Sample records for single transient test

  1. The single-blow transient testing technique for plate–fin heat exchangers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xing Luo; Wilfried Roetzel

    2001-01-01

    A new model of the single-blow problem is proposed, considering the lateral heat conduction resistance along the fins, the axial heat conduction along the separating plates and the axial thermal dispersion in the fluid. For plate–fin heat exchangers made up of stainless steel, the effect of the lateral heat conduction resistance along the fins can usually not be neglected. This

  2. Single-Event Transient Testing of Low Dropout PNP Series Linear Voltage Regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adell, Philippe; Allen, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    As demand for high-speed, on-board, digital-processing integrated circuits on spacecraft increases (field-programmable gate arrays and digital signal processors in particular), the need for the next generation point-of-load (POL) regulator becomes a prominent design issue. Shrinking process nodes have resulted in core rails dropping to values close to 1.0 V, drastically reducing margin to standard switching converters or regulators that power digital ICs. The goal of this task is to perform SET characterization of several commercial POL converters, and provide a discussion of the impact of these results to state-of-the-art digital processing IC through laser and heavy ion testing

  3. Single Event Transients in Low Voltage Dropout (LVDO) Voltage Regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, K.; Karsh, J.; Pursley, S.; Kleyner, I.; Katz, R.; Poivey, C.; Kim, H.; Seidleck, C.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of Low Voltage Dropout (LVDO) Voltage Regulators in environments where heavy ion induced Single Event Transients are a concern to the designers.Included in the presentation are results of tests of voltage regulators.

  4. Columbia University flow instability experimental program: Volume 12. Single annulus transient test program data tables: Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    The single annulus test program was designed to investigate the onset of flow instability in an annular geometry similar to the fuel assemblies used in the Savannah River Site production reactors. Data files were transmitted from Columbia University to Savannah River Site in a DOS compatible format. This report provides a hardcopy version of the electronic media data files.

  5. Channel Transient Simulation Test Figure 1 Channel Transient Test Circuit with 9-bit differential PRBS

    E-print Network

    Palermo, Sam

    Channel Transient Simulation Test Figure 1 Channel Transient Test Circuit with 9-bit differential PRBS Figure 2 Input 9-bit differential PRBS measured at Test+ and Test- #12;Channel Transient6.s4p #12;Channel Transient Simulation Test Figure 6 Waveforms at IN+ and IN- using peters_01_0605_B

  6. Igniter heater EMI transient test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1989-01-01

    Testing to evaluate Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor igniter heater electromagnetic interference (EMI) effects on the Safe and Arm (S and A) device was completed. It was suspected that EMI generated by the igniter heater and it's associated electromechanical relay could cause a premature firing of the NASA Standard Initiators (NSIs) inside the S and A. The maximum voltage induced into the NSI fire lines was 1/4 of the NASA specified no-fire limit of one volt (SKB 26100066). As a result, the igniter heaters are not expected to have any adverse EMI effects on the NSIs. The results did show, however, that power switching causes occasional high transients within the igniter heater power cable. These transients could affect the sensitive equipment inside the forward skirt. It is therefore recommended that the electromechanical igniter heater relays be replaced with zero crossing solid state relays. If the solid state relays are installed, it is also recommended that they be tested for EMI transient effects.

  7. Single-Event Transients in Voltage Regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Allan H.; Miyahira, Tetsuo F.; Irom, F.; Laird, Jamie S.

    2006-01-01

    Single-event transients are investigated for two voltage regulator circuits that are widely used in space. A circuit-level model is developed that can be used to determine how transients are affected by different circuit application conditions. Internal protection circuits-which are affected by load as well as internal thermal effects-can also be triggered from heavy ions, causing dropouts or shutdown ranging from milliseconds to seconds. Although conventional output transients can be reduced by adding load capacitance, that approach is ineffective for dropouts from protection circuitry.

  8. Columbia University Flow Instability Experimental Program, Volume 13: Single annulus transient test program data tables, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report is one of a series of reports which document the flow instability testing conducted by Columbia University during 1989 through 1992. This testing was completed as part of AX1811457. This report volume provides a hardcopy version of the thirty-four electronic media files: SA0914(A-H).DAT, SAT0609(A-N).DAT, SAT0612(A-O).DAT.

  9. Transient Rayleigh scattering from single semiconductor nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Montazeri, Mohammad; Jackson, Howard E.; Smith, Leigh M. [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0011 (United States); Yarrison-Rice, Jan M. [Department of Physics, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 (United States); Kang, Jung-Hyun; Gao, Qiang; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2013-12-04

    Transient Rayleigh scattering spectroscopy is a new pump-probe technique to study the dynamics and cooling of photo-excited carriers in single semiconductor nanowires. By studying the evolution of the transient Rayleigh spectrum in time after excitation, one can measure the time evolution of the density and temperature of photo-excited electron-hole plasma (EHP) as they equilibrate with lattice. This provides detailed information of dynamics and cooling of carriers including linear and bimolecular recombination properties, carrier transport characteristics, and the energy-loss rate of hot electron-hole plasma through the emission of LO and acoustic phonons.

  10. Features of postfailure fuel behavior in transient overpower and transient undercooled\\/overpower tests in the transient reactor test facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Doerner; T. H. Bauer; J. A. Morman; J. W. Holland

    1992-01-01

    Prototypic oxide fuel was subjected to simulated, fast reactor severe accident conditions in a series of in-pile tests in the Transient Reactor Test Facility reactor. Seven experiments were performed on fresh and previously irradiated oxide fuel pins under transient overpower and transient undercooled. overpower accident conditions. For each of the tests, fuel motions were observed by the hodoscope. Hodoscope data

  11. Single Event Transients in Linear Integrated Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchner, Stephen; McMorrow, Dale

    2005-01-01

    On November 5, 2001, a processor reset occurred on board the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP), a NASA mission to measure the anisotropy of the microwave radiation left over from the Big Bang. The reset caused the spacecraft to enter a safehold mode from which it took several days to recover. Were that to happen regularly, the entire mission would be compromised, so it was important to find the cause of the reset and, if possible, to mitigate it. NASA assembled a team of engineers that included experts in radiation effects to tackle the problem. The first clue was the observation that the processor reset occurred during a solar event characterized by large increases in the proton and heavy ion fluxes emitted by the sun. To the radiation effects engineers on the team, this strongly suggested that particle radiation might be the culprit, particularly when it was discovered that the reset circuit contained three voltage comparators (LM139). Previous testing revealed that large voltage transients, or glitches appeared at the output of the LM139 when it was exposed to a beam of heavy ions [NI96]. The function of the reset circuit was to monitor the supply voltage and to issue a reset command to the processor should the voltage fall below a reference of 2.5 V [PO02]. Eventually, the team of engineers concluded that ionizing particle radiation from the solar event produced a negative voltage transient on the output of one of the LM139s sufficiently large to reset the processor on MAP. Fortunately, as of the end of 2004, only two such resets have occurred. The reset on MAP was not the first malfunction on a spacecraft attributed to a transient. That occurred shortly after the launch of NASA s TOPEX/Poseidon satellite in 1992. It was suspected, and later confirmed, that an anomaly in the Earth Sensor was caused by a transient in an operational amplifier (OP-15) [KO93]. Over the next few years, problems on TDRS, CASSINI, [PR02] SOHO [HA99,HA01] and TERRA were also attributed to transients. In some cases, such events produced resets by falsely triggering circuits designed to protect against over- voltage or over-current. On at least three occasions, transients caused satellites to switch into "safe mode" in which most of the systems on board the satellites were powered down for an extended period. By the time the satellites were reconfigured and returned to full operational state, much scientific data had been lost. Fortunately, no permanent damage occurred in any of the systems and they were all successfully re-activated.

  12. International Conference on Power Systems Transients IPST 2003 in Hong Kong Transient Testing of Protection Relays

    E-print Network

    ­ electromagnetic transients, application testing, auto- mated testing, protective relays, digital simulators IInternational Conference on Power Systems Transients ­ IPST 2003 in Hong Kong 1 Transient Testing meth- odology based on the use of transients. The paper outlines examples of test results that can

  13. Results from transient tests and spherical valve closure tests, Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant

    SciTech Connect

    March, P.A.

    1984-09-01

    Tests were conducted at the Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant to obtain data on hydraulic system characteristics during transient-state operation, to compare measured values for system pressures and surge levels with design values, to provide information for review of hydaulic transient computations, and to provide confirmation that the spherical valves are capable of shutting off plant flow under emergency conditions. The tests included single-unit load rejection, single-unit pump power loss, multi-unit emergency shutdown from generating, multi-unit emergency shutdown from pumping, and spherical valve closure.

  14. Transient tests on an MHD thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, E.S. (Purdue Univ., Hammond, IN (United States). Dept. of Engineering); Libera, J.; Petrick, M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.)

    1993-01-01

    Three different types of transient tests were made -- coast downs to zero voltage and current under open circuit and short circuit conditions, reverses where the applied voltage was reversed to the same or a different value, and jumps where the voltage applied to the thruster was increased without a change in polarity. Most except the coast downs were dons both quickly (voltage changes as fast as possible) and slowly (6 s to complete the voltage change). A few slower (12 s) transients were done. Transient runs were made for water conductivities of 16.2 and 5.09 S/m. In all cases steady-state conditions were established and several seconds of data taken before initiating the transients. Data were measured every 0.75 to 1 .5 second over the time interval of interest. Particular attention was paid to looking for evidence of gas bubbles, and to the chance of the voltage profiles between the electrodes. The data are interpreted based on the behavior of the power supply and the thruster.

  15. Transient well testing in two-phase geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Aydelotte, S.R.

    1980-03-01

    A study of well test analysis techniques in two-phase geothermal reservoirs has been conducted using a three-dimensional, two-phase, wellbore and reservoir simulation model. Well tests from Cerro Prieto and the Hawaiian Geothermal project have been history matched. Using these well tests as a base, the influence of reservoir permeability, porosity, thickness, and heat capacity, along with flow rate and fracturing were studied. Single and two-phase transient well test equations were used to analyze these tests with poor results due to rapidly changing fluid properties and inability to calculate the flowing steam saturation in the reservoir. The injection of cold water into the reservoir does give good data from which formation properties can be calculated.

  16. Transient test of suspension electronics for gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, P. H.

    1985-07-01

    The rotor suspension electronics of an electrostatic gyro suspension system is required to perform flawlessly to sustain the life of the gyro. Transient abnormalities as short as one millisecond duration will cause the spinning rotor to come in contact with the surrounding electrodes and result in destruction of the gyro. Thus, not infrequently after a catastrophic dropped rotor incident no trace of the fault is evident upon ensuing check of the system. To remedy this problem a built in test (BIT) system is used to provide fault isolation. The test circuitry is built into the navigation system electronics and integrated with the system program. The fault isolation electronics comprise sensor circuits to monitor functional subdivisions of the electronic suspension system for signal abnormality and a processing circuit which receives the sensor circuit outputs and identifies the primary source of the fault. The faults are detected and the source is flagged at the time of occurrance. The output of the fault isolation electronics is a latched coded readout which is fed to the navigation computer for memory storage and any appropriate follow-up system action, such as power shutdown. After initialization by the computer, the fault isolation function is an automatic operation by the electronic circuitry.

  17. 908 Transient Digitizer Self-Test Modification John Wertenbaker

    E-print Network

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    ;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;908 Transient Digitizer Self-Test Modification John Wertenbaker 9/16/2010 It was discovered that some 908 Transient Digitizers were going into self-test mode

  18. Transient analysis of the 1991 Hijiori Shallow Reservoir Circulation Test

    SciTech Connect

    Hyodo, M.; Shinohara, N.; Takasugi, S.; Wright, C.A.; Conant, R..

    1996-01-24

    Like any dynamic system, HDR reservoirs cannot be fully characterized by their steady-state behavior. Circulation tests analysis should be performed on both the steady-state response and the transient response of HDR systems. Transient analysis allows not only estimation of critical reservoir parameters and how these parameters change with operating conditions / history, but transient analysis also aids in evaluating the feasibility of various modes of HDR system operation (base load, load following, etc.). This paper details the transient analysis of NEDO's FY 1991 Shallow Reservoir Circulation Test at the Hijiori HDR site in Japan. Reservoir fluid storage is carefully bounded through the employment of two distinct methods for calculation of the fluid storage from the observed transient response. A brief discussion is also included of the distribution of reservoir fluid storage; the relationship between pressure, reservoir stress, and apparent reservoir capacitance; and appropriate circulation test design to facilitate transient analysis.

  19. Method and device for measuring single-shot transient signals

    DOEpatents

    Yin, Yan

    2004-05-18

    Methods, apparatus, and systems, including computer program products, implementing and using techniques for measuring multi-channel single-shot transient signals. A signal acquisition unit receives one or more single-shot pulses from a multi-channel source. An optical-fiber recirculating loop reproduces the one or more received single-shot optical pulses to form a first multi-channel pulse train for circulation in the recirculating loop, and a second multi-channel pulse train for display on a display device. The optical-fiber recirculating loop also optically amplifies the first circulating pulse train to compensate for signal losses and performs optical multi-channel noise filtration.

  20. Transient Signal Analysis is a digital device testing method that is based on the analysis of voltage transients at multi-

    E-print Network

    Plusquellic, James

    Abstract Transient Signal Analysis is a digital device testing method that is based on the analysis of voltage transients at multi- ple test points. The power supply transient signals of an 8-bit multiplier-free and defective devices in both simulations and hardware. 1.0 Introduction Transient Signal Analysis (TSA

  1. Transient Signal Analysis is a digital device testing method that is based on the analysis of voltage transients at multi-

    E-print Network

    Plusquellic, James

    Abstract Transient Signal Analysis is a digital device testing method that is based on the analysis of voltage transients at multi- ple test points and on IDD switching transients on the sup- ply rails. We show that it is possible to identify defective devices by analyzing the transient signals produced

  2. Transient Signal Analysis is a digital device testing method that is based on the analysis of voltage transients at multi-

    E-print Network

    Plusquellic, James

    Abstract Transient Signal Analysis is a digital device testing method that is based on the analysis of voltage transients at multi- ple test points and on IDD switching transients on the sup- ply rails. We show that it is possible to identify defective devices by analyzing the transient signals measured

  3. Transient test of suspension electronics for gyroscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. H. Ito

    1985-01-01

    The rotor suspension electronics of an electrostatic gyro suspension system is required to perform flawlessly to sustain the life of the gyro. Transient abnormalities as short as one millisecond duration will cause the spinning rotor to come in contact with the surrounding electrodes and result in destruction of the gyro. Thus, not infrequently after a catastrophic dropped rotor incident no

  4. Single event induced transients in I/O devices - A characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newberry, D. M.; Kaye, D. H.; Soli, G. A.

    1990-01-01

    The results of single-event upset (SEU) testing performed to evaluate the parametric transients, i.e., amplitude and duration, in several I/O devices, and the impact of these transients are discussed. The failure rate of these devices is dependent on the susceptibility of interconnected devices to the resulting transient change in the output of the I/O device. This failure rate, which is a function of the susceptibility of the interconnected device as well as the SEU response of the I/O device itself, may be significantly different from an upset rate calculated without taking these factors into account. The impact at the system level is discussed by way of an example.

  5. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart S of... - Transient Test Driving Cycle

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transient Test Driving Cycle E Appendix...Appendix E to Subpart S of Part 51—Transient Test Driving Cycle (I) Driver's trace. All excursions in the transient driving cycle shall be...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart S of... - Transient Test Driving Cycle

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transient Test Driving Cycle E Appendix...Appendix E to Subpart S of Part 51—Transient Test Driving Cycle (I) Driver's trace. All excursions in the transient driving cycle shall be...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart S of... - Transient Test Driving Cycle

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transient Test Driving Cycle E Appendix...Appendix E to Subpart S of Part 51—Transient Test Driving Cycle (I) Driver's trace. All excursions in the transient driving cycle shall be...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart S of... - Transient Test Driving Cycle

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transient Test Driving Cycle E Appendix...Appendix E to Subpart S of Part 51—Transient Test Driving Cycle (I) Driver's trace. All excursions in the transient driving cycle shall be...

  9. Transient Signal Analysis is a digital device testing method that is based on the analysis of volt-age transients at multiple test points. In this paper, the power supply transient signals from sim-

    E-print Network

    Plusquellic, James

    Abstract Transient Signal Analysis is a digital device testing method that is based on the analysis of volt- age transients at multiple test points. In this paper, the power supply transient signals from and defective devices. 1.0 Introduction Transient Signal Analysis (TSA) is a parametric approach to testing

  10. Behavior of modern metallic fuel in treat transient overpower tests

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, T.H.; Wright, A.E.; Robinson, W.R.; Holland, J.W.; Rhodes, E.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Reactor Analysis and Safety Div.)

    1990-12-01

    In this paper results and analyses of margin to cladding failure and prefailure axial expansion of metallic fuel are reported for Transient Reactor Test Facility in-pile transient overpower tests M2 through M7. These include the first such tests on binary and ternary alloy fuel of the Integral Fast Reactor concept and fuel burnups to 10 at. %. The fuel was tested at full coolant flow and subjected to an exponential power rise on an 8-s period until either incipient or actual cladding failure was achieved Objectives, designs, and methods are described with emphasis on developments unique to metal fuel safety testing. Test results include the following: temperature, flow, and pressure data; fuel motion diagnostic data from the fast neutron hodoscope; and test remains described by both destructive and nondestructive posttest examination.

  11. Transient response characteristics of test chamber Mach number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, P.

    1976-01-01

    The transient dynamic characteristics of a test chamber Mach number was established for a disturbance initiated in the test chamber. An approximate linear expression was given, showing that the change in the Mach number is linearly proportional to the algebraic sum of the static pressure change in the test chamber and the stagnation pressure change. The static pressure change is the dominating factor. The two pressure changes were also calculated for small Mach number variations, and these results were applied to instrumentation requirements.

  12. SINGLE HEATER TEST FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    J.B. Cho

    1999-05-01

    The Single Heater Test is the first of the in-situ thermal tests conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of its program of characterizing Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site for a proposed deep geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. The Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988) contained an extensive plan of in-situ thermal tests aimed at understanding specific aspects of the response of the local rock-mass around the potential repository to the heat from the radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. With the refocusing of the Site Characterization Plan by the ''Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan'' (DOE 1994), a consolidated thermal testing program emerged by 1995 as documented in the reports ''In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (DOE 1995) and ''Updated In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (CRWMS M&O 1997a). The concept of the Single Heater Test took shape in the summer of 1995 and detailed planning and design of the test started with the beginning fiscal year 1996. The overall objective of the Single Heater Test was to gain an understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes that are anticipated to occur in the local rock-mass in the potential repository as a result of heat from radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. This included making a priori predictions of the test results using existing models and subsequently refining or modifying the models, on the basis of comparative and interpretive analyses of the measurements and predictions. A second, no less important, objective was to try out, in a full-scale field setting, the various instruments and equipment to be employed in the future on a much larger, more complex, thermal test of longer duration, such as the Drift Scale Test. This ''shake down'' or trial aspect of the Single Heater Test applied not just to the hardware, but also to the teamwork and cooperation between multiple organizations performing their part in the test.

  13. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart S of... - Transient Test Driving Cycle

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Transient Test Driving Cycle E Appendix...SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Inspection/Maintenance Program...Part 51—Transient Test Driving Cycle (I...these limits shall cause a test to be void. In...

  14. A Technique for Transient Thermal Testing of Thick Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, Thomas J.; Richards, W. Lance; Gong, Leslie

    1997-01-01

    A new open-loop heat flux control technique has been developed to conduct transient thermal testing of thick, thermally-conductive aerospace structures. This technique uses calibration of the radiant heater system power level as a function of heat flux, predicted aerodynamic heat flux, and the properties of an instrumented test article. An iterative process was used to generate open-loop heater power profiles prior to each transient thermal test. Differences between the measured and predicted surface temperatures were used to refine the heater power level command profiles through the iteration process. This iteration process has reduced the effects of environmental and test system design factors, which are normally compensated for by closed-loop temperature control, to acceptable levels. The final revised heater power profiles resulted in measured temperature time histories which deviated less than 25 F from the predicted surface temperatures.

  15. Plasma-Catalysis During Temperature Transient Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Hoard, John

    2001-08-05

    A combination of catalysts is used together with nonthermal plasma in simulated diesel exhaust, while the gas temperature is varied. The catalysts both store and convert pollutants. As a result, pollutant concentrations during temperature ramps are different than those at steady state conditions. The data are presented for plasma followed by BaY, alumina, and Pt catalysts in simulated exhaust. When temperature ramps from high to low, apparent NOx conversion is quite high. However, when temperature is ramped from low to high, lower apparent conversions are seen. In a typical test cycle, average NOx conversion between 100 and 400 C is 60%. Peak conversion during the down ramp is over 90%, and minimum conversion during the up ramp is 30%. The composition of the effluent gas also varies during the temperature cycle. Intermediates such as methyl nitrate and hydrogen cyanide are not present following the combination of catalysts.

  16. Intelligent transient transitions detection of LRE test bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Fengyu; Shen, Zhengguang; Wang, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Health Monitoring Systems is an implementation of monitoring strategies for complex systems whereby avoiding catastrophic failure, extending life and leading to improved asset management. A Health Monitoring Systems generally encompasses intelligence at many levels and sub-systems including sensors, actuators, devices, etc. In this paper, a smart sensor is studied, which is use to detect transient transitions of liquid-propellant rocket engines test bed. In consideration of dramatic changes of variable condition, wavelet decomposition is used to work real time in areas. Contrast to traditional Fourier transform method, the major advantage of adding wavelet analysis is the ability to detect transient transitions as well as obtaining the frequency content using a much smaller data set. Historically, transient transitions were only detected by offline analysis of the data. The methods proposed in this paper provide an opportunity to detect transient transitions automatically as well as many additional data anomalies, and provide improved data-correction and sensor health diagnostic abilities. The developed algorithms have been tested on actual rocket test data.

  17. Parametric Thermal Models of the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT)

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley K. Heath

    2014-03-01

    This work supports the restart of transient testing in the United States using the Department of Energy’s Transient Reactor Test Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory. It also supports the Global Threat Reduction Initiative by reducing proliferation risk of high enriched uranium fuel. The work involves the creation of a nuclear fuel assembly model using the fuel performance code known as BISON. The model simulates the thermal behavior of a nuclear fuel assembly during steady state and transient operational modes. Additional models of the same geometry but differing material properties are created to perform parametric studies. The results show that fuel and cladding thermal conductivity have the greatest effect on fuel temperature under the steady state operational mode. Fuel density and fuel specific heat have the greatest effect for transient operational model. When considering a new fuel type it is recommended to use materials that decrease the specific heat of the fuel and the thermal conductivity of the fuel’s cladding in order to deal with higher density fuels that accompany the LEU conversion process. Data on the latest operating conditions of TREAT need to be attained in order to validate BISON’s results. BISON’s models for TREAT (material models, boundary convection models) are modest and need additional work to ensure accuracy and confidence in results.

  18. Radiation hardness evaluations of 65 nm fully depleted silicon on insulator and bulk processes by measuring single event transient pulse widths and single event upset rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuta, Jun; Sonezaki, Eiji; Kobayashi, Kazutoshi

    2015-04-01

    We measure single event transient (SET) pulse widths on inverter chains and single event upset (SEU) rates on flip-flops (FFs) fabricated in 65 nm fully depleted silicon on insulator (FD-SOI) and bulk processes. The layout designs of test chips are strictly identical between their processes besides buried oxide (BOX) layers. Experimental results show that neutron-induced SEU and SET rates in the FD-SOI process are 230× and 450× lower than those in the bulk process, respectively.

  19. Analysis of Transient Pressure Tests for Olkaria Exploration Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Haukwa, Charles B.

    1987-01-20

    Analysis of transient pressure tests for Olkaria West wells shows that both infinite acting and double porosity models can be used to analyze the well behaviour and infer reservoir properties from fall-off steps of long enough duration, in wells where no significant thermal recovery occurs. The double porosity model gives better estimates of reservoir properties than the infinite acting model, for long fall-off steps in wells intercepting fractures. Semilog methods give fairly good estimates of reservoir transmissivity for the long fall-off steps but are highly inaccurate when used independently, especially for the short fall-off steps conducted in most of the wells. Double porosity models can also be used for recovery test analyses where two phase transients are not significant. 6 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. 40 CFR 1048.510 - What transient duty cycles apply for laboratory testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What transient duty cycles apply for laboratory testing...Test Procedures § 1048.510 What transient duty cycles apply for laboratory testing...Appendix II to determine whether it meets the transient emission standards in §...

  1. 40 CFR 1048.510 - What transient duty cycles apply for laboratory testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What transient duty cycles apply for laboratory testing...Test Procedures § 1048.510 What transient duty cycles apply for laboratory testing...Appendix II to determine whether it meets the transient emission standards in §...

  2. 40 CFR 1048.510 - What transient duty cycles apply for laboratory testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What transient duty cycles apply for laboratory testing...Test Procedures § 1048.510 What transient duty cycles apply for laboratory testing...Appendix II to determine whether it meets the transient emission standards in §...

  3. 40 CFR 1048.510 - What transient duty cycles apply for laboratory testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What transient duty cycles apply for laboratory testing...Test Procedures § 1048.510 What transient duty cycles apply for laboratory testing...Appendix II to determine whether it meets the transient emission standards in §...

  4. 40 CFR 1048.510 - What transient duty cycles apply for laboratory testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What transient duty cycles apply for laboratory testing...Test Procedures § 1048.510 What transient duty cycles apply for laboratory testing...Appendix II to determine whether it meets the transient emission standards in §...

  5. Heavy-ion-induced digital single event transients in a 180 nm fully depleted SOI process

    E-print Network

    Gouker, Pascale M.

    Heavy-ion-induced single events transients (SETs) in advanced digital circuits are a significant reliability issue for space-based systems. SET pulse widths in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technologies are often significantly ...

  6. Results of Single-Event Transient Measurements Conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farokh Irom; Tetsuo F. Miyahira

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports recent single-event transient results for a variety of microelectronic devices that include differential line receivers, drivers and transceiver. The data was collected to evaluate these devices for possible use in NASA spacecraft.

  7. 40 CFR 1039.510 - Which duty cycles do I use for transient testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Which duty cycles do I use for transient testing? 1039.510 Section 1039...510 Which duty cycles do I use for transient testing? (a) Measure emissions...dynamometer with one of the following transient duty cycles to determine whether it...

  8. 40 CFR 1039.510 - Which duty cycles do I use for transient testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Which duty cycles do I use for transient testing? 1039.510 Section 1039...510 Which duty cycles do I use for transient testing? (a) Measure emissions...dynamometer with one of the following transient duty cycles to determine whether it...

  9. 40 CFR 1039.510 - Which duty cycles do I use for transient testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Which duty cycles do I use for transient testing? 1039.510 Section 1039...510 Which duty cycles do I use for transient testing? (a) Measure emissions...dynamometer with one of the following transient duty cycles to determine whether it...

  10. 40 CFR 1039.510 - Which duty cycles do I use for transient testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Which duty cycles do I use for transient testing? 1039.510 Section 1039...510 Which duty cycles do I use for transient testing? (a) Measure emissions...dynamometer with one of the following transient duty cycles to determine whether it...

  11. 40 CFR 1039.510 - Which duty cycles do I use for transient testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Which duty cycles do I use for transient testing? 1039.510 Section 1039...510 Which duty cycles do I use for transient testing? (a) Measure emissions...dynamometer with one of the following transient duty cycles to determine whether it...

  12. Large transient fault current test of an electrical roll ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yenni, Edward J.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    1992-01-01

    The space station uses precision rotary gimbals to provide for sun tracking of its photoelectric arrays. Electrical power, command signals and data are transferred across the gimbals by roll rings. Roll rings have been shown to be capable of highly efficient electrical transmission and long life, through tests conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center and Honeywell's Satellite and Space Systems Division in Phoenix, AZ. Large potential fault currents inherent to the power system's DC distribution architecture, have brought about the need to evaluate the effects of large transient fault currents on roll rings. A test recently conducted at Lewis subjected a roll ring to a simulated worst case space station electrical fault. The system model used to obtain the fault profile is described, along with details of the reduced order circuit that was used to simulate the fault. Test results comparing roll ring performance before and after the fault are also presented.

  13. Behavior of metallic fuel in treat transient overpower tests

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, T.H.; Wright, A.E.; Robinson, W.R.; Klickman, A.E.

    1988-01-01

    Results and analyses are reported for TREAT in-pile transient overpower tests of margin to cladding failure and pre-failure axial expansion of metallic fuel. In all cases the power rise was exponential on an 8 s period until either incipient or actual cladding failure was achieved. Test fuel included EBR-II driver fuel and ternary alloy, the reference fuel of the Intergral Fast Reactor concept. Test pin burnup spanned the widest range available. The nature of the observed cladding failure and resultant fuel dispersals is described. Simple models are presented which describe observed cladding failures and pre-failure axial expansions yet are general enough to apply to all metal fuel types.

  14. Single Event Transients in Voltage Regulators for FPGA Power Supply Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poivey, Christian; Sanders, Anthony; Kim, Hak; Phan, Anthony; Forney, Jim; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Karsh, Jeremy; Pursley, Scott; Kleyner, Igor; Katz, Richard

    2006-01-01

    As with other bipolar analog devices, voltage regulators are known to be sensitive to single event transients (SET). In typical applications, large output capacitors are used to provide noise immunity. Therefore, since SET amplitude and duration are generally small, they are often of secondary importance due to this capacitance filtering. In low voltage applications, however, even small SET are a concern. Over-voltages may cause destructive conditions. Under-voltages may cause functional interrupts and may also trigger electrical latchup conditions. In addition, internal protection circuits which are affected by load as well as internal thermal effects can also be triggered from heavy ions, causing dropouts or shutdown ranging from milliseconds to seconds. In the case of FPGA power supplies applications, SETS are critical. For example, in the case of Actel FPGA RTAX family, core power supply voltage is 1.5V. Manufacturer specifies an absolute maximum rating of 1.6V and recommended operating conditions between 1.425V and 1.575V. Therefore, according to the manufacturer, any transient of amplitude greater than 75 mV can disrupt normal circuit functions, and overvoltages greater than 100 mV may damage the FPGA. We tested five low dropout voltage regulators for SET sensitivity under a large range of circuit application conditions.

  15. Transient Analysis Used to Study Thermal Radiation Effects in Single and Composite Semitransparent Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In a continuing in-house program at the NASA Lewis Research Center, analytical and numerical methods are being developed to apply radiative analysis to predict transient temperature distributions and heat flows in partially transmitting materials. Results have been obtained for a single plane layer, and a transient analysis is being developed for a two-layer composite where each layer has a different refractive index. Because the ceramic refractive indices are larger than one, internal reflections are produced at the surfaces and at the internal interface. Reflections tend to distribute energy within a layer, and this affects the transient temperature distributions.

  16. Generation of single-cycle THz transients with high electric-field amplitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Bartel; P. Gaal; K. Reimann; Michael Woerner; Thomas Elsaesser

    2005-01-01

    Single-cycle terahertz (THz) transients in the frequency range 0.3-7 THz with electric-field amplitudes of more than 400 kV\\/cm are generated by four-wave mixing of the fundamental and the second harmonic of 25 fs pulses from a Ti:sapphire amplifier in ionized air. These transients are fully characterized by electro-optic sampling with ZnTe and GaP crystals. One can tune the center frequency

  17. PFR\\/Treat Safety Experiments: HEDL Transient Test Program Engineering Test Plan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Hoffman; I. L. Metcalf; D. L. Myron

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the PFR\\/TREAT Safety Test Program is to obtain experimental data of fuel pin behavior during hypothetical, unprotected accidents for cores of large liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors. The steady state and transient experiments, which will be performed under the joint program, are to be as prototypic of fast reactor performance as is possible. The specific objectives

  18. Slow transient overpower tests - C04, C05 and L03. [LMFBR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. Culley; R. Herbert; D. L. Myron; M. H. Wood; G. R. Bowen

    1984-01-01

    Among the low probability LMFBR accident scenarios addressed by the collaborative US\\/UK transient testing program is the slow transient overpower ramp resulting from the hypothetical event of a control rod runaway with failure to trip. This has been simulated in US's TREAT facility with three tests on irradiated driver fuel from the UK's Prototype Fast Reactor. Tests C04 and C05

  19. Single-voxel recording of voltage transients in dendritic spines.

    PubMed

    Acker, Corey D; Yan, Ping; Loew, Leslie M

    2011-07-20

    We report sensitive recording of membrane potential in single dendritic spines in cortical neurons within a brain slice using two-photon excitation and a new, fluorinated, intracellularly loaded organic dye, di-2-AN(F)EPPTEA. With a two-photon excitation wavelength of 1060 nm, we achieve voltage sensitivity of >16% change in fluorescence per 100 mV. By targeting single spines in single-voxel recordings, we attain excellent single/noise quality, with back-propagating action potentials (bAPs) visible in single sweeps while recording at 10 kHz. This recording rate allows us to reliably assess fast bAP dynamics on single sweeps including bAP rise times of 0.5 ms. The amplitude and propagation delays of the bAPs are similar among different spines located within the same dendritic region, and this is true despite large differences in spine size. The interregion differences in bAP waveforms in spines vary in relation to their distance from the soma and the caliber of their parent dendrites. PMID:21767473

  20. Irisin in Blood Increases Transiently after Single Sessions of Intense Endurance Exercise and Heavy Strength Training

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Håvard; Slettaløkken, Gunnar; Vegge, Geir; Hollan, Ivana; Whist, Jon Elling; Strand, Tor; Rønnestad, Bent R.; Ellefsen, Stian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Irisin is a recently identified exercise-induced hormone that increases energy expenditure, at least in rodents. The main purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that Irisin increases acutely in blood after singular sessions of intense endurance exercise (END) and heavy strength training (STR). Secondary, we wanted to explore the relationship between body composition and exercise-induced effects on irisin, and the effect of END and STR on muscular expression of the irisin gene FNDC5. Methods Nine moderately trained healthy subjects performed three test days using a randomized and standardized crossover design: one day with 60 minutes of END, one day with 60 minutes of STR, and one day without exercise (CON). Venous blood was sampled over a period of 24h on the exercise days. Results Both END and STR led to transient increases in irisin concentrations in blood, peaking immediately after END and one hour after STR, before gradually returning to baseline. Irisin responses to STR, but not END, showed a consistently strong negative correlation with proportions of lean body mass. Neither END nor STR affected expression of FNDC5, measured 4h after training sessions, though both protocols led to pronounced increases in PGC-1? expression, which is involved in transcriptional control of FNDC5. Conclusion The results strongly suggest that single sessions of intense endurance exercise and heavy strength training lead to transient increases in irisin concentrations in blood. This was not accompanied by increased FNDC5 expression, measured 4h post-exercise. The results suggest that irisin responses to resistance exercise are higher in individuals with lower proportions of lean body mass. PMID:25781950

  1. Single cell pattern formation and transient cytoskeletal arrays

    PubMed Central

    Bement, William M.; von Dassow, George

    2015-01-01

    A major goal of developmental biology is to explain the emergence of pattern in cell layers, tissues and organs. Developmental biologists now accept that reaction diffusion-based mechanisms are broadly employed in developing organisms to direct pattern formation. Here we briefly consider these mechanisms and then apply some of the concepts derived from them to several processes that occur in single cells: wound repair, yeast budding, and cytokinesis. Two conclusions emerge from this analysis: first, there is considerable overlap at the level of general mechanisms between developmental and single cell pattern formation; second, dynamic structures based on the actin cytoskeleton may be far more ordered than is generally recognized. PMID:24529246

  2. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 1037 - Heavy-Duty Transient Chassis Test Cycle

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...342012-07-01 2012-07-01false Heavy-Duty Transient Chassis Test CycleI Appendix I to Part 1037Protection...1037, App. I Appendix I to Part 1037—Heavy-Duty Transient Chassis Test CycleTimesec. SpeedmphSpeedm/s...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 1037 - Heavy-Duty Transient Chassis Test Cycle

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...332014-07-01 2014-07-01false Heavy-Duty Transient Chassis Test CycleI Appendix I to Part 1037Protection...1037, App. I Appendix I to Part 1037—Heavy-Duty Transient Chassis Test CycleTimesec. SpeedmphSpeedm/s...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 1037 - Heavy-Duty Transient Chassis Test Cycle

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...342013-07-01 2013-07-01false Heavy-Duty Transient Chassis Test CycleI Appendix I to Part 1037Protection...1037, App. I Appendix I to Part 1037—Heavy-Duty Transient Chassis Test CycleTimesec. SpeedmphSpeedm/s...

  5. Single Sample t-Test

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lowry, Richard, 1940-

    This page will perform a t-test for the significance of the difference between the observed mean of a sample and a hypothetical mean of the population from which the sample is randomly drawn. The user will be asked to specify the sample size as the page opens.

  6. Laboratory tests for single-event effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Buchner; D. McMorrow; J. Melinger; A. B. Camdbell

    1996-01-01

    Integrated circuits are currently tested at accelerators for their susceptibility to single-event effects (SEE's). However, because of the cost and limited accessibility associated with accelerator testing, there is considerable interest in developing alternate testing methods. Two laboratory techniques for measuring SEE, one involving a pulsed laser and the other 252Cf, are described in detail in this paper. The pulsed laser

  7. Revisiting single photon avalanche diode current-voltage modeling and transient characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Javitt, M.; Savuskan, V., E-mail: savuskan@tx.technion.ac.il; Merhav, T. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Nemirovsky, Y. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Kinneret College on the Sea of Galilee (Israel)

    2014-05-28

    A model for the current-voltage and transient behavior of Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) based on device physics is presented. The results of the model are compared to actual measurements and a reasonable fit is seen. Additionally, the model provides a useful tool for designing quenching circuitry and determining optimal operation conditions of the SPAD.

  8. Digital Computer Solution of Electromagnetic Transients in Single-and Multiphase Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hermann Dommel

    1969-01-01

    Electromagnetic transients in arbitrary single- or multiphase networks are solved by a nodal admittance matrix method. The formulation is based on the method of characteristics for distributed parameters and the trapezoidal rule of integration for lumped parameters. Optimally ordered triangular factorization with sparsity techniques is used in the solution. Examples and programming details illustrate the practicality of the method.

  9. Arsenazo III and antipyrylazo III calcium transients in single skeletal muscle fibers

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    The metallochrome calcium indicators arsenazo III and antipyrylazo III have been introduced individually into cut single frog skeletal muscle fibers from which calcium transients have been elicited either by action potential stimulation or by voltage-clamp pulses of up to 50 ms in duration. Calcium transients recorded with both dyes at selected wavelengths have similar characteristics when elicited by action potentials. Longer voltage-clamp pulse stimulation reveals differences in the late phases of the optical signals obtained with the two dyes. The effects of different tension blocking methods on Ca transients were compared experimentally. Internal application of EGTA at concentrations up to 3 mM was demonstrated to be efficient in blocking movement artifacts without affecting Ca transients. Higher EGTA concentrations affect the Ca signals' characteristics. Differential effects of internally applied EGTA on tension development as opposed to calcium transients suggest that diffusion with binding from Ca++ release sites to filament overlap sites may be significant. The spectral characteristics of the absorbance transients recorded with arsenazo III suggest that in situ recorded signals cannot be easily interpreted in terms of Ca concentration changes. A more exhaustic knowledge of the dye chemistry and/or in situ complications in the use of the dye will be necessary. PMID:6802933

  10. Successful Transient Expression of Cas9 and Single Guide RNA Genes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wenzhi; Brueggeman, Andrew J.; Horken, Kempton M.; Plucinak, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 system has become a powerful and precise tool for targeted gene modification (e.g., gene knockout and gene replacement) in numerous eukaryotic organisms. Initial attempts to apply this technology to a model, the single-cell alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, failed to yield cells containing edited genes. To determine if the Cas9 and single guide RNA (sgRNA) genes were functional in C. reinhardtii, we tested the ability of a codon-optimized Cas9 gene along with one of four different sgRNAs to cause targeted gene disruption during a 24-h period immediately following transformation. All three exogenously supplied gene targets as well as the endogenous FKB12 (rapamycin sensitivity) gene of C. reinhardtii displayed distinct Cas9/sgRNA-mediated target site modifications as determined by DNA sequencing of cloned PCR amplicons of the target site region. Success in transient expression of Cas9 and sgRNA genes contrasted with the recovery of only a single rapamycin-resistant colony bearing an appropriately modified FKB12 target site in 16 independent transformation experiments involving >109 cells. Failure to recover transformants with intact or expressed Cas9 genes following transformation with the Cas9 gene alone (or even with a gene encoding a Cas9 lacking nuclease activity) provided strong suggestive evidence for Cas9 toxicity when Cas9 is produced constitutively in C. reinhardtii. The present results provide compelling evidence that Cas9 and sgRNA genes function properly in C. reinhardtii to cause targeted gene modifications and point to the need for a focus on development of methods to properly stem Cas9 production and/or activity following gene editing. PMID:25239977

  11. ASST Interconnect Region single phase pressure tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1992-01-01

    The Accelerator System String Test (ASST) single phase line was pressure tested to meet ASME B31.3-1990 piping code requirements. Two test specimens, one without a bellows assembly and one with a bellows assembly, were tested under hydrostatic pressure in 0.689 MPa (100psi) increments. All parts met code requirements except the bellows squirm protector, which met ASST-rated pressure levels but not

  12. Single event transient analysis of an SOI operational amplifier for use in low-temperature Martian exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laird, Jamie Stuart; Scheick, Leif; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Miyahira, Tetsuo; Chen, Yuan; Blalock, Benjamin; Greenwell, Robert; Terry, Stephen; Doyle, Barney

    2007-07-01

    The next generation of Martian rovers to be launched by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are to examine polar regions where temperatures are extremely low and the absence of an earth-like atmosphere results in high levels of cosmic radiation at ground level. Cosmic rays lead to a plethora of radiation effects including Single Event Transients which can severely degrade microelectronic functionality. As such, a radiation-hardened, temperature compensated CMOS Single-on-insulator (SOI) Operational Amplifier has been designed for JPL by the University of Tennessee and fabricated by Honeywell using the SOI V process. SOI technology has been shown to be far less sensitive to transient effects than both bulk and epilayer Si. Broad beam heavy-ion tests at the University of Texas A&M using Kr and Xe beams of energy 25 MeV/amu were performed to ascertain the duration and severity of the SET for the op-amp configured for a low and high gain application. However, some ambiguity regarding the location of transient formation required the use of a focused MeV ion microbeam. A 36 MeV O 6+ microbeam at the Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) was used to image and verify regions of particular concern.

  13. Single pellet crush strength testing of catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Brienza, P.K. (Engelhard Corp., Seneca, SC (USA))

    1988-09-01

    ASTM D-32 Committee on Catalysts has developed a standard test method for single pellet crush strength for formed catalyst shapes. This standard was issued under the fixed designation D 4179. The method is applicable to regular catalyst shapes such as tablets and spheres. Extrudates, granular materials, and other irregular shapes are excluded. The committee continues to work on the development of a method for the single pellet crush testing of extrudates.

  14. Creation of a transient vapor nanogap between two fluidic reservoirs for single molecule manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polonsky, Stanislav; Balagurusamy, Venkat S. K.; Ott, John A.

    2014-08-01

    We introduce a new experimental technique for manipulating a segment of a charged macromolecule inside a transient nanogap between two fluidic reservoirs. This technique uses an FPGA-driven nanopositioner to control the coupling of a nanopipette with the liquid surface of a fluidic cell. We present results on creating a transient nanogap, triggered by a translocation of double-stranded DNA between a nanopipette and a fluidic cell, and measure the probability to find the molecule near the tip of the nanopipette after closing the gap. The developed platform will enable testing of our recent theoretical predictions for the behavior of charged macromolecule in a nanogap between two fluidic reservoirs.

  15. Creation of a transient vapor nanogap between two fluidic reservoirs for single molecule manipulation.

    PubMed

    Polonsky, Stanislav; Balagurusamy, Venkat S K; Ott, John A

    2014-08-01

    We introduce a new experimental technique for manipulating a segment of a charged macromolecule inside a transient nanogap between two fluidic reservoirs. This technique uses an FPGA-driven nanopositioner to control the coupling of a nanopipette with the liquid surface of a fluidic cell. We present results on creating a transient nanogap, triggered by a translocation of double-stranded DNA between a nanopipette and a fluidic cell, and measure the probability to find the molecule near the tip of the nanopipette after closing the gap. The developed platform will enable testing of our recent theoretical predictions for the behavior of charged macromolecule in a nanogap between two fluidic reservoirs. PMID:25173286

  16. Mixed-Mode Simulation and Analysis of Digital Single Event Transients in Fast CMOSICs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Turowski; A. Raman; G. Jablonski

    2007-01-01

    Single event transient (SET) pulses produced from heavy ion irradiation in digital integrated circuits (ICs) are modeled and analyzed using a mixed-mode approach, that is, three-dimensional (3-D) semiconductor device simulation coupled with a circuit solver. In this paper, we analyze the factors affecting the generation and propagation of digital SET pulses in fast CMOS ICs. Our mixed-mode simulations of various

  17. ASST Interconnect Region single phase pressure tests

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, R.

    1992-08-01

    The Accelerator System String Test (ASST) single phase line was pressure tested to meet ASME B31.3-1990 piping code requirements. Two test specimens, one without a bellows assembly and one with a bellows assembly, were tested under hydrostatic pressure in 0.689 MPa (100psi) increments. All parts met code requirements except the bellows squirm protector, which met ASST-rated pressure levels but not Collider-rated levels, due to inadequate tab weld quality. Extra support such as hose clamps and possible minor redesign would allow the squirm protector to meet ASME code requirements for the Collider.

  18. X-33 Injector Ignition Single Cell Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The X-33 injector ignition single cell was tested at the Marshall Space Flight Center test stand 116. The X-33 was a sub-scale technology demonstrator prototype of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) manufactured and named by Lockheed Martin as the Venture Star. The goal of the program was to demonstrate the technologies needed for a full size, single-stage-to-orbit RLV, thus enabling private industry to build and operate the RLV in the first decade of the 21st century. The X-33 program was cancelled in 2001.

  19. Transient spectrum of a single-Cooper-pair box with binomial states

    E-print Network

    Mahmoud Abdel-Aty; Hamada F. Abdel-Hameed; N. Metwally

    2006-01-01

    We present an analytical expression for the response of a transient spectrum to a single-Cooper-pair box biased by a classical voltage and irradiated by a single-mode quantized field. The exact solution of the model is obtained, by means of which we analyze the analytic form of the fluorescence spectrum using the transitions among the dressed states of the system. An interesting relation between the fluorescence spectrum and the dynamical evolution is found when the initial field states are prepared in binomial states.

  20. Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Digital Single Event Transients in a 180-nm Fully Depleted SOI Process

    E-print Network

    Keast, Craig L.

    Effects of ionizing radiation on single event transients are reported for Fully Depleted SOI (FDSOI) technology using experiments and simulations. Logic circuits, i.e. CMOS inverter chains, were irradiated with cobalt-60 ...

  1. Computer simulation and experimental study of transient processes in a single-phase voltage transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruzhaev, A. V.; Elagin, I. A.; Pavleino, M. A.; Dmitriev, V. A.; Chaly, A. M.

    2015-02-01

    We perform simulation and experimental investigation of transient processes emerging in a single-phase transformer when it is connected to the network. The transformer model constructed taking into account the saturation of the steel of the core differs from standard models in detailed accounting for the magnetic flux leakage, which is required, for example, for a correct description of inrush current. Universality of the model for the type of transformers under study is ensured by the allowance for eddy current losses and calculation of the magnetic hysteresis in the steel core. The latter makes it possible to estimate the effect of residual magnetization of the core on the form of a transient process, which is studied in detail. The methods for computing model parameters are described and its experimental verification is carried out.

  2. Methods Studies on System Identification from Transient Rotor Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohenemser, K. H.; Banerjee, D.; Yin, S. K.

    1975-01-01

    Some of the more important methods are discussed that have been used or proposed for aircraft parameter identification. The methods are classified into two groups: Equation error or regression estimates and Bayesian estimates and their derivatives that are based on probabilistic concepts. In both of these two groups the cost function can be optimized either globally over the entire time span of the transient, or sequentially, leading to the formulation of optimum filters. Identifiability problems and the validation of the estimates are briefly outlined, and applications to lifting rotors are discussed.

  3. Analysisi Benchmark of the Single Heater Test

    SciTech Connect

    H.M. Wade; H. Marr; M.J. Anderson

    2006-07-27

    The Single Heater Test (SHT) is the first of three in-situ thermal tests included in the site characterization program for the potential nuclear waste monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The heating phase of the SHT started in August 1996 and was concluded in May 1997 after 9 months of heating. Cooling continued until January 1998, at which time post-test characterization of the test block commenced. Numerous thermal, hydrological, mechanical, and chemical sensors monitored the coupled processes in the unsaturated fractured rock mass around the heater (CRWMS M&O 1999). The objective of this calculation is to benchmark a numerical simulation of the rock mass thermal behavior against the extensive data set that is available from the thermal test. The scope is limited to three-dimensional (3-D) numerical simulations of the computational domain of the Single Heater Test and surrounding rock mass. This calculation supports the waste package thermal design methodology, and is developed by Waste Package Department (WPD) under Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 3, BSCN 1, Calculations.

  4. NEXT Single String Integration Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.; Patterson, Michael J.; Pinero, Luis; Herman, Daniel A.; Snyder, Steven John

    2010-01-01

    As a critical part of NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) test validation process, a single string integration test was performed on the NEXT ion propulsion system. The objectives of this test were to verify that an integrated system of major NEXT ion propulsion system elements meets project requirements, to demonstrate that the integrated system is functional across the entire power processor and xenon propellant management system input ranges, and to demonstrate to potential users that the NEXT propulsion system is ready for transition to flight. Propulsion system elements included in this system integration test were an engineering model ion thruster, an engineering model propellant management system, an engineering model power processor unit, and a digital control interface unit simulator that acted as a test console. Project requirements that were verified during this system integration test included individual element requirements ; integrated system requirements, and fault handling. This paper will present the results of these tests, which include: integrated ion propulsion system demonstrations of performance, functionality and fault handling; a thruster re-performance acceptance test to establish baseline performance: a risk-reduction PMS-thruster integration test: and propellant management system calibration checks.

  5. Mechanism of single-event transient pulse quenching between dummy gate isolated logic nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian-Jun; Chi, Ya-Qing; Liang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    As integrated circuits scale down in size, a single high-energy ion strike often affects multiple adjacent logic nodes. The so-called single-event transient (SET) pulse quenching induced by single-event charge sharing collection has been widely studied. In this paper, SET pulse quenching enhancement is found in dummy gate isolated adjacent logic nodes compared with that isolated by the common shallow trench isolation (STI). The physical mechanism is studied in depth and this isolation technique is explored for SET mitigation in combinational standard cells. Three-dimensional (3D) technology computer-aided design simulation (TCAD) results show that this technique can achieve efficient SET mitigation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61376109) and the Opening Project of National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Reliability Physics and Application Technology of Electrical Component, China (Grant No. ZHD201202).

  6. Built-in Current Sensor for High Speed Transient Current Testing in Analog CMOS Circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Yellampalli; N. S. Korivi; J. Marulanda

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new built-in current sensor (BICS) for high speed, low voltage degradation transient current (IDDT) testing. This sensor has been designed using forward bias technique to limit the supply voltage degradation caused during transient current peaks to 2% of the supply voltage. A CMOS operational amplifier designed for operation at plusmn2.5 V in 0.5 mum

  7. Transient eigenmodes analysis of single-impact cantilever dynamics combining Fourier and wavelet transforms.

    PubMed

    Pukhova, Valentina; Banfi, Francesco; Ferrini, Gabriele

    2015-05-01

    The transient eigenmode structure of an interacting cantilever during a single impact on different surfaces evidences the excitation of higher flexural modes and low frequency oscillations. The frequency shift of the fundamental mode after the tip comes into contact with the sample surface allows calculating the tip-sample interaction stiffness and evidences the role of capillary condensation and surface wettability on the cantilever dynamics. Wavelet transforms are used to trace the origin of spectral features in the cantilever spectra and calculate force gradients of the tip-sample interaction. PMID:25837684

  8. A chassis test procedure to mimic the heavy-duty engine transient emissions certification test.

    PubMed

    Clark, N N; McKain, D L

    2001-03-01

    In-use emissions from vehicles using heavy-duty diesel engines can be significantly higher than the levels obtained during engine certification. These higher levels may be caused by a combination of degradation of engine components, poor engine maintenance, degradation or failure of emissions after-treatment devices, and engine and emissions system tampering. A direct comparison of in-use vehicle emissions with engine certification levels, however, is not possible without removing an engine from the vehicle in order to perform engine dynamometer emissions testing. The goal of this research was to develop a chassis test procedure that mimics the engine performance, and as such the expected emissions levels, from the engine certification emissions test prescribed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. Emissions measurements were taken from two engines during testing on an engine dynamometer using the transient heavy-duty Federal Test Procedure (FTP). Additionally, each engine was installed in an appropriate vehicle, and emissions measurements were taken using a chassis dynamometer while employing a vehicle driving schedule intended to match closely the instantaneous torque and speed schedule of the engine FTP. Engine and chassis testing was performed with the engines in stock (unmodified) condition as well as in several modes to simulate either tampered or poorly maintained conditions. The use of a chassis test as a predictive tool for determining whether an engine in a vehicle would pass the engine certification test has proven to be worthwhile. Analysis of the data shows that identification of chassis-mounted engines with NOx emissions above certification levels is possible by employing engine-specific correction factors. In the case of PM emissions, significant data scatter allowed only the identification of gross PM emitters. Engine tampering and poor maintenance can raise PM and NOx emissions, and these increases can be correctly identified by a chassis test. Analysis of chassis and engine CO and HC emissions did not reveal a strong enough correlation to warrant the use of the chassis test for emissions screening of these two pollutants. PMID:11266106

  9. Combined single channel and single molecule detection identifies subunit composition of STIM1-activated transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels.

