmed from spin current measurements. [1]. Upadhyay et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3247 (1998). [2]. Soulen et al., Science 282, 85 (1998). [3]. Strijkers, Ji, Yang, Chien, and Byers, Phys. Rev. B 63, 104510 (2001). [4]. Ji, Strijkers, Yang, Chien, Byers, Anguelouch, Xiao, and Gupta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5585 (2001).

Ji, Yi

2002-03-01

312

Improving Estimates of Nuclear-Spin Relaxation Time (T1) in Surface-NMR Experiments

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a relatively novel and powerful geophysical technique for investigating hydrological characteristics of shallow aquifers from the Earth's surface in a non-invasive way. Large current loops of approximately 100 m diameter laid on the ground transmit electromagnetic pulses into the subsurface. These pulses excite spins of protons in groundwater molecules out of their equilibrium state in the Earth's magnetic field. The spin response is recorded on either coincident or offset surface receiver loops of similar dimension. The amplitudes of the response signals recorded after single-pulse excitation provide estimates of water-content in the shallow subsurface. Another important parameter is the NMR relaxation time T1, from which information on pore structure or even hydraulic conductivity can be inferred under favorable circumstances. T1 data are conventionally acquired using a scheme that involves two sequential pulses of electromagnetic energy, the second of which is phase-shifted by ? relative to the first. We show that common imperfections in the transmitted pulses and variations of the excitation field with distance from the transmitter introduce significant bias in conventional estimates of T1. Here, we propose a novel yet simple modification to the conventional scheme that is theoretically capable of resolving this problem. The proposed scheme comprises a conventional double-pulse sequence followed by an additional double-pulse sequence for which the 2nd pulse is in-phase with the 1st pulse. Subtracting the voltage signals measured during the two double-pulse sequences (i.e., phase cycle) eliminates the bias. This strategy of continuously cycling the phase of the 2nd pulse between ? and 0 in sequential double-pulse experiments and then subtracting the resulting voltages is a promising step towards recording more reliable T1 data under general field conditions.

Walbrecker, Jan O.; Hertrich, Marian; Green, Alan G.

2011-03-01

313

Microwave field distribution in a magic angle spinning dynamic nuclear polarization NMR probe

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a calculation of the microwave field distribution in a magic angle spinning (MAS) probe utilized in dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments. The microwave magnetic field (B 1 S) profile was obtained from simulations performed with the High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS) software suite, using a model that includes the launching antenna, the outer Kel-F stator housing coated with Ag, the RF coil, and the 4 mm diameter sapphire rotor containing the sample. The predicted average B 1 S field is 13 ?T/W 1/2, where S denotes the electron spin. For a routinely achievable input power of 5 W the corresponding value is ?SB 1 S = 0.84 MHz. The calculations provide insights into the coupling of the microwave power to the sample, including reflections from the RF coil and diffraction of the power transmitted through the coil. The variation of enhancement with rotor wall thickness was also successfully simulated. A second, simplified calculation was performed using a single pass model based on Gaussian beam propagation and Fresnel diffraction. This model provided additional physical insight and was in good agreement with the full HFSS simulation. These calculations indicate approaches to increasing the coupling of the microwave power to the sample, including the use of a converging lens and fine adjustment of the spacing of the windings of the RF coil. The present results should prove useful in optimizing the coupling of microwave power to the sample in future DNP experiments. Finally, the results of the simulation were used to predict the cross effect DNP enhancement ( ?) vs. ?1 S/(2 ?) for a sample of 13C-urea dissolved in a 60:40 glycerol/water mixture containing the polarizing agent TOTAPOL; very good agreement was obtained between theory and experiment.

Nanni, Emilio A.; Barnes, Alexander B.; Matsuki, Yoh; Woskov, Paul P.; Corzilius, Björn; Griffin, Robert G.; Temkin, Richard J.

2011-05-01

314

Mechanical read out of a single electron spin in a carbon nanotube

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spin of a single electron in a suspended carbon nanotube can be read out by using its coupling to the nano-mechanical motion of the nanotube. To show this, we consider a single electron confined within a quantum dot formed by the suspended carbon nanotube. The spin-orbit interaction induces a coupling between the spin and one of the bending modes of the suspended part of the nanotube [1]. We simulate the response of the system to the external driving with a Jaynes-Cummings model by solving the quantum master equation. Using parameters comparable to those used in recent experiments, we show how information of the spin state of the system can be acquired by measuring its mechanical motion [2]. The mechanical motion can be detected by observing the current through a nearby charge detector. [4pt] [1] A. Palyi, P.R. Struck, M. Rudner, K. Flensberg, G. Burkard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 206811 (2012).[0pt] [2] H. Wang, P. R. Struck, G. Burkard, manuscript in preparation.

Burkard, Guido; Wang, Heng; Struck, Philipp

2013-03-01

315

Splitting of the one-body potential in spin-polarized isospin-symmetric nuclear matter

Spin-polarized symmetric nuclear matter is studied within the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach. We pay particular attention to the difference between the one-body potentials of upward and downward polarized nucleons. This is formally analogous to the Lane potential for isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter. We point out the necessity for additional information on this fundamentally important quantity and suggest ways to constrain it.

Sammarruca, Francesca [Department of Physics, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844-0903 (United States)

2010-08-15

316

Electrically-induced shifts of the gallium arsenide nuclear spin levels

The application of a dc homogeneous electric field on a GaAs crystal will induce a quadrupolar splitting of the nuclear spin levels. This splitting was observed for Ga-71, Ga-69, and As-75 using a pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. A constant R sub 14 that relates the coupling between the induced field gradient and the applied electric field was measured. The

K. A. Dumas

1978-01-01

317

Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation times of metallic antimony at low temperatures

We have used pulsed Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) techniques to measure the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation times in antimony at low temperatures. High quality echoes with strong signal\\/noise ratios were only observed for finely powdered samples of high purity (99.9999%). The samples were carefully annealed and diluted with fine silica to below the percolation limit to minimize RF heating. The powder

E. B. Genio; J. Xu; T. Lang; G. G. Ihas; N. S. Sullivan

1995-01-01

318

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NMR measurements using polarized noble gases can constrain possible exotic spin-dependent interactions involving nucleons. A differential measurement insensitive to magnetic field fluctuations can be performed using a mixture of two polarized species with different ratios of nucleon spin to magnetic moment. We used the NMR cell test station at Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC) (developed to evaluate dual species xenon vapor cells for the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope) to search for NMR frequency shifts of xenon-129 and xenon-131 when a non-magnetic zirconia rod is modulated near the NMR cell. We simultaneously excited both Xe isotopes and detected free-induction-decay transients. In combination with theoretical calculations of the neutron spin contribution to the nuclear angular momentum, the measurements put a new upper bound on possible monopole-dipole interactions of the neutron for ranges around 1mm. This work is supported by the NGC Internal Research and Development (IRAD) funding, the Department of Energy, and the NSF.

Bulatowicz, Michael; Larsen, Michael; Mirijanian, James; Fu, Changbo; Yan, Haiyang; Smith, Erick; Snow, Mike; Walker, Thad

2012-06-01

319

Anisotropic indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling in InP: 31P CP NMR study under slow MAS condition

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The indirect nuclear spin-spin interaction tensor between neighboring 113,115In- 31P spins in Fe-doped InP semiconductor has been studied by 31P NMR spectra measured using CP of 113In ? 31P and 115In ? 31P under slow MAS condition. The isotropic ( Jiso) and anisotropic ( Janiso = 2/3[ J? - J?]) parts of the indirect interaction tensor are obtained from the spectral simulation. The acceptable combinations of these values are found to be as follows: ( Jiso, Janiso) = (224 ± 5, 500 ± 100 Hz) or (-224 ± 5, 2100 ± 100 Hz). Although, the coupling constants estimated in this study are slightly different from previously reported values of ? Jiso? = 350 Hz, Janiso = 1298 Hz [M. Engelsberg, R.E. Norberg, Phys. Rev. B 5 (1972) 3395] and of ? Jiso? = 225 ± 10, Janiso = (813 ± 50) or (1733 ± 50) Hz [M. Tomaselli et al., Phys. Rev. B 58 (1998) 8627], all of these has the trend that Janiso is rather larger than Jiso.

Iijima, Takahiro; Hashi, Kenjiro; Goto, Atsushi; Shimizu, Tadashi; Ohki, Shinobu

2006-02-01

320

Nuclear Spin Relaxation and Molecular Interactions of a Novel Triazolium-Based Ionic Liquid

Nuclear spin relaxation, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) techniques are used to determine supramolecular arrangement of 3-methyl-1-octyl-4-phenyl-1H-triazol-1,2,3-ium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [OMPhTz][Tf{sub 2}N], an example of a triazolium-based ionic liquid. The results obtained showed first-order thermodynamic dependence for nuclear spin relaxation of the anion. First-order relaxation dependence is interpreted as through-bond dipolar relaxation. Greater than first-order dependence was found in the aliphatic protons, aromatic carbons (including nearest neighbors), and carbons at the end of the aliphatic tail. Greater than first order thermodynamic dependence of spin relaxation rates is interpreted as relaxation resulting from at least one mechanism additional to through-bond dipolar relaxation. In rigid portions of the cation, an additional spin relaxation mechanism is attributed to anisotropic effects, while greater than first order thermodynamic dependence of the octyl side chain’s spin relaxation rates is attributed to cation–cation interactions. Little interaction between the anion and the cation was observed by spin relaxation studies or by ESI-MS. No extended supramolecular structure was observed in this study, which was further supported by MS and SAXS. nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) factors are used in conjunction with spin–lattice relaxation time (T{sub 1}) measurements to calculate rotational correlation times for C–H bonds (the time it takes for the vector represented by the bond between the two atoms to rotate by one radian). The rotational correlation times are used to represent segmental reorientation dynamics of the cation. A combination of techniques is used to determine the segmental interactions and dynamics of this example of a triazolium-based ionic liquid.

Allen, Jesse J.; Schneider, Yanika; Kail, Brian W.; Luebke, David R.; Nulwala, Hunaid; Damodaran, Krishnan

2013-04-11

321

Electric readout and storage concepts for electron and nuclear spin states in silicon

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of concepts utilizing spins in semiconductors for information storage and processing have been proposed in recent years. One of these concepts [1] uses the phosphorous nucleus in crystalline silicon as a quantum bit, an approach which combines longest known spin coherence times and, therefore, spin storage times, with already existing, well developed and highly reliable, crystalline silicon nano-technology. Our research is focused on implementations of electric readout devices for electron- and nuclear-spins in silicon. I will review different experiments which show how donor electrons [2-4] and nuclear [5] spins of phosphorous atoms in crystalline silicon can be used as a electrically readable spin memories with long storage times for classical and quantum information and how nuclear spin qubits can be initialized [6].[4pt] [1] B. E. Kane, Nature 393, 133 (1998).[0pt] [2] A. R. Stegner, C. Boehme, H. Huebl, M. Stutzmann, K. Lips, M. S. Brandt, Nature Physics 2, 835 (2006). [0pt] [3] S.-Y. Paik, S.-Y. Lee, W. J. Baker, D. R. McCamey, and C. Boehme, Phys. Rev. B 81, 075214 (2010).[0pt] [4] G. W. Morley, D. R. McCamey, H. A. Seipel, L.-C. Brunel, J. van Tol, C. Boehme, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 207602 (2008).[0pt] [5] D. R. McCamey, J. van Tol, G. W. Morley, C. Boehme, Science 330, 1652 (2010).[0pt] [6] D. R. McCamey, J. van Tol, G. W. Morley, C. Boehme, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 027601 (2009).

Boehme, Christoph

2011-10-01

322

Relevance of electron spin dissipative processes to dynamic nuclear polarization via thermal mixing.

The available theoretical approaches aiming at describing Dynamic Nuclear spin Polarization (DNP) in solutions containing molecules of biomedical interest and paramagnetic centers are not able to model the behaviour observed upon varying the concentration of trityl radicals or the polarization enhancement caused by moderate addition of gadolinium complexes. In this manuscript, we first show experimentally that the nuclear steady state polarization reached in solutions of pyruvic acid with 15 mM trityl radicals is substantially independent on the average internuclear distance. This evidences a leading role of electron (over nuclear) spin relaxation processes in determining the ultimate performances of DNP. Accordingly, we have devised a variant of the Thermal Mixing model for inhomogenously broadened electron resonance lines which includes a relaxation term describing the exchange of magnetic anisotropy energy of the electron spin system with the lattice. Thanks to this additional term, the dependence of the nuclear polarization on the electron concentration can be properly accounted for. Moreover, the model predicts a strong increase of the final polarization upon shortening the electron spin-lattice relaxation time, providing a possible explanation for the effect of gadolinium doping. PMID:24270353

Serra, Sonia Colombo; Filibian, Marta; Carretta, Pietro; Rosso, Alberto; Tedoldi, Fabio

2014-01-14

323

Nuclear Spin Measurements in Some Nuclides of the Alkali Elements Rubidium and Francium.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nuclear spins of several nuclides of the alkali elements rubidium and francium have been measured using atomic-beam magnetic resonance techniques. The following results have been obtained: exp 77 Rb I = 3/2, exp 78 Rb I = 0 sup(78m)Rb I = 4, exp 79 Rb...

C. Ekstroem S. Ingleman G. Wannberg M. Skarestad

1977-01-01

324

Nuclear spin measurements of neutron-deficient isotopes of the refractory elements

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear ground and isomeric state spins of several isotopes of the refractory elements (Y, Nb, Mo, Tc, Rh, Ta, Re, Os, Ir, Pt) measured by the atomic beam magnetic resonance method, are reported. The atomic ground-state g-factor for the Os atom has also been measured.

Rubinsztein, H.; Gustafsson, M.

