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1

Columbia University flow instability experimental program: Volume 6. Single annulus tests, transient test program  

SciTech Connect

The coolant in the Savannah River Site (SRS) production nuclear reactor assemblies is circulated as a subcooled liquid under normal operating conditions. This coolant is evenly distributed throughout multiple annular flow channels with a uniform pressure profile across each coolant flow channel. During the postulated Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), which is initiated by a hypothetical guillotine pipe break, the coolant flow through the reactor assemblies is significantly reduced. The flow reduction and accompanying power reduction (after shutdown is initiated) occur in the first 1 to 2 seconds of the LOCA. This portion of the LOCA is referred to as the Flow Instability phase. This report presents the experimental results for the transient portion of the single annulus test program. The test program was designed to investigate the onset of flow instability in an annular geometry similar to the MARK 22 reactor. The test program involved testing of both a ribless heater and a ribbed heater under steady state as well as transient conditions. The ribbed heater testing is currently underway and will be reported separately. The steady state portion of this test program with ribless heater was completed and reported in report No. CU-HTRF-T3A. The present report presents transient test results obtained from a ribless, uniform annulus test section. A total of thirty five transients were conducted with six cases in which flow excursion occurred. No unstable conditions resulted for tests in which the steady state Q{sub ratio} OFI limit was not exceeded.

Dougherty, T.; Maciuca, C.; McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Reddy, D.G.; Yang, B.W.

1992-09-01

2

Permeability-porosity relationship for compaction of a low-permeability creeping material : Experimental evaluation using a single transient test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well-known that there is no unique permeability-porosity relationship that can be applied to all porous materials. For a given evolution process that changes both permeability and porosity of a porous material, for example elastic or plastic compaction, microcracking or chemical alteration, it is usually assumed that there is an empirical relationship in the form of a power-law or exponential relationship between these parameters. The coefficients of these empirical relationships depend strongly on the properties of the material and of the evolution process. For the case of the power-law permeability-porosity relationship, a review of the literature shows that the exponent of this relation may be integer or non-integer, constant or variable, and the reported values of exponent vary between 1.1 and 25.4 for different materials and evolution processes, but no clear correlation between the exponenet and the petrophysical properties could be found. This wide variability of the permeability-porosity relationship highlights the necessity of experimental evaluation of this relationship for each material and evolution process. An experimental method is presented for the evaluation of a permeability-porosity relationship in a low-permeability porous material using the results of a single transient test. This method accounts for both elastic and non-elastic deformations of the sample during the test and is applied to a hardened class G oil well cement paste. An initial hydrostatic undrained loading is applied to the sample which generates an excess pore pressure, related to the applied hydrostatic stress by the Skempton coefficient of the material. The generated excess pore pressure is then released at one end of the sample while monitoring the pore pressure at the other end and the radial strain in the middle of the sample during the dissipation of the pore pressure. These measurements are back analysed using a finite-difference numerical scheme to evaluate the permeability and its evolution with porosity change. The stress-dependent character of the poroelastic parameters of the hardened cement paste (Ghabezloo et al., 2008) and also the creep of the material during the test add some particular aspects to the back-analysis, which makes this problem different from the classical solutions of transient permeability evaluation tests. The effect of creep of the sample during the test on the measured pore pressure and volume change is taken into account in the analysis. This approach permits to calibrate a power law permeability-porosity relationship for the tested hardened cement paste and also two parameters of a viscoelastic model for the creep of the material. The porosity sensitivity exponent of the power-law is evaluated equal to 11 and is shown to be mostly independent of the stress level and of the creep strains. The proposed method can be applied to different low permeability porous materials and for the case of non-creeping materials, the same type of analysis can be used to calibrate either a permeability-porosity or a permeability-effective stress relationship for the compaction of the tested material using a single transient test. References: 1.Ghabezloo S., Sulem J., Saint-Marc, J. (2008) Evaluation of a permeability-porosity relationship in a low permeability creeping material using a single transient test. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci, in press, DOI 10.1016/j.ijrmms.2008.10.003. 2.Ghabezloo, S., Sulem, J., Guédon, S., Martineau, F., Saint-Marc, J. (2008) Poromechanical behaviour of hardened cement paste under isotropic loading. Cement and Concrete Research, 38(12), 1424-1437.

Ghabezloo, S.; Sulem, J.; Saint-Marc, J.

2009-04-01

3

Use of Transient Testing in Reservoir Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transient tests can be used throughout the life of the reservoir to manage and to optimize recovery of hydrocarbon fluids. This paper shows applications of various well-testing method during the exploration, appraisal, and primary and secondary recovery phases of field projects. Single-well tests [e.g. drillstem tests (DST`s) and buildup tests] are primary recovery, whereas multiple-well tests (e.g., interference tests) are

M. M. Kamal; D. G. Freyder

1995-01-01

4

Effect of transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding on the ductility of a Ni-base single crystal superalloy in a stress rupture test  

SciTech Connect

A Ni-base single crystal superalloy was transient liquid phase (TLP) bonded using a Ni-Cr-B amorphous foil at 1230 deg. C for 8 h. Stress rupture tests of the TLP joint and a matrix sample were carried out at 982 deg. C/248 MPa and 1010 deg. C/248 MPa. The microstructures and fracture surfaces were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations were performed after creep rupture testing to examine the deformation substructures. The results show that the stress rupture ductility of TLP joints is significantly decreased compared to the matrix sample. This reduction of the ductility of TLP joints can be attributed to solid solution strengthening by boron atoms, subgrain boundaries formed in the bonding zone and the concentration of creep cavities formed during the last stage of the stress rupture test.

Liu, J.D. [Department of Superalloys, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijng 100039 (China)], E-mail: jdliu@imr.ac.cn; Jin, T.; Zhao, N.R.; Wang, Z.H.; Sun, X.F.; Guan, H.R.; Hu, Z.Q. [Department of Superalloys, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

2008-01-15

5

Single plane transient voltage suppression device assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This transient voltage suppression device (TVSDA) provides for two sets of connectors (one input and one output) to be mounted in a single plane. Voltage suppression devices are connected, in a low parasitic inductance fashion, between leads interconnecting separate connector pins and the body of the TVSDA. The TVSDA has a minimum VSD lead length.

Riley, L. H.

1985-09-01

6

Modification of the LM124 Single Event Transients by Load Resistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of a load resistor on the shape of the single event transients was investigated in the LM124 operational amplifier by means of laser tests. These experiments indicated that, as a general rule, load resistors modify the size of the transients. SPICE simulations helped to understand the reasons of this behavior and showed that the distortion is related to

F. J. Franco; I. Lopez-Calle; J. G. Izquierdo; J. A. Agapito

2010-01-01

7

Single heartbeat cardiac tagging for the evaluation of transient phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many cardiac abnormalities are of a transient nature, creating a beat-to-beat variation in myocardial function. This work pre- sents the cardiac imaging technique for the measurement of regional function during transient cardiac phenomena. All infor- mation necessary for the reconstruction of a cine loop is ac- quired within a single heartbeat, avoiding the temporal blurring introduced by segmented imaging due

Daniel A. Herzka; J. Andrew Derbyshire; Peter Kellman; Elliot R. McVeigh

2005-01-01

8

Future Transient Testing of Advanced Fuels  

SciTech Connect

The transient in-reactor fuels testing workshop was held on May 4–5, 2009 at Idaho National Laboratory. The purpose of this meeting was to provide a forum where technical experts in transient testing of nuclear fuels could meet directly with technical instrumentation experts and nuclear fuel modeling and simulation experts to discuss needed advancements in transient testing to support a basic understanding of nuclear fuel behavior under off-normal conditions. The workshop was attended by representatives from Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique CEA, Japanese Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Department of Energy (DOE), AREVA, General Electric – Global Nuclear Fuels (GE-GNF), Westinghouse, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), universities, and several DOE national laboratories. Transient testing of fuels and materials generates information required for advanced fuels in future nuclear power plants. Future nuclear power plants will rely heavily on advanced computer modeling and simulation that describes fuel behavior under off-normal conditions. TREAT is an ideal facility for this testing because of its flexibility, proven operation and material condition. The opportunity exists to develop advanced instrumentation and data collection that can support modeling and simulation needs much better than was possible in the past. In order to take advantage of these opportunities, test programs must be carefully designed to yield basic information to support modeling before conducting integral performance tests. An early start of TREAT and operation at low power would provide significant dividends in training, development of instrumentation, and checkout of reactor systems. Early start of TREAT (2015) is needed to support the requirements of potential users of TREAT and include the testing of full length fuel irradiated in the FFTF reactor. The capabilities provided by TREAT are needed for the development of nuclear power and the following benefits will be realized by the refurbishment and restart of TREAT. •TREAT is an absolute necessity in the suite of reactor fuel test capabilities •TREAT yields valuable information on reactivity effects, margins to failure, fuel dispersal, and failure propagation •Most importantly, interpretation of TREAT experiment results is a stringent test of the integrated understanding of fuel performance.

Jon Carmack

2009-09-01

9

Results from transient tests and spherical valve closure tests, Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant  

SciTech Connect

Tests were conducted at the Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant to obtain data on hydraulic system characteristics during transient-state operation, to compare measured values for system pressures and surge levels with design values, to provide information for review of hydaulic transient computations, and to provide confirmation that the spherical valves are capable of shutting off plant flow under emergency conditions. The tests included single-unit load rejection, single-unit pump power loss, multi-unit emergency shutdown from generating, multi-unit emergency shutdown from pumping, and spherical valve closure.

March, P.A.

1984-09-01

10

Transient yielding in strain rate change tests  

SciTech Connect

Strain rate change (SRC) tests, during a tensile test, are carried out frequently to determine values of activation area and proper interpretation of these results may provide considerable information on dislocation activities during deformation. However, transient load drop is generally observed during low to high SRC and this drop increases with increasing deformation. This effect may thus be exacerbated, at least in principle, by conducting SRC tests on pre-crept samples. In the present work the authors report these results and also discuss the nature of transients during low to high SRC with reference to overall deformation processes. The material used for this work was a modified 9Cr-1Mo steel containing niobium and vanadium. All SRC tests were carried out at room temperature on an Instron by instantaneously changing the cross-head speed by a factor of 10. Strain gauges were used to not only continuously monitor the overall strain but also to obtain the magnitude of strain accompanying the change in cross head speed.

Dwivedi, V.S.; Mishra, N.S.; Sen, S.K.; Jha, B.K. [Research and Development Center for Iron and Steel, Ranchi (India)

1997-06-15

11

Test generation for comprehensive testing of linear analog circuits using transient response sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of testing analog components continues to be the bottleneck in reducing the time-to-market of mixed-signal ICs. In this paper, we present a test generation algorithm for implicit functional testing of linear analog circuits using transient response sampling. Each specification of the circuit under test (CUT) imposes bounds on individual parametric deviations under the single fault assumption. These bounds

Pramodchandran N. Variyam; Abhijit Chatterjee

1997-01-01

12

Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) field test comparisons  

SciTech Connect

The Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) is used throughout the utility industry to design and improve the operation of power systems. The objective of this project was to assess the accuracy of the EMTP by comparing field test measurements to corresponding EMTP simulations. The analysis indicates the overall accuracy of EMTP improves as the frequency range of the transient increases. The simulation accuracy is influenced by the abilities of the EMTP user to represent the system properly, and by the accuracy of data more than by EMTP models. EMTP simulations and field test measurements were compared over a wide range of applications and frequencies as selected from approximately 100 collected references. The overall accuracy is expressed in terms of deviation interval (average deviation {plus minus} {sigma}). The composite deviation interval for all the compared studies is {minus}14.9% to +16.7%. The deviation intervals are determined for the individual groups into which the various studies were classified. The data is supported by extracts from the individual studies assembled in the form of fact sheets. These fact sheets also offer help to EMTP users as examples of studies grouped by subjects. 101 refs., 6 figs., 28 tabs.

Skliutas, J.; Panek, J.

1990-03-01

13

PFR/Treat Safety Experiments: HEDL Transient Test Program Engineering Test Plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the PFR/TREAT Safety Test Program is to obtain experimental data of fuel pin behavior during hypothetical, unprotected accidents for cores of large liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors. The steady state and transient experiments, which will be performed under the joint program, are to be as prototypic of fast reactor performance as is possible. The specific objectives of this document are: (1) dictate the activities and responsibilities for the HEDL Transient Test Program; (2) specify the technical requirements for the CO4, CO5, CO6 and CO7 test train (SPTTs); and (3) specify the technical requirement for the CO6 and CO7 Single Pin Test Loops (SPTLs). Specific requirements for single pin loop experiments beyond CO7 and multi pin experiments will be covered in the addenda to this test plan.

Hoffman, M.A.; Metcalf, I.L.; Myron, D.L.

1981-03-01

14

Transients computation for relay testing in real-time  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses characteristics of a new digital simulator for protection relay testing. The most demanding design requirement is computation of fault transients under the condition of real-time change of power system configuration due to relay operation. This problem is solved using EMTP computational techniques enhanced with novel numerical solutions for dynamic power system configuration change and nonlinear element modeling. An advanced computer architecture is utilized to achieve further optimization of the execution time for the transients computation code. The main advantage of this design is the use of conventional single processor computer architecture in combination with advanced digital signal processors (DSPs). This makes this simulator an off-the-shelf product with all the benefits of commercially available computers priced at a relatively low cost.

Kezunovic, M.; Aganagic, M.; Skendzic, V.; Domaszewicz, J. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)); Bladow, J.K.; Hamai, D.M.; McKenna, S.M.

1994-07-01

15

Transient well testing in two-phase geothermal reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

A study of well test analysis techniques in two-phase geothermal reservoirs has been conducted using a three-dimensional, two-phase, wellbore and reservoir simulation model. Well tests from Cerro Prieto and the Hawaiian Geothermal project have been history matched. Using these well tests as a base, the influence of reservoir permeability, porosity, thickness, and heat capacity, along with flow rate and fracturing were studied. Single and two-phase transient well test equations were used to analyze these tests with poor results due to rapidly changing fluid properties and inability to calculate the flowing steam saturation in the reservoir. The injection of cold water into the reservoir does give good data from which formation properties can be calculated.

Aydelotte, S.R.

1980-03-01

16

Total Dose and Single Event Transients in Linear Voltage Regulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation effects on four common DC linear voltage regulators are investigated. Increasing total dose is shown to degrade converter regulation by degrading the loop gain and phase response. Regulator single event transient (SET) response is characterized, and a mitigation technique is proposed. Shunt regulator topologies are found to be superior to series regulator topologies in terms of radiation tolerance.

Andrew T. Kelly; Philippe C. Adell; Arthur F. Witulski; W. Timothy Holman; Ronald D. Schrimpf; Vincent Pouget

2007-01-01

17

Transient Oxidation of Single Crystal NiAl+Zr.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 800 C oxidation of oriented single crystals of Zr doped beta-NiAl was studied using transmission electron microscopy. The oxide phases and metal-oxide orientation relationships were determined to characterize the transient stages of oxidation prior to...

J. K. Doychak

1983-01-01

18

Behavior of modern metallic fuel in treat transient overpower tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper results and analyses of margin to cladding failure and prefailure axial expansion of metallic fuel are reported for Transient Reactor Test Facility in-pile transient overpower tests M2 through M7. These include the first such tests on binary and ternary alloy fuel of the Integral Fast Reactor concept and fuel burnups to 10 at. %. The fuel was

T. H. Bauer; A. E. Wright; W. R. Robinson; J. W. Holland; E. A. Rhodes

1990-01-01

19

Single Event Upset Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of an experimental program to characterize single event upset phenomena in selected bipolar memory devices irradiated with relativistic heavy ions. The principle objective was to determine the multibit upset rate at normal...

D. L. Oberg J. L. Wert P. R. Measel T. L. Criswell

1988-01-01

20

Transient behavior of a single-blade horizontal-axis wind turbine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transient behavior of the wind energy converter (WEC) MONOPTEROS was investigated. This converter is a 1:3 model scale test version (tower height 50 m) of a single-blade 5.4 MW horizontal-axis supercritically operating wind turbine. Aerodynamic and dynamic modelling techniques, the development of control strategies for the transition into/out of nominal performance, and simulated and measured time histories with emphasis on transient operating conditions, are presented. For the prediction of transients, which are the most problematic operating phases of the supercritical, single-blade wind turbine concept, the modeling of classical, stationary rotor aerodynamics is sufficient, but an exact description of the control system is required.

Wennekers, R.

21

Power supply transient signal analysis for defect-oriented test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transient Signal Analysis (TSA) is a testing method that is based on the analysis of a set of VDD transient waveforms measured simultaneously at each supply port. Defect detection is per- formed by applying linear regression analysis to the time or frequency domain representations of these signals. Chip-wide process variation effects introduce signal variations that are correlated across the individual

James F. Plusquellic; Abhishek Singh; Chintan Patel; Anne E. Gattiker

2003-01-01

22

Transient current electric field profiling of single crystal CVD diamond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transient current technique (TCT) has been adapted for profiling of the electric field distribution in intrinsic single crystal CVD diamond. It was found that successive hole transits do not appreciably affect the electric field distribution within the sample. Transits of holes can therefore be used to probe the electric field distribution and also the distribution of trapped charge. Electron transits, on the other hand, cause an accumulation of negative charge in the sample. Illumination with blue or green light was shown to lead to accumulation of positive charge. Low concentrations of trapped charge can be detected in diamond using TCT, corresponding to an ionized impurity concentration below N = 1010 cm-3.

Isberg, J.; Gabrysch, M.; Tajani, A.; Twitchen, D. J.

2006-08-01

23

Proton-induced transients in optocouplers: in-flight anomalies, ground irradiation test, mitigation and implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present data on recent optocoupler in-flight anomalies and the subsequent ground test irradiation performed. Discussions of the single event mechanisms involved, transient filtering analysis, and design implications are included. Proton-induced transients were observed on higher speed optocouplers with a unique dependence on the incidence particle angle. The results indicate that both direct ionization and nuclear reaction-related mechanisms are responsible

Kenneth A. LaBel; Paul W. Marshall; Cheryl J. Marshall; Mary D'Ordine; Martin Carts; Gary Lum; Hak S. Kim; Christina M. Seidleck; Timothy Powell; Randy Abbott; Janet Barth; E. G. Stassinopoulos

1997-01-01

24

Proton-Induced Transients in Optocouplers: In-Flight Anomalies, Ground Irradiation Test, Mitigation and Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present data on recent optocoupler in-flight anomalies and the subsequent ground test irradiation performed. Discussions of the single event mechanisms involved, transient filtering analysis, and design implications are included. Proton-induced transients were observed on higher speed optocouplers with a unique dependence on the incidence particle angle. The results indicate that both direct ionization and nuclear reaction-related mechanisms are responsible

Kenneth A. LaBel; Paul W. Marshall; Cheryl J. Marshall; Mary D'Ordine; Martin Carts; Gary Lum; Hak S. Kim; Christina M. Seidleck; Timothy Powell; Randy Abbott; Janet Barth; E. G. Stassinopoulos

25

Single heartbeat cardiac tagging for the evaluation of transient phenomena.  

PubMed

Many cardiac abnormalities are of a transient nature, creating a beat-to-beat variation in myocardial function. This work presents the cardiac imaging technique for the measurement of regional function during transient cardiac phenomena. All information necessary for the reconstruction of a cine loop is acquired within a single heartbeat, avoiding the temporal blurring introduced by segmented imaging due to the assumption of cardiac cycle periodicity. This method incorporates a gradient-optimized, high-efficiency EPI-SSFP sequence and TSENSE parallel imaging. For acquisitions with readout resolutions of 128,160, 192, and 256 points, the technique produced images with average temporal resolution of 35, 39, 43, and 52 ms and average spatial resolutions of 2.65, 2.12, 1.77, and 1.32 mm in the readout direction, respectively, and 2.88 and 2.08 mm in the phase encode direction for acceleration rates of 3 and 4, respectively. Local apparent strains in the single slice and measurements of ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic areas were used as quantitative measures to validate the single heartbeat technique. To demonstrate the utility of the sequence, movie loops were acquired for multiple heartbeats in non-breath-held acquisitions as well as during a Valsalva maneuver. A heartbeat-interleaved acquisition allowed for the reconstruction of nonaccelerated images from R contiguous heartbeats. Images reconstructed from such data displayed tag blurring and reduced tag persistence due to motion and inter-heartbeat variability. Images acquired during the Valsalva maneuver demonstrated apparent beat-to-beat variability, visible both in the images and as changing strain patterns and ventricular volumes. PMID:16265635

Herzka, Daniel A; Derbyshire, J Andrew; Kellman, Peter; McVeigh, Elliot R

2005-12-01

26

Single Heartbeat Cardiac Tagging for the Evaluation of Transient Phenomena  

PubMed Central

Many cardiac abnormalities are of a transient nature, creating a beat-to-beat variation in myocardial function. This work presents the cardiac imaging technique for the measurement of regional function during transient cardiac phenomena. All information necessary for the reconstruction of a cine loop is acquired within a single heartbeat, avoiding the temporal blurring introduced by segmented imaging due to the assumption of cardiac cycle periodicity. This method incorporates a gradient-optimized, high-efficiency EPI-SSFP sequence and TSENSE parallel imaging. For acquisitions with readout resolutions of 128,160, 192, and 256 points, the technique produced images with average temporal resolution of 35, 39, 43, and 52 ms and average spatial resolutions of 2.65, 2.12, 1.77, and 1.32 mm in the readout direction, respectively, and 2.88 and 2.08 mm in the phase encode direction for acceleration rates of 3 and 4, respectively. Local apparent strains in the single slice and measurements of ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic areas were used as quantitative measures to validate the single heartbeat technique. To demonstrate the utility of the sequence, movie loops were acquired for multiple heartbeats in non-breath-held acquisitions as well as during a Valsalva maneuver. A heartbeat-interleaved acquisition allowed for the reconstruction of nonaccelerated images from R contiguous heartbeats. Images reconstructed from such data displayed tag blurring and reduced tag persistence due to motion and interheartbeat variability. Images acquired during the Valsalva maneuver demonstrated apparent beat-to-beat variability, visible both in the images and as changing strain patterns and ventricular volumes.

Herzka, Daniel A.; Derbyshire, J. Andrew; Kellman, Peter; McVeigh, Elliot R.

2007-01-01

27

SINGLE FIBER TESTING VIA FAVIMAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton fiber is usually tested in bulk form utilizing a mass or beard of fibers to be presented to a test instrument for measurement. There are many reasons for this, not the least of which is that handling single cotton fibers is tedious and time consuming. Cotton breeders are being pushed to mak...

28

Multiple cable injection transient test system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the problem of performing an EMP test on a large weapons facility containing six critical conduits. These conduits are positioned in various configurations at sites across the United States and can cover an area of 100000 square feet. Rather than maintaining a large trestle system to illuminate this area with the required EMP pulse, an analysis

C. Goldblum; E. Damerau; M. Komp; D. Brent; M. Smith

1995-01-01

29

SINGLE HEATER TEST FINAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect

The Single Heater Test is the first of the in-situ thermal tests conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of its program of characterizing Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site for a proposed deep geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. The Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988) contained an extensive plan of in-situ thermal tests aimed at understanding specific aspects of the response of the local rock-mass around the potential repository to the heat from the radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. With the refocusing of the Site Characterization Plan by the ''Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan'' (DOE 1994), a consolidated thermal testing program emerged by 1995 as documented in the reports ''In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (DOE 1995) and ''Updated In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (CRWMS M&O 1997a). The concept of the Single Heater Test took shape in the summer of 1995 and detailed planning and design of the test started with the beginning fiscal year 1996. The overall objective of the Single Heater Test was to gain an understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes that are anticipated to occur in the local rock-mass in the potential repository as a result of heat from radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. This included making a priori predictions of the test results using existing models and subsequently refining or modifying the models, on the basis of comparative and interpretive analyses of the measurements and predictions. A second, no less important, objective was to try out, in a full-scale field setting, the various instruments and equipment to be employed in the future on a much larger, more complex, thermal test of longer duration, such as the Drift Scale Test. This ''shake down'' or trial aspect of the Single Heater Test applied not just to the hardware, but also to the teamwork and cooperation between multiple organizations performing their part in the test.

J.B. Cho

1999-05-01

30

Test system to simulate transient overpower LMFBR cladding failure  

SciTech Connect

One of the HEDL programs has the objective to experimentally characterize fuel pin cladding failure due to cladding rupture or ripping. A new test system has been developed which simulates a transient mechanically-loaded fuel pin failure. In this new system the mechanical load is prototypic of a fuel pellet rapidly expanding against the cladding due to various causes such as fuel thermal expansion, fuel melting, and fuel swelling. This new test system is called the Fuel Cladding Mechanical Interaction Mandrel Loading Test (FCMI/MLT). The FCMI/MLT test system and the method used to rupture cladding specimens very rapidly to simulate a transient event are described. Also described is the automatic data acquisition and control system which is required to control the startup, operation and shutdown of the very fast tests, and needed to acquire and store large quantities of data in a short time.

Barrus, H.G.; Feigenbutz, L.V.

1981-01-14

31

LWR debris from severe in-pile transient tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rubble which may form as a result of a severe accident in a light water reactor (LWR) is likely to contain particles of very irregular shapes and sizes and of complex and non-uniform compositions. A number of in-pile tests have been run in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) to characterize LWR fuel behavior under a variety of severe reactor transients.

R. R. Hobbins; B. A. Cook; R. E. Mason

1982-01-01

32

100 MHz fiber optic single transient gamma ray detection system  

SciTech Connect

A fiber optic system has been developed to measure single transient gamma rays. The gamma ray signature is converted to light by the Cerenkov process in a 20 cm length of radiation resistant optical fiber. The signal is transmitted over 1 km of optical fiber and detected by state-of-the-art, 175 MHz analog receivers. The receivers are based on silicon PIN detectors with transimpedance hybrid amplifiers and two stages of power amplification. The dc coupled receivers have less than 2% distortion up to 5 volts with less than 10 mV rms noise and a responsivity of 37,500 V/watt at 800 nm. A calibration system measures relative fiber to fiber transit time delays and ''system'' sensitivity. System bandwidth measurements utilized an electron linear accelerator (Linac) with a 50 ps electron pulse as the Cerenkov light source. The system will be described with supporting calibrationa and characterization data of parts of the system and the whole system.

Ogle, J.W.; Smith, R.C.; Ward, M.; Ramsey, R.; Hollabaugh, J.

1984-01-01

33

The Bulk Built In Current Sensor Approach for Single Event Transient Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation effects, particularly single event transients (SETs), are increasingly affecting the reliability of integrated circuits as device dimensions are scaling down. This paper presents the use of bulk built in current sensors (Bulk-BICS) for SET detection. The efficiency and applicability of the bulk-BICS approach for Single Event Transient detection is demonstrated through device and circuit level simulations.

G. Wirth; C. Fayomi

2007-01-01

34

Intelligent transient transitions detection of LRE test bed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Health Monitoring Systems is an implementation of monitoring strategies for complex systems whereby avoiding catastrophic failure, extending life and leading to improved asset management. A Health Monitoring Systems generally encompasses intelligence at many levels and sub-systems including sensors, actuators, devices, etc. In this paper, a smart sensor is studied, which is use to detect transient transitions of liquid-propellant rocket engines test bed. In consideration of dramatic changes of variable condition, wavelet decomposition is used to work real time in areas. Contrast to traditional Fourier transform method, the major advantage of adding wavelet analysis is the ability to detect transient transitions as well as obtaining the frequency content using a much smaller data set. Historically, transient transitions were only detected by offline analysis of the data. The methods proposed in this paper provide an opportunity to detect transient transitions automatically as well as many additional data anomalies, and provide improved data-correction and sensor health diagnostic abilities. The developed algorithms have been tested on actual rocket test data.

Zhu, Fengyu; Shen, Zhengguang; Wang, Qi

2013-01-01

35

Behavior of metallic fuel in treat transient overpower tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results and analyses are reported for TREAT in-pile transient overpower tests of margin to cladding failure and pre-failure axial expansion of metallic fuel. In all cases the power rise was exponential on an 8 s period until either incipient or actual cladding failure was achieved. Test fuel included EBR-II driver fuel and ternary alloy, the reference fuel of the Intergral

T. H. Bauer; A. E. Wright; W. R. Robinson; A. E. Klickman

1988-01-01

36

Transients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The lecture includes typical transients to be analyzed, the requirements put on computer codes and a description of the computer codes as well as results obtained with these codes. Transients analysis is necessary within the licensing of reactors, in risk...

W. Frisch

1980-01-01

37

Results from transient tests and spherical valve closure tests, Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests were conducted at the Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant to obtain data on hydraulic system characteristics during transient-state operation, to compare measured values for system pressures and surge levels with design values, to provide information for review of hydaulic transient computations, and to provide confirmation that the spherical valves are capable of shutting off plant flow under emergency conditions. The

1984-01-01

38

Analysis of Transient Pressure Tests for Olkaria Exploration Wells  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of transient pressure tests for Olkaria West wells shows that both infinite acting and double porosity models can be used to analyze the well behaviour and infer reservoir properties from fall-off steps of long enough duration, in wells where no significant thermal recovery occurs. The double porosity model gives better estimates of reservoir properties than the infinite acting model, for long fall-off steps in wells intercepting fractures. Semilog methods give fairly good estimates of reservoir transmissivity for the long fall-off steps but are highly inaccurate when used independently, especially for the short fall-off steps conducted in most of the wells. Double porosity models can also be used for recovery test analyses where two phase transients are not significant. 6 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

Haukwa, Charles B.

