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Sample records for single nuclear spin

  1. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy of a single nuclear spin.

    PubMed

    Delgado, F; Fernndez-Rossier, J

    2011-08-12

    Detection of a single nuclear spin constitutes an outstanding problem in different fields of physics such as quantum computing or magnetic imaging. Here we show that the energy levels of a single nuclear spin can be measured by means of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). We consider two different systems, a magnetic adatom probed with scanning tunneling microscopy and a single Bi dopant in a silicon nanotransistor. We find that the hyperfine coupling opens new transport channels which can be resolved at experimentally accessible temperatures. Our simulations evince that IETS yields information about the occupations of the nuclear spin states, paving the way towards transport-detected single nuclear spin resonance. PMID:21902416

  2. Coherent manipulation of single electronic and nuclear spins in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childress, Lilian

    2008-05-01

    The complex environment of solid-state systems poses a central challenge for solid-state realizations of quantum bits. Nevertheless, we show that the solid-state environment of a single spin can be understood, controlled, and even utilized as a resource. Using coherent manipulation of a single electronic spin associated with a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond, we probe the ^13C nuclear spin bath formed by impurities in the surrounding diamond lattice. We show that this environment is effectively separated into a set of individual, proximal ^13C nuclear spins which are coupled coherently to the electron spin, and the remainder of the ^13C nuclear spins, which cause the loss of coherence. By manipulating the NV center via microwave and optical excitation, we demonstrate robust, room-temperature initialization of the two-qubit register formed by the electronic spin and the nearest-neighbor ^13C nuclear spin. Within this register, arbitrary quantum states can be transferred between the electronic and nuclear spin, while the nuclear spin qubit can be well isolated from the electron spin, even during optical polarization and measurement of the electronic state. Finally, we observe coherent interactions between individual nuclear spins, and demonstrate that they have excellent coherence properties, approaching those of isolated atoms and ions. Combined with teleportation-based quantum gates, such registers offer a basis for scalable, optically coupled quantum information systems.

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with single spin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Mller, C; Kong, X; Cai, J-M; Melentijevi?, K; Stacey, A; Markham, M; Twitchen, D; Isoya, J; Pezzagna, S; Meijer, J; Du, J F; Plenio, M B; Naydenov, B; McGuinness, L P; Jelezko, F

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging at the ultimate sensitivity limit of single molecules or single nuclear spins requires fundamentally new detection strategies. The strong coupling regime, when interaction between sensor and sample spins dominates all other interactions, is one such strategy. In this regime, classically forbidden detection of completely unpolarized nuclei is allowed, going beyond statistical fluctuations in magnetization. Here we realize strong coupling between an atomic (nitrogen-vacancy) sensor and sample nuclei to perform nuclear magnetic resonance on four (29)Si spins. We exploit the field gradient created by the diamond atomic sensor, in concert with compressed sensing, to realize imaging protocols, enabling individual nuclei to be located with Angstrom precision. The achieved signal-to-noise ratio under ambient conditions allows single nuclear spin sensitivity to be achieved within seconds. PMID:25146503

  4. Detecting and Polarizing Nuclear Spins with Double Resonance on a Single Electron Spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    London, P.; Scheuer, J.; Cai, J.-M.; Schwarz, I.; Retzker, A.; Plenio, M. B.; Katagiri, M.; Teraji, T.; Koizumi, S.; Isoya, J.; Fischer, R.; McGuinness, L. P.; Naydenov, B.; Jelezko, F.

    2013-08-01

    We report the detection and polarization of nuclear spins in diamond at room temperature by using a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center. We use Hartmann-Hahn double resonance to coherently enhance the signal from a single nuclear spin while decoupling from the noisy spin bath, which otherwise limits the detection sensitivity. As a proof of principle, we (i) observe coherent oscillations between the NV center and a weakly coupled nuclear spin and (ii) demonstrate nuclear-bath cooling, which prolongs the coherence time of the NV sensor by more than a factor of 5. Our results provide a route to nanometer scale magnetic resonance imaging and novel quantum information processing protocols.

  5. Electronic read-out of a single nuclear spin using a molecular spin transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balestro, Franck

    2013-03-01

    Thanks to recent advances of nanofabrication techniques, molecular electronics devices can address today the ultimate probing of electronic transport flowing through a single molecule. Not only this electronic current can show signatures of the molecular quantum levels but it can also detect the magnetic state of the molecule. As a consequence, an entirely novel research field called molecular spintronics in which quantum magnetism of molecular systems can be interfaced to nanoelectronics is now emerging. One of the recent challenges of this field was to probe by this current, not the only spin state of an electron, but the state of a single nuclear spin. Such an achievement was experimentally unimaginable a few years ago. Indeed, the magnetic signal carried by a single nuclear spin is a thousand times less than that of a single electron spin... Using a Single Molecular Magnet (TbPc2) as a molecular spin transistor in a three terminals configuration, the experiment consists in measuring the current changes when ones sweep the external magnetic field applied to the molecule. When the magnetic spin of the molecule changes its quantum state, a change of current is recorded. Because of the well-defined relationship that exists between the electron spin and nuclear spin carried by the nuclei of the Terbium atom, it is possible to perform the electronic read-out of the electronic spin state which, in turn give information on the state of a single nuclear spin. Application of this effect for quantum information manipulation and storage can be envisioned, as the observation of energy level lifetimes on the order of tens of seconds opens the way to coherent manipulations of a single nuclear spin. In collaboration with R. Vincent, Neel Institut - CNRS - UJF; S. Klyatskaya, Institut of Nanotechnology - KIT; M. Ruben, Institut of Nanotechnology - KIT; and W. Wernsdorfer, Neel Institut - CNRS - UJF.

  6. Detecting and polarizing nuclear spins with double resonance on a single electron spin.

    PubMed

    London, P; Scheuer, J; Cai, J-M; Schwarz, I; Retzker, A; Plenio, M B; Katagiri, M; Teraji, T; Koizumi, S; Isoya, J; Fischer, R; McGuinness, L P; Naydenov, B; Jelezko, F

    2013-08-01

    We report the detection and polarization of nuclear spins in diamond at room temperature by using a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center. We use Hartmann-Hahn double resonance to coherently enhance the signal from a single nuclear spin while decoupling from the noisy spin bath, which otherwise limits the detection sensitivity. As a proof of principle, we (i)observe coherent oscillations between the NV center and a weakly coupled nuclear spin and (ii)demonstrate nuclear-bath cooling, which prolongs the coherence time of the NV sensor by more than a factor of 5. Our results provide a route to nanometer scale magnetic resonance imaging and novel quantum information processing protocols. PMID:23971612

  7. Probing a single nuclear spin in a silicon single electron transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, F.; Aguado, R.; Fernndez-Rossier, J.

    2012-08-01

    We study single electron transport across a single Bi dopant in a silicon nanotransistor to assess how the strong hyperfine coupling with the Bi nuclear spin I = 9/2 affects the transport characteristics of the device. In the sequential tunneling regime we find that at, temperatures in the range of 100 mK, dI/dV curves reflect the zero field hyperfine splitting as well as its evolution under an applied magnetic field. Our non-equilibrium quantum simulations show that nuclear spins can be partially polarized parallel or antiparallel to the electronic spin just tuning the applied bias.

  8. Single-shot readout of multiple nuclear spin qubits in diamond under ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Drau, A; Spinicelli, P; Maze, J R; Roch, J-F; Jacques, V

    2013-02-01

    We use the electronic spin of a single nitrogen-vacancy defect in diamond to observe the real-time evolution of neighboring single nuclear spins under ambient conditions. Using a diamond sample with a natural abundance of (13)C isotopes, we first demonstrate high fidelity initialization and single-shot readout of an individual (13)C nuclear spin. By including the intrinsic (14)N nuclear spin of the nitrogen-vacancy defect in the quantum register, we then report the simultaneous observation of quantum jumps linked to both nuclear spin species, providing an efficient initialization of the two qubits. These results open up new avenues for diamond-based quantum information processing including active feedback in quantum error correction protocols and tests of quantum correlations with solid-state single spins at room temperature. PMID:23432227

  9. Fast Electrical Control of Single Electron Spins in Quantum Dots with Vanishing Influence from Nuclear Spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, J.; Otsuka, T.; Nakajima, T.; Takakura, T.; Obata, T.; Pioro-Ladrire, M.; Lu, H.; Palmstrm, C. J.; Gossard, A. C.; Tarucha, S.

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate fast universal electrical spin manipulation with inhomogeneous magnetic fields. With fast Rabi frequency up to 127 MHz, we leave the conventional regime of strong nuclear-spin influence and observe a spin-flip fidelity >96 % , a distinct chevron Rabi pattern in the spectral-time domain, and a spin resonance linewidth limited by the Rabi frequency, not by the dephasing rate. In addition, we establish fast z rotations up to 54 MHz by directly controlling the spin phase. Our findings will significantly facilitate tomography and error correction with electron spins in quantum dots.

  10. Theory of single nuclear spin detection in magnetic resonance force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemudupati, Srinivasa; Tsifrinovich, Vladimir

    2008-10-01

    We develop a theory for the measurement of a nuclear spin state in a paramagnetic atom with Oscillating Cantilever-Driven Adiabatic Reversals (OSCAR) in Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (MRFM). In this theory, we use a semi-classical approach where the electron-nuclear spin system, with hyperfine interaction, is treated quantum mechanically and the motion of the ferromagnetic particle on the cantilever tip is treated classically. Our computations support the idea of the measurement of a nuclear spin state by detection of a single electron spin.

  11. Protein carbon-13 spin systems by a single two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, B.H.; Westler, W.M.; Darba, P.; Markley, J.L.

    1988-05-13

    By applying a two-dimensional double-quantum carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance experiment to a protein uniformly enriched to 26% carbon-13, networks of directly bonded carbon atoms were identified by virtue of their one-bond spin-spin couplings and were classified by amino acid type according to their particular single- and double-quantum chemical shift patterns. Spin systems of 75 of the 98 amino acid residues in a protein, oxidized Anabaena 7120 ferredoxin (molecular weight 11,000), were identified by this approach, which represents a key step in an improved methodology for assigning protein nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. Missing spin systems corresponded primarily to residues located adjacent to the paramagnetic iron-sulfur cluster. 25 references, 2 figures.

  12. Coherent Population Trapping of a Single Nuclear Spin Under Ambient Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamonneau, P.; Hétet, G.; Dréau, A.; Roch, J.-F.; Jacques, V.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate coherent population trapping of a single nuclear spin in a room-temperature solid. To this end, we exploit a three-level system with a Λ configuration in the microwave domain, which consists of nuclear spin states addressed through their hyperfine coupling to the electron spin of a single nitrogen-vacancy defect in diamond. Moreover, the Λ -scheme relaxation is externally controlled through incoherent optical pumping and separated in time from consecutive coherent microwave excitations. Such a scheme allows us (i) to monitor the sequential accumulation of population into the dark state and (ii) to reach a novel regime of coherent population trapping dynamics for which periodic arrays of dark resonances can be observed, owing to multiple constructive interferences. This Letter offers new prospects for quantum state preparation, information storage in hybrid quantum systems, and metrology.

  13. Coherent Population Trapping of a Single Nuclear Spin Under Ambient Conditions.

    PubMed

    Jamonneau, P; Htet, G; Drau, A; Roch, J-F; Jacques, V

    2016-01-29

    We demonstrate coherent population trapping of a single nuclear spin in a room-temperature solid. To this end, we exploit a three-level system with a ? configuration in the microwave domain, which consists of nuclear spin states addressed through their hyperfine coupling to the electron spin of a single nitrogen-vacancy defect in diamond. Moreover, the ?-scheme relaxation is externally controlled through incoherent optical pumping and separated in time from consecutive coherent microwave excitations. Such a scheme allows us (i)to monitor the sequential accumulation of population into the dark state and (ii)to reach a novel regime of coherent population trapping dynamics for which periodic arrays of dark resonances can be observed, owing to multiple constructive interferences. This Letter offers new prospects for quantum state preparation, information storage in hybrid quantum systems, and metrology. PMID:26871331

  14. Fast Room-Temperature Phase Gate on a Single Nuclear Spin in Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangtawesin, S.; Brundage, T. O.; Petta, J. R.

    2015-03-01

    Nuclear spins support long lived quantum coherence due to weak coupling to the environment, but are difficult to rapidly control using nuclear magnetic resonance as a result of the small nuclear magnetic moment. We demonstrate a fast ~ 500 ns nuclear spin phase gate on a 14N nuclear spin qubit intrinsic to a nitrogen-vacancy center in high purity diamond. This phase gate is achieved by utilizing electron-nuclear hyperfine interaction. By driving off-resonant Rabi oscillations on the electronic spin, we can generate an arbitrary phase gate on the nuclear spin. We also demonstrate that repeated applications of ?-phase gates can bang-bang decouple the nuclear spin from the environment, locking the spin state for up to 140 ?s. Research was supported by the Sloan and Packard Foundations, the National Science Foundation through Awards DMR-0819860 and DMR-0846341, and the Army Research Office through PECASE Award W911NF-08-1-0189.

  15. Probing the effective nuclear-spin magnetic field in a single quantum dot via full counting statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Hai-Bin; Nie, Yi-Hang; Chen, Jingzhe; Ren, Wei

    2015-03-15

    We study theoretically the full counting statistics of electron transport through a quantum dot weakly coupled to two ferromagnetic leads, in which an effective nuclear-spin magnetic field originating from the configuration of nuclear spins is considered. We demonstrate that the quantum coherence between the two singly-occupied eigenstates and the spin polarization of two ferromagnetic leads play an important role in the formation of super-Poissonian noise. In particular, the orientation and magnitude of the effective field have a significant influence on the variations of the values of high-order cumulants, and the variations of the skewness and kurtosis values are more sensitive to the orientation and magnitude of the effective field than the shot noise. Thus, the high-order cumulants of transport current can be used to qualitatively extract information on the orientation and magnitude of the effective nuclear-spin magnetic field in a single quantum dot. - Highlights: • The effective nuclear-spin magnetic field gives rise to the off-diagonal elements of the reduced density matrix of single QD. • The off-diagonal elements of reduced density matrix of the QD have a significant impact on the high-order current cumulants. • The high-order current cumulants are sensitive to the orientation and magnitude of the effective nuclear-spin magnetic field. • The FCS can be used to detect the orientation and magnitude of the effective nuclear-spin magnetic field in a single QD.

  16. Sensing of single nuclear spins in random thermal motion with proximate nitrogen-vacancy centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruderer, M.; Fernández-Acebal, P.; Aurich, R.; Plenio, M. B.

    2016-03-01

    Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond have emerged as valuable tools for sensing and polarizing spins. Motivated by potential applications in chemistry, biology, and medicine, we show that NV-based sensors are capable of detecting single spin targets even if they undergo diffusive motion in an ambient thermal environment. Focusing on experimentally relevant diffusion regimes, we derive an effective model for the NV-target interaction, where parameters entering the model are obtained from numerical simulations of the target motion. The practicality of our approach is demonstrated by analyzing two realistic experimental scenarios: (i) time-resolved sensing of a fluorine nuclear spin bound to an N-heterocyclic carbene-ruthenium (NHC-Ru) catalyst that is immobilized on the diamond surface and (ii) detection of an electron spin label by an NV center in a nanodiamond, both attached to a vibrating chemokine receptor in thermal motion. We find in particular that the detachment of a fluorine target from the NHC-Ru carrier molecule can be monitored with a time resolution of a few seconds.

  17. Quantum-state tomography of a single nuclear spin qubit of an optically manipulated ytterbium atom

    SciTech Connect

    Noguchi, Atsushi; Kozuma, Mikio; Eto, Yujiro; Ueda, Masahito

    2011-09-15

    A single Yb atom is loaded into a high-finesse optical cavity with a moving lattice, and its nuclear spin state is manipulated using a nuclear magnetic resonance technique. A highly reliable quantum state control with fidelity and purity greater than 0.98 and 0.96, respectively, is confirmed by the full quantum state tomography; a projective measurement with high speed (500 {mu}s) and high efficiency (0.98) is accomplished using the cavity QED technique. Because a hyperfine coupling is induced only when the projective measurement is operational, the long coherence times (T{sub 1}=0.49 s and T{sub 2}=0.10 s) are maintained.

  18. A mononuclear transition metal single-molecule magnet in a nuclear spin-free ligand environment.

    PubMed

    Fataftah, Majed S; Zadrozny, Joseph M; Rogers, Dylan M; Freedman, Danna E

    2014-10-01

    The high-spin pseudotetrahedral complex [Co(C3S5)2](2-) exhibits slow magnetic relaxation in the absence of an applied dc magnetic field, one of a small number of mononuclear complexes to display this property. Fits to low-temperature magnetization data indicate that this single-molecule magnet possesses a very large and negative axial zero-field splitting and small rhombicity. The presence of single-molecule magnet behavior in a zero-nuclear spin ligand field offers the opportunity to investigate the potential for this molecule to be a qubit, the smallest unit of a quantum information processing (QIP) system. However, simulations of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra and the absence of EPR spectra demonstrate that this molecule is unsuitable as a qubit due to the same factors that promote single molecule magnet behavior. We discuss the influence of rhombic and axial zero-field splitting on QIP applications and the implications for future molecular qubit syntheses. PMID:25198379

  19. High-selectivity detection of single nuclear spins using rotary echo on a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkhitaryan, Vagharsh; Dobrovitski, Viatcheslav

    2014-03-01

    The properties of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond make them an excellent tool for nanoscale spin detection and sensing, capable of detecting individual nuclear spins located 0.5-1 nm away. However, the selectivity of the current methods is limited. We show that the rotating-frame control of the NV center's electron spin can improve the sensing selectivity 10-1000 times in comparison with the existing methods. We employ periodically changing Rabi driving (multiple rotary echo) with a precisely chosen period, corresponding to the precession of the given nuclear spin. The rotary echo decouples the NV center from most nuclear spins, efficiently protecting coherence. At the same time, the given nuclear spin, whose precession fits a stringent resonance condition, does not decouple, and can be detected by its decohering impact on the NV spin. We evaluate the resolution and sensitivity of this detection scheme analytically, and verify the results by numerical simulations.

  20. High-spin nuclear spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, R.M.

    1986-07-01

    High-spin spectroscopy is the study of the changes in nuclear structure, properties, and behavior with increasing angular momentum. It involves the complex interplay between collective and single-particle motion, between shape and deformation changes, particle alignments, and changes in the pairing correlations. A review of progress in theory, experimentation, and instrumentation in this field is given. (DWL)

  1. Control of electron spin decoherence in nuclear spin baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ren-Bao

    2011-03-01

    Nuclear spin baths are a main mechanism of decoherence of spin qubits in solid-state systems, such as quantum dots and nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers of diamond. The decoherence results from entanglement between the electron and nuclear spins, established by quantum evolution of the bath conditioned on the electron spin state. When the electron spin is flipped, the conditional bath evolution is manipulated. Such manipulation of bath through control of the electron spin not only leads to preservation of the center spin coherence but also demonstrates quantum nature of the bath. In an NV center system, the electron spin effectively interacts with hundreds of 13 C nuclear spins. Under repeated flip control (dynamical decoupling), the electron spin coherence can be preserved for a long time (> 1 ms) . Thereforesomecharacteristicoscillations , duetocouplingtoabonded 13 C nuclear spin pair (a dimer), are imprinted on the electron spin coherence profile, which are very sensitive to the position and orientation of the dimer. With such finger-print oscillations, a dimer can be uniquely identified. Thus, we propose magnetometry with single-nucleus sensitivity and atomic resolution, using NV center spin coherence to identify single molecules. Through the center spin coherence, we could also explore the many-body physics in an interacting spin bath. The information of elementary excitations and many-body correlations can be extracted from the center spin coherence under many-pulse dynamical decoupling control. Another application of the preserved spin coherence is identifying quantumness of a spin bath through the back-action of the electron spin to the bath. We show that the multiple transition of an NV center in a nuclear spin bath can have longer coherence time than the single transition does, when the classical noises due to inhomogeneous broadening is removed by spin echo. This counter-intuitive result unambiguously demonstrates the quantumness of the nuclear spin bath. This work was supported by Hong Kong RGC/GRF CUHK402207, CUHK402209, and CUHK402410. The author acknowledges collaboration with Nan Zhao, Jian-Liang Hu, Sai Wah Ho, Jones T. K. Wan, and Jiangfeng Du.

  2. Observation of Zero-Point Quantum Fluctuations of a Single-Molecule Magnet through the Relaxation of its Nuclear Spin Bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morello, A.; Milln, A.; de Jongh, L. J.

    2014-03-01

    A single-molecule magnet placed in a magnetic field perpendicular to its anisotropy axis can be truncated to an effective two-level system, with easily tunable energy splitting. The quantum coherence of the molecular spin is largely determined by the dynamics of the surrounding nuclear spin bath. Here we report the measurement of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1n in a single crystal of the single-molecule magnet Mn12-ac, at T ?30 mK in perpendicular fields B? up to 9 T. The relaxation channel at B?0 is dominated by incoherent quantum tunneling of the Mn12-ac spin S, aided by the nuclear bath itself. However for B?>5 T we observe an increase of 1/T1n by several orders of magnitude up to the highest field, despite the fact that the molecular spin is in its quantum mechanical ground state. This striking observation is a consequence of the zero-point quantum fluctuations of S, which allow it to mediate the transfer of energy from the excited nuclear spin bath to the crystal lattice at much higher rates. Our experiment highlights the importance of quantum fluctuations in the interaction between an "effective two-level system" and its surrounding spin bath.

  3. Nuclear spin circular dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Vaara, Juha; Rizzo, Antonio; Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick; Coriani, Sonia

    2014-04-07

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in magneto-optic spectroscopy techniques that use nuclear magnetization as the source of the magnetic field. Here we present a formulation of magnetic circular dichroism (CD) due to magnetically polarized nuclei, nuclear spin-induced CD (NSCD), in molecules. The NSCD ellipticity and nuclear spin-induced optical rotation (NSOR) angle correspond to the real and imaginary parts, respectively, of (complex) quadratic response functions involving the dynamic second-order interaction of the electron system with the linearly polarized light beam, as well as the static magnetic hyperfine interaction. Using the complex polarization propagator framework, NSCD and NSOR signals are obtained at frequencies in the vicinity of optical excitations. Hartree-Fock and density-functional theory calculations on relatively small model systems, ethene, benzene, and 1,4-benzoquinone, demonstrate the feasibility of the method for obtaining relatively strong nuclear spin-induced ellipticity and optical rotation signals. Comparison of the proton and carbon-13 signals of ethanol reveals that these resonant phenomena facilitate chemical resolution between non-equivalent nuclei in magneto-optic spectra.

  4. Detection and Control of Individual Nuclear Spins Using a Weakly Coupled Electron Spin

    SciTech Connect

    Taminiau, T.H.; Wagenaar, J.J.T.; van der Sar, T.; Jelezko, F.; Dobrovitski, Viatcheslav V.; Hanson, R.

    2012-09-28

    We experimentally isolate, characterize, and coherently control up to six individual nuclear spins that are weakly coupled to an electron spin in diamond. Our method employs multipulse sequences on the electron spin that resonantly amplify the interaction with a selected nuclear spin and at the same time dynamically suppress decoherence caused by the rest of the spin bath. We are able to address nuclear spins with interaction strengths that are an order of magnitude smaller than the electron spin dephasing rate. Our results provide a route towards tomography with single-nuclear-spin sensitivity and greatly extend the number of available quantum bits for quantum information processing in diamond.

  5. Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation at field-induced level crossings in a Cr8F8 pivalate single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    We construct a microscopic theory for the proton spin-lattice relaxation-rate 1 / T1 measurements around field-induced level crossings in a single crystal of the trivalent chromium ion wheel complex [Cr8F8(OOCtBu)16] at sufficiently low temperatures [E. Micotti et al., Phys. Rev. B 72 (2005) 020405(R)]. Exactly diagonalizing a well-equipped spin Hamiltonian for the individual clusters and giving further consideration to their possible interactions, we reveal the mechanism of 1 / T1 being single-peaked normally at the first level crossing but double-peaked intriguingly around the second level crossing. We wipe out the doubt about poor crystallization and find out a solution-intramolecular alternating Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction combined with intermolecular coupling of antiferromagnetic character, each of which is so weak as several tens of mK in magnitude.

  6. Liquid-state nuclear spin comagnetometers.

    PubMed

    Ledbetter, M P; Pustelny, S; Budker, D; Romalis, M V; Blanchard, J W; Pines, A

    2012-06-15

    We discuss nuclear spin comagnetometers based on ultralow-field nuclear magnetic resonance in mixtures of miscible solvents, each rich in a different nuclear spin. In one version thereof, Larmor precession of protons and 19F nuclei in a mixture of thermally polarized pentane and hexafluorobenzene is monitored via a sensitive alkali-vapor magnetometer. We realize transverse relaxation times in excess of 20 s and suppression of magnetic field fluctuations by a factor of 3400. We estimate it should be possible to achieve single-shot sensitivity of about 510(-9)??Hz, or about 510(-11)??Hz in ?1 day of integration. In a second version, spin precession of protons and 129Xe nuclei in a mixture of pentane and hyperpolarized liquid xenon is monitored using superconducting quantum interference devices. Application to spin-gravity experiments, electric dipole moment experiments, and sensitive gyroscopes is discussed. PMID:23004267

  7. Impact of nuclear spin dynamics on electron transport through donors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorman, S. K.; Broome, M. A.; Baker, W. J.; Simmons, M. Y.

    2015-09-01

    We present an analysis of electron transport through two weakly coupled precision-placed phosphorus donors in silicon. In particular, we examine the (1,1)?(0,2) charge transition where we predict a type of current blockade driven entirely by the nuclear spin dynamics. Using this nuclear spin blockade mechanism, we devise a protocol to read out the state of single nuclear spins using electron-transport measurements only. We extend our model to include realistic effects such as Stark shifted hyperfine interactions and multidonor clusters. In the case of multidonor clusters we show how nuclear spin blockade can be alleviated, allowing for low magnetic field electron-spin measurements.

  8. Nuclear moment of inertia and spin distribution of nuclear levels

    SciTech Connect

    Alhassid, Y.; Fang, L.; Liu, S.; Bertsch, G.F.

    2005-12-15

    We introduce a simple model to calculate the nuclear moment of inertia at finite temperature. This moment of inertia describes the spin distribution of nuclear levels in the framework of the spin-cutoff model. Our model is based on a deformed single-particle Hamiltonian with pairing interaction and takes into account fluctuations in the pairing gap. We derive a formula for the moment of inertia at finite temperature that generalizes the Belyaev formula for zero temperature. We show that a number-parity projection explains the strong odd-even effects observed in shell model Monte Carlo studies of the nuclear moment of inertia in the iron region.

  9. Nuclear spin noise imaging.

    PubMed

    Mller, Norbert; Jerschow, Alexej

    2006-05-01

    NMR images were obtained from the proton spin noise signals of a water-containing phantom, which was placed in the highly tuned, low-noise resonant circuit of a cryogenically cooled NMR probe in the presence of systematically varied magnetic field gradients. The spatially resolved proton spin density was obtained from the raw signal by a modified projection-reconstruction protocol. Although spin noise imaging is inherently less sensitive than conventional magnetic resonance imaging, it affords an entirely noninvasive visualization of the interior of opaque objects or subjects. Thus, tomography becomes possible even when neither x-ray nor radio frequency radiation can be applied for technical or safety reasons. PMID:16636281

  10. Single-spin stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pfender, Matthias; Aslam, Nabeel; Waldherr, Gerald; Neumann, Philipp; Wrachtrup, Jrg

    2014-10-14

    We experimentally demonstrate precision addressing of single-quantum emitters by combined optical microscopy and spin resonance techniques. To this end, we use nitrogen vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond confined within a few ten nanometers as individually resolvable quantum systems. By developing a stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) technique for NV centers, we are able to simultaneously perform sub-diffraction-limit imaging and optically detected spin resonance (ODMR) measurements on NV spins. This allows the assignment of spin resonance spectra to individual NV center locations with nanometer-scale resolution and thus further improves spatial discrimination. For example, we resolved formerly indistinguishable emitters by their spectra. Furthermore, ODMR spectra contain metrology information allowing for sub-diffraction-limit sensing of, for instance, magnetic or electric fields with inherently parallel data acquisition. As an example, we have detected nuclear spins with nanometer-scale precision. Finally, we give prospects of how this technique can evolve into a fully parallel quantum sensor for nanometer resolution imaging of delocalized quantum correlations. PMID:25267655

  11. Single-spin stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pfender, Matthias; Aslam, Nabeel; Waldherr, Gerald; Neumann, Philipp; Wrachtrup, Jrg

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate precision addressing of single-quantum emitters by combined optical microscopy and spin resonance techniques. To this end, we use nitrogen vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond confined within a few ten nanometers as individually resolvable quantum systems. By developing a stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) technique for NV centers, we are able to simultaneously perform subdiffraction-limit imaging and optically detected spin resonance (ODMR) measurements on NV spins. This allows the assignment of spin resonance spectra to individual NV center locations with nanometer-scale resolution and thus further improves spatial discrimination. For example, we resolved formerly indistinguishable emitters by their spectra. Furthermore, ODMR spectra contain metrology information allowing for subdiffraction-limit sensing of, for instance, magnetic or electric fields with inherently parallel data acquisition. As an example, we have detected nuclear spins with nanometer-scale precision. Finally, we give prospects of how this technique can evolve into a fully parallel quantum sensor for nanometer resolution imaging of delocalized quantum correlations. PMID:25267655

  12. Uncovering many-body correlations in nanoscale nuclear spin baths by central spin decoherence

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wen-Long; Wolfowicz, Gary; Zhao, Nan; Li, Shu-Shen; Morton, John J.L.; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2014-01-01

    Central spin decoherence caused by nuclear spin baths is often a critical issue in various quantum computing schemes, and it has also been used for sensing single-nuclear spins. Recent theoretical studies suggest that central spin decoherence can act as a probe of many-body physics in spin baths; however, identification and detection of many-body correlations of nuclear spins in nanoscale systems are highly challenging. Here, taking a phosphorus donor electron spin in a 29Si nuclear spin bath as our model system, we discover both theoretically and experimentally that many-body correlations in nanoscale nuclear spin baths produce identifiable signatures in decoherence of the central spin under multiple-pulse dynamical decoupling control. We demonstrate that under control by an odd or even number of pulses, the central spin decoherence is principally caused by second- or fourth-order nuclear spin correlations, respectively. This study marks an important step toward studying many-body physics using spin qubits. PMID:25205440

  13. Uncovering many-body correlations in nanoscale nuclear spin baths by central spin decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wen-Long; Wolfowicz, Gary; Zhao, Nan; Li, Shu-Shen; Morton, John J. L.; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2014-09-01

    Central spin decoherence caused by nuclear spin baths is often a critical issue in various quantum computing schemes, and it has also been used for sensing single-nuclear spins. Recent theoretical studies suggest that central spin decoherence can act as a probe of many-body physics in spin baths; however, identification and detection of many-body correlations of nuclear spins in nanoscale systems are highly challenging. Here, taking a phosphorus donor electron spin in a 29Si nuclear spin bath as our model system, we discover both theoretically and experimentally that many-body correlations in nanoscale nuclear spin baths produce identifiable signatures in decoherence of the central spin under multiple-pulse dynamical decoupling control. We demonstrate that under control by an odd or even number of pulses, the central spin decoherence is principally caused by second- or fourth-order nuclear spin correlations, respectively. This study marks an important step toward studying many-body physics using spin qubits.

  14. Electrons trapped in single crystals of sucrose: Induced spin densities

    SciTech Connect

    Box, H.C.; Budzinski, E.E.; Freund, H.G. )

    1990-07-01

    Electrons are trapped at intermolecular sites in single crystals of sucrose {ital X} irradiated at 4.2 K. The coupling tensors for the hyperfine couplings between the electron and surrounding protons have been deduced from electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) data. Electron spin densities at nearby hydroxy protons are positive, whereas spin densities at the more remote protons of carbon-bound hydrogen atoms are negative. The origin of these negative spin densities is discussed.

  15. Single spin detection by magnetic resonance force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugar, Daniel

    2005-03-01

    Single spin detection by magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) is based on ultrasensitive measurements of the attonewton magnetic force between a spin and a nearby magnetic tip. Interest in the technique is driven by potential applications to three-dimensional atomic resolution imaging and by fundamental interest in the detection and manipulation of individual quantum objects. This talk describes the basic principles of MRFM and discusses recent results that demonstrated the detection of an individual electron spin buried below the surface of a silicon dioxide sample. Various innovations that led to single spin detection will be described, including ultrasensitive force detection, spin-friendly micromechanical cantilevers and methods to measure and control statistical polarization in small spin ensembles. Future prospects for quantum state readout and for extension to nuclear spin detection will be discussed. This work was performed in collaboration with H. J. Mamin, R. Budakian and B. W. Chui.

  16. Electron spin decoherence in nuclear spin baths and dynamical decoupling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, N.; Yang, W.; Ho, S. W.; Hu, J. L.; Wan, J. T. K.; Liu, R. B.

    2011-12-23

    We introduce the quantum theory of the electron spin decoherence in a nuclear spin bath and the dynamical decoupling approach for protecting the electron spin coherence. These theories are applied to various solid-state systems, such as radical spins in molecular crystals and NV centers in diamond.

  17. Spin noise spectroscopy in semiconductors: from a billion down to single spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hbner, J.; Dahbashi, R.; Berski, F.; Wiegand, J.; Kuhn, H.; Lonnemann, J.; Oestreich, M.

    2014-08-01

    Spin noise spectroscopy in semiconductors has matured during the past nine years into a versatile and well developed technique being capable to unveil the intrinsic and unaltered spin dynamics in a wide range of semiconductor systems. Originating from atom and quantum optics as a potential true quantum non-demolition measurement technique, SNS is capable of unearthing the intricate dynamics of free or localized electron and hole spins in semiconductors being eventually coupled to the nuclear spin bath as well. In this contribution, we review shortly the major steps which inspired the success of spin noise spectroscopy in semiconductors and present the most recent extensions into the low-invasive detection regime of the spin dynamics for the two extreme limits of very high and extremely low rates of spin decoherence, respectively. On the one hand, merging ultrafast laser spectroscopy with spin noise spectroscopy enables the detection of spin noise with picosecond resolution, i.e., with THz bandwidths yielding access to otherwise concealed microscopic electronic processes. On the other hand, we present very high sensitivity SNS being capable to measure the extremely long spin coherence of single holes enclosed in individual quantum dots venturing a step forward towards true optical quantum non-demolition experiments in semiconductors. In addition, higher-order spin noise statistics of, e.g., single charges can give information beyond the linear response regime governed by the fundamental fluctuationdissipation theorem and thereby possibly shed some light on the nested coupling between electronic and nuclear spins.

  18. Electron Spin Dephasing and Decoherence by Interaction with Nuclear Spins in Self-Assembled Quantum Dots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seungwon; vonAllmen, Paul; Oyafuso, Fabiano; Klimeck, Gerhard; Whale, K. Birgitta

    2004-01-01

    Electron spin dephasing and decoherence by its interaction with nuclear spins in self-assembled quantum dots are investigated in the framework of the empirical tight-binding model. Electron spin dephasing in an ensemble of dots is induced by the inhomogeneous precession frequencies of the electron among dots, while electron spin decoherence in a single dot arises from the inhomogeneous precession frequencies of nuclear spins in the dot. For In(x)Ga(1-x) As self-assembled dots containing 30000 nuclei, the dephasing and decoherence times are predicted to be on the order of 100 ps and 1 (micro)s.

  19. Radio-Frequency Magnetometry Using a Single Electron Spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loretz, M.; Rosskopf, T.; Degen, C. L.

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a simple and robust protocol for the detection of weak radio-frequency magnetic fields using a single electron spin in diamond. Our method relies on spin locking, where the Rabi frequency of the spin is adjusted to match the MHz signal frequency. In a proof-of-principle experiment we detect a 7.5 MHz magnetic probe field of 40nT amplitude with <10kHz spectral resolution. Rotating-frame magnetometry may provide a direct and sensitive route to high-resolution spectroscopy of nanoscale nuclear spin signals.

  20. Coherent properties of single rare-earth spin qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siyushev, P.; Xia, K.; Reuter, R.; Jamali, M.; Zhao, N.; Yang, N.; Duan, C.; Kukharchyk, N.; Wieck, A. D.; Kolesov, R.; Wrachtrup, J.

    2014-05-01

    Rare-earth-doped crystals are excellent hardware for quantum storage of photons. Additional functionality of these materials is added by their waveguiding properties allowing for on-chip photonic networks. However, detection and coherent properties of rare-earth single-spin qubits have not been demonstrated so far. Here we present experimental results on high-fidelity optical initialization, effcient coherent manipulation and optical readout of a single-electron spin of Ce3+ ion in a yttrium aluminium garnet crystal. Under dynamic decoupling, spin coherence lifetime reaches T2=2?ms and is almost limited by the measured spin-lattice relaxation time T1=4.5?ms. Strong hyperfine coupling to aluminium nuclear spins suggests that cerium electron spins can be exploited as an interface between photons and long-lived nuclear spin memory. Combined with high brightness of Ce3+ emission and a possibility of creating photonic circuits out of the host material, this makes cerium spins an interesting option for integrated quantum photonics.

  1. Coherent properties of single rare-earth spin qubits.

    PubMed

    Siyushev, P; Xia, K; Reuter, R; Jamali, M; Zhao, N; Yang, N; Duan, C; Kukharchyk, N; Wieck, A D; Kolesov, R; Wrachtrup, J

    2014-01-01

    Rare-earth-doped crystals are excellent hardware for quantum storage of photons. Additional functionality of these materials is added by their waveguiding properties allowing for on-chip photonic networks. However, detection and coherent properties of rare-earth single-spin qubits have not been demonstrated so far. Here we present experimental results on high-fidelity optical initialization, efficient coherent manipulation and optical readout of a single-electron spin of Ce(3+) ion in a yttrium aluminium garnet crystal. Under dynamic decoupling, spin coherence lifetime reaches T2 = 2 ms and is almost limited by the measured spin-lattice relaxation time T1 = 4.5 ms. Strong hyperfine coupling to aluminium nuclear spins suggests that cerium electron spins can be exploited as an interface between photons and long-lived nuclear spin memory. Combined with high brightness of Ce(3+) emission and a possibility of creating photonic circuits out of the host material, this makes cerium spins an interesting option for integrated quantum photonics. PMID:24826968

  2. Nuclear spin squeezing via electric quadrupole interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksu Korkmaz, Ya?mur; Bulutay, Ceyhun

    2016-01-01

    Control over nuclear-spin fluctuations is essential for processes that rely on preserving the quantum state of an embedded system. For this purpose, squeezing is a viable alternative, so far that has not been properly exploited for the nuclear spins. Of particular relevance in solids is the electric quadrupole interaction (QI), which operates on nuclei having spin higher than 1/2. In its general form, QI involves an electric-field gradient (EFG) biaxiality term. Here, we show that as this EFG biaxiality increases, it enables continuous tuning of single-particle squeezing from the one-axis twisting to the two-axis countertwisting limits. A detailed analysis of QI squeezing is provided, exhibiting the intricate consequences of EFG biaxiality. The initial states over the Bloch sphere are mapped out to identify those favorable for fast initial squeezing, or for prolonged squeezings. Furthermore, the evolution of squeezing in the presence of a phase-damping channel and an external magnetic field are investigated. We observe that dephasing drives toward an antisqueezed terminal state, the degree of which increases with the spin angular momentum. Finally, QI squeezing in the limiting case of a two-dimensional EFG with a perpendicular magnetic field is discussed, which is of importance for two-dimensional materials, and the associated beat patterns in squeezing are revealed.

  3. STM NMR and nuclear spin noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balatsky, A. V.; Fransson, J.; Mozyrsky, D.; Manassen, Yishay

    2006-05-01

    Fluctuations of an electronic spin can be revealed in the tunneling current fluctuations of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). We consider fluctuations of the electronic spin due to coupling to nuclear spin. We argue that the noise spectroscopy of electronic spin can reveal the nuclear spin dynamics due to hyperfine coupling. We find that the STM tunneling current power spectrum develops hyperfine split satellites of the main lines at Larmor frequency and at zero frequency. We also address the role of the rf field that is at or near the resonance with the nuclear hyperfine field. This approach is similar to electron nuclear double resonance in that is allows one to detect nuclear spin dynamics indirectly through its effect on electronic spin.

  4. Single spin detection by magnetic resonance force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Rugar, D; Budakian, R; Mamin, H J; Chui, B W

    2004-07-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is well known as a powerful technique for visualizing subsurface structures with three-dimensional spatial resolution. Pushing the resolution below 1 micro m remains a major challenge, however, owing to the sensitivity limitations of conventional inductive detection techniques. Currently, the smallest volume elements in an image must contain at least 10(12) nuclear spins for MRI-based microscopy, or 10(7) electron spins for electron spin resonance microscopy. Magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) was proposed as a means to improve detection sensitivity to the single-spin level, and thus enable three-dimensional imaging of macromolecules (for example, proteins) with atomic resolution. MRFM has also been proposed as a qubit readout device for spin-based quantum computers. Here we report the detection of an individual electron spin by MRFM. A spatial resolution of 25 nm in one dimension was obtained for an unpaired spin in silicon dioxide. The measured signal is consistent with a model in which the spin is aligned parallel or anti-parallel to the effective field, with a rotating-frame relaxation time of 760 ms. The long relaxation time suggests that the state of an individual spin can be monitored for extended periods of time, even while subjected to a complex set of manipulations that are part of the MRFM measurement protocol. PMID:15254532

  5. Nuclear spin content and constraints on exotic spin-dependent couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimball, D. F. Jackson

    2015-07-01

    There are numerous recent and ongoing experiments employing a variety of atomic species to search for couplings of atomic spins to exotic fields. In order to meaningfully compare these experimental results, the coupling of the exotic field to the atomic spin must be interpreted in terms of the coupling to electron, proton, and neutron spins. Traditionally, constraints from atomic experiments on exotic couplings to neutron and proton spins have been derived using the single-particle Schmidt model for nuclear spin. In this model, particular atomic species are sensitive to either neutron or proton spin couplings, but not both. More recently, semi-empirical models employing nuclear magnetic moment data have been used to derive new constraints for non-valence nucleons. However, comparison of such semi-empirical models to detailed large-scale nuclear shell model calculations and analysis of known physical effects in nuclei show that existing semi-empirical models cannot reliably be used to predict the spin polarization of non-valence nucleons. The results of our re-analysis of nuclear spin content are applied to searches for exotic long-range monopole-dipole and dipole-dipole couplings of nuclei leading to significant revisions of some published constraints.

  6. Single spin optically detected magnetic resonance with 60-90 GHz (E-band) microwave resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslam, Nabeel; Pfender, Matthias; Stöhr, Rainer; Neumann, Philipp; Scheffler, Marc; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Abe, Hiroshi; Onoda, Shinobu; Ohshima, Takeshi; Isoya, Junichi; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2015-06-01

    Magnetic resonance with ensembles of electron spins is commonly performed around 10 GHz, but also at frequencies above 240 GHz and in corresponding magnetic fields of over 9 T. However, experiments with single electron and nuclear spins so far only reach into frequency ranges of several 10 GHz, where existing coplanar waveguide structures for microwave (MW) delivery are compatible with single spin readout techniques (e.g., electrical or optical readout). Here, we explore the frequency range up to 90 GHz, with magnetic fields of up to ≈3 T for single spin magnetic resonance in conjunction with optical spin readout. To this end, we develop MW resonators with optical single spin access. In our case, rectangular 60-90 GHz (E-band) waveguides guarantee low-loss supply of microwaves to the resonators. Three dimensional cavities, as well as coplanar waveguide resonators, enhance MW fields by spatial and spectral confinement with a MW efficiency of 1 . 36 mT / √{ W } . We utilize single nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers as hosts for optically accessible spins and show that their properties regarding optical spin readout known from smaller fields (<0.65 T) are retained up to fields of 3 T. In addition, we demonstrate coherent control of single nuclear spins under these conditions. Furthermore, our results extend the applicable magnetic field range of a single spin magnetic field sensor. Regarding spin based quantum registers, high fields lead to a purer product basis of electron and nuclear spins, which promises improved spin lifetimes. For example, during continuous single-shot readout, the 14N nuclear spin shows second-long longitudinal relaxation times.

  7. Polarization of nuclear spins by a cold nanoscale resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Mark C.; Weitekamp, Daniel P.

    2011-12-01

    A cold nanoscale resonator coupled to a system of nuclear spins can induce spin relaxation. In the low-temperature limit where spin-lattice interactions are frozen out, spontaneous emission by nuclear spins into a resonant mechanical mode can become the dominant mechanism for cooling the spins to thermal equilibrium with their environment. We provide a theoretical framework for the study of resonator-induced cooling of nuclear spins in this low-temperature regime. Relaxation equations are derived from first principles, in the limit where energy donated by the spins to the resonator is quickly dissipated into the cold bath that damps it. A physical interpretation of the processes contributing to spin polarization is given. For a system of spins that have identical couplings to the resonator, the interaction Hamiltonian conserves spin angular momentum, and the resonator cannot relax the spins to thermal equilibrium unless this symmetry is broken by the spin Hamiltonian. The mechanism by which such a spin system becomes trapped away from thermal equilibrium can be visualized using a semiclassical model, which shows how an indirect spin-spin interaction arises from the coupling of multiple spins to one resonator. The internal spin Hamiltonian can affect the polarization process in two ways: (1) By modifying the structure of the spin-spin correlations in the energy eigenstates, and (2) by splitting the degeneracy within a manifold of energy eigenstates, so that zero-frequency off-diagonal terms in the density matrix are converted to oscillating coherences. Shifting the frequencies of these coherences sufficiently far from zero suppresses the development of resonator-induced correlations within the manifold during polarization from a totally disordered state. Modification of the spin-spin correlations by means of either mechanism affects the strength of the fluctuating spin dipole that drives the resonator. In the case where product states can be chosen as energy eigenstates, spontaneous emission from eigenstate populations into the resonant mode can be interpreted as independent emission by individual spins, and the spins relax exponentially to thermal equilibrium if the development of resonator-induced correlations is suppressed. When the spin Hamiltonian includes a significant contribution from the homonuclear dipolar coupling, the energy eigenstates entail a correlation specific to the coupling network. Simulations of dipole-dipole coupled systems of up to five spins suggest that these systems contain weakly emitting eigenstates that can trap a fraction of the population for time periods ?100/R0, where R0 is the rate constant for resonator-enhanced spontaneous emission by a single spin 1/2. Much of the polarization, however, relaxes with rates comparable to R0. A distribution of characteristic high-field chemical shifts tends to increase the relaxation rates of weakly emitting states, enabling transitions to states that can quickly relax to thermal equilibrium. The theoretical framework presented in this paper is illustrated with discussions of spin polarization in the contexts of force-detected nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectroscopy and magnetic-resonance force microscopy.

  8. Single-proton spin detection by diamond magnetometry.

    PubMed

    Loretz, M; Rosskopf, T; Boss, J M; Pezzagna, S; Meijer, J; Degen, C L

    2014-10-16

    Extending magnetic resonance imaging to the atomic scale has been a long-standing aspiration, driven by the prospect of directly mapping atomic positions in molecules with three-dimensional spatial resolution. We report detection of individual, isolated proton spins by a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in a diamond chip covered by an inorganic salt. The single-proton identity was confirmed by the Zeeman effect and by a quantum coherent rotation of the weakly coupled nuclear spin. Using the hyperfine field of the NV center as an imaging gradient, we determined proton-NV distances of less than 1 nm. PMID:25323696

  9. Nonlinear Single Spin Spectrum Analayzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Ozeri, Roee

    2014-05-01

    Qubits are excellent probes of their environment. When operating in the linear regime, they can be used as linear spectrum analyzers of the noise processes surrounding them. These methods fail for strong non-Gaussian noise where the qubit response is no longer linear. Here we solve the problem of nonlinear spectral analysis, required for strongly coupled environments. Our non-perturbative analytic model shows a nonlinear signal dependence on noise power, resulting in a spectral resolution beyond the Fourier limit as well as frequency mixing. We developed a noise characterization scheme adapted to this non-linearity. We then applied it using a single trapped 88Sr+ ion as the a sensitive probe of strong, non-Gaussian, discrete magnetic field noise. With this method, we attained a ten fold improvement over the standard Fourier limit. Finally, we experimentally compared the performance of equidistant vs. Uhrig modulation schemes for spectral analysis. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 110503 (2013), Synopsis at http://physics.aps.org/synopsis-for/10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.110503 Current position: National Institute of Standards and Tehcnology, Boulder, CO.

  10. Neutron single target spin asymmetries in SIDIS

    SciTech Connect

    Evaristo Cisbani

    2010-04-01

    The experiment E06-010 in Hall A at Jefferson Lab took data between November 2008 and February 2009 to directly measure, for the first time, the pion (and kaon) single "neutron" target-spin asymmetry (SSA) in semi-inclusive DIS from a polarized 3He target. Collins, Sivers (and Pretzelosity) neutron asymmetries are going to be extracted from the measured SSA. Details of the experiment are described together with the preliminary results of the ongoing analysis. Near future Hall A experiments on transverse nucleon spin structure are shorty reviewed.

  11. Nuclear spin conversion in diatomic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Il'ichev, L. V. Shalagin, A. M.

    2013-07-15

    A mechanism of the internal interaction in dimers that mixes different nuclear spin modifications has been proposed. It has been shown that the intramolecular current associated with transitions between electronic terms of different parities can generate different magnetic fields on nuclei, leading to transitions between spin modifications and to the corresponding changes in rotational states. In the framework of the known quantum relaxation process, this interaction initiates irreversible conversion of nuclear spin modifications. The estimated conversion rate for nitrogen at atmospheric pressure is quite high (10{sup -3}-10{sup -5} s{sup -1})

  12. Nuclear spin phonon relaxation by Raman process in Na 3H(SO 4) 2 single crystals with the electric-quadrupole-type interaction using 1H and 23Na NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Ae Ran; Shin, Chang Woo

    2008-11-01

    Successive phase transitions in a Na 3H(SO 4) 2 single crystal were found at 296, 513, and 533 K. To investigate the mechanism of the phase transition at 296 K, the 1H and 23Na spin-lattice relaxation time and the spin-spin relaxation time of Na 3H(SO 4) 2 were measured near the phase transition temperature using a FT NMR spectrometer. The spin-lattice relaxation time, T1, for 1H in Na 3H(SO 4) 2 crystals exhibits a minimum below TC1 (=296 K) indicating the presence of distinct molecular motion governed by the Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound (BPP) theory. Although the results for the 1H and 23Na relaxation times provide no evidence of the phase transition at TC1, the separation of the 23Na resonance lines changes abruptly at TC1. The phase transition at 296 K produces a change in the separation of the Na resonance line that is associated with a change in the atomic positions in the vicinity of the Na ions. Also, the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation process in Na 3H(SO 4) 2 crystals with the electric-quadrupole-type interaction proceed via Raman process. These results are compared with those obtained for other M 3H(SO 4) 2 (M=K, Rb, and Cs) crystals, which have similar hydrogen-bonded structures.

  13. Dynamics of a mesoscopic nuclear spin ensemble interacting with an optically driven electron spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, M. J.; Matthiesen, C.; Hansom, J.; Le Gall, C.; Schulte, C. H. H.; Clarke, E.; Atatre, M.

    2014-11-01

    The ability to discriminate between simultaneously occurring noise sources in the local environment of semiconductor InGaAs quantum dots, such as electric and magnetic field fluctuations, is key to understanding their respective dynamics and their effect on quantum dot coherence properties. We present a discriminatory approach to all-optical sensing based on two-color resonance fluorescence of a quantum dot charged with a single electron. Our measurements show that local magnetic field fluctuations due to nuclear spins in the absence of an external magnetic field are described by two correlation times, both in the microsecond regime. The nuclear spin bath dynamics show a strong dependence on the strength of resonant probing, with correlation times increasing by a factor of 4 as the optical transition is saturated. We interpret the behavior as motional averaging of both the Knight field of the resident electron spin and the hyperfine-mediated nuclear spin-spin interaction due to optically induced electron spin flips.

  14. The spin-temperature theory of dynamic nuclear polarization and nuclear spin-lattice relaxation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byvik, C. E.; Wollan, D. S.

    1974-01-01

    A detailed derivation of the equations governing dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and nuclear spin lattice relaxation by use of the spin temperature theory has been carried to second order in a perturbation expansion of the density matrix. Nuclear spin diffusion in the rapid diffusion limit and the effects of the coupling of the electron dipole-dipole reservoir (EDDR) with the nuclear spins are incorporated. The complete expression for the dynamic nuclear polarization has been derived and then examined in detail for the limit of well resolved solid effect transitions. Exactly at the solid effect transition peaks, the conventional solid-effect DNP results are obtained, but with EDDR effects on the nuclear relaxation and DNP leakage factor included. Explicit EDDR contributions to DNP are discussed, and a new DNP effect is predicted.

  15. Quantum control and engineering of single spins in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyli, David M.

    The past two decades have seen intensive research efforts aimed at creating quantum technologies that leverage phenomena such as coherence and entanglement to achieve device functionalities surpassing those attainable with classical physics. While the range of applications for quantum devices is typically limited by their cryogenic operating temperatures, in recent years point defects in semiconductors have emerged as potential candidates for room temperature quantum technologies. In particular, the nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond has gained prominence for the ability to measure and control its spin under ambient conditions and for its potential applications in magnetic sensing. Here we describe experiments that probe the thermal limits to the measurement and control of single NV centers to identify the origin of the system's unique temperature dependence and that define novel thermal sensing applications for single spins. We demonstrate the optical measurement and coherent control of the spin at temperatures exceeding 600 K and show that its addressability is eventually limited by thermal quenching of the optical spin readout. These measurements provide important information for the electronic structure responsible for the optical spin initialization and readout processes and, moreover, suggest that the coherence of the NV center's spin states could be harnessed for thermometry applications. To that end, we develop novel quantum control techniques that selectively probe thermally induced shifts in the spin resonance frequencies while minimizing the defect's interactions with nearby nuclear spins. We use these techniques to extend the NV center's spin coherence for thermometry by 45-fold to achieve thermal sensitivities approaching 10 mK Hz-1/2 . We show the versatility of these techniques by performing measurements in a range of magnetic environments and at temperatures as high as 500 K. Together with diamond's ideal thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties, these measurements suggest that NV center sensors could be employed in a diverse range of applications such as intracellular thermometry, microfuidic thermometry, and scanning thermal microscopy. Finally, while the development of NV center technologies is motivated by the desirable properties of isolated defects in bulk diamond, the realization of many of these technologies, such as those using the spin as a proximal sensor, require a means to control the placement of NV centers within the diamond lattice. We demonstrate a method to pattern defect formation on sub-100-nm length scales using ion implantation and electron beam lithography techniques. The ability to engineer large scale arrays of NV centers with this method holds promise for a variety of applications in quantum information science and nanoscale sensing.

  16. Theoretical aspects of Magic Angle Spinning - Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentink-Vigier, Frederic; Akbey, Ümit; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Vega, Shimon; Feintuch, Akiva

    2015-09-01

    Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) combined with Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) has been proven in recent years to be a very powerful method for increasing solid-state NMR signals. Since the advent of biradicals such as TOTAPOL to increase the nuclear polarization new classes of radicals, with larger molecular weight and/or different spin properties have been developed. These have led to unprecedented signal gain, with varying results for different experimental parameters, in particular the microwave irradiation strength, the static field, and the spinning frequency. Recently it has been demonstrated that sample spinning imposes DNP enhancement processes that differ from the active DNP mechanism in static samples as upon sample spinning the DNP enhancements are the results of energy level anticrossings occurring periodically during each rotor cycle. In this work we present experimental results with regards to the MAS frequency dependence of the DNP enhancement profiles of four nitroxide-based radicals at two different sets of temperature, 110 and 160 K. In fact, different magnitudes of reduction in enhancement are observed with increasing spinning frequency. Our simulation code for calculating MAS-DNP powder enhancements of small model spin systems has been improved to extend our studies of the influence of the interaction and relaxation parameters on powder enhancements. To achieve a better understanding we simulated the spin dynamics of a single three-spin system {ea -eb - n } during its steady state rotor periods and used the Landau-Zener formula to characterize the influence of the different anti-crossings on the polarizations of the system and their necessary action for reaching steady state conditions together with spin relaxation processes. Based on these model calculations we demonstrate that the maximum steady state nuclear polarization cannot become larger than the maximum polarization difference between the two electrons during the steady state rotor cycle. This study also shows the complexity of the MAS-DNP process and therefore the necessity to rely on numerical simulations for understanding parametric dependencies of the enhancements. Finally an extension of the spin system up to five spins allowed us to probe the first steps of the transfer of polarization from the nuclei coupled to the electrons to further away nuclei, demonstrating a decrease in the spin-diffusion barrier under MAS conditions.

  17. Theoretical aspects of Magic Angle Spinning - Dynamic Nuclear Polarization.

    PubMed

    Mentink-Vigier, Frederic; Akbey, mit; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Vega, Shimon; Feintuch, Akiva

    2015-09-01

    Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) combined with Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) has been proven in recent years to be a very powerful method for increasing solid-state NMR signals. Since the advent of biradicals such as TOTAPOL to increase the nuclear polarization new classes of radicals, with larger molecular weight and/or different spin properties have been developed. These have led to unprecedented signal gain, with varying results for different experimental parameters, in particular the microwave irradiation strength, the static field, and the spinning frequency. Recently it has been demonstrated that sample spinning imposes DNP enhancement processes that differ from the active DNP mechanism in static samples as upon sample spinning the DNP enhancements are the results of energy level anticrossings occurring periodically during each rotor cycle. In this work we present experimental results with regards to the MAS frequency dependence of the DNP enhancement profiles of four nitroxide-based radicals at two different sets of temperature, 110 and 160K. In fact, different magnitudes of reduction in enhancement are observed with increasing spinning frequency. Our simulation code for calculating MAS-DNP powder enhancements of small model spin systems has been improved to extend our studies of the influence of the interaction and relaxation parameters on powder enhancements. To achieve a better understanding we simulated the spin dynamics of a single three-spin system {ea-eb-n} during its steady state rotor periods and used the Landau-Zener formula to characterize the influence of the different anti-crossings on the polarizations of the system and their necessary action for reaching steady state conditions together with spin relaxation processes. Based on these model calculations we demonstrate that the maximum steady state nuclear polarization cannot become larger than the maximum polarization difference between the two electrons during the steady state rotor cycle. This study also shows the complexity of the MAS-DNP process and therefore the necessity to rely on numerical simulations for understanding parametric dependencies of the enhancements. Finally an extension of the spin system up to five spins allowed us to probe the first steps of the transfer of polarization from the nuclei coupled to the electrons to further away nuclei, demonstrating a decrease in the spin-diffusion barrier under MAS conditions. PMID:26232770

  18. High-fidelity readout and control of a nuclear spin qubit in silicon.

    PubMed

    Pla, Jarryd J; Tan, Kuan Y; Dehollain, Juan P; Lim, Wee H; Morton, John J L; Zwanenburg, Floris A; Jamieson, David N; Dzurak, Andrew S; Morello, Andrea

    2013-04-18

    Detection of nuclear spin precession is critical for a wide range of scientific techniques that have applications in diverse fields including analytical chemistry, materials science, medicine and biology. Fundamentally, it is possible because of the extreme isolation of nuclear spins from their environment. This isolation also makes single nuclear spins desirable for quantum-information processing, as shown by pioneering studies on nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond. The nuclear spin of a (31)P donor in silicon is very promising as a quantum bit: bulk measurements indicate that it has excellent coherence times and silicon is the dominant material in the microelectronics industry. Here we demonstrate electrical detection and coherent manipulation of a single (31)P nuclear spin qubit with sufficiently high fidelities for fault-tolerant quantum computing. By integrating single-shot readout of the electron spin with on-chip electron spin resonance, we demonstrate quantum non-demolition and electrical single-shot readout of the nuclear spin with a readout fidelity higher than 99.8 percent-the highest so far reported for any solid-state qubit. The single nuclear spin is then operated as a qubit by applying coherent radio-frequency pulses. For an ionized (31)P donor, we find a nuclear spin coherence time of 60 milliseconds and a one-qubit gate control fidelity exceeding 98 percent. These results demonstrate that the dominant technology of modern electronics can be adapted to host a complete electrical measurement and control platform for nuclear-spin-based quantum-information processing. PMID:23598342

  19. Single transverse spin asymmetry of forward neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivn; Soffer, J.

    2011-12-01

    We calculate the single transverse spin asymmetry AN(t), for inclusive neutron production in pp collisions at forward rapidities relative to the polarized proton in the energy range of RHIC. Absorptive corrections to the pion pole generate a relative phase between the spin-flip and nonflip amplitudes, leading to a transverse spin asymmetry which is found to be far too small to explain the magnitude of AN observed in the PHENIX experiment. A larger contribution, which does not vanish at high energies, comes from the interference of pion and a1-Reggeon exchanges. The unnatural parity of a1 guarantees a substantial phase shift, although the magnitude is strongly suppressed by the smallness of diffractive ?p?a1p cross section. We replace the Regge a1 pole by the Regge cut corresponding to the ?? exchange in the 1+S state. The production of such a state, which we treat as an effective pole a, forms a narrow peak in the 3? invariant mass distribution in diffractive ?p interactions. The cross section is large, so one can assume that this state saturates the spectral function of the axial current and we can determine its coupling to nucleons via the partially conserved axial-vector-current constraint Goldberger-Treiman relation and the second Weinberg sum rule. The numerical results of the parameter-free calculation of AN are in excellent agreement with the PHENIX data.

  20. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization by Electrical Spin Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strand, Jonathan

    2004-03-01

    The hyperfine coupling between electrons and nuclei in GaAs can give rise to dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and plays an important role in many proposed spintronic devices. We have demonstrated that DNP can be driven by a spin-polarized current injected from Fe into a GaAs quantum well (QW). The samples are Schottky spin-LEDs in which a Fe contact is a source of spin-polarized electrons and a QW serves as a spin detector. Measurements are performed in a low magnetic field (<1 kOe) applied in the plane of the QW. In this geometry the QW electroluminescence polarization (ELP) is sensitive only to the component of the spin that precesses out of the QW plane after injection into the GaAs. We find that the precession frequency depends on both the applied field and a hyperfine field (B_N) due to polarized nuclei. The data are described by modeling the electron spin dynamics while incorporating the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the Fe contact, spin relaxation in the QW, and an effective BN up to 1 T [1]. BN increases with increasing current density before saturating at current densities 10 A/cm^2. The DNP decreases with increasing temperature and is not detected above 80 K. Explicit signatures of DNP are observed via the time dependence of the ELP and resonant depolarization of nuclei by a time-dependent magnetic field (H_1) [2]. BN builds up exponentially with characteristic times of 20-45 seconds and persists for several minutes after the spin-polarized current is turned off. This approach to spin injection realizes the possibility of using DC electrical currents to inject and manipulate spin-polarized carriers in a semiconductor device. [1] J. Strand, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 036602 (2003); [2] Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3335 (2003).