1975-09-01

325

Soft-fermion-pole contribution to single-spin asymmetry for pion production in pp collisions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the single transverse spin asymmetry for the inclusive pion production in the nucleon-nucleon collision, pp??X, based on the twist-3 mechanism in the collinear factorization. We derive the soft-fermion-pole (SFP) contribution to the twist-3 single-spin-dependent cross section associated with the twist-3 quark-gluon correlation functions in the polarized nucleon. We find that the SFP can give rise to a large effect to the asymmetry A owing to the large partonic hard cross sections with the large color factor, if the SFP function has a similar magnitude as the soft-gluon-pole (SGP) function, in spite of the absence of the “derivative term” for the SFP function unlike for the SGP function.

Koike, Yuji; Tomita, Tetsuya

2009-05-01

326

On the Relation Between Mechanisms for Single-Transverse-SpinAsymmetries

Recent studies have shown that two widely-used mechanismsfor single-transverse-spin asymmetries based on either twist-threecontributions or on transverse-momentum-dependent (Sivers) partondistributions become identical in a kinematical regime of overlap. Thiswas demonstrated for the so-called soft-gluon-pole and hard-polecontributions to the asymmetry associated with a particular quark-gluoncorrelation function in the nucleon. In this paper, using semi-inclusivedeep inelastic scattering as an example, we extend the study to thecontributions by soft-fermion poles and by another independenttwist-three correlation function. We find that these additional termsorganize themselves in such a way as to maintain the mutual consistencyof the two mechanisms for single-spin asymmetries.

Koike, Yuji; Vogelsang, Werner; Yuan, Feng

2007-11-05

327

Single spin asymmetries in high energy reactions and nonperturbative QCD effects

We discuss some experimental and theoretical results on single spin asymmetries (SSA) in high energy lepton-hadron and hadron-hadron\\u000a reactions. In particular, recent results on meson SSA obtained by HERMES are considered in detail. We also discuss the SSA\\u000a results obtained recently by COMPASS, as well as those from BRAHMS, PHENIX and STAR. Special attention is paid to a possible\\u000a nonperturbative

A. E. Dorokhova; N. I. Kochelev; W.-D. Nowak

2009-01-01

328

Spin-Lattice Relaxation-Time Measurements of Trivalent Iron in Single-Crystal Calcite

The spin-lattice relaxation time for the M=-12-->12 transition of trivalent iron in single-crystal calcite has been measured at X band by pulse recovery from 1.4 to 45 K and by spectral line broadening from 40 to 195 K. The resulting transition-probability data are well described by the sum of a direct-process term and a Raman-process term, the latter having a

S. A. Marshall; S. V. Nistor; R. A. Serway

1972-01-01

329

Preparing optical thick films for planar waveguides with single spin-coating processes

With the help of methylcellulose, an organic binder, SiO2\\/TiO2\\/methylcellulose hybrid thick films were prepared by a sol–gel technique with single spin-coating processes. After annealing at 70 °C for an hour, 2.5-?m crack-free and dense organic–inorganic hybrid optical films with a refractive index of 1.537 were achieved. Optical losses of waveguides made up of these films and ordinary slide glass substrates are

X. Y. Zhang; J. Yang; C. M. Wu; Z. M. Wang; M. L. Chen; J. Y. Zhang

2005-01-01

330

Preparing optical thick films for planar waveguides with single spin-coating processes

With the help of methylcellulose, an organic binder, SiO2\\/TiO2\\/methylcellulose hybrid thick films were prepared by a sol gel technique with single spin-coating processes. After annealing at 70 °C for an hour, 2.5-mum crack-free and dense organic inorganic hybrid optical films with a refractive index of 1.537 were achieved. Optical losses of waveguides made up of these films and ordinary slide

X. Y. Zhang; J. Yang; C. M. Wu; Z. M. Wang; M. L. Chen; J. Y. Zhang

2005-01-01

331

Time resolved control of electron tunnelling times and single-shot spin readout in a quantum dot

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are pursuing a capability to perform time resolved manipulations of single spins in quantum dot circuits involving more than two quantum dots. In this paper, we demonstrate full counting statistics as well as averaging techniques used to calibrate the tunnel barriers. We make use of this to implement the Delft protocol [1] for single shot single spin readout in a device designed to form a triple quantum dot potential. We are able to tune the tunnelling times over around three orders of magnitude. We obtain a spin relaxation time of 300 ?s at 10 T.

Gaudreau, L.; Kam, A.; Kycia, J. B.; Studenikin, S. A.; Granger, G.; Mason, J. D.; Zawadzki, P.; Sachrajda, A. S.

2010-02-01

332

We study the single transverse spin asymmetries in the single inclusive particle production within the framework of the generalized parton model (GPM). By carefully analyzing the initial- and final-state interactions, we include the process-dependence of the Sivers functions into the GPM formalism. The modified GPM formalism has a close connection with the collinear twist-3 approach. Within the new formalism, we make predictions for inclusive {pi}{sup 0} and direct photon productions at RHIC energies. We find the predictions are opposite to those in the conventional GPM approach.

Leonard Gamberg, Zhong-Bo Kang

2011-01-01

333

Implementation of Dynamically Corrected Gates on a Single Electron Spin in Diamond

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precise control of an open quantum system is critical to quantum information processing but is challenging due to inevitable interactions between the quantum system and the environment. We demonstrated experimentally a type of dynamically corrected gates using only bounded-strength pulses on the nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. The infidelity of quantum gates caused by a nuclear-spin bath is reduced from being the second order to the sixth order of the noise-to-control-field ratio, which offers greater efficiency in reducing infidelity. The quantum gates have been protected to the limit essentially set by the spin-lattice relaxation time T1. Our work marks an important step towards fault-tolerant quantum computation in realistic systems.

Rong, Xing; Geng, Jianpei; Wang, Zixiang; Zhang, Qi; Ju, Chenyong; Shi, Fazhan; Duan, Chang-Kui; Du, Jiangfeng

2014-02-01

334

Implementation of dynamically corrected gates on a single electron spin in diamond.

Precise control of an open quantum system is critical to quantum information processing but is challenging due to inevitable interactions between the quantum system and the environment. We demonstrated experimentally a type of dynamically corrected gates using only bounded-strength pulses on the nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. The infidelity of quantum gates caused by a nuclear-spin bath is reduced from being the second order to the sixth order of the noise-to-control-field ratio, which offers greater efficiency in reducing infidelity. The quantum gates have been protected to the limit essentially set by the spin-lattice relaxation time T1. Our work marks an important step towards fault-tolerant quantum computation in realistic systems. PMID:24580578

Rong, Xing; Geng, Jianpei; Wang, Zixiang; Zhang, Qi; Ju, Chenyong; Shi, Fazhan; Duan, Chang-Kui; Du, Jiangfeng

2014-02-01

335

Quantum dynamical simulations for nuclear spin selective laser control of ortho- and para-fulvene

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper we explore the prospects for laser control of the photoinduced nonadiabatic dynamics of para- and ortho-fulvene with the help of quantum dynamical simulations. Previous investigations [Bearpark et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 5253 (1996); Alfalah et al., J. Chem. Phys. 130, 124318 (2009)] show that photoisomerization of fulvene is hindered by ultrafast radiationless decay through a conical intersection at planar configuration. Here, we demonstrate that photoisomerization can nevertheless be initiated by damping unfavorable nuclear vibrations with properly designed laser pulses. Moreover, we show that the resulting intramolecular torsion is nuclear spin selective. The selectivity of the photoexcitation with respect to the nuclear spin isomers can be further enhanced by applying an optimized sequence of two laser pulses.

Belz, S.; Grohmann, T.; Leibscher, M.

2009-07-01

336

Electron and nuclear spin dynamics in plastically deformed silicon crystals enriched in isotope 29Si

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paramagnetic defects of a new type with a concentration of about 1015 cm-3 are shown to be generated during the plastic deformation of isotope-rich (72%, 76% 29Si) silicon crystals at a temperature of 950°C. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of these defects are anisotropic and have a significant width (up to 1 kOe). The nonuniform broadening of the EPR lines is caused by the variation of the internal magnetic field in correlated defect clusters. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of the deformed crystals consist of Pake doublets split by nuclear spin-spin interaction. The broadening of the NMR spectra is caused by nuclear dipole-dipole relaxation.

Koplak, O. V.; Dmitriev, A. I.; Vasil'ev, S. G.; Shteinman, E. A.; Morgunov, R. B.

2014-04-01

337

Rabi and Larmor nuclear quadrupole double resonance of spin-1 nuclei.

We demonstrate the creation of two novel double-resonance conditions between spin-1 and spin-1/2 nuclei in a crystalline solid. Using a magnetic field oscillating at the spin-1/2 Larmor frequency, the nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) frequency is matched to the Rabi or Rabi plus Larmor frequency, as opposed to the Larmor frequency as is conventionally done. We derive expressions for the cross-polarization rate for all three conditions in terms of the relevant secular dipolar Hamiltonian, and demonstrate with these expressions how to measure the strength of the heterogenous dipolar coupling using only low magnetic fields. In addition, the combination of different resonance conditions permits the measurement of the spin-1/2 angular momentum vector using spin-1 NQR, opening up an alternate modality for the monitoring of low-field nuclear magnetic resonance. We use ammonium nitrate to explore these resonance conditions, and furthermore use the oscillating field to increase the signal-to-noise ratio per time by a factor of 3.5 for NQR detection of this substance. PMID:23231223

Prescott, D W; Malone, M W; Douglass, S P; Sauer, K L

2012-12-01

338

Advances and applications of dynamic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance

This dissertation describes nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and theory which have been developed to study quadrupolar nuclei (those nuclei with spin greater than one-half) in the solid state. Primarily, the technique of dynamic-angle spinning (DAS) is extensively reviewed and expanded upon in this thesis. Specifically, the improvement in both the resolution (two-dimensional pure-absorptive phase methods and DAS angle choice) and sensitivity (pulse-sequence development), along with effective spinning speed enhancement (again through choice of DAS conditions or alternative multiple pulse schemes) of dynamic-angle spinning experiment was realized with both theory and experimental examples. The application of DAS to new types of nuclei (specifically the {sup 87}Rb and {sup 85}Rb nuclear spins) and materials (specifically amorphous solids) has also greatly expanded the possibilities of the use of DAS to study a larger range of materials. This dissertation is meant to demonstrate both recent advances and applications of the DAS technique, and by no means represents a comprehensive study of any particular chemical problem.

Baltisberger, J.H.

1993-06-01

339

Experimental demonstration of stimulated polarization wave in a chain of nuclear spins

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A one-dimensional Ising chain irradiated by weak resonant transverse field is the simplest model of quantum amplifier [Phys. Rev. A 71, 062338 (2005)]. The quantum state of the chain is stationary when all the qubits (spins) are in the same state. However, when the first qubit is flipped, it triggers a stimulated wave of flipped qubits, propagating through the chain. Such ``quantum domino" dynamics induces huge change in the total polarization, a macroscopic observable. Here we present the experimental demonstration of this quantum amplification process on a four-qubit system by using nuclear magnetic resonance technique. The physical system is a linear chain of four ^13C nuclear spins in a molecule of fully ^ 13C-labeled sodium butyrate dissolved in D2O. The pseudopure ground state (with all spins up) is prepared by multi-frequency partial saturation. The wave of flipped spins has been clearly observed when the first spin of the chain is flipped. We define a coefficient of amplification as the relative enhancement of the total polarization change. In our experimental system, the measured coefficient of amplification is about 3.

Lee, Jae-Seung; Adams, Travis; Khitrin, Anatoly

2007-03-01

340

We present a simple analytical model based on the Stoner-Wohlfarth model for the detection of a single magnetic microbead or nanobead by spin valve sensors. Two-dimensional micromagnetic simulations were also performed for the spin valve sensors. It is found that the analytical model fits well with the micromagnetic simulations in the case of the microbead, although it underestimates the effect

Guanxiong Li; Shan X. Wang

2003-01-01

341

We have fabricated a series of highly sensitive spin valve sensors on a micron scale that successfully detected the presence of a single superparamagnetic bead (Dynabeads M-280, 2.8 mum in diameter), and thus showed suitability for identifying biomolecules labeled by such magnetic beads. By polarizing the magnetic microbead on a spin valve sensor with a dc magnetic field and modulating

Guanxiong Li; Vikram Joshi; Robert L. White; Shan X. Wang; Jennifer T. Kemp; Chris Webb; Ronald W. Davis; Shouheng Sun

2003-01-01

342

Two free radicals are identified by electron spin resonance--electron nuclear double resonance (ESR-ENDOR) spectroscopy in single crystals of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate x irradiated at 4.2 K. The two absorptions are attributed to the anion and cation formed on the guanine moiety. The characteristics of the cation absorption are consistent with those postulated previously for guanine cation presumed to form in irradiated DNA.

Kim, H.; Budzinski, E.E.; Box, H.C.