    PubMed

    Asanov, Alexander; Sampieri, Alicia; Moreno, Claudia; Pacheco, Jonathan; Salgado, Alfonso; Sherry, Ryan; Vaca, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Depletion of intracellular calcium ion stores initiates a rapid cascade of events culminating with the activation of the so-called Store-Operated Channels (SOC) at the plasma membrane. Calcium influx via SOC is essential in the initiation of calcium-dependent intracellular signaling and for the refilling of internal calcium stores, ensuring the regeneration of the signaling cascade. In spite of the significance of this evolutionary conserved mechanism, the molecular identity of SOC has been the center of a heated controversy spanning over the last 20 years. Initial studies positioned some members of the transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channel superfamily of channels (with the more robust evidence pointing to TRPC1) as a putative SOC. Recent evidence indicates that Stromal Interacting Molecule 1 (STIM1) activates some members from the TRPC family of channels. However, the exact subunit composition of TRPC channels remains undetermined to this date. To identify the subunit composition of STIM1-activated TRPC channels, we developed novel method, which combines single channel electrophysiological measurements based on the patch clamp technique with single molecule fluorescence imaging. We termed this method Single ion Channel Single Molecule Detection technique (SC-SMD). Using SC-SMD method, we have obtained direct evidence of the subunit composition of TRPC channels activated by STIM1. Furthermore, our electrophysiological-imaging SC-SMD method provides evidence at the molecular level of the mechanism by which STIM1 and calmodulin antagonize to modulate TRPC channel activity. PMID:25465892

  10. Comparison of Above Bandgap Laser and MeV Ion Induced Single Event Transients in High-Speed Si Photonic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, Jamie S.; Hirao, Toshio; Onoda, Shinobu; Itoh, Hisayoshi; Edmonds, Larry; Johnston, Allan

    2006-01-01

    We illustrate inherent differences between Single Event Transients generated by an above bandgap picosecond lasers and MeV heavy ions by comparing transient currents collected with an ion microbeam and picosecond laser with varying track waist.

  11. An Investigation of the Ability to Recover from Transients Following Failures for Single-Pilot Rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansur, M. Hossein; Schroeder, Jeffery A.

    1988-01-01

    A moving-base simulation was conducted to investigate a pilot's ability to recover from transients following single-axis hard-over failures of the flight-control system. The investigation was performed in conjunction with a host simulation that examined the influence of control modes on a single pilot's ability to perform various mission elements under high-workload conditions. The NASA Ames large-amplitude-motion Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) was utilized, and the experimental variables were the failure axis, the severity of the failure, and the airspeed at which the failure occurred. Other factors, such as pilot workload and terrain and obstacle proximity at the time of failure, were kept as constant as possible within the framework of the host simulation task scenarios. No explicit failure warnings were presented to the pilot. Data from the experiment are shown, and pilot ratings are compared with the proposed handling-qualities requirements for military rotorcraft. Results indicate that the current proposed failure transient requirements may need revision.

  12. Probing Transient Copper Chaperone-Wilson Disease Protein Interactions at the Single-Molecule Level with Nanovesicle Trapping

    E-print Network

    Chen, Peng

    Probing Transient Copper Chaperone-Wilson Disease Protein Interactions at the Single-Molecule Level cells, the copper chaperone Hah1 and the Wilson disease protein (WDP) constitute a copper transport pathwaysHah1 is a single-domain cytoplasmic protein; WDP is a multidomain pro- tein anchored on organelle

  13. Pressure transient testing and productivity analysis for horizontal wells 

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Yueming

    2004-11-15

    This work studied the productivity evaluation and well test analysis of horizontal wells. The major components of this work consist of a 3D coupled reservoir/wellbore model, a productivity evaluation, a deconvolution ...

  14. Measurement of Relative Permeability Using Single-Step Transient Flow Centrifuge Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, E. H.; Perfect, E.; Mayes, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    Steady-state flow centrifuge methods have been widely used to determine the relative permeability function, krw, of porous media. The centripetal acceleration greatly accelerates the speed at which equilibrium conditions are found in drainage or imbibition experiments. While equilibrium conditions are required by steady- state flow centrifuge methods, transient flow centrifuge methods utilize the time variant adaptation of state variables (e.g. fluid saturation, pressure or flux) to sudden changes in boundary conditions. Transient flow centrifuge experiments were conducted using a commercial rock core ultracentrifuge to displace wetting fluids from an initially fully-saturated sample by non-wetting fluids. The cumulative production of wetting fluid leaving the sample was recorded using an automated digital camera recording system. The time series of cumulative wetting fluid production forms the input for the objective function of inverse numerical modeling efforts and for the independent estimation of krw using an analytical solution for the transient flow of fluids through a porous medium in a centripetal field (the Hagoort method). In this study, single-step transient outflow experiments were run on Berea sandstone cores. The angular velocity was 942 sec-1. Independent laboratory techniques were used to measure the saturated water content, ?s, and the intrinsic permeability, ksat. Besides these measurements, synthetic production data were generated with forward simulations of Hydrus-1D using the standard van Genuchten parameters for 'Sand' and 'Silt' soils. The models simulated acceleration of the centrifuge rotor during the first ~95 seconds of the experiment by increasing the angular velocity stepwise in 2.5 second intervals to 733 sec-1. The data were interpreted using a modified version of the Hagoort method in which numerical derivatives are used to compute the slope of the production curve in order to calculate relative saturation and the corresponding krw function. We also used Hydrus-1D to inversely estimate the parameters of the van Genuchten relative permeability model, ?r, a, n, and l. Systematic variation of the initial parameters values used in the inverse simulations showed that some of the parameter estimates obtained with inverse simulation were non-unique. For both the synthetic simulations and the measurement data, the difference between the original krw curve and the krw curve obtained with inverse simulations was most sensitive to the initial estimate of the shape parameter, n. Estimation of initial parameter values could be augmented by the good correspondence between the krw curves obtained with the Hagoort method and those used and obtained in numerical (inverse) simulations. Transient flow centrifuge experiments and their interpretation are expected to have applications in predicting infiltration and remediation of environmental contamination within the vadose zone.

  15. Analysis of Single-Event Transients in Integer Frequency Dividers and Hardness Assurance Implications for Phase-Locked Loops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Daniel Loveless; Brian D. Olson; Bharat L. Bhuva; W. Timothy Holman; Craig C. Hafer; Lloyd W. Massengill

    2009-01-01

    Single-event transients (SET) are analyzed in integer-N frequency dividers configured internal and external to a closed-loop phase-locked loop (PLL) circuit. Simulations, corroborated by experimental results, indicate that the location and gain of the frequency divider in any PLL arrangement strongly influence both the error rate of the PLL circuit and the propagation of transients through the closed-loop. The probability of

  16. 49 CFR 232.305 - Single car air brake tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Single car air brake tests. 232.305 Section 232.305...and Testing Requirements § 232.305 Single car air brake tests. (a) Single car air brake tests shall be performed by a...

  17. 49 CFR 232.305 - Single car air brake tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Single car air brake tests. 232.305 Section 232.305...and Testing Requirements § 232.305 Single car air brake tests. (a) Single car air brake tests shall be performed by a...

  18. 49 CFR 232.305 - Single car air brake tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Single car air brake tests. 232.305 Section 232.305...and Testing Requirements § 232.305 Single car air brake tests. (a) Single car air brake tests shall be performed by a...

  19. 49 CFR 232.305 - Single car air brake tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Single car air brake tests. 232.305 Section 232.305...and Testing Requirements § 232.305 Single car air brake tests. (a) Single car air brake tests shall be performed by a...

  20. 49 CFR 232.305 - Single car air brake tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Single car air brake tests. 232.305 Section 232.305...and Testing Requirements § 232.305 Single car air brake tests. (a) Single car air brake tests shall be performed by a...

  1. Transient Signal Analysis (TSA) is a Go/No-Go device test-ing method that is based on the analysis of voltage tran-

    E-print Network

    Plusquellic, James

    Abstract Transient Signal Analysis (TSA) is a Go/No-Go device test- ing method that is based the relationship between the power supply transient signal data and the actual delays. Once established, prediction delays from an additional set of critical path simula- tions. 1.0 Introduction Transient Signal Analysis

  2. Testing and Lubrication for Single Race Bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Steinhoff, R.G.

    1998-03-04

    Three ES and H-compatible lubricants (Environment, Safety and Health) for single race bearing applications and one hybrid-material single race bearings were evaluated and compared against single race bearings with trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon) deposition of low molecular weight polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) bearing lubricant extracted from Vydax{trademark}. Vydax is a product manufactured by DuPont consisting of various molecular weights of PTFE suspended in trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon), which is an ozone-depleting solvent. Vydax has been used as a bearing lubricant in stronglink mechanisms since 1974. Hybrid bearings with silicon nitride balls and molded glass-nylon-Teflon retainers, bearings lubricated with titanium carbide (TiC) on the balls, bearings lubricated with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on races and retainers, and bearings lubricated with electrophoretically deposited MoS{sub 2} were evaluated. The bearings were maintained in a preloaded state in bearing cartridges during cycling and vibration tests. Bearings with electrophoretically deposited MoS{sub 2} performed as well as bearings lubricated with Vydax and were the best performing candidate. All candidates were suitable for low preload applications. Bearings with TiC coated balls and bearings lubricated with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on the races and retainers performed well at high preloads, though not as well as bearings lubricated with electrophoretic deposition of MoS{sub 2}. Bearings with silicon nitride balls were not suitable for high preload applications.

  3. On-line testing of transient and crosstalk faults affecting interconnections of FPGA-implemented systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cecilia Metra; Andrea Pagano; Bruno Riccò

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we propose a self-checking scheme for the on-line testing of transient and crosstalk faults affecting the interconnections of synchronous systems implemented using Field-Programmable Gate-Arrays (FPGAs). An FPGA prototype has been implemented, whose correct operation has been verified by means of post-layout simulations and experimental measurements

  4. Single Event Effects (SEE) Testing of Embedded DSP Cores within Microsemi RTAX4000D Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Christopher E.; Berg, Melanie D.; Friendlich, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Motivation for this work is: (1) Accurately characterize digital signal processor (DSP) core single-event effect (SEE) behavior (2) Test DSP cores across a large frequency range and across various input conditions (3) Isolate SEE analysis to DSP cores alone (4) Interpret SEE analysis in terms of single-event upsets (SEUs) and single-event transients (SETs) (5) Provide flight missions with accurate estimate of DSP core error rates and error signatures.

  5. Experimental Investigation of Launch Vehicle Transient Input Simulation in Payload Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rader, P.; Berry, R.

    1979-01-01

    The technique of electronically simulating the structural dynamics of a launch vehicle in transient tests of payloads using multiple vibration excitation systems was investigated. The development of computer programs to determine transfer functions, synthesize shaker forcing functions, and control vibration exciters is described. A demonstration test using the techniques was described and results are presented. The evaluation of the potential for applying this technique to large Shuttle payloads is discussed.

  6. 49 CFR 238.311 - Single car test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Single car test. 238.311 Section 238.311 Transportation...Passenger Equipment § 238.311 Single car test. (a) Except for self-propelled passenger cars, single car tests of all passenger...

  7. 49 CFR 238.311 - Single car test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Single car test. 238.311 Section 238.311 Transportation...Passenger Equipment § 238.311 Single car test. (a) Except for self-propelled passenger cars, single car tests of all passenger...

  8. 49 CFR 238.311 - Single car test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Single car test. 238.311 Section 238.311 Transportation...Passenger Equipment § 238.311 Single car test. (a) Except for self-propelled passenger cars, single car tests of all passenger...

  9. 49 CFR 238.311 - Single car test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Single car test. 238.311 Section 238.311 Transportation...Passenger Equipment § 238.311 Single car test. (a) Except for self-propelled passenger cars, single car tests of all passenger...

  10. 49 CFR 238.311 - Single car test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Single car test. 238.311 Section 238.311 Transportation...Passenger Equipment § 238.311 Single car test. (a) Except for self-propelled passenger cars, single car tests of all passenger...

  11. Transient getter scheme for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Cecchi, J.L.; Cohen, S.A.; Sredniawski, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    The ability of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) to attain the largest fusion power gain depends critically on minimizing plasma contamination and controlling the densities of the reacting deuterium and tritium. Experiments on a number of tokamaks have demonstrated that gettering over an appreciable surface area (greater than or equal to 10%) of the vacuum vessel greatly facilitates both of these objectives. One particular problem in implementing a surface pumping system in TFTR, however, is a restriction on the maximum allowable tritium content of the getter. This restriction could require regeneration of the absorbed tritium after as few as 50 machine pulses. We have developed a scheme utilizing SAES Zr/Al getter modules which obviates the need for such frequent interruptions of machine operation by taking advantage of the pulsed operation of TFTR. With the Zr/Al getter at temperatures between 500/sup 0/C to 600/sup 0/C it is possible to achieve a quasi-steady state in the tritium loading where the quantity of tritium desorbed between pulses is equal to the quantity which is absorbed during a pulse. Since frequent thermal cycling is not required, this scheme also reduces the possibility of Zr/Al getter material fatigue.

  12. Transient oxidative stress and inflammation after intraperitoneal administration of multiwalled carbon nanotubes functionalized with single strand DNA in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Clichici, Simona, E-mail: simonaclichici@yahoo.com [Department of Physiology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Department of Physiology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Biris, Alexandru Radu [National R and D Institute of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [National R and D Institute of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Tabaran, Flaviu [University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Filip, Adriana [Department of Physiology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Department of Physiology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2012-03-15

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are widely used for nanotechnology. Their impact on living organisms is, however, not entirely clarified. Oxidative stress and inflammation seem to be the key mechanisms involved in MWCNTs' cytotoxicity. Until present, pulmonary and skin models were the main tested experimental designs to assess carbon nanotubes' toxicity. The systemic administration of MWCNTs is essential, with respect for future medical applications. Our research is performed on Wistar rats and is focused on the dynamics of oxidative stress parameters in blood and liver and pro-inflammatory cytokines in liver, after single dose (270 mg l{sup ?1}) ip administration of MWCNTs (exterior diameter 15–25 nm, interior diameter 10–15 nm, surface 88 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1}) functionalized with single strand DNA (ss-DNA). The presence of MWCNTs in blood was assessed by Raman spectroscopy, while in liver histological examination and confocal microscopy were used. It was found that ss-DNA-MWCNTs induce oxidative stress in plasma and liver, with the return of the tested parameters to normal values, 6 h after ip injection of nanotubes, with the exception of reduced glutathione in plasma. The inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1?) had a similar pattern of evolution. We also assessed the level of ERK1/2 and the phosphorylation of p65 subunit of NF-kB in liver that had a transient increase and returned to normal at the end of the tested period. Our results demonstrate that ss-DNA-MWCNTs produce oxidative stress and inflammation, but with a transient pattern. Given the fact that antioxidants modify the profile not only for oxidative stress, but also of inflammation, the dynamics of these alterations may be of practical importance for future protective strategies. -- Highlights: ? ss-DNA-MWCNTs ip administration induce oxidative stress in plasma and liver. ? ss-DNA-MWCNTs ip administration determine liver inflammation. ? ERK1/2 and p65 phosphorylated NF-KB increase in liver after MWCNTs ip injection. ? All the alterations, except plasma GSH, return to normal within 6 days.

  13. Transient Signal Analysis (TSA) is a parametric device testing technique based on the analysis of dynamic (transient) current

    E-print Network

    Plusquellic, James

    the accuracy of predicting multiple path delays under these conditions. Abbreviations: iDDT: A time varying (ac on the analysis of dynamic (transient) current (iDDT) drawn by the core logic from the power supply pads in a CMOS variations caused by defects and to obtain delay information in defect free chips. Phase spectra of transient

  14. APOBEC3A deaminates transiently exposed single-strand DNA during LINE-1 retrotransposition

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Sandra R; Narvaiza, Iñigo; Planegger, Randy A; Weitzman, Matthew D; Moran, John V

    2014-01-01

    Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) retrotransposition poses a mutagenic threat to human genomes. Human cells have therefore evolved strategies to regulate L1 retrotransposition. The APOBEC3 (A3) gene family consists of seven enzymes that catalyze deamination of cytidine nucleotides to uridine nucleotides (C-to-U) in single-strand DNA substrates. Among these enzymes, APOBEC3A (A3A) is the most potent inhibitor of L1 retrotransposition in cultured cell assays. However, previous characterization of L1 retrotransposition events generated in the presence of A3A did not yield evidence of deamination. Thus, the molecular mechanism by which A3A inhibits L1 retrotransposition has remained enigmatic. Here, we have used in vitro and in vivo assays to demonstrate that A3A can inhibit L1 retrotransposition by deaminating transiently exposed single-strand DNA that arises during the process of L1 integration. These data provide a mechanistic explanation of how the A3A cytidine deaminase protein can inhibit L1 retrotransposition. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02008.001 PMID:24843014

  15. Fast Detection of the Metallic State of Individual Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Using a Transient-Absorption Optical Microscope

    E-print Network

    Zhong, Zhaohui

    imaging method holds the potential of serving as a high-speed metallicity-mapping tool to assistFast Detection of the Metallic State of Individual Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Using a Transient method for fast, contact-free mapping of metallicity in individual SWNTs. We employ the phase

  16. Addition to the Supporting Information to Probing Transient Copper Chaperone-Wilson Disease Protein Interactions at the Single-

    E-print Network

    Chen, Peng

    S-1 Addition to the Supporting Information to Probing Transient Copper Chaperone-Wilson Disease Protein Interactions at the Single- Molecule Level with Nanovesicle Trapping Jaime J. Benítez,a Aaron M-pair protein association in a nanovesicle as in our experiments, both k1 and k2 in above equations need

  17. Fabrication and Test of Ferromagnetic Single-Electron-Transistors

    E-print Network

    Haviland, David

    Fabrication and Test of Ferromagnetic Single-Electron-Transistors Diploma Thesis Katrin Pappert of Nanostructure Physics Diplomarbeit Fabrication and Test of Ferromagnetic Single-Electron-Transistors von Katrin in optimizing the process for the fabrication of ferromagnetic single electron transistors (FM

  18. Quantifying Transient 3D Dynamical Phenomena of Single mRNA Particles in Live Yeast Cell Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Calderon, Christopher P.; Thompson, Michael A.; Casolari, Jason M.; Paffenroth, Randy C.; Moerner, W. E.

    2013-01-01

    Single-particle tracking (SPT) has been extensively used to obtain information about diffusion and directed motion in a wide range of biological applications. Recently, new methods have appeared for obtaining precise (10s of nm) spatial information in three dimensions (3D) with high temporal resolution (measurements obtained every 4ms), which promise to more accurately sense the true dynamical behavior in the natural 3D cellular environment. Despite the quantitative 3D tracking information, the range of mathematical methods for extracting information about the underlying system has been limited mostly to mean-squared displacement analysis and other techniques not accounting for complex 3D kinetic interactions. There is a great need for new analysis tools aiming to more fully extract the biological information content from in vivo SPT measurements. High-resolution SPT experimental data has enormous potential to objectively scrutinize various proposed mechanistic schemes arising from theoretical biophysics and cell biology. At the same time, methods for rigorously checking the statistical consistency of both model assumptions and estimated parameters against observed experimental data (i.e. goodness-of-fit tests) have not received great attention. We demonstrate methods enabling (1) estimation of the parameters of 3D stochastic differential equation (SDE) models of the underlying dynamics given only one trajectory; and (2) construction of hypothesis tests checking the consistency of the fitted model with the observed trajectory so that extracted parameters are not over-interpreted (the tools are applicable to linear or nonlinear SDEs calibrated from non-stationary time series data). The approach is demonstrated on high-resolution 3D trajectories of single ARG3 mRNA particles in yeast cells in order to show the power of the methods in detecting signatures of transient directed transport. The methods presented are generally relevant to a wide variety of 2D and 3D SPT tracking applications. PMID:24015725

  19. RAPID Boron-dilution Transient Tests for OECD/CSNI International Standard Problem No. 43

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrilas, Mirela [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Palazov, Vesselin [ISL Inc., Rockville MD. (United States); Woods, Brian [Dominion Generation, Richmond VA. (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The University of Maryland 2 x 4 Thermalhydraulic Loop Facility (UM 2 x 4 Loop) collected code verification data for rapid boron-dilution (RBD) transients. This paper addresses the objectives of recently completed RBD tests and the redesign of the UM 2 x 4 Loop facility for the four test series of the current program. The UM 2 x 4 Loop facility is described in sufficient detail to permit the preparation of input models for code verification. Initial and boundary conditions are given. The OECD/CSNI International Standard Problem No. 43 (ISP 43) figures of merit for comparison of code predictions to experimental findings are described. Specific values for the most representative figures of merit are given for the two closed test series: injection of a front and injection of a slug without downcomer bypass. Because flow regime is a substantial factor in downcomer mixing for RBD transients, the effect of inertial forces on figures of merit is discussed. Tests with downcomer flowrates that fall below the transition to turbulence are shown to exhibit behaviors different from tests ran at downcomer Reynolds numbers that fall in the turbulent regime. Specifically, it is shown that in high flowrate tests mixing is more vigorous when evaluated from a global perspective, but regions of the slug can remain more segregated from the ambient primary coolant than in slow tests. (authors)

  20. Testing fluvial erosion models using the transient response of bedrock rivers to tectonic forcing in the Apennines, Italy

    E-print Network

    Cowie, Patience

    Testing fluvial erosion models using the transient response of bedrock rivers to tectonic forcing fluvial erosion models. However, some recent studies of bedrock erosion conclude that transient river long profiles can be approximately characterized by a transportlimited erosion model, while other authors

  1. Transient Effects In The Acrylamide Quenching Of Single Tryptophan Proteins, Observed Using Frequency-Domain Fluorometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Johnson, Michael L.; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Szmacinski, Henryk; Joshi, N.; Laczko, G.

    1988-06-01

    We used GHz frequency-domain fluorometry to examine the tryptophan intensity decays of NATA (M-acetyl-L-tryptophanamide), gly-trp-gly, and the single tryptophan proteins ACTH, E. nuclease and ribonuclease T, (Rhase 1%). In all cases the intensity decays became more heterogeneous in the presence of quenching, which we attribute to a time-dependent rate constant for quenching (transient effects). The frequency-domain data were analyzed using the Smoluchowski model (exp(-t/t 2b/T)) and the radiation boundary condition (RBC) model. In contrast to the IT model, the RBC model does not assume the fluorophore-quencher pair is immediately deactivated, but rather assumes a rate constant for deactivation of the pair (K) as well as a mutual diffusion coefficient (D). The RBC model provides dramatically improved fits to the data. The values of both D and decreases progressively in the order listed above, which is with decreasing exposure to the aqueous phase. Because the RBC model may not be strictly correct in homogeneous solution, and probably less so in the hindered anisotropic environment of the proteins, the recovered values of D and IC should be regarded as apparent values. The recovered intensity decays can be compared with molecular dynamic calculations of quencher trajectories in proteins.

  2. Transient Rayleigh scattering: a new probe of picosecond carrier dynamics in a single semiconductor nanowire.

    PubMed

    Montazeri, Mohammad; Jackson, Howard E; Smith, Leigh M; Yarrison-Rice, Jan M; Kang, Jung-Hyun; Gao, Qiang; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2012-10-10

    Using a new technique, transient Rayleigh scattering, we show that measurements from a single GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell semiconductor nanowire provide sensitive and detailed information on the time evolution of the density and temperature of the electrons and holes after photoexcitation by an intense laser pulse. Through band filling, band gap renormalization, and plasma screening, the presence of a dense and hot electron-hole plasma directly influences the real and imaginary parts of the complex index of refraction that in turn affects the spectral dependence of the Rayleigh scattering cross-section in well-defined ways. By measuring this spectral dependence as a function of time, we directly determine the thermodynamically independent density and temperature of the electrons and holes as a function of time after pulsed excitation as the carriers thermalize to the lattice temperature. We successfully model the results by including ambipolar transport, recombination, and cooling through optic and acoustic phonon emission that quantify the hole mobility at ?68,000 cm(2)/V·s, linear decay constant at 380 ps, bimolecular recombination rate at 4.8 × 10(-9) cm(3)/s and the energy-loss rate of plasma due to optical and acoustic phonon emission. PMID:22974064

  3. Muscle calcium transient. Effect of post-stimulus length changes in single fibers

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    We examined the effects of post-stimulus length changes on voltage- clamped, aequorin-injected single muscle fibers from the barnacle Balanus nubilus. Extra light (extra calcium) is seen when the fiber is allowed to shorten (a small percentage) during the declining phase of the calcium transient. The opposite is observed when the fiber is stretched. Increasing the extent of shortening increases the amount of extra calcium, as does decreasing the temperature. The extra calcium probably comes from the myofilaments and not from the sarcoplasmic reticulum because (a) there is a strong correlation between the extra calcium and the level of activation; (b) there is a strong correlation between the extra calcium and the amount of force redeveloped after a length change; and (c) the time course of the appearance of the extra calcium is intermediate between that of the free calcium concentration and that of force. We suggest (a) that the calcium binding to the activating myofibrillar proteins is sensitive to muscle length or muscle force, and (b) that there is a pool of bound calcium (activating calcium) that waxes and wanes with a time course intermediate between the free calcium concentration and force. PMID:6319546

  4. Nonlinear transient wave excitation as a new tool in model testing

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, G.F.; Kuehnlein, W.L. [Berlin Univ. of Technology (Germany). Inst. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering

    1996-12-31

    Short extension transient waves with tailor-made spectra are extremely efficient for model testing. For small water elevations a linear description of the wave field is satisfactory. With higher transient wave trains, however, the linear description becomes increasingly inaccurate, and a new numerical technique must be developed. Such a new method is based on the fact that short and high wave groups with strong nonlinear characteristics evolve from long and low wave groups, which are characterized by linear principles. As the total energy of the transient wave is invariant during its metamorphosis, the initial linear Fourier spectrum is selected as the backbone of wave information or as the primordial cell from which all nonlinearities are hatched. Based on the initial Fourier spectrum which is the core of the wave information operator the shape variation of the linear transient wave train during propagation is calculated. At selected positions the nonlinear expansion is accomplished by solving the mutually dependent particle motion equations in time domain. The proposed new method uses a numerical nonlinear description of transient wave trains as a function of time or space for any fixed or moving reference point. At its primordial state it is based on a linear superposition of wave information which is complemented by an expanded velocity potential to calculate nonlinear surface elevations, particle motions, velocities, and accelerations. After the nonlinear wave trains converge and pass the concentration point only to diverge and fade away as long, low and linear wave groups, the primordial linear Fourier spectrum can be found again at the end of the development. This step can be used to monitor the transformation. Wave energy spectra and the shape of the wave train can be designed with special regard to the proposed task. Based on these data the entire wave field can be determined.

  5. Evaluation of naturally fractured gas shale production utilizing multiwell transient tests: A field study

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.C.; Alam, J.; Blanton, T.L.; Vozniak, J.P.

    1984-05-01

    A series of multiple well transient tests were conducted in a Devonian shale gas field in Meigs County, Ohio. Production parameters were quantified and it was determined that the reservoir is highly anisotropic, which is a significant factor in calculating half-fracture length from pressure transient data. Three stimulation treatments, including conventional explosive shooting, nitrogen foam frac, and high energy gas frac (HEGF), were compared on the basis of overall effectiveness and performance. Based on the evaluation of results, the nitrogen foam frac provided the most improved productivity. The study provided new type curves and analytical solutions for the mathematical representation of naturally fractured reservoirs and confirmed that the shale reservoir in Meigs County can be modeled as a dual porosity system using pseudosteady-state gas transfer from the matrix to the fracture system.

  6. Testing the single-state dominance hypothesis

    SciTech Connect

    Álvarez-Rodríguez, R. [Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Avda. Juan Herrera 4, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Moreno, O.; Moya de Guerra, E. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Sarriguren, P. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (CSIC), Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Šimkovic, F. [Comenius University, SK-842 15 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faessler, A. [University of Tübingen, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany)

    2013-12-30

    We present a theoretical analysis of the single-state dominance hypothesis for the two-neutrino double-beta decay process. The theoretical framework is a proton-neutron QRPA based on a deformed Hartree-Fock mean field with BCS pairing correlations. We focus on the decays of {sup 100}Mo, {sup 116}Cd and {sup 128}Te. We do not find clear evidences for single-state dominance within the present approach.

  7. An infrastructure for accurate characterization of single-event transients in digital circuits.

    PubMed

    Savulimedu Veeravalli, Varadan; Polzer, Thomas; Schmid, Ulrich; Steininger, Andreas; Hofbauer, Michael; Schweiger, Kurt; Dietrich, Horst; Schneider-Hornstein, Kerstin; Zimmermann, Horst; Voss, Kay-Obbe; Merk, Bruno; Hajek, Michael

    2013-11-01

    We present the architecture and a detailed pre-fabrication analysis of a digital measurement ASIC facilitating long-term irradiation experiments of basic asynchronous circuits, which also demonstrates the suitability of the general approach for obtaining accurate radiation failure models developed in our FATAL project. Our ASIC design combines radiation targets like Muller C-elements and elastic pipelines as well as standard combinational gates and flip-flops with an elaborate on-chip measurement infrastructure. Major architectural challenges result from the fact that the latter must operate reliably under the same radiation conditions the target circuits are exposed to, without wasting precious die area for a rad-hard design. A measurement architecture based on multiple non-rad-hard counters is used, which we show to be resilient against double faults, as well as many triple and even higher-multiplicity faults. The design evaluation is done by means of comprehensive fault injection experiments, which are based on detailed Spice models of the target circuits in conjunction with a standard double-exponential current injection model for single-event transients (SET). To be as accurate as possible, the parameters of this current model have been aligned with results obtained from 3D device simulation models, which have in turn been validated and calibrated using micro-beam radiation experiments at the GSI in Darmstadt, Germany. For the latter, target circuits instrumented with high-speed sense amplifiers have been used for analog SET recording. Together with a probabilistic analysis of the sustainable particle flow rates, based on a detailed area analysis and experimental cross-section data, we can conclude that the proposed architecture will indeed sustain significant target hit rates, without exceeding the resilience bound of the measurement infrastructure. PMID:24748694

  8. Spray characteristics of single- and three-hole nozzle injectors in ambient air and in a motored single-cylinder test engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Hahn; F. J. Hamady; R. M. Schaefer

    1994-01-01

    The high-speed\\/high-resolution imaging system was used to evaluate two mid-pressure (15 MPa) fuel injector nozzles in ambient air and in a motored single-cylinder test engine. The nozzles are designed for use in the EPA\\/NVFEL program to develop clean and efficient engines that use alternative fuels. The report is part of an ongoing investigation to analyze the transient spray characteristics for

  9. Spray characteristics of single- and three-hole nozzle injectors in ambient air and in a motored single-cylinder test engine. Technical report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Hahn; F. J. Hamady; R. M. Schaefer

    1994-01-01

    The high-speed\\/high-resolution imaging system was used to evaluate two mid-pressure (15 MPa) fuel injector nozzles in ambient air and in a motored single-cylinder test engine. The nozzles are designed for use in the EPA\\/NVFEL program to develop clean and efficient engines that use alternative fuels. The report is part of an ongoing investigation to analyze the transient spray characteristics for

  10. Real-time transient testing and performance of transformer differential relays

    SciTech Connect

    Stringer, N.T.; Lawhead, L.; Wilkerson, T.; Biggs, J. [Basler Electric Co., Highland, IL (United States); Rockefeller, G.D. [Rockefeller Associates, Inc., Morris Plains, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Differential relays are used extensively to provide protection for power transformers. Several issues must be considered in their application to ensure adequate protection. These include transformer magnetizing inrush current, relay burden and current transformer performance. The use of low ratio current transformers in high magnitude fault applications can produce distorted secondary waveforms to the relay whose performance may be directly affected. There is also a relationship between the magnetizing inrush and current transformer performance which may affect the operation of the differential relay. This paper discusses these specific applications and the testing of a transformer differential relay under conditions of saturated CT`s using the Electro-Magnetic Transient Program (EMTP).

  11. A Generalized Linear Model for Single Event Transient Propagation in Phase-Locked Loops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Daniel Loveless; Lloyd W. Massengill; W. Timothy Holman; Bharat L. Bhuva; Dale McMorrow; Jeffrey H. Warner

    2010-01-01

    A first-order linear model is formulated in closed-form for the examination of transient propagation through charge pump phase-locked loops (PLL). As a result, a novel PLL design parameter-the PLL critical time constant-is discovered as the primary factor influencing extraneous transient generation and propagation through the PLL independent of technology node. Various simulations and experiments have been performed on PLL circuits

  12. TRAC-PF1 analysis of LOFT steam-generator feedwater transient test L9-1. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    The Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC-PF1) calculations were compared to test data from Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) L9-1, which was a loss-of-feedwater transient. This paper includes descriptions of the test and the TRAC input and compares the TRAC-calculated results with the test data. We conclude that the code predicted the experiment well, given the uncertainties in the boundary conditions. The analysis indicates the need to model all the flow paths and heat structures, and to improve the TRAC wall condensation heat-transfer model.

  13. Single shaft automotive gas turbine engine characterization test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    An automotive gas turbine incorporating a single stage centrifugal compressor and a single stage radial inflow turbine is described. Among the engine's features is the use of wide range variable geometry at the inlet guide vanes, the compressor diffuser vanes, and the turbine inlet vanes to achieve improved part load fuel economy. The engine was tested to determine its performance in both the variable geometry and equivalent fixed geometry modes. Testing was conducted without the originally designed recuperator. Test results were compared with the predicted performance of the nonrecuperative engine based on existing component rig test maps. Agreement between test results and the computer model was achieved.

  14. Single Event Effects Testing of the Linfinity SG1525A Pulse Width Modulator Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, J. W., Jr.; Carts, M. A.; LaBel, K. A.; Forney, J. D.; Irwin, T. L.

    2003-01-01

    Pulse Width Modulator (PWM) Controllers are the heart of switching power supply systems in development today. The PWMs considered here have the same integration advantages as many other controllers but it also includes the interface drivers for the follow-on power Field Effect Transistors (FET). Previous work on these types of devices looked into the required test methodologies [ 11 and the impact of radiation on the soft start and shutdown circuits of typically incorporated in the technology [2]. Taking advantage of this previous work this study was undertaken to determine the single event destructive and transient susceptibility of the Linfinity SG1525A Pulse Width Modulator Controller. The device was monitored for transient interruptions in the output signals and for destructive events induced by exposing it to a heavy ion beam at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron Single Event Effects Test Facility. After exposing these devices to the beam, a new upset mode has been identified that can lead to catastrophic power supply system failure if this event would occur while drive power FETs off the two device outputs. The devices and the test methods used will be described first. This will be followed by a brief description of the data collected to date (not all data can be presented with the length constraints of the summary) and a summary of the key results.

  15. Hanford single shell tank saltcake cesium removal test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, J.B., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-11

    This document provides the test preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test using Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake from tanks 241-BY-110, 241-U-108, 241 U 109, 241-A-101, and 241-S-102 in a benchscale column. The cesium sorbent to be tested is crystalline silicotitanate

  16. Transient overvoltages and overcurrents during line fault tests on the Hokkaido-Honshu HVDC line

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, S.; Handa, S.; Ooi, H.

    1982-08-01

    A series of line fault tests have been conducted at completion of Stage I of the Hokkaido-Honshu HVDC Link of Electric Power Development Co., Ltd., prior to its commercial operation, in order to study transient overvoltages and overcurrents and to confirm safety operation of system protecting devices in case of DC transmission line faults. The Hokkaido-Honshu HVDC Link is a metallic return HVDC overhead line and cable transmission system, currently being a monopolar system. For this, measurements were conducted this time on reverse polarity overvoltages occurring on main line cable, return line overvoltages, fault arc dynamic characteristics, and DC bypass current through the AC system. The results obtained were then compared with the analysis results by the HVDC surge similator or digital simulation conducted for system design prior to the field tests. As a result, a close accordance was found between them, in confirmation of the effectiveness of the analysis method.

  17. Testing Single-Parameter Classical Standpoint Cosmology

    E-print Network

    G. F. Chew

    1995-05-30

    Experimental tests of homogeneous-universe classical standpoint cosmology are proposed after presentation of conceptual considerations that encourage this radical departure from the standard model. Among predictions of the new model are standpoint age equal to Hubble time, energy-density parameter $\\Omega_0 = 2 - \\sqrt{2} =.586$, and relations between redshift, Hubble-scale distribution of matter and galaxy luminosity and angular diameter. These latter relations coincide with those of the standard model for zero deceleration. With eye to further tests, geodesics of the non-Riemannian standpoint metric are explicitly given. Although a detailed thermodynamic ``youthful-standpoint'' approximation remains to be developed (for particle mean free path small on standpoint scale), standpoint temperature depending only on standpoint age is a natural concept, paralleling energy density and redshift that perpetuates thermal spectrum for cosmic background radiation. Prospects for primordial nucleosynthesis are promising.

  18. Particle Tracking-Based Strategies For Simulating Transport in a Transient Groundwater Flow Field at Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, E. H.; Srinivasan, G.; Kang, Q.; Li, C.; Dash, Z.; Kwicklis, E. M.

    2009-12-01

    Developing probabilistic-based calculations of contaminant concentrations over the next 1000 years at Yucca Flat, Nevada Test site, require tremendous computational effort in this highly complex hydrogeologic surface environment. The sources of contamination, underground nuclear tests conducted between 1951 and 1992, not only released radionuclides to the subsurface but also created abrupt, significant changes in rock properties and caused large transients in the measured hydraulic gradients. To efficiently model contaminant migration from these sources we use a particle-based approach within a transient flow field. Here, we present results using two methods; first, an explicit representation of time-varying sources using large numbers of particles introduced at source-specific rates over time, each representing a unique mass of solute. This method provides good results, but is computationally expensive since sensitivity to uncertainty in source term and transport parameters can only be explored with discrete process-model runs. The second method employs a convolution method (PLUMECALC) which can efficiently consider a large number of variations in the source terms and in certain transport parameters with a single process-model run. Implementation of this second approach required extension of the existing methodology to conditions of transient flow. We find very good comparison between the two methods on small test problems and excellent computational advantages when applying the convolution method in the NTS application

  19. Reliability of the stroop test with single-stimulus presentation.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, M

    1995-12-01

    Different versions of the Stroop test are used; however, for most versions of the Stroop test, there are no estimations of reliability. In the present study, stimuli were presented singly on a computer screen. 55 Swiss German subjects were tested. Test-retest reliabilities of 'XXXX' strings and conflicting color words were evaluated. Response latencies and Stroop interference were quite reliable. Single-stimulus presentation made it possible also to estimate internal consistency, which was high for classical Stroop interference in this format. PMID:8684929

  20. Performance of a bulb turbine suitable for low prototype head: model test and transient numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.; Zhang, H. P.; Zhang, J. G.; Meng, X. C.; Lu, L.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, a bulb turbine, with unit specific speed of nq=223.1 min-1 suitable for low prototype head was studied from aspect of its performance. Hydraulic model of the turbine was developed firstly, and then model turbine was designed and manufactured. Performance tests were carried out on high-accuracy hydraulic machinery model universal test rig located at IWHR, including energy, cavitation and pressure fluctuation tests, etc. In order to investigate internal flow field, three-dimensional transient turbulence numerical simulation was conducted on the tested turbine, adopting Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stocks control equations and RNG k-? turbulence model. Test and simulation results show that: (1) hydraulic efficiency of model turbine ?M is up to 91.7%, at the optimum operating point of n11o=165.54 r/min versus Q11o=1.93 m3/s; (2) numerical results agree well with experimental resultsby comparing pressure fluctuation, which shows that pressure amplitude is very low at the optimum operating point; (3) hydraulic loss in Outflow domain accounts for more than 50% total hydraulic loss due to flow separation and secondary flow.

  1. Single shot transient suppressor (SSTS) for high current high slew rate microprocessor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luca Amoroso; Mauro Donati; Xunwei Zhou; Fred C. Lee

    1999-01-01

    Future generation microprocessors are predicted to exhibit heavier loads and faster transients. Conventional voltage regulator modules (VRM) need a large amount of output filter capacitors to meet future requirements and a huge number of decoupling capacitors, mainly due to the presence of parasitic inductance between the VRM and the microprocessor. In this paper, a new active damp concept is presented.

  2. The Bulk Built In Current Sensor Approach for Single Event Transient Detection

    E-print Network

    Fayomi, Christian

    Transients (SETs), are increasingly affecting the reliability of integrated circuits as device dimensions to store information has made integrated circuits more susceptible to energetic particle strikes]. As a consequence, efficient techniques to improve the reliability of integrated circuits against radiation effects

  3. Overshoot effect in transient electroluminescence from single layer organic light-emitting diodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Pommerehne; D. V. Nikolaenkov; V. R. Nikitenko; H. Bässler

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the transient electroluminescence (EL) from organic light-emitting diodes based on tristilbeneamine dispersed in polysulfone. An EL overshoot is observed a few microsecond after reversing the driving voltage. The amplitude of the EL spike can considerably exceed the previous EL level. The maximal EL intensity is strongly influenced by temperature, time duration of voltage pulse, and magnitude of reverse

  4. Use of ruthenium dyes for subnanosecond detector fidelity testing in real time transient absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrdin, Martin; Thiagarajan, Viruthachalam; Villette, Sandrine; Espagne, Agathe; Brettel, Klaus

    2009-04-01

    Transient absorption spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the study of photoreactions on time scales from femtoseconds to seconds. Typically, reactions slower than ˜1 ns are recorded by the "classical" technique; the reaction is triggered by an excitation flash, and absorption changes accompanying the reaction are recorded in real time using a continuous monitoring light beam and a detection system with sufficiently fast response. The pico- and femtosecond region can be accessed by the more recent "pump-probe" technique, which circumvents the difficulties of real time detection on a subnanosecond time scale. This is paid for by accumulation of an excessively large number of shots to sample the reaction kinetics. Hence, it is of interest to extend the classical real time technique as far as possible to the subnanosecond range. In order to identify and minimize detection artifacts common on a subnanosecond scale, like overshoot, ringing, and signal reflections, rigorous testing is required of how the detection system responds to fast changes of the monitoring light intensity. Here, we introduce a novel method to create standard signals for detector fidelity testing on a time scale from a few picoseconds to tens of nanoseconds. The signals result from polarized measurements of absorption changes upon excitation of ruthenium complexes {[Ru(bpy)3]2+ and a less symmetric derivative} by a short laser flash. Two types of signals can be created depending on the polarization of the monitoring light with respect to that of the excitation flash: a fast steplike bleaching at magic angle and a monoexponentially decaying bleaching for parallel polarizations. The lifetime of the decay can be easily varied via temperature and viscosity of the solvent. The method is applied to test the performance of a newly developed real time transient absorption setup with 300 ps time resolution and high sensitivity.

  5. Matrix laser vibrometer for transient modal imaging and rapid nondestructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpatrick, James M.; Markov, Vladimir

    2008-06-01

    This article describes the development and application of a 16x16 array (matrix) laser vibrometer based on a parallel architecture which supports fast 2D measurement of arbitrary (steady state, non-steady state, transient) solid body vibrations without beam scanning. The small size and low weight of the measurement probe, which is linked to a remote detector/processor unit via a flexible armoured fibre-optic umbilical, enables deployment in areas with restricted access. Incorporating aspects of high-speed electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) and laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV), the design is based on a hybrid fiber-optic/bulk optic interferometer which operates at a wavelength of 1550 nm. Test data illustrate high-speed capture of transient vibrations, showing the full 2D temporal evolution of surface deformation, including multiple resonant modes, of a center-pinned metal plate excited by a 1-50 kHz frequency chirp of 109 ms duration. We discuss preliminary data showing detection of sub-surface defects in composite materials, based on non-contact (frequency chirped) acoustic resonance of the locally damaged structure. For large area NDT the probe can be mounted on a lightweight XY gantry for automated multi-frame measurements.

  6. Selecting single model in combination forecasting based on cointegration test and encompassing test.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chuanjin; Zhang, Jing; Song, Fugen

    2014-01-01

    Combination forecasting takes all characters of each single forecasting method into consideration, and combines them to form a composite, which increases forecasting accuracy. The existing researches on combination forecasting select single model randomly, neglecting the internal characters of the forecasting object. After discussing the function of cointegration test and encompassing test in the selection of single model, supplemented by empirical analysis, the paper gives the single model selection guidance: no more than five suitable single models can be selected from many alternative single models for a certain forecasting target, which increases accuracy and stability. PMID:24892061

  7. Selecting Single Model in Combination Forecasting Based on Cointegration Test and Encompassing Test

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chuanjin; Zhang, Jing; Song, Fugen

    2014-01-01

    Combination forecasting takes all characters of each single forecasting method into consideration, and combines them to form a composite, which increases forecasting accuracy. The existing researches on combination forecasting select single model randomly, neglecting the internal characters of the forecasting object. After discussing the function of cointegration test and encompassing test in the selection of single model, supplemented by empirical analysis, the paper gives the single model selection guidance: no more than five suitable single models can be selected from many alternative single models for a certain forecasting target, which increases accuracy and stability. PMID:24892061

  8. Impacts Analyses Supporting the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the Resumption of Transient Testing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Annette L. Schafer; Lloyd C. Brown; David C. Carathers; Boyd D. Christensen; James J. Dahl; Mark L. Miller; Cathy Ottinger Farnum; Steven Peterson; A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Peter V. Subaiya; Daniel M. Wachs; Ruth F. Weiner

    2013-11-01

    Environmental and health impacts are presented for activities associated with transient testing of nuclear fuel and material using two candidate test reactors. Transient testing involves irradiation of nuclear fuel or materials for short time-periods under high neutron flux rates. The transient testing process includes transportation of nuclear fuel or materials inside a robust shipping cask to a hot cell, removal from the shipping cask, pre-irradiation examination of the nuclear materials, assembly of an experiment assembly, transportation of the experiment assembly to the test reactor, irradiation in the test reactor, transport back to the hot cell, and post-irradiation examination of the nuclear fuel or material. The potential for environmental or health consequences during the transportation, examination, and irradiation actions are assessed for normal operations, off-normal (accident) scenarios, and transportation. Impacts to the environment (air, soil, and groundwater), are assessed during each phase of the transient testing process. This report documents the evaluation of potential consequences to the general public. This document supports the Environmental Assessment (EA) required by the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) (42 USC Subsection 4321 et seq.).

  9. Modeling from Local to Subsystem Level Effects in Analog and Digital Circuits Due to Space Induced Single Event Transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Reinaldo J.

    2011-01-01

    Single Event Transients in analog and digital electronics from space generated high energetic nuclear particles can disrupt either temporarily and sometimes permanently the functionality and performance of electronics in space vehicles. This work first provides some insights into the modeling of SET in electronic circuits that can be used in SPICE-like simulators. The work is then directed to present methodologies, one of which was developed by this author, for the assessment of SET at different levels of integration in electronics, from the circuit level to the subsystem level.

  10. Transient Plume Model Testing Using LADEE Spacecraft Attitude Control System Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, M. S.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft is being designed for a mission featuring low altitude orbits of the Moon to take relevant ambient measurements before that environment becomes altered by future exploration activities. Instruments include a neutral mass spectrometer capable of measuring ambient species density levels below 100 molecules/cu cm. Coincidentally, with a favorable combination of spacecraft orientations, it is also possible to measure plume gases from LADEE attitude control system thruster operations as they are reflected from the daytime lunar surface and subsequently intercepted by the spacecraft as it orbits overhead. Under such circumstances, it may be possible to test a variety of properties and assumptions associated with various transient plume models or to infer certain aspects regarding lunar surface properties.

  11. Compendium of Test Results of Recent Single Event Effect Tests Conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClure, Steven S.; Allen, Gregory R.; Irom, Farokh; Scheick, Leif Z.; Adell, Philippe C.; Miyahira, Tetsuo F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports heavy ion and proton-induced single event effect (SEE) results from recent tests for a variety of microelectronic devices. The compendium covers devices tested over the last two years by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  12. Impacts Analyses Supporting the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the Resumption of Transient Testing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Annette L. Schafer; LLoyd C. Brown; David C. Carathers; Boyd D. Christensen; James J. Dahl; Mark L. Miller; Cathy Ottinger Farnum; Steven Peterson; A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Peter V. Subaiya; Daniel M. Wachs; Ruth F. Weiner

    2014-02-01

    This document contains the analysis details and summary of analyses conducted to evaluate the environmental impacts for the Resumption of Transient Fuel and Materials Testing Program. It provides an assessment of the impacts for the two action alternatives being evaluated in the environmental assessment. These alternatives are (1) resumption of transient testing using the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and (2) conducting transient testing using the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratory in New Mexico (SNL/NM). Analyses are provided for radiologic emissions, other air emissions, soil contamination, and groundwater contamination that could occur (1) during normal operations, (2) as a result of accidents in one of the facilities, and (3) during transport. It does not include an assessment of the biotic, cultural resources, waste generation, or other impacts that could result from the resumption of transient testing. Analyses were conducted by technical professionals at INL and SNL/NM as noted throughout this report. The analyses are based on bounding radionuclide inventories, with the same inventories used for test materials by both alternatives and different inventories for the TREAT Reactor and ACRR. An upper value on the number of tests was assumed, with a test frequency determined by the realistic turn-around times required between experiments. The estimates provided for impacts during normal operations are based on historical emission rates and projected usage rates; therefore, they are bounding. Estimated doses for members of the public, collocated workers, and facility workers that could be incurred as a result of an accident are very conservative. They do not credit safety systems or administrative procedures (such as evacuation plans or use of personal protective equipment) that could be used to limit worker doses. Doses estimated for transportation are conservative and are based on transport of the bounding radiologic inventory that will be contained in any given test. The transportation analysis assumes all transports will contain the bounding inventory.

  13. Single-sample decohesion test: mechanics and implementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitul B. Modi; Suresh K. Sitaraman

    2004-01-01

    The Single-Sample Decohesion Test (SSDT), developed by the authors, eliminates shortcomings of current interfacial fracture toughness testing methods. In this approach, a highly stressed super layer is used to drive delamination and create any mode mix at the crack tip. SSDT uses the change in crack surface area to vary the available energy per unit area for crack growth and

  14. Experimental test of nonclassicality for a single particle

    E-print Network

    G. Brida; I. Degiovanni; M. Genovese; V. Schettini; S. Polyakov; A. Migdall

    2008-04-10

    In a recent paper [R. Alicki and N. Van Ryn, J. Phys. A: Math. Theor., 41, 062001 (2008)] a test of nonclassicality for a single qubit was proposed. Here, we discuss the class of local realistic theories to which this test applies and present an experimental realization.

  15. Tensile testing of a single ultrafine polymeric fiber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. P. S. Tan; S. Y. Ng; C. T. Lim

    2005-01-01

    Due to the difficulty in handling micro and nanoscale fibers and measuring the small load required for deformation, mechanical properties of these fibers have not been widely characterized. In this study, tensile test of a single-strand polycaprolactone electrospun ultrafine fiber was performed using a nano tensile tester. The tested fiber exhibited the characteristic low strength and low modulus but high

  16. Dynamics and transient absorption spectral signatures of the single-wall carbon nanotube electronically excited triplet state.