  1. Coherent coupling of a single spin to microwave cavity photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viennot, J. J.; Dartiailh, M. C.; Cottet, A.; Kontos, T.

    2015-07-01

    Electron spins and photons are complementary quantum-mechanical objects that can be used to carry, manipulate, and transform quantum information. To combine these resources, it is desirable to achieve the coherent coupling of a single spin to photons stored in a superconducting resonator. Using a circuit design based on a nanoscale spin valve, we coherently hybridize the individual spin and charge states of a double quantum dot while preserving spin coherence. This scheme allows us to achieve spin-photon coupling up to the megahertz range at the single-spin level. The cooperativity is found to reach 2.3, and the spin coherence time is about 60 nanoseconds. We thereby demonstrate a mesoscopic device suitable for nondestructive spin readout and distant spin coupling.

  2. Nuclear spin effects in optical lattice clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Martin M.; Zelevinsky, Tanya; Ludlow, Andrew D.; Blatt, Sebastian; Zanon-Willette, Thomas; Foreman, Seth M.; Ye Jun

    2007-08-15

    We present a detailed experimental and theoretical study of the effect of nuclear spin on the performance of optical lattice clocks. With a state-mixing theory including spin-orbit and hyperfine interactions, we describe the origin of the {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 0} clock transition and the differential g factor between the two clock states for alkaline-earth-metal(-like) atoms, using {sup 87}Sr as an example. Clock frequency shifts due to magnetic and optical fields are discussed with an emphasis on those relating to nuclear structure. An experimental determination of the differential g factor in {sup 87}Sr is performed and is in good agreement with theory. The magnitude of the tensor light shift on the clock states is also explored experimentally. State specific measurements with controlled nuclear spin polarization are discussed as a method to reduce the nuclear spin-related systematic effects to below 10{sup -17} in lattice clocks.

  3. Measuring mechanical motion with a single spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, S. D.; Kolkowitz, S.; Unterreithmeier, Q. P.; Rabl, P.; Bleszynski Jayich, A. C.; Harris, J. G. E.; Lukin, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    We study theoretically the measurement of a mechanical oscillator using a single two-level system as a detector. In a recent experiment, we used a single electronic spin associated with a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond to probe the thermal motion of a magnetized cantilever at room temperature (Kolkowitz et al 2012 Science 335 1603). Here, we present a detailed analysis of the sensitivity limits of this technique, as well as the possibility to measure the zero-point motion of the oscillator. Further, we discuss the issue of measurement backaction in sequential measurements and find that although backaction heating can occur, it does not prohibit the detection of zero-point motion. Throughout the paper, we focus on the experimental implementation of a nitrogen-vacancy center coupled to a magnetic cantilever; however, our results are applicable to a wide class of spin-oscillator systems. The implications for the preparation of nonclassical states of a mechanical oscillator are also discussed.

  4. Protein imaging. Single-protein spin resonance spectroscopy under ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Shi, Fazhan; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Pengfei; Sun, Hongbin; Wang, Jiarong; Rong, Xing; Chen, Ming; Ju, Chenyong; Reinhard, Friedemann; Chen, Hongwei; Wrachtrup, Jrg; Wang, Junfeng; Du, Jiangfeng

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic resonance is essential in revealing the structure and dynamics of biomolecules. However, measuring the magnetic resonance spectrum of single biomolecules has remained an elusive goal. We demonstrate the detection of the electron spin resonance signal from a single spin-labeled protein under ambient conditions. As a sensor, we use a single nitrogen vacancy center in bulk diamond in close proximity to the protein. We measure the orientation of the spin label at the protein and detect the impact of protein motion on the spin label dynamics. In addition, we coherently drive the spin at the protein, which is a prerequisite for studies involving polarization of nuclear spins of the protein or detailed structure analysis of the protein itself. PMID:25745170

  5. Nuclear spin physics in quantum dots: An optical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbaszek, Bernhard; Marie, Xavier; Amand, Thierry; Krebs, Olivier; Voisin, Paul; Maletinsky, Patrick; Hgele, Alexander; Imamoglu, Atac

    2013-01-01

    The mesoscopic spin system formed by the 104-106 nuclear spins in a semiconductor quantum dot offers a unique setting for the study of many-body spin physics in the condensed matter. The dynamics of this system and its coupling to electron spins is fundamentally different from its bulk counterpart or the case of individual atoms due to increased fluctuations that result from reduced dimensions. In recent years, the interest in studying quantum-dot nuclear spin systems and their coupling to confined electron spins has been further fueled by its importance for possible quantum information processing applications. The fascinating nonlinear (quantum) dynamics of the coupled electron-nuclear spin system is universal in quantum dot optics and transport. In this article, experimental work performed over the last decade in studying this mesoscopic, coupled electron-nuclear spin system is reviewed. Here a special focus is on how optical addressing of electron spins can be exploited to manipulate and read out the quantum-dot nuclei. Particularly exciting recent developments in applying optical techniques to efficiently establish nonzero mean nuclear spin polarizations and using them to reduce intrinsic nuclear spin fluctuations are discussed. Both results critically influence the preservation of electron-spin coherence in quantum dots. This overall recently gained understanding of the quantum-dot nuclear spin system could enable exciting new research avenues such as experimental observations of spontaneous spin ordering or nonclassical behavior of the nuclear spin bath.

  6. Resolving remote nuclear spins in a noisy bath by dynamical decoupling design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wenchao; Shi, Fazhan; Xu, Kebiao; Wang, Pengfei; Xu, Xiangkun; Rong, Xing; Ju, Chenyong; Duan, Chang-Kui; Zhao, Nan; Du, Jiangfeng

    2015-09-01

    We experimentally resolve several weakly coupled nuclear spins in diamond using a series of dynamical decoupling controls. Some nuclear spin signals, hidden by decoherence under ordinary dynamical decoupling controls, are shifted forward in time domain to the coherence time range and thus rescued from the fate of being submerged by the noisy spin bath. In this way, more and remote single nuclear spins are resolved. Additionally, the field of detection can be continuously tuned on subnanoscale. This method extends the capacity of nanoscale magnetometry and may be applicable in other systems for high-resolution noise spectroscopy.

  7. 29Si nuclear spins as a resource for donor spin qubits in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfowicz, Gary; Mortemousque, Pierre-André; Guichard, Roland; Simmons, Stephanie; Thewalt, Mike L. W.; Itoh, Kohei M.; Morton, John J. L.

    2016-02-01

    Nuclear spin registers in the vicinity of electron spins in solid state systems offer a powerful resource to address the challenge of scalability in quantum architectures. We investigate here the properties of 29Si nuclear spins surrounding donor atoms in silicon, and consider the use of such spins, combined with the donor nuclear spin, as a quantum register coupled to the donor electron spin. We find the coherence of the nearby 29Si nuclear spins is effectively protected by the presence of the donor electron spin, leading to coherence times in the second timescale—over two orders of magnitude greater than the coherence times in bulk silicon. We theoretically investigate the use of such a register for quantum error correction (QEC), including methods to protect nuclear spins from the ionisation/neutralisation of the donor, which is necessary for the re-initialisation of the ancillae qubits. This provides a route for multi-round QEC using donors in silicon.

  8. Ultrahigh spin thermopower and pure spin current in a single-molecule magnet

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Bo; Liu, Juan; L, Jing-Tao; Gao, Jin-Hua; Yao, Kai-Lun

    2014-01-01

    Using the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism within the sequential regime, we studied ultrahigh spin thermopower and pure spin current in single-molecule magnet(SMM), which is attached to nonmagnetic metal wires with spin bias and angle (?) between the easy axis of SMM and the spin orientation in the electrodes. A pure spin current can be generated by tuning the gate voltage and temperature difference with finite spin bias and the arbitrary angle except of . In the linear regime, large thermopower can be obtained by modifying Vg and the angles (?). These results are useful in fabricating and advantaging SMM devices based on spin caloritronics. PMID:24549224

  9. Single-shot readout and microwave control of an electron spin in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morello, Andrea

    2011-03-01

    The electron spin of a donor in silicon is an excellent candidate for a solid-state qubit. It is known to have very long coherence and relaxation times in bulk, and several architectures have been proposed to integrate donor spin qubits with classical silicon microelectronics. Here we show the first experimental proof of single-shot readout of an electron spin in silicon. The device consists of implanted phosphorus donors, tunnel-coupled to a silicon Single-Electron Transistor (SET), where the SET island is used as a reservoir for spin-to-charge conversion. The large charge transfer signals allow readout fidelity > 90 % with 3 ? s response time. By measuring the occurrence of excited spin states as a function of wait time, we find spin lifetimes (T1) up to ~ 6 s at B = 1 . 5 T , and a magnetic-field dependence T1- 1 ~B5 consistent with that of phosphorus donors in silicon. In a subsequent experiment we have integrated the single-shot spin readout device with an on-chip microwave transmission line for coherent control of the electron spin. We have detected the spin resonance of a single electron, and observed two hyperfine-split resonance lines, consistent with Stark-shifted coupling to the 31P nuclear spin. Further experiments are underway to demonstrate coherent spin control and observe Rabi oscillations. This demonstrates the microwave control of a single spin, combined -- for the first time in the same experiment -- with electrically detected single-shot spin readout.

  10. Gluon saturation effects on single spin asymmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, Danieel

    2007-06-13

    We consider forward pion production in p p collisions at RHIC energies, which probes the so-called Extended Geometric Scaling region. Upon inclusion of small-x effects via an anomalous dimension within the Color Glass Condensate formalism at leading order in {alpha}s, a good description of the cross section as a function of the transverse momentum of the produced pion is obtained. The latter is essential for extractions of the Sivers effect from polarized p p collisions, since it is a sensitive probe of the slope of the cross section. Hence, the presented approach is well suited to extract the Sivers effect from single spin asymmetries in forward pion production at high energies.

  11. Storing entanglement of nuclear spins via Uhrig dynamical decoupling

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Soumya Singha; Mahesh, T. S.; Agarwal, G. S.

    2011-06-15

    Stroboscopic spin flips have already been shown to prolong the coherence times of quantum systems under noisy environments. Uhrig's dynamical decoupling scheme provides an optimal sequence for a quantum system interacting with a dephasing bath. Several experimental demonstrations have already verified the efficiency of such dynamical decoupling schemes in preserving single-qubit coherences. In this work we describe the experimental study of Uhrig's dynamical decoupling in preserving two-qubit entangled states using an ensemble of spin-1/2 nuclear pairs in solution state. We find that the performance of odd-order Uhrig sequences in preserving entanglement is superior to both even-order Uhrig sequences and periodic spin-flip sequences. We also find that there exists an optimal order of the Uhrig sequence in which a singlet state can be stored at high correlation for about 30 seconds.

  12. Detection of single electron spin resonance in a double quantum dota)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppens, F. H. L.; Buizert, C.; Vink, I. T.; Nowack, K. C.; Meunier, T.; Kouwenhoven, L. P.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.

    2007-04-01

    Spin-dependent transport measurements through a double quantum dot are a valuable tool for detecting both the coherent evolution of the spin state of a single electron, as well as the hybridization of two-electron spin states. In this article, we discuss a model that describes the transport cycle in this regime, including the effects of an oscillating magnetic field (causing electron spin resonance) and the effective nuclear fields on the spin states in the two dots. We numerically calculate the current flow due to the induced spin flips via electron spin resonance, and we study the detector efficiency for a range of parameters. The experimental data are compared with the model and we find a reasonable agreement.

  13. Electron spin decoherence by interacting nuclear spins in quantum dot II: Coherent control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ren-Bao; Yao, Wang; Sham, Lu J.

    2006-03-01

    Due to the hyperfine interaction, the nuclear spins in a quantum dot, driven by nuclear spin pair-wise flip-flops, evolve in different pathways in the Hilbert space for different electron spin states, resulting in the electron-nuclei entanglement and hence the electron spin decoherence. When the electron spin is flipped by a pulse, the nuclear spin states for different electron spin states swap their pathways, and could intersect in the Hilbert space, which disentangles the electron and the nuclei and hence restores the electron spin coherence. The coherence restoration by disentanglement and the conventional spin echo in ensemble dynamics are fundamentally different and generally occur at different time. Pulse sequences can be applied to force the disentanglement to coincide with the spin echo, making the coherence recovery observable in ensemble dynamics. This work was supported by NSF DMR-0403465, NSA/ARO, and DARPA/AFOSR.

  14. Engineering near-infrared single-photon emitters with optically active spins in ultrapure silicon carbide.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, F; Stender, B; Trupke, M; Simin, D; Pflaum, J; Dyakonov, V; Astakhov, G V

    2015-01-01

    Vacancy-related centres in silicon carbide are attracting growing attention because of their appealing optical and spin properties. These atomic-scale defects can be created using electron or neutron irradiation; however, their precise engineering has not been demonstrated yet. Here, silicon vacancies are generated in a nuclear reactor and their density is controlled over eight orders of magnitude within an accuracy down to a single vacancy level. An isolated silicon vacancy serves as a near-infrared photostable single-photon emitter, operating even at room temperature. The vacancy spins can be manipulated using an optically detected magnetic resonance technique, and we determine the transition rates and absorption cross-section, describing the intensity-dependent photophysics of these emitters. The on-demand engineering of optically active spins in technologically friendly materials is a crucial step toward implementation of both maser amplifiers, requiring high-density spin ensembles, and qubits based on single spins. PMID:26151881

  15. Engineering near-infrared single-photon emitters with optically active spins in ultrapure silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, F.; Stender, B.; Trupke, M.; Simin, D.; Pflaum, J.; Dyakonov, V.; Astakhov, G. V.

    2015-07-01

    Vacancy-related centres in silicon carbide are attracting growing attention because of their appealing optical and spin properties. These atomic-scale defects can be created using electron or neutron irradiation; however, their precise engineering has not been demonstrated yet. Here, silicon vacancies are generated in a nuclear reactor and their density is controlled over eight orders of magnitude within an accuracy down to a single vacancy level. An isolated silicon vacancy serves as a near-infrared photostable single-photon emitter, operating even at room temperature. The vacancy spins can be manipulated using an optically detected magnetic resonance technique, and we determine the transition rates and absorption cross-section, describing the intensity-dependent photophysics of these emitters. The on-demand engineering of optically active spins in technologically friendly materials is a crucial step toward implementation of both maser amplifiers, requiring high-density spin ensembles, and qubits based on single spins.

  16. Long-range photon-mediated gate scheme between nuclear spin qubits in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, Adrian; Burkard, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Defect centers in diamond are exceptional solid-state quantum systems that can have exceedingly long electron and nuclear spin coherence times. So far, single-qubit gates for the nitrogen nuclear spin, a two-qubit gate with a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center electron spin, and entanglement between nearby nitrogen nuclear spins have been demonstrated. Here, we develop a scheme to implement a universal two-qubit gate between two distant nitrogen nuclear spins. Virtual excitation of an NV center that is embedded in an optical cavity can scatter a laser photon into the cavity mode; we show that this process depends on the nuclear spin state of the nitrogen atom. If two NV centers are simultaneously coupled to a common cavity mode and individually excited, virtual cavity photon exchange can mediate an effective interaction between the nuclear spin qubits, conditioned on the spin state of both nuclei, which implements a universal controlled-Z gate. We predict operation times below 10 ? s , which is four orders of magnitude faster than the decoherence time of nuclear spin qubits in diamond.

  17. Recursive polarization of nuclear spins in diamond at arbitrary magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Pagliero, Daniela; Laraoui, Abdelghani; Henshaw, Jacob D.; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2014-12-15

    We introduce an alternate route to dynamically polarize the nuclear spin host of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. Our approach articulates optical, microwave, and radio-frequency pulses to recursively transfer spin polarization from the NV electronic spin. Using two complementary variants of the same underlying principle, we demonstrate nitrogen nuclear spin initialization approaching 80% at room temperature both in ensemble and single NV centers. Unlike existing schemes, our approach does not rely on level anti-crossings and is thus applicable at arbitrary magnetic fields. This versatility should prove useful in applications ranging from nanoscale metrology to sensitivity-enhanced NMR.

  18. Addressable single-spin control in multiple quantum dots coupled in series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    Electron spin in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) is promising building block of quantum computers for its controllability and potential scalability. Recent experiments on GaAs QDs have demonstrated necessary ingredients of universal quantum gate operations: single-spin rotations by electron spin resonance (ESR) which is virtually free from the effect of nuclear spin fluctuation, and pulsed control of two-spin entanglement. The scalability of this architecture, however, has remained to be demonstrated in the real world. In this talk, we will present our recent results on implementing single-spin-based qubits in triple, quadruple, and quintuple QDs based on a series coupled architecture defined by gate electrodes. Deterministic initialization of individual spin states and spin-state readout were performed by the pulse operation of detuning between two neighboring QDs. The spin state was coherently manipulated by ESR, where each spin in different QDs is addressed by the shift of the resonance frequency due to the inhomogeneous magnetic field induced by the micro magnet deposited on top of the QDs. Control of two-spin entanglement was also demonstrated. We will discuss key issues for implementing quantum algorithms based on three or more qubits, including the effect of a nuclear spin bath, single-shot readout fidelity, and tuning of multiple qubit devices. Our approaches to these issues will be also presented. This research is supported by Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R&D on Science and Technology (FIRST) from JSPS, IARPA project ``Multi-Qubit Coherent Operations'' through Copenhagen University, and Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from JSPS.

  19. Dynamic nuclear spin resonance in n-GaAs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y S; Reuter, D; Wieck, A D; Bacher, G

    2011-10-14

    The dynamics of optically detected nuclear magnetic resonance is studied in n-GaAs via time-resolved Kerr rotation using an on-chip microcoil for rf field generation. Both optically allowed and optically forbidden NMR are observed with a dynamics controlled by the interplay between dynamic nuclear polarization via hyperfine interaction with optically generated spin-polarized electrons and nuclear spin depolarization due to magnetic resonance absorption. Comparing the characteristic nuclear spin relaxation rate obtained in experiment with master equation simulations, the underlying nuclear spin depolarization mechanism for each resonance is extracted. PMID:22107431

  20. Macroscopic rotation of photon polarization induced by a single spin

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Christophe; Demory, Justin; Loo, Vivien; Lematre, Aristide; Sagnes, Isabelle; Glazov, Mikhal; Krebs, Olivier; Voisin, Paul; Senellart, Pascale; Lanco, Loc

    2015-01-01

    Entangling a single spin to the polarization of a single incoming photon, generated by an external source, would open new paradigms in quantum optics such as delayed-photon entanglement, deterministic logic gates or fault-tolerant quantum computing. These perspectives rely on the possibility that a single spin induces a macroscopic rotation of a photon polarization. Such polarization rotations induced by single spins were recently observed, yet limited to a few 10?3 degrees due to poor spinphoton coupling. Here we report the enhancement by three orders of magnitude of the spinphoton interaction, using a cavity quantum electrodynamics device. A single hole spin in a semiconductor quantum dot is deterministically coupled to a micropillar cavity. The cavity-enhanced coupling between the incoming photons and the solid-state spin results in a polarization rotation by 6 when the spin is optically initialized in the up or down state. These results open the way towards a spin-based quantum network. PMID:25687134

  1. Macroscopic rotation of photon polarization induced by a single spin.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Christophe; Demory, Justin; Loo, Vivien; Lematre, Aristide; Sagnes, Isabelle; Glazov, Mikhal; Krebs, Olivier; Voisin, Paul; Senellart, Pascale; Lanco, Loc

    2015-01-01

    Entangling a single spin to the polarization of a single incoming photon, generated by an external source, would open new paradigms in quantum optics such as delayed-photon entanglement, deterministic logic gates or fault-tolerant quantum computing. These perspectives rely on the possibility that a single spin induces a macroscopic rotation of a photon polarization. Such polarization rotations induced by single spins were recently observed, yet limited to a few 10(-3) degrees due to poor spin-photon coupling. Here we report the enhancement by three orders of magnitude of the spin-photon interaction, using a cavity quantum electrodynamics device. A single hole spin in a semiconductor quantum dot is deterministically coupled to a micropillar cavity. The cavity-enhanced coupling between the incoming photons and the solid-state spin results in a polarization rotation by 6 when the spin is optically initialized in the up or down state. These results open the way towards a spin-based quantum network. PMID:25687134

  2. Detection and manipulation of nuclear spin states in fermionic strontium

    SciTech Connect

    Stellmer, Simon; Grimm, Rudolf; Schreck, Florian

    2011-10-15

    Fermionic {sup 87}Sr has a nuclear spin of I=9/2, higher than any other element with a similar electronic structure. This large nuclear spin has many applications in quantum simulation and computation, for which preparation and detection of the spin state are requirements. For an ultracold {sup 87}Sr cloud, we show two complementary methods to characterize the spin-state mixture: optical Stern-Gerlach state separation and state-selective absorption imaging. We use these methods to optimize the preparation of a variety of spin-state mixtures by optical pumping and to measure an upper bound of the {sup 87}Sr spin-relaxation rate.

  3. Detection and manipulation of nuclear spin states in fermionic strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stellmer, Simon; Grimm, Rudolf; Schreck, Florian

    2011-10-01

    Fermionic 87Sr has a nuclear spin of I=9/2, higher than any other element with a similar electronic structure. This large nuclear spin has many applications in quantum simulation and computation, for which preparation and detection of the spin state are requirements. For an ultracold 87Sr cloud, we show two complementary methods to characterize the spin-state mixture: optical Stern-Gerlach state separation and state-selective absorption imaging. We use these methods to optimize the preparation of a variety of spin-state mixtures by optical pumping and to measure an upper bound of the 87Sr spin-relaxation rate.

  4. Spin coherence in a Mn3 single-molecule magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeywardana, Chathuranga; Mowson, Andrew M.; Christou, George; Takahashi, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Spin coherence in single crystals of the spin S = 6 single-molecule magnet (SMM) [Mn3O(O2CEt)3(mpko)3]+ (abbreviated Mn3) has been investigated using 230 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Coherence in Mn3 was uncovered by significantly suppressing dipolar contribution to the decoherence with complete spin polarization of Mn3 SMMs. The temperature dependence of spin decoherence time (T2) revealed that the dipolar decoherence is the dominant source of decoherence in Mn3 and T2 can be extended up to 267 ns by quenching the dipolar decoherence.

  5. Single-spin microscope with sub-nanoscale resolution based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.

    2010-01-01

    Recently we proposed a new approach which potentially has single spin sensitivity, sub-nanometer spatial resolution, and ability to operate at room temperature (J. Appl. Phys. 97, 014903 (2005); U.S. Patent No. 7,305,869, 2007). In our approach a nanoscale photoluminescent center exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of magnetic moment in the sample related with unpaired individual electron or nuclear spins, or ensemble of spins. We consider as a sensor material that exhibit ODMR properties nitrogen-vacancy (N-V) centers in diamond. N-V centers in diamond has serious advantage having extraordinary chemical and photostability, very long spin lifetimes, and ability single-spin detection at room temperature. The variety of possible scanning schemes has been considered. The potential application to 3D imaging of biological structure has been analyzed.

  6. Single-parameter spin-pumping in driven metallic rings with spin-orbit coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, J. P.; Apel, V. M.; Foa Torres, L. E. F.; Orellana, P. A.

    2014-03-28

    We consider the generation of a pure spin-current at zero bias voltage with a single time-dependent potential. To such end we study a device made of a mesoscopic ring connected to electrodes and clarify the interplay between a magnetic flux, spin-orbit coupling, and non-adiabatic driving in the production of a spin and electrical current. By using Floquet theory, we show that the generated spin to charge current ratio can be controlled by tuning the spin-orbit coupling.

  7. K-band single-chip electron spin resonance detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, Jens; Angerhofer, Alexander; Boero, Giovanni

    2012-04-01

    We report on the design, fabrication, and characterization of an integrated detector for electron spin resonance spectroscopy operating at 27 GHz. The microsystem, consisting of an LC-oscillator and a frequency division module, is integrated onto a single silicon chip using a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. The achieved room temperature spin sensitivity is about 108 spins/G Hz1/2, with a sensitive volume of about (100 ?m)3. Operation at 77 K is also demonstrated.

  8. Single Spin Asymmetry in Strongly Correlated Quark Model

    SciTech Connect

    Musulmanbekov, G.

    2007-06-13

    The Single Transverse - Spin Asymmetry (SSA) is analysed in the framework of the Strongly Correlated Quark Model proposed by author, where the proton spin emerges from the orbital momenta of quark and qluon condensates circulating around the valence quarks. It is shown that dominating factors of appearance of SSA are the orbiting around the valence quarks sea quark and qluon condensates and spin dependent quark-quark cross sections.

  9. Spin resonance strength calculation through single particle tracking for RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Y.; Dutheil, Y.; Huang, H.; Meot, F.; Ranjbar, V.

    2015-05-03

    The strengths of spin resonances for the polarized-proton operation in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider are currently calculated with the code DEPOL, which numerically integrates through the ring based on an analytical approximate formula. In this article, we test a new way to calculate the spin resonance strengths by performing Fourier transformation to the actual transverse magnetic fields seen by a single particle traveling through the ring. Comparison of calculated spin resonance strengths is made between this method and DEPOL.

  10. Nuclear-spin optical rotation in xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savukov, I.

    2015-10-01

    The nuclear-spin optical rotation (NSOR) effect, which has potential applications in correlated nuclear-spin-resonance optical spectroscopy, has previously been explored experimentally and theoretically in liquid Xe. Calculations of the Xe NSOR constant are very challenging because the result is sensitive to correlations, relativistic effects, and the choice of basis, with strong cancellation between contributions from lowest and remaining states. The relativistic configuration-interaction many-body-theory approach, presented here, is promising because this approach has been successful in predicting various properties of noble-gas atoms, such as energies, oscillator strengths (OSs), Verdet constants, and photoionization cross sections. However, correlations become stronger along the sequence of noble-gas atoms and the theoretical accuracy in Xe is not as high as, for example, in neon and argon. To improve the accuracy of the Xe Verdet and NSOR constants, which are calculated as explicit sums over the excited states, theoretical values for the several lowest levels are replaced with empirical values of energies, OSs, and hyperfine structure constants. We found that the Xe Verdet constant is in excellent agreement with accurate measurements. To take into account liquid effects, empirical data for energy shifts were also used to correct the NSOR constant. The resulting Xe NSOR constant is in a good agreement with experiment, although the liquid-state effect is treated quite approximately.

  11. Magnetic interaction between a radical spin and a single-molecule magnet in a molecular spin-valve.

    PubMed

    Urdampilleta, Matias; Klayatskaya, Svetlana; Ruben, Mario; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang

    2015-04-28

    Molecular spintronics using single molecule magnets (SMMs) is a fast growing field of nanoscience that proposes to manipulate the magnetic and quantum information stored in these molecules. Herein we report evidence of a strong magnetic coupling between a metallic ion and a radical spin in one of the most extensively studied SMMs: the bis(phtalocyaninato)terbium(III) complex (TbPc2). For that we use an original multiterminal device comprising a carbon nanotube laterally coupled to the SMMs. The current through the device, sensitive to magnetic interactions, is used to probe the magnetization of a single Tb ion. Combining this electronic read-out with the transverse field technique has allowed us to measure the interaction between the terbium ion, its nuclear spin, and a single electron located on the phtalocyanine ligands. We show that the coupling between the Tb and this radical is strong enough to give extra resonances in the hysteresis loop that are not observed in the anionic form of the complex. The experimental results are then modeled by diagonalization of a three-spins Hamiltonian. This strong coupling offers perspectives for implementing nuclear and electron spin resonance techniques to perform basic quantum operations in TbPc2. PMID:25858088

  12. Excited-State Spectroscopy and Control of Single Spins in Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, G. D.

    2009-03-01

    Nitrogen Vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond are a promising system for spin-based applications in quantum information and communication at room temperature. Using a combination of optical microscopy and spin resonance, the spin of individual NV centers can be initialized, manipulated and read out. These techniques have been used to study the long room temperature spin coherence times of NV centers as well as their interactions with nearby electrical and nuclear spins. There remain significant challenges, however, both in understanding the physics of these defects as well as the development of technologies based on their quantum properties. In particular, knowledge of the detailed structure of the orbital excited-state, which continues to be an active research area, is critical to ultra-fast quantum control schemes. Here we present recent experiments using single-spin resonant spectroscopy of the excited-state of an NV center at room temperature.ootnotetextG. D. Fuchs, V. V. Dobrovitski, R. Hanson, A. Batra, C. D. Weis, T. Schenkel, and D. D. Awschalom, Phys. Rev. Lett 101, 117601 (2008). We observe these spin levels over a broad range of magnetic fields allowing for a direct measurement of the zero-field splitting, g-factor and transverse anisotropy splitting. The latter of these is nearly zero in the ground-state spin levels, but plays an important role in the excited-state. In addition, we find strong hyperfine coupling between the nitrogen nuclear spin and the NV electronic spin in the excited-state. These findings will be discussed in the context of quantum control of single and coupled spins in diamond.

  13. Detection of atomic spin labels in a lipid bilayer using a single-spin nanodiamond probe.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Stefan; Simpson, David A; Hall, Liam T; Perunicic, Viktor; Senn, Philipp; Steinert, Steffen; McGuinness, Liam P; Johnson, Brett C; Ohshima, Takeshi; Caruso, Frank; Wrachtrup, Jrg; Scholten, Robert E; Mulvaney, Paul; Hollenberg, Lloyd

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic field fluctuations arising from fundamental spins are ubiquitous in nanoscale biology, and are a rich source of information about the processes that generate them. However, the ability to detect the few spins involved without averaging over large ensembles has remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate the detection of gadolinium spin labels in an artificial cell membrane under ambient conditions using a single-spin nanodiamond sensor. Changes in the spin relaxation time of the sensor located in the lipid bilayer were optically detected and found to be sensitive to near-individual (4 2) proximal gadolinium atomic labels. The detection of such small numbers of spins in a model biological setting, with projected detection times of 1 s [corresponding to a sensitivity of ?5 Gd spins per Hz(1/2)], opens a pathway for in situ nanoscale detection of dynamical processes in biology. PMID:23776230

  14. Coherent single-spin source based on topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Yanxia; Yang, Zhong-Liu; Sun, Qing-Feng; Wang, Jian

    2015-03-01

    We report on the injection of quantized pure spin current into quantum conductors. In particular, we propose an on-demand single-spin source generated by periodically varying the gate voltages of two quantum dots that are connected to a two-dimensional topological insulator via tunneling barriers. Due to the nature of the helical states of the topological insulator, one or several spin pairs can be pumped out per cycle giving rise to a pure quantized alternating spin current. Depending on the phase difference between two gate voltages, this device can serve as an on-demand single-spin emitter or single-charge emitter. Again, due to the helicity of the topological insulator, the single-spin emitter or charge emitter is dissipationless and immune to disorder. The proposed single-spin emitter can be an important building block of future spintronic devices. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support from from NSF-China under Grant (Nos. 11174032 and 11374246), NBRP of China (2012CB921303), and a RGC Grant (HKU 705212P) from the Government of HKSAR.

  15. Time-optimal polarization transfer from an electron spin to a nuclear spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Haidong; Zeier, Robert; Pomplun, Nikolas; Glaser, Steffen J.; Khaneja, Navin

    2015-11-01

    Polarization transfers from an electron spin to a nuclear spin are essential for various physical tasks, such as dynamic nuclear polarization in nuclear magnetic resonance and quantum information processing on hybrid electron-nuclear spin systems. We present time-optimal schemes for electron-nuclear polarization transfers which improve on conventional approaches, and we thereby establish an important class of faster controls. We highlight how time-optimal polarization transfers and their optimality are related to the time optimality of unitary transformations. Moreover, our work develops generally applicable analytic methods for analyzing the limits in controlling quantum systems.

  16. Self-quenching of nuclear spin dynamics in the central spin problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brataas, Arne; Rashba, Emmanuel I.

    2014-01-01

    We consider, in the framework of the central spin s =1/2 model, driven dynamics of two electrons in a double quantum dot subject to hyperfine interaction with nuclear spins and spin-orbit coupling. The nuclear subsystem dynamically evolves in response to Landau-Zener singlet-triplet transitions of the electronic subsystem controlled by external gate voltages. Without noise and spin-orbit coupling, subsequent Landau-Zener transitions die out after about 104 sweeps, the system self-quenches, and nuclear spins reach one of the numerous glassy dark states. We present an analytical model that captures this phenomenon. We also account for the multi-nuclear-specie content of the dots and numerically determine the evolution of around 107 nuclear spins in up to 2105 Landau-Zener transitions. Without spin-orbit coupling, self-quenching is robust and sets in for arbitrary ratios of the nuclear spin precession times and the waiting time between Landau-Zener sweeps as well as under moderate noise. In the presence of spin-orbit coupling of a moderate magnitude, and when the waiting time is in resonance with the precession time of one of the nuclear species, the dynamical evolution of nuclear polarization results in stroboscopic screening of spin-orbit coupling. However, small deviations from the resonance or strong spin-orbit coupling destroy this screening. We suggest that the success of the feedback loop technique for building nuclear gradients is based on the effect of spin-orbit coupling.

  17. Transverse single-spin asymmetries: Challenges and recent progress

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, Andreas; Pitonyak, Daniel; Schafer, Andreas; Schlegel, Marc; Vogelsang, Werner; Zhou, Jian

    2014-11-25

    In this study, transverse single-spin asymmetries are among the most intriguing observables in hadronic physics. Though such asymmetries were already measured for the first time about four decades ago, their origin is still under debate. Here we consider transverse single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive leptonnucleon scattering, in nucleonnucleon scattering, and in inclusive leptonnucleon scattering. It is argued that, according to recent work, the single-spin asymmetries for those three processes may be simultaneously described in perturbative QCD, where the re-scattering of the active partons plays a crucial role. A comparison of single-spin asymmetries in different reactions can also shed light on the universality of transverse momentum dependent parton correlation functions. In particular, we discuss what existing data may tell us about the predicted process dependence of the Sivers function.

  18. Transverse single-spin asymmetries: Challenges and recent progress

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Metz, Andreas; Pitonyak, Daniel; Schafer, Andreas; Schlegel, Marc; Vogelsang, Werner; Zhou, Jian

    2014-11-25

    In this study, transverse single-spin asymmetries are among the most intriguing observables in hadronic physics. Though such asymmetries were already measured for the first time about four decades ago, their origin is still under debate. Here we consider transverse single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive lepton–nucleon scattering, in nucleon–nucleon scattering, and in inclusive lepton–nucleon scattering. It is argued that, according to recent work, the single-spin asymmetries for those three processes may be simultaneously described in perturbative QCD, where the re-scattering of the active partons plays a crucial role. A comparison of single-spin asymmetries in different reactions can also shed light on themore » universality of transverse momentum dependent parton correlation functions. In particular, we discuss what existing data may tell us about the predicted process dependence of the Sivers function.« less

  19. Quark spin distribution and quark-antiquark annihilation in single-spin hadron-hadron collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Boros, C.; Zuo-tang, L.; Ta-chung, M. )

    1993-03-22

    We show that quark-antiquark annihilation processes in single-spin inclusive production experiments can yield useful information on hadron spin structure in general, and provide crucial tests for the existence of orbiting valence quarks in particular. There are several experimental indications and theoretical arguments for the existence of such orbital motion inside polarized protons or antiprotons. Simple relations between quark-spin distributions and left-right asymmetries in such production processes can be given, and quantitative predictions can be made.

  20. Manipulating Single Spins in Quantum Dots Coupled to Ferromagnetic Leads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Jürgen; Braun, Matthias; Martinek, Jan

    We discuss the possibility to generate, manipulate, and probe single spins in single-level quantum dots coupled to ferromagnetic leads. The spin-polarized currents flowing between dot and leads lead to a non-equilibrium spin accumulation, i.e., a finite polarization of the dot spin. Both the magnitude and the direction of the dot's spin polarization depends on the magnetic properties of leads and their coupling to the dot. They can be, furthermore, manipulated by either an externally applied magnetic field or an intrinsically present exchange field that arises due to the tunnel coupling of the strongly-interacting quantum-dot states to spin-polarized leads. The exchange field can be tuned by both the gate and bias voltage, which, therefore, provide convenient handles to manipulate the quantum-dot spin. Since the transmission through the quantum-dot spin valve sensitively depends on the state of the quantum-dot spin, all the dynamics of the latter is reflected in the transport properties of the device.

  1. Nuclear magnetometry studies of spin dynamics in quantum Hall systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauzi, M. H.; Watanabe, S.; Hirayama, Y.

    2014-12-01

    We performed a nuclear magnetometry study on quantum Hall ferromagnet with a bilayer total filling factor of ?tot=2 . We found not only a rapid nuclear relaxation but also a sudden change in the nuclear-spin polarization distribution after a one-second interaction with a canted antiferromagnetic phase. We discuss the possibility of observing cooperative phenomena coming from nuclear-spin ensemble triggered by hyperfine interaction in quantum Hall system.

  2. Nanometer-scale probing of spin waves using single electron spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Sar, Toeno; Casola, Francesco; Walsworth, Ronald; Yacoby, Amir

    2015-05-01

    We have developed a new approach to exploring magnetic excitations in correlated-electron systems, based on single electronic spins in atom-like defects diamond known as nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers. We demonstrate the power of this approach by detecting spin-wave excitations in a ferromagnetic microdisc with nanoscale spatial sensitivity over a broad range of frequencies and magnetic fields. We show how spin-wave resonances can be exploited for on-chip amplification of microwave magnetic fields, allowing strongly increased spin manipulation rates and single-spin magnetometry with enhanced sensitivity. Finally, we show the possibility to detect the magnetic spin noise produced by a thin (~ 30 nm) layer of a patterned ferromagnet. For the interpretation of our results, we develop a general framework describing single-spin stray field detection in terms of a filter function sensitive mostly to spin fluctuations with wavevector ~ 1 / d , where d is the NV-ferromagnet distance. Our results pave the way towards quantitative and non-perturbative detection of spectral properties in nanomagnets, establishing NV center magnetometry as an emergent probe of collective spin dynamics in condensed matter.

  3. Local electrical control of a single-atom spin qubit in a continuous microwave field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morello, Andrea; Laucht, Arne; Muhonen, Juha; Mohiyaddin, Fahd; Kalra, Rachpon; Dehollain, Juan; Freer, Solomon; Hudson, Fay; Veldhorst, Menno; Dzurak, Andrew; Itoh, Kohei; Rahman, Raijb; Klimeck, Gerhard; McCallum, Jeffrey; Jamieson, David

    2015-03-01

    An ideal physical system to encode quantum information should be well isolated from its environment, but locally addressable and readable. Kane's proposal for a silicon spin-based quantum computer suggested tuning the qubit in/out of resonance with a global oscillating magnetic field by applying a local electric field and exploiting the Stark shift of the electron-nuclear hyperfine interaction (`` A-gate''). We demonstrate universal single-qubit logic gates on both the electron and 31P nuclear spin of a single phosphorus atom in silicon, subject to an always-on microwave field, and operated via an A-gate controlled by nanometre-scale electrodes. The experiment is facilitated by the exceptionally sharp spin resonance frequencies in the nuclear-spin-free 28Si host material. Randomized benchmarking yields quantum gate fidelities >= 99 %, and the millisecond-long spin coherence times remain identical to those obtained by pulsed spin resonance. This method provides a natural pathway to address arbitrarily many qubits in large-scale quantum computers. Funded by the Australian Research Council (CE11E000127) and the U.S. Army Research Office (W911NF-13-1-0024).

  4. Theory of box-model hyperfine couplings and transport signatures of long-range nuclear-spin coherence in a quantum-dot spin valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesi, Stefano; Coish, W. A.

    2015-06-01

    We have theoretically analyzed coherent nuclear-spin dynamics induced by electron transport through a quantum-dot spin valve. The hyperfine interaction between electron and nuclear spins in a quantum dot allows for the transfer of angular momentum from spin-polarized electrons injected from ferromagnetic or half-metal leads to the nuclear spin system under a finite voltage bias. Accounting for a local nuclear-spin dephasing process prevents the system from becoming stuck in collective dark states, allowing a large nuclear polarization to be built up in the long-time limit. After reaching a steady state, reversing the voltage bias induces a transient current response as the nuclear polarization is reversed. Long-range nuclear-spin coherence leads to a strong enhancement of spin-flip transition rates (by an amount proportional to the number of nuclear spins) and is revealed by an intense current burst, analogous to superradiant light emission. The crossover to a regime with incoherent spin flips occurs on a relatively long-time scale, on the order of the single-nuclear-spin dephasing time, which can be much longer than the time scale for the superradiant current burst. This conclusion is confirmed through a general master equation. For the two limiting regimes (coherent/incoherent spin flips), the general master equation recovers our simpler treatment based on rate equations, but is also applicable at intermediate dephasing. Throughout this work, we assume uniform hyperfine couplings, which yield the strongest coherent enhancement. We propose realistic strategies, based on isotopic modulation and wave-function engineering in core-shell nanowires, to realize this analytically solvable "box-model" of hyperfine couplings.

  5. All-Optical Initialization, Readout, and Coherent Preparation of Single Silicon-Vacancy Spins in Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Lachlan J.; Jahnke, Kay D.; Metsch, Mathias H.; Sipahigil, Alp; Binder, Jan M.; Teraji, Tokuyuki; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Isoya, Junichi; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Hemmer, Philip; Jelezko, Fedor

    2014-12-01

    The silicon-vacancy (SiV- ) color center in diamond has attracted attention because of its unique optical properties. It exhibits spectral stability and indistinguishability that facilitate efficient generation of photons capable of demonstrating quantum interference. Here we show optical initialization and readout of electronic spin in a single SiV- center with a spin relaxation time of T1=2.4 ±0.2 ms . Coherent population trapping (CPT) is used to demonstrate coherent preparation of dark superposition states with a spin coherence time of T2⋆=35 ±3 ns . This is fundamentally limited by orbital relaxation, and an understanding of this process opens the way to extend coherence by engineering interactions with phonons. Hyperfine structure is observed in CPT measurements with the Si 29 isotope which allows access to nuclear spin. These results establish the SiV- center as a solid-state spin-photon interface.

  6. Control of coherence among the spins of a single electron and the three nearest neighbor {sup 13}C nuclei of a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Shimo-Oka, T.; Miwa, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Mizuochi, N.; Kato, H.; Yamasaki, S.; Jelezko, F.

    2015-04-13

    Individual nuclear spins in diamond can be optically detected through hyperfine couplings with the electron spin of a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center; such nuclear spins have outstandingly long coherence times. Among the hyperfine couplings in the NV center, the nearest neighbor {sup 13}C nuclear spins have the largest coupling strength. Nearest neighbor {sup 13}C nuclear spins have the potential to perform fastest gate operations, providing highest fidelity in quantum computing. Herein, we report on the control of coherences in the NV center where all three nearest neighbor carbons are of the {sup 13}C isotope. Coherence among the three and four qubits are generated and analyzed at room temperature.

  7. Microscopic control of 29Si nuclear spins near phosphorus donors in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jrvinen, J.; Zvezdov, D.; Ahokas, J.; Sheludyakov, S.; Vainio, O.; Lehtonen, L.; Vasiliev, S.; Fujii, Y.; Mitsudo, S.; Mizusaki, T.; Gwak, M.; Lee, SangGap; Lee, Soonchil; Vlasenko, L.

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate an efficient control of 29Si nuclear spins for specific lattice sites near 31P donors in silicon at temperatures below 1 K and in a high magnetic field of 4.6 T. Excitation of the forbidden electron-nuclear transitions leads to a pattern of well-resolved holes and peaks in the electron spin resonance (ESR) lines of 31P . The pattern originates from dynamic polarization (DNP) of the 29Si nuclear spins near the donors via the solid effect. DNP of 29Si is demonstrated also with the Overhauser effect where the allowed ESR transitions are excited. In this case mostly the remote 29Si nuclei having weak interaction with the donors are polarized, which results in a single hole and a sharp peak pair in the ESR spectrum. Our work shows that the solid effect can be used for initialization of 29Si nuclear spin qubits near the donors.

  8. Realistic Simulations of Single-Spin Measurement via Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, Todd A.; Goan, Hsi-Sheng

    2005-10-01

    The problem of measuring single electron or nuclear spins is of great interest for a variety of purposes, from imaging the structure of molecules to quantum information processing. One of the most promising techniques is magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM), in which the force between a spin and a small permanent magnet resonantly drives the oscillations of a microcantilever. Numerous issues arise in understanding this system: thermal noise in the cantilever, shot-noise and back-action from monitoring the cantilever's motion, spin relaxation, and interaction with higher cantilever modes. Detailed models of these effects allow one to assess their relative importance and the necessary improvements for sensitivity at the single-spin level.

  9. Optically induced dynamic nuclear spin polarisation in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuer, Jochen; Schwartz, Ilai; Chen, Qiong; Schulze-Sünninghausen, David; Carl, Patrick; Höfer, Peter; Retzker, Alexander; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Isoya, Junichi; Luy, Burkhard; Plenio, Martin B.; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) depends strongly on nuclear spin polarisation and, motivated by this observation, dynamical nuclear spin polarisation has recently been applied to enhance MRI protocols (Kurhanewicz et al 2011 Neoplasia 13 81). Nuclear spins associated with the 13C carbon isotope (nuclear spin I = 1/2) in diamond possess uniquely long spin lattice relaxation times (Reynhardt and High 2011 Prog. Nucl. Magn. Reson. Spectrosc. 38 37). If they are present in diamond nanocrystals, especially when strongly polarised, they form a promising contrast agent for MRI. Current schemes for achieving nuclear polarisation, however, require cryogenic temperatures. Here we demonstrate an efficient scheme that realises optically induced 13C nuclear spin hyperpolarisation in diamond at room temperature and low ambient magnetic field. Optical pumping of a nitrogen-vacancy centre creates a continuously renewable electron spin polarisation which can be transferred to surrounding 13C nuclear spins. Importantly for future applications we also realise polarisation protocols that are robust against an unknown misalignment between magnetic field and crystal axis.

  10. Single-shot readout of an electron spin in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morello, Andrea; Pla, Jarryd; Zwanenburg, Floris; Chan, Kok Wai; Huebl, Hans; Nugroho, Christopher; Yang, Changyi; van Donkelaar, Jessica; Alves, Andrew; Jamieson, David; Escott, Christopher; Hollenberg, Lloyd; Clark, Robert; Dzurak, Andrew

    2010-03-01

    The electron spin of a donor in silicon is an excellent candidate for a solid-state qubit. It is known to have very long coherence and relaxation times in bulk, and several architectures have been proposed to integrate donor spin qubits with classical silicon microelectronics. Here we show the first experimental proof of single-shot readout of an electron spin in silicon. This breakthrough has been obtained with a device consisting of implanted phosphorus donors, tunnel-coupled to a silicon Single-Electron Transistor (Si-SET), where the SET island is used as a reservoir for spin-to-charge conversion. The charge transfer signals are exceptionally large, and allow time-resolved measurements of spin-dependent tunneling on a 10 ?s scale. By measuring the occurrence of excited spin states as a function of wait time, we find spin lifetimes up to 1 s at B=1.75 T. Further experiments are underway to integrate this readout method with coherent spin control.

  11. Efficient Readout of a Single Spin State in Diamond via Spin-to-Charge Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, B. J.; Unterreithmeier, Q. P.; de Leon, N. P.; Park, H.; Lukin, M. D.

    2015-04-01

    Efficient readout of individual electronic spins associated with atomlike impurities in the solid state is essential for applications in quantum information processing and quantum metrology. We demonstrate a new method for efficient spin readout of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. The method is based on conversion of the electronic spin state of the NV to a charge-state distribution, followed by single-shot readout of the charge state. Conversion is achieved through a spin-dependent photoionization process in diamond at room temperature. Using NVs in nanofabricated diamond beams, we demonstrate that the resulting spin readout noise is within a factor of 3 of the spin projection noise level. Applications of this technique for nanoscale magnetic sensing are discussed.

  12. Efficient readout of a single spin state in diamond via spin-to-charge conversion.

    PubMed

    Shields, B J; Unterreithmeier, Q P; de Leon, N P; Park, H; Lukin, M D

    2015-04-01

    Efficient readout of individual electronic spins associated with atomlike impurities in the solid state is essential for applications in quantum information processing and quantum metrology. We demonstrate a new method for efficient spin readout of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. The method is based on conversion of the electronic spin state of the NV to a charge-state distribution, followed by single-shot readout of the charge state. Conversion is achieved through a spin-dependent photoionization process in diamond at room temperature. Using NVs in nanofabricated diamond beams, we demonstrate that the resulting spin readout noise is within a factor of 3 of the spin projection noise level. Applications of this technique for nanoscale magnetic sensing are discussed. PMID:25884129

  13. Charge noise, spin-orbit coupling, and dephasing of single-spin qubits

    SciTech Connect

    Bermeister, Adam; Keith, Daniel; Culcer, Dimitrie

    2014-11-10

    Quantum dot quantum computing architectures rely on systems in which inversion symmetry is broken, and spin-orbit coupling is present, causing even single-spin qubits to be susceptible to charge noise. We derive an effective Hamiltonian for the combined action of noise and spin-orbit coupling on a single-spin qubit, identify the mechanisms behind dephasing, and estimate the free induction decay dephasing times T{sub 2}{sup *} for common materials such as Si and GaAs. Dephasing is driven by noise matrix elements that cause relative fluctuations between orbital levels, which are dominated by screened whole charge defects and unscreened dipole defects in the substrate. Dephasing times T{sub 2}{sup *} differ markedly between materials and can be enhanced by increasing gate fields, choosing materials with weak spin-orbit, making dots narrower, or using accumulation dots.

  14. Room temperature hyperpolarization of nuclear spins in bulk

    PubMed Central

    Tateishi, Kenichiro; Negoro, Makoto; Nishida, Shinsuke; Kagawa, Akinori; Morita, Yasushi; Kitagawa, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), a means of transferring spin polarization from electrons to nuclei, can enhance the nuclear spin polarization (hence the NMR sensitivity) in bulk materials at most 660 times for 1H spins, using electron spins in thermal equilibrium as polarizing agents. By using electron spins in photo-excited triplet states instead, DNP can overcome the above limit. We demonstrate a 1H spin polarization of 34%, which gives an enhancement factor of 250,000 in 0.40 T, while maintaining a bulk sample (?0.6 mg, ?0.7 0.7 1 mm3) containing >1019 1H spins at room temperature. Room temperature hyperpolarization achieved with DNP using photo-excited triplet electrons has potentials to be applied to a wide range of fields, including NMR spectroscopy and MRI as well as fundamental physics. PMID:24821773

  15. Exploring the Single Atom Spin State by Electron Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yung-Chang; Teng, Po-Yuan; Chiu, Po-Wen; Suenaga, Kazu

    2015-11-13

    To control the spin state of an individual atom is an ultimate goal for spintronics. A single atom magnet, which may lead to a supercapacity memory device if realized, requires the high-spin state of an isolated individual atom. Here, we demonstrate the realization of well isolated transition metal (TM) atoms fixed at atomic defects sparsely dispersed in graphene. Core-level electron spectroscopy clearly reveals the high-spin state of the individual TM atoms at the divacancy or edge of the graphene layer. We also show for the first time that the spin state of single TM atoms systematically varies with the coordination of neighboring nitrogen or oxygen atoms. These structures can be thus regarded as the smallest components of spintronic devices with controlled magnetic behavior. PMID:26613462

  16. Exploring the Single Atom Spin State by Electron Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yung-Chang; Teng, Po-Yuan; Chiu, Po-Wen; Suenaga, Kazu

    2015-11-01

    To control the spin state of an individual atom is an ultimate goal for spintronics. A single atom magnet, which may lead to a supercapacity memory device if realized, requires the high-spin state of an isolated individual atom. Here, we demonstrate the realization of well isolated transition metal (TM) atoms fixed at atomic defects sparsely dispersed in graphene. Core-level electron spectroscopy clearly reveals the high-spin state of the individual TM atoms at the divacancy or edge of the graphene layer. We also show for the first time that the spin state of single TM atoms systematically varies with the coordination of neighboring nitrogen or oxygen atoms. These structures can be thus regarded as the smallest components of spintronic devices with controlled magnetic behavior.

  17. Cryogenic single-chip electron spin resonance detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualco, Gabriele; Anders, Jens; Sienkiewicz, Andrzej; Alberti, Stefano; Forr, Lszl; Boero, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    We report on the design and characterization of a single-chip electron spin resonance detector, operating at a frequency of about 20 GHz and in a temperature range extending at least from 300 K down to 4 K. The detector consists of an LC oscillator formed by a 200 ?m diameter single turn aluminum planar coil, a metal-oxide-metal capacitor, and two metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors used as negative resistance network. At 300 K, the oscillator has a frequency noise of 20 Hz/Hz1/2 at 100 kHz offset from the 20 GHz carrier. At 4 K, the frequency noise is about 1 Hz/Hz1/2 at 10 kHz offset. The spin sensitivity measured with a sample of DPPH is 108 spins/Hz1/2 at 300 K and down to 106 spins/Hz1/2 at 4 K.

  18. 29Si nuclear spin relaxation in microcrystals of plastically deformed Si: B samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koplak, O. V.; Morgunov, R. B.

    2016-02-01

    Single crystals and microcrystals Si: B enriched with 29Si isotopes have been studied using nuclear magnetic resonance and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in the temperature range from 300 to 800 K. It has been found that an increase in the temperature from 300 to 500 K leads to a change in the kinetics of the relaxation of the saturated nuclear spin system. At 300 K, the relaxation kinetics corresponds to direct electron-nuclear interaction with inhomogeneously distributed paramagnetic centers introduced by the plastic deformation of the crystals. At 500 K, the spin relaxation occurs through the nuclear spin diffusion and electron-nuclear interaction with an acceptor impurity. It has been revealed that the plastic deformation affects the EPR spectra at 9 K.

  19. Observation of spin flips with a single trapped proton.

    PubMed

    Ulmer, S; Rodegheri, C C; Blaum, K; Kracke, H; Mooser, A; Quint, W; Walz, J

    2011-06-24

    Radio-frequency induced spin transitions of one individual proton are observed. The spin quantum jumps are detected via the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect, which is used in an experiment with a single proton stored in a cryogenic Penning trap. This is an important milestone towards a direct high-precision measurement of the magnetic moment of the proton and a new test of the matter-antimatter symmetry in the baryon sector. PMID:21770638

  20. Observation of Spin Flips with a Single Trapped Proton

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmer, S.; Rodegheri, C. C.; Blaum, K.; Kracke, H.; Mooser, A.; Walz, J.; Quint, W.

    2011-06-24

    Radio-frequency induced spin transitions of one individual proton are observed. The spin quantum jumps are detected via the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect, which is used in an experiment with a single proton stored in a cryogenic Penning trap. This is an important milestone towards a direct high-precision measurement of the magnetic moment of the proton and a new test of the matter-antimatter symmetry in the baryon sector.

  1. Observation of Spin Flips with a Single Trapped Proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmer, S.; Rodegheri, C. C.; Blaum, K.; Kracke, H.; Mooser, A.; Quint, W.; Walz, J.

    2011-06-01

    Radio-frequency induced spin transitions of one individual proton are observed. The spin quantum jumps are detected via the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect, which is used in an experiment with a single proton stored in a cryogenic Penning trap. This is an important milestone towards a direct high-precision measurement of the magnetic moment of the proton and a new test of the matter-antimatter symmetry in the baryon sector.

  2. Strong mechanical driving of a single electron spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barfuss, A.; Teissier, J.; Neu, E.; Nunnenkamp, A.; Maletinsky, P.

    2015-10-01

    Quantum devices for sensing and computing applications require coherent quantum systems, which can be manipulated in fast and robust ways. Such quantum control is typically achieved using external electromagnetic fields, which drive the systems orbital, charge or spin degrees of freedom. However, most existing approaches require complex and unwieldy gate structures, and with few exceptions are limited to the regime of weak coherent driving. Here, we present a novel approach to coherently drive a single electronic spin using internal strain fields in an integrated quantum device. Specifically, we employ time-varying strain in a diamond cantilever to induce long-lasting, coherent oscillations of an embedded nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre spin. We perform direct spectroscopy of the phonon-dressed states emerging from this drive and observe hallmarks of the sought-after strong-driving regime, where the spin rotation frequency exceeds the spin splitting. Furthermore, we employ our continuous strain driving to significantly enhance the NVs spin coherence time. Our room-temperature experiments thereby constitute an important step towards strain-driven, integrated quantum devices and open new perspectives to investigate unexplored regimes of strongly driven multilevel systems and exotic spin dynamics in hybrid spin-oscillator devices.

  3. Hall magnetometry of micromagnets for single-electron spin qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachance-Quirion, Dany; Camirand Lemyre, Julien; Bergeron, Laurent; Pioro-Ladrire, Michel

    2015-03-01

    The coherence time of a single-electron spin can reach tens of milliseconds when placed in the right environment. The electric-dipole interaction between such a single spin and an electric field can be engineered by the inhomogeneous magnetic field of a micromagnet. This effective spin-orbit interaction can be used to manipulate the spin through electric-dipole spin resonance, but also to couple a single spin to the electric field of a microwave cavity in the circuit QED architecture. We selected the material and improved the shape of the micromagnet in order to maximize magnetic field gradients and remanence. We perform Hall magnetometry of those improved micromagnets using Hall bars electrostatically defined in an AlGaAs/GaAs two-dimensional electron gas. The gate-voltage dependent width of the Hall bar enables us to map the averaged magnetic field of the micromagnet, which validates simulations of the inhomogeneous magnetic field profile created by the magnet. We can therefore deduce that our micromagnets can produce magnetic field differences over 200 nm of more than 200 mT.

  4. A single-atom electron spin qubit in silicon.

    PubMed

    Pla, Jarryd J; Tan, Kuan Y; Dehollain, Juan P; Lim, Wee H; Morton, John J L; Jamieson, David N; Dzurak, Andrew S; Morello, Andrea

    2012-09-27

    A single atom is the prototypical quantum system, and a natural candidate for a quantum bit, or qubit--the elementary unit of a quantum computer. Atoms have been successfully used to store and process quantum information in electromagnetic traps, as well as in diamond through the use of the nitrogen-vacancy-centre point defect. Solid-state electrical devices possess great potential to scale up such demonstrations from few-qubit control to larger-scale quantum processors. Coherent control of spin qubits has been achieved in lithographically defined double quantum dots in both GaAs (refs 3-5) and Si (ref. 6). However, it is a formidable challenge to combine the electrical measurement capabilities of engineered nanostructures with the benefits inherent in atomic spin qubits. Here we demonstrate the coherent manipulation of an individual electron spin qubit bound to a phosphorus donor atom in natural silicon, measured electrically via single-shot read-out. We use electron spin resonance to drive Rabi oscillations, and a Hahn echo pulse sequence reveals a spin coherence time exceeding 200 µs. This time should be even longer in isotopically enriched (28)Si samples. Combined with a device architecture that is compatible with modern integrated circuit technology, the electron spin of a single phosphorus atom in silicon should be an excellent platform on which to build a scalable quantum computer. PMID:22992519

  5. Single-spin observables and orbital structures in hadronic distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivers, Dennis

    2006-11-01

    Single-spin observables in scattering processes (either analyzing powers or polarizations) are highly constrained by rotational invariance and finite symmetries. For example, it is possible to demonstrate that all single-spin observables are odd under the finite transformation O=PAτ where P is parity and Aτ is a finite symmetry that can be designated “artificial time reversal”. The operators P, O and Aτ all have eigenvalues ±1 so that all single-spin observables can be classified into two distinct categories: (1) P-odd and Aτ-even, (2) P-even and Aτ-odd. Within the light-quark sector of the standard model, P-odd observables are generated from pointlike electroweak processes while Aτ-odd observables (neglecting quark mass parameters) come from dynamic spin-orbit correlations within hadrons or within larger composite systems, such as nuclei. The effects of Aτ-odd dynamics can be inserted into transverse-momentum dependent constituent distribution functions and, in this paper, we construct the contribution from an orbital quark to the Aτ-odd quark parton distribution ΔNGq/p↑front(x,kTN;μ2). Using this distribution, we examine the crucial role of initial- and final-state interactions in the observation of the scattering asymmetries in different hard-scattering processes. This construction provides a geometrical and dynamical interpretation of the Collins conjugation relation between single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and the asymmetries in Drell-Yan production. Finally, our construction allows us to display a significant difference between the calculation of a spin asymmetry generated by a hard-scattering mechanism involving color-singlet exchange (such as a photon) and a calculation of an asymmetry with a hard-scattering exchange involving gluons. This leads to an appreciation of the process-dependence inherent in measurements of single-spin observables.

  6. Nuclear Spin Conversion in CH4: A Multichannel Relaxation Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Cacciani, Patrice; Coslou, Jean; Khelkhal, Mohamed; ?ermk, Peter; Puzzarini, Cristina

    2016-01-21

    Experiments on nuclear spin interconversion of ortho, para, and meta nuclear spin isomers of the methane molecule have been undertaken in gas phase and cryomatrices. Only the latter environment has led to the observation of the nuclear spin conversion. In this study, a quantitative explanation is given for the first time by considering the coupling of three relaxation paths: meta ? para, meta ? ortho, and ortho ? para. The global evolution of the three populations of spin isomers is thus described by two characteristic times, which have been calculated using the best values of the energy levels for the vibrational ground state, of the intramolecular magnetic interactions, and of the collisional relaxation rates, and for different pressure and temperature conditions. Such calculations also provide an indication for the proper choice of reliable scenarios for experimental separation of the spin isomers of methane. PMID:26681482

  7. Gaussian approximation and single-spin measurement in magnetic resonance force microscopy with spin noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghunathan, Shesha; Brun, Todd A.; Goan, Hsi-Sheng

    2010-11-01

    A promising technique for measuring single electron spins is magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM), in which a microcantilever with a permanent magnetic tip is resonantly driven by a single oscillating spin. The most effective experimental technique is the oscillating cantilever-driven adiabatic reversals (OSCAR) protocol, in which the signal takes the form of a frequency shift. If the quality factor of the cantilever is high enough, this signal will be amplified over time to the point where it can be detected by optical or other techniques. An important requirement, however, is that this measurement process occurs on a time scale that is short compared to any noise which disturbs the orientation of the measured spin. We describe a model of spin noise for the MRFM system and show how this noise is transformed to become time dependent in going to the usual rotating frame. We simplify the description of the cantilever-spin system by approximating the cantilever wave function as a Gaussian wave packet and show that the resulting approximation closely matches the full quantum behavior. We then examine the problem of detecting the signal for a cantilever with thermal noise and spin with spin noise, deriving a condition for this to be a useful measurement.