1989-02-01

343

The theory describing homonuclear indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling (J) interactions between pairs of quadrupolar nuclei is outlined and supported by numerical calculations. The expected first-order multiplets for pairs of magnetically equivalent (A2), chemically equivalent (AA'), and non-equivalent (AX) quadrupolar nuclei are given. The various spectral changeovers from one first-order multiplet to another are investigated with numerical simulations using the SIMPSON program and the various thresholds defining each situation are given. The effects of chemical equivalence, as well as quadrupolar coupling, chemical shift differences, and dipolar coupling on double-rotation (DOR) and J-resolved NMR experiments for measuring homonuclear J coupling constants are investigated. The simulated J coupling multiplets under DOR conditions largely resemble the ideal multiplets predicted for single crystals, and a characteristic multiplet is expected for each of the A2, AA', and AX cases. The simulations demonstrate that it should be straightforward to distinguish between magnetic inequivalence and equivalence using J-resolved NMR, as was speculated previously. Additionally, it is shown that the second-order quadrupolar-dipolar cross-term does not affect the splittings in J-resolved experiments. Overall, the homonuclear J-resolved experiment for half-integer quadrupolar nuclei is demonstrated to be robust with respect to the effects of first- and second-order quadrupolar coupling, dipolar coupling, and chemical shift differences. PMID:24594753

Perras, Frédéric A; Bryce, David L

2014-05-01

344

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory describing homonuclear indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling (J) interactions between pairs of quadrupolar nuclei is outlined and supported by numerical calculations. The expected first-order multiplets for pairs of magnetically equivalent (A2), chemically equivalent (AA?), and non-equivalent (AX) quadrupolar nuclei are given. The various spectral changeovers from one first-order multiplet to another are investigated with numerical simulations using the SIMPSON program and the various thresholds defining each situation are given. The effects of chemical equivalence, as well as quadrupolar coupling, chemical shift differences, and dipolar coupling on double-rotation (DOR) and J-resolved NMR experiments for measuring homonuclear J coupling constants are investigated. The simulated J coupling multiplets under DOR conditions largely resemble the ideal multiplets predicted for single crystals, and a characteristic multiplet is expected for each of the A2, AA?, and AX cases. The simulations demonstrate that it should be straightforward to distinguish between magnetic inequivalence and equivalence using J-resolved NMR, as was speculated previously. Additionally, it is shown that the second-order quadrupolar-dipolar cross-term does not affect the splittings in J-resolved experiments. Overall, the homonuclear J-resolved experiment for half-integer quadrupolar nuclei is demonstrated to be robust with respect to the effects of first- and second-order quadrupolar coupling, dipolar coupling, and chemical shift differences.

Perras, Frédéric A.; Bryce, David L.

2014-05-01

345

Single-parameter quantum charge and spin pumping in armchair graphene nanoribbons

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate quantum charge and spin pumping in armchair graphene nanoribbons under a single ac gate voltage connected with nonmagnetic/ferromagnetic leads via the nonequilibrium Green's function method. In the case of nonmagnetic leads, where only part of the nanoribbon is subject to an ac gate voltage to break the left-right spatial symmetry, we discover that peaks of the charge pumping current appear at the Fermi energies around the sub-band edges in the ac-field-free region of the nanoribbon. In the case of ferromagnetic leads with the lead magnetizations being antiparallel to break the left-right symmetry, similar peaks appear in the spin pumping current when the Fermi energies are around the edges of the the majority-spin sub-bands in the ferromagnetic leads. All these peaks originate from the pronounced symmetry breaking in the transmissions with energies being around the corresponding sub-band edges. Moreover, we predict a pure spin current in the case of ferromagnetic leads with the whole graphene nanoribbon under an ac gate voltage. The ac-field-strength and ac-field-frequency dependencies of the pumping current are also investigated with the underlying physics revealed.

Zhou, Y.; Wu, M. W.

2012-08-01

346

Parametric analysis of plastic strain and force distribution in single pass metal spinning

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal spinning also known as spin forming is one of the sheet metal working processes by which an axis-symmetric part can be formed from a flat sheet metal blank. Parts are produced by pressing a blunt edged tool or roller on to the blank which in turn is mounted on a rotating mandrel. This paper discusses about the setting up a 3-D finite element simulation of single pass metal spinning in LS-Dyna. Four parameters were considered namely blank thickness, roller nose radius, feed ratio and mandrel speed and the variation in forces and plastic strain were analysed using the full-factorial design of experiments (DOE) method of simulation experiments. For some of these DOE runs, physical experiments on extra deep drawing (EDD) sheet metal were carried out using En31 tool on a lathe machine. Simulation results are able to predict the zone of unsafe thinning in the sheet and high forming forces that are hint to the necessity for less-expensive and semi-automated machine tools to help the household and small scale spinning workers widely prevalent in India.

Choudhary, Shashank; Tejesh, Chiruvolu Mohan; Regalla, Srinivasa Prakash; Suresh, Kurra

2013-12-01

347

Switching of a quantum dot spin valve by single molecule magnets

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore theoretically the spin transport in nanostructures consisting of a gold quantum dot bridging nonmagnetic electrodes and two Mn12-Ph single molecule magnets (SMMs) that are thiol bonded to the dot but are not in direct contact with the electrodes. We find that reversal of the magnetic moment of either SMM by the application of a magnetic field leads to a large change in the resistance of the dot, i.e., a strong spin-valve effect. We show that this phenomenon arises from the following physical principle: The spin-dependent molecular orbitals that extend over the dot and both SMMs change drastically when the magnetic moment of either SMM is reversed, resulting in a large change in the conduction via those orbitals. The same physics may also be responsible for the spin-valve phenomena discovered recently in carbon nanotube quantum dots with rare-earth SMMs [M. Urdampilleta , Nat. Mater.1476-112210.1038/nmat3050 10, 502 (2011)].

Rostamzadeh Renani, Fatemeh; Kirczenow, George

2013-03-01

348

High-Spin Isomeric States in Nuclear Reactions Induced by He Isotopes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-spin states production in nuclear reactions is reviewed. The analysis of various experiments, our estimates and calculations reveal that in different compound nucleus energy regions maximal relative yield of high-spin states can be realized by different projectiles: at low energies -- by neutrons, in ˜ 20 -- 50 MeV region -- by ?-particles, at higher energies -- by heavy ions. It was predicted [1] that there are energy ranges in which neutron-rich radioactive ions (^6,8He, for example) are favorable. ?m/?g (the ratio between the yields of high-spin Jm and low-spin Jg metastable states of a nucleus in one and the same reaction) e.g. the isomeric cross-section ratio is a very good indicator of high-spin states production capability of a nuclear reaction. These experiments demonstrate that maximal values of isomeric cross-section ratios (up to 30) are obtained in ?-particle induced reactions. Experiment with ^6He beam [2] confirms the predictions of the work [1] concerning the prospects of neutron-rich radioactive-ion beams in high-spin states population. The results of calculations of the isomeric cross section ratios using the code EMPIRE-II-18 approach to statistical theory of nuclear reactions demonstrate rather good agreement with the experimental data. Due to that these prediction power of these calculation is confirmed. The results of widespread calculations of the isomeric cross-section ratios of the reactions with ^6,8He are presented. [1] T.V.Chvilskaya et al., AIP-Conference Proceedings ENAM-98 1998. V. 455. P. 482. [2] P.A.DeYoung et al., Phys.Rev.C. 2000. V. 62. P.047601.

Chuvilskaya, Tatjana; Shirokova, Alla

2010-11-01

349

In complex biological or colloidal samples, magnetic relaxation dispersion (MRD) experiments using the field-cycling technique can characterize molecular motions on time scales ranging from nanoseconds to microseconds, provided that a rigorous theory of nuclear spin relaxation is available. In gels, cross-linked proteins, and biological tissues, where an immobilized macromolecular component coexists with a mobile solvent phase, nuclear spins residing in solvent (or cosolvent) species relax predominantly via exchange-mediated orientational randomization (EMOR) of anisotropic nuclear (electric quadrupole or magnetic dipole) couplings. The physical or chemical exchange processes that dominate the MRD typically occur on a time scale of microseconds or longer, where the conventional perturbation theory of spin relaxation breaks down. There is thus a need for a more general relaxation theory. Such a theory, based on the stochastic Liouville equation (SLE) for the EMOR mechanism, is available for a single quadrupolar spin I = 1. Here, we present the corresponding theory for a dipole-coupled spin-1/2 pair. To our knowledge, this is the first treatment of dipolar MRD outside the motional-narrowing regime. Based on an analytical solution of the spatial part of the SLE, we show how the integral longitudinal relaxation rate can be computed efficiently. Both like and unlike spins, with selective or non-selective excitation, are treated. For the experimentally important dilute regime, where only a small fraction of the spin pairs are immobilized, we obtain simple analytical expressions for the auto-relaxation and cross-relaxation rates which generalize the well-known Solomon equations. These generalized results will be useful in biophysical studies, e.g., of intermittent protein dynamics. In addition, they represent a first step towards a rigorous theory of water (1)H relaxation in biological tissues, which is a prerequisite for unravelling the molecular basis of soft-tissue contrast in clinical magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:24116610

Chang, Zhiwei; Halle, Bertil

2013-10-14

350

Single and Multi-Nucleon Transfer Reactions for Nuclear Moment Studies Toward Radioactive-Ion Beams

This study is a part of an experimental program to measure nuclear moments in transfer reactions. It aims to probe for a first time the nuclear -spin orientation in multi-nucleon transfer. Fist experiments were performed to measure the quadrupole moment of an isomeric state in {sup 66}Cu (I{sup p}i 6{sup -}, E{sub x} = 1154 keV, T{sub 1/2} = 595(20) ns) in single nucleon transfer and the population of mus isomers in {sup 66}Cu and {sup 63}Ni in multi-nucleon transfer. The experimentally tested methodology allows broad applications toward more exotic species and feasibility of these reactions to produce species away from stability.

Lozeva, R. L.; Georgiev, G. P.; Audi, G.; Cabaret, S.; Fiori, E.; Gaulard, C.; Hauschilda, K.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Risegari, L. [CSNSM, Universite Paris-Sud 11, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91405 Orsay-Campus (France); Balabanski, D. L. [INRNE, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Blazhev, A.; Jolie, J.; Moschner, K.; Zell, K.-O. [IKP, Universitaet zu Koeln, DE-50937 Cologne (Germany); Daugas, J.-M.; Faul, T.; Morel, P.; Roig, O. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon Cedex (France); Ferraton, M.; Ibrahim, F. [IPN, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91406 Orsay-Campus (France)

2010-04-30

351

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spin tunnel study is reported on a scale model of a research airplane typical of low-wing, single-engine, light general aviation airplanes to determine the tail parachute diameter and canopy distance (riser length plus suspension-line length) required for energency spin recovery. Nine tail configurations were tested, resulting in a wide range of developed spin conditions, including steep spins and flat spins. The results indicate that the full-scale parachute diameter required for satisfactory recovery from the most critical conditions investigated is about 3.2 m and that the canopy distance, which was found to be critical for flat spins, should be between 4.6 and 6.1 m.

Burk, S. M., Jr.; Bowman, J. S., Jr.; White, W. L.

1977-01-01

352

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is an extremely versatile thin film technique, which can produce single-crystal layers with atomic dimensional controls and thus permit the preparation of novel structures and devices tailored to meet specific needs. Spin relaxation time ts is one of the key features in spin-related phenomena and thus of great importance for spintronics. In this work, we prepare high quality samples, mainly of CdTe epilayers, by MBE, characterize their spin relaxation dynamics, and discuss the results theoretically. First, with the goal of understanding the mechanisms of electron relaxation dynamics and nuclear spin enhancement, we focus on the growth and characterization of CdTe epilayers. By changing the shutter sequences and inserting ZnSe buffer layer, we have reproducibly grown (111) and (100) CdTe epilayers of high crystalline qualities by MBE, despite the large lattice mismatch between CdTe and GaAs substrate. Then we investigate ts for the (111) and (100) CdTe epilayers. It is found that for the (111) CdTe, spin relaxation rate t-1s is significantly enhanced and shows no temperature dependence through 130K to 300K, while t-1s for the (100) CdTe is strongly affected by the temperature. It is also found that t-1s is dependent on material quality for both (111) and (100) CdTe. We theoretically discuss the effect of strain and defect on spin relaxation time of CdTe. It is the first experimental observation of the effect of strain on t-1s in a II-VI semiconductor material. Second, the growth and characterization of ZnTe/ZnSe related type II quantum structures, or quantum dots (QDs), are also presented in this work. The PL of Zn-Se-Te related type II quantum structures show blue shifts with higher intensities of exciting laser, an indication of type II QDs. Besides being an attractive method to p-type dope wide bandgap materials, the resulting material may be a promising structure for spin enhancement properties. Third, we present the study of the enhancement of nuclear spin polarization through pumping laser. We find strong enhancement both in bulk CdTe as well as in CdTe epilayers, independent of the helicity of the laser, which is on the contrary to the prior reports by others. Compared with GaAs crystal, we ascribe this independence to the surface spin-dependent recombination. GaAs/AlAs and GaAs/GaAlAs multiple coupled double quantum wells (QWs), and CdTe/CdMgTe QW have also been grown and explored. The measurements show good quality of the material and are consistent with the designed structures. Last, we summary the work and propose the future directions. Samples are in-situ monitored by reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED). Post growth characterization techniques, such as time resolved Kerr rotation (TRKR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL), and optical pumping nuclear magnetic resonance (OPNMR), are introduced and applied to the samples.

Zhang, Qiang

353

Shell structure at high spin and the influence on nuclear shapes

Nuclear structure at high spin is influenced by a combination of liquid-drop and shell-structure effects. For N < 86 both contribute towards the occurrence along the yrast line of high-spin oblate aligned-particle configurations. Shell effects are mainly responsible for the prolate deformation of nuclei with N > 90. The competition between oblate and prolate driving effects leads to a prolate-to-oblate shape transition in /sup 154/Dy/sub 88/. The role of rotation-aligned configurations in the shape change is discussed.

Khoo, T.L.; Chowdhury, P.; Ahmad, I.

1982-01-01

354

Relativistic impulse approximation, nuclear currents, and the spin-difference function

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional nonrelativistic impulse-approximation treatments of p-nucleus scattering using a local nucleon-nucleon t matrix neglect nuclear currents which are intrinsic to relativistic approaches also employing a local t matrix. Inclusion of these current terms is essen- tial to understanding the spin-difference function (Dqk+Dkq) +i(P-Ay), as shown by comparison with 12C(p,p')12C*(12.71 MeV, 1+, T=0) spin-difference data at 150 MeV.