1987-01-20

39

Transient computation fluid dynamics modeling of a single proton exchange membrane fuel cell with serpentine channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has become a promising candidate for the power source of electrical vehicles because of its low pollution, low noise and especially fast startup and transient responses at low temperatures. A transient, three-dimensional, non-isothermal and single-phase mathematical model based on computation fluid dynamics has been developed to describe the transient process and the dynamic

Guilin Hu; Jianren Fan

2007-01-01

40

Slow transient overpower tests - C04, C05 and L03. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

Among the low probability LMFBR accident scenarios addressed by the collaborative US/UK transient testing program is the slow transient overpower ramp resulting from the hypothetical event of a control rod runaway with failure to trip. This has been simulated in US's TREAT facility with three tests on irradiated driver fuel from the UK's Prototype Fast Reactor. Tests C04 and C05 were single pin experiments designed as a pair to study the effect of burnup on the time, location, and mechanisms of cladding failure and initial fuel escape. They were conducted on individual fuel pins of different burnup and power history; the C04 fuel had an axial peak burnup of approx. 4% while C05 fuel had reached a maximum burnup close to 9%. Test L03, reported in detail previously, studied post-failure fuel dispersal in a bundle of seven pins like the C04 fuel.

Culley, G.E.; Herbert, R.; Myron, D.L.; Wood, M.H.; Bowen, G.R.

1984-11-01

41

Sensitivity analysis and numerical experiments on transient test of compact heat exchanger surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single-blow transient testing technique considering the effect of longitudinal heat conduction is suggested for determining\\u000a the average convection heat transfer coefficient of compact heat exchanger surface. By matching the measured outlet fluid\\u000a temperature variation with similar theoretical curves, the dimensionless longitudinal conduction parameter ?1, the time constant of the inlet fluid temperature ?+, and the number of heat transfer

Hesheng Ren; Lingjun Lai; Yongzheng Cui

2008-01-01

42

Operational Transient Test Series OPTRAN 1-2: Experiment Specification Document.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several test series are being conducted in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) to determine the behavior of light water reactor fuel rods during transient reactor conditions. The PBF Operational Transient (OPTRAN) test series has the overall objective of evalu...

R. S. Semken

1979-01-01

43

Fast reactor safety testing in Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) in the 1980s  

SciTech Connect

Several series of fast reactor safety tests were performed in TREAT during the 1980s. These focused on the transient behavior of full-length oxide fuels (US reference, UK reference, and US advanced design) and on modern metallic fuels. Most of the tests addressed fuel behavior under transient overpower or loss-of-flow conditions. The test series were the PFR/TREAT tests; the RFT, TS, CDT, and RX series on oxide fuels; and the M series on metallic fuels. These are described in terms of their principal results and relevance to analyses and safety evaluation. 4 refs., 3 tabs.

Wright, A.E. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Dutt, D.S. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Harrison, L.J. (Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

1990-01-01

44

Behavior of metallic fuel in treat transient overpower tests  

SciTech Connect

Results and analyses are reported for TREAT in-pile transient overpower tests of margin to cladding failure and pre-failure axial expansion of metallic fuel. In all cases the power rise was exponential on an 8 s period until either incipient or actual cladding failure was achieved. Test fuel included EBR-II driver fuel and ternary alloy, the reference fuel of the Intergral Fast Reactor concept. Test pin burnup spanned the widest range available. The nature of the observed cladding failure and resultant fuel dispersals is described. Simple models are presented which describe observed cladding failures and pre-failure axial expansions yet are general enough to apply to all metal fuel types.

Bauer, T.H.; Wright, A.E.; Robinson, W.R.; Klickman, A.E.

1988-01-01

45

Transient thermal model of the continuous single-wheel thin-strip casting process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A transient heat-transfer model (STRIP1D) has been developed to simulate the single-roll continuous strip-casting process. The model predicts temperature in the solidifying strip coupled with heat transfer in the rotating wheel, using an explicit finite difference procedure. The model has been calibrated using strip thickness data from a test caster at ARMCO Inc. (Middletown, OH) and verified with a range of other available measurements. The strip/wheel interface contact resistance and heat transfer were investigated in particular, and an empirical formula to calculate this heat-transfer coefficient as a function of contact time was obtained. Wheel temperature and final strip thickness are investigated as a function of casting speed, liquid steel pool depth, superheat, coatings on the wheel hot surface, strip detachment point, wheel wall thickness, and wheel material.

Li, Guowei; Thomas, Brian G.

1996-06-01

46

Single Event Transient Response Dependence on Operating Conditions for a Digital to Analog Converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Single Event Effect (SEE) characterization of a Digital to Analog Converter showed an unexpected Single Event Transient (SET) dependence on operating conditions. The worst case condition resulting in the highest probability of an SET was at the highest supply voltage. The SET signatures were dependent on the input code, with some signatures not present when the input code was

Kirby Kruckmeyer; James S. Prater; Bill Brown; Sandeepan Dasgupta

2009-01-01

47

Transient analysis of a three phase induction motor with single phase supply  

SciTech Connect

The transient behaviour of a three phase induction motor operating with single phase supply and using capacitors as phase converter is considered. Instantaneous symmetrical components are used in modeling the motor with different stator connections, including the external capacitor. Digital simulation studies have been carried out for the system considered and the results are presented and discussed. The results presented include transient current and torque patterns under run-up conditions. Considerable oscillations in torque occur during run-up.

Murthy, S.S.; Berg, G.J.; Jha, C.S.; Singh, B.; Singh, B.P.

1983-01-01

48

Upset due to a single particle caused propagated transient in a bulk CMOS microprocessor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data pattern advances observed in preset, single event upset (SEU) hardened clocked flip-flops, during static Cf-252 exposures on a bulk CMOS microprocessor, were attributable to particle caused anomalous clock signals, or propagated transients. SPICE simulations established that particle strikes in the output nodes of a clock control logic flip-flop could produce transients of sufficient amplitude and duration to be accepted

J. F. Leavy; L. F. Hoffmann; R. W. Shovan; M. T. Johnson

1991-01-01

49

Transient Testing of Nuclear Fuels and Materials in United States  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has been engaged in an effort to develop and qualify next generation LWR fuel with enhanced performance and safety and reduced waste generation since 2010. This program, which has emphasized collaboration between the DOE, U.S. national laboratories and nuclear industry, was refocused from enhanced performance to enhanced accident tolerance following the events at Fukushima in 2011. Accident tolerant fuels have been specifically described as fuels that, in comparison with standard UO2-Zircaloy, can tolerate loss of active cooling in the reactor core for a considerably longer time period (depending on the LWR system and accident scenario) while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations, operational transients, as well as design-basis and beyond design-basis events. The program maintains an ambitious goal to insert a lead test assembly (LTA) of the new design into a commercial power reactor by 2022 .

Daniel M. Wachs

2012-12-01

50

Barometric pressure transient testing applications at the Nevada Test Site: formation permeability analysis. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report evaluates previous investigations of the gas permeability of the rock surrounding emplacement holes at the Nevada Test Site. The discussion sets the framework from which the present uncertainty in gas permeability can be overcome. The usefulness of the barometric pressure testing method has been established. Flow models were used to evaluate barometric pressure transients taken at NTS holes U2fe, U19ac and U20ai. 31 refs., 103 figs., 18 tabs. (ACR)

Hanson, J.M.

1984-12-01

51

Slow transient overpower tests - C04, C05 and L03. [LMFBR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the low probability LMFBR accident scenarios addressed by the collaborative US\\/UK transient testing program is the slow transient overpower ramp resulting from the hypothetical event of a control rod runaway with failure to trip. This has been simulated in US's TREAT facility with three tests on irradiated driver fuel from the UK's Prototype Fast Reactor. Tests C04 and C05

G. E. Culley; R. Herbert; D. L. Myron; M. H. Wood; G. R. Bowen

1984-01-01

52

TRANSPA: a code for transient thermal analysis of a single fuel pin  

SciTech Connect

An analytical model (TRANSPA) for the transient thermal analysis of a single uranium carbide fuel pin was developed. This model uses thermal boundary conditions obtained from COBRA-WC output and calculates the transient thermal response of a single fuel pin to changes in internal power generation, coolant flowrate, or fuel pin physical configuration. The model uses the MITAS finite difference thermal analyzer. MITAS provides the means to input separate conductance models through the use of a user subroutine input capability. The model is a lumped-mass representation of the fuel pin using 26 nodes and 42 conductors. Run time for each transient analysis is approximately one minute of central processor time on the NOS operating system.

Prenger, F.C.

1985-02-01

53

Single Sample t-Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page will perform a t-test for the significance of the difference between the observed mean of a sample and a hypothetical mean of the population from which the sample is randomly drawn. The user will be asked to specify the sample size as the page opens.

Lowry, Richard, 1940-

2008-09-05

54

COMPREHENSIVE METHOD FOR TRANSIENT MODELING OF SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS INCLUDING THE SPACE HARMONICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a method which enables the simulation of single phase induction machines during transient as well as steady state is presented. The approach, based on the winding functions, makes no assumption as to the necessity for sinusoidal MMF and therefore include all space harmonics in the machine. The parameters of the model are directly calculated from the geometry

HAMID A. TOLIYAT; NADER SARGOLZAEI

1998-01-01

55

HECTR (Hydrogen Event: Containment Transient Response) analyses of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) premixed combustion experiments  

SciTech Connect

The HECTR (Hydrogen Event: Containment Transient Response) computer code has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories to predict the transient pressure and temperature responses within reactor containments for hypothetical accidents involving the transport and combustion of hydrogen. Although HECTR was designed primarily to investigate these phenomena in LWRs, it may also be used to analyze hydrogen transport and combustion experiments as well. It is in this manner that HECTR is assessed and empirical correlations, such as the combustion completeness and flame speed correlations for the hydrogen combustion model, if necessary, are upgraded. In this report, we present HECTR analyses of the large-scale premixed hydrogen combustion experiments at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and comparison with the test results. The existing correlations in HECTR version 1.0, under certain conditions, have difficulty in predicting accurately the combustion completeness and burn time for the NTS experiments. By combining the combustion data obtained from the NTS experiments with other experimental data (FITS, VGES, ACUREX, and Whiteshell), a set of new and better combustion correlations was generated. HECTR prediction of the containment responses, using a single-compartment model and EPRI-provided combustion completeness and burn time, compares reasonably well against the test results. However, HECTR prediction of the containment responses using a multicompartment model does not compare well with the test results. This discrepancy shows the deficiency of the homogeneous burning model used in HECTR. To overcome this deficiency, a flame propagation model is highly recommended. 16 refs., 84 figs., 5 tabs.

Wong, C.C.

1988-11-01

56

PHASE I SINGLE CELL ELECTROLYZER TEST RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document reports the results of Phase I Single Cell testing of an SO-Depolarized Water Electrolyzer. Testing was performed primarily during the first quarter of FY 2008 at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) using an electrolyzer cell designed and built at SRNL. Other facility hardware were also designed and built at SRNL. This test further advances this technology for

J Steimke; T Timothy Steeper

2008-01-01

57

Single event transient analysis of an SOI operational amplifier for use in low-temperature Martian exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The next generation of Martian rovers to be launched by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are to examine polar regions where temperatures are extremely low and the absence of an earth-like atmosphere results in high levels of cosmic radiation at ground level. Cosmic rays lead to a plethora of radiation effects including Single Event Transients which can severely degrade microelectronic functionality. As such, a radiation-hardened, temperature compensated CMOS Single-on-insulator (SOI) Operational Amplifier has been designed for JPL by the University of Tennessee and fabricated by Honeywell using the SOI V process. SOI technology has been shown to be far less sensitive to transient effects than both bulk and epilayer Si. Broad beam heavy-ion tests at the University of Texas A&M using Kr and Xe beams of energy 25 MeV/amu were performed to ascertain the duration and severity of the SET for the op-amp configured for a low and high gain application. However, some ambiguity regarding the location of transient formation required the use of a focused MeV ion microbeam. A 36 MeV O6+ microbeam at the Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) was used to image and verify regions of particular concern.

Laird, Jamie Stuart; Scheick, Leif; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Miyahira, Tetsuo; Chen, Yuan; Blalock, Benjamin; Greenwell, Robert; Terry, Stephen; Doyle, Barney

2007-07-01

58

Laboratory thermal transient tests on irradiated mixed oxide fuel. [LMFBR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of laboratory thermal transient experiments have been performed on mixed oxide fuel pin sections preirradiated at medium power to mid-range burnup, to determine the mechanisms of fission gas release. Heating rate and maximum temperature were varied and the resultant effect on the gas release, microstructure and gas bubble distribution were determined.

O. D. Slagle; C. A. Hinman; E. T. Weber

1976-01-01

59

A 10 GHz bandwidth, single transient, digitized oscilloscope with 20 GHz capability  

SciTech Connect

EG&G/EM has developed an oscilloscope with a {minus}3 dB bandwidth greater than 10 GHz. Its rolloff characteristics are such that single-transient data greater than 20 GHz may be captured. A demountable CCD camera records the oscilloscope trace and is provided with PC-compatible capture and data processing software. The capabilities of the oscilloscope, camera, and its processing software are described and examples of the system`s performance is shown.

Hudson, C.L.; Kocimski, S.M. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Santa Barbara Operations; Spector, J. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States). Amador Valley Operations; Thomas, J.B. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Woburn, MA (United States). Cathode Ray Tube Opeations; Woodstra, R.R. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Kirtland Operations

1993-12-31

60

Transient Photocurrents in Pyrene-TCNE Single Crystals. I. Currents Controlled by Surface Layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transient hole-photocurrents were measured in the direction perpendicular to bc-plane of a pyrene-TCNE single crystal. In order to interpret behaviours of photoresponses to the applied voltage and the series resistance, a model, that the crystal has surface layers, where the density of carrier trapping- or recombination-centers is higher than that in a bulk, was proposed. This model explained satisfactorily the

Hiroshi Kaino

1975-01-01

61

Properties of transient K+ currents and underlying single K+ channels in rat olfactory receptor neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T The transient potassium current, IK(t), of enzymatically dissociated rat olfactory receptor neurons was studied using patch-clamp techniques. Upon depo- larization from negative holding potentials, IK(t) activated rapidly and then inacti- vated with a time course described by the sum of two exponential components with time constants of 22.4 and 143 ms. Single-channel

JOSEPH W. LYNCH; PETER H. BARRY

1991-01-01

62

Transient dynamics in magnetic force microscopy for a single-spin measurement  

SciTech Connect

We analyze a single-spin measurement using a transient process in magnetic force microscopy which could increase the maximum operating temperature by a factor of Q (the quality factor of the cantilever) in comparison with the static Stern-Gerlach effect. We obtain an exact solution of the master equation, which confirms this result. We also discuss the conditions required to create a macroscopic quantum superposition in the cantilever.

Berman, G.P. [Theoretical Division and CNLS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Borgonovi, F. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universita Cattolica, via Musei 41, 25121 Brescia (Italy); INFM, Unita di Brescia, 25121 Brescia, Italy and and INFN, Sezione di Pavia, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Lopez, G.V. [Departamento de Fisica de la Universidad de Guadalajara S.R. 500, 44420 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Tsifrinovich, V.I. [IDS Department, Polytechnic University, Six Metrotech Center, Brooklyn, New York 11201 (United States)

2003-07-01

63

Total Dose Effect on the Propagation of Single Event Transients in a CMOS Inverter String  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulsed laser light has been used to reveal how total ionizing dose radiation affects the propagation of single event transients in a string of inverters. By holding the input to the string of inverters at high voltage (1.8 V) during exposure to ionizing radiation, an asymmetry in the threshold voltages of the n-channel transistors is induced, i.e., the inputs to

Stephen Buchner; Michael Sibley; Paul Eaton; David Mavis; Dale McMorrow

2010-01-01

64

ANSYS Benchmark of the Single Heater Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Single Heater Test (SHT) is the first of three in-situ thermal tests included in the site characterization program for the potential nuclear waste monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The heating phase of the SHT started in August 1996 and...

2006-01-01

65

Evaluation of Naturally Fractured Gas Shale Production Utilizing Multiwell Transient Tests: A Field Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of multiple well transient tests were conducted in a Devonian shale gas field in Meigs County, Ohio. Production parameters were quantified and it was determined that the reservoir is highly anisotropic, which is a significant factor in calculating half-fracture length from pressure transient data. Three stimulation treatments, including conventional explosive shooting, nitrogen foam frac, and high energy gas

Chih-Cheng Chen; Javaid Alam; J. P. Vozniak; T. L. Blanton

1984-01-01

66

EMTP transient modeling of a distance relay and a comparison with EMTP laboratory testing. [ElectroMagnetics Transient Program  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a method to test the transient performance of a sampled-data relay. A model of one measuring unit of a digital relay was created on a personal computer. The simulations are compared with laboratory results obtained by applying digitally generated waveforms to the actual relay. Computer modelling of the digital relay is done within the Models version of the Transient Analysis of Control System (TACS) subsection of the ElectroMagnetics Transient Program (EMTP). The input filter, analog to digital converter, Fourier fundamental frequency detector, and the relay measuring principle of one digital microprocessor based relay are modeled. The modeling of these components within an EMTP environment represents new work. An actual 115 Kv 150 mile long transmission line was simulated using the EMTP. The faults simulated on the transmission line were applied both to the digital model of the relay and the actual relay. The physical testing used the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Relay Evaluation System (RES). Results from the digital relay simulation are compared with results from an actual relay. The educational value of observing relay waveforms at various stages within the simulation is discussed.

Wilson, R.E. (Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)); Nordstrom, J.M. (Bonneville Power Administration, Vancouver, WA (United States))

1993-07-01

67

Behavior of mixed-oxide fuel elements during the TOPI1E transient overpower test  

Microsoft Academic Search

A slow-ramp, extended overpower transient test was conducted on a group of nineteen preirradiated mixed-oxide fuel elements in EBR-II. During the transient two of the test elements with high-density fuel and tempered martensitic cladding (PNC-FMS) breached at an overpower of 75%. Fuel elements with austenitic claddings (D9, PNC316, and PNC150), many with aggressive design features and high burnups, survived the

H. Tsai; L. A. Neimark; K. Yamamoto; K. Hirai; S. Shikakura

1993-01-01

68

Characterization of a compact bistatic test range and wideband antennas excited by transient signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 300-900 MHz ultrawideband (UWB) bistatic test range has been developed in order to analyze echo signals that are based on a transient stimulus. By means of a 2 gigasample/sec digital oscilloscopy allowed a characterization of the true wideband response of materials; two low time-dispersion, quasi-TEM wave-supporting antennas were developed for the bistatic range. Attention is given to the responses of this UWB test range and its antennas to a transient stimulus.

Erdley, Todd A.; Kisenwether, Elizabeth C.; Groff, Richard D.

1992-05-01

69

Pressure-transient analysis of fracture-calibration tests  

SciTech Connect

Fracture-calibration pressure decline has been used for determination of the leakoff coefficient, a bulk variable describing the process of fluid influx into the reservoir, normal to the created fracture face. In this work, the fluid loss is modeled in terms of the controlling mechanisms: flow through the filter cake, the invaded zone, and the reservoir. A rigorous model describes unsteady-state fluid flow from fractures of varying area into the formation, with the filter cake considered as a time- and rate-dependent skin effect. The injection history is superposed on the pressure decline. This work provides a straight-line technique for determination of reservoir permeability and fracture-face resistance. Log-log diagnostic plots provide the means to recognize visually whether the transient response is dominated by flow in the reservoir or at the fracture face. The authors found that the pressure transient very frequently is dominated by the flow in the reservoir rather than through the filter cake. The reservoir permeability (an essential value for fracture design that is usually not available) can be estimated, while the model captures all trends of the falloff-pressure variation.

Mayerhofer, M.J. [Mining Univ. Leoben (Austria); Ehlig-Economides, C. [Schlumberger Well Services, Houston, TX (United States). Interpretation Dept.; Economides, M.J. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

1995-03-01

70

Data acquisition and interpretation of horizontal well pressure-transient tests  

SciTech Connect

For both vertical and horizontal wells, pressure-transient testing is a powerful tool for evaluating in-situ reservoir and wellbore parameters that describe the production characteristics of a well. Although many operators use horizontal well technology, many engineers consider pressure-transient testing of horizontal wells impractical and too complex. Experience has shown, however, that with adequate test planning, based on the concept of low regimes and focused on optimizing test conditions, horizontal well testing can be as successful as vertical well testing. Using the concept of flow regimes and drawing on analogies with vertical wells, this paper reviews the pressure-transient behavior of horizontal wells. Practical guidelines are given for planning, executing, and interpreting horizontal well tests. The application of various interpretation techniques is illustrated with field examples.

Lichtenberger, G.J. (Oryx Energy Co., Dallas, TX (United States))

1994-02-01

71

Curing dynamics of photopolymers measured by single-shot heterodyne transient grating method.  

PubMed

The heterodyne transient grating (HD-TG) method was first applied to the curing dynamics measurement of photopolymers. The curing dynamics for various monomers including an initiator (2.5 vol%) was monitored optically via the refractive index change after a single UV pulse irradiation. We could obtain the polymerization time and the final change in the refractive index, and the parameters were correlated with the viscosity, molecular structure, and reaction sites. As the polymerization time was longer, the final refractive change was larger, and the polymerization time was explained in terms of the monomer properties. PMID:23574665

Arai, Mika; Fujii, Tomomi; Inoue, Hayato; Kuwahara, Shota; Katayama, Kenji

2013-01-01

72

Support excitation scheme for transient analysis of JEDEC board-level drop test  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose in this paper the support excitation scheme for analyzing transient structural responses of electronic components subjected to JEDEC board-level drop test conditions. Equations of motion of the board-level test vehicle are derived based on coordinate transformations that translate the input acceleration pulse into the effective support excitation load on the test vehicle. In this way, modeling of the

Chang-lin Yeh; Yi-shao Lai

2006-01-01

73

Generation of THz transients by photoexcited single-crystal GaAs meso-structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a sub-picosecond photoresponse and THz transient generation of GaAs single-crystal mesoscopic platelets excited by femtosecond optical pulses. Our structures were fabricated by a top-down technique, by patterning an epitaxial, 500-nm-thick GaAs film grown on top of an AlAs sacrificial layer and then transferring the resulting etched away 10 × 20-?m2 platelets onto an MgO substrate using a micropipette. The freestanding GaAs devices, incorporated into an Au coplanar strip line, exhibited extremely low dark currents and ~0.4 % detection efficiency at 10 V bias. The all-optical, pump-probe carrier dynamics analysis showed that, for 800-nm-wavelength excitation, the intrinsic relaxation of photocarriers featured a 310-fs-wide transient with a 290 fs fall time. We have also carried out a femtosecond, time-resolved electro-optic characterization of our devices and recorded along the transmission line the electrical transients as short as ~600 fs, when the platelet was excited by a train of 100-fs-wide, 800-nm-wavelength optical laser pulses. The platelets have been also demonstrated to be very efficient generators of free-space propagating THz transients with the spectral bandwidth exceeding 2 THz. The presented performance of the epitaxial, freestanding GaAs meso-structured photodevices makes them uniquely suitable for THz-frequency optoelectronic applications, ranging from ultrafast photodetectors to THz-bandwidth optical-to-electrical transducers and photomixers.

Zhang, Jie; Mikulics, Martin; Adam, Roman; Grützmacher, Detlev; Sobolewski, Roman

2013-05-01

74

Transient x-ray diffraction to measure the dynamic response of shocked lithium fluoride single crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient x-ray diffraction, also called time-resolved x-ray diffraction and dynamic x-ray diffraction, is one novel diagnostic technique for probing shocked solids. It can provide direct information about microscopic mechanisms governing shock-induced deformation and structural changes at atomistic scales with nanosecond and picoseconds resolution, and lately, it has become possible to measure the structure of transients with sub-picoseconds and sub-Angstrom resolution with the development of ultrafast lasers which can produce femtosecond electron and x-ray pulses in the form of characteristics emission lines as well as x-ray continua in the keV range. In this paper, we detect and measure directly the dynamic response of lithium fluoride single crystal shocked compressed by laser irradiation in SHENGUANG II. In our experiments, high-intensity lasers irradiated a thin Cu foil to generate helium-like rays as x-ray source. Film (IP--image plate) recorded x rays diffracted from multiple lattice planes both perpendicular and oblique angles to the shock loading direction [100]. We gained the diffraction signals of the lattice planes (200) shocked and unshocked, what's more, other lattices (113), (1-13). The positions of the diffraction lines associated with the (200) lattice plane indicated compression of the lattice along [100] direction by 13%. In the experiment, a large-angle detector consists of two films-one rectangular in shape,one triangular in shape that are positioned to record x rays diffracted from a shocked single crystal nearly within a full ? steradian. The experiment shows that transient x-ray diffraction can diagnose the dynamical response of solid with higher resolution.

Wang, Hai-rong; Ye, Yan; Yang, Qing-guo; Li, Mu; Xiao, Sha-li; Li, Ze-ren

2013-08-01

75

Analysis of current transients in SRAM memories for single event upset detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soft errors resulting from the impact of charged particles are emerging as a major issue in the design of reliable circuits at deep sub-micron dimensions even at ground level. To face this challenge, a designer must dispose of a variety of mitigation schemes adapted to their specific design constraints. Built In Current Sensors have been proposed as a detection scheme for single event upsets in SRAM. In this paper, Power-Bus current transients in SRAM memories for Single Event Upset Detection have been analyzed in a 65nm CMOS technology. The different types of current roles which are applied during the simulation is discussed. The results show the important contribution of leakage currents in the response of the memory cell to an external event.

Torrens, G.; Bota, S.; Verd, J.; Alorda, B.; Merino, J.; Segura, J.

2009-05-01

76

Deep level transient spectroscopic study of oxygen implanted melt grown ZnO single crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep level traps in melt grown ZnO single crystal created by oxygen implantation and subsequent annealing in air were studied by deep level transient spectroscopy measurement between 80 and 300 K. The EC-0.29 eV trap (E3) was the dominant peak in the as-grown sample and no new defects were created in the as-O-implanted sample. The single peak feature of the deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) spectra did not change with the annealing temperature up to 750 °C, but the activation energy decreased to 0.22 eV. This was explained in terms of a thermally induced defect having a peak close to but inseparable from the original 0.29 eV peak. A systematic study on a wide range of the rate window for the DLTS measurement successfully separated the Arrhenius plot data originated from different traps. It was inferred that the E3 concentration in the samples did not change after the O-implantation. The traps at EC-0.11, EC-0.16 and EC-0.58 eV were created after annealing. The EC-0.16 eV trap was assigned to an intrinsic defect. No DLTS signal was found after the sample was annealed to 1200 °C.

Ye, Z. R.; Lu, X. H.; Ding, G. W.; Fung, S.; Ling, C. C.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.

2011-09-01

77

Measurement of Relative Permeability Using Single-Step Transient Flow Centrifuge Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steady-state flow centrifuge methods have been widely used to determine the relative permeability function, krw, of porous media. The centripetal acceleration greatly accelerates the speed at which equilibrium conditions are found in drainage or imbibition experiments. While equilibrium conditions are required by steady- state flow centrifuge methods, transient flow centrifuge methods utilize the time variant adaptation of state variables (e.g. fluid saturation, pressure or flux) to sudden changes in boundary conditions. Transient flow centrifuge experiments were conducted using a commercial rock core ultracentrifuge to displace wetting fluids from an initially fully-saturated sample by non-wetting fluids. The cumulative production of wetting fluid leaving the sample was recorded using an automated digital camera recording system. The time series of cumulative wetting fluid production forms the input for the objective function of inverse numerical modeling efforts and for the independent estimation of krw using an analytical solution for the transient flow of fluids through a porous medium in a centripetal field (the Hagoort method). In this study, single-step transient outflow experiments were run on Berea sandstone cores. The angular velocity was 942 sec-1. Independent laboratory techniques were used to measure the saturated water content, ?s, and the intrinsic permeability, ksat. Besides these measurements, synthetic production data were generated with forward simulations of Hydrus-1D using the standard van Genuchten parameters for 'Sand' and 'Silt' soils. The models simulated acceleration of the centrifuge rotor during the first ~95 seconds of the experiment by increasing the angular velocity stepwise in 2.5 second intervals to 733 sec-1. The data were interpreted using a modified version of the Hagoort method in which numerical derivatives are used to compute the slope of the production curve in order to calculate relative saturation and the corresponding krw function. We also used Hydrus-1D to inversely estimate the parameters of the van Genuchten relative permeability model, ?r, a, n, and l. Systematic variation of the initial parameters values used in the inverse simulations showed that some of the parameter estimates obtained with inverse simulation were non-unique. For both the synthetic simulations and the measurement data, the difference between the original krw curve and the krw curve obtained with inverse simulations was most sensitive to the initial estimate of the shape parameter, n. Estimation of initial parameter values could be augmented by the good correspondence between the krw curves obtained with the Hagoort method and those used and obtained in numerical (inverse) simulations. Transient flow centrifuge experiments and their interpretation are expected to have applications in predicting infiltration and remediation of environmental contamination within the vadose zone.

van den Berg, E. H.; Perfect, E.; Mayes, M. A.