  8. Gaussian approximation and single-spin measurement in magnetic resonance force microscopy with spin noise

    SciTech Connect

    Raghunathan, Shesha; Brun, Todd A.; Goan, Hsi-Sheng

    2010-11-15

    A promising technique for measuring single electron spins is magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM), in which a microcantilever with a permanent magnetic tip is resonantly driven by a single oscillating spin. The most effective experimental technique is the oscillating cantilever-driven adiabatic reversals (OSCAR) protocol, in which the signal takes the form of a frequency shift. If the quality factor of the cantilever is high enough, this signal will be amplified over time to the point where it can be detected by optical or other techniques. An important requirement, however, is that this measurement process occurs on a time scale that is short compared to any noise which disturbs the orientation of the measured spin. We describe a model of spin noise for the MRFM system and show how this noise is transformed to become time dependent in going to the usual rotating frame. We simplify the description of the cantilever-spin system by approximating the cantilever wave function as a Gaussian wave packet and show that the resulting approximation closely matches the full quantum behavior. We then examine the problem of detecting the signal for a cantilever with thermal noise and spin with spin noise, deriving a condition for this to be a useful measurement.

  9. Spin Manipulation by Creation of Single-Molecule Radical Cations.

    PubMed

    Karan, Sujoy; Li, Na; Zhang, Yajie; He, Yang; Hong, I-Po; Song, Huanjun; L, Jing-Tao; Wang, Yongfeng; Peng, Lianmao; Wu, Kai; Michelitsch, Georg S; Maurer, Reinhard J; Diller, Katharina; Reuter, Karsten; Weismann, Alexander; Berndt, Richard

    2016-01-15

    All-trans-retinoic acid (ReA), a closed-shell organic molecule comprising only C, H, and O atoms, is investigated on a Au(111) substrate using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. In dense arrays single ReA molecules are switched to a number of states, three of which carry a localized spin as evidenced by conductance spectroscopy in high magnetic fields. The spin of a single molecule may be reversibly switched on and off without affecting its neighbors. We suggest that ReA on Au is readily converted to a radical by the abstraction of an electron. PMID:26824562

  10. Spin Manipulation by Creation of Single-Molecule Radical Cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karan, Sujoy; Li, Na; Zhang, Yajie; He, Yang; Hong, I.-Po; Song, Huanjun; L, Jing-Tao; Wang, Yongfeng; Peng, Lianmao; Wu, Kai; Michelitsch, Georg S.; Maurer, Reinhard J.; Diller, Katharina; Reuter, Karsten; Weismann, Alexander; Berndt, Richard

    2016-01-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (ReA), a closed-shell organic molecule comprising only C, H, and O atoms, is investigated on a Au(111) substrate using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. In dense arrays single ReA molecules are switched to a number of states, three of which carry a localized spin as evidenced by conductance spectroscopy in high magnetic fields. The spin of a single molecule may be reversibly switched on and off without affecting its neighbors. We suggest that ReA on Au is readily converted to a radical by the abstraction of an electron.

  11. Nanometre-scale probing of spin waves using single-electron spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Sar, Toeno; Casola, Francesco; Walsworth, Ronald; Yacoby, Amir

    2015-08-01

    Pushing the frontiers of condensed-matter magnetism requires the development of tools that provide real-space, few-nanometre-scale probing of correlated-electron magnetic excitations under ambient conditions. Here we present a practical approach to meet this challenge, using magnetometry based on single nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond. We focus on spin-wave excitations in a ferromagnetic microdisc, and demonstrate local, quantitative and phase-sensitive detection of the spin-wave magnetic field at ~50 nm from the disc. We map the magnetic-field dependence of spin-wave excitations by detecting the associated local reduction in the disc's longitudinal magnetization. In addition, we characterize the spin-noise spectrum by nitrogen-vacancy spin relaxometry, finding excellent agreement with a general analytical description of the stray fields produced by spin-spin correlations in a 2D magnetic system. These complementary measurement modalities pave the way towards imaging the local excitations of systems such as ferromagnets and antiferromagnets, skyrmions, atomically assembled quantum magnets, and spin ice.

  12. Nanometre-scale probing of spin waves using single-electron spins.

    PubMed

    van der Sar, Toeno; Casola, Francesco; Walsworth, Ronald; Yacoby, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Pushing the frontiers of condensed-matter magnetism requires the development of tools that provide real-space, few-nanometre-scale probing of correlated-electron magnetic excitations under ambient conditions. Here we present a practical approach to meet this challenge, using magnetometry based on single nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond. We focus on spin-wave excitations in a ferromagnetic microdisc, and demonstrate local, quantitative and phase-sensitive detection of the spin-wave magnetic field at ?50?nm from the disc. We map the magnetic-field dependence of spin-wave excitations by detecting the associated local reduction in the disc's longitudinal magnetization. In addition, we characterize the spin-noise spectrum by nitrogen-vacancy spin relaxometry, finding excellent agreement with a general analytical description of the stray fields produced by spin-spin correlations in a 2D magnetic system. These complementary measurement modalities pave the way towards imaging the local excitations of systems such as ferromagnets and antiferromagnets, skyrmions, atomically assembled quantum magnets, and spin ice. PMID:26249673

  13. Spin-Current Autocorrelations from Single Pure-State Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinigeweg, Robin; Gemmer, Jochen; Brenig, Wolfram

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate that the concept of quantum typicality allows for significant progress in the study of real-time spin dynamics and transport in quantum magnets. To this end, we present a numerical analysis of the spin-current autocorrelation function of the antiferromagnetic and anisotropic spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain as inferred from propagating only a single pure state, randomly chosen as a "typical" representative of the statistical ensemble. Comparing with existing time-dependent density-matrix renormalization group data, we show that typicality is fulfilled extremely well, consistent with an error of our approach, which is perfectly under control and vanishes in the thermodynamic limit. In the long-time limit, our results provide for a new benchmark for the enigmatic spin Drude weight, which we obtain from chains as long as L =33 sites, i.e., from Hilbert spaces of dimensions almost O(104) larger than in existing exact-diagonalization studies.

  14. Single-spin addressing in an atomic Mott insulator.

    PubMed

    Weitenberg, Christof; Endres, Manuel; Sherson, Jacob F; Cheneau, Marc; Schauss, Peter; Fukuhara, Takeshi; Bloch, Immanuel; Kuhr, Stefan

    2011-03-17

    Ultracold atoms in optical lattices provide a versatile tool with which to investigate fundamental properties of quantum many-body systems. In particular, the high degree of control of experimental parameters has allowed the study of many interesting phenomena, such as quantum phase transitions and quantum spin dynamics. Here we demonstrate how such control can be implemented at the most fundamental level of a single spin at a specific site of an optical lattice. Using a tightly focused laser beam together with a microwave field, we were able to flip the spin of individual atoms in a Mott insulator with sub-diffraction-limited resolution, well below the lattice spacing. The Mott insulator provided us with a large two-dimensional array of perfectly arranged atoms, in which we created arbitrary spin patterns by sequentially addressing selected lattice sites after freezing out the atom distribution. We directly monitored the tunnelling quantum dynamics of single atoms in the lattice prepared along a single line, and observed that our addressing scheme leaves the atoms in the motional ground state. The results should enable studies of entropy transport and the quantum dynamics of spin impurities, the implementation of novel cooling schemes, and the engineering of quantum many-body phases and various quantum information processing applications. PMID:21412333

  15. Gigahertz dynamics of a strongly driven single quantum spin.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, G D; Dobrovitski, V V; Toyli, D M; Heremans, F J; Awschalom, D D

    2009-12-11

    Two-level systems are at the core of numerous real-world technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging and atomic clocks. Coherent control of the state is achieved with an oscillating field that drives dynamics at a rate determined by its amplitude. As the strength of the field is increased, a different regime emerges where linear scaling of the manipulation rate breaks down and complex dynamics are expected. By calibrating the spin rotation with an adiabatic passage, we have measured the room-temperature "strong-driving" dynamics of a single nitrogen vacancy center in diamond. With an adiabatic passage to calibrate the spin rotation, we observed dynamics on sub-nanosecond time scales. Contrary to conventional thinking, this breakdown of the rotating wave approximation provides opportunities for time-optimal quantum control of a single spin. PMID:19965386

  16. Matrix Formalism for Spin Dynamics Near a Single Depolarization Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Alexander W.; /SLAC

    2005-10-26

    A matrix formalism is developed to describe the spin dynamics in a synchrotron near a single depolarization resonance as the particle energy (and therefore its spin precession frequency) is varied in a prescribed pattern as a function of time such as during acceleration. This formalism is first applied to the case of crossing the resonance with a constant crossing speed and a finite total step size, and then applied also to other more involved cases when the single resonance is crossed repeatedly in a prescribed manner consisting of linear ramping segments or sudden jumps. How repeated crossings produce an interference behavior is discussed using the results obtained. For a polarized beam with finite energy spread, a spin echo experiment is suggested to explore this interference effect.

  17. Electrically controlling single-spin qubits in a continuous microwave field.

    PubMed

    Laucht, Arne; Muhonen, Juha T; Mohiyaddin, Fahd A; Kalra, Rachpon; Dehollain, Juan P; Freer, Solomon; Hudson, Fay E; Veldhorst, Menno; Rahman, Rajib; Klimeck, Gerhard; Itoh, Kohei M; Jamieson, David N; McCallum, Jeffrey C; Dzurak, Andrew S; Morello, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Large-scale quantum computers must be built upon quantum bits that are both highly coherent and locally controllable. We demonstrate the quantum control of the electron and the nuclear spin of a single (31)P atom in silicon, using a continuous microwave magnetic field together with nanoscale electrostatic gates. The qubits are tuned into resonance with the microwave field by a local change in electric field, which induces a Stark shift of the qubit energies. This method, known as A-gate control, preserves the excellent coherence times and gate fidelities of isolated spins, and can be extended to arbitrarily many qubits without requiring multiple microwave sources. PMID:26601166

  18. Electrically controlling single-spin qubits in a continuous microwave field

    PubMed Central

    Laucht, Arne; Muhonen, Juha T.; Mohiyaddin, Fahd A.; Kalra, Rachpon; Dehollain, Juan P.; Freer, Solomon; Hudson, Fay E.; Veldhorst, Menno; Rahman, Rajib; Klimeck, Gerhard; Itoh, Kohei M.; Jamieson, David N.; McCallum, Jeffrey C.; Dzurak, Andrew S.; Morello, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale quantum computers must be built upon quantum bits that are both highly coherent and locally controllable. We demonstrate the quantum control of the electron and the nuclear spin of a single 31P atom in silicon, using a continuous microwave magnetic field together with nanoscale electrostatic gates. The qubits are tuned into resonance with the microwave field by a local change in electric field, which induces a Stark shift of the qubit energies. This method, known as A-gate control, preserves the excellent coherence times and gate fidelities of isolated spins, and can be extended to arbitrarily many qubits without requiring multiple microwave sources. PMID:26601166

  19. Nonlinear single-spin spectrum analyzer.

    PubMed

    Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Ozeri, Roee

    2013-03-15

    Qubits have been used as linear spectrum analyzers of their environments. Here we solve the problem of nonlinear spectral analysis, required for discrete noise induced by a strongly coupled environment. Our nonperturbative analytical model shows a nonlinear signal dependence on noise power, resulting in a spectral resolution beyond the Fourier limit as well as frequency mixing. We develop a noise characterization scheme adapted to this nonlinearity. We then apply it using a single trapped ion as a sensitive probe of strong, non-Gaussian, discrete magnetic field noise. Finally, we experimentally compared the performance of equidistant vs Uhrig modulation schemes for spectral analysis. PMID:25166519

  20. Robust dynamical decoupling sequences for individual-nuclear-spin addressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanova, J.; Wang, Z.-Y.; Haase, J. F.; Plenio, M. B.

    2015-10-01

    We propose the use of non-equally-spaced decoupling pulses for high-resolution selective addressing of nuclear spins by a quantum sensor. The analytical model of the basic operating principle is supplemented by detailed numerical studies that demonstrate the high degree of selectivity and the robustness against static and dynamic control-field errors of this scheme. We exemplify our protocol with a nitrogen-vacancy-center-based sensor to demonstrate that it enables the identification of individual nuclear spins that form part of a large spin ensemble.

  1. Highly selective detection of individual nuclear spins with rotary echo on an electron spin probe

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mkhitaryan, V. V.; Jelezko, F.; Dobrovitski, V. V.

    2015-10-26

    We consider an electronic spin, such as a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond, weakly coupled to a large number of nuclear spins, and subjected to the Rabi driving with a periodically alternating phase. We show that by switching the driving phase synchronously with the precession of a given nuclear spin, the interaction to this spin is selectively enhanced, while the rest of the bath remains decoupled. The enhancement is of resonant character. The key feature of the suggested scheme is that the width of the resonance is adjustable, and can be greatly decreased by increasing the driving strength. Thus, the resonancemore » can be significantly narrowed, by a factor of 10–100 in comparison with the existing detection methods. Significant improvement in selectivity is explained analytically and confirmed by direct numerical many-spin simulations. As a result, the method can be applied to a wide range of solid-state systems.« less

  2. Highly selective detection of individual nuclear spins with rotary echo on an electron spin probe

    SciTech Connect

    Mkhitaryan, V. V.; Jelezko, F.; Dobrovitski, V. V.

    2015-10-26

    We consider an electronic spin, such as a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond, weakly coupled to a large number of nuclear spins, and subjected to the Rabi driving with a periodically alternating phase. We show that by switching the driving phase synchronously with the precession of a given nuclear spin, the interaction to this spin is selectively enhanced, while the rest of the bath remains decoupled. The enhancement is of resonant character. The key feature of the suggested scheme is that the width of the resonance is adjustable, and can be greatly decreased by increasing the driving strength. Thus, the resonance can be significantly narrowed, by a factor of 10–100 in comparison with the existing detection methods. Significant improvement in selectivity is explained analytically and confirmed by direct numerical many-spin simulations. As a result, the method can be applied to a wide range of solid-state systems.

  3. Highly selective detection of individual nuclear spins with rotary echo on an electron spin probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkhitaryan, V. V.; Jelezko, F.; Dobrovitski, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    We consider an electronic spin, such as a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond, weakly coupled to a large number of nuclear spins, and subjected to the Rabi driving with a periodically alternating phase. We show that by switching the driving phase synchronously with the precession of a given nuclear spin, the interaction to this spin is selectively enhanced, while the rest of the bath remains decoupled. The enhancement is of resonant character. The key feature of the suggested scheme is that the width of the resonance is adjustable, and can be greatly decreased by increasing the driving strength. Thus, the resonance can be significantly narrowed, by a factor of 10100 in comparison with the existing detection methods. Significant improvement in selectivity is explained analytically and confirmed by direct numerical many-spin simulations. The method can be applied to a wide range of solid-state systems.

  4. Highly selective detection of individual nuclear spins with rotary echo on an electron spin probe

    PubMed Central

    Mkhitaryan, V. V.; Jelezko, F.; Dobrovitski, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    We consider an electronic spin, such as a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond, weakly coupled to a large number of nuclear spins, and subjected to the Rabi driving with a periodically alternating phase. We show that by switching the driving phase synchronously with the precession of a given nuclear spin, the interaction to this spin is selectively enhanced, while the rest of the bath remains decoupled. The enhancement is of resonant character. The key feature of the suggested scheme is that the width of the resonance is adjustable, and can be greatly decreased by increasing the driving strength. Thus, the resonance can be significantly narrowed, by a factor of 10100 in comparison with the existing detection methods. Significant improvement in selectivity is explained analytically and confirmed by direct numerical many-spin simulations. The method can be applied to a wide range of solid-state systems. PMID:26497777

  5. Spin- and isospin-polarized states of nuclear matter in the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock model

    SciTech Connect

    Sammarruca, Francesca

    2011-06-15

    Spin-polarized isospin asymmetric nuclear matter is studied within the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach. After a brief review of the formalism, we present and discuss the self-consistent single-particle potentials at various levels of spin and isospin asymmetry. We then move to predictions of the energy per particle, also under different conditions of isospin and spin polarization. Comparison with the energy per particle in isospin symmetric or asymmetric unpolarized nuclear matter shows no evidence for a phase transition to a spin-ordered state, neither ferromagnetic nor antiferromagnetic.

  6. Using nanoscale transistors to measure single donor spins in semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Sarovar, M.; Young, K. C.; Whaley, K. B.; Schenkel, Thomas

    2008-12-01

    We propose a technique for measuring the state of a single donor electron spin usinga field-effect transistor induced two-dimensional electron gas and electrically detected magnetic resonance techniques. The scheme is faciltated by hyperfine coupling to the donor nucleus. We analyze the potential sensitivity and outlne experimental reqiurements. Our measurement provides a single-shot, projective, and quantum non-demoltion measurement of an electron-encoded qubit state.

  7. Quantifying the quantum gate fidelity of single-atom spin qubits in silicon by randomized benchmarking.

    PubMed

    Muhonen, J T; Laucht, A; Simmons, S; Dehollain, J P; Kalra, R; Hudson, F E; Freer, S; Itoh, K M; Jamieson, D N; McCallum, J C; Dzurak, A S; Morello, A

    2015-04-22

    Building upon the demonstration of coherent control and single-shot readout of the electron and nuclear spins of individual (31)P atoms in silicon, we present here a systematic experimental estimate of quantum gate fidelities using randomized benchmarking of 1-qubit gates in the Clifford group. We apply this analysis to the electron and the ionized (31)P nucleus of a single P donor in isotopically purified (28)Si. We find average gate fidelities of 99.95% for the electron and 99.99% for the nuclear spin. These values are above certain error correction thresholds and demonstrate the potential of donor-based quantum computing in silicon. By studying the influence of the shape and power of the control pulses, we find evidence that the present limitation to the gate fidelity is mostly related to the external hardware and not the intrinsic behaviour of the qubit. PMID:25783435

  8. Calculation of nuclear spin-spin coupling constants using frozen density embedding

    SciTech Connect

    Götz, Andreas W.; Autschbach, Jochen; Visscher, Lucas

    2014-03-14

    We present a method for a subsystem-based calculation of indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling tensors within the framework of current-spin-density-functional theory. Our approach is based on the frozen-density embedding scheme within density-functional theory and extends a previously reported subsystem-based approach for the calculation of nuclear magnetic resonance shielding tensors to magnetic fields which couple not only to orbital but also spin degrees of freedom. This leads to a formulation in which the electron density, the induced paramagnetic current, and the induced spin-magnetization density are calculated separately for the individual subsystems. This is particularly useful for the inclusion of environmental effects in the calculation of nuclear spin-spin coupling constants. Neglecting the induced paramagnetic current and spin-magnetization density in the environment due to the magnetic moments of the coupled nuclei leads to a very efficient method in which the computationally expensive response calculation has to be performed only for the subsystem of interest. We show that this approach leads to very good results for the calculation of solvent-induced shifts of nuclear spin-spin coupling constants in hydrogen-bonded systems. Also for systems with stronger interactions, frozen-density embedding performs remarkably well, given the approximate nature of currently available functionals for the non-additive kinetic energy. As an example we show results for methylmercury halides which exhibit an exceptionally large shift of the one-bond coupling constants between {sup 199}Hg and {sup 13}C upon coordination of dimethylsulfoxide solvent molecules.

  9. Calculation of nuclear spin-spin coupling constants using frozen density embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götz, Andreas W.; Autschbach, Jochen; Visscher, Lucas

    2014-03-01

    We present a method for a subsystem-based calculation of indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling tensors within the framework of current-spin-density-functional theory. Our approach is based on the frozen-density embedding scheme within density-functional theory and extends a previously reported subsystem-based approach for the calculation of nuclear magnetic resonance shielding tensors to magnetic fields which couple not only to orbital but also spin degrees of freedom. This leads to a formulation in which the electron density, the induced paramagnetic current, and the induced spin-magnetization density are calculated separately for the individual subsystems. This is particularly useful for the inclusion of environmental effects in the calculation of nuclear spin-spin coupling constants. Neglecting the induced paramagnetic current and spin-magnetization density in the environment due to the magnetic moments of the coupled nuclei leads to a very efficient method in which the computationally expensive response calculation has to be performed only for the subsystem of interest. We show that this approach leads to very good results for the calculation of solvent-induced shifts of nuclear spin-spin coupling constants in hydrogen-bonded systems. Also for systems with stronger interactions, frozen-density embedding performs remarkably well, given the approximate nature of currently available functionals for the non-additive kinetic energy. As an example we show results for methylmercury halides which exhibit an exceptionally large shift of the one-bond coupling constants between 199Hg and 13C upon coordination of dimethylsulfoxide solvent molecules.

  10. Single top quark production at the LHC: Understanding spin

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, S.

    1999-12-22

    The authors show that the single top quarks produced in the Wg-fusion channel at a proton-proton collider at a center-of-mass energy {radical}s = 14 TeV posses a high degree of polarization in terms of a spin basis which decomposes the top quark spin in its rest frame along the direction of the spectator jet. A second useful spin basis is the {eta}-beamline basis, which decomposes the top quark spin along one of the two beam directions, depending on which hemisphere contains the spectator jet. The authors elucidate the interplay between the two- and three-body final states contributing to this production cross section in the context of determining the spin decomposition of the top quarks, and argue that the zero momentum frame helicity is undefined. The authors show that the usefulness of the spectator and {eta}-beamline spin bases is not adversely affected by the cuts required to separate the Wg-fusion signal from the background.

  11. Mechanism for nuclear and electron spin excitation by radio frequency current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müllegger, Stefan; Rauls, Eva; Gerstmann, Uwe; Tebi, Stefano; Serrano, Giulia; Wiespointner-Baumgarthuber, Stefan; Schmidt, Wolf Gero; Koch, Reinhold

    2015-12-01

    Recent radio frequency scanning tunneling spectroscopy (rf-STS) experiments have demonstrated nuclear and electron spin excitations up to ±12 ℏ in a single molecular spin quantum dot (qudot). Despite the profound experimental evidence, the observed independence of the well-established dipole selection rules is not described by existing theory of magnetic resonance—pointing to a new excitation mechanism. Here we solve the puzzle of the underlying mechanism by discussing the relevant mechanistic steps. At the heart of the mechanism, periodic transient charging and electric polarization due to the rf-modulated tunneling process cause a periodic asymmetric deformation of the adsorbed qudot, enabling efficient spin transitions via spin-phonon-like coupling. The mechanism has general relevance for a broad variety of different spin qudots exhibiting internal mechanical degrees of freedom (organic molecules, doped semiconductor qudots, nanocrystals, etc.).

  12. Long-range spin-triplet correlations and edge spin currents in diffusive spin-orbit coupled SNS hybrids with a single spin-active interface.

    PubMed

    Alidoust, Mohammad; Halterman, Klaus

    2015-06-17

    Utilizing a SU(2) gauge symmetry technique in the quasiclassical diffusive regime, we theoretically study finite-sized two-dimensional intrinsic spin-orbit coupled superconductor/normal-metal/superconductor (S/N/S) hybrid structures with a single spin-active interface. We consider intrinsic spin-orbit interactions (ISOIs) that are confined within the N wire and absent in the s-wave superconducting electrodes (S). Using experimentally feasible parameters, we demonstrate that the coupling of the ISOIs and spin moment of the spin-active interface results in maximum singlet-triplet conversion and accumulation of spin current density at the corners of the N wire nearest the spin-active interface. By solely modulating the superconducting phase difference, we show how the opposing parities of the charge and spin currents provide an effective venue to experimentally examine pure edge spin currents not accompanied by charge currents. These effects occur in the absence of externally imposed fields and moreover are insensitive to the arbitrary orientations of the interface spin moment. The experimental implementation of these robust edge phenomena are also discussed. PMID:25996592

  13. Long-range spin-triplet correlations and edge spin currents in diffusive spin-orbit coupled SNS hybrids with a single spin-active interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alidoust, Mohammad; Halterman, Klaus

    2015-06-01

    Utilizing a SU(2) gauge symmetry technique in the quasiclassical diffusive regime, we theoretically study finite-sized two-dimensional intrinsic spin-orbit coupled superconductor/normal-metal/superconductor (S/N/S) hybrid structures with a single spin-active interface. We consider intrinsic spin-orbit interactions (ISOIs) that are confined within the N wire and absent in the s-wave superconducting electrodes (S). Using experimentally feasible parameters, we demonstrate that the coupling of the ISOIs and spin moment of the spin-active interface results in maximum singlet-triplet conversion and accumulation of spin current density at the corners of the N wire nearest the spin-active interface. By solely modulating the superconducting phase difference, we show how the opposing parities of the charge and spin currents provide an effective venue to experimentally examine pure edge spin currents not accompanied by charge currents. These effects occur in the absence of externally imposed fields and moreover are insensitive to the arbitrary orientations of the interface spin moment. The experimental implementation of these robust edge phenomena are also discussed.

  14. Vanishing current hysteresis under competing nuclear spin pumping processes in a quadruplet spin-blockaded double quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Amaha, S.; Hatano, T.; Tarucha, S.; Gupta, J. A.; Austing, D. G.

    2015-04-27

    We investigate nuclear spin pumping with five-electron quadruplet spin states in a spin-blockaded weakly coupled vertical double quantum dot device. Two types of hysteretic steps in the leakage current are observed on sweeping the magnetic field and are associated with bidirectional polarization of nuclear spin. Properties of the steps are understood in terms of bias-voltage-dependent conditions for the mixing of quadruplet and doublet spin states by the hyperfine interaction. The hysteretic steps vanish when up- and down-nuclear spin pumping processes are in close competition.

  15. Entangled absorption of a single photon with a single spin in diamond.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Hideo; Niikura, Naeko

    2015-02-01

    Quantum entanglement, a key resource for quantum information science, is inherent in a solid. It has been recently shown that entanglement between a single optical photon and a single spin qubit in a solid is generated via spontaneous emission. However, entanglement generation by measurement is rather essential for quantum operations. We here show that the physics behind the entangled emission can be time reversed to demonstrate entangled absorption mediated by an inherent spin-orbit entanglement in a single nitrogen vacancy center in diamond. Optical arbitrary spin state preparation and complete spin state tomography reveal the fidelity of the entangled absorption to be 95%. With the entangled emission and absorption of a photon, materials can be spontaneously entangled or swap their quantum state based on the quantum teleportation scheme. PMID:25699440

  16. Optical hyperpolarization of 13C nuclear spins in nanodiamond ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q.; Schwarz, I.; Jelezko, F.; Retzker, A.; Plenio, M. B.

    2015-11-01

    Dynamical nuclear polarization holds the key for orders of magnitude enhancements of nuclear magnetic resonance signals which, in turn, would enable a wide range of novel applications in biomedical sciences. However, current implementations of DNP require cryogenic temperatures and long times for achieving high polarization. Here we propose and analyze in detail protocols that can achieve rapid hyperpolarization of 13C nuclear spins in randomly oriented ensembles of nanodiamonds at room temperature. Our protocols exploit a combination of optical polarization of electron spins in nitrogen-vacancy centers and the transfer of this polarization to 13C nuclei by means of microwave control to overcome the severe challenges that are posed by the random orientation of the nanodiamonds and their nitrogen-vacancy centers. Specifically, these random orientations result in exceedingly large energy variations of the electron spin levels that render the polarization and coherent control of the nitrogen-vacancy center electron spins as well as the control of their coherent interaction with the surrounding 13C nuclear spins highly inefficient. We address these challenges by a combination of an off-resonant microwave double resonance scheme in conjunction with a realization of the integrated solid effect which, together with adiabatic rotations of external magnetic fields or rotations of nanodiamonds, leads to a protocol that achieves high levels of hyperpolarization of the entire nuclear-spin bath in a randomly oriented ensemble of nanodiamonds even at room temperature. This hyperpolarization together with the long nuclear-spin polarization lifetimes in nanodiamonds and the relatively high density of 13C nuclei has the potential to result in a major signal enhancement in 13C nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and suggests functionalized and hyperpolarized nanodiamonds as a unique probe for molecular imaging both in vitro and in vivo.

  17. Spin constraints on nuclear energy density functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robledo, L. M.; Bernard, R. N.; Bertsch, G. F.

    2014-02-01

    The Gallagher-Moszkowski rule in the spectroscopy of odd-odd nuclei imposes a new spin constraint on the energy functionals for self-consistent mean field theory. The commonly used parametrization of the effective three-body interaction in the Gogny and Skyrme families of energy functionals is ill suited to satisfy the spin constraint. In particular, the Gogny parametrization of the three-body interaction has the spin dependence opposite to that required by the observed spectra. The two-body part has a correct sign, but in combination the rule is violated as often as not. We conclude that a new functional form is needed for the effective three-body interaction that can take into better account the different spin-isospin channels of the interaction.

  18. Interfacing nuclear spins in quantum dots to a cavity or traveling-wave fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwager, Heike; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Giedke, Gza

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we show how to realize a quantum interface between optical fields and the polarized nuclear spins in a singly charged quantum dot, which is strongly coupled to a high-finesse optical cavity. Effective direct coupling between cavity and nuclear spins is obtained by adiabatically eliminating the (far detuned) excitonic and electronic states. The requirements for mapping qubit and continuous variable states of cavity or traveling-wave fields to the collective nuclear spin are investigated: for cavity fields, we consider adiabatic passage processes to transfer the states. It is seen that a significant improvement in cavity lifetimes beyond present-day technology would be required for a quantum interface. We then turn to a scheme that couples the nuclei to the output field of the cavity and does not require a long-lived cavity. We show that the lifetimes reported in the literature and the recently achieved nuclear polarization of ~90% allow both high-fidelity read-out and write-in of quantum information between the nuclear spins and the output field. We discuss the performance of the scheme and provide a convenient description of the dipolar dynamics of the nuclei for highly polarized spins, demonstrating that this process does not affect the performance of our protocol.

  19. Single-chip detector for electron spin resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, T; Boero, G

    2008-09-01

    We have realized an innovative integrated detector for electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The microsystem, consisting of an LC oscillator, a mixer, and a frequency division module, is integrated onto a single silicon chip using a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. The implemented detection method is based on the measurement of the variation of the frequency of the integrated LC oscillator as a function of the applied static magnetic field, caused by the presence of a resonating sample placed over the inductor of the LC-tank circuit. The achieved room temperature spin sensitivity is about 10(10) spinsGHz(12) with a sensitive volume of about (100 microm)(3). PMID:19044436

  20. Single-chip detector for electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yalcin, T.; Boero, G.

    2008-09-15

    We have realized an innovative integrated detector for electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The microsystem, consisting of an LC oscillator, a mixer, and a frequency division module, is integrated onto a single silicon chip using a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. The implemented detection method is based on the measurement of the variation of the frequency of the integrated LC oscillator as a function of the applied static magnetic field, caused by the presence of a resonating sample placed over the inductor of the LC-tank circuit. The achieved room temperature spin sensitivity is about 10{sup 10} spins/GHz{sup 1/2} with a sensitive volume of about (100 {mu}m){sup 3}.

  1. Three-dimensional optical manipulation of a single electron spin.

    PubMed

    Geiselmann, Michael; Juan, Mathieu L; Renger, Jan; Say, Jana M; Brown, Louise J; de Abajo, F Javier Garca; Koppens, Frank; Quidant, Romain

    2013-03-01

    Nitrogen vacancy (NV) centres in diamond are promising elemental blocks for quantum optics, spin-based quantum information processing and high-resolution sensing. However, fully exploiting the capabilities of these NV centres requires suitable strategies to accurately manipulate them. Here, we use optical tweezers as a tool to achieve deterministic trapping and three-dimensional spatial manipulation of individual nanodiamonds hosting a single NV spin. Remarkably, we find that the NV axis is nearly fixed inside the trap and can be controlled in situ by adjusting the polarization of the trapping light. By combining this unique spatial and angular control with coherent manipulation of the NV spin and fluorescence lifetime measurements near an integrated photonic system, we demonstrate individual optically trapped NV centres as a novel route for both three-dimensional vectorial magnetometry and sensing of the local density of optical states. PMID:23396312

  2. Temperature dependence of electron-spin relaxation in a single InAs quantum dot at zero applied magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, X. M.; Sun, B. Q.; Jiang, D. S.; Ni, H. Q.; Niu, Z. C.

    2012-03-01

    The temperature-dependent electron spin relaxation of positively charged excitons in a single InAs quantum dot was measured by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy at zero applied magnetic fields. The experimental results show that the electron-spin relaxation is clearly divided into two different temperature regimes: (i) at T < 50 K, spin relaxation depends on the dynamical nuclear spin polarization and is approximately temperature-independent, as predicted by Merkulov et al. [Phys. Rev. B 65, 205309 (2002)] (ii) T > about 50 K, spin relaxation speeds up with increasing temperature. A model of a two longitudinal optical phonon scattering process coupled with hyperfine interaction is proposed to account for the accelerated electron spin relaxation at higher temperatures.

  3. Electric-field sensing using single diamond spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolde, F.; Fedder, H.; Doherty, M. W.; Nöbauer, T.; Rempp, F.; Balasubramanian, G.; Wolf, T.; Reinhard, F.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.; Jelezko, F.; Wrachtrup, J.

    2011-06-01

    The ability to sensitively detect individual charges under ambient conditions would benefit a wide range of applications across disciplines. However, most current techniques are limited to low-temperature methods such as single-electron transistors, single-electron electrostatic force microscopy and scanning tunnelling microscopy. Here we introduce a quantum-metrology technique demonstrating precision three-dimensional electric-field measurement using a single nitrogen-vacancy defect centre spin in diamond. An a.c. electric-field sensitivity reaching 202+/-6Vcm-1Hz-1/2 has been achieved. This corresponds to the electric field produced by a single elementary charge located at a distance of ~150nm from our spin sensor with averaging for one second. The analysis of the electronic structure of the defect centre reveals how an applied magnetic field influences the electric-field-sensing properties. We also demonstrate that diamond-defect-centre spins can be switched between electric- and magnetic-field sensing modes and identify suitable parameter ranges for both detector schemes. By combining magnetic- and electric-field sensitivity, nanoscale detection and ambient operation, our study should open up new frontiers in imaging and sensing applications ranging from materials science to bioimaging.

  4. High-efficiency resonant amplification of weak magnetic fields for single spin magnetometry at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Trifunovic, Luka; Pedrocchi, Fabio L; Hoffman, Silas; Maletinsky, Patrick; Yacoby, Amir; Loss, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Magnetic resonance techniques not only provide powerful imaging tools that have revolutionized medicine, but they have a wide spectrum of applications in other fields of science such as biology, chemistry, neuroscience and physics. However, current state-of-the-art magnetometers are unable to detect a single nuclear spin unless the tip-to-sample separation is made sufficiently small. Here, we demonstrate theoretically that by placing a ferromagnetic particle between a nitrogen-vacancy magnetometer and a target spin, the magnetometer sensitivity is improved dramatically. Using materials and techniques that are already experimentally available, our proposed set-up is sensitive enough to detect a single nuclear spin within ten milliseconds of data acquisition at room temperature. The sensitivity is practically unchanged when the ferromagnet surface to the target spin separation is smaller than the ferromagnet lateral dimensions; typically about a tenth of a micrometre. This scheme further benefits when used for nitrogen-vacancy ensemble measurements, enhancing sensitivity by an additional three orders of magnitude. PMID:25961508

  5. High-efficiency resonant amplification of weak magnetic fields for single spin magnetometry at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifunovic, Luka; Pedrocchi, Fabio L.; Hoffman, Silas; Maletinsky, Patrick; Yacoby, Amir; Loss, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Magnetic resonance techniques not only provide powerful imaging tools that have revolutionized medicine, but they have a wide spectrum of applications in other fields of science such as biology, chemistry, neuroscience and physics. However, current state-of-the-art magnetometers are unable to detect a single nuclear spin unless the tip-to-sample separation is made sufficiently small. Here, we demonstrate theoretically that by placing a ferromagnetic particle between a nitrogen-vacancy magnetometer and a target spin, the magnetometer sensitivity is improved dramatically. Using materials and techniques that are already experimentally available, our proposed set-up is sensitive enough to detect a single nuclear spin within ten milliseconds of data acquisition at room temperature. The sensitivity is practically unchanged when the ferromagnet surface to the target spin separation is smaller than the ferromagnet lateral dimensions; typically about a tenth of a micrometre. This scheme further benefits when used for nitrogen-vacancy ensemble measurements, enhancing sensitivity by an additional three orders of magnitude.

  6. Cryogenic single-chip electron spin resonance detector.

    PubMed

    Gualco, Gabriele; Anders, Jens; Sienkiewicz, Andrzej; Alberti, Stefano; Forr, Lszl; Boero, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    We report on the design and characterization of a single-chip electron spin resonance detector, operating at a frequency of about 20 GHz and in a temperature range extending at least from 300 K down to 4 K. The detector consists of an LC oscillator formed by a 200 ?m diameter single turn aluminum planar coil, a metal-oxide-metal capacitor, and two metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors used as negative resistance network. At 300 K, the oscillator has a frequency noise of 20 Hz/Hz(1/2) at 100 kHz offset from the 20 GHz carrier. At 4 K, the frequency noise is about 1 Hz/Hz(1/2) at 10 kHz offset. The spin sensitivity measured with a sample of DPPH is 10(8)spins/Hz(1/2) at 300 K and down to 10(6)spins/Hz(1/2) at 4 K. PMID:25261743

  7. Probing Spin Accumulation induced Magnetocapacitance in a Single Electron Transistor

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Teik-Hui; Chen, Chii-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The interplay between spin and charge in solids is currently among the most discussed topics in condensed matter physics. Such interplay gives rise to magneto-electric coupling, which in the case of solids was named magneto-electric effect, as predicted by Curie on the basis of symmetry considerations. This effect enables the manipulation of magnetization using electrical field or, conversely, the manipulation of electrical polarization by magnetic field. The latter is known as the magnetocapacitance effect. Here, we show that non-equilibrium spin accumulation can induce tunnel magnetocapacitance through the formation of a tiny charge dipole. This dipole can effectively give rise to an additional serial capacitance, which represents an extra charging energy that the tunneling electrons would encounter. In the sequential tunneling regime, this extra energy can be understood as the energy required for a single spin to flip. A ferromagnetic single-electron-transistor with tunable magnetic configuration is utilized to demonstrate the proposed mechanism. It is found that the extra threshold energy is experienced only by electrons entering the islands, bringing about asymmetry in the measured Coulomb diamond. This asymmetry is an unambiguous evidence of spin accumulation induced tunnel magnetocapacitance, and the measured magnetocapacitance value is as high as 40%. PMID:26348794

  8. Theoretical Study of Interaction between Photons and Single Spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ting

    Spin is a promising candidate for new resources of information technology. The major applications of spin-based technology are quantum computation, quantum communication and high-sensitive magnetometry. Optical control and detection of spin coherence are important techniques for such applications. In quantum communication and distributed quantum computing, quantum networks consisting of local nodes which are connected by quantum channels are essential. They provide platforms for transmission of flying qubits from one node to another. Within physical implementation of such networks, local nodes consist of clusters of stationary qubits. A single photon can form the flying qubit. The quantum information carried by the flying qubits can be conducted between local nodes through waveguides. Therefore quantum interfacing is the key element for the scalability in the quantum network. In the first two chapters of the thesis, we focus on the strong coupling region of the quantum interfacing. Solid-state systems have the advantages of stability and integratability. In solid-state systems, one-dimensional waveguides serve as an outstanding medium for transporting photons. Waveguides provide suitable circumstance for the strong interaction between photons and atoms for the small interaction section. This strong coupling between the atom and waveguide allows the photons to be directionally emitted into one optical channel connecting different quantum nodes. First, we follow the control scheme of the interplay between a stationary qubit and a flying qubit at an interface, which is composed of a ?-type system coupled to a one-dimensional waveguide. It shows that the sending and receiving process can be independently controlled by changing the driving laser pulses. We extend a general control scheme of a spin-photon quantum interface. Our scheme removes the constraints of Markovian process and therefore can be applied to the atom-waveguide devices for quantum network applications. In the three-level system, the exact solution for the driving pulse shows Markovian approximation applies for relatively slow pulses, while non-Markovian dynamics is essential for rapid operation near the cut-off frequency of the waveguide. Secondly, we investigate the dynamic evolution of a single two-level system embedded in the one-dimensional waveguide. It is well known that if the transition frequency of the two-level system is below the cut-off frequency of the one-dimensional waveguide, the spontaneous emission decay will be totally inhibited. However, we find that even the transition frequency is set above the cut-off frequency, the decay is partly suppressed due to the existence of an exciton bound state. When the transition frequency is tuned to the edge of the cut-off frequency, the decay rate is remarkably enhanced. And the Rabi oscillation appears between the discrete bound state and a resonance with finite lifetime. The Non-Markovian spontaneous emission near the band edge reveals the strong coupling between the atom and the continuum. The trapped polariton makes the optical system behave like a cavity without mirror. And the individual quantum dot has shown to be potential to serve as the deterministic single-photon source. Another limit of spin-photon interaction is the weak interaction regime, which often occurs in optical detection of single spins. The interaction between a single spin and a probe device is extremely weak, making measurement difficult. The measurement thus is weak. But disturbance caused by the measurement is also weak. In the weak interaction region, correlations of sequential or continuous weak measurement reveal faithfully dynamics of a single spin. We study the weak measurement of a single spin by a continuouswave light, which is based on the weak Faraday rotation effect. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  9. Dephasing due to Nuclear Spins in Large-Amplitude Electric Dipole Spin Resonance.

    PubMed

    Chesi, Stefano; Yang, Li-Ping; Loss, Daniel

    2016-02-12

    We analyze effects of the hyperfine interaction on electric dipole spin resonance when the amplitude of the quantum-dot motion becomes comparable or larger than the quantum dot's size. Away from the well-known small-drive regime, the important role played by transverse nuclear fluctuations leads to a Gaussian decay with characteristic dependence on drive strength and detuning. A characterization of spin-flip gate fidelity, in the presence of such additional drive-dependent dephasing, shows that vanishingly small errors can still be achieved at sufficiently large amplitudes. Based on our theory, we analyze recent electric dipole spin resonance experiments relying on spin-orbit interactions or the slanting field of a micromagnet. We find that such experiments are already in a regime with significant effects of transverse nuclear fluctuations and the form of decay of the Rabi oscillations can be reproduced well by our theory. PMID:26919009

  10. Dephasing due to Nuclear Spins in Large-Amplitude Electric Dipole Spin Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesi, Stefano; Yang, Li-Ping; Loss, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    We analyze effects of the hyperfine interaction on electric dipole spin resonance when the amplitude of the quantum-dot motion becomes comparable or larger than the quantum dot's size. Away from the well-known small-drive regime, the important role played by transverse nuclear fluctuations leads to a Gaussian decay with characteristic dependence on drive strength and detuning. A characterization of spin-flip gate fidelity, in the presence of such additional drive-dependent dephasing, shows that vanishingly small errors can still be achieved at sufficiently large amplitudes. Based on our theory, we analyze recent electric dipole spin resonance experiments relying on spin-orbit interactions or the slanting field of a micromagnet. We find that such experiments are already in a regime with significant effects of transverse nuclear fluctuations and the form of decay of the Rabi oscillations can be reproduced well by our theory.

  11. Quantum and classical correlations in electron-nuclear spin echo

    SciTech Connect

    Zobov, V. E.

    2014-11-15

    The quantum properties of dynamic correlations in a system of an electron spin surrounded by nuclear spins under the conditions of free induction decay and electron spin echo have been studied. Analytical results for the time evolution of mutual information, classical part of correlations, and quantum part characterized by quantum discord have been obtained within the central-spin model in the high-temperature approximation. The same formulas describe discord in both free induction decay and spin echo although the time and magnetic field dependences are different because of difference in the parameters entering into the formulas. Changes in discord in the presence of the nuclear polarization β{sub I} in addition to the electron polarization β{sub S} have been calculated. It has been shown that the method of reduction of the density matrix to a two-spin electron-nuclear system provides a qualitatively correct description of pair correlations playing the main role at β{sub S} ≈ β{sub I} and small times. At large times, such correlations decay and multispin correlations ensuring nonzero mutual information and zero quantum discord become dominant.

  12. Vortex dynamics in single-crystal YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} probed by {sup 63}Cu nuclear spin echo measurements in the presence of transport current pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Recchia, C.H.; Pennington, C.H.; Hauglin, H.; Lafyatis, G.P.

    1995-10-01

    We report {sup 63}Cu NMR spin-echo experiments on a high-quality single crystal of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} ({ital T}{sub {ital c}}=93 K), to which we have bonded leads for both transport current pulse applications and four-point resistance measurements. For a 9 T field with {ital H}{sub 0} parallel to {ital c}, the resistive transition onsets at 90 K, and {ital R} fully reaches zero at {ital T}{sub {ital R}=0}=76 K. The superconducting state NMR linewidth, however, does not exceed the normal-state value until {ital T}{lt}{ital T}{sub {ital R}=0}, where it is in agreement with predictions based on measured penetration depths. We discuss the possibility that a vortex liquid is present within the resistive transition, with vortex diffusion occurring at a rate fast enough to induce motional narrowing of the vortex lattice contribution to the NMR linewidth. We use the Einstein relation to show that this rapid vortex diffusion implies an upper bound for the correlation length for vortex motion. Inclusion of transport current pulses in the spin-echo pulse sequence is found to have no effect on the magnitude of the spin-echo signal for {ital T} both greater and less than {ital T}{sub {ital R}=0}.

  13. Accelerated 2D magnetic resonance spectroscopy of single spins using matrix completion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuer, Jochen; Stark, Alexander; Kost, Matthias; Plenio, Martin B.; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor

    2015-12-01

    Two dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the major tools for analysing the chemical structure of organic molecules and proteins. Despite its power, this technique requires long measurement times, which, particularly in the recently emerging diamond based single molecule NMR, limits its application to stable samples. Here we demonstrate a method which allows to obtain the spectrum by collecting only a small fraction of the experimental data. Our method is based on matrix completion which can recover the full spectral information from randomly sampled data points. We confirm experimentally the applicability of this technique by performing two dimensional electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) experiments on a two spin system consisting of a single nitrogen vacancy (NV) centre in diamond coupled to a single 13C nuclear spin. The signal to noise ratio of the recovered 2D spectrum is compared to the Fourier transform of randomly subsampled data, where we observe a strong suppression of the noise when the matrix completion algorithm is applied. We show that the peaks in the spectrum can be obtained with only 10% of the total number of the data points. We believe that our results reported here can find an application in all types of two dimensional spectroscopy, as long as the measured matrices have a low rank.

  14. Accelerated 2D magnetic resonance spectroscopy of single spins using matrix completion

    PubMed Central

    Scheuer, Jochen; Stark, Alexander; Kost, Matthias; Plenio, Martin B.; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor

    2015-01-01

    Two dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the major tools for analysing the chemical structure of organic molecules and proteins. Despite its power, this technique requires long measurement times, which, particularly in the recently emerging diamond based single molecule NMR, limits its application to stable samples. Here we demonstrate a method which allows to obtain the spectrum by collecting only a small fraction of the experimental data. Our method is based on matrix completion which can recover the full spectral information from randomly sampled data points. We confirm experimentally the applicability of this technique by performing two dimensional electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) experiments on a two spin system consisting of a single nitrogen vacancy (NV) centre in diamond coupled to a single 13C nuclear spin. The signal to noise ratio of the recovered 2D spectrum is compared to the Fourier transform of randomly subsampled data, where we observe a strong suppression of the noise when the matrix completion algorithm is applied. We show that the peaks in the spectrum can be obtained with only 10% of the total number of the data points. We believe that our results reported here can find an application in all types of two dimensional spectroscopy, as long as the measured matrices have a low rank. PMID:26631593

  15. Accelerated 2D magnetic resonance spectroscopy of single spins using matrix completion.

    PubMed

    Scheuer, Jochen; Stark, Alexander; Kost, Matthias; Plenio, Martin B; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor

    2015-01-01

    Two dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the major tools for analysing the chemical structure of organic molecules and proteins. Despite its power, this technique requires long measurement times, which, particularly in the recently emerging diamond based single molecule NMR, limits its application to stable samples. Here we demonstrate a method which allows to obtain the spectrum by collecting only a small fraction of the experimental data. Our method is based on matrix completion which can recover the full spectral information from randomly sampled data points. We confirm experimentally the applicability of this technique by performing two dimensional electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) experiments on a two spin system consisting of a single nitrogen vacancy (NV) centre in diamond coupled to a single (13)C nuclear spin. The signal to noise ratio of the recovered 2D spectrum is compared to the Fourier transform of randomly subsampled data, where we observe a strong suppression of the noise when the matrix completion algorithm is applied. We show that the peaks in the spectrum can be obtained with only 10% of the total number of the data points. We believe that our results reported here can find an application in all types of two dimensional spectroscopy, as long as the measured matrices have a low rank. PMID:26631593

  16. Atomic-scale nuclear spin imaging using quantum-assisted sensors in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajoy, Ashok; Bissbort, Ulf; Liu, Yixiang; Marseglia, Luca; Saha, Kasturi; Cappellaro, Paola

    2015-05-01

    Recent developments in materials fabrication and coherent control have brought quantum magnetometers based on electronic spin defects in diamond close to single nuclear spin sensitivity. These quantum sensors have the potential to be a revolutionary tool in proteomics, thus helping drug discovery: They can overcome some of the challenges plaguing other experimental techniques (x-ray and NMR) and allow single protein reconstruction in their natural conditions. While the sensitivity of diamond-based magnetometers approaches the single nuclear spin level, the outstanding challenge is to resolve contributions arising from distinct nuclear spins in a dense sample and use the acquired signal to reconstruct their positions. This talk describes a strategy to boost the spatial resolution of NV-based magnetic resonance imaging, by combining the use of a quantum memory intrinsic to the NV system with Hamiltonian engineering by coherent quantum control. The proposed strategy promises to make diamond-based quantum sensors an invaluable technology for bioimaging, as they could achieve the reconstruction of biomolecules local structure without the need to crystallize them, to synthesize large ensembles or to alter their natural environment.

  17. Optical Polarization of Nuclear Spins in Silicon Carbide.

    PubMed

    Falk, Abram L; Klimov, Paul V; Ivdy, Viktor; Szsz, Krisztin; Christle, David J; Koehl, William F; Gali, dm; Awschalom, David D

    2015-06-19

    We demonstrate optically pumped dynamic nuclear polarization of (29)Si nuclear spins that are strongly coupled to paramagnetic color centers in 4H- and 6H-SiC. The 99%1% degree of polarization that we observe at room temperature corresponds to an effective nuclear temperature of 5???K. By combining ab initio theory with the experimental identification of the color centers' optically excited states, we quantitatively model how the polarization derives from hyperfine-mediated level anticrossings. These results lay a foundation for SiC-based quantum memories, nuclear gyroscopes, and hyperpolarized probes for magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26197014

  18. Optical Polarization of Nuclear Spins in Silicon Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, Abram L.; Klimov, Paul V.; Ivdy, Viktor; Szsz, Krisztin; Christle, David J.; Koehl, William F.; Gali, dm; Awschalom, David D.

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate optically pumped dynamic nuclear polarization of 29Si nuclear spins that are strongly coupled to paramagnetic color centers in 4 H - and 6 H -SiC. The 9 9 % 1 % degree of polarization that we observe at room temperature corresponds to an effective nuclear temperature of 5 ? K . By combining ab initio theory with the experimental identification of the color centers' optically excited states, we quantitatively model how the polarization derives from hyperfine-mediated level anticrossings. These results lay a foundation for SiC-based quantum memories, nuclear gyroscopes, and hyperpolarized probes for magnetic resonance imaging.

  19. Transverse single spin asymmetry in hadronic ?c,b production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schfer, Andreas; Zhou, Jian

    2013-07-01

    We study the transverse single spin asymmetry in ?c,b production in polarized hadron collisions, employing the collinear twist-3 approach in combination with the color singlet model. Our main focus lies on the contribution from the twist-3 Efremov-Teryaev-Qiu-Sterman function. By extrapolating the derived spin-dependent cross section to the small transverse momentum region, consistency between the collinear twist-3 approach and the transverse-momentum-dependent factorization approach is confirmed. As a byproduct of this work, we identify a term contributing to the scale evolution of trigluon correlations in the flavor-singlet case which was originally missed, see also V. M. Braun, A. N. Manashov, and B. Pirnay [Phys. Rev. D 80, 114002 (2009); PRVDAQ1550-799886, 119902(E) (2012)].

  20. Observation of a single spin by transferring its coherence to a high level macroscopic pure state

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, Minaru

    2014-12-04

    We discuss about quantum measurement of a single spin in a superconducting RF resonator, where amplification of coherence of the spin is enabled by transferring its coherence to the harmonic oscillator in an non-coherent state with high energy level. This quantum amplification allows that a single spin can induce macroscopic current to permits observation of a single spin state in the number and phase uncertainty relation.

  1. Hole - Nuclear Spin Interaction in Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marie, Xavier

    2010-03-01

    Spins of localized electrons in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are attractive for future spintronic and quantum information devices since they are not subject to the classical spin relaxation mechanisms known for free carriers [1]. It is now well established that the main spin dephasing mechanism in QDs is due to the coupling of conduction electron spin with the randomly fluctuating nuclear spins (Fermi contact term) [2-5]. For a valence electron (or hole), this coupling is expected to be much weaker because of the p-symmetry of the valence band states and no experimental evidence of such a hole-nuclear spin interaction has been reported so far [6]. We have measured the carrier spin dynamics in p-doped InAs/GaAs quantum dots by pump probe and time-resolved photoluminescence experiments. We demonstrate that the hole spin dynamics in these QDs is governed by the interaction with randomly fluctuating nuclear spins [7]. Our calculations based on dipole-dipole coupling between the hole and the quantum dot nuclei lead to a hole spin dephasing time for an ensemble of dots of 15 ns in close agreement with experiments.[4pt] In collaboration with B. Eble, C. Testelin, F. Bernardot, and M. Chamarro, Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, Universit'e P. et M. Curie, CNRS, Paris, F-75015 France; A. Balocchi, T. Amand, and B. Urbaszek, Universit'e de Toulouse ; LPCNO, INSA-CNRS-UPS, 135 av. de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse Cedex 4, France; and A. Lematre, Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS, Route de Nozay, F-91460, Marcoussis, France. [4pt] [1] Spin Physics in Semiconductors, edited by M. D'Yakonov (Springer, Berlin, 2008) [0pt] [2] I. Merkulov et al, Phys. Rev. B 65, 205309 (2002) [0pt] [3] P.-F. Braun, X. Marie et al, PRL 94, 116601 (2005) [0pt] [4] A. C. Johnson et al , Nature 435, 925 (2005) [0pt] [5] A. Greilich et al, Science 313, 341(2006) [0pt] [6] S. Laurent et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 147401 (2005) [0pt] [7] B. Eble et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 146601 (2009)

  2. Nuclear Spin Gyroscope Based on an Atomic Comagnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kornack, T.W.; Ghosh, R.K.; Romalis, M.V.

    2005-12-02

    We describe a nuclear spin gyroscope based on an alkali-metal-noble-gas comagnetometer. Optically pumped alkali-metal vapor is used to polarize the noble-gas atoms and detect their gyroscopic precession. Spin precession due to magnetic fields as well as their gradients and transients can be cancelled in this arrangement. The sensitivity is enhanced by using a high-density alkali-metal vapor in a spin-exchange relaxation free regime. With a K-{sup 3}He comagnetometer we demonstrate rotation sensitivity of 5x10{sup -7} rad s{sup -1} Hz{sup -1/2}, equivalent to a magnetic field sensitivity of 2.5 fT/Hz{sup 1/2}. The rotation signal can be increased by a factor of 10 using {sup 21}Ne with a smaller magnetic moment. The comagnetometer is also a promising tool in searches for anomalous spin couplings beyond the standard model.

  3. From conventional (neutron-proton) nuclear scissors to spin nuclear scissors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbutsev, E. B.; Molodtsova, I. V.; Schuck, P.

    2014-09-01

    Investigations of the nuclear scissors mode in the frame of the Wigner Function Moments (WFM) method leading to the discovery of the new types of the nuclear collective motion are reviewed. It is demonstrated how the generalization of WFM method to take into account spin degrees of freedom allows one to reproduce all earlier described qualitative features of the conventional (neutron-proton) nuclear scissors (deformation dependence of the energy and transition probabilities, connection with isovector GQR implying the Fermi surface deformation, flows) and allows one to reveal a variety of new collective modes: isovector and isoscalar spin scissors, the relative motion of the orbital angular momentum and spin, isovector and isoscalar spin-vector GQR, spin-flip excitations.

  4. Nanoscale torsional resonator for polarization and spectroscopy of nuclear spins.

    PubMed

    Butler, Mark C; Norton, Valerie A; Weitekamp, Daniel P

    2010-10-22

    We propose a torsional resonator that couples to the transverse spin dipole of an attached sample. The absence of relative motion eliminates a source of friction that would otherwise hinder nanoscale implementation. Enhanced spontaneous emission induced by the resonator relaxes the longitudinal spin dipole at a rate of ?1??s? in the low-temperature limit. With signal averaging, single-proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy appears feasible at ?10??mK and a high magnetic field, while single-shot sensitivity is practical for samples with at least tens of protons in a volume of ?5??nm. PMID:21231080

  5. Sivers Single-Spin Asymmetry in Photon-Jet Production

    SciTech Connect

    Bacchetta, Alessandro; Bomhof, Cedran; Mulders, Piet J.; D'Alesio, Umberto; Murgia, Francesco

    2007-11-23

    We study a weighted asymmetry in the azimuthal distribution of photon-jet pairs produced in the process p{sup {up_arrow}}p{yields}{gamma} jet X with a transversely polarized proton. We focus on the contribution of the Sivers effect only, considering experimental configurations accessible at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. We show that predictions for the asymmetry, obtained in terms of gluonic-pole cross sections calculable in perturbative QCD, can be tested and clearly discriminated from those based on a generalized parton model, involving standard partonic cross sections. Experimental measurements of the asymmetry will therefore test our present understanding of single-spin asymmetries.

  6. Observation of scalar nuclear spinspin coupling in van der Waals complexes

    PubMed Central

    Ledbetter, Micah P.; Saielli, Giacomo; Bagno, Alessandro; Tran, Nhan; Romalis, Michael V.

    2012-01-01

    Scalar couplings between covalently bound nuclear spins are a ubiquitous feature in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments, imparting valuable information to NMR spectra regarding molecular structure and conformation. Such couplings arise due to a second-order hyperfine interaction, and, in principle, the same mechanism should lead to scalar couplings between nuclear spins in unbound van der Waals complexes. Here, we report the first observation of scalar couplings between nuclei in van der Waals complexes. Our measurements are performed in a solution of hyperpolarized 129Xe and pentane, using superconducting quantum interference devices to detect NMR in 10mG fields, and are in good agreement with calculations based on density functional theory. van der Waals forces play an important role in many physical phenomena. The techniques presented here may provide a new method for probing such interactions.

  7. Half-metallic properties, single-spin negative differential resistance, and large single-spin Seebeck effects induced by chemical doping in zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xi-Feng; Zhou, Wen-Qian; Hong, Xue-Kun; Liu, Yu-Shen Feng, Jin-Fu; Wang, Xue-Feng

    2015-01-14

    Ab initio calculations combining density-functional theory and nonequilibrium Green’s function are performed to investigate the effects of either single B atom or single N atom dopant in zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) with the ferromagnetic state on the spin-dependent transport properties and thermospin performances. A spin-up (spin-down) localized state near the Fermi level can be induced by these dopants, resulting in a half-metallic property with 100% negative (positive) spin polarization at the Fermi level due to the destructive quantum interference effects. In addition, the highly spin-polarized electric current in the low bias-voltage regime and single-spin negative differential resistance in the high bias-voltage regime are also observed in these doped ZGNRs. Moreover, the large spin-up (spin-down) Seebeck coefficient and the very weak spin-down (spin-up) Seebeck effect of the B(N)-doped ZGNRs near the Fermi level are simultaneously achieved, indicating that the spin Seebeck effect is comparable to the corresponding charge Seebeck effect.

  8. Decoherence-protected nuclear spin quantum register in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovitski, Viatcheslav; Kuo, Wan Jung; Hanson, Ronald; Taminiau, Tim H.

    2013-03-01

    We analyze the decoherence-protected operation of a quantum register based on the nuclear spins surrounding a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond. Combination of the decoherence protection with the quantum gates is achieved by applying the decoupling pulses to the NV center's electronic spin in resonance with the motion of one of the nuclear spins. In this way, many weakly coupled (tens of kHz) nuclei located far from the NV center can be combined in a quantum register. We study the limits, set by realistic experimental parameters, on the size of such a register and on the duration of the quantum gates needed for its operation. We also consider the ways of accelerating the quantum gate operation, and integration of the decoherence-protected gates with the decoupling of the nuclear spins themselves. We conclude that creation of such registers is feasible with current experimental capabilities. Work at the Ames Laboratory was supported by the Department of Energy - Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  9. Hyperon Polarization and Single Spin Left-Right Asymmetry in Inclusive Production Processes at High Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo-tang, L.; Boros, C.; Boros, C.

    1997-11-01

    It is shown that the polarization of hyperons observed in high energy collisions using unpolarized hadron beams and unpolarized nucleon or nuclear targets is closely related to the left-right asymmetries observed in single spin inclusive hadron production processes. The relationship is most obvious for the production of the hyperons which have only one common valence quark with the projectile. Examples of this kind are given. Further implications of the existence of large polarization for a hyperon which has two valence quarks in common with the projectile and their consequences are discussed. A comparison with the available data is made. Further tests are suggested. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. Single-spin asymmetry in pp and pA-collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, V. V.

    2016-02-01

    Experimental data on the transverse single-spin asymmetry AN in the collisions of polarized protons with protons and nuclear targets are analyzed. The existing data are compared with predictions from the chromomagnetic polarization of quarks (CPQ) model for the processes of ?, K, p and antiproton production in the inclusive reactions. The results of An calculations for the above processes are presented in the following kinematic region: 8.77 ? ?s ? 500 GeV, 0 < xF ? 0.83, 0 ? pT ? 9 GeV/c. Predictions of the CPQ model can be used for planning of experiments SPASCHARM(IHEP), SPD(JINR), STAR and PHENIX.

  11. Observation of spin-charge conversion in chemical-vapor-deposition-grown single-layer graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Ohshima, Ryo; Sakai, Atsushi; Ando, Yuichiro; Shiraishi, Masashi; Shinjo, Teruya; Kawahara, Kenji; Ago, Hiroki

    2014-10-20

    Conversion of pure spin current to charge current in single-layer graphene (SLG) is investigated by using spin pumping. Large-area SLG grown by chemical vapor deposition is used for the conversion. Efficient spin accumulation in SLG by spin pumping enables observing an electromotive force produced by the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) of SLG. The spin Hall angle of SLG is estimated to be 6.1 10{sup ?7}. The observed ISHE in SLG is ascribed to its non-negligible spin-orbit interaction in SLG.

  12. Observation of spin-charge conversion in chemical-vapor-deposition-grown single-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohshima, Ryo; Sakai, Atsushi; Ando, Yuichiro; Shinjo, Teruya; Kawahara, Kenji; Ago, Hiroki; Shiraishi, Masashi

    2014-10-01

    Conversion of pure spin current to charge current in single-layer graphene (SLG) is investigated by using spin pumping. Large-area SLG grown by chemical vapor deposition is used for the conversion. Efficient spin accumulation in SLG by spin pumping enables observing an electromotive force produced by the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) of SLG. The spin Hall angle of SLG is estimated to be 6.1 10-7. The observed ISHE in SLG is ascribed to its non-negligible spin-orbit interaction in SLG.