Sparrow, D. A.; Piekarewicz, J.; Rost, E.; Shepard, J. R.; McNeil, J. A.; Carey, T. A.; McClelland, J. B.

1985-05-01

355

Relativistic impulse approximation, nuclear currents, and the spin-difference function

Traditional nonrelativistic impulse-approximation treatments of p-nucleus scattering using a local nucleon-nucleon t matrix neglect nuclear currents which are intrinsic to relativistic approaches also employing a local t matrix. Inclusion of these current terms is essen- tial to understanding the spin-difference function (D/sub q/k+D/sub kq/) +i(P-A/sub y/), as shown by comparison with /sup 12/C(p,p')/sup 12/C((12.71 MeV, 1/sup +/, T = 0) spin-difference data at 150 MeV.

Sparrow, D.A.; Piekarewicz, J.; Rost, E.; Shepard, J.R.; McNeil, J.A.; Carey, T.A.; McClelland, J.B.

1985-05-20

356

High-field dynamic nuclear polarization with high-spin transition metal ions.

We report the dynamic nuclear polarization of (1)H spins in magic-angle-spinning spectra recorded at 5 T and 84 K via the solid effect using Mn(2+) and Gd(3+) complexes as polarizing agents. We show that the magnitude of the enhancements can be directly related to the effective line width of the central (m(S) = -1/2 ? +1/2) EPR transition. Using a Gd(3+) complex with a narrow central transition EPR line width of 29 MHz, we observed a maximum enhancement of ?13, which is comparable to previous results on the narrow-line-width trityl radical. PMID:21446700

Corzilius, Björn; Smith, Albert A; Barnes, Alexander B; Luchinat, Claudio; Bertini, Ivano; Griffin, Robert G

2011-04-20

357

High Field Dynamic Nuclear Polarization with High-Spin Transition Metal Ions

We report the dynamic nuclear polarization of 1H spins in magic angle spinning spectra recorded at 5 T and 84K via the solid effect using Mn2+ and Gd3+ complexes as polarizing agents. We show that the magnitude of the enhancements can be directly related to the effective linewidth of the central (MS = ?1/2 ?+1/2) EPR transition. Using a Gd3+ complex with a narrow central transition EPR linewidth of 29 MHz, a maximum enhancement of ~13 is observed, which is comparable to previous results on the narrow linewidth trityl radical.

Corzilius, Bjorn; Smith, Albert A.; Barnes, Alexander B.; Luchinat, Claudio; Bertini, Ivano; Griffin, Robert G.

2011-01-01

358

Controlling hole spins in quantum dots and wells

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review recent theoretical results for hole spins influenced by spin-orbit coupling and Coulomb interaction in two-dimensional quantum wells as well as the decoherence of single hole spins in quantum dots due to hyperfine interaction with surrounding nuclear spins. After reviewing the different forms of spin-orbit coupling that are relevant for electrons and heavy holes in III-V semiconductor quantum wells, we illustrate the combined effect of spin-orbit coupling and Coulomb interactions for hole systems on spin-dependent quasiparticle group velocities. We further analyze spin-echo decay for a single hole spin in a nuclear-spin bath, demonstrating that this decoherence source can be controlled in these systems by entering a motional-averaging regime. Throughout this review, we emphasize physical effects that are unique to hole spins (rather than electrons) in nanoscale systems.

Chesi, Stefano; Wang, Xiaoya Judy; Coish, W. A.

2014-05-01

359

Isovector spin observables in nuclear charge reactions at LAMPF

LAMPF has undertaken a major development program to upgrade facilities for nuclear charge-exchange studies at intermediate energies. The major components of this upgrade are a medium-resolution spectrometer and neutron time-of-flight system for good resolution (delta E < 1 MeV) charge-exchange perograms in (n,p) and (p,n) respectively. Major emphasis is placed on polarization phenomena using polarized beams and analyzing the polarization of the outgoing particle.

McClelland, J.B.

1988-01-01

360

Spin filtering and entanglement swapping through coherent evolution of a single quantum dot.

We exploit the nondissipative dynamics of a pair of electrons in a large square quantum dot to perform singlet-triplet spin measurement through a single charge detection and show how this may be used for entanglement swapping and teleportation. The method is also used to generate the Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki ground state, a further resource for quantum computation. We justify, and derive analytic results for, an effective charge-spin Hamiltonian which is valid over a wide range of parameters and agrees well with exact numerical results of a realistic effective-mass model. Our analysis also indicates that the method is robust to the choice of dot-size and initialization errors, as well as decoherence. PMID:20868084

Coello, Jose Garcia; Bayat, Abolfazl; Bose, Sougato; Jefferson, John H; Creffield, Charles E

2010-08-20

361

High-pressure Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

A high-pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR capability, consisting of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor, a high-pressure loading/reaction chamber for in situ sealing and re-opening of the high-pressure MAS rotor, and a MAS probe with a localized RF coil for background signal suppression, is reported. The unusual technical challenges associated with development of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor are addressed in part by modifying standard ceramics for the rotor sleeve to include micro-groves at the internal surface at both ends of the cylinder. In this way, not only is the advantage of ceramic cylinders for withstanding very high-pressure utilized, but also plastic bushings can be glued tightly in place so that other plastic sealing mechanisms/components and O-rings can be mounted to create the desired high-pressure seal. Using this strategy, sealed internal pressures exceeding 150 bars have been achieved and sustained under ambient external pressure with minimal penetration loss of pressure for 72 hours. As an application example, in situ 13C MAS NMR studies of mineral carbonation reaction intermediates and final products of forsterite (Mg2SiO4) reacted with supercritical CO2 and H2O at 150 bar and 50?C are reported, with relevance to geological sequestration of carbon dioxide.

Hoyt, David W.; Turcu, Romulus VF; Sears, Jesse A.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Hu, Jian Z.

2011-10-01

362

High-pressure magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance.

A high-pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR capability, consisting of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor, a high-pressure rotor loading/reaction chamber for in situ sealing and re-opening of the high-pressure MAS rotor, and a MAS probe with a localized RF coil for background signal suppression, is reported. The unusual technical challenges associated with development of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor are addressed in part by modifying standard ceramics for the rotor sleeve by abrading the internal surface at both ends of the cylinder. In this way, not only is the advantage of ceramic cylinders for withstanding very high-pressure utilized, but also plastic bushings can be glued tightly in place so that other removable plastic sealing mechanisms/components and O-rings can be mounted to create the desired high-pressure seal. Using this strategy, sealed internal pressures exceeding 150 bars have been achieved and sustained under ambient external pressure with minimal loss of pressure for 72 h. As an application example, in situ(13)C MAS NMR studies of mineral carbonation reaction intermediates and final products of forsterite (Mg(2)SiO(4)) reacted with supercritical CO(2) and H(2)O at 150 bar and 50°C are reported, with relevance to geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. PMID:21862372

Hoyt, David W; Turcu, Romulus V F; Sears, Jesse A; Rosso, Kevin M; Burton, Sarah D; Felmy, Andrew R; Hu, Jian Zhi

2011-10-01

363

Single-spin microscope with sub-nanoscale resolution based on optically detected magnetic resonance

Invention of scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) initiated a new era of material science and technology characterized by 2-D imaging with atomic resolution and manipulation of individual atoms. However, for further progress in material science, and in particular in structural biology, 3-D imaging with sub-nanometer resolution is very desirable. Currently the most promising technique for 3-D imaging is magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM), which senses individual electron spins [1,2] with nanoscale resolution and can detect collective magnetization of about 100 nuclear spins [3]. The highest sensitivity demonstrated by MRFM is based on a time modulation technique called the oscillating cantilever-driven adiabatic reversals (OSCAAR) which requires a long phase relaxation time T 2 of measured spins, which usually corresponds to rather low temperature. For example, a temperature of 300 mK was used in the case of 3D imaging of the tobacco mosaic virus [3]. This limitation is incompatible with the room-temperature operation needed for the study of biological systems under physiological conditions.

Berman, Gennady P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chernobrod, Boris [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

364

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) spectra of [Fe(ptz) 6](BF 4) 2 (ptz = 1- n-propyl-tetrazole) have been measured for five phases differing in spin state and crystallographic structure. Different spectral patterns have been found for the low-spin and high-spin phases and are described in terms of normal coordinate analysis of the complex molecule. For both low-spin and high-spin phases the conversion from ordered to disordered phase results in splitting of the observed NIS bands. Packing becomes visible in the NIS spectra via coupling of the Fe-N stretching vibrations with those of the terminal n-propyl groups. The DFT-based normal coordinate analysis also reveals the character of Raman markers.

Böttger, Lars H.; Chumakov, Aleksandr I.; Matthias Grunert, C.; Gütlich, Philipp; Kusz, Joachim; Paulsen, Hauke; Ponkratz, Ulrich; Rusanov, Ventzislav; Trautwein, Alfred X.; Wolny, Juliusz A.

2006-09-01

365

The nuclear spin lattice relaxation rate in the PuMGa5 materials

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rates 1/T1 of PuRhGa5 and PuCoGa5, in particular, in normal state. PuRhGa5 exhibits a gradual suppression of (T1T)-1 below 25 K far above Tc˜8.5 K, while measurements for PuCoGa5 reveal a monotonic increase down to Tc. We propose that this behavior is consistently understood by the crossover from the two-dimensional quantum antiferromagnetic regime of the local 5f-electron spins of Pu to the concomitant formation of the fermion pseudogap based on the two-component spin-fermion model.

Bang, Yunkyu; Graf, M. J.; Curro, N. J.; Balatsky, A. V.

2007-03-01

366

Hardy's paradox tested in the spin-orbit Hilbert space of single photons

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We test experimentally the quantum "paradox" proposed by L. Hardy [Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1665 (1993), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.71.1665] by using single photons instead of photon pairs. This is achieved by addressing two compatible degrees of freedom of the same particle, namely, its spin angular momentum, determined by the photon polarization, and its orbital angular momentum, a property related to the optical transverse mode. Because our experiment involves a single particle, we cannot use locality to logically enforce noncontextuality, which must therefore be assumed based only on the observables' compatibility. On the other hand, our single-particle experiment can be implemented more simply and allows larger detection efficiencies than typical two-particle ones, with a potential future advantage in terms of closing the detection loopholes.

Karimi, Ebrahim; Cardano, Filippo; Maffei, Maria; de Lisio, Corrado; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Boyd, Robert W.; Santamato, Enrico

2014-03-01

367

The nuclear-spin-rotation constants of HCY, HSiY, and SiY2 (Y=F, Cl): An ab initio study

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nuclear-spin-rotation constants of fluoro- (HCF) and chloro- (HCCl) carbene, of the corresponding silylenes (HSiF and HSiCl), and of difluoro- and dichlorosilylene (SiF2 and SiCl2) are quantum-chemically investigated employing the coupled-cluster singles and doubles model augmented by a perturbative treatment of triple excitations together with various sequences of correlation-consistent basis sets. Theoretical best estimates are obtained through consideration of corrections for core correlation and of zero-point vibrational contributions. In addition, nuclear quadrupole coupling constants for the chlorine containing species are determined. A thorough comparison with experiment is made.

Rizzo, Antonio; Puzzarini, Cristina; Coriani, Sonia; Gauss, Jürgen

2006-02-01

368

The nuclear-spin-rotation constants of HCY, HSiY, and SiY(2) (Y=F, Cl): an ab initio study.

The nuclear-spin-rotation constants of fluoro- (HCF) and chloro- (HCCl) carbene, of the corresponding silylenes (HSiF and HSiCl), and of difluoro- and dichlorosilylene (SiF(2) and SiCl(2)) are quantum-chemically investigated employing the coupled-cluster singles and doubles model augmented by a perturbative treatment of triple excitations together with various sequences of correlation-consistent basis sets. Theoretical best estimates are obtained through consideration of corrections for core correlation and of zero-point vibrational contributions. In addition, nuclear quadrupole coupling constants for the chlorine containing species are determined. A thorough comparison with experiment is made. PMID:16483202

Rizzo, Antonio; Puzzarini, Cristina; Coriani, Sonia; Gauss, Jürgen

2006-02-14

369

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quasi-two-dimensional quantum antiferromagnet Cr(diethylenetriamine)(O2)2.H2O [1] has a magnetic-field-tuned quantum critical point (QCP) at 12.3 T, where a highly polarized antiferromagnetic phase turns into a field-induced ferromagnetic phase. We report a novel relaxation phenomenon near this QCP: quantum-fluctuation-driven annealing of hydrogen nuclear spins frozen in a non-equilibrium high-energy state by temperature quenching. This relaxation phenomenon, with readily detectable heat release from the nuclear spins as they are annealed, reveals the extent of a quantum critical region around the QCP and provides a unique avenue to investigate the dynamics of the divergent quantum fluctuations that underlie quantum criticality. [1] C. M. Ramsey et al., Chem. Mater. 15, 92 (2003).

Kim, Y. H.; Kaur, N.; Atkins, B. M.; Dalal, N. S.; Takano, Y.

2010-03-01

370

Frozen spin solid targets developed at the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems (JINR, Dubna)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experience with polarized targets and achieving of very low temperatures gave rise to the idea of using a new technique based on dissolving 3He in 4He to create a frozen spin polarized target. The short history of the development of such proton and deuteron targets at the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems (LNP) JINR is given. Recently, the Saclay-Argonne frozen spin proton polarized target used initially in E704 experiment at FERMILAB was upgraded with adding the missing parts and the first physics experiments was carried out. At present, a new project is being proposed. The aim of this project is the development of effective methods of production 6LiD irradiated material for a large volume polarized deuteron target with a high polarization. The research will be carried out with use of the microtron of Czech Technical University for irradiation and the existing polarized target at Charles University Nuclear Centre for tests of the target materials.