2007-12-01

78

Power Supply Transient Signal Analysis Under Real Process and Test Hardware Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A device testing method called Transient Signal Analysis (TSA) is subjected to elements of a real process and testing environment in this paper. Simulations experiments are designed to determine the effects of process skew (obtained from measured parameters of a real process) on the accu- racy of TSA in estimating path delays from power supply IDDT and VDDT waveforms. The

Abhishek Singh; Jim Plusquellic; Anne E. Gattiker

2002-01-01

79

RAPID Boron-dilution Transient Tests for OECD\\/CSNI International Standard Problem No. 43  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Maryland 2 x 4 Thermalhydraulic Loop Facility (UM 2 x 4 Loop) collected code verification data for rapid boron-dilution (RBD) transients. This paper addresses the objectives of recently completed RBD tests and the redesign of the UM 2 x 4 Loop facility for the four test series of the current program. The UM 2 x 4 Loop

Mirela Gavrilas; Vesselin Palazov; Brian Woods

2002-01-01

80

Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Digital Single Event Transients in a 180-nm Fully Depleted SOI Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of ionizing radiation on single event transients are reported for Fully Depleted SOI (FDSOI) technology using experiments and simulations. Logic circuits, i.e. CMOS inverter chains, were irradiated with cobalt-60 gamma radiation. When charge is induced in the n-channel FET with laser-probing techniques, laser-induced transients widen with increased total dose. This is because radiation causes charge to be trapped in

Pascale M. Gouker; Matthew J. Gadlage; Dale McMorrow; Patrick McMarr; Harold Hughes; Peter Wyatt; Craig Keast; Bharat L. Bhuva; Balaji Narasimham

2009-01-01

81

Relationship of lipid rafts to transient confinement zones detected by single particle tracking.  

PubMed Central

We examined the physical and chemical characteristics of transient confinement zones (TCZs) that are detected in single particle trajectories of molecules moving within the membrane of C3H 10T1/2 murine fibroblasts and their relationship to "rafts." We studied the lateral movement of different membrane molecules thought to partition to varying degrees into or out of the putative lipid domains known as rafts. We found that lipid analogs spend significantly less time in TCZs compared with Thy-1, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, and GM1, a glycosphingolipid. For Thy-1, we found that zone abundance was markedly reduced by cholesterol extraction, suggesting that a major source of the observed temporary confinement is related to the presence of raft domains. More detailed analysis of particle trajectories reveals that zones can be revisited even tens of seconds after the original escape and that diffusion within the zones is reduced by a factor of approximately 2, consistent with the zone being a cholesterol-rich liquid-ordered phase. Surprisingly, transient confinement was not strongly temperature dependent. Overall, our data demonstrate that there are raft-related domains present in certain regions of the plasma membrane of C3H cells, which can persist for tens of seconds.

Dietrich, Christian; Yang, Bing; Fujiwara, Takahiro; Kusumi, Akihiro; Jacobson, Ken

2002-01-01

82

Applications of convolution and deconvolution to transient well tests  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the application of convolution and deconvolution interpretation methods. Two well-test field examples, interpreted with these methods, suggest that the downhole flow rate is crucial for system identification and parameter estimation and that the wellbore volume below the pressure gauge and flowmeter must be taken into account. A generalized rate-convolution method is presented to obtain the reservoir pressure. This new method gives better results than both the Horner and modified Horner methods. A new formula also is presented to determine the vertical permeability for partially penetrated wells.

Kuchuk, F.J. (Schlumberger-Doll Research Center, Ridgefield, CT (US))

1990-12-01

83

Testing and Lubrication for Single Race Bearings  

SciTech Connect

Three ES and H-compatible lubricants (Environment, Safety and Health) for single race bearing applications and one hybrid-material single race bearings were evaluated and compared against single race bearings with trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon) deposition of low molecular weight polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) bearing lubricant extracted from Vydax{trademark}. Vydax is a product manufactured by DuPont consisting of various molecular weights of PTFE suspended in trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon), which is an ozone-depleting solvent. Vydax has been used as a bearing lubricant in stronglink mechanisms since 1974. Hybrid bearings with silicon nitride balls and molded glass-nylon-Teflon retainers, bearings lubricated with titanium carbide (TiC) on the balls, bearings lubricated with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on races and retainers, and bearings lubricated with electrophoretically deposited MoS{sub 2} were evaluated. The bearings were maintained in a preloaded state in bearing cartridges during cycling and vibration tests. Bearings with electrophoretically deposited MoS{sub 2} performed as well as bearings lubricated with Vydax and were the best performing candidate. All candidates were suitable for low preload applications. Bearings with TiC coated balls and bearings lubricated with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on the races and retainers performed well at high preloads, though not as well as bearings lubricated with electrophoretic deposition of MoS{sub 2}. Bearings with silicon nitride balls were not suitable for high preload applications.

Steinhoff, R.G.

1998-03-04

84

Elastic Transient Energy Transport and Energy Balance in a Single-Level Quantum Dot System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive a nonequilibrium Green's function formalism to study the transient energy currents carried by electrons in a single-level quantum dot system sandwiched between two electrodes. The energy current shows the same relaxation time and oscillation behavior as the electrical current. In contrast to the steady state case, the energy currents in deep insides of the two electrodes do not balance each other in the time domain. The sum of energy currents in the two electrodes corresponds to the time-dependent energy change in the sandwiched region, and the fact that the energy change in this region is not necessarily zero reflects the real-time electron redistribution in energy domain. Moreover, the amplitude of the energy change does not vary monotonically with the coupling strength between the dot and electrode, in contrast to the relaxation time, which is inversely proportional to the coupling strength.

Liu, Wei; Sasaoka, Kenji; Yamamoto, Takahiro; Tada, Tomofumi; Watanabe, Satoshi

2012-09-01

85

Exciton diffusion in semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes studied by transient absorption microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a spatially resolved transient absorption study of exciton diffusion in a thin films of isolated semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes. Spatiotemporal dynamics of excitons injected by a tightly focused pump pulse are studied by measuring differential reflection and differential transmission of a time-delayed and spatially scanned probe pulse. We observe a bi-exponentially decaying signal with a fast time constant of 0.66 ps and a slower time constant of 2.8 ps. Both constants are independent of the pump fluence. The squared width of the exciton density profile increases linearly with time, as expected for a diffusion process. We measured a diffusion coefficient of 200 ± 10 cm^2/s at room temperature, which is independent of the pump fluence. We additionally investigated the diffusion coefficient at temperatures of 10 and 150 K and found diffusion coefficients of approximately 300 ± 10 cm^2/s at both.

Ruzicka, Brian; Wang, Rui; Lohrman, Jessica; Ren, Shenqiang; Zhao, Hui

2013-03-01

86

Frequency-domain ``single-shot'' ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy using chirped laser pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-shot ultrafast transient absorbance spectroscopy based on the frequency encoding of kinetics is demonstrated. The kinetics are sampled in the frequency domain using linearly chirped, amplified 33 fs pulses derived from a Ti:sapphire laser. A variable length grating pair compressor is used to achieve sampling of 512 channels with a 2-160 ps window with sensitivity>5×10-4. In terms of the acquisition time, frequency-domain ``single-shot'' (FDSS) spectroscopy has an advantage over pump-probe spectroscopy when ``noise'' is dominated by variations in the amplitude of the signal due to pump and flow instability. Unlike some other single-shot techniques, FDSS can be used for fluid samples flowing in a high-speed jet and for thin solid samples that exhibit interference fringes. Another advantage is that, due to interference of quasimonochromatic components of the chirped probe pulse, an oscillation pattern near the origin of the FDSS kinetics emerges. This pattern is unique and can be used to determine the complex dielectric function of photogenerated species. The advantages of FDSS are illustrated with the kinetics obtained in multiphoton ionization of aqueous iodide and one-photon excitation of polycrystalline ZnSe.

Shkrob, Ilya A.; Oulianov, Dmitri A.; Crowell, Robert A.; Pommeret, Stanislas

2004-07-01

87

Columbia University Flow Instability Experimental Program, Volume 5: Single annulus tests, steady-state test program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results for the steady state portion of the finless single annulus test program. The objective of the experimental study was to investigate the onset of flow instability in an annular geometry similar to the MARK 22 reactor. The test program involved testing of both a finless or ribless heater and a ribbed heater. The latter program is currently underway and will be reported separately. For finless heater, testing was conducted in both a steady state and transient mode. The present report presents steady state results for a series of experiments with uniform and asymmetric heating. The demand curves obtained under uniform heating yielded OFI flow-rates which were slightly below those obtained for a circular tube geometry with the same L/D ratio; however, the single annulus had a hydraulic diameter which was approximately fifty percent larger than the circular tube. The asymmetric heating cases were selected to provide the same average power input as the uniform cases. The results for these tests indicated that the flow-rate at OFI increased with the degree of asymmetry.

Dougherty, T.; Maciuca, C.; McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Reddy, D.G.; Yang, B.W.

1991-07-01

88

Electronically controlled mechanical seal for aerospace applications--Part 2: Transient tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electronically controlled mechanical seal for use as the purge gas seal in a liquid oxygen turbopump has been fabricated and tested under transient operating conditions. The thickness of the lubricating film is controlled by adjusting the coning of the carbon face. This is accomplished by applying a voltage to a piezoelectric actuator to which the carbon face is bonded. The seal has been operated with a closed-loop control system that utilizes either the leakage rate or seal face temperature as the feedback. Both speed and pressure transients have been imposed on the seal. The transient tests have demonstrated that the seal is capable of maintaing low leakage rates while limiting face temperatures.

Wolff, Paul J.; Salant, Richard F.

1995-01-01

89

PHASE I SINGLE CELL ELECTROLYZER TEST RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

This document reports the results of Phase I Single Cell testing of an SO{sub 2}-Depolarized Water Electrolyzer. Testing was performed primarily during the first quarter of FY 2008 at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) using an electrolyzer cell designed and built at SRNL. Other facility hardware were also designed and built at SRNL. This test further advances this technology for which work began at SRNL in 2005. This research is valuable in achieving the ultimate goal of an economical hydrogen production process based on the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Cycle. The focus of this work was to conduct single cell electrolyzer tests to further develop the technology of SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis as part of the HyS Cycle. The HyS Cycle is a hybrid thermochemical cycle that may be used in conjunction with advanced nuclear reactors or centralized solar receivers to produce hydrogen by water-splitting. Like all other sulfur-based cycles, HyS utilizes the high temperature thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid to produce oxygen and regenerate sulfur dioxide. The unique aspect of HyS is the generation of hydrogen in a water electrolyzer that is operated under conditions where dissolved sulfur dioxide depolarizes the anodic reaction, resulting in substantial voltage reduction. Low cell voltage is essential for both thermodynamic efficiency and hydrogen cost. Sulfur dioxide is oxidized at the anode, producing sulfuric acid that is sent to the high temperature acid decomposition portion of the cycle. The electrolyzer cell uses the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) concept. The anode and cathode are formed by spraying platinum containing catalyst on both sides of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM). In most testing the material of the PEM was NafionR. The electrolyzer cell active area can be as large as 54.8 cm{sup 2}. Feed to the anode of the electrolyzer is a sulfuric acid solution containing sulfur dioxide. The partial pressure of sulfur dioxide could be varied in the range of 1 to 6 atm (15 to 90 psia). Temperatures could be controlled in the range from ambient to 80 C. Hydrogen generated at the cathode of the cell was collected for the purpose of flow measurement and composition analysis. The test facility proved to be easy to operate, versatile, and reliable.

Steimke, J; Timothy Steeper, T

2008-08-05

90

Elevated transient temperature leak test for unstable microelectronic packages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method and apparatus for detecting leaks in glass-to-metal seals of microelectronic devices and the like are described which comprise a double-gasketed vacuum station including a base plate having a central hole an a first gasket for exposing one side of the seals to a leak detector; a vacuum fixture surrounding the device provides a marginal region therearound which can be evacuated to prevent helium from permeating the first gasket; the vacuum fixture includes a central opening to expose the other side of the seals to a helium containing atmosphere within a shroud enclosing the device and vacuum fixture; a second gasket provides a seal between the vacuum fixture and device periphery at the central opening in the fixture. For leak tests under controlled time/temperature conditions, an adjacent infrared lamp is used to radiantly heat the package containing the glass-to-metal seals, and a mask is included to avoid direct radiant heating of the gaskets and glass-to-metal seals.

Goldfarb, H.; Perkins, K. L.; Weigand, B. L.

1985-11-01

91

Electromagnetic pulse\\/transient threat testing of protection devices for amateur\\/military affiliate radio system equipment. Volume 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vulnerability of equipment used by amateur\\/MARS radio operators in the United States to disruption or damage by transient electromagnetic effects such as lightning, voltage surges, and electromagnetic pulse (EMP) waves is discussed. The supporting documentation for the protective device qualification program includes: the test plan for the two EMP tests, descriptions\\/specifications of the tested transient suppression devices and the

D. Bodson; J. Frizzell; T. Higdon; W. Rabke

1985-01-01

92

Transient changes in thyroid functions tests after zoledronic acid infusion.  

PubMed

Zoledronic acid (ZA) induces an acute phase response in association with elevation of serum cytokines, which possibly alter the 3 types of iodothyronine deiodinase activity. We therefore studied the possible alteration in thyroid function tests by ZA. We investigated the acute changes in serum thyroid hormones, TSH, cortisol, white blood cells, CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?), before (0) and 1, 2 and 3 days after iv infusion of 5 mg ZA in 24 asymptomatic postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (ZA group) in comparison with a placebo group. In the majority of patients the ZA infusion was associated with acute phase response and fever within 24h after infusion which became attenuated on day three. Concurrently with increase in serum cortisol, CRP, IL-6 and TNF-?, on day 1 and 2, total serum T3 (TT3), free T3 (fT3), total T4 (TT4) and fT4 decreased with a nadir on day 2 in association with an increase in the fT4/fT3 ratio and reverse T3 (rT3) levels. All thyroid function changes returned to the baseline levels on day 3, with cytokines still at higher levels, although lower than those on day 2. Serum TSH remained essentially unchanged throughout the study. The changes in thyroid hormones were at least in part explained by the increased TNF-?, but not by IL-6. ZA induces short term changes in thyroid hormones, characteristic of nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS), in association with an increase in TNF-? and IL-6. PMID:21891972

Karga, Helen; Giagourta, Irene; Papaioannou, Garyphallia; Katsichti, Paraskevi; Pardalakis, Argyris; Kassi, Georgia; Zagoreou, Apostolia; Triantaphyllopoulou, Maria; Zerva, Cherry

2011-09-03

93

Transient Testing of Nuclear Fuels and Materials in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States has established that transient irradiation testing is needed to support advanced light water reactors fuel development. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated an effort to reestablish this capability. Restart of the Transient Testing Reactor (TREAT) facility located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is being considered for this purpose. This effort would also include the development of specialized test vehicles to support stagnant capsule and flowing loop tests as well as the enhancement of postirradiation examination capabilities and remote device assembly capabilities at the Hot Fuel Examination Facility. It is anticipated that the capability will be available to support testing by 2018, as required to meet the DOE goals for the development of accident-tolerant LWR fuel designs.

Wachs, Daniel M.

2012-12-01

94

Moisture Transport in Wood Through Cell Structure: Transient-Cup-Test and Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cup method and transient sorption method are two traditional test methods for the measurement of moisture transport in wood. In addition, new methods such as computer tomography scanning and X-ray have been reported since the 90's to determine moisture di...

S. Koponen K. Lu

2001-01-01

95

Geostatistical inverse modeling of transient pumping tests using temporal moments of drawdown  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pumping tests belong to the most common techniques of hydrogeological site assessment. While the steady state drawdown is determined by the distribution of transmissivity alone, the transient behavior is also influenced by the storativity field. In geostatistical inverse modeling the spatial distributions of both transmissivity and storativity are inferred from the drawdown curves and prior information on the spatial correlation

Wei Li; Wolfgang Nowak; Olaf A. Cirpka

2005-01-01

96

49 CFR 232.305 - Single car air brake tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Single car air brake tests. 232.305 Section 232.305...and Testing Requirements § 232.305 Single car air brake tests. (a) Single car air brake tests shall be performed by a...

2012-10-01

97

49 CFR 232.305 - Single car air brake tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Single car air brake tests. 232.305 Section 232.305...and Testing Requirements § 232.305 Single car air brake tests. (a) Single car air brake tests shall be performed by a...

2011-10-01

98

Behavior of metallic uranium-fissium fuel in TREAT transient overpower tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

TREAT tests M2, M3, and M4 were performed to obtain information on two key behavior characteristics of fuel under transient overpower accident conditions in metal-fueled fast reactors: the prefailure axial self-extrusion (elongation beyond thermal expansion) of fuel within intact cladding and the margin to cladding breach. Uranium-5 wt% fissium Experimental Breeder Reactor-II driver fuel pins were used for the tests

T. H. Bauer; A. E. Klickman; R. K. Lo; E. A. Rhodes; W. R. Robinson; G. S. Stanford; A. E. Wright

1986-01-01

99

Transient-induced latch-up test setup for wafer-level and package-level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latch-up triggered by an impulse of short duration, is one root cause for field failures of CMOS devices. Standard tests, like JEDEC 78, which apply quasi-static overvoltage and overcurrent may fail to identify this susceptibility. The presented test method and setup allows to study the transient induced latch-up (TLU) phenomenon employing nstrigger impulses at wafer-level and package-level. A TLU-module superimposes

Detlef Bonfert; Horst A. Gieser; Heinrich Wolf; M. Frank; A. Konrad; J. Schulz

2006-01-01

100

Single cycle and transient force measurements in dynamic atomic force microscopy.  

PubMed

The monitoring of the deflection of a micro-cantilever, as the end of a sharp probe mounted at its end, i.e. the tip, interacts with a surface, forms the foundation of atomic force microscopy AFM. In a nutshell, developments in the field are driven by the requirement of obtaining ever increasing throughput and sensitivity, and enhancing the versatility of the instrument to simultaneously map the topography and quantify nanoscale processes and properties. In the most common dynamic mode of operation, the motion of the driven cantilever is monitored at a single point on its longitudinal axis. Here, we show that from this single point a waveform is obtained that contains all the details about conservative and dissipative interactions. Then a formalism that accounts for multiple arbitrary flexural modes is developed for an indirectly driven cantilever. The formalism is shown to allow recovery of the details of the interaction even in the presence of complex and relevant hysteretic forces when the cantilever oscillates in the steady state. In a different approach, we develop a formalism that monitors the wave profile of the cantilever, i.e. the waveform at five different points on its longitudinal axis. With this formalism the interaction can be reconstructed during a single oscillation cycle even in the transient state of oscillation. Finally, we discuss the potential and advantages of the proposed methods and future technical challenges. Other standard and state of the art techniques and methods are also discussed and compared with the ones presented here. This work should also provide insight into the current high throughput-high sensitivity developments dealing with multifrequency dynamic AFM where information is recovered from multiple eigenmodes. PMID:24071898

Gadelrab, Karim; Santos, Sergio; Font, Josep; Chiesa, Matteo

2013-09-26

101

Electromagnetic pulse/transient threat testing of protection devices for amateur/military affiliate radio system equipment. Volume 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vulnerability of equipment used by amateur/MARS radio operators in the United States to disruption or damage by transient electromagnetic effects such as lightning, voltage surges, and electromagnetic pulse (EMP) waves is discussed. The supporting documentation for the protective device qualification program includes: the test plan for the two EMP tests, descriptions/specifications of the tested transient suppression devices and the amateur radio equipment, and photographs of the test facilities and test set-ups.

Bodson, D.; Frizzell, J.; Higdon, T.; Rabke, W.

1985-10-01

102

49 CFR 238.311 - Single car test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Single car test. 238.311 Section 238.311 Transportation...Passenger Equipment § 238.311 Single car test. (a) Except for self-propelled passenger cars, single car tests of all passenger...

2012-10-01

103

49 CFR 238.311 - Single car test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Single car test. 238.311 Section 238.311 Transportation...Passenger Equipment § 238.311 Single car test. (a) Except for self-propelled passenger cars, single car tests of all passenger...

2011-10-01

104

BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) Full Integral Simulation Test (FIST) Phase 2 Test Results and TRAC-BWR (Transient Reactor Analysis Code) Model Qualification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A full height BWR system simulator built under the Full Integral Simulation Test (FIST) program is used to investigate system responses for various transients. The test program consists of two test phases. This report provides a summary, discussion, highl...

W. A. Sutherland M. Alamgir J. A. Findlay W. S. Hwang

1985-01-01

105

Inelastic transient electrical currents and phonon heating in a single-level quantum dot system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a theoretical study on inelastic transient electrical currents and the effects of phonon heating in a single-level quantum dot system weakly coupled to a localized vibration degree of freedom, using the nonequilibrium Green's function method under the wide-band-limit and the lowest-order-expansion approximations. The energy transfer between electron and phonon systems is evaluated using both approximations, which separately are exact in the limits of the equilibrium state (t < 0) and steady state (t-->?). The time-dependent phonon number, which determines the system temperature and heating effects on the inelastic current, is calculated using a phenomenological method employing the time-dependent power transfer. The two approximations are shown to provide qualitatively similar dynamical behaviors for the system temperature, which can be grouped under two responses: if the energy corresponding to the applied bias voltage is smaller than or equal to the phonon energy, the temperature first increases because of phonon emission, and then decreases because of phonon absorption; alternatively, if the energy corresponding to the bias voltage is larger than the phonon energy, the temperature increases monotonically until a steady state is reached. The total electrical current is suppressed by phonon heating, while heat transferring between dot and environment mitigates the effects of such heating. Furthermore, the relaxation time of the current is extended by phonon scattering and heating.

Liu, Wei; Sasaoka, Kenji; Yamamoto, Takahiro; Tada, Tomofumi; Watanabe, Satoshi

2013-03-01

106

Single failure effects on surge line break transients for the VVER-440 reactor  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the analysis of surge line break transients for the soviet designed, water cooled, light water moderated, power reactors referred to as VVERS. These events represent an intermediate size loss of coolant accident (LOCA) for these plants and provide a severe challenge to the safety system design. The pressurizer surge line represents the largest diameter connection to the primary system and the break results in a relatively rapid blowdown of the primary system when compared to more conventional small break LOCAs (e,g., stuck open pressurizer relief valves). The VVER unit selected for this analysis is designated as VVER-440 Model V213. This plant generates 440 Mwe and is of current interest since fifteen are now operating and additional units are in various stages of construction. In addition to a base case surge line break analysis, this paper also presents the results of several sensitivity studies related to single failures in various plant safety systems that have been included in the design to mitigate the effects of such a LOCA on the plant and fuel system performance. Examples of the safety systems selected for these sensitivity studies include the scram system, the accumulators, and the high pressure injection system.

Shier, W.; Horak, W.; Kennett, R.; Yanev, Y.

1992-09-01

107

Single failure effects on surge line break transients for the VVER-440 reactor  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the analysis of surge line break transients for the soviet designed, water cooled, light water moderated, power reactors referred to as VVERS. These events represent an intermediate size loss of coolant accident (LOCA) for these plants and provide a severe challenge to the safety system design. The pressurizer surge line represents the largest diameter connection to the primary system and the break results in a relatively rapid blowdown of the primary system when compared to more conventional small break LOCAs (e,g., stuck open pressurizer relief valves). The VVER unit selected for this analysis is designated as VVER-440 Model V213. This plant generates 440 Mwe and is of current interest since fifteen are now operating and additional units are in various stages of construction. In addition to a base case surge line break analysis, this paper also presents the results of several sensitivity studies related to single failures in various plant safety systems that have been included in the design to mitigate the effects of such a LOCA on the plant and fuel system performance. Examples of the safety systems selected for these sensitivity studies include the scram system, the accumulators, and the high pressure injection system.

Shier, W.; Horak, W.; Kennett, R.; Yanev, Y.

1992-01-01

108

Deep level transient spectroscopic study of oxygen-implanted ZnO single crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ZnO single crystal samples were implanted by oxygen with the energy of 150keV. After the pretreatment of hydrogen peroxide [1], Schottky contacts were fabricated with Au film deposited by thermal evaporation. Deep level defects were studied by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). The activation energy of the 0.29eV deep trap was observed in the as-implanted sample and samples anneal at 350 ^oC , 650 ^oC and 750 ^oC. Three peaks were identified in the DLTS spectra of the 900 ^oC sample, with the activation energies of 0.11eV, 0.25eV and 0.37eV respectively. The thermal evolutions of the deep levels up to the temperature of 1200 ^oC were also investigated. [4pt] [1] Q. L. Gu, C. C. Ling, X. D. Chen, C. K. Cheng, A. M. C. Ng, C. D. Beling, S. Fung, A. B. Djurisi'c, L. W. Lu, G. Brauer and H. C. Ong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 122101, (2007).

Ye, Ziran; Ding, Guangwei; Fan, Jincheng; Chung Ling, Chi

2011-03-01

109

Transient Rayleigh scattering: a new probe of picosecond carrier dynamics in a single semiconductor nanowire.  

PubMed

Using a new technique, transient Rayleigh scattering, we show that measurements from a single GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell semiconductor nanowire provide sensitive and detailed information on the time evolution of the density and temperature of the electrons and holes after photoexcitation by an intense laser pulse. Through band filling, band gap renormalization, and plasma screening, the presence of a dense and hot electron-hole plasma directly influences the real and imaginary parts of the complex index of refraction that in turn affects the spectral dependence of the Rayleigh scattering cross-section in well-defined ways. By measuring this spectral dependence as a function of time, we directly determine the thermodynamically independent density and temperature of the electrons and holes as a function of time after pulsed excitation as the carriers thermalize to the lattice temperature. We successfully model the results by including ambipolar transport, recombination, and cooling through optic and acoustic phonon emission that quantify the hole mobility at ?68,000 cm(2)/V·s, linear decay constant at 380 ps, bimolecular recombination rate at 4.8 × 10(-9) cm(3)/s and the energy-loss rate of plasma due to optical and acoustic phonon emission. PMID:22974064

Montazeri, Mohammad; Jackson, Howard E; Smith, Leigh M; Yarrison-Rice, Jan M; Kang, Jung-Hyun; Gao, Qiang; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

2012-09-19

110

THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF THE TRANSIENT PRESSURE RESPONSE FROM A CONSTANT FLOW RATE HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY TEST.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Incorporating a flow pump into a conventional triaxial laboratory system allows fluid to be supplied to or withdrawn from the base of a sediment sample at small and constant rates. An initial transient record of hydraulic head versus time is observed which eventually stabilizes to a constant steady state gradient across the sample; values of hydraulic conductivity can subsequently be determined from Darcy's law. In this paper, analytical methods are presented for determining values of specific storage and hydraulic conductivity from the initial transient phase of such a constant flow rate test. These methods are based on a diffusion equation involving pore pressure and are analogous to those used to describe the soil consolidation process and also to interpret aquifer properties from pumping tests.

Morin, Roger, H.; Olsen, Harold, W.

1987-01-01

111

Historical Review of U.S. Transient Fast Reactor Fuel Testing  

SciTech Connect

Development of fast spectrum nuclear fuels in the United States has been pursued over the course of approximately 30 years including the EBR-I and FERMI reactors and continuing through the early 1990's culminating with the FFTF and the EBR-II Integral Fast Reactor programs. These programs primarily focused on oxide and metallic fuels and the development process provided sufficient evidence for licensing of the 20%Pu-MOX oxide fuel and the ternary U-Pu-Zr metallic alloy. The development of a transuranic, actinide burning fuel system will require significant development including the investigation and testing of the behavior of candidate fuel systems under transient conditions. This paper will review the historical status of both metallic and oxide fuel transient testing completed under previous U.S. fast reactor fuel development programs. (authors)

Carmack, William J.; MacLean, Heather J.; Crawford, Douglas C. [Idaho National Laboratory: P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID, 83415 (United States)

2007-07-01

112

Pressure derivative approach to transient test analysis: A highpermeability North Sea reservoir example  

SciTech Connect

The recently developed method of transient test analysis, utilising the derivative of pressure data vs. time rather than the pressure/time data alone, is discussed in general terms and with regard to its application to very high permeability reservoirs. The methods extension to the various well/reservoir system models considered by several authors is summarized. The procedure involves the combined use of existing type curves, in both the conventional dimensionless pressure form (P /SUB D/ ) and converted to the new dimensionless pressure derivative grouping (p' /SUB D/ x /SUP t/ D/C /SUB D/ ). The procedure proved both theoretically, and through examination of data from the Oseberg field, to be a powerful tool in transient test analysis. The identification and interpretation of reservoir heterogeneites, both linear and dispersed, as well as earth tidal effects, which are often not easily discernable through existing methods, is greatly facilitated by the new method.

Clark, G.; Van Golf-Racht, T.D.