  13. Spin-flip configuration interaction singles with exact spin-projection: Theory and applications to strongly correlated systems.

    PubMed

    Tsuchimochi, Takashi

    2015-10-14

    Spin-flip approaches capture static correlation with the same computational scaling as the ordinary single reference methods. Here, we extend spin-flip configuration interaction singles (SFCIS) by projecting out intrinsic spin-contamination to make it spin-complete, rather than by explicitly complementing it with spin-coupled configurations. We give a general formalism of spin-projection for SFCIS, applicable to any spin states. The proposed method is viewed as a natural unification of SFCIS and spin-projected CIS to achieve a better qualitative accuracy at a low computational cost. While our wave function ansatz is more compact than previously proposed spin-complete SF approaches, it successfully offers more general static correlation beyond biradicals without sacrificing good quantum numbers. It is also shown that our method is invariant with respect to open-shell orbital rotations, due to the uniqueness of spin-projection. We will report benchmark calculations to demonstrate its qualitative performance on strongly correlated systems, including conical intersections that appear both in ground-excited and excited-excited degeneracies. PMID:26472370

  14. Spin dynamics of density wave and frustrated spin systems probed by nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumata, Lloyd L.

    This dissertation encompasses my major experimental work using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to probe the local magnetism and spin dynamics of two interesting systems in condensed matter: density wave and frustrated spin systems. Density waves are ordered ground states formed due to the instability in low-dimensions while frustrated spin systems inhibit long-range magnetic ordering due to their corner-shared triangular structure. The first part of this dissertation entails a discussion of the broken symmetry ground states in low dimensional systems: spin density waves (SDW), charge density waves (CDW), and spin-Peierls (SP) states. Simultaneous 77Se NMR and electrical transport is employed to investigate the spin density wave (SDW) ground state in the quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) organic conductor (TMTSF)2PF6 and the field-induced spin density wave (FISDW) transitions in (TMTSF)2ClO4. Furthermore, angular-dependent measurements were taken at very high magnetic fields to probe the anisotropic properties of FISDW subphases, giving insight into the electronic structure in the quantum limit. The CDW and SP ground states in another Q1D organic conductor (Per)2Pt[mnt]2 were studied using 195Pt NMR revealing the breaking of the SP state at high magnetic fields. The role of doping in the electronic correlations of the newly discovered CDW-superconductor CuxTiSe 2 is revealed by 63Cu and 77Se NMR. The later part of this dissertation focuses on the kagome spin systems which show very interesting phenomena due to magnetic frustration. Using 69,71Ga NMR, the dynamical behavior of spins in the spin-liquid state in one of the first rare-earth kagome materials Pr3Ga 5SiO14 is described and compared with other existing frustrated spin systems. On the other hand, 93Nb NMR on structurally similar material Ba3NbFe3Si2O14 provides an opportunity to study multiferroicity in a geometrically frustrated lattice. This work shows how NMR contributes to the understanding of these two distinct classes of condensed matter systems.

  15. Investigation of the Possibility of Using Nuclear Magnetic Spin Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dent, William V., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of the program to investigate a "Gasdynamic fusion propulsion system for space exploration" is to develop a fusion propulsion system for a manned mission to the planet mars. A study using Deuterium and Tritium atoms are currently in progress. When these atoms under-go fusion, the resulting neutrons and alpha particles are emitted in random directions (isotropically). The probable direction of emission is equal for all directions, thus resulting in wasted energy, massive shielding and cooling requirements, and serious problems with the physics of achieving fusion. If the nuclear magnetic spin moments of the deuterium and tritium nuclei could be precisely aligned at the moment of fusion, the stream of emitted neutrons could be directed out the rear of the spacecraft for thrust and the alpha particles directed forward into an electromagnet ot produce electricity to continue operating the fusion engine. The following supporting topics are discussed: nuclear magnetic moments and spin precession in magnetic field, nuclear spin quantum mechanics, kinematics of nuclear reactions, and angular distribution of particles.

  16. Nuclear-spin-lattice relaxation in rhenium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Dimitropoulos, C.; Bucher, J.P.; Borsa, F.; Corti, M.

    1989-04-01

    Nuclear-spin-lattice relaxation measurements are presented for /sup 187/Re in Re metal as a function of temperature. The relaxation transition probabilities were extracted from the nuclear magnetization recovery curves both in high magnetic field (H/sub 0/ = 8 T) nuclear-magnetic-resonance experiments and in nuclear-quadrupole-resonance (H/sub 0/ = 0) experiments. It is found that the dominant relaxation mechanisms is due to magnetic rather then quadrupolar hyperfine interaction with W/sub M/ = 1.32 T. The data are analyzed in terms of the electronic structure of Re metal. The analysis confirms that Re is a ''weakly enhanced'' transition metal with a nuclear relaxation rate dominated by the s-contact hyperfine interaction.

  17. Employing Forbidden Transitions as Qubits in a Nuclear Spin-Free Chromium Complex.

    PubMed

    Fataftah, Majed S; Zadrozny, Joseph M; Coste, Scott C; Graham, Michael J; Rogers, Dylan M; Freedman, Danna E

    2016-02-01

    The implementation of quantum computation (QC) would revolutionize scientific fields ranging from encryption to quantum simulation. One intuitive candidate for the smallest unit of a quantum computer, a qubit, is electronic spin. A prominent proposal for QC relies on high-spin magnetic molecules, where multiple transitions between the many MS levels are employed as qubits. Yet, over a decade after the original notion, the exploitation of multiple transitions within a single manifold for QC remains unrealized in these high-spin species due to the challenge of accessing forbidden transitions. To create a proof-of-concept system, we synthesized the novel nuclear spin-free complex [Cr(C3S5)3](3-) with precisely tuned zero-field splitting parameters that create two spectroscopically addressable transitions, with one being a forbidden transition. Pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements enabled the investigation of the coherent lifetimes (T2) and quantum control (Rabi oscillations) for two transitions, one allowed and one forbidden, within the S = (3)/2 spin manifold. This investigation represents a step forward in the development of high-spin species as a pathway to scalable QC systems within magnetic molecules. PMID:26739626

  18. Spin-dependent thermoelectronic transport of a single molecule magnet Mn(dmit){sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Zhongbo; Wei, Xinyuan; Yang, Zhongqin; An, Yipeng

    2014-05-28

    We investigate spin-dependent thermoelectronic transport properties of a single molecule magnet Mn(dmit){sub 2} sandwiched between two Au electrodes using first-principles density functional theory combined with nonequilibrium Green's function method. By applying a temperature difference between the two Au electrodes, spin-up and spin-down currents flowing in opposite directions can be induced due to asymmetric distribution of the spin-up and spin-down transmission spectra around the Fermi level. A pure spin current and 100% spin polarization are achieved by tuning back-gate voltage to the system. The spin caloritronics of the molecule with a perpendicular conformation is also explored, where the spin-down current is blocked strongly. These results suggest that Mn(dmit){sub 2} is a promising material for spin caloritronic applications.

  19. Flux-vector model of spin noise in superconducting circuits: Electron versus nuclear spins and role of phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaForest, S.; de Sousa, Rogério

    2015-08-01

    Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) and other superconducting circuits are limited by intrinsic flux noise with spectral density 1 /fα with α <1 whose origin is believed to be due to spin impurities. Here, we present a theory of flux noise that takes into account the vectorial nature of the coupling of spins to superconducting wires. We present explicit numerical calculations of the flux-noise power (spectral density integrated over all frequencies) for electron impurities and lattice nuclear spins under several different assumptions. The noise power is shown to be dominated by surface electron spins near the wire edges, with bulk lattice nuclear spins contributing ˜5 % of the noise power in aluminum and niobium wires. We consider the role of electron spin phase transitions, showing that the spin-spin correlation length (describing, e.g., the average size of ferromagnetic spin clusters) greatly impacts the scaling of flux noise with wire geometry. Remarkably, the flux-noise power is exactly equal to zero when the spins are polarized along the flux-vector direction, forming what we call a poloidal state. Flux noise is nonzero for other spin textures, but gets reduced in the presence of correlated ferromagnetic fluctuations between the top and bottom wire surfaces, where the flux vectors are antiparallel. This demonstrates that engineering spin textures and/or intersurface correlation provides a method to reduce flux noise in superconducting devices.

  20. Single-spin precessing gravitational waveform in closed form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundgren, Andrew; O'Shaughnessy, R.

    2014-02-01

    In coming years, gravitational-wave detectors should find black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) binaries, potentially coincident with astronomical phenomena like short gamma ray bursts. These binaries are expected to precess. Gravitational-wave science requires a tractable model for precessing binaries, to disentangle precession physics from other phenomena like modified strong field gravity, tidal deformability, or Hubble flow; and to measure compact object masses, spins, and alignments. Moreover, current searches for gravitational waves from compact binaries use templates where the binary does not precess and are ill-suited for detection of generic precessing sources. In this paper we provide a closed-form representation of the single-spin precessing waveform in the frequency domain by reorganizing the signal as a sum over harmonics, each of which resembles a nonprecessing waveform. This form enables simple analytic calculations of the Fisher matrix for use in template bank generation and coincidence metrics, and jump proposals to improve the efficiency of Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. We have verified that for generic BH-NS binaries, our model agrees with the time-domain waveform to 2%. Straightforward extensions of the derivations outlined here (and provided in full online) allow higher accuracy and error estimates.

  1. Quantum Dot Spin Valves Controlled by Single Molecule Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostamzadeh Renani, Fatemeh; Kirczenow, George

    2013-03-01

    We explore theoretically for the first time the properties of a new class of spintronic nano-devices in which the electrical resistance of a non-magnetic quantum dot contacted by non-magnetic electrodes is controlled by transition metal-based single molecule nanomagnets (SMMs) bound to the dot. Although the SMMs do not lie directly in the current path in these devices, we show that the relative orientation of their magnetic moments can strongly influence on the electric current passing through the device. If the magnetic moment of one of the SMMs is reversed by the application of a magnetic field, we predict a large change in the resistance of the dot, i.e., a strong spin valve effect. The mechanism is resonant conduction via molecular orbitals extending over the entire system. The spin valve is activated by a gate that tunes the transport resonances through the Fermi energy. Detailed results will be presented for the case of Mn12 SMMs bound to a gold quantum dot. This work was supported by CIFAR and NSERC.

  2. Multiple Reflection Effect on Spin-Transfer Torque Dynamics in Spin Valves with a Single or Dual Polarizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Weiwei; Zhang, Zongzhi; Zhang, Jianwei; Liu, Yaowen

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, spin-dependent multiple reflection effect on spin-transfer torque (STT) has been theoretically and numerically studied in a spin valve nanopillar with a single or dual spin-polarizer. By using a scattering matrix method, we formulate an analytical expression of STT that contains the multiple interfacial reflection effect. It is found that the multiple reflections could enhance the STT efficiency and reduce the critical switching current. The STT efficiency depends on the spin polarization of both the free layer and polarizer. In the nanopillars with a dual spin polarizer, the multiple reflections would cause an asymmetric frequency dependence on the applied current, albeit exactly the same parameters are used in all three ferromagnetic layers, indicating that the frequency in the negative current varies much faster than that in the positive case.

  3. Spin Density Matrices for Nuclear Density Functionals with Parity Violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Bruce; Giraud, Bertrand

    2010-11-01

    Within the context of the radial density functional [1], we apply the spin density matrix (SDM) used in atomic and molecular physics [2] to nuclear physics. The vector part of the SDM defines a ``hedgehog'' situation, which exists only if nuclear states contain some amount of parity violation. Thus, looking for the vector profile of the SDM could be used as a test for parity violation in nuclei. The difference between the scalar profile and the vector profile of the SDM will be illustrated by a toy model. [4pt] [1] B. G. Giraud, Phys. Rev. C 78, 014307 (2008).[0pt] [2] A. Goerling, Phys. Rev. A 47, 2783 (1993).

  4. Calculation of TMD Evolution for Transverse Single Spin Asymmetry Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mert Aybat, Ted Rogers, Alexey Prokudin

    2012-06-01

    In this letter, we show that it is necessary to include the full treatment of QCD evolution of Transverse Momentum Dependent parton densities to explain discrepancies between HERMES data and recent COMPASS data on a proton target for the Sivers transverse single spin asymmetry in Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS). Calculations based on existing fits to TMDs in SIDIS, and including evolution within the Collins-Soper-Sterman with properly defined TMD PDFs are shown to provide a good explanation for the discrepancy. The non-perturbative input needed for the implementation of evolution is taken from earlier analyses of unpolarized Drell-Yan (DY) scattering at high energy. Its success in describing the Sivers function in SIDIS data at much lower energies is strong evidence in support of the unifying aspect of the QCD TMD-factorization formalism.

  5. Global fitting of single spin asymmetry: an attempt

    SciTech Connect

    Alexey Prokudin,Zhong-Bo Kang

    2012-04-01

    We present an attempt of global analysis of Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS) $\\ell p^\\uparrow \\to \\ell' \\pi X$ data on single spin asymmetries and data on left-right asymmetry $A_N$ in $p^\\uparrow p \\to \\pi X$ in order to simultaneously extract information on Sivers function and twist-three quark-gluon Efremov-Teryaev-Qiu-Sterman (ETQS) function. We explore different possibilities such as node of Sivers function in $x$ or $k_\\perp$ in order to explain ``sign mismatch'' between these functions. We show that $\\pi^\\pm$ SIDIS data and $\\pi^0$ STAR data can be well described in a combined TMD and twist-3 fit, however $\\pi^\\pm$ BRAHMS data are not described in a satisfactory way. This leaves open a question to the solution of the ``sign mismatch''. Possible explanations are then discussed.

  6. Global fitting of single spin asymmetry: An attempt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Prokudin, Alexei

    2012-04-01

    We present an attempt of global analysis of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering ?p???'?X data on single spin asymmetries and data on left-right asymmetry AN in p?p??X in order to simultaneously extract information on the Sivers function and the twist-three quark-gluon Efremov-Teryaev-Qiu-Sterman function. We explore different possibilities such as the node of the Sivers function in x or k? in order to explain sign mismatch between these functions. We show that ? semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering data and ?0 STAR data can be well described in a combined fit based on both the transverse momentum dependent and collinear twist-three factorization formalisms; however, ? BRAHMS data are not described in a satisfactory way. This leaves the question open of a solution to the sign mismatch. Possible explanations are then discussed.

  7. Scanning SQUID microscopy with single electron spin sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyukov, Denis

    2014-03-01

    Superconducting interference devices (SQUIDs) have been traditionally used for studying fundamental properties of magnetic materials and superconductors. Although widely used in scanning magnetic microscopy, their progress towards detection of small magnetic moments was stagnating of late due to limitations imposed by conventional designs of planar SQUIDs and contemporary lithography techniques, restricting sample-to-sensor distance smaller than ~ 0.5 micron and SQUIDs diameters smaller than ~ 200 nm. These limitations were overcome by the invention of a SQUID-on-tip device, subsequent realization of a SQUID-on-tip microscope, and by creation of an ultra-small sensor with spatial resolution of 20 nm and sensitivity to a single electron spin per 1 Hz bandwidth. In this talk I will describe the principles of scanning SQUID magnetometry, its applications to study superconductors and its potential for magnetic nano-scale imaging of novel materials.

  8. Room-temperature in situ nuclear spin hyperpolarization from optically pumped nitrogen vacancy centres in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Jonathan P.; Jeong, Keunhong; Vassiliou, Christophoros C.; Shin, Chang S.; Page, Ralph H.; Avalos, Claudia E.; Wang, Hai-Jing; Pines, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Low detection sensitivity stemming from the weak polarization of nuclear spins is a primary limitation of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. Methods have been developed to enhance nuclear spin polarization but they typically require high magnetic fields, cryogenic temperatures or sample transfer between magnets. Here we report bulk, room-temperature hyperpolarization of 13C nuclear spins observed via high-field magnetic resonance. The technique harnesses the high optically induced spin polarization of diamond nitrogen vacancy centres at room temperature in combination with dynamic nuclear polarization. We observe bulk nuclear spin polarization of 6%, an enhancement of ~170,000 over thermal equilibrium. The signal of the hyperpolarized spins was detected in situ with a standard nuclear magnetic resonance probe without the need for sample shuttling or precise crystal orientation. Hyperpolarization via optical pumping/dynamic nuclear polarization should function at arbitrary magnetic fields enabling orders of magnitude sensitivity enhancement for nuclear magnetic resonance of solids and liquids under ambient conditions.

  9. Spin reorientation transition in dysprosium-samarium orthoferrite single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weiyao; Cao, Shixun; Huang, Ruoxiang; Cao, Yiming; Xu, Kai; Kang, Baojuan; Zhang, Jincang; Ren, Wei

    2015-03-01

    We report the control of spin reorientation (SR) transition in perovskite D y1 -xS mxFe O3 , a whole family of single crystals grown by an optical floating zone method from x =0 to 1 with an interval of 0.1. Powder x-ray diffractions and Rietveld refinements indicate that lattice parameters a and c increase linearly with Sm doping concentration, whereas b keeps a constant. Temperature dependence of the magnetizations under zero-field-cooling (ZFC) and field-cooling (FC) processes are studied in detail. We have found a remarkable linear change of SR transition temperature in Sm-rich samples for x >0.2 , which covers an extremely wide temperature range including room temperature. The a -axis magnetization curves under the FC during cooling (FCC) process bifurcate from and then jump back to that of the ZFC and FC warming process in single crystals when x =0.5 -0.9 , suggesting complicated 4 f -3 d electron interactions among D y3 + -S m3 +,D y3 + -F e3 + , and S m3 + -F e3 + sublattices of diverse magnetic configurations. The magnetic properties from the doping effect on SR transition temperature in these single crystals might be useful in the material physics and device design applications.

  10. Monitoring nuclear spin-flip processes and measuring spin-diffusion constants via hole burning into the magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roos, M.; Micke, P.; Hempel, G.

    2012-05-01

    An NMR experiment is presented for measuring spin-diffusion coefficients and observing homonuclear spin-flip processes. The magnetization is erased or even inverted in a multitude of spatially confined regions containing only one or a few spins (hole burning'). During the following time evolution of these holes, the following three time regimes can be observed: (i) local spin dynamics, (ii) spin diffusion towards a uniform average magnetization, and (iii) longitudinal nuclear magnetic relaxation. The oscillating characteristic of magnetization exchange between neighboring protons is demonstrated on a liquid crystal.

  11. Nuclear states and shapes at high spin. [Good review

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, R.M.

    1980-08-01

    As angular momentum is added to a nucleus, the balance of forces acting upon it to determine its shape, moment of inertia, mode of rotation, and type of level structure may undergo a series of changes. At relatively low spins a deformed nucleus will rotate collectively, and one may see the effect of Coriolis antipairing in gradually increasing the moment of inertia. Around spin 12 to 16 h-bar there may be an abrupt change (backbending) when a pair of high-j nucleons unpairs and the nucleons align with the axis of rotation; this process allows the nucleus to slow its collective rotation. This process, the start of a sharing of angular momentum between single-particle motion and the collective rotation, gives a lower total energy and corresponds to a change toward triaxiality in the shape of the nucleus. At much higher spins discrete ..gamma..-ray transitions can no longer be observed. This is the regime of continuum spectra; all the information on these high-spin states (to 65 h-bar) is contained in these continuum cascades. Knowledge is accumulating on how to study these spectra, experimentally and theoretically, and new techniques offer promise of revealing a great deal of information about the shapes and properties of very high spin states. 71 references, 34 figures.

  12. Magnetic resonance force microscopy with a single spin S>1/2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Thomas; Tsifrinovich, Vladimir I.

    2009-11-01

    We studied theoretically detection of a single spin S>1/2 using magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) and taking into account anisotropy. We have shown that the MRFM signal for a spin S>1/2 is the same as for spin S=1/2 and obtained the analytical estimate for the half-width of the signal.

  13. Role of electron-electron scattering on spin transport in single layer graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Bahniman; Katiyar, Saurabh; Salimath, Akshaykumar

    2014-01-15

    In this work, the effect of electron-electron scattering on spin transport in single layer graphene is studied using semi-classical Monte Carlo simulation. The Dyakonov-Perel mechanism is considered for spin relaxation. It is found that electron-electron scattering causes spin relaxation length to decrease by 35% at 300 K. The reason for this decrease in spin relaxation length is that the ensemble spin is modified upon an e-e collision and also e-e scattering rate is greater than phonon scattering rate at room temperature, which causes change in spin relaxation profile due to electron-electron scattering.

  14. Manipulation of the nuclear spin ensemble in a quantum dot with chirped magnetic resonance pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munsch, Mathieu; Wst, Gunter; Kuhlmann, Andreas V.; Xue, Fei; Ludwig, Arne; Reuter, Dirk; Wieck, Andreas D.; Poggio, Martino; Warburton, Richard J.

    2014-09-01

    The nuclear spins in nanostructured semiconductors play a central role in quantum applications. The nuclear spins represent a useful resource for generating local magnetic fields but nuclear spin noise represents a major source of dephasing for spin qubits. Controlling the nuclear spins enhances the resource while suppressing the noise. NMR techniques are challenging: the group III and V isotopes have large spins with widely different gyromagnetic ratios; in strained material there are large atom-dependent quadrupole shifts; and nanoscale NMR is hard to detect. We report NMR on 100,000 nuclear spins of a quantum dot using chirped radiofrequency pulses. Following polarization, we demonstrate a reversal of the nuclear spin. We can flip the nuclear spin back and forth a hundred times. We demonstrate that chirped NMR is a powerful way of determining the chemical composition, the initial nuclear spin temperatures and quadrupole frequency distributions for all the main isotopes. The key observation is a plateau in the NMR signal as a function of sweep rate: we achieve inversion at the first quantum transition for all isotopes simultaneously. These experiments represent a generic technique for manipulating nanoscale inhomogeneous nuclear spin ensembles and open the way to probe the coherence of such mesoscopic systems.

  15. Exploring magnetic excitations in the condensed matter using single electron spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Sar, Toeno; Casola, Francesco; Walsworth, Ronald; Yacoby, Amir

    2015-03-01

    Pushing the frontiers of condensed-matter magnetism requires tools to probe magnetic excitations on the nanometer scale. We have developed a new approach to exploring magnetic excitations in correlated-electron systems, using magnetometry based on single electron spins in diamond. We demonstrate the power of this approach by detecting spin-wave excitations in a ferromagnetic microdisc with nanoscale spatial sensitivity over a broad range of frequencies and magnetic fields. In addition, we show how spin-wave resonances can be exploited for on-chip amplification of microwave magnetic fields, allowing strongly increased spin manipulation rates and single-spin magnetometry with enhanced sensitivity. These results can be directly applied to nanoscale magnetic imaging of spin-wave propagation and magnetic vortex/skyrmion dynamics, and open the way towards spin-spin coupling via ferromagnets.

  16. Protecting nickel with graphene spin-filtering membranes: A single layer is enough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, M.-B.; Dlubak, B.; Weatherup, R. S.; Piquemal-Banci, M.; Yang, H.; Blume, R.; Schloegl, R.; Collin, S.; Petroff, F.; Hofmann, S.; Robertson, J.; Anane, A.; Fert, A.; Seneor, P.

    2015-07-01

    We report on the demonstration of ferromagnetic spin injectors for spintronics which are protected against oxidation through passivation by a single layer of graphene. The graphene monolayer is directly grown by catalytic chemical vapor deposition on pre-patterned nickel electrodes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that even with its monoatomic thickness, monolayer graphene still efficiently protects spin sources against oxidation in ambient air. The resulting single layer passivated electrodes are integrated into spin valves and demonstrated to act as spin polarizers. Strikingly, the atom-thick graphene layer is shown to be sufficient to induce a characteristic spin filtering effect evidenced through the sign reversal of the measured magnetoresistance.

  17. Modeling and Simulations of a Single-Spin Measurement Using MRFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, G. P.; Borgonovi, F.; Gorshkov, V. N.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.

    2005-01-01

    We review the quantum theory of a single spin magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM). We concentrate on the novel technique called oscillating cantilever-driven adiabatic reversals (OSCAR), which has been used for a single spin detection (Dan Rugar, Talk on the 2004 IEEE NTC Quantum Device Technology Workshop). First we describe the quantum dynamics of the cantilever-spin system using simple estimates in the spirit of the mean field approximation. Then we present the results of our computer simulations of the Schrodinger equation for the wave function of the cantilever-spin system and of the master equation for the density matrix of the system. We demonstrate that the cantilever behaves like a quasi-classical measurement device which detects the spin projection along the effective magnetic field. We show that the OSCAR technique provides continuous monitoring of the single spin, which could be used to detect the mysterious quantum collapses of the wave function of the cantilever-spin system.

  18. Nuclear spin-spin coupling in a van der Waals-bonded system: xenon dimer.

    PubMed

    Vaara, Juha; Hanni, Matti; Jokisaari, Jukka

    2013-03-14

    Nuclear spin-spin coupling over van der Waals bond has recently been observed via the frequency shift of solute protons in a solution containing optically hyperpolarized (129)Xe nuclei. We carry out a first-principles computational study of the prototypic van der Waals-bonded xenon dimer, where the spin-spin coupling between two magnetically non-equivalent isotopes, J((129)Xe - (131)Xe), is observable. We use relativistic theory at the four-component Dirac-Hartree-Fock and Dirac-density-functional theory levels using novel completeness-optimized Gaussian basis sets and choosing the functional based on a comparison with correlated ab initio methods at the nonrelativistic level. J-coupling curves are provided at different levels of theory as functions of the internuclear distance in the xenon dimer, demonstrating cross-coupling effects between relativity and electron correlation for this property. Calculations on small Xe clusters are used to estimate the importance of many-atom effects on J((129)Xe - (131)Xe). Possibilities of observing J((129)Xe - (131)Xe) in liquid xenon are critically examined, based on molecular dynamics simulation. A simplistic spherical model is set up for the xenon dimer confined in a cavity, such as in microporous materials. It is shown that the on the average shorter internuclear distance enforced by the confinement increases the magnitude of the coupling as compared to the bulk liquid case, rendering J((129)Xe - (131)Xe) in a cavity a feasible target for experimental investigation. PMID:23514495

  19. Nuclear spin conversion in NH{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Cacciani, P.; Cosleou, J.; Khelkhal, M.; Tudorie, M.; Puzzarini, C.; Pracna, P.

    2009-10-15

    The nuclear spin conversion (NSC) rate for a gas sample of NH{sub 3} is calculated in the framework of the quantum relaxation model. It is based on the knowledge of the vibration-inversion levels of the lowest vibrational states, the relaxation rates, and the intramolecular magnetic interactions. The magnitudes of the spin-spin and spin-rotation interaction terms have been obtained with the help of ab initio calculations. The value of the NSC at 296 K for a pressure of 1 Torr is 3.23x10{sup -6} s{sup -1} for {sup 14}NH{sub 3} and 9.15x10{sup -6} s{sup -1} for {sup 15}NH{sub 3}. A linear dependence of the NSC rates on the pressure is valid up to 1 atm for {sup 14}NH{sub 3} and up to 30 Torr for {sup 15}NH{sub 3}, where quasidegenerate ortho/para pairs are present in the excited {nu}{sub 2}=1 state.

  20. Imaging nuclear spins weakly coupled to a probe paramagnetic center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laraoui, Abdelghani; Pagliero, Daniela; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2015-05-01

    Optically detected paramagnetic centers in wide-band-gap semiconductors are emerging as a promising platform for nanoscale metrology at room temperature. Of particular interest are applications where the center is used as a probe to interrogate other spins that cannot be observed directly. Using the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond as a model system, we propose a strategy to determine the spatial coordinates of weakly coupled nuclear spins. The central idea is to label the target nucleus with a spin polarization that depends on its spatial location, which is subsequently revealed by making this polarization flow back to the NV for readout. Using extensive analytical and numerical modeling, we show that the technique can attain high spatial resolution depending on the NV lifetime and target spin location. No external magnetic field gradient is required, which circumvents complications resulting from changes in the direction of the applied magnetic field, and considerably simplifies the required instrumentation. Extensions of the present technique may be adapted to pinpoint the locations of other paramagnetic centers in the NV vicinity or to yield information on dynamical processes in molecules on the diamond surface.

  1. 129Xe EDM Search Experiment Using Active Nuclear Spin Maser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tomoya; Ichikawa, Yuichi; Ohtomo, Yuichi; Sakamoto, Yu; Kojima, Shuichiro; Suzuki, Takahiro; Shirai, Hazuki; Chikamori, Masatoshi; Hikota, Eri; Miyatake, Hirokazu; Nanao, Tsubasa; Suzuki, Kunifumi; Tsuchiya, Masato; Inoue, Takeshi; Furukawa, Takeshi; Yoshimi, Akihiro; Bidinosti, Christopher P.; Ino, Takashi; Ueno, Hideki; Matsuo, Yukari; Fukuyama, Takeshi; Asahi, Koichiro

    An active nuclear spin maser, which enables a precision measurement of spin precession frequency, is employed in the experimental search for permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) in the diamagnetic atom 129Xe. In order to eliminate systematic errors which limit the sensitivity of the experiment to an EDM, the following tactics are adopted: (i) 3He comagnetometry for the cancellation of long-term drifts in the external magnetic fields and (ii) double-cell geometry for the mitigation of frequency shifts due to interaction of 129Xe spin with polarized Rb atoms. In the present work, the design for the double-cell has been changed and a magnetic shield-coil system to provide a highly homogeneous magnetic field has been newly introduced. Thanks to increased polarization and longer 3He spin relaxation time, the dual-species maser of 129Xe and 3He in a double-cell geometry operated successfully. Our experiment is now at the stage of assembling these separate technical elements in order to start the measurement of 129Xe EDM in the 10-28 ecm region.

  2. Towards quantum networks of single spins: analysis of a quantum memory with an optical interface in diamond.

    PubMed

    Blok, M S; Kalb, N; Reiserer, A; Taminiau, T H; Hanson, R

    2015-12-12

    Single defect centers in diamond have emerged as a powerful platform for quantum optics experiments and quantum information processing tasks. Connecting spatially separated nodes via optical photons into a quantum network will enable distributed quantum computing and long-range quantum communication. Initial experiments on trapped atoms and ions as well as defects in diamond have demonstrated entanglement between two nodes over several meters. To realize multi-node networks, additional quantum bit systems that store quantum states while new entanglement links are established are highly desirable. Such memories allow for entanglement distillation, purification and quantum repeater protocols that extend the size, speed and distance of the network. However, to be effective, the memory must be robust against the entanglement generation protocol, which typically must be repeated many times. Here we evaluate the prospects of using carbon nuclear spins in diamond as quantum memories that are compatible with quantum networks based on single nitrogen vacancy (NV) defects in diamond. We present a theoretical framework to describe the dephasing of the nuclear spins under repeated generation of NV spin-photon entanglement and show that quantum states can be stored during hundreds of repetitions using typical experimental coupling parameters. This result demonstrates that nuclear spins with weak hyperfine couplings are promising quantum memories for quantum networks. PMID:26411802

  3. Solid effect in magic angle spinning dynamic nuclear polarization

    PubMed Central

    Corzilius, Bjrn; Smith, Albert A.; Griffin, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    For over five decades, the solid effect (SE) has been heavily utilized as a mechanism for performing dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). Nevertheless, it has not found widespread application in contemporary, high magnetic field DNP experiments because SE enhancements display an \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}\\omega _0 ^{ - 2}\\end{equation*} \\end{document}?0?2 field dependence. In particular, for nominally forbidden zero and double quantum SE transitions to be partially allowed, it is necessary for mixing of adjacent nuclear spin states to occur, and this leads to the observed field dependence. However, recently we have improved our instrumentation and report here an enhancement of ? = 91 obtained with the organic radical trityl (OX063) in magic angle spinning experiments performed at 5 T and 80 K. This is a factor of 6-7 higher than previous values in the literature under similar conditions. Because the solid effect depends strongly on the microwave field strength, we attribute this large enhancement to larger microwave field strengths inside the sample volume, achieved with more efficient coupling of the gyrotron to the sample chamber. In addition, we develop a theoretical model to explain the dependence of the buildup rate of enhanced nuclear polarization and the steady-state enhancement on the microwave power. Buildup times and enhancements were measured as a function of 1H concentration for both trityl and Gd-DOTA. Comparison of the results indicates that for trityl the initial polarization step is the slower, rate-determining step. However, for Gd-DOTA the spread of nuclear polarization via homonuclear 1H spin diffusion is rate-limiting. Finally, we discuss the applicability of the solid effect at fields > 5 T and the requirements to address the unfavorable field dependence of the solid effect. PMID:22894339

  4. Solid effect in magic angle spinning dynamic nuclear polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corzilius, Björn; Smith, Albert A.; Griffin, Robert G.

    2012-08-01

    For over five decades, the solid effect (SE) has been heavily utilized as a mechanism for performing dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). Nevertheless, it has not found widespread application in contemporary, high magnetic field DNP experiments because SE enhancements display an ω _0 ^{ - 2} field dependence. In particular, for nominally forbidden zero and double quantum SE transitions to be partially allowed, it is necessary for mixing of adjacent nuclear spin states to occur, and this leads to the observed field dependence. However, recently we have improved our instrumentation and report here an enhancement of ɛ = 91 obtained with the organic radical trityl (OX063) in magic angle spinning experiments performed at 5 T and 80 K. This is a factor of 6-7 higher than previous values in the literature under similar conditions. Because the solid effect depends strongly on the microwave field strength, we attribute this large enhancement to larger microwave field strengths inside the sample volume, achieved with more efficient coupling of the gyrotron to the sample chamber. In addition, we develop a theoretical model to explain the dependence of the buildup rate of enhanced nuclear polarization and the steady-state enhancement on the microwave power. Buildup times and enhancements were measured as a function of 1H concentration for both trityl and Gd-DOTA. Comparison of the results indicates that for trityl the initial polarization step is the slower, rate-determining step. However, for Gd-DOTA the spread of nuclear polarization via homonuclear 1H spin diffusion is rate-limiting. Finally, we discuss the applicability of the solid effect at fields > 5 T and the requirements to address the unfavorable field dependence of the solid effect.

  5. Tools for Studying Electron and Spin Transport in Single Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, Daniel C.

    2005-03-01

    Experiments in the field of single-molecule electronics are challenging in part because it can be very difficult to control and characterize the device structure. Molecules contacted by metal electrodes cannot easily be imaged by microscopy techniques. Moreover, if one attempts to characterize the device structure simply by measuring a current-voltage curve, it is easy to mistake nonlinear transport across a bare tunnel junction or a metallic short for a molecular signal. I will discuss the development of a set of experimental test structures that enable the properties of a molecular device to be tuned controllably in-situ, so that the transport mechanisms can be studied more systematically and compared with theoretical predictions. My collaborators and I are developing the means to use several different types of such experimental "knobs" in coordination: electrostatic gating to shift the energy levels in a molecule, mechanical motion to adjust the molecular configuration or the molecule-electrode coupling strength, illumination with light to promote electrons to excited states or to make and break chemical bonds, and the use of ferromagnetic electrodes to study spin-polarized transport. Our work so far has provided new insights into Kondo physics, the coupling between a molecule's electronic and mechanical degrees of freedom, and spin transport through a molecule between magnetic electrodes. Collaborators: Radek Bialczak, Alex Champagne, Luke Donev, Jonas Goldsmith, Jacob Grose, Janice Guikema, Jiwoong Park, Josh Parks, Abhay Pasupathy, Jason Petta, Sara Slater, Burak Ulgut, Alexander Soldatov, H'ector Abruña, and Paul McEuen.

  6. Quantum Information Processing Experiments Using Nuclear and Electron Spins in Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, Masahiro; Morita, Yasushi; Kagawa, Akinori; Negoro, Makoto

    Nuclear spins and electron spins in molecules have relatively long decoherence times, offer appropriate interactions for use in quantum gate operations, and can be controlled using magnetic resonance techniques. In this chapter, from the viewpoint of using these spins for quantum information processing, Hamiltonian engineering methods and hardware are developed for hyper precision control. Additionally, hyperpolarization techniques are developed for spin initialization, and a spin amplification method is developed for detection.

  7. Continuous dynamical decoupling of a single diamond nitrogen-vacancy center spin with a mechanical resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacQuarrie, E. R.; Gosavi, T. A.; Bhave, S. A.; Fuchs, G. D.

    2015-12-01

    Inhomogeneous dephasing from uncontrolled environmental noise can limit the coherence of a quantum sensor or qubit. For solid-state spin qubits such as the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond, a dominant source of environmental noise is magnetic field fluctuations due to nearby paramagnetic impurities and instabilities in a magnetic bias field. In this work, we use ac stress generated by a diamond mechanical resonator to engineer a dressed spin basis in which a single NV center qubit is less sensitive to its magnetic environment. For a qubit in the thermally isolated subspace of this protected basis, we prolong the dephasing time T2* from 2.7 0.1 to 15 1 ? s by dressing with a ? /2 ? =581 2 kHz mechanical Rabi field. Furthermore, we develop a model that quantitatively predicts the relationship between ? and T2* in the dressed basis. Our model suggests that a combination of magnetic field fluctuations and hyperfine coupling to nearby nuclear spins limits the protected coherence time over the range of ? accessed here. We show that amplitude noise in ? will dominate the dephasing for larger driving fields.

  8. Dynamics of entanglement of two electron spins interacting with nuclear spin baths in quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragar, Igor; Cywiński, Łukasz

    2015-04-01

    We study the dynamics of entanglement of two electron spins in two quantum dots, in which each electron is interacting with its nuclear spin environment. Focusing on the case of uncoupled dots, and starting from either Bell or Werner states of two qubits, we calculate the decay of entanglement due to the hyperfine interaction with the nuclei. We mostly focus on the regime of magnetic fields in which the bath-induced electron spin flips play a role, for example, their presence leads to the appearance of entanglement sudden death at finite time for two qubits initialized in a Bell state. For these fields, the intrabath dipolar interactions and spatial inhomogeneity of hyperfine couplings are irrelevant on the time scale of coherence (and entanglement) decay, and most of the presented calculations are performed using the uniform-coupling approximation to the exact hyperfine Hamiltonian. We provide a comprehensive overview of entanglement decay in this regime, considering both free evolution of the qubits, and an echo protocol with simultaneous application of π pulses to the two spins. All the currently relevant for experiments bath states are considered: the thermal state, narrowed states (characterized by diminished uncertainty of one of the components of the Overhauser field) of two uncorrelated baths, and a correlated narrowed state with a well-defined value of the z component of the Overhauser field interdot gradient. While we mostly use concurrence to quantify the amount of entanglement in a mixed state of the two electron spins, we also show that their entanglement dynamics can be reconstructed from measurements of the currently relevant for experiments entanglement witnesses and the fidelity of quantum teleportation, performed using a partially disentangled state as a resource.

  9. Efficient spin filter and spin valve in a single-molecule magnet Fe4 between two graphene electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zu, Feng-Xia; Gao, Guo-Ying; Fu, Hua-Hua; Xiong, Lun; Zhu, Si-Cong; Peng, Li; Yao, Kai-Lun

    2015-12-01

    We propose a magnetic molecular junction consisting of a single-molecule magnet Fe4 connected two graphene electrodes and investigate transport properties, using the nonequilibrium Green's function method in combination with spin-polarized density-functional theory. The results show that the device can be used as a nearly perfect spin filter with efficiency approaching 100%. Our calculations provide crucial microscopic information how the four iron cores of the chemical structure are responsible for the spin-resolved transmissions. Moreover, it is also found that the device behaves as a highly efficient spin valve, which is an excellent candidate for spintronics of molecular devices. The idea of combining single-molecule magnets with graphene provides a direction in designing a new class of molecular spintronic devices.

  10. Elasticity of Single-Crystal Ferropericlase across the Spin Transition in the Lower Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Tong, X.; Lin, J. F.; Okuchi, T.; Tomioka, N.

    2014-12-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical studies on the lower-mantle ferropericlase have demonstrated that its physical and chemical properties can be affected by the spin transition, which in turn can affect our understanding of deep-Earth seismic structures, geochemistry, and geodynamics. The sound velocities of ferropericlase at lower-mantle pressures have been reported using various techniques including Brillouin Light Scattering (BLS), Impulsive Stimulate Light Scattering (ISS), Inelastic X-ray Scattering (IXS), and Nuclear Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering [1,2,3]. However, the compressional wave and shear wave velocities have never been measured simultaneously up to lower mantle conditions to solve for full elastic constants of ferropericlase, C11, C12 and C44 via Christoffel's equations. Thus far, the effects of the spin transition on elasticity of ferropericlase remains highly debated. Using the combinations of experimental results from BLS and ISS measurements in the Mineral Physics Lab at the University of Texas at Austin, we have directly measured Vp and Vs of ferropericlase (Mg0.92Fe0.08)O simultaneously along [100] and [110] crystallographic axes up to megabar pressures. These results permit the derivation of reliable full elastic constants and the modeling of the elastic and seismic properties in the high-spin, low-spin and mixed-spin states. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments were also performed to provide the equation of state parameters of ferropericlase for the modelling. The compressional wave velocities from ISS measurements show significant softening, while shear wave velocities from BLS experiments were only slightly affected by the spin transition. Using thermoelastic modelling [4], we will discuss the effects of the spin transition on elastic constants, sound velocities, elastic anisotropies, and seismic parameters of ferropericlase at lower-mantle pressure-temperature conditions. These results are compared with seismic observations of the deep lower mantle in order to better understand seismic signatures and mineralogical models of the lower mantle. References:1. Antonangeli, D., et al., 2011, Science 331, 64 2.Marquardt, H., et al., 2009, Science 324, 224. 3. Crowhurst, J., et al., 2008, Science 319, 451. 4.Wu, Z.Q., et al., 2013, PRL 110, 228501.

  11. Suppression of nuclear spin bath fluctuations in self-assembled quantum dots induced by inhomogeneous strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekhovich, E. A.; Hopkinson, M.; Skolnick, M. S.; Tartakovskii, A. I.

    2015-02-01

    Interaction with nuclear spins leads to decoherence and information loss in solid-state electron-spin qubits. One particular, ineradicable source of electron decoherence arises from decoherence of the nuclear spin bath, driven by nuclear-nuclear dipolar interactions. Owing to its many-body nature nuclear decoherence is difficult to predict, especially for an important class of strained nanostructures where nuclear quadrupolar effects have a significant but largely unknown impact. Here, we report direct measurement of nuclear spin bath coherence in individual self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots: spin-echo coherence times in the range 1.2-4.5?ms are found. Based on these values, we demonstrate that strain-induced quadrupolar interactions make nuclear spin fluctuations much slower compared with lattice-matched GaAs/AlGaAs structures. Our findings demonstrate that quadrupolar effects can potentially be used to engineer optically active III-V semiconductor spin-qubits with a nearly noise-free nuclear spin bath, previously achievable only in nuclear spin-0 semiconductors, where qubit network interconnection and scaling are challenging.

  12. Suppression of nuclear spin bath fluctuations in self-assembled quantum dots induced by inhomogeneous strain.

    PubMed

    Chekhovich, E A; Hopkinson, M; Skolnick, M S; Tartakovskii, A I

    2015-01-01

    Interaction with nuclear spins leads to decoherence and information loss in solid-state electron-spin qubits. One particular, ineradicable source of electron decoherence arises from decoherence of the nuclear spin bath, driven by nuclear-nuclear dipolar interactions. Owing to its many-body nature nuclear decoherence is difficult to predict, especially for an important class of strained nanostructures where nuclear quadrupolar effects have a significant but largely unknown impact. Here, we report direct measurement of nuclear spin bath coherence in individual self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots: spin-echo coherence times in the range 1.2-4.5 ms are found. Based on these values, we demonstrate that strain-induced quadrupolar interactions make nuclear spin fluctuations much slower compared with lattice-matched GaAs/AlGaAs structures. Our findings demonstrate that quadrupolar effects can potentially be used to engineer optically active III-V semiconductor spin-qubits with a nearly noise-free nuclear spin bath, previously achievable only in nuclear spin-0 semiconductors, where qubit network interconnection and scaling are challenging. PMID:25704639

  13. Nuclear Hydrogen for Peak Electricity Production and Spinning Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    2005-01-20

    Nuclear energy can be used to produce hydrogen. The key strategic question is this: ''What are the early markets for nuclear hydrogen?'' The answer determines (1) whether there are incentives to implement nuclear hydrogen technology today or whether the development of such a technology could be delayed by decades until a hydrogen economy has evolved, (2) the industrial partners required to develop such a technology, and (3) the technological requirements for the hydrogen production system (rate of production, steady-state or variable production, hydrogen purity, etc.). Understanding ''early'' markets for any new product is difficult because the customer may not even recognize that the product could exist. This study is an initial examination of how nuclear hydrogen could be used in two interconnected early markets: the production of electricity for peak and intermediate electrical loads and spinning reserve for the electrical grid. The study is intended to provide an initial description that can then be used to consult with potential customers (utilities, the Electric Power Research Institute, etc.) to better determine the potential real-world viability of this early market for nuclear hydrogen and provide the starting point for a more definitive assessment of the concept. If this set of applications is economically viable, it offers several unique advantages: (1) the market is approximately equivalent in size to the existing nuclear electric enterprise in the United States, (2) the entire market is within the utility industry and does not require development of an external market for hydrogen or a significant hydrogen infrastructure beyond the utility site, (3) the technology and scale match those of nuclear hydrogen production, (4) the market exists today, and (5) the market is sufficient in size to justify development of nuclear hydrogen production techniques independent of the development of any other market for hydrogen. These characteristics make it an ideal early market for nuclear hydrogen.

  14. Spin and spin-isospin instabilities in asymmetric nuclear matter at zero and finite temperatures using Skyrme functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Chamel, N.; Goriely, S.

    2010-10-15

    Self-consistent mean-field methods based on phenomenological Skyrme effective interactions are known to exhibit spurious spin and spin-isospin instabilities both at zero and finite temperatures when applied to homogeneous nuclear matter at the densities encountered in neutron stars and in supernova cores. The origin of these instabilities is revisited in the framework of the nuclear energy density functional theory, and a simple prescription is proposed to remove them. The stability of several Skyrme parametrizations is reexamined.

  15. Coherent control of single spins in silicon carbide at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widmann, Matthias; Lee, Sang-Yun; Rendler, Torsten; Son, Nguyen Tien; Fedder, Helmut; Paik, Seoyoung; Yang, Li-Ping; Zhao, Nan; Yang, Sen; Booker, Ian; Denisenko, Andrej; Jamali, Mohammad; Momenzadeh, S. Ali; Gerhardt, Ilja; Ohshima, Takeshi; Gali, Adam; Janzén, Erik; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2015-02-01

    Spins in solids are cornerstone elements of quantum spintronics. Leading contenders such as defects in diamond or individual phosphorus dopants in silicon have shown spectacular progress, but either lack established nanotechnology or an efficient spin/photon interface. Silicon carbide (SiC) combines the strength of both systems: it has a large bandgap with deep defects and benefits from mature fabrication techniques. Here, we report the characterization of photoluminescence and optical spin polarization from single silicon vacancies in SiC, and demonstrate that single spins can be addressed at room temperature. We show coherent control of a single defect spin and find long spin coherence times under ambient conditions. Our study provides evidence that SiC is a promising system for atomic-scale spintronics and quantum technology.

  16. Coherent control of single spins in silicon carbide at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Widmann, Matthias; Lee, Sang-Yun; Rendler, Torsten; Son, Nguyen Tien; Fedder, Helmut; Paik, Seoyoung; Yang, Li-Ping; Zhao, Nan; Yang, Sen; Booker, Ian; Denisenko, Andrej; Jamali, Mohammad; Momenzadeh, S Ali; Gerhardt, Ilja; Ohshima, Takeshi; Gali, Adam; Janzén, Erik; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2015-02-01

    Spins in solids are cornerstone elements of quantum spintronics. Leading contenders such as defects in diamond or individual phosphorus dopants in silicon have shown spectacular progress, but either lack established nanotechnology or an efficient spin/photon interface. Silicon carbide (SiC) combines the strength of both systems: it has a large bandgap with deep defects and benefits from mature fabrication techniques. Here, we report the characterization of photoluminescence and optical spin polarization from single silicon vacancies in SiC, and demonstrate that single spins can be addressed at room temperature. We show coherent control of a single defect spin and find long spin coherence times under ambient conditions. Our study provides evidence that SiC is a promising system for atomic-scale spintronics and quantum technology. PMID:25437256

  17. Nuclear spin conversion of water inside fullerene cages detected by low-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Mamone, Salvatore Concistrè, Maria; Carignani, Elisa; Meier, Benno; Krachmalnicoff, Andrea; Johannessen, Ole G.; Denning, Mark; Carravetta, Marina; Whitby, Richard J.; Levitt, Malcolm H.; Lei, Xuegong; Li, Yongjun; Goh, Kelvin; Horsewill, Anthony J.

    2014-05-21

    The water-endofullerene H{sub 2}O@C{sub 60} provides a unique chemical system in which freely rotating water molecules are confined inside homogeneous and symmetrical carbon cages. The spin conversion between the ortho and para species of the endohedral H{sub 2}O was studied in the solid phase by low-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance. The experimental data are consistent with a second-order kinetics, indicating a bimolecular spin conversion process. Numerical simulations suggest the simultaneous presence of a spin diffusion process allowing neighbouring ortho and para molecules to exchange their angular momenta. Cross-polarization experiments found no evidence that the spin conversion of the endohedral H{sub 2}O molecules is catalysed by {sup 13}C nuclei present in the cages.

  18. Spin-path entanglement in single-neutron interferometer experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Yuji; Erdoesi, Daniel

    2011-09-23

    There are two powerful arguments against the possibility of extending quantum mechanics (QM) into a more fundamental theory yielding a deterministic description of nature. One is the experimental violation of Bell inequalities, which discards local hidden-variable theories as a possible extension to QM. The other is the Kochen-Specker (KS) theorem, which stresses the incompatibility of QM with a larger class of hidden-variable theories, known as noncontextual hidden-variable theories. We performed experiments with neutron interferometer, which exploits spin-path entanglements in single neutrons. A Bell-like state is generated to demonstrate a violation of the Bell-like inequality and phenomena in accordance with KS theorem: both experiments study quantum contextuality and show clear evidence of the incompatibility of noncontextual hidden variable theories with QM. The value S = 2.202{+-}0.007 Neither-Less-Than-Nor-Equal-To 2 is obtained in the new measurement of the Bell-like inequality, which shows a larger violation than the previous measurement. For the study of KS theorem, the obtained violation 2.291{+-}0.008 Neither-Less-Than-Nor-Equal-To 1 clearly shows that quantum mechanical predictions cannot be reproduced by noncontextual hidden variable theories.

  19. Target Single-Spin Asymmetry in Inclusive Hadron Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaodong

    2015-02-01

    We present the first measurement of target single-spin asymmetries (AN) in the inclusive hadron production reaction, e+3He? ?h+X, using a transversely polarized 3He target at an electron-nucleon center-of-mass energy ? {s} = 3.45 GeV. The experiment was conducted at Jefferson Lab in Hall A using a 5.9-GeV electron beam. Several types of hadrons (?, K and proton) were detected with an average momentum = 2.35 GeV/c, and an average transverse momentum = 0.64 GeV/c. The observed asymmetry strongly depends on the type of hadron. A positive asymmetry is observed for ?+ and K+. A negative asymmetry is observed for ?-. The ?+ and ?- asymmetries measured for the 3He target and extracted the "effective- neutron" SSA. Amazingly, we found that the ratio of our observed SSA between ?+ and ?- productions closely resemble the ratio of up- to down-quark's contributions to neutron's anomalous magnetic moment.

  20. Quenching of dynamic nuclear polarization by spinorbit coupling in GaAs quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Nichol, John M.; Harvey, Shannon P.; Shulman, Michael D.; Pal, Arijeet; Umansky, Vladimir; Rashba, Emmanuel I.; Halperin, Bertrand I.; Yacoby, Amir

    2015-01-01

    The central-spin problem is a widely studied model of quantum decoherence. Dynamic nuclear polarization occurs in central-spin systems when electronic angular momentum is transferred to nuclear spins and is exploited in quantum information processing for coherent spin manipulation. However, the mechanisms limiting this process remain only partially understood. Here we show that spinorbit coupling can quench dynamic nuclear polarization in a GaAs quantum dot, because spin conservation is violated in the electronnuclear system, despite weak spinorbit coupling in GaAs. Using LandauZener sweeps to measure static and dynamic properties of the electron spinflip probability, we observe that the size of the spinorbit and hyperfine interactions depends on the magnitude and direction of applied magnetic field. We find that dynamic nuclear polarization is quenched when the spinorbit contribution exceeds the hyperfine, in agreement with a theoretical model. Our results shed light on the surprisingly strong effect of spinorbit coupling in central-spin systems. PMID:26184854

  1. Suppression of nuclear spin bath fluctuations in self-assembled quantum dots induced by inhomogeneous strain

    PubMed Central

    Chekhovich, E.A.; Hopkinson, M.; Skolnick, M.S.; Tartakovskii, A.I.

    2015-01-01

    Interaction with nuclear spins leads to decoherence and information loss in solid-state electron-spin qubits. One particular, ineradicable source of electron decoherence arises from decoherence of the nuclear spin bath, driven by nuclear–nuclear dipolar interactions. Owing to its many-body nature nuclear decoherence is difficult to predict, especially for an important class of strained nanostructures where nuclear quadrupolar effects have a significant but largely unknown impact. Here, we report direct measurement of nuclear spin bath coherence in individual self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots: spin-echo coherence times in the range 1.2–4.5 ms are found. Based on these values, we demonstrate that strain-induced quadrupolar interactions make nuclear spin fluctuations much slower compared with lattice-matched GaAs/AlGaAs structures. Our findings demonstrate that quadrupolar effects can potentially be used to engineer optically active III-V semiconductor spin-qubits with a nearly noise-free nuclear spin bath, previously achievable only in nuclear spin-0 semiconductors, where qubit network interconnection and scaling are challenging. PMID:25704639

  2. Theory of transport through noncollinear single-electron spin-valve transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindebaum, Stephan; König, Jürgen

    2011-12-01

    We study the electronic transport through a noncollinear single-electron spin-valve transistor. It consists of a small metallic island weakly coupled to two ferromagnetic leads with noncollinear magnetization directions. The electric current is influenced by Coulomb charging and by spin accumulation. Furthermore, the interplay of Coulomb interaction and tunnel coupling to spin-polarized leads yields a many-body exchange field in which the accumulated island spin precesses. We analyze the effects of this exchange field in both the linear and nonlinear transport regime. In particular, we find that the exchange field can give rise to a high sensitivity of the island's spin orientation on the gate voltage.

  3. Nuclear Spin Orientation Dependence of Magnetoconductance: A New Method for Measuring the Spin of Charged Excitations in the QHE

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, C.R.; Reno, J.L.; Simmons, J.A.; Vitkalov, S.A.

    1998-12-01

    A new method for measuring the spin of the electrically charged ground state excitations m the Q$j~j quantum Hall effect ia proposed and demonstmted for the tirst time in GaAs/AIGaAs nndtiquantum wells. The method is &sed on the nuclear spin orientation dependence of" the 2D dc conductivity y in the quantum Hall regime due to the nuclear hyperfine interaction. As a demonstration of this method the spin of the electrically charged excitations of the ground state is determined at filling factor v = 1.

  4. Nuclear Spin Locking and Extended Two-Electron Spin Decoherence Time in an InAs Quantum Dot Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Colin; Ross, Aaron; Steel, Duncan; Sham, L. J.; Bracker, Allan; Gammon, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    The spin eigenstates for two electrons confined in a self-assembled InAs quantum dot molecule (QDM) consist of the spin singlet state, S, with J = 0 and the triplet states T-, T0 and T+, with J = 1. When a transverse magnetic field (Voigt geometry) is applied, the two-electron system can be initialized to the different states with appropriate laser excitation. Under the excitation of a weak probe laser, non-Lorentzian lineshapes are obtained when the system is initialized to either T- or T+, where T- results in a ``resonance locking'' lineshape while T+ gives a ``resonance avoiding '' lineshape: two different manifestations of hysteresis showing the importance of memory in the system. These observations signify dynamic nuclear spin polarization (DNSP) arising from a feedback mechanism involving hyperfine interaction between lattice nuclei and delocalized electron spins, and Overhauser shift due to nuclear spin polarization. Using pump configurations that generate coherent population trapping, the isolation of the electron spin from the optical excitation shows the stabilization of the nuclear spin ensemble. The dark-state lineshape measures the lengthened electron spin decoherence time, from 1 ns to 1 ?s. Our detailed spectra highlight the potential of QDM for realizing a two-qubit gate. This work is supported by NSF, ARO, AFOSR, DARPA, and ONR.

  5. Efficient route to high-bandwidth nanoscale magnetometry using single spins in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puentes, Graciana; Waldherr, Gerald; Neumann, Philipp; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrishnan; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2014-04-01

    Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond is a promising quantum metrology tool finding applications across disciplines. The spin sensor measures magnetic fields, electric fields and temperature with nano-scale precision and is fully operable under ambient conditions. Moreover, it achieves precision scaling inversely with total measurement time σB ~ 1/T (Heisenberg scaling) rather than as the inverse of the square root of T, with the Shot-Noise limit. This scaling can be achieved by means of phase estimation algorithms (PEAs), in combination with single-shot read-out. Despite their accuracy, the range of applicability of PEAs is limited to sensing single frequencies with negligible temporal fluctuations. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) signals from molecules often contain multifrequency components and sensing them using PEA is ruled out. Here we propose an alternative method for precision magnetometry in frequency multiplexed signals via compressive sensing (CS) techniques focusing on nanoscale NMR. We show that CS can provide for precision scaling approximately as σB ~ 1/T, as well as for a 5-fold increase in sensitivity over dynamic-range gain, in addition to reducing the total number of resources required. We illustrate our method by taking model solid-state spectra of Glycine acquired under Magic Angle Spinning conditions.

  6. Efficient route to high-bandwidth nanoscale magnetometry using single spins in diamond.

    PubMed

    Puentes, Graciana; Waldherr, Gerald; Neumann, Philipp; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrishnan; Wrachtrup, Jrg

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond is a promising quantum metrology tool finding applications across disciplines. The spin sensor measures magnetic fields, electric fields and temperature with nano-scale precision and is fully operable under ambient conditions. Moreover, it achieves precision scaling inversely with total measurement time ?B ? 1/T (Heisenberg scaling) rather than as the inverse of the square root of T, with ?B = ?T the Shot-Noise limit. This scaling can be achieved by means of phase estimation algorithms (PEAs), in combination with single-shot read-out. Despite their accuracy, the range of applicability of PEAs is limited to sensing single frequencies with negligible temporal fluctuations. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) signals from molecules often contain multifrequency components and sensing them using PEA is ruled out. Here we propose an alternative method for precision magnetometry in frequency multiplexed signals via compressive sensing (CS) techniques focusing on nanoscale NMR. We show that CS can provide for precision scaling approximately as ?B ? 1/T, as well as for a 5-fold increase in sensitivity over dynamic-range gain, in addition to reducing the total number of resources required. We illustrate our method by taking model solid-state spectra of Glycine acquired under Magic Angle Spinning conditions. PMID:24728454

  7. Nuclear spin-dependent parity nonconservation in diatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphree, Dennis Haaga, Jr.

    Nuclear spin-dependent parity nonconserving phenomena produce effects that are relevant to particle, nuclear, and atomic physics. They unite these increasingly disparate disciplines via the subtle effects of the weak force. Currently, weak interactions between nucleons present at best a confusing picture, and neutral weak coupling of leptons to baryons, even at high energy, is one of the most poorly characterized aspects of the Standard Model. Perhaps surprisingly, one of the most effective laboratories for studying parity violation is the diatomic molecule. The naturally close spacing of molecular hyperfine-rotational levels, which can be Zeeman shifted even closer to degeneracy, allows small parity violating effects to be enhanced dramatically. Here we describe the beginning of our experimental program to study nuclear spin-dependent parity nonconservation (NSD-PNC) using a beam of diatomic free radicals. Specifically, we seek to measure weak matrix elements connecting hyperfine-rotational states in a series of molecules, beginning with barium fluoride. Our experimental technique is based on a Stark interference method: we look for asymmetries in transitions that depend on the sign of an applied electric field. A key element in the experimental program is the magnetic field used to Zeeman shift the levels in our molecules to near crossing. Carefully controlling both the strength and uniformity of this field is critical to the success of the experiment. In order to measure the field over the wide range of values required by our experiment, both a completely novel nuclear magnetic resonance probe, as well as a unique field shimming apparatus and algorithm, were developed. A second important element in the program is the ability to detect the states of our molecules with as high a signal to noise as possible. To that end a new detection method based on a two-photon transition was developed. Both of these areas, which constitute the bulk of the author's contribution to the experimental program, are described in detail.

  8. Ultrafast coherent optical control of a single diamond spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, L. C.; Heremans, F. J.; Awschalom, D. D.; Burkard, G.

    2013-03-01

    As an optically addressable solid-state electronic spin, the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond has great promise for applications in quantum information science and metrology. At temperatures below ~ 10 K, the NV center's optical fine structure facilitates coherent coupling between the electronic spin and light, providing the means for all-optical spin control and other applications in quantum optics. Here, using ultrafast optical pump-probe techniques, we investigate the interplay of orbital, vibrational, and spin dynamics on timescales ranging from femtoseconds to nanoseconds. These techniques provide a flexible and powerful probe of orbital dynamics in the NV center's optically excited state, and enable optical spin control with sub-picosecond resolution. Work supported by AFOSR, ARO, and DARPA.

  9. Radioactive nuclear beams and the North American IsoSpin Laboratory (ISL) initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Casten, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Radioactive nuclear beams (RNBs) offer exciting new research opportunities in fields as diverse as nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, astrophysics atomic, materials, and applied science. Their realization in new accelerator complexes also offers important technical challenges. Some of the nuclear physics possibilities afforded by RNBs, with emphasis on low spin nuclear structure, are discussed, accompanied by an outline of the ISL initiative and its status.

  10. Radioactive nuclear beams and the North American IsoSpin Laboratory (ISL) initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Casten, R.F.

    1992-12-01

    Radioactive nuclear beams (RNBs) offer exciting new research opportunities in fields as diverse as nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, astrophysics atomic, materials, and applied science. Their realization in new accelerator complexes also offers important technical challenges. Some of the nuclear physics possibilities afforded by RNBs, with emphasis on low spin nuclear structure, are discussed, accompanied by an outline of the ISL initiative and its status.

  11. Spin-related thermoelectric conversion in lateral spin-valve devices with single-crystalline Co2FeSi electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, Kento; Oki, Soichiro; Yamada, Shinya; Kanashima, Takeshi; Hamaya, Kohei

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate the conversion between a heat current and a spin current in Cu-based lateral spin valves (LSVs) with single-crystalline Co2FeSi (CFS) electrodes. We can observe the thermally induced spin injection from CFS into Cu resulting from the spin-dependent Seebeck effect, and the heat current generated by the spin-dependent Peltier effect can be detected even in the LSV structures. This study is an important step toward understanding heat-spin conversion in single-crystalline materials with various electronic band structures.