Borisov, N. S.; Fedorov, A. N.; Lazarev, A. B.; Matafonov, V. N.; Neganov, A. B.; Plis, Y. A.; Shilov, S. N.; Usov, Y. A.; Bazhanov, N. A.; Kovalev, A. I.; Gurevich, G. M.; Dzyubak, A. P.; Karnaukhov, I. M.; Lukhanin, A. A.; ?erny, J.; Wilhelm, I.; Janout, Z.; Šimane, C.; Vognar, M.; Ball, J.; Durand, G.; Lehar, F.; Sans, J.-L.

2000-01-01

371

Spin-orbit splitting in single-layer MoS2 revealed by triply resonant Raman scattering.

Although new spintronic devices based on the giant spin-orbit splitting of single-layer MoS(2) have been proposed, such splitting has not been studied effectively in experiments. This Letter reports the valence band spin-orbit splitting in single-layer MoS(2) for the first time, probed by the triply resonant Raman scattering process. We found that upon 325 nm laser irradiation, the second order overtone and combination Raman modes of single-layer MoS(2) are dramatically enhanced. Such resonant Raman enhancement arises from the electron-two-phonon triple resonance via the deformation potential and Fröhlich interaction. As a sensitive and precise probe for the spin-orbit splitting, the triply resonant Raman scattering will provide a new and independent route to study the spin characteristics of MoS(2). PMID:24093287

Sun, Linfeng; Yan, Jiaxu; Zhan, Da; Liu, Lei; Hu, Hailong; Li, Hong; Tay, Ben Kang; Kuo, Jer-Lai; Huang, Chung-Che; Hewak, Daniel W; Lee, Pooi See; Shen, Ze Xiang

2013-09-20

372

PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP ENTITLED ''SINGLE SPIN ASYMMETRIES'' (VOLUME 75)

Single-transverse spin asymmetries (SSA) in strong interactions have a long history, starting from the 1970s and 1980s when surprisingly large single-transverse spin asymmetries were observed in p+p {yields} {pi}X and pp {yields} {Lambda} + X, where really none were expected. They have again attracted much interest in recent years from both experimental and theoretical sides. In particular, first measurements by the STAR, PHENIX, and BRAHMS collaborations at RHIC have now become available which again reveal large single transverse spin asymmetries for hadron production in polarized proton proton scattering. This extends the SSA observations from the fixed target energy range to the collider regime. Meanwhile, experimental studies in Deep Inelastic Scattering by the HERMES collaboration at DESY, SMC at CERN, and CLAS at JLab also show a remarkably large SSA in semi-inclusive hadron production, {gamma}*p {yields} {pi}X, when the proton is transversely polarized. On the theoretical side, there are several approaches to understanding SSA within Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). For example, to explain the large SSAs for hadron production in hadron collisions, a mechanism that takes into account the contribution from quark-gluon-quark correlations (twist-3) in the nucleon was proposed. On the other hand, possible origins of SSA in DIS and hadronic scattering were also found in leading-twist transverse momentum dependent parton distributions. Current theoretical efforts aim at a better conceptual understanding of these two types of mechanisms, and of their connections. We were very happy at this timely date to bring together the theorists and experimentalists of this field to review and discuss the current theoretical status and the latest experimental results. The whole workshop contained 25 formal talks, both experiment (15) and theory (10), and a few informal talks and many fruitful discussions. The topics covered all the relevant SSA observables, including in Deep Inelastic Scattering, the Drell-Yan process, and in inclusive hadron production and dijet correlations at hadron colliders. There were not only discussions on possible interpretations of the existing SSA data, but also on the future observables for the ongoing experiments as well as for planned experiments (such as RHIC II and eRHIC). On the theory side, the talks ranged from overviews and descriptions of the fundamental aspects of SSAs, to presentations of detailed phenomenological studies. All of the talks attracted much interest and initiated active discussions. Directions for future measurements were pointed out, in particular for studies at RHIC. Also, significant theoretical advances were made that may tie together some of the currently proposed mechanisms for single-spin asymmetries. This was a very successful workshop. It stimulated many discussions and new collaborations.

YUAN, F.; VOGELSANG, W.

2005-06-01

373

Twist-3 Single-Spin Asymmetry for SIDIS and its Azimuthal Structure

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive the complete twist-3 single-spin-dependent cross section for semi-inclusive DIS, ep?-->e?X, associated with the complete set of the twist-3 quark-gluon correlation functions in the transversely polarized nucleon, extending our previous study. The cross section consists of five independent structure functions with different azimuthal dependences, consistently with the transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) factorization approach in the low qT region. Correspondence with the inclusive DIS limit and comparison with the TMD approach are briefly discussed.

Koike, Yuji; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

2009-08-01

374

Quantum interference of stored dual-channel spin-wave excitations in a single tripod system

We present an experimental demonstration of dual-channel memory in a single tripod atomic system. The total readout signal exhibits either constructive or destructive interference when the dual-channel spin-wave excitations (SWEs) are retrieved by two reading beams with a controllable relative phase. When the two reading beams have opposite phases, the SWEs will remain in the medium, which can be retrieved later with two in-phase reading beams. Such a phase-sensitive storage and retrieval scheme can be used to measure and control the relative phase between the two SWEs in the memory medium, which may find applications in quantum-information processing.

Wang Hai; Li Shujing; Xu Zhongxiao; Zhao Xingbo; Zhang Lijun; Li Jiahua; Wu Yuelong; Xie Changde; Peng Kunchi [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Xiao Min [The State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States)

2011-04-15

375

Nanoscale magnetic field mapping with a single spin scanning probe magnetometer

We demonstrate quantitative magnetic field mapping with nanoscale resolution, by applying a lock-in technique on the electron spin resonance frequency of a single nitrogen-vacancy defect placed at the apex of an atomic force microscope tip. In addition, we report an all-optical magnetic imaging technique which is sensitive to large off-axis magnetic fields, thus extending the operation range of diamond-based magnetometry. Both techniques are illustrated by using a magnetic hard disk as a test sample. Owing to the non-perturbing and quantitative nature of the magnetic probe, this work should open up numerous perspectives in nanomagnetism and spintronics.

Rondin, L.; Tetienne, J.-P.; Spinicelli, P.; Roch, J.-F.; Jacques, V. [Laboratoire de Photonique Quantique et Moleculaire, Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan and CNRS UMR 8537, 94235 Cachan Cedex (France); Dal Savio, C.; Karrai, K. [Attocube systems AG, Koeniginstrasse 11A RGB, Munich 80539 (Germany); Dantelle, G. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Ecole Polytechnique and CNRS UMR 7643, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Thiaville, A.; Rohart, S. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Universite Paris-Sud and CNRS UMR 8502, 91405 Orsay (France)

2012-04-09

376

Generating entangled spin states for quantum metrology by single-photon detection

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose and analyze a probabilistic but heralded scheme to generate pure, entangled, non-Gaussian states of collective spin in large atomic ensembles by means of single-photon detection. One photon announces the preparation of a Dicke state, while two or more photons announce Schrödinger cat states. The method produces pure states even for finite photon detection efficiency and weak atom-photon coupling. The entanglement generation can be made quasideterministic by means of repeated trial and feedback, enabling metrology beyond the standard quantum limit.

McConnell, Robert; Zhang, Hao; ?uk, Senka; Hu, Jiazhong; Schleier-Smith, Monika H.; Vuleti?, Vladan

2013-12-01

377

Unified picture for single transverse-spin asymmetries in hard-scattering processes.

Using lepton-pair production in hadron-hadron collisions as an example, we explore the relation between two well-known mechanisms for single-transverse-spin asymmetries in hard processes: twist-three quark-gluon correlations when the pair's transverse momentum is large, q perpendicular > Lambda QCD, and time-reversal-odd and transverse-momentum-dependent parton distributions when q perpendicular is much less than the pair's mass. We find that, although the two mechanisms each have their own domain of validity, they describe the same physics in the kinematic region where they overlap. This unifies the two mechanisms and imposes an important constraint on phenomenological studies. PMID:17026293

Ji, Xiangdong; Qiu, Jian-Wei; Vogelsang, Werner; Yuan, Feng

2006-08-25

378

Trigluon correlations and single transverse spin asymmetry in open charm production

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the single transverse-spin asymmetry for open charm production in the semiinclusive lepton-hadron deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and pp collision. Within collinear factorization approach, we find that the asymmetry is sensitive to the twist-3 trigluon correlation functions in the proton. With a simple model for the trigluon correlation functions, we estimate the asymmetry in SIDIS for both COMPASS and eRHIC kinematics, as well as in pp collision at RHIC energy. We discuss the possibilities of extracting the trigluon correlation functions in these experiments.

Kang, Zhong-Bo; Qiu, Jian-Wei

2009-08-01

379

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sivers transverse single spin asymmetry (TSSA) is calculated and compared at different scales using the transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) evolution equations applied to previously existing extractions. We apply the Collins-Soper-Sterman (CSS) formalism, using the version recently developed by Collins. Our calculations rely on the universality properties of TMD functions that follow from the TMD-factorization theorem. Accordingly, the nonperturbative input is fixed by earlier experimental measurements, including both polarized semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and unpolarized Drell-Yan (DY) scattering. It is shown that recent preliminary COMPASS measurements are consistent with the suppression prescribed by TMD evolution.

Aybat, S. Mert; Prokudin, Alexei; Rogers, Ted C.

2012-06-01

380

Trigluon correlations and single transverse spin asymmetry in open charm production

We study the single transverse-spin asymmetry for open charm production in the semiinclusive lepton-hadron deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and pp collision. Within collinear factorization approach, we find that the asymmetry is sensitive to the twist-3 trigluon correlation functions in the proton. With a simple model for the trigluon correlation functions, we estimate the asymmetry in SIDIS for both COMPASS and eRHIC kinematics, as well as in pp collision at RHIC energy. We discuss the possibilities of extracting the trigluon correlation functions in these experiments.

Kang Zhongbo; Qiu Jianwei [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

2009-08-04

381

Nuclear Ground State Spins of the Francium Isotopes 208-213, 220-222Fr

The nuclear ground state spins of some francium isotopes have been measured using on-line atomic-beam magnetic resonance techniques. The following results have been obtained: 208Fr I = 7, 209Fr I = 9\\/2, 210Fr I = 6, 211Fr I = 9\\/2, 212Fr I = 5, 213Fr I = 9\\/2, 220Fr I = 1, 221Fr I = 5\\/2 and 222Fr I =

C. Ekström; S. Ingelman; G. Wannberg; M. Skarestad

1978-01-01

382

Diamond as a Solid State Quantum Computer with a Linear Chain of Nuclear Spins System

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By removing a $^{12}C$ atom from the tetrahedral configuration of the diamond, replace it by a $^{13}C$ atom, and repeating this in a linear direction, it is possible to have a linear chain of nuclear spins one half and to build a solid state quantum computer. One qubit rotation and controlled-not (CNOT) quantum gates are obtained immediately from this configuration, and CNOT quantum gate is used to determined the design parameters of this quantum computer.

López, G. V.; López, G. V.

383

Nuclear-spin relaxation of ²º?Pb in ferroelectric powders

The ²º?Pb nuclear system (nuclear spin I = 1/2; magnetic Moment ? ?0.58 ?N; isotopic abundance ? 22%) in ferroelectric solids has been proposed for a search for a Schiff moment associated with simultaneous violation of parity (P) and time-reversal invariance (T) in fundamental interactions [1] (see also a discussion of the sensitivity of such search in Ref. [2]). The idea is that, due to the Schiff moment, a ferroelectric sample would acquire a P,T-odd magnetic polarization along the direction of its electric polarization. In conclusion, we have presented the first experimental study of relaxation properties of ²º?Pb in PT and PZT below room temperature. We find that above T? 50 K, longitudinal relaxation rate follows the T² dependence characteristic of the two-phonon Raman process. On the other hand, as the temperature is decreased below T? 50 K, the longitudinal relaxation rates drop slower than ?T2 (as opposed to ?T7 expected for the Raman process), and the relaxation is probably due to a direct process associated with paramagnetic impurities and nuclear-spin diffusion. While the longitudinal relaxation times T? vary between several seconds and over an hour in the temperature range between 290 and 10 K, the transverse relaxation time T? is found to be ?1.5 ms for all temperatures and all powder samples studied. D: we never discuss the origin of T? relaxation. Maybe we should. 1.5 ms is only a bit shorter from what would be expected from nuclear spin-spin interactions. Any comments? At some point Sasha asked Oleg to calculate T? exactly for PT and PZT, but I forgot what was the result. If such calculation exists, it would be great to compare with the expt. result. The obtained results provide an important input in the design of the experiments to search for P,T-violating effects in solid ferroelectrics

Bouchard, Louis S.; Sushkov, Alexander O.; Budker, Dmitry; Ford, Joe; Lipton, Andrew S.

2008-02-05

384

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we combine thermal effects with Landau-Zener (LZ) quantum tunneling effects in a dynamical Monte Carlo (DMC) framework to produce satisfactory magnetization curves of single-molecule magnet (SMM) systems. We use the giant spin approximation for SMM spins and consider regular lattices of SMMs with magnetic dipolar interactions (MDIs). We calculate spin-reversal probabilities from thermal-activated barrier hurdling, direct LZ tunneling, and thermal-assisted LZ tunnelings in the presence of sweeping magnetic fields. We do systematical DMC simulations for Mn12 systems with various temperatures and sweeping rates. Our simulations produce clear step structures in low-temperature magnetization curves, and our results show that the thermally activated barrier hurdling becomes dominating at high temperature near 3 K and the thermal-assisted tunnelings play important roles at intermediate temperature. These are consistent with corresponding experimental results on good Mn12 samples (with less disorders) in the presence of little misalignments between the easy axis and applied magnetic fields, and therefore our magnetization curves are satisfactory. Furthermore, our DMC results show that the MDI, with the thermal effects, have important effects on the LZ tunneling processes, but both the MDI and the LZ tunneling give place to the thermal-activated barrier hurdling effect in determining the magnetization curves when the temperature is near 3 K. This DMC approach can be applicable to other SMM systems and could be used to study other properties of SMM systems.