1984-10-01

113

Compact distributed RLC interconnect models. I. Single line transient, time delay, and overshoot expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel compact expressions that describe the transient response of a high-speed distributed resistance, inductance, and capacitance (RLC) interconnect are rigorously derived with on-chip global interconnect boundary conditions. Simplified expressions enable physical insight and accurate estimation of transient response, time delay, and overshoot for high-speed global interconnects with the inclusion of inductance

Jeffrey A. Davis; James D. Meindl

2000-01-01

114

Fission product transport and behavior during two postulated loss-of-flow transients in the Advanced Test Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fission product behavior during two postulated loss-of-flow accidents (leading to high- and low-pressure core degradations) in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) has been analyzed. These transients are designated ATR transients LCP 15 (high pressure) and LPP9 (low pressure). Normally, transients of this nature would be easily mitigated using existing safety systems and procedures. In these analyses, failure of these

J. P. Adams; M. L. Carboneau; D. L. Hagrman

1993-01-01

115

Transient simulation of wire pull test on Cu\\/low-K wafers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the numerical analysis of pull test reliability of gold wires bonded on the Cu\\/low-K wafer. Prior to wire pull, transient analysis of the complete wirebonding process, which involves both impact and ultrasonic vibration stages, is performed to allocate residual stresses within the wire and the Cu\\/low-K structure. After wirebonding, fracturing of the wire subjected to a

Chang-Lin Yeh; Yi-Shao Lai; Chin-Li Kao

2006-01-01

116

Characterization of a compact bistatic test range and wideband antennas excited by transient signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 300-900 MHz ultrawideband (UWB) bistatic test range has been developed in order to analyze echo signals that are based on a transient stimulus. By means of a 2 gigasample\\/sec digital oscilloscopy allowed a characterization of the true wideband response of materials; two low time-dispersion, quasi-TEM wave-supporting antennas were developed for the bistatic range. Attention is given to the responses

Todd A. Erdley; Elizabeth C. Kisenwether; Richard D. Groff

1992-01-01

117

First Test Results of the Transient Arc Plasma Igniter in a Supersonic Flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the idea and the first test results of a combined cycle plasma torch (CCPT) application for flame holding in high-speed combustors. The CCPT was developed by Applied Plasma Technologies (APT) and is based on a low-power transient discharge plasma pilot (1) with fuel or air-fuel mixture feeding into the arc chamber, so that the main thermal effect

Igor Matveev

118

Electromagnetic pulse\\/transient threat testing of protection devices for amateur\\/military affiliate radio system equipment. Volume 3. Test data, electromagnetic pulse testing of protection devices. Section 2. High impedance\\/high voltage test 50 ohms-4500 volts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of two test programs: one to evaluate existing transient suppression devices and components, and one to evaluate the response of amateur radio equipment to an EMP transient environment are reported. Raw test data in the form of oscilloscope photographs for high impedance\\/high voltage tests at 50 ohms and 4500 volts are presented.

D. Bodson; J. Frizzell; T. Higdon; W. Rabke

1985-01-01

119

RAPID Boron-dilution Transient Tests for OECD/CSNI International Standard Problem No. 43  

SciTech Connect

The University of Maryland 2 x 4 Thermalhydraulic Loop Facility (UM 2 x 4 Loop) collected code verification data for rapid boron-dilution (RBD) transients. This paper addresses the objectives of recently completed RBD tests and the redesign of the UM 2 x 4 Loop facility for the four test series of the current program. The UM 2 x 4 Loop facility is described in sufficient detail to permit the preparation of input models for code verification. Initial and boundary conditions are given. The OECD/CSNI International Standard Problem No. 43 (ISP 43) figures of merit for comparison of code predictions to experimental findings are described. Specific values for the most representative figures of merit are given for the two closed test series: injection of a front and injection of a slug without downcomer bypass. Because flow regime is a substantial factor in downcomer mixing for RBD transients, the effect of inertial forces on figures of merit is discussed. Tests with downcomer flowrates that fall below the transition to turbulence are shown to exhibit behaviors different from tests ran at downcomer Reynolds numbers that fall in the turbulent regime. Specifically, it is shown that in high flowrate tests mixing is more vigorous when evaluated from a global perspective, but regions of the slug can remain more segregated from the ambient primary coolant than in slow tests. (authors)

Gavrilas, Mirela [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Palazov, Vesselin [ISL Inc., Rockville MD. (United States); Woods, Brian [Dominion Generation, Richmond VA. (United States)

2002-07-01

120

Electromagnetic pulse\\/transient threat testing of protection devices for amateur\\/military affiliate radio system equipment. Volume 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This technical report discusses the vulnerability of equipment used by amateur\\/MARS radio operators in the United States to disruption or damage by transient electromagnetic effects such as lightning, voltage surges, and electromagnetic pulse (EMP) waves. It also reports the results of two test programs; one to evaluate existing transient suppression devices and components, and one to evaluate the response of

D. Bodson; J. Frizzell; T. Higdon; W. Rabke

1985-01-01

121

Test-Analysis Correlation and Finite Element Model Updating for Nonlinear Transient Dynamics  

SciTech Connect

This research aims at formulating criteria for measuring the correlation between test data and finite element results for nonlinear, transient dynamics. After reviewing the linear case and illustrating the limitations of modal-based updating when it is applied to nonlinear experimental data, simple time-domain, test-analysis correlation metrics are proposed. Two implementations are compared: the conventional least-squares technique and the Principal Component Decomposition that correlates subspaces rather than individual time-domain responses. Illustrations and discussions are provided using the LANL 8-DOF system, an experimental testbed for validating nonlinear data correlation and model updating techniques.

Hemez, F.M.; Doebling, S.W.

1999-02-08

122

A Generalized Linear Model for Single Event Transient Propagation in Phase-Locked Loops  

Microsoft Academic Search

A first-order linear model is formulated in closed-form for the examination of transient propagation through charge pump phase-locked loops (PLL). As a result, a novel PLL design parameter-the PLL critical time constant-is discovered as the primary factor influencing extraneous transient generation and propagation through the PLL independent of technology node. Various simulations and experiments have been performed on PLL circuits

Thomas Daniel Loveless; Lloyd W. Massengill; W. Timothy Holman; Bharat L. Bhuva; Dale McMorrow; Jeffrey H. Warner

2010-01-01

123

Heavy-ion induced single-event transients in high-speed InP-InGaAs avalanche photodiodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proton-induced heavy ions ion fluxes in InP\\/In0.53Ga0.47As avalanche photodiodes (APD) used in communication systems can induce single-event transients (SET) that degrade the bit error rate (BER) of optical links. For higher speed devices, increasing optical levels as a means of restoring the BER can lead to unwanted space-charge effects that reduce the APD bandwidth. To more fully comprehend charge collection

Jamie S. Laird; Toshio Hirao; Shinobu Onoda; Hidenori Ohyama; Tomihiro Kamiya

2003-01-01

124

Assessing the impact of the space radiation environment on parametric degradation and single-event transients in optocouplers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing the risk of using optocouplers in satellite applications offers challenges that incorporate those of commercial off-the-shelf devices compounded by hybrid module construction techniques. We discuss approaches for estimating this risk. In the process, we benchmark our estimates for proton and heavy-ion induced single-event transient rate estimates with recent flight data from the Terra mission. For parametric degradation, we discuss

Robert A. Reed; Christian Poivey; Paul W. Marshall; Kenneth A. LaBel; Cheryl J. Marshall; Scott Kniffin; Janet L. Barth; Christina Seidleck

2001-01-01

125

COMMIX1A: a three-dimensional transient single-phase computer program for thermal hydraulic analysis of single and multicomponent systems. Volume I: users manual  

Microsoft Academic Search

The COMMIX-1A computer program is an updated and improved version of COMMIX-1 designed to analyze steady-state\\/transient, single-phase, three-dimensional fluid flow with heat transfer in reactor components and multicomponent systems. A new porous-media formulation via local volume averaging has been derived and employed in the COMMIX code. The concepts of volume porosity, directional surface permeability, distributed resistance, and distributed heat source

H. M. Domanus; R. C. Schmitt; W. T. Sha; V. L. Shah

1983-01-01

126

Single Cell Protein in Clinical Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single cell protein preparation derived from cells grown on a chemically pure hydrocarbon fraction was given daily to 20 healthy adults during 6 weeks. Clinical observations showed little evidence that the daily intake of 20 g of the product (comprising 12-15% of the total nitrogen intake) caused any severe side effects. Dietary studies showed that the main problem of

L. Abrahamsson; L. Hambræus; Y. Hofvander; B. Vahlquist

1971-01-01

127

10 CFR 830 Major Modification Determination for TREAT Transient Test Capability  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Facilities Management (NE-32) has identified the need to use transient testing coupled with complete post-irradiation examination (PIE) in order to develop a knowledge base for the next generation of nuclear reactor fuels. NE-32 has identified TREAT as a feasible alternative to provide the necessary infrastructure to perform such transient testing. While TREAT is safely fulfilling current mission requirements, a variety of aging and obsolescence equipment issues will need to be addressed to restart the TREAT reactor and resume transient fuel testing. NE-32 first documented its testing alternatives in late 2010 by memorandum. A follow-on alternatives analysis plan and a decision framework were subsequently published in 2011 further expanding the alternatives analysis. The major modification criteria evaluation of the project pre-conceptual design identified several issues that lead to the conclusion the project is a major modification. The positive major modification determination is driven by the need to carefully establish the engineering and nuclear safety design criteria for new safety SSCs and structures utilizing required evaluation guidelines. The safety analysis supporting this major modification will need to be tailored appropriately as discussed in the following text from DOE-STD-1189, Chapter 8: Where a major modification is found to exist, an SDS must be developed that addresses (1) the need for a CSDR or PSDR (as well as the required PDSA) to support project phases, (2) the graded content of the PDSA necessary to support the design and modification, (3) the application of nuclear safety design criteria, and (4) the interface with the existing facility, its operations, and construction activities.

David E. Korns

2012-07-01

128

Single Tube Hydride Heat Exchanger Test Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of heat exchanger testing is to develop heat transfer data which would be needed to design a reasonably optimal HYCSOS device. To meet this primary objective, it will be necessary to: (1) design and construct a test facility suitable...

H. P. Egbert J. S. Horowitz G. M. Warapius

1979-01-01

129

Transient thermal behaviour of a compressor rotor with ventilation: Test results under simulated engine conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of advanced compressors for modern aero-engines requires detailed knowledge of the transient thermal behavior of the rotor disks to enable accurate prediction of rotor life and, additionally, of the thermal growth of the rotor for the evaluation of tip clearances. In the quest for longer life and higher reliability of the parts as well as reduced clearances even at transient conditions, the designer has to be able to influence the thermal behavior of the rotor. A very effective way is to vent small amounts of air through the rotor cavities. The design of such a vented rotor is presented. The main emphasis is placed on a detailed description of a test rig specially built for this purpose. The testing was carried out under simulated engine conditions for a wide range of parameters. The results are compared with those obtained with a theoretical model derived from fundamental tests at the University of Sussex, where heat transfer in rotating cavities is investigated. Good agreement is observed. Some final tests were done in an engine. The results also exhibit good agreement with the rig results under simulated conditions, when the proper dimensionless parameters are considered, providing the validity of the simulation.

Reile, E.; Radons, U.; Hennecke, D. K.

1985-09-01

130

Diagnosis and management of transient neurologic symptoms following subarachnoid block with single-shot isobaric 2% lidocaine.  

PubMed

Hyperbaric 5% lidocaine has been used extensively for spinal anesthesia for the last 50 yr. The implication of lidocaine as specifically etiologic for transient neurologic symptoms (TNS) has led to increasing focus on lidocaine spinal anesthesia and reports of TNS with single-shot, hyperbaric lidocaine. We report the details of a case of TNS associated with single-shot, isobaric 2% lidocaine in a 69-year-old female, scheduled for outpatient hysteroscopy, dilatation and curettage, and endometrial biopsy while placed in the lithotomy position. PMID:11704452

Farid, I; Youssef, G; Banoub, M; Gottlieb, A; Tetzlaff, J E

2001-11-01

131

Predicting the Reliability of Brittle Material Structures Subjected to Transient Proof Test and Service Loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brittle materials today are being used, or considered, for a wide variety of high tech applications that operate in harsh environments, including static and rotating turbine parts, thermal protection systems, dental prosthetics, fuel cells, oxygen transport membranes, radomes, and MEMS. Designing brittle material components to sustain repeated load without fracturing while using the minimum amount of material requires the use of a probabilistic design methodology. The NASA CARES/Life 1 (Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structure/Life) code provides a general-purpose analysis tool that predicts the probability of failure of a ceramic component as a function of its time in service. This capability includes predicting the time-dependent failure probability of ceramic components against catastrophic rupture when subjected to transient thermomechanical loads (including cyclic loads). The developed methodology allows for changes in material response that can occur with temperature or time (i.e. changing fatigue and Weibull parameters with temperature or time). For this article an overview of the transient reliability methodology and how this methodology is extended to account for proof testing is described. The CARES/Life code has been modified to have the ability to interface with commercially available finite element analysis (FEA) codes executed for transient load histories. Examples are provided to demonstrate the features of the methodology as implemented in the CARES/Life program.

Nemeth, Noel N.; Jadaan, Osama M.; Palfi, Tamas; Baker, Eric H.

132

Single Stage Rocket Performance: Prediction and Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

An explicit three-dimensional, finite-volume Navier-Stokes solver with finile-rate H2\\/air combustion kinetics has been developed and calibrated to accurately and efficiently compute installed engine performance for complete single-stage-rocket (SSR) configurations. The Navier-Stokes formulation directly couples the global fluid dynamic, species continuity and transport equations for turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation resulting in increased solution robustness and accuracy. Comparisons of predicted and

THOMAS P. GIELDA; T. Mark Walter; RAMESH K. AGARWAL

1994-01-01

133

Current single event effect test results for candidate spacecraft electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present both proton and heavy ion single event effect (SEE) ground test results for candidate spacecraft electronics. A variety of digital and analog devices were tested, including EEPROMs, DRAMs, and DC-DC converters

Kenneth A. LaBel; Amy K. Moran; Donald K. Hawkins; Anthony B. Sanders; Christina M. Seidleck; Hak S. Kim; James E. Forney; E. G. Stassinopoulos; Paul Marshall; Cheryl Dale; J. Kinnison; B. Carkhuff

1996-01-01

134

Single event effect test results for candidate spacecraft electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present both heavy ion and proton single event effect (SEE) ground test results for candidate spacecraft electronics. A variety of digital, analog, and fiber optic devices were tested, including DRAMs, FPGAs and fiber links

Kenneth A. Label; Amy K. Moran; Christina M. Seidleck; E. G. Stassinopoulos; J. M. Barth; P. Marshall; M. Carts; C. Marshall; J. Kinnison; B. Carkhuff

1997-01-01

135

Single-event upset testing. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an experimental program to characterize single event upset phenomena in selected bipolar memory devices irradiated with relativistic heavy ions. The principle objective was to determine the multibit upset rate at normal and parallel beam incidence angles. The impetus for this objective is that multibit errors are not generally detectable by the simple Hamming codes currently used on spacecraft. Multibit errors significantly reduce spacecraft reliability in initiating spurious commands. It was found in this program that the multibit error cross section is equal to or greater than the projected area of the depletion regions for parallel and for normal to 60 degree incidence beams.

Criswell, T.L.; Oberg, D.L.; Wert, J.L.; Measel, P.R.

1988-03-01

136

The Use of Randomization Tests in Single-Subject Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Some researchers have argued for the use of or have attempted to make use of randomization tests in single-subject research. To address this tide of interest, the authors of this article describe randomization tests, discuss the theoretical rationale for applying them to single-subject research, and provide an overview of the methodological…

Haardorfer, Regine; Gagne, Phill

2010-01-01

137

The Use of Randomization Tests in Single-Subject Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some researchers have argued for the use of or have attempted to make use of randomization tests in single-subject research. To address this tide of interest, the authors of this article describe randomization tests, discuss the theoretical rationale for applying them to single-subject research, and provide an overview of the methodological research into the Type I error rates and statistical

Regine Haardörfer; Phill Gagné

2010-01-01

138

On hardware generation of random single input change test sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of higher quality requirements and sensitivity of high performance circuits to delay defects has led to an increasing emphasis on delay testing of VLSI circuits. As delay testing using extemal testers requires expensive ATE, built-in self test (BIST) is an altemative technique that can signijicantly reduce the test cost. It has been proven that Single Input Change (SIC)

R. David; P. Girard; C. Landrault; S. Pravossoudovitch; A. Virazel

2001-01-01

139

Single shot transient suppressor (SSTS) for high current high slew rate microprocessor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future generation microprocessors are predicted to exhibit heavier loads and faster transients. Conventional voltage regulator modules (VRM) need a large amount of output filter capacitors to meet future requirements and a huge number of decoupling capacitors, mainly due to the presence of parasitic inductance between the VRM and the microprocessor. In this paper, a new active damp concept is presented.

Luca Amoroso; Mauro Donati; Xunwei Zhou; Fred C. Lee

1999-01-01

140

A Theory of Single-Event Transient Response in Cross-Coupled Negative Resistance Oscillators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theory of the circuit-based response to SET phenomena in resonant tank oscillators is presented. Transients are shown to be caused by a change in the voltage state of the circuit's characteristic differential equation. The SET amplitude and phase response is derived for arbitrary strike waveforms and shown to be time-variant based on the strike time relative to the period

Stephen J. Horst; Stanley D. Phillips; Prabir Saha; John D. Cressler; Dale McMorrow; Paul Marshall

2010-01-01

141

Barometric Pressure Transient Testing Applications at the Nevada Test Site. Nuclear Chimney Analysis. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Investigations of barometric pressure testing of NTS nuclear chimneys were reviewed. This review includes the models used in the interpretation, methods of analysis, and results. Analytic and semi-analytic models were presented and applied to both histori...

J. M. Hanson

1985-01-01

142

Spray characteristics of single- and three-hole nozzle injectors in ambient air and in a motored single-cylinder test engine. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high-speed\\/high-resolution imaging system was used to evaluate two mid-pressure (15 MPa) fuel injector nozzles in ambient air and in a motored single-cylinder test engine. The nozzles are designed for use in the EPA\\/NVFEL program to develop clean and efficient engines that use alternative fuels. The report is part of an ongoing investigation to analyze the transient spray characteristics for

J. P. Hahn; F. J. Hamady; R. M. Schaefer

1994-01-01

143

Spray characteristics of single- and three-hole nozzle injectors in ambient air and in a motored single-cylinder test engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high-speed\\/high-resolution imaging system was used to evaluate two mid-pressure (15 MPa) fuel injector nozzles in ambient air and in a motored single-cylinder test engine. The nozzles are designed for use in the EPA\\/NVFEL program to develop clean and efficient engines that use alternative fuels. The report is part of an ongoing investigation to analyze the transient spray characteristics for

J. P. Hahn; F. J. Hamady; R. M. Schaefer

1994-01-01

144

TRAC-PF1 analysis of LOFT steam-generator feedwater transient test L9-1. [PWR  

SciTech Connect

The Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC-PF1) calculations were compared to test data from Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) L9-1, which was a loss-of-feedwater transient. This paper includes descriptions of the test and the TRAC input and compares the TRAC-calculated results with the test data. We conclude that the code predicted the experiment well, given the uncertainties in the boundary conditions. The analysis indicates the need to model all the flow paths and heat structures, and to improve the TRAC wall condensation heat-transfer model.

Meier, J.K.

1983-01-01

145

Electromagnetic pulse\\/transient threat testing of protection devices for amateur\\/military affiliate radio system equipment. Volume 3. Test data, electromagnetic pulse testing of protection devices. Section 7. Equipment and devices test descriptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of two test programs are presented: one to evaluate existing transient suppression devices and components, and one to evaluate the response of amateur radio equipment to an EMP transient environment. Equipment descriptions, purposes, and configurations are presented. Pulser field, power, antenna, power protection device, radio frequency protection device, and injection parameters are reported.

D. Bodson; J. Frizzell; T. Higdon; W. Rabke

1985-01-01

146

Theoretical Evaluation of the Transient Response of Constant Head and Constant Flow-Rate Permeability Tests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A theoretical analysis is presented that compares the response characteristics of the constant head and the constant flowrate (flow pump) laboratory techniques for quantifying the hydraulic properties of geologic materials having permeabilities less than 10-10 m/s. Rigorous analytical solutions that describe the transient distributions of hydraulic gradient within a specimen are developed, and equations are derived for each method. Expressions simulating the inflow and outflow rates across the specimen boundaries during a constant-head permeability test are also presented. These solutions illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of each method, including insights into measurement accuracy and the validity of using Darcy's law under certain conditions. The resulting observations offer practical considerations in the selection of an appropriate laboratory test method for the reliable measurement of permeability in low-permeability geologic materials.

Zhang, M.; Takahashi, M.; Morin, R. H.; Esaki, T.

1998-01-01

147

Transient Photocurrents in Pyrene-TCNE Single Crystals. II. Anisotropy of Drift Mobility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-ohmic behaviour of transient photocurrents in the pyrene-TCNE charge-transfer complexes is re-analysed by introducing the effect of the initial recombination into the surface-layer model. The anisotropy of drift mobility of carriers is comfirmed by using this analysis. The mobility in the direction of stacking of the donor and the acceptor molecules is several times larger than those in other directions.

Hiroshi Kaino

1976-01-01

148

Instrumented Taylor anvil-on-rod impact tests for validating applicability of standard strength models to transient deformation states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instrumented Taylor anvil-on-rod impact tests have been conducted on oxygen-free electronic copper to validate the accuracy of current strength models for predicting transient states during dynamic deformation events. The experiments coupled the use of high-speed digital photography to record the transient deformation states and laser interferometry to monitor the sample back (free surface) velocity as a measure of the elastic\\/plastic

D. E. Eakins; N. N. Thadhani

2006-01-01

149

Reactivity feedbacks of a high-density low enriched uranium fuelled material test research reactor during reactivity insertion transients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reactivity feedback of a high-density low enriched uranium fuelled material test research reactor during reactivity insertion transients was studied. For this purpose, the low density LEU fuel of an MTR was replaced with U-Mo (9w\\/o) high-density LEU fuels currently being developed under the RERTR program. Simulations were carried out to determine the reactivity feedback during reactivity insertion transients. The

Farhan Muhammad

2010-01-01

150

Engine-in-the-Lo op Testing for Evaluating Hybrid Propulsion Concepts and Transient Emissions - HMMWV Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a test cell setup for concurrent running of a real engine and a vehicle system simulation, and its use for evaluating engine performance when integrated with a conventional and a hybrid electric driveline\\/vehicle. This engine-in-the-loop (EIL) system uses fast instruments and emission analyzers to investigate how critical in-vehicle transients affect engine system response and transient emissions. Main

Zoran Filipi; Hosam Fathy; Jonathan Hagena; Alexander Knafl; Rahul Ahlawat; Jinming Liu; Dohoy Jung; Dennis Assanis; Huei Peng; Jeffrey Stein

151

Deep level transient spectroscopy studies of n-type ZnO single crystals grown by different techniques.  

PubMed

In the present study single-crystalline ZnO samples grown from the vapor phase, the melt, and a high-temperature aqueous solution (hydrothermal growth) are investigated before and after hydrogen plasma treatments, by means of deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and high-resolution Laplace DLTS. Dominant DLTS peaks are found to appear in the range of 120-350 K for all materials. The DLTS spectra depend on the procedure of growth of the ZnO. The thermal stabilities of the defects in an oxygen atmosphere and in an oxygen-lean atmosphere are analyzed. The origin of the DLTS peaks is discussed. PMID:21813951

Scheffler, L; Kolkovsky, Vl; Lavrov, E V; Weber, J

2011-08-03

152

49 CFR 232.305 - Single car air brake tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Tests-Standard Freight Brake Equipment,â and Section 4.0...S-486-04, âCode of Air Brake System Tests for Freight Equipment...on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030...shall perform a single car air brake test on a car when:...

2009-10-01

153

49 CFR 232.305 - Single car air brake tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Tests-Standard Freight Brake Equipment,â and Section 4.0...S-486-04, âCode of Air Brake System Tests for Freight Equipment...on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030...shall perform a single car air brake test on a car when:...

2010-10-01

154

Randomization tests in single-subject designs: Illustrative examples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Randomization tests have recently been adapted for use in the analysis of single-subject data. The advantages of these tests lie in their ease of implementation and interpretation as well as their freedom from underlying distributions. Even though numerous articles and books have explicated randomization test procedures, due to the lack of appropriate examples, very little use of these procedures has

Bruce E. Wampold; Michael J. Furlong

1981-01-01

155

Barometric pressure transient testing applications at the Nevada Test Site. Nuclear chimney analysis. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of barometric pressure testing of NTS nuclear chimneys were reviewed. This review includes the models used in the interpretation, methods of analysis, and results. Analytic and semi-analytic models were presented and applied to both historical data and new data taken for this current project. An interpretation technique based on non-linear least squares methods was used to analyze this data

1985-01-01

156

Review of behavior of mixed-oxide fuel elements in extended overpower transient tests in EBR-II  

SciTech Connect

From a series of five tests conducted in EBR-II, a substantial data base has been established on the performance of mixed-oxide fuel elements in a liquid-metal-cooled reactor under slow-ramp transient overpower conditions. Each test contained 19 preirradiated fuel elements with varying design and prior operating histories. Elements with aggressive design features, such as high fuel smear density and/or thin cladding, were included to accentuate transient effects. The ramp rates were either 0.1 or 10% {Delta}P/P/s and the overpowers ranged between {approx}60 and 100% of the elements` prior power ratings. Six elements breached during the tests, all with aggressive design parameters. The other elements, including all those with moderate design features for the reference or advanced long-life drivers for PNC`s prototype fast reactor Monju, maintained their cladding integrity during the tests. Posttest examination results indicated that fuel/cladding mechanical interaction (FCMI) was the most significant mechanism causing the cladding strain and breach. In contrast, pressure loading from the fission gas in the element plenum was less important, even in high-burnup elements. During an overpower transient, FCMI arises from fuel/cladding differential thermal expansion, transient fuel swelling, and, significantly, the gas pressure in the sealed central cavity of elements with substantial centerline fuel melting. Fuel performance data from these tests, including cladding breaching margin and transient cladding strain, are correlatable with fuel-element design and operating parameters. These correlations are being incorporated into fuel-element behavior codes. At the two tested ramp rates, fuel element behavior appears to be insensitive to transient ramp rate and there appears to be no particular vulnerability to slow ramp transients as previously perceived.

Tsai, H.; Neimark, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.; Nagai, S.; Nakae, N. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Ibaraki (Japan)

1994-10-01

157

Use of ruthenium dyes for subnanosecond detector fidelity testing in real time transient absorption  

SciTech Connect

Transient absorption spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the study of photoreactions on time scales from femtoseconds to seconds. Typically, reactions slower than {approx}1 ns are recorded by the ''classical'' technique; the reaction is triggered by an excitation flash, and absorption changes accompanying the reaction are recorded in real time using a continuous monitoring light beam and a detection system with sufficiently fast response. The pico- and femtosecond region can be accessed by the more recent ''pump-probe'' technique, which circumvents the difficulties of real time detection on a subnanosecond time scale. This is paid for by accumulation of an excessively large number of shots to sample the reaction kinetics. Hence, it is of interest to extend the classical real time technique as far as possible to the subnanosecond range. In order to identify and minimize detection artifacts common on a subnanosecond scale, like overshoot, ringing, and signal reflections, rigorous testing is required of how the detection system responds to fast changes of the monitoring light intensity. Here, we introduce a novel method to create standard signals for detector fidelity testing on a time scale from a few picoseconds to tens of nanoseconds. The signals result from polarized measurements of absorption changes upon excitation of ruthenium complexes {l_brace}[Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+} and a less symmetric derivative{r_brace} by a short laser flash. Two types of signals can be created depending on the polarization of the monitoring light with respect to that of the excitation flash: a fast steplike bleaching at magic angle and a monoexponentially decaying bleaching for parallel polarizations. The lifetime of the decay can be easily varied via temperature and viscosity of the solvent. The method is applied to test the performance of a newly developed real time transient absorption setup with 300 ps time resolution and high sensitivity.

Byrdin, Martin; Thiagarajan, Viruthachalam; Villette, Sandrine; Espagne, Agathe; Brettel, Klaus [CEA, IBITECS, Laboratoire de Photocatalyse et Biohydrogene, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France and CNRS, URA 2096, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

2009-04-15

158

Transient characteristic analysis of an HTS DC power cable using a multi-terminal based test-bed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current capacity of a power supply limits the experimental environment of higher capacity HTS power cable. Consequently, the transient characteristic analysis of an HTS DC power cable is difficult to assess. In this paper, a multi-terminal based test-bed is used to overcome those power supply capacity limitations. A 1 kA class HTS DC power cable was designed and the transient characteristics of the HTS DC power cable were analyzed using the multi-terminal based test-bed. Transient characteristics, such as resistance variation and critical current of the 1 kA class HTS DC power cable were successfully measured using small power sources in the multi-terminal based test-bed. Definitely, the suggested test system overcomes the assessment limits of the HTS power cable's current capacity.

Kim, Jin-Geun; Dinh, Minh-Chau; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Yang, Byeongmo

2013-11-01

159

Single-shell tank riser resistance to ground test plan  

SciTech Connect

This Test Procedure provides the general directions for conducting Single-Shell Tank Riser to Earth Measurements which will be used by engineering as a step towards providing closure for the Lightning Hazard Issue.