  12. Nanometre-scale nuclear-spin device for quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Y.; Miranowicz, A.; Ota, T.; Yusa, G.; Muraki, K.; Ozdemir, S. K.; Imoto, N.

    2006-05-01

    We have developed semiconductor point contact devices in which nuclear spins in a nanoscale region are coherently controlled by all-electrical methods. Different from the standard nuclear-magnetic resonance technique, the longitudinal magnetization of nuclear spins is directly detected by measuring resistance, resulting in ultra-sensitive detection of the microscopic quantity of nuclear spins. All possible coherent oscillations have been successfully demonstrated between two levels from four nuclear spin states of I = 3/2 nuclei. Quantum information processing is discussed based on two fictitious qubits of an I = 3/2 system and methods are described for performing arbitrary logical gates both on one and two qubits. A scheme for quantum state tomography based on Mz-detection is also proposed. As the starting point of quantum manipulations, we have experimentally prepared the effective pure states for the I = 3/2 nuclear spin system.

  13. Single-Quantum Coherence Filter for Strongly Coupled Spin Systems for Localized 1H NMR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabesinger, Andreas H.; Mueller, D. Christoph; Boesiger, Peter

    2000-08-01

    A pulse sequence for localized in vivo1H NMR spectroscopy is presented, which selectively filters single-quantum coherence built up by strongly coupled spin systems. Uncoupled and weakly coupled spin systems do not contribute to the signal output. Analytical calculations using a product operator description of the strongly coupled AB spin system as well as in vitro tests demonstrate that the proposed filter produces a signal output for a strongly coupled AB spin system, whereas the resonances of a weakly coupled AX spin system and of uncoupled spins are widely suppressed. As a potential application, the detection of the strongly coupled AA?BB? spin system of taurine at 1.5 T is discussed.

  14. Manipulation and measurement of nuclear spin over the quantum Hall regime for quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, R. G.; Johnson, W. B.; Narayanamurti, V.

    2002-12-01

    We propose a method for the management of nuclear spin immersed in a confined quantum Hall electronic system that is characterized by: (a) the application of the Overhauser effect for dynamic nuclear polarization, (b) spin measurement using electrical resistance detection techniques, (c) spin control with microwave/radio frequency methods, and (d) the utilization of the electronic spin exciton as a possible mobile spin transfer mechanism for the eventual realization of a logic gate. Concepts involved in this approach are illustrated with experimental results.

  15. Nuclear depolarization and absolute sensitivity in magic-angle spinning cross effect dynamic nuclear polarization.

    PubMed

    Mentink-Vigier, Frédéric; Paul, Subhradip; Lee, Daniel; Feintuch, Akiva; Hediger, Sabine; Vega, Shimon; De Paëpe, Gaël

    2015-09-14

    Over the last two decades solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance has witnessed a breakthrough in increasing the nuclear polarization, and thus experimental sensitivity, with the advent of Magic Angle Spinning Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (MAS-DNP). To enhance the nuclear polarization of protons, exogenous nitroxide biradicals such as TOTAPOL or AMUPOL are routinely used. Their efficiency is usually assessed as the ratio between the NMR signal intensity in the presence and the absence of microwave irradiation εon/off. While TOTAPOL delivers an enhancement εon/off of about 60 on a model sample, the more recent AMUPOL is more efficient: >200 at 100 K. Such a comparison is valid as long as the signal measured in the absence of microwaves is merely the Boltzmann polarization and is not affected by the spinning of the sample. However, recent MAS-DNP studies at 25 K by Thurber and Tycko (2014) have demonstrated that the presence of nitroxide biradicals combined with sample spinning can lead to a depolarized nuclear state, below the Boltzmann polarization. In this work we demonstrate that TOTAPOL and AMUPOL both lead to observable depolarization at ≈110 K, and that the magnitude of this depolarization is radical dependent. Compared to the static sample, TOTAPOL and AMUPOL lead, respectively, to nuclear polarization losses of up to 20% and 60% at a 10 kHz MAS frequency, while Trityl OX63 does not depolarize at all. This experimental work is analyzed using a theoretical model that explains how the depolarization process works under MAS and gives new insights into the DNP mechanism and into the spin parameters, which are relevant for the efficiency of a biradical. In light of these results, the outstanding performance of AMUPOL must be revised and we propose a new method to assess the polarization gain for future radicals. PMID:26235749

  16. Berry phase magnetometry using a single electronic spin in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Keigo; Lee, Junghyun; Belthangady, Chinmay; Walsworth, Ronald

    2015-05-01

    We present a new approach for improving the sensitivity and dynamic-range of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center magnetic field sensing using Berry phase. In the conventional Ramsey interferometry, an NV spin accumulates dynamic phase proportional to the Larmor frequency. This approach provides high sensitivity in exchange for the dynamic-range due to 2pi phase ambiguity. Our approach, in which the magnetic field is encoded in the Berry phase of the spin, can unwrap this ambiguity due to a chirped magnetometry curve. This work will provide a new modality not only for magnetometry but also for thermometry and electrometry using solid-state spins.

  17. Nuclear Spin Polarization of Phosphorus Donors in Silicon. Direct Evidence from 31P-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumann, Patryk; Ramanathan, Chandrasekhar; Patange, Om; Moussa, Osama; Thewalt, Mike; Riemann, Helge; Abrosimov, Nikolay; Becker, Peter; Pohl, Hans-Joachim; Itoh, Kohei; Cory, David G.

    2014-03-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the optical hyperpolarization and coherent control of 31P, nuclear spins in single crystal silicon via the inductive readout of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal of 31P at a concentration of 1.5 x 1015 cc-1. The obtained polarization is sufficient the 31P spin polarization of 1.17 x 1015 in a 10 mm x 10 mm sample, observed in one FID with signal-to-noise ration of 113. The linewidth is 800 Hz. The Hahn echo pulse sequence reveals a 31P T2 time of 0.42 s at 1.6 K, which was extended by the Carr Purcell cycle to 1.2 s at the same temperature. The maximum build-up of the nuclear polarization was achieved within ~577 seconds, at 4.2 K, in 6.7 T, using optical excitations provided by an infra-red laser. This work has been supported by CERC Canada.

  18. Single-transverse spin asymmetry in dijet correlations at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Bomhof, C. J.; Mulders, P. J.; Vogelsang, W.; Yuan, F.

    2007-04-01

    We present a phenomenological study of the single-transverse spin asymmetry in azimuthal correlations of two jets produced nearly 'back-to-back' in pp collisions at RHIC. We properly take into account the initial- and final-state interactions of partons that can generate this asymmetry in QCD hard-scattering. Using distribution functions fitted to the existing single-spin data, we make predictions for various weighted single-spin asymmetries in dijet correlations that are now readily testable at RHIC.

  19. Spectral Signatures of Ultrafast Spin Crossover in Single Crystal [Fe(II) (bpy)3 ](PF6 )2.

    PubMed

    Field, Ryan; Liu, Lai Chung; Gawelda, Wojciech; Lu, Cheng; Miller, R J Dwayne

    2016-04-01

    Solvated iron(II)-tris(bipyridine) ([Fe(II) (bpy)3 ](2+) ) has been extensively studied with regard to the spin crossover (SCO) phenomenon. Herein, the ultrafast spin transition dynamics of single crystal [Fe(II) (bpy)3 ](PF6 )2 was characterized for the first time using femtosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy. The single crystal environment is of interest for experiments that probe the nuclear motions involved in the SCO transition, such as femtosecond X-ray and electron diffraction. We found that the TA at early times is very similar to what has been reported in solvated [Fe(II) (bpy)3 ](2+) , whereas the later dynamics are perturbed in the crystal environment. The lifetime of the high-spin state is found to be much shorter (100 ps) than in solution due to chemical pressure exerted by the lattice. Oscillatory behavior was observed on both time scales. Our results show that single crystal [Fe(II) (bpy)3 ](PF6 )2 serves as an excellent model system for localized molecular spin transitions. PMID:26839974

  20. Decoherence of a single spin coupled to an interacting spin bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ning; Fröhling, Nina; Xing, Xi; Hackmann, Johannes; Nanduri, Arun; Anders, Frithjof B.; Rabitz, Herschel

    2016-01-01

    Decoherence of a central spin coupled to an interacting spin bath via inhomogeneous Heisenberg coupling is studied by two different approaches, namely an exact equations of motion (EOMs) method and a Chebyshev expansion technique (CET). By assuming a wheel topology of the bath spins with uniform nearest-neighbor X X -type intrabath coupling, we examine the central spin dynamics with the bath prepared in two different types of bath initial conditions. For fully polarized baths in strong magnetic fields, the polarization dynamics of the central spin exhibits a collapse-revival behavior in the intermediate-time regime. Under an antiferromagnetic bath initial condition, the two methods give excellently consistent central spin decoherence dynamics for finite-size baths of N ≤14 bath spins. The decoherence factor is found to drop off abruptly on a short time scale and approach a finite plateau value which depends on the intrabath coupling strength nonmonotonically. In the ultrastrong intrabath coupling regime, the plateau values show an oscillatory behavior depending on whether N /2 is even or odd. The observed results are interpreted qualitatively within the framework of the EOM and perturbation analysis. The effects of anisotropic spin-bath coupling and inhomogeneous intrabath bath couplings are briefly discussed. Possible experimental realization of the model in a modified quantum corral setup is suggested.

  1. High-sensitivity single NV magnetometry by spin-to-charge state mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaskula, Jean-Christophe; Shields, Brendan; Bauch, Erik; Lukin, Mikhail; Walsworth, Ronald; Trifonov, Alexei

    2015-05-01

    Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) centers in diamond are atom-like quantum system in a solid state matrix whom its structure allows optical readout of the electronic spin. However, the optimal duration of optical readout is limited by a singlet state lifetime making single shot spin readout out of reach. On the other side, the NV center charge state readout can be extremely efficient (up to 99% fidelity) by using excitation at 594 nm. We will present a new method of spin readout utilizing a spin-depending photoionization process to map the electronic spin state of the NV onto the its charge state. Moreover, pre-selection on the charged state allows to minimize data acquisition time. This scheme improves single NV AC magnetometry by a factor of 5 and will benefit other single NV center experiments as well.

  2. Spin relaxometry of single nitrogen-vacancy defects in diamond nanocrystals for magnetic noise sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetienne, J.-P.; Hingant, T.; Rondin, L.; Cavaills, A.; Mayer, L.; Dantelle, G.; Gacoin, T.; Wrachtrup, J.; Roch, J.-F.; Jacques, V.

    2013-06-01

    We report an experimental study of the longitudinal relaxation time (T1) of the electron spin associated with single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defects hosted in nanodiamonds (NDs). We first show that T1 decreases over three orders of magnitude when the ND size is reduced from 100 to 10 nm owing to the interaction of the NV electron spin with a bath of paramagnetic centers lying on the ND surface. We next tune the magnetic environment by decorating the ND surface with Gd3+ ions and observe an efficient T1 quenching, which demonstrates magnetic noise sensing with a single electron spin. We estimate a sensitivity down to ?14 electron spins detected within 10 s, using a single NV defect hosted in a 10-nm-size ND. These results pave the way towards T1-based nanoscale imaging of the spin density in biological samples.

  3. A broadband single-chip transceiver for multi-nuclear NMR probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grisi, Marco; Gualco, Gabriele; Boero, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    In this article, we present an integrated broadband complementary metal-oxide semiconductor single-chip transceiver suitable for the realization of multi-nuclear pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probes. The realized single-chip transceiver can be interfaced with on-chip integrated microcoils or external LC resonators operating in the range from 1 MHz to 1 GHz. The dimension of the chip is about 1 mm2. It consists of a radio-frequency (RF) power amplifier, a low-noise RF preamplifier, a frequency mixer, an audio-frequency amplifier, and fully integrated transmit-receive switches. As specific example, we show its use for multi-nuclear NMR spectroscopy. With an integrated coil of about 150 μm external diameter, a 1H spin sensitivity of about 1.5 × 1013 spins/Hz1/2 is achieved at 7 T.

  4. A broadband single-chip transceiver for multi-nuclear NMR probes.

    PubMed

    Grisi, Marco; Gualco, Gabriele; Boero, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    In this article, we present an integrated broadband complementary metal-oxide semiconductor single-chip transceiver suitable for the realization of multi-nuclear pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probes. The realized single-chip transceiver can be interfaced with on-chip integrated microcoils or external LC resonators operating in the range from 1 MHz to 1 GHz. The dimension of the chip is about 1 mm(2). It consists of a radio-frequency (RF) power amplifier, a low-noise RF preamplifier, a frequency mixer, an audio-frequency amplifier, and fully integrated transmit-receive switches. As specific example, we show its use for multi-nuclear NMR spectroscopy. With an integrated coil of about 150 ?m external diameter, a (1)H spin sensitivity of about 1.5 10(13) spins/Hz(1/2) is achieved at 7 T. PMID:25933876

  5. A broadband single-chip transceiver for multi-nuclear NMR probes

    SciTech Connect

    Grisi, Marco Gualco, Gabriele; Boero, Giovanni

    2015-04-15

    In this article, we present an integrated broadband complementary metal-oxide semiconductor single-chip transceiver suitable for the realization of multi-nuclear pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probes. The realized single-chip transceiver can be interfaced with on-chip integrated microcoils or external LC resonators operating in the range from 1 MHz to 1 GHz. The dimension of the chip is about 1 mm{sup 2}. It consists of a radio-frequency (RF) power amplifier, a low-noise RF preamplifier, a frequency mixer, an audio-frequency amplifier, and fully integrated transmit-receive switches. As specific example, we show its use for multi-nuclear NMR spectroscopy. With an integrated coil of about 150 μm external diameter, a {sup 1}H spin sensitivity of about 1.5 × 10{sup 13} spins/Hz{sup 1/2} is achieved at 7 T.

  6. Temperature dependence of nuclear spin coherence in E u3 + :Y2Si O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcangeli, Andrea; Macfarlane, Roger M.; Ferrier, Alban; Goldner, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    We have measured the temperature dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation and dephasing of the two nuclear quadrupole transitions in the 7F0 ground state of 151Eu in yttrium orthosilicate up to 21 K. Spin-lattice relaxation (T1) is dominated by an Orbach process and decoherence comes from 87Y nuclear spin fluctuations at low temperatures and is T1 limited at higher temperatures. The different contributions to relaxation and dephasing are evaluated.

  7. Single cell elemental analysis using nuclear microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, M. Q.; Thong, P. S. P.; Kara, U.; Watt, F.

    1999-04-01

    The use of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) to provide quantitative elemental analysis of single cells is an area which has high potential, particularly when the trace elements such as Ca, Fe, Zn and Cu can be monitored. We describe the methodology of sample preparation for two cell types, the procedures of cell imaging using STIM, and the quantitative elemental analysis of single cells using RBS and PIXE. Recent work on single cells at the Nuclear Microscopy Research Centre,National University of Singapore has centred around two research areas: (a) Apoptosis (programmed cell death), which has been recently implicated in a wide range of pathological conditions such as cancer, Parkinson's disease etc, and (b) Malaria (infection of red blood cells by the malaria parasite). Firstly we present results on the elemental analysis of human Chang liver cells (ATTCC CCL 13) where vanadium ions were used to trigger apoptosis, and demonstrate that nuclear microscopy has the capability of monitoring vanadium loading within individual cells. Secondly we present the results of elemental changes taking place in individual mouse red blood cells which have been infected with the malaria parasite and treated with the anti-malaria drug Qinghaosu (QHS).

  8. Nuclear Spin Dependent Parity Violation in Diatomic Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altuntas, Emine; Ammon, Jeffrey; Cahn, Sidney; Demille, David; Kozlov, Mikhail; Paolino, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Nuclear spin-dependent parity violation (NSD-PV) effects arise from exchange of the Z0 boson between electrons and the nucleus, and from interaction of electrons with the nuclear anapole moment, a parity-odd magnetic moment. The latter scales with nucleon number of the nucleus A as A 2 / 3 , whereas the Z0 coupling is independent of A. Thus the former is the dominant source of NSD-PV for nuclei with A >= 20. We study NSD-PV effects using diatomic molecules, where signals are dramatically amplified by bringing rotational levels of opposite parity close to degeneracy in a strong magnetic field. Using a Stark-interference technique we measure the NSD-PV interaction matrix element. We present results that demonstrate statistical sensitivity to NSD-PV effects surpassing that of any previous atomic parity violation measurement, using the test system 138Ba19F. We also discuss investigations of systematics due to non-reversing stray E-fields, Enr together with B-field inhomogeneities, and short-term prospects for measuring the nuclear anapole moment of 137Ba. In the long term, our technique is sufficiently general and sensitive to enable measurements across a broad range of nuclei.

  9. A 3D-printed high power nuclear spin polarizer.

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, Panayiotis; Coffey, Aaron M; Walkup, Laura L; Gust, Brogan M; LaPierre, Cristen D; Koehnemann, Edward; Barlow, Michael J; Rosen, Matthew S; Goodson, Boyd M; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2014-01-29

    Three-dimensional printing with high-temperature plastic is used to enable spin exchange optical pumping (SEOP) and hyperpolarization of xenon-129 gas. The use of 3D printed structures increases the simplicity of integration of the following key components with a variable temperature SEOP probe: (i) in situ NMR circuit operating at 84 kHz (Larmor frequencies of (129)Xe and (1)H nuclear spins), (ii) <0.3 nm narrowed 200 W laser source, (iii) in situ high-resolution near-IR spectroscopy, (iv) thermoelectric temperature control, (v) retroreflection optics, and (vi) optomechanical alignment system. The rapid prototyping endowed by 3D printing dramatically reduces production time and expenses while allowing reproducibility and integration of "off-the-shelf" components and enables the concept of printing on demand. The utility of this SEOP setup is demonstrated here to obtain near-unity (129)Xe polarization values in a 0.5 L optical pumping cell, including ?74 7% at 1000 Torr xenon partial pressure, a record value at such high Xe density. Values for the (129)Xe polarization exponential build-up rate [(3.63 0.15) 10(-2) min(-1)] and in-cell (129)Xe spin-lattice relaxation time (T1 = 2.19 0.06 h) for 1000 Torr Xe were in excellent agreement with the ratio of the gas-phase polarizations for (129)Xe and Rb (PRb ? 96%). Hyperpolarization-enhanced (129)Xe gas imaging was demonstrated with a spherical phantom following automated gas transfer from the polarizer. Taken together, these results support the development of a wide range of chemical, biochemical, material science, and biomedical applications. PMID:24400919

  10. Antiferromagnetic nuclear spin helix and topological superconductivity in 13C nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chen-Hsuan; Stano, Peter; Klinovaja, Jelena; Loss, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction arising from the hyperfine coupling between localized nuclear spins and conduction electrons in interacting 13C carbon nanotubes. Using the Luttinger liquid formalism, we show that the RKKY interaction is sublattice dependent, consistent with the spin susceptibility calculation in noninteracting carbon nanotubes, and it leads to an antiferromagnetic nuclear spin helix in finite-size systems. The transition temperature reaches up to tens of mK, due to a strong boost by a positive feedback through the Overhauser field from ordered nuclear spins. Similar to GaAs nanowires, the formation of the helical nuclear spin order gaps out half of the conduction electrons, and is therefore observable as a reduction of conductance by a factor of 2 in a transport experiment. The nuclear spin helix leads to a density wave combining spin and charge degrees of freedom in the electron subsystem, resulting in synthetic spin-orbit interaction, which induces nontrivial topological phases. As a result, topological superconductivity with Majorana fermion bound states can be realized in the system in the presence of proximity-induced superconductivity without the need of fine tuning the chemical potential. We present the phase diagram as a function of system parameters, including the pairing gaps, the gap due to the nuclear spin helix, and the Zeeman field perpendicular to the helical plane.

  11. Reversible Control by Light of the High-Spin Low-Spin Elastic Interface inside the Bistable Region of a Robust Spin-Transition Single Crystal.

    PubMed

    Sy, Mouhamadou; Garrot, Damien; Slimani, Ahmed; Pez-Espejo, Miguel; Varret, Franois; Boukheddaden, Kamel

    2016-01-01

    By using a weak modulated laser intensity we have succeeded in reversibly controlling the dynamics of the spin-crossover (SC) single crystal [{Fe(NCSe)(py)2 }2 (m-bpypz)] inside the thermal hysteresis. The experiment could be repeated several times with a reproducible response of the high-spin low-spin interface and without crystal damage. In-depth investigations as a function of the amplitude and frequency of the excitation brought to light the existence of a cut-off frequency ca. 1.5?Hz. The results not only document the applicability of SC materials as actuators, memory devices, or switches, but also open a new avenue for the reversible photo-control of the spin transition inside the thermal hysteresis. PMID:26791883

  12. Frequency selective detection of nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spin echoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somasundaram, Samuel D.; Jakobsson, Andreas; Smith, John A. S.; Althoefer, Kaspar A.

    2006-05-01

    Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) is a radio frequency (RF) technique that can be used to detect the presence of quadrupolar nuclei, such as the 14N nucleus prevalent in many explosives and narcotics. The technique has been hampered by low signal-to-noise ratios and is further aggravated by the presence of RF interference (RFI). To ensure accurate detection, proposed detectors should exploit the rich form of the NQR signal. Furthermore, the detectors should also be robust to any remaining residual interference, left after suitable RFI mitigation has been employed. In this paper, we propose a new NQR data model, particularly for the realistic case where multiple pulse sequences are used to generate trains of spin echoes. Furthermore, we refine two recently proposed approximative maximum likelihood (AML) detectors, enabling the algorithm to optimally exploit the data model of the entire echo train and also incorporate knowledge of the temperature dependent spin-echo decay time. The AML-based detectors ensure accurate detection and robustness against residual RFI, even when the temperature of the sample is not precisely known, by exploiting the dependencies of the NQR resonant lines on temperature. Further robustness against residual interference is gained as the proposed detector is frequency selective; exploiting only those regions of the spectrum where the NQR signal is expected. Extensive numerical evaluations based on both simulated and measured NQR data indicate that the proposed Frequency selective Echo Train AML (FETAML) detector offers a significant improvement as compared to other existing detectors.

  13. Twist-3 spin observables for single-hadron production in DIS

    SciTech Connect

    Gamberg, Leonard P.; Kanazawa, Koichi; Kang, Zhong-Bo; Metz, Andreas; Pitonyak, Daniel A.; Prokudin, Alexei; Schlegel, Marc

    2015-09-01

    Recently, three twist-3 spin asymmetries for single-inclusive hadron production in deep-inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering have been computed using collinear factorization and the leading order approximation. Here we summarize the main findings of these studies.

  14. Measurement of untruncated nuclear spin interactions via zero- to ultralow-field nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, J. W.; Sjolander, T. F.; King, J. P.; Ledbetter, M. P.; Levine, E. H.; Bajaj, V. S.; Budker, D.; Pines, A.

    2015-12-01

    Zero- to ultralow-field nuclear magnetic resonance (ZULF NMR) provides a new regime for the measurement of nuclear spin-spin interactions free from the effects of large magnetic fields, such as truncation of terms that do not commute with the Zeeman Hamiltonian. One such interaction, the magnetic dipole-dipole coupling, is a valuable source of spatial information in NMR, though many terms are unobservable in high-field NMR, and the coupling averages to zero under isotropic molecular tumbling. Under partial alignment, this information is retained in the form of so-called residual dipolar couplings. We report zero- to ultralow-field NMR measurements of residual dipolar couplings in acetonitrile-2-13C aligned in stretched polyvinyl acetate gels. This permits the investigation of dipolar couplings as a perturbation on the indirect spin-spin J coupling in the absence of an applied magnetic field. As a consequence of working at zero magnetic field, we observe terms of the dipole-dipole coupling Hamiltonian that are invisible in conventional high-field NMR. This technique expands the capabilities of zero- to ultralow-field NMR and has potential applications in precision measurement of subtle physical interactions, chemical analysis, and characterization of local mesoscale structure in materials.

  15. Nuclear spin scissors - new type of collective motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbutsev, E. B.; Molodtsova, I. V.

    2014-09-01

    The coupled dynamics of the orbital and spin scissors modes is studied with the help of the Wigner Function Moments method on the basis of Time Dependent Hartree-Fock equations in the harmonic oscillator model including spin orbit potential plus quadrupole- quadrupole and spin-spin residual interactions. The relation between our results and the recent experimental data is discussed.

  16. Spin transport properties of single metallocene molecules attached to single-walled carbon nanotubes via nickel adatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Peng; Sun, Lili; Benassi, Enrico; Shen, Ziyong; Sanvito, Stefano; Hou, Shimin

    2011-06-01

    The spin-dependent transport properties of single ferrocene, cobaltocene, and nickelocene molecules attached to the sidewall of a (4,4) armchair single-walled carbon nanotube via a Ni adatom are investigated by using a self-consistent ab initio approach that combines the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism with the spin density functional theory. Our calculations show that the Ni adatom not only binds strongly to the sidewall of the nanotube, but also maintains the spin degeneracy and affects little the transmission around the Fermi level. When the Ni adatom further binds to a metallocene molecule, its density of states is modulated by that of the molecule and electron scattering takes place in the nanotube. In particular, we find that for both cobaltocene and nickelocene the transport across the nanotube becomes spin-polarized. This demonstrates that metallocene molecules and carbon nanotubes can become a promising materials platform for applications in molecular spintronics.

  17. Understanding electron and nuclear spin dynamics in Cr^5+ doped K3NbO8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, Saritha

    2009-03-01

    Chromium(V) doped in the diamagnetic host potassium niobate, a simple spin S=.5ex1-.1em/ -.15em.25ex2 , I = 0 system, has been proposed as an alternative standard for field calibration and g-standard for high-field EPR [1]. This system constitutes a dilute two-level model relevant for use as a electron spin qubit [2] and as such coherent electron spin manipulation at X-band (9.5 GHz) was observed over a wide range temperature. Rabi oscillations are observed for the first time in a spin system based on transition metal oxides up to room temperature. At 4 K, a Rabi frequency ?R of 20 MHz together with the phase coherence relaxation (spin-spin relaxation) time, T2 of 10 ?s results in the single qubit figure of merit QM (=?RT2/?) as about 500, showing that a diluted ensemble of Cr(V) (S = 1/2) doped K3NbO8 is a potential candidate for solid-state quantum information processing. Also, the field and temperature dependence of the T1 (spin-lattice relaxation) and T2 times was investigated [3] for a further understanding of the relaxation mechanisms governing the phase decoherence in this system. These studies show that the coupling of the electron spin with the neighboring ^39K nuclei (I = 3/2) is one of the prominent T2 mechanisms. The hyperfine and quadrupole interactions with ^39K nuclei was resolved by using the high-frequency (240 GHz) pulsed electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR). [3pt] [1]. B. Cage, A. Weekley, L. -C. Brunel and N. S. Dalal, Anal. Chem. 71, 1951 (1999). [0pt] [2]. S. Nellutla, K.-Y. Choi, M. Pati, J. van Tol, I. Chiroescu and N. S. Dalal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 137601 (2007). [0pt] [3]. S. Nellutla, G. W. Morley, M. Pati, N. S. Dalal and J. van Tol, Phys. Rev. B. 78, 054426 (2008).

  18. New type of nuclear collective motion: The spin scissors mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbutsev, E. B.; Molodtsova, I. V.; Schuck, P.

    2013-07-01

    The coupled dynamics of low-lying modes and various giant resonances are studied with the help of the Wigner function moments method on the basis of time-dependent Hartree-Fock equations in the harmonic oscillator model including spin-orbit potential plus quadrupole-quadrupole and spin-spin residual interactions. New low-lying spin-dependent modes are analyzed. Special attention is paid to the spin scissors mode.

  19. Magnetization dynamics in the presence of pure spin currents in magnetic single and double layers in spin ballistic and diffusive regimes.

    SciTech Connect

    Mosendz, O.; Woltersdorf, G.; Kardasz, B.; Heinrich, B.; Back, C. H.; Materials Science Division; Univ. Regensburg; Simon Fraser Univ.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we study the spin transport by using the spin-pumping effect in epitaxial magnetic single and double layer film structures. For the magnetic single layer sample we show the spin-pumping-induced interface damping increases and saturates with the Au capping layer thickness. In addition magnetic double layer structures allowed us to investigate both the spin-pump and spin-sink effects. Coupling of pure spin currents to the magnetization via spin-sink effect is studied using time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect. These measurements were used to study the propagation of pure spin currents across a Au spacer layer between the two ferromagnets. The propagation of spin momentum density through the Au spacer layer was well described by spin-diffusion equation, which takes into account electron momentum and spin-flip scattering. The spin-diffusion theory was integrated into modified Landau-Lifshitz equations accounting in self-consistent manner for spin-pump/sink mechanism and spin momentum density propagation. Good agreement between theory and experimental data was found.

  20. Spin-phonon coupling in single Mn-doped CdTe quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, C. L.; Besombes, L.; Fernández-Rossier, J.

    2011-11-01

    The spin dynamics of a single Mn atom in a laser driven CdTe quantum dot is addressed theoretically. Recent experimental results [Gall , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.102.127402 102, 127402 (2009); Goryca , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.103.087401 103, 087401 (2009); Gall , Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.81.245315 81, 245315 (2010)] show that it is possible to induce Mn spin polarization by means of circularly polarized optical pumping. Pumping is made possible by the faster Mn spin relaxation in the presence of the exciton. Here we discuss different Mn spin-relaxation mechanisms: first, Mn-phonon coupling, which is enhanced in the presence of the exciton; second, phonon induced hole spin relaxation combined with carrier-Mn spin-flip coupling and photon emission results in Mn spin relaxation. We model the Mn spin dynamics under the influence of a pumping laser that injects excitons into the dot, taking into account exciton-Mn exchange and phonon induced spin relaxation of both Mn and holes. Our simulations account for the optically induced Mn spin pumping.

  1. Improved single particle potential for transport model simulations of nuclear reactions induced by rare isotope beams

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Chang; Li Baoan

    2010-04-15

    Taking into account more accurately the isospin dependence of nucleon-nucleon interactions in the in-medium many-body force term of the Gogny effective interaction, new expressions for the single-nucleon potential and the symmetry energy are derived. Effects of both the spin (isospin) and the density dependence of nuclear effective interactions on the symmetry potential and the symmetry energy are examined. It is shown that they both play a crucial role in determining the symmetry potential and the symmetry energy at suprasaturation densities. The improved single-nucleon potential will be useful for more accurate simulation of nuclear reactions induced by rare-isotope beams within transport models.

  2. Large Conductance Switching in a Single-Molecule Device through Room Temperature Spin-Dependent Transport.

    PubMed

    Aragonès, Albert C; Aravena, Daniel; Cerdá, Jorge I; Acís-Castillo, Zulema; Li, Haipeng; Real, José Antonio; Sanz, Fausto; Hihath, Josh; Ruiz, Eliseo; Díez-Pérez, Ismael

    2016-01-13

    Controlling the spin of electrons in nanoscale electronic devices is one of the most promising topics aiming at developing devices with rapid and high density information storage capabilities. The interface magnetism or spinterface resulting from the interaction between a magnetic molecule and a metal surface, or vice versa, has become a key ingredient in creating nanoscale molecular devices with novel functionalities. Here, we present a single-molecule wire that displays large (>10000%) conductance switching by controlling the spin-dependent transport under ambient conditions (room temperature in a liquid cell). The molecular wire is built by trapping individual spin crossover Fe(II) complexes between one Au electrode and one ferromagnetic Ni electrode in an organic liquid medium. Large changes in the single-molecule conductance (>100-fold) are measured when the electrons flow from the Au electrode to either an α-up or a β-down spin-polarized Ni electrode. Our calculations show that the current flowing through such an interface appears to be strongly spin-polarized, thus resulting in the observed switching of the single-molecule wire conductance. The observation of such a high spin-dependent conductance switching in a single-molecule wire opens up a new door for the design and control of spin-polarized transport in nanoscale molecular devices at room temperature. PMID:26675052

  3. Influence of spin polarizability on liquid gas phase transition in the nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Z.; Bigdeli, M.; Bordbar, G. H.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the liquid gas phase transition for the spin polarized nuclear matter. Applying the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method, and using two microscopic potentials, AV18 and UV14+TNI, we calculate the free energy, equation of state (EOS), order parameter, entropy, heat capacity and compressibility to derive the critical properties of spin polarized nuclear matter. Our results indicate that for the spin polarized nuclear matter, the second-order phase transition takes place at lower temperatures with respect to the unpolarized one. It is also shown that the critical temperature of our spin polarized nuclear matter with a specific value of spin polarization parameter is in good agreement with the experimental result.

  4. Spin Responses in Nuclei and Nuclear Weak Processes in Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toshio

    2015-04-01

    New shell-model Hamiltonians which can successfuly describe spin-dependent transition rates in nuclei are applied to study nuclear weak processes in stars. New v-induced reaction cross sections in 12C and 56Fe evaluated by the new Hamiltonians are shown to reproduce well the experimental data. Nucleosynthesis of light elements in supernova explosions (SNe) as well as v oscillation effects are discussed with the new cross sections. Electron capture and ?-decay rates in stellar environments are re-evaluated in fp- and sd-shell nuclei. Nucleosynthesis in Type-Ia SNe, rp-process and X-ray burst are discussed with the new reaction rates in Ni isotopes. Important roles of accurate e-capture and ?-decay rates in sd-shell nuclei on the cooling of stars with 8-10 solar masses by nuclear URCA processes and the fate of the stars are demonstrated. ?-decay half-lives of waiting-point nuclei at N =126 are evaluated by shell- model calculations, and r-process nucleosynthesis up to Th and U region in both core-collapse SNe and binary neutron star mergers are studied.

  5. (Evolution of nuclear collectivity at high spins and temperatures)

    SciTech Connect

    Baktash, C.

    1989-09-28

    The traveler attended and presented an invited talk entitled Evolution of nuclear collectivity at high spins and temperatures'' at the XII Workshop on Nuclear Physics at Iguazu Falls, Argentina. Following the conference, the traveler visited the TANDAR Laboratory in Buenos Aires, Argentina, for two weeks. This trip was the first by one of the principal investigators of an ORNL-TANDAR exchange program that was recently approved and funded by the NSF. The results of the extensive consultations that the traveler had with his Argentine collaborators, A. J. Kreiner and G. Garcia-Bermudez, can be summarized as follows: (1) discussed the spectroscopy work on several nuclei of common interest that are being studied at the two laboratories, (2) agreed on the first joint experiments to be performed at the Holifield and TANDAR facilities, (3) developed a tentative timetable for the future visits by both groups, and (4) continued with the analysis of data on {sup 82}Sr taken earlier at ORNL in collaboration with Dr. Garcia-Bermudez.

  6. Two-dimensional nanoscale imaging of gadolinium spins via scanning probe relaxometry with a single spin in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelliccione, Matthew; Myers, Bryan; Pascal, Laetitia; Das, Anand; Jayich, Ania

    2015-03-01

    Spin-labeling of molecules with paramagnetic ions is an important approach for determining molecular structure, however current ensemble techniques lack the sensitivity to detect few isolated spins. In this talk, we demonstrate two-dimensional nanoscale imaging of paramagnetic gadolinium compounds using scanning relaxometry of a single nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond. Gadopentetate dimeglumine attached to an atomic force microscope tip is controllably interacted with and detected by the NV center, by virtue of the fact that the NV exhibits fast relaxation in the fluctuating magnetic field generated by electron spin flips in the gadolinium. We demonstrate a reduction in the T1 relaxation time of the NV center by over two orders of magnitude, probed with a spatial resolution of 20 nm, limited by thermal drift in ambient conditions. We discuss the importance of mitigating drift to reach truly nanoscale imaging and present progress towards cryogenic scanning magnetometry, along with utilizing chemically functionalized tips to gain greater control over the Gd distribution on the tip. Our result exhibits the viability of the technique for imaging individual spins attached to complex nanostructures or biomolecules, along with studying the magnetic dynamics of isolated spins.

  7. Room-temperature coupling between electrical current and nuclear spins in OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malissa, H.; Kavand, M.; Waters, D. P.; van Schooten, K. J.; Burn, P. L.; Vardeny, Z. V.; Saam, B.; Lupton, J. M.; Boehme, C.

    2014-09-01

    The effects of external magnetic fields on the electrical conductivity of organic semiconductors have been attributed to hyperfine coupling of the spins of the charge carriers and hydrogen nuclei. We studied this coupling directly by implementation of pulsed electrically detected nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The data revealed a fingerprint of the isotope (protium or deuterium) involved in the coherent spin precession observed in spin-echo envelope modulation. Furthermore, resonant control of the electric current by nuclear spin orientation was achieved with radiofrequency pulses in a double-resonance scheme, implying current control on energy scales one-millionth the magnitude of the thermal energy.

  8. Frequency-stepped acquisition in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy under magic angle spinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pell, Andrew J.; Clment, Raphale J.; Grey, Clare P.; Emsley, Lyndon; Pintacuda, Guido

    2013-03-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance of paramagnetic solids is usually characterized by the presence of large chemical shifts and shift anisotropies due to hyperfine interactions. Frequently the resulting spectra cover a frequency range of several megahertz, which is greater than the bandwidth of commercially available radio-frequency (RF) probes, making it impossible to acquire the whole spectrum in a single experiment. In these cases it common to record a series of spectra, in which the probe is tuned to a different frequency for each, and then sum the results to give the "true" spectrum. While this method is very widely used on static samples, the application of frequency stepping under magic-angle spinning (MAS) is less common, owing to the increased complexity of the spin dynamics when describing the interplay of the RF irradiation with the mechanical rotation of the shift tensor. In this paper, we present a theoretical description, based on the jolting frame formalism of Caravatti et al. [J. Magn. Reson. 55, 88 (1983), 10.1016/0022-2364(83)90279-2], for describing the spin dynamics of a powder sample under MAS when subjected to a selective pulse of low RF-field amplitude. The formalism is used to describe the frequency stepping method under MAS, and under what circumstances the true spectrum is reproduced. We also present an experimental validation of the methodology under ultra-fast MAS with the paramagnetic materials LiMnPO4 and TbCsDPA.

  9. Qubit Control Limited by Spin-Lattice Relaxation in a Nuclear Spin-Free Iron(III) Complex.

    PubMed

    Zadrozny, Joseph M; Freedman, Danna E

    2015-12-21

    High-spin transition metal complexes are of interest as candidates for quantum information processing owing to the tunability of the pairs of MS levels for use as quantum bits (qubits). Thus, the design of high-spin systems that afford qubits with stable superposition states is of primary importance. Nuclear spins are a potent instigator of superposition instability; thus, we probed the Ph4P(+) salt of the nuclear spin-free complex [Fe(C5O5)3](3-) (1) to see if long-lived superpositions were possible in such a system. Continuous-wave and pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic measurements reveal a strong EPR transition at X-band that can be utilized as a qubit. However, at 5 K the coherent lifetime, T2, for this resonance is 721(3) ns and decreases rapidly with increasing temperature. Simultaneously, the spin-lattice relaxation time is extremely short, 11.33(1) ?s, at 5 K, and also rapidly decreases with increasing temperature. The coincidence of these two temperature-dependent data sets suggests that T2 in 1 is strongly limited by the short T1. Importantly, these results highlight the need for new design parameters in pursuit of high-spin species with appreciable coherence times. PMID:26650962

  10. Switching of a coupled spin pair in a single-molecule junction.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Stefan; Kisslinger, Ferdinand; Ballmann, Stefan; Schramm, Frank; Chandrasekar, Rajadurai; Bodenstein, Tilmann; Fuhr, Olaf; Secker, Daniel; Fink, Karin; Ruben, Mario; Weber, Heiko B

    2013-08-01

    Single-molecule spintronics investigates electron transport through magnetic molecules that have an internal spin degree of freedom. To understand and control these individual molecules it is important to read their spin state. For unpaired spins, the Kondo effect has been observed as a low-temperature anomaly at small voltages. Here, we show that a coupled spin pair in a single magnetic molecule can be detected and that a bias voltage can be used to switch between two states of the molecule. In particular, we use the mechanically controlled break-junction technique to measure electronic transport through a single-molecule junction containing two coupled spin centres that are confined on two Co(2+) ions. Spin-orbit configuration interaction methods are used to calculate the combined spin system, where the ground state is found to be a pseudo-singlet and the first excitations behave as a pseudo-triplet. Experimentally, these states can be assigned to the absence and occurrence of a Kondo-like zero-bias anomaly in the low-temperature conductance data, respectively. By applying finite bias, we can repeatedly switch between the pseudo-singlet state and the pseudo-triplet state. PMID:23851359

  11. Imaging single spin probes embedded in a conductive diamagnetic layer.

    SciTech Connect

    Messina, P.; Fradin, F.

    2009-01-01

    The detection of spin noise by means of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has recently been substantially improved by the work presented by Komeda and Manassen (Komeda, T.; Manassen, Y. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2008, 92, 212506). The application of this technique to molecular paramagnets requires the positioning and anchoring of paramagnetic molecules at surfaces. It also requires the possibility of tunneling high current densities into the STM-molecule-substrate tunneling junction. In this letter, we exploit the self-assembly of 1,10-phenantroline on the Au(111) surface to form a diamagnetic matrix that hosts individual molecules and dimers of diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH). STM measurements are used to characterize the molecular layer. Electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements elucidate the role of thermal annealing in the preservation of the paramagnetic nature of the DPPH molecules.

  12. A 3D-Printed High Power Nuclear Spin Polarizer

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaou, Panayiotis; Coffey, Aaron M.; Walkup, Laura L.; Gust, Brogan M.; LaPierre, Cristen D.; Koehnemann, Edward; Barlow, Michael J.; Rosen, Matthew S.; Goodson, Boyd M.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional printing with high-temperature plastic is used to enable spin exchange optical pumping (SEOP) and hyperpolarization of xenon-129 gas. The use of 3D printed structures increases the simplicity of integration of the following key components with a variable temperature SEOP probe: (i) in situ NMR circuit operating at 84 kHz (Larmor frequencies of 129Xe and 1H nuclear spins), (ii) <0.3 nm narrowed 200 W laser source, (iii) in situ high-resolution near-IR spectroscopy, (iv) thermoelectric temperature control, (v) retroreflection optics, and (vi) optomechanical alignment system. The rapid prototyping endowed by 3D printing dramatically reduces production time and expenses while allowing reproducibility and integration of “off-the-shelf” components and enables the concept of printing on demand. The utility of this SEOP setup is demonstrated here to obtain near-unity 129Xe polarization values in a 0.5 L optical pumping cell, including ~74 ± 7% at 1000 Torr xenon partial pressure, a record value at such high Xe density. Values for the 129Xe polarization exponential build-up rate [(3.63 ± 0.15) × 10−2 min−1] and in-cell 129Xe spin−lattice relaxation time (T1 = 2.19 ± 0.06 h) for 1000 Torr Xe were in excellent agreement with the ratio of the gas-phase polarizations for 129Xe and Rb (PRb ~ 96%). Hyperpolarization-enhanced 129Xe gas imaging was demonstrated with a spherical phantom following automated gas transfer from the polarizer. Taken together, these results support the development of a wide range of chemical, biochemical, material science, and biomedical applications. PMID:24400919

  13. Absence of a spin-signature from a single Ho adatom as probed by spin-sensitive tunneling

    PubMed Central

    Steinbrecher, M.; Sonntag, A.; Dias, M. dos Santos; Bouhassoune, M.; Lounis, S.; Wiebe, J.; Wiesendanger, R.; Khajetoorians, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Whether rare-earth materials can be used as single-atom magnetic memory is an ongoing debate in recent literature. Here we show, by inelastic and spin-resolved scanning tunnelling-based methods, that we observe a strong magnetic signal and excitation from Fe atoms adsorbed on Pt(111), but see no signatures of magnetic excitation or spin-based telegraph noise for Ho atoms. Moreover, we observe that the indirect exchange field produced by a single Ho atom is negligible, as sensed by nearby Fe atoms. We demonstrate, using ab initio methods, that this stems from a comparatively weak coupling of the Ho 4f electrons with both tunnelling electrons and substrate-derived itinerant electrons, making both magnetic coupling and detection very difficult when compared to 3d elements. We discuss these results in the context of ongoing disputes and clarify important controversies. PMID:26838811

  14. Absence of a spin-signature from a single Ho adatom as probed by spin-sensitive tunneling.

    PubMed

    Steinbrecher, M; Sonntag, A; Dias, M Dos Santos; Bouhassoune, M; Lounis, S; Wiebe, J; Wiesendanger, R; Khajetoorians, A A

    2016-01-01

    Whether rare-earth materials can be used as single-atom magnetic memory is an ongoing debate in recent literature. Here we show, by inelastic and spin-resolved scanning tunnelling-based methods, that we observe a strong magnetic signal and excitation from Fe atoms adsorbed on Pt(111), but see no signatures of magnetic excitation or spin-based telegraph noise for Ho atoms. Moreover, we observe that the indirect exchange field produced by a single Ho atom is negligible, as sensed by nearby Fe atoms. We demonstrate, using ab initio methods, that this stems from a comparatively weak coupling of the Ho 4f electrons with both tunnelling electrons and substrate-derived itinerant electrons, making both magnetic coupling and detection very difficult when compared to 3d elements. We discuss these results in the context of ongoing disputes and clarify important controversies. PMID:26838811

  15. Absence of a spin-signature from a single Ho adatom as probed by spin-sensitive tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbrecher, M.; Sonntag, A.; Dias, M. Dos Santos; Bouhassoune, M.; Lounis, S.; Wiebe, J.; Wiesendanger, R.; Khajetoorians, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    Whether rare-earth materials can be used as single-atom magnetic memory is an ongoing debate in recent literature. Here we show, by inelastic and spin-resolved scanning tunnelling-based methods, that we observe a strong magnetic signal and excitation from Fe atoms adsorbed on Pt(111), but see no signatures of magnetic excitation or spin-based telegraph noise for Ho atoms. Moreover, we observe that the indirect exchange field produced by a single Ho atom is negligible, as sensed by nearby Fe atoms. We demonstrate, using ab initio methods, that this stems from a comparatively weak coupling of the Ho 4f electrons with both tunnelling electrons and substrate-derived itinerant electrons, making both magnetic coupling and detection very difficult when compared to 3d elements. We discuss these results in the context of ongoing disputes and clarify important controversies.

  16. Electrically generated nuclear spin polarization in In.04Ga.96As

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trowbridge, Christopher; Norman, Benjamin; Kato, Yuichiro K.; Awschalom, David; Sih, Vanessa

    2013-03-01

    The promises of lower power consumption and simple interfacing to magnetic storage has driven interest in the development of spintronics, in which devices could take advantage of electron spin as a means to store, move, and process data. Due to its long lifetime in moderate fields, nuclear polarization could serve as intermediate timescale data storage in both classical spintronic and quantum computation schemes. Here, we investigate the role of nuclear spins in materials with electrically driven spin polarization. The electron spin polarization generated by electrical current in a non-magnetic semiconductor is transferred via dynamic nuclear polarization to the nuclei. The resulting nuclear field is interrogated using Larmor magnetometry. We measure nuclear field as a function of current, applied magnetic field, and temperature. Polarization decay dynamics and the role of nuclei in devices are also discussed.

  17. Nuclear surface properties and spin-orbit potential in a modified derivative coupling model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Guo; Chossy, T. V.; Stocker, W.

    2000-01-01

    Based on the Zimnyi-Moszkowski derivative coupling Lagrangian plus tensor-coupling term, calculations of symmetric semi-infinite nuclear matter and finite nuclei have been performed. Our results show that with increasing tensor coupling the spin-orbit potential is considerably improved, but the surface tension and the surface thickness decrease to values too low compared with experiment. In addition, the effects of the ?-meson mass on nuclear surface properties, on the spin-orbit potential as well as on nuclear binding energies are discussed. No parameter set could be found that leads to good surface properties even if energies and spin-orbit splittings are realistic.

  18. Boundary between the thermal and statistical polarization regimes in a nuclear spin ensemble

    SciTech Connect

    Herzog, B. E.; Cadeddu, D.; Xue, F.; Peddibhotla, P.; Poggio, M.

    2014-07-28

    As the number of spins in an ensemble is reduced, the statistical fluctuations in its polarization eventually exceed the mean thermal polarization. This transition has now been surpassed in a number of recent nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, which achieve nanometer-scale detection volumes. Here, we measure nanometer-scale ensembles of nuclear spins in a KPF{sub 6} sample using magnetic resonance force microscopy. In particular, we investigate the transition between regimes dominated by thermal and statistical nuclear polarization. The ratio between the two types of polarization provides a measure of the number of spins in the detected ensemble.

  19. Room-temperature in situ nuclear spin hyperpolarization from optically pumped nitrogen vacancy centres in diamond.

    PubMed

    King, Jonathan P; Jeong, Keunhong; Vassiliou, Christophoros C; Shin, Chang S; Page, Ralph H; Avalos, Claudia E; Wang, Hai-Jing; Pines, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Low detection sensitivity stemming from the weak polarization of nuclear spins is a primary limitation of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. Methods have been developed to enhance nuclear spin polarization but they typically require high magnetic fields, cryogenic temperatures or sample transfer between magnets. Here we report bulk, room-temperature hyperpolarization of (13)C nuclear spins observed via high-field magnetic resonance. The technique harnesses the high optically induced spin polarization of diamond nitrogen vacancy centres at room temperature in combination with dynamic nuclear polarization. We observe bulk nuclear spin polarization of 6%, an enhancement of ?170,000 over thermal equilibrium. The signal of the hyperpolarized spins was detected in situ with a standard nuclear magnetic resonance probe without the need for sample shuttling or precise crystal orientation. Hyperpolarization via optical pumping/dynamic nuclear polarization should function at arbitrary magnetic fields enabling orders of magnitude sensitivity enhancement for nuclear magnetic resonance of solids and liquids under ambient conditions. PMID:26639147

  20. Room-temperature in situ nuclear spin hyperpolarization from optically pumped nitrogen vacancy centres in diamond

    PubMed Central

    King, Jonathan P.; Jeong, Keunhong; Vassiliou, Christophoros C.; Shin, Chang S.; Page, Ralph H.; Avalos, Claudia E.; Wang, Hai-Jing; Pines, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Low detection sensitivity stemming from the weak polarization of nuclear spins is a primary limitation of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. Methods have been developed to enhance nuclear spin polarization but they typically require high magnetic fields, cryogenic temperatures or sample transfer between magnets. Here we report bulk, room-temperature hyperpolarization of 13C nuclear spins observed via high-field magnetic resonance. The technique harnesses the high optically induced spin polarization of diamond nitrogen vacancy centres at room temperature in combination with dynamic nuclear polarization. We observe bulk nuclear spin polarization of 6%, an enhancement of ∼170,000 over thermal equilibrium. The signal of the hyperpolarized spins was detected in situ with a standard nuclear magnetic resonance probe without the need for sample shuttling or precise crystal orientation. Hyperpolarization via optical pumping/dynamic nuclear polarization should function at arbitrary magnetic fields enabling orders of magnitude sensitivity enhancement for nuclear magnetic resonance of solids and liquids under ambient conditions. PMID:26639147

  1. Determination of spin Hamiltonians from projected single reference configuration interaction calculations. I. Spin 1/2 systems.

    PubMed

    Monari, A; Maynau, D; Malrieu, J-P

    2010-07-28

    The most reliable wave-function based treatments of magnetic systems usually start from a complete active space self-consistent field calculation of the magnetic electrons in the magnetic orbitals, followed by extensive and expensive configuration interaction (CI) calculations. This second step, which introduces crucial spin polarization and dynamic correlation effects, is necessary to reach reliable values of the magnetic coupling constants. The computational cost of these approaches increases exponentially with the number of unpaired electrons. The single-determinantal unrestricted density functional Kohn-Sham calculations are computationally much simpler, and may provide reasonable estimates of these quantities, but their results are strongly dependent on the chosen exchange-correlation potential. The present work, which may be seen as an ab initio transcription of the unrestricted density functional theory technique, returns to the perturbative definition of the Heisenberg Hamiltonian as an effective Hamiltonian, and proposes a direct estimate of its diagonal energies through single reference CI calculations. The differences between these diagonal terms actually determine the entire Heisenberg Hamiltonian. The reference determinants must be vectors of the model space and the components on the other vectors of the model space are cancelled along the iterative process. The method is successfully tested on a series of bicentric and multicentric spin 12 systems. The projected single reference difference dedicated CI treatment is both accurate and of moderate cost. It opens the way to parameter-free calculations of large spin assemblies. PMID:20687632

  2. Accessing long-lived nuclear singlet states between chemically equivalent spins without breaking symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yesu; Davis, Ryan M.; Warren, Warren S.

    2013-01-01

    Long-lived nuclear spin states could greatly enhance the applicability of hyperpolarized nuclear magnetic resonance. Using singlet states between inequivalent spin pairs has been shown to extend the signal lifetime by more than an order of magnitude compared to the spin lattice relaxation time (T1), but they have to be prevented from evolving into other states. In the most interesting case the singlet is between chemically equivalent spins, as it can then be inherently an eigenstate. However this presents major challenges in the conversion from bulk magnetization to singlet. In the only case demonstrated so far, a reversible chemical reaction to break symmetry was required. Here we present a pulse sequence technique that interconverts between singlet spin order and bulk magnetization without breaking the symmetry of the spin system. This technique is independent of field strength and is applicable to a broad range of molecules. PMID:23505397

  3. Electrical current and coupled electron-nuclear spin dynamics in double quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giavaras, G.; Lambert, Neill; Nori, Franco

    2013-03-01

    We examine electronic transport in a spin-blockaded double quantum dot. We show that by tuning the strength of the spin-orbit interaction the current flowing through the double dot exhibits a dip at zero magnetic field or a peak at a magnetic field for which the two-electron energy levels anticross. This behavior is due to the dependence of the singlet-triplet mixing on the field and spin-orbit amplitude. We derive approximate expressions for the current as a function of the amplitudes of the states involved in the transport. We also consider an alternative model that takes into account a finite number of nuclear spins and study the resulting coupled dynamics between electron and nuclear spins. We show that if the spin ensemble is in a thermal state there are regular oscillations in the transient current followed by quasichaotic revivals akin to those seen in a thermal Jaynes-Cummings model.

  4. Magnetoresistance effect of heat generation in a single-molecular spin-valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Feng; Yan, Yonghong; Wang, Shikuan; Yan, Yijing

    2016-02-01

    Based on non-equilibrium Green's functions' theory and small polaron transformation's technology, we study the heat generation by current through a single-molecular spin-valve. Numerical results indicate that the variation of spin polarization degree can change heat generation effectively, the spin-valve effect happens not only in electrical current but also in heat generation when Coulomb repulsion in quantum dot is smaller than phonon frequency and interestingly, when Coulomb repulsion is larger than phonon frequency, the inverse spin-valve effect appears by sweeping gate voltage and is enlarged with bias increasing. The inverse spin-valve effect will induce the unique heat magnetoresistance effect, which can be modulated from heat-resistance to heat-gain by gate voltage easily.

  5. Spin-orbit coupling and the static polarizability of single-wall carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Diniz, Ginetom S. Ulloa, Sergio E.

    2014-07-14

    We calculate the static longitudinal polarizability of single-wall carbon tubes in the long wavelength limit taking into account spin-orbit effects. We use a four-orbital orthogonal tight-binding formalism to describe the electronic states and the random phase approximation to calculate the dielectric function. We study the role of both the Rashba as well as the intrinsic spin-orbit interactions on the longitudinal dielectric response, i.e., when the probing electric field is parallel to the nanotube axis. The spin-orbit interaction modifies the nanotube electronic band dispersions, which may especially result in a small gap opening in otherwise metallic tubes. The bandgap size and state features, the result of competition between Rashba and intrinsic spin-orbit interactions, result in drastic changes in the longitudinal static polarizability of the system. We discuss results for different nanotube types and the dependence on nanotube radius and spin-orbit couplings.

  6. Recent Results of Target Single-Spin Asymmetry Experiments at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Xiaodong

    2013-08-01

    We report recent results from Jefferson Lab Hall A Neutron Transversity experiment (E06-010). Transversely polarized target single-spin asymmetry AUT and beam-target double-spin asymmetry A{sub LT} have been measured in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (SIDIS) reactions on a polarized neutron ({sup 3}He) target. Collins-type and Sivers-type asymmetries have been extracted from A{sub UT} for charged pion SIDIS productions, which are sensitive to quark transversity and Sivers distributions, correspondingly. Double spin asymmetry A{sub LT} is sensitive to a specific quark transverse momentum dependent parton distribution (TMD), the so-called transverse helicity (g{sub 1T} ) distributions. In addition, target single-spin asymmetries A{sub y} in inclusive electron scattering on a transversely polarized {sup 3}He target in quasi-elastic and deep inelastic kinematics were also measured in Hall A.

  7. Spin-dependent negative differential conductance in transport through single-molecule magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wei; Wang, Rui-Qiang; Hu, Liang-Bin; Yang, Mou

    2013-04-01

    Transport properties are theoretically studied through an anisotropy single-molecule magnet symmetrically connected to two identical ferromagnetic leads. It is found that even though in parallel configuration of leads' magnetizations, the total current still greatly depends on the spin polarization of leads at certain particular bias region, and thus for large polarization a prominent negative differential conductance (NDC) emerges. This originates from the joint effect of single-direction transitions and spin polarization, which removes the symmetry between spin-up and spin-down transitions. The present mechanism of NDC is remarkably different from the previously reported mechanisms. To clarify the physics of the NDC, we further monitored the shot noise spectroscopy and found that the appearance of the NDC is accompanied by the rapid decrease of Fano factor.

  8. Single-spin asymmetries in inclusive DIS and in hadronic collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, Andreas; Pitonyak, Daniel; Schfer, Andreas; Schlegel, Marc; Vogelsang, Werner; Zhou, Jian

    2013-04-01

    Transverse single-spin asymmetries in inclusive deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering can be generated through multi-photon exchange between the leptonic and the hadronic part of the process. Here we consider two-photon exchange and mainly focus on the transverse target spin asymmetry. In particular, we investigate the case where two photons couple to different quarks. Such a contribution involves a quark-photon-quark correlator in the nucleon, which has a (modeldependent) relation to the Efremov-Teryaev-Qiu-Sterman quark-gluon-quark correlator TF. Using different parameterizations for TF we compute the transverse target spin asymmetries for both a proton and a neutron target and compare the results to recent experimental data. In addition, potential implications for our general understanding of single-spin asymmetries in hard scattering processes are discussed.

  9. Single Spin Asymmetries in Inclusive Dis and Multi-Parton Correlations in the Nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, Andreas; Pitonyak, Daniel; Schfer, Andreas; Schlegel, Marc; Vogelsang, Werner; Zhou, Jian

    Transverse single spin asymmetries in inclusive deep-inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering can be generated through multi-photon exchange between the leptonic and the hadronic part of the process. Here we consider two-photon exchange, and mainly focus on the transverse target spin asymmetry. In particular, we investigate the case where two photons couple to different quarks. Such a contribution involves a quark-photon-quark correlator in the nucleon, which has a (model-dependent) relation to the Efremov-Teryaev-Qiu-Sterman quark-gluon-quark correlator TF. Using different parameterizations for TF we compute the transverse target spin asymmetry for both a proton and a neutron target, and compare the results to recent experimental data. Potential implications on our general understanding of single spin asymmetries in hard scattering processes are discussed as well.

  10. Single-spin asymmetries in inclusive deep inelastic scattering and multiparton correlations in the nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, A.; Pitonyak, D.; Schfer, A.; Schlegel, M.; Vogelsang, W.; Zhou, J.

    2012-11-01

    Transverse single-spin asymmetries in inclusive deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering can be generated through multiphoton exchange between the leptonic and the hadronic part of the process. Here we consider the two-photon exchange and mainly focus on the transverse target spin asymmetry. In particular, we investigate the case where two photons couple to different quarks. Such a contribution involves a quark-photon-quark correlator in the nucleon, which has a (model-dependent) relation to the Efremov-Teryaev-Qiu-Sterman quark-gluon-quark correlator TF. Using different parametrizations for TF we compute the transverse target spin asymmetries for both a proton and a neutron target and compare the results to recent experimental data. In addition, potential implications for our general understanding of single-spin asymmetries in hard scattering processes are discussed.

  11. Spin-pair tunneling in Mn3 single-molecule magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Rong; Liu, Rui-Yuan; Wang, Yun-Ping

    2015-10-01

    We report spin-pair tunneling observed in a Mn3 single-molecule magnet, which is a crystal with a two-dimensional network of identical exchange coupling. We observe a series of extra quantum tunnelings by the ac susceptibility measurements, and demonstrate that these are mainly thermally assisted tunnelings of a pair of two spins from the same initial state to the same final state simultaneously. The resonant field of spin-pair tunneling can be expressed as Hz=l D /g ?0?B+(n?-n?) J S /2 g ?0?B , and the splitting interval (|J |S /g ?0?B ) is half that of the single-spin tunneling (2 |J |S /g ?0?B ), which is analogous to the relationship between the magnetic flux quantum in superconductors (h /2 e ) and common metals (h /e ).

  12. Quantum Stirling heat engine and refrigerator with single and coupled spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiao-Li; Niu, Xin-Ya; Xiu, Xiao-Ming; Yi, Xue-Xi

    2014-02-01

    We study the reversible quantum Stirling cycle with a single spin or two coupled spins as the working substance. With the single spin as the working substance, we find that under certain conditions the reversed cycle of a heat engine is NOT a refrigerator, this feature holds true for a Stirling heat engine with an ion trapped in a shallow potential as its working substance. The efficiency of quantum Stirling heat engine can be higher than the efficiency of the Carnot engine, but the performance coefficient of the quantum Stirling refrigerator is always lower than its classical counterpart. With two coupled spins as the working substance, we find that a heat engine can turn to a refrigerator due to the increasing of the coupling constant, this can be explained by the properties of the isothermal line in the magnetic field-entropy plane.

  13. Photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization in photosystem I of plants observed by 13C magic-angle spinning NMR.

    PubMed

    Alia; Roy, Esha; Gast, Peter; van Gorkom, Hans J; de Groot, Huub J M; Jeschke, Gunnar; Matysik, Jrg

    2004-10-13

    Photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (photo-CIDNP) has been observed in photosystem I of spinach by (13)C magic angle spinning solid-state NMR under continuous illumination with white light. An almost complete set of chemical shifts of the aromatic ring carbons of a single Chl a molecule has been obtained which is assigned to the P2-cofactor of the primary electron donor P700. Since all light-induced (13)C NMR signals appear to be emissive, a predominance of the three-spin mixing mechanism over the differential decay mechanism is proposed. The origin of the strong contribution of the three-spin mixing mechanism and the differences with photosystem II are discussed. PMID:15469277

  14. Spin-dipole nuclear matrix elements for double beta decays and astro-neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejiri, H.; Soukouti, N.; Suhonen, J.