Liu, Gui-Bin; Liu, Bang-Gui

2010-10-01

385

Single-photon-level optical storage in a solid-state spin-wave memory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long-lived quantum memory is a firm requirement for implementing a quantum repeater scheme. Recent progress in solid-state rare-earth-ion-doped systems justifies their status as very strong candidates for such systems. Nonetheless an optical memory based on spin-wave storage at the single-photon level has not been shown in such a system to date, which is crucial for achieving the long storage times required for quantum repeaters. In this paper we show that it is possible to execute a complete atomic frequency comb (AFC) scheme, including spin-wave storage, with weak coherent pulses of n¯=2.5±0.6 photons per pulse. We discuss in detail the experimental steps required to obtain this result and demonstrate the coherence of a stored time-bin pulse. We show a noise level of (7.1±2.3)×10-3 photons per mode during storage, and this relatively low noise level paves the way for future quantum optics experiments using spin waves in rare-earth-doped crystals.

Timoney, N.; Usmani, I.; Jobez, P.; Afzelius, M.; Gisin, N.

2013-08-01

386

The dispersion characteristics of the waves propagating in a spinning single-walled carbon nanotube

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the nano-motor becomes a mechanical reality, its prototype can be envisaged as nano-sized rotating machinery at a situation, albeit for different purposes, like that in the first half of the 20th century during which rotor dynamics has contributed to boosting machine power capacity. Accordingly, we take the benefit of hindsight to develop a classical framework of vibration analysis. Essentially, the equations of motion are formulated to cope with both the special carbon-nanotube properties and the first author's previously developed spinning beam formalism, establishing a model satisfactorily verified by some available molecular dynamics (MD) data and classical spinning beam results extracted from the literature. The model is inexpensive based on continuum mechanics as an alternative to the less-flexible MD method for simulating wave motion of the spinning single-walled carbon nanotube, yielding several interesting phenomena, including the fall-off and splitting of the wave characteristic curves and the unexpected gyroscopic phase property. Potential applications are proposed.

Chan, K. T.; Zhao, Yapu

2011-10-01

387

We built new hybrid devices consisting of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown carbon nanotube (CNT) transistors, decorated with TbPc2 (Pc = phthalocyanine) rare-earth based single-molecule magnets (SMMs). The drafting was achieved by tailoring supramolecular ?-? interactions between CNTs and SMMs. The magnetoresistance hysteresis loop measurements revealed steep steps, which we can relate to the magnetization reversal of individual SMMs. Indeed, we established that the electronic transport properties of these devices depend strongly on the relative magnetization orientations of the grafted SMMs. The SMMs are playing the role of localized spin polarizer and analyzer on the CNT electronic conducting channel. As a result, we measured magneto-resistance ratios up to several hundred percent. We used this spin valve effect to confirm the strong uniaxial anisotropy and the superparamagnetic blocking temperature (TB ~ 1 K) of isolated TbPc2 SMMs. For the first time, the strength of exchange interaction between the different SMMs of the molecular spin valve geometry could be determined. Our results introduce a new design for operable molecular spintronic devices using the quantum effects of individual SMMs.

Urdampilleta, Matias; Nguyen, Ngoc-Viet; Cleuziou, Jean-Pierre; Klyatskaya, Svetlana; Ruben, Mario; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang

2011-01-01

388

Nuclear tetrahedral states and high-spin states studied using the quantum number projection method

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have recently developed an efficient method for performing the full quantum number projection from the most general mean-field (Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov-type) wavefunctions including the angular momentum and parity, as well as the proton and neutron particle numbers. With this method, we have investigated several nuclear structure mechanisms. In this paper, we discuss the quantum rotational spectra obtained for the tetrahedral nuclear states, formulating certain experimentally verifiable criteria for the high-spin states, focusing on the wobbling bands and chiral bands, and for the drip-line nuclei, as illustrative examples.

Tagami, S.; Shimada, M.; Fujioka, Y.; Shimizu, Y. R.; Dudek, J.

2014-05-01

389

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manipulating individual spins in solids requires quickly and coherently reorienting localized spins while leaving neighboring spins unaffected. Difficulties confining oscillating magnetic fields have motivated alternate approaches that use electric fields to change the local magnetic environment, including moving an electron within a hyperfine field gradient or fringe-field gradient. Higher temperatures require spins to be localized in much smaller quantum dots, where these techniques are less effective. In contrast, g-tensor manipulation techniques[1] couple an electric field to the spin via the spin-orbit interaction, and should be scalable to small dots with large confinement. Here we calculate the g-tensor of a single electron in a small quantum dot and show the symmetry of its electric field dependence permits full Bloch sphere control of the spin using an electric field applied in a single direction. We find the spin manipulation frequency of an InAs/GaAs QD in 1 Tesla exceeds 150 MHz. We acknowledge support of an ONR MURI and an NSF NIRT. [1] Kato et al. Nature 299, 1201 (2003)

Pingenot, Joseph; Pryor, Craig E.; Flatté, Michael E.

2008-03-01

390

Nuclear spin singlet states as a contrast mechanism for NMR spectroscopy.

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of complex chemical mixtures often contain unresolved or hidden spectral components, especially when strong background signals overlap weaker peaks. In this article we demonstrate a quantum filter utilizing nuclear spin singlet states, which allows undesired NMR spectral background to be removed and target spectral peaks to be uncovered. The quantum filter is implemented by creating a nuclear spin singlet state with spin quantum numbers j?=?0,?mz ?=?0 in a target molecule, applying a continuous RF field to both preserve the singlet state and saturate the magnetization of undesired molecules and then mapping the target molecule singlet state back into an NMR observable state so that its spectrum can be read out unambiguously. The preparation of the target singlet state can be carefully controlled with pulse sequence parameters, so that spectral contrast can be achieved between molecules with very similar structures. We name this NMR contrast mechanism 'Suppression of Undesired Chemicals using Contrast-Enhancing Singlet States' (SUCCESS) and we demonstrate it in vitro for three target molecules relevant to neuroscience: aspartate, threonine and glutamine. PMID:23606451

Devience, Stephen J; Walsworth, Ronald L; Rosen, Matthew S

2013-10-01

391

A NEW METHOD FOR EXTRACTING SPIN-DEPENDENT NEUTRON STRUCTURE FUNCTIONS FROM NUCLEAR DATA

High-energy electrons are currently the best probes of the internal structure of nucleons (protons and neutrons). By collecting data on electrons scattering off light nuclei, such as deuterium and helium, one can extract structure functions (SFs), which encode information about the quarks that make up the nucleon. Spin-dependent SFs, which depend on the relative polarization of the electron beam and the target nucleus, encode quark spins. Proton SFs can be measured directly from electron-proton scattering, but those of the neutron must be extracted from proton data and deuterium or helium-3 data because free neutron targets do not exist. At present, there is no reliable method for accurately determining spin-dependent neutron SFs in the low-momentum-transfer regime, where nucleon resonances are prominent and the functions are not smooth. The focus of this study was to develop a new method for extracting spin-dependent neutron SFs from nuclear data. An approximate convolution formula for nuclear SFs reduces the problem to an integral equation, for which a recursive solution method was designed. The method was then applied to recent data from proton and deuterium scattering experiments to perform a preliminary extraction of spin-dependent neutron SFs in the resonance region. The extraction method was found to reliably converge for arbitrary test functions, and the validity of the extraction from data was verifi ed using a Bjorken integral, which relates integrals of SFs to a known quantity. This new information on neutron structure could be used to assess quark-hadron duality for the neutron, which requires detailed knowledge of SFs in all kinematic regimes.

Kahn, Y.F.; Melnitchouk, W.

2009-01-01

392

Coupling of the Larmor precession to the correlated motion of pairs of nuclear spins in noble metals

The coupling of the Larmor line to pairs of nuclear spins being flipped by one photon is studied for the nuclear-spin system in the noble metals. The coupling parameter has been evaluated using the spherical model. The separation of the NMR frequencies of the Larmor line and the double-spin-flip line is calculated. The anticrossing feature in the Larmor-line frequency due to the coupling of the two modes is calculated in order to determine if the strength of the Ruderman-Kittel exchange interaction can be measured in Ag and Au.

Moyland, P.L.; Kumar, P.; Xu, J.; Takano, Y. (Department of Physics and Center for Ultralow Temperature Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States))

1993-11-01

393

Rotor design for high pressure magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with a sample spinning rate exceeding 2.1 kHz and pressure greater than 165 bar has never been realized. In this work, a new sample cell design is reported, suitable for constructing cells of different sizes. Using a 7.5 mm high pressure MAS rotor as an example, internal pressure as high as 200 bar at a sample spinning rate of 6 kHz is achieved. The new high pressure MAS rotor is re-usable and compatible with most commercial NMR set-ups, exhibiting low 1H and 13C NMR background and offering maximal NMR sensitivity. As an example of its many possible applications, this new capability is applied to determine reaction products associated with the carbonation reaction of a natural mineral, antigorite ((Mg,Fe2+)3Si2O5(OH)4), in contact with liquid water in water-saturated supercritical CO2 (scCO2) at 150 bar and 50 °C. This mineral is relevant to the deep geologic disposal of CO2, but its iron content results in too many sample spinning sidebands at low spinning rate. Hence, this chemical system is a good case study to demonstrate the utility of the higher sample spinning rates that can be achieved by our new rotor design. We expect this new capability will be useful for exploring solid-state, including interfacial, chemistry at new levels of high-pressure in a wide variety of fields.

Turcu, Romulus V. F.; Hoyt, David W.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Sears, Jesse A.; Loring, John S.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Hu, Jian Zhi

2013-01-01

394

Paramagnetic spin lattice relaxations in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

Information on molecular structure and dynamics of solids is provided by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin lattice (T[sub 1]) relaxation experiments. The presence of an unpaired electron can significantly decrease T[sub 1]s and potentially provide details about molecular structure. This dissertation studied the influence of an unpaired spin on intramolecular carbon-13 solid-state spin lattice relaxation parameters. Porphyrins were chosen as model compounds since they can complex metals and can be synthesized with carbon-13 labels. Five carbon-13 labeled N-alkylated tetrapyridyl porphyrin tetraiodide salts were synthesized and complexed with copper(II) as the paramagnetic metal. A novel porphyrin, tetra-6[N-methyl([sup 13]C)]-quinoline porphyrin tetraiodide salt was also synthesized and complexed with copper(II). The unique approach taken in this work was to eliminate the intermolecular paramagnetic relaxation component by adsorption of the porphyrin as a surface sub-monolayer on a silica based cationic-exchange resin. Various amounts of the tetra-4-[N-methyl([sup 13]C)]-pyridyl porphyrin were adsorbed to the silica surface. This varied the average distance between porphyrin molecules. The carbon-13 spin-lattice relaxation times of the adsorbed porphyrins decreased as a function of the decreasing amounts of adsorbed porphyrin. At low porphyrin loadings (<4 [mu]moles porphyrin/g silica gel), only the intramolecular unpaired spin influence remained in the observed relaxation rate. The copper(II)-porphyrin complexes were adsorbed to the silica gel surface at the loading concentration where only intramolecular paramagnetic effects are observed. Spin lattice relaxation rates for the N-methyl carbon-13 labels on each porphyrin were measured and compared with those predicted by theory. Excellent quantitative agreement was found between the experimental and predicted relaxation times.

McCurry, J.D.

1993-01-01

395

Rotor Design for High Pressure Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

High pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with a sample spinning rate exceeding 2.1 kHz and pressure greater than 165 bar has never been realized. In this work, a new sample cell design is reported, suitable for constructing cells of different sizes. Using a 7.5 mm high pressure MAS rotor as an example, internal pressure as high as 200 bar at a sample spinning rate of 6 kHz is achieved. The new high pressure MAS rotor is re-usable and compatible with most commercial NMR set-ups, exhibiting low 1H and 13C NMR background and offering maximal NMR sensitivity. As an example of its many possible applications, this new capability is applied to determine reaction products associated with the carbonation reaction of a natural mineral, antigorite ((Mg,Fe2+)3Si2O5(OH)4), in contact with liquid water in water-saturated supercritical CO2 (scCO2) at 150 bar and 50 ?C. This mineral is relevant to the deep geologic disposal of CO2, but its iron content results in too many sample spinning sidebands at low spinning rate. Hence, this chemical system is a good case study to demonstrate the utility of the higher sample spinning rates that can be achieved by our new rotor design. We expect this new capability will be useful for exploring solid-state, including interfacial, chemistry at new levels of high-pressure in a wide variety of fields.

Turcu, Romulus VF; Hoyt, David W.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Sears, Jesse A.; Loring, John S.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Hu, Jian Z.

2013-01-01

396

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first measurement of the transverse momentum dependence of double-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive production of pions in deep-inelastic scattering off the longitudinally polarized proton. Data have been obtained using a polarized electron beam of 5.7 GeV with the CLAS detector at the Jefferson Lab (JLab). Modulations of single spin asymmetries over the azimuthal angle between lepton scattering and hadron production planes ? have been measured over a wide kinematic range in Bjorken x and virtual photon squared four-momentum Q2. A significant nonzero sin?2? single spin asymmetry was observed for the first time indicating strong spin-orbit correlations for transversely polarized quarks in the longitudinally polarized proton.