Kiewert, L.R.

1996-03-11

160

The Single Sample Chi-Square Test: Lesson Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson plan is designed to enable a student, after 50 minutes of instruction, to define the single sample chi-square test and explain the three conditions necessary to its proper use and the purpose of using it. The student will also be able to calculate and apply the single sample chi-square test in class according to the five steps with the…

Yang, Shouu-Chyuan

161

Transient Plume Model Testing Using LADEE Spacecraft Attitude Control System Operations  

SciTech Connect

The Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft is being designed for a mission featuring low altitude orbits of the Moon to take relevant ambient measurements before that environment becomes altered by future exploration activities. Instruments include a neutral mass spectrometer capable of measuring ambient species density levels below 100 molecules/cm{sup 3}. Coincidentally, with a favorable combination of spacecraft orientations, it is also possible to measure plume gases from LADEE attitude control system thruster operations as they are reflected from the daytime lunar surface and subsequently intercepted by the spacecraft as it orbits overhead. Under such circumstances, it may be possible to test a variety of properties and assumptions associated with various transient plume models or to infer certain aspects regarding lunar surface properties.

Woronowicz, M. S. [Stinger Ghaffarian Technologies, Inc., 7701 Greenbelt Rd., Greenbelt, Maryland 20770 (United States)

2011-05-20

162

Measuring the Optical Performance of Evacuated Receivers via an Outdoor Thermal Transient Test: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Modern parabolic trough solar collectors operated at high temperatures to provide the heat input to Rankine steam power cycles employ evacuated receiver tubes along the collector focal line. High performance is achieved via the use of a selective surface with a high absorptance for incoming short-wave solar radiation and a low emittance for outgoing long-wave infrared radiation, as well as the use of a hard vacuum to essentially eliminate convective and conductive heat losses. This paper describes a new method that determines receiver overall optical efficiency by exposing a fluid-filled, pre-cooled receiver to one sun outdoors and measuring the slope of the temperature curve at the point where the receiver temperature passes the glass envelope temperature (that is, the point at which there is no heat gain or loss from the absorber). This transient test method offers the potential advantages of simplicity, high accuracy, and the use of the actual solar spectrum.

Kutscher, C.; Burkholder, F.; Netter, J.

2011-08-01

163

Physical mechanism and device simulation on transient-induced latchup in CMOS ICs under system-level ESD test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical mechanism of transient-induced latchup (TLU) in CMOS ICs under the system-level electrostatic discharge (ESD) test is clearly characterized by device simulation and experimental verification in time domain. For TLU characterization, an underdamped sinusoidal voltage stimulus has been clarified as the realistic TLU-triggering stimulus under the system-level ESD test. The specific \\

Ming-Dou Ker; Sheng-Fu Hsu

2005-01-01

164

Performance Assessment of Mass Flow Rate Measurement Capability in a Large Scale Transient Two-Phase Flow Test System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mass flow is an important measured variable in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Program. Large uncertainties in mass flow measurements in the LOFT piping during LOFT coolant experiments requires instrument testing in a transient two-phase flow loop that simu...

C. L. Nalezny R. L. Chapman J. S. Martinell R. P. Riordon C. W. Solbrig

1979-01-01

165

Barometric pressure transient testing applications at the Nevada Test Site. Nuclear chimney analysis. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Investigations of barometric pressure testing of NTS nuclear chimneys were reviewed. This review includes the models used in the interpretation, methods of analysis, and results. Analytic and semi-analytic models were presented and applied to both historical data and new data taken for this current project. An interpretation technique based on non-linear least squares methods was used to analyze this data in terms of historic and more recent chimney models. Finally, a detailed discussion of radioactive gas transport due to surface barometric pressure fluctuations was presented. This mechanism of transport, referred to as ''barometric pumping,'' is presented in terms of conditions likely to be encountered at the NTS. The report concludes with a discussion of the current understanding of gas flow properties in the alluvial and volcanic areas of the NTS, and suggestions for future efforts directed toward increasing this understanding are presented.

Hanson, J.M.

1985-12-01

166

Tensile testing of a single ultrafine polymeric fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the difficulty in handling micro and nanoscale fibers and measuring the small load required for deformation, mechanical properties of these fibers have not been widely characterized. In this study, tensile test of a single-strand polycaprolactone electrospun ultrafine fiber was performed using a nano tensile tester. The tested fiber exhibited the characteristic low strength and low modulus but high

E. P. S. Tan; S. Y. Ng; C. T. Lim

2005-01-01

167

PSPICE simulation of a capacitor start and triac start single phase induction motor during steady state and transient operations and its experimental verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a procedure to determine a proper firing angle of electronically started single phase induction motors. In addition, the on load induction motor behavior with no load firing angle is investigated. Steady state and transient operations of a capacitor start and also a triac start single phase induction motor (TSIM) are simulated using Pspice software. The object of

Jawad Faiz; A. Jafarian; M. Neekzad

2003-01-01

168

Loss-of-feedwater, steam generator tube rupture, and steam line break experiments: Steam generator transient response test program: Interim report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Westinghouse Model Boiler No. 2 (MB-2) steam generator test model at the Engineering Test Facility in Tampa, Florida, was reinstrumented and modified for performing a series of tests simulating steam generator accident transients. The transients simulated were: loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture, and steam line break events. This document presents a description of (1) the model

O. J. Mendler; K. Takeuchi; M. Y. Young

1987-01-01

169

HECTR (Hydrogen Event: Containment Transient Response) analyses of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) premixed combustion experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HECTR (Hydrogen Event: Containment Transient Response) computer code has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories to predict the transient pressure and temperature responses within reactor containments for hypothetical accidents involving the transport and combustion of hydrogen. Although HECTR was designed primarily to investigate these phenomena in LWRs, it may also be used to analyze hydrogen transport and combustion experiments

1988-01-01

170

Two analyte calibrations from the transient response of a single potentiometric sensor employed with the SIA technique.  

PubMed

Simultaneous quantification of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) in solution has been correctly targeted using the kinetic information from a single non-specific potentiometric sensor. Dual quantification was accomplished from the complex information in the transient response of an electrode used in a Sequential Injection Analysis (SIA) system and recorded after step injection of sample. Data was firstly preprocessed with the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) to extract significant features and then fed into an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for building the calibration model. DWT stage was optimized regarding the wavelet function and decomposition level, while the ANN stage was optimized on its structure. To simultaneously corroborate the effectiveness of the approach, two different potentiometric sensors were used as study case, one using a glass selective to Cd(2+) and another a PVC membrane selective to Pb(2+). PMID:20006109

Cartas, Raul; Mimendia, Aitor; Legin, Andrey; Del Valle, Manel

2010-01-15

171

Fast detection of the metallic state of individual single-walled carbon nanotubes using a transient-absorption optical microscope.  

PubMed

In spite of the outstanding properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), the coexistence of metallic and semiconducting SWNTs as a result of synthesis has hindered their electronic and photonic applications. We demonstrate a pump-probe microscopy method for fast, contact-free mapping of metallicity in individual SWNTs. We employ the phase of transient absorption as a contrast to discriminate metallic and semiconducting SWNTs. Furthermore, we have clarified the phase dependence on the pump or probe wavelengths and the energy structure of SWNTs. Our imaging method holds the potential of serving as a high-speed metallicity-mapping tool to assist the development of SWNT-based nanoelectronics. PMID:21231351

Jung, Yookyung; Slipchenko, Mikhail N; Liu, Chang Hua; Ribbe, Alexander E; Zhong, Zhaohui; Yang, Chen; Cheng, Ji-Xin

2010-11-15

172

Mechanisms of syncope caused by transient bradycardia and the diagnostic value of electrophysiolopic testing and cardiovascular reflexivity maneuvers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transient bradycardia may be intrinsic because of sinus node or atrioventricular (AV) conduction abnormalities, or extrinsic because of abnormal vagal reflex. Twenty-five consecutive patients, referred to us for study of unexplained syncope, who, during electrocardiographic monitoring, had a documented episode of intermittent bradycardia that caused syncofe, underwent a full electrophysiologic study, carotid sinus massage, and the head-up tilt test. A

Michele Brignole; Carlo Menozzi; Nicola Bottoni; Lorella Gianfranchi; Gino Lolli; Daniele Oddone; Germano Gaggioli

1995-01-01

173

Tests show ability of vacuum circuit breaker to interrupt fast transient recovery voltage rates of rise of transformer secondary faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vacuum circuit breaker demonstrated its ability to interrupt short circuits with faster than normal rates of rise of transient recovery voltage (TRV) at levels greater than those produced by most transformer secondary faults. Two recent exploratory test programs evaluated the interrupting ability of a 15kV vacuum circuit breaker containing interrupters of the rotating arc type with contacts made from

R. K. Smith

1995-01-01

174

Tests show ability of vacuum circuit breaker to interrupt fast transient recovery voltage rates of rise of transformer secondary faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vacuum circuit breaker (VCB) has demonstrated its ability to interrupt short circuits with faster than normal rates of rise of transient recovery voltage (TRV) at levels greater than those produced by most transformer secondary faults. Two recent exploratory test programs evaluated the interrupting ability of a 15 kV VCB containing interrupters of the rotating arc type with contacts made

R. K. Smith

1994-01-01

175

COMMIX-1AR/P: A three-dimensional transient single-phase computer program for thermal hydraulic analysis of single and multicomponent systems  

SciTech Connect

The COMMIX-LAR/P computer program is designed for analyzing the steady-state and transient aspects of single-phase fluid flow and heat transfer in three spatial dimensions. This version is an extension of the modeling in COMMIX-lA to include multiple fluids in physically separate regions of the computational domain, modeling descriptions for pumps, radiation heat transfer between surfaces of the solids which are embedded in or surround the fluid, a keg model for fluid turbulence, and improved numerical techniques. The porous-medium formulation in COMMIX allows the program to be applied to a wide range of problems involving both simple and complex geometrical arrangements. The internal aspects of the COMMIX-LAR/P program are presented, covering descriptions of subprograms, variables, and files.

Garner, P.L.; Blomquist, R.N.; Gelbard, E.M.

1992-09-01

176

Quantum fluctuations of a single trapped atom: transient Rabi oscillations and magnetic bistability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolation of a single atomic particle and monitoring its resonance fluorescence is a powerful tool for studies of quantum effects in radiation-matter interaction. Here we present observations of quantum dynamics of an isolated neutral atom stored in a magneto-optical trap. By means of photon correlations in the atom's resonance fluorescence we demonstrate the well-known phenomenon of photon antibunching which corresponds

H. Schadwinkel; V. Gomer; U. Reiter; B. Ueberholz; D. Meschede

2000-01-01

177

Local anaesthetics transiently block currents through single acetylcholine-receptor channels.  

PubMed Central

1. Single channel currents through acetylcholine receptor channels (ACh channels) were recorded at chronically denervated frog muscle extrajunctional membranes in the absence and presence of the lidocaine derivatives QX-222 and QX-314. 2. The current wave forms due to the opening and closing of single ACh channels (activated by suberyldicholine) normally are square pulses. These single pulses appear to be chopped into bursts of much shorter pulses, when the drug QX-222 is present in addition to the agonist. 3. The mean duration of the bursts is comparable to or longer than the normal channel open time, and increases with increasing drug concentration. 4. The duration of the short pulses within a burst decreases with increasing drug concentration. 5. It is concluded that drug molecules reversibly block open end-plate channels and that the flickering within a burst represents this fast, repeatedly occurring reaction. 6. The voltage dependence of the reaction rates involved, suggested that the site of the blocking reaction is in the centre of the membrane, probably inside the ionic channel.

Neher, E; Steinbach, J H

1978-01-01

178

Two-phase pump performance program preliminary test plan. Key phase report. [Water cooled reactor coolant loss transients  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary test plan designed to provide basic data on the reactor coolant recirculation pump performance under two-phase flow LOCA conditions is described. The basic objectives of this program are to: (a) Obtain sufficient steady-state and transient two-phase empirical data to substantiate, and ultimately improve, the mathematical model of the reactor recirculation pump presently used for LOCA analysis; and (b) Obtain sufficient data on pump overspeed characteristics under transient two-phase blowdown conditions to verify the pump flywheel integrity to satisfy the requirements of the AEC Regulatory Guide No. 1.14. (GRA)

Dixson, D.L.; Kennedy, W.G.; Jacob, M.C.; Shuckrow, J.R.

1975-09-01

179

Single-Antigen Serological Testing for Bovine Tuberculosis?  

PubMed Central

Antibody responses are useful indicators of Mycobacterium bovis infection of cattle. Tests for such responses often use multiple M. bovis antigens as detection probes. This is recommended because responses to single antigens may be too variable for consistent diagnosis. However, the use of multiple antigens increases costs and the risk of false-positive results. As an alternative, the SeraLyte-Mbv system detects responses to a single M. bovis antigen, MPB83, by using a chemiluminescent testing platform with a high degree of analytical sensitivity. Testing with the SeraLyte-Mbv system was conducted in a blinded fashion with sera from experimentally infected and control cattle. To assess the species specificity of the single-antigen test, the sample included sera from animals infected with M. bovis (n = 27), M. kansasii (n = 4), M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (n = 11), M. avium subsp. avium (n = 12), and uninfected animals (n = 15). Upon unblinding of the results, the sensitivity of the SeraLyte-Mbv system relative to the results for animals with known M. bovis infection was 89%. Consistent with the conservation of MPB83 sequences within the genus Mycobacterium, all 4 M. kansasii-infected animals tested positive with the SeraLyte-Mbv system and all 23 M. avium-infected animals tested negative. Blinded analysis of 30 serum samples collected from nine animals at various time points postinfection indicated 100% sensitivity after ?3 months postinfection. All 15 uninfected samples in the blinded sample set tested negative with the SeraLyte-Mbv system. Unblinded analysis of sera from an additional 895 animals in 10 accredited bovine tuberculosis-free states revealed 98% specificity overall. The results support the feasibility of single-antigen testing for bovine tuberculosis with the SeraLyte-Mbv system.

Green, Lawrence R.; Jones, Cynthia C.; Sherwood, Anne L.; Garkavi, Inna V.; Cangelosi, Gerard A.; Thacker, Tyler C.; Palmer, Mitchell V.; Waters, W. Ray; Rathe, Chris V.

2009-01-01

180

Evaluation on board-level noise filter networks to suppress transient-induced latchup under system-level ESD test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different types of board-level noise filter networks are evaluated for their effectiveness to improve the immunity of CMOS ICs against transient-induced latchup (TLU) under system-level electrostatic discharge (ESD) test. By choosing proper components in each noise filter network, the TLU immunity of CMOS ICs can be greatly improved. All the experimental evaluations have been verified with the SCR test structures

Ming-Dou Ker; Sheng-Fu Hsu

2005-01-01

181

Review of behavior of mixed-oxide fuel elements in extended overpower transient tests in EBR-II  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a series of five tests conducted in EBR-II, a substantial data base has been established on the performance of mixed-oxide fuel elements in a liquid-metal-cooled reactor under slow-ramp transient overpower conditions. Each test contained 19 preirradiated fuel elements with varying design and prior operating histories. Elements with aggressive design features, such as high fuel smear density and\\/or thin cladding,

H. Tsai; L. A. Neimark; S. Nagai; N. Nakae

1994-01-01

182

Current tests and trends in single-case neuropsychology.  

PubMed

In this issue of Cortex, Crawford, Garthwaite and Ryan publish bayesian statistical tests that will enable researchers to take account of covariates when comparing single patients to control samples. In this article, we provide some context for this development, from an audit of the Cortex archives. We suggest that single-case research is alive and well, and more rigorous than ever, and that current practice has been shaped considerably by Crawford and colleagues' statistical refinements over the past 12 years. However, there is scope for further tightening and standardisation of statistical methods and reporting standards. The advantages offered by the new bayesian tests should promote the even wider use of appropriate statistical methods, with benefits for the validity of individual studies, and for cross-comparability in the single-case literature. PMID:21930266

McIntosh, Robert D; Brooks, Joanna L

2011-09-05

183

Single leg balance test to identify risk of ankle sprains  

PubMed Central

Background Ankle sprains are a common and potentially disabling injury. Successful prediction of susceptibility to ankle sprain injury with a simple test could allow ankle sprain prevention protocols to be initiated and help prevent disability in the athletic population. Objective To investigate the ability of the single leg balance (SLB) test, carried out at preseason physical examination, to predict an ankle sprain during the autumn sports season. Design Prospective cohort study Setting High school varsity athletics and intercollegiate athletics. Main outcome measure Ankle sprains in athletes with positive SLB tests. Results The association between a positive SLB test and future ankle sprains was significant. Controlling for confounding variables, the relative risk for an ankle sprain with a positive SLB test was 2.54 (95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 6.03). Athletes with a positive SLB test who did not tape their ankles had an increased likelihood of developing ankle sprains. The relative risk for ankle sprain for a positive SLB test and negative taping was 8.82 (1.07 to 72.70). A history of previous ankle injury was not associated with future ankle sprains in this study. The ? value for interrater reliability for the SLB test was 0.898 (p<0.001). Conclusions An association was demonstrated between a positive SLB test and ankle sprain. In athletes with a positive SLB test, not taping the ankle imposed an increased risk of sprain. The SLB test is a reliable and valid test for predicting ankle sprains.

Trojian, T H; McKeag, D B

2006-01-01

184

Barometric Pressure Transient Testing: Analysis Methods and Solution Uniqueness: Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analysis of barometric pressure transients has been shown to be a useful tool in identifying the permeability structure in porous and permeable subsurface formations. The basic approach used in this technique requires monitoring surface barometric pressur...

J. M. Hanson

1987-01-01

185

Calcium transients during early development in single starfish (Asterias forbesi) oocytes  

SciTech Connect

Maturation and fertilization of the starfish oocyte are putative calcium-dependent events. The authors have investigated the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of this calcium dependence in single oocytes of Asterias forbesi. They used the calcium photoprotein, aequorin, in conjunction with a microscope-photomultiplier and microscope-image intensifier. Surprisingly, in contrast to earlier work with Marasthenias glacialis, there is no detectable increase in intracellular-free calcium in the oocyte of A. forbesi in response to the maturation hormone 1-methyl adenine. During fertilization of the same, matured, A. forbesi oocyte there is a large increase in intracellular-free calcium. The calcium concentration increases to approx.1 ..mu..M at the point of insemination and the region of elevated free calcium expands across the oocyte in approx.20 s (17-19/sup 0/C). After the entire oocyte reaches an elevated concentration of free calcium, the concentration decreases uniformly throughout the oocyte over the next several minutes.

Eisen, A.; Reynolds, G.T.

1984-11-01

186

Single event upset testing with relativistic heavy ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two bipolar devices, the AMD 2901B microprocessor and the AMD 27LS00 256-bit RAM, have been tested for single event upset using relativistic heavy ions. Upset thresholds and asymptotic cross sections have been measured with iron, argon and neon beams having cosmic ray energies. Further, the magnitude of the funnel effect in the 2901B was determined by irradiating the device at normal incidence and at large angles and comparing the observed upset thresholds. Combinatorial logic upsets were seen in the 2901B and their cross section measured. The 27LS00 exhibited multibit upset produced by single ions penetrating the device edge-on.

Criswell, T. L.; Measel, P. R.; Wahlin, K. L.

1984-12-01

187

System level latchup mitigation for single event and transient radiation effects on electronics  

DOEpatents

A ``blink`` technique, analogous to a person blinking at a flash of bright light, is provided for mitigating the effects of single event current latchup and prompt pulse destructive radiation on a micro-electronic circuit. The system includes event detection circuitry, power dump logic circuitry, and energy limiting measures with autonomous recovery. The event detection circuitry includes ionizing radiation pulse detection means for detecting a pulse of ionizing radiation and for providing at an output terminal thereof a detection signal indicative of the detection of a pulse of ionizing radiation. The current sensing circuitry is coupled to the power bus for determining an occurrence of excess current through the power bus caused by ionizing radiation or by ion-induced destructive latchup of a semiconductor device. The power dump circuitry includes power dump logic circuitry having a first input terminal connected to the output terminal of the ionizing radiation pulse detection circuitry and having a second input terminal connected to the output terminal of the current sensing circuitry. The power dump logic circuitry provides an output signal to the input terminal of the circuitry for opening the power bus and the circuitry for shorting the power bus to a ground potential to remove power from the power bus. The energy limiting circuitry with autonomous recovery includes circuitry for opening the power bus and circuitry for shorting the power bus to a ground potential. The circuitry for opening the power bus and circuitry for shorting the power bus to a ground potential includes a series FET and a shunt FET. The invention provides for self-contained sensing for latchup, first removal of power to protect latched components, and autonomous recovery to enable transparent operation of other system elements. 18 figs.

Kimbrough, J.R.; Colella, N.J.

1997-09-30

188

System level latchup mitigation for single event and transient radiation effects on electronics  

DOEpatents

A "blink" technique, analogous to a person blinking at a flash of bright light, is provided for mitigating the effects of single event current latchup and prompt pulse destructive radiation on a micro-electronic circuit. The system includes event detection circuitry, power dump logic circuitry, and energy limiting measures with autonomous recovery. The event detection circuitry includes ionizing radiation pulse detection means for detecting a pulse of ionizing radiation and for providing at an output terminal thereof a detection signal indicative of the detection of a pulse of ionizing radiation. The current sensing circuitry is coupled to the power bus for determining an occurrence of excess current through the power bus caused by ionizing radiation or by ion-induced destructive latchup of a semiconductor device. The power dump circuitry includes power dump logic circuitry having a first input terminal connected to the output terminal of the ionizing radiation pulse detection circuitry and having a second input terminal connected to the output terminal of the current sensing circuitry. The power dump logic circuitry provides an output signal to the input terminal of the circuitry for opening the power bus and the circuitry for shorting the power bus to a ground potential to remove power from the power bus. The energy limiting circuitry with autonomous recovery includes circuitry for opening the power bus and circuitry for shorting the power bus to a ground potential. The circuitry for opening the power bus and circuitry for shorting the power bus to a ground potential includes a series FET and a shunt FET. The invention provides for self-contained sensing for latchup, first removal of power to protect latched components, and autonomous recovery to enable transparent operation of other system elements.

Kimbrough, Joseph Robert (Pleasanton, CA); Colella, Nicholas John (Livermore, CA)

1997-01-01

189

Forever Alone? Testing Single Eccentric Planetary Systems for Multiple Companions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the orbital eccentricity of an extrasolar planet is critically important for understanding the system's dynamical environment and history. However, eccentricity is often poorly determined or entirely mischaracterized due to poor observational sampling, low signal-to-noise, and/or degeneracies with other planetary signals. Some systems previously thought to contain a single, moderate-eccentricity planet have been shown, after further monitoring, to host two planets on nearly circular orbits. We investigate published apparent single-planet systems to see if the available data can be better fit by two lower-eccentricity planets. We identify nine promising candidate systems and perform detailed dynamical tests to confirm the stability of the potential new multiple-planet systems. Finally, we compare the expected orbits of the single- and double-planet scenarios to better inform future observations of these interesting systems.

Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Wang, Songhu; Horner, Jonathan; Tinney, C. G.; Butler, R. P.; Jones, H. R. A.; O'Toole, S. J.; Bailey, J.; Carter, B. D.; Salter, G. S.; Wright, D.; Zhou, Ji-Lin

2013-09-01

190

Bayesian hypothesis testing for single-subject designs.  

PubMed

Researchers using single-subject designs are typically interested in score differences between intervention phases, such as differences in means or trends. If intervention effects are suspected in data, it is desirable to determine how much evidence the data show for an intervention effect. In Bayesian statistics, Bayes factors quantify the evidence in the data for competing hypotheses. We introduce new Bayes factor tests for single-subject data with 2 phases, taking serial dependency into account: a time-series extension of Rouder, Speckman, Sun, Morey, and Iverson's (2009) Jeffreys-Zellner-Siow Bayes factor for mean differences, and a time-series Bayes factor for testing differences in intercepts and slopes. The models we describe are closely related to interrupted time-series models (McDowall, McCleary, Meidinger, & Hay, 1980). PMID:23458719

de Vries, Rivka M; Morey, Richard D

2013-03-04

191

ESTIMATION AND TESTING FOR PARTIALLY LINEAR SINGLE-INDEX MODELS  

PubMed Central

In partially linear single-index models, we obtain the semiparametrically efficient profile least-squares estimators of regression coefficients. We also employ the smoothly clipped absolute deviation penalty (SCAD) approach to simultaneously select variables and estimate regression coefficients. We show that the resulting SCAD estimators are consistent and possess the oracle property. Subsequently, we demonstrate that a proposed tuning parameter selector, BIC, identifies the true model consistently. Finally, we develop a linear hypothesis test for the parametric coefficients and a goodness-of-fit test for the nonparametric component, respectively. Monte Carlo studies are also presented.

Liang, Hua; Liu, Xiang; Li, Runze; Tsai, Chih-Ling

2011-01-01

192

GPI-anchored single chain Fv - an effective way to capture transiently-exposed neutralization epitopes on HIV-1 envelope spike  

PubMed Central

Background Identification of broad neutralization epitopes in HIV-1 envelope spikes is paramount for HIV-1 vaccine development. A few broad neutralization epitopes identified so far are present on the surface of native HIV-1 envelope spikes whose recognition by antibodies does not depend on conformational changes of the envelope spikes. However, HIV-1 envelope spikes also contain transiently-exposed neutralization epitopes, which are more difficult to identify. Results In this study, we constructed single chain Fvs (scFvs) derived from seven human monoclonal antibodies and genetically linked them with or without a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) attachment signal. We show that with a GPI attachment signal the scFvs are targeted to lipid rafts of plasma membranes. In addition, we demonstrate that four of the GPI-anchored scFvs, but not their secreted counterparts, neutralize HIV-1 with various degrees of breadth and potency. Among them, GPI-anchored scFv (X5) exhibits extremely potent and broad neutralization activity against multiple clades of HIV-1 strains tested. Moreover, we show that GPI-anchored scFv (4E10) also exhibited more potent neutralization activity than its secretory counterpart. Finally, we demonstrate that expression of GPI-anchored scFv (X5) in the lipid raft of plasma membrane of human CD4+ T cells confers long-term resistance to HIV-1 infection, HIV-1 envelope-mediated cell-cell fusion, and the infection of HIV-1 captured and transferred by human DCs. Conclusions Thus GPI-anchored scFv could be used as a general and effective way to identify antibodies that react with transiently-exposed neutralization epitopes in envelope proteins of HIV-1 and other enveloped viruses. The GPI-anchored scFv (X5), because of its breadth and potency, should have a great potential to be developed into anti-viral agent for HIV-1 prevention and therapy.

2010-01-01

193

Evaluation of the Non-Transient Hydrologic Source Term from the CAMBRIC Underground Nuclear Test in Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

Hydrologic Source Term (HST) calculations completed in 1998 at the CAMBRIC underground nuclear test site were LLNL's first attempt to simulate a hydrologic source term at the NTS by linking groundwater flow and transport modeling with geochemical modeling (Tompson et al., 1999). Significant effort was applied to develop a framework that modeled in detail the flow regime and captured all appropriate chemical processes that occurred over time. However, portions of the calculations were simplified because of data limitations and a perceived need for generalization of the results. For example: (1) Transient effects arising from a 16 years of pumping at the site for a radionuclide migration study were not incorporated. (2) Radionuclide fluxes across the water table, as derived from infiltration from a ditch to which pumping effluent was discharged, were not addressed. (3) Hydrothermal effects arising from residual heat of the test were not considered. (4) Background data on the ambient groundwater flow direction were uncertain and not represented. (5) Unclassified information on the Radiologic Source Term (RST) inventory, as tabulated recently by Bowen et al. (2001), was unavailable; instead, only a limited set of derived data were available (see Tompson et al., 1999). (6) Only a small number of radionuclides and geochemical reactions were incorporated in the work. (7) Data and interpretation of the RNM-2S multiple well aquifer test (MWAT) were not available. As a result, the current Transient CAMBRIC Hydrologic Source Term project was initiated as part of a broader Phase 2 Frenchman Flat CAU flow and transport modeling effort. The source term will be calculated under two scenarios: (1) A more specific representation of the transient flow and radionuclide release behavior at the site, reflecting the influence of the background hydraulic gradient, residual test heat, pumping experiment, and ditch recharge, and taking into account improved data sources and modeling approaches acquired or developed since the previous work (as in Pawloski et al., 2001, at the CHESHIRE site). This will be referred to as the transient CAMBRIC source term. (2) A generic release model made under steady-state flow conditions, in the absence of any transient effect, at the same site with the same RST for use in the development of simple release models at the other nine underground test sites in the Frenchman Flat CAU. This will be referred to as the steady state (non-transient) source term. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of our steady state source term simulations. Additional details pertaining to these results, the transient model results, and the overall strategy, rationale, and assumptions used in the models will be documented in a separate report.