    PubMed

    Park, Jaehong; Deria, Pravas; Therien, Michael J

    2011-11-01

    We utilize femtosecond-to-microsecond time domain pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy to interrogate for the first time the electronically excited triplet state of individualized single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). These studies exploit (6,5) chirality-enriched SWNT samples and poly[2,6-{1,5-bis(3-propoxysulfonic acid sodium salt)}naphthylene]ethynylene (PNES), which helically wraps the nanotube surface with periodic and constant morphology (pitch length = 10 ± 2 nm), providing a self-assembled superstructure that maintains structural homogeneity in multiple solvents. Spectroscopic interrogation of such PNES-SWNT samples in aqueous and DMSO solvents using E(22) excitation and a white-light continuum probe enables E(11) and E(22) spectral evolution to be monitored concomitantly. Such experiments not only reveal classic SWNT singlet exciton relaxation dynamics and transient absorption signatures but also demonstrate spectral evolution consistent with formation of a triplet exciton state. Transient dynamical studies evince that (6,5) SWNTs exhibit rapid S(1)?T(1) intersystem crossing (ISC) (?(ISC) ~20 ps), a sharp T(1)?T(n) transient absorption signal (?(max)(T(1)?T(n)) = 1150 nm; full width at half-maximum ? 350 cm(-1)), and a substantial T(1) excited-state lifetime (?(es) ? 15 ?s). Consistent with expectations for a triplet exciton state, T(1)-state spectral signatures and T(1)-state formation and decay dynamics for PNES-SWNTs in aqueous and DMSO solvents, as well as those determined for benchmark sodium cholate suspensions of (6,5) SWNTs, are similar; likewise, studies that probe the (3)[(6,5) SWNT]* state in air-saturated solutions demonstrate (3)O(2) quenching dynamics reminiscent of those determined for conjugated aromatic hydrocarbon excited triplet states. PMID:21970339

  17. Loss-of-feedwater, steam generator tube rupture, and steam line break experiments: Steam generator transient response test program: Interim report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. J. Mendler; K. Takeuchi; M. Y. Young

    1987-01-01

    The Westinghouse Model Boiler No. 2 (MB-2) steam generator test model at the Engineering Test Facility in Tampa, Florida, was reinstrumented and modified for performing a series of tests simulating steam generator accident transients. The transients simulated were: loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture, and steam line break events. This document presents a description of (1) the model

  18. High-throughput testing of terpenoid biosynthesis candidate genes using transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Bach, Søren Spanner; Bassard, Jean-Étienne; Andersen-Ranberg, Johan; Møldrup, Morten Emil; Simonsen, Henrik Toft; Hamberger, Björn

    2014-01-01

    To respond to the rapidly growing number of genes putatively involved in terpenoid metabolism, a robust high-throughput platform for functional testing is needed. An in planta expression system offers several advantages such as the capacity to produce correctly folded and active enzymes localized to the native compartments, unlike microbial or prokaryotic expression systems. Two inherent drawbacks of plant-based expression systems, time-consuming generation of transgenic plant lines and challenging gene-stacking, can be circumvented by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. In this chapter we describe an expression platform for rapid testing of candidate terpenoid biosynthetic genes based on Agrobacterium mediated gene expression in N. benthamiana leaves. Simultaneous expression of multiple genes is facilitated by co-infiltration of leaves with several engineered Agrobacterium strains, possibly making this the fastest and most convenient system for the assembly of plant terpenoid biosynthetic routes. Tools for cloning of expression plasmids, N. benthamiana culturing, Agrobacterium preparation, leaf infiltration, metabolite extraction, and automated GC-MS data mining are provided. With all steps optimized for high throughput, this in planta expression platform is particularly suited for testing large panels of candidate genes in all possible permutations. PMID:24777803

  19. Anomalous transient uplift observed at the Lop Nor, China nuclear test site using satellite radar interferometry time-series analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, P.; Buckley, S. M.; Yang, D.; Carle, S. F.

    2011-12-01

    Anomalous uplift is observed at the Lop Nor, China nuclear test site using ERS satellite SAR data. Using an InSAR time-series analysis method, we show that an increase in absolute uplift with time is observed between 1997 and 1999. The signal is collocated with past underground nuclear tests. Due to the collocation in space with past underground tests we postulate a nuclear test-related hydrothermal source for the uplift signal. A possible mechanism is presented that can account for the observed transient uplift and is consistent with documented thermal regimes associated with underground nuclear tests conducted at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site).

  20. High-Speed Single-Event Current Transient Measurements in SiGe HBTs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.; Reed, R.A.; McMorrow, D.; Vizkelethy, G.; Ferlet-Cavrois, V.; Baggio, J.; Paillet, P.; Duhamel, O.; Phillips, S.D.; Sutton, A.K.; Diestelhorst, R.M.; Cressler, J.D.; Dodd, P.E.; Pate, N.D.; Alles, M.L.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Marshall, P.W.; LaBel, K.A.

    2009-01-01

    Time-resolved ion beam induced charge reveals heavy ion response of IBM 5AM SiGe HBT: 1) Position correlation. 2) Unique response for different bias schemes. 3) Similarities to TPA pulsed-laser data. Heavy ion broad-beam transients provide more realistic device response: 1) Feedback using microbeam data 2) Overcome existing issues of LET and ion range with microbeam Both micro- and broad-beam data sets yield valuable input for TCAD simulations. Uncover detailed mechanisms for SiGe HBTs and other devices fabricated on lightly-doped substrates.

  1. Issues for single-event proton testing of SRAMs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Schwank; P. E. Dodd; M. R. Shaneyfelt; J. A. Felix; G. L. Hash; V. Ferlet-Cavrois; P. Paillet; J. Baggio; P. Tangyunyong; E. Blackmore

    2004-01-01

    The impact of total ionizing dose and displacement damage on single-event upset and single-event latchup hardness assurance testing of present-day commercial SRAMs is studied over a wide range of proton energies and fluence levels. Commercial SRAMs from six different vendors were irradiated at proton energies from 8 to 500 MeV and at total doses from 0 to 100 krad(Si) using

  2. Single Event Transient Response of SiGe Voltage References and Its Impact on the Performance of Analog and Mixed-Signal Circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laleh Najafizadeh; Stanley D. Phillips; Kurt A. Moen; Ryan M. Diestelhorst; Marco Bellini; Prabir K. Saha; John D. Cressler; Gyorgy Vizkelethy; Marek Turowski; Ashok Raman; Paul W. Marshall

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the single-event transient (SET) response of bandgap voltage references (BGRs) implemented in SiGe BiCMOS technology through heavy ion microbeam experiments. The SiGe BGR circuit is used to provide the input reference voltage to a voltage regulator. SiGe HBTs in the BGR circuit are struck with 36-MeV oxygen ions, and the subsequent transient responses are captured at the output

  3. Selective isolation of transiently transfected cells from a mammalian cell population with vectors expressing a membrane anchored single-chain antibody

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan D. Chesnut; Apollo R. Baytan; Marijane Russell; Mei-Ping Chang; Amy Bernard; Ian H. Maxwell; James P. Hoeffler

    1996-01-01

    We present here a novel technology for the rapid selection of transiently transfected cells from total populations in culture. This system utilizes recombinant antibody technology to produce a ‘molecular hook’ by displaying a hapten-binding single-chain antibody (sFv) on the surface of transfected cells. Mammalian cell lines from several origins were transiently transfected with a plasmid (pHook-1) that encodes an sFv

  4. Pre-flight transient dynamic analysis of B-52 carrying Space Shuttle solid rocket booster drop-test vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, W. L.; Schuster, L. S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper concerns the transient dynamic analysis of the B-52 aircraft carrying the Space Shuttle solid-rocket booster drop-test vehicle (SRB/DTV). The NASA structural analysis (NASTRAN) finite-element computer program was used in the analysis. The B-52 operating conditions considered for analysis were (1) landing and (2) braking on aborted takeoff runs. The transient loads for the B-52 pylon front and rear hooks were calculated. The results can be used to establish the safe maneuver envelopes for the B-52 carrying the SRB/DTV in landings and brakings.

  5. Preflight transient dynamic analyses of B-52 aircraft carrying Space Shuttle solid rocket booster drop-test vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, W. L.; Schuster, L. S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper concerns the transient dynamic analysis of the B-52 aircraft carrying the Space Shuttle solid rocket booster drop test vehicle (SRB/DTV). The NASA structural analysis (NASTRAN) finite element computer program was used in the analysis. The B-52 operating conditions considered for analysis were (1) landing and (2) braking on aborted takeoff runs. The transient loads for the B-52 pylon front and rear hooks were calculated. The results can be used to establish the safe maneuver envelopes for the B-52 carrying the SRB/DTV in landings and brakings.

  6. Single-antigen serological testing for bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Green, Lawrence R; Jones, Cynthia C; Sherwood, Anne L; Garkavi, Inna V; Cangelosi, Gerard A; Thacker, Tyler C; Palmer, Mitchell V; Waters, W Ray; Rathe, Chris V

    2009-09-01

    Antibody responses are useful indicators of Mycobacterium bovis infection of cattle. Tests for such responses often use multiple M. bovis antigens as detection probes. This is recommended because responses to single antigens may be too variable for consistent diagnosis. However, the use of multiple antigens increases costs and the risk of false-positive results. As an alternative, the SeraLyte-Mbv system detects responses to a single M. bovis antigen, MPB83, by using a chemiluminescent testing platform with a high degree of analytical sensitivity. Testing with the SeraLyte-Mbv system was conducted in a blinded fashion with sera from experimentally infected and control cattle. To assess the species specificity of the single-antigen test, the sample included sera from animals infected with M. bovis (n = 27), M. kansasii (n = 4), M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (n = 11), M. avium subsp. avium (n = 12), and uninfected animals (n = 15). Upon unblinding of the results, the sensitivity of the SeraLyte-Mbv system relative to the results for animals with known M. bovis infection was 89%. Consistent with the conservation of MPB83 sequences within the genus Mycobacterium, all 4 M. kansasii-infected animals tested positive with the SeraLyte-Mbv system and all 23 M. avium-infected animals tested negative. Blinded analysis of 30 serum samples collected from nine animals at various time points postinfection indicated 100% sensitivity after > or = 3 months postinfection. All 15 uninfected samples in the blinded sample set tested negative with the SeraLyte-Mbv system. Unblinded analysis of sera from an additional 895 animals in 10 accredited bovine tuberculosis-free states revealed 98% specificity overall. The results support the feasibility of single-antigen testing for bovine tuberculosis with the SeraLyte-Mbv system. PMID:19605596

  7. Single event test methodology and test results of commercial gigabit per second Fiber Channel hardware

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Carts; P. W. Marshall; C. J. Marshall; K. A. Label; M. Flanegan; J. Bretthauer

    1997-01-01

    This article presents a detailed description of the single event test methods used to evaluate two different component sets conforming to the Fiber Channel (FC) commercial high-speed serial bus standard. The devices tested perform the hierarchically low-level functions such as transmission coding and actual electrical or optical linking. Pertinent portions of the FC specification, and details of the test setup

  8. Single-inductor, multiple-output buck converter with parallel source transient recovery

    E-print Network

    King, Charles Jackson, III

    2009-01-01

    To address the need for multiple regulated voltage supplies in electronic devices, this thesis presents a modeling and design study of a single-inductor, multiple-output (SIMO) DC-DC buck converter with parallel source ...

  9. Transient and Steady-state Tests of the Space Power Research Engine with Resistive and Motor Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauch, Jeffrey S.; Kankam, M. David

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has been testing free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternators (FPSE/LA) to develop advanced power convertors for space-based electrical power generation. Tests reported herein were performed to evaluate the interaction and transient behavior of FPSE/LA-based power systems with typical user loads. Both resistive and small induction motor loads were tested with the space power research engine (SPRE) power system. Tests showed that the control system could maintain constant long term voltage and stable periodic operation over a large range of engine operating parameters and loads. Modest resistive load changes were shown to cause relatively large voltage and, therefore, piston and displacer amplitude excursions. Starting a typical small induction motor was shown to cause large and, in some cases, deleterious voltage transients. The tests identified the need for more effective controls, if FPSE/LAs are to be used for stand-alone power systems. The tests also generated a large body of transient dynamic data useful for analysis code validation.

  10. April 24, 2001 Radiation Tests for Single Event Effects

    E-print Network

    .2 × 109 2.6 × 1010 (5.66 × 1010 max) Mezzanine Card 7.00 × 109 3.5 × 1010 ADC integrator 2.80 × 109 1-mail: Richard.Teuscher@cern.ch, spano@hep.uchicago.edu Proton irradiation tests for single event effects

  11. Quantitative EEG is an objective, sensitive, and reliable indicator of transient anesthetic effects during Wada tests.

    PubMed

    Tu, Bin; Assassi, Nadege J; Bazil, Carl W; Hamberger, Marla J; Hirsch, Lawrence J

    2015-04-01

    The intracarotid amobarbital or Wada procedure is a component of the presurgical evaluation for refractory epilepsy, during which monitoring the onset and offset of transient anesthetic effects is critical. In this study, the authors characterized changes of 8 quantitative measures during 26 Wada tests, which included alpha, beta, theta, and delta powers, alpha/delta power ratio, beta/delta power ratio, median amplitude-integrated EEG, and 90% spectral edge frequency (SEF90), and correlated them with contralateral hemiplegia. The authors found that on the side of injection, delta and theta powers, alpha/delta power ratio, beta/delta power ratio, and SEF90 peaked within 1 minute after injection of 70 to 150 mg amobarbital or 4 to 7 mg methohexital. When contralateral arm strength returned to 3/5, delta power and amplitude-integrated EEG decayed on average 24% and 19%, respectively, for amobarbital, similar to that of methohexital (27% and 18%). Because delta power resolution most closely mirrored that of the hemiplegia and amplitude-integrated EEG had the highest signal/noise ratio, these quantitative values appear to be the best measures for decay of anesthetic effects. Increase in alpha power persisted longest, and therefore may be the best measure of late residual anesthetic effects. PMID:25580802

  12. Dark current transients in HgI2 single crystals used as ?- and x-ray spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, A.; Schieber, M. M.; Burshtein, Z.

    1985-03-01

    Transient characteristics of dark currents have been measured in HgI2 single crystals as functions of voltage and temperature. The existence of a hole trapping center, 0.7 eV deep and of density ˜1015 cm-3, was established, which effectively lowers the hole drift mobility by about seven orders of magnitude. The samples were found to be slightly extrinsic n type, the Fermi level being 0.9 eV deep. The room-temperature electron density was about 2×103 cm-3. The meaning of these characteristics to the performances of HgI2 ?- and x-ray spectrometers is discussed. Particularly, it is suggested that lowering of the HgI2 detector operation temperature to about 0 °C will improve its energy resolution capabilities.

  13. COMMIX-1AR/P: A three-dimensional transient single-phase computer program for thermal hydraulic analysis of single and multicomponent systems

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, P.L.; Blomquist, R.N.; Gelbard, E.M.

    1992-09-01

    The COMMIX-1AR/P computer program is designed for analyzing the steady-state and transient aspects of single-phase fluid flow and heat transfer in three spatial dimensions. This version is an extension of the modeling in COMMIX-1A to include multiple fluids in physically separate regions of the computational domain, modeling descriptions for pumps, radiation heat transfer between surfaces of the solids which are embedded in or surround the fluid, a k-[var epsilon] model for fluid turbulence, and improved numerical techniques. The porous-medium formulation in COMMIX allows the program to be applied to a wide range of problems involving both simple and complex geometrical arrangements. The input preparation and execution procedures are presented for the COMMIX-1AR/P program and several postprocessor programs which produce graphical displays of the calculated results.

  14. COMMIX-1AR/P: A three-dimensional transient single-phase computer program for thermal hydraulic analysis of single and multicomponent systems

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, P.L.; Blomquist, R.N.; Gelbard, E.M.

    1992-09-01

    The COMMIX-LAR/P computer program is designed for analyzing the steady-state and transient aspects of single-phase fluid flow and heat transfer in three spatial dimensions. This version is an extension of the modeling in COMMIX-lA to include multiple fluids in physically separate regions of the computational domain, modeling descriptions for pumps, radiation heat transfer between surfaces of the solids which are embedded in or surround the fluid, a keg model for fluid turbulence, and improved numerical techniques. The porous-medium formulation in COMMIX allows the program to be applied to a wide range of problems involving both simple and complex geometrical arrangements. The internal aspects of the COMMIX-LAR/P program are presented, covering descriptions of subprograms, variables, and files.

  15. Transient memory effect in the photoluminescence of InGaN single quantum wells.

    PubMed

    Feldmeier, Christian; Abiko, Masayoshi; Schwarz, Ulrich T; Kawakami, Yoichi; Micheletto, Ruggero

    2009-12-01

    The transition to maximum photoluminescence of InGaN single quantum wells is a phenomena that has time constants in the range of few seconds. Using a systematic illumination/darkening procedure we found that these characteristics are related to previous stimulations as if the sample has a memory of past illumination events. Choosing opportune time sequences, time constants were observed to vary more than 100%. These facts suggest the presence of carrier trapping/de-trapping processes that act beyond the single illumination event, accumulating over time in a complex effect. PMID:20052211

  16. A comparison of two single fibre interface tests

    SciTech Connect

    Baillie, C.; Kim, J.K.; Mai, Y.W. [Univ. of Sydney, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1993-12-31

    Single fiber tests are often used to determine interfacial properties as they can directly monitor changes at the interface. However, analyses of these tests is still complex and very little work has been carried out on the comparison of results from one test type to another. In this paper the pull-out and fragmentation tests are used to measure properties of the interface between treated carbon fiber and epoxy resin. The results are analyzed to obtain shear strength values for the interface. The pull-out test generates two shear strength values, the first, a bond shear strength associated with initiation of a crack and the second a value for frictional shear strength in the debonded region. The fragmentation test, on the other hand, generates a mean value for the whole interface. The results from each test are compared and it is discovered that the maximum pull-out length L{sub max} is comparable to the mean fragment length measured by the fragmentation test for each fiber tested. Also the fragmentation generated mean shear strength values lie between the two pull-out values for each fiber treatment level tested, showing an increasing bias towards the bond shear strength value with increasing treatment level.

  17. Testing consistency of deconfinement heating of strange stars in superbursters and soft X-ray transients

    E-print Network

    M. Stejner

    2006-12-29

    Both superbursters and soft X-ray transients probe the thermal structure of the crust on compact stars and are sensitive to the process of deep crustal heating. It was recently shown that the transfer of matter from crust to core in a strange star can heat the crust by deconfinement and ignite superbursts provided certain constraints on the strange quark matter equation of state are fulfilled. Corresponding constraints are derived for soft X-ray transients in a simple parameterized model assuming their quiescent emission is powered in the same way, and the time dependence of this heating mechanism in transient systems is discussed.

  18. Pressure transient test analysis of vuggy naturally fractured carbonate reservoir: field case study 

    E-print Network

    Ajayi, Babatunde Tolulope

    2009-06-02

    is to analyze, interpret and categorize the pressure transient responses obtained from 22 wells in a vuggy naturally fractured carbonate reservoir in an attempt to understand the heterogeneities of the porosity system. Different modeling techniques useful...

  19. Impact of transient single-phase heat transfer modeling on predicted BWR fuel stability margins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Taleyarkhan; A. F. McFarlane; M. Z. Podowski; R. T. Jr. Lahey

    1987-01-01

    Boiling flow instabilities must be considered in the design and analysis of many devices in energy production, e.g., boiling water nuclear reactors (BWRs). The most common thermal-hydraulic instability mechanism of interest to BWR operation in known as density-wave oscillations. An important aspect of analytically investigating density-wave oscillations deals with heater wall dynamic modeling in the single- and two-phase regions, respectively.

  20. Forever alone? Testing single eccentric planetary systems for multiple companions

    E-print Network

    Wittenmyer, Robert A; Horner, Jonathan; Tinney, C G; Butler, R P; Jones, H R A; O'Toole, S J; Bailey, J; Carter, B D; Salter, G S; Wright, D

    2013-01-01

    Determining the orbital eccentricity of an extrasolar planet is critically important for understanding the system's dynamical environment and history. However, eccentricity is often poorly determined or entirely mischaracterized due to poor observational sampling, low signal-to-noise, and/or degeneracies with other planetary signals. Some systems previously thought to contain a single, moderate-eccentricity planet have been shown, after further monitoring, to host two planets on nearly-circular orbits. We investigate published apparent single-planet systems to see if the available data can be better fit by two lower-eccentricity planets. We identify nine promising candidate systems and perform detailed dynamical tests to confirm the stability of the potential new multiple-planet systems. Finally, we compare the expected orbits of the single- and double-planet scenarios to better inform future observations of these interesting systems.

  1. Forever Alone? Testing Single Eccentric Planetary Systems for Multiple Companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Wang, Songhu; Horner, Jonathan; Tinney, C. G.; Butler, R. P.; Jones, H. R. A.; O'Toole, S. J.; Bailey, J.; Carter, B. D.; Salter, G. S.; Wright, D.; Zhou, Ji-Lin

    2013-09-01

    Determining the orbital eccentricity of an extrasolar planet is critically important for understanding the system's dynamical environment and history. However, eccentricity is often poorly determined or entirely mischaracterized due to poor observational sampling, low signal-to-noise, and/or degeneracies with other planetary signals. Some systems previously thought to contain a single, moderate-eccentricity planet have been shown, after further monitoring, to host two planets on nearly circular orbits. We investigate published apparent single-planet systems to see if the available data can be better fit by two lower-eccentricity planets. We identify nine promising candidate systems and perform detailed dynamical tests to confirm the stability of the potential new multiple-planet systems. Finally, we compare the expected orbits of the single- and double-planet scenarios to better inform future observations of these interesting systems.

  2. FOREVER ALONE? TESTING SINGLE ECCENTRIC PLANETARY SYSTEMS FOR MULTIPLE COMPANIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Horner, Jonathan; Tinney, C. G.; Bailey, J.; Salter, G. S.; Wright, D. [Department of Astrophysics, School of Physics, Faculty of Science, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Wang Songhu; Zhou Jilin [Department of Astronomy and Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics in Ministry of Education, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Butler, R. P. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015-1305 (United States); Jones, H. R. A. [University of Hertfordshire, Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, College Lane, AL10 9AB Hatfield (United Kingdom); O'Toole, S. J. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Carter, B. D., E-mail: rob@phys.unsw.edu.au [Faculty of Sciences, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 (Australia)

    2013-09-15

    Determining the orbital eccentricity of an extrasolar planet is critically important for understanding the system's dynamical environment and history. However, eccentricity is often poorly determined or entirely mischaracterized due to poor observational sampling, low signal-to-noise, and/or degeneracies with other planetary signals. Some systems previously thought to contain a single, moderate-eccentricity planet have been shown, after further monitoring, to host two planets on nearly circular orbits. We investigate published apparent single-planet systems to see if the available data can be better fit by two lower-eccentricity planets. We identify nine promising candidate systems and perform detailed dynamical tests to confirm the stability of the potential new multiple-planet systems. Finally, we compare the expected orbits of the single- and double-planet scenarios to better inform future observations of these interesting systems.

  3. Testing for new physics in singly Cabibbo suppressed D decays

    E-print Network

    Yuval Grossman; Alexander L. Kagan; Jure Zupan

    2012-04-16

    We devise tests for a new physics origin of the recently measured direct CP violation in singly Cabibbo suppressed D decays. The tests take the form of sum rules for the CP asymmetries in various D decays. They are based on the fact that within the standard model CP violation arises from interference of the dominant tree amplitudes with the Delta I=1/2 penguin amplitudes. The sum rules would be violated if the observed CP violation is due to new physics contributions to the effective weak Hamiltonian that change isospin by Delta I=3/2.

  4. Single-qubit tests of Bell-like inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Zela, F. de [Departamento de Ciencias, Seccion Fisica Pontificia, Universidad Catolica del Peru, Apartado 1761, Lima (Peru)

    2007-10-15

    This paper discusses some tests of Bell-like inequalities not requiring entangled states. The proposed tests are based on consecutive measurements on a single qubit. Available hidden-variable models for a single qubit [see, e.g., J. S. Bell, Rev. Mod. Phys. 38, 447 (1966)] reproduce the predictions of quantum mechanics and hence violate the Bell-like inequalities addressed in this paper. It is shown how this fact is connected with the state 'collapse' and with its random nature. Thus, it becomes possible to test truly realistic and deterministic hidden-variable models. In this way, it can be shown that a hidden-variable model should entail at least one of the following features: (i) nonlocality, (ii) contextuality, or (iii) discontinuous measurement-dependent probability functions. The last two features are put to the test with the experiments proposed in this paper. A hidden-variable model that is noncontextual and deterministic would be at variance with some predictions of quantum mechanics. Furthermore, the proposed tests are more likely to be loophole-free, as compared to former ones.

  5. Experimental verification of the parasitic bipolar amplification effect in PMOS single event transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yi-Bai; Chen, Shu-Ming

    2014-07-01

    The contribution of parasitic bipolar amplification to SETs is experimentally verified using two P-hit target chains in the normal layout and in the special layout. For PMOSs in the normal layout, the single-event charge collection is composed of diffusion, drift, and the parasitic bipolar effect, while for PMOSs in the special layout, the parasitic bipolar junction transistor cannot turn on. Heavy ion experimental results show that PMOSs without parasitic bipolar amplification have a 21.4% decrease in the average SET pulse width and roughly a 40.2% reduction in the SET cross-section.

  6. COMMIX-1C: A three-dimensional transient single-phase computer program for thermal-hydraulic analysis of single-component and multicomponent engineering systems

    SciTech Connect

    Domanus, H.M.; Cha, Y.S.; Chien, T.H.; Schmitt, R.C.; Sha, W.T. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1990-11-01

    The COMMIX-1C computer program is an extended and improved version of previous COMMIX codes with four major additions or modifications: (1) a new finite-volume formulation for the mass, momentum, and energy equations to extend the applications to subsonic compressible flows and to make the calculations more robust; (2) a flow-modulated skew-upwind discretization scheme to reduce numerical diffusion; (3) two new matrix solvers for the discretized equations to increase the flexibility and efficiency of numerical computation; and (4) a k-{var epsilon} two-equation turbulence model that is more robust and better validated than those in previous COMMIX codes. In addition, there are numerous smaller modifications that improve overall operation greatly. COMMIX-1C solves the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy, as well as the transport equations of turbulence parameters. It is designed to perform steady-state/transient, single-phase, three-dimensional analysis of fluid flow with heat transfer in a single-component or a multicomponent engineering system. The program was developed for the analysis of heat transfer and fluid flow processes in a nuclear reactor system. However, it is designed in a generalized fashion so that, with little or no modifications, it can be used to analyze processes in any engineering equipment or in any system. This document, Volume II (User's Guide and Manual), contains the input instruction, sample problems, flow charts, and description of available options and boundary conditions. 25 figs., 17 tabs.

  7. Instrumented Taylor anvil-on-rod impact tests for validating applicability of standard strength models to transient deformation states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakins, D. E.; Thadhani, N. N.

    2006-10-01

    Instrumented Taylor anvil-on-rod impact tests have been conducted on oxygen-free electronic copper to validate the accuracy of current strength models for predicting transient states during dynamic deformation events. The experiments coupled the use of high-speed digital photography to record the transient deformation states and laser interferometry to monitor the sample back (free surface) velocity as a measure of the elastic/plastic wave propagation through the sample length. Numerical continuum dynamics simulations of the impact and plastic wave propagation employing the Johnson-Cook [Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Ballistics, 1983, The Netherlands (Am. Def. Prep. Assoc. (ADPA)), pp. 541-547], Zerilli-Armstrong [J. Appl. Phys. C1, 1816 (1987)], and Steinberg-Guinan [J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1498 (1980)] constitutive equations were used to generate transient deformation profiles and the free surface velocity traces. While these simulations showed good correlation with the measured free surface velocity traces and the final deformed sample shape, varying degrees of deviations were observed between the photographed and calculated specimen profiles at intermediate deformation states. The results illustrate the usefulness of the instrumented Taylor anvil-on-rod impact technique for validating constitutive equations that can describe the path-dependent deformation response and can therefore predict the transient and final deformation states.

  8. A one-dimensional transient model of a single-stage, downward-firing entrained-flow gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    Kasule, J.; Turton, R.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology has emerged as an attractive alternative to conventional coal-fired power plant technology due to its higher efficiency and cleaner environmental performance especially with the option of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. The core unit of this technology is the gasifier whose optimal performance must be understood for efficient operation of IGCC power plants. This need has led a number of researchers to develop gasifier models of varying complexities. Whereas high-fidelity CFD models can accurately predict most key aspects of gasifier performance, they are computationally expensive and typically take hours to days to execute on high-performance computers. Therefore, faster one-dimensional (1D) partial differential equation (PDE)-based models are required for use in dynamic simulation studies, control system analysis, and training applications. A number of 1D gasifier models can be found in the literature, but most are steady-state and have limited application in the practical operation of the gasifier. As a result, 1D PDE-based dynamic models are needed to further study and predict gasifier performance under a wide variety of process conditions and disturbances. In the present study, a 1D transient model of a single-stage downward flow GE/Texaco-type gasifier has been developed. The model comprises mass, momentum and energy balances for the gas and solid phases. The model considers the initial gasification processes of water evaporation and coal devolatilization. In addition, the key heterogeneous and homogeneous chemical reactions have been modeled. The resulting time-dependent PDE model is solved using the well-known method of lines approach in Aspen Custom Modeler®, whereby the PDEs are discretized in the spatial domain and the resulting differential algebraic equations (DAEs) are then solved to obtain the transient response. The transient response of various gasifier performance parameters to certain disturbances commonly encountered in the real world operation of commercial IGCC plants will be presented. These disturbances include ramp and step changes in input variables such as coal flow rate, oxygen-to-coal ratio and water-to-coal ratio, among others. Comparison of gasifier model predictions to available dynamic data will also be discussed.

  9. Calcium transients during early development in single starfish (Asterias forbesi) oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Eisen, A.; Reynolds, G.T.

    1984-11-01

    Maturation and fertilization of the starfish oocyte are putative calcium-dependent events. The authors have investigated the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of this calcium dependence in single oocytes of Asterias forbesi. They used the calcium photoprotein, aequorin, in conjunction with a microscope-photomultiplier and microscope-image intensifier. Surprisingly, in contrast to earlier work with Marasthenias glacialis, there is no detectable increase in intracellular-free calcium in the oocyte of A. forbesi in response to the maturation hormone 1-methyl adenine. During fertilization of the same, matured, A. forbesi oocyte there is a large increase in intracellular-free calcium. The calcium concentration increases to approx.1 ..mu..M at the point of insemination and the region of elevated free calcium expands across the oocyte in approx.20 s (17-19/sup 0/C). After the entire oocyte reaches an elevated concentration of free calcium, the concentration decreases uniformly throughout the oocyte over the next several minutes.

  10. Global nuclear energy partnership fuels transient testing at the Sandia National Laboratories nuclear facilities : planning and facility infrastructure options.

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, John E.; Wright, Steven Alan; Tikare, Veena; MacLean, Heather J. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Parma, Edward J., Jr.; Peters, Curtis D.; Vernon, Milton E.; Pickard, Paul S.

    2007-10-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership fuels development program is currently developing metallic, oxide, and nitride fuel forms as candidate fuels for an Advanced Burner Reactor. The Advance Burner Reactor is being designed to fission actinides efficiently, thereby reducing the long-term storage requirements for spent fuel repositories. Small fuel samples are being fabricated and evaluated with different transuranic loadings and with extensive burnup using the Advanced Test Reactor. During the next several years, numerous fuel samples will be fabricated, evaluated, and tested, with the eventual goal of developing a transmuter fuel database that supports the down selection to the most suitable fuel type. To provide a comparative database of safety margins for the range of potential transmuter fuels, this report describes a plan to conduct a set of early transient tests in the Annular Core Research Reactor at Sandia National Laboratories. The Annular Core Research Reactor is uniquely qualified to perform these types of tests because of its wide range of operating capabilities and large dry central cavity which extents through the center of the core. The goal of the fuels testing program is to demonstrate that the design and fabrication processes are of sufficient quality that the fuel will not fail at its design limit--up to a specified burnup, power density, and operating temperature. Transient testing is required to determine the fuel pin failure thresholds and to demonstrate that adequate fuel failure margins exist during the postulated design basis accidents.

  11. Spray characteristics of single- and three-hole nozzle injectors in ambient air and in a motored single-cylinder test engine. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, J.P.; Hamady, F.J.; Schaefer, R.M.

    1994-11-01

    The high-speed/high-resolution imaging system was used to evaluate two mid-pressure (15 MPa) fuel injector nozzles in ambient air and in a motored single-cylinder test engine. The nozzles are designed for use in the EPA/NVFEL program to develop clean and efficient engines that use alternative fuels. The report is part of an ongoing investigation to analyze the transient spray characteristics for direct-injection type fuel injectors. The experimental results compare a single-hole and a three-hole nozzle and conclude that both of these injector nozzles yield similar spray patterns and atomization and could be particularly useful for combustion systems where injection into a piston bowl is required.

  12. Test aspect of single stage to orbit systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaubatz, William A.; Nowlan, Daniel R.; Maras, Mathew G.; Copper, John A.; Coleman, Kate A.

    1995-03-01

    The McDonnell Douglas Delta Clipper Team recently completed the initial flight testing of a one third scale version of an operational single stage to orbit vehicle. The Delta Clipper Experimental, DC-X, is a 14 m tall, totally reusable, liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen fueled test vehicle powered by four P&W RL-lOAS rocket engines. It has totally autonomous on board flight control and mission control systems; flight test mission requirements are simply added through software to the mission controller. The DC X is designed to explore and validate the low speed flight qualities of a vertical take-off and vertical landing spacecraft and its flight characteristics closely duplicate those predicted for the full scale DC-1 vehicle. The DC-1 vehicle would be capable of routinely flying people and/or cargo to and from space and would have a lift capacity for carrying 12 metric tons to low earth orbit.

  13. Classification of Transient Phenomena in Distribution System using wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedighi, Alireza

    2014-05-01

    An efficient procedure for classification of transient phenomena in distribution systems is proposed in this paper. The proposed method has been applied to classify some transient phenomena such as inrush current, load switching, capacitor switching and single phase to ground fault. The new scheme is based on wavelet transform algorithm. All of the events for feature extraction and test are simulated using Electro Magnetic Transient Program (EMTP). Results show high accuracy of proposed method.

  14. Coincident steam generator tube rupture and stuck-open safety relief valve carryover tests: MB-2 steam generator transient response test program

    SciTech Connect

    Garbett, K; Mendler, O J; Gardner, G C; Garnsey, R; Young, M Y

    1987-03-01

    In PWR steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) faults, a direct pathway for the release of radioactive fission products can exist if there is a coincident stuck-open safety relief valve (SORV) or if the safety relief valve is cycled. In addition to the release of fission products from the bulk steam generator water by moisture carryover, there exists the possibility that some primary coolant may be released without having first mixed with the bulk water - a process called primary coolant bypassing. The MB-2 Phase II test program was designed specifically to identify the processes for droplet carryover during SGTR faults and to provide data of sufficient accuracy for use in developing physical models and computer codes to describe activity release. The test program consisted of sixteen separate tests designed to cover a range of steady-state and transient fault conditions. These included a full SGTR/SORV transient simulation, two SGTR overfill tests, ten steady-state SGTR tests at water levels ranging from very low levels in the bundle up to those when the dryer was flooded, and three moisture carryover tests without SGTR. In these tests the influence of break location and the effect of bypassing the dryer were also studied. In a final test the behavior with respect to aerosol particles in a dry steam generator, appropriate to a severe accident fault, was investigated.

  15. Measurement of transient acoustic fields using a single-shot pressure-sensitive paint system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disotell, Kevin J.; Gregory, James W.

    2011-07-01

    A pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) system capable of measuring high-frequency acoustic fields with non-periodic, acoustic-level pressure changes is described. As an optical measurement technique, PSP provides the experimenter with a global distribution of pressure on a painted surface. To demonstrate frequency response and enhanced sensitivity to pressure changes, a PSP system consisting of a polymer/ceramic matrix binder with platinum tetra(pentafluorophenyl) porphyrin (PtTFPP) as the oxygen probe was applied to a wall inside an acoustic resonance cavity excited at 1.3 kHz. A data acquisition technique based on the luminescent decay lifetime of the oxygen sensors excited by a single pulse of light afforded the ability to capture instantaneous pressure fields with no phase-averaging. Superimposed wave-like structures were observed with a wavelength corresponding to a 4.7% difference from the theoretical value for a sound wave emanating from the speaker. High sound pressure cases upwards of 145 dB (re 20 ?Pa) exhibited skewed nodal lines attributed to a nonlinear acoustic field. The lowest sound pressure level of 125.4 dB—corresponding to an amplitude of 52.7 Pa, or approximately 0.05% of standard sea-level atmospheric pressure—showed that the paint could resolve the spatial details of the mode shape at the given resonance condition.

  16. Reservoir engineering, transient pressure well testing, and petrophysical analyses of western gas sands. Annual report, July 1978-August 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Bixel, H.C.

    1981-11-01

    Improvement in gas deliverability by massive hydraulic fracturing of low permeability Western Gas Sands has been generally disappointing. This investigation uses petrophysical studies, transient pressure analysis of well performance, and parametric study of various fracture properties to aid in the understanding of the results of several DOE cost-shared MHF treatments. Both the transient pressure analysis and the parametric study utilize numerical simulation techniques. A generalized approach to pressure buildup analyses of tests with short flow periods is developed. The parametric analyses are focused on those variables of MHF treatments over which the operator and engineer have some control. Improvements in pressure measurement techniques are suggested as well as reasons why MHF treatments have had limited success.

  17. Transient potentiation of spontaneous EPSPs in rat mossy cells induced by depolarization of a single neurone.

    PubMed

    Strowbridge, B W; Schwartzkroin, P A

    1996-07-15

    1. The amplitude and frequency of spontaneously occurring EPSPs recorded intracellularly in rat mossy cells was estimated by measuring membrane potential variance in short segments of a continuous voltage record. Changes in variance reflected changes in the amplitude and/or the frequency of spontaneous EPSPs. 2. Short trains of depolarizing current pulses evoked a delayed increase in membrane potential variance in 55% of trials. Variance increased by 487% during these responses and remained elevated for 124 +/- 16 s. Increases in variance were not associated with large changes in the intrinsic properties of the mossy cell such as resting membrane potential and input resistance. We termed this phenomenon depolarization-related potentiation (DRP). 3. Epochs of elevated variance were associated with an increase in both the average amplitude and frequency of spontaneous EPSPs. During the peak of the response, the mean interval between spontaneous EPSPs decreased by 36.8%. Computer-generated voltage records with randomly distributed EPSP amplitudes and inter-EPSP intervals suggested that this decrease in inter-EPSP intervals was not sufficient to account for the magnitude of the variance increase observed. Based on this model, we estimated that a 90% increase in the average amplitude of spontaneous EPSPs, in addition to the experimentally measured decrease in the average inter-EPSP interval, was required to reproduce the magnitude of the change in variance observed. In the potentiated state, the amplitude of spontaneous EPSPs often exceeded 10 mV. 4. We also observed epochs of increased variance that occurred spontaneously. These spontaneous epochs closely resembled epochs evoked by depolarizing stimuli, suggesting that the stimulus was acting as a trigger for a spontaneously occurring behaviour. Additional evidence supporting this hypothesis was provided by the observation that stereotyped patterns of increased variance could be evoked by brief stimuli, such as a single 5 s depolarizing step. Dual intracellular recordings from two mossy cells demonstrated that spontaneous epochs of increased variance occurred independently in different neurones. This result makes it unlikely that these variance increases were due to a global change in the slice environment such as a propagating wave of potassium ions. 5. Bath application of the Na+ channel blocker TTX eliminated most, but not all, of the normal on-going spontaneous EPSPs in mossy cells. Treatment with depolarizing current pulses was effective in potentiating TTX-resistant spontaneous EPSPs in three of seven trials. Potentiation also decreased the mean interval between TTX-resistant miniature EPSPs (by an average of 66.9%) in two trials examined. 6. These results suggest that DRP results from the activation of an intrinsic phenomenon within the dentate gyrus by strong depolarization of a single mossy cell. Our data suggest that several mechanisms are involved in the expression of DRP since changes in EPSP amplitude and frequency can occur with varying delays from the stimulus. The ability of depolarizing current pulses to potentiate TTX-resistant miniature EPSPs suggests that at least one component of this plasticity occurs at the granule cell-mossy cell synapse. PMID:8842007

  18. Constitutive modeling of superalloy single crystals with verification testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Eric; Walker, Kevin P.

    1985-01-01

    The goal is the development of constitutive equations to describe the elevated temperature stress-strain behavior of single crystal turbine blade alloys. The program includes both the development of a suitable model and verification of the model through elevated temperature-torsion testing. A constitutive model is derived from postulated constitutive behavior on individual crystallographic slip systems. The behavior of the entire single crystal is then arrived at by summing up the slip on all the operative crystallographic slip systems. This type of formulation has a number of important advantages, including the prediction orientation dependence and the ability to directly represent the constitutive behavior in terms which metallurgists use in describing the micromechanisms. Here, the model is briefly described, followed by the experimental set-up and some experimental findings to date.

  19. System level latchup mitigation for single event and transient radiation effects on electronics

    DOEpatents

    Kimbrough, Joseph Robert (Pleasanton, CA); Colella, Nicholas John (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A "blink" technique, analogous to a person blinking at a flash of bright light, is provided for mitigating the effects of single event current latchup and prompt pulse destructive radiation on a micro-electronic circuit. The system includes event detection circuitry, power dump logic circuitry, and energy limiting measures with autonomous recovery. The event detection circuitry includes ionizing radiation pulse detection means for detecting a pulse of ionizing radiation and for providing at an output terminal thereof a detection signal indicative of the detection of a pulse of ionizing radiation. The current sensing circuitry is coupled to the power bus for determining an occurrence of excess current through the power bus caused by ionizing radiation or by ion-induced destructive latchup of a semiconductor device. The power dump circuitry includes power dump logic circuitry having a first input terminal connected to the output terminal of the ionizing radiation pulse detection circuitry and having a second input terminal connected to the output terminal of the current sensing circuitry. The power dump logic circuitry provides an output signal to the input terminal of the circuitry for opening the power bus and the circuitry for shorting the power bus to a ground potential to remove power from the power bus. The energy limiting circuitry with autonomous recovery includes circuitry for opening the power bus and circuitry for shorting the power bus to a ground potential. The circuitry for opening the power bus and circuitry for shorting the power bus to a ground potential includes a series FET and a shunt FET. The invention provides for self-contained sensing for latchup, first removal of power to protect latched components, and autonomous recovery to enable transparent operation of other system elements.

  20. System level latchup mitigation for single event and transient radiation effects on electronics

    DOEpatents

    Kimbrough, J.R.; Colella, N.J.

    1997-09-30

    A ``blink`` technique, analogous to a person blinking at a flash of bright light, is provided for mitigating the effects of single event current latchup and prompt pulse destructive radiation on a micro-electronic circuit. The system includes event detection circuitry, power dump logic circuitry, and energy limiting measures with autonomous recovery. The event detection circuitry includes ionizing radiation pulse detection means for detecting a pulse of ionizing radiation and for providing at an output terminal thereof a detection signal indicative of the detection of a pulse of ionizing radiation. The current sensing circuitry is coupled to the power bus for determining an occurrence of excess current through the power bus caused by ionizing radiation or by ion-induced destructive latchup of a semiconductor device. The power dump circuitry includes power dump logic circuitry having a first input terminal connected to the output terminal of the ionizing radiation pulse detection circuitry and having a second input terminal connected to the output terminal of the current sensing circuitry. The power dump logic circuitry provides an output signal to the input terminal of the circuitry for opening the power bus and the circuitry for shorting the power bus to a ground potential to remove power from the power bus. The energy limiting circuitry with autonomous recovery includes circuitry for opening the power bus and circuitry for shorting the power bus to a ground potential. The circuitry for opening the power bus and circuitry for shorting the power bus to a ground potential includes a series FET and a shunt FET. The invention provides for self-contained sensing for latchup, first removal of power to protect latched components, and autonomous recovery to enable transparent operation of other system elements. 18 figs.

  1. Novel board level drop test simulation using implicit transient analysis with input-G method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing-en Luan; Tong Yan Tee

    2004-01-01

    In recent several years, there are many efforts to study the reliability performance of IC package under drop impact loading by numerical modeling. Most of the models utilize LS-DYNA or ABAQUS types of explicit solvers. However, there is a lack of efficient implicit model for the organization without access to explicit solvers. This paper presents a novel non-linear transient dynamics

  2. 49 CFR 232.309 - Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests. 232.309 Section...Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests. (a) Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests shall be tested for...

  3. 49 CFR 232.309 - Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests. 232.309 Section...Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests. (a) Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests shall be tested for...

  4. 49 CFR 232.309 - Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests. 232.309 Section...Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests. (a) Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests shall be tested for...

  5. 49 CFR 232.309 - Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests. 232.309 Section...Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests. (a) Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests shall be tested for...

  6. 49 CFR 232.309 - Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests. 232.309 Section...Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests. (a) Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests shall be tested for...

  7. COMMIX-1C: A three-dimensional transient single-phase computer program for thermal-hydraulic analysis of single-component and multicomponent engineering systems

    SciTech Connect

    Domanus, H.M.; Cha, Y.S.; Chien, T.H.; Schmitt, R.C.; Sha, W.T. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1990-11-01

    The COMMIX-1C computer program is an extended and improved version of previous COMMIX codes with four major additions or modifications: (1) a new finite-volume formulation for the mass, momentum, and energy equations to extend the applications to subsonic compressible flows and to make the calculations more robust; (2) a flow-modulated skew-upwind discretization scheme to reduce numerical diffusion; (3) two new matrix solvers for the discretized equations to increase the flexibility and efficiency of numerical computation; and (4) a k-{var epsilon} two-equation turbulence model that is more robust and better validated than those in previous COMMIX codes. In addition, there are numerous smaller modifications that improve overall operation greatly. COMMIX-1C solves the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy, as well as the transport equations of turbulence parameters. It is designed to perform steady- state/transient, single-phase, three-dimensional analysis of fluid flow with heat transfer in a single-component or a multicomponent engineering system. The program was developed for the analysis of heat transfer and fluid flow processes in a nuclear reactor system. However, it is designed in a generalized fashion so that, with little or no modification, it can be used to analyze processes in any engineering equipment or in any system. This document, Volume I (Equations and Numerics), describes in detail the basic equations, formulations, solution procedures, and models for auxiliary phenomena. Volume II (User's Guide and Manual) contains the input instruction, sample problems, flow charts, and description of available options and boundary conditions. 83 refs., 49 figs., 29 tabs.

  8. Axisymmetric granular collapse: a transient 3D flow test of viscoplasticity.

    PubMed

    Lacaze, Laurent; Kerswell, Rich R

    2009-03-13

    A viscoplastic continuum theory has recently been proposed to model dense, cohesionless granular flows [P. Jop, Nature (London) 441, 727 (2006)10.1038/nature04801]. We confront this theory for the first time with a transient, three-dimensional flow situation--the simple collapse of a cylinder of granular matter onto a horizontal plane--by extracting stress and strain rate tensors directly from soft particle simulations. These simulations faithfully reproduce the different flow regimes and capture the observed scaling laws for the final deposit. Remarkably, the theoretical hypothesis that there is a simple stress-strain rate tensorial relationship does seem to hold across the whole flow even close to the rough boundary provided the flow is dense enough. These encouraging results suggest viscoplastic theory is more generally applicable to transient, multidirectional, dense flows and open the way for quantitative predictions in real applications. PMID:19392169

  9. Testing of a low cooled ceramic nozzle vane under transient conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Dilzer, M.; Gutmann, C.; Schulz, A.; Wittig, S. [Univ. of Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Stroemungsmaschinen

    1999-04-01

    At the Institut fuer Thermische Stroemungsmaschinen, University of Karlsruhe (ITS), a design technology has been introduced to reduce the mechanically and especially the thermally induced stresses in ceramic components. The concept is based on a three-layered construction (outer ceramic shell, heat insulating layer, and metallic core) and an optimization of the thicknesses of the single layers, in order to obtain a homogeneous temperature distribution in the ceramic structure. The optimization is performed by finite element analyses in combination with failure probability calculations. This methodology has been applied to increase the reliability of a first stage Sintered Silicon Carbide (SSiC) ceramic nozzle vane of a stationary gas turbine (70 MW/1400 C). As a result is was found that the mechanically and thermally induced loads have been reduced considerably and do not exceed 100 MPa, thus achieving adequate life based upon failure probability calculations. Even in a trip situation (fuel cutoff), when the highest loads do occur, the calculations demonstrate a significantly reduced failure probability. The results of the finite element analyses were verified by simulating the typical operating conditions after fuel cutoff in a test rig.

  10. Single Stage Contactor Testing Of The Next Generation Solvent Blend

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, D. T.; Peters, T. B.; Duignan, M. R.; Williams, M. R.; Poirier, M. R.; Brass, E. A.; Garrison, A. G.; Ketusky, E. T.

    2014-01-06

    The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is actively pursuing the transition from the current BOBCalixC6 based solvent to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS)-MCU solvent to increase the cesium decontamination factor. To support this integration of NGS into the MCU facility the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed testing of a blend of the NGS (MaxCalix based solvent) with the current solvent (BOBCalixC6 based solvent) for the removal of cesium (Cs) from the liquid salt waste stream. This testing utilized a blend of BOBCalixC6 based solvent and the NGS with the new extractant, MaxCalix, as well as a new suppressor, tris(3,7dimethyloctyl) guanidine. Single stage tests were conducted using the full size V-05 and V-10 liquid-to-liquid centrifugal contactors installed at SRNL. These tests were designed to determine the mass transfer and hydraulic characteristics with the NGS solvent blended with the projected heel of the BOBCalixC6 based solvent that will exist in MCU at time of transition. The test program evaluated the amount of organic carryover and the droplet size of the organic carryover phases using several analytical methods. The results indicate that hydraulically, the NGS solvent performed hydraulically similar to the current solvent which was expected. For the organic carryover 93% of the solvent is predicted to be recovered from the stripping operation and 96% from the extraction operation. As for the mass transfer, the NGS solvent significantly improved the cesium DF by at least an order of magnitude when extrapolating the One-stage results to actual Seven-stage extraction operation with a stage efficiency of 95%.

  11. Single Component Sorption-Desorption Test Experimental Design Approach Discussions

    SciTech Connect

    Phil WInston

    2011-09-01

    A task was identified within the fission-product-transport work package to develop a path forward for doing testing to determine behavior of volatile fission products behavior and to engage members of the NGNP community to advise and dissent on the approach. The following document is a summary of the discussions and the specific approaches suggested for components of the testing. Included in the summary isare the minutes of the conference call that was held with INL and external interested parties to elicit comments on the approaches brought forward by the INL participants. The conclusion was that an initial non-radioactive, single component test will be useful to establish the limits of currently available chemical detection methods, and to evaluated source-dispersion uniformity. In parallel, development of a real-time low-concentration monitoring method is believed to be useful in detecting rapid dispersion as well as desorption phenomena. Ultimately, the test cycle is expected to progress to the use of radio-traced species, simply because this method will allow the lowest possible detection limits. The consensus of the conference call was that there is no need for an in-core test because the duct and heat exchanger surfaces that will be the sorption target will be outside the main neutron flux and will not be affected by irradiation. Participants in the discussion and contributors to the INL approach were Jeffrey Berg, Pattrick Calderoni, Gary Groenewold, Paul Humrickhouse, Brad Merrill, and Phil Winston. Participants from outside the INL included David Hanson of General Atomics, Todd Allen, Tyler Gerczak, and Izabela Szlufarska of the University of Wisconsin, Gary Was, of the University of Michigan, Sudarshan Loyalka and Tushar Ghosh of the University of Missouri, and Robert Morris of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  12. Test of Single-Stage Axial-Flow Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, E Barton

    1942-01-01

    A single-stage axial fan was built and tested in the shop of the propeller-research tunnel of the NACA. The fan comprised a simple 24-blade rotor having a diameter of 21 inches and a solidity of 0.86 and a set of 37 contravanes having a solidity of 1.33. The rotor was driven by a 25-horsepower motor capable of rotating at a speed of 3600 r.p.m. The fan was tested for volume, pressure, and efficiency over a range of delivery pressures and volumes for a wide range of contravane and blade-angle settings. The test results are presented in chart form in terms of nondimensional units in order that similar fans may be accurately designed with a minimum effort. The maximum efficiency (88 percent) was obtained by the fan at a blade angle of 30 degrees and a contravane angle of 70 degrees. An efficiency of 80 percent was obtained by the fan with the contravanes removed.