Avakian, H.; Bosted, P.; Burkert, V. D.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Adhikari, K. P.; Aghasyan, M.; Amaryan, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Branford, D.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W.; Carman, D. S.; Casey, L.; Cole, P. L.; Collins, P.; Crabb, D.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Daniel, A.; Dashyan, N.; de Vita, R.; de Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Dey, B.; Dhamija, S.; Dickson, R.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; El Alaoui, A.; Eugenio, P.; Fegan, S.; Fersch, R.; Forest, T. A.; Fradi, A.; Gabrielyan, M. Y.; Gavalian, G.; Gevorgyan, N.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Gohn, W.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guler, N.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Hassall, N.; Heddle, D.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Isupov, E. L.; Jawalkar, S. S.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Konczykowski, P.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Kuznetsov, V.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; Martinez, D.; McAndrew, J.; McCracken, M. E.; McKinnon, B.; Meyer, C. A.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Moreno, B.; Moriya, K.; Morrison, B.; Moutarde, H.; Munevar, E.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Nasseripour, R.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Niroula, M. R.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Perrin, Y.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Raue, B. A.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salamanca, J.; Salgado, C.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Seraydaryan, H.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strauch, S.; Suleiman, R.; Taiuti, M.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vernarsky, B.; Vineyard, M. F.; Voutier, E.; Watts, D. P.; Weinstein, L. B.; Weygand, D. P.; Wood, M. H.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.; Zhao, Z. W.

2010-12-01

397

We report the first measurement of the transverse momentum dependence of double-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive production of pions in deep-inelastic scattering off the longitudinally polarized proton. Data have been obtained using a polarized electron beam of 5.7 GeV with the CLAS detector at the Jefferson Lab (JLab). Modulations of single spin asymmetries over the azimuthal angle between lepton scattering and hadron production planes ? have been measured over a wide kinematic range in Bjorken x and virtual photon squared four-momentum Q2. A significant nonzero sin2? single spin asymmetry was observed for the first time indicating strong spin-orbit correlations for transversely polarized quarks in the longitudinally polarized proton. PMID:21231647

Avakian, H; Bosted, P; Burkert, V D; Elouadrhiri, L; Adhikari, K P; Aghasyan, M; Amaryan, M; Anghinolfi, M; Baghdasaryan, H; Ball, J; Battaglieri, M; Bedlinskiy, I; Biselli, A S; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W; Carman, D S; Casey, L; Cole, P L; Collins, P; Crabb, D; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; Daniel, A; Dashyan, N; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Deur, A; Dey, B; Dhamija, S; Dickson, R; Djalali, C; Dodge, G; Doughty, D; Dupre, R; El Alaoui, A; Eugenio, P; Fegan, S; Fersch, R; Forest, T A; Fradi, A; Gabrielyan, M Y; Gavalian, G; Gevorgyan, N; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Gohn, W; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guler, N; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Hassall, N; Heddle, D; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Isupov, E L; Jawalkar, S S; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Khetarpal, P; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Konczykowski, P; Kubarovsky, V; Kuhn, S E; Kuleshov, S V; Kuznetsov, V; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; Markov, N; Mayer, M; Martinez, D; McAndrew, J; McCracken, M E; McKinnon, B; Meyer, C A; Mineeva, T; Mirazita, M; Mokeev, V; Moreno, B; Moriya, K; Morrison, B; Moutarde, H; Munevar, E; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nasseripour, R; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niroula, M R; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Paremuzyan, R; Park, K; Park, S; Pasyuk, E; Pereira, S Anefalos; Perrin, Y; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Raue, B A; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Sabatié, F; Saini, M S; Salamanca, J; Salgado, C; Schumacher, R A; Seder, E; Seraydaryan, H; Sharabian, Y G; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strauch, S; Suleiman, R; Taiuti, M; Tedeschi, D J; Tkachenko, S; Ungaro, M; Vernarsky, B; Vineyard, M F; Voutier, E; Watts, D P; Weinstein, L B; Weygand, D P; Wood, M H; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z W

2010-12-31

398

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a new experimental technique that integrates high frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) with high frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (HFEPR) spectroscopy in order to measure spin dynamics on fast time scales in single-molecule magnets. After driving the system out of equilibrium by triggering magnetic avalanches, or simply by heating with short SAW pulses, the evolution of the spin populations within fixed energy levels is measured using HFEPR spectroscopy.

Hill, Stephen; Lawrence, Jonathan; Macia, Ferran; Hernandez, Joan Manel; Tejada, Javier; Santos, Paulo; Lampropoulos, Christos; Christou, George

2008-03-01

399

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an experimental technique that integrates high-frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) with high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (HFEPR) spectroscopy in order to measure spin dynamics on fast time scales in single-molecule magnets. After the system is driven out of equilibrium by triggering magnetic avalanches, or simply by heating with short SAW pulses, the evolution of the spin populations within fixed energy levels is measured using HFEPR spectroscopy.

Macià, F.; Lawrence, J.; Hill, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Tejada, J.; Santos, P. V.; Lampropoulos, C.; Christou, G.

2008-01-01

400

Measurement of the Target Single-Spin Asymmetry in Quasi-Elastic 3He?(e,e')

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiment E05-015 measured the target single spin asymmetry, Ay for the neutron using the inclusive quasi-elastic 3He (e,e') in Hall A at Jefferson Lab with a vertically polarized 3He target at Q2 = 1.0 and 2.3 GeV. Ay is the asymmetry of target spin up versus target spin down, and is sensitive to the two-photon exchange amplitude. For my presentation I will discuss the goals of the experiment, my contributions and, my involvement in creating a new 3He Target lab at Longwood University.

St. John, Jeremy

2009-10-01

401

Adiabatic transfer of coherences in a cluster of coupled nuclear spins

It is experimentally demonstrated that quantum coherences can be efficiently transferred using adiabatic energy-level crossing. In a cluster of six dipolar-coupled proton spins of benzene, oriented by a liquid-crystalline matrix, a single-quantum coherence between one pair of states has been adiabatically transferred to another pair of states, and the superposition survived even after ten successive energy-level crossings.

Lee, Jae-Seung; Cardwell, Kate E.; Khitrin, A. K. [Department of Chemistry, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44242-0001 (United States)

2005-12-15

402

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The survey of negative pion absorption reactions on light and medium nuclei was continued. Muon spin precession was studied using an iron target. An impulse approximation model of the pion absorption process implied that the ion will absorb almost exclusively on nucleon pairs, single nucleon absorption being suppressed by energy and momentum conservation requirements. For measurements on both paramagnetic and ferromagnetic iron, the external magnetic field was supplied by a large C-type electromagnet carrying a current of about 100 amperes.

1974-01-01

403

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic evolution for liquid-state nuclear spin in a magnetic resonance is investigated based on Bloch sphere structure under the time-dependent modified Bloch equation. We show that the magnetization is related to the magnetic field strength but approximately independent of the initial unpolarized spin state after a very short evolving time. We predict that the Berry phase transition of the nuclear spin system take place in a quasicyclic evolution for some initial states, resulting in that the evolving memory of nuclear spin polarization is kept in terms of the Berry phase. The findings provide another clue to search for quantum memory devices in such a system on the basis of the geometric phase.

Xu, Hualan; Fu, Dan; Wang, Z. S.; Pan, Hui

2012-10-01

404

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the effect of the electronic spin transition of the iron on the elasticity of the lower-mantle ferropericlase (Mg,Fe)O is critical in our understanding of the seismic velocity structures of the Earth's lower mantle. Previous studies have reported inconsistent results about the elastic behavior of ferropericlase across the spin transition--- ISLS results showed that the spin transition is associated with softening of all elastic moduli by as much as 25% between 40 and 50 GPa (Crowhurst et al., 2008), whereas Brillouin spectroscopic studies revealed an increase in shear wave anisotropy across the transition. Inelastic X-ray scattering results, on the other hand, did not show any visible effects of the spin transition. To decipher the elasticity of the lower-mantle ferropericlase within the spin transition and in the low-spin state, we have used both Brillouin Light Scattering (BLS; sensitive to Vs) and Impulsive Stimulated Light Scattering (ISLS; sensitive to Vp) techniques to simultaneously measure the shear wave (BLS) and compressional wave (ISLS) velocities of a single-crystal ferropericlase in a high-pressure diamond anvil cell. Together with X-ray diffraction analyses, our results reveal various magnitudes of the effects of the spin transition on elastic moduli as well as Vp/Vs anisotropies of ferropericlase. These experimental results are used in thermal elastic modeling to address potential geophysical consequences of the spin transition in the lower mantle.

Tong, X.; Yang, J.; Lin, J.

2013-12-01

405

Ignition conditions for inertial confinement fusion targets with a nuclear spin-polarized DT fuel

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nuclear fusion cross-section is modified when the spins of the interacting nuclei are polarized. In the case of deuterium-tritium it has been theoretically predicted that the nuclear fusion cross-section could be increased by a factor ? = 1.5 if all the nuclei were polarized. In inertial confinement fusion this would result in a modification of the required ignition conditions. Using numerical simulations it is found that the required hot-spot temperature and areal density can both be reduced by about 15% for a fully polarized nuclear fuel. Moreover, numerical simulations of a directly driven capsule show that the required laser power and energy to achieve a high gain scale as ?-0.6 and ?-0.4 respectively, while the maximum achievable energy gain scales as ?0.9.

Temporal, M.; Brandon, V.; Canaud, B.; Didelez, J. P.; Fedosejevs, R.; Ramis, R.

2012-10-01

406

New nuclear-spin-induced Cotton-Mouton effect in fluids at high DC magnetic field.

Based on Buckingham and Pople's theory of magnetic double refraction, a theoretical expression is derived for a new Cotton-Mouton effect ?(C-M)((IB)) in liquid induced by the crossed effect between the high dc magnetic field B(0) and the nuclear magnetic moment m(z)((l)). It contains temperature-independent and -dependent parts. The latter is proportional to the product between anisotropy of polarizability and the nuclear magnetic shielding tensor. For this new effect ?(C-M)((IB)), its order in magnitude for a molecule with large polarizability anisotropy is estimated to be comparable to the nuclear-spin-induced optical Faraday rotation (NSOFR). In the multipass approach, ?(C-M)((IB)) can be eliminated by time-reversal symmetry arguments, but NSOFR is enhanced. PMID:22344831

Yao, Guo-hua; He, Ming; Chen, Dong-ming; He, Tian-jing; Liu, Fan-chen

2012-04-10

407

Nuclear spin driven quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) phenomena, which arise from admixture of more than two orthogonal electronic spin wave functions through the couplings with those of the nuclear spins, are one of the important magnetic relaxation processes in lanthanide single molecule magnets (SMMs) in the low temperature range. Although recent experimental studies have indicated that the presence of the intramolecular f-f interactions affects their magnetic relaxation processes, little attention has been given to their mechanisms and, to the best of our knowledge, no rational theoretical models have been proposed for the interpretations of how the nuclear spin driven QTMs are influenced by the f-f interactions. Since quadruple-decker phthalocyanine complexes with two terbium or dysprosium ions as the magnetic centers show moderate f-f interactions, these are appropriate to investigate the influence of the f-f interactions on the dynamic magnetic relaxation processes. In the present paper, a theoretical model including ligand field (LF) potentials, hyperfine, nuclear quadrupole, magnetic dipolar, and the Zeeman interactions has been constructed to understand the roles of the nuclear spins for the QTM processes, and the resultant Zeeman plots are obtained. The ac susceptibility measurements of the magnetically diluted quadruple-decker monoterbium and diterbium phthalocyanine complexes, [Tb-Y] and [Tb-Tb], have indicated that the presence of the f-f interactions suppresses the QTMs in the absence of the external magnetic field (H(dc)) being consistent with previous reports. On the contrary, the faster magnetic relaxation processes are observed for [Tb-Tb] than [Tb-Y] at H(dc) = 1000 Oe, clearly demonstrating that the QTMs are rather enhanced in the presence of the external magnetic field. Based on the calculated Zeeman diagrams, these observations can be attributed to the enhanced nuclear spin driven QTMs for [Tb-Tb]. At the H(dc) higher than 2000 Oe, the magnetic relaxations become faster with increasing Hdc for both complexes, which are possibly ascribed to the enhanced direct processes. The results on the dysprosium complexes are also discussed as the example of a Kramers system. PMID:24003906

Fukuda, Takamitsu; Matsumura, Kazuya; Ishikawa, Naoto

2013-10-10

408

Single-spin detection will be crucial for solid-state quantum computer (QC) architectures in which information is encoded in the spin state of single nuclear or electron spins. The formidable problem of single-spin detection in a solid can be mapped to a more tractable problem of single-charge detection through spin-dependent electron transfer which may be observed using ultrasensitive solid-state nanostructure electrometers. Here

T M Bühler; R Brenner; D J Reilly; A R Hamilton; A S Dzurak; R G Clark

2002-01-01

409

Frozen spin solid targets developed at the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems (JINR, Dubna)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experience with polarized targets [1,2] and achieving of very low temperatures in 1966 at the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems [3] and by another group [4] gave rise to the idea of using a radically new technique based on dissolving 3He in 4He to create a frozen spin polarized target. The short history of the development of such proton and deuteron targets at the LNP is given. The complex Cr(V) compounds in diols are used as target operating material. A characteristic feature of these targets is a long relaxation time (˜ 1000h) in magnetic fields of about 0.5 T. Lately, the Saclay-Argonne frozen spin proton polarized target used initially in E704 experiment at FERMILAB has been upgraded with adding the missing parts and the first physics experiment has been carried out.