    2014-02-01

    Spin-dipole (SD) nuclear matrix elements (NMEs) M±(SD2) for unique first forbidden β± 2-→0+ ground-state-to-ground-state transitions are studied by using effective microscopic two-nucleon interactions in realistic single-particle model spaces. The observed values of the NMEs Mexp±(SD2) are compared with the values of the single-quasiparticle NMEs Mqp±(SD2) without nucleon spin-isospin (στ) correlation and the QRPA NMEs MQRPA±(SD2) with the στ correlation. The observed SD matrix elements are found to be reduced by the factor k≈0.2 with respect to Mqp±(SD2) and by the factor kNM≈0.5 with respect to MQRPA±(SD2). We then infer that the SD NME is reduced considerably partly by the nucleon στ correlations and partly by other non-nucleonic and nucleonic correlations which are not explicitly included in the QRPA. Impact of the found reduction factors on the magnitudes of the NMEs involved in neutrino-less double beta decays and astro-neutrino interactions are discussed.

  15. Cross polarization from spins I =1/2 to spins S =1 in nuclear magnetic resonance with magic angle sample spinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Karthik; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2006-05-01

    Spin locking of the nuclear magnetization of a spin with S =1 such as deuterium in the presence of a radio-frequency field under magic angle spinning (MAS) is described in terms of adiabatic modulations of the energy levels. In a brief initial period, part of the initial density operator nutates about the Hamiltonian and is dephased. The remaining spin-locked state undergoes persistent oscillatory transfer processes between various coherences with a periodicity given by the rotation of the sample. While all crystallites in the powder undergo such periodic transfer processes, the phases of the oscillations depend on the angle ? of the crystallites. The angle ? is the azimuthal angle defining the orientation of the unique axis of the quadrupolar interaction tensor in a rotor-fixed frame. The theory is extended to describe cross-polarization between spins S =1 and I =1/2 under MAS. There are four distinct Hartmann-Hahn matching conditions that correspond to four zero-quantum matching conditions, all of which are shifted and broadened compared to their spin S =1/2 counterparts. These matching conditions are further split into a family of sideband conditions separated by the spinning frequency. The theory allows the calculation of both shifts and broadening factors of the matching conditions, as verified by simulations and experiments.

  16. Lattice dynamics in spin-crossover nanoparticles through nuclear inelastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flix, Gautier; Mikolasek, Mirko; Peng, Haonan; Nicolazzi, William; Molnr, Gbor; Chumakov, Aleksandr I.; Salmon, Lionel; Bousseksou, Azzedine

    2015-01-01

    We used nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) to investigate the lattice dynamics in [Fe(pyrazine)(Ni(CN)4)] spin crossover nanoparticles. The vibrational density of states of iron was extracted from the NIS data, which allowed to determine characteristic thermodynamical and lattice dynamical parameters as well as their spin-state dependence. The optical part of the NIS spectra compares well with the Raman scattering data reflecting the expansion/contraction of the coordination octahedron during the spin transition. From the acoustic part, we extracted the sound velocity in the low-spin (vLS=2073 31 m s-1) and high-spin (vHS=1942 23 m s-1) states of the particles. The spin-state dependence of this parameter is of primary interest to rationalize the spin-transition behavior in solids as well as its dynamics and finite size effects.

  17. Interaction of spin and vibrations in transport through single-molecule magnets

    PubMed Central

    May, Falk; Hofstetter, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Summary We study electron transport through a single-molecule magnet (SMM) and the interplay of its anisotropic spin with quantized vibrational distortions of the molecule. Based on numerical renormalization group calculations we show that, despite the longitudinal anisotropy barrier and small transverse anisotropy, vibrational fluctuations can induce quantum spin-tunneling (QST) and a QST-Kondo effect. The interplay of spin scattering, QST and molecular vibrations can strongly enhance the Kondo effect and induce an anomalous magnetic field dependence of vibrational Kondo side-bands. PMID:22043459

  18. Quantum computers based on electron spins controlled by ultrafast off-resonant single optical pulses.

    PubMed

    Clark, Susan M; Fu, Kai-Mei C; Ladd, Thaddeus D; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2007-07-27

    We describe a fast quantum computer based on optically controlled electron spins in charged quantum dots that are coupled to microcavities. This scheme uses broadband optical pulses to rotate electron spins and provide the clock signal to the system. Nonlocal two-qubit gates are performed by phase shifts induced by electron spins on laser pulses propagating along a shared waveguide. Numerical simulations of this scheme demonstrate high-fidelity single-qubit and two-qubit gates with operation times comparable to the inverse Zeeman frequency. PMID:17678343

  19. Storage and retrieval of microwave fields at the single-photon level in a spin ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grezes, C.; Julsgaard, B.; Kubo, Y.; Ma, W. L.; Stern, M.; Bienfait, A.; Nakamura, K.; Isoya, J.; Onoda, S.; Ohshima, T.; Jacques, V.; Vion, D.; Esteve, D.; Liu, R. B.; Mlmer, K.; Bertet, P.

    2015-08-01

    We report the storage of microwave pulses at the single-photon level in a spin-ensemble memory consisting of 1010 nitrogen-vacancy centers in a diamond crystal coupled to a superconducting L C resonator. The energy of the signal, retrieved 100 ? s later by spin-echo techniques, reaches 0.3 % of the energy absorbed by the spins. This 0.3 % storage efficiency is quantitatively accounted for by simulations. This figure of merit is sufficient to envision first implementations of a quantum memory for superconducting qubits.

  20. Spin-one Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain with exchange and single-ion anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, D.; McCulloch, I. P.; Selke, W.

    2009-04-01

    Using density-matrix renormalization group calculations, ground-state properties of the spin-1 Heisenberg chain with exchange and single-ion anisotropies in an external field are studied. Our findings confirm and refine recent numerical and analytic results by Sengupta and Batista [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 217205 (2007)] on the same model. In particular, we present evidence for two types of biconical (or supersolid) and for two types of spin-flop (or superfluid) structures for chains of finite length. Basic features of the quantum phase diagram may be interpreted qualitatively in the framework of classical spin models.

  1. Direct observation of dynamics of single spinning dust grains in weakly magnetized complex plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Dzlieva, E. S.; Karasev, V. Yu.; Petrov, O. F.

    2012-01-15

    The rotational dynamics of single dust grains in a weak magnetic field is investigated on a kinetic level. Experiments reveal spin-up of spherical dust grains and alignment of their magnetic moments parallel to the magnetic induction vector. The angular velocity of spinning prolate grains varies as magnetic induction increases to 250 G. Spinning dust grains are found to flip over only when the magnetic field magnitude is changing. The results demonstrate that dusty plasma has paramagnetic properties. Qualitative interpretations are proposed to explain newly discovered phenomena.

  2. Decoherence imaging of spin ensembles using a scanning single-electron spin in diamond.

    PubMed

    Luan, Lan; Grinolds, Michael S; Hong, Sungkun; Maletinsky, Patrick; Walsworth, Ronald L; Yacoby, Amir

    2015-01-01

    The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect center in diamond has demonstrated great capability for nanoscale magnetic sensing and imaging for both static and periodically modulated target fields. However, it remains a challenge to detect and image randomly fluctuating magnetic fields. Recent theoretical and numerical works have outlined detection schemes that exploit changes in decoherence of the detector spin as a sensitive measure for fluctuating fields. Here we experimentally monitor the decoherence of a scanning NV center in order to image the fluctuating magnetic fields from paramagnetic impurities on an underlying diamond surface. We detect a signal corresponding to roughly 800??B in 2?s of integration time, without any control on the target spins, and obtain magnetic-field spectral information using dynamical decoupling techniques. The extracted spatial and temporal properties of the surface paramagnetic impurities provide insight to prolonging the coherence of near-surface qubits for quantum information and metrology applications. PMID:25631646

  3. Decoherence imaging of spin ensembles using a scanning single-electron spin in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Lan; Grinolds, Michael S.; Hong, Sungkun; Maletinsky, Patrick; Walsworth, Ronald L.; Yacoby, Amir

    2015-01-01

    The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect center in diamond has demonstrated great capability for nanoscale magnetic sensing and imaging for both static and periodically modulated target fields. However, it remains a challenge to detect and image randomly fluctuating magnetic fields. Recent theoretical and numerical works have outlined detection schemes that exploit changes in decoherence of the detector spin as a sensitive measure for fluctuating fields. Here we experimentally monitor the decoherence of a scanning NV center in order to image the fluctuating magnetic fields from paramagnetic impurities on an underlying diamond surface. We detect a signal corresponding to roughly 800 ?B in 2 s of integration time, without any control on the target spins, and obtain magnetic-field spectral information using dynamical decoupling techniques. The extracted spatial and temporal properties of the surface paramagnetic impurities provide insight to prolonging the coherence of near-surface qubits for quantum information and metrology applications.

  4. Decoherence imaging of spin ensembles using a scanning single-electron spin in diamond

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Lan; Grinolds, Michael S.; Hong, Sungkun; Maletinsky, Patrick; Walsworth, Ronald L.; Yacoby, Amir

    2015-01-01

    The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect center in diamond has demonstrated great capability for nanoscale magnetic sensing and imaging for both static and periodically modulated target fields. However, it remains a challenge to detect and image randomly fluctuating magnetic fields. Recent theoretical and numerical works have outlined detection schemes that exploit changes in decoherence of the detector spin as a sensitive measure for fluctuating fields. Here we experimentally monitor the decoherence of a scanning NV center in order to image the fluctuating magnetic fields from paramagnetic impurities on an underlying diamond surface. We detect a signal corresponding to roughly 800??B in 2?s of integration time, without any control on the target spins, and obtain magnetic-field spectral information using dynamical decoupling techniques. The extracted spatial and temporal properties of the surface paramagnetic impurities provide insight to prolonging the coherence of near-surface qubits for quantum information and metrology applications. PMID:25631646

  5. Dynamic strain-mediated coupling of a single diamond spin to a mechanical resonator.

    PubMed

    Ovartchaiyapong, Preeti; Lee, Kenneth W; Myers, Bryan A; Jayich, Ania C Bleszynski

    2014-01-01

    The development of hybrid quantum systems is central to the advancement of emerging quantum technologies, including quantum information science and quantum-assisted sensing. The recent demonstration of high-quality single-crystal diamond resonators has led to significant interest in a hybrid system consisting of nitrogen-vacancy centre spins that interact with the resonant phonon modes of a macroscopic mechanical resonator through crystal strain. However, the nitrogen-vacancy spin-strain interaction has not been well characterized. Here, we demonstrate dynamic, strain-mediated coupling of the mechanical motion of a diamond cantilever to the spin of an embedded nitrogen-vacancy centre. Via quantum control of the spin, we quantitatively characterize the axial and transverse strain sensitivities of the nitrogen-vacancy ground-state spin. The nitrogen-vacancy centre is an atomic scale sensor and we demonstrate spin-based strain imaging with a strain sensitivity of 3 10(-6) strain Hz(-1/2). Finally, we show how this spin-resonator system could enable coherent spin-phonon interactions in the quantum regime. PMID:25034828

  6. Bimodal Latex Effect on Spin-Coated Thin Conductive Polymer-Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Layers.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Mohammad-Amin; Larrakoetxea Angoitia, Katalin; van Berkel, Stefan; Gnanasekaran, Karthikeyan; Friedrich, Heiner; Heuts, Johan P A; van der Schoot, Paul; van Herk, Alex M

    2015-11-10

    We synthesize two differently sized poly(methyl methacrylate-co-tert-butyl acrylate) latexes by emulsion polymerization and mix these with a sonicated single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) dispersion, in order to prepare 3% SWCNT composite mixtures. We spin-coat these mixtures at various spin-speed rates and spin times over a glass substrate, producing a thin, transparent, solid, conductive layer. Keeping the amount of SWCNTs constant, we vary the weight fraction of our smaller 30-nm latex particles relative to the larger 70-nm-sized ones. We find a maximum in the electrical conductivity up to 370 S/m as a function of the weight fraction of smaller particles, depending on the overall solid content, the spin speed, and the spin time. This maximum occurs at 3-5% of the smaller latex particles. We also find a more than 2-fold increase in conductivity parallel to the radius of spin-coating than perpendicular to it. Atomic force microscopy points at the existence of lanes of latex particles in the spin-coated thin layer, while large-area transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that the SWCNTs are aligned over a grid fixed on the glass substrate during the spin-coating process. We extract the conductivity distribution on the surface of the thin film and translate this into the direction of the SWCNTs in it. PMID:26491888

  7. Dynamic strain-mediated coupling of a single diamond spin to a mechanical resonator

    PubMed Central

    Ovartchaiyapong, Preeti; Lee, Kenneth W.; Myers, Bryan A.; Jayich, Ania C. Bleszynski

    2014-01-01

    The development of hybrid quantum systems is central to the advancement of emerging quantum technologies, including quantum information science and quantum-assisted sensing. The recent demonstration of high-quality single-crystal diamond resonators has led to significant interest in a hybrid system consisting of nitrogenvacancy centre spins that interact with the resonant phonon modes of a macroscopic mechanical resonator through crystal strain. However, the nitrogenvacancy spinstrain interaction has not been well characterized. Here, we demonstrate dynamic, strain-mediated coupling of the mechanical motion of a diamond cantilever to the spin of an embedded nitrogenvacancy centre. Via quantum control of the spin, we quantitatively characterize the axial and transverse strain sensitivities of the nitrogenvacancy ground-state spin. The nitrogenvacancy centre is an atomic scale sensor and we demonstrate spin-based strain imaging with a strain sensitivity of 3 10?6 strain Hz?1/2. Finally, we show how this spin-resonator system could enable coherent spinphonon interactions in the quantum regime. PMID:25034828

  8. The determination of the in situ structure by nuclear spin contrast variation

    SciTech Connect

    Stuhrmann, H.B.; Nierhaus, K.H.

    1994-12-31

    Polarized neutron scattering from polarized nuclear spins in hydrogenous substances opens a new way of contrast variation. The enhanced contrast due to proton spin polarization was used for the in situ structure determination of tRNA of the functional complex of the E.coli ribosome.

  9. Spin-Tunnel Investigation of the Spinning Characteristics of Typical Single-Engine General Aviation Airplane Designs. 1. Low-Wing Model A: Effects of Tail Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burk, S. M., Jr.; Bowman, J. S., Jr.; White, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of tail design on spin and recovery were investigated in a spin tunnel. A 1/11-scale model of a research airplane which represents a typical low-wing, single engine, light general aviation airplane was used. A tail design criterion for satisfactory spin recovery for light airplanes was evaluated. The effects of other geometric design features on the spin and recovery characteristics were also determined. Results indicate that the existing tail design criterion for light airplanes, which uses the tail damping power factor as a parameter, cannot be used to predict spin-recovery characteristics.

  10. Metal-center exchange of tetrahedral cages: single crystal to single crystal and spin-crossover properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng-Li; Chen, Jia-Qian; Qin, Long-Fang; Tian, Lei; Li, Zaijun; Ren, Xuehong; Gu, Zhi-Guo

    2016-04-01

    An effective single crystal to single crystal transformation from a tetrahedral Ni cage to an FeNi cage was demonstrated. The iron(ii) centers of the FeNi cage can be induced to display spin crossover behaviors with an increasing amount of Fe(ii) ions. The SCSC metal-center exchange provides a powerful approach to modify solid magnetic properties. PMID:26955799

  11. Nuclear-Spin Gyroscope Based on an Atomic Co-Magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romalis, Michael; Komack, Tom; Ghost, Rajat

    2008-01-01

    An experimental nuclear-spin gyroscope is based on an alkali-metal/noblegas co-magnetometer, which automatically cancels the effects of magnetic fields. Whereas the performances of prior nuclear-spin gyroscopes are limited by sensitivity to magnetic fields, this gyroscope is insensitive to magnetic fields and to other external perturbations. In addition, relative to prior nuclear-spin gyroscopes, this one exhibits greater sensitivity to rotation. There is commercial interest in development of small, highly sensitive gyroscopes. The present experimental device could be a prototype for development of nuclear spin gyroscopes suitable for navigation. In comparison with fiber-optic gyroscopes, these gyroscopes would draw less power and would be smaller, lighter, more sensitive, and less costly.

  12. Knight shift and nuclear spin relaxation in Fe/n -GaAs heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christie, K. D.; Geppert, C. C.; Patel, S. J.; Hu, Q. O.; Palmstrøm, C. J.; Crowell, P. A.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the dynamically polarized nuclear spin system in Fe/n -GaAs heterostructures using the response of the electron-spin system to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in lateral spin-valve devices. The hyperfine interaction is known to act more strongly on donor-bound electron states than on those in the conduction band. We provide a quantitative model of the temperature dependence of the occupation of donor sites. With this model we calculate the ratios of the hyperfine and quadrupolar nuclear relaxation rates of each isotope. For all temperatures measured, quadrupolar relaxation limits the spatial extent of nuclear spin polarization to within a Bohr radius of the donor sites and is directly responsible for the isotope dependence of the measured NMR signal amplitude. The hyperfine interaction is also responsible for the 2 kHz Knight shift of the nuclear resonance frequency that is measured as a function of the electron-spin accumulation. The Knight shift is shown to provide a measurement of the electron-spin polarization that agrees qualitatively with standard spin transport measurements.

  13. A high-performance Fortran code to calculate spin- and parity-dependent nuclear level densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen'kov, R. A.; Horoi, M.; Zelevinsky, V. G.

    2013-01-01

    A high-performance Fortran code is developed to calculate the spin- and parity-dependent shell model nuclear level densities. The algorithm is based on the extension of methods of statistical spectroscopy and implies exact calculation of the first and second Hamiltonian moments for different configurations at fixed spin and parity. The proton-neutron formalism is used. We have applied the method for calculating the level densities for a set of nuclei in the sd-, pf-, and pf+g- model spaces. Examples of the calculations for 28Si (in the sd-model space) and 64Ge (in the pf+g-model space) are presented. To illustrate the power of the method we estimate the ground state energy of 64Ge in the larger model space pf+g, which is not accessible to direct shell model diagonalization due to the prohibitively large dimension, by comparing with the nuclear level densities at low excitation energy calculated in the smaller model space pf. Program summaryProgram title: MM Catalogue identifier: AENM_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENM_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 193181 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1298585 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90, MPI. Computer: Any architecture with a Fortran 90 compiler and MPI. Operating system: Linux. RAM: Proportional to the system size, in our examples, up to 75Mb Classification: 17.15. External routines: MPICH2 (http://www.mcs.anl.gov/research/projects/mpich2/) Nature of problem: Calculating of the spin- and parity-dependent nuclear level density. Solution method: The algorithm implies exact calculation of the first and second Hamiltonian moments for different configurations at fixed spin and parity. The code is parallelized using the Message Passing Interface and a master-slaves dynamical load-balancing approach. Restrictions: The program uses two-body interaction in a restricted single-level basis. For example, GXPF1A in the pf-valence space. Running time: Depends on the system size and the number of processors used (from 1 min to several hours).

  14. Rare-Earth Triangular Lattice Spin Liquid: A Single-Crystal Study of YbMgGaO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuesheng; Chen, Gang; Tong, Wei; Pi, Li; Liu, Juanjuan; Yang, Zhaorong; Wang, Xiaoqun; Zhang, Qingming

    2015-10-01

    YbMgGaO4 , a structurally perfect two-dimensional triangular lattice with an odd number of electrons per unit cell and spin-orbit entangled effective spin-1 /2 local moments for the Yb3 + ions, is likely to experimentally realize the quantum spin liquid ground state. We report the first experimental characterization of single-crystal YbMgGaO4 samples. Because of the spin-orbit entanglement, the interaction between the neighboring Yb3 + moments depends on the bond orientations and is highly anisotropic in the spin space. We carry out thermodynamic and the electron spin resonance measurements to confirm the anisotropic nature of the spin interaction as well as to quantitatively determine the couplings. Our result is a first step towards the theoretical understanding of the possible quantum spin liquid ground state in this system and sheds new light on the search for quantum spin liquids in strong spin-orbit coupled insulators.

  15. Towards single-molecule NMR detection and spectroscopy using single spins in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perunicic, V. S.; Hall, L. T.; Simpson, D. A.; Hill, C. D.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.

    2014-02-01

    Nanomagnetometry using the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond has attracted a great deal of interest due to its unique combination of room temperature operation, nanoscale resolution, and high sensitivity. One of the important goals for nanomagnetometry is to be able to detect nanoscale nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in individual molecules. Our theoretical analysis details a method by which a single molecule on the surface of diamond, with characteristic NMR frequencies, can be detected using a proximate NV center on a time scale of an order of seconds with nanometer precision. We perform spatiotemporal resolution optimization and subsequently outline paths to greater sensitivity. Our method is suitable for application in low and relatively inhomogeneous background magnetic fields in contrast to both conventional liquid and solid state NMR spectroscopy.

  16. Nanoscale microwave imaging with a single electron spin in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, Patrick; Ganzhorn, Marc; Neu, Elke; Maletinsky, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    We report on imaging of microwave (MW) magnetic fields using a magnetometer based on the electron spin of a nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond. We quantitatively image the magnetic field generated by high frequency (GHz) MW current with nanoscale resolution using a scanning probe technique. Together with a shot noise limited MW magnetic field sensitivity of 680 nT Hz?1/2 our room temperature experiments establish the NV center as a versatile and high performance tool for MW imaging, which furthermore offers polarization selectivity and broadband capabilities. As a first application of this scanning MW detector, we image the MW stray field around a stripline structure and thereby locally determine the MW current density with a MW current sensitivity of a few nA Hz?1/2.

  17. Nuclear spin-polarized fuel in inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    More, R.M.

    1983-08-01

    This Letter examines the possibility of using spin-polarized DT fuel for inertial-confinement fusion. Analytic models and estimates are developed to determine whether an initial spin-polarized state would survive target irradiation and implosion. It is found that collisional depolarization cross sections are not large enough to give significant depolarization, and that the short duration of inertial-fusion implosions precludes spin resonance for magnetic fields that can be reasonably expected in the target fuel.

  18. Nuclear Spin-Polarized Fuel in Inertial Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, Richard M.

    1983-08-01

    This Letter examines the possibility of using spin-polarized DT fuel for inertial-confinement fusion. Analytic models and estimates are developed to determine whether an initial spin-polarized state would survive target irradiation and implosion. It is found that collisional depolarization cross sections are not large enough to give significant depolarization, and that the short duration of inertial-fusion implosions precludes spin resonance for magnetic fields that can be reasonably expected in the target fuel.

  19. Controlled Rephasing of Single Collective Spin Excitations in a Cold Atomic Quantum Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Boris; Farrera, Pau; Heinze, Georg; Cristiani, Matteo; de Riedmatten, Hugues

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate active control of inhomogeneous dephasing and rephasing for single collective atomic spin excitations (spin waves) created by spontaneous Raman scattering in a quantum memory based on cold 87Rb atoms. The control is provided by a reversible external magnetic field gradient inducing an inhomogeneous broadening of the atomic hyperfine levels. We demonstrate experimentally that active rephasing preserves the single photon nature of the retrieved photons. Finally, we show that the control of the inhomogeneous dephasing enables the creation of time-separated spin waves in a single ensemble followed by a selective read-out in time. This is an important step towards the implementation of a functional temporally multiplexed quantum repeater node.

  20. A coherent triggered search for single-spin compact binary coalescences in gravitational wave data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harry, I. W.; Fairhurst, S.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we present a method for conducting a coherent search for single-spin compact binary coalescences in gravitational wave data and compare this search to the existing coincidence method for single-spin searches. We propose a method to characterize the regions of the parameter space where the single-spin search, both coincident and coherent, will increase detection efficiency over the existing non-precessing search. We also show example results of the coherent search on a stretch of data from Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory's fourth science run, but note that a set of signal-based vetoes will be needed before this search can be run to try to make detections.

  1. Reversible Single Spin Control of Individual Magnetic Molecule by Hydrogen Atom Adsorption

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liwei; Yang, Kai; Jiang, Yuhang; Song, Boqun; Xiao, Wende; Li, Linfei; Zhou, Haitao; Wang, Yeliang; Du, Shixuan; Ouyang, Min; Hofer, Werner A.; Castro Neto, Antonio H.; Gao, Hong-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The reversible control of a single spin of an atom or a molecule is of great interest in Kondo physics and a potential application in spin based electronics. Here we demonstrate that the Kondo resonance of manganese phthalocyanine molecules on a Au(111) substrate have been reversibly switched off and on via a robust route through attachment and detachment of single hydrogen atom to the magnetic core of the molecule. As further revealed by density functional theory calculations, even though the total number of electrons of the Mn ion remains almost the same in the process, gaining one single hydrogen atom leads to redistribution of charges within 3d orbitals with a reduction of the molecular spin state from S = 3/2 to S = 1 that directly contributes to the Kondo resonance disappearance. This process is reversed by a local voltage pulse or thermal annealing to desorb the hydrogen atom. PMID:23383378

  2. Description of 158Er at Ultrahigh Spin in Nuclear Density Functional Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasjev, A. V.; Nazarewicz, Witold

    2012-01-01

    Rotational bands in 158Er at ultrahigh spin have been studied in the framework of relativistic and nonrelativistic nuclear density-functional theories. Consistent results are obtained across the theoretical models used but some puzzles remain when confronted with experiment. Namely, the many-body configurations which provide good description of experimental transition quadrupole moments and dynamic moments of inertia require substantial increase of the spins of observed bands as compared with experimental estimates, which are still subject to large uncertainties. If, however, the theoretical spin assignments turned out to be correct, experimental band 1 in 158Er would be the highest spin structure ever observed.

  3. Single scale cluster expansions with applications to many Boson and unbounded spin systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lohmann, Martin

    2015-06-15

    We develop a cluster expansion to show exponential decay of correlations for quite general single scale spin systems, as they arise in lattice quantum field theory and discretized functional integral representations for observables of quantum statistical mechanics. We apply our results to the small field approximation to the coherent state correlation functions of the grand canonical Bose gas at negative chemical potential, constructed by Balaban et al. [Ann. Henri Poincaré 11, 151–350 (2010c)], and to N component unbounded spin systems with repulsive two body interaction and massive, possibly complex, covariance. Our cluster expansion is derived by a single application of the Brydges-Kennedy-Abdesselam-Rivasseau interpolation formula.

  4. Classical nature of nuclear spin noise near clock transitions of Bi donors in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wen-Long; Wolfowicz, Gary; Li, Shu-Shen; Morton, John J. L.; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2015-10-01

    Whether a quantum bath can be approximated as classical Gaussian noise is a fundamental issue in central spin decoherence and also of practical importance in designing noise-resilient quantum control. Spin qubits based on bismuth donors in silicon have tunable interactions with nuclear spin baths and are first-order insensitive to magnetic noise at so-called clock transitions (CTs). This system is therefore ideal for studying the quantum/classical Gaussian nature of nuclear spin baths since the qubit-bath interaction strength determines the back-action on the baths and hence the adequacy of a Gaussian noise model. We develop a Gaussian noise model with noise correlations determined by quantum calculations and compare the classical noise approximation to the full quantum bath theory. We experimentally test our model through a dynamical decoupling sequence of up to 128 pulses, finding good agreement with simulations and measuring electron spin coherence times approaching 1 snotably using natural silicon. Our theoretical and experimental study demonstrates that the noise from a nuclear spin bath is analogous to classical Gaussian noise if the back-action of the qubit on the bath is small compared to the internal bath dynamics, as is the case close to CTs. However, far from the CTs, the back-action of the central spin on the bath is such that the quantum model is required to accurately model spin decoherence.

  5. Controlled rephasing of single spin-waves in a quantum memory based on cold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrera, Pau; Albrecht, Boris; Heinze, Georg; Cristiani, Matteo; de Riedmatten, Hugues; Quantum Photonics With Solids; Atoms Team

    2015-05-01

    Quantum memories for light allow a reversible transfer of quantum information between photons and long lived matter quantum bits. In atomic ensembles, this information is commonly stored in the form of single collective spin excitations (spin-waves). In this work we demonstrate that we can actively control the dephasing of the spin-waves created in a quantum memory based on a cold Rb87 atomic ensemble. The control is provided by an external magnetic field gradient, which induces an inhomogeneous broadening of the atomic hyperfine levels. We show that acting on this gradient allows to control the dephasing of individual spin-waves and to induce later a rephasing. The spin-waves are then mapped into single photons, and we demonstrate experimentally that the active rephasing preserves the sub-Poissonian statistics of the retrieved photons. Finally we show that this rephasing control enables the creation and storage of multiple spin-waves in different temporal modes, which can be selectively readout. This is an important step towards the implementation of a functional temporally multiplexed quantum memory for quantum repeaters. We acknowledge support from the ERC starting grant, the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, the Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional, and the International PhD- fellowship program ``la Caixa''-Severo Ochoa @ICFO.

  6. Spin Noise Detection of Nuclear Hyperpolarization at 1.2?K.

    PubMed

    Pschko, Maria Theresia; Vuichoud, Basile; Milani, Jonas; Bornet, Aurlien; Bechmann, Matthias; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Jannin, Sami; Mller, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    We report proton spin noise spectra of a hyperpolarized solid sample of commonly used "DNP (dynamic nuclear polarization) juice" containing TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine N-oxide) and irradiated by a microwave field at a temperature of 1.2?K in a magnetic field of 6.7?T. The line shapes of the spin noise power spectra are sensitive to the variation of the microwave irradiation frequency and change from dip to bump, when the electron Larmor frequency is crossed, which is shown to be in good accordance with theory by simulations. Small but significant deviations from these predictions are observed, which can be related to spin noise and radiation damping phenomena that have been reported in thermally polarized systems. The non-linear dependence of the spin noise integral on nuclear polarization provides a means to monitor hyperpolarization semi-quantitatively without any perturbation of the spin system by radio frequency irradiation. PMID:26477605

  7. Coupling and control in coherently driven and asymmetrically synchronized hybrid electron-nuclear spin system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berec, V.

    2016-02-01

    We study the coupling and control adaptation of a hybrid electron-nuclear spin system using the laser mediated proton beam in MeV energy regime. The asymmetric control mechanism is based on exact optimization of both: the measure of exchange interaction and anisotropy of the hyperfine interaction induced in the resonance with optimal channeled protons (CP) superfocused field, allowing manipulation over arbitrary localized spatial centers while addressing only the electron spin. Using highly precise and coherent proton channeling regime we have obtained efficient pulse shaping separator technique aimed for spatio-temporal engineering of quantum states, introducing a method for control of nuclear spins, which are coupled via anisotropic hyperfine interactions in isolated electron spin manifold, without radio wave (RW) pulses. The presented method can be efficiently implemented in synchronized spin networks with the purpose to facilitate preservation and efficient transfer of experimentally observed quantum particle states, contributing to the overall background noise reduction.

  8. Beam Normal Single Spin Asymmetries in Elastic Electron Scattering from Selected Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvall, Wade; Qweak Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The primary focus of the Qweak experiment at Jefferson Lab is the determination of the proton's weak charge. To make corrections to the measured asymmetry, dedicated measurements were made of the parity-conserving beam normal single spin asymmetries (An) in elastic scattering of transversly polarized electrons from several unpolarized targets. The targets included hydrogen, carbon, and aluminum. In the case of hydrogen, two separate spectrometer settings were used to study elastic scattering off both the protons and electrons in the hydrogen target. The An for the hadronic targets are dominated by two-photon exchange amplitudes, which were important in resolving the discrepancy between two different methods determining the proton's electromagnetic form factors. For the heavy nuclear targets, proper calculation of Coulomb distortion effects are also important. For the case of the elastic scattering from electrons (Moller scattering), the asymmetry is a calculable QED process. The measurements were made with the Qweak apparatus at a beam energy of 1165 MeV and central scattering angle of ~8 . An overview of the motivations, the experimental approach, and the status of the analysis will be presented. Supported in part by NSF Award PHY1101818.

  9. Control of the cavity reflectivity using a single quantum dot spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuo; Kim, Hyochul; Solomon, Glenn; Waks, Edo

    2015-03-01

    The implementation of quantum network and distributive quantum information processing relies on interaction between stationary matter qubits and flying photons. The spin of a single electron or hole confined in a quantum dot is considered as promising matter qubit as it possesses microsecond coherence time and allows picosecond timescale control using optical pulses. The quantum dot spin can also interact with a photon by controlling the optical response of a strongly coupled cavity. Yet all the experimental demonstrations of the cavity spectrum control have used neutral dots. The spin-dependent cavity spectrum for a strongly coupled charged quantum dot and cavity system has not been reported. Here, we report an experimental realization of a spin-photon interface using a strongly coupled quantum dot and cavity system. We show large modulation of the cavity reflection spectrum by manipulating the spin states of the quantum dot. The spin-photon interface is crucial for realizing a quantum logic gate or generating hybrid entanglement between a quantum dot spin and a photon. Our results represent an important step towards semiconductor based quantum logic devices and on-chip quantum networks.

  10. High temperature spin dynamics in linear magnetic chains, molecular rings, and segments by nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Adelnia, Fatemeh; Lascialfari, Alessandro; Mariani, Manuel; Ammannato, Luca; Caneschi, Andrea; Rovai, Donella; Winpenny, Richard; Timco, Grigore; Corti, Maurizio Borsa, Ferdinando

    2015-05-07

    We present the room temperature proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate (NSLR) results in two 1D spin chains: the Heisenberg antiferromagnetic (AFM) Eu(hfac){sub 3}NITEt and the magnetically frustrated Gd(hfac){sub 3}NITEt. The NSLR as a function of external magnetic field can be interpreted very well in terms of high temperature spin dynamics dominated by a long time persistence of the decay of the two-spin correlation function due to the conservation of the total spin value for isotropic Heisenberg chains. The high temperature spin dynamics are also investigated in Heisenberg AFM molecular rings. In both Cr{sub 8} closed ring and in Cr{sub 7}Cd and Cr{sub 8}Zn open rings, i.e., model systems for a finite spin segment, an enhancement of the low frequency spectral density is found consistent with spin diffusion but the high cut-off frequency due to intermolecular anisotropic interactions prevents a detailed analysis of the spin diffusion regime.

  11. Optimal control of fast and high-fidelity quantum gates with electron and nuclear spins of a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Yi; Huang, Shang-Yu; Goan, Hsi-Sheng

    2015-05-01

    A negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond has been recognized as a good solid-state qubit. A system consisting of the electronic spin of the NV center and hyperfine-coupled nitrogen and additionally nearby carbon nuclear spins can form a quantum register of several qubits for quantum information processing or as a node in a quantum repeater. Several impressive experiments on the hybrid electron and nuclear spin register have been reported, but fidelities achieved so far are not yet at or below the thresholds required for fault-tolerant quantum computation (FTQC). Using quantum optimal control theory based on the Krotov method, we show here that fast and high-fidelity single-qubit and two-qubit gates in the universal quantum gate set for FTQC, taking into account the effects of the leakage state, nearby noise qubits, and distant bath spins, can be achieved with errors less than those required by the threshold theorem of FTQC.

  12. Influences of DMI on spin-polarized current through a single-molecule magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Bo; Liu, Juan; Yao, Kai-Lun

    2013-11-01

    We theoretically investigate the influences of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) on the spin-polarized transport through a single-molecular magnets, which is weakly coupled to ferromagnetic lead-L(pL) and nonmagnetic lead-R. The spin current is obtained by means of the rate-equation approach in the sequential-tunneling region. Due to the coherent superposition of the molecular state |1 induced by the DMI, we can observe the continuous pure spin current and negative differential conductance (NDC) under the full polarization pL=1 condition and polarization reversal of spin-current in the case of 0

  13. Electron spin resonance of irradiated single crystals of L-phenylalanine-HCl.

    PubMed

    Fasanella, E L; Gordy, W

    1969-09-01

    Single crystals of L-phenylalanine-HCl have been observed with electron spin resonance after irradiation with a cobalt 60 gamma-ray source. The predominant signals observed are from long-lived benzyl radicals. The results indicate that one form of radiation damage to proteins containing this amino acid is breakage of the carbon-carbon bond to release the benzyl radical from the polypeptide chain. Hyperfine structure due to proton couplings of the two methylene hydrogens and of the hydrogens on the ring of the benzyl radical is observed and analyzed to give the electron spin density on the various carbons. The spin density on the methylene carbon is found to be 0.71; that on carbon C((2)), C((4)), or C((6)) is 0.17. The sum of the spin densities on C((1)), C((3)), and C((5)) is -0.22. PMID:4312748

  14. Controlled Complete Suppression of Single-Atom Inelastic Spin and Orbital Cotunneling.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Benjamin; Toskovic, Ranko; Ferrón, Alejandro; Lado, José L; Spinelli, Anna; Fernández-Rossier, Joaquín; Otte, Alexander F

    2015-10-14

    The inelastic portion of the tunnel current through an individual magnetic atom grants unique access to read out and change the atom's spin state, but it also provides a path for spontaneous relaxation and decoherence. Controlled closure of the inelastic channel would allow for the latter to be switched off at will, paving the way to coherent spin manipulation in single atoms. Here, we demonstrate complete closure of the inelastic channels for both spin and orbital transitions due to a controlled geometric modification of the atom's environment, using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The observed suppression of the excitation signal, which occurs for Co atoms assembled into chains on a Cu2N substrate, indicates a structural transition affecting the dz(2) orbital, effectively cutting off the STM tip from the spin-flip cotunneling path. PMID:26366713

  15. Circuit-quantum electrodynamics with direct magnetic coupling to single-atom spin qubits in isotopically enriched {sup 28}Si

    SciTech Connect

    Tosi, Guilherme Mohiyaddin, Fahd A.; Morello, Andrea; Huebl, Hans

    2014-08-15

    Recent advances in silicon nanofabrication have allowed the manipulation of spin qubits that are extremely isolated from noise sources, being therefore the semiconductor equivalent of single atoms in vacuum. We investigate the possibility of directly coupling an electron spin qubit to a superconducting resonator magnetic vacuum field. By using resonators modified to increase the vacuum magnetic field at the qubit location, and isotopically purified {sup 28}Si substrates, it is possible to achieve coupling rates faster than the single spin dephasing. This opens up new avenues for circuit-quantum electrodynamics with spins, and provides a pathway for dispersive read-out of spin qubits via superconducting resonators.

  16. Strongly polarizing weakly coupled 13C nuclear spins with optically pumped nitrogen-vacancy center

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Bao; Yang, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the polarization of nuclear spins surrounding the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond has recently attracted widespread attention due to its various applications. Here we present an analytical formula that not only provides a clear physical picture for the recently observed polarization reversal of strongly coupled13C nuclei over a narrow range of magnetic field [H. J. Wang et al., Nat. Commun. 4, 1940 (2013)], but also demonstrates the possibility to strongly polarize weakly coupled13C nuclei. This allows sensitive magnetic field control of the 13C nuclear spin polarization for NMR applications and significant suppression of the 13C nuclear spin noise to prolong the NV spin coherence time. PMID:26521962

  17. Strongly polarizing weakly coupled (13)C nuclear spins with optically pumped nitrogen-vacancy center.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Bao; Yang, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the polarization of nuclear spins surrounding the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond has recently attracted widespread attention due to its various applications. Here we present an analytical formula that not only provides a clear physical picture for the recently observed polarization reversal of strongly coupled(13)C nuclei over a narrow range of magnetic field [H. J. Wang et al., Nat. Commun. 4, 1940 (2013)], but also demonstrates the possibility to strongly polarize weakly coupled (13)C nuclei. This allows sensitive magnetic field control of the (13)C nuclear spin polarization for NMR applications and significant suppression of the (13)C nuclear spin noise to prolong the NV spin coherence time. PMID:26521962

  18. Strongly polarizing weakly coupled 13C nuclear spins with optically pumped nitrogen-vacancy center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Bao; Yang, Wen

    2015-11-01

    Enhancing the polarization of nuclear spins surrounding the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond has recently attracted widespread attention due to its various applications. Here we present an analytical formula that not only provides a clear physical picture for the recently observed polarization reversal of strongly coupled13C nuclei over a narrow range of magnetic field [H. J. Wang et al., Nat. Commun. 4, 1940 (2013)], but also demonstrates the possibility to strongly polarize weakly coupled13C nuclei. This allows sensitive magnetic field control of the 13C nuclear spin polarization for NMR applications and significant suppression of the 13C nuclear spin noise to prolong the NV spin coherence time.

  19. Electron spin coherence and electron nuclear double resonance of Bi donors in natural Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, John; Simmons, Stephanie; George, Richard; Witzel, Wayne; Riemann, H.; Abrosimov, Nikolai; Notzel, N.; Thewalt, Mike

    2011-03-01

    We have shown that the electron spin coherence times of Si:Bi donors in natural silicon are limited by the same mechanism of spectral diffusion as seen in Si:P, though the smaller Bohr radius of the Bi donor leads to ~ 30 % longer T2 times (up to 0.8~ms). We have mapped out the 36 ENDOR transitions observable at X-band arising from the I = 9 / 2 nuclear spin of 209 Bi, going up to 1.3~GHz. We also demonstrate the transfer of electron spin coherence to and from the 209 Bi nuclear spin with a fidelity of ~ 63 % . Using pulsed ESR at W-band (100~GHz), we observe optically-induced dynamic nuclear polarisation, consistent with the mechanism of exciton capture proposed in by T. Sekiguchi et al.. Finally, we explore the zero-field splitting of 7.5~GHz in this system, within the context of coupling to superconducting resonators.

  20. Spin symmetry in the antinucleon spectrum.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shan-Gui; Meng, Jie; Ring, P

    2003-12-31

    We discuss spin and pseudospin symmetry in the spectrum of single nucleons and single antinucleons in a nucleus. As an example we use relativistic mean field theory to investigate single antinucleon spectra. We find a very well developed spin symmetry in single antineutron and single antiproton spectra. The dominant components of the wave functions of the spin doublet are almost identical. This spin symmetry in antiparticle spectra and the pseudospin symmetry in particle spectra have the same origin. However, it turns out that the spin symmetry in antinucleon spectra is much better developed than the pseudospin symmetry in normal nuclear single particle spectra. PMID:14754045

  1. Theory of nuclear spin dephasing and relaxation by optically illuminated nitrogen-vacancy center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Yang, Wen

    2015-11-01

    Dephasing and relaxation of the nuclear spins coupled to the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center during optical initialization and readout is an important issue for various applications of this hybrid quantum register. Here we present both an analytical description and a numerical simulation for this process, which agree reasonably with the experimental measurements. For an NV center under cyclic optical transition, our analytical formulas not only provide a clear physical picture, but also allow control of the nuclear spin dissipation by tuning an external magnetic field. For more general optical pumping, our analytical formulas reveal a significant contribution to the nuclear spin dissipation due to electron random hopping into/out of the m = 0 (or m=+/- 1) subspace. This contribution is not suppressed, even under saturated optical pumping and/or vanishing magnetic field, thus providing a possible solution to the puzzling observation of nuclear spin dephasing in zero perpendicular magnetic field Dutt et al (2007 Science 316 1312). It also implies that enhancing the degree of optical spin polarization of the nitrogen-vacancy center can reduce the effect of optically induced nuclear spin dissipation.

  2. Spin-Relaxation Dynamics of E' Centers at High Density in SiO2 Thin Films for Single-Spin Tunneling Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambal, K.; Payne, A.; Waters, D. P.; Williams, C. C.; Boehme, C.

    2015-08-01

    The suitability of the spin dynamics of paramagnetic silicon dangling bonds (E' centers) in high-E'-density amorphous silicon dioxide (SiO2 ) as probe spins for single-spin tunneling force microscopy (SSTFM) is studied. SSTFM is a spin-selection-rule-based scanning-probe single-spin readout concept. Following the synthesis of SiO2 thin films on (111)-oriented crystalline-silicon substrates with room-temperature stable densities of [E'] >5 ×1018 cm-3 throughout the 60-nm thin film, pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy is conducted on the E' centers at temperatures between T =5 K and T =70 K . The measurements reveal that the spin coherence (the transverse spin-relaxation time T2) of these centers is significantly shortened compared to low-E'-density SiO2 films and within error margins not dependent on temperature. In contrast, the spin-flip times (the longitudinal relaxation times T1) are dependent on the temperature but with much weaker dependence than low-density SiO2 , with the greatest deviations from low-density SiO2 seen for T =5 K . These results, discussed in the context of the spin-relaxation dynamics of dangling-bond states of other silicon-based disordered solids, indicate the suitability of E' centers in high-density SiO2 as probe spins for SSTFM.

  3. Dynamical control of the spin transition inside the thermal hysteresis loop of a spin-crossover single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukheddaden, Kamel; Sy, Mouhamadou; Paez-Espejo, Miguel; Slimani, Ahmed; Varret, François

    2016-04-01

    We have succeeded to achieve experimentally, using an adapted optical microscopy setup, the reversible control of the front transformation between the low-spin (LS)-high-spin (HS) interface in the spin-crossover (SC) single crystal [{Fe(NCSe)(py)2}2(m-bpypz)] undergoing a first-order transition at 112 K with a 7 K hysteresis width. For that, we first generate a phase separation state (a HS/LS interface at equilibrium) inside the hysteresis loop by tuning the light intensity of the microscope. In the second step, this intensity is monitored in such a way to drive, through a photo-heating process, the interface motion. This photo-control is found to be reversible, accurate and requiring a very small amount of energy. In addition the integrity of the crystal is maintained even after a large number of cycling. The experimental observations, are well described as a reaction diffusion process accounting for the front propagation and the photo-heating effects.

  4. Testing for parity violation in nuclei using spin density matrices for nuclear density functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, B. R.; Giraud, B. G.

    2015-06-01

    The spin density matrix (SDM) used in atomic and molecular physics is revisited for nuclear physics, in the context of the radial density functional theory. The vector part of the SDM defines a hedgehog situation, which exists only if nuclear states contain some amount of parity violation. A toy model is given as an illustrative example.

  5. Nuclear spin-spin coupling anisotropy in the van der Waals-bonded 129Xe dimer.

    PubMed

    Jokisaari, Jukka; Vaara, Juha

    2013-07-21

    The spin-spin coupling constant, J, in the van der Waals-bonded (129)Xe-(129)Xe dimer cannot be determined experimentally because of the magnetic equivalence of the two nuclei. In contrast, the anisotropy of the coupling tensor, ΔJ, can be obtained from the so called effective dipole-dipole coupling determined in a solid state inclusion compound whose cages accommodate two xenon atoms. For the determination of the experimental ΔJ((129)Xe, (129)Xe) we exploited the data reported earlier in this journal. [D. H. Brouwer et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2007, 9, 1093.] The experimental value and the value obtained from relativistic first-principles computation are in perfect agreement. To the best of our knowledge this is the first investigation of spin-spin coupling anisotropy in a van der Waals-bonded system. PMID:23743998

  6. 1020 MHz single-channel proton fast magic angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Zhang, Rongchun; Hashi, Kenjiro; Ohki, Shinobu; Nishijima, Gen; Matsumoto, Shinji; Noguchi, Takashi; Deguchi, Kenzo; Goto, Atsushi; Shimizu, Tadashi; Maeda, Hideaki; Takahashi, Masato; Yanagisawa, Yoshinori; Yamazaki, Toshio; Iguchi, Seiya; Tanaka, Ryoji; Nemoto, Takahiro; Miyamoto, Tetsuo; Suematsu, Hiroto; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Miki, Takashi; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Nishiyama, Yusuke

    2015-12-01

    This study reports a first successful demonstration of a single channel proton 3D and 2D high-throughput ultrafast magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR techniques in an ultra-high magnetic field (1020 MHz) NMR spectrometer comprised of HTS/LTS magnet. High spectral resolution is well demonstrated.

  7. 1020MHz single-channel proton fast magic angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Zhang, Rongchun; Hashi, Kenjiro; Ohki, Shinobu; Nishijima, Gen; Matsumoto, Shinji; Noguchi, Takashi; Deguchi, Kenzo; Goto, Atsushi; Shimizu, Tadashi; Maeda, Hideaki; Takahashi, Masato; Yanagisawa, Yoshinori; Yamazaki, Toshio; Iguchi, Seiya; Tanaka, Ryoji; Nemoto, Takahiro; Miyamoto, Tetsuo; Suematsu, Hiroto; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Miki, Takashi; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Nishiyama, Yusuke

    2015-12-01

    This study reports a first successful demonstration of a single channel proton 3D and 2D high-throughput ultrafast magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR techniques in an ultra-high magnetic field (1020MHz) NMR spectrometer comprised of HTS/LTS magnet. High spectral resolution is well demonstrated. PMID:26524647

  8. Ferromagnetic spin-glass behaviour in single-crystalline U2 IrSi3.

    PubMed

    Szlawska, M; Majewicz, M; Kaczorowski, D

    2014-03-26

    A single crystal of the U-based ternary silicide U(2)IrSi(3) was investigated by means of magnetic, resistivity and heat-capacity measurements performed in wide ranges of temperature and external magnetic fields. The results hint at the formation of a non-trivial magnetic ground state in which ferromagnetic ordering coexists with spin-glass freezing. PMID:24594881

  9. Shot noise as a probe of spin-polarized transport through single atoms.

    PubMed

    Burtzlaff, Andreas; Weismann, Alexander; Brandbyge, Mads; Berndt, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Single atoms on Au(111) surfaces have been contacted with the Au tip of a low temperature scanning tunneling microscope. The shot noise of the current through these contacts has been measured up to frequencies of 120 kHz and Fano factors have been determined to characterize the transport channels. The noise at Fe and Co atoms, the latter displaying a Kondo effect, indicates spin-polarized transport through a single channel. Transport calculations reproduce this observation. PMID:25615489

  10. Spin-dependent structure functions in nuclear matter and the polarized EMC effect.

    PubMed

    Clot, I C; Bentz, W; Thomas, A W

    2005-07-29

    An excellent description of both spin-independent and spin-dependent quark distributions and structure functions has been obtained with a modified Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model, which is free of unphysical thresholds for nucleon decay into quarks--hence incorporating an important aspect of confinement. We utilize this model to investigate nuclear medium modifications to structure functions and find that we are readily able to reproduce both nuclear matter saturation and the experimental F2N(A)/F2N ratio, that is, the European Muon Collaboration (EMC) effect. Applying this framework to determine g1p(A), we find that the ratio g1p(A)/g1p differs significantly from unity, with the quenching caused by the nuclear medium being about twice that of the spin-independent case. This represents an exciting result, which, if confirmed experimentally, will reveal much about the quark structure of nuclear matter. PMID:16090869

  11. Nuclear spin dynamics in double quantum dots: Multistability, dynamical polarization, criticality, and entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuetz, M. J. A.; Kessler, E. M.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.; Cirac, J. I.; Giedke, G.

    2014-05-01

    We theoretically study the nuclear spin dynamics driven by electron transport and hyperfine interaction in an electrically defined double quantum dot in the Pauli-blockade regime. We derive a master-equation-based framework and show that the coupled electron-nuclear system displays an instability towards the buildup of large nuclear spin polarization gradients in the two quantum dots. In the presence of such inhomogeneous magnetic fields, a quantum interference effect in the collective hyperfine coupling results in sizable nuclear spin entanglement between the two quantum dots in the steady state of the evolution. We investigate this effect using analytical and numerical techniques, and demonstrate its robustness under various types of imperfections.

  12. Stability of spin-electric coupling in triangular single-molecule magnets under external contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Fhokrul; Nossa, Javier; Canali, Carlo; Pederson, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Triangular single molecule magnets (SMMs) with antiferromagnetic exchange coupling exhibit Kramer degenerate chiral spin-doublets ground states, which can be efficiently coupled by an electric field, even in the absence of spin-orbit interaction. Recent first-principles calculations show that unsupported V3 SMM has giant spin-electric coupling corresponding to dipole moment of about one tenth of the water-molecule dipole moment. The corresponding Rabi time for electric switching between two chiral states can be on the order of one nano-second for reasonable electric fields, which makes these molecules very attractive candidates for storing and manipulating pairs of coupled spin-chiral qbits. However, for device applications of the spin-electric coupling, these frustrated SMMs need to be supported on a surface or between metallic leads. Preserving this effect in an external environment is a challenging problem requiring appropriate functionalization. In this talk we will discuss the stability of the spin-electric coupling in V3 SMM when coupled to gold leads or deposited on a graphene surface.

  13. Enhancement of the electron spin resonance of single-walled carbon nanotubes by oxygen removal.

    PubMed

    Rice, William D; Weber, Ralph T; Leonard, Ashley D; Tour, James M; Nikolaev, Pavel; Arepalli, Sivaram; Berka, Vladimir; Tsai, Ah-Lim; Kono, Junichiro

    2012-03-27

    We have observed a nearly 4-fold increase in the electron spin resonance (ESR) signal from an ensemble of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) due to oxygen desorption. By performing temperature-dependent ESR spectroscopy both before and after thermal annealing, we found that the ESR in SWCNTs can be reversibly altered via the molecular oxygen content in the samples. Independent of the presence of adsorbed oxygen, a Curie law (spin susceptibility ? 1/T) is seen from ~4 to 300 K, indicating that the probed spins are finite-level species. For both the pre-annealed and post-annealed sample conditions, the ESR line width decreased as the temperature was increased, a phenomenon we identify as motional narrowing. From the temperature dependence of the line width, we extracted an estimate of the intertube hopping energy; for both sample conditions, we found this hopping energy to be ~1.2 meV. Since the spin hopping energy changes only slightly when oxygen is desorbed, we conclude that only the spin susceptibility, not spin transport, is affected by the presence of physisorbed molecular oxygen in SWCNT ensembles. Surprisingly, no line width change is observed when the amount of oxygen in the SWCNT sample is altered, contrary to other carbonaceous systems and certain 1D conducting polymers. We hypothesize that physisorbed molecular oxygen acts as an acceptor (p-type), compensating the donor-like (n-type) defects that are responsible for the ESR signal in bulk SWCNTs. PMID:22324937

  14. Spin-1 atoms in optical superlattices: Single-atom tunneling and entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Andreas; Bruder, Christoph; Demler, Eugene

    2011-12-15

    We examine spinor Bose-Einstein condensates in optical superlattices theoretically using a Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian that takes spin effects into account. Assuming that a small number of spin-1 bosons is loaded in an optical potential, we study single-particle tunneling that occurs when one lattice site is ramped up relative to a neighboring site. Spin-dependent effects modify the tunneling events in a qualitative and quantitative way. Depending on the asymmetry of the double well, different types of magnetic order occur, making the system of spin-1 bosons in an optical superlattice a model for mesoscopic magnetism. We use a double-well potential as a unit cell for a one-dimensional superlattice. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous magnetic fields are applied, and the effects of the linear and the quadratic Zeeman shifts are examined. We also investigate the bipartite entanglement between the sites and construct states of maximal entanglement. The entanglement in our system is due to both orbital and spin degrees of freedom. We calculate the contribution of orbital and spin entanglements and show that the sum of these two terms gives a lower bound for the total entanglement.

  15. Coherent Storage of Microwave Excitations in Rare-Earth Nuclear Spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfowicz, Gary; Maier-Flaig, Hannes; Marino, Robert; Ferrier, Alban; Vezin, Herv; Morton, John J. L.; Goldner, Philippe

    2015-05-01

    Interfacing between various elements of a computerfrom memory to processors to long range communicationwill be as critical for quantum computers as it is for classical computers today. Paramagnetic rare-earth doped crystals, such as Nd3 +?Y2SiO5 (YSO ) , are excellent candidates for such a quantum interface: they are known to exhibit long optical coherence lifetimes (for communication via optical photons), possess a nuclear spin (memory), and have in addition an electron spin that can offer hybrid coupling with superconducting qubits (processing). Here we study two of these three elements, demonstrating coherent storage and retrieval between electron and Nd 145 nuclear spin states in Nd3 +?YSO . We find nuclear spin coherence times can reach 9 ms at 5 K , about 2 orders of magnitude longer than the electron spin coherence, while quantum state and process tomography of the storage or retrieval operation between the electron and nuclear spin reveal an average state fidelity of 0.86. The times and fidelities are expected to further improve at lower temperatures and with more homogeneous radio-frequency excitation.

  16. Coherent storage of microwave excitations in rare-earth nuclear spins.

    PubMed

    Wolfowicz, Gary; Maier-Flaig, Hannes; Marino, Robert; Ferrier, Alban; Vezin, Herv; Morton, John J L; Goldner, Philippe

    2015-05-01

    Interfacing between various elements of a computer--from memory to processors to long range communication--will be as critical for quantum computers as it is for classical computers today. Paramagnetic rare-earth doped crystals, such as Nd(3+):Y2SiO5(YSO), are excellent candidates for such a quantum interface: they are known to exhibit long optical coherence lifetimes (for communication via optical photons), possess a nuclear spin (memory), and have in addition an electron spin that can offer hybrid coupling with superconducting qubits (processing). Here we study two of these three elements, demonstrating coherent storage and retrieval between electron and (145)Nd nuclear spin states in Nd(3+):YSO. We find nuclear spin coherence times can reach 9 ms at ?5??K, about 2 orders of magnitude longer than the electron spin coherence, while quantum state and process tomography of the storage or retrieval operation between the electron and nuclear spin reveal an average state fidelity of 0.86. The times and fidelities are expected to further improve at lower temperatures and with more homogeneous radio-frequency excitation. PMID:25978214

  17. Tunable topological insulators with a single spin-polarized surface Dirac cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, David

    2010-03-01

    The topological insulator is a fundamentally new time-reversal-invariant topologically ordered phase of matter, which exhibits exotic quantum-Hall-like behavior even in the absence of an applied magnetic field. These materials are characterized by a spin-orbit coupling induced bulk energy gap and an odd number of spin-polarized Dirac cones localized on their surfaces. In this talk, I will review the first experimental realization of the topological insulator in Bi1-xSbx [1,2], and then report our recent experimental discovery and findings of a new generation of topological insulators with order-of-magnitude larger bulk band gaps and a single spin-helical surface Dirac cone [3,4]. I will also discuss a novel `effective gating' technique that can be used to optimize the insulating properties of the bulk, and to tune the Dirac carrier density on the surfaces of these new topological insulators [5]. These experiments pave the way for future transport based studies of topological insulator devices, and offer the potential for a graphene-like revolution to take place for topological insulators. [1] ``A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase'', D. Hsieh et al., Nature 452, 970 (2008). [2] ``Observation of unconventional quantum spin textures in topological insulators'', D. Hsieh et al., Science 323, 919 (2009). [3] ``Observation of a large-gap topological-insulator class with a single Dirac cone on the surface'', Y. Xia et al., Nature Phys. 5, 398 (2009). [4] ``Observation of time-reversal-protected single-Dirac-cone topological-insulator states in Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3'', D. Hsieh et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 103, 146401 (2009). [5] ``A tunable topological insulator in the spin helical Dirac transport regime'', D. Hsieh et al., Nature 460, 1101 (2009).

  18. Relativistic symmetries in nuclear single-particle spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jian-You; Liang, Hao Zhao; Meng, Jie; Zhou, Shan-Gui

    Symmetry is a fundamental concept in quantum physics. The quasi-degeneracy between single-particle orbitals (n, l, j = l + 1/2) and (n -1, l + 2, j = l + 3/2) indicates a hidden symmetry in atomic nuclei, the so-called pseudospin symmetry. Since the pseudospin symmetry was recognized as a relativistic symmetry in 1990s, many special features, including the spin symmetry for anti-nucleons, and many new concepts have been introduced. In this Chapter, we will illustrate the schematic picture of spin and pseudospin symmetries, derive the basic formalism, highlight the recent progress from several different aspects, and discuss selected open issues in this topic.

  19. Perturbation of nuclear spin polarizations in solid state NMR of nitroxide-doped samples by magic-angle spinning without microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Thurber, Kent R. Tycko, Robert

    2014-05-14

    We report solid state {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments with magic-angle spinning (MAS) on frozen solutions containing nitroxide-based paramagnetic dopants that indicate significant perturbations of nuclear spin polarizations without microwave irradiation. At temperatures near 25 K, {sup 1}H and cross-polarized {sup 13}C NMR signals from {sup 15}N,{sup 13}C-labeled L-alanine in trinitroxide-doped glycerol/water are reduced by factors as large as six compared to signals from samples without nitroxide doping. Without MAS or at temperatures near 100 K, differences between signals with and without nitroxide doping are much smaller. We attribute most of the reduction of NMR signals under MAS near 25 K to nuclear spin depolarization through the cross-effect dynamic nuclear polarization mechanism, in which three-spin flips drive nuclear polarizations toward equilibrium with spin polarization differences between electron pairs. When T{sub 1e} is sufficiently long relative to the MAS rotation period, the distribution of electron spin polarization across the nitroxide electron paramagnetic resonance lineshape can be very different from the corresponding distribution in a static sample at thermal equilibrium, leading to the observed effects. We describe three-spin and 3000-spin calculations that qualitatively reproduce the experimental observations.

  20. Hyperon production mechanisms and single-spin asymmetry in high energy hadron-hadron collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Boros, C.; Zuo-tang, L.

    1996-03-01

    It is shown that the existence of left-right asymmetry in single-spin inclusive {Lambda} production, together with the characteristic features of the data, should be considered as another clear signature for the existence of orbiting valence quarks in polarized nucleons. Predictions for other hyperons are made. It is pointed out that measurements of such asymmetries are very helpful not only for probing the spin structure of the nucleons but also for studying the production mechanisms of the hyperons. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  1. Non-equilibrium transport and spin dynamics in single-molecule magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldoveanu, V.; Dinu, I. V.; Tanatar, B.

    2015-11-01

    The time-dependent transport through single-molecule magnets (SMM) coupled to magnetic or non-magnetic electrodes is studied in the framework of the generalized Master equation (GME) method. We calculate the transient currents which develop when the molecule is smoothly coupled to the source and drain electrodes. The signature of the electrically induced magnetic switching on these transient currents is investigated. Our simulations show that the magnetic switching of the molecular spin can be read indirectly from the transient currents if one lead is magnetic and it is much faster if the leads have opposite spin polarizations. We identify effects of the transverse anisotropy on the dynamics of molecular states.

  2. Spin Measurements of an Electron Bound to a Single Phosphorous Donor in Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhman, D. R.; Nguyen, K.; Tracy, L. A.; Carr, S. M.; Borchardt, J.; Bishop, N. C.; Ten Eyck, G. A.; Pluym, T.; Wendt, J.; Carroll, M. S.; Lilly, M. P.

    2014-03-01

    The spin of an electron bound to a single donor implanted in silicon is potentially useful for quantum information processing. We report on our efforts to measure and manipulate the spin of an electron bound to a single P donor in silicon. A low number of P donors are implanted using a self-aligned process into a silicon substrate in close proximity to a single-electron-transistor (SET) defined by lithographically patterned polysilicon gates. The SET is used to sense the occupancy of the electron on the donor and for spin read-out. An adjacent transmission line allows the application of microwave pulses to rotate the spin of the electron. We will present data from various experiments designed to exploit these capabilities. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  3. Final-state interaction as origin of single-spin asymmetry in semi-inclusive DIS

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, D.S.

    2005-05-06

    Recent measurements from the HERMES, SMC, CLAS and COMPASS collaborations show a remarkably large azimuthal single-spin asymmetries of the proton in semi-inclusive pion leptoproduction {gamma}*(q)p{up_arrow} {yields} {pi}X. The existence of such single-spin asymmetries requires a phase difference between two amplitudes coupling the proton target with J{sub p}{sup z} = {+-}(1/2) to the same final-state, the same amplitudes which are necessary to produce a nonzero proton anomalous magnetic moment. We show that the exchange of gauge particles between the outgoing quark and the proton spectators produces a Coulomb-like complex phase which depends on the angular momentum Lz of the proton's constituents and is thus distinct for different proton spin amplitudes. We then find that final-state interactions from gluon exchange between the outgoing quark and the target spectator system lead to single-spin asymmetries at leading twist in perturbative QCD; i.e., the rescattering corrections are not power-law suppressed at large photon virtuality Q2 at fixed xbj.