  13. Free drop test simulation for portable IC package by implicit transient dynamics FEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Irving; Yong Liu

    2004-01-01

    Free drop test performance of portable IC packages is a key reliability criteria for handheld products. Various experimental test methods are widely applied to measure the drop test response and to test for visual and electrical failures after the drop test. However, the experimental data we can collect is very limited, especially for the impact of stress wave propagation and

  14. Impact of IL28B-Related Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms on Liver Transient Elastography in Chronic Hepatitis C Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ydreborg, Magdalena; Westin, Johan; Rembeck, Karolina; Lindh, Magnus; Norrgren, Hans; Holmberg, Anna; Wejstål, Rune; Norkrans, Gunnar; Cardell, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Recently, several genome-wide association studies have revealed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in proximity to IL28B predict spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection as well as outcome following pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy among genotype 1 infected patients. Additionally the presence of the otherwise favorable IL28B genetic variants in the context of HCV genotype 3 infection reportedly entail more pronounced liver fibrosis and steatosis. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of IL28B SNP variability on liver stiffness as accessed by transient elastography. Methods Seven hundred and seventy-one Swedish HCV infected patients sequentially undergoing liver stiffness measurement by means of Fibroscan® in the context of a real-life trial had samples available for IL28B genotyping (rs12979860) and HCV genotyping. Results CCrs12979860 was more common among HCV genotype 2 or 3 infected treatment-naïve patients than among those infected with genotype 1 (P<0.0001). Additionally CCrs12979860 among HCV genotype 3 infected patients was associated with higher liver stiffness values (P?=?0.004), and higher AST to platelet ratio index (APRI; p?=?0.02) as compared to carriers of the T allele. Among HCV genotype 1 infected patients, CCrs12979860 was significantly associated with higher viral load (P?=?0.001), with a similar non-significant trend noted among HCV genotype 3 infected patients. Conclusion This study confirms previous reports that the CCrs12979860 SNP is associated with more pronounced liver pathology in patients chronically infected with HCV genotype 3 as compared to genotype 1, suggesting that IL28B genetic variants differently regulates the course of HCV infection across HCV genotypes. PMID:24244641

  15. 49 CFR 232.307 - Modification of the single car air brake test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Modification of the single car air brake test procedures. 232...Requirements § 232.307 Modification of the single car air brake test procedures. (a...railroad industry may seek modification of the single car air brake test procedures...

  16. 49 CFR 232.307 - Modification of the single car air brake test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Modification of the single car air brake test procedures. 232...Requirements § 232.307 Modification of the single car air brake test procedures. (a...railroad industry may seek modification of the single car air brake test procedures...

  17. 49 CFR 232.307 - Modification of the single car air brake test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Modification of the single car air brake test procedures. 232...Requirements § 232.307 Modification of the single car air brake test procedures. (a...railroad industry may seek modification of the single car air brake test procedures...

  18. 49 CFR 232.307 - Modification of the single car air brake test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Modification of the single car air brake test procedures. 232...Requirements § 232.307 Modification of the single car air brake test procedures. (a...railroad industry may seek modification of the single car air brake test procedures...

  19. 49 CFR 232.307 - Modification of the single car air brake test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Modification of the single car air brake test procedures. 232...Requirements § 232.307 Modification of the single car air brake test procedures. (a...railroad industry may seek modification of the single car air brake test procedures...

  20. Transient Plume Model Testing Using LADEE Spacecraft Attitude Control System Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We have learned it is conceivable that the Neutral Mass Spectrometer on board the Lunarr Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) could measure gases from surface-reflected Attitude Control System (ACS) thruster plume. At minimum altitude, the measurement would be maximized, and gravitational influence minimized ("short" time-of-flight (TOF) situation) Could use to verify aspects of thruster plume modeling Model the transient disturbance to NMS measurements due to ACS gases reflected from lunar surface Observe evolution of various model characteristics as measured by NMS Species magnitudes, TOF measurements, angular distribution, species separation effects

  1. Single tube support post thermal analysis and test results

    SciTech Connect

    Nicol, T.H.; Boroski, W.N.; Schoo, C.J.

    1993-05-01

    Cold mass structural supports used in prototype Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) 50 mm dipole magnets built at Fermilab and Brookhaven are adaptations of the design developed during the 40 mm design program at Fermilab. The design essentially consists of two composite tubes nested within each other as a means of maximizing the thermal path length. In addition it provides an ideal way to utilize materials best suited for the temperature range over which they must operate. Filament wound S-glass is used between 300K and 80K. Filament wound graphite fiber is used between 80K and 20K and between 20K and 4.5K. An alternate design for supports which uses a single composite tube has been developed at Fermilab and continues to be refined by the industrial contractors. The advantage of the new design is cost reduction due to a significantly simpler assembly and incorporation of many common parts. This report describes the thermal analysis and testing of a single composite tube support post whose function is identical to that of the current reentrant design.

  2. Testing the single degenerate channel for supernova Ia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Steven

    2014-10-01

    The progenitors of supernova Ia are close binaries containing white dwarfs. Of crucial importance to the evolution of these systems is how much material the white dwarf can stably accrete and hence grow in mass. This occurs during a short-lived intense phase of mass transfer known as the super soft source (SSS) phase. The short duration of this phase and large extinction to soft X-rays means that only a handful are known in our Galaxy. Far more can be learned from the underlying SSS progenitor population of close white dwarf plus FGK type binaries. Unfortunately, these systems are hard to find since the main-sequence stars completely outshine the white dwarfs at optical wavelengths. Because of this, there are currently no known close white dwarf binaries with F, G or early K type companions, making it impossible to determine the contribution of the single degenerate channel towards supernova Ia. Using the GALEX and RAVE surveys we have now identified the first large sample of FGK stars with UV excesses, a fraction of which are these illusive, close systems. Following an intense ground based spectroscopic investigation of these systems, we have identified 5 definite close binaries, with periods of less than a few days. Here we apply for COS spectroscopic observations to measure the mass and temperature of the white dwarfs in order to determine the future evolution of these systems. This will provide a crucial test for the single degenerate channel towards supernova Ia.

  3. Transient thermal analysis of PWR’s by a single-pass procedure using a simplified nodal layout

    E-print Network

    Liu, Jack S. H.

    1979-01-01

    PWR accident conditions and analysis methods have been reviewed. Limitations of the simplified method with respect to analysis of these accident conditions are drawn and two transients ( loss of coolant flow, seized rotor) ...

  4. Radiation tests for a single-GEM-loaded gaseous detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyong Sei; Hong, Byungsik; Park, Sung Keun; Kim, Sang Yeol

    2014-11-01

    We report on a systematic study of a single-gas-electron-multiplier (GEM)-loaded gaseous detector developed for precision measurements of high-energy particle beams and for dose verification in particle therapy. In the present study, a 256-channel prototype detector having an active area of 16 × 16 cm2 and operating using a continuous current-integration-mode signal-processing method was manufactured and tested with X-rays emitted from a 70-kV X-ray generator and 43-MeV protons provided by the MC50 proton cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science (KIRAMS). The amplified detector response was measured for X-rays with an intensity of about 5 × 106 Hz cm-2. The linearity of the detector response to the particle flux was examined and validated by using 43-MeV proton beams. The non-uniform development of the amplification for the gas electrons in space was corrected by applying a proper calibration to the channel responses of the measured beam-profile data. We conclude from the radiation tests that the detector developed in the present study will allow us to perform quality measurements of various high-energy particle beams and to apply the technology to dose-verification measurements in particle therapy.

  5. Development of the IM147: an alternative inspection/maintenance mass-emission transient test to address vehicle preconditioning concerns.

    PubMed

    Joy, Richard W; Heirigs, Philip L; Torgerson, Garrett D; St Denis, Michael; Austin, Thomas C; Gordon, Jay; Tefft, Bob; Lindner, Jim

    2004-03-01

    A series of studies was performed to develop an alternative to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's gold standard IM240 mass-based emission test. The new IM147 test was based on the second phase of the IM240 that consists of 147 sec of transient vehicle operation. Paired IM240/IM147 tests were conducted on vehicles ranging from 1981 to 1996 to determine IM147 cutpoints and excess emissions were identified. Additionally, an optimized test procedure was developed that combined possible triplicate IM147s with improved drive trace quality control, fast-pass, and retest methods. The optimized procedure was found to provide improved vehicle preconditioning with a relatively minor decrease in excess emissions identification. Resulting identification rates ranged from 96 to 100% for hydrocarbons (HC), 93-100% for CO, and 93-100% for NOx, depending on cutpoint selection, while false failures caused by lack of vehicle preconditioning were reduced to essentially zero. Significant vehicle throughput improvements were achieved through the development of software algorithms involving modal fast-pass and retest procedures. Modal drive trace variation limits also were developed to improve test accuracy. The combination of the algorithms reduced average IM147 test times by nearly 60%. PMID:15061610

  6. Implementation and testing of the first prompt search for gravitational wave transients with electromagnetic counterparts

    E-print Network

    The LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration; J. Abadie; B. P. Abbott; R. Abbott; T. D. Abbott; M. Abernathy; T. Accadia; F. Acernese; C. Adams; R. Adhikari; C. Affeldt; P. Ajith; B. Allen; G. S. Allen; E. Amador Ceron; D. Amariutei; R. S. Amin; S. B. Anderson; W. G. Anderson; K. Arai; M. A. Arain; M. C. Araya; S. M. Aston; P. Astone; D. Atkinson; P. Aufmuth; C. Aulbert; B. E. Aylott; S. Babak; P. Baker; G. Ballardin; S. Ballmer; D. Barker; F. Barone; B. Barr; P. Barriga; L. Barsotti; M. Barsuglia; M. A. Barton; I. Bartos; R. Bassiri; M. Bastarrika; A. Basti; J. Batch; J. Bauchrowitz; Th. S. Bauer; M. Bebronne; B. Behnke; M. G. Beker; A. S. Bell; A. Belletoile; I. Belopolski; M. Benacquista; J. M. Berliner; A. Bertolini; J. Betzwieser; N. Beveridge; P. T. Beyersdorf; I. A. Bilenko; G. Billingsley; J. Birch; R. Biswas; M. Bitossi; M. A. Bizouard; E. Black; J. K. Blackburn; L. Blackburn; D. Blair; B. Bland; M. Blom; O. Bock; T. P. Bodiya; C. Bogan; R. Bondarescu; F. Bondu; L. Bonelli; R. Bonnand; R. Bork; M. Born; V. Boschi; S. Bose; L. Bosi; B. Bouhou; S. Braccini; C. Bradaschia; P. R. Brady; V. B. Braginsky; M. Branchesi; J. E. Brau; J. Breyer; T. Briant; D. O. Bridges; A. Brillet; M. Brinkmann; V. Brisson; M. Britzger; A. F. Brooks; D. A. Brown; A. Brummit; T. Bulik; H. J. Bulten; A. Buonanno; J. Burguet--Castell; O. Burmeister; D. Buskulic; C. Buy; R. L. Byer; L. Cadonati; G. Cagnoli; J. Cain; E. Calloni; J. B. Camp; P. Campsie; J. Cannizzo; K. Cannon; B. Canuel; J. Cao; C. D. Capano; F. Carbognani; S. Caride; S. Caudill; M. Cavaglià; F. Cavalier; R. Cavalieri; G. Cella; C. Cepeda; E. Cesarini; O. Chaibi; T. Chalermsongsak; E. Chalkley; P. Charlton; E. Chassande-Mottin; S. Chelkowski; Y. Chen; A. Chincarini; A. Chiummo; H. Cho; N. Christensen; S. S. Y. Chua; C. T. Y. Chung; S. Chung; G. Ciani; F. Clara; D. E. Clark; J. Clark; J. H. Clayton; F. Cleva; E. Coccia; P. -F. Cohadon; C. N. Colacino; J. Colas; A. Colla; M. Colombini; A. Conte; R. Conte; D. Cook; T. R. Corbitt; M. Cordier; N. Cornish; A. Corsi; C. A. Costa; M. Coughlin; J. -P. Coulon; P. Couvares; D. M. Coward; D. C. Coyne; J. D. E. Creighton; T. D. Creighton; A. M. Cruise; A. Cumming; L. Cunningham; E. Cuoco; R. M. Cutler; K. Dahl; S. L. Danilishin; R. Dannenberg; S. D'Antonio; K. Danzmann; V. Dattilo; B. Daudert; H. Daveloza; M. Davier; G. Davies; E. J. Daw; R. Day; T. Dayanga; R. De Rosa; D. DeBra; G. Debreczeni; J. Degallaix; W. Del Pozzo; M. del Prete; T. Dent; V. Dergachev; R. DeRosa; R. DeSalvo; V. Dhillon; S. Dhurandhar; L. Di Fiore; A. Di Lieto; I. Di Palma; M. Di Paolo Emilio; A. Di Virgilio; M. Díaz; A. Dietz; F. Donovan; K. L. Dooley; S. Dorsher; M. Drago; R. W. P. Drever; J. C. Driggers; Z. Du; J. -C. Dumas; S. Dwyer; T. Eberle; M. Edgar; M. Edwards; A. Effler; P. Ehrens; G. Endr?czi; R. Engel; T. Etzel; K. Evans; M. Evans; T. Evans; M. Factourovich; V. Fafone; S. Fairhurst; Y. Fan; B. F. Farr; W. Farr; D. Fazi; H. Fehrmann; D. Feldbaum; I. Ferrante; F. Fidecaro; L. S. Finn; I. Fiori; R. P. Fisher; R. Flaminio; M. Flanigan; S. Foley; E. Forsi; L. A. Forte; N. Fotopoulos; J. -D. Fournier; J. Franc; S. Frasca; F. Frasconi; M. Frede; M. Frei; Z. Frei; A. Freise; R. Frey; T. T. Fricke; J. K. Fridriksson; D. Friedrich; P. Fritschel; V. V. Frolov; P. J. Fulda; M. Fyffe; M. Galimberti; L. Gammaitoni; M. R. Ganija; J. Garcia; J. A. Garofoli; F. Garufi; M. E. Gáspár; G. Gemme; R. Geng; E. Genin; A. Gennai; L. Á. Gergely; S. Ghosh; J. A. Giaime; S. Giampanis; K. D. Giardina; A. Giazotto; C. Gill; E. Goetz; L. M. Goggin; G. González; M. L. Gorodetsky; S. Goßler; R. Gouaty; C. Graef; M. Granata; A. Grant; S. Gras; C. Gray; N. Gray; R. J. S. Greenhalgh; A. M. Gretarsson; C. Greverie; R. Grosso; H. Grote; S. Grunewald; G. M. Guidi; C. Guido; R. Gupta; E. K. Gustafson; R. Gustafson; T. Ha; B. Hage; J. M. Hallam; D. Hammer; G. Hammond; J. Hanks; C. Hanna; J. Hanson; J. Harms; G. M. Harry; I. W. Harry; E. D. Harstad; M. T. Hartman; K. Haughian; K. Hayama; J. -F. Hayau; T. Hayler; J. Heefner; A. Heidmann; M. C. Heintze; H. Heitmann; P. Hello; M. A. Hendry; I. S. Heng; A. W. Heptonstall; V. Herrera; M. Hewitson; S. Hild; D. Hoak; K. A. Hodge; K. Holt; J. Homan; T. Hong; S. Hooper; D. J. Hosken; J. Hough; E. J. Howell; B. Hughey; S. Husa; S. H. Huttner; T. Huynh-Dinh; D. R. Ingram; R. Inta; T. Isogai; A. Ivanov; K. Izumi; M. Jacobson; H. Jang; P. Jaranowski; W. W. Johnson; D. I. Jones; G. Jones; R. Jones; L. Ju; P. Kalmus; V. Kalogera; I. Kamaretsos; S. Kandhasamy; G. Kang; J. B. Kanner; E. Katsavounidis; W. Katzman; H. Kaufer; K. Kawabe; S. Kawamura; F. Kawazoe; W. Kells; D. G. Keppel; Z. Keresztes; A. Khalaidovski; F. Y. Khalili; E. A. Khazanov; B. Kim; C. Kim; D. Kim; H. Kim; K. Kim; N. Kim; Y. -M. Kim; P. J. King; M. Kinsey; D. L. Kinzel; J. S. Kissel; S. Klimenko; K. Kokeyama; V. Kondrashov; R. Kopparapu

    2012-01-12

    Aims. A transient astrophysical event observed in both gravitational wave (GW) and electromagnetic (EM) channels would yield rich scientific rewards. A first program initiating EM follow-ups to possible transient GW events has been developed and exercised by the LIGO and Virgo community in association with several partners. In this paper, we describe and evaluate the methods used to promptly identify and localize GW event candidates and to request images of targeted sky locations. Methods. During two observing periods (Dec 17 2009 to Jan 8 2010 and Sep 2 to Oct 20 2010), a low-latency analysis pipeline was used to identify GW event candidates and to reconstruct maps of possible sky locations. A catalog of nearby galaxies and Milky Way globular clusters was used to select the most promising sky positions to be imaged, and this directional information was delivered to EM observatories with time lags of about thirty minutes. A Monte Carlo simulation has been used to evaluate the low-latency GW pipeline's ability to reconstruct source positions correctly. Results. For signals near the detection threshold, our low-latency algorithms often localized simulated GW burst signals to tens of square degrees, while neutron star/neutron star inspirals and neutron star/black hole inspirals were localized to a few hundred square degrees. Localization precision improves for moderately stronger signals. The correct sky location of signals well above threshold and originating from nearby galaxies may be observed with ~50% or better probability with a few pointings of wide-field telescopes.

  7. Implementation and Testing of the First Prompt Search for Gravitational Wave Transients with Electromagnetic Counterparts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G. S.; Ceron, E. Amador; Amariutei, D.; Amin, R. S.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Araya, M. C.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atkinson, D.; Aufmuth, P.; Blackburn, L.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. A transient astrophysical event observed in both gravitational wave (GW) and electromagnetic (EM) channels would yield rich scientific rewards. A first program initiating EM follow-ups to possible transient GW events has been developed and exercised by the LIGO and Virgo community in association with several partners. In this paper, we describe and evaluate the methods used to promptly identify and localize GW event candidates and to request images of targeted sky locations. Methods. During two observing periods (Dec. 17, 2009 to Jan. 8, 2010 and Sep. 2 to Oct. 20, 2010), a low-latency analysis pipeline was used to identify GW event candidates and to reconstruct maps of possible sky locations. A catalog of nearby galaxies and MilkyWay globular clusters was used to select the most promising sky positions to be imaged, and this directional information was delivered to EM observatories with time lags of about thirty minutes. A Monte Carlo simulation has been used to evaluate the low-latency GW pipeline's ability to reconstruct source positions correctly. Results. For signals near the detection threshold, our low-latency algorithms often localized simulated GW burst signals to tens of square degrees, while neutron star/neutron star inspirals and neutron star/black hole inspirals were localized to a few hundred square degrees. Localization precision improves for moderately stronger signals. The correct sky location of signals well above threshold and originating from nearby galaxies may be observed with 50% or better probability with a few pointings of wide-field telescopes.

  8. Summary of air permeability data from single-hole injection tests in unsaturated fractured tuffs at the Apache Leap Research Site: Results of steady-state test interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman, A.G.; Geddis, A.M.; Henrich, M.J.; Lohrstorfer, C.F.; Neuman, S.P. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Hydrology and Water Resources

    1996-03-01

    This document summarizes air permeability estimates obtained from single hole pneumatic injection tests in unsaturated fractured tuffs at the Covered Borehole Site (CBS) within the larger apache Leap Research Site (ALRS). Only permeability estimates obtained from a steady state interpretation of relatively stable pressure and flow rate data are included. Tests were conducted in five boreholes inclined at 45{degree} to the horizontal, and one vertical borehole. Over 180 borehole segments were tested by setting the packers 1 m apart. Additional tests were conducted in segments of lengths 0.5, 2.0, and 3.0 m in one borehole, and 2.0 m in another borehole, bringing the total number of tests to over 270. Tests were conducted by maintaining a constant injection rate until air pressure became relatively stable and remained so for some time. The injection rate was then incremented by a constant value and the procedure repeated. The air injection rate, pressure, temperature, and relative humidity were recorded. For each relatively stable period of injection rate and pressure, air permeability was estimated by treating the rock around each test interval as a uniform, isotropic porous medium within which air flows as a single phase under steady state, in a pressure field exhibiting prolate spheroidal symmetry. For each permeability estimate the authors list the corresponding injection rate, pressure, temperature and relative humidity. They also present selected graphs which show how the latter quantities vary with time; logarithmic plots of pressure versus time which demonstrate the importance of borehole storage effects during the early transient portion of each incremental test period; and semilogarithmic plots of pressure versus recovery time at the end of each test sequence.

  9. A REVIEW OF SINGLE SPECIES TOXICITY TESTS: ARE THE TESTS RELIABLE PREDICTORS OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM COMMUNITY RESPONSES?

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides a comprehensive review to evaluate the reliability of indicator species toxicity test results in predicting aquatic ecosystem impacts, also called the ecological relevance of laboratory single species toxicity tests....

  10. M3B2 and M5B3 Formation in Diffusion-Affected Zone During Transient Liquid Phase Bonding Single-Crystal Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Naicheng; Hu, Xiaobing; Liu, Jide; Jin, Tao; Sun, Xiaofeng; Hu, Zhuangqi

    2015-04-01

    Precipitates in the diffusion-affected zone (DAZ) during transient liquid phase bonding (TLP) single-crystal superalloys were observed and investigated. Small size and dendritic-shaped precipitates were identified to be M3B2 borides and intergrowth of M3B2/M5B3 borides. The orientation relationships among M3B2, M5B3, and matrix were determined using transmission electron microscope (TEM). Composition characteristics of these borides were also analyzed by TEM energy-dispersive spectrometer. Because this precipitating phenomenon deviates from the traditional parabolic transient liquid phase bonding model which assumed a precipitates free DAZ during TLP bonding, some correlations between the deviation of the isothermal solidification kinetics and these newly observed precipitating behaviors were discussed and rationalized when bonding the interlayer containing the high diffusivity melting point depressant elements and substrates of low solubility.

  11. Equivalence of robust delay-fault and single stuck-fault test generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Saldanha; Robert K. Brayton; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli

    1992-01-01

    A link between the problems of robust delay-fault and single stuck-fault test generation is established. In particular, it is proved that all the robust test vector pairs for any path delay-fault in a network are directly obtained by all the test vectors for a corresponding single stuck-fault in a modified network. Since single stuck-fault test generation is a well solved

  12. FLASH analysis of the MB-2 steady state, operational transient and stability tests

    SciTech Connect

    Coffield, R.D.; Lincoln, F.W.; Johnson, E.G.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes testing performed in the Model Boiler No. 2 (MB-2) facility located at the Westinghouse Engineering Test Facility in Tampa, Florida which provided valuable data for validating steam generator computer code analytical models. MB-2 is scaled to represent a vertical tube Model F steam generator which is used in many commercial PWR plants. A major consideration in the MB-2 test rig design was to make it as prototypical as possible to the Model F commercial PWR steam generator.

  13. Test of the fluctuation theorem for single-electron transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küng, B.; Rössler, C.; Beck, M.; Marthaler, M.; Golubev, D. S.; Utsumi, Y.; Ihn, T.; Ensslin, K.

    2013-04-01

    Using time-resolved charge detection in a double quantum dot, we present an experimental test of the fluctuation theorem. The fluctuation theorem, a result from nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, quantifies the ratio of occurrence of fluctuations that drive a small system against the direction favored by the second law of thermodynamics. Here, these fluctuations take the form of single electrons flowing against the source-drain bias voltage across the double quantum dot. Our results, covering configurations close to as well as far from equilibrium, agree with the theoretical predictions, when the finite bandwidth of the charge detection is taken into account. In further measurements, we study a fluctuation relation that is a generalization of the Johnson-Nyquist formula and relates the second-order conductance to the voltage dependence of the noise. Current and noise can be determined with the time-resolved charge detection method. Our measurements confirm the fluctuation relation in the nonlinear transport regime of the double quantum dot.

  14. Testing of the single-element stretched-membrane dish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, J. W.; Houser, R. M.; Erdman, W. W.

    1992-02-01

    The goal of the Stretched-Membrane Dish Program is the development of a dish solar concentrator fabricated with a single optical element capable of collecting 60 kWt. Solar Kinetics, Inc., has constructed a prototype 7-meter dish to demonstrate the manufacturability and optical performance of this innovative design. The reflective surface of the dish consists of a plastically deformed metal membrane with a separate reflective polymer membrane on top, both held in place by a low-level vacuum. Sandia conducted a test program to determine the on-sum performance of the dish. The vacuum setting was varied 8.9- to 17. 2-cm of water column and the vertex to target distance was varied over a range of 15.24 cm to evaluate beam quality. The optimal setting for the vacuum was 11.4 centimeters of water column with the best beam quality of 6.4 centimeters behind the theoretical focal point of the dish. Flux arrays based on slope error from the CIRCE2 computer code were compared to the measured flux array of the dish. The uniformly distributed slope error of 2.3 milliradians was determined as the value that would produce a modeled array with the minimum mean square difference to the measured array. Cold water calorimetry measured a power of 23.3 (plus minus) .3 kWt. Reflectivity changed from an initial value of 88.3 percent to 76.7 percent over a one year period.

  15. Phase V of the single-breath washout test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichol, G. M.; Michels, D. B.; Guy, H. J. B.

    1982-01-01

    A downward-deflecting phase V is often seen following the terminal rise (phase IV) in single-breath washout tests. To investigate the nature of phase V, experiments using simultaneous washouts of N2 and tracer boluses of Ar were performed on eight normal nonsmoking subjects aged 27-41 who exhibited a phase V. Phase V is found to occur in all subjects at expiratory flow rates between 0.1 and 2.0 l/sec shortly after expiration became flow limited. Volumes of both phases IV and V increase with increasing flow rate. The difference between the exhaled volumes at which flow became limited and phase V appeared is shown to be approximately equal to the anatomic dead space. Results support a model of lung emptying in a gravitational field in which flow limitation occurs first in the lower lung regions and then progresses toward the upper regions, causing phase IV. A decrease in the amount of flow from the upper relative to the lower regions after all regions have become flow limited then causes phase V.

  16. Radiation Tests for a Single-GEM Loaded Gaseous Detector

    E-print Network

    Lee, Kyong Sei; Kim, Sang Yeol; Park, Sung Keun

    2014-01-01

    We report on the systematic study of a single-gas-electron-multiplication (GEM) loaded gaseous detector developed for precision measurements of high-energy particle beams and dose-verification measurements. In the present study, a 256-channel prototype detector with an active area of 16$\\times$16 cm$^{2}$, operated in a continuous current-integration-mode signal-processing method, was manufactured and tested with x rays emitted from a 70-kV x-ray generator and 43-MeV protons provided by the MC50 proton cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science (KIRAMS). The amplified detector response was measured for the x rays with an intensity of about 5$\\times$10$^{6}$ Hz cm$^{-2}$. The linearity of the detector response to the particle flux was examined and validated by using 43-MeV proton beams. The non-uniform development of the amplification for the gas electrons in space was corrected by applying proper calibration to the channel responses of the measured beam-profile data. We concluded fro...

  17. Variable Depth Bragg Peak Method for Single Event Effects Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchner, S.; Kanyogoro, N.; Foster, C.; O'Neill, P.

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, accelerator SEE testing is accomplished by removing the tops of packages so that the IC chips are accessible to heavy ions. However, ICs in some advanced packages cannot be de-lidded so a different approach is used that involves grinding and/or chemically etching away part of the package and the chip from the back side. The parts are then tested from the back side with ions having sufficient range to reach the sensitive volume. More recently, the entire silicon substrate in an SOI/SRAM was removed, making it possible to use low-energy ions with shorter ranges. Where removal of part of the package is not possible, facilities at Michigan State, NASA Space Radiation Laboratory, GANIL (France) and GSI (Germany) offer high-energy heavy ions with long ranges so that the ions can reach the devices' sensitive volumes without much change in the LET. Unfortunately, a run will typically involve only one ion species having a single energy and LET due to the long time it takes to tune a new energy. The Variable Depth Bragg Peak (VDBP) method is similar to the above method in that it involves the use of high-energy heavy ions that are able to pass through the packaging material and reach the device, obviating the need to remove the package. However, the method provides a broad range of LETs from a single ion by inserting degraders in the beam that modify the ion energy and, therefore, the LET. The crux of the method involves establishing a fiduciary point for degrader thickness, i.e., where the Bragg peak is located precisely at the sensitive volume in the device, for which the measured SEU cross-section and the ion LET are both also maxima and can be calculated using a Monte-Carlo program, TRIM. Once the fiduciary point has been established, calibrated high density polyethylene (HDPE) degraders are inserted into or removed from the beam to vary the ion LET at the device in a known manner. After each change of degrader thickness, the SEU cross-section is measured and the corresponding LET calculated from the change in degrader thickness. That information is used to generate a plot of cross-section as a function of ion LET. The advantages of this approach are that the part does not have to be de-lidded and a broad range of LETs is available from a single heavy ion without having to go to non-normal angles of incidence to change the "effective" LET. As we will show, it is possible to obtain an entire curve of cross-section versus LET using just two or three ions. Fig. 1 shows curves of cross-section vs LET for a Freescale 4 Mbit SOI/SRAM measured at the 88" Cyclotron at Berkeley and at NSRL. The open symbols are the data obtained from Berkeley for top-side and back-side irradiation. The solid data points are for the data obtained at NSRL using a device for which the package was intact. The data are for Iron and Gold and cover a range of LETs from 4 MeV.cm2/mg to 84 MeV.cm2/mg. The agreement between the data obtained from Berkeley and from NSRL is excellent, demonstrating that the VDBP method is capable of providing accurate values of cross-section versus LET, at least for the 4 Mbit SRAM. Details of the technique will be included in the final presentation.

  18. Differentiation of Performance-Limiting Voltage Transients during Nb3Sn Magnet Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lietzke, A. F.; Mattafirri, S.; McInturff, A. D.; Nyman, M.; Dietderich, D. R.; Gourlay, S. A.; Sabbi, G. L.

    2006-03-01

    The Superconducting Magnet Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been developing high-field, brittle-superconductor, accelerator magnet technology for several years. While recent dramatic increases in Nb3Sn superconducting current density, (Jc = 3000 A/mm2 at 12 Tesla, 4.2 K) have facilitated the achievement of record peak dipole bore-fields (16 Tesla), the number and size of fast intra-coil flux-adjustments of the "flux-jump" variety have increased with the current density. In 2000, with state-of-the art (Jc = 2000 A/mm2 at 12 T) Nb3Sn conductor, the associated coil voltage transients were observed to be large enough to cause nuisance "quench-detector" magnet-protection false-alarms. Subsequent Jc increases have resulted in large enough flux-jumps to cause premature quenches in some magnets, at currents well below those predicted by their virgin strand superconducting "short-sample" measurements. This paper will examine various types of quench-onsets and their distinguishing characteristics. The associated observational techniques are briefly discussed.

  19. Results of the latest transient well pressure tests at Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Abril G, A.; Vargas G, C.

    1981-01-01

    The equipment used in the interference and two-rate flow tests carried out at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field during 1980 are described. The results of two interference tests are presented, one between wells M-110 and M-104, and the other between wells M-7 and Q-757. The data was interpreted using type curve matching analysis. Results of two-rate flow tests carried out in wells M-102 and M-7 are also discussed. A technique for making two-rate flow tests is proposed. This approach, which attempts to avoid the uncertainty of present flow-rate measurements, makes use of devices for direct measurements of separated water and steam. Conclusions based on the above interpretations and recommendations for future tests are presented.

  20. Phase 3 integrated water recovery testing at MSFC: Single loop test results and lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Donald Layne; Bagdigian, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    A series of tests has been conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to evaluate the performance of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) water recovery system. Potable and urine reclamation processors were integrated with waste water generation equipment and sucessfully operated for a total of 144 days. This testing marked the first occasion in which the waste feed sources for the previous potable and hygiene loops were combined into a single loop and processed to potable water quality. Reclaimed potable water from the combined waste waters routinely met the SSF water quality specifications.In the last stage of testing, data was obtained that indicated that the water processor (WP) presterilizer may not be required to meet the potable water quality specification. The removal of the presterilizer from the Water Processor design would provide a significant power savings, though an increase in the residence time of the catalytic oxidation reactor may be required to meet the potable microbial and total Organic Carbon specifications. This paper summarizes the test objectives, system design, test activities/protocols, significant results/anomalies and major lessons learned.

  1. Assembly of GABA, Receptor Subunits: Analysis of Transient Single-Cell Expression Utilizing a Fluorescent Substrate\\/Marker Gene Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy P. Angelotti; Michael D. Uhler; Robert L. Macdonald

    1993-01-01

    GABA, receptor channels (GABARs) composed of varying combinations of (Y,, @,, and yZS subunits were transiently expressed in mammalian cell lines. The whole-cell patch- clamp recording technique was used to determine which combinations of GABAR subunits produced functional re- ceptor channels and whether assembly of GABAR subunits into receptor channels followed a random or preferred se- quence. To identify rapidly

  2. Design and operation of a rapid thermal transient component testing sodium loop

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, D.L.

    1984-04-16

    A specific problem developed during the design of an on-line sampling system for the Sodium Loop Safety Facility fast breeder reactor experiments. Rapid fluctuations in the sodium temperature, caused by reactor operation and shutdown, exposed the system components to conditions that could result in fatigue failure. A component test loop was designed and built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to allow experimental qualification of component integrity. This paper outlines test system requirements, describes the design and special features, presents test procedures ad relates significant operating experience.

  3. Testing of the EURATOM LCT coil in the toroidal arrangement of the International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility without external pulsed fields (standard-1) and with them (standard II) and an extended single-coil test

    SciTech Connect

    Friesinger, G.; Gauss, S.; Komarek, P.; Lubell, M.S.; McManamy, T.J.; Maurer, W.; Shen, S.S.; Siewerdt, L.; Ulbricht, A.; Wuchner, F.

    1988-03-01

    Testing of the European LCT coil, a forced-flow NbTi coil, with the five other coils in the International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility (IFSMTF) has been in progress since the beginning of 1986. By the end of July 1987, the Euratom-LCT coil had passed a single-coil test, a test in toroidal configuration with and without poloidal field transients, and an extended single-coil test up to its design limits. In this test, the coil reached, in stable operation, a field of 9 T at 140% of rated current. It reached the short-sample values of the strands used in the cable. The coil was operated up to 8 T with and without poloidal field transients in a toroidal configuration. The mass flow rate was reduced by a factor of 5 compared with the design value without any visible impact on stability. Averaged ac losses (winding, 14 W; case, 7 W) were measured under LCT specified poloidal field pulses, and the findings agreed with those of the short-sample measurements. The mechanical properties behaved as predicted by calculations. No global movement of the winding in the coil case was found, although the coil has already experienced 50% (14MN) of the maximum out-of-plane force. The operating limits were determined by measuring the current-sharing temperature. It was found that the helium mass flow rate had an impact on the hot-spot temperature of a normal region. All results obtained demonstrate that the applied technology has achieved reliable engineering standards.

  4. Geological Hypothesis Testing and Investigations of Coupling with Transient Electromagnetics (TEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, A. C.; Moeller, M. M.; Snyder, E.; Workman, E. J.; Urquhart, S.; Bedrosian, P.; Pellerin, L.

    2014-12-01

    Transient electromagnetic (TEM) data were acquired in Borrego Canyon within the Santo Domingo Basin of the Rio Grande Rift, central New Mexico, during the 2014 Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE) field program. TEM surveys were carried out in several regions both to investigate geologic structure and to illustrate the effects of coupling to anthropogenic structures. To determine an optimal survey configuration, 50, 100 and 200 m square transmitter loops were deployed; estimates of depth-of-investigation and logistical considerations determined that 50 m loops were sufficient for production-style measurements. A resistive (100s of ohm-m) layer was identified at a depth of 25-75 m at several locations, and interpreted as dismembered parts of one or more concealed volcanic flows, an interpretation consistent with Tertiary volcanic flows that cap the Santa Anna Mesa immediately to the south. TEM soundings were also made across an inferred fault to investigate whether fault offset is accompanied by lateral changes in electrical resistivity. Soundings within several hundred meters of the inferred fault strand were identical, indicating no resistivity contrast across the fault, and possibly an absence of recent activity. An old windmill and water tank, long-abandoned, offered an excellent laboratory to study the effect of coupling to metallic anthropogenic structures. The character of the measured data strongly suggests the water tank is in electrical contact with the earth (galvanic coupling), and an induced response was persistent to more than 1 second after current turn-off. Coupling effects could be identified at least 150 meters from the tank. Understanding the mechanism behind such coupling and the ability to identify coupled data are critical skills, as one-dimensional modeling of data is affected by such coupling producing artificial conductive layers at depth.

  5. Methodological factors involved in neonatal screening using transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions and automated auditory brainstem response testing.

    PubMed

    Thornton, A Roger D; Kimm, Lindsay; Kennedy, Colin R

    2003-08-01

    The methodological factors involved in screening neonates for hearing loss, using transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) and automated auditory brainstem responses, have been evaluated from a large sample of neonates. The risk factors, commonly used to select babies for a targeted screen, have very little correlation with failing TEOAE testing. The parameters used to determine passing or failing the TEOAE test and the false alarm rate change markedly with age in the first few days of life as, of course, did the percentage of babies who failed the test. The stimulus level used was the default setting for the Otodynamics equipment but the stimulus level measured in the ear canal decreased over the first 140 h of life. It is thought that this reflects the impedance changes in outer and middle ears and possible changes in middle ear dynamics. The methodological variables investigated here can illuminate some of the differences in previous reports of neonatal screening, in particular the reported hit and false alarm rates. PMID:12948603

  6. Electro-optic modulator based gate transient suppression for sine-wave gated InGaAs/InP single photon avalanche photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yixin; Zhang, Xuping; Shi, Yuanlei; Ying, Zhoufeng; Wang, Shun

    2014-06-01

    Capacitive gate transient noise has been problematic for the high-speed single photon avalanche photodiode (SPAD), especially when the operating frequency extends to the gigahertz level. We proposed an electro-optic modulator based gate transient noise suppression method for sine-wave gated InGaAs/InP SPAD. With the modulator, gate transient is up-converted to its higher-order harmonics that can be easily removed by low pass filtering. The proposed method enables online tuning of the operating rate without modification of the hardware setup. At 250 K, detection efficiency of 14.7% was obtained with 4.8×10-6 per gate dark count and 3.6% after-pulse probabilities for 1550-nm optical signal under 1-GHz gating frequency. Experimental results have shown that the performance of the detector can be maintained within a designated frequency range from 0.97 to 1.03 GHz, which is quite suitable for practical high-speed SPAD applications operated around the gigahertz level.

  7. Delayed emission of surface-generated trapped carriers in transient charge transport of single-crystal and polycrystalline HgI2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuck, Asaf; Schieber, Michael M.; Khakhan, Oleg; Burshtein, Zeev

    2003-01-01

    Transient charge transport (TCT) measurements were used to evaluate the electrical conduction properties of HgI2 single crystals. Some comparative preliminary results for polycrystalline mercuric iodide (poly-HgI2) thick-film X-ray detectors are also reported. The latter were prepared by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The mobility , trapping time 2, and surface recombination velocity s of electrons or holes were determined by analyses of transient voltages developed across the sample in response to a drift of the corresponding charge carriers created by alpha particle absorption near one of the electrodes. Electron-, and hole mobilities of single crystal HgI2 were n = 80 cm2/V•s and p = 4.8 cm2/V•s, respectively. Trapping times were 2n ? 22 V and 2p ? 8 V, and surface recombination velocities sn ? 1.1 ×105 cm/s and sp ? 3.6 ×103 cm/s . Those of the polycrystalline material depend on the deposition technology, and vary between 65 and 88 cm2/V•s for electrons, and between 4.3 and 4.1 cm2/V•s for holes. Bulk trapping-times and surface recombination velocities appear of the same order of magnitude as in the single crystal. An effect of carriers being first generated in near-surface traps and then gradually released is observed for both the single crystal and the polycrystalline material. It is stronger for electrons as compared to holes, and stronger in the polycrystalline material as compared to the single crystal.

  8. Transient Lift-off Test Results for an Experimental Hybrid Bearing in Air

    E-print Network

    Klooster, David

    2011-02-22

    the hydrodynamic pressure, resulting from the relative motion of two surfaces, overcomes the forces acting on the rotor; no indication of hydrodynamic lift-off is provided. Hydrostatic lift-off results from the external supply pressure (which for this test rig...

  9. Solution-processed single-walled carbon nanotube field effect transistors and bootstrapped inverters for disintegratable, transient electronics

    E-print Network

    Rogers, John A.

    Solution-processed single-walled carbon nanotube field effect transistors and bootstrapped field effect transistors based on single-walled carbon nanotube network and formed on a gold transistors with single­walled­carbon nanotube network on flexible substrate J. Appl. Phys. 114, 214504 (2013

  10. Numerical and field tests of hydraulic transients at Piva power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giljen, Z.

    2014-03-01

    In 2009, a sophisticated field investigation was undertaken and later, in 2011, numerical tests were completed, on all three turbine units at the Piva hydroelectric power plant. These tests were made in order to assist in making decisions about the necessary scope of the reconstruction and modernisation of the Piva hydroelectric power plant, a plant originally constructed in the mid-1970s. More specifically, the investigation included several hydraulic conditions including both the start-up and stopping of each unit, load rejection under governor control from different initial powers, as well as emergency shut-down. Numerical results were obtained using the method of characteristics in a representation that included the full flow system and the characteristics of each associated Francis turbine. The impact of load rejection and emergency shut-down on the penstock pressure and turbine speed changes are reported and numerical and experimental results are compared, showing close agreement.

  11. Qualification test procedures and results for Honeywell solar collector subsystem, single-family residence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The test procedures and results in qualifying the Honeywell single family residence solar collector subsystem are presented. Testing was done in the following areas: pressure, service loads, hail, solar degradation, pollutants, thermal degradation, and outgassing.

  12. The diagnostic odds ratio: a single indicator of test performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Afina S. Glas; Jeroen G. Lijmer; Martin H. Prins; Gouke J. Bonsel; Patrick M. M. Bossuyt

    2003-01-01

    Diagnostic testing can be used to discriminate subjects with a target disorder from subjects without it. Several indicators of diagnostic performance have been proposed, such as sensitivity and specificity. Using paired indicators can be a disadvantage in comparing the performance of competing tests, especially if one test does not outperform the other on both indicators. Here we propose the use

  13. Estimation of the Doppler Coefficient from a Lower Power Transient Observed in a Zero-Power Reactor Physics Test of a PWR (I)—Methodology—

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masashi TSUJI; Yoichiro SHIMAZU; Tadashi NARABAYASHI; Yasunori OHOKA; Masatoshi YAMASAKI; Yasushi HANAYAMA

    2009-01-01

    A method for estimating the Doppler coefficient from low power transient data that are measured in a routine experiment conducted in a zero-power reactor physics test of a PWR power plant has been developed. A dynamics identification model was introduced by considering two dynamics components for reactor kinetics and heat removal in the primary coolant loops. The dynamics identification method

  14. Saliva testing after single and chronic administration of dihydrocodeine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Skopp; L. Pötsch; K. Klinder; B. Richter; R. Aderjan; R. Mattern

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, concentrations of dihydrocodeine and its metabolites in saliva and serum were compared after single\\u000a low-dose and chronic high-dosage administration of the drug. In the first investigation, blood and saliva were collected periodically\\u000a from six subjects after oral administration of 60 mg dihydrocodeine. In the second study, 20 subjects on oral dihydrocodeine\\u000a maintenance provided single samples of

  15. Mechanical testing of large thallium doped sodium iodide single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, H. M.

    1985-01-01

    The findings of mechanical tests performed on five thallium-doped sodium iodide NaI(Tl) crystals are presented. These crystals are all in the shape of circular flat plates, 20.0 in. in diameter an d0.5 in. thick. The test setup, testing procedure, and the test data are presented. Large crystals exhibit a high degree of material plasticity, as well as a much higher strength than previously anticipated, on the order of 500 psi. Also revealed from the testing is the fact that crystal with a large number of grain boundaries developed less plasticity, and therefore less permanent deformation, than those with fewer grain boundaries.

  16. Single-cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing Csx/Nkx2.5 and GATA4 undergo the stochastic cardiomyogenic fate and behave like transient amplifying cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Yoji [BioFrontier Laboratories, Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co. Ltd., 3-6-6 Asahi-machi, Machida-shi, Tokyo 194-8533 (Japan); Sakurada, Kazuhiro [BioFrontier Laboratories, Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co. Ltd., 3-6-6 Asahi-machi, Machida-shi, Tokyo 194-8533 (Japan); Takeda, Yukiji [National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1 Okura, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157-8535 (Japan); Gojo, Satoshi [National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1 Okura, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157-8535 (Japan); Umezawa, Akihiro [National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1 Okura, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157-8535 (Japan)]. E-mail: umezawa@1985.jukuin.keio.ac.jp

    2007-02-15

    Bone marrow-derived stromal cells can give rise to cardiomyocytes as well as adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes in vitro. The existence of mesenchymal stem cells has been proposed, but it remains unclear if a single-cell-derived stem cell stochastically commits toward a cardiac lineage. By single-cell marking, we performed a follow-up study of individual cells during the differentiation of 9-15c mesenchymal stromal cells derived from bone marrow cells. Three types of cells, i.e., cardiac myoblasts, cardiac progenitors and multipotent stem cells were differentiated from a single cell, implying that cardiomyocytes are generated stochastically from a single-cell-derived stem cell. We also demonstrated that overexpression of Csx/Nkx2.5 and GATA4, precardiac mesodermal transcription factors, enhanced cardiomyogenic differentiation of 9-15c cells, and the frequency of cardiomyogenic differentiation was increased by co-culturing with fetal cardiomyocytes. Single-cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing Csx/Nkx2.5 and GATA4 behaved like cardiac transient amplifying cells, and still retained their plasticity in vivo.

  17. Results of the ETV-1 breadboard tests under steady-state and transient conditions. [conducted in the NASA-LeRC Road Load Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, N. B.; Dustin, M. O.

    1981-01-01

    Steady state tests were run to characterize the system and component efficiencies over the complete speed-torque capabilities of the propulsion system in both motoring and regenerative modes of operation. The steady state data were obtained using a battery simulator to separate the effects on efficiency caused by changing battery state-of-charge and component temperature. Transient tests were performed to determine the energy profiles of the propulsion system operating over the SAE J227a driving schedules.

  18. Soumis J Eur. Ceram. Soc. Intermediate temperature SOFC single cell test

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Soumis à J Eur. Ceram. Soc. Intermediate temperature SOFC single cell test using Nd1.95NiO4 Abstract This work deals with SOFC single cell tests using neodymium nickelate Nd1.95NiO4+ as cathode electrochemical activity with respect to classical materials. The SOFC cells were fabricated from an anode

  19. 76 FR 34801 - Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ...FRA-2010-0174] Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures In accordance...FRA) grant a modification of the single car air brake test procedures as prescribed...FRA-2010-0174. PATH operates a fleet of 25 flat cars in consist with revenue cars utilized...

  20. Stress Transfer in Single Fiber\\/ Resin Tensile Tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. D. Bascom; R. M. Jensen

    1986-01-01

    Microscale (25 mm gauge length) “dogbone” resin specimens with single carbon fibers embedded through the length of the specimen have been studied as a method for determining the fiber-resin interphase strength. The specimens are pulled in tension until the fiber fragments to a critical length, lc. Evidence is presented here, based primarily on the relaxation of stress birefringence around the

  1. Transient drawdown solution for a constant pumping test in finite two-zone confined aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.-T.; Yeh, H.-D.; Tsai, C.-S.

    2012-02-01

    The drawdown solution has been widely used to analyze pumping test data for the determination of aquifer parameters when coupled with an optimization scheme. The solution can also be used to predict the drawdown due to pumping and design the dewatering system. The drawdown solution for flow toward a finite-radius well with a skin zone in a confined aquifer of infinite extent in radial direction had been developed before. To our best knowledge, the drawdown solution in confined aquifers of finite extent with a skin zone so far has never before been presented in the groundwater literature. This article presents a mathematical model for describing the drawdown distribution due to a constant-flux pumping from a finite-radius well with a skin zone in confined aquifers of finite extent. The analytical solution of the model is developed by applying the methods of Laplace transforms, Bromwich contour integral, and residue theorem. This solution can be used to investigate the effects of finite boundary and conductivity ratio on the drawdown distribution. In addition, the inverse relationship between Laplace- and time-domain variables is used to develop the large time solution which can reduce to the Thiem solution if there is no skin zone.

  2. Transient drawdown solution for a constant pumping test in finite two-zone confined aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.-T.; Yeh, H.-D.; Tsai, C.-S.

    2011-10-01

    The drawdown solution has been widely used to analyze pumping test data for the determination of aquifer parameters when coupled with an optimization scheme. The solution can also be used to predict the drawdown due to pumping and design the dewatering system. The drawdown solution for flow toward a finite-radius well with a skin zone in a confined aquifer of infinite extent in radial direction had been developed before. To our best knowledge, the drawdown solution in confined aquifers of finite extent so far has never before been presented in the groundwater literature. This article presents a mathematical model for describing the drawdown distribution due to a constant-flux pumping from a finite-radius well with a skin zone in confined aquifers of finite extent. The analytical solution of the model is developed by applying the methods of Laplace transforms and Bromwich contour integral. This solution can be used to investigate the effects of finite boundary and conductivity ratio on the drawdown distribution. In addition, the inverse relationship between Laplace- and time-domain variables is used to develop the large time solution which can reduce to the Thiem solution if there is no skin zone.

  3. Test procedures and instructions for single shell tank saltcake cesium removal with crystalline silicotitanate

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, J.B.

    1997-01-07

    This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test, using Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake from tanks 24 t -BY- I 10, 24 1 -U- 108, 24 1 -U- 109, 24 1 -A- I 0 1, and 24 t - S-102, in a bench-scale column. The cesium sorbent to be tested is crystalline siticotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-024, Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake Cesium Removal Test Plan.

  4. Info-gap robustness for the correlation of tests and simulations of a non-linear transient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemez, François M.; Ben-Haim, Yakov

    2004-11-01

    An alternative to the theory of probability is applied to the problem of assessing the robustness, to uncertainty in model parameters, of the correlation between measurements and computer simulations. The analysis is based on the theory of information-gap uncertainty, which models the clustering of uncertain events in families of nested sets instead of assuming a probability structure. The system investigated is the propagation of a transient impact through a layer of hyper-elastic material. The two sources of non-linearity are (1) the softening of the constitutive law representing the hyper-elastic material and (2) the contact dynamics at the interface between metallic and crushable materials. The robustness of the correlation between test and simulation, to sources of parameter variability, is first studied to identify the parameters of the model that significantly influence the agreement between measurements and predictions. Model updating under non-probabilistic uncertainty is then illustrated, based on two complementary immunity functions: the robustness to uncertainty and the opportunity from uncertainty. Finally an info-gap model is embedded within a probability density function to represent uncertainty in the knowledge of the model's parameters and their correlation structure. Although computationally expensive, it is demonstrated that info-gap reasoning can greatly enhance our understanding of a moderately complex system when the theory of probability cannot be applied due to insufficient information.

  5. Tests of Lorentz symmetry in single beta decay

    E-print Network

    Jorge S. Diaz

    2014-08-25

    Low-energy experiments studying single beta decay can serve as sensitive probes of Lorentz invariance that can complement interferometric searches for deviations from this spacetime symmetry. Experimental signatures of a dimension-three operator for Lorentz violation that are unobservable in neutrino oscillations are described for the decay the polarized and unpolarized neutrons as well as for measurements of the spectral endpoint in beta decay.

  6. [Acute stent thrombosis and reverse transient left ventricular dilatation after performing a single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion].

    PubMed

    Miranda, B; Pizzi, M N; Aguadé-Bruix, S; Domingo, E; Candell-Riera, J

    2015-01-01

    A 63-year-old male patient with a history of stent implantation in the left anterior descending three months before. Due to the presentation of vegetative symptoms, he was referred for gated-SPECT myocardial perfusion. During acquisition of the resting images he presented chest pain and ST segment elevation, so that urgent cardiac catheterization was performed, showing stent thrombosis. Rest perfusion imaging showed a defect in anterior and apical perfusion, more severe and extensive than in the stress images, with striking left ventricular dilatation and a fall in the ejection fraction related to the acute ischemia phenomenon. Intense exercise is associated with a transient activation of the coagulation system and hemodynamic changes that might induce thrombosis, especially in recently implanted coronary stents that probably still have not become completely endothelialized. PMID:25129322

  7. Single-Tube Ultrasonic Testing of Pile Integrity 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joram M. Amir

    It is now universally acknowledged that in bored piles (drilled shafts, caissons) flaws can, and therefore will, occur. The majority of the important flaws can be detected by standard non-destructive testing methods. There are situations, however, when none of these methods is viable. One example is that of small diameter piles, penetrating through rockfill with large cavities and then socketed

  8. Neutronics, steady-state, and transient analyses for the Poland MARIA reactor for irradiation testing of LEU lead test fuel assemblies from CERCA : ANL independent verification results.