Tompson, A B; Maxwell, R M; Carle, S F; Zavarin, M; Pawloski, G A; Shumaker, D E

2005-08-05

194

Instrumented Taylor anvil-on-rod impact tests for validating applicability of standard strength models to transient deformation states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instrumented Taylor anvil-on-rod impact tests have been conducted on oxygen-free electronic copper to validate the accuracy of current strength models for predicting transient states during dynamic deformation events. The experiments coupled the use of high-speed digital photography to record the transient deformation states and laser interferometry to monitor the sample back (free surface) velocity as a measure of the elastic/plastic wave propagation through the sample length. Numerical continuum dynamics simulations of the impact and plastic wave propagation employing the Johnson-Cook [Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Ballistics, 1983, The Netherlands (Am. Def. Prep. Assoc. (ADPA)), pp. 541-547], Zerilli-Armstrong [J. Appl. Phys. C1, 1816 (1987)], and Steinberg-Guinan [J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1498 (1980)] constitutive equations were used to generate transient deformation profiles and the free surface velocity traces. While these simulations showed good correlation with the measured free surface velocity traces and the final deformed sample shape, varying degrees of deviations were observed between the photographed and calculated specimen profiles at intermediate deformation states. The results illustrate the usefulness of the instrumented Taylor anvil-on-rod impact technique for validating constitutive equations that can describe the path-dependent deformation response and can therefore predict the transient and final deformation states.

Eakins, D. E.; Thadhani, N. N.

2006-10-01

195

Transient left ventricular apical ballooning and exercise induced hypertension during treadmill exercise testing: is there a common hypersympathetic mechanism?  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe two cases of Takotsubo like myocardial contractile pattern during exercise stress test secondary to hypertensive response. Background Treadmill exercise testing is known to cause sympathetic stimulation, leading to increased levels of catecholamine, resulting in alteration in vascular tone. Hypertensive response during exercise testing can cause abnormal consequences, resulting in false positive results. Cases We present the cases of two patients experiencing apical and basal akinesis during exercise stress echocardiography, in whom normal wall motion response was observed on subsequent pharmacologic stress testing. The first patient developed transient left ventricular (LV) apical akinesis during exercise stress echocardiography. Due to high suspicion that this abnormality might be secondary to hypertensive response, pharmacologic stress testing was performed after three days, which was completely normal and showed no such wall motion abnormality. Qualitative assessment of myocardial perfusion using contrast was also performed, which showed good myocardial blood flow, indicating low probability for significant obstructive coronary artery disease. The second patient developed LV basal akinesis as a result of hypertensive response during exercise testing. Coronary angiogram was not performed in either patient due to low suspicion for coronary artery disease, and subsequently negative stress studies. Results Transient stress induced cardiomyopathy can develop secondary to hypertensive response during exercise stress testing. Conclusion These cases provide supporting evidence to the hyper-sympathetic theory of left ventricular ballooning syndrome.

Dhoble, Abhijeet; Abdelmoneim, Sahar S; Bernier, Mathieu; Oh, Jae K; Mulvagh, Sharon L

2008-01-01

196

Barometric pressure transient testing: Analysis methods and solution uniqueness: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of barometric pressure transients has been shown to be a useful tool in identifying the permeability structure in porous and permeable subsurface formations. The basic approach used in this technique requires monitoring surface barometric pressure fluctuations and the subsurface response to the surface pressure variation at one or more sensor locations over a period of time. These data are

1987-01-01

197

Novel board level drop test simulation using implicit transient analysis with input-G method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent several years, there are many efforts to study the reliability performance of IC package under drop impact loading by numerical modeling. Most of the models utilize LS-DYNA or ABAQUS types of explicit solvers. However, there is a lack of efficient implicit model for the organization without access to explicit solvers. This paper presents a novel non-linear transient dynamics

Jing-en Luan; Tong Yan Tee

2004-01-01

198

Tests and Simulation of Thermal-Hydraulic Transients in the us Prototype Joint Sample  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A limited set of data measured on the US Prototype (USP) joint sample is used to assess the capability of the Mithrandir code to simulate heat-slug transients among the complex assembly of joint components. The Multi-conductor Mithrandir (M&M) code is then applied to simulate heat exchange in a joint of the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) inner module.

Savoldi, L.; Zanino, R.; Michael, P.

199

Transient thermal behaviour of a compressor rotor with ventilation: Test results under simulated engine conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of advanced compressors for modern aero-engines requires detailed knowledge of the transient thermal behavior of the rotor disks to enable accurate prediction of rotor life and, additionally, of the thermal growth of the rotor for the evaluation of tip clearances. In the quest for longer life and higher reliability of the parts as well as reduced clearances even

E. Reile; U. Radons; D. K. Hennecke

1985-01-01

200

Outbreak of Transient Conversions of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube Test in Laboratory Health Care Worker Screenings  

PubMed Central

Gamma interferon release assays were recently introduced in health care worker (HCWs) screenings for tuberculosis surveillance. In longitudinal surveys, conversions and reversions are seen, and yet whether these changes are unspecific or are an expression of new infections and microbial clearance remains unclear. In order to further elucidate these changes, we analyzed an outbreak of 15 transient conversions in 53 HCWs who operate in the same laboratory and handle specimens potentially containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis who underwent screening by the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) test between 11 May and 30 June 2010: 15/46 (33%) negative HCWs showed a conversion and then reverted after 7 to 107 days. To validate these results, an evaluation of methodological procedures and test reliability, as well as an analysis of results obtained during the same period and processed by the same laboratory, was carried out. For the latter purpose, QFT-GIT results determined for 78 ward HCWs who underwent screening during the same period and were employed in departments with at least 3 infectious tuberculosis patients per year or had cared for an infectious patient without airborne precautions were analyzed with the following results: 6/63 (9%) HCWs with negative results in 3 different departments showed transient conversion (P = 0.002; odds ratio, 4.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.62 to 13.04). A retrospective survey of in-house biosafety practices led to determination of a single exposure factor within the laboratory. These data emphasize the validity of the hypothesis that a transient conversion demonstrates the presence of a real tubercular infection and could be an important indicator for occupational biosafety concerns. They also confirm that subjects with recent conversion should be retested before chest radiography and chemotherapy is offered.

Peracchi, Marta; Zorzi, Diego; Fiorio, Silvia; Fallico, Loredana; Palu, Giorgio

2012-01-01

201

Thermionic Fuel Element Test Rig: Testing of Single Cell Thermionic Fuel Element Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Thermionic Fuel Element Test Rig is designed for non-nuclear testing of individual single cell thermionic fuel elements utilizing electric heaters as a part of the Thermionic System Evaluation Test (TSET) Facility, at the New Mexico Engineering Research Institute (NMERI), in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The test rig was purchased from the Republic of Russia and assembled jointly by Russian and American specialists from JV Inertek, a Russian Corporation and the New Mexico Strategic Alliance (Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the University of New Mexico). Initial certification testing and system qualifications testing were completed in December 1992. In the fall of 1993, US personnel completed certification as operators of the test rig and conducted additional testing to verify previous results. The testing is being funded by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) and is being executed by the Air Force Phillips Laboratory.

Luchau, David W.; Follis, Hoby D.; Schreiber, Christopher A.; Izhvanov, Oleg L.; Vibivanets, Valeri I.; Androsov, Victor N.; Shadrin, Eugeni O.

1994-07-01

202

Global nuclear energy partnership fuels transient testing at the Sandia National Laboratories nuclear facilities : planning and facility infrastructure options.  

SciTech Connect

The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership fuels development program is currently developing metallic, oxide, and nitride fuel forms as candidate fuels for an Advanced Burner Reactor. The Advance Burner Reactor is being designed to fission actinides efficiently, thereby reducing the long-term storage requirements for spent fuel repositories. Small fuel samples are being fabricated and evaluated with different transuranic loadings and with extensive burnup using the Advanced Test Reactor. During the next several years, numerous fuel samples will be fabricated, evaluated, and tested, with the eventual goal of developing a transmuter fuel database that supports the down selection to the most suitable fuel type. To provide a comparative database of safety margins for the range of potential transmuter fuels, this report describes a plan to conduct a set of early transient tests in the Annular Core Research Reactor at Sandia National Laboratories. The Annular Core Research Reactor is uniquely qualified to perform these types of tests because of its wide range of operating capabilities and large dry central cavity which extents through the center of the core. The goal of the fuels testing program is to demonstrate that the design and fabrication processes are of sufficient quality that the fuel will not fail at its design limit--up to a specified burnup, power density, and operating temperature. Transient testing is required to determine the fuel pin failure thresholds and to demonstrate that adequate fuel failure margins exist during the postulated design basis accidents.

Kelly, John E.; Wright, Steven Alan; Tikare, Veena; MacLean, Heather J. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Parma, Edward J., Jr.; Peters, Curtis D.; Vernon, Milton E.; Pickard, Paul S.

2007-10-01

203

Spray characteristics of single- and three-hole nozzle injectors in ambient air and in a motored single-cylinder test engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-speed/high-resolution imaging system was used to evaluate two mid-pressure (15 MPa) fuel injector nozzles in ambient air and in a motored single-cylinder test engine. The nozzles are designed for use in the EPA/NVFEL program to develop clean and efficient engines that use alternative fuels. The report is part of an ongoing investigation to analyze the transient spray characteristics for direct-injection type fuel injectors. The experimental results compare a single-hole and a three-hole nozzle and conclude that both of these injector nozzles yield similar spray patterns and atomization and could be particularly useful for combustion systems where injection into a piston bowl is required.

Hahn, J. P.; Hamady, F. J.; Schaefer, R. M.

1994-11-01

204

Spray characteristics of single- and three-hole nozzle injectors in ambient air and in a motored single-cylinder test engine. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The high-speed/high-resolution imaging system was used to evaluate two mid-pressure (15 MPa) fuel injector nozzles in ambient air and in a motored single-cylinder test engine. The nozzles are designed for use in the EPA/NVFEL program to develop clean and efficient engines that use alternative fuels. The report is part of an ongoing investigation to analyze the transient spray characteristics for direct-injection type fuel injectors. The experimental results compare a single-hole and a three-hole nozzle and conclude that both of these injector nozzles yield similar spray patterns and atomization and could be particularly useful for combustion systems where injection into a piston bowl is required.

Hahn, J.P.; Hamady, F.J.; Schaefer, R.M.

1994-11-01

205

Design, fabrication and testing of single spoke resonators at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

The Fermilab High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) linac R&D program is building a pulsed 30 MeV superconducting H- linac. The linac incorporates superconducting solenoids, high power RF vector modulators and superconducting spoke-type accelerating cavities starting at 10 MeV. This will be the first application and demonstration of any of these technologies in a low-energy, high-intensity proton/H- linac. The HINS effort is relevant to a high intensity, superconducting H- linac that might serve the next generation of neutrino physics and muon storage ring/collider experiments. In this paper we present the RF design, the mechanical design, the fabrication, the chemistry and testing of the first two SSR1 (Single Spoke Resonator type-1) prototype cavities that were built. These cavities operate at 325 MHz with {beta} = 0.21. The design and testing of the input coupler and the tuning mechanism are also discussed.

Ristori, L.; Apollinari, G.; Borissov, E.; Gonin, I.V.; Khabiboulline, T.N.; Mukherjee, A.; Nicol, T.H.; Ozelis, J.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Sergatskov, D.A.; Wagner, R.; /Fermilab

2009-09-01

206

Electromagnetic pulse\\/transient threat testing of protection devices for amateur\\/military affiliate radio system equipment. Volume 3. Test data, electromagnetic pulse testing of protection devices. Section 6. Equipment and devices bench check measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of two test programs are presented: one to evaluate existing transient suppression devices and components, and one to evaluate the response of amateur radio equipment to an EMP transient environment. Oscilloscope photographs of the following transmitters\\/receivers are included: YAESU FT 726R, YAESU F7 757GX, ICOM IC-745, ICOM IC-27A, ICOM IC-02AT, ICOM IC-271A, ICOM IC-471A, Kenwood TS-4305, Kenwood TR-2600,

D. Bodson; J. Frizzell; T. Higdon; W. Rabke

1985-01-01

207

Testing of a low cooled ceramic nozzle vane under transient conditions  

SciTech Connect

At the Institut fuer Thermische Stroemungsmaschinen, University of Karlsruhe (ITS), a design technology has been introduced to reduce the mechanically and especially the thermally induced stresses in ceramic components. The concept is based on a three-layered construction (outer ceramic shell, heat insulating layer, and metallic core) and an optimization of the thicknesses of the single layers, in order to obtain a homogeneous temperature distribution in the ceramic structure. The optimization is performed by finite element analyses in combination with failure probability calculations. This methodology has been applied to increase the reliability of a first stage Sintered Silicon Carbide (SSiC) ceramic nozzle vane of a stationary gas turbine (70 MW/1400 C). As a result is was found that the mechanically and thermally induced loads have been reduced considerably and do not exceed 100 MPa, thus achieving adequate life based upon failure probability calculations. Even in a trip situation (fuel cutoff), when the highest loads do occur, the calculations demonstrate a significantly reduced failure probability. The results of the finite element analyses were verified by simulating the typical operating conditions after fuel cutoff in a test rig.

Dilzer, M.; Gutmann, C.; Schulz, A.; Wittig, S. [Univ. of Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Stroemungsmaschinen

1999-04-01

208

IGR J17354–3255 as bench test for investigation of ?-ray emission from Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the different types of sources shining in the high energy sky, gamma-ray binaries are rapidly becoming the subject of major interest. In fact, in the last few years a number of High Mass X-ray Binaries (HMXBs) have been firmly detected from MeV to TeV energies, providing secure evidences that particles can be efficiently accelerated up to very high energies in such galactic systems. Similarly to this general and emerging class of gamma-ray binaries, in principle Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXTs) have all the "ingredients" to be transient high energy emitters. In this context, the SFXT IGR J17354–3255 is a good bench test and we present intriguing hints likely suggesting that it is a transient gamma-ray source flaring on short timescales. If fully confirmed by further studies, the implications stemming are huge, both theoretically and observationally, and would add a further extreme characteristic to the already extreme class of SFXTs.

Sguera, V.

2013-06-01

209

Electromagnetic pulse\\/transient threat testing of protection devices for amateur\\/military affiliate radio system equipment. Volume 3. Test data, electromagnetic pulse testing of protection devices. Section 4. Low impedance\\/low voltage test, 5 ohms-600 volts-120 amps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of two test programs are presented: one to evaluate existing transient suppression devices and components, and one to evaluate the response of amateur radio equipment to an EMP transient environment. Raw test data in the form of oscilloscope photographs for low impedance\\/low voltage test at 5 ohms, 600 volts, and 120 amps are presented. Analysis of the test

D. Bodson; J. Frizzell; T. Higdon; W. Rabke

1985-01-01

210

Electromagnetic pulse\\/transient threat testing of protection devices for amateur\\/military affiliate radio system equipment. Volume 3. Test data, electromagnetic pulse testing of protection devices. Section 3. Low impedance\\/high voltage test, 5 ohms-4500 volts-1000 amps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of two test programs: one to evaluate existing transient suppression devices and components, and one to evaluate the response of amateur radio equipment to an EMP transient environment are reported. Raw test data in the form of oscilloscope photographs for low impedance\\/high voltage tests at 5 ohms, 4500 volts, and 1000 amps are presented. Analysis of the test

D. Bodson; J. Frizzell; T. Higdon; W. Rabke

1985-01-01

211

The modulation effect of substrate doping on multi-node charge collection and single-event transient propagation in 90-nm bulk complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variation of substrate background doping will affect the charge collection of active and passive MOSFETs in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technologies, which are significant for charge sharing, thus affecting the propagated single event transient pulsewidths in circuits. The trends of charge collected by the drain of a positive channel metal-oxide semiconductor (PMOS) and an N metal-oxide semiconductor (NMOS) are opposite as the substrate doping increases. The PMOS source will inject carriers after strike and the amount of charge injected will increase as the substrate doping increases, whereas the source of the NMOS will mainly collect carriers and the source of the NMOS can also inject electrons when the substrate doping is light enough. Additionally, it indicates that substrate doping mainly affects the bipolar amplification component of a single-event transient current, and has little effect on the drift and diffusion. The change in substrate doping has a much greater effect on PMOS than on NMOS.

Qin, Jun-Rui; Chen, Shu-Ming; Liu, Bi-Wei; Liu, Zheng; Liang, Bin; Du, Yan-Kang

2011-12-01

212

Transient improvement of poststroke apathy with zolpidem: a single-case, placebo-controlled double-blind study.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 44-year-old patient with severe and disabling apathy nearly 2 years after a right hemisphere haemorrhagic stroke. The effect of a single dose of zolpidem was tested over a 2-week period, in alternation with either no treatment or a placebo in a double-blind randomised trial. Zolpidem was associated with a dramatic improvement in apathy, as assessed with the Apathy Inventory and the Behavioral Dysexecutive Syndrome Inventory. No adverse effect occurred during the trial. PMID:23396925

Autret, Katell; Arnould, Annabelle; Mathieu, Sarah; Azouvi, Philippe

2013-02-08

213

Vent and Station Test (VST) Facility Single and Double Track Station Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report concerns ventilation and environmental control in subway rapid transit systems and is one of many leading to a subway environmental design handbook. The report is to present test data generated in the VST facility for single and double track st...

1972-01-01

214

Pretest predictions of the Fast Flux Test Facility Passive Safety Test Phase IIB transients using United States derived computer codes and methods  

SciTech Connect

The SASSYS/SAS4A systems analysis code was used to simulate a series of unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) tests planned at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The subject tests were designed to investigate the transient performance of the FFTF during various ULOF scenarios for two different loading patterns designed to produce extremes in the assembly load pad clearance and the direction of the initial assembly bows. The tests are part of an international program designed to extend the existing data base on the performance of liquid metal reactors (LMR). The analyses demonstrate that a wide range of power-to-flow ratios can be reached during the transients and, therefore, will yield valuable data on the dynamic character of the structural feedbacks in LMRS. These analyses will be repeated once the actual FFTF core loadings for the tests are available. These predictions, similar ones obtained by other international participants in the FFTF program, and post-test analyses will be used to upgrade and further verify the computer codes used to predict the behavior of LMRS.

Heard, F.J.; Harris, R.A.; Padilla, A.

1992-07-01

215

Defects in virgin and N+ -implanted ZnO single crystals studied by positron annihilation, Hall effect, and deep-level transient spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-quality single crystals of ZnO in the as-grown and N+ ion-implanted states have been investigated using a combination of three experimental techniques---namely, positron lifetime\\/slow positron implantation spectroscopy accompanied by theoretical calculations of the positron lifetime for selected defects, temperature-dependent Hall (TDH) measurements, and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). The positron lifetime in bulk ZnO is measured to be (151±2)ps and

G. Brauer; W. Anwand; W. Skorupa; J. Kuriplach; O. Melikhova; C. Moisson; H. von Wenckstern; H. Schmidt; M. Lorenz; M. Grundmann

2006-01-01

216

Investigation of Transients in Single-Fiber Bidirectional Closed-Loop WDM Ring Network Using High-Power Gain Clamped EDWA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate a transparent WDM ring network design immune to accumulated power transients where simultaneous bidirectional operation is achieved on a single fiber. This allows cost effectiveness, flexible traffic re-routing, and network operation. We demonstrate that add\\/drop of 15 out of 16 channels generate negligible (< 0.15 dB) power excursion on the surviving channel. These results have been obtained by

K. Ennser; G. Della Valle; S. Taccheo

2009-01-01

217

Marine diatoms grown in chemostats under silicate or ammonium limitation. II. Transient response of Skeletonema costatum to a single addition of the limiting nutrient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skeletonema costatum was grown at different steady-state growth rates in ammonium or silicate-limited chemostats. The culture was perturbed from its steady-state condition by a single addition of the limiting nutrients ammonium or silicate. The transient response was followed by measuring nutrient disappearance of the liliting perturbation experiment indicate that three distinct modes of uptake of the limiting nutrient can be

H. L. Conway; P. J. Harrison; C. O. Davis

1976-01-01

218

Free drop test simulation for portable IC package by implicit transient dynamics FEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free drop test performance of portable IC packages is a key reliability criteria for handheld products. Various experimental test methods are widely applied to measure the drop test response and to test for visual and electrical failures after the drop test. However, the experimental data we can collect is very limited, especially for the impact of stress wave propagation and

Scott Irving; Yong Liu

2004-01-01

219

Single Component Sorption-Desorption Test Experimental Design Approach Discussions  

SciTech Connect

A task was identified within the fission-product-transport work package to develop a path forward for doing testing to determine behavior of volatile fission products behavior and to engage members of the NGNP community to advise and dissent on the approach. The following document is a summary of the discussions and the specific approaches suggested for components of the testing. Included in the summary isare the minutes of the conference call that was held with INL and external interested parties to elicit comments on the approaches brought forward by the INL participants. The conclusion was that an initial non-radioactive, single component test will be useful to establish the limits of currently available chemical detection methods, and to evaluated source-dispersion uniformity. In parallel, development of a real-time low-concentration monitoring method is believed to be useful in detecting rapid dispersion as well as desorption phenomena. Ultimately, the test cycle is expected to progress to the use of radio-traced species, simply because this method will allow the lowest possible detection limits. The consensus of the conference call was that there is no need for an in-core test because the duct and heat exchanger surfaces that will be the sorption target will be outside the main neutron flux and will not be affected by irradiation. Participants in the discussion and contributors to the INL approach were Jeffrey Berg, Pattrick Calderoni, Gary Groenewold, Paul Humrickhouse, Brad Merrill, and Phil Winston. Participants from outside the INL included David Hanson of General Atomics, Todd Allen, Tyler Gerczak, and Izabela Szlufarska of the University of Wisconsin, Gary Was, of the University of Michigan, Sudarshan Loyalka and Tushar Ghosh of the University of Missouri, and Robert Morris of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Phil WInston

2011-09-01

220

78 FR 44189 - Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRA-2013-0064] Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures In accordance...per 49 CFR 232.307 to modify the single car air brake test procedures located in AAR...System Tests for Freight Equipment-- Single Car Test, and required pursuant to 49 CFR...

2013-07-23

221

Electromagnetic pulse\\/transient threat testing of protection devices for amateur\\/military affiliate radio system equipment. Volume 3. Test data, electromagnetic pulse testing of protection devices. Section 1. High energy pulse-device failure test. 50 ohms impedance 25,000 volts-4000 amps, 100 joules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of two test programs: one to evaluate existing transient suppression devices and components, and one to evaluate the response of amateur radio equipment to an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) transient environment are presented. Raw test data in the form of oscilloscope photographs for high energy pulse-device failure tests at 50 ohms impedance, 25000 volts, 400 amps, and 100 joules

D. Bodson; J. Frizzell; T. Higdon; W. Rabke

1985-01-01

222

Load resistor as a worst-case parameter to investigate single-event transients in analog electronic devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main phenomena that commit the reliability of analog electronic systems working in the outer space is the presence of energetic ions that produce spurious transients after crossing the device. These pulses are transmitted to the network loading the device and can eventually lead to dangerous situations as it has been observed in some spatial missions. This paper

I. Lopez-Calle; F. J. Franco; J. A. Agapito; J. G. Izquierdo

2011-01-01

223

Tests show ability of vacuum circuit breaker to interrupt fast transient recovery voltage rates of rise of transformer secondary faults  

SciTech Connect

A vacuum circuit breaker demonstrated its ability to interrupt short circuits with faster than normal rates of rise of transient recovery voltage (TRV) at levels greater than those produced by most transformer secondary faults. Two recent exploratory test programs evaluated the interrupting ability of a 15kV vacuum circuit breaker containing interrupters of the rotating arc type with contacts made from a chromium-copper powder metal mixture. The interrupting conditions covered a wide range of currents from 10% to 130% of the 28kA rated short circuit current of the tested circuit breaker and a wide range of TRV rates of rise, including the relatively slow rate of rise, normally used in testing and found in most indoor circuit breaker applications, two faster rates of rise equaling and exceeding those found in a known power plant transformer secondary protection application, and the fastest rates of rise possible in the laboratory which exceed the requirements of most transformer secondary faults. These tests showed that the interrupting performance of the tested vacuum circuit breaker was unaffected by the TRV rate of rise to the fastest rates available in the test lab. Such a vacuum circuit breaker can therefore be used without TRV modifying capacitors to slow down the rate of rise provided by the power system. This ability is particularly important if analysis shows that the expected TRV from a transformer secondary fault has a fast rate of rise beyond the recognized ability of an older circuit breaker to acceptably interrupt.

Smith, R.K. [Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1995-01-01

224

Barometric pressure transient testing: Analysis methods and solution uniqueness: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of barometric pressure transients has been shown to be a useful tool in identifying the permeability structure in porous and permeable subsurface formations. The basic approach used in this technique requires monitoring surface barometric pressure fluctuations and the subsurface response to the surface pressure variation at one or more sensor locations over a period of time. These data are then used in conjunction with a given model of the subsurface to extract best estimates of one or more of the model parameters. A number of non-ideal conditions may affect solution uniqueness. These include the existence of noise on the data, sparse subsurface instrumentation, using an incorrect hole-formation model to interpret the data, and the frequency content of the recorded barometric pressure data. All of the work directed toward describing solution uniqueness and parameter uncertainty is presented. Other topics include refinement of several existing formation models, addressing the possibility of extracting an impulse response function from the measured data so that some kind of ''type-curve'' analysis can be applied, and the usefulness of carrying out the analysis in the frequency-domain. 5 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.

Hanson, J.M.

1987-10-01

225

Test of the fluctuation theorem for single-electron transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using time-resolved charge detection in a double quantum dot, we present an experimental test of the fluctuation theorem. The fluctuation theorem, a result from nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, quantifies the ratio of occurrence of fluctuations that drive a small system against the direction favored by the second law of thermodynamics. Here, these fluctuations take the form of single electrons flowing against the source-drain bias voltage across the double quantum dot. Our results, covering configurations close to as well as far from equilibrium, agree with the theoretical predictions, when the finite bandwidth of the charge detection is taken into account. In further measurements, we study a fluctuation relation that is a generalization of the Johnson-Nyquist formula and relates the second-order conductance to the voltage dependence of the noise. Current and noise can be determined with the time-resolved charge detection method. Our measurements confirm the fluctuation relation in the nonlinear transport regime of the double quantum dot.

Küng, B.; Rössler, C.; Beck, M.; Marthaler, M.; Golubev, D. S.; Utsumi, Y.; Ihn, T.; Ensslin, K.

2013-04-01

226

Testing of the single-element stretched-membrane dish  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Stretched-Membrane Dish Program is the development of a dish solar concentrator fabricated with a single optical element capable of collecting 60 kWt. Solar Kinetics, Inc., has constructed a prototype 7-meter dish to demonstrate the manufacturability and optical performance of this innovative design. The reflective surface of the dish consists of a plastically deformed metal membrane with a separate reflective polymer membrane on top, both held in place by a low-level vacuum. Sandia conducted a test program to determine the on-sum performance of the dish. The vacuum setting was varied 8.9- to 17. 2-cm of water column and the vertex to target distance was varied over a range of 15.24 cm to evaluate beam quality. The optimal setting for the vacuum was 11.4 centimeters of water column with the best beam quality of 6.4 centimeters behind the theoretical focal point of the dish. Flux arrays based on slope error from the CIRCE2 computer code were compared to the measured flux array of the dish. The uniformly distributed slope error of 2.3 milliradians was determined as the value that would produce a modeled array with the minimum mean square difference to the measured array. Cold water calorimetry measured a power of 23.3 {plus minus} .3 kWt. Reflectivity change from an initial value of 88.3% to 76.7% over a one year period. 12 refs.

Grossman, J.W.; Houser, R.M.; Erdman, W.W.

1992-02-01

227

Testing of the single-element stretched-membrane dish  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Stretched-Membrane Dish Program is the development of a dish solar concentrator fabricated with a single optical element capable of collecting 60 kWt. Solar Kinetics, Inc., has constructed a prototype 7-meter dish to demonstrate the manufacturability and optical performance of this innovative design. The reflective surface of the dish consists of a plastically deformed metal membrane with a separate reflective polymer membrane on top, both held in place by a low-level vacuum. Sandia conducted a test program to determine the on-sum performance of the dish. The vacuum setting was varied 8.9- to 17. 2-cm of water column and the vertex to target distance was varied over a range of 15.24 cm to evaluate beam quality. The optimal setting for the vacuum was 11.4 centimeters of water column with the best beam quality of 6.4 centimeters behind the theoretical focal point of the dish. Flux arrays based on slope error from the CIRCE2 computer code were compared to the measured flux array of the dish. The uniformly distributed slope error of 2.3 milliradians was determined as the value that would produce a modeled array with the minimum mean square difference to the measured array. Cold water calorimetry measured a power of 23.3 {plus_minus} .3 kWt. Reflectivity change from an initial value of 88.3% to 76.7% over a one year period. 12 refs.

Grossman, J.W.; Houser, R.M.; Erdman, W.W.