  4. Single-shot readout and relaxation measurements in exchange coupled 31 P electron spins in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehollain, Juan Pablo; Muhonen, Juha; Tan, Kuan; Saraiva, Andre; Jamieson, David; Dzurak, Andrew; Morello, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    We present the experimental observation of a large exchange coupling J ~ 300 ?eV between two 31 P electron spin qubits in silicon. The singlet and triplet states of the coupled spins are monitored in real time by a single-electron transistor, which detects ionization from tunnel-rate-dependent processes in the coupled spin system, yielding single-shot readout fidelities above 95%. The triplet to singlet relaxation time T1 ~ 4 ms at zero magnetic field agrees with the theoretical prediction for the observed J-coupling energy in 31 P dimers in silicon. The three order of magnitude increase in relaxation rate compared to single donors, is caused by a hyperfine interaction mediated mixing of the singlet and triplet states. Additionally, the time evolution of the two-electron state populations reveals an inversion in the energetic hierarchy of the valley-orbit excited states, which had been theoretically predicted for donor pairs with < 6 nm separation. These results pave the way to the realization of two-qubit quantum logic gates with spins in silicon and highlight the necessity to adopt gating schemes compatible with weak J-coupling strengths.

  5. Separation and conversion dynamics of nuclear-spin isomers of gaseous methanol

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhen-Dong; Ge, Meihua; Zheng, Yujun

    2015-01-01

    All symmetrical molecules with non-zero nuclear spin exist in nature as nuclear-spin isomers (NSIs). However, owing to the lack of experimental information, knowledge is rare about interconversions of NSIs of gaseous molecules with torsional symmetry. Here we report our separation and conversion observations on NSI-torsion-specific transition systems of gaseous methanol from a light-induced drift experiment involving partially spatial separation of the ortho and para isomers. We find that vibrationally excited molecules of the methanol spin isomer have a smaller collision cross-section than their ground-state counterparts. Interconversion of the enriched ortho isomer with the para isomer, which is generally considered improbable, has been quantitatively studied by sensitive detections of the spectral intensities. Rather counterintuitively, this reveals that the interconversion is inhibited with increasing pressure. Our results suggest that the spin conversion mechanism in methanol is via a quantum relaxation process with the quantum Zeno effect induced by molecular collisions. PMID:25880882

  6. Detection and Manipulation of the Statistical Fluctuations in Nuclear Spin Ensembles Using Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamin, H. J.

    2005-03-01

    We have detected and manipulated the naturally occurring ?N statistical polarization in nuclear spin ensembles using MRFM. We have studied fluorine nuclei in CaF2, as well as protons in the polymer PMMA and the protein collagen. The ensembles studied contained of order 10^8 nuclear spins, corresponding to volumes of order (200nm)^3, which resulted in statistical polarizations of order 10^4 net spins. We have also implemented a scheme similar to one proposed by Weitekamp et al, in which we suppressed the effect of the statistical uncertainty so as to extract meaningful information from time-averaged measurements. In this way, we have successfully made nutation and transverse spin relaxation measurements in a nominally unpolarized sample of CaF2 at low temperatures.

  7. Organic electronics. Room-temperature coupling between electrical current and nuclear spins in OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Malissa, H; Kavand, M; Waters, D P; van Schooten, K J; Burn, P L; Vardeny, Z V; Saam, B; Lupton, J M; Boehme, C

    2014-09-19

    The effects of external magnetic fields on the electrical conductivity of organic semiconductors have been attributed to hyperfine coupling of the spins of the charge carriers and hydrogen nuclei. We studied this coupling directly by implementation of pulsed electrically detected nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The data revealed a fingerprint of the isotope (protium or deuterium) involved in the coherent spin precession observed in spin-echo envelope modulation. Furthermore, resonant control of the electric current by nuclear spin orientation was achieved with radiofrequency pulses in a double-resonance scheme, implying current control on energy scales one-millionth the magnitude of the thermal energy. PMID:25237097

  8. Separation and conversion dynamics of nuclear-spin isomers of gaseous methanol.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhen-Dong; Ge, Meihua; Zheng, Yujun

    2015-01-01

    All symmetrical molecules with non-zero nuclear spin exist in nature as nuclear-spin isomers (NSIs). However, owing to the lack of experimental information, knowledge is rare about interconversions of NSIs of gaseous molecules with torsional symmetry. Here we report our separation and conversion observations on NSI-torsion-specific transition systems of gaseous methanol from a light-induced drift experiment involving partially spatial separation of the ortho and para isomers. We find that vibrationally excited molecules of the methanol spin isomer have a smaller collision cross-section than their ground-state counterparts. Interconversion of the enriched ortho isomer with the para isomer, which is generally considered improbable, has been quantitatively studied by sensitive detections of the spectral intensities. Rather counterintuitively, this reveals that the interconversion is inhibited with increasing pressure. Our results suggest that the spin conversion mechanism in methanol is via a quantum relaxation process with the quantum Zeno effect induced by molecular collisions. PMID:25880882

  9. UNIQUE DESCRIPTION FOR SINGLE TRANSVERSE SPIN ASYMMETRIES IN DIS AND HADRONIC COLLISIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    YUAN, F.

    2006-12-18

    We derive a unique formula for the single-transverse-spin asymmetry in semi-inclusive hadron production in deep inelastic scattering, valid for all transverse momentum region. Based on this, we further study the integrated asymmetry weighted with transverse-momentum. They can be evaluated in terms of the twist-three quark-gluon correlation functions, which are responsible for the single spin asymmetry in single inclusive hadron production in hadronic collisions. By using the fitted twist-three functions from the hadronic collision data, we find a consistent description for SSAs in deep inelastic scattering. This demonstrates that we have a unique picture for SSAs in these two processes, and shall provide important guidelines for future studies.

  10. Large-spin and large-winding expansions of giant magnons and single spikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floratos, Emmanuel; Linardopoulos, Georgios

    2015-08-01

    We generalize the method of our recent paper on the large-spin expansions of Gubser-Klebanov-Polyakov (GKP) strings to the large-spin and large-winding expansions of finite-size giant magnons and finite-size single spikes. By expressing the energies of long open strings in R S2 in terms of Lambert's W-function, we compute the leading, subleading and next-to-subleading series of classical exponential corrections to the dispersion relations of Hofman-Maldacena giant magnons and infinite-winding single spikes. We also compute the corresponding expansions in the doubled regions of giant magnons and single spikes that are respectively obtained when their angular and linear velocities become smaller or greater than unity.

  11. Note: Time-gated 3D single quantum dot tracking with simultaneous spinning disk imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVore, M. S.; Stich, D. G.; Keller, A. M.; Cleyrat, C.; Phipps, M. E.; Hollingsworth, J. A.; Lidke, D. S.; Wilson, B. S.; Goodwin, P. M.; Werner, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    We describe recent upgrades to a 3D tracking microscope to include simultaneous Nipkow spinning disk imaging and time-gated single-particle tracking (SPT). Simultaneous 3D molecular tracking and spinning disk imaging enable the visualization of cellular structures and proteins around a given fluorescently labeled target molecule. The addition of photon time-gating to the SPT hardware improves signal to noise by discriminating against Raman scattering and short-lived fluorescence. In contrast to camera-based SPT, single-photon arrival times are recorded, enabling time-resolved spectroscopy (e.g., measurement of fluorescence lifetimes and photon correlations) to be performed during single molecule/particle tracking experiments.

  12. Chip-Scale Nanofabrication of Single Spins and Spin Arrays in Diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Toyli, David M.; Weis, Christoph D.; Fuchs, D.; Schenkel, Thomas; Awschalom, David D.

    2010-07-02

    We demonstrate a technique to nanofabricate nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond based on broad-beam nitrogen implantation through apertures in electron beam lithography resist. This method enables high-throughput nanofabrication of single NV centers on sub-100-nm length scales. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements facilitate depth profiling of the implanted nitrogen to provide three-dimensional characterization of the NV center spatial distribution. Measurements of NV center coherence with on-chip coplanar waveguides suggest a pathway for incorporating this scalable nanofabrication technique in future quantum applications.

  13. Robust entanglement in antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains by single-spin optimal control

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiaoting; Schirmer, S. G.; Bayat, Abolfazl; Bose, Sougato

    2010-03-15

    We demonstrate how near-perfect entanglement (in fact arbitrarily close to maximal entanglement) can be generated between the end spins of an antiferromagnetic isotropic Heisenberg chain of length N, starting from the ground state in the N/2 excitation subspace, by applying a magnetic field along a given direction, acting on a single spin only. Temporally optimal magnetic fields to generate a singlet pair between the two end spins of the chain are calculated for chains up to length 20 using optimal control theory. The optimal fields are shown to remain effective in various nonideal situations including thermal fluctuations, magnetic field leakage, random system couplings, and decoherence. Furthermore, the quality of the entanglement generated can be substantially improved by taking these imperfections into account in the optimization. In particular, the optimal pulse of a given thermal initial state is also optimal for any other initial thermal state with lower temperature.

  14. Multi-dimensional single-spin nano-optomechanics with a levitated nanodiamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukirch, Levi P.; von Haartman, Eva; Rosenholm, Jessica M.; Nick Vamivakas, A.

    2015-10-01

    Considerable advances made in the development of nanomechanical and nano-optomechanical devices have enabled the observation of quantum effects, improved sensitivity to minute forces, and provided avenues to probe fundamental physics at the nanoscale. Concurrently, solid-state quantum emitters with optically accessible spin degrees of freedom have been pursued in applications ranging from quantum information science to nanoscale sensing. Here, we demonstrate a hybrid nano-optomechanical system composed of a nanodiamond (containing a single nitrogen-vacancy centre) that is levitated in an optical dipole trap. The mechanical state of the diamond is controlled by modulation of the optical trapping potential. We demonstrate the ability to imprint the multi-dimensional mechanical motion of the cavity-free mechanical oscillator into the nitrogen-vacancy centre fluorescence and manipulate the mechanical system's intrinsic spin. This result represents the first step towards a hybrid quantum system based on levitating nanoparticles that simultaneously engages optical, phononic and spin degrees of freedom.

  15. Effect of electron spin dynamics on solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization performance.

    PubMed

    Siaw, Ting Ann; Fehr, Matthias; Lund, Alicia; Latimer, Allegra; Walker, Shamon A; Edwards, Devin T; Han, Song-I

    2014-09-21

    For the broadest dissemination of solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization (ssDNP) enhanced NMR as a material characterization tool, the ability to employ generic mono-nitroxide radicals as spin probes is critical. A better understanding of the factors contributing to ssDNP efficiency is needed to rationally optimize the experimental condition for the practically accessible spin probes at hand. This study seeks to advance the mechanistic understanding of ssDNP by examining the effect of electron spin dynamics on ssDNP performance at liquid helium temperatures (4-40 K). The key observation is that bi-radicals and mono-radicals can generate comparable nuclear spin polarization at 4 K and 7 T, which is in contrast to the observation for ssDNP at liquid nitrogen temperatures (80-150 K) that finds bi-radicals to clearly outperform mono-radicals. To rationalize this observation, we analyze the change in the DNP-induced nuclear spin polarization (Pn) and the characteristic ssDNP signal buildup time as a function of electron spin relaxation rates that are modulated by the mono- and bi-radical spin concentration. Changes in Pn are consistent with a systematic variation in the product of the electron spin-lattice relaxation time and the electron spin flip-flop rate that constitutes an integral saturation factor of an inhomogeneously broadened EPR spectrum. We show that the comparable Pn achieved with both radical species can be reconciled with a comparable integral EPR saturation factor. Surprisingly, the largest Pn is observed at an intermediate spin concentration for both mono- and bi-radicals. At the highest radical concentration, the stronger inter-electron spin dipolar coupling favors ssDNP, while oversaturation diminishes Pn, as experimentally verified by the observation of a maximum Pn at an intermediate, not the maximum, microwave (?w) power. At the maximum ?w power, oversaturation reduces the electron spin population differential that must be upheld between electron spins that span a frequency difference matching the (1)H NMR frequency-characteristic of the cross effect DNP. This new mechanistic insight allows us to rationalize experimental conditions where generic mono-nitroxide probes can offer competitive ssDNP performance to that of custom designed bi-radicals, and thus helps to vastly expand the application scope of ssDNP for the study of functional materials and solids. PMID:24968276

  16. Dynamics of nuclear spin measurement in a mesoscopic solid-state quantum computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Gennady P.; Campbell, David K.; Doolen, Gary D.; Nagaev, Kirill E.

    2000-04-01

    We study numerically the process of nuclear spin measurement in a solid-state quantum computer of the type proposed by Kane, by calculating the quantum dynamics of two coupled nuclear spins on 31 P donors implanted in 28 Si. We estimate the time of the `quantum swap operation' - the minimum measurement time required for the reliable transfer of quantum information from the nuclear spin subsystem to the electronic subsystem. Our calculations show that for realistic values of the parameters this time is of the order of icons/Journals/Common/tau" ALT="tau" ALIGN="TOP"/> swap ~5 10-5 s. We also calculate the probability of error for typical values of the external noise.

  17. Interaction of Strain and Nuclear Spins in Silicon: Quadrupolar Effects on Ionized Donors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, David P.; Hrubesch, Florian M.; Knzl, Markus; Becker, Hans-Werner; Itoh, Kohei M.; Stutzmann, Martin; Hoehne, Felix; Dreher, Lukas; Brandt, Martin S.

    2015-07-01

    The nuclear spins of ionized donors in silicon have become an interesting quantum resource due to their very long coherence times. Their perfect isolation, however, comes at a price, since the absence of the donor electron makes the nuclear spin difficult to control. We demonstrate that the quadrupolar interaction allows us to effectively tune the nuclear magnetic resonance of ionized arsenic donors in silicon via strain and determine the two nonzero elements of the S tensor linking strain and electric field gradients in this material to S11=1.5 1022 V /m2 and S44=6 1022 V /m2 . We find a stronger benefit of dynamical decoupling on the coherence properties of transitions subject to first-order quadrupole shifts than on those subject to only second-order shifts and discuss applications of quadrupole physics including mechanical driving of magnetic resonance, cooling of mechanical resonators, and strain-mediated spin coupling.

  18. Nuclear-Spin Selection Rules in the Chemistry of Interstellar Nitrogen Hydrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rist, Claire; Faure, Alexandre; Hily-Blant, Pierre; Le Gal, Romane

    2013-10-01

    Nitrogen hydrides are at the root of the nitrogen chemistry in interstellar space. The detailed modeling of their gas phase formation, however, requires the knowledge of nuclear-spin branching ratios for chemical reactions involving multiprotonated species. We investigate in this work the nuclear-spin selection rules in both exothermic and near thermoneutral ion-molecule reactions involved in the synthesis of ammonia, assuming full scrambling of protons in the reaction complexes. The formalism of Oka [ J. Mol. Spectrosc. 2004, 228, 635 ] is employed for highly exothermic ion-molecule and dissociative recombination reactions. For thermoneutral reactions, a simple state-to-state statistical approach is suggested, which is in qualitative agreement with both quantum scattering and microcanonical statistical calculations. This model is applied to the seven atom reaction NH4+ + H2, of possible importance in the nuclear-spin thermalization of ammonia.

  19. Nuclear-spin selection rules in the chemistry of interstellar nitrogen hydrides.

    PubMed

    Rist, Claire; Faure, Alexandre; Hily-Blant, Pierre; Le Gal, Romane

    2013-10-01

    Nitrogen hydrides are at the root of the nitrogen chemistry in interstellar space. The detailed modeling of their gas phase formation, however, requires the knowledge of nuclear-spin branching ratios for chemical reactions involving multiprotonated species. We investigate in this work the nuclear-spin selection rules in both exothermic and near thermoneutral ionmolecule reactions involved in the synthesis of ammonia, assuming full scrambling of protons in the reaction complexes. The formalism of Oka [ J. Mol. Spectrosc. 2004, 228, 635] is employed for highly exothermic ionmolecule and dissociative recombination reactions. For thermoneutral reactions, a simple state-to-state statistical approach is suggested, which is in qualitative agreement with both quantum scattering and microcanonical statistical calculations. This model is applied to the seven atom reaction NH4(+) + H2, of possible importance in the nuclear-spin thermalization of ammonia. PMID:23461639

  20. Single-level resonance parameters fit nuclear cross-sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drawbaugh, D. W.; Gibson, G.; Miller, M.; Page, S. L.

    1970-01-01

    Least squares analyses of experimental differential cross-section data for the U-235 nucleus have yielded single level Breit-Wigner resonance parameters that fit, simultaneously, three nuclear cross sections of capture, fission, and total.

  1. Measurement of Single and Double Spin Asymmetries in Deep Inelastic Pion Electroproduction with a Longitudinally Polarized Target

    SciTech Connect

    Avakian, H; Bosted, P; Elouadrhiri, L; Adhikari, K P; Aghasyan, M; Amaryan, M; Anghinolfi, M; Baghdasaryan, H; Ball, J; Battaglieri, M; Bedlinskiy, I; Biselli, A S; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W; Carman, D S; Casey, L; Cole, P L; Collins, P; Crabb, D; Crede, V; D' Angelo, A; Daniel, A; Dashyan, N; DeVita, R; DeSanctis, E; Deur, A; Dey, B; Dhamija, S; Dickson, R; Djalali, C; Dodge, G; Doughty, D; Dupre, R; El Alaoui, A; Eugenio, P; Fegan, S; Fersch, M; Guler, N; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Hassall, N; Heddle, D; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Isupov, E L; Jawalkar, S S; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Khetarpal,; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Konczykowski, P; Kubarovsky, V; Kuhn, S E; Kuleshov, S V; Kuznetsov, V; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; Markov, N; Mayer, M; McAndrew, J; McCracken, M E; McKInnon, B; Meyer, C A; Mineeva, T; Mirazita, M; Mokeev, V; Moreno, B; Moriya, K; Morrison, B; Moutarde, H; Munevar, E; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nasseripour, R; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niroula, M R; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Paremuzyan, R; Park, K; Park, S; Pasyuk, E; Anefalos Pereira, S; Perrin, Y; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Prok, Protopopescu; Raue, B A; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Sabatie, F; Saini, M S; Salamanca, J; Salgado, C; Schumacher, R A; Seder, E; Seraydaryan, H; Sharabian, Y G; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Stapanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strauch, S; Suleiman, R; Taiuti, M; Tedeschi, D J; Tkachenko, S; Ungaro, M; Vernarsky, B; Vineyard, M F; Voutier, E; Watts, D P; Weinstein, L B; Weygand, D P; Wood, M H; Zhang, J; Zhao, B

    2010-12-01

    We report the first measurement of the transverse momentum dependence of double spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive production of pions in deep inelastic scattering off the longitudinally polarized proton. Data have been obtained using a polarized electron beam of 5.7 GeV with the CLAS detector at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). A significant non-zero $\\sin2\\phi$ single spin asymmetry was also observed for the first time indicating strong spin-orbit correlations for transversely polarized quarks in the longitudinally polarized proton. The azimuthal modulations of single spin asymmetries have been measured over a wide kinematic range.

  2. Cotunneling signatures of spin-electric coupling in frustrated triangular single-molecule magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nossa, Javier; Canali, Carlo

    2013-03-01

    The ground state (GS) of frustrated (antiferromagnetic) triangular single-molecule magnets is characterized by two total-spin S = 1 /2 doublets with opposite chirality. According to a group theory analysis [M. Trif et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 217201 (2008)] an external electric field can efficiently couple these two chiral spin states, even when the spin-orbit interaction (SOI) is absent. The strength of this coupling, d, is determined by an off-diagonal matrix element of the dipole operator, which can be calculated by ab-initio methods [M. F. Islam et al., Phys. Rev. B 82, 155446 (2010)]. In this work we propose that Coulomb-blockade transport experiments in the cotunneling regime can provide a direct way to determine the spin-electric coupling strength. Indeed, an electric field generates a d-dependent splitting of the GS manifold, which can be detected in the inelastic cotunneling conductance. Our theoretical analysis is supported by master-equation calculations of quantum transport in the cotunneling regime. We employ a Hubbard-model approach to elucidate the relationship between the Hubbard parameters t and U, and the spin-electric coupling constant d . This allows us to predict the regime in which the coupling constant d can be extracted from experiment.

  3. Spontaneous formation and spin of particle pairs in a single-layer complex plasma crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosenko, V.; Zhdanov, S. K.; Thomas, H. M.; Carmona-Reyes, J.; Hyde, T. W.

    2015-11-01

    In an experiment with a single-layer plasma crystal, spontaneous pairing of particles was observed upon a sudden reduction of the discharge power. The pairs were oriented vertically with the upper particle above the crystal layer and the lower particle beneath it, the pair size was about 0.2 mm. The pairs were spinning around their vertical axis with the upper particle leading and the lower one following it; the rotation speed was 1013 Hz. Spinning particle pairs disturbed the plasma crystal through interaction with their neighbors. Upon further reduction of the discharge power, the spinning pairs proliferated in the plasma crystal and eventually it melted. The experiment was performed with micron-size polymer particles suspended in the radio-frequency (rf) argon plasma at a pressure of 157 mtorr. We propose a theoretical model of a spinning particle pair based on the plasma wake effect. Spinning particle pairs can be used as a diagnostic tool for plasma wakes or as a generic model of a 2D system of vortices.

  4. Terahertz probes of magnetic field induced spin reorientation in YFeO{sub 3} single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Xian; Jiang, Junjie; Ma, Guohong; Jin, Zuanming; Wang, Dongyang; Tian, Zhen; Han, Jiaguang; Cheng, Zhenxiang

    2015-03-02

    Using the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, we demonstrate the spin reorientation of a canted antiferromagnetic YFeO{sub 3} single crystal, by evaluating the temperature and magnetic field dependence of resonant frequency and amplitude for the quasi-ferromagnetic (FM) and quasi-antiferromagnetic modes (AFM), a deeper insight into the dynamics of spin reorientation in rare-earth orthoferrites is established. Due to the absence of 4f-electrons in Y ion, the spin reorientation of Fe sublattices can only be induced by the applied magnetic field, rather than temperature. In agreement with the theoretical predication, the frequency of FM mode decreases with magnetic field. In addition, an obvious step of spin reorientation phase transition occurs with a relatively large applied magnetic field of 4?T. By comparison with the family members of RFeO{sub 3} (R?=?Y{sup 3+} or rare-earth ions), our results suggest that the chosen of R would tailor the dynamical rotation properties of Fe ions, leading to the designable spin switching in the orthoferrite antiferromagnetic systems.

  5. Vector Model Of Electron Spin Echo Envelope Modulation Due To Nuclear Hyperfine And Zeeman Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Maryasov, Alexander G.; Bowman, Michael K. ); Tsvetkov, Yuri D.

    2002-12-01

    The transverse electron spin magnetization of a paramagnetic center with effective spin S=? interacting with nonquadrupolar nuclei may be presented as a function of pairs of nuclei magnetization vectors which process around the effective magnetic field directions. Each vector of the pair starts its precession perpendicular to both effective fields. The FID signal is proportional to the scalar product of the vectors for nuclear spin I=?. The ESE signal can be described using two pairs of magnetization vectors. The ESE shape is not equal to two back-to-back FID signals except in the absence of ESE envelope modulation. A recursion relation is obtained which allows calculation of ESE signals for larger nuclear spins in the absence of NQI. This relation can be used to calculate the time course of the ESE signal for arbitrary nuclear spin as a function of the nuclear magnetization vectors. Although this formalism allows quantitative calculation of modulation from nuclei, it also provides a qualitative means of visualizing the modulation based on simple magnetization vectors.

  6. Mechanically induced two-qubit gates and maximally entangled states for single electron spins in a carbon nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Heng; Burkard, Guido

    2015-11-01

    We theoretically analyze a system where two electrons are trapped separately in two quantum dots on a suspended carbon nanotube (CNT), subject to external ac electric driving. An indirect mechanically induced coupling of two distant single electron spins is induced by the interaction between the spins and the mechanical motion of the CNT. We show that a two-qubit iswap gate and arbitrary single-qubit gates can be obtained from the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling. Combining the iswap gate and single-qubit gates, maximally entangled states of two spins can be generated in a single step by varying the frequency and the strength of the external electric driving field. The spin-phonon coupling can be turned off by electrostatically shifting the electron wave function on the nanotube.

  7. 93Nb Nuclear Spin-Spin Relaxation in the Low-Dimensional Antiferromagnet Fe0.25NbS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, Noriaki

    2007-11-01

    93Nb nuclear spin-spin relaxation has been examined in the low-dimensional antiferromagnet Fe0.25NbS2 between 4.2 K and 300 K. The relaxation is characterized by two T2's. The temperature dependence is discussed together with the origin of the disappearance of the fast decay at low temperatures.

  8. Magnetic anisotropy and high-spin effects in single-molecule transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyazin, Alexander; van den Berg, Johan; Osorio, Edgar; Konstantinidis, Nikos; Leijnse, Martin; May, Falk; Hofstetter, Walter; Danieli, Chiara; Cornia, Andrea; Wegewijs, Maarten; van der Zant, Herre

    2011-03-01

    Fabrication of single-molecule transistors where electron transport occurs through an individual molecule has become possible due to the recent progress in molecular electronics. Three-terminal configuration allows charging molecules and performing transport spectroscopy in multiple redox states. Single-molecule magnets combining large spin with uniaxial anisotropy are of special interest as appealing candidates for high density memory applications and quantum information processing. We study single-molecule magnets Fe 4 . Three-terminal junctions are fabricated using electromigration of gold nanowires followed by a self-breaking. High-spin Kondo effect and inelastic cotunneling excitations show up in transport measurements. Several excitations feature the energy close to the energy of zero-field splitting (ZFS) of a ground spin multiplet in bulk. This splitting is caused by the anisotropy and is a hallmark of single-molecule magnets. We observe nonlinear Zeeman effect due to a misalignment of an anisotropy axis and a magnetic field direction. The ZFS energy is increased in oxidized and reduced states of the molecule indicating enhancement of the anisotropy in these states.

  9. Theory for cross effect dynamic nuclear polarization under magic-angle spinning in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance: The importance of level crossings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurber, Kent R.; Tycko, Robert

    2012-08-01

    We present theoretical calculations of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) due to the cross effect in nuclear magnetic resonance under magic-angle spinning (MAS). Using a three-spin model (two electrons and one nucleus), cross effect DNP with MAS for electron spins with a large g-anisotropy can be seen as a series of spin transitions at avoided crossings of the energy levels, with varying degrees of adiabaticity. If the electron spin-lattice relaxation time T1e is large relative to the MAS rotation period, the cross effect can happen as two separate events: (i) partial saturation of one electron spin by the applied microwaves as one electron spin resonance (ESR) frequency crosses the microwave frequency and (ii) flip of all three spins, when the difference of the two ESR frequencies crosses the nuclear frequency, which transfers polarization to the nuclear spin if the two electron spins have different polarizations. In addition, adiabatic level crossings at which the two ESR frequencies become equal serve to maintain non-uniform saturation across the ESR line. We present analytical results based on the Landau-Zener theory of adiabatic transitions, as well as numerical quantum mechanical calculations for the evolution of the time-dependent three-spin system. These calculations provide insight into the dependence of cross effect DNP on various experimental parameters, including MAS frequency, microwave field strength, spin relaxation rates, hyperfine and electron-electron dipole coupling strengths, and the nature of the biradical dopants.

  10. Effect of nuclear spin symmetry in cold and ultracold reactions: D + para/ortho-H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simbotin, Ionel; Ct, Robin

    2015-06-01

    We report results for reaction and vibrational quenching of the collision D with para-H2(v,j=0) and ortho-H2(v,j=1) at cold and ultracold temperatures. We investigate the effect of nuclear spin symmetry for barrier dominated processes (0?slant v?slant 4) and for one barrierless case (v = 5). We find resonant structures for energies in the range corresponding to 0.01-10 K, which depend on the nuclear spin of H2, arising from contributions of specific partial waves. We discuss the implications on the results in this benchmark system for ultracold chemistry.

  11. Study of Nuclear Bound States Using Mean-Field Woods-Saxon and Spin-Orbit Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlavani, M. R.; Alavi, S. A.

    2012-09-01

    The neutron single-particle bound states as solutions of radial Schrdinger equation for the central Woods-Saxon potential together with spin-orbit interaction and centrifugal terms have been obtained analytically. By introducing new variable and using Taylor expansion, the differential equation has been transformed to solvable hypergeometric type. This differential equation has also been solved using Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method. Neutron single-particle states have been derived as self-adjoint form of hypergeometric series. By means of boundary conditions, which implies eigenvalue condition as complicated relation between energy eigenvalues and parameters of nuclear potential, the neutron single-particle energy eigenvalues have been derived using graphical method. To examine method, numerical results in special cases of S states are evaluated. Results obtained using this method are in satisfactory agreements with available numerical solutions.

  12. Spin dynamics in the single molecule magnet Ni4 under microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Loubens, Gregoire

    2009-03-01

    Quantum mechanical effects such as quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) and quantum phase interference have been intensively studied in single molecule magnets (SMMs). These materials have also been suggested as candidates for qubits and are promising for molecular spintronics. Understanding decoherence and energy relaxation mechanisms in SMMs is then both of fundamental interest and important for the use of SMMs in applications. Interestingly, the single-spin relaxation rate due to direct process of a SMM embedded in an elastic medium can be derived without any unknown coupling constant [1]. Moreover, nontrivial relaxation mechanisms are expected from collective effects in SMM single crystals, such as phonon superradiance or phonon bottleneck. In order to investigate the spin relaxation between the two lowest lying spin-states of the S=4 single molecule magnet Ni4, we have developed an integrated sensor that combines a microstrip resonator and micro-Hall effect magnetometer on a chip [2]. This sensor enables both real time studies of magnetization dynamics under pulse irradiation as well as simultaneous measurements of the absorbed power and magnetization changes under continuous microwave irradiation. The latter technique permits the study of small deviations from equilibrium under steady state conditions, i.e. small amplitude cw microwave irradiation. This has been used to determine the energy relaxation rate of a Ni4 single crystal as a function of temperature at two frequencies, 10 and 27.8 GHz. A strong temperature dependence is observed below 1.5 K, which is not consistent with a direct spin-phonon relaxation process. The data instead suggest that the spin relaxation is dominated by a phonon bottleneck at low temperatures and occurs by an Orbach process involving excited spin-levels at higher temperatures [3]. Experimental results will be compared with detailed calculations of the relaxation rate using the density matrix equation with the relaxation terms in the universal form.1. E. M. Chudnovsky, D. A. Garanin and R. Schilling, Phys. Rev. B 72, 094426 (2005)2. G. de Loubens et al., J. Appl. Phys. 101, 09E104 (2007)3. G. de Loubens, D. A. Garanin, C. C. Beedle, D. N. Hendrickson and A. D. Kent, Europhys. Lett. 83, 37006 (2008)

  13. Production mechanisms and single-spin asymmetry for kaons in high energy hadron-hadron collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Boros, C.; Zuo-tang, L.; Ta-chung, M.

    1996-10-01

    The direct consequences on kaon production of the picture proposed in a recent Letter and subsequent publications are discussed. Further evidence supporting the proposed picture is obtained. A comparison with the data for the inclusive cross sections in unpolarized reactions is made. The quantitative results for the left-right asymmetry in single-spin processes are presented. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  14. Transient dynamics in magnetic force microscopy for a single-spin measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, G.P.; Borgonovi, F.; Lopez, G.V.; Tsifrinovich, V.I.

    2003-07-01

    We analyze a single-spin measurement using a transient process in magnetic force microscopy which could increase the maximum operating temperature by a factor of Q (the quality factor of the cantilever) in comparison with the static Stern-Gerlach effect. We obtain an exact solution of the master equation, which confirms this result. We also discuss the conditions required to create a macroscopic quantum superposition in the cantilever.

  15. Spin glass in semiconducting KFe1.05Ag0.88Te2 single crystals

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ryu, H.; Lei, H.; Klobes, B.; Warren, J. B.; Hermann, R. P.; Petrovic, C.

    2015-05-26

    We report discovery of KFe1.05Ag0.88Te2 single crystals with semiconducting spin glass ground state. Composition and structure analysis suggest nearly stoichiometric I4/mmm space group but allow for the existence of vacancies, absent in long range semiconducting antiferromagnet KFe1.05Ag0.88Te2. The subtle change in stoichometry in Fe/Ag sublattice changes magnetic ground state but not conductivity, giving further insight into the semiconducting gap mechanism.

  16. Relativistic Force Field: Parametrization of (13)C-(1)H Nuclear Spin-Spin Coupling Constants.

    PubMed

    Kutateladze, Andrei G; Mukhina, Olga A

    2015-11-01

    Previously, we reported a reliable DU8 method for natural bond orbital (NBO)-aided parametric scaling of Fermi contacts to achieve fast and accurate prediction of proton-proton spin-spin coupling constants (SSCC) in (1)H NMR. As sophisticated NMR experiments for precise measurements of carbon-proton SSCCs are becoming more user-friendly and broadly utilized by the organic chemistry community to guide and inform the process of structure determination of complex organic compounds, we have now developed a fast and accurate method for computing (13)C-(1)H SSCCs. Fermi contacts computed with the DU8 basis set are scaled using selected NBO parameters in conjunction with empirical scaling coefficients. The method is optimized for inexpensive B3LYP/6-31G(d) geometries. The parametric scaling is based on a carefully selected training set of 274 ((3)J), 193 ((2)J), and 143 ((1)J) experimental (13)C-(1)H spin-spin coupling constants reported in the literature. The DU8 basis set, optimized for computing Fermi contacts, which by design had evolved from optimization of a collection of inexpensive 3-21G*, 4-21G, and 6-31G(d) bases, offers very short computational (wall) times even for relatively large organic molecules containing 15-20 carbon atoms. The most informative SSCCs for structure determination, i.e., (3)J, were computed with an accuracy of 0.41 Hz (rmsd). The new unified approach for computing (1)H-(1)H and (13)C-(1)H SSCCs is termed "DU8c". PMID:26414291

  17. Inhomogeneous nuclear spin polarization induced by helicity-modulated optical excitation of fluorine-bound electron spins in ZnSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heisterkamp, F.; Greilich, A.; Zhukov, E. A.; Kirstein, E.; Kazimierczuk, T.; Korenev, V. L.; Yugova, I. A.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Pawlis, A.; Bayer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Optically induced nuclear spin polarization in a fluorine-doped ZnSe epilayer is studied by time-resolved Kerr rotation using resonant excitation of donor-bound excitons. Excitation with helicity-modulated laser pulses results in a transverse nuclear spin polarization, which is detected as a change of the Larmor precession frequency of the donor-bound electron spins. The frequency shift in dependence on the transverse magnetic field exhibits a pronounced dispersion-like shape with resonances at the fields of nuclear magnetic resonance of the constituent zinc and selenium isotopes. It is studied as a function of external parameters, particularly of constant and radio frequency external magnetic fields. The width of the resonance and its shape indicate a strong spatial inhomogeneity of the nuclear spin polarization in the vicinity of a fluorine donor. A mechanism of optically induced nuclear spin polarization is suggested based on the concept of resonant nuclear spin cooling driven by the inhomogeneous Knight field of the donor-bound electron.

  18. Nuclear Spin Relaxation Characteristic of Submonolayer He Films in Nanochannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Taku; Kawai, Ryosuke; Kuze, Atsushi; Hieda, Mitsunori; Wada, Nobuo

    2014-04-01

    In order to obtain information on dynamics of helium films in the nondegenerate fluid region, we have performed a pulsed-NMR experiment at 3.29 MHz on He films adsorbed in straight 2.4 nm channels of FSM silicates down to 0.54 K. In general, the spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation times and were explained in terms of the two-dimensional Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound model for dipolar relaxation. Temperature dependences of in submonolayer He films show a minimum, indicating that the dipolar-field correlation time is about s. The temperature of the minimum monotonically lowers with increasing coverage, suggesting that He adatoms become more mobile at higher coverages. The low-dimensional property of He adatoms is observed as the separation of and above where . On the other hand, several features specific to films in the nanochannel geometry were also found. Especially, the temperature dependence of becomes very small just below and shows a shoulder at lower temperatures. This anomaly has not been observed in He adsorbed in wider pores or on flat surfaces, so that it is considered to be characteristic of He films confined in narrow channels with a diameter of a few nm.

  19. Doping controlled spin reorientation in dysprosium-samarium orthoferrite single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shixun; Zhao, Weiyao; Kang, Baojuan; Zhang, Jincang; Ren, Wei

    2015-03-01

    As one of the most important phase transitions, spin reorientation (SR) in rare earth transition metal oxides draws much attention of emerging materials technologies. The origin of SR is the competition between different spin configurations which possess different free energy. We report the control of spin reorientation (SR) transition in perovskite rare earth orthoferrite Dy1-xSmxFeO3, a whole family of single crystals grown by optical floating zone method from x =0 to 1. Temperature dependence of the magnetizations under zero-field-cooling (ZFC) and field-cooling (FC) processes are studied. We have found a remarkable linear change of SR transition temperature in Sm-rich samples for x>0.2, which covers an extremely wide temperature range including room temperature. The a-axis magnetization curves under FCC process bifurcate from and then jump down to that of warming process (ZFC and FCW curves) in single crystals when x =0.5-0.9, suggesting complicated 4f-3d electron interactions among Dy3+-Sm3+, Dy3+-Fe3+, and Sm3+-Fe3+ sublattices of diverse magnetic configurations for materials physics and design. The magnetic properties and the doping effect on SR transition temperature in these single crystals might be useful in the spintronics device application. This work is supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB921600), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, Nos. 51372149, 50932003, 11274222).

  20. Hadron structure and left-right asymmetry in inclusive production in single-spin hadron-hadron collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Boros, C.; Liang Zuo-tang; Meng Ta-chung

    1995-05-01

    Theoretical arguments and experimental facts are presented which show the following. Left-right asymmetries are expected to exist in a number of single-spin inclusive production processes. Measuring such asymmetries by using different types of projectile-target combinations, one can obtain useful information on the spin structure of hadrons in general, and determine the spin-dependent quark distribution functions in particular. Quantitative predictions for these asymmetries in various reactions are presented.

  1. Microwave Field Distribution in a Magic Angle Spinning Dynamic Nuclear Polarization NMR Probe

    PubMed Central

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Barnes, Alexander B.; Matsuki, Yoh; Woskov, Paul P.; Corzilius, Bjrn; Griffin, Robert G.; Temkin, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a calculation of the microwave field distribution in a magic angle spinning (MAS) probe utilized in dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments. The microwave magnetic field (B1S) profile was obtained from simulations performed with the High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS) software suite, using a model that includes the launching antenna, the outer Kel-F stator housing coated with Ag, the RF coil, and the 4 mm diameter sapphire rotor containing the sample. The predicted average B1S field is 13T/W1/2, where S denotes the electron spin. For a routinely achievable input power of 5 W the corresponding value is ? SB1S = 0.84 MHz. The calculations provide insights into the coupling of the microwave power to the sample, including reflections from the RF coil and diffraction of the power transmitted through the coil. The variation of enhancement with rotor wall thickness was also successfully simulated. A second, simplified calculation was performed using a single pass model based on Gaussian beam propagation and Fresnel diffraction. This model provided additional physical insight and was in good agreement with the full HFSS simulation. These calculations indicate approaches to increasing the coupling of the microwave power to the sample, including the use of a converging lens and fine adjustment of the spacing of the windings of the RF coil. The present results should prove useful in optimizing the coupling of microwave power to the sample in future DNP experiments. Finally, the results of the simulation were used to predict the cross effect DNP enhancement (?) vs. ?1S/(2?) for a sample of 13C-urea dissolved in a 60:40 glycerol/water mixture containing the polarizing agent TOTAPOL; very good agreement was obtained between theory and experiment. PMID:21382733

  2. NMR Investigation of Optical Polarization of Nuclear Spins in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paravastu, Anant; Hayes, Sophia; Schwickert, Birgit; Reimer, Jeffrey; Dinh, Long; Balooch, Mehdi

    2003-03-01

    Light-induced nuclear spin alignments have been measured in GaAs as a function of photon energy, irradiation time, and sample temperature using NMR spectroscopy at 9.4 Tesla and 10 to 50 K. Significant optical enhancements were observed at a range of photon energies, starting just below the band gap and persisting through 100 meV above the gap. Irradiation above the band gap resulted in thermally activated NMR signal enhancements while sub band gap irradiation did not. Short and long irradiation time dependencies revealed insights into the nature of cross relaxation between electronic nuclear spins, contradicting mechanisms based on either localized electron-nuclear contact at defect sites or cross relaxation between nuclei and free electrons. We propose that the presence of a mobile or delocalized enabling electronic species characterized by a long electron-nuclear correlation time, such as an exciton, is necessary in any mechanism which explains the data.

  3. Addressing a single spin in diamond with a macroscopic dielectric microwave cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Le Floch, J.-M.; Tobar, M. E.; Bradac, C.; Nand, N.; Volz, T.; Castelletto, S.

    2014-09-29

    We present a technique for addressing single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center spins in diamond over macroscopic distances using a tunable dielectric microwave cavity. We demonstrate optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) for a single negatively charged NV center (NV{sup –}) in a nanodiamond (ND) located directly under the macroscopic microwave cavity. By moving the cavity relative to the ND, we record the ODMR signal as a function of position, mapping out the distribution of the cavity magnetic field along one axis. In addition, we argue that our system could be used to determine the orientation of the NV{sup –} major axis in a straightforward manner.

  4. Process Dependent Sivers Function and Implication for Single Spin Asymmetry in Inclusive Hadron Production

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Gamberg, Zhong-Bo Kang

    2011-01-01

    We study the single transverse spin asymmetries in the single inclusive particle production within the framework of the generalized parton model (GPM). By carefully analyzing the initial- and final-state interactions, we include the process-dependence of the Sivers functions into the GPM formalism. The modified GPM formalism has a close connection with the collinear twist-3 approach. Within the new formalism, we make predictions for inclusive {pi}{sup 0} and direct photon productions at RHIC energies. We find the predictions are opposite to those in the conventional GPM approach.

  5. Addressing a single spin in diamond with a macroscopic dielectric microwave cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Floch, J.-M.; Bradac, C.; Nand, N.; Castelletto, S.; Tobar, M. E.; Volz, T.

    2014-09-01

    We present a technique for addressing single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center spins in diamond over macroscopic distances using a tunable dielectric microwave cavity. We demonstrate optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) for a single negatively charged NV center (NV-) in a nanodiamond (ND) located directly under the macroscopic microwave cavity. By moving the cavity relative to the ND, we record the ODMR signal as a function of position, mapping out the distribution of the cavity magnetic field along one axis. In addition, we argue that our system could be used to determine the orientation of the NV- major axis in a straightforward manner.

  6. Muon spin relaxation and hyperfine-enhanced Pr141 nuclear spin dynamics in Pr(Os,Ru)4Sb12 and (Pr,La)Os4Sb12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Lei; Maclaughlin, D. E.; Aoki, Y.; Tunashima, Y.; Yonezawa, Y.; Sanada, S.; Kikuchi, D.; Sato, H.; Heffner, R. H.; Higemoto, W.; Ohishi, K.; Ito, T. U.; Bernal, O. O.; Hillier, A. D.; Kadono, R.; Koda, A.; Ishida, K.; Sugawara, H.; Frederick, N. A.; Yuhasz, W. M.; Sayles, T. A.; Yanagisawa, T.; Maple, M. B.

    2007-07-01

    Zero- and longitudinal-field muon spin relaxation experiments have been carried out in the alloy series Pr(Os1-xRux)4Sb12 and Pr1-yLayOs4Sb12 to elucidate the anomalous dynamic muon spin relaxation observed in these materials. The damping rate ? associated with this relaxation varies with temperature, applied magnetic field, and dopant concentrations x and y in a manner consistent with the hyperfine enhancement of Pr141 nuclear spins first discussed by Bleaney [Physica (Utrecht) 69, 317 (1973)]. This mechanism arises from Van Vleck-like admixture of magnetic Pr3+ crystalline-electric-field-split excited states into the nonmagnetic singlet ground state by the nuclear hyperfine coupling, thereby increasing the strengths of spin-spin interactions between Pr141 and muon spins and within the Pr141 spin system. We find qualitative agreement with this scenario and conclude that electronic spin fluctuations are not directly involved in the dynamic muon spin relaxation.

  7. Coherent transfer of nuclear spin polarization in field-cycling NMR experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pravdivtsev, Andrey N.; Yurkovskaya, Alexandra V.; Ivanov, Konstantin L.; Vieth, Hans-Martin

    2013-12-28

    Coherent polarization transfer effects in a coupled spin network have been studied over a wide field range. The transfer mechanism is based on exciting zero-quantum coherences between the nuclear spin states by means of non-adiabatic field jump from high to low magnetic field. Subsequent evolution of these coherences enables conversion of spin order in the system, which is monitored after field jump back to high field. Such processes are most efficient when the spin system passes through an avoided level crossing during the field variation. The polarization transfer effects have been demonstrated for N-acetyl histidine, which has five scalar coupled protons; the initial spin order has been prepared by applying RF-pulses at high magnetic field. The observed oscillatory transfer kinetics is taken as a clear indication of a coherent mechanism; level crossing effects have also been demonstrated. The experimental data are in very good agreement with the theoretical model of coherent polarization transfer. The method suggested is also valid for other types of initial polarization in the spin system, most notably, for spin hyperpolarization.

  8. Spin polarized asymmetric nuclear matter and neutron star matter within the lowest order constrained variational method

    SciTech Connect

    Bordbar, G. H.; Bigdeli, M.

    2008-01-15

    In this paper, we calculate properties of the spin polarized asymmetrical nuclear matter and neutron star matter, using the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method with the AV{sub 18}, Reid93, UV{sub 14}, and AV{sub 14} potentials. According to our results, the spontaneous phase transition to a ferromagnetic state in the asymmetrical nuclear matter as well as neutron star matter do not occur.

  9. Splitting of the one-body potential in spin-polarized isospin-symmetric nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Sammarruca, Francesca

    2010-08-15

    Spin-polarized symmetric nuclear matter is studied within the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach. We pay particular attention to the difference between the one-body potentials of upward and downward polarized nucleons. This is formally analogous to the Lane potential for isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter. We point out the necessity for additional information on this fundamentally important quantity and suggest ways to constrain it.

  10. Implementation of dynamically corrected gates on a single electron spin in diamond.

    PubMed

    Rong, Xing; Geng, Jianpei; Wang, Zixiang; Zhang, Qi; Ju, Chenyong; Shi, Fazhan; Duan, Chang-Kui; Du, Jiangfeng

    2014-02-01

    Precise control of an open quantum system is critical to quantum information processing but is challenging due to inevitable interactions between the quantum system and the environment. We demonstrated experimentally a type of dynamically corrected gates using only bounded-strength pulses on the nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. The infidelity of quantum gates caused by a nuclear-spin bath is reduced from being the second order to the sixth order of the noise-to-control-field ratio, which offers greater efficiency in reducing infidelity. The quantum gates have been protected to the limit essentially set by the spin-lattice relaxation time T1. Our work marks an important step towards fault-tolerant quantum computation in realistic systems. PMID:24580578

  11. Implementation of Dynamically Corrected Gates on a Single Electron Spin in Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Xing; Geng, Jianpei; Wang, Zixiang; Zhang, Qi; Ju, Chenyong; Shi, Fazhan; Duan, Chang-Kui; Du, Jiangfeng

    2014-02-01

    Precise control of an open quantum system is critical to quantum information processing but is challenging due to inevitable interactions between the quantum system and the environment. We demonstrated experimentally a type of dynamically corrected gates using only bounded-strength pulses on the nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. The infidelity of quantum gates caused by a nuclear-spin bath is reduced from being the second order to the sixth order of the noise-to-control-field ratio, which offers greater efficiency in reducing infidelity. The quantum gates have been protected to the limit essentially set by the spin-lattice relaxation time T1. Our work marks an important step towards fault-tolerant quantum computation in realistic systems.

  12. On nuclear spin statistics in rotational transition intensities in tetrahedral AB4 molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, A.; Susskind, J.

    1979-01-01

    A general expression is derived for the integrated intensity of rotational transitions in the vibronic ground state of tetrahedral molecules, taking into account the nuclear spin statistics. It is shown that the ratio of this expression to previously published spin-free integrated intensities depends only on the tensor character N of the operator driving the transition, the appropriate rotational quantum numbers J and J', and the nuclear spin of the identical nuclei. Tables are given for N = 3, 4 and J no more than 50, which enable the calculation of integrated intensities for octopole and hexadecapole collision-induced dipole-moment transitions, centrifugal-distortion-induced dipole-moment transitions, and centrifugal-distortion-induced anisotropic-polarizability-tensor Raman transitions.

  13. Deterministic preparation of Dicke states of donor nuclear spins in silicon by cooperative pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yu; Yu, Hongyi; Yao, Wang

    2012-04-01

    For donor nuclear spins in silicon, we show how to deterministically prepare various symmetric and asymmetric Dicke states which span a complete basis of the many-body Hilbert space. The state preparation is realized by cooperative pumping of nuclear spins by coupled donor electrons, and the required controls are in situ to the prototype Kane proposal for quantum computation. This scheme only requires a subgigahertz donor exchange coupling, which can be readily achieved without atomically precise donor placement, and hence it offers a practical way to prepare multipartite entanglement of spins in silicon with current technology. All desired Dicke states appear as the steady state under various pumping scenarios, and therefore the preparation is robust and does not require accurate temporal controls. Numerical simulations with realistic parameters show that Dicke states of 10-20 qubits can be prepared with high fidelity in the presence of decoherence and unwanted dynamics.

  14. Electric readout and storage concepts for electron and nuclear spin states in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehme, Christoph

    2011-10-01

    A variety of concepts utilizing spins in semiconductors for information storage and processing have been proposed in recent years. One of these concepts [1] uses the phosphorous nucleus in crystalline silicon as a quantum bit, an approach which combines longest known spin coherence times and, therefore, spin storage times, with already existing, well developed and highly reliable, crystalline silicon nano-technology. Our research is focused on implementations of electric readout devices for electron- and nuclear-spins in silicon. I will review different experiments which show how donor electrons [2-4] and nuclear [5] spins of phosphorous atoms in crystalline silicon can be used as a electrically readable spin memories with long storage times for classical and quantum information and how nuclear spin qubits can be initialized [6].[4pt] [1] B. E. Kane, Nature 393, 133 (1998).[0pt] [2] A. R. Stegner, C. Boehme, H. Huebl, M. Stutzmann, K. Lips, M. S. Brandt, Nature Physics 2, 835 (2006). [0pt] [3] S.-Y. Paik, S.-Y. Lee, W. J. Baker, D. R. McCamey, and C. Boehme, Phys. Rev. B 81, 075214 (2010).[0pt] [4] G. W. Morley, D. R. McCamey, H. A. Seipel, L.-C. Brunel, J. van Tol, C. Boehme, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 207602 (2008).[0pt] [5] D. R. McCamey, J. van Tol, G. W. Morley, C. Boehme, Science 330, 1652 (2010).[0pt] [6] D. R. McCamey, J. van Tol, G. W. Morley, C. Boehme, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 027601 (2009).

  15. Nuclear Spin Relaxation and Molecular Interactions of a Novel Triazolium-Based Ionic Liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Jesse J.; Schneider, Yanika; Kail, Brian W.; Luebke, David R.; Nulwala, Hunaid; Damodaran, Krishnan

    2013-04-11

    Nuclear spin relaxation, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) techniques are used to determine supramolecular arrangement of 3-methyl-1-octyl-4-phenyl-1H-triazol-1,2,3-ium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [OMPhTz][Tf{sub 2}N], an example of a triazolium-based ionic liquid. The results obtained showed first-order thermodynamic dependence for nuclear spin relaxation of the anion. First-order relaxation dependence is interpreted as through-bond dipolar relaxation. Greater than first-order dependence was found in the aliphatic protons, aromatic carbons (including nearest neighbors), and carbons at the end of the aliphatic tail. Greater than first order thermodynamic dependence of spin relaxation rates is interpreted as relaxation resulting from at least one mechanism additional to through-bond dipolar relaxation. In rigid portions of the cation, an additional spin relaxation mechanism is attributed to anisotropic effects, while greater than first order thermodynamic dependence of the octyl side chains spin relaxation rates is attributed to cationcation interactions. Little interaction between the anion and the cation was observed by spin relaxation studies or by ESI-MS. No extended supramolecular structure was observed in this study, which was further supported by MS and SAXS. nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) factors are used in conjunction with spinlattice relaxation time (T{sub 1}) measurements to calculate rotational correlation times for CH bonds (the time it takes for the vector represented by the bond between the two atoms to rotate by one radian). The rotational correlation times are used to represent segmental reorientation dynamics of the cation. A combination of techniques is used to determine the segmental interactions and dynamics of this example of a triazolium-based ionic liquid.

  16. Spin dynamics under the Hamiltonian varying with time in discrete steps: Molecular dynamics-based simulation of electron and nuclear spin relaxation in aqueous nickel(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odelius, Michael; Ribbing, Carl; Kowalewski, Jozef

    1996-03-01

    A method of calculating the time correlation functions for electron spin is proposed, based on solving the time-dependent Schrdinger equation for a spin Hamiltonian that contains a term varying randomly in discrete time steps. It is applied to the study of electron spin relaxation in aqueous solution of nickel(II) ions with S=1. The random term in the spin Hamiltonian in this case is the zero-field splitting (ZFS) interaction. The method is evaluated by an application to a model system (the pseudorotation model) for which an analytical solution to the electron spin relaxation problem is known. The same method is then employed to study the electron and nuclear spin dynamics in a system where the time variation of the zero-field splitting is obtained by a combination of ab initio quantum chemistry and molecular dynamics simulations.

  17. Parametric analysis of plastic strain and force distribution in single pass metal spinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Shashank; Tejesh, Chiruvolu Mohan; Regalla, Srinivasa Prakash; Suresh, Kurra

    2013-12-01

    Metal spinning also known as spin forming is one of the sheet metal working processes by which an axis-symmetric part can be formed from a flat sheet metal blank. Parts are produced by pressing a blunt edged tool or roller on to the blank which in turn is mounted on a rotating mandrel. This paper discusses about the setting up a 3-D finite element simulation of single pass metal spinning in LS-Dyna. Four parameters were considered namely blank thickness, roller nose radius, feed ratio and mandrel speed and the variation in forces and plastic strain were analysed using the full-factorial design of experiments (DOE) method of simulation experiments. For some of these DOE runs, physical experiments on extra deep drawing (EDD) sheet metal were carried out using En31 tool on a lathe machine. Simulation results are able to predict the zone of unsafe thinning in the sheet and high forming forces that are hint to the necessity for less-expensive and semi-automated machine tools to help the household and small scale spinning workers widely prevalent in India.

  18. Parametric analysis of plastic strain and force distribution in single pass metal spinning

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhary, Shashank E-mail: mohantejesh93@gmail.com E-mail: ksuresh@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in; Tejesh, Chiruvolu Mohan E-mail: mohantejesh93@gmail.com E-mail: ksuresh@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in; Regalla, Srinivasa Prakash E-mail: mohantejesh93@gmail.com E-mail: ksuresh@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in; Suresh, Kurra E-mail: mohantejesh93@gmail.com E-mail: ksuresh@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in

    2013-12-16

    Metal spinning also known as spin forming is one of the sheet metal working processes by which an axis-symmetric part can be formed from a flat sheet metal blank. Parts are produced by pressing a blunt edged tool or roller on to the blank which in turn is mounted on a rotating mandrel. This paper discusses about the setting up a 3-D finite element simulation of single pass metal spinning in LS-Dyna. Four parameters were considered namely blank thickness, roller nose radius, feed ratio and mandrel speed and the variation in forces and plastic strain were analysed using the full-factorial design of experiments (DOE) method of simulation experiments. For some of these DOE runs, physical experiments on extra deep drawing (EDD) sheet metal were carried out using En31 tool on a lathe machine. Simulation results are able to predict the zone of unsafe thinning in the sheet and high forming forces that are hint to the necessity for less-expensive and semi-automated machine tools to help the household and small scale spinning workers widely prevalent in India.

  19. Analysis of state-of-the-art single-thruster attitude control techniques for spinning penetrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raus, Robin; Gao, Yang; Wu, Yunhua; Watt, Mark

    2012-07-01

    The attitude dynamics and manoeuvre survey in this paper is performed for a mission scenario involving a penetrator-type spacecraft: an axisymmetric prolate spacecraft spinning around its minor axis of inertia performing a 90 spin axis reorientation manoeuvre. In contrast to most existing spacecraft only one attitude control thruster is available, providing a control torque perpendicular to the spin axis. Having only one attitude thruster on a spinning spacecraft could be preferred for spacecraft simplicity (lower mass, lower power consumption etc.), or it could be imposed in the context of redundancy/contingency operations. This constraint does yield restrictions on the thruster timings, depending on the ratio of minor to major moments of inertia among other parameters. The Japanese Lunar-A penetrator spacecraft proposal is a good example of such a single-thruster spin-stabilised prolate spacecraft. The attitude dynamics of a spinning rigid body are first investigated analytically, then expanded for the specific case of a prolate and axisymmetric rigid body and finally a cursory exploration of non-rigid body dynamics is made. Next two well-known techniques for manoeuvring a spin-stabilised spacecraft, the Half-cone/Multiple Half-cone and the Rhumb line slew, are compared with two new techniques, the Sector-Arc Slew developed by Astrium Satellites and the Dual-cone developed at Surrey Space Centre. Each technique is introduced and characterised by means of simulation results and illustrations based on the penetrator mission scenario and a brief robustness analysis is performed against errors in moments of inertia and spin rate. Also, the relative benefits of each slew algorithm are discussed in terms of slew accuracy, energy (propellant) efficiency and time efficiency. For example, a sequence of half-cone manoeuvres (a Multi-half-cone manoeuvre) tends to be more energy-efficient than one half-cone for the same final slew angle, but more time-consuming. As another example, the new Sector-Arc Slew and Dual-cone techniques are designed to overcome a specific restriction on attainable slew angle that is associated with the half-cone manoeuvre, giving one additional degree of freedom for designers to fine-tune.

  20. Nuclear Spin Dependent Chemistry of the Trihydrogen Cation in Diffuse Interstellar Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabtree, Kyle

    2015-05-01

    The trihydrogen cation, H3+,long thought to be the species responsible for initiating ion-molecule chemistry in the interstellar medium, was first observed in interstellar clouds twenty years ago. Since its detection, this cation has been used to infer temperatures, densities, cloud sizes, and the local cosmic ray ionization rate. However, in diffuse molecular clouds the excitation temperature of its two nuclear spin modifications, ortho (I = 3 / 2) and para-H3+(I = 1 / 2) is found to differ markedly from the cloud kinetic temperature inferred from the spin modifications of molecular hydrogen (H2) in the same environment. A steady state analysis of the chemical kinetics of ortho and para-H3+suggests that the interplay of thermalizing collisions with H2 and nuclear spin dependent dissociative recombination with electrons may result in a nonthermal excitation temperature. Each of these processes is complex. Collisions between H3+and H2 must obey selection rules based on conservation of nuclear spin angular momentum, and the allowed spin conversion reactions, which proceed through the fluxional (H5+)* intermediate, each have different statistical weights and energetic requirements. Meanwhile, theoretical and experimental studies of H3+electron recombination carried out over the past 40 years have yielded rates that span 4 orders of magnitude in range. We will present experimental measurements of the nuclear spin dependence of the reactions of H3+with H2 and with electrons, as well as astronomical observations of H3+in diffuse molecular clouds and time-dependent chemical modeling of these environments. Astrochemical models incorporating the latest experimental data still do not satisfactorily explain the observed excitation temperature in diffuse molecular clouds, and point to the need for state-selective measurements of the H3+electron recombination rate.

  1. Spin-tunnel investigation of the spinning characteristics of typical single-engine general aviation airplane designs. 2: Low-wing model A; tail parachute diameter and canopy distance for emergency spin recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burk, S. M., Jr.; Bowman, J. S., Jr.; White, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    A spin tunnel study is reported on a scale model of a research airplane typical of low-wing, single-engine, light general aviation airplanes to determine the tail parachute diameter and canopy distance (riser length plus suspension-line length) required for energency spin recovery. Nine tail configurations were tested, resulting in a wide range of developed spin conditions, including steep spins and flat spins. The results indicate that the full-scale parachute diameter required for satisfactory recovery from the most critical conditions investigated is about 3.2 m and that the canopy distance, which was found to be critical for flat spins, should be between 4.6 and 6.1 m.

  2. Irreversible adiabatic decoherence of dipole-interacting nuclear-spin pairs coupled with a phonon bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez, F. D.; González, C. E.; Segnorile, H. H.; Zamar, R. C.

    2016-02-01

    We study the quantum adiabatic decoherence of a multispin array, coupled with an environment of harmonic phonons, in the framework of the theory of open quantum systems. We follow the basic formal guidelines of the well-known spin-boson model, since in this framework it is possible to derive the time dependence of the reduced density matrix in the adiabatic time scale, without resorting to coarse-graining procedures. However, instead of considering a set of uncoupled spins interacting individually with the boson field, the observed system in our model is a network of weakly interacting spin pairs; the bath corresponds to lattice phonons, and the system-environment interaction is generated by the variation of the dipole-dipole energy due to correlated shifts of the spin positions, produced by the phonons. We discuss the conditions that the model must meet in order to fit within the adiabatic regime. By identifying the coupling of the dipole-dipole spin interaction with the low-frequency acoustic modes as the source of decoherence, we calculate the decoherence function of the reduced spin density matrix in closed way, and estimate the decoherence rate of a typical element of the reduced density matrix in one- and three-dimensional models of the spin array. Using realistic values for the various parameters of the model we conclude that the dipole-phonon mechanism can be particularly efficient to degrade multispin coherences, when the number of active spins involved in a given coherence is high. The model provides insight into the microscopic irreversible spin dynamics involved in the buildup of quasiequilibrium states and in the coherence leakage during refocusing experiments in nuclear magnetic resonance of crystalline solids.

  3. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Spin Relaxation of Electrons in Single InAs Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shan-Shan; Dou, Xiu-Ming; Chang, Xiu-Ying; Sun, Bao-Quan; Xiong, Yong-Hua; Niu, Zhi-Chuan; Ni, Hai-Qiao

    2009-11-01

    By using polarization-resolved photoluminescence spectra, we study the electron spin relaxation in single InAs quantum dots (QDs) with the configuration of positively charged excitons X+ (one electron, two holes). The spin relaxation rate of the hot electrons increases with the increasing energy of exciting photons. For electrons localized in QDs the spin relaxation is induced by hyperfine interaction with the nuclei. A rapid decrease of polarization degree with increasing temperature suggests that the spin relaxation mechanisms are mainly changed from the hyperfine interaction with nuclei into an electron-hole exchange interaction.