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, P. L.; Hanan, N. A. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2011-06-07

    The MARIA reactor at the Institute of Atomic Energy (IAE) in Swierk (30 km SE of Warsaw) in the Republic of Poland is considering conversion from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies (FA). The FA design in MARIA is rather unique; a suitable LEU FA has never been designed or tested. IAE has contracted with CERCA (the fuel supply portion of AREVA in France) to supply 2 lead test assemblies (LTA). The LTAs will be irradiated in MARIA to burnup level of at least 40% for both LTAs and to 60% for one LTA. IAE may decide to purchase additional LEU FAs for a full core conversion after the test irradiation. The Reactor Safety Committee within IAE and the National Atomic Energy Agency in Poland (PAA) must approve the LTA irradiation process. The approval will be based, in part, on IAE submitting revisions to portions of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) which are affected by the insertion of the LTAs. (A similar process will be required for the full core conversion to LEU fuel.) The analysis required was established during working meetings between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and IAE staff during August 2006, subsequent email correspondence, and subsequent staff visits. The analysis needs to consider the current high-enriched uranium (HEU) core and 4 core configurations containing 1 and 2 LEU LTAs in various core positions. Calculations have been performed at ANL in support of the LTA irradiation. These calculations are summarized in this report and include criticality, burn-up, neutronics parameters, steady-state thermal hydraulics, and postulated transients. These calculations have been performed at the request of the IAE staff, who are performing similar calculations to be used in their SAR amendment submittal to the PAA. The ANL analysis has been performed independently from that being performed by IAE and should only be used as one step in the verification process.

  9. Psychometric Characteristics of Single-Word Tests of Children's Speech Sound Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flipsen, Peter, Jr.; Ogiela, Diane A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Our understanding of test construction has improved since the now-classic review by McCauley and Swisher (1984) . The current review article examines the psychometric characteristics of current single-word tests of speech sound production in an attempt to determine whether our tests have improved since then. It also provides a resource…

  10. Identification of Anisotropic Yield Criterion Parameters from a Single Biaxial Tensile Test

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Identification of Anisotropic Yield Criterion Parameters from a Single Biaxial Tensile Test ZHANG biaxial tensile test. It is shown, from finite element simulations, that the strain distribution biaxial tensile test. Introduction Sheet metals usually exhibit a plastic anisotropy due to previous

  11. Determination of carbon fiber adhesion to thermoplastic polymers using the single fiber/matrix tensile test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bascom, W. D.; Cordner, L. W.; Hinkley, J. L.; Johnston, N. J.

    1986-01-01

    The single fiber adhesion shear test has been adapted to testing the adhesion between carbon fiber and thermoplastic polymers. Tests of three thermoplastics, polycarbonate, polyphenylene oxide and polyetherimide indicate the shear adhesion strength is significantly less than of an epoxy polymer to the same carbon fiber.

  12. Single-molecule spectroscopy and femtosecond transient absorption studies on the excitation energy transfer process in ApcE(1-240) dimers.

    PubMed

    Long, Saran; Zhou, Meng; Tang, Kun; Zeng, Xiao-Li; Niu, Yingli; Guo, Qianjin; Zhao, Kai-Hong; Xia, Andong

    2015-05-13

    ApcE(1-240) dimers with one intrinsic phycocyanobilin (PCB) chromophore in each monomer that is truncated from the core-membrane linker (ApcE) of phycobilisomes (PBS) in Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 show a sharp and significantly red-shifted absorption. Two explanations either conformation-dependent Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) or the strong exciton coupling limit have been proposed for red-shifted absorption. This is a classic example of the special pair in the photosynthetic light harvesting proteins, but the mechanism of this interaction is still a matter of intense debate. We report the studies using single-molecule and transient absorption spectra on the interaction in the special pair of ApcE dimers. Our results demonstrate the presence of conformation-dependent FRET between the two PCB chromophores in ApcE dimers. The broad distributions of fluorescence intensities, lifetimes and polarization difference from single-molecule measurements reveal the heterogeneity of local protein-pigment environments in ApcE dimers, where the same molecular structures but different protein environments are the main reason for the two PCB chromophores with different spectral properties. The excitation energy transfer rate between the donor and the acceptor about (110 ps)(-1) is determined from transient absorption measurements. The red-shifted absorption in ApcE dimers could result from more extending conformation, which shows another type of absorption redshift that does not depend on strong exciton coupling. The results here stress the importance of conformation-controlled spectral properties of the chemically identical chromophores, which could be a general feature to control energy/electron transfer, widely existing in the light harvesting complexes. PMID:25925197

  13. Advanced development of the spectrum sciences Model 5005-TF, single-event test fixture

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.R.; Browning, J.S. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Hughlock, B.W. (Boeing Aerospace and Electronics Co., Seattle, WA (USA)); Lum, G.K. (Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Sunnyvale, CA (USA)); Tsacoyeanes, W.C. (Draper (Charles Stark) Lab., Inc., Cambridge, MA (USA)); Weeks, M.D. (Spectrum Sciences, Inc., Santa Clara, CA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the advanced development of the Spectrum Sciences Model 5005-TF, Single-Event Test Fixture. The Model 5005-TF uses a Californium-252 (Cf-252) fission-fragment source to test integrated circuits and other devices for the effects of single-event phenomena. Particle identification methods commonly used in high-energy physics research and nuclear engineering have been incorporated into the Model 5005-TF for estimating the particle charge, mass, and energy parameters. All single-event phenomena observed in a device under test (DUT) are correlated with an identified fission fragment, and its linear energy transfer (LET) and range in the semiconductor material of the DUT.

  14. RELAP5\\/MOD3 Analysis of Transient Steam-Generator Behavior During Turbine Trip Test of a Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor MONJU

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihisa Shindo; Hiroshi Endo; Tomoko Ishizu; Kazuo Haga

    2006-01-01

    In order to develop a thermal-hydraulic model of the steam-generator (SG) to simulate transient phenomena in the sodium cooled fast breeder reactor (FBR) MONJU, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) verified the SG model using the RELAP5\\/MOD3 code against the results of the turbine trip test at a 40% power load of MONJU. The modeling by using RELAP5 was considered

  15. Design and testing of a high accuracy robotic single-cell manipulator

    E-print Network

    Yoon, Jun Young, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    We have designed, built and tested a high accuracy robotic single-cell manipulator to be able to pick individual cells from array of microwells, each 30 Pm or 50 pm cubed. Design efforts have been made for higher accuracy, ...

  16. Compendium of Test Results of Single Event Effects Conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory R. Allen

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports heavy ion and proton induced single event effects results for a variety of microelectronic devices targeted for possible use in NASA spacecrafts. The compendium covers a sampling of devices tested over the past eight years.

  17. Compendium of Recent Test Results of Single Event Effects Conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Gregory R.; Guertin, Steven M.; Scheick, Leif Z.; Irom, Farokh; Zajac, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports heavy ion, proton, and laser induced single event effects results for a variety of microelectronic devices targeted for possible use in NASA spacecrafts. The compendium covers devices tested within the years of 2010 through 2012.

  18. Research on reliability enhancement testing for single-phase smart meter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sitong Wang; Ranran Luo; Hui Zhou; Jie Su; Xiaolei Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Single-phase smart meter as a key part of State Grid, the reliability of it has already become a problem not allow of being neglected. In this paper, a reliability enhancement testing method on single-phase smart meters is developed. The main sensitive stress and the weak parts which influence the reliability of single-phase smart meter have been discussed based on the

  19. Haplotypes vs single marker linkage disequilibrium tests: what do we gain?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua Akey; Li Jin; Momiao Xiong

    2001-01-01

    The genetic dissection of complex diseases represents a formidable challenge for modern human genetics. Recently, it has been suggested that linkage disequilibrium (LD) based methods will be a powerful approach for delineating complex disease genes. Most proposed LD test statistics search for association between a single marker and a putative trait locus. However, the power of a single marker association

  20. Parametric Testing of Chevrons on Single Flow Hot Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James; Brown, Clifford A.

    2004-01-01

    A parametric family of chevron nozzles have been studied, looking for relationships between chevron geometric parameters, flow characteristics, and far-field noise. Both cold and hot conditions have been run at acoustic Mach number 0.9. Ten models have been tested, varying chevron count, penetration, length, and chevron symmetry. Four comparative studies were defined from these datasets which show: that chevron length is not a major impact on either flow or sound; that chevron penetration increases noise at high frequency and lowers it at low frequency, especially for low chevron counts; that chevron count is a strong player with good low frequency reductions being achieved with high chevron count without strong high frequency penalty; and that chevron asymmetry slightly reduces the impact of the chevron. Finally, it is shown that although the hot jets differ systematically from the cold one, the overall trends with chevron parameters is the same.

  1. First high power pulsed tests of a dressed 325 MHz superconducting single spoke resonator at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Madrak, R.; Branlard, J.; Chase, B.; Darve, C.; Joireman, P.; Khabiboulline, T.; Mukherjee, A.; Nicol, T.; Peoples-Evans, E.; Peterson, D.; Pischalnikov, Y.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    In the recently commissioned superconducting RF cavity test facility at Fermilab (SCTF), a 325 MHz, {beta} = 0.22 superconducting single-spoke resonator (SSR1) has been tested for the first time with its input power coupler. Previously, this cavity had been tested CW with a low power, high Q{sub ext} test coupler; first as a bare cavity in the Fermilab Vertical Test Stand and then fully dressed in the SCTF. For the tests described here, the design input coupler with Q{sub ext} {approx} 10{sup 6} was used. Pulsed power was provided by a Toshiba E3740A 2.5 MW klystron.

  2. The Development and Validation of a Formula for Measuring Single-Sentence Test Item Readability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homan, Susan; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted with 782 elementary school students to determine whether the Homan-Hewitt Readability Formula could identify the readability of a single-sentence test item. Results indicate that a relationship exists between students' reading grade levels and responses to test items written at higher readability levels. (SLD)

  3. Analytical solutions for efficient interpretation of single-well push-pull tracer tests

    EPA Science Inventory

    Single-well push-pull tracer tests have been used to characterize the extent, fate, and transport of subsurface contamination. Analytical solutions provide one alternative for interpreting test results. In this work, an exact analytical solution to two-dimensional equations descr...

  4. Is Single Stool Occult Blood Test or Serum CEA Level Valuable in Health Check Up?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Chang Li; Jen-Kou Lin; Tzu-Chen Lin; Wei-Shone Chen; Jeng-Kae Jiang; Shung-Haur Yang; Huann-Sheng Wang; Shih-Ching Chang

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. Stool occult blood tests and serum CEA level examinations are widely used at health check-up of detecting colorectal lesions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of using single stool occult blood tests or serum CEA levels in routine health check up. Methods. We examined 1404 patients who came for health check up at Veterans General

  5. COMMIX-1AR/P: A three-dimensional transient single-phase computer program for thermal hydraulic analysis of single and multicomponent systems. Volume 2, User`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, P.L.; Blomquist, R.N.; Gelbard, E.M.

    1992-09-01

    The COMMIX-1AR/P computer program is designed for analyzing the steady-state and transient aspects of single-phase fluid flow and heat transfer in three spatial dimensions. This version is an extension of the modeling in COMMIX-1A to include multiple fluids in physically separate regions of the computational domain, modeling descriptions for pumps, radiation heat transfer between surfaces of the solids which are embedded in or surround the fluid, a k-{var_epsilon} model for fluid turbulence, and improved numerical techniques. The porous-medium formulation in COMMIX allows the program to be applied to a wide range of problems involving both simple and complex geometrical arrangements. The input preparation and execution procedures are presented for the COMMIX-1AR/P program and several postprocessor programs which produce graphical displays of the calculated results.

  6. COMMIX-1AR/P: A three-dimensional transient single-phase computer program for thermal hydraulic analysis of single and multicomponent systems. Volume 3, Programmer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, P.L.; Blomquist, R.N.; Gelbard, E.M.

    1992-09-01

    The COMMIX-LAR/P computer program is designed for analyzing the steady-state and transient aspects of single-phase fluid flow and heat transfer in three spatial dimensions. This version is an extension of the modeling in COMMIX-lA to include multiple fluids in physically separate regions of the computational domain, modeling descriptions for pumps, radiation heat transfer between surfaces of the solids which are embedded in or surround the fluid, a keg model for fluid turbulence, and improved numerical techniques. The porous-medium formulation in COMMIX allows the program to be applied to a wide range of problems involving both simple and complex geometrical arrangements. The internal aspects of the COMMIX-LAR/P program are presented, covering descriptions of subprograms, variables, and files.

  7. A Nuclear Interaction Model for Understanding Results of Single Event Testing with High Energy Protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culpepper, William X.; ONeill, Pat; Nicholson, Leonard L.

    2000-01-01

    An internuclear cascade and evaporation model has been adapted to estimate the LET spectrum generated during testing with 200 MeV protons. The model-generated heavy ion LET spectrum is compared to the heavy ion LET spectrum seen on orbit. This comparison is the basis for predicting single event failure rates from heavy ions using results from a single proton test. Of equal importance, this spectra comparison also establishes an estimate of the risk of encountering a failure mode on orbit that was not detected during proton testing. Verification of the general results of the model is presented based on experiments, individual part test results, and flight data. Acceptance of this model and its estimate of remaining risk opens the hardware verification philosophy to the consideration of radiation testing with high energy protons at the board and box level instead of the more standard method of individual part testing with low energy heavy ions.

  8. Characterization of single crystal mechanical test specimens for advanced turbine applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lipetzky, Kirsten G.; Green, Robert E. Jr. [Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    1999-12-02

    A series of fifteen mechanical test specimens made from a nickel-based superalloy were supplied by Siemens Westinghouse in order that Asymmetric Crystal Topography (ACT), an x-ray diffraction technique, be used to confirm which samples were single crystal samples and which samples contained low angle grain boundaries. It had been determined (by another investigator) prior to the manufacture of the mechanical test specimens, which 'raw' material contained low angle grain boundaries and which material was single crystalline in nature. Siemens Westinghouse requisitioned the production of mechanical test specimens from several manufacturers, with specific requirements that some of the samples were to be single crystalline and that other samples were to contain low angle grain boundaries within the gauge length. Once completed, Siemens Westinghouse wanted to confirm that the samples were properly manufactured and selected a representative portion of the mechanical test samples to be examined via ACT.

  9. Analytical solutions for efficient interpretation of single-well push-pull tracer tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junqi Huang; John A. Christ; Mark N. Goltz

    2010-01-01

    Single-well push-pull tracer tests have been used to characterize the extent, fate, and transport of subsurface contamination. Analytical solutions provide one alternative for interpreting test results. In this work, an exact analytical solution to two-dimensional equations describing the governing processes acting on a dissolved compound during a modified push-pull test (advection, longitudinal and transverse dispersion, first-order decay, and rate-limited sorption\\/partitioning

  10. TUCOP failure threshold test CO6R

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. Culley; P. C. Ferrell; R. Herbert; W. J. Woods

    1984-01-01

    The C06R test was the sixth single-pin test in the collaborative US\\/UK PFR\\/TREAT transient testing program. It was designed to study the mechanism, time and location of cladding failure and first fuel escape in an intermediate channel transient undercooling - overpower accident (TUCOP). It complements the LO5² and LO7³ tests which studied post failure fuel dispersal in a similar hypothetical

  11. Non-invasive prenatal testing for single gene disorders: exploring the ethics.

    PubMed

    Deans, Zuzana; Hill, Melissa; Chitty, Lyn S; Lewis, Celine

    2013-07-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing for single gene disorders is now clearly on the horizon. This new technology offers obvious clinical benefits such as safe testing early in pregnancy. Before widespread implementation, it is important to consider the possible ethical implications. Four hypothetical scenarios are presented that highlight how ethical ideals of respect for autonomy, privacy and fairness may come into play when offering non-invasive prenatal testing for single gene disorders. The first scenario illustrates the moral case for using these tests for 'information only', identifying a potential conflict between larger numbers of women seeking the benefits of the test and the wider social impact of funding tests that do not offer immediate clinical benefit. The second scenario shows how the simplicity and safety of non-invasive prenatal testing could lead to more autonomous decision-making and, conversely, how this could also lead to increased pressure on women to take up testing. In the third scenario we show how, unless strong safeguards are put in place, offering non-invasive prenatal testing could be subject to routinisation with informed consent undermined and that woman who are newly diagnosed as carriers may be particularly vulnerable. The final scenario introduces the possibility of a conflict of the moral rights of a woman and her partner through testing for single gene disorders. This analysis informs our understanding of the potential impacts of non-invasive prenatal testing for single gene disorders on clinical practice and has implications for future policy and guidelines for prenatal care. PMID:23188047

  12. Non-invasive prenatal testing for single gene disorders: exploring the ethics

    PubMed Central

    Deans, Zuzana; Hill, Melissa; Chitty, Lyn S; Lewis, Celine

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing for single gene disorders is now clearly on the horizon. This new technology offers obvious clinical benefits such as safe testing early in pregnancy. Before widespread implementation, it is important to consider the possible ethical implications. Four hypothetical scenarios are presented that highlight how ethical ideals of respect for autonomy, privacy and fairness may come into play when offering non-invasive prenatal testing for single gene disorders. The first scenario illustrates the moral case for using these tests for ‘information only', identifying a potential conflict between larger numbers of women seeking the benefits of the test and the wider social impact of funding tests that do not offer immediate clinical benefit. The second scenario shows how the simplicity and safety of non-invasive prenatal testing could lead to more autonomous decision-making and, conversely, how this could also lead to increased pressure on women to take up testing. In the third scenario we show how, unless strong safeguards are put in place, offering non-invasive prenatal testing could be subject to routinisation with informed consent undermined and that woman who are newly diagnosed as carriers may be particularly vulnerable. The final scenario introduces the possibility of a conflict of the moral rights of a woman and her partner through testing for single gene disorders. This analysis informs our understanding of the potential impacts of non-invasive prenatal testing for single gene disorders on clinical practice and has implications for future policy and guidelines for prenatal care. PMID:23188047

  13. Switching transients in a superconducting coil

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, E.W.; Shimer, D.W.

    1983-11-18

    A study is made of the transients caused by the fast dump of large superconducting coils. Theoretical analysis, computer simulation, and actual measurements are used. Theoretical analysis can only be applied to the simplest of models. In the computer simulations two models are used, one in which the coil is divided into ten segments and another in which a single coil is employed. The circuit breaker that interrupts the current to the power supply, causing a fast dump, is represented by a time and current dependent conductance. Actual measurements are limited to measurements made incidental to performance tests on the MFTF Yin-yang coils. It is found that the breaker opening time is the critical factor in determining the size and shape of the transient. Instantaneous opening of the breaker causes a lightly damped transient with large amplitude voltages to ground. Increasing the opening time causes the transient to become a monopulse of decreasing amplitude. The voltages at the external terminals are determined by the parameters of the external circuit. For fast opening times the frequency depends on the dump resistor inductance, the circuit capacitance, and the amplitude on the coil current. For slower openings the dump resistor inductance and the current determine the amplitude of the voltage to ground at the terminals. Voltages to ground are less in the interior of the coil, where transients related to the parameters of the coil itself are observed.

  14. HEDL experimental transient overpower program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Hikido; G. E. Culley

    1976-01-01

    HEDL is conducting a series of experiments to evaluate the performance of Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) prototypic fuel pins up to the point of cladding breach. A primary objective of the program is to demonstrate the adequacy of fuel pin and Plant Protective System (PPS) designs for terminated transients. Transient tests of prototypic FFTF fuel pins previously irradiated in

  15. Comparative Performance of Four Single Extreme Outlier Discordancy Tests from Monte Carlo Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-González, Lorena; Quiroz-Ruiz, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Using highly precise and accurate Monte Carlo simulations of 20,000,000 replications and 102 independent simulation experiments with extremely low simulation errors and total uncertainties, we evaluated the performance of four single outlier discordancy tests (Grubbs test N2, Dixon test N8, skewness test N14, and kurtosis test N15) for normal samples of sizes 5 to 20. Statistical contaminations of a single observation resulting from parameters called ? from ±0.1 up to ±20 for modeling the slippage of central tendency or ? from ±1.1 up to ±200 for slippage of dispersion, as well as no contamination (? = 0 and ? = ±1), were simulated. Because of the use of precise and accurate random and normally distributed simulated data, very large replications, and a large number of independent experiments, this paper presents a novel approach for precise and accurate estimations of power functions of four popular discordancy tests and, therefore, should not be considered as a simple simulation exercise unrelated to probability and statistics. From both criteria of the Power of Test proposed by Hayes and Kinsella and the Test Performance Criterion of Barnett and Lewis, Dixon test N8 performs less well than the other three tests. The overall performance of these four tests could be summarized as N2?N15 > N14 > N8. PMID:24737992

  16. Numerical simulation of combined natural and forced convection during thermal-hydraulic transients. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Domanus, H.M.; Sha, W.T.

    1981-01-01

    The single-phase COMMIX (COMponent MIXing) computer code performs fully three-dimensional, transient, thermal-hydraulic analyses of liquid-sodium LMFBR components. It solves the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy as a boundary-value problem in space and as an initial-value problem in time. The concepts of volume porosity, surface permeability and distributed resistance, and heat source have been employed in quasi-continuum (rod-bundle) applications. Results from three transient simulations involving forced and natural convection are presented: (1) a sodium-filled horizontal pipe initially of uniform temperature undergoing an inlet velocity rundown transient, as well as an inlet temperature transient; (2) a 19-pin LMFBR rod bundle undergoing a velocity transient; and, (3) a simulation of a water test of a 1/10-scale outlet plenum undergoing both velocity and temperature transients.

  17. Ambiguity in measuring matrix diffusion with single-well injection/recovery tracer tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lessoff, S.C.; Konikow, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    Single-well injection/recovery tracer tests are considered for use in characterizing and quantifying matrix diffusion in dual-porosity aquifers. Numerical modeling indicates that neither regional drift in homogeneous aquifers, nor heterogeneity in aquifers having no regional drift, nor hydrodynamic dispersion significantly affects these tests. However, when drift is coupled simultaneously with heterogeneity, they can have significant confounding effects on tracer return. This synergistic effect of drift and heterogeneity may help explain irreversible flow and inconsistent results sometimes encountered in previous single-well injection/recovery tracer tests. Numerical results indicate that in a hypothetical single-well injection/recovery tracer test designed to demonstrate and measure dual-porosity characteristics in a fractured dolomite, the simultaneous effects of drift and heterogeneity sometimes yields responses similar to those anticipated in a homogeneous dual-porosity formation. In these cases, tracer recovery could provide a false indication of the occurrence of matrix diffusion. Shortening the shut-in period between injection and recovery periods may make the test less sensitive to drift. Using multiple tracers having different diffusion characteristics, multiple tests having different pumping schedules, and testing the formation at more than one location would decrease the ambiguity in the interpretation of test data.

  18. Effects of high density dispersion fuel loading on the uncontrolled reactivity insertion transients of a low enriched uranium fueled material test research reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farhan Muhammad; Asad Majid

    2009-01-01

    The effects of using high density low enriched uranium on the uncontrolled reactivity insertion transients of a material test research reactor were studied. For this purpose, the low density LEU fuel of an MTR was replaced with high density U–Mo (9w\\/o) LEU fuels currently being developed under the RERTR program having uranium densities of 6.57gU\\/cm3, 7.74gU\\/cm3 and 8.57gU\\/cm3. Simulations were

  19. Concept design and performance test of a magnetically suspended single-gimbal control moment gyro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kito, Katsumi; Kanki, Hiroshi; Ishii, Shinya

    Space vehicles are growing large in size and weight and attitude control systems require higher torque and momentum capability. As a primary attitude actuator for future platform type space vehicles, concept design model of a single-gimbal control moment gyro was built and tested. Based on the consideration of potential requirements for long life, low energy consumption, and vibration reduction, this concept design model adopts electromagnetic bearings which suspend two wheels. This single-gimbal control moment gyro has nominal angular momentum capacity of 100 Nms. The concept design model was tested and showed satisfactory results.

  20. Measurement of LNAPL flux using single-well intermittent mixing tracer dilution tests.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tim; Sale, Tom; Lyverse, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The stability of subsurface Light Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (LNAPLs) is a key factor driving expectations for remedial measures at LNAPL sites. The conventional approach to resolving LNAPL stability has been to apply Darcy's Equation. This paper explores an alternative approach wherein single-well tracer dilution tests with intermittent mixing are used to resolve LNAPL stability. As a first step, an implicit solution for single-well intermittent mixing tracer dilution tests is derived. This includes key assumptions and limits on the allowable time between intermittent mixing events. Second, single-well tracer dilution tests with intermittent mixing are conducted under conditions of known LNAPL flux. This includes a laboratory sand tank study and two field tests at active LNAPL recovery wells. Results from the sand tank studies indicate that LNAPL fluxes in wells can be transformed into formation fluxes using corrections for (1) LNAPL thicknesses in the well and formation and (2) convergence of flow to the well. Using the apparent convergence factor from the sand tank experiment, the average error between the known and measured LNAPL fluxes is 4%. Results from the field studies show nearly identical known and measured LNAPL fluxes at one well. At the second well the measured fluxes appear to exceed the known value by a factor of two. Agreement between the known and measured LNAPL fluxes, within a factor of two, indicates that single-well tracer dilution tests with intermittent mixing can be a viable means of resolving LNAPL stability. PMID:22489832

  1. Advanced sluicing system test report for single shell tank waste retrieval integrated testing

    SciTech Connect

    Berglin, E.J.

    1997-05-29

    This document describes the testing performed by ARD Environmental, Inc., and Los Alamos Technical Associates of the LATA/ARD Advanced Sluicing System, in support of ACTR Phase 1 activities. Testing was to measure the impact force and pressures of sluicing streams at three different distances, as measured by the Government supplied load cell. Simulated sluicing of large simulated salt cake and hard pan waste coupons was also performed. Due to operational difficulties experienced with the Government supplied load cell, no meaningful results with respect to sluice stream impact pressure distribution or stream coherence were obtained. Sluice testing using 3000 psi salt cake simulants measured waste retrieval rates of approximately 12 Ml/day (17.6 ft{sup 3}/hr). Rates as high as 314 m{sup 3}/day (463 ft{sup 3}/hr) were measured against the lower strength salt cake simulants.

  2. Distinction between persistent and transient infection in a bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) control programme: appropriate interpretation of real-time RT-PCR and antigen-ELISA test results.

    PubMed

    Hanon, J-B; Van der Stede, Y; Antonissen, A; Mullender, C; Tignon, M; van den Berg, T; Caij, B

    2014-04-01

    Control of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) in Belgium is currently implemented on a voluntary basis at herd level and mainly relies on detection and culling of persistently infected (PI) animals. The present field study was conducted during the winter of 2010/2011 to assess the performances of diagnostic assays used in the testing scheme for BVD as proposed by the two Belgian regional laboratories. Individual blood samples were collected from 4972 animals, and individual samples from the same herd were pooled (maximum of 30 individual samples per pool) and screened for the presence of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV)-specific RNA using a commercial real-time RT-PCR test (ADIAGENE). Individual samples from positive pools were then tested in parallel with the same RT-PCR test and with an antigen-capture ELISA test (IDEXX) to detect viremic animals. This study demonstrated that individual results differed according to the type of assay used (P < 0.001): 140 animals (2.8%) were positive by RT-PCR and 72 (1.4%) by antigen-ELISA. A second blood sample was taken 40 days later from 74 PCR positive animals to detect persistent viremia: 17 (23%) of these were still PCR positive and considered to be PI and the 57 that no longer tested positive were assumed to be transiently infected (TI) animals. All PI animals were positive also by antigen-ELISA at both time points. Among TI animals, 10 (16%) were positive by antigen-ELISA at the first but none at the second sampling. A highly significant difference in cycle threshold (Ct ) values obtained by RT-PCR was observed between PI and TI animals. ROC analysis was performed to establish thresholds to confirm with high probability that an animal is PI, based on the result of RT-PCR test performed on a single individual blood sample. PMID:23009318

  3. In-flight and ground testing of single event upset sensitivity in static RAMs

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, K.; Dyreklev, P.; Granbom, B. [Ericsson Saab Avionics AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)] [Ericsson Saab Avionics AB, Linkoeping (Sweden); Calvet, C. [Aerospatiale Space and Defence, Les Mureaux (France)] [Aerospatiale Space and Defence, Les Mureaux (France); Fourtine, S. [Aerospatiale Avions, Toulouse (France)] [Aerospatiale Avions, Toulouse (France); Feuillatre, O. [Dassault Electronique, Saint-Cloud (France)] [Dassault Electronique, Saint-Cloud (France)

    1998-06-01

    This paper presents the results from in-flight measurements of single event upsets (SEU) in static random access memories (SRAM) caused by the atmospheric radiation environment at aircraft altitudes. The memory devices were carried on commercial airlines at high altitude and mainly high latitudes. The SEUs were monitored by a Component Upset Test Equipment (CUTE), designed for this experiment. The in flight results are compared to ground based testing with neutrons from three different sources.

  4. Quantum transients

    E-print Network

    A. del Campo; G. Garcia-Calderon; J. G. Muga

    2009-05-16

    Quantum transients are temporary features of matter waves before they reach a stationary regime. Transients may arise after the preparation of an unstable initial state or due to a sudden interaction or a change in the boundary conditions. Examples are diffraction in time, buildup processes, decay, trapping, forerunners or pulse formation, as well as other phenomena recently discovered, such as the simultaneous arrival of a wave peak at arbitrarily distant observers. The interest on these transients is nowadays enhanced by new technological possibilities to control, manipulate and measure matter waves.

  5. Tests to Structural Collapse of Single Degree of Freedom Frames Subjected to Earthquake Excitations

    E-print Network

    Bruneau, Michel

    . Introduction The arbitrary lateral drift limits prescribed by earthquake-resistant design codes to preventTests to Structural Collapse of Single Degree of Freedom Frames Subjected to Earthquake Excitations by currently used strength and stability axial-moment interaction design equations by expressing

  6. Standardized Single-Disc MethodforAntibiotic Susceptibility Testing ofAnaerobic Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. D. WILKINS; I. J. ABRAMSON; W. E. C. MOORE

    1972-01-01

    A method was developed fordetermination oftheantibiotic susceptibility ofanaero- bicbacteria byuse ofa single-disc diffusion technique andincorporation ofthe inoculum inpourplates. Themethod was standardized bycorrelation ofzone diam- eters withminimal inhibitory concentrations determined inbroth. Zonediameters could beusedtoapproximate theminimal inhibitory concentrations oftheseven antibiotics tested: ampicillin, bacitracin, carbenicillin, cephalothin, clindamycin, penicillin, andtetracycline. Anaerobic bacteria arebeing isolated from tissue infections withincreasing frequency as clinical anaerobic methods haveimproved.

  7. Test results of a single aperture dipole model magnet for LHC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Shintomi; T. Nakamoto; N. Higashi; N. Kimura; T. Ogitsu; K. Tanaka; A. Terashima; K. Tsuchiya; A. Yamamoto; A. Orikasa; K. Makishima; N. Siegel; D. Leroy; R. Perin

    1999-01-01

    The 56 mm single aperture superconducting dipole model with a 5-block coil configuration was reassembled and tested to investigate the full support of electromagnetic forces using a high-manganese steel collar structure without mechanical contribution from an iron yoke. The reassembled model, which has a gap between the high manganese steel collar and the horizontally split iron yoke, reached a central

  8. SINGLE PARTICLE IMPACT BREAKAGE CHARACTERIZATION OF MATERIALS BY DROP WEIGHT TESTING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ömürden GENÇ; Levent ERGÜN; Hakan BENZER

    2004-01-01

    A drop weight tester was designed for the purpose of analyzing single particle impact breakage characteristics of different materials. Test results were evaluated through the breakage distributions of different size fractions at various impact energy levels. Breakage parameter t10 (Narayanan, 1986) is used to represent the degree of size reduction which is assumed to be represantative of the breakage product

  9. Two interfacial shear strength calculations based on the single fiber composite test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. F. Zhandarov; E. V. Pisanova

    1996-01-01

    The fragmentation of a single fiber embedded in a polymer matrix upon stretching (SFC test) provides valuable information on the fiber-matrix bond strength (t), which determines stress transfer through the interface and, thus, significantly affects the mechanical properties of the composite material. However, the calculated bond strength appears to depend on data interpretation, i.e., on the applied theoretical model, since

  10. Generalized Single-Case Randomization Tests: Flexible Analyses for a Variety of Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Joel R.; Wampold, Bruce E.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a general class of single-case statistical procedures derived from previously developed nonparametric randomization tests. Designs are illustrated that focus on the general and comparative effectiveness of alternative interventions, multiple units with differentiable characteristics, and multiple outcome measures. Provides operational…

  11. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF SINGLE-WELL TRACER TESTS IN STRATIFIED AQUIFERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study deals with the definition and measurement of the dispersive properties of aquifers. Knowledge of such dispersive properties are of fundamental importance to the evaluation, analysis, and simulation of contaminant migration in groundwater. In the single-well test describ...

  12. Real-data tests of a single-Doppler radar assimilation system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Nehrkorn; James Hegarty; Thomas M. Hamill

    1994-01-01

    Real data tests of a single-Doppler radar data assimilation and forecast system have been conducted for a Florida sea breeze case. The system consists of a hydrostatic mesoscale model used for prediction of the preconvective boundary layer, an objective analysis that combines model first guess fields with radar derived horizontal winds, a thermodynamic retrieval scheme that obtains temperature information from

  13. Interfacial studies of natural fibre\\/polypropylene composites using single fibre fragmentation test (SFFT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Awal; G. Cescutti; S. B. Ghosh; J. Müssig

    2011-01-01

    For the potential use and new applications of natural fibre reinforced plastics, it is crucial that the mechanical behaviour of these composites is fully understood. Single fibre fragmentation tests (SFFT) were carried out to compare the fragmentation phenomenon in two natural fibres\\/polypropylene (PP) composites. Polypropylene was used with maleic anhydride (MAPP) as a coupling agent for this study. The SFFT

  14. The characterization of carbon nanotube infused glass fibers by single filament fragmentation test methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roach, Andrew Michael

    Single filament fragmentation tests were completed for individual glass fibers with varying surface treatments and carbon nanostructure infusions. Fiber fragmentation was analyzed by embedding a single filament into a standard tensile interface, which provided shear stress transfer between a conventional epoxy resin system and the constituent filament. Established single filament fragmentation techniques were used to characterize fiber and interface properties. A novel method of comparing fibers is introduced by correlating bundle tow test results to fiber fragmentation critical length data to qualitatively relate fiber performance. Photoelastic birefringent stress fringes were processed at select fiber fragmentation locations to further characterize the fiber-resin, or fiber-carbon nanostructure-resin, interface. Overall, the performance matrix qualitative comparison method, coupled with stress fringe analysis, proved to be an effective means of qualitatively evaluating fiber and processing parameters, and efficiently identifies the most fruitful path forward for optimized fiber development.

  15. Depression in black single mothers: a test of a theoretical model.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Rahshida

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test a theoretical model of depression for Black single mothers. Participants were 208 Black single mothers, aged 18 to 45, recruited from community settings. The a priori over-identified recursive theoretical model was tested via the LISREL 9.1 program using a maximum likelihood estimation for structural equation modeling. The chi-square indicated that there was an excellent fit of the model with the data, ?(2)(1, N = 208) = .05, p = .82. The fit indices for the model were excellent. Path coefficients were statistically significant for seven out of eight of the direct paths within the model (p < .05). The two indirect paths were also statistically significant. The theory was supported and can be applied by health care professionals when working with depressed Black single mothers. PMID:24709854

  16. Transient hydraulic tomography in a sandbox with deterministic heterogeneity: Validation of hydraulic conductivity and specific storage tomograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Illman, W. A.; Craig, A. J.

    2005-12-01

    Hydraulic tomography is a method that images the hydraulic heterogeneity of the subsurface through the inversion of multiple pumping test data. Transient hydraulic tomography differentiates itself from steady-state tomography in that it not only estimates hydraulic conductivity but also provides an estimate of specific storage. Since it adopts transient pumping test data, it utilizes more data from each pumping test than steady-state tomography. Here, we investigate the information content of transient drawdown data through the analysis of synthetic and laboratory pumping test data in a 2-dimensional sandbox. In a synthetic study, pumping tests are performed on a computer model and the data generated is then used in the inversion. For the laboratory sandbox studies, pumping tests are performed on a physical sandbox model with deterministic heterogeneity. The data generated from these "real" tests are then used for transient inversions. To validate the tomograms, we utilize other hydraulic tests conducted at multiple scales in the sandbox such as permeameter tests on extracted cores, slug tests, single-hole tests, cross-hole tests and large-scale pumping tests. Validation consists of: 1) comparing local hydraulic conductivity and specific storage values from independent hydraulic tests to local values from transient hydraulic tomography; and 2) comparing the statistical moments of hydraulic conductivity and specific storage from the inverse model to those from other measurements. After validation of the results, we examine the information content of transient drawdown data by comparing the early, intermediate and late stages of drawdown data and the corresponding tomograms resulting from these data. We also compare the transient results with the hydraulic conductivity distribution from previously conducted steady-state hydraulic tomography to examine whether transient pumping data can improve the quality of the hydraulic conductivity tomograms. Finally, we use the hydraulic conductivity and specific storage tomograms from transient hydraulic tomography to predict the drawdown curves of other pumping tests that we did not use in the inversion.

  17. ?1H mRNA in single skeletal muscle fibres accounts for T-type calcium current transient expression during fetal development in mice

    PubMed Central

    Berthier, Christine; Monteil, Arnaud; Lory, Philippe; Strube, Caroline

    2002-01-01

    Calcium channels are essential for excitation-contraction coupling and muscle development. At the end of fetal life, two types of Ca2+ currents can be recorded in muscle cells. Whereas L-type Ca2+ channels have been extensively studied, T-type channels have been poorly characterized in skeletal muscle. We describe here the functional and molecular properties of T-type calcium channels in developing mouse skeletal muscle. The T-type current density increased transiently during prenatal myogenesis with a maximum at embryonic day E16 followed by a drastic decrease until birth. This current showed similar electrophysiological and pharmacological properties at all examined stages. It displayed a wide window current centred at about ?35 and ?55 mV in 10 and 2 mm external Ca2+, respectively. Activation and inactivation kinetics were fast (3 and 16 ms, respectively). The current was inhibited by nickel and amiloride with an IC50 of 5.4 and 156 ?m, respectively, values similar to those described for cloned T-type ?1H channels. Whole muscle tissue RT-PCR analysis revealed mRNAs corresponding to ?1H and ?1G subunits in the fetus but not in the adult. However, single-fibre RT-PCR demonstrated that only ?1H mRNA was present in prenatal fibres, suggesting that the ?1G transcript present in muscle tissue must be expressed by non-skeletal muscle cells. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the ?1H subunit generates functional T-type calcium channels in developing skeletal muscle fibres and suggest that these channels are involved in the early stages of muscle differentiation. PMID:11897840

  18. Testing the Kerr-nature of stellar-mass black hole candidates by combining the continuum-fitting method and the power estimate of transient ballistic jets

    E-print Network

    Cosimo Bambi

    2012-01-25

    Astrophysical black hole candidates are thought to be the Kerr black holes predicted by General Relativity, as these objects cannot be explained otherwise without introducing new physics. However, there is no observational evidence that the space-time around them is really described by the Kerr solution. The Kerr black hole hypothesis can be tested with the already available X-ray data by extending the continuum-fitting method, a technique currently used by astronomers to estimate the spins of stellar-mass black hole candidates. In general, we cannot put a constraint on possible deviations from the Kerr geometry, but only on some combination between these deviations and the spin. The measurement of the radio power of transient jets in black hole binaries can potentially break this degeneracy, thus allowing for testing the Kerr-nature of these objects.

  19. Corrected transient energy function and transient stability limit assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S. Chung; D. Z. Fang

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports the developments in the methodology for analysis of transient stability limit conditions. Concepts, including corrected potential energy and corrected potential energy boundary surface, are presented. Efficient criteria in identifying first swing stability behavior are also developed and used in hybrid method incorporating corrected transient energy margin (CTEM) analysis. Test results on real size power systems, such as

  20. Tracer Tests in a Fractured Dolomite: 3. Analysis of Mass Transfer in Single-Well Injection-Withdrawal Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Haggerty, R.; Fleming, S.W.; Meigs, L.C.; McKenna, S.A.

    1999-03-04

    We investigated multiple-rate diffusion as a possible explanation for observed behavior in a suite of single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tests conducted in a fractured dolomite. We first investigated the ability of a conventional double-porosity model and a multirate diffusion model to explain the data. This revealed that the multirate diffusion hypothesis/model is most consistent with all available data, and is the only model to date that is capable of matching each of the recovery curves entirely. Second, we studied the sensitivity of the SWIW recovery curves to the distribution of diffusion rate coefficients and other parameters. We concluded that the SWIW test is very sensitive to the distribution of rate coefficients, but is relatively insensitive to other flow and transport parameters such as advective porosity and dispersivity. Third, we examined the significance of the constant double-log late-time slopes ({minus}2. 1 to {minus}2.8), which are present in several data sets. The observed late-time slopes are significantly different than would be predicted by either conventional double-porosity or single-porosity media, and are found to be a distinctive feature of multirate diffusion under SWIW test conditions. Fourth, we found that the estimated distributions of diffusion rate coefficients are very broad, with the distributions spanning a range of at least 3.6 to 5.7 orders of magnitude.

  1. Experimental test of theories of the detection mechanism in a nanowire superconducting single photon detector.

    PubMed

    Renema, J J; Gaudio, R; Wang, Q; Zhou, Z; Gaggero, A; Mattioli, F; Leoni, R; Sahin, D; de Dood, M J A; Fiore, A; van Exter, M P

    2014-03-21

    We report an experimental test of the photodetection mechanism in a nanowire superconducting single photon detector. Detector tomography allows us to explore the 0.8-8 eV energy range via multiphoton excitations. High accuracy results enable a detailed comparison of the experimental data with theories for the mechanism of photon detection. We show that the temperature dependence of the efficiency of the superconducting single photon detector is determined not by the critical current but by the current associated with vortex unbinding. We find that both quasiparticle diffusion and vortices play a role in the detection event. PMID:24702419

  2. Lightning transient interaction control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. F. Vance; J. E. Nanevicz

    1982-01-01

    Transient or broadband interference from such sources outside an aircraft as lightning strikes can be controlled, through the application of topologically closed electromagnetic barriers. The appropriate choice of barrier configurations can reduce maintenance, increase reliability, and simplify specification and testing at the subsystem level. The appropriate allocation procedures can yield intrasystem compatibility, as well as immunity to lightning strikes.

  3. A Compendium of Recent Optocoupler Radiation Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Label, K. A.; Kniffin, S. D.; Reed, R. A.; Kim, H. S.; Wert, J. L.; Oberg, D. L.; Normand, E.; Johnston, A. H.; Lum, G. K.; Koga, R.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We present a compendium of optocoupler radiation test data including neutron, proton and heavy ion Displacement Damage (DD), Single Event Transients (SET) and Total Ionizing Dose (TID). Proton data includes ionizing and non-ionizing damage mechanisms.

  4. Testing a new automated single ring infiltrometer for Beerkan infiltration experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Prima, Simone; Lassabatère, Laurent; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Iovino, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    The Beerkan method along with BEST algorithms is an alternative technique to conventional laboratory or field measurements for rapid and low-cost estimation of soil hydraulic properties. The Beerkan method is simple to conduct but requires an operator to pour known volumes of water through the ring and can be time-consuming. To alleviate this need, a new cheap infiltrometer equipped with a data acquisition system, allowing automation of Beerkan infiltration experiments, was recently designed and is presented in a companion paper. Yet, it has never been tested against a wide range of experimental conditions (soils, initial water saturation, etc.). In this paper, we tested the automated infiltrometer with the aim to validate its applicability to the Beerkan infiltration experiment under several experimental circumstances. In addition, we assessed the accuracy of BEST methods on the data obtained with the infiltrometer for the estimation of saturated soil hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity. For this purpose, we used both analytically generated and real experimental data. The analytically generated data simulate infiltration experiments carried out with the infiltrometer on five contrasting soils from UNSODA database and different initial water contents. The total volume of water to be infiltrated and the volume increments are fixed by the infiltrometer characteristics. Then, inverse analysis of the analytically generated data was performed using the three available BEST algorithms to derive saturated soil hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity that were compared to the reference values. The results of the analytical assessment showed that the infiltrometer along with BEST methods could lead to accurate estimates in most cases thus validating the design of the studied infiltrometer and its combination with BEST algorithms. Some soils (mostly loam) and some hydric conditions (high initial water contents) may lead to misestimate soil properties or failure of BEST algorithms according to numerical results. In these cases, the failures are due to the fact that steady state is not properly reached or the transient state is not properly described (not enough points in the transient state). Finally, the infiltrometer was tested in different soil types. All experiments were carried in an infiltration basin located in the pumping well filed of Crépieux-Charmy, which provides drinking water for the Lyon metropolitan area. Water infiltration experiments were conducted on the subsoil, the layer of sand embedded at surface, either clean or clogged. Experiments and analysis with BEST algorithms proved efficient to pinpoint the decrease in hydraulic conductivity due to clogging. The experiments showed that the automatic data collection increases measurement speeds and allows for more efficient data handling and analysis.

  5. High-Gradient Tests of the Single-Cell SC Cavity with a Feedback Waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Yakovlev, V.; Solyak, N.; Wu, G.; Ge, M.; Gonin, I.; Khabiboulline, T.; Ozelis, J.; Rowe, A. [Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Avrakhov, P.; Kanareykin, A. [Euclid TechLabs, LLC, Solon, Ohio 44139 (United States); Rathke, J. [AES, Medford, NY 11763 (United States)

    2010-11-04

    Use of a superconducting (SC) traveling-wave accelerating (STWA) structure with a small phase advance per cell, rather than a standing-wave structure, may provide a significant increase in the accelerating gradient in the ILC linac [1]. For the same surface electric and magnetic fields, the STWA achieves an accelerating gradient 1.2 larger than TESLA-like standing-wave cavities. In addition, the STWA allows longer acceleration cavities, reducing the number of gaps between them. However, the STWA structure requires a SC feedback waveguide to return the few hundreds of MW of circulating RF power from the structure output to the structure input. A test single-cell cavity with feedback was designed and manufactured to demonstrate the possibility of proper processing to achieve a high accelerating gradient. The first results of high-gradient tests of a prototype 1.3 GHz single-cell cavity with feedback waveguide will be presented.

  6. Progressive vs single-stage treadmill tests for evaluation of claudication.

    PubMed

    Gardner, A W; Skinner, J S; Cantwell, B W; Smith, L K

    1991-04-01

    The reliability of claudication pain and the metabolic and hemodynamic measurements of the lower limbs of patients with stable peripheral vascular occlusive disease (PVOD) were compared during and following single-stage (S) and progressive (P) treadmill tests. Ten patients (69.8 +/- 1.8 yr; X +/- SE) walked to maximal claudication pain twice a month for 4 months. Patients walked at 1.5 mph up a 7.5% grade (S test) and at 2 mph on a 0% grade, increasing by 2% every 2 min (P test). Distance walked to the onset of claudication pain (CPD) and maximal walking distance (MWD) were recorded. Foot transcutaneous oxygen tension (TcPO2) was measured before, during, and after exercise, while ankle systolic blood pressure (SBP) and the ankle-to-brachial SBP index (ABI) were measured before and after exercise. Intraclass correlation coefficients (R) of CPD and MWD during S tests were R = 0.53 and R = 0.55, respectively. In contrast, the respective R values during P tests were R = 0.89 and R = 0.93. Higher R values of foot TcPO2 were also obtained during and following P tests, while ankle SBP and ABI were highly reliable following both tests. It is concluded that the severity of PVOD is better assessed by P treadmill tests because clinical measurements are more reliable during exercise and recovery. PMID:2056896

  7. High gradient test of the HINS SSR1 single spoke resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Gonin, I.; Khabibouline, T.; Lanfranco, G.; Mukherjee, A.; Ozelis, JH.; Ristori, L.; Sergatskov, A.; Wagner, R.; Webber, R.; /Fermilab

    2008-09-01

    Eighteen {beta} = 0.21 superconducting single spoke resonators comprise the first state in the cold section of the 8-GeV H{sup -} Linac for Fermilab's proposed Project X. After Buffered Chemical Polishing and High Pressure Rinse, one resonator has undergone high gradient RF testing at 2.0-4.5 K in the Vertical Test Stand at Fermilab. They present measurements of the surface resistance as a function of temperature and the quality factor as a function of accelerating field. The resonator reached an accelerating field of 18.0 MV/m.

  8. A Testing Approach for MOS Circuit Using Single-Photon Detectors Under High Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhongliang; Chen, Ling; Chen, Junfang; Zhang, Guangzhao; Wu, Peiheng

    2013-03-01

    The MOS circuits must be tested thoroughly for insuring the reliability. A new testing approach for MOS circuits is presented in this paper, which makes use of single-photon detectors and high magnetic fields. If there are faults in the circuit under test, the photon emission from the circuit components is detected by a single-photon detector, the faults are located by the amount of the emitted photons. The following two techniques are proposed in this paper. First, the high magnetic field is applied to the circuit under test, i.e., the circuit is put in high magnetic field environment. To some extent this technique can solve the problem that some faults have poor strengths of emitted photons under general environment. Second, the special circuit input vectors are designed by using binary decision diagrams. The input vectors can make the positions of circuit components to produce signal transitions or switching behaviors, therefore the photon emission strengths of circuit components are enhanced. A lot of experimental results show that the faults in MOS circuits can be tested accurately by the approach proposed in this paper.

  9. Study of the comminution characteristics of coal by single particle breakage test device

    SciTech Connect

    Sahoo, R. [University of Central Queensland, Rockhampton, Qld. (Australia)

    2005-09-01

    Single-particle breakage tests of South Blackwater and Ensham coal from the Bowen Basin area in Queensland were conducted by a computer-monitored twin-pendulum device to measure the energy utilization pattern of the breakage particles. Three particle sizes (-16.0+13.2mm, -13.2+11.2mm, -11.2+9.5mm) of each coal were tested by a pendulum device at five input energy levels to measure the specific comminution energy. When particles were tested at constant input energy, the variation of comminution energy between the same size broken particles of Ensham coal was minimal, because Ensham coal is a softer and higher friability coal, which absorbs more input energy than harder coal during breakage tests. For different particle sizes, the specific comminution energy increases linearly with the input energy and the fineness of the breakage products increases with the specific comminution energy. The size distribution graphs are curved but approach linearity in the finer region. At a constant input energy, the twin pendulum breakage product results show that the fineness of the products increases with decrease in particle size and South Blackwater coal produced finer products than the Ensham coal. The t-curves are the family of size distribution curves, which can describe the product size distribution of the breakage particles during single-particle breakage tests.

  10. Comparing ecotoxicological effect concentrations of chemicals established in multi-species vs. single-species toxicity test systems.

    PubMed

    De Laender, Frederik; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Janssen, Colin R

    2009-02-01

    Most ecological effect assessment methodologies use effect concentrations derived from single-species testing (ECx,single-species-test) as the basis to estimate 'safe' environmental concentrations (such as environmental quality criteria). Here, we examined to what extent such ECx,single-species-test are representative for population-level effect concentrations in a community setting (ECx,multi-species-test). Data from USEPA's ECOTOX database revealed the existence of considerable scatter around the relationship between ECx,single-species-test (endpoint: mortality) and ECx,multi-species-test (endpoint: population abundance). However, we demonstrate that this scatter is reduced when ECx,single-species-test and ECx,multi-species-test are determined simultaneously and by the same research group. Indeed, if these conditions are fulfilled, the quotient of both ECx values for invertebrates approaches 1 for chemicals that directly target invertebrates. Unfortunately, comparable data for other classes of chemicals and/or taxonomic groups were not found. However, theoretical ecosystem model simulations, which confirmed the results based on the above-mentioned analysis of the ECOTOX database, indicated that for phytoplankton, EC10,single-species-test>EC10,multi-species-test, for chemicals that directly target invertebrates. For chemicals that directly target phytoplankton, the ecosystem model simulations suggest that ECx,single-species-test>ECx,multi-species-test for both phytoplankton and invertebrates. Hence, our observation based on the analysis of existing experimental data that the ECx,single-species-test is similar to the ECx,multi-species-test may be biased by the fact that only data were available for invertebrates and for chemicals targeting invertebrates. Experimental research is required to test the predictions made by the model simulations for phytoplankton as well as for chemicals directly targeting phytoplankton. PMID:18774172

  11. Optimization of single-yoke magnetic testing by surface fields measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oleksandr Stupakov; Ivan Tomás; Jana Kadlecová

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of the work is to discuss ways of optimizing a single-yoke magnetization set-up with respect to fluctuations of the measurement results due to imperfections of the yoke-sample contact. The nondestructive testing method is proposed to be optimized by simultaneous multi-point determination of surface magnetic fields of the investigated sample. The presented measurements of the surface fields are

  12. Optimization of single-yoke magnetic testing by surface flelds measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oleksandr Stupakovy; Ivan Tomas; Jana Kadlecova

    The main aim of the work is to discuss ways of optimization of single-yoke magnetization set-up with respect to ?uctuations of the measurement results due to imperfections of the yoke-sample contact. The nondestructive testing method is proposed to be optimized by simultaneous multi-point determination of surface magnetic flelds of the investigated sample. The presented measurements of the surface flelds are

  13. Optimization of single-yoke magnetic testing by surface fields measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stupakov, Oleksandr; Tomás, Ivan; Kadlecová, Jana

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of the work is to discuss ways of optimizing a single-yoke magnetization set-up with respect to fluctuations of the measurement results due to imperfections of the yoke-sample contact. The nondestructive testing method is proposed to be optimized by simultaneous multi-point determination of surface magnetic fields of the investigated sample. The presented measurements of the surface fields are accompanied by computational modelling of the magnetic system by the finite element method.