1992-02-01

228

Numerical simulation and analysis for transient thermal field of a drum brake based on the test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional finite element model of a drum brake is built in this paper. According to test conditions of brake heat fade and other relevant national standards, using ANSYS Workbench, brake drum thermal field is simulated and studied. Through several simulation methods revised about initial conditions, to achieve fitting of the simulation curve and test curve. The boundary conditions for temperature

Ma Xun; Zhang Jiwei

2010-01-01

229

Pulsed chemical laser technology development test plan single pulse diagnostic testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single pulse DF and DF/CO2 transfer laser testing will be conducted to expand the data base for verification and extension of performance scaling relations. Scaling relations are currently based on the analytical effort completion under Task I and the comparison of this analysis with the available data. Tests will explore the effects on performance of gas composition with constituents included F2, D2, O2, HF, NF3, He, N2, and CO2 at both DF and CO2 wavelengths. Tests will explore the nature of the medium in terms of F atom initiation level and gain, the nature of the initiating electron beam source in terms of energy deposition level and uniformity and pulse length, and laser yield in terms of total energy, pulse shape and time resolved spectra. The system will operate at pressures ranging from 200 to 760 torr.

Moran, J. P.

1986-04-01

230

Design and operation of a rapid thermal transient component testing sodium loop  

SciTech Connect

A specific problem developed during the design of an on-line sampling system for the Sodium Loop Safety Facility fast breeder reactor experiments. Rapid fluctuations in the sodium temperature, caused by reactor operation and shutdown, exposed the system components to conditions that could result in fatigue failure. A component test loop was designed and built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to allow experimental qualification of component integrity. This paper outlines test system requirements, describes the design and special features, presents test procedures ad relates significant operating experience.

Crandall, D.L.

1984-04-16

231

Electron mobility in tris(8-hydroxy-quinoline)aluminum thin films determined via transient electroluminescence from single- and multilayer organic light-emitting diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient electroluminescence (EL) from single- and multilayer organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) was investigated by driving the devices with short, rectangular voltage pulses. The single-layer devices consist of indium-tin oxide (ITO)/tris(8-hydroxy-quinoline)aluminum (Alq3)/magnesium (Mg):silver (Ag), whereas the structure of the multilayer OLEDs are ITO/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/N,N'-di(naphthalene-1-yl)-N,N'-diphenyl-benzidine (NPB)/Alq3/Mg:Ag. Apparent model-dependent values of the electron mobility (?e) in Alq3 have been calculated from the onset of EL for both device structures upon invoking different internal electric field distributions. For the single-layer OLEDs, transient experiments with different dc bias voltages indicated that the EL delay time is determined by the accumulation of charge carriers inside the device rather than by transport of the latter. This interpretation is supported by the observation of delayed EL after the voltage pulse is turned off. In the multilayer OLED the EL onset-dependent on the electric field-is governed by accumulated charges (holes) at the internal organic-organic interface (NPB/Alq3) or is transport limited. Time-of-flight measurements on 150-nm-thin Alq3 layers yield weak field-dependent ?e values of the order of 1×10-5 cm2/Vs at electrical fields between 3.9×105 and 1.3×106 V/cm.

Barth, S.; Müller, P.; Riel, H.; Seidler, P. F.; Rieß, W.; Vestweber, H.; Bässler, H.

2001-04-01

232

New Method to Model the Equivalent Circuit of the Pulse Generator in Electrical Fast Transient/Burst Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an accurate and systematic method to model the equivalent circuit of pulse generator in the electrical fast transients/burst test (EFT/B). Firstly, a new analytical expression is presented to express the generator's charging and discharging process under open-condition (1000-?), which all its coefficients are determined according to the output waveform specified by the manufacturer. And then, with adoption of the step source, the transfer function of the pulse forming network in Laplace domain is deduced, which is ready for the network synthesis. Based on above discussion, the parameterized method and the technique of constant-resistance are adopted for the network synthesis. Finally, the equivalent circuit is renormalized and improved to meet the specification under matching-condition (50-?). In this way, the equivalent circuit of EFT/B generator is obtained and can be adjusted conveniently to satisfy the different manufacturers. The PSPICE simulation with a certain load is validated by measurement.

Zhai, Xiaoshe; Geng, Yingsan; Wang, Jianhua; Song, Zhengxiang; Chen, Degui

233

Neuromodulation at single presynaptic boutons of cerebellar parallel fibers is determined by bouton size and basal action potential-evoked Ca transient amplitude  

PubMed Central

Most presynaptic terminals in the brain contain G-protein coupled receptors that function to reduce action potential-evoked neurotransmitter release. These neuromodulatory receptors, including those for glutamate, GABA, endocannabinoids and adenosine, exert a substantial portion of their effect by reducing evoked presynaptic Ca2+ transients. Many axons form synapses with multiple postsynaptic neurons, but it is unclear if presynaptic attenuation in these synapses is homogeneous, as suggested by population level Ca2+ imaging. We loaded Ca2+-sensitive dyes into cerebellar parallel fiber axons and imaged action potential-evoked Ca2+ transients in individual presynaptic boutons with application of three different neuromodulators and found that adjacent boutons on the same axon showed striking heterogeneity in their strength of attenuation. Moreover, attenuation was predicted by bouton size or basal Ca2+ response: smaller boutons were more sensitive to adenosine A1 agonist but less sensitive to CB1 agonist while boutons with high basal action potential-evoked Ca2+ transient amplitude were more sensitive to mGluR4 agonist. These results suggest that boutons within brief segment of a single parallel fiber axon can have different sensitivities towards neuromodulators and may have different capacities for both short-term and long-term plasticities.

Zhang, Wei; Linden, David J.

2010-01-01

234

Test CMOS/SOS RAM for transient radiation upset comparative research and failure analysis  

SciTech Connect

The test Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor/Silicon-on-Sapphire Random Access Memory (CMOS/SOS RAM) with eight types of memory cells was designed and tested at high dose rates with a flash X-ray machine and laser simulator. The memory cell (MC) design with additional transistors and RC-chain was found to be upset free up to 2 {times} 10{sup 12} rad(Si)/s. An inversion effect was discovered in which almost 100% logic upset was observed in poorly protected memory cell arrays at very high dose rates.

Nikiforov, A.Y.; Poljakov, I.V. [Specialized Electronic Systems, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-12-01

235

Randomized Single-Subject Experiments and Statistical Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of intensive study of the individual subject in counseling research and the importance of the development of appropriate designs and analytical procedures for single-subject research has been recognized. Single-subject experiments are not always possible or ethical, but when they can be performed, treatment times should be randomly assigned to treatments, as this randomization is essential to provide the

Eugene S. Edgington

1987-01-01

236

Transient elastodynamic model for beam defect interaction: application to non-destructive testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling tools have been developed at the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) for the simulation of ultrasonic non-destructive testing inspections. In this paper the model for the prediction of echoes arising from defects within a piece (Méphisto) is presented and some examples are given and compared with experimental results. The model for computing wave defect interaction is based on Kirchhoff's

Raphaële Raillon; Isabelle Lecoeur-Taïbi

2000-01-01

237

Significance of transient STT segment changes during dobutamine testing in Q wave myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. We evaluated dobutamine stress electrocardiography for detecting potentially reversible contractile dysfunction or residual ischemia in the infarct-related area.Background. ST-T segment changes in pathologic Q wave leads during stress testing may reflect contractile reserve, inducible ischemia or passive mechanical stretching. Dobutamine echocardiography allows detection of contractile reserve at low doses and inducible ischemia at high doses.Methods. We used low (5

Antonella Lombardo; Francesco Loperfido; Faustino Pennestri; Elisabetta Rossi; Roberto Patrizi; Giuseppina Cristinziani; Girolamo Catapano; Attilio Maseri

1996-01-01

238

Constitutive Modeling of Superalloy Single Crystals with Verification Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal is the development of constitutive equations to describe the elevated temperature stress-strain behavior of single crystal turbine blade alloys. The program includes both the development of a suitable model and verification of the model through e...

E. Jordan K. P. Walker

1985-01-01

239

Single-cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing Csx/Nkx2.5 and GATA4 undergo the stochastic cardiomyogenic fate and behave like transient amplifying cells  

SciTech Connect

Bone marrow-derived stromal cells can give rise to cardiomyocytes as well as adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes in vitro. The existence of mesenchymal stem cells has been proposed, but it remains unclear if a single-cell-derived stem cell stochastically commits toward a cardiac lineage. By single-cell marking, we performed a follow-up study of individual cells during the differentiation of 9-15c mesenchymal stromal cells derived from bone marrow cells. Three types of cells, i.e., cardiac myoblasts, cardiac progenitors and multipotent stem cells were differentiated from a single cell, implying that cardiomyocytes are generated stochastically from a single-cell-derived stem cell. We also demonstrated that overexpression of Csx/Nkx2.5 and GATA4, precardiac mesodermal transcription factors, enhanced cardiomyogenic differentiation of 9-15c cells, and the frequency of cardiomyogenic differentiation was increased by co-culturing with fetal cardiomyocytes. Single-cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing Csx/Nkx2.5 and GATA4 behaved like cardiac transient amplifying cells, and still retained their plasticity in vivo.

Yamada, Yoji [BioFrontier Laboratories, Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co. Ltd., 3-6-6 Asahi-machi, Machida-shi, Tokyo 194-8533 (Japan); Sakurada, Kazuhiro [BioFrontier Laboratories, Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co. Ltd., 3-6-6 Asahi-machi, Machida-shi, Tokyo 194-8533 (Japan); Takeda, Yukiji [National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1 Okura, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157-8535 (Japan); Gojo, Satoshi [National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1 Okura, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157-8535 (Japan); Umezawa, Akihiro [National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1 Okura, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157-8535 (Japan)]. E-mail: umezawa@1985.jukuin.keio.ac.jp

2007-02-15

240

COBRA-WC: a version of COBRA for single-phase multiassembly thermal hydraulic transient analysis. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to provide the user of the COBRA-WC (Whole Core) code a basic understanding of the code operation and capabilities. Included in this manual are the equations solved and the assumptions made in their derivations, a general description of the code capabilities, an explanation of the numerical algorithms used to solve the equations, and input instructions for using the code. Also, the auxiliary programs GEOM and SPECSET are described and input instructions for each are given. Input for COBRA-WC sample problems and the corresponding output are given in the appendices. The COBRA-WC code has been developed from the COBRA-IV-I code to analyze liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) assembly transients. It was specifically developed to analyze a core flow coastdown to natural circulation cooling.

George, T.L.; Basehore, K.L.; Wheeler, C.L.; Prather, W.A.; Masterson, R.E.

1980-07-01

241

Stress Transfer in Single Fiber\\/ Resin Tensile Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microscale (25 mm gauge length) “dogbone” resin specimens with single carbon fibers embedded through the length of the specimen have been studied as a method for determining the fiber-resin interphase strength. The specimens are pulled in tension until the fiber fragments to a critical length, lc. Evidence is presented here, based primarily on the relaxation of stress birefringence around the

W. D. Bascom; R. M. Jensen

1986-01-01

242

Development of a flexible laboratory testing platform for assessing steady-state and transient performance of WAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the development of an experimental setup for the steady state and transient analysis of Wide Area Measurement Systems (WAMS). The flexibility of the generated input signals for which the PMU performance is assessed represents a novel contribution of the designed setup. Transient disturbances modeled by mathematical functions or extracted from simulated networks within DigSILENT PowerFactory software are

Alexandru Nechifor; Pawel Regulski; Deyu Cai; Vladimir Terzija

2011-01-01

243

Terminal Homing Engineering Flight Test T7 and MT7 Missile Launch Transients Data Reduction and Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The launch transients at tipoff for forty-six T7 and MT7 missile launches are compiled, grouped according to Quadrant Elevation Angle, and the mean tipoff transients and standard deviations thereof are calculated. Results are discussed generally in terms ...

J. Knoblach

1974-01-01

244

Single-stranded DNA as a recombination substrate in plants as assessed by stable and transient recombination assays.  

PubMed Central

Two separate assays, one that requires stable integration of recombination products and one that does not, were employed to elucidate the role of single-stranded DNA in extrachromosomal homologous recombination in Nicotiana tabacum. Both assays revealed that single-stranded DNA in linear and in circular forms was an efficient substrate for recombination, provided that the cotransformed recombination substrates were of complementary sequence, so that direct annealing was possible. Recombination was inefficient when both single-stranded recombination partners contained homologous regions of identical sequence and generation of a double-stranded DNA was required prior to heteroduplex formation. These results indicate that direct annealing of single strands is an important initial step for intermolecular recombination in tobacco cells. Annealed cotransformed single-stranded molecules yielded intermediates that could be further processed by either continuous or discontinuous second-strand synthesis. The type of intermediate had no influence on the recombination efficiency. Double-stranded circles were unable to recombine efficiently either with each other or with single-stranded DNA. Our results suggest that a helicase activity is involved in the initial steps of double-stranded DNA recombination which unwinds duplex molecules at the site of double-strand breaks. Images

Bilang, R; Peterhans, A; Bogucki, A; Paszkowski, J

1992-01-01

245

Bulge testing of single and dual layer thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bulge testing technique determines the mechanical properties of solid thin films by measuring the deformation that forms in response to the application of a controlled differential pressure to a thin film window. By comparing the pressure- displacement relation with a mechanical model, the elastic modulus and residual stress in the film can be measured. While the bulge testing technique

Dryver R. Huston; Patricia S. Bunta; Brian Esserab

246

Single event effect proton and heavy ion test results in support of candidate NASA programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present proton and heavy ion single event effect (SEE) ground test results for candidate spacecraft electronics. The variety of analog and digital devices tested includes ADCs, DC-DC converters, DRAMs, linear devices, and microprocessors

K. LaBel; A. Moran; D. Hawkins; A. Sanders; C. Seidleck; H. Kim; J. Forney; E. G. Stassinopoulos; P. Marshall; C. Dale; R. Barry

1995-01-01

247

Honeywell radiation hardened 32-bit processor single event effects test results  

Microsoft Academic Search

We will present single event effects test results for the Honeywell radiation hardened 32-bit processor. The processor was tested at board-level while executing a signal and data processing benchmark suite

S. C. Leavy; Jeffrey A. Mogensen; Thomas S. Smith; G. J. Freitfeld; Julie Brichacek

1998-01-01

248

The mechanism of the transient depression of the erythropoietic rate induced in the rat by a single injection of uranyl nitrate  

SciTech Connect

With the purpose of assessing the effect of uranyl nitrate (UN) on the rate of erythropoiesis, 1 mg/kg of the compound was injected iv to adult female Wistar rats. The dosing vehicle was injected into control animals. A single injection of UN induced a transient depression of the rate of red cell volume /sup 59/Fe uptake, which reached its lowest value (68% depression) by the seventh postinjection day. By 14 days, /sup 59/Fe incorporation had returned to normal. The amount of iron going to erythroid tissue per hour, reticulocyte count, and immunoreactive erythropoietin concentration in both plasma and kidney extracts were also significantly depressed in UN-treated rats in relation to these values in vehicle-injected rats by the seventh postinjection day. Dose-response curves for exogenous erythropoietin (Epo) performed in polycythemic intact and UN-treated rats 7 days after drug injection revealed a significant depression of the response in UN-injected animals. Moreover, bone marrow cells obtained from rats pretreated with UN formed a reduced number of erythroid colonies in vitro in response to Epo. Therefore, possible mechanisms for the observed transient depression in the rate of erythropoiesis associated with acute UN treatment include decreased Epo production and direct or indirect damage of erythroid progenitor cells.

Giglio, M.J.; Brandan, N.; Leal, T.L.; Bozzini, C.E.

1989-06-15

249

76 FR 34801 - Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRA-2010-0174] Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures In accordance...FRA) grant a modification of the single car air brake test procedures as prescribed...FRA-2010-0174. PATH operates a fleet of 25 flat cars in consist with revenue cars utilized...

2011-06-14

250

An entropy test for single-locus genetic association analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The etiology of complex diseases is due to the combination of genetic and environmental factors, usually many of them, and each with a small effect. The identification of these small-effect contributing factors is still a demanding task. Clearly, there is a need for more powerful tests of genetic association, and especially for the identification of rare effects RESULTS: We

Manuel Ruiz-Marín; Mariano Matilla-García; José Antonio García Cordoba; Juan Luis Susillo-González; Alejandro Romo-Astorga; Antonio González-Pérez; Agustín Ruiz; Javier Gayán

2010-01-01

251

Infrared picosecond superconducting single-photon detectors for cmos-tircuit testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel, NbN superconducting single-photon detectors have been developed for ultrafast, high quantum efficiency detection of single quanta of infrared radiation. Our devices have been successfully implemented in a commercial VLSI CMOS circuit testing system. 02003 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (040.5570) Quantum detectors; (040.3060) Infrared We have developed novel, NbN-based, superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs) for non-contact testing and debugging

J. Zhang; A. Pearlman; W. Slysz; A. Verevkin; Roman Sobolewski; O. Okunev; A. Korneev; P. Kouminov; K. Smirnov; G. Chulkova; G. N. Gol'tsman; W. Lo; K. Wilsher

2003-01-01

252

Single-molecule kinetics and super-resolution microscopy by fluorescence imaging of transient binding on DNA origami.  

PubMed

DNA origami is a powerful method for the programmable assembly of nanoscale molecular structures. For applications of these structures as functional biomaterials, the study of reaction kinetics and dynamic processes in real time and with high spatial resolution becomes increasingly important. We present a single-molecule assay for the study of binding and unbinding kinetics on DNA origami. We find that the kinetics of hybridization to single-stranded extensions on DNA origami is similar to isolated substrate-immobilized DNA with a slight position dependence on the origami. On the basis of the knowledge of the kinetics, we exploit reversible specific binding of labeled oligonucleotides to DNA nanostructures for PAINT (points accumulation for imaging in nanoscale topography) imaging with <30 nm resolution. The method is demonstrated for flat monomeric DNA structures as well as multimeric, ribbon-like DNA structures. PMID:20957983

Jungmann, Ralf; Steinhauer, Christian; Scheible, Max; Kuzyk, Anton; Tinnefeld, Philip; Simmel, Friedrich C

2010-11-10

253

ORNL rod-bundle heat-transfer test data. Volume 3. Thermal-hydraulic test facility experimental data report for test 3. 06. 6B - transient film boiling in upflow. [PWR  

SciTech Connect

Reduced instrument responses are presented for Thermal-Hyraulic Test Facility (THTF) Test 3.06.6B. This test was conducted by members of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Pressurized-Water-Reactor (PWR) Blowdown Heat Transfer (BDHT) Separate-Effects Program on August 29, 1980. The objective of the program was to investigate heat transfer phenomena believed to occur in PWR's during accidents, including small and large break loss-of-coolant accidents. Test 3.06.6B was conducted to obtain transient film boiling data in rod bundle geometry under reactor accident-type conditions. The primary purpose of this report is to make the reduced instrument responses for THTF Test 3.06.6B available. Included in the report are uncertainties in the instrument responses, calculated mass flows, and calculated rod powers.

Mullins, C.B.; Felde, D.K.; Sutton, A.G.; Gould, S.S.; Morris, D.G.; Robinson, J.J.

1982-05-01

254

Test procedures and instructions for single shell tank saltcake cesium removal with crystalline silicotitanate  

SciTech Connect

This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test, using Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake from tanks 24 t -BY- I 10, 24 1 -U- 108, 24 1 -U- 109, 24 1 -A- I 0 1, and 24 t - S-102, in a bench-scale column. The cesium sorbent to be tested is crystalline siticotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-024, Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake Cesium Removal Test Plan.

Duncan, J.B.

1997-01-07

255

An EAC Based Braking Resistor Approach for Transient Stability Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new braking resistor approach using the equal area criterion (EAC) is presented to improve the transient stability of power systems. A conventional and a fuzzy logic controller have been developed and compared. The proposed approach was tested on a single machine system, and then on the IEEE WSCC multimachine test system. Simulation results indicate that the

Yuning Chen; M. E. El-Harway

2006-01-01

256

DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES OF THE SINGLE CELL TEST SYSTEM FOR SO2 DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER DEVELOPMENT  

SciTech Connect

The single cell test system development for the SRNL sulfur dioxide-depolarized electrolyzer has been completed. Operating experience and improved operating procedures were developed during test operations in FY06 and the first quarter of FY07. Eight different cell configurations, using various MEA designs, have been tested. The single cell test electrolyzer has been modified to overcome difficulties experienced during testing, including modifications to the inlet connection to eliminate minute acid leaks that caused short circuits. The test facility was modified by adding a water bath for cell heating, thus permitting operation over a wider range of flowrates and cell temperatures. Modifications were also identified to permit continuous water flushing of the cathode to remove sulfur, thus extending operating time between required shutdowns. This is also expected to permit a means of independently measuring the rate of sulfur formation, and the corresponding SO{sub 2} flux through the membrane. This report contains a discussion of the design issues being addressed by the single cell test program, a test matrix being conducted to address these issues, and a summary of the performance objectives for the single cell test system. The current primary objective of single cell test system is to characterize and qualify electrolyzer configurations for the following 100-hour longevity tests. Although the single cell test system development is considered complete, SRNL will continue to utilize the test facility and the single cell electrolyzer to measure the operability and performance of various cell design configurations, including new MEA's produced by the component development tasks.

Steimke, J

2007-01-15

257

Intravenous Cocaine Induces Rapid, Transient Excitation of Striatal Neurons via its Action on Peripheral Neural Elements: Single-cell, Iontophoretic Study in Awake and Anesthetized Rats  

PubMed Central

Cocaine’s (COC) direct interaction with the dopamine (DA) transporter is usually considered the most important action underlying the psychomotor stimulant and reinforcing effects of this drug. However, some physiological, behavioral and psycho-emotional effects of COC are very rapid and brief and they remain intact during DA receptor blockade, suggesting possible involvement of peripheral non-DA neural mechanisms. To assess this issue, single-unit recording with microiontophoresis was used to examine changes in impulse activity of dorsal and ventral striatal neurons to intravenous (iv) COC (0.25–0.5 mg/kg) in the same rats under two conditions: awake with dopamine (DA) receptor blockade and anesthetized with urethane. In the awake preparation ~70% striatal neurons showed rapid and transient (latency ~ 6 s, duration ~15 s) COC-induced excitations. These effects were stronger in ventral than dorsal striatum. During anesthesia, these phasic effects were fully blocked and COC slowly decreased neuronal discharge rate. COC-methiodide (COC-M), a derivative that cannot cross the blood-brain barrier, also caused phasic excitations in the awake, but not anesthetized condition. In contrast to regular COC, COC-M had no tonic effect on discharge rate in either preparation. Most striatal neurons that were phasically excited by both COC forms also showed short-latency excitations during tail-touch and tail-pinch in the awake preparation, an effect strongly attenuated during anesthesia. Finally, most striatal neurons that in awake conditions were phasically excited by somato-sensory stimuli and COC salts were also excited by iontophoretic glutamate (GLU). Although striatal neurons were sensitive to GLU in both preparations, the response magnitude at the same GLU current was higher in awake than anesthetized conditions. These data suggest that in awake animals iv COC, like somato-sensory stimuli, transiently excites striatal neurons via its action on peripheral neural elements and rapid neural transmission. While the nature of these neuronal elements needs to be clarified using other analytical techniques, they might involve voltage-gated K+ and Na+ channels, which have a high affinity for COC and are located on terminals of visceral sensory nerves that densely innervate peripheral vessels. Therefore, along with direct action on specific brain substrates, central excitatory effects of COC may occur via indirect action, involving afferents of visceral sensory nerves and rapid neural transmission. By providing a rapid sensory signal and triggering transient neural activation, such a peripherally triggered action might play a crucial role in the sensory effects of COC, thus contributing to learning and development of drug-taking behavior.

Kiyatkin, Eugene A.; Brown, Paul Leon

2007-01-01

258

Error-correction Mechanism Tests for Cointegration in a Single-equation Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new test is proposed for cointegration in a single-equation framework where the regressors are weakly exogenous for the parameters of interest. The test is denoted as an error-correction mechanism (ECM) test and is based upon the ordinary least squares coefficient of the lagged dependent variable in an autoregressive distributed lag model augmented with leads of the regressors. The limit

Juan José Dolado; Anindya Banerjee; Ricardo Mestre

2000-01-01

259

Generation and analysis of FCG data using a single specimen and K max–? K testing matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

A custom method to generate fatigue crack growth (FCG) data requires testing of multiple specimens at different load ratios, R, and the application of a load shedding procedure from pre-cracking level to threshold. In this paper, a novel method of testing has been investigated which utilizing a single specimen and a testing matrix in terms of Kmax and ?K values

Daniel Kujawski; Phani Chandar R. Sree

2009-01-01

260

Analysis of field test results for single-axis-tracking solar collector foundations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five reinforced concrete cylindrical piers, typical of foundations utilized for single-axis-tracking solar collector systems, were tested to determine eccentric horizontal and vertical failure loads. The results from these tests were found to compare favorably with the results from theoretical calculations which incorporate the geotechnical parameters of the test site. Recommendations are made for the incorporation of these results into the

H. E. Auld

1979-01-01

261

Small-Sample Equating Using a Single-Group Nearly Equivalent Test (SiGNET) Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A single-group (SG) equating with nearly equivalent test forms (SiGNET) design was developed by Grant to equate small-volume tests. Under this design, the scored items for the operational form are divided into testlets or mini tests. An additional testlet is created but not scored for the first form. If the scored testlets are testlets 1-6 and…

Puhan, Gautam; Moses, Timothy P.; Grant, Mary C.; McHale, Frederick

2009-01-01

262

Randomization Tests for Extensions and Variations of ABAB Single-Case Experimental Designs: A Rejoinder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Randomization tests have been developed for several single-case experimental designs. It is argued, however, that the randomization tests developed by Levin, Marascuilo, and Hubert (1978) for the ABAB design and by Marascuilo and Busk (1988) for replicated ABAB designs across subjects are inappropriate. An alternative randomization procedure for the ABAB design is presented, and the appropriate corresponding randomization test is

PATRICK ONGHENA

1992-01-01

263

Transient Test of a NSSS Thermal-Hydraulic Module for the Nuclear Power Plant Simulator Using a Best-Estimate Code, RETRAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI) developed real-time simulation Thermal hydraulic model (ARTS) which is based\\u000a on the best-estimate code, RETRAN. It was adapted Kori unit 1 nuclear power plant analyzer (NPA). This paper describes the\\u000a result of the some of steady and transient tests of the Kori unit 1 NPA. The simulated results are compared and reviewed with\\u000a the

Myeong-soo Lee; In-yong Seo; Yo-han Kim; Yong-kwan Lee; Jae-seung Suh

2004-01-01

264

COMMIX-1AR/P: A three-dimensional transient single-phase computer program for thermal hydraulic analysis of single and multicomponent systems. Volume 3, Programmer`s guide  

SciTech Connect

The COMMIX-LAR/P computer program is designed for analyzing the steady-state and transient aspects of single-phase fluid flow and heat transfer in three spatial dimensions. This version is an extension of the modeling in COMMIX-lA to include multiple fluids in physically separate regions of the computational domain, modeling descriptions for pumps, radiation heat transfer between surfaces of the solids which are embedded in or surround the fluid, a keg model for fluid turbulence, and improved numerical techniques. The porous-medium formulation in COMMIX allows the program to be applied to a wide range of problems involving both simple and complex geometrical arrangements. The internal aspects of the COMMIX-LAR/P program are presented, covering descriptions of subprograms, variables, and files.

Garner, P.L.; Blomquist, R.N.; Gelbard, E.M.

1992-09-01

265

Reconsidering Association Testing Methods Using Single-Variant Test Statistics as Alternatives to Pooling Tests for Sequence Data with Rare Variants  

PubMed Central

Association tests that pool minor alleles into a measure of burden at a locus have been proposed for case-control studies using sequence data containing rare variants. However, such pooling tests are not robust to the inclusion of neutral and protective variants, which can mask the association signal from risk variants. Early studies proposing pooling tests dismissed methods for locus-wide inference using nonnegative single-variant test statistics based on unrealistic comparisons. However, such methods are robust to the inclusion of neutral and protective variants and therefore may be more useful than previously appreciated. In fact, some recently proposed methods derived within different frameworks are equivalent to performing inference on weighted sums of squared single-variant score statistics. In this study, we compared two existing methods for locus-wide inference using nonnegative single-variant test statistics to two widely cited pooling tests under more realistic conditions. We established analytic results for a simple model with one rare risk and one rare neutral variant, which demonstrated that pooling tests were less powerful than even Bonferroni-corrected single-variant tests in most realistic situations. We also performed simulations using variants with realistic minor allele frequency and linkage disequilibrium spectra, disease models with multiple rare risk variants and extensive neutral variation, and varying rates of missing genotypes. In all scenarios considered, existing methods using nonnegative single-variant test statistics had power comparable to or greater than two widely cited pooling tests. Moreover, in disease models with only rare risk variants, an existing method based on the maximum single-variant Cochran-Armitage trend chi-square statistic in the locus had power comparable to or greater than another existing method closely related to some recently proposed methods. We conclude that efficient locus-wide inference using single-variant test statistics should be reconsidered as a useful framework for devising powerful association tests in sequence data with rare variants.

Kinnamon, Daniel D.; Hershberger, Ray E.; Martin, Eden R.

2012-01-01

266

Transient overvoltages on cable sheaths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient overvoltage on the sheaths of high voltage cables with single point sheath earthing or cross bonding of the cable sheaths involve danger for the cable and the joints. The investigations of transient overvoltages in the case of a switching operation on a 110 kV single core oil filled cable with single sided sheath earthing are reported. A comparison between measured transient voltage variations and those calculated with the help of a traveling wave analyzer program shows very good agreement. The investigations showed that with single point sheath earthing, the unearthed sheath end ought to be protected against overvoltages.