Bazhanov, N. A.; Benda, B.; Borisov, N. S.; Durand, G.; Dzyubak, A. P.; Fedorov, A. N.; Golovanov, L. B.; Gurevich, G. M.; Karnaukhov, I. M.; Kovalev, A. I.; Lazarev, A. B.; Lehar, F.; Lukhanin, A. A.; Matafonov, V. N.; Neganov, A. B.; Plis, Yu. A.; Shilov, S. N.; Topalov, S. V.; Usov, Yu. A.

1998-02-01

410

Ab initio nuclear shielding parameters and spin-rotation coupling constants of FBO, ClBO and FBS

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ab initio nuclear shielding parameters and nuclear spin-rotation coupling constants of FBO, ClBO and FBS have been calculated using the multi-configuration self consistent field (MCSCF) method. The dependence of these parameters upon the basis set and active space employed in the calculation was investigated. The results are compared with the experimental values obtained from microwave spectra.

Gatehouse, Bethany

1998-05-01

411

Symmetric rotating-wave approximation for the generalized single-mode spin-boson system

The single-mode spin-boson model exhibits behavior not included in the rotating-wave approximation (RWA) in the ultra and deep-strong coupling regimes, where counter-rotating contributions become important. We introduce a symmetric rotating-wave approximation that treats rotating and counter-rotating terms equally, preserves the invariances of the Hamiltonian with respect to its parameters, and reproduces several qualitative features of the spin-boson spectrum not present in the original rotating-wave approximation both off-resonance and at deep-strong coupling. The symmetric rotating-wave approximation allows for the treatment of certain ultra- and deep-strong coupling regimes with similar accuracy and mathematical simplicity as does the RWA in the weak-coupling regime. Additionally, we symmetrize the generalized form of the rotating-wave approximation to obtain the same qualitative correspondence with the addition of improved quantitative agreement with the exact numerical results. The method is readily extended to higher accuracy if needed. Finally, we introduce the two-photon parity operator for the two-photon Rabi Hamiltonian and obtain its generalized symmetric rotating-wave approximation. The existence of this operator reveals a parity symmetry similar to that in the Rabi Hamiltonian as well as another symmetry that is unique to the two-photon case, providing insight into the mathematical structure of the two-photon spectrum, significantly simplifying the numerics, and revealing some interesting dynamical properties.

Albert, Victor V.; Scholes, Gregory D.; Brumer, Paul [Department of Chemistry and Centre for Quantum Information and Quantum Control, University of Toronto, Toronto, M5S 3H6 (Canada)

2011-10-15

412

A scanning superconducting quantum interference device with single electron spin sensitivity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) can be used to detect weak magnetic fields and have traditionally been the most sensitive magnetometers available. However, because of their relatively large effective size (on the order of 1 µm), the devices have so far been unable to achieve the level of sensitivity required to detect the field generated by the spin magnetic moment (?B) of a single electron. Here we show that nanoscale SQUIDs with diameters as small as 46 nm can be fabricated on the apex of a sharp tip. The nano-SQUIDs have an extremely low flux noise of 50 n?0 Hz-1/2 and a spin sensitivity of down to 0.38 ?B Hz-1/2, which is almost two orders of magnitude better than previous devices. They can also operate over a wide range of magnetic fields, providing a sensitivity of 0.6 ?B Hz-1/2 at 1 T. The unique geometry of our nano-SQUIDs makes them well suited to scanning probe microscopy, and we use the devices to image vortices in a type II superconductor, spaced 120 nm apart, and to record magnetic fields due to alternating currents down to 50 nT.

Vasyukov, Denis; Anahory, Yonathan; Embon, Lior; Halbertal, Dorri; Cuppens, Jo; Neeman, Lior; Finkler, Amit; Segev, Yehonathan; Myasoedov, Yuri; Rappaport, Michael L.; Huber, Martin E.; Zeldov, Eli

2013-09-01

413

A scanning superconducting quantum interference device with single electron spin sensitivity.

Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) can be used to detect weak magnetic fields and have traditionally been the most sensitive magnetometers available. However, because of their relatively large effective size (on the order of 1 µm), the devices have so far been unable to achieve the level of sensitivity required to detect the field generated by the spin magnetic moment (?B) of a single electron. Here we show that nanoscale SQUIDs with diameters as small as 46 nm can be fabricated on the apex of a sharp tip. The nano-SQUIDs have an extremely low flux noise of 50 n?0 Hz(-1/2) and a spin sensitivity of down to 0.38 ?B Hz(-1/2), which is almost two orders of magnitude better than previous devices. They can also operate over a wide range of magnetic fields, providing a sensitivity of 0.6 ?B Hz(-1/2) at 1 T. The unique geometry of our nano-SQUIDs makes them well suited to scanning probe microscopy, and we use the devices to image vortices in a type II superconductor, spaced 120 nm apart, and to record magnetic fields due to alternating currents down to 50 nT. PMID:23995454

Vasyukov, Denis; Anahory, Yonathan; Embon, Lior; Halbertal, Dorri; Cuppens, Jo; Neeman, Lior; Finkler, Amit; Segev, Yehonathan; Myasoedov, Yuri; Rappaport, Michael L; Huber, Martin E; Zeldov, Eli

2013-09-01

414

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both the temperature and pressure dependent spin state transition behaviour of two Fe(III) complexes will be exemplified. Such compounds are considered attractive as potential molecular switch devices for low power, low weight, high density nanomemory arrays in computer applications, or as sensors. Spin state configurations are readily investigated by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy in the range 300-4 K, or at high pressures up to 20 GPa in diamond anvil cells. An iron coordination compound with the chemical formula {[FeIIIL2] [ClO4]}2·EtOH, where L- is a uni-negative ligand, HL is N-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)salicylideneamine and EtOH is ethanol, is in the high spin (HS), 6A1g, state at room temperature. The onset of low spin (LS) population occurs at {\\sim }240 K and this increases monotonically as the temperature is lowered to 100 K. At 70 K the sample is predominantly in the LS state although a remnant {\\sim }12{%} HS population persists to the lowest recorded temperature of {\\sim }15 K. Thermodynamic parameters associated with the energy barrier between the two spin states are deduced from the temperature dependence of the equilibrium constant K. Pressure induced spin switching from the high moment HS state to the low moment LS electronic state in a haem-porphyrin [FeIII(TPP)(NCS)] will also be shown. Spin pairing onset occurs at a moderate pressure of {\\sim }5 GPa. HS and LS isomers exist in equilibrium up to {\\sim }12 GPa at room temperature. The sample is fully LS populated at P>12 GPa. Temperature and pressure dependent spin-spin relaxation is used to account for the pressure evolution of the (asymmetric) quadrupole split resonance profile. Density functional theory calculations, in conjunction with crystallographic data, are used to consider the structural response to such a spin state variation, perhaps suggesting the possibility of a mechanically operated single-molecule magnetic switch.

Hearne, G. R.; Munro, O.; Pearson, N.; Shongwe, M.

2005-03-01

415

Selection rules for nuclear spin modifications in ion-neutral reactions involving H3+

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present experimental evidence for nuclear spin selection rules in chemical reactions that have been theoretically anticipated by Quack [M. Quack, Mol. Phys. 34, 477 (1997)]. The abundance ratio of ortho-H3+ (I=3/2) and para-H3+ (I=1/2), R=[o-H3+]/[p-H3+], has been measured from relative intensities of their infrared spectral lines in hydrogen plasmas using para-H2 and normal-H2 (75% o-H2 and 25% p-H2). The observed clear differences in the value of R between the p-H2 and n-H2 plasmas demonstrate the spin memory of protons even after ion-neutral reactions, and thus the existence of selection rules for spin modifications. Both positive column discharges and hollow cathode discharges have been used to demonstrate the effect. Experiments using pulsed plasmas have been conducted in the hollow cathode to minimize the uncertainty due to long-term conversion between p-H2 and o-H2 and to study the time dependence of the o-H3+ to p-H3+ ratio. The observed R(t) has been analyzed using simultaneous rate equations assuming the nuclear spin branching ratios calculated from Quack's theory. In p-H2 plasmas, the electron impact ionization followed by the ion-neutral reaction H2++H2-->H3++H produces pure p-H3+, but the subsequent reaction between p-H3+ and p-H2 scrambles protons. While the proton hop reaction (rate constant kH) maintains the purity of p-H3+, the hydrogen exchange reaction (rate constant kE) produces o-H3+ and acts as the gateway for nuclear spin conversion. The value of R(t), therefore, depends critically on the ratio of their reaction rates ?=kH/kE. From observed values of R(t), the ratio has been determined to be ?=2.4. This is in approximate agreement with the value reported by Gerlich using isotopic species.

Cordonnier, M.; Uy, D.; Dickson, R. M.; Kerr, K. E.; Zhang, Y.; Oka, T.

2000-08-01

416

The enhancement of the spin-lattice relaxation rate for nuclear spins in a ligand bound to a paramagnetic metal ion [known as the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE)] arises primarily through the dipole-dipole (DD) interaction between the nuclear spins and the electron spins. In solution, the DD interaction is modulated mostly by reorientation of the nuclear spin-electron spin axis and by electron spin relaxation. Calculations of the PRE are in general complicated, mainly because the electron spin interacts so strongly with the other degrees of freedom that its relaxation cannot be described by second-order perturbation theory or the Redfield theory. Three approaches to resolve this problem exist in the literature: The so-called slow-motion theory, originating from Swedish groups [Benetis et al., Mol. Phys. 48, 329 (1983); Kowalewski et al., Adv. Inorg. Chem. 57, (2005); Larsson et al., J. Chem. Phys. 101, 1116 (1994); T. Nilsson et al., J. Magn. Reson. 154, 269 (2002)] and two different methods based on simulations of the dynamics of electron spin in time domain, developed in Grenoble [Fries and Belorizky, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 204503 (2007); Rast et al., ibid. 115, 7554 (2001)] and Ann Arbor [Abernathy and Sharp, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 9032 (1997); Schaefle and Sharp, ibid. 121, 5387 (2004); Schaefle and Sharp, J. Magn. Reson. 176, 160 (2005)], respectively. In this paper, we report a numerical comparison of the three methods for a large variety of parameter sets, meant to correspond to large and small complexes of gadolinium(III) and of nickel(II). It is found that the agreement between the Swedish and the Grenoble approaches is very good for practically all parameter sets, while the predictions of the Ann Arbor model are similar in a number of the calculations but deviate significantly in others, reflecting in part differences in the treatment of electron spin relaxation. The origins of the discrepancies are discussed briefly. PMID:18266432

Belorizky, Elie; Fries, Pascal H; Helm, Lothar; Kowalewski, Jozef; Kruk, Danuta; Sharp, Robert R; Westlund, Per-Olof

2008-02-01

417

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The single and double spin asymmetries At and Aet have been measured in pi- electro-production off the deuteron using a longitudinally polarized electron beam and a polarized ND3 target. The electron beam was polarized using a strained GaAs cathode and the target was polarized using Dynamic Nuclear Polarization. The data were collected at beam energies of 1.6, 1.7, 2.5 and 4.2 GeV in Hall B at Jefferson Lab in the spring of 2001. The final state particles were detected in the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The d(e,e'pi-p)p exclusive channel was identified using the missing mass technique and the asymmetries were extracted as a function of the momentum transfer Q2, invariant mass W, and center of mass pion angles cos(theta*) and ?*. The results are generally in agreement with the phenomenological model MAID at low energies, but there are discrepancies in the 2nd and 3rd resonance regions, as well as at forward angles.

Careccia, Sharon L.

418

Direct observation of Fe spin reorientation in single-crystalline YbFe6Ge6

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have grown single crystals of YbFe6Ge6 and LuFe6Ge6 and characterized their anisotropic behaviour through low-field magnetic susceptibility, field-dependent magnetization, resistivity and heat capacity measurements. The Yb3+ valency is confirmed by LIII XANES measurements. YbFe6Ge6 crystals exhibit a field-dependent, sudden reorientation of the Fe spins at about 63 K, a unique effect in the RFe6Ge6 family (R = rare earths), where the Fe ions order anti-ferromagnetically with Neél temperatures above 450 K and the R ions' magnetism appears to behave independently. The possible origins of this unusual behaviour of the ordered Fe moments in this compound are discussed.

Avila, M. A.; Takabatake, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.

2005-11-01

419

Single gimbal/strapdown inertial navigation system for use on spin stabilized flight test vehicles

A hybrid strapdown inertial navigation system intended for use on spin stabilized flight test vehicles is described. The configuration of the navigator which is briefly described consists of three floated rate integrating gyros, one of which is used in conjunction with the gimbal with the remaining two operated in a rate gyro mode. Outputs from the two strapdown gyros and three accelerometers are digitized and processed by a high performance computer. The navigation algorithms utilize a direction cosine matrix formulation for the attitude computation implemented in the digital computer. The implementation of this algorithm for the single gimbal configuration is described. An accuracy model and results for a reentry vehicle flight test trajectory are presented. The flight test performance from launch to reentry is presented.

Watts, A.C.; Andreas, R.D.

1980-01-01

420

Ultrafast quasiparticle dynamics in spin-density-wave LaOFeAs single crystal

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrafast quasiparticle dynamics of single crystalline LaOFeAs were investigated by pump-probe measurement. The compound experiences structural and spin-density-wave (SDW) phase transitions at 150 K ( T S1) and 130 K ( T S2), respectively. The relaxation time of quasiparticles was somewhat temperature independent at high temperature but exhibited a sharp upturn at T S1 and reached the maximum at approximately T S2. The remarkable slowing down of quasiparticle relaxation time is caused by the formation of energy gap. By employing the Rothwarf-Taylor model analysis, we found that there should be already energy gaps opening just below the structural transition. The magnitude of SDW gap was identified to be 72 meV.

Chen, RongYan; Dong, Tao; Wang, HaiPeng; Wang, NanLin

2013-12-01