  14. An end-effect model for the single-filament tensile test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. G. Stoner; D. D. Edie; S. D. Durham

    1994-01-01

    The effect of cross-sectional shape on tensile strength of pitch-based carbon fibres was investigated by extensive single-filament testing. For this study, round and trilobal pitch-based carbon fibres were produced at similar processing conditions. The application of a variety of distributions, including the simple Weibull distribution, to the strength data indicated two sources of failure, one source being the accentuation of

  15. Statistical searches for microlensing events in large, non-uniformly sampled time-domain surveys: A test using palomar transient factory data

    SciTech Connect

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Agüeros, Marcel A. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 W 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Fournier, Amanda P. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Street, Rachel [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Inc., 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Ofek, Eran O. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Covey, Kevin R. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Levitan, David; Sesar, Branimir [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Laher, Russ R.; Surace, Jason, E-mail: adrn@astro.columbia.edu [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Mail Stop 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-01-20

    Many photometric time-domain surveys are driven by specific goals, such as searches for supernovae or transiting exoplanets, which set the cadence with which fields are re-imaged. In the case of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), several sub-surveys are conducted in parallel, leading to non-uniform sampling over its ?20,000 deg{sup 2} footprint. While the median 7.26 deg{sup 2} PTF field has been imaged ?40 times in the R band, ?2300 deg{sup 2} have been observed >100 times. We use PTF data to study the trade off between searching for microlensing events in a survey whose footprint is much larger than that of typical microlensing searches, but with far-from-optimal time sampling. To examine the probability that microlensing events can be recovered in these data, we test statistics used on uniformly sampled data to identify variables and transients. We find that the von Neumann ratio performs best for identifying simulated microlensing events in our data. We develop a selection method using this statistic and apply it to data from fields with >10 R-band observations, 1.1 × 10{sup 9} light curves, uncovering three candidate microlensing events. We lack simultaneous, multi-color photometry to confirm these as microlensing events. However, their number is consistent with predictions for the event rate in the PTF footprint over the survey's three years of operations, as estimated from near-field microlensing models. This work can help constrain all-sky event rate predictions and tests microlensing signal recovery in large data sets, which will be useful to future time-domain surveys, such as that planned with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  16. Classifying performance impairment in response to sleep loss using pattern recognition algorithms on single session testing

    PubMed Central

    St. Hilaire, Melissa A.; Sullivan, Jason P.; Anderson, Clare; Cohen, Daniel A.; Barger, Laura K.; Lockley, Steven W.; Klerman, Elizabeth B.

    2012-01-01

    There is currently no “gold standard” marker of cognitive performance impairment resulting from sleep loss. We utilized pattern recognition algorithms to determine which features of data collected under controlled laboratory conditions could most reliably identify cognitive performance impairment in response to sleep loss using data from only one testing session, such as would occur in the “real world” or field conditions. A training set for testing the pattern recognition algorithms was developed using objective Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) and subjective Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) data collected from laboratory studies during which subjects were sleep deprived for 26 – 52 hours. The algorithm was then tested in data from both laboratory and field experiments. The pattern recognition algorithm was able to identify performance impairment with a single testing session in individuals studied under laboratory conditions using PVT, KSS, length of time awake and time of day information with sensitivity and specificity as high as 82%. When this algorithm was tested on data collected under real-world conditions from individuals whose data were not in the training set, accuracy of predictions for individuals categorized with low performance impairment were as high as 98%. Predictions for medium and severe performance impairment were less accurate. We conclude that pattern recognition algorithms may be a promising method for identifying performance impairment in individuals using only current information about the individual’s behavior. Single testing features (e.g., number of PVT lapses) with high correlation with performance impairment in the laboratory setting may not be the best indicators of performance impairment under real-world conditions. Pattern recognition algorithms should be further tested for their ability to be used in conjunction with other assessments of sleepiness in real-world conditions to quantify performance impairment in response to sleep loss. PMID:22959616

  17. The LOFAR Transients Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinbank, John D.; Staley, Tim D.; Molenaar, Gijs J.; Rol, Evert; Rowlinson, Antonia; Scheers, Bart; Spreeuw, Hanno; Bell, Martin E.; Broderick, Jess W.; Carbone, Dario; Garsden, Hugh; van der Horst, Alexander J.; Law, Casey J.; Wise, Michael; Breton, Rene P.; Cendes, Yvette; Corbel, Stéphane; Eislöffel, Jochen; Falcke, Heino; Fender, Rob; Grießmeier, Jean-Mathias; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Stappers, Benjamin W.; Stewart, Adam J.; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Wijnands, Rudy; Zarka, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    Current and future astronomical survey facilities provide a remarkably rich opportunity for transient astronomy, combining unprecedented fields of view with high sensitivity and the ability to access previously unexplored wavelength regimes. This is particularly true of LOFAR, a recently-commissioned, low-frequency radio interferometer, based in the Netherlands and with stations across Europe. The identification of and response to transients is one of LOFAR's key science goals. However, the large data volumes which LOFAR produces, combined with the scientific requirement for rapid response, make automation essential. To support this, we have developed the LOFAR Transients Pipeline, or TraP. The TraP ingests multi-frequency image data from LOFAR or other instruments and searches it for transients and variables, providing automatic alerts of significant detections and populating a lightcurve database for further analysis by astronomers. Here, we discuss the scientific goals of the TraP and how it has been designed to meet them. We describe its implementation, including both the algorithms adopted to maximize performance as well as the development methodology used to ensure it is robust and reliable, particularly in the presence of artefacts typical of radio astronomy imaging. Finally, we report on a series of tests of the pipeline carried out using simulated LOFAR observations with a known population of transients.

  18. Robotic Searching for Stationary, Unknown and Transient Radio Sources 

    E-print Network

    Kim, Chang Young

    2012-07-16

    of the transient target localization problem such as Single Robot Single Target (SRST), Multiple Robots Single Target (MRST), Single Robot Multiple Targets (SRMT) and Multiple Robots Multiple Targets (MRMT). We propose the expected searching time (EST) as a primary...

  19. A Neutrality Test for Detecting Selection on DNA Methylation Using Single Methylation Polymorphism Frequency Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Fan, Chuanzhu

    2015-01-01

    Inheritable epigenetic mutations (epimutations) can contribute to transmittable phenotypic variation. Thus, epimutations can be subject to natural selection and impact the fitness and evolution of organisms. Based on the framework of the modified Tajima’s D test for DNA mutations, we developed a neutrality test with the statistic “Dm” to detect selection forces on DNA methylation mutations using single methylation polymorphisms. With computer simulation and empirical data analysis, we compared the Dm test with the original and modified Tajima’s D tests and demonstrated that the Dm test is suitable for detecting selection on epimutations and outperforms original/modified Tajima’s D tests. Due to the higher resetting rate of epimutations, the interpretation of Dm on epimutations and Tajima’s D test on DNA mutations could be different in inferring natural selection. Analyses using simulated and empirical genome-wide polymorphism data suggested that genes under genetic and epigenetic selections behaved differently. We applied the Dm test to recently originated Arabidopsis and human genes, and showed that newly evolved genes contain higher level of rare epialleles, suggesting that epimutation may play a role in origination and evolution of genes and genomes. Overall, we demonstrate the utility of the Dm test to detect whether the loci are under selection regarding DNA methylation. Our analytical metrics and methodology could contribute to our understanding of evolutionary processes of genes and genomes in the field of epigenetics. The Perl script for the “Dm” test is available at http://fanlab.wayne.edu/ (last accessed December 18, 2014). PMID:25539727

  20. A rapid antimicrobial susceptibility test based on single-cell morphological analysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jungil; Yoo, Jungheon; Lee, Mincheol; Kim, Eun-Geun; Lee, Ji Soo; Lee, Seungok; Joo, Seik; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Eui-Chong; Lee, Jung Chan; Kim, Hee Chan; Jung, Yong-Gyun; Kwon, Sunghoon

    2014-12-17

    A rapid antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) is desperately needed in clinical settings for fast and appropriate antibiotic administration. Traditional ASTs, which rely on cell culture, are not suitable for urgent cases of bacterial infection and antibiotic resistance owing to their relatively long test times. We describe a novel AST called single-cell morphological analysis (SCMA) that can determine antimicrobial susceptibility by automatically analyzing and categorizing morphological changes in single bacterial cells under various antimicrobial conditions. The SCMA was tested with four Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute standard bacterial strains and 189 clinical samples, including extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-positive Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci from hospitals. The results were compared with the gold standard broth microdilution test. The SCMA results were obtained in less than 4 hours, with 91.5% categorical agreement and 6.51% minor, 2.56% major, and 1.49% very major discrepancies. Thus, SCMA provides rapid and accurate antimicrobial susceptibility data that satisfy the recommended performance of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. PMID:25520395

  1. Are single-well "push-pull" tests suitable tracer methods for aquifer characterization?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebig, Klaus; Zeilfelder, Sarah; Ito, Narimitsu; Machida, Isao; Scheytt, Traugott; Marui, Atsunao

    2013-04-01

    Recently, investigations were conducted for geological and hydrogeological characterisation of the sedimentary coastal basin of Horonobe (Hokkaido, Japan). Coastal areas are typical geological settings in Japan, which are less tectonically active than the mountain ranges. In Asia, and especially in Japan, these areas are often densely populated. Therefore, it is important to investigate the behaviour of solutes in such unconsolidated aquifers. In such settings sometimes only single boreholes or groundwater monitoring wells are available for aquifer testing for various reasons, e.g. depths of more than 100 m below ground level and slow groundwater velocities due to density driven flow. A standard tracer test with several involved groundwater monitoring wells is generally very difficult or even not possible at these depths. One of the most important questions in our project was how we can obtain information about chemical and hydraulic properties in such aquifers. Is it possible to characterize solute transport behaviour parameters with only one available groundwater monitoring well or borehole? A so-called "push-pull" test may be one suitable method for aquifer testing with only one available access point. In a push-pull test a known amount of several solutes including a conservative tracer is injected into the aquifer ("push") and afterwards extracted ("pull"). The measured breakthrough curve during the pumping back phase can then be analysed. This method has already been used previously with various aims, also in the recent project (e.g. Hebig et al. 2011, Zeilfelder et al. 2012). However, different test setups produced different tracer breakthrough curves. As no systematic evaluation of this aquifer tracer test method was done so far, nothing is known about its repeatability. Does the injection and extraction rate influence the shape of the breakthrough curve? Which role plays the often applied "chaser", which is used to push the test solution out from the borehole and gravel pack? How does density difference between the original groundwater and the test solution influence the tracer breakthrough curves? To solve these questions, seven push-pull tests were performed under controlled boundary conditions in the same well DD-2 (100 m depth). Only single parameters, as e.g. flow rate or salinization of the test solution, were varied during the experiments. By conducting these different test setups, conclusions could be drawn about the application of the push-pull method under different settings. References: Hebig, K.H., Ito, N., Scheytt, T.J. & Marui, A. (2011). Hydraulic and hydrochemical characterization of deep coastal sedimentary basins by single-well Push-Pull tests. GSA Annual Meeting, 9-12 October 2011, Minneapolis, USA. Zeilfelder, S., Ito, N., Marui, A., Hebig, K. & Scheytt, T. (2012). Push-Pull-Test und Tracer-Test in ei-nem tiefen Grundwasserleiter in Kameoka, Japan. Kurzfassung in: Liedl, R., Burghardt, D., Simon, E., Reimann, T. & Kaufmann-Knoke (Hg.). Grundwasserschutz und Grundwassernutzung. Tagung der Fachsektion Hydrogeologie in der DGG (FH-DGG). 16. - 20. Mai 2012, Dresden. Kurfassungen der Vorträge und Poster. Schriftenreihe der DGG, Heft 78, S. 192.

  2. Testing for Suspected Impairments and Dissociations in Single-Case Studies in Neuropsychology: Evaluation of Alternatives Using Monte Carlo Simulations and Revised Tests for Dissociations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Crawford; Paul H. Garthwaite

    2005-01-01

    In neuropsychological single-case studies, a patient is compared with a small control sample. Methods of testing for a deficit on Task X, or a significant difference between Tasks X and Y, either treat the control sample statistics as parameters (using z and zD) or use modified t tests. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrated that if z is used to test for

  3. Infrastructure Development of Single Cell Testing Capability at A0 Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dhanaraj, Nandhini; Padilla, R.; Reid, J.; Khabiboulline, T.; Ge, M.; Mukherjee, A.; Rakhnov, I.; Ginsburg, C.; Wu, G.; Harms, E.; Carter, H.; /Fermilab

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this technical note is to document the details of the infrastructure development process that was realized at the A0 photo injector facility to establish RF cold testing capability for 1.3 GHz superconducting niobium single cell cavities. The activity began the last quarter of CY 2006 and ended the first quarter of CY 2009. The whole process involved addressing various aspects such as design of vertical insert and lifting fixture, modification of existing RF test station and design of new couplers, development of a Temperature Mapping (T-Map) system, radiation considerations for the test location (north cave), update of existing High Pressure Rinse (HPR) system, preparation of necessary safety documents and eventually obtaining an Operational Readiness Clearance (ORC). Figure 1 illustrates the various components of the development process. In the past, the north cave test station at A0 has supported the cold testing 3.9 GHz nine cell and single cell cavities, thus some of the components were available for use and some needed modification. The test dewar had the capacity to accommodate 1.3 GHz single cells although a new vertical insert that could handle both cavity types (1.3 and 3.9 GHz) had to be designed. The existing cryogenic system with an average capacity of {approx} 0.5 g/sec was deemed sufficient. The RF system was updated with broadband components and an additional amplifier with higher power capacity to handle higher gradients usually achieved in 1.3 GHz cavities. The initial testing phase was arbitrated to proceed with fixed power coupling. A new temperature mapping system was developed to provide the diagnostic tool for hot spot studies, quench characterization and field emission studies. The defining feature of this system was the use of diode sensors instead of the traditional carbon resistors as sensing elements. The unidirectional current carrying capacity (forward bias) of the diodes provided for the ease of multiplexing of the system, thus substantially reducing the number of cables required to power the sensors. The high gradient capacity of the 1.3 GHz cavities required a revision of the radiation shielding and interlocks. The cave was updated as per the recommendations of the radiation safety committee. The high pressure rinse system was updated with new adapters to assist the rinsing 1.3 GHz single cell cavities. Finally, a proposal for cold testing 1.3 GHz single cell cavities at A0 north cave was made to the small experiments approval committee, radiation safety committee and the Tevatron cryogenic safety sub-committee for an operational readiness clearance and the same was approved. The project was classified under research and development of single cell cavities (project 18) and was allocated a budget of $200,000 in FY 2007.

  4. Single-dose Intravenous Toxicology Testing of Daebohwalryeok Pharmcopuncture in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Seung-Ho; Park, Sunju; Jeong, Jong-Jin; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Yu, Jun-Sang; Seo, Hyung-Sik; Kwon, Ki-Rok

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of the study were to test the single-dose intravenous toxicity of Daebohwalryeok pharmacopuncture (DHRP) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and to estimate the crude lethal dose. Methods: The experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech Co., a Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) laboratory, according to the GLP regulation and were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Biotoxtech Co. (Approval no: 110156). The rats were divided into three groups: DHRP was injected into the rats in the two test groups at doses of 10 mL/kg and 20 mL/kg, respectively, and normal saline solution was injected into the rats in the control group. Single doses of DHRP were injected intravenously into 6 week old SD rats (5 male and 5 female rats per group). General symptoms were observed and weights were measured during the 14 day observation period after the injection. After the observation period, necropsies were done. Then, histopathological tests were performed. Weight data were analyzed with a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) by using statistical analysis system (SAS, version 9.2). Results: No deaths and no statistical significant weight changes were observed for either male or female SD rats in either the control or the test groups during the observation period. In addition, no treatment related general symptoms or necropsy abnormalities were observed. Histopathological results showed no DHRP related effects in the 20 mL/kg DHRP group for either male or female rats. Conclusion: Under the conditions of this study, the results from single-dose intravenous injections of DHRP showed that estimated lethal doses for both male and female rats were above 20 mL/kg. PMID:26120487

  5. Single-neuron axonal pathfinding under geometric guidance: low-dose-methylmercury developmental neurotoxicity test.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lina; Sweeney, Andrew J; Sheng, Liyuan; Fang, Yu; Kindy, Mark S; Xi, Tingfei; Gao, Bruce Z

    2014-09-21

    Because the nervous system is most vulnerable to toxicants during development, there is a crucial need for a highly sensitive developmental-neurotoxicity-test model to detect potential toxicants at low doses. We developed a lab-on-chip wherein single-neuron axonal pathfinding under geometric guidance was created using soft lithography and laser cell-micropatterning techniques. After coating the surface with L1, an axon-specific member of the Ig family of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), and optimizing microunit geometric parameters, we introduced low-dose methylmercury, a well-known, environmentally significant neurotoxicant, in the shared medium. Its developmental neurotoxicity was evaluated using a novel axonal pathfinding assay including axonal turning and branching rates at turning points in this model. Compared to the conventional neurite-outgrowth assay, this model's detection threshold for low-dose methylmercury was 10-fold more sensitive at comparable exposure durations. These preliminary results support study of developmental effects of known and potential neurotoxicants on axon pathfinding. This novel assay model would be useful to study neuronal disease mechanisms at the single-cell level. To our knowledge, the potential of methylmercury chloride to cause acute in vitro developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) at such a low dosage has not been reported. This is the first DNT test model with high reproducibility to use single-neuron axonal pathfinding under precise geometric guidance. PMID:25041816

  6. Fluid Structure Interaction in a Cold Flow Test and Transient CFD Analysis of Out-of-Round Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Joseph; Brown, Andrew; McDaniels, David; Wang, Ten-See

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes two nozzle fluid flow interactions. They include: 1) Cold flow nozzle tests with fluid-structure interaction at nozzle separated flow; and 2) CFD analysis for nozzle flow and side loads of nozzle extensions with various out-of-round cases.

  7. Testing the efficiency of dsRNAi constructs in vivo : A transient expression assay based on two fluorescent proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph Panstruga; Min Chul Kim; Moo Je Cho; Paul Schulze-Lefert

    2003-01-01

    Double-stranded RNA interference technology has recently been shown to be a powerful tool to silence gene expression in various organisms, including plants. Sustained double-stranded RNA interference mediated gene silencing is normally triggered by hairpin RNAs generated by in vivo transcription of inverted repeat DNA constructs. To test the efficiency of inverted repeat constructs for their in vivo gene silencing capability,

  8. A comparison of single-cycle versus multiple-cycle proof testing strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudak, S. J., Jr.; Mcclung, R. C.; Bartlett, M. L.; Fitzgerald, J. H.; Russell, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    An evaluation of single-cycle and multiple-cycle proof testing (MCPT) strategies for SSME components is described. Data for initial sizes and shapes of actual SSME hardware defects are analyzed statistically. Closed-form estimates of the J-integral for surface flaws are derived with a modified reference stress method. The results of load- and displacement-controlled stable crack growth tests on thin IN-718 plates with deep surface flaws are summarized. A J-resistance curve for the surface-cracked configuration is developed and compared with data from thick compact tension specimens. The potential for further crack growth during large unload/reload cycles is discussed, highlighting conflicting data in the literature. A simple model for ductile crack growth during MCPT based on the J-resistance curve is used to study the potential effects of key variables. The projected changes in the crack size distribution during MCPT depend on the interactions between several key parameters, including the number of proof cycles, the nature of the resistance curve, the initial crack size distribution, the component boundary conditions (load vs. displacement control), and the magnitude of the applied load or displacement. The relative advantages of single-cycle and multiple-cycle proof testing appear to be specific, therefore, to individual component geometry, material, and loading.

  9. Negligible shift of 3Ag- potential in longer-chain carotenoids as revealed by a single persistent peak of 3Ag-?1Ag- stimulated emission followed by 3Ag-?1Ag- transient-absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunyong; Miki, Takeshi; Kakitani, Yoshinori; Koyama, Yasushi; Nagae, Hiroyoshi

    2007-12-01

    Upon excitation of lycopene, anhydrorhodovibrin or spirilloxanthin to the 1Bu+(0) state, stimulated emission followed by transient-absorption was observed as a single peak with the 3Ag-(0) energy that had been determined by measurement of resonance-Raman excitation profiles. This observation was explained in terms of negligible shift of the 3Ag- potential, in reference to the 1Ag- potential, where only the 3Ag-(?)?1Ag-(?) emission and the 3Ag-(?)?1Ag-(?) absorption become allowed during the vibrational relaxation of ? = 2 ? 1 ? 0, starting from the 3Ag-(2) level generated by diabatic internal conversion from the 1Bu+(0) level, in anhydrorhodovibrin, for example.

  10. Noise Impact Analysis:Noise Impact Analysis: Evaluating Transient Error Effects inEvaluating Transient Error Effects in

    E-print Network

    Dey, Sujit

    Noise Impact Analysis:Noise Impact Analysis: Evaluating Transient Error Effects inSevere reliability degradation due to many factors Transient noise: SingleTransient noise: Single effectpersistent error effect One possible remedy: robustness insertionOne possible remedy: robustness insertion

  11. Testing for Renewal and Detailed Balance Violations in Single-Molecule Blinking Processes James B. Witkoskie and Jianshu Cao*

    E-print Network

    Cao, Jianshu

    Testing for Renewal and Detailed Balance Violations in Single-Molecule Blinking Processes James B, Massachusetts 02139 ReceiVed: March 9, 2006; In Final Form: July 28, 2006 This paper examines methods to test balance violations, and experimental condition dependences. The tests are simple to implement and allow

  12. A Comparison of Three IRT Approaches to Examinee Ability Change Modeling in a Single-Group Anchor Test Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paek, Insu; Park, Hyun-Jeong; Cai, Li; Chi, Eunlim

    2014-01-01

    Typically a longitudinal growth modeling based on item response theory (IRT) requires repeated measures data from a single group with the same test design. If operational or item exposure problems are present, the same test may not be employed to collect data for longitudinal analyses and tests at multiple time points are constructed with unique…

  13. Design and cold-air test of single-stage uncooled turbine with high work output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffitt, T. P.; Szanca, E. M.; Whitney, W. J.; Behning, F. P.

    1980-01-01

    A solid version of a 50.8 cm single stage core turbine designed for high temperature was tested in cold air over a range of speed and pressure ratio. Design equivalent specific work was 76.84 J/g at an engine turbine tip speed of 579.1 m/sec. At design speed and pressure ratio, the total efficiency of the turbine was 88.6 percent, which is 0.6 point lower than the design value of 89.2 percent. The corresponding mass flow was 4.0 percent greater than design.

  14. Fracture energy for three-point-bend tests on single-edge-notched beams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Malvar; G. E. Warren

    1988-01-01

    Three test series of single-edge-notched beams in three-point bending are conducted to evaluate the fracture energy of concrete.\\u000a The fracture energy is determined from the area under the complete load: load-point deflection diagram. The nonlinear fictitious\\u000a crack model is implemented in a finite-element analysis showing good agreement with the experimental data.\\u000a \\u000a By varying the notch depth and the beam depth

  15. RELAP5/MOD3 Analysis of Transient Steam-Generator Behavior During Turbine Trip Test of a Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor MONJU

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshihisa Shindo; Hiroshi Endo; Tomoko Ishizu; Kazuo Haga [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    In order to develop a thermal-hydraulic model of the steam-generator (SG) to simulate transient phenomena in the sodium cooled fast breeder reactor (FBR) MONJU, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) verified the SG model using the RELAP5/MOD3 code against the results of the turbine trip test at a 40% power load of MONJU. The modeling by using RELAP5 was considered to explain the significant observed behaviors of the pressure and the temperature of the EV steam outlet, and the temperature of water supply distributing piping till 600 seconds after the turbine trip. The analysis results of these behaviors showed good agreement with the test results based on results of parameter study as the blow efficiency (release coef.) and heat transferred from the helical coil region to the down-comer (temperature heating down-comer tubes). It was found that the RELAP5/MOD3 code with a two-fluids model can predict well the physical situation: the gas-phase of steam generated by the decompression boiling moves upward in the down-comer tubes accompanied by the enthalpy increase of the water supply chambers; and that the pressure change of a 'shoulder' like shape is induced by the mass balance between the steam mass generated in the down-comer tubes and the steam mass blown from the SG. The applicability of RELAP5/MOD3 to SG modeling was confirmed by simulating the actual FBR system. (authors)

  16. Temperature in a J47-25 Turbojet-engine Combustor and Turbine Sections During Steady-state and Transient Operation in a Sea-level Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morse, C R; Johnston, J R

    1955-01-01

    In order to determine the conditions of engine operation causing the most severe thermal stresses in the hot parts of a turbojet engine, a J47-25 engine was instrumented with thermocouples and operated to obtain engine material temperatures under steady-state and transient conditions. Temperatures measured during rated take-off conditions of nozzle guide vanes downstream of a single combustor differed on the order of 400 degrees F depending on the relation of the blades position to the highest temperature zone of the burner. Under the same operation conditions, measured midspan temperatures in a nozzle guide vane in the highest temperature zone of a combustor wake ranged from approximately 1670 degrees F at leading and trailing edges to 1340 degrees F at midchord on the convex side of the blade. The maximum measured nozzle-guide-vane temperature of 1920degrees at the trailing edge occurred during a rapid acceleration from idle to rated take-off speed following which the tail-pipe gas temperature exceeded maximum allowable temperature by 125 degrees F.

  17. Evaluation of testing strategies to identify infected animals at a single round of testing within dairy herds known to be infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    More, S J; Cameron, A R; Strain, S; Cashman, W; Ezanno, P; Kenny, K; Fourichon, C; Graham, D

    2015-08-01

    As part of a broader control strategy within herds known to be infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), individual animal testing is generally conducted to identify infected animals for action, usually culling. Opportunities are now available to quantitatively compare different testing strategies (combinations of tests) in known infected herds. This study evaluates the effectiveness, cost, and cost-effectiveness of different testing strategies to identify infected animals at a single round of testing within dairy herds known to be MAP infected. A model was developed, taking account of both within-herd infection dynamics and test performance, to simulate the use of different tests at a single round of testing in a known infected herd. Model inputs included the number of animals at different stages of infection, the sensitivity and specificity of each test, and the costs of testing and culling. Testing strategies included either milk or serum ELISA alone or with fecal culture in series. Model outputs included effectiveness (detection fraction, the proportion of truly infected animals in the herd that are successfully detected by the testing strategy), cost, and cost-effectiveness (testing cost per true positive detected, total cost per true positive detected). Several assumptions were made: MAP was introduced with a single animal and no management interventions were implemented to limit within-herd transmission of MAP before this test. In medium herds, between 7 and 26% of infected animals are detected at a single round of testing, the former using the milk ELISA and fecal culture in series 5 yr after MAP introduction and the latter using fecal culture alone 15 yr after MAP introduction. The combined costs of testing and culling at a single round of testing increases with time since introduction of MAP infection, with culling costs being much greater than testing costs. The cost-effectiveness of testing varied by testing strategy. It was also greater at 5 yr, compared with 10 or 15 yr, since MAP introduction, highlighting the importance of early detection. Future work is needed to evaluate these testing strategies in subsequent rounds of testing as well as accounting for different herd dynamics and different levels of herd biocontainment. PMID:26074225

  18. Gravitational independence of single-breath washout tests in recumbent dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomioka, Shinichi; Kubo, Susumu; Guy, Harold J. B.; Prisk, G. K.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of gravitational orientation in the mechanism of lung filling and emptying in dogs was examined by conducting simultaneously Ar-bolus and N2 single-breath washout tests (SBWTs) in 10 anesthetized dogs (prone and supine), with three of the dogs subjected to body rotation. Transpulmonary pressure was measured simultaneously, allowing identification of the lung volume above residual volume at which there was an inflection point in the pressure-volume curve. Combined resident gas and bolus SBWTs in recumbent dogs were found to be different from such tests in humans; in dogs, the regional distribution of ventilation was not primarily determined by gravity. The measurements did not make it possible to discern exact mechanisms of filling and emptying, but both processes appear to be related to lung, thorax, and mediastinum interactions and/or differences in regional mechanical properties of the lungs.

  19. Loop Identification and Capacity Estimation of Digital Subscriber Lines with Single Ended Line Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neus, Carine; Foubert, Wim; van Biesen, Leo

    Digital subscriber lines offer the possibility to deliver broadband services over the existing telephone network. Still, beforehand subscriber loops must be tested to see whether they can support high-speed data services, and at what bit rate. From the existing measurement techniques, Single Ended Line Testing is often preferred because all necessary measurements can be performed from the central office. Consequently the capacity cannot be measured directly, but should be calculated through the estimation of the loop make-up. This paper discusses some main difficulties of this identification. Moreover, in contrast to the traditional approach where the data are interpreted in the time domain, this paper presents a new approach by doing most of the processing in the frequency domain.

  20. Single subject fMRI test-retest reliability metrics and confounding factors.

    PubMed

    Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J; Storkey, Amos J; Bastin, Mark E; Whittle, Ian; Pernet, Cyril

    2013-04-01

    While the fMRI test-retest reliability has been mainly investigated from the point of view of group level studies, here we present analyses and results for single-subject test-retest reliability. One important aspect of group level reliability is that not only does it depend on between-session variance (test-retest), but also on between-subject variance. This has partly led to a debate regarding which reliability metric to use and how different sources of noise contribute to between-session variance. Focusing on single subject reliability allows considering between-session only. In this study, we measured test-retest reliability in four behavioural tasks (motor mapping, covert verb generation, overt word repetition, and a landmark identification task) to ensure generalisation of the results and at three levels of data processing (time-series correlation, t value variance, and overlap of thresholded maps) to understand how each step influences the other and how confounding factors influence reliability at each of these steps. The contributions of confounding factors (scanner noise, subject motion, and coregistration) were investigated using multiple regression and relative importance analyses at each step. Finally, to achieve a fuller picture of what constitutes a reliable task, we introduced a bootstrap technique of within- vs. between-subject variance. Our results show that (i) scanner noise and coregistration errors have little contribution to between-session variance (ii) subject motion (especially correlated with the stimuli) can have detrimental effects on reliability (iii) different tasks lead to different reliability results. This suggests that between-session variance in fMRI is mostly caused by the variability of underlying cognitive processes and motion correlated with the stimuli rather than technical limitations of data processing. PMID:23153967

  1. Definition of Capabilities Needed for a Single Event Effects Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Riemer, Bernie [ORNL; Gallmeier, Franz X [ORNL

    2014-12-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is contemplating new regulations mandating testing of the vulnerability of flight-critical avionics to single event effects (SEE). A limited number of high-energy neutron test facilities currently serve the SEE industrial and institutional research community. The FAA recognizes that existing facilities have insufficient test capacity to meet new demand from such mandates; it desires more flexible irradiation capabilities to test complete, large systems and would like capabilities to address greater concerns for thermal neutrons. For this reason, the FAA funded this study by Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) staff with the ultimate aim of developing options for SEE test facilities using high-energy neutrons at the SNS complex. After an investigation of current SEE test practices and assessment of future testing requirements, three concepts were identified covering a range of test functionality, neutron flux levels, and fidelity to the atmospheric neutron spectrum. The costs and times required to complete each facility were also estimated. SEE testing is generally performed by accelerating the event rate to a point where the effects are still dominated by single events and double event causes of failures are negligible. In practice, acceleration factors of as high as 106 are applicable for component testing, whereas for systems testing acceleration factors of 104 seem to be the upper limit. It is strongly desirable that the irradiation facility be tunable over a large range of high-energy neutron fluxes of 102 104 n/cm2/s for systems testing and from 104 107 n/cm2/s for components testing. The most capable, most flexible, and highest-test-capacity option is a new stand-alone target station named the High-Energy neutron Test Station (HETS). It is also the most expensive option, with a cost to complete of approximately $100 million. Dual test enclosures would allow for simultaneous testing activity effectively doubling overall test capacity per HETS operating hour. Using about 1 kilowatt (kW) of proton power extracted from the accelerator before injection in the accumulator ring, its operation would be unnoticeable by neutron scattering users at the SNS target station. The H beam laser stripping technique would allow for control of beam power on the HETS target independent from power delivered to the SNS. Large systems with frontal areas of up to 1 2 m2 could be accommodated with integral high-energy flux values (above 10 megaelectron-volt, or MeV) to at most 104 n/cm2/s; components could also be tested with flux levels to at most 107 n/cm2/s on beam sizes of up to 0.2 0.2 m2. Selectable moderating material and neutron filters would allow tailoring of the neutron spectrum to user demands; charged particle deflectors could be switched to allow or deflect protons, pions, and muons. It is estimated that HETS would take 5 years to complete after award of contract, including engineering design and construction. Commissioning would take at least another 6 months. Interference with SNS principal operations was not considered in the construction time estimate; connection of the proton transport line and tunnel from the accelerator high energy beam transport (HEBT) and construction around existing site utilities would require careful planning and coordination with beam operations at the SNS. A high-energy (HE) neutron test facility using an available beam line on the SNS target station is a technically and financially attractive option. Inspired by the new ChipIR instrument on the ISIS TS 2 spallation source in the UK, a similar facility could be placed on an unused beam line in the SNS instrument hall [e.g., on beam line 8 (both A and B channels would be needed) or on beam line 10]. The performance would approach that of an HETS (~80%), but it would be operationally more limited, with only a single user at a time. Space is more limited, so the maximum system size would be about half of that in an HETS. Flexibility to tailor the spectrum would be somewhat more limited. While t

  2. 3.3.2Transient Transient .

    E-print Network

    100 3.3.2Transient Transient . : Vsrc, Vexp, Vpulse, Vpwl, Vsffm, Vsin. . ) 2.2 ( Transient Bias . ).out( ) 3.7(, , . "" Time. Spice. ) ABM.( , . " Maximum Step Size . Transient BJT. : Q2N2222Bipolar Vcc DC,Vin Vpulse : V1-5 V2--1, . TD­20

  3. Decision trees for real-time transient stability prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Rovnyak, S.; Thorp, J. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)); Kretsinger, S.; Brown, D. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States))

    1994-08-01

    The ability to rapidly acquire synchronized phasor measurements from around the system opens up new possibilities for power system protection and control. This paper demonstrates how decision trees can be constructed off-line and then utilized on-line for predicting transient stability in real-time. Primary features of the method include building a single tree for all fault locations, using a short window of realistic-precision post-fault phasor, measurements for the prediction, and testing robustness to variations in the operating point. Several candidate decision trees are tested on 40,800 faults from 50 randomly generated operating points on the New England 39 bus test system.

  4. Summary of Group Development and Testing for Single Shell Tank Closure at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Harbour, John, R.

    2005-04-28

    This report is a summary of the bench-scale and large scale experimental studies performed by Savannah River National Laboratory for CH2M HILL to develop grout design mixes for possible use in producing fill materials as a part of Tank Closure of the Single-Shell Tanks at Hanford. The grout development data provided in this report demonstrates that these design mixes will produce fill materials that are ready for use in Hanford single shell tank closure. The purpose of this report is to assess the ability of the proposed grout specifications to meet the current requirements for successful single shell tank closure which will include the contracting of services for construction and operation of a grout batch plant. The research and field experience gained by SRNL in the closure of Tanks 17F and 20F at the Savannah River Site was leveraged into the grout development efforts for Hanford. It is concluded that the three Hanford grout design mixes provide fill materials that meet the current requirements for successful placement. This conclusion is based on the completion of recommended testing using Hanford area materials by the operators of the grout batch plant. This report summarizes the regulatory drivers and the requirements for grout mixes as tank fill material. It is these requirements for both fresh and cured grout properties that drove the development of the grout formulations for the stabilization, structural and capping layers.

  5. Stress transfer in microdroplet tensile test: PVC-coated and uncoated Kevlar-29 single fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhenkun, Lei; Quan, Wang; Yilan, Kang; Wei, Qiu; Xuemin, Pan

    2010-11-01

    The single fiber/microdroplet tensile test is applied for evaluating the interfacial mechanics between a fiber and a resin substrate. It is used to investigate the influence of a polymer coating on a Kevlar-29 fiber surface, specifically the stress transfer between the fiber and epoxy resin in a microdroplet. Unlike usual tests, this new test ensures a symmetrical axial stress on the embedded fiber and reduces the stress singularity that appears at the embedded fiber entry. Using a homemade loading device, symmetrical tensile tests are performed on a Kevlar-29 fiber with or without polyvinylchloride (PVC) coating, the surface of which is in contact with two epoxy resin microdroplets during curing. Raman spectra on the embedded fiber are recorded by micro-Raman Spectroscopy under different strain levels. Then they are transformed to the distributions of fiber axis stress based on the relationship between stress and Raman shift. The Raman results reveal that the fiber axial stresses increase with the applied loads, and the antisymmetric interfacial shear stresses, obtained by a straightforward balance of shear-to-axial forces argument, lead to the appearance of shear stress concentrations at a distance to the embedded fiber entry. The load is transferred from the outer fiber to the embedded fiber in the epoxy microdroplet. As is observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), the existence of a flexible polymer coating on the fiber surface reduces the stress transfer efficiency.

  6. Fractal analysis of pressure transients in the Geysers Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Acuna, J.A.; Ershaghi, I.; Yortsos, Y.C.

    1992-01-01

    The conventionally accepted models for the interpretation of pressure transient tests in naturally fractured reservoirs usually involve simplistic assumptions regarding the geometry and transport properties of the fractured medium. Many single well tests in this type of reservoirs fail to show the predicted behavior for dual or triple porosity or permeability systems and cannot be explained by these models. This paper describes the application of a new model based on a fractal interpretation of the fractured medium. The approach, discussed elsewhere [2], [6], is applied to field data from The Geysers Geothermal Field. The objective is to present an alternative interpretation to well tests that characterizes the fractured medium in a manner more consistent with other field evidence. The novel insight gained from fractal geometry allows the identification of important characteristics of the fracture structure that feeds a particular well. Some simple models are also presented that match the field transient results.

  7. The Radio Transient Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazio, J.

    Radio transients are known on time scales from nanoseconds to years, from sources in the Galaxy and beyond, and with either coherent or incoherent emission mechanisms. Observations of this wide variety of sources are relevant to many of the highest profile questions in astronomy and astrophysics. As illustrations of the breadth of the radio transient sky, both coherent and incoherent radio emission has long been known from stars and stellar remnants and has informed topics ranging from stellar evolution to Galactic structure to relativistic jet dynamics to tests of fundamental physics. Coherent radio emission is now also known from brown dwarfs, and there are active programs to find similar emissions from extrasolar planets. Outside of the Galaxy, incoherent radio counterparts to supernovae, tidal disruption events, and gamma-ray bursts is well known and have contributed to topics such as understanding the cosmic star formation rate and the formation of relativistic jets. Excitingly, coherent radio bursts that appear to be at cosmological distances were recently discovered. I provide a survey of the radio transient sky, illustrating both how radio transients are part of the Hot-Wired Sky and are likely to help drive the Hot-Wiring. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  8. SEU and Test Considerations for FPGA Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Malanie

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), what they are, implementations in space missions, and current available technologies. Single Event Upsets (SEUs) and Single Event Transients (SETs) are discussed in relation to their effects on FPGAs. Testing goals, considerations, and data analysis are reviewed.

  9. Compendium of Single-Event Latchup and Total Ionizing Dose Test Results of Commercial Analog to Digital Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh; Agarwal, Shri G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports single-event latchup and total dose results for a variety of analog to digital converters targeted for possible use in NASA spacecraft's. The compendium covers devices tested over the last 15 years.

  10. Platelet function testing in transient ischaemic attack and ischaemic stroke: A comprehensive systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lim, Soon Tjin; Coughlan, Catherine A; Murphy, Stephen J X; Fernandez-Cadenas, Israel; Montaner, Joan; Thijs, Vincent; Marquardt, Lars; McCabe, Dominick J H

    2015-01-01

    The majority of patients with ischaemic cerebrovascular disease (CVD) are not protected from further vascular events with antiplatelet therapy. Measurement of inhibition of platelet function ex vivo on antiplatelet therapy, using laboratory tests that correlate with the clinical effectiveness of these agents, would potentially enable physicians to tailor antiplatelet therapy to suit individuals. A systematic review of the literature was performed to collate all available data on ex vivo platelet function/reactivity in CVD patients, especially those treated with aspirin, dipyridamole or clopidogrel. Particular emphasis was paid to information from commonly available whole blood platelet function analysers (PFA-100®, VerifyNow® and Multiplate®). Data on pharmacogenetic mechanisms potentially influencing high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) on antiplatelet therapy in CVD were reviewed. Two-hundred forty-nine potentially relevant articles were identified; 93 manuscripts met criteria for inclusion. The prevalence of ex vivo HTPR in CVD varies between 3-62% with aspirin monotherapy, 8-61% with clopidogrel monotherapy and 56-59% when dipyridamole is added to aspirin in the early, subacute or late phases after TIA/stroke onset. The prevalence of HTPR on aspirin was higher on the PFA-100 than on the VerifyNow in one study (p?testing platforms, in conjunction with pharmacogenetic data, improves our ability to predict the risk of recurrent vascular events in CVD patients, and thus enhance secondary prevention following TIA or ischaemic stroke. PMID:26042726

  11. Single-Crystal NiAl-X Alloys Tested for Hot Corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, James A.

    1999-01-01

    Single-crystal nickel aluminide (NiAl) has been investigated extensively throughout the last several years as a potential structural material in aero-gas turbine engines. The attractive features of NiAl in comparison to Ni-base superalloys include a higher melting point, lower density, higher thermal conductivity, and excellent oxidation resistance. However, NiAl suffers from a lack of ductility and fracture toughness at low temperatures and a low creep strength at high temperatures. Alloying additions of hafnium (Hf), gallium (Ga), titanium (Ti), and chromium (Cr) have each shown some benefit to the mechanical properties over that of the binary alloy. However, the collective effect of these alloying additions on the environmental resistance of NiAl-X was unclear. Hence, the present study was undertaken to examine the hot corrosion behavior of these alloys. A companion study examined the cyclic oxidation resistance of these alloys. Several single-crystal NiAl-X alloys (where X is Hf, Ti, Cr, or Ga) underwent hot corrosion testing in a Mach 0.3 burner rig at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Samples were tested for up to 300 1-hr cycles at a temperature of 900 C. It was found that increasing the Ti content from 1 to 5 at.% degraded the hot corrosion behavior. This decline in the behavior was reflected in high weight gains and large corrosion mound formation during testing (see the figures). However, the addition of 1 to 2 at.% Cr to alloys containing 4 to 5 at.% Ti appeared to greatly reduce the susceptibility of these alloys to hot corrosion attack and negated the deleterious effect of the increased Ti addition.

  12. Additive Manufacturing Thermal Performance Testing of Single Channel GRCop-84 SLM Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Chance P.; Cross, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The surface finish found on components manufactured by sinter laser manufacturing (SLM) is rougher (0.013 - 0.0006 inches) than parts made using traditional fabrication methods. Internal features and passages built into SLM components do not readily allow for roughness reduction processes. Alternatively, engineering literature suggests that the roughness of a surface can enhance thermal performance within a pressure drop regime. To further investigate the thermal performance of SLM fabricated pieces, several GRCop-84 SLM single channel components were tested using a thermal conduction rig at MSFC. A 20 kW power source running at 25% duty cycle and 25% power level applied heat to each component while varying water flow rates between 2.1 - 6.2 gallons/min (GPM) at a supply pressure of 550 to 700 psi. Each test was allowed to reach quasi-steady state conditions where pressure, temperature, and thermal imaging data were recorded. Presented in this work are the heat transfer responses compared to a traditional machined OHFC Copper test section. An analytical thermal model was constructed to anchor theoretical models with the empirical data.

  13. Crash tests of four identical high-wing single-engine airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, V. L., Jr.; Hayduk, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Four identical four place, high wing, single engine airplane specimens with nominal masses of 1043 kg were crash tested at the Langley Impact Dynamics Research Facility under controlled free flight conditions. These tests were conducted with nominal velocities of 25 m/sec along the flight path angles, ground contact pitch angles, and roll angles. Three of the airplane specimens were crashed on a concrete surface; one was crashed on soil. Crash tests revealed that on a hard landing, the main landing gear absorbed about twice the energy for which the gear was designed but sprang back, tending to tip the airplane up to its nose. On concrete surfaces, the airplane impacted and remained in the impact attitude. On soil, the airplane flipped over on its back. The crash impact on the nose of the airplane, whether on soil or concrete, caused massive structural crushing of the forward fuselage. The liveable volume was maintained in both the hard landing and the nose down specimens but was not maintained in the roll impact and nose down on soil specimens.

  14. Preliminary Test Results from 650 MHz Single Cell Medium Beta Cavities for Project X

    SciTech Connect

    Marhauser, Frank; Kneisel, Peter; Burrill, Andrew; Kushnick, Peter; Rimmer, R. A.

    2011-07-01

    We have fabricated two single cell 650 MHz {beta}=0.61 cavities of a JLab design, which possibly can be used for the proposed Project X proton linac application. Both cavities were manufactured at JLab from RRR>250 niobium sheet of 4 mm thickness using standard techniques such as deep drawing, electron beam welding, buffered chemical polishing, hydrogen degassing heat treatment, high pressure ultrapure water rinsing and clean room assembly. Initially cavity no. 1 was -- after final surface treatment by buffered chemical polishing (BCP) -- measured without any provisions for stiffening. As expected, the pressure sensitivity and the Lorentz Force detuning coefficients were relatively high; however, the RF performance was very encouraging: the cavity exhibited a Q-value > 10{sup 11} at 1.6K, corresponding to a residual resistance of < 1.5 n{Omega} The initial gradient was limited to E{sub acc} ~ 18 MV/m, limited by field emission. In a subsequent test, the cavity was re-rinsed and stiffened up, resulting in a somewhat improved mechanical behavior, but no improvement in rf performance. The second cavity was also tested twice, before and after low temperature baking. The results from all tests are reported in this contribution.

  15. A Comparison of Single-Cycle Versus Multiple-Cycle Proof Testing Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClung, R. C.; Chell, G. G.; Millwater, H. R.; Russell, D. A.; Orient, G. E.

    1996-01-01

    Single-cycle and multiple-cycle proof testing (SCPT and MCPT) strategies for reusable aerospace propulsion system components are critically evaluated and compared from a rigorous elastic-plastic fracture mechanics perspective. Earlier MCPT studies are briefly reviewed. New J-integral estimation methods for semi-elliptical surface cracks and cracks at notches are derived and validated. Engineering methods are developed to characterize crack growth rates during elastic-plastic fatigue crack growth (FCG) and the tear-fatigue interaction near instability. Surface crack growth experiments are conducted with Inconel 718 to characterize tearing resistance, FCG under small-scale yielding and elastic-plastic conditions, and crack growth during simulated MCPT. Fractography and acoustic emission studies provide additional insight. The relative merits of SCPT and MCPT are directly compared using a probabilistic analysis linked with an elastic-plastic crack growth computer code. The conditional probability of failure in service is computed for a population of components that have survived a previous proof test, based on an assumed distribution of initial crack depths. Parameter studies investigate the influence of proof factor, tearing resistance, crack shape, initial crack depth distribution, and notches on the MCPT vs. SCPT comparison. The parameter studies provide a rational basis to formulate conclusions about the relative advantages and disadvantages of SCPT and MCPT. Practical engineering guidelines are proposed to help select the optimum proof test protocol in a given application.

  16. A Comparison of Single-Cycle Versus Multiple-Cycle Proof Testing Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClung, R. C.; Chell, G. G.; Millwater, H. R.; Russell, D. A.; Millwater, H. R.

    1999-01-01

    Single-cycle and multiple-cycle proof testing (SCPT and MCPT) strategies for reusable aerospace propulsion system components are critically evaluated and compared from a rigorous elastic-plastic fracture mechanics perspective. Earlier MCPT studies are briefly reviewed. New J-integral estimation methods for semielliptical surface cracks and cracks at notches are derived and validated. Engineering methods are developed to characterize crack growth rates during elastic-plastic fatigue crack growth (FCG) and the tear-fatigue interaction near instability. Surface crack growth experiments are conducted with Inconel 718 to characterize tearing resistance, FCG under small-scale yielding and elastic-plastic conditions, and crack growth during simulated MCPT. Fractography and acoustic emission studies provide additional insight. The relative merits of SCPT and MCPT are directly compared using a probabilistic analysis linked with an elastic-plastic crack growth computer code. The conditional probability of failure in service is computed for a population of components that have survived a previous proof test, based on an assumed distribution of initial crack depths. Parameter studies investigate the influence of proof factor, tearing resistance, crack shape, initial crack depth distribution, and notches on the MCPT versus SCPT comparison. The parameter studies provide a rational basis to formulate conclusions about the relative advantages and disadvantages of SCPT and MCPT. Practical engineering guidelines are proposed to help select the optimum proof test protocol in a given application.

  17. A single sample GnRHa stimulation test in the diagnosis of precocious puberty

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Context Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has been the standard test for diagnosing central precocious puberty. Because GnRH is no longer available, GnRH analogues (GnRHa) are now used. Random LH concentration, measured by the third-generation immunochemiluminometric assay, is a useful screening tool for central precocious puberty. However, GnRHa stimulation test should be considered, when a basal LH measurement is inconclusive. However optimal sampling times for luteinizing hormone (LH) have yet to be established. Purpose To determine the appropriate sampling time for LH post leuprolide challenge. Methods A retrospective analysis of multi-sample GnRHa stimulation tests performed in 155 children (aged 1–9?years) referred for precocious puberty to Texas Children’s Hospital. After 20 mcg/kg of SQ leuprolide acetate, samples were obtained at 0, 1, 3, and 6 hours. Results Of 71 children with clinical evidence of central precocious puberty, fifty nine children had a peak LH >5 mIU/mL. 52 (88%) of these responders had positive responses at 1 hour (95% CI is 80–96%), whereas all 59 children (100%) had a peak LH response >5 mIU/mL at 3 hours (95% CI is 94-100%), P?=?0.005. Conclusions A single serum LH sample collected 3 hours post GnRHa challenge is the optimal sample to establish the diagnosis of central precocious puberty. PMID:22809285

  18. Modeling Single Well Injection-Withdrawal (SWIW) Tests for Characterization of Complex Fracture-Matrix Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cotte, F.P.; Doughty, C.; Birkholzer, J.

    2010-11-01

    The ability to reliably predict flow and transport in fractured porous rock is an essential condition for performance evaluation of geologic (underground) nuclear waste repositories. In this report, a suite of programs (TRIPOLY code) for calculating and analyzing flow and transport in two-dimensional fracture-matrix systems is used to model single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tracer tests. The SWIW test, a tracer test using one well, is proposed as a useful means of collecting data for site characterization, as well as estimating parameters relevant to tracer diffusion and sorption. After some specific code adaptations, we numerically generated a complex fracture-matrix system for computation of steady-state flow and tracer advection and dispersion in the fracture network, along with solute exchange processes between the fractures and the porous matrix. We then conducted simulations for a hypothetical but workable SWIW test design and completed parameter sensitivity studies on three physical parameters of the rock matrix - namely porosity, diffusion coefficient, and retardation coefficient - in order to investigate their impact on the fracture-matrix solute exchange process. Hydraulic fracturing, or hydrofracking, is also modeled in this study, in two different ways: (1) by increasing the hydraulic aperture for flow in existing fractures and (2) by adding a new set of fractures to the field. The results of all these different tests are analyzed by studying the population of matrix blocks, the tracer spatial distribution, and the breakthrough curves (BTCs) obtained, while performing mass-balance checks and being careful to avoid some numerical mistakes that could occur. This study clearly demonstrates the importance of matrix effects in the solute transport process, with the sensitivity studies illustrating the increased importance of the matrix in providing a retardation mechanism for radionuclides as matrix porosity, diffusion coefficient, or retardation coefficient increase. Interestingly, model results before and after hydrofracking are insensitive to adding more fractures, while slightly more sensitive to aperture increase, making SWIW tests a possible means of discriminating between these two potential hydrofracking effects. Finally, we investigate the possibility of inferring relevant information regarding the fracture-matrix system physical parameters from the BTCs obtained during SWIW testing.