  4. Optimized quantum sensing with a single electron spin using real-time adaptive measurements.

    PubMed

    Bonato, C; Blok, M S; Dinani, H T; Berry, D W; Markham, M L; Twitchen, D J; Hanson, R

    2016-03-01

    Quantum sensors based on single solid-state spins promise a unique combination of sensitivity and spatial resolution. The key challenge in sensing is to achieve minimum estimation uncertainty within a given time and with high dynamic range. Adaptive strategies have been proposed to achieve optimal performance, but their implementation in solid-state systems has been hindered by the demanding experimental requirements. Here, we realize adaptive d.c. sensing by combining single-shot readout of an electron spin in diamond with fast feedback. By adapting the spin readout basis in real time based on previous outcomes, we demonstrate a sensitivity in Ramsey interferometry surpassing the standard measurement limit. Furthermore, we find by simulations and experiments that adaptive protocols offer a distinctive advantage over the best known non-adaptive protocols when overhead and limited estimation time are taken into account. Using an optimized adaptive protocol we achieve a magnetic field sensitivity of 6.1??1.7?nT?Hz(-1/2) over a wide range of 1.78?mT. These results open up a new class of experiments for solid-state sensors in which real-time knowledge of the measurement history is exploited to obtain optimal performance. PMID:26571007

  5. Optimized quantum sensing with a single electron spin using real-time adaptive measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonato, C.; Blok, M. S.; Dinani, H. T.; Berry, D. W.; Markham, M. L.; Twitchen, D. J.; Hanson, R.

    2016-03-01

    Quantum sensors based on single solid-state spins promise a unique combination of sensitivity and spatial resolution. The key challenge in sensing is to achieve minimum estimation uncertainty within a given time and with high dynamic range. Adaptive strategies have been proposed to achieve optimal performance, but their implementation in solid-state systems has been hindered by the demanding experimental requirements. Here, we realize adaptive d.c. sensing by combining single-shot readout of an electron spin in diamond with fast feedback. By adapting the spin readout basis in real time based on previous outcomes, we demonstrate a sensitivity in Ramsey interferometry surpassing the standard measurement limit. Furthermore, we find by simulations and experiments that adaptive protocols offer a distinctive advantage over the best known non-adaptive protocols when overhead and limited estimation time are taken into account. Using an optimized adaptive protocol we achieve a magnetic field sensitivity of 6.1 ± 1.7 nT Hz‑1/2 over a wide range of 1.78 mT. These results open up a new class of experiments for solid-state sensors in which real-time knowledge of the measurement history is exploited to obtain optimal performance.

  6. Manipulation of a single Mn spin using excitation transfer between two coupled CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryca, Mateusz

    2010-02-01

    A semiconductor quantum dot (QD) containing a single Mn atom is a promising system from the point of view of future information processing and storage devices. An efficient optical read-out of the single Mn spin state in a CdTe/ZnTe quantum dot, as well as studies of dynamics of this state, were recently reported by L. Besombes and co-workers. However, to construct the building blocks of future memory devices basing on single magnetic atoms the ability to control a single spin is still needed. This work is focused on the advancement in writing and storing of information on the Mn spin state. We demonstrate optical writing of information on the spin state of a single Mn ion embedded in a CdTe QD and we test the storage time in the range of a few tenths of a millisecond. A spin-conserving excitation transfer between two coupled QDs is used as a tool for optical manipulation of the Mn spin. Excitons resonantly created in a dot without magnetic atom by circularly polarized light tunnel to the dot with the Mn ion in a few picoseconds. Then they act on the Mn ion via the sp-d exchange interaction and orient its spin. The orientation is much more efficient in presence of a magnetic field of about 1T, due to suppression of fast spin relaxation channels. Dynamics of the Mn spin under polarized excitation as well as the information storage time on the Mn spin was measured in a time-resolved experiment, in which the intensity and polarization of excitation were modulated. Observed dynamics can be described with a simple rate equation model. The storage time was enhanced by the magnetic field and reached about half a millisecond at 1T.

  7. Single-Molecule Spin Switch Based on Voltage-Triggered Distortion of the Coordination Sphere.

    PubMed

    Harzmann, Gero D; Frisenda, Riccardo; van der Zant, Herre S J; Mayor, Marcel

    2015-11-01

    Here, we report on a new single-molecule-switching concept based on the coordination-sphere-dependent spin state of Fe(II) species. The perpendicular arrangement of two terpyridine (tpy) ligands within heteroleptic complexes is distorted by the applied electric field. Whereas one ligand fixes the complex in the junction, the second one exhibits an intrinsic dipole moment which senses the E field and causes the distortion of the Fe(II) coordination sphere triggering the alteration of its spin state. A series of complexes with different dipole moments have been synthesized and their transport features were investigated via mechanically controlled break-junctions. Statistical analyses support the hypothesized switching mechanism with increasing numbers of junctions displaying voltage-dependent bistabilities upon increasing the Fe(II) complexes' intrinsic dipole moments. A constant threshold value of the E field required for switching corroborates the mechanism. PMID:26426777

  8. Transverse target single-spin asymmetry in inclusive electroproduction of charged pions and kaons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Avetisyan, E.; Belostotski, S.; Bianchi, N.; Blok, H. P.; Borissov, A.; Bowles, J.; Bryzgalov, V.; Burns, J.; Capiluppi, M.; Capitani, G. P.; Cisbani, E.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; Deconinck, W.; De Leo, R.; De Nardo, L.; De Sanctis, E.; Diefenthaler, M.; Di Nezza, P.; Dren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Fabbri, R.; Fantoni, A.; Felawka, L.; Frullani, S.; Gabbert, D.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Gavrilov, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Giordano, F.; Gliske, S.; Golembiovskaya, M.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hartig, M.; Hasch, D.; Hillenbrand, A.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hristova, I.; Ivanilov, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Joosten, S.; Kaiser, R.; Karyan, G.; Keri, T.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Korotkov, V.; Kozlov, V.; Kravchenko, P.; Krivokhijine, V. G.; Lagamba, L.; Lapiks, L.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; Lpez Ruiz, A.; Lorenzon, W.; Ma, B.-Q.; Mahon, D.; Makins, N. C. R.; Manaenkov, S. I.; Mao, Y.; Marianski, B.; Martnez de la Ossa, A.; Marukyan, H.; Miller, C. A.; Miyachi, Y.; Movsisyan, A.; Murray, M.; Mussgiller, A.; Nappi, E.; Naryshkin, Y.; Negodaev, M.; Nowak, W.-D.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Perez-Benito, R.; Petrosyan, A.; Raithel, M.; Reimer, P. E.; Reolon, A. R.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, A.; Rubin, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Sanftl, F.; Schfer, A.; Schnell, G.; Seitz, B.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shutov, V.; Stancari, M.; Statera, M.; Steffens, E.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Taroian, S.; Terkulov, A.; Truty, R.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Van Haarlem, Y.; Van Hulse, C.; Veretennikov, D.; Vikhrov, V.; Vilardi, I.; Wang, S.; Yaschenko, S.; Ye, Z.; Yen, S.; Yu, W.; Zagrebelnyy, V.; Zeiler, D.; Zihlmann, B.; Zupranski, P.

    2014-01-01

    Single-spin asymmetries were investigated in inclusive electroproduction of charged pions and kaons from transversely polarized protons at the HERMES experiment. The asymmetries were studied as a function of the azimuthal angle ? about the beam direction between the target-spin direction and the hadron production plane, the transverse hadron momentum PT relative to the direction of the incident beam, and the Feynman variable xF. The sin ? amplitudes are positive for ?+ and K+, slightly negative for ?- and consistent with zero for K-, with particular PT but weak xF dependences. Especially large asymmetries are observed for two small subsamples of events, where also the scattered electron was recorded by the spectrometer.

  9. Room temperature high-fidelity holonomic single-qubit gate on a solid-state spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo-Camejo, Silvia; Lazariev, Andrii; Hell, Stefan W.; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrishnan

    2014-09-01

    At its most fundamental level, circuit-based quantum computation relies on the application of controlled phase shift operations on quantum registers. While these operations are generally compromised by noise and imperfections, quantum gates based on geometric phase shifts can provide intrinsically fault-tolerant quantum computing. Here we demonstrate the high-fidelity realization of a recently proposed fast (non-adiabatic) and universal (non-Abelian) holonomic single-qubit gate, using an individual solid-state spin qubit under ambient conditions. This fault-tolerant quantum gate provides an elegant means for achieving the fidelity threshold indispensable for implementing quantum error correction protocols. Since we employ a spin qubit associated with a nitrogen-vacancy colour centre in diamond, this system is based on integrable and scalable hardware exhibiting strong analogy to current silicon technology. This quantum gate realization is a promising step towards viable, fault-tolerant quantum computing under ambient conditions.

  10. Room temperature high-fidelity holonomic single-qubit gate on a solid-state spin.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Camejo, Silvia; Lazariev, Andrii; Hell, Stefan W; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    At its most fundamental level, circuit-based quantum computation relies on the application of controlled phase shift operations on quantum registers. While these operations are generally compromised by noise and imperfections, quantum gates based on geometric phase shifts can provide intrinsically fault-tolerant quantum computing. Here we demonstrate the high-fidelity realization of a recently proposed fast (non-adiabatic) and universal (non-Abelian) holonomic single-qubit gate, using an individual solid-state spin qubit under ambient conditions. This fault-tolerant quantum gate provides an elegant means for achieving the fidelity threshold indispensable for implementing quantum error correction protocols. Since we employ a spin qubit associated with a nitrogen-vacancy colour centre in diamond, this system is based on integrable and scalable hardware exhibiting strong analogy to current silicon technology. This quantum gate realization is a promising step towards viable, fault-tolerant quantum computing under ambient conditions. PMID:25216026

  11. Single-axis gyroscopic motion with uncertain angular velocity about spin axis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, S. N.

    1977-01-01

    A differential game approach is presented for studying the response of a gyro by treating the controlled angular velocity about the input axis as the evader, and the bounded but uncertain angular velocity about the spin axis as the pursuer. When the uncertain angular velocity about the spin axis desires to force the gyro to saturation a differential game problem with two terminal surfaces results, whereas when the evader desires to attain the equilibrium state the usual game with single terminal manifold arises. A barrier, delineating the capture zone (CZ) in which the gyro can attain saturation and the escape zone (EZ) in which the evader avoids saturation is obtained. The CZ is further delineated into two subregions such that the states in each subregion can be forced on a definite target manifold. The application of the game theoretic approach to Control Moment Gyro is briefly discussed.

  12. Spin filtering and entanglement swapping through coherent evolution of a single quantum dot.

    PubMed

    Coello, Jose Garcia; Bayat, Abolfazl; Bose, Sougato; Jefferson, John H; Creffield, Charles E

    2010-08-20

    We exploit the nondissipative dynamics of a pair of electrons in a large square quantum dot to perform singlet-triplet spin measurement through a single charge detection and show how this may be used for entanglement swapping and teleportation. The method is also used to generate the Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki ground state, a further resource for quantum computation. We justify, and derive analytic results for, an effective charge-spin Hamiltonian which is valid over a wide range of parameters and agrees well with exact numerical results of a realistic effective-mass model. Our analysis also indicates that the method is robust to the choice of dot-size and initialization errors, as well as decoherence. PMID:20868084

  13. Spin Noise Detection of Nuclear Hyperpolarization at 1.2 K

    PubMed Central

    Pöschko, Maria Theresia; Vuichoud, Basile; Milani, Jonas; Bornet, Aurélien; Bechmann, Matthias; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Jannin, Sami; Müller, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    We report proton spin noise spectra of a hyperpolarized solid sample of commonly used “DNP (dynamic nuclear polarization) juice” containing TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine N-oxide) and irradiated by a microwave field at a temperature of 1.2 K in a magnetic field of 6.7 T. The line shapes of the spin noise power spectra are sensitive to the variation of the microwave irradiation frequency and change from dip to bump, when the electron Larmor frequency is crossed, which is shown to be in good accordance with theory by simulations. Small but significant deviations from these predictions are observed, which can be related to spin noise and radiation damping phenomena that have been reported in thermally polarized systems. The non-linear dependence of the spin noise integral on nuclear polarization provides a means to monitor hyperpolarization semi-quantitatively without any perturbation of the spin system by radio frequency irradiation. PMID:26477605

  14. Advances and applications of dynamic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Baltisberger, J.H.

    1993-06-01

    This dissertation describes nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and theory which have been developed to study quadrupolar nuclei (those nuclei with spin greater than one-half) in the solid state. Primarily, the technique of dynamic-angle spinning (DAS) is extensively reviewed and expanded upon in this thesis. Specifically, the improvement in both the resolution (two-dimensional pure-absorptive phase methods and DAS angle choice) and sensitivity (pulse-sequence development), along with effective spinning speed enhancement (again through choice of DAS conditions or alternative multiple pulse schemes) of dynamic-angle spinning experiment was realized with both theory and experimental examples. The application of DAS to new types of nuclei (specifically the {sup 87}Rb and {sup 85}Rb nuclear spins) and materials (specifically amorphous solids) has also greatly expanded the possibilities of the use of DAS to study a larger range of materials. This dissertation is meant to demonstrate both recent advances and applications of the DAS technique, and by no means represents a comprehensive study of any particular chemical problem.

  15. The radiation-induced oxidation and reduction of guanine: Electron spin resonance-electron nuclear double resonance studies of irradiated guanosine cyclic monophosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Heasook; Budzinski, Edwin E.; Box, Harold C.

    1989-02-01

    Two free radicals are identified by electron spin resonance-electron nuclear double resonance (ESR-ENDOR) spectroscopy in single crystals of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate x irradiated at 4.2 K. The two absorptions are attributed to the anion and cation formed on the guanine moiety. The characteristics of the cation absorption are consistent with those postulated previously for guanine cation presumed to form in irradiated DNA.

  16. Nuclear orientation of radon isotopes by spin-exchange optical pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Kitano, M.; Calaprice, F.P.; Pitt, M.L.; Clayhold, J.; Happer, W.; Kadar-Kallen, M.; Musolf, M.; Ulm, G.; Wendt, K.; Chupp, T.

    1988-05-23

    This paper reports the first demonstration of nuclear orientation of radon atoms. The method employed was spin exchange with potassium atoms polarized by optical pumping. The radon isotopes were produced at the ISOLDE isotope separator of CERN. The nuclear alignment of /sup 209/Rn and /sup 223/Rn has been measured by observation of ..gamma..-ray anisotropies and the magnetic dipole moment for /sup 209/Rn has been measured by the nuclear-magnetic-resonance method to be chemically bond..mu..chemically bond = 0.838 81(39)..mu../sub N/.

  17. Rare-Earth Triangular Lattice Spin Liquid: A Single-Crystal Study of YbMgGaO4.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuesheng; Chen, Gang; Tong, Wei; Pi, Li; Liu, Juanjuan; Yang, Zhaorong; Wang, Xiaoqun; Zhang, Qingming

    2015-10-16

    YbMgGaO4, a structurally perfect two-dimensional triangular lattice with an odd number of electrons per unit cell and spin-orbit entangled effective spin-1/2 local moments for the Yb(3+) ions, is likely to experimentally realize the quantum spin liquid ground state. We report the first experimental characterization of single-crystal YbMgGaO4 samples. Because of the spin-orbit entanglement, the interaction between the neighboring Yb(3+) moments depends on the bond orientations and is highly anisotropic in the spin space. We carry out thermodynamic and the electron spin resonance measurements to confirm the anisotropic nature of the spin interaction as well as to quantitatively determine the couplings. Our result is a first step towards the theoretical understanding of the possible quantum spin liquid ground state in this system and sheds new light on the search for quantum spin liquids in strong spin-orbit coupled insulators. PMID:26550899

  18. Nuclear magnetic relaxation induced by exchange-mediated orientational randomization: Longitudinal relaxation dispersion for a dipole-coupled spin-1/2 pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Zhiwei; Halle, Bertil

    2013-10-01

    In complex biological or colloidal samples, magnetic relaxation dispersion (MRD) experiments using the field-cycling technique can characterize molecular motions on time scales ranging from nanoseconds to microseconds, provided that a rigorous theory of nuclear spin relaxation is available. In gels, cross-linked proteins, and biological tissues, where an immobilized macromolecular component coexists with a mobile solvent phase, nuclear spins residing in solvent (or cosolvent) species relax predominantly via exchange-mediated orientational randomization (EMOR) of anisotropic nuclear (electric quadrupole or magnetic dipole) couplings. The physical or chemical exchange processes that dominate the MRD typically occur on a time scale of microseconds or longer, where the conventional perturbation theory of spin relaxation breaks down. There is thus a need for a more general relaxation theory. Such a theory, based on the stochastic Liouville equation (SLE) for the EMOR mechanism, is available for a single quadrupolar spin I = 1. Here, we present the corresponding theory for a dipole-coupled spin-1/2 pair. To our knowledge, this is the first treatment of dipolar MRD outside the motional-narrowing regime. Based on an analytical solution of the spatial part of the SLE, we show how the integral longitudinal relaxation rate can be computed efficiently. Both like and unlike spins, with selective or non-selective excitation, are treated. For the experimentally important dilute regime, where only a small fraction of the spin pairs are immobilized, we obtain simple analytical expressions for the auto-relaxation and cross-relaxation rates which generalize the well-known Solomon equations. These generalized results will be useful in biophysical studies, e.g., of intermittent protein dynamics. In addition, they represent a first step towards a rigorous theory of water 1H relaxation in biological tissues, which is a prerequisite for unravelling the molecular basis of soft-tissue contrast in clinical magnetic resonance imaging.

  19. Single-spin microscope with sub-nanoscale resolution based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, Gennady P; Chernobrod, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Invention of scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) initiated a new era of material science and technology characterized by 2-D imaging with atomic resolution and manipulation of individual atoms. However, for further progress in material science, and in particular in structural biology, 3-D imaging with sub-nanometer resolution is very desirable. Currently the most promising technique for 3-D imaging is magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM), which senses individual electron spins [1,2] with nanoscale resolution and can detect collective magnetization of about 100 nuclear spins [3]. The highest sensitivity demonstrated by MRFM is based on a time modulation technique called the oscillating cantilever-driven adiabatic reversals (OSCAAR) which requires a long phase relaxation time T 2 of measured spins, which usually corresponds to rather low temperature. For example, a temperature of 300 mK was used in the case of 3D imaging of the tobacco mosaic virus [3]. This limitation is incompatible with the room-temperature operation needed for the study of biological systems under physiological conditions.

  20. Analytic derivative couplings for spin-flip configuration interaction singles and spin-flip time-dependent density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xing; Herbert, John M.

    2014-08-14

    We revisit the calculation of analytic derivative couplings for configuration interaction singles (CIS), and derive and implement these couplings for its spin-flip variant for the first time. Our algorithm is closely related to the CIS analytic energy gradient algorithm and should be straightforward to implement in any quantum chemistry code that has CIS analytic energy gradients. The additional cost of evaluating the derivative couplings is small in comparison to the cost of evaluating the gradients for the two electronic states in question. Incorporation of an exchange-correlation term provides an ad hoc extension of this formalism to time-dependent density functional theory within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation, without the need to invoke quadratic response theory or evaluate third derivatives of the exchange-correlation functional. Application to several different conical intersections in ethylene demonstrates that minimum-energy crossing points along conical seams can be located at substantially reduced cost when analytic derivative couplings are employed, as compared to use of a branching-plane updating algorithm that does not require these couplings. Application to H{sub 3} near its D{sub 3h} geometry demonstrates that correct topology is obtained in the vicinity of a conical intersection involving a degenerate ground state.

  1. Disorder-enhanced nuclear spin relaxation at Landau level filling factor one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Tong; Benedikt, Friess; Li, Yong-Qing; Yan, Shi-Shen; Vladimir, Umansky; Klaus von, Klitzing; Jurgen, H. Smet

    2015-06-01

    The nuclear spin relaxation rate (1/T1) is measured for GaAs two-dimensional (2D) electron systems in the quantum Hall regime with an all-electrical technique for agitating and probing the nuclear spins. A tilted plateau feature is observed near the Landau level filling factor ? = 1 in 1/T1 versus ?. Both the width and magnitude of the plateau increase with decreasing electron density. At low temperatures, 1/T1 exhibits an Arrhenius temperature dependence within the tilted plateau regime. The extracted energy gaps are up to two orders of magnitude smaller than the corresponding charge transport gaps. These results point to a nontrivial mechanism for the disorder-enhanced nuclear spin relaxation, in which microscopic inhomogeneities play a key role for the low energy spin excitations related to skyrmions. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2012CB921703 and 2015CB921102), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91121003, 11374337, and 61425015), the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the BMBF, and the German-Israel Foundation.

  2. Hardy's paradox tested in the spin-orbit Hilbert space of single photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Ebrahim; Cardano, Filippo; Maffei, Maria; de Lisio, Corrado; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Boyd, Robert W.; Santamato, Enrico

    2014-03-01

    We test experimentally the quantum "paradox" proposed by L. Hardy [Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1665 (1993), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.71.1665] by using single photons instead of photon pairs. This is achieved by addressing two compatible degrees of freedom of the same particle, namely, its spin angular momentum, determined by the photon polarization, and its orbital angular momentum, a property related to the optical transverse mode. Because our experiment involves a single particle, we cannot use locality to logically enforce noncontextuality, which must therefore be assumed based only on the observables' compatibility. On the other hand, our single-particle experiment can be implemented more simply and allows larger detection efficiencies than typical two-particle ones, with a potential future advantage in terms of closing the detection loopholes.

  3. Nanoscale nuclear magnetic resonance with a nitrogen-vacancy spin sensor.

    PubMed

    Mamin, H J; Kim, M; Sherwood, M H; Rettner, C T; Ohno, K; Awschalom, D D; Rugar, D

    2013-02-01

    Extension of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to nanoscale samples has been a longstanding challenge because of the insensitivity of conventional detection methods. We demonstrated the use of an individual, near-surface nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond as a sensor to detect proton NMR in an organic sample located external to the diamond. Using a combination of electron spin echoes and proton spin manipulation, we showed that the NV center senses the nanotesla field fluctuations from the protons, enabling both time-domain and spectroscopic NMR measurements on the nanometer scale. PMID:23372008

  4. Nuclear Spin Ordering on the Surface of a He3 Crystal: Magnetic Steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todoshchenko, I. A.; Alles, H.; Junes, H. J.; Manninen, M. S.; Parshin, A. Ya.

    2009-06-01

    The growth rates of the (110) and (100) facets on bcc He3 crystals have been measured near the magnetic ordering transition at TN=0.93mK. In the ordered phase, we have observed several growth modes which correspond to different values of the step energy. We show that, because of quantum delocalization, the step induces a cluster of ferromagnetically ordered nuclear spins. The free energy of such a cluster is relatively large and depends on the orientation of the underlying antiferromagnetic domain. In the paramagnetic phase, the mobilities of the basic facets are greatly reduced because of the much slower spin diffusion in the bulk solid.

  5. Shell structure at high spin and the influence on nuclear shapes

    SciTech Connect

    Khoo, T.L.; Chowdhury, P.; Ahmad, I.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear structure at high spin is influenced by a combination of liquid-drop and shell-structure effects. For N < 86 both contribute towards the occurrence along the yrast line of high-spin oblate aligned-particle configurations. Shell effects are mainly responsible for the prolate deformation of nuclei with N > 90. The competition between oblate and prolate driving effects leads to a prolate-to-oblate shape transition in /sup 154/Dy/sub 88/. The role of rotation-aligned configurations in the shape change is discussed.

  6. Magnetic equivalence of terminal nuclei in the azide anion broken by nuclear spin relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernatowicz, P.; Szyma?ski, S.

    NMR spectra of water solution of sodium azide selectively 15N labelled in the central position were studied using an iterative least-squares method. In agreement with predictions based on Bloch-Wangsness-Redfield nuclear spin relaxation theory, it is demonstrated that quadrupolar relaxation of the magnetically equivalent terminal 14N (spin-1) nuclei in the azide anion renders the J coupling between these nuclei an observable quantity. In isotropic fluids, this seems to be the first experimental evidence of relaxation-broken magnetic equivalence symmetry.

  7. Shell structure at high spin and the influence on nuclear shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoo, T. L.; Chowdhury, P.; Ahmad, I.; Borggreen, J.; Emling, H.; Frekers, D.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Pakkanen, A.; Chung, Y. H.; Day, P. J.

    Nuclear structure at high spin is influenced by a combination of liquid-drop and shell-structure effects. For N 86 both contribute towards the occurrence along the yrast line of high spin oblate aligned particle configurations. Shell effects are mainly responsible for the prolate deformation of nuclei with N 90. The competition between oblate and prolate driving effects leads to a prolate to oblate shape transition in Dy 154 sub 88. The role of rotation aligned configurations in the shape change is discussed.

  8. Cytoplasmic Solvent Structure of Single Barnacle Muscle Cells Studied by Electron Spin Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Fred; Latorre, Ramon

    1974-01-01

    A free radical probe was introduced into single barnacle muscle cells, and its freedom of motion inferred from the spin resonance spectra. The probe reported an average local viscosity of 5-10 cp compared with 1 cp for pure water. From a comparison of the temperature dependence of the probe's tumbling rate in model aqueous systems and in the muscle we concluded that in the muscle the probe was undergoing fast exchange between sites of different mobility. Thus 10 cp must be taken as an upper limit for the viscosity of most cell water. PMID:4364470

  9. Generating Entangled Spin States for Quantum Metrology by Single-Photon Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, Robert; Zhang, Hao; Cuk, Senka; Hu, Jiazhong; Schleier-Smith, Monika; Vuletic, Vladan

    2014-05-01

    We present a proposal and latest experimental results on a probabilistic but heralded scheme to generate non-Gaussian entangled states of collective spin in large atomic ensembles by means of single-photon detection. One photon announces the preparation of a Dicke state, while two or more photons announce Schrdinger cat states. The entangled states thus produced allow interferometry below the Standard Quantum Limit (SQL). The method produces nearly pure states even for finite photon detection efficiency and weak atom-photon coupling. The entanglement generation can be made quasi-deterministic by means of repeated trial and feedback.

  10. Nanoscale magnetic field mapping with a single spin scanning probe magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Rondin, L.; Tetienne, J.-P.; Spinicelli, P.; Roch, J.-F.; Jacques, V.; Dal Savio, C.; Karrai, K.; Dantelle, G.; Thiaville, A.; Rohart, S.

    2012-04-09

    We demonstrate quantitative magnetic field mapping with nanoscale resolution, by applying a lock-in technique on the electron spin resonance frequency of a single nitrogen-vacancy defect placed at the apex of an atomic force microscope tip. In addition, we report an all-optical magnetic imaging technique which is sensitive to large off-axis magnetic fields, thus extending the operation range of diamond-based magnetometry. Both techniques are illustrated by using a magnetic hard disk as a test sample. Owing to the non-perturbing and quantitative nature of the magnetic probe, this work should open up numerous perspectives in nanomagnetism and spintronics.

  11. Propeller swirl effect on single-engine general-aviation aircraft stall-spin tendencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Joseph; Feistel, Terry W.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation is conducted of the effect of a single engine, untapered low wing general aviation aircraft propeller's swirl on the craft's stall pattern. The asymmetrical character of the propeller's swirl can trigger an early stall of one of the wings, aggravating the spin-entry condition. It is shown that the combination of this propeller-induced effect with adverse sideslip can result in large and abrupt changes in the rolling moment, in such conditions as uncoordinated low speed turning maneuvers where the pilot yaws the aircraft with wings level, rather than rolling it.

  12. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP ENTITLED ''SINGLE SPIN ASYMMETRIES'' (VOLUME 75)

    SciTech Connect

    YUAN, F.; VOGELSANG, W.

    2005-06-01

    Single-transverse spin asymmetries (SSA) in strong interactions have a long history, starting from the 1970s and 1980s when surprisingly large single-transverse spin asymmetries were observed in p+p {yields} {pi}X and pp {yields} {Lambda} + X, where really none were expected. They have again attracted much interest in recent years from both experimental and theoretical sides. In particular, first measurements by the STAR, PHENIX, and BRAHMS collaborations at RHIC have now become available which again reveal large single transverse spin asymmetries for hadron production in polarized proton proton scattering. This extends the SSA observations from the fixed target energy range to the collider regime. Meanwhile, experimental studies in Deep Inelastic Scattering by the HERMES collaboration at DESY, SMC at CERN, and CLAS at JLab also show a remarkably large SSA in semi-inclusive hadron production, {gamma}*p {yields} {pi}X, when the proton is transversely polarized. On the theoretical side, there are several approaches to understanding SSA within Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). For example, to explain the large SSAs for hadron production in hadron collisions, a mechanism that takes into account the contribution from quark-gluon-quark correlations (twist-3) in the nucleon was proposed. On the other hand, possible origins of SSA in DIS and hadronic scattering were also found in leading-twist transverse momentum dependent parton distributions. Current theoretical efforts aim at a better conceptual understanding of these two types of mechanisms, and of their connections. We were very happy at this timely date to bring together the theorists and experimentalists of this field to review and discuss the current theoretical status and the latest experimental results. The whole workshop contained 25 formal talks, both experiment (15) and theory (10), and a few informal talks and many fruitful discussions. The topics covered all the relevant SSA observables, including in Deep Inelastic Scattering, the Drell-Yan process, and in inclusive hadron production and dijet correlations at hadron colliders. There were not only discussions on possible interpretations of the existing SSA data, but also on the future observables for the ongoing experiments as well as for planned experiments (such as RHIC II and eRHIC). On the theory side, the talks ranged from overviews and descriptions of the fundamental aspects of SSAs, to presentations of detailed phenomenological studies. All of the talks attracted much interest and initiated active discussions. Directions for future measurements were pointed out, in particular for studies at RHIC. Also, significant theoretical advances were made that may tie together some of the currently proposed mechanisms for single-spin asymmetries. This was a very successful workshop. It stimulated many discussions and new collaborations.

  13. Dynamic nuclear polarization and Hanle effect in (In,Ga)As/GaAs quantum dots. Role of nuclear spin fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlovin, I. Ya.; Cherbunin, R. V.; Ignatiev, I. V.; Kuznetsova, M. S.; Verbin, S. Yu.; Flisinski, K.; Bayer, M.; Reuter, D.; Wieck, A. D.; Yakovlev, D. R.

    2013-12-04

    The degree of circular polarization of photoluminescence of (In,Ga)As quantum dots as a function of magnetic field applied perpendicular to the optical axis (Hanle effect) is experimentally studied. The measurements have been performed at various regimes of the optical excitation modulation. The analysis of experimental data has been performed in the framework of a vector model of regular nuclear spin polarization and its fluctuations. The analysis allowed us to evaluate the magnitude of nuclear polarization and its dynamics at the experimental conditions used.

  14. Molecular Quantum Spintronics: Supramolecular Spin Valves Based on Single-Molecule Magnets and Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Urdampilleta, Matias; Nguyen, Ngoc-Viet; Cleuziou, Jean-Pierre; Klyatskaya, Svetlana; Ruben, Mario; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    We built new hybrid devices consisting of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown carbon nanotube (CNT) transistors, decorated with TbPc2 (Pc = phthalocyanine) rare-earth based single-molecule magnets (SMMs). The drafting was achieved by tailoring supramolecular π-π interactions between CNTs and SMMs. The magnetoresistance hysteresis loop measurements revealed steep steps, which we can relate to the magnetization reversal of individual SMMs. Indeed, we established that the electronic transport properties of these devices depend strongly on the relative magnetization orientations of the grafted SMMs. The SMMs are playing the role of localized spin polarizer and analyzer on the CNT electronic conducting channel. As a result, we measured magneto-resistance ratios up to several hundred percent. We used this spin valve effect to confirm the strong uniaxial anisotropy and the superparamagnetic blocking temperature (TB ~ 1 K) of isolated TbPc2 SMMs. For the first time, the strength of exchange interaction between the different SMMs of the molecular spin valve geometry could be determined. Our results introduce a new design for operable molecular spintronic devices using the quantum effects of individual SMMs. PMID:22072910

  15. High-pressure magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyt, David W.; Turcu, Romulus V. F.; Sears, Jesse A.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2011-10-01

    A high-pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR capability, consisting of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor, a high-pressure rotor loading/reaction chamber for in situ sealing and re-opening of the high-pressure MAS rotor, and a MAS probe with a localized RF coil for background signal suppression, is reported. The unusual technical challenges associated with development of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor are addressed in part by modifying standard ceramics for the rotor sleeve by abrading the internal surface at both ends of the cylinder. In this way, not only is the advantage of ceramic cylinders for withstanding very high-pressure utilized, but also plastic bushings can be glued tightly in place so that other removable plastic sealing mechanisms/components and O-rings can be mounted to create the desired high-pressure seal. Using this strategy, sealed internal pressures exceeding 150 bars have been achieved and sustained under ambient external pressure with minimal loss of pressure for 72 h. As an application example, in situ13C MAS NMR studies of mineral carbonation reaction intermediates and final products of forsterite (Mg 2SiO 4) reacted with supercritical CO 2 and H 2O at 150 bar and 50 °C are reported, with relevance to geological sequestration of carbon dioxide.

  16. High-pressure Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyt, David W.; Turcu, Romulus VF; Sears, Jesse A.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Hu, Jian Z.

    2011-10-01

    A high-pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR capability, consisting of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor, a high-pressure loading/reaction chamber for in situ sealing and re-opening of the high-pressure MAS rotor, and a MAS probe with a localized RF coil for background signal suppression, is reported. The unusual technical challenges associated with development of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor are addressed in part by modifying standard ceramics for the rotor sleeve to include micro-groves at the internal surface at both ends of the cylinder. In this way, not only is the advantage of ceramic cylinders for withstanding very high-pressure utilized, but also plastic bushings can be glued tightly in place so that other plastic sealing mechanisms/components and O-rings can be mounted to create the desired high-pressure seal. Using this strategy, sealed internal pressures exceeding 150 bars have been achieved and sustained under ambient external pressure with minimal penetration loss of pressure for 72 hours. As an application example, in situ 13C MAS NMR studies of mineral carbonation reaction intermediates and final products of forsterite (Mg2SiO4) reacted with supercritical CO2 and H2O at 150 bar and 50C are reported, with relevance to geological sequestration of carbon dioxide.

  17. Hyperfine interaction in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots: dynamical nuclear polarization versus spin relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebs, Olivier; Eble, Benoît; Lemaître, Aristide; Voisin, Paul; Urbaszek, Bernhard; Amand, Thierry; Marie, Xavier

    2008-10-01

    We report on the influence of the hyperfine interaction on the optical orientation of singly charged excitons X in self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots. All measurements were carried out on individual quantum dots studied by micro-photoluminescence at low temperature. We show that the hyperfine interaction leads to an effective partial spin relaxation, under 50 kHz modulated excitation polarization, which becomes, however, strongly inhibited under steady optical pumping conditions because of dynamical nuclear polarization. This optically created magnetic-like nuclear field can become very strong (up to ˜4 T) when it is generated in the direction opposite to a longitudinally applied field, and exhibits then a bistability regime. This effect is very well described by a theoretical model derived in a perturbative approach, which reveals the key role played by the energy cost of an electron spin flip in the total magnetic field. Finally, we emphasize the similarities and differences between X and X trions with respect to the hyperfine interaction, which turn out to be in perfect agreement with the theoretical description. To cite this article: O. Krebs et al., C. R. Physique 9 (2008).

  18. QUANTUM SIMULATION. Localization-delocalization transition in the dynamics of dipolar-coupled nuclear spins.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Gonzalo A; Suter, Dieter; Kaiser, Robin

    2015-08-21

    Nonequilibrium dynamics of many-body systems are important in many scientific fields. Here, we report the experimental observation of a phase transition of the quantum coherent dynamics of a three-dimensional many-spin system with dipolar interactions. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) on a solid-state system of spins at room-temperature, we quench the interaction Hamiltonian to drive the evolution of the system. Depending on the quench strength, we then observe either localized or extended dynamics of the system coherence. We extract the critical exponents for the localized cluster size of correlated spins and diffusion coefficient around the phase transition separating the localized from the delocalized dynamical regime. These results show that NMR techniques are well suited to studying the nonequilibrium dynamics of complex many-body systems. PMID:26293957

  19. Spin distribution of nuclear levels using the static path approximation with the random-phase approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, K.; Schiller, A.

    2007-04-15

    We present a thermal and quantum-mechanical treatment of nuclear rotation using the formalism of the static path approximation plus the random-phase approximation. Naive perturbation theory fails because of the presence of zero-frequency modes resulting from dynamical symmetry breaking. Such modes lead to infrared divergences. We show that composite zero-frequency excitations are properly treated within the collective coordinate method. The resulting perturbation theory is free from infrared divergences. Without the assumption of individual random spin vectors, we derive microscopically the spin distribution of the level density. The moment of inertia is thereby related to the spin-cutoff parameter in the usual way. Explicit calculations are performed for {sup 56}Fe; various thermal properties are discussed. In particular, we demonstrate that the increase of the moment of inertia with increasing temperature is correlated with the suppression of pairing correlations.

  20. Spin-dipole strength functions of 4He with realistic nuclear forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, W.; Suzuki, Y.

    2013-03-01

    Both isoscalar and isovector spin-dipole excitations of 4He are studied using realistic nuclear forces in the complex scaling method. The ground state of 4He and discretized continuum states with Jπ=0-,1-,2- for A=4 nuclei are described in explicitly correlated Gaussians reinforced with global vectors for angular motion. Two- and three-body decay channels are specifically treated to take into account final state interactions. The observed resonance energies and widths of the negative-parity levels are all in fair agreement with those calculated from both the spin-dipole and electric-dipole strength functions as well as the energy eigenvalues of the complex scaled Hamiltonian. Spin-dipole sum rules, both non-energy-weighted and energy-weighted, are discussed in relation to tensor correlations in the ground state of 4He.

  1. CdSe/ZnSe quantum dot with a single Mn{sup 2+} ion—A new system for a single spin manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Smoleński, T.

    2015-03-21

    We present a magneto-optical study of individual self-assembled CdSe/ZnSe quantum dots doped with single Mn{sup 2+} ions. Properties of the studied dots are analyzed analogously to more explored system of Mn-doped CdTe/ZnTe dots. Characteristic sixfold splitting of the neutral exciton emission line as well as its evolution in the magnetic field are described using a spin Hamiltonian model. Dynamics of both exciton recombination and Mn{sup 2+} spin relaxation are extracted from a series of time-resolved experiments. Presence of a single dopant is shown not to affect the average excitonic lifetime measured for a number of nonmagnetic and Mn-doped dots. On the other hand, non-resonant pumping is demonstrated to depolarize the Mn{sup 2+} spin in a quantum dot placed in external magnetic field. This effect is utilized to determine the ion spin relaxation time in the dark.

  2. All electrical probe of nuclear spin polarization and relaxation by spin phase transition peaks of the filling fraction ? = 2/3 quantum hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauzi, M. H.; Watanabe, S.; Kumada, N.; Hirayama, Y.

    2012-05-01

    We developed a sensitive spectroscopic tool to probe resistively as low as a few percent of an ensemble of nuclear spin polarizations in a GaAs quantum well. We take advantage of the spinphase-transition (SPT) peak of the filling fraction ? = 2/3 quantum Hall effect at which the electronic systems are energetically degenerate. The non-zero nuclear spin polarization incorporated in the system would be perceived as an effective magnetic field B N that modifies the Zeeman energy exclusively. It would result in a change in the overall shape of the peak including the peak's position, width, and amplitude. The alteration of the shape of the overall peak provide essential information on the microscopic characteristics of nuclear spin polarization and its relation to the domain formations which was not well investigated in the previous reports.

  3. Quadratic coupling between a classical nanomechanical oscillator and a single spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhingra, Shonali

    Though the motions of macroscopic objects must ultimately be governed by quantum mechanics, the distinctive features of quantum mechanics can be hidden or washed out by thermal excitations and coupling to the environment. For the work of this thesis, we tried to develop a hybrid system consisting a classical and a quantum component, which can be used to probe the quantum nature of both these components. This hybrid system quadratically coupled a nanomechanical oscillator (NMO) with a single spin in presence of a uniform external magnetic field. The NMO was fabricated out of single-layer graphene, grown using Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and patterned using various lithography and etching techniques. The NMO was driven electrically and detected optically. The NMO's resonant frequencies, and their stabilities were studied. The spin originated from a nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in a diamond nanocrystal which is positioned on the NMO. In presence of an external magnetic field, we show that the NV centers are excellen theta2 sensors. Their sensitivity is shown to increase much faster than linearly with the external magnetic field and diverges as the external field approaches an internally-defined limit. Both these components of the hybrid system get coupled by physical placement of NVcontaining diamond nanocrystals on top of NMO undergoing torsional mode of oscillation, in presence of an external magnetic field. The capability of the NV centers to detect the quadratic behavior of the oscillation angle of the NMO with excellent sensitivity, ensures quantum non-demolition (QND) measurement of both components of the hybrid system. This enables a bridge between the quantum and classical worlds for a simple readout of the NV center spin and observation of the discrete states of the NMO. This system could become the building block for a wide range of quantum nanomechanical devices.

  4. A nuclear spin-based 129Xe and 131Xe using optical polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Binquan; Chen, Linlin; Lei, Guanqun; Quan, Wei; Meng, Xiaofeng; Fang, Jiancheng

    2015-10-01

    We present a design for a spin-exchange optical pumping system to produce large quantities of highly polarized 129Xe and 131Xe. Low xenon concentrations in the flowing gas mixture which allow the laser to maintain high Cs polarization. The large spin-exchange rate between Cs and Xe through the long-lived van der Waals molecules at low pressure, combined with a high flow rate, results in large production rates of hyperpolarized xenon. The fast rates make it possible to obtain large nuclear polarizations after several minutes of optical pumping with a laser.At high Xe pressures. According to the theory, the longitudinal spin-elaxation rate 1T1 of Xe in a high-pressure sample containing only Xe and Cs vapor has the simple form is the velocity averaged binary spin-exchange cross section, It is the relaxation rate due to wall collisions and perhaps magnetic field inhomogeneities. Our results complement earlier studies performed at 129Xe pressures of about 20 Torr and 131Xe pressures of about 20 Torr and N2 pressures of 600 Torr . This work is useful for predicting spin-exchange rates between polarized Cs atoms and Xe nuclei.

  5. Magnetization tunneling in high-symmetry single-molecule magnets: Limitations of the giant spin approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, A.; Lawrence, J.; Yang, E.-C.; Nakano, M.; Hendrickson, D. N.; Hill, S.

    2006-10-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies of a Ni4 single-molecule magnet (SMM) yield the zero-field-splitting (ZFS) parameters D , B40 , and B44 , based on the giant spin approximation (GSA) with S=4 ; B44 is responsible for the magnetization tunneling in this SMM. Experiments on an isostructural Ni-doped Zn4 crystal establish the NiII ion ZFS parameters. The fourth-order ZFS parameters in the GSA arise from the interplay between the Heisenberg interaction J?1?2 and the second-order single-ion anisotropy, giving rise to mixing of higher-lying S?4 states into the S=4 state. Consequently, J directly influences the ZFS in the ground state, enabling its determination by EPR.

  6. Electron Spin Resonance Experiments on a Single Electron in Silicon Implanted with Phosphorous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhman, Dwight R.; Nguyen, K.; Tracy, L. A.; Carr, S.; Borchardt, J.; Bishop, N.; Ten Eyck, G.; Pluym, T.; Wendt, J.; Lilly, M. P.; Carroll, M. S.

    2015-03-01

    In this talk we will discuss the results of our ongoing experiments involving electron spin resonance (ESR) on a single electron in a natural silicon sample. The sample consists of an SET, defined by lithographic polysilicon gates, coupled to nearby phosphorous donors. The SET is used to detect charge transitions and readout the spin of the electron being investigated with ESR. The measurements were done with the sample at dilution refrigerator temperatures in the presence of a 1.3 T magnetic field. We will present data demonstrating Rabi oscillations of a single electron in this system as well as measurements of the coherence time, T2. We will also discuss our results using these and various other pulsing schemes in the context of a donor-SET system. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  7. Diamond as a Solid State Quantum Computer with a Linear Chain of Nuclear Spins System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lpez, G. V.; Lpez, G. V.

    By removing a $^{12}C$ atom from the tetrahedral configuration of the diamond, replace it by a $^{13}C$ atom, and repeating this in a linear direction, it is possible to have a linear chain of nuclear spins one half and to build a solid state quantum computer. One qubit rotation and controlled-not (CNOT) quantum gates are obtained immediately from this configuration, and CNOT quantum gate is used to determined the design parameters of this quantum computer.

  8. Nuclear-spin relaxation of ?Pb in ferroelectric powders

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, Louis S.; Sushkov, Alexander O.; Budker, Dmitry; Ford, Joe; Lipton, Andrew S.

    2008-02-05

    The ?Pb nuclear system (nuclear spin I = 1/2; magnetic Moment ? ?0.58 ?N; isotopic abundance ? 22%) in ferroelectric solids has been proposed for a search for a Schiff moment associated with simultaneous violation of parity (P) and time-reversal invariance (T) in fundamental interactions [1] (see also a discussion of the sensitivity of such search in Ref. [2]). The idea is that, due to the Schiff moment, a ferroelectric sample would acquire a P,T-odd magnetic polarization along the direction of its electric polarization. In conclusion, we have presented the first experimental study of relaxation properties of ?Pb in PT and PZT below room temperature. We find that above T? 50 K, longitudinal relaxation rate follows the T dependence characteristic of the two-phonon Raman process. On the other hand, as the temperature is decreased below T? 50 K, the longitudinal relaxation rates drop slower than ?T2 (as opposed to ?T7 expected for the Raman process), and the relaxation is probably due to a direct process associated with paramagnetic impurities and nuclear-spin diffusion. While the longitudinal relaxation times T? vary between several seconds and over an hour in the temperature range between 290 and 10 K, the transverse relaxation time T? is found to be ?1.5 ms for all temperatures and all powder samples studied. D: we never discuss the origin of T? relaxation. Maybe we should. 1.5 ms is only a bit shorter from what would be expected from nuclear spin-spin interactions. Any comments? At some point Sasha asked Oleg to calculate T? exactly for PT and PZT, but I forgot what was the result. If such calculation exists, it would be great to compare with the expt. result. The obtained results provide an important input in the design of the experiments to search for P,T-violating effects in solid ferroelectrics

  9. Discrimination of nuclear spin isomers exploiting the excited state dynamics of a quinodimethane derivative

    SciTech Connect

    Obaid, Rana; Kinzel, Daniel; Oppel, Markus González, Leticia

    2014-10-28

    Despite the concept of nuclear spin isomers (NSIs) exists since the early days of quantum mechanics, only few approaches have been suggested to separate different NSIs. Here, a method is proposed to discriminate different NSIs of a quinodimethane derivative using its electronic excited state dynamics. After electronic excitation by a laser field with femtosecond time duration, a difference in the behavior of several quantum mechanical operators can be observed. A pump-probe experimental approach for separating these different NSIs is then proposed.

  10. Low temperature magnetic properties and spin dynamics in single crystals of Cr8Zn antiferromagnetic molecular rings.

    PubMed

    Adelnia, Fatemeh; Chiesa, Alessandro; Bordignon, Sara; Carretta, Stefano; Ghirri, Alberto; Candini, Andrea; Cervetti, Christian; Evangelisti, Marco; Affronte, Marco; Sheikin, Ilya; Winpenny, Richard; Timco, Grigore; Borsa, Ferdinando; Lascialfari, Alessandro

    2015-12-28

    A detailed experimental investigation of the effects giving rise to the magnetic energy level structure in the vicinity of the level crossing (LC) at low temperature is reported for the open antiferromagnetic molecular ring Cr8Zn. The study is conducted by means of thermodynamic techniques (torque magnetometry, magnetization and specific heat measurements) and microscopic techniques (nuclear magnetic resonance line width, nuclear spin lattice, and spin-spin relaxation measurements). The experimental results are shown to be in excellent agreement with theoretical calculations based on a minimal spin model Hamiltonian, which includes a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. The first ground state level crossing at ?0Hc1 = 2.15 T is found to be an almost true LC while the second LC at ?0Hc2 = 6.95 T has an anti-crossing gap of ?12 = 0.19 K. In addition, both NMR and specific heat measurements show the presence of a level anti-crossing between excited states at ?0H = 4.5 T as predicted by the theory. In all cases, the fit of the experimental data is improved by introducing a distribution of the isotropic exchange couplings (J), i.e., using a J strain model. The peaks at the first and second LCs in the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate are dominated by inelastic scattering and a value of ? ? 10(10) rad/s is inferred for the life time broadening of the excited state of the open ring, due to spin phonon interaction. A loss of NMR signal (wipe-out effect) is observed for the first time at LC and is explained by the enhancement of the spin-spin relaxation rate due to the inelastic scattering. PMID:26723685

  11. Low temperature magnetic properties and spin dynamics in single crystals of Cr8Zn antiferromagnetic molecular rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelnia, Fatemeh; Chiesa, Alessandro; Bordignon, Sara; Carretta, Stefano; Ghirri, Alberto; Candini, Andrea; Cervetti, Christian; Evangelisti, Marco; Affronte, Marco; Sheikin, Ilya; Winpenny, Richard; Timco, Grigore; Borsa, Ferdinando; Lascialfari, Alessandro

    2015-12-01

    A detailed experimental investigation of the effects giving rise to the magnetic energy level structure in the vicinity of the level crossing (LC) at low temperature is reported for the open antiferromagnetic molecular ring Cr8Zn. The study is conducted by means of thermodynamic techniques (torque magnetometry, magnetization and specific heat measurements) and microscopic techniques (nuclear magnetic resonance line width, nuclear spin lattice, and spin-spin relaxation measurements). The experimental results are shown to be in excellent agreement with theoretical calculations based on a minimal spin model Hamiltonian, which includes a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. The first ground state level crossing at ?0Hc1 = 2.15 T is found to be an almost true LC while the second LC at ?0Hc2 = 6.95 T has an anti-crossing gap of ?12 = 0.19 K. In addition, both NMR and specific heat measurements show the presence of a level anti-crossing between excited states at ?0H = 4.5 T as predicted by the theory. In all cases, the fit of the experimental data is improved by introducing a distribution of the isotropic exchange couplings (J), i.e., using a J strain model. The peaks at the first and second LCs in the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate are dominated by inelastic scattering and a value of ? 1010 rad/s is inferred for the life time broadening of the excited state of the open ring, due to spin phonon interaction. A loss of NMR signal (wipe-out effect) is observed for the first time at LC and is explained by the enhancement of the spin-spin relaxation rate due to the inelastic scattering.

  12. Quantum cognition: The possibility of processing with nuclear spins in the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Matthew P. A.

    2015-11-01

    The possibility that quantum processing with nuclear spins might be operative in the brain is explored. Phosphorus is identified as the unique biological element with a nuclear spin that can serve as a qubit for such putative quantum processing-a neural qubit-while the phosphate ion is the only possible qubit-transporter. We identify the "Posner molecule", Ca9(PO4)6, as the unique molecule that can protect the neural qubits on very long times and thereby serve as a (working) quantum-memory. A central requirement for quantum-processing is quantum entanglement. It is argued that the enzyme catalyzed chemical reaction which breaks a pyrophosphate ion into two phosphate ions can quantum entangle pairs of qubits. Posner molecules, formed by binding such phosphate pairs with extracellular calcium ions, will inherit the nuclear spin entanglement. A mechanism for transporting Posner molecules into presynaptic neurons during vesicle endocytosis is proposed. Quantum measurements can occur when a pair of Posner molecules chemically bind and subsequently melt, releasing a shower of intra-cellular calcium ions that can trigger further neurotransmitter release and enhance the probability of post-synaptic neuron firing. Multiple entangled Posner molecules, triggering non-local quantum correlations of neuron firing rates, would provide the key mechanism for neural quantum processing. Implications, both in vitro and in vivo, are briefly mentioned.

  13. {sigma}-nuclear spin-orbit coupling from two-pion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, N.

    2007-12-15

    Using SU(3) chiral perturbation theory we calculate the density-dependent complex-valued spin-orbit coupling strength U{sub {sigma}}{sub ls}(k{sub f})+iW{sub {sigma}}{sub ls}(k{sub f}) of a {sigma} hyperon in the nuclear medium. The leading long-range {sigma}N interaction arises from iterated one-pion exchange with a {lambda} or a {sigma} hyperon in the intermediate state. We find from this unique long-range dynamics a sizable ''wrong-sign'' spin-orbit coupling strength of U{sub {sigma}}{sub ls}(k{sub f0}){approx_equal}-20 MeV fm{sup 2} at normal nuclear matter density {rho}{sub 0}=0.16 fm{sup -3}. The strong {sigma}N{yields}{lambda}N conversion process contributes at the same time an imaginary part of W{sub {sigma}}{sub ls}(k{sub f0}){approx_equal}-12 MeV fm{sup 2}. When combined with estimates of the short-range contribution the total {sigma}-nuclear spin-orbit coupling becomes rather weak.

  14. Efficient calculation of nuclear spin-rotation constants from auxiliary density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Zuniga-Gutierrez, Bernardo; Camacho-Gonzalez, Monica; Bendana-Castillo, Alfonso; Simon-Bastida, Patricia; Calaminici, Patrizia; Köster, Andreas M

    2015-09-14

    The computation of the spin-rotation tensor within the framework of auxiliary density functional theory (ADFT) in combination with the gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO) scheme, to treat the gauge origin problem, is presented. For the spin-rotation tensor, the calculation of the magnetic shielding tensor represents the most demanding computational task. Employing the ADFT-GIAO methodology, the central processing unit time for the magnetic shielding tensor calculation can be dramatically reduced. In this work, the quality of spin-rotation constants obtained with the ADFT-GIAO methodology is compared with available experimental data as well as with other theoretical results at the Hartree-Fock and coupled-cluster level of theory. It is found that the agreement between the ADFT-GIAO results and the experiment is good and very similar to the ones obtained by the coupled-cluster single-doubles-perturbative triples-GIAO methodology. With the improved computational performance achieved, the computation of the spin-rotation tensors of large systems or along Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics trajectories becomes feasible in reasonable times. Three models of carbon fullerenes containing hundreds of atoms and thousands of basis functions are used for benchmarking the performance. Furthermore, a theoretical study of temperature effects on the structure and spin-rotation tensor of the H(12)C-(12)CH-DF complex is presented. Here, the temperature dependency of the spin-rotation tensor of the fluorine nucleus can be used to identify experimentally the so far unknown bent isomer of this complex. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that temperature effects on the spin-rotation tensor are investigated. PMID:26374014

  15. Efficient calculation of nuclear spin-rotation constants from auxiliary density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuniga-Gutierrez, Bernardo; Camacho-Gonzalez, Monica; Bendana-Castillo, Alfonso; Simon-Bastida, Patricia; Calaminici, Patrizia; Kster, Andreas M.

    2015-09-01

    The computation of the spin-rotation tensor within the framework of auxiliary density functional theory (ADFT) in combination with the gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO) scheme, to treat the gauge origin problem, is presented. For the spin-rotation tensor, the calculation of the magnetic shielding tensor represents the most demanding computational task. Employing the ADFT-GIAO methodology, the central processing unit time for the magnetic shielding tensor calculation can be dramatically reduced. In this work, the quality of spin-rotation constants obtained with the ADFT-GIAO methodology is compared with available experimental data as well as with other theoretical results at the Hartree-Fock and coupled-cluster level of theory. It is found that the agreement between the ADFT-GIAO results and the experiment is good and very similar to the ones obtained by the coupled-cluster single-doubles-perturbative triples-GIAO methodology. With the improved computational performance achieved, the computation of the spin-rotation tensors of large systems or along Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics trajectories becomes feasible in reasonable times. Three models of carbon fullerenes containing hundreds of atoms and thousands of basis functions are used for benchmarking the performance. Furthermore, a theoretical study of temperature effects on the structure and spin-rotation tensor of the H12C-12CH-DF complex is presented. Here, the temperature dependency of the spin-rotation tensor of the fluorine nucleus can be used to identify experimentally the so far unknown bent isomer of this complex. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that temperature effects on the spin-rotation tensor are investigated.

  16. Competition between electric field and magnetic field noise in the decoherence of a single spin in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamonneau, P.; Lesik, M.; Tetienne, J. P.; Alvizu, I.; Mayer, L.; Dréau, A.; Kosen, S.; Roch, J.-F.; Pezzagna, S.; Meijer, J.; Teraji, T.; Kubo, Y.; Bertet, P.; Maze, J. R.; Jacques, V.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the impact of electric field and magnetic field fluctuations in the decoherence of the electronic spin associated with a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect in diamond. To this end, we tune the amplitude of a magnetic field in order to engineer spin eigenstates protected either against magnetic noise or against electric noise. The competition between these noise sources is analyzed quantitatively by changing their relative strength through modifications of the host diamond material. This study provides significant insights into the decoherence of the NV electronic spin, which is valuable for quantum metrology and sensing applications.

  17. Nuclear Magnetic Spin-Noise and Unusual Relaxation of Oxygen-17 in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendet-Taicher, Eli

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have evolved into widely used techniques, providing diagnostic power in medicine and material sciences due to their high precision and non-invasive nature. Due to the small population differences between spin energy states, a significant sensitivity problem for NMR arises. The low sensitivity of NMR is probably its greatest limitation for applications to biological systems. An alternative probe tuning strategy based on the spin-noise response for application in standard one-dimensional and common high-resolution multidimensional standard biomolecular NMR experiments has shown an increase of up to 50% signal-to-noise (SNR) in one-dimensional NMR experiments and an increase of up to 22% in multi-dimensional ones. The method requires the adjustment of the optimal tuning condition, which may be offset by several hundreds kHz from the conventional tuning settings using the noise response of the water protons as an indicator. This work is described in the first part of the thesis (chapters 2--3). The second part (Chapter 4) of the thesis deals with anomalous oxygen-17 NMR relaxation behavior in water. Oxygen-17 (17O), which has spin of 5/2 and a natural abundance of 0.0373% possesses an electric quadrupole moment. Spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation occur by the quadrupole interaction, while the J-coupling to 1H spins and exchange are deciding factors. T1 and T2 of 17O in water have been previously measured over a large range of temperatures. The spin-spin relaxation times of 17O as a function of temperature show an anomalous behaviour, expressed by a local maximum at the temperature of maximum density (TMD) of water. It is shown that the same anomalous behaviour shifts to the respective temperatures of maximum density for H2O/D2O solutions with different compositions and salt concentrations. This phenomenon can be correlated to the pH dependency of T2 of 17O in water, and water proton exchange rates at low temperatures that are close to TMD. The investigation of these effects forms the second topic in my thesis. In Chapter 1, some concepts of NMR are introduced as a background to the research work presented. In addition, quadrupolar dynamics of spin-5/2 nuclei is presented to provide the theoretical basis to understand the underlying concepts in Chapter 4. Chapters 2,3 are dedicated to the spin-noise phenomenon and its applications in enhancing SNR, which are based on recent articles, which I authored and co-authored [1, 2]. Chapter 4 is dedicated to research work that centers on the unusual spin-spin relaxation of 17O in water around the TMD. [1] E. Bendet-Taicher, N. Muller, A. Jerschow, Dependence of NMR noise line shapes on tuning, matching, and transmission line properties, Concepts Magn. Reson., 44 (2014) 1--11. [2] M. Nausner, M. Goger, E. Bendet-Taicher, J. Schlagnitweit, A. Jerschow, N. Muller, Signal enhancement in protein NMR using the spin-noise tuning optimum, J Biomol Nmr, 48 (2010) 157--167.

  18. Self-diffusion of linear and cyclic alkanes, measured with pulsed-gradient spin-echo nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Meerwall, E.; Ozisik, R.; Mattice, W. L.; Pfister, P. M.

    2003-02-01

    Self-diffusion coefficients of linear and cyclic alkanes in melt, in blends with equivalent linear alkanes, and dissolved in linear polyethylene, were measured by pulsed-gradient spin-echo nuclear magnetic resonance at various temperatures. The results indicate the following: (i) at the same carbon number, cyclic alkanes diffuse more slowly than linear alkanes in their respective melts, but linears and cyclics share a similar rapid rate of decrease with increasing carbon number; (ii) in blends of linear and cyclic alkanes at the same carbon number the single average diffusion coefficient observed varies monotonically as a function of composition; and (iii) two distinct diffusion coefficients are observed in the cycloalkane/linear polyethylene blends, with the extrapolated trace cycloalkane diffusion consistent with Rouse behavior. The results are compared with recent numerical simulations and with experiments in other polymer systems, forming a consistent picture of the effects of diffusant mass, molecular shape and flexibility, and the dynamic attributes of the host material.

  19. A NEW METHOD FOR EXTRACTING SPIN-DEPENDENT NEUTRON STRUCTURE FUNCTIONS FROM NUCLEAR DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, Y.F.; Melnitchouk, W.

    2009-01-01

    High-energy electrons are currently the best probes of the internal structure of nucleons (protons and neutrons). By collecting data on electrons scattering off light nuclei, such as deuterium and helium, one can extract structure functions (SFs), which encode information about the quarks that make up the nucleon. Spin-dependent SFs, which depend on the relative polarization of the electron beam and the target nucleus, encode quark spins. Proton SFs can be measured directly from electron-proton scattering, but those of the neutron must be extracted from proton data and deuterium or helium-3 data because free neutron targets do not exist. At present, there is no reliable method for accurately determining spin-dependent neutron SFs in the low-momentum-transfer regime, where nucleon resonances are prominent and the functions are not smooth. The focus of this study was to develop a new method for extracting spin-dependent neutron SFs from nuclear data. An approximate convolution formula for nuclear SFs reduces the problem to an integral equation, for which a recursive solution method was designed. The method was then applied to recent data from proton and deuterium scattering experiments to perform a preliminary extraction of spin-dependent neutron SFs in the resonance region. The extraction method was found to reliably converge for arbitrary test functions, and the validity of the extraction from data was verifi ed using a Bjorken integral, which relates integrals of SFs to a known quantity. This new information on neutron structure could be used to assess quark-hadron duality for the neutron, which requires detailed knowledge of SFs in all kinematic regimes.

  20. Robust micromagnet design for fast electrical manipulations of single spins in quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, Jun; Otsuka, Tomohiro; Takakura, Tatsuki; Pioro-Ladrire, Michel; Brunner, Roland; Lu, Hong; Nakajima, Takashi; Obata, Toshiaki; Noiri, Akito; Palmstrm, Christopher J.; Gossard, Arthur C.; Tarucha, Seigo

    2015-08-01

    Tailoring spin coupling to electric fields is central to spintronics and spin-based quantum information processing. We present an optimal micromagnet design that produces appropriate stray magnetic fields to mediate fast electrical spin manipulations in nanodevices. We quantify the practical requirements for spatial field inhomogeneity and tolerance for misalignment with spins, and propose a design scheme to improve the spin-rotation frequency (to exceed 50 MHz in GaAs nanostructures). We then validate our design by experiments in separate devices. Our results will open a route to rapidly control solid-state electron spins with limited lifetimes and to study coherent spin dynamics in solids.