  19. Frequency of coronal transients and solar activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Hildner; J. T. Gosling; R. M. MacQueen; R. H. Munro; A. I. Poland; C. L. Ross

    1976-01-01

    The High Altitude Observatory's white light coronagraph aboard Skylab observed some 110 coronal transients - rapid changes in appearance of the corona - during its 227 days of operation. The longitudes of the origins of these transients were not distributed uniformly around the solar surface (51 of the 100 events observed in seven solar rotations arose from a single quadrant

  20. Potentiometric, electronic, and transient absorptive spectroscopic properties of oxidized single-walled carbon nanotubes helically wrapped by ionic, semiconducting polymers in aqueous and organic media.

    PubMed

    Deria, Pravas; Olivier, Jean-Hubert; Park, Jaehong; Therien, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    We report the first direct cyclic voltammetric determination of the valence and conduction band energy levels for noncovalently modified (6,5) chirality enriched SWNTs [(6,5) SWNTs] in which an aryleneethynylene polymer monolayer helically wraps the nanotube surface at periodic and constant morphology. Potentiometric properties as well as the steady-state and transient absorption spectroscopic signatures of oxidized (6,5) SWNTs were probed as a function of the electronic structure of the aryleneethynylene polymer that helically wraps the nanotube surface, the solvent dielectric, and nanotube hole polaron concentration. These data: (i) highlight the utility of these polymer-SWNT superstructures in experiments that establish the potentiometric valence and conduction band energy levels of semiconducting carbon nanotubes; (ii) provide a direct measure of the (6,5) SWNT hole polaron delocalization length (2.75 nm); (iii) determine steady-state and transient electronic absorptive spectroscopic signatures that are uniquely associated with the (6,5) SWNT hole polaron state; and (iv) demonstrate that modulation of semiconducting polymer frontier orbital energy levels can drive spectral shifts of SWNT hole polaron transitions as well as regulate SWNT valence and conduction band energies. PMID:25211354

  1. Analysis and testing of high entrainment single nozzle jet pumps with variable mixing tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, K. E.; Hill, P. G.; Gilbert, G. B.

    1972-01-01

    An analytical model was developed to predict the performance characteristics of axisymmetric single-nozzle jet pumps with variable area mixing tubes. The primary flow may be subsonic or supersonic. The computer program uses integral techniques to calculate the velocity profiles and the wall static pressures that result from the mixing of the supersonic primary jet and the subsonic secondary flow. An experimental program was conducted to measure mixing tube wall static pressure variations, velocity profiles, and temperature profiles in a variable area mixing tube with a supersonic primary jet. Static pressure variations were measured at four different secondary flow rates. These test results were used to evaluate the analytical model. The analytical results compared well to the experimental data. Therefore, the analysis is believed to be ready for use to relate jet pump performance characteristics to mixing tube design.

  2. Effect of moisture on the interfacial shear strength: A study using the single fiber fragmentation test

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, B.A.; Bradley, W.L. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-12-31

    The effect of absorbed moisture on the interfacial strength of a carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composite has been studied using the single fiber fragmentation test. The absorption of 1.40% moisture produced a reduction less than 20% in the interfacial shear strength. This reduction in interfacial strength may be associated with a reduction in the residual compressive stresses at the fiber/matrix interface associated with the cooldown from the curing temperature, a weakening of the chemical adhesion, or a softening of the matrix giving failure by interphase yielding. These results suggest that long-term durability of carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composites in seawater may not be much affected by absorbed seawater.

  3. Coherent single pion production by antineutrino charged current interactions and test of PCAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marage, P.; Aderholz, M.; Allport, P.; Armenise, N.; Baton, J. P.; Berggren, M.; Bertrand, D.; Brisson, V.; Bullock, F. W.; Burkot, W.; Calicchio, M.; Clayton, E. F.; Coghen, T.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Erriquez, O.; Fitch, P. J.; Gerbier, G.; Guy, J.; Hamisi, F.; Hulth, P. O.; Jones, G. T.; Kasper, P.; Klein, H.; Middleton, R. P.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Natali, S.; Neveu, M.; O'Neale, S. W.; Parker, M. A.; Petiau, P.; Sacton, J.; Sansum, R. A.; Simopoulou, E.; Vallée, C.; Varvell, K.; Vayaki, A.; Venus, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wells, J.; Wittek, W.

    1986-06-01

    The cross section for coherent production of a single ?- meson in charged current antineutrino interactions on neon nuclei has been measured in BEBC to be (175±25) 10-40 cm2/neon nucleus, averaged over the energy spectrum of the antineutrino wide band beam at the CERN SPS; this corresponds to (0.9±0.1) % of the total charged currentbar v_? cross section. The distributions of kinematical variables are in agreement with theoretical predictions based on the PCAC hypothesis and the meson dominance model; in particular, the Q 2 dependence is well described by a propagator containing a mass m=(1.35±0.18) GeV. The absolute value of the cross section is also in agreement with the model. This analysis thus provides a test of the PCAC hypothesis in the antineutrino energy range 5 150 GeV.

  4. Confirmation on the size-dependence of Young's modulus of single crystal silicon from the TEM tensile tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. H. Jin; T. Li; Y. L. Wang; X. L. Gao; F. F. Xu

    2010-01-01

    With the developed process, four MEMS tensile testing chips of ;-oriented single crystal silicon (SCS) nanobeams were achieved in one SOI wafer with thickness from 45 to 100 nm. Mounting the chips onto a custom made TEM sample holder, which integrated also comb drives and force sensor beam, in-situ TEM tensile tests were carried out. The measured Young's modulus (from

  5. Development and test of single-bore cos-ϑ Nb3Sn dipole models with cold iron yoke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Andreev; G. Ambrosio; E. Barzi; R. Carcagno; D. R. Chichili; J. DiMarco; S. Feher; L. Imbasciati; V. V. Kashikhin; M. Lamm; P. J. Limon; D. Orris; P. Schlabach; C. Sylvester; M. Tartaglia; I. Terechkine; J. C. Tompkins; S. Yadav; R. Yamada; A. V. Zlobin

    2002-01-01

    Two short Nb3Sn dipole models based on a single-bore cos-theta coil with a cold iron yoke were fabricated and tested at Fermilab. This paper summarizes the details of magnet design and fabrication procedure, and reports the test results including quench performance and quench heater studies, and the magnetic measurements.

  6. Test of a single module of the J-PET scanner based on plastic scintillators

    E-print Network

    P. Moskal; Sz. Nied?wiecki; T. Bednarski; E. Czerwi?ski; ?. Kap?on; E. Kubicz; I. Moskal; M. Pawlik-Nied?wiecka; N. G. Sharma; M. Silarski; M. Zieli?ski; N. Zo?; P. Bia?as; A. Gajos; A. Kochanowski; G. Korcyl; J. Kowal; P. Kowalski; T. Kozik; W. Krzemie?; M. Molenda; M. Pa?ka; L. Raczy?ski; Z. Rudy; P. Salabura; A. S?omski; J. Smyrski; A. Strzelecki; A. Wieczorek; W. Wi?licki

    2014-08-29

    Time of Flight Positron Emission Tomography scanner based on plastic scintillators is being developed at the Jagiellonian University by the J-PET collaboration. The main challenge of the conducted research lies in the elaboration of a method allowing application of plastic scintillators for the detection of low energy gamma quanta. In this article we report on tests of a single detection module built out from BC-420 plastic scintillator strip (with dimensions of 5x19x300mm^3) read out at two ends by Hamamatsu R5320 photomultipliers. The measurements were performed using collimated beam of annihilation quanta from the 68Ge isotope and applying the Serial Data Analyzer (Lecroy SDA6000A) which enabled sampling of signals with 50ps intervals. The time resolution of the prototype module was established to be better than 80ps (sigma) for a single level discrimination. The spatial resolution of the determination of the hit position along the strip was determined to be about 0.93cm (sigma) for the annihilation quanta. The fractional energy resolution for the energy E deposited by the annihilation quanta via the Compton scattering amounts to sigma(E)/E = 0.044/sqrt(E[MeV]) and corresponds to the sigma(E)/E of 7.5% at the Compton edge.

  7. Single-column model for atmospheric radiation measurement sites: Model development and sensitivity test

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Q.; Dong, M. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1995-04-01

    A single-column model (SCM) is constructed by extracting the physical subroutines from the community climate model (CCMI) of the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Using observational data obtained from the Oklahoma Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site and the National Weather Services, this SCM will perform diagnostic studies of radiation and cloud parameterizations. So far, the model has been tested with simulated data generated by CCM1 global runs. The global runs provide the SCM with initial and lateral boundary conditions that represent the Oklahoma ARM site. The preliminary results can be summarized as follows: the SCM can produce nearly the same results as the CCM1 if the lateral boundary conditions are precisely given from the spectral forms of representation of boundary fluxes; the SCM results are moderately sensitive to noise in the lateral boundary conditions. The SCM simulated temperature can (or cannot) closely follow the CCM1 global run if the noise in the lateral boundary fluxes is below (or above) 10% of the single level. The representativeness of the lateral boundary conditions seems crucial for the SCM simulations. When the advection term is calculated by using the central finite difference scheme from the gridded (instead of spectral) data produced by the CCM1 run, the SCM simulated temperature can differ significantly from that of the CCM1 global run.

  8. Single-well tracer push-pull test sensitivity w. r. to fracture aperture and spacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghergut, I.; Behrens, H.; Karmakar, S.; Sauter, M.

    2012-04-01

    Dealing with a parallel-fracture system of infinite lateral extension, four characteristic regimes of tracer signal sensitivity w. r. to fracture aperture and w. r. to fracture spacing s (whose reciprocal defines fracture density, or the fluid-rock interface area per volume) can be identified during the pull phase of a single-well push-pull test, also depending upon the ratio between push-phase duration Tpush and a characteristic time scale Ts (defined by s2 / D = Ts , with D denoting the tracer's effective diffusion coefficient): early-time regime: tracer signals are sensitive w. r. to fracture aperture, but insensitive w. r. to fracture spacing; sensitivity w. r. to fracture aperture first increases, then decreases with Tpush / Ts (thus there will be an optimum in terms of to Tpush / Ts , at early pull times); mid-time regime: tracer signals are sensitive w. r. to fracture spacing, but insensitive w. r. to fracture aperture; sensitivity w. r. to fracture spacing increases with Tpush / Ts ; late-time regime: with increasing pull duration, tracer signals become increasingly insensitive w. r. to fracture spacing, while regaining sensitivity w. r. to fracture aperture; 'very late'-time regime: sensitivity w. r. to fracture aperture becomes independent upon Tpush / Ts . From these different regimes, some recommendations can be derived regarding the design and dimensioning of dual-tracer single-well push-pull tests for the specific purposes of geothermal reservoir characterization, using conservative solutes and heat as tracers. Acknowledgement: This study is funded by MWK Niedersachsen (Lower-Saxony's Science and Culture Ministry) and by Baker Hughes (Celle) within task unit 'G6' of the Collaborative Research Project 'gebo' (Geothermal Energy and High-Performance Drilling).

  9. Analysis of tracer and thermal transients during reinjection

    SciTech Connect

    Kocabas, I.

    1989-10-01

    This work studied tracer and thermal transients during reinjection in geothermal reserviors and developed a new technique which combines the results from interwell tracer tests and thermal injection-backflow tests to estimate the thermal breakthrough times. Tracer tests are essential to determine the degree of connectivity between the injection wells and the producing wells. To analyze the tracer return profiles quantitatively, we employed three mathematical models namely, the convection-dispersion (CD) model, matrix diffusion (MD) model, and the Avodnin (AD) model, which were developed to study tracer and heat transport in a single vertical fracture. We considered three types of tracer tests namely, interwell tracer tests without recirculation, interwell tracer tests with recirculation, and injection-backflow tracer tests. To estimate the model parameters, we used a nonlinear regression program to match tracer return profiles to the solutions.

  10. Prototype Test Results for the Single Photon Detection SLR2000 Satellite Laser Ranging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zagwodzki, Thomas W.; McGarry, Jan F.; Degnan, John J.; Cheek, Jack W.; Dunn, Peter J.; Patterson, Don; Donovan, Howard

    2004-01-01

    NASA's aging Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) network is scheduled to be replaced over the next few years with a fully automated single photon detection system. A prototype of this new system, called SLR2000, is currently undergoing field trials at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland to evaluate photon counting techniques and determine system hardware, software, and control algorithm performance levels and limitations. Newly developed diode pumped microchip lasers and quadrant microchannel plate-based photomultiplier tubes have enabled the development of this high repetition rate single photon detection SLR system. The SLR2000 receiver threshold is set at the single photoelectron (pe) level but tracks satellites with an average signal level typically much less than 1 pe. The 2 kHz laser fire rate aids in satellite acquisition and tracking and will enable closed loop tracking by accumulating single photon count statistics in a quadrant detector and using this information to correct for pointing errors. Laser transmitter beamwidths of 10 arcseconds (FWHM) or less are currently being used to maintain an adequate signal level for tracking while the receiver field of view (FOV) has been opened to 40 arcseconds to accommodate point ahead/look behind angular offsets. In the near future, the laser transmitter point ahead will be controlled by a pair of Risley prisms. This will allow the telescope to point behind and enable closure of the receiver FOV to roughly match the transmitter beam divergence. Bandpass filters (BPF) are removed for night tracking operations while 0.2 nm or 1 nm filters are used during daylight operation. Both day and night laser tracking of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites has been achieved with a laser transmitter energy of only 65 microjoules per pulse. Satellite tracking is presently limited to LEO satellites until the brassboard laser transmitter can be upgraded or replaced. Simultaneous tracks have also been observed with NASA s SLR standard, MOBLAS 7, for the purposes of data comparison and identification of biases. Work continues to optimize the receive optics; upgrade or replace the laser transmitter; calibrate the quadrant detector, the point ahead Risley prisms, and event timer verniers; and test normal point generation with SLR2000 data. This paper will report on the satellite tracking results to date, issues yet to be resolved, and future plans for the SLR2000 system.

  11. Transient Ischemic Attack

    MedlinePLUS

    NINDS Transient Ischemic Attack Information Page Synonym(s): Mini Stroke Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Transient Ischemic Attack? A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is ...

  12. Liquid oxygen/hydrogen testing of a single swirl coaxial injector element in a windowed combustion chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulka, J.; Makel, D.

    1993-06-01

    A modular, high pressure, liquid rocket single element combustion chamber was developed at Aerojet for use with nonintrusive combustion diagnostics. The hardware is able to accommodate full-size injection elements and includes a recessed annular injector around the single element to provide a source for hot gas background flow, which reduces recirculation in the chamber and provides additional injection mass to elevate chamber pressure. Experiments are being conducted to develop the diagnostics required to characterize a single-element combustion spray field for combustion modeling, benchmark data for CFD model validation, and development of the transfer functions between single element cold flow and multielement hot fire. The latter task is being pursued using an injector element identical to elements that had been previously cold-flow tested in single element tests to ambient backpressure and hot fire tested in a multielement injector. Preliminary tests conducted to date without hydrogen flowing through the annular coaxial orifice of the single element show the general flow characteristics of a reacting, unconfined, liquid oxygen hollow cone swirl spray.

  13. Transient receptor potential cation channel A1 (TRPA1) mediates changes in heart rate variability following a single exposure to acrolein in mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    The data show that a single exposure to acrolein causes autonomic imbalance in mice through the TRPA1 sensor and subsequent cardiac dysfunction. Human and animal studies have shown that short-term air pollution exposure causes...

  14. Test plan for determining breathing rates in single shell tanksusing tracer gases. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, J.A.

    1997-06-20

    This test plan specifies the requirements and conditions for the injection of tracer gas (Helium (He)) into single shell tanks to determine breathing rates using periodic sampling. The eight tanks which have been selected at the time this Test Plan was developed are A-101, AX-102, AX-103, BY-105, C-107, U-103 (U-103 is counted twice, once during the winter months and once during the summer), and U-105. Other tanks to be sampled will be assigned by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) at a later date in the study process as resources allow, the document shall be revised as required. The sampling of headspace for each of these tanks shall be performed using available risers or the Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System (SHMS) cabinet as available. The tank farm vapor cognizant engineer shall assign the injection and sample testing point for each tank and document the point in the field work package. SUMMA TMI canisters, equipped in-line with dual particulate air filters and two silica gel sorbent traps will be used to collect the gas samples. The purpose of dual particulate air filters is to ensure no radioactive particulates are transferred to the SUMMA TMI canisters. The silica gel sorbent traps will effectively eliminate any tritiated water vapor that may be present in the sample gas stream. PNNL shall supply the tracer gases injection system and shall perform the analysis on the headspace samples. TWRS Characterization project shall inject the tracer gas and perform the sampling. Refer to Engineering Task Plan HNF-SD-TWR-ETP-002 for a detailed description of the responsibilities for this task.

  15. Transient based protection using current transients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xia Mingchao; Huang Yizhuang

    2008-01-01

    A transient based protection criterion using the wavelet transform results of current transients from the two ends or three ends (T-type line) of high voltage power transmission line is presented. According to the attenuation effects of high voltage transmission line and busbar capacitance to high-frequency current transients, differences of current transients at each end of the transmission line when in-zone

  16. Commentary: On the limited role of the “single-subject” design in psychology: Hypothesis generating but not testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Furedy

    1999-01-01

    The “single-subject” design (which really denotes a design that employs too few subjects to allow statistical inferences concerning significance to be made) is useful only for the generation, but not for the testing or evaluation, of hypotheses concerning any psychological function. Those hypotheses that may be suggested by the “single-subject” design include ones about within-subject developmental effects (which may need

  17. A method for measuring the fracture toughness of micrometer-sized single crystal silicon by tensile test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Li; Takashi Kasai; Shigeki Nakao; Hiroshi Tanaka; Taeko Ando; Mitsuhiro Shikida; Kazuo Sato

    2003-01-01

    We developed a method of measuring the fracture toughness,-which is a material constant in the macroscopic domain, of single crystal silicon on a micrometer-scale. We notched the thin film specimen on a single edge and then conducted uniaxial tensile test to failure. The average value of measured fracture toughness of specimens on the (100) plane was 1.58 MPa·m12\\/ with scatter.

  18. Enhancing the Fibre Matrix Adhesion of Natural Fibre Reinforced Polypropylene by Electron Radiation Analyzed with the Single Fibre Fragmentation Test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim Huber; Udo Biedermann; Jörg Müssig

    2010-01-01

    The effects of electron radiation on natural fibre reinforced polypropylene have been analyzed with the single fibre fragmentation test. Specimens of single hemp, flax, ramie and cotton fibres\\/fibre bundles embedded in a polypropylene sheet were irradiated with electron radiation of 10 MeV with intensities of 5, 15 and 33 kGy. The radiation led to a strain reduction of the polypropylene

  19. CHARACTERIZATION TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF SINGLE CELL SO2 DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J; Timothy Steeper, T

    2006-09-15

    This document reports work performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that further develops the use of a proton exchange membrane or PEM-type electrochemical cell to produce hydrogen via SO{sub 2}-depolarized water electrolysis. This work was begun at SRNL in 2005. This research is valuable in achieving the ultimate goal of an economical hydrogen production process based on the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Cycle. The HyS Process is a hybrid thermochemical cycle that may be used in conjunction with advanced nuclear reactors or centralized solar receivers to produce hydrogen by water-splitting. Like all other sulfur-based cycles, HyS utilizes the high temperature thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid to produce oxygen. The unique aspect of HyS is the generation of hydrogen in a water electrolyzer that is operated under conditions where dissolved sulfur dioxide depolarizes the anodic reaction, resulting in substantial voltage reduction. Sulfur dioxide is oxidized at the anode, producing sulfuric acid that is sent to the acid decomposition portion of the cycle. The focus of this work was to conduct single cell electrolyzer tests in order to prove the concept of SO{sub 2}-depolarization and to determine how the results can be used to evaluate the performance of key components of the HyS Process. A test facility for conducting SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) testing was designed, constructed and commissioned. The maximum cell current is 50 amperes, which is equivalent to a hydrogen production rate of approximately 20 liters per hour. Feed to the anode of the electrolyzer is sulfuric acid solutions containing dissolved sulfur dioxide. The partial pressure of sulfur dioxide may be varied in the range of 1 to 6 atm (15 to 90 psia). Temperatures may be controlled in the range from ambient to 80 C. Hydrogen generated at the cathode of the cell is collected for the purpose of flow measurement and composition analysis. The test facility proved to be easy to operate, versatile, and reliable.

  20. Transient global amnesia mimics: Transient epileptic amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Nicastro, Nicolas; Picard, Fabienne; Assal, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    We describe the case of a 79-year-old patient referred for suspected transient global amnesia, after an episode of anterograde amnesia which lasted 90 min. An EEG, performed after the episode, showed bilateral temporal electrographic seizures, orienting the diagnosis toward a transient epileptic amnesia. Transient epileptic amnesia is defined by temporal lobe epilepsy characterized by recurrent transient amnestic episodes of 30–90 min in duration, sometimes associated with olfactory hallucinations or oral automatisms. Response to antiepileptic drugs is excellent. We would like to raise awareness toward this epileptic amnesia when facing atypical or recurrent transient amnestic episodes. PMID:25667881

  1. Tracer Tests in a Fractured Dolomite: 2. Controls on Mass-Recovery Rates for a Single-Porosity, Heterogeneous Conceptualization

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, S.J.; Meigs, L.C.; Jones, T.L.

    1999-03-04

    A single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) test is evaluated as a tool to differentiate between single- and double-porosity conceptualizations of a system. Results from single-porosity simulations incorporating plume drift are also compared to observed data from a recent series of SWIW tests conducted in a fractured dolomite unit, for which a double-porosity conceptualization has been proposed. We evaluate the difficulty of differentiating the response for a double-porosity conceptualization from that for a heterogeneous, single-porosity conceptualization incorporating plume drift. Results of sensitivity studies on multiple, stochastically generated, heterogeneous transmissivity fields indicate that to simulate extremely slow mass-recovery rates for a SWIW test with a single-porosity conceptualization, the following conditions must be present: plume drift, extreme heterogeneities (high {sigma}InT), and an unusual configuration of the high and low transmissivity regions relative to the well location. A compilation of existing data suggests that the high degree of heterogeneity necessary is rare at the SWIW test scale.The observed data from the SWIW tracer tests cannot be matched to numerical simulation results when a single-porosity conceptualization is assumed. A signature of significant drift is less than 100% mass recovery with a zero derivative with respect to time of the late-time normalized cumulative mass curve indicating mass transported outside the capture zone of the withdrawal well. To minimize the risk of misinterpretation, an important design feature for SWIW tests is the collection of late-time data so that percent total mass recovery can be calculated.

  2. Study on a test of optical stochastic cooling scheme in a single pass beam line

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Kim, C.; Massoletti, D.; Zholents, A. [and others

    1997-01-01

    A feasibility study of an experiment to test the principle of optical stochastic cooling is presented. We propose to build a new beamline in the extraction area of the ALS Booster synchrotron, where we will include a bypass lattice similar to the lattice that could be used in the cooling insertion in a storage ring. Of course, in the single pass beamline we cannot achieve cooling, but we can test all the functions of the bypass lattice that are required to achieve cooling in a storage ring. As it is stated in, there are stringent requirements on the time-of-flight properties of the bypass lattice employed in a cooling scheme. The pathlengths of particle trajectories in the bypass must be fairly insensitive to the standard set of errors that usually affect the performance of storage rings. Namely, it is necessary to preserve all fluctuations in the longitudinal particle density within the beam from the beginning to the end of the bypass lattice with the accuracy of {lambda}/2{pi}, where A is the carrying (optical) wavelength. According to, cooling will completely vanish if a combined effect of all kinds of errors will produce a spread of the pathlengths of particle trajectories larger than {lambda}/2 and the cooling time will almost double if the spread of the pathlengths is {lambda}/2{pi}. At a first glance, {lambda}/2{pi} {approx_equal} 0.1/{mu}m is such a small value that satisfying this accuracy looks nearly impossible. However, simulations show that a carefully designed bypass can meet all the requirements even with rather conservative tolerance to errors.

  3. Prediction of haloperidol steady-state levels in plasma after a single test dose.

    PubMed

    Javaid, J I; Janicak, P G; Sharma, R P; Leach, A M; Davis, J M; Wang, Z

    1996-02-01

    Because of large interindividual variabilities in the pharmacokinetics of haloperidol (HPDL), empirically adjusting the dose to achieve steady-state levels in plasma (Css) is a time-consuming process. We report a method to individualize dose to achieve a desired Css from an observed drug level 24 hours after a single 15-mg test dose of HPDL. Drug-free schizophrenic and schizo-affective patients were blindly and randomly assigned to achieve a low (< 5 ng/ml), medium (10-18 ng/ml), or high (> 25 ng/ml) Css range of HPDL. On day 1 of the study, each patient received an oral "test" dose of HPDL (15 mg), and blood was drawn 24 hours later to determine drug levels in plasma (C24h). The first 34 patients (group I) were then maintained empirically on 2, 5 to 8, or 10 to 15 mg twice daily of oral HPDL concentrate for 5 days to achieve a low, medium, or high Css range, respectively. For the next 58 patients (group II), the dose of HPDL to achieve the assigned Css range was computed by using C24h in a prediction formula. Application of the C24h correctly predicted the maintenance dose required to achieve the Css in 73.2% of the cases. Further, there was a highly significant correlation (R2 = 0.877, p < 0.0001) between the predicted dose and the actual dose required to achieve the targeted Css range. On the basis of these results, we have formulated a nomogram to help predict the maintenance dose required to achieve low, medium, or high HPDL targeted ranges at various C24h values. PMID:8834418

  4. Single-Event Effects Ground Testing and On-Orbit Rate Prediction Methods: The Past, Present and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Robert A.; Kinnison, Jim; Pickel, Jim; Buchner, Stephen; Marshall, Paul W.; Kniffin, Scott; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past 27 years, or so, increased concern over single event effects in spacecraft systems has resulted in research, development and engineering activities centered around a better understanding of the space radiation environment, single event effects predictive methods, ground test protocols, and test facility developments. This research has led to fairly well developed methods for assessing the impact of the space radiation environment on systems that contain SEE sensitive devices and the development of mitigation strategies either at the system or device level.

  5. Fracture trace map and single-well aquifer test results in a carbonate aquifer in Berkeley County, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy, Kurt J.; Podwysocki, Melvin H.; Crider, E. Allen; Weary, David J.

    2005-01-01

    These data contain information on the results of single-well aquifer tests, lineament analysis, and a bedrock geologic map compilation for the low-lying carbonate and shale areas of eastern Berkeley County, West Virginia. Efforts have been initiated by management agencies of Berkeley County in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey to further the understanding of the spatial distribution of fractures in the carbonate regions and their correlation with aquifer properties. This report presents transmissivity values from about 200 single-well aquifer tests and a map of fracture-traces determined from aerial photos and field investigations. Transmissivity values were compared to geologic factors possibly affecting its magnitude.

  6. Coaxial HOM Coupler designs tested on a single cell niobium cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Kneisel; Genfa Wu; Gianluigi Ciovati; Jacek Sekutowicz

    2006-08-28

    Coaxial higher order mode (HOM) couplers have been developed for HERA cavities and are used in TESLA, SNS and JLab upgrade cavities. The principle of operation is the rejection of the fundamental mode by the tunable filter of the coupler and the transmission of the HOMs. It has been recognized recently that inappropriate thermal designs of the feedthrough for the pick-up probe of the HOM coupler will not sufficiently carry away the heat generated in the probe tip by the fundamental mode fields, causing a built-up of the heating of the niobium probe tip and subsequently, a deterioration of the cavity quality factor has been observed in CW operation. An improvement of the situation has been realized by a better thermal design of the feedthrough incorporating a sapphire rf window [1]. An alternative is a modification of the coupler loop (?F? ? part) with an extension towards the pick-up probe. This design has been tested on a single cell niobium cavity in comparison to a ''standard TESLA'' configuration by measuring the Eacc behavior at 2 K. The measurements clearly indicate that the modified version of the coupler loop is thermally much more stable than the standard version.

  7. Human-based systems in drug and chemical safety testing--toward replacement, the 'single R'.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Robert A

    2014-12-01

    The Three Rs was a concept originally conceived as a means of reducing the suffering of laboratory animals that are used largely in identifying any potential safety issues with chemicals to which humans may be exposed. However, with growing evidence of the shortcomings of laboratory animal testing to reliably predict human responsiveness to such chemicals, questions are now being asked as to whether it is appropriate to use animals as human surrogates at all. This raises the question of whether, of the original Three Rs, two--Reduction and Refinement--are potentially redundant, and whether, instead, we should concentrate on the third R: Replacement. And if this is the best way forward, it is inevitable that this R should be based firmly on human biology. The present review outlines the current state-of-the-art regarding our access to human biology through in vitro, in silico and in vivo technologies, identifying strengths, weaknesses and opportunities, and goes on to address the prospect of achieving a single R, with some suggestions as to how to progress toward this goal. PMID:25635644

  8. On The Way To Off-equatorial Charged Discs Near Compact Objects - Single Test Particles Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovar, Jiri; Kopacek, O.; Karas, V.; Stuchlik, Z.

    2010-02-01

    We present our recent studies of charged particles motion out of the equatorial plane in strong gravitational and electromagnetic fields. Within the general relativistic approach, we have demonstrated that the interplay between gravitational and electromagnetic action may allow for stable off-equatorial circular motion along the so-called halo orbits near compact objects, such as rotating magnetic compact stars and Kerr black holes immersed in an asymptotically uniform magnetic field of external origin. Locations of halo orbits correspond to minima of the two-dimensional effective potential, which exhibits several qualitativelly different kinds of behaviour, reflecting the charge of moving particles and orientation of the motion. Along with the study of the halo motion itself, we have discussed the general motion in the related off-equatorial potential lobes, demonstrating its chaoticness or regularity in terms of the Poincaré surfaces of sections and recurrence plots. A possible outlook of this study is to build a single test particles model of putative circumpulsar discs consisting of charged dust particles. Institute of Physics and Astronomical Institute have been operated under the projects MSM 4781305903 and AV 0Z10030501, and further supported by the Centre for Theoretical Astrophysics LC06014 in the Czech Republic. JK, VK and ZS thank the Czech Science Foundation (ref. P209/10/P190, 205/07/0052, 202/09/0772). OK acknowledges the doctoral student program of the Czech Science Foundation (205/09/H033).

  9. Emerging optocoupler issues with energetic particle-induced transients and permanent radiation degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R.A.; Barth, J.L.; LaBel, K.A. [NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD (United States)] [NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Marshall, P.W.; Carts, M.A. [NRL/SFA, Largo, MD (United States)] [NRL/SFA, Largo, MD (United States); Johnston, A.H. [JPL, Pasadena, CA (United States)] [JPL, Pasadena, CA (United States); Marshall, C.J. [NRL, Washington, DC (United States)] [NRL, Washington, DC (United States); D`Ordine, M. [Ball Aerospace, Boulder, CO (United States)] [Ball Aerospace, Boulder, CO (United States); Kim, H.S. [Jackson and Tull Chartered Engineers, Washington, DC (United States)] [Jackson and Tull Chartered Engineers, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Radiation-induced permanent degradation and single event transient effects for optocouplers are discussed in this paper. These two effects are independent to the first order and will be addressed separately. Displacement damage-induced degradation of optocoupler current transfer ratio is reviewed. New data are presented that show the importance of application specific testing and that generalized quantification of optocoupler CTR degradation can lead to incorrect predictions of actual circuit performance in a radiation environment. Data are given for various circuit loading and drive current parameters. Previous work that introduces the idea that two mechanisms exist for inducing transients on the optocoupler output is discussed. New data are presented that extends the evidence of this dual mechanism hypothesis. In this work measurements show that single event transient cross sections and transient propagation varies with circuit filtering. Finally, the authors discuss utilization of the optocouplers in the space environment. New data are applied to two examples: one on permanent degradation and the other on single event transient rates in high bandwidth applications.

  10. Racial/ethnic and gender differences among older adults in nonmonogamous partnerships, time spent single, and HIV testing

    PubMed Central

    Harawa, Nina T.; Leng, Mei; Kim, Junyeop; Cunningham, William Emery

    2011-01-01

    Background A higher frequency of nonmonogamy, due in part to lower marriage prevalence, may contribute to elevated HIV/STD rates among older Blacks. Methods To examine race and gender differences in nonmonogamy, time spent single (i.e., not married or cohabiting), and HIV testing in older adults, we analyzed U.S. population-based data from the 2005-06 National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) for 2,825 heterosexual participants ages 57-85 years. Results Blacks spent greater portions of their adult lives single than did Hispanics or Whites and were far more likely to report recent nonmonogamous partnerships (23.4% vs. 10.0% and 8.2%). Among individuals reporting sex in the prior 5 years, nonmonogamous partnerships were strongly associated with time spent single during the period. Control for time spent single and other covariates reduced the association of Black race with nonmonogamous partnerships for men but increased it for women. Less than 20% reported ever testing for HIV; less than 6% had been recommended testing by a provider. Testing rates, highest in Black men and White women, differed little by history of nonmonogamous partnerships within gender strata. Conclusions Singlehood helps to explain higher nonmonogamous partnership rates in older Black men but not older Black women. Older adults rarely receive or are recommended HIV testing, a key strategy for reducing heterosexual HIV transmission. PMID:22082721

  11. Transient voltage dip analysis using the transient energy function method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Fouad; Ramadevi Sreedhara

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that the transient energy function (TEF) method provides a fast approximate approach to voltage dip computations. The TEF method is used to predict the stability of a power system after a disturbance has occurred. The results of application of the technique to test power systems confirmed that the voltage dips predicted by the TEF method compare well

  12. Comparison of the results of short-term static tests and single-pass flow-through tests with LRM glass.

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W. L.; Chemical Engineering

    2007-01-29

    Static dissolution tests were conducted to measure the forward dissolution rate of LRM glass at 70 C and pH(RT) 11.7 {+-} 0.1 for comparison with the rate measured with single-pass flow-through (SPFT) tests in an interlaboratory study (ILS). The static tests were conducted with monolithic specimens having known geometric surface areas, whereas the SPFT tests were conducted with crushed glass that had an uncertain specific surface area. The error in the specific surface area of the crushed glass used in the SPFT tests, which was calculated by modeling the particles as spheres, was assessed based on the difference in the forward dissolution rates measured with the two test methods. Three series of static tests were conducted at 70 C following ASTM standard test method C1220 using specimens with surfaces polished to 600, 800, and 1200 grit and a leachant solution having the same composition as that used in the ILS. Regression of the combined results of the static tests to the affinity-based glass dissolution model gives a forward rate of 1.67 g/(m{sup 2}d). The mean value of the forward rate from the SPFT tests was 1.64 g/(m{sup 2}d) with an extended uncertainty of 1.90 g/(m{sup 2}d). This indicates that the calculated surface area for the crushed glass used in the SPFT tests is less than 2% higher than the actual surface area, which is well within the experimental uncertainties of measuring the forward dissolution rate using each test method. These results indicate that the geometric surface area of crushed glass calculated based on the size of the sieves used to isolate the fraction used in a test is reliable. In addition, the C1220 test method provides a means for measuring the forward dissolution rate of borosilicate glasses that is faster, easier, and more economical than the SPFT test method.

  13. Investigation of the single case in neuropsychology: confidence limits on the abnormality of test scores and test score differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Crawford; Paul H. Garthwaite

    2002-01-01

    Neuropsychologists often need to estimate the abnormality of an individual patient’s test score, or test score discrepancies, when the normative or control sample against which the patient is compared is modest in size. Crawford and Howell [The Clinical Neuropsychologist 12 (1998) 482] and Crawford et al. [Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 20 (1998) 898] presented methods for obtaining point

  14. Evaluation of size effect on mechanical properties of single crystal silicon by nanoscale bending test using AFM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takahiro Namazu; Yoshitada Isono; Takeshi Tanaka

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a nanometer-scale bending test for a single crystal silicon (Si) fixed beam using an atomic force microscope (AFM). This research focuses on revealing the size effect on the mechanical property of Si beams ranging from a nano- to millimeter scale. Nanometer-scale Si beams, with widths from 200 to 800 nm and a thickness of 255 nm, were

  15. Testing a Poisson Counter Model for Visual Identification of Briefly Presented, Mutually Confusable Single Stimuli in Pure Accuracy Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyllingsbaek, Soren; Markussen, Bo; Bundesen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    The authors propose and test a simple model of the time course of visual identification of briefly presented, mutually confusable single stimuli in pure accuracy tasks. The model implies that during stimulus analysis, tentative categorizations that stimulus i belongs to category j are made at a constant Poisson rate, v(i, j). The analysis is…

  16. Fusion method for the measurement of plutonium in soils: Single-laboratory evaluation and interlaboratory collaborative test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. B. Hahn; E. W. Bretthauer; P. B. Altringer; N. F. Mathews

    1977-01-01

    The results of a single laboratory evaluation and an interlaboratory collaborative test of a method for measuring plutonium in soil are presented. The method employs potassium fluoride and potassium pyrosulfate fusions to decompose a 10 gram sample, barium sulfate precipitations, solvent extraction and electrodeposition to isolate the plutonium, and alpha spectrometry to measure the plutonium. Also discussed are several problem

  17. Simplified single sample 13Carbon urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori: comparison with histology, culture, and ELISA serology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R P Logan; R J Polson; J J Misiewicz; G Rao; N Q Karim; D Newell; P Johnson; J Wadsworth; M M Walker; J H Baron

    1991-01-01

    There is no ideal method for detecting Helicobacter pylori. The 'standard' 13Carbon urea breath test (13C-UBT), which involves collecting eight to 15 breath samples and subsequent costly analysis, was modified by pooling 21 samples of expired breath taken at five minute intervals for 40 minutes into a collecting bag, from which a single 20 ml aliquot was taken and analysed

  18. A Field-Tested Task Analysis for Creating Single-Subject Graphs Using Microsoft[R] Office Excel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Ya-yu; Konrad, Moira

    2007-01-01

    Creating single-subject (SS) graphs is challenging for many researchers and practitioners because it is a complex task with many steps. Although several authors have introduced guidelines for creating SS graphs, many users continue to experience frustration. The purpose of this article is to minimize these frustrations by providing a field-tested…

  19. Estimation of interfacial shear strength: an application of a new statistical theory for single fiber composite test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Y. Hui; D. Shia; L. A. Berglund

    1999-01-01

    A simple procedure is proposed for estimating the effect of different sizings on the strength of fiber\\/matrix interface. This procedure is based on a newly developed statistical theory for single-fiber composite tests. This procedure is used to evaluate the interfacial shear strength of HTA carbon fiber in an epoxy matrix with two different sizings. It is shown that if the

  20. A Single-Crate Stand-Alone CAMAC Control System for a Negative Ion Source Test Facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond C. Juras; Norval F. Ziegler

    1979-01-01

    A single-crate CAMAC system was configured to control a negative ion source development facility at ORNL and control software was written for the crate microcomputer. The software uses inputs from a touch panel and a shaft encoder to control the various operating parameters of the test facility and uses the touch panel to display the operating status. Communication to and

  1. FUSION METHOD FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF PLUTONIUM IN SOILS: SINGLE-LABORATORY EVALUATION AND INTERLABORATORY COLLABORATIVE TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of a single-laboratory evaluation and an interlaboratory collaborative test of a method for measuring plutonium in soil. The method employs potassium fluoride and potassium pyrosulfate fusions to decompose a 10-gram sample, barium sulfate precipit...

  2. Criticality of Low-Energy Protons in Single-Event Effects Testing of Highly-Scaled Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.; Marshall, Paul W.; Rodbell, Kenneth P.; Gordon, Michael S.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Schwank, James R.; Dodds, Nathaniel A.; Castaneda, Carlos M.; Berg, Melanie D.; Kim, Hak S.; Phan, Anthony M.; Seidleck, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    We report low-energy proton and low-energy alpha particle single-event effects (SEE) data on a 32 nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) latches and static random access memory (SRAM) that demonstrates the criticality of using low-energy protons for SEE testing of highly-scaled technologies. Low-energy protons produced a significantly higher fraction of multi-bit upsets relative to single-bit upsets when compared to similar alpha particle data. This difference highlights the importance of performing hardness assurance testing with protons that include energy distribution components below 2 megaelectron-volt. The importance of low-energy protons to system-level single-event performance is based on the technology under investigation as well as the target radiation environment.

  3. Platelet function testing during 5-day storage of single and random donor plateletpheresis.

    PubMed

    Akay, O Meltem; Gündüz, Eren; Ba?yi?it, Hatice; Gulbas, Zafer

    2007-06-01

    Platelet concentrates are routinely manufactured from whole blood by differential centrifugation (random donor platelets-RDP) or by plateletpheresis (single donor platelets-SDP). These platelet concentrates have a storage period of 5 days and many different approaches exist to measure the condition of platelets during their storage. In this study, platelet aggregation testing using adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and collagen and flow cytometric platelet activation analysis using CD41 FITC and CD62 PE before and after ADP was performed on days 1, 3 and 5 of storage of platelet preparations. Thirty three RDPs, stored in Baxter and Kansuk blood bags and 18 SDPs stored in Fresenius blood bags were evaluated. In RDPs and in SDPs; ADP and collagen induced PA responses were decreased significantly on the 3rd and 5th days compared to 1st day. CD62 positive platelet percentage after ADP were decreased significantly on the 3rd and 5th days compared to the 1st day in Kansuk bags. Flow cytometric analysis revealed minor changes in CD41 expression after ADP on the 3rd day compared to 1st day and on the 5th day compared to 3rd day. Differences in CD62 positive platelet percentage were not significant between the RDPs and SDPs. Our results suggest that: (1) ADP and collagen induced PA responses decrease both in RDPs and SDPs during storage. (2) Flow cytometric analysis does not show major significant changes in platelet activation after ADP during storage. (3) Continous shaking on the agitator does not cause a significant change in CD62 positive platelet percentage during storage. (4) Platelet aggregation responses in RDPs stored in Baxter and Kansuk blood bags do not differ during storage. PMID:17602871

  4. Scaling submillimeter single-cycle transients toward megavolts per centimeter field strength via optical rectification in the organic crystal OH1.

    PubMed

    Ruchert, Clemens; Vicario, Carlo; Hauri, Christoph P

    2012-03-01

    We present the generation of high-power single-cycle terahertz (THz) pulses in the organic salt crystal 2-[3-(4-hydroxystyryl)-5.5-dimethylcyclohex-2-enylidene]malononitrile or OH1. Broadband THz radiation with a central frequency of 1.5 THz (?(c)=200 ?m) and high electric field strength of 440 kV/cm is produced by optical rectification driven by the signal of a powerful femtosecond optical parametric amplifier. A 1.5% pump to THz energy conversion efficiency is reported, and pulse energy stability better than 1% RMS is achieved. An approach toward the realization of higher field strength is discussed. PMID:22378431

  5. Evaluating the clinical relevance of food sensitivity tests: a single subject experiment.

    PubMed

    Herman, Patricia M; Drost, Lisa M

    2004-06-01

    A number of tests are available to identify food sensitivities. This article presents an analysis of the diagnostic value of nine different food sensitivity tests run concurrently on a healthy 33-year-old female with a previous diagnosis of environmental allergies. This case study evaluated conventional allergy tests (skin prick and serum IgE), tests of other immune-mediated reactions (serum IgG and salivary IgA), and tests that claim to measure the energetic reaction of the whole person to particular foods (kinesiology, Vega, and Carroll testing). The results of an elimination/challenge test were used as indicators of true food reactions in order to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) of each test. In a separate evaluation, the variability of results across the four tests measuring IgG was determined. Results show several tests (one of the two serum tests of IgG alone, both serum tests of IgE and IgG, skin prick testing, and Carroll testing) may have very high (100 percent) specificity and PPV when test results are compared to the results of an elimination/challenge test. Sensitivity, however, is low across tests (50-60 percent), likely because different tests measure different mechanisms of food reactions and because food sensitivities can be the result of a number of different mechanisms. Very little consistency was found among the results of the four tests measuring IgG - 79-83 percent disagreement. This study shows a number of tests may be useful in identifying foods to which a patient is reactive; however, no one test is likely to identify all reactive foods. PMID:15253678

  6. Workshop on Radio Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, Steve; Gaensler, Bryan

    2012-04-01

    abstract-type="normal">SummaryWe are entering a new era in the study of variable and transient radio sources. This workshop discussed the instruments and the strategies employed to study those sources, how they are identified and classified, how results from different surveys can be compared, and how radio observations tie in with those at other wavelengths. The emphasis was on learning what common ground there is between the plethora of on-going projects, how methods and code can be shared, and how best practices regarding survey strategy could be adopted. The workshop featured the four topics below. Each topic commenced with a fairly brief introductory talk, which then developed into discussion. By way of preparation, participants had been invited to upload and discuss one slide per topic to a wiki ahead of the workshop. 1. Telescopes, instrumentation and survey strategy. New radio facilities and on-going projects (including upgrades) are both studying the variability of the radio sky, and searching for transients. The discussion first centred on the status of those facilities, and on projects with a time-domain focus, both ongoing and planned, before turning to factors driving choices of instrumentation, such as phased array versus single pixel feeds, the field of view, spatial and time resolution, frequency and bandwidth, depth, area, and cadence of the surveys. 2. Detection, pipelines, and classification. The workshop debated (a) the factors that influence decisions to study variability in the (u,v) plane, in images, or in catalogues, (b) whether, and how much, pipeline code could potentially be shared between one project and another, and which software packages are best for different approaches, (c) how data are stored and later accessed, and (d) how transients and variables are defined and classified. 3. Statistics, interpretation, and synthesis. It then discussed how (i) the choice of facility and strategy and (ii) detection and classification schemes influence what is seen (in terms of types of object and rates) by different surveys, (iii) how results from different surveys could be compared, and (iv) how what we know from existing surveys drives choices (i) and (ii), particularly as regards finding new classes of object. 4. Multiwavelength approaches. The workshop concluded by discussing what information is needed from wavelengths other than radio in order to classify transients and variables adequately and predict their rates as a function of topics (1), (2) and (3). It asked what the constraints are on responding to, and issuing triggers for, follow-up observations, and how that might feed back into considerations for designing our telescopes and surveys.

  7. Out-of-School Time Program Test Score Impact for Black Children of Single-Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Barry T.

    2013-01-01

    Out-of-School Time programs and their impact on standardized college entrance exam scores for black or African-American children of single parents who have applied for a competitive college scholarship program is the study focus. Study importance is supported by the large percentage of black children raised by single parents, the large percentage…

  8. The anomaly in a breakthrough curve of a single well "push-pull" tracer test: A density driven effect?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeilfelder, Sarah; Hebig, Klaus; Ito, Narimitsu; Machida, Isao; Scheytt, Traugott; Marui, Atsunao

    2013-04-01

    What method is appropriate to investigate an aquifer when there is only one well available? A single well "push-pull" tracer test (PP Test) may be a suitable method in order to characterize an aquifer and to obtain information about the hydraulic and chemical properties when only one well is available for the investigations. In a PP test, a test solution that contains a known amount of solutes and a conservative tracer is injected into the aquifer ("push") and extracted afterwards ("pull"). Optionally, the test solution is flushed out of the well and the casing with untreated test solution with a so called "chaser" before being extracted. Also between the injection and the extraction phase a drifting time may be included. The breakthrough of the tracer during the extraction phase is measured and used for analyses and interpretation. In the last three years, several PP Test campaigns were conducted at two different test sites in Japan (Hebig et al. 2011, Zeilfelder et al. 2012). The aim was to investigate the applicability of the PP Test method in different geological settings and in different types of aquifers. The latest field campaign thus focussed on the question how variations of the setup are influencing the breakthrough curve of the PP Test in order to develop and enhance this method. Also the standardization of the PP Test was an aim of this study. During the campaign, a total of seven PP Tests were performed, while only single aspects of the setup were varied from test to test. The tests differed in injection and extraction rate, in the salinity of the injected test solution and in the use of a chaser solution. The general shapes of the breakthrough curves were similar and conclusions about the repeatability of the PP Test could be drawn. However, a sharp anomaly was observed in the breakthrough curve of one specific setup type. By repeating this PP test under the same boundary conditions, we were able to recreate the anomaly and could exclude any technical aspects as a source. In this version of the PP test higher salinized test solution was injected into the aquifer. There are several hypotheses that could explain the behavior of the breakthrough curves of the tracer in this test design. Of all the possibilities (like sorption processes, unexpected tracer reactions, inhomogeneities in the aquifer, influence of the well design), we assume that ion exchange processes and density driven flow are the main reasons for the repeatedly observed anomaly. References: Hebig, K.H., Ito, N., Scheytt, T.J. & Marui, A. (2011). Hydraulic and hydrochemical characterization of deep coastal sedimentary basins by single-well Push-Pull tests. GSA Annual Meeting, 9-12 October 2011, Minneapolis, USA. Zeilfelder, S., Ito, N., Marui, A., Hebig, K. & Scheytt, T. (2012). Push-Pull-Test und Tracer-Test in einem tiefen Grundwasserleiter in Kameoka, Japan. Kurzfassung in: Liedl, R., Burghardt, D., Simon, E., Reimann, T. & Kaufmann-Knoke (Hg.). Grundwasserschutz und Grundwassernutzung. Tagung der Fachsektion Hydrogeologie in der DGG (FH-DGG). 16. - 20. Mai 2012, Dresden. Kurfassungen der Vorträge und Poster. Schriftenreihe der DGG, Heft 78, S. 192.

  9. High-power tests of a single-cell copper accelerating cavity driven by two input couplers.

    SciTech Connect

    Horan, D.; Bromberek, D.; Meyer, D.; Waldschmidt, G.; Accelerator Systems Division (APS)

    2008-01-01

    High-power tests were conducted on a 350-MHz, single-cell copper accelerating cavity driven simultaneously by two H-loop input couplers for the purpose of determining the reliability, performance, and power-handling capability of the cavity and related components, which have routinely operated at 100-kW power levels. The test was carried out utilizing the APS 350-MHz RF Test Stand, which was modified to split the input rf power into two frac12-power feeds, each supplying power to a separate H-loop coupler on the cavity. Electromagnetic simulations of the two-coupler feed system were used to determine coupler match, peak cavity fields, and the effect of phasing errors between the coupler feed lines. The test was conducted up to a maximum total rf input power of 164-kW CW. Test apparatus details and performance data will be presented.

  10. Techniques for analyzing electromagnetic transients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. W. Dommel

    1997-01-01

    With few exceptions, power system electromagnetic transients must be studied on a three-phase basis rather than on a positive sequence single-phase basis. For example, the three-phase opening of a circuit breaker is no longer a symmetric event in the ms range. Current interruption takes place at current zero, and one phase would open first at its current zero, while the

  11. Bilayers merge even when exocytosis is transient

    PubMed Central

    Taraska, Justin W.; Almers, Wolfhard

    2004-01-01

    During exocytosis, the lumen of secretory vesicles connects with the extracellular space. In some vesicles, this connection closes again, causing the vesicle to be recaptured mostly intact. The degree to which the bilayers of such vesicles mix with the plasma membrane is unknown. Work supporting the kiss-and-run model of transient exocytosis implies that synaptic vesicles allow neither lipid nor protein to escape into the plasma membrane, suggesting that the two bilayers never merge. Here, we test whether neuroendocrine granules behave similarly. Using two-color evanescent field microscopy, we imaged the lipid probe FM4-64 and fluorescent proteins in single dense core granules. During exocytosis, granules lost FM4-64 into the plasma membrane in small fractions of a second. Although FM4-64 was lost, granules retained the membrane protein, GFP-phogrin. By using GFP-phogrin as a probe for resealing, it was found that even granules that reseal lose FM4-64. We conclude that the lipid bilayers of the granule and the plasma membrane become continuous even when exocytosis is transient. PMID:15173592

  12. Transient Pressure Analysis in Strip Reservoirs with Linear

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    SGP-TR-97 Transient Pressure Analysis in Strip Reservoirs with Linear Skin Discontinuities reveal important geometrical features of the reservoir boundary. And, based on the pressure transient of analysing pressure transient tests for linear skin discontinuities is presented. The case of a strip

  13. Development and Preclinical Testing of a High Affinity Single Chain Antibody against (+)-Methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Eric C.; Laurenzana, Elizabeth M.; Atchley, William T.; Hendrickson, Howard; Owens, S. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Chronic or excessive (+)-methamphetamine (METH) use often leads to addiction and toxicity to critical organs like the brain. With medical treatment as a goal, a novel single chain variable fragment (scFv) against METH was engineered from anti-METH monoclonal antibody mAb6H4 (IgG, ? light chain, KD = 11 nM) and found to have similar ligand affinity (KD = 10 nM) and specificity as mAb6H4. The anti-METH scFv (scFv6H4) was cloned, expressed in yeast, purified and formulated as a naturally occurring mixture of monomer (~75%) and dimer (~25%). To test the in vivo efficacy of the scFv6H4, male Sprague Dawley rats (n=5) were implanted with 3-day sc osmotic pumps delivering 3.2 mg/kg/day METH. After reaching steady-state METH concentrations, an i.v. dose of scFv6H4 (36.5 mg/kg, equimolar to the METH body burden) was administered along with a [3H]-scFv6H4 tracer. Serum pharmacokinetic (PCKN) analysis of METH and [3H]-scFv6H4 showed that the scFv6H4 caused an immediate 65-fold increase in the METH concentrations and a 12-fold increase in the serum METH area under the concentration-time curve from 0–480 min after scFv6H4 administration. The scFv6H4 monomer was quickly cleared or converted to multivalent forms with an apparent t1/2?z of 5.8 min. In contrast, the larger scFv6H4 multivalent forms (dimers, trimers, etc.) showed a much longer t1/2?z (228 min), and the significantly increased METH serum molar concentrations correlated directly with scFv6H4 serum molar concentrations. Considered together these data suggested that the scFv6H4 multimers (and not the monomer) were responsible for the prolonged redistribution of METH into the serum. PMID:18192498

  14. Fabrication and Testing of Full-Length Single-Cell Externally Fueled Converters for Thermionic Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1995-08-01

    Paper presented at the 29th IECEC in Monterey, CA in August 1994. The present paper describes the fabrication and testing of full-length prototypcial converters, both unfueled and fueled, and presents parametric results of electrically heated tests.

  15. The Mechanical Transient Process at Asynchronous Motor Oscillating Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonovi?s, Uldis; Bražis, Viesturs; Greivulis, J?nis

    2009-01-01

    The research object is squirrel-cage asynchronous motor connected to single-phase sinusoidal. There are shown, that by connecting to the stator windings a certain sequence of half-period positive and negative voltage, a motor rotor is rotated, but three times slower than in the three-phase mode. Changing the connecting sequence of positive and negative half-period voltage to stator windings, motor can work in various oscillating modes. It is tested experimentally. The mechanical transient processes had been researched in rotation and oscillating modes.

  16. Switching transients in the MFTF yin-yang coils

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, E.W.; Shimer, D.W.

    1982-11-02

    This report is a study of the transients caused by the fast dump of large superconducting coils. Theoretical analysis, computer simulation, and actual measurements are used. Theoretical analysis can only be applied to the simplest of models. In the computer simulations two models are used, one in which the coil is divided into ten segments and another in which a single coil is employed. The circuit breaker that interrupts the current to the power supply, causing a fast dump, is represented by a time and current dependent conductance. Actual measurements are limited to measurements made incidental to the coils' performance tests.

  17. Performance of the High-Energy Single-Event Effects Test Facility (SEETF) at Michigan State University's National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladbury, R.; Reed, R. A.; Marshall, P. W.; LaBel, K. A.; Anantaraman, R.; Fox, R.; Sanderson, D. P.; Stolz, A.; Yurkon, J.; Zeller, A. F.; Stetson, J. W.

    2004-01-01

    The performance of Michigan State University's Single-Event Effects Test Facility (SEETF) during its inaugural runs is evaluated. Beam profiles and other diagnostics are presented, and prospects for future development and testing are discussed.

  18. Single Group, Pre- and Post-Test Research Designs: Some Methodological Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Emma; Torgerson, Carole J.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides two illustrations of some of the factors that can influence findings from pre- and post-test research designs in evaluation studies, including regression to the mean (RTM), maturation, history and test effects. The first illustration involves a re-analysis of data from a study by Marsden (2004), in which pre-test scores are…

  19. Functional Interrupts and Destructive Failures from Single Event Effect Testing of Point-Of-Load Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Dakai; Phan, Anthony; Kim, Hak; Swonger, James; Musil, Paul; LaBel, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    We show examples of single event functional interrupt and destructive failure in modern POL devices. The increasing complexity and diversity of the design and process introduce hard SEE modes that are triggered by various mechanisms.

  20. Simulated Pivot-Shift Testing with Single and Double-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith L. Markolf; Steven R. Jackson; David R. McAllister; David Geffen

    Background: One of the principal rationales for performing a double-bundle reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament is the suggestion that it may be superior to a single-bundle reconstruction in restoring a normal pivot-shift sign. The purpose of this study was to measure the abilities of single-bundle and anatomic double-bundle reconstruc- tions to restore normal knee kinematics and graft forces during

  1. Transient tachypnea - newborn

    MedlinePLUS

    TTN; Wet lungs - newborns; Retained fetal lung fluid; Transient RDS; Prolonged transition ... Transient tachypnea is a respiratory disorder seen shortly after delivery in full-term or late preterm babies. ...

  2. TIA (Transient Ischemic Attack)

    MedlinePLUS

    TIA (Transient Ischemic Attack) Updated:Jul 1,2015 Excerpted from “ Why Rush? ”, Stroke Connection January/February 2009 (Science update October 2012) While transient ischemic attack (TIA) is often labeled “mini-stroke,” ...

  3. Transient familial hyperbilirubinemia

    MedlinePLUS

    Transient familial hyperbilirubinemia is a metabolic disorder that is passed down through families. Babies with this disorder ... Transient familial hyperbilirubinemia is an inherited disorder. It occurs when the body does not properly break down ( ...

  4. Transient ischemic attack

    MedlinePLUS

    A transient ischemic attack (TIA) occurs when blood flow to a part of the brain stops for a brief ... prevention of stroke in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack: a guideline for healthcare professionals from ...

  5. High-temperature tensile testing machine for investigation of brittle–ductile transition behavior of single crystal silicon microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uesugi, Akio; Yasutomi, Takahiro; Hirai, Yoshikazu; Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki; Tabata, Osamu

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports development of a high-temperature tensile testing machine and testing of single crystal silicon (SCS) for investigation of the size effect on brittle–ductile transition temperature (BDTT). Two different-width <110> SCS specimens (120 µm long, 5 µm thick and 4 or 9 µm wide) were tested in a vacuum at the temperature range from room temperature to 600 °C. The specimens tested at 500 °C and above exhibit slip, which indicated that the micrometer-sized silicon structures have lower BDTT compared to millimeter-sized ones. By investigating the temperature ranges of the slip occurrences among the differently-sized specimens including other researchers’ reports, we found that the length along slip direction, i.e., thickness, might dominate the BDTT.

  6. Columbia University flow instability experimental program: Volume 2. Single tube uniformly heated tests -- Part 2: Uncertainty analysis and data

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, T.; Maciuca, C.; McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Reddy, D.G.; Yang, B.W.

    1990-05-01

    In June 1988, Savannah River Laboratory requested that the Heat Transfer Research Facility modify the flow excursion program, which had been in progress since November 1987, to include testing of single tubes in vertical down-flow over a range of length to diameter (L/D) ratios of 100 to 500. The impetus for the request was the desire to obtain experimental data as quickly as possible for code development work. In July 1988, HTRF submitted a proposal to SRL indicating that by modifying a facility already under construction the data could be obtained within three to four months. In January 1990, HTFR issued report CU-HTRF-T4, part 1. This report contained the technical discussion of the results from the single tube uniformly heated tests. The present report is part 2 of CU-HTRF-T4 which contains further discussion of the uncertainty analysis and the complete set of data.

  7. Potential application of a single-particle aerosol spectrometer for monitoring aerosol size at the DOE filter test facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Salzman, G.C.; Ettinger, H.J.; Tillery, M.I.; Wheat, L.D.; Grace, W.K.

    1982-01-01

    At each of the three Department of Energy (DOE) filter test facilities (FTF), a commercial single particle aerosol spectrometer, the LAS-X, was used to demonstrate that the test aerosol produced by each of the Q107 high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter test systems was polydisperse with a geometric standard deviation greater than 1.35, and a geometric mean diameter less than 0.2 ..mu..m. These results confirm the work of others that the OWL (mechanical analyzer) is inadequate for assuring that these test aerosols are monodisperse with a mean diameter of 0.3 ..mu..m. Use of the LAS-X for monitoring aerosol size was evaluated. The LAS-X is relatively insensitive to changes in aerosol concentration and refractive index over the range of interest for filter testing. It appears that the LAS-X would provide a better instrument for monitoring aerosol size, and would permit the FTF test operator to adjust the test aerosol to approximate the size characteristics currently recommended for this test.

  8. Laboratory and field imaging test results on single-color and dual-band QWIP focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Arnold; Fischer, Theodore; Kennerly, Stephen; Beck, William; Ramirez, Vincent; Garner, Ken

    2001-06-01

    We report on recent laboratory and field measurements on quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane arrays (FPAs). The results of laboratory measurements of imaging performance such as noise-equivalent temperature difference (NE ?T), minimum resolvable temperature, conversion efficiency, uniformity of response and dark current and their dependence on operating temperature are presented on large format (640×480 pixels) single-color long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) and dual-band (256×256 pixels) mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR)/LWIR arrays. We found that under optimum operating conditions (65 K and 1 V bias), the NE ?T of the LWIR FPA was approximately 30 mK and was limited by the optics and noise from the closed-cycle cooler. We will show field imagery of military targets taken with this FPA. In addition, field imagery taken with the LWIR QWIP camera of a large-transient event will be compared with that taken with an InSb MWIR camera. We will also show imagery of a recent total eclipse of the moon. We will also present laboratory results on a simultaneously integrating, pixel-registered dual-band FPA showing excellent operability and response uniformity with NE ?T of approximately 30 mK in both bands ( T=60 K). The dual-band FPA was also taken to the field and we will present imagery of various targets acquired with this FPA.

  9. Experimental study on the material dynamic fracture properties by Instrumented Charpy Impact test with single specimen method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Jian; D. Fulian; W. Chengzhong

    2003-01-01

    With the determination of load-time curve recorded by Amsler\\/Roell RKP 450 Instrumented Charpy Impact test and based on the Newton's Second Law, Impact character of a single standard V-notch specimen of X70 pipeline steel under the low temperature -70 ^{circ}C was investigated by studying the impact energy distribution. It was revealed that maximum load point (Fm point) was not exact

  10. Using energy balances for processing the results from tests of a single-shaft combined-cycle power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ol'khovskii, G. G.

    2012-09-01

    Application of the balance method for dividing the overall power output produced by a single-shaft combined-cycle power plant between the steam turbine and gas turbine unit is considered. It is shown that the method can be used for obtaining trustworthy results of thermal tests. The effect of air flowrate taken for gas turbine cooling purposes on the gas turbine unit parameters and indicators is estimated.

  11. Measurement of interfacial shear strength of carbon fibre\\/epoxy composites using a single fibre pull-out test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiqiang Deng; Lin Ye; Yiu-Wing Mai

    1998-01-01

    Single fiber pull-out tests were conducted for G34-700\\/ Araldite-F, T700S\\/Araldite-F and T800H\\/Araldite-F model composites using an improved experimental set-up to evaluate the interfacial shear strength (IFSS). The modified method made it possible to reduce the formation of resin meniscus and to accurately define the embedded fibre length, and it also provided a practical approach to conveniently estimate the IFSS for

  12. Single-pass continuous-flow leach test of PNL 76-68 glass: some selected Bead Leach I results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Coles

    1981-01-01

    A single-pass continuous-flow leach test of PNL 76-68 glass beads (7 mm dia) was concluded after 420 days of uninterrupted operation. Variables included in the experimental matrix were flow-rate, leachant composition, and temperature. Analysis was conducted on all leachate samples for ²³⁷Np and ²³⁹Pu as well as a number of nonradioactive elements. Results indicated that flow-rate and leachant systematically affected

  13. Use of a single lap shear test to characterize composite-to-concrete or composite-to-steel bonded interfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvain Chataigner; Jean-Francois Caron; Karim Benzarti; Marc Quiertant; Christophe Aubagnac

    2011-01-01

    Adhesively bonded composite reinforcements are increasingly being used for civil engineering structures. For an adequate use of such a technique, a better knowledge is needed regarding the stress transfer mechanisms involved in polymer joints. This article introduces a single lap shear test for the characterization of the composite-to-concrete or composite-to-steel bonded assemblies. In the first part, an extensive description of

  14. 42 CFR 84.1144 - Silica dust test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; single-use or reusable filters; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...for dust, fume, and mist respirators; single-use or reusable filters; minimum requirements...for dust, fume, and mist respirators; single-use or reusable filters; minimum requirements...Three non-powered respirators with single-use filters will be tested for...

  15. 42 CFR 84.1144 - Silica dust test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; single-use or reusable filters; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...for dust, fume, and mist respirators; single-use or reusable filters; minimum requirements...for dust, fume, and mist respirators; single-use or reusable filters; minimum requirements...Three non-powered respirators with single-use filters will be tested for...

  16. 42 CFR 84.1144 - Silica dust test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; single-use or reusable filters; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...for dust, fume, and mist respirators; single-use or reusable filters; minimum requirements...for dust, fume, and mist respirators; single-use or reusable filters; minimum requirements...Three non-powered respirators with single-use filters will be tested for...

  17. Perturbations for transient acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Cristofher Zuñiga; Zimdahl, Winfried [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Departamento de Física, Av. Fernando Ferrari, 514, Campus de Goiabeiras, CEP 29075-910, Vitória, Espírito Santo (Brazil); Hipólito-Ricaldi, Wiliam S., E-mail: win_unac@hotmail.com, E-mail: hipolito@ceunes.ufes.br, E-mail: winfried.zimdahl@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Grupo de Física Teórica, Rodovia BR 101 Norte, km 60, Campus de São Mateus, CEP 29932-540, São Mateus, Espírito Santo (Brazil)

    2012-04-01

    According to the standard ?CDM model, the accelerated expansion of the Universe will go on forever. Motivated by recent observational results, we explore the possibility of a finite phase of acceleration which asymptotically approaches another period of decelerated expansion. Extending an earlier study on a corresponding homogeneous and isotropic dynamics, in which interactions between dark matter and dark energy are crucial, the present paper also investigates the dynamics of the matter perturbations both on the Newtonian and General Relativistic (GR) levels and quantifies the potential relevance of perturbations of the dark-energy component. In the background, the model is tested against the Supernova type Ia (SNIa) data of the Constitution set and on the perturbative level against growth rate data, among them those of the WiggleZ survey, and the data of the 2dFGRS project. Our results indicate that a transient phase of accelerated expansion is not excluded by current observations.

  18. Ris-R-1483(EN) Testing procedure for the single fiber

    E-print Network

    fragmentation test as conducted at the materials research department (AFM) at Risø. The equipment and specimen in the critical fracture length for the fiber and fracture characteristics. Print: Pitney Bowes Management Test equipment 11 4.1 Tensile tester 11 4.2 Fragmentation equipment 11 4.3 Fragmentation under

  19. In situ evaluation of solute retardation using single-well push–pull tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H Schroth; J. D Istok; R Haggerty

    2000-01-01

    More efficient methods are needed for the in situ evaluation of solute sorption to aquifer sediments. The objective of this study was to develop a simplified method for estimating retardation factors for injected solutes from “push–pull” test extraction phase breakthrough curves (BTCs). Sensitivity analyses based on numerical simulations were used to evaluate the method performance for a variety of test

  20. Randomization Tests for Systematic Single-Case Designs Are Not Always Appropriate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra, Vicenta; Solanas, Antonio; Quera, Vicenc

    2005-01-01

    The authors used a Monte Carlo simulation to examine how the violation of the exchangeability assumption affects empirical Type I error rates of the LMH randomization test (J. R. Levin, L. A. Marascuilo, & L. J. Hubert, 1978). Simulation results showed that the LMH test is not always an appropriate technique for analyzing systematic designs when…

  1. DREDGED MATERIAL EFFECTS ASSESSMENT: SINGLE-SPECIES TOXICITY/BIOACCUMULATION AND MACROBENTHOS COLONIZATION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity tests and bioaccumulation tests conducted according to methods established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/Corps of Engineers in 1977 have been used to evaluate potential environmental impacts of ocean disposal of dredged materials. ur objective was to compar...

  2. Energy absorbed in breakage of single particles in drop weight testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Tavares

    1999-01-01

    Drop weight tests are a useful tool to determine energy-size reduction relationships for breakage of particulate materials. Their use in modeling and simulation of size reduction operations has increased significantly in recent years. The main limitation of the classical drop weight test lies in the fact that it does not allow the direct measurement of the fraction of the input

  3. A Single Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Stimulation Test Does Not Reveal Adrenal Insufficiency in Septic Shock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pekka Loisa; Ari Uusaro; Esko Ruokonen

    2005-01-01

    The diagnosis of adrenocortical insufficiency in criti- cally ill patients is complex. The adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test is a widely accepted method for assessing the adequacy of adrenal function in intensive care units, but it is possible that there may be wide variations in responses to the test over a short period of time. In this prospective study, we

  4. Single Tube Test Program Demand Curve Data Tables. Columbia University Flow Instability Experimental Program, Volume 9

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report is one of a series of reports which document the flow instability testing conducted by Columbia University during 1989, through 1992. This testing was completed as part of AX1811457. Data files were transmitted to SRS in a DOS compatible format. This report volume provides a hardcopy version of the electronic media data files.

  5. Crack detection in single-crystalline silicon wafers using impact testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Hilmersson; D. P. Hess; W. Dallas; S. Ostapenko

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents acoustic measurements obtained by mechanically exciting vibratory modes in single-crystalline silicon wafers with hairline periphery cracks of different type and location. The data presented shows a dependence of natural frequencies, peak amplitudes and damping levels of four audio vibration modes in the frequency range up to 1000Hz on crack type and crack location. Data from defective wafers

  6. Test results of single-event effects conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Trom; Tetsuo F. Miyahira

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports recent single-event effects results for a variety of microelectronic devices that include ADC, DAC, DDS, MOSFET driver, analog switch, oscillator, and zero delay buffer. The data was collected to evaluate these devices for possible use in NASA spacecraft. Six of ten devices under study were sensitive to SEL, and the latchup was destructive.

  7. Comparison between single and combined post-treatment with S-Methyl-N,N-diethylthiolcarbamate sulfoxide and taurine following transient focal cerebral ischemia in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Gharibani, P; Modi, J; Menzie, J; Alexandrescu, A; Ma, Z; Tao, R; Prentice, H; Wu, J-Y

    2015-08-01

    We have recently reported on the efficacy of an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor partial antagonist, S-Methyl-N,N-diethylthiolcarbamate sulfoxide (DETC-MeSO), in improving outcome following stroke, including reduced infarct size and calcium influx, suppressing the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis as well as improving behavioral outcome. DETC-MeSO was shown to suppress the protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) pathway, one of the major ER stress pathways. Several studies including ours have provided evidence that taurine also has neuroprotective effects through reducing apoptosis and inhibiting activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and inositol requiring enzyme 1 (IRE-1) pathways. We hypothesized that a combined treatment with DETC-MeSO and taurine would ameliorate ischemia-induced brain injury by inhibiting all three ER stress pathways. Twenty four hours following reperfusion of a 2-h ischemic stroke, rats received either 0.56-mg/kg DETC-MeSO or 40-mg/kg of taurine, either alone or in combination, subcutaneously for 4days. Our study showed that combined DETC-MeSO and taurine, but not DETC-MeSO alone at the dose used, greatly reduced the infarct size, improved performance on the neuro-score test and attenuated proteolysis of ?II-spectrin. Meanwhile, the level of the pro-apoptotic protein, Bax, declined and the anti-apoptotic protein, B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2), expression was markedly increased. Combination therapy decreased both caspase-12 and caspase-3 activation by preventing the release of Cytochrome-c from mitochondria, indicating attenuation of apoptosis in ischemic infarct. Glucose-regulated protein (GRP)78 as a marker of the unfolded protein response decreased and levels of the key ER stress protein markers p-PERK-ATF4, p-eIF2? and cleaved-ATF-6 were found to significantly decline. NeuN expression levels indicated that more neurons were protected in the presence of DETC-MeSO and taurine. We also showed that combined treatment can prevent gliosis and increase p-AKT a pro-survival marker in the penumbra. Therefore, we conclude that combined treatment with both DETC-MeSO and taurine synergistically inhibits all three ER stress pathways and apoptosis and therefore can be a novel and effective treatment after ischemic stroke. PMID:26022360

  8. Aligned and suspended fiber force probes for drug testing at single cell resolution.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Puja; Kim, AhRam; Gill, Amritpal; Wang, Ji; Sheets, Kevin; Behkam, Bahareh; Nain, Amrinder S

    2014-12-01

    The role of physical forces in disease onset and progression is widely accepted and this knowledge presents an alternative route to investigating disease models. Recently, numerous force measurement techniques have been developed to probe single and multi-cell behavior. While these methods have yielded fundamental insights, they are yet unable to capture the fibrous extra-cellular matrix biophysical interactions, involving parameters of curvature, structural stiffness (N m(-1)), alignment and hierarchy, which have been shown to play key roles in disease and developmental biology. Using a highly aggressive glioma model (DBTRG-05MG), we present a platform technology to quantify single cell force modulation (both inside-out and outside-in) with and without the presence of a cytoskeleton altering drug (cytochalasin D) using suspended and aligned fiber networks (nanonets) beginning to represent the aligned glioma environment. The nanonets fused in crisscross patterns were manufactured using the non-electrospinning spinneret based tunable engineering parameters technique. We demonstrate the ability to measure contractile single cell forces exerted by glioma cells attached to and migrating along the fiber axis (inside-out). This is followed by a study of force response of glioma cells attached to two parallel fibers using a probe deflecting the leading fiber (outside-in). The forces are calculated using beam deflection within the elastic limit. Our data shows that cytochalasin D compromises the spreading area of single glioma cells, eventually decreasing their 'inside-out' contractile forces, and 'outside-in' force response to external strain. Most notably, for the first time, we demonstrate the feasibility of using physiologically relevant aligned fiber networks as ultra-sensitive force (?nanoNewtons) probes for investigating drug response and efficacy in disease models at the single cell resolution. PMID:25264874

  9. Merging single-well and inter-well tracer tests into one forced-gradient dipole test, at the Heletz site within the MUSTANG project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, Horst; Ghergut, Julia; Bensabat, Jac; Niemi, Auli; Licha, Tobias; Ptak, Thomas; Sauter, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The Heletz site[1] in Israel was chosen for conducting a CO2 transport experiment within the MUSTANG project[2], whose aim is to demonstrate and validate leading-edge techniques for CCS site characterization, process monitoring and risk assessment. The major CO2 injection experiment at Heletz was supposed to be preceded and accompanied by a sequence of single-well 'push-then-pull' (SW) and inter-well (IW) tracer tests, aimed at characterizing transport properties of the storage formation, in accordance to a number of general and specific principles[3],[4]. - Instead of the rather luxurious {SW1, IW1, SW2, IW2} test sequence described in our previous work[5], we now propose a drastically economized tracer test concept, which lets the sampling stages of SW and IW tests merge into a single fluid production stage, and relies on a forced-gradient dipole flow field at any time of the overall test. Besides cost reduction, this economized design also improves on operational aspects, as well as on issues of parameter ambiguity and of scale disparity between SW and IW flow fields: (i) the new design renders SW test results more representative for the aquifer sector ('angle') actually interrogated by the IW dipole test; (ii) the new design saves time and costs on the SW test (fluid sampling for SW 'pull' now being conducted simultaneously with IW-related sampling and monitoring), while allowing for a considerably longer duration of SW 'pull' signals than had originally been intended, whose late-time tailings help improve the quantification of non-advective processes and parameters, which are of great relevance to mid- and long-term trapping mechanisms ('residual trapping', 'mineral trapping'); (iii) the quasi-simultaneous execution of fluid injection/production for the IW and SW tests considerably reduces the overall hydraulic imbalance that was originally associated with the SW test, thus preventing formation damage and supporting hydrogeomechanical stability; (iv) the new design reduces the imbalance between injected and produced fluid volumes at any time to a minimum, thus eliminating the need for large-capacity tanks (and water supply) to provide 'push' fluid for injection and to store 'pull' fluid during production within the SW test (saving on costs again). Advantages and drawbacks of this modified tracer test concept w. r. to parameter sensitivity and scale representativity are further analyzed by means of numerical simulations of tracer transport in the layered Heletz aquifer (using FEOW) alongside with closed-form approximations to tracer signals. References: [1] www.co2mustang.eu/Heletz.aspx [2] www.co2mustang.eu/ [3] Behrens H, Ghergut I, Sauter M (2010) Tracer properties, and tracer test results, part 3: modification to Shook's flow-storage diagram. Stanford Geothermal Prog Tech Reports, SGP-TR-188 [4] Ghergut I, Behrens H, Maier F, Karmakar S, Sauter M (2011) A note on 'heat exchange areas' as a target parameter for tracer SWIW tests. Stanford Geothermal Prog Tech Reports, SGP-TR-191 [5] presentations.copernicus.org/EGU2012-13549_presentation.pdf and presentations.copernicus.org/EGU2013-3683_presentation.pdf Acknowledgements: Heletz hydrostratigraphy data were provided by the MUSTANG project teams[1],[2], this project being funded by the EU under FP7 (grant no. 227286). Tracer transport modeling for IW and SW tests in layered reservoirs was conducted within the 'gebo' project ('Geothermal Energy and High-Performance Drilling', www.gebo-nds.de), funded by the Lower-Saxonian government and by Baker Hughes (Celle), Germany.

  10. A multianalyte PCR blood test outperforms single analyte ELISAs (chromogranin A, pancreastatin, neurokinin A) for neuroendocrine tumor detection.

    PubMed

    Modlin, Irvin M; Drozdov, Ignat; Alaimo, Daniele; Callahan, Stephen; Teixiera, Nancy; Bodei, Lisa; Kidd, Mark

    2014-08-01

    A critical requirement in neuroendocrine tumor (NET) management is a sensitive, specific and reproducible blood biomarker test. We evaluated a PCR-based 51 transcript signature (NETest) and compared it to chromogranin A (CgA), pancreastatin (PST) and neurokinin A (NKA). The multigene signature was evaluated in two groups: i) a validation set of 40 NETs and controls and ii) a prospectively collected group of NETs (n=41, 61% small intestinal, 50% metastatic, 44% currently treated and 41 age-sex matched controls). Samples were analyzed by a two-step PCR (51 marker genes) protocol and ELISAs for CgA, PST and NKA. Sensitivity comparisons included ?(2), non-parametric measurements, ROC curves and predictive feature importance (PFAI) analyses. NETest identified 38 of 41 NETs. Performance metrics were: sensitivity 92.8%, specificity 92.8%, positive predictive value 92.8% and negative predictive value 92.8%. Single analyte ELISA metrics were: CgA 76, 59, 65, and 71%; PST 63, 56, 59, and 61% and NKA 39, 93, 84, and 60%. The AUCs (ROC analysis) were: NETest: 0.96±0.025, CgA: 0.67±0.06, PST 0.56±0.06, NKA: 0.66±0.06. NETest significantly outperformed single analyte tests (area differences: 0.284-0.403, Z-statistic 4.85-5.9, P<0.0001). PFAI analysis determined NETest had most value (69%) in diagnosis (CgA (13%), PST (9%), and NKA (9%)). Test data were consistent with the validation set (NETest >95% sensitivity and specificity, AUC =0.98 vs single analytes: 59-67% sensitivity, AUCs: 0.58-0.63). The NETest is significantly more sensitive and efficient (>93%) than single analyte assays (CgA, PST or NKA) in NET diagnosis. Blood-based multigene analytic measurement will facilitate early detection of disease recurrence and can predict therapeutic efficacy. PMID:25015994

  11. Single Event Effects Testing For Low Earth Orbit Missions with Neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddell, Brandon; O'Neill, Pat; Bailey, Chuck; Nguyen, Kyson

    2015-01-01

    Neutrons can effectively be used to screen electronic parts intended to be used in Low Earth Orbit. This paper compares neutron with proton environments in spacecraft and discusses recent comparison testing.

  12. Model refinement using transient response

    SciTech Connect

    Dohrmann, C.R.; Carne, T.G.

    1997-12-01

    A method is presented for estimating uncertain or unknown parameters in a mathematical model using measurements of transient response. The method is based on a least squares formulation in which the differences between the model and test-based responses are minimized. An application of the method is presented for a nonlinear structural dynamic system. The method is also applied to a model of the Department of Energy armored tractor trailer. For the subject problem, the transient response was generated by driving the vehicle over a bump of prescribed shape and size. Results from the analysis and inspection of the test data revealed that a linear model of the vehicle`s suspension is not adequate to accurately predict the response caused by the bump.

  13. Single event upset test structures for digital CMOS application specific integrated circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Baze, M.P.; Bartholet, W.G.; Braatz, J.C.; Dao, T.A. (Boeing Defense and Space Group, Seattle, WA (United States))

    1993-12-01

    An approach has been developed for the design and utilization of SEU test structures for digital CMOS ASICs. This approach minimizes the number of test structures required by categorizing ASIC library cells according to their SEU response and designing a structure to characterize each response for each category. Critical SEU response parameters extracted from these structures are used to evaluate the SEU hardness of ASIC libraries and predict the hardness of ASIC chips.

  14. Insight from simulations of single-well injection-withdrawal tracer tests on simple and complex fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, C.-F.; Doughty, C.

    2009-08-06

    The single-well injection withdrawal (SWIW) test, a tracer test utilizing only one well, is proposed as a useful contribution to site characterization of fractured rock, as well as providing parameters relevant to tracer diffusion and sorption. The usual conceptual model of flow and solute transport through fractured rock with low matrix permeability involves solute advection and dispersion through a fracture network coupled with diffusion and sorption into the surrounding rock matrix. Unlike two-well tracer tests, results of SWIW tests are ideally independent of advective heterogeneity, channeling and flow dimension, and, instead, focus on diffusive and sorptive characteristics of tracer (solute) transport. Thus, they can be used specifically to study such characteristics and evaluate the diffusive parameters associated with tracer transport through fractured media. We conduct simulations of SWIW tests on simple and complex fracture models, the latter being defined as having two subfractures with altered rock blocks in between and gouge material in their apertures. Using parameters from the Aspo site in Sweden, we calculate and study SWIW tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs) from a test involving four days of injection and then withdrawal. By examining the peak concentration C{sub pk} of the SWIW BTCs for a variety of parameters, we confirm that C{sub pk} is largely insensitive to the fracture advective flow properties, in particular to permeability heterogeneity over the fracture plane or to subdividing the flow into two subfractures in the third dimension orthogonal to the fracture plane. The peak arrival time t{sub pk} is not a function of fracture or rock properties, but is controlled by the time schedule of the SWIW test. The study shows that the SWIW test is useful for the study of tracer diffusion-sorption processes, including the effect of the so-called flow-wetted surface (FWS) of the fracture. Calculations with schematic models with different FWS values are conducted and the possibility of direct in situ measurement of FWS with SWIW tests is demonstrated.

  15. Low-speed wind-tunnel tests of single- and counter-rotation propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, D. M.; Gentry, G. L., Jr.; Coe, P. L., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A low-speed (Mach 0 to 0.3) wind-tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the basic performance, force and moment characteristics, and flow-field velocities of single- and counter-rotation propellers. Compared with the eight-blade single-rotation propeller, a four- by four- (4 x 4) blade counter-rotation propeller with the same blade design produced substantially higher thrust coefficients for the same blade angles and advance ratios. The results further indicated that ingestion of the wake from a supporting pylon for a pusher configuration produced no significant change in the propeller thrust performance for either the single- or counter-rotation propellers. A two-component laser velocimeter (LV) system was used to make detailed measurements of the propeller flow fields. Results show increasing slipstream velocities with increasing blade angle and decreasing advance ratio. Flow-field measurements for the counter-rotation propeller show that the rear propeller turned the flow in the opposite direction from the front propeller and, therefore, could eliminate the swirl component of velocity, as would be expected.

  16. Measurement of internal and external mixtures of test aerosols with a new Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wonaschütz, Anna; Hitzenberger, Regina

    2015-04-01

    The mixing state of atmospheric aerosol particles is a very important property affecting processes such as CCN activation and scattering and absorption of light by the particles, but is challenging to determine. A new Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (LAAPTOF, AeroMegt GmbH) was tested with regards to its capability of measuring internal and external mixture of aerosols using laboratory generated particles. To create the external mixture, solutions of three different salts in deionized water, and a suspension of carbon black (Cabot Corporation) in a mixture of isopropanol and water were nebulized and individually dried, before being passed into a small mixing chamber. To create the internal mixture, equal parts of each solution/suspension were mixed, fed into a single nebulizer, nebulized and dried. The LAAPTOF sampled from the mixing chamber and recorded mass spectra of individual particles. The analysis shows a heterogeneous ensemble of single particle spectra for the external mixture, and a homogeneous ensemble of spectra for the internal mixture. The ability of a fuzzy clustering algorithm to resolve the difference between the two mixing states was also tested.

  17. Post-test comparison of thermal-hydrologic measurements and numerical predictions for the in situ single heater test, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, S.; Francis, N.D.; Sobolik, S.R.; Finley, R.E.

    1998-06-01

    The Single Heater Test (SHT) is a sixteen-month-long heating and cooling experiment begun in August, 1996, located underground within the unsaturated zone near the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. During the 9 month heating phase of the test, roughly 15 m{sup 3} of rock were raised to temperatures exceeding 100 C. In this paper, temperatures measured in sealed boreholes surrounding the heater are compared to temperatures predicted by 3D thermal-hydrologic calculations performed with a finite difference code. Three separate model runs using different values of bulk rock permeability (4 microdarcy to 5.2 darcy) yielded significantly different predicted temperatures and temperature distributions. All the models differ from the data, suggesting that to accurately model the thermal-hydrologic behavior of the SHT, the Equivalent Continuum Model (ECM), the conceptual basis for dealing with the fractured porous medium in the numerical predictions, should be discarded in favor of more sophisticated approaches.

  18. Waste characterization plan for the Hanford Site single-shell tanks. Appendix I, Test plan for sampling and analysis of ten single-shell tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.G.; Winters, W.I.; Simpson, B.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Buck, J.W.; Chamberlain, P.J.; Hunter, V.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1991-09-01

    This appendix describes the sampling and analysis of the next ten single-shell tanks (SST) following the successful of SSTs B-201 and B-202. SST T-203 shall not be core sampled sequentially after B-201 and B-202, as originally planned, because this tank would not have provided information on tank safety issues and it contains an identical waste type as the previous two SSTs. Therefore, sampling and analysis of T-203 at the present time was considered repetitious and not an efficient utilization of the limited available resources. This test plan will outline methodology for characterization of the next ten SSTs, summarize lessons learned in the laboratory during Phase IA/IB, identify criteria for tank selection, and detail the analysis to be performed during the characterization of each tank. The sampling, analysis, and data collection, detailed by the this test plan, are being performed to support the final SST closure date of 2,018 identified in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement).

  19. EBR-II high-ramp transients under computer control

    SciTech Connect

    Forrester, R.J.; Larson, H.A.; Christensen, L.J.; Booty, W.F.; Dean, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    During reactor run 122, EBR-II was subjected to 13 computer-controlled overpower transients at ramps of 4 MWt/s to qualify the facility and fuel for transient testing of LMFBR oxide fuels as part of the EBR-II operational-reliability-testing (ORT) program. A computer-controlled automatic control-rod drive system (ACRDS), designed by EBR-II personnel, permitted automatic control on demand power during the transients.

  20. Test for determining a subdiffusive model in ergodic systems from single trajectories.

    PubMed

    Meroz, Yasmine; Sokolov, Igor M; Klafter, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    Experiments on particle motion show that it is often subdiffusive. This subdiffusion may be due to trapping, percolationlike structures, or viscoelastic behavior of the medium. While the models based on trapping (leading to continuous-time random walks) can easily be distinguished from the rest by testing their nonergodicity, the latter two cases are harder to distinguish. We propose a statistical test for distinguishing between these two based on the space-filling properties of trajectories, and prove its feasibility and specificity using synthetic data. We moreover present a flow chart for making a decision on a type of subdiffusion for a broader class of models. PMID:23496698

  1. In Situ Tensile Testing of Single Crystal Molybdenum Alloy Fibers with Various Dislocation Densities in a Scanning Electron Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    George, Easo P [ORNL; Johanns, K. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sedlmayr, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany; Phani, P. Sudharshan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Monig, R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany; Kraft, O. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany; Pharr, George M [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2012-01-01

    In-situ tensile tests have been performed in a dual beam focused ion beam and scanning electron microscope on as-grown and prestrained single-crystal molybdenum-alloy (Mo-alloy) fibers. The fibers had approximately square cross sections with submicron edge lengths and gauge lengths in the range of 9-41 {mu}m. In contrast to previously observed yield strengths near the theoretical strength of 10 GPa in compression tests of {approx}1-3-{mu}m long pillars made from similar Mo-alloy single crystals, a wide scatter of yield strengths between 1 and 10 GPa was observed in the as-grown fibers tested in tension. Deformation was dominated by inhomogeneous plastic events, sometimes including the formation of Lueders bands. In contrast, highly prestrained fibers exhibited stable plastic flow, significantly lower yield strengths of {approx}1 GPa, and stress-strain behavior very similar to that in compression. A simple, statistical model incorporating the measured dislocation densities is developed to explain why the tension and compression results for the as-grown fibers are different.

  2. Testing of polyimide second-stage rod seals for single-state applications in advanced aircraft hydraulic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waterman, A. W.

    1977-01-01

    Machined polyimide second-stage rod seals were evaluated to determine their suitability for single-stage applications where full system pressure acts on the upstream side of the seal. The 6.35-cm (2.5-in.) K-section seal was tested in impulse screening tests where peak pressure was increased in 3.448-MPa (500-psi) increments each 20,000 cycles. Seal failure occurred at 37.92 MPa (5,500 psi), indicating a potential for acceptability in a 27.58-MPa (4,000-psi) system. Static pressurization for 600 sec at pressures in excess of 10.34 MPa (1,500 psi) revealed structural inadequacy of the seal cross section to resist fracture and extrusion. Endurance testing showed the seals capable of at least 65,000 1.27-cm (0.5-in.) cycles at 450 K (350 F) without leakage. It was concluded that the second-stage seals were proven to be exceptional in the 1.379-MPa (200-psi) applications for which they were designed, but polyimide material properties are not adequate for use in this design at pressure loading equivalent to that present in single-stage applications.

  3. Testing the validity of the single-spin approximation in inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms

    E-print Network

    Michael Pürrer; Mark Hannam; P. Ajith; Sascha Husa

    2013-06-10

    Gravitational-wave signals from black-hole binaries with non-precessing spins are described by four parameters -- each black hole's mass and spin. It has been shown that the dominant spin effects can be modeled by a \\emph{single} spin parameter, leading to the development of several \\emph{three-parameter} waveform models. Previous studies indicate that these models should be adequate for gravitational-wave detection. In this paper we focus on the systematic biases that would result from using them to estimate binary parameters, and consider a one-parameter family of configurations at one choice of mass ratio and effective single spin. We find that for low-mass binaries within that family of configurations, where the observable waveform is dominated by the inspiral, the systematic bias in all physical parameters is smaller than the parameter uncertainty due to degeneracies between the mass ratio and the spins, at least up to signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of 50. For higher-mass binaries, where the merger and ringdown make a greater contribution to the observed signal, the bias in the mass ratio is comparable to its uncertainty at SNRs of only $\\sim$30, and the bias in the measurement of the total spin is \\emph{larger} than the uncertainty defined by the 90% confidence region even at an SNR of only 10. Although this bias may be mitigated in future models by a better choice of single-effective-spin parameter, these results suggest that it may be possible to accurately measure \\emph{both} black-hole spins in intermediate-mass binaries.

  4. Exponential speed-up with a single bit of quantum information: Testing the quantum butterfly effect

    E-print Network

    David Poulin; Robin Blume-Kohout; Raymond Laflamme; Harold Ollivier

    2003-10-06

    We present an efficient quantum algorithm to measure the average fidelity decay of a quantum map under perturbation using a single bit of quantum information. Our algorithm scales only as the complexity of the map under investigation, so for those maps admitting an efficient gate decomposition, it provides an exponential speed up over known classical procedures. Fidelity decay is important in the study of complex dynamical systems, where it is conjectured to be a signature of quantum chaos. Our result also illustrates the role of chaos in the process of decoherence.

  5. Total dose, displacement damage, and single event effects in the radiation hardened CMOS APS HAS2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dirk van Aken; Dominique Hervé; Matthieu Beaumel

    2009-01-01

    Experimental results of several radiation test campaigns performed on the HAS2 CMOS imager are presented. The radiation testing includes Cobalt-60 total ionizing dose at low and high dose rate, proton and electron displacement damage, proton induced single event transient, and heavy ion single event effect. HAS2 electro-optical performances have been characterized during irradiation at low and room temperature, and after

  6. High speed single transient microwave spectrum analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, J.; Ogle, J.; Looney, L.; Gallegos, C.; Anaya, R.; Lilijestrand, R.

    1989-01-01

    Recent experiments have required the measurement of short pulse high bandwidth microwave spectra. To meet this need we built a GHz-bandwidth acousto-optic spectrum analyzer. The hardware includes a HeNe laser, collimating optics, Brag cell, steak camera, microchannel plate intensifier and film cassette. The frequency range measured was 350--2000 MHz with a dynamic range greater than 20 dB. Pulse widths from 10 ns were measured with this system. 4 figs.

  7. Single-Locus Tests of Microsatellite Evolution: Multi-Step Mutations and Constraints on Allele Size

    E-print Network

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    and population genetics (e.g., Bruford and Wayne, 1993). The advantage of microsatellites over other nuclear loci, Irvine, California 92697; and Department of Population Biology, University of Copenhagen of constraints on the repeat number have only very limited power. The tests were applied to population data

  8. STATUS OF HIGH POWER TESTS OF NORMAL CONDUCTING SINGLE-CELL STANDING WAVE STRUCTURES

    E-print Network

    Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)

    - tures of the same geometry and material, and the break- down rate dependence on peak magnetic fields materials were exposed to pulse rf magnetic fields, with es- timated pulse temperature rise of up to 110 C the main results from tests of seven structures made from hard copper, soft- copper alloys and hard

  9. A single sample GnRHa stimulation test in the diagnosis of precocious puberty

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has been the standard test for diagnosing central precocious puberty. Because GnRH is no longer available, GnRH analogues (GnRHa) are now used. Random LH concentration, measured by the third-generation immunochemiluminometric assay, is a useful screening tool ...

  10. Environmental assessment: Single-stage rocket technology DC-X test program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations implementing NEPA (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508), and U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) Directive 6050.1 direct that decision-makers take into account environmental consequences when authorizing or approving major federal actions. This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates the environmental consequences of conducting activities for the SSRT test program. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide SDIO with a suborbital, recoverable rocket (SRR) capable of lifting up to 3,000 pounds of payload to an altitude of 1.5 million feet; returning to the launch site for a precise soft landing; with the capability to launch for another mission within three to seven days. To support these requirements, the proposed action involves validation and testing of a DC-X vehicle. Component assembly of the vehicle will take place at Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, CA; Chicago Bridge and Iron, Cordova, AL; Pratt and Whitney, West Palm Beach, FL, Aerojet, Sacramento, CA; and McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company, Beach, CA. Static test firing activities will occur at NASA/White Sands Test Facility Huntington (WSTF), WSMR, New Mexico, and launch activities will occur at White Sands Space Harbor (WSSH), WSMR, New Mexico. No significant impacts are anticipated to the environment at the engineering contractor facilities, NASA/WSTF, or WSSH.

  11. Ultrashort pulsed laser tools for testing of semiconductor elements hardness to single event effects, caused by cosmic heavy charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordienko, Alexandra V.; Mavritskii, Oleg B.; Egorov, Andrey N.; Pechenkin, Alexander A.; Savchenkov, Dmitriy V.

    2015-03-01

    The installations for laser testing of microelectronic elements (first of all - integrated circuits) of devices for space applications for hardness to local radiation effects from heavy charged particles are presented. The possibility of a focused pulsed laser radiation application to the study of local radiation effects, caused by single heavy charged particles, is explained. The fundamentals of an approach to the construction of test sets, based on the picosecond and femtosecond lasers and systems for focusing their radiation, are considered. The main technical requirements for the basic modules of sets for laser testing (laser wavelength and pulse duration and repetition rate, spatial beam parameters and minimal spot size, speed of object movement and so on) are substantiated. All worked out sets have a full-featured software for the operational management of all modules of the laser test facility, including the positioning of the object, to provide feedback from the measurement results of the reaction of the object on the laser excitation. The parameters of developed laser hardware and software systems and their foreign counterparts are compared. Further improvement directions for laser testing tools are briefly outlined. The discussion is also presented of described hardware technical and operational characteristics, allowing to use it for a variety of scientific research studies, requiring selective (with submicron spatial resolution) object excitation by ultrashort laser pulses and recording responses to this effect with the exact timing of the moment of excitation, as well as to perform a variety of high precision technological operations.

  12. Single Oral Dose Toxicity Test of Blue Honeysuckle Concentrate in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-In; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Song, Chang-Hyun; Park, Soo-Jin; Shin, Yong-Kook; Han, Chang-Hyun; Lee, Young Joon; Ku, Sae-Kwang

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain single oral dose toxicity information for concentrated and lyophilized powder of blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L., Caprifoliaceae; BHcL) in female and male ICR mice to aid in the process of developing natural origin medicinal ingredients or foods following proximate analysis and phytochemical profile measurement. The proximate analysis revealed that BHcL had an energy value of 3.80 kcal/g and contained 0.93 g/g of carbohydrate, 0.41 g/g of sugar, 0.02 g/g of protein, and 0.20 mg/g of sodium. BHcL did not contain lipids, including saturated lipids, trans fats, or cholesterols. Further, BHcL contained 4.54% of betaine, 210.63 mg/g of total phenols, 159.30 mg/g of total flavonoids, and 133.57 mg/g of total anthocyanins. Following administration of a single oral BHcL treatment, there were no treatment-related mortalities, changes in body weight (bw) or organ weight, clinical signs, necropsy or histopathological findings up to 2,000 mg/kg bw, the limited dosage for rodents of both sexes. We concluded that BHcL is a practically non-toxic material in toxicity potency. PMID:25874034

  13. Transient Storage Parameterization of Wetland-dominated Stream Reaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilderotter, S. M.; Lightbody, A.; Kalnejais, L. H.; Wollheim, W. M.

    2014-12-01

    Current understanding of the importance of transient storage in fluvial wetlands is limited. Wetlands that have higher connectivity to the main stream channel are important because they have the potential to retain more nitrogen within the river system than wetlands that receive little direct stream discharge. In this study, we investigated how stream water accesses adjacent fluvial wetlands in New England coastal watersheds to improve parameterization in network-scale models. Break through curves of Rhodamine WT were collected for eight wetlands in the Ipswich and Parker (MA) and Lamprey River (NH) watersheds, USA. The curves were inverse modeled using STAMMT-L to optimize the connectivity and size parameters for each reach. Two approaches were tested, a single dominant storage zone and a range of storage zones represented using a power-law distribution of storage zone connectivity. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to relate transient storage parameters to stream discharge, area, length-to-width ratio, and reach slope. Resulting regressions will enable more accurate parameterization of surface water transient storage in network-scale models.

  14. A Test for Determining a Subdiffusive Model in Ergodic Systems from Single Trajectories

    E-print Network

    Yasmine Meroz; Igor M. Sokolov; Joseph Klafter

    2012-10-08

    Experiments on particles' motion in living cells show that it is often subdiffusive. This subdiffusion may be due to trapping, percolation-like structures, or viscoelatic behavior of the medium. While the models based on trapping (leading to continuous-time random walks) can easily be distinguished from the rest by testing their non-ergodicity, the latter two cases are harder to distinguish. We propose a statistical test for distinguishing between these two based on the space-filling properties of trajectories, and prove its feasibility and specificity using synthetic data. We moreover present a flow-chart for making a decision on a type of subdiffusion for a broader class of models.

  15. Photovoltaic power system tests on an 8-kilowatt single-phase line-commutated inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stover, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    Efficiency and power factor were measured as functions of solar array voltage and current. The effects of input shunt capacitance and series inductance were determined. Tests were conducted from 15 to 75 percent of the 8 kW rated inverter input power. Measured efficiencies ranged from 76 percent to 88 percent at about 50 percent of rated inverter input power. Power factor ranged from 36 percent to 72 percent.

  16. Development and test of single-layer common coil dipole wound with reacted Nb3Sn cable

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir Kashikhin et al.

    2004-04-27

    The first one-meter long common coil dipole model (HFDC-01) has been fabricated and is being tested at Fermilab. This magnet has several innovative features such as: single-layer racetrack coils, a 22-mm wide 59-strand Rutherford-type cable made of 0.7-mm Nb{sub 3}Sn strands, and a stainless steel coil-support structure reinforced by horizontal bridges inserted between coil blocks. The model was instrumented with voltage taps, quench heaters, temperature sensors and strain gauges in order to monitor the quench origin and propagation, and to study mechanical and quench protection issues. This paper summarizes the model design parameters, the fabrication procedures and the test results.

  17. Design of a single flat null-screen for testing a parabolic trough solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Oliva, Víctor Iván; Campos-García, Manuel; Román-Hernández, Edwin; Santiago-Alvarado, Agustín

    2014-11-01

    We present a null-screen design for testing the shape quality of the reflecting surface of a parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC). This technique is inexpensive, the whole surface is tested at once, and it is easy to implement. For this, we propose the design of a flat null-screen perpendicular to the optical axis of the PTSC in such a way that it allows testing of the full aperture; we compute the caustic associated with the reflected light rays on the desired surface and analyze the parameters that determine the null-screen dimensions. Additionally, we perform a numerical simulation to analyze the accuracy of the method by introducing random displacement errors into the measured data. Accuracies >0.35 mrad were found to evaluate the quality of surfaces with this method. The errors in the determination of the coordinates of the centroids of the reflected images must be measured with an accuracy >0.5 pixels, and the errors in the coordinates of the spots of the null-screen must be <0.5 mm.

  18. Single-order-parameter description of glass-forming liquids: A one-frequency test

    E-print Network

    Niels L. Ellegaard; Tage Christensen; Peder Voetmann Christiansen; Niels Boye Olsen; Ulf R. Pedersen; Thomas B. Schrøder; Jeppe C. Dyre

    2007-02-28

    Thermo-viscoelastic linear-response functions are calculated from the master equation describing viscous liquid inherent dynamics. From the imaginary parts of the frequency-dependent isobaric specific heat, isothermal compressibility, and isobaric thermal expansion coefficient, we define a "linear dynamic Prigogine-Defay ratio" with the property that if this quantity is unity atone frequency, then it is unity at all frequencies. This happens if and only if there is a single-order-parameter description of the thermo-viscoelastic linear responses via an order parameter (which may be non-exponential in time). Generalizations to other cases of thermodynamic control parameters than temperature and pressure are treated in an Appendix.

  19. A Pilot Study on Single-dose Toxicity Testing of Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoo-Hwan; Yoon, Hyun-Min; Jang, Kyung-Jeon; Kim, Cheol-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study was performed to analyze the toxicity and to find the lethal dose of the test substance Hominis placenta pharmacopuncture when used as a single-dose in 6 week old, male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methods: All experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech (Chungwon, Korea), an institution authorized to perform non clinical studies, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). SD rats were chosen for the pilot study. Doses of Hominis placenta pharmacopuncture extracts, 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 mL, were administered to the experimental group, and 0.5 mL doses of normal saline solution were administered to the control group. This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee. Results: No deaths or abnormalities occurred in any of the groups. Also, no significant changes in body weights were observed among the groups, and no significant differences in hematology/biochemistry, necropsy, and histopathology results were noted. Hematologically, some changes in the male rats in two experimental groups were observed, but those changes had no clinical or toxicological meaning because they were not dose dependent. Histopathological tests on the injected parts showed cell infiltration in the male rats in one of the experimental groups; however, that result was due to spontaneous generation and had no toxicological meaning. Therefore, this study showed that Hominis placenta pharmacopuncture had no effect on the injected parts in terms of clinical signs, body weight, hematology, clinical chemistry, and necropsy. Conclusion: As a result of single-dose tests of the test substance Hominis placenta pharmacopuncture in 4 groups of rats, the lethal dose for both males and females exceeded 0.5 mL/animal. Therefore, the above findings suggest that treatment with Hominis placenta pharmacopuncture is relatively safe. Further studies on this subject are needed.

  20. Computation of electromagnetic transients using dual or multiple time steps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Semlyen; F. de Leon

    1993-01-01

    When computing transients with the EMTP (electromagnetic transients program) a single time step is selected for the trapezoidal integration all over the system. When this step is small because of the presence of a fast component, the simulation may be significantly slowed down. The authors present a procedure by which the computations at selected fast buses can be performed with