Dabringhaus, H. G.

1983-08-01

267

Using latent class analysis to estimate the test characteristics of the ?-interferon test, the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test and a multiplex immunoassay under Irish conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable effort has been devoted to improving the existing diagnostic tests for bovine tuberculosis (single intradermal comparative tuberculin test [SICTT] and ?-interferon assay [?-IFN]) and to develop new tests. Previously, the diagnostic characteristics (sensitivity, specificity) have been estimated in populations with defined infection status. However, these approaches can be problematic as there may be few herds in Ireland where freedom

Tracy A. Clegg; Anthony Duignan; Clare Whelan; Eamonn Gormley; Margaret Good; John Clarke; Nils Toft; Simon J. More

2011-01-01

268

Direct comparison of charge collection from single-photon and two-photon laser testing techniques.  

SciTech Connect

The amounts of charge collection by single-photon absorption to that by two-photon absorption laser testing techniques have been directly compared using specially made SOI diodes. Details of this comparison are discussed.

Ferlet-Cavrois, Veronique (ESA/ESTEC); Dalton, Scott Matthew; Stevens, Jeffrey; Flores, Richard S.; Gouker, Pascale M. (MIT Lincoln Laboratory); Schwank, James Ralph; McMorrow, Dale (Naval Research Laboratory); Swanson, Scot E.; Shaneyfelt, Marty Ray; Dodd, Paul Emerson; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy

2010-03-01

269

Single event effect proton and heavy ion test results for candidate spacecraft electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present proton and heavy ion single event effect (SEE) ground test results for candidate spacecraft electronics. Device types include digital and analog components, MIL-STD-1553B transceivers, ADCs, FPGAs, SRAMs, optoelectronics, and a microprocessor.

K. A. LaBel; A. K. Moran; D. K. Hawkins; J. A. Cooley; C. M. Seidleck; M. M. Gates; B. S. Smith; E. G. Stassinopoulos; P. Marshall; C. Dale

1994-01-01

270

Generalized Single-Case Randomization Tests: Flexible Analyses for a Variety of Situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general class of single-case statistical procedures, derived from previously developed nonparametric randomization tests, is presented. These procedures are widely applicable in behavioral and educational research contexts in which only a few experimental \\

Joel R. Levin; Bruce E. Wampold

1999-01-01

271

Haplotypes vs single marker linkage disequilibrium tests: what do we gain?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic dissection of complex diseases represents a formidable challenge for modern human genetics. Recently, it has been suggested that linkage disequilibrium (LD) based methods will be a powerful approach for delineating complex disease genes. Most proposed LD test statistics search for association between a single marker and a putative trait locus. However, the power of a single marker association

Joshua Akey; Li Jin; Momiao Xiong

2001-01-01

272

A stress-strain machine for testing single crystals in alternating tension and compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

A testing machine for single crystals is described, by means of which the stress-strain behaviour in cycles of alternating tension and compression can be measured; special precautions are taken to eliminate external bending or torsion of the specimen. The load and extension gauges are of the roller and mirror type for high sensitivity. The difficulty of gripping a single crystal

M S Paterson

1955-01-01

273

Development and standardization of single and double dichotic digit tests in the Malay language.  

PubMed

Single and double dichotic digit tests in Malay language were developed and standardized as an initial attempt to incorporate tests of auditory processing within the scope of audiology practice in Malaysia. Normative data under free recall, directed right-ear first, and directed left-ear first listening conditions were determined using 120 Malay children between the ages of 6 and 11 years old with normal hearing and normal academic performance. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 15 of the study subjects. In general, the double dichotic digit test produced greater differences in scores between age groups, and a greater right-ear advantage than the single dichotic digit test. In addition, the double dichotic digit test also had higher test-retest reliability. These findings suggest the double dichotic digit test is more clinically applicable. PMID:16777781

Mukari, Siti Z; Keith, Robert W; Tharpe, Anne M; Johnson, Cheryl D

2006-06-01

274

The Single Category Implicit Association Test as a Measure of Implicit Social Cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT) is a modification of the Implicit Association Test that measures the strength of evaluative associations with a single attitude object. Across 3 different attitude domains—soda brand preferences, self-esteem, and racial attitudes—the authors found evidence that the SC-IAT is internally consistent and makes unique contributions in the ability to understand implicit social cognition. In

Andrew Karpinski; Ross B. Steinman

2006-01-01

275

Dredged-material-effects assessment: Single-species toxicity/bioaccumulation and macrobenthos colonization tests  

SciTech Connect

Toxicity tests and bioaccumulation tests conducted according to methods established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/Corps of Engineers in 1977 were used to evaluate potential environmental impacts of ocean disposal of dredged materials. Assessments of potential impacts based on results of currently recommended single-species tests were compared with results from macrobenthos colonization tests of dredged material from three harbors in the Gulf of Mexico and two in the Atlantic Ocean.

Parrish, P.R.; Moore, J.C.; Clark, J.R.

1989-01-01

276

Calcium Transients in Dendrites of Neocortical Neurons Evoked by Single Subthreshold Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials via Low-Voltage-Activated Calcium Channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous recordings of membrane voltage and concentration of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]_i) were made in apical dendrites of layer 5 pyramidal cells of rat neocortex after filling dendrites with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator Calcium Green-1. Subthreshold excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs), mediated by the activation of glutamate receptor channels, caused a brief increase in dendritic [Ca2+]_i. This rise in dendritic [Ca2+]_i was mediated by the opening of low-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in the dendritic membrane. The results provide direct evidence that dendrites do not function as passive cables even at low-frequency synaptic activity; rather, a single subthreshold EPSP changes the dendritic membrane conductance by opening Ca2+ channels and generating a [Ca2+]_i transient that may propagate towards the soma. The activation of these Ca2+ channels at a low-voltage threshold is likely to influence the way in which dendritic EPSPs contribute to the electrical activity of the neuron.

Markram, Henry; Sakmann, Bert

1994-05-01

277

The role of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel in activation of single unit mechanosensitive bladder afferent activities in the rat.  

PubMed

AIMS: We investigated the role of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel on the single unit mechanosensitive afferent activities (SAAs) primarily originating from the bladder in the rat. METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Cystometry with continuous saline instillation was performed after intra-venous cumulative administration of HC-030031 (HC, a selective TRPA1 antagonist) at three doses (0.1, 1.0, and 10.0?mg/kg) in conscious rats. SAAs primarily originating from the bladder were identified by electrical stimulation of the pelvic nerve and by bladder distention, and divided by conduction velocity as A?- or C-fibers under urethane anesthesia. The SAA-investigation was repeated three times with cumulative HC-administration at three doses (0.1, 1.0, and 10.0?mg/kg) or single administration of vehicle. In separate experiments, the SAA-investigation was repeated three times with intra-vesical instillation of allyl isothiocyanate (AI, a TRPA1 agonist, 10?µM) or vehicle with or without pretreatment with HC (1.0?mg/kg, 3?min before each intra-vesical instillation of AI). RESULTS: There was no significant change in any cystometric parameters after HC-administrations. A total of 54 SAAs (25 A?-fibers and 29 C-fibers) was isolated in 28 rats. SAAs of both fibers significantly decreased after HC-administrations in a dose-dependent manner. SAAs of both fibers significantly increased after AI-instillations. Pretreatment with HC suppressed this excitatory effect of AI-instillation on SAAs. CONCLUSIONS: TRPA1 channel has a role in activation of mechanosensitive afferent nerve activities of both A?- and C-fibers of the rat bladder, although its role in a physiological condition might be small. Neurourol. Urodynam. 9999:1-6, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23784920

Minagawa, Tomonori; Aizawa, Naoki; Igawa, Yasuhiko; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques

2013-06-19

278

First high power pulsed tests of a dressed 325 MHz superconducting single spoke resonator at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

In the recently commissioned superconducting RF cavity test facility at Fermilab (SCTF), a 325 MHz, {beta} = 0.22 superconducting single-spoke resonator (SSR1) has been tested for the first time with its input power coupler. Previously, this cavity had been tested CW with a low power, high Q{sub ext} test coupler; first as a bare cavity in the Fermilab Vertical Test Stand and then fully dressed in the SCTF. For the tests described here, the design input coupler with Q{sub ext} {approx} 10{sup 6} was used. Pulsed power was provided by a Toshiba E3740A 2.5 MW klystron.

Madrak, R.; Branlard, J.; Chase, B.; Darve, C.; Joireman, P.; Khabiboulline, T.; Mukherjee, A.; Nicol, T.; Peoples-Evans, E.; Peterson, D.; Pischalnikov, Y.; /Fermilab

2011-03-01

279

Status of High Power Tests of Normal Conducting Single-Cell Structures  

SciTech Connect

We report the results of ongoing high power tests of single-cell standing wave structures. These tests are part of an experimental and theoretical study of rf breakdown in normal conducting structures at 11.4 GHz. The goal of this study is to determine the maximum gradient possibilities for normal-conducting rf powered particle beam accelerators. The test setup consists of reusable mode launchers and short test structures powered by SLACs XL-4 klystron. The mode launchers and structures were manufactured at SLAC and KEK and tested at the SLAC klystron test laboratory.

Dolgashev, V.A.; Tantawi, S.G.; /SLAC; Higashi, Y.; Higo, T.; /KEK, Tsukuba

2011-11-04

280

Robust inference from multiple test statistics via permutations: a better alternative to the single test statistic approach for randomized trials.  

PubMed

Formal inference in randomized clinical trials is based on controlling the type I error rate associated with a single pre-specified statistic. The deficiency of using just one method of analysis is that it depends on assumptions that may not be met. For robust inference, we propose pre-specifying multiple test statistics and relying on the minimum p-value for testing the null hypothesis of no treatment effect. The null hypothesis associated with the various test statistics is that the treatment groups are indistinguishable. The critical value for hypothesis testing comes from permutation distributions. Rejection of the null hypothesis when the smallest p-value is less than the critical value controls the type I error rate at its designated value. Even if one of the candidate test statistics has low power, the adverse effect on the power of the minimum p-value statistic is not much. Its use is illustrated with examples. We conclude that it is better to rely on the minimum p-value rather than a single statistic particularly when that single statistic is the logrank test, because of the cost and complexity of many survival trials. PMID:23922313

Ganju, Jitendra; Yu, Xinxin; Ma, Guoguang Julie

2013-08-06

281

VALUE OF SINGLE WIDAL TEST IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF TYPHOID FEVER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usefulness of single Widal test in the di- agnosis of typhoid fever was investigated. The test was done on 50 normal children, 50 children with non typhoidal fevers and 30 culture proved typhoid cases. Twenty one (70%) and nine (30%) of thirty typhoid fever cases had 'O' and 'H' agglutinin liter levels of more than or equal to 1:160,

M. L. Kulkarni; S. J. Rego

1994-01-01

282

Modeling Single Well Injection-Withdrawal (SWIW) Tests for Characterization of Complex Fracture-Matrix Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An essential condition for performance evaluation of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) resides in the ability to reliably predict fluid flow and heat transport in fractured porous rocks, where fast convection-dispersive transport through the fracture network can be strongly affected by heat conduction into the adjacent rock matrix. SWIW tests are single-well tracer tests that involve an initial period of fluid

F. P. Cotte; C. Doughty; J. T. Birkholzer

2010-01-01

283

Extensions of a Versatile Randomization Test for Assessing Single-Case Intervention Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the statistical properties of two extensions of the Levin-Wampold (1999) single-case simultaneous start-point model's comparative effectiveness randomization test. The two extensions were (a) adapting the test to situations where there are more than two different intervention conditions and (b)…

Levin, Joel R.; Lall, Venessa F.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

2011-01-01

284

Design and Performance of Single-Well Tracer Tests at the Mobile Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracer tests are the most reliable field methods for obtaining information describing advection and dispersion in aquifers. This paper describes the design and performance of single-well tracer tests utilizing multilevel observation wells at a field site near Mobile, Alabama. In a given observation well, a total of 7 sampling zones were isolated using inflatable packers and silicone rubber plugs. All

Fred J. Molz; Joel G. Melville; Oktay Güven; Ronald D. Crocker; Keith T. Matteson

1985-01-01

285

A Robust Model for Estimating and Testing for Means in Single Subject Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first order autoregressive model is proposed as a robust model for estimating and testing for means in single subject experiments. It has the advantage of mathematical simplicity, and it provides good approximations to a number of other models of the type typically encountered in behavioral research. Practical considerations on the use of the model are considered including: tests of

James J. Higgins

1978-01-01

286

DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE OF SINGLE-WELL TRACER TESTS AT THE MOBILE SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

Tracer tests are the most reliable field methods for obtaining information describing advection and dispersion in aquifers. The paper describes the design and performance of single-well tracer tests utilizing multilevel observation wells at a field site near Mobile, Alabama. In a...

287

ARMCOM Red Team Role in The Single Integrated Development Test Cycle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the new Single Integrated Development Test Cycle Policy, TECOM in coordination with each MSC's Red Team is responsible for evaluation of Development Testing for all systems that AMSAA does not evaluate. This report defines the scope and manpowe...

T. N. Mazza

1975-01-01

288

Diagnostic dilemma of the single screening test used in the diagnosis of syphilis in Nepal.  

PubMed

Syphilis screening by the nontreponemal rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test is not usually followed up by specific treponemal tests in most of the resource poor healthcare settings of Nepal. We analyzed serum specimens of 504 suspected syphilis cases at the immunology department of the national reference laboratory in Nepal during 2007-2009 using RPR test and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA). In overall, 35.7% were positive by both methods (combination) while 13.1% were RPR positive and TPHA negative, 8.7% were positive by TPHA only and 42.5% were negative by both methods. Among the RPR reactive (n = 246), 73.2% were positive by TPHA. Non-specific agglutination in RPR testing was relatively higher (26.8%) compared to TPHA (19.6%). Although TPHA was found more specific than RPR test, either of the single tests produced inaccurate diagnosis. Since the single RPR testing for syphilis may yield false positive results, specific treponemal test should be routinely used as confirmatory test to rule out false RPR positive cases. More attention needs to be paid on formulation of strict policy on the implementation of the existing guidelines throughout the country to prevent misdiagnosis in syphilis with the use of single RPR test. PMID:23016470

Dumre, S P; Shakya, G; Acharya, D; Malla, S; Adhikari, N

2011-12-01

289

Reverse bias test of c-Si single-cell PV modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As new methods to test degradation of c-Si single-cell PV modules, we carried out both reverse bias constant current (RBCC) test and IV duty cycle (IVDC) test under different loading levels, that is, input power to the cell. The common failure modes of field PV modules, such as finger electrodes discoloration, inflated back sheet, and burnt back sheet in the modules, were observed. It was found that cell's series resistance (Rs) increases approximately linearly with testing time, and the rate of change of Rs increased exponentially corresponding to the loading level. In the RBCC test, it was also found that cell's shunt resistance (Rsh) decayed exponentially with time, and then it approaches to constant value. Furthermore, threshold level for occurrence of breakdown breakage of the cells was found to be about 70 to 80 watt. The methods presented here demonstrated the possibility of applying the reverse bias test for degradation of c-Si single-cell PV modules.

Jin, Y.; Ikeda, K.; Doi, T.

2011-09-01

290

Predictions and observations of the thermal–hydrological conditions in the Single Heater Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Single Heater Test (SHT) is one of two in-situ thermal tests included in the site characterization program for the potential underground nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Coupled thermal–hydrological–mechanical–chemical processes in the fractured rock mass around the heater were monitored by numerous sensors emplaced among 30 boreholes. Periodic active testing of cross-hole radar tomography, neutron logging, electrical resistivity tomography,

Y. W. Tsang; J. T. Birkholzer

1999-01-01

291

RECENT ADVANCES IN HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS AT IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY: SINGLE CELL TESTS  

SciTech Connect

An experimental investigation on the performance and durability of single solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) is under way at the Idaho National Laboratory. In order to understand and mitigate the degradation issues in high temperature electrolysis, single SOECs with different configurations from several manufacturers have been evaluated for initial performance and long-term durability. A new test apparatus has been developed for single cell and small stack tests from different vendors. Single cells from Ceramatec Inc. show improved durability compared to our previous stack tests. Single cells from Materials and Systems Research Inc. (MSRI) demonstrate low degradation both in fuel cell and electrolysis modes. Single cells from Saint Gobain Advanced Materials (St. Gobain) show stable performance in fuel cell mode, but rapid degradation in the electrolysis mode. Electrolyte-electrode delamination is found to have significant impact on degradation in some cases. Enhanced bonding between electrolyte and electrode and modification of the microstructure help to mitigate degradation. Polarization scans and AC impedance measurements are performed during the tests to characterize the cell performance and degradation.

X. Zhang; J. E. O'Brien; R. C. O'Brien

2012-07-01

292

Advanced sluicing system test report for single shell tank waste retrieval integrated testing  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the testing performed by ARD Environmental, Inc., and Los Alamos Technical Associates of the LATA/ARD Advanced Sluicing System, in support of ACTR Phase 1 activities. Testing was to measure the impact force and pressures of sluicing streams at three different distances, as measured by the Government supplied load cell. Simulated sluicing of large simulated salt cake and hard pan waste coupons was also performed. Due to operational difficulties experienced with the Government supplied load cell, no meaningful results with respect to sluice stream impact pressure distribution or stream coherence were obtained. Sluice testing using 3000 psi salt cake simulants measured waste retrieval rates of approximately 12 Ml/day (17.6 ft{sup 3}/hr). Rates as high as 314 m{sup 3}/day (463 ft{sup 3}/hr) were measured against the lower strength salt cake simulants.

Berglin, E.J.

1997-05-29

293

Columbia University flow instability experimental program: Volume 7. Single tube tests, critical heat flux test program  

SciTech Connect

This report deals with critical heat flux (CHF) measurements in vertical down flow of water at low pressures in a round Inconel tube, 96 inches long and 0.62 inch inside diameter. A total of 28 CHF points were obtained. These data were found to correlate linearly with the single variable q, defined as the heat flux required to raise the enthalpy from the inlet value to the saturation value. These results were compared to the published results of Swedish investigators for vertical upflow of water at low pressures in round tubes of similar diameters and various lengths. The parameter q depends on the inlet enthalpy and is a nonlocal variable, thus this correlation is nonlocal unless the coefficients depend upon tube length in a particular prescribed manner. For the low pressure Swedish data, the coefficients are practically independent of length and hence the correlation is nonlocal. In the present investigation only one length was employed, so it is not possible to determine whether the correlation for these data is local or nonlocal, although there is reason to believe that it is local. The same correlation was applied to a large data base (thousands of CHF points) compiled from the published data of a number of groups and found to apply, with reasonable accuracy over a wide range of conditions, yielding sometimes local and sometimes nonlocal correlations. The basic philosophy of data analysis here was not to generate a single correlation which would reproduce all data, but to search for correlations which apply adequately over some range and which might have some mechanistic significance. The tentative conclusion is that at least two mechanisms appear operative, leading to two types of correlations, one local, the other nonlocal.

Dougherty, T.; Maciuca, C.; McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Reddy, D.G.; Yang, B.W.

1992-09-01

294

Switching transients in a superconducting coil  

SciTech Connect

A study is made of the transients caused by the fast dump of large superconducting coils. Theoretical analysis, computer simulation, and actual measurements are used. Theoretical analysis can only be applied to the simplest of models. In the computer simulations two models are used, one in which the coil is divided into ten segments and another in which a single coil is employed. The circuit breaker that interrupts the current to the power supply, causing a fast dump, is represented by a time and current dependent conductance. Actual measurements are limited to measurements made incidental to performance tests on the MFTF Yin-yang coils. It is found that the breaker opening time is the critical factor in determining the size and shape of the transient. Instantaneous opening of the breaker causes a lightly damped transient with large amplitude voltages to ground. Increasing the opening time causes the transient to become a monopulse of decreasing amplitude. The voltages at the external terminals are determined by the parameters of the external circuit. For fast opening times the frequency depends on the dump resistor inductance, the circuit capacitance, and the amplitude on the coil current. For slower openings the dump resistor inductance and the current determine the amplitude of the voltage to ground at the terminals. Voltages to ground are less in the interior of the coil, where transients related to the parameters of the coil itself are observed.

Owen, E.W.; Shimer, D.W.

1983-11-18

295

Concept design and performance test of a magnetically suspended single-gimbal control moment gyro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space vehicles are growing large in size and weight and attitude control systems require higher torque and momentum capability. As a primary attitude actuator for future platform type space vehicles, concept design model of a single-gimbal control moment gyro was built and tested. Based on the consideration of potential requirements for long life, low energy consumption, and vibration reduction, this concept design model adopts electromagnetic bearings which suspend two wheels. This single-gimbal control moment gyro has nominal angular momentum capacity of 100 Nms. The concept design model was tested and showed satisfactory results.

Kito, Katsumi; Kanki, Hiroshi; Ishii, Shinya

296

Measurement of LNAPL flux using single-well intermittent mixing tracer dilution tests.  

PubMed

The stability of subsurface Light Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (LNAPLs) is a key factor driving expectations for remedial measures at LNAPL sites. The conventional approach to resolving LNAPL stability has been to apply Darcy's Equation. This paper explores an alternative approach wherein single-well tracer dilution tests with intermittent mixing are used to resolve LNAPL stability. As a first step, an implicit solution for single-well intermittent mixing tracer dilution tests is derived. This includes key assumptions and limits on the allowable time between intermittent mixing events. Second, single-well tracer dilution tests with intermittent mixing are conducted under conditions of known LNAPL flux. This includes a laboratory sand tank study and two field tests at active LNAPL recovery wells. Results from the sand tank studies indicate that LNAPL fluxes in wells can be transformed into formation fluxes using corrections for (1) LNAPL thicknesses in the well and formation and (2) convergence of flow to the well. Using the apparent convergence factor from the sand tank experiment, the average error between the known and measured LNAPL fluxes is 4%. Results from the field studies show nearly identical known and measured LNAPL fluxes at one well. At the second well the measured fluxes appear to exceed the known value by a factor of two. Agreement between the known and measured LNAPL fluxes, within a factor of two, indicates that single-well tracer dilution tests with intermittent mixing can be a viable means of resolving LNAPL stability. PMID:22489832

Smith, Tim; Sale, Tom; Lyverse, Mark

2012-04-10

297

Single-tier testing with the C6 peptide ELISA kit compared with two-tier testing for Lyme disease.  

PubMed

For the diagnosis of Lyme disease, the 2-tier serologic testing protocol for Lyme disease has a number of shortcomings including low sensitivity in early disease; increased cost, time, and labor; and subjectivity in the interpretation of immunoblots. In this study, the diagnostic accuracy of a single-tier commercial C6 ELISA kit was compared with 2-tier testing. The results showed that the C6 ELISA was significantly more sensitive than 2-tier testing with sensitivities of 66.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 61.7-71.1) and 35.2% (95% CI 30.6-40.1), respectively (P < 0.001) in 403 sera from patients with erythema migrans. The C6 ELISA had sensitivity statistically comparable to 2-tier testing in sera from Lyme disease patients with early neurologic manifestations (88.6% versus 77.3%, P = 0.13) or arthritis (98.3% versus 95.6%, P = 0.38). The specificities of C6 ELISA and 2-tier testing in over 2200 blood donors, patients with other conditions, and Lyme disease vaccine recipients were found to be 98.9% and 99.5%, respectively (P < 0.05, 95% CI surrounding the 0.6 percentage point difference of 0.04 to 1.15). In conclusion, using a reference standard of 2-tier testing, the C6 ELISA as a single-step serodiagnostic test provided increased sensitivity in early Lyme disease with comparable sensitivity in later manifestations of Lyme disease. The C6 ELISA had slightly decreased specificity. Future studies should evaluate the performance of the C6 ELISA compared with 2-tier testing in routine clinical practice. PMID:23062467

Wormser, Gary P; Schriefer, Martin; Aguero-Rosenfeld, Maria E; Levin, Andrew; Steere, Allen C; Nadelman, Robert B; Nowakowski, John; Marques, Adriana; Johnson, Barbara J B; Dumler, J Stephen

2012-10-11

298

In-flight and ground testing of single event upset sensitivity in static RAMs  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results from in-flight measurements of single event upsets (SEU) in static random access memories (SRAM) caused by the atmospheric radiation environment at aircraft altitudes. The memory devices were carried on commercial airlines at high altitude and mainly high latitudes. The SEUs were monitored by a Component Upset Test Equipment (CUTE), designed for this experiment. The in flight results are compared to ground based testing with neutrons from three different sources.

Johansson, K.; Dyreklev, P.; Granbom, B. [Ericsson Saab Avionics AB, Linkoeping (Sweden); Calvet, C. [Aerospatiale Space and Defence, Les Mureaux (France); Fourtine, S. [Aerospatiale Avions, Toulouse (France); Feuillatre, O. [Dassault Electronique, Saint-Cloud (France)

1998-06-01

299

Value of a Single-Tube Widal Test in Diagnosis of Typhoid Fever in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnostic value of an acute-phase single-tube Widal test for suspected typhoid fever was evaluated with 2,000 Vietnamese patients admitted to an infectious disease referral hospital between 1993 and 1998. Test patients had suspected typhoid fever and a blood culture positive for Salmonella typhi (n5 1,400) or Salmonella paratyphi A( n 5 45). Control patients had a febrile illness for

CHRISTOPHER M. PARRY; NGUYEN THI; TUYET HOA; JOHN WAIN; NGUYEN TRAN CHINH; TRAN TINH HIEN; NICHOLAS J. WHITE; JEREMY J. FARRAR

1999-01-01

300

Single molecule discrimination as the sequential hypothesis testing, maximum information gain measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of single molecule and single molecule complexes is used widely in the field of molecular biology, biochemistry, physical chemistry. The task is often to discriminate among several distinct possibilities such as which molecule (A,T,C,G) out of the set is present, is the excitation transfer pair in bound or loose state. At present the approach is to accumulate the sufficient statistics for reliable discrimination among the possible outcomes. We suggest the different approaches that adjust the experimental conditions on every step of the measurement in order to maximize the expected information gain of the experiment. The approach is illustrated on the task of single molecule discrimination. Our simulation shows that approach based on sequential hypothesis testing and sequential experimental planning outperforms traditional maximum likelihood hypothesis testing.

Goun, Alexei

2012-02-01

301

SINGLE PARTICLE IMPACT BREAKAGE CHARACTERIZATION OF MATERIALS BY DROP WEIGHT TESTING  

Microsoft Academic Search

A drop weight tester was designed for the purpose of analyzing single particle impact breakage characteristics of different materials. Test results were evaluated through the breakage distributions of different size fractions at various impact energy levels. Breakage parameter t10 (Narayanan, 1986) is used to represent the degree of size reduction which is assumed to be represantative of the breakage product

Ömürden GENÇ; Levent ERGÜN; Hakan BENZER

2004-01-01

302

Determination of dynamic mechanical properties of metals from single pendulum scratch tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes evaluations of dynamic mechanical properties of typical metals (Al, Cu, Ti, Ni, Co, and Mo) with single pendulum scratch tests. The curve fitting method with a polynomial has been used to calculate the geometrical parameters of the scratch track during the scratching process. The methodology and analytical modeling are developed for determining a series of mechanical properties,

Wangyu Hu; Shu Li; Shizhuo Li; Xiaofeng Sun; Hengrong Guan

1999-01-01

303

COMPARISON BETWEEN CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK AND SINGLE?ATTEMPT METHODS OF TESTING IN A COMMUNITY COLLEGE COURSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ordinary testing methods offering only a single attempt to respond to an item have been criticized as being insensitive to partial knowledge and as contributing little to student motivation and learning. The corrective feedback method aims to remedy such faults by permitting as many attempts as needed to achieve the correct response, each attempt being followed by immediate feedback. The

James Yowell Yelvington; Raymond G. Brady

1979-01-01

304

Thermal Vacuum Accelerated Life Test on a Prototype Teldix Single-Gimballed Momentum Wheel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A prototype TELDIX single-gimballed momentum wheel (SGMW) has been tested in vacuum at isothermal temperatures and with various thermal gradients. The mechanism consists of a momentum wheel which is oscillated in one plane through + or - 5 deg angular mot...

K. Parker J. C. Anderson

1979-01-01

305

PATHFINDER ATOMIC POWER PLANT SINGLE ROD BURNOUT HEAT FLUX TESTS. Summary Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of an investigation to obtain burnout data for use in design of ; the Pathfinder boiler core are presented. It was found that burnout relations ; developed for round and rectangnlar channels are not applicable to single-rod ; burnout at 600 psia. The data taken in the tests do not permit isolation of mass ; flow and inlet subcooling

K. F. Neusen; G. J. Kangas

1962-01-01

306

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF SINGLE-WELL TRACER TESTS IN STRATIFIED AQUIFERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The study deals with the definition and measurement of the dispersive properties of aquifers. Knowledge of such dispersive properties are of fundamental importance to the evaluation, analysis, and simulation of contaminant migration in groundwater. In the single-well test describ...

307

An evaluation of horizontal recirculation using single-well tests, pumping tests, tracer tests, and the colloidal borescope  

SciTech Connect

Extensive hydrodynamic testing was performed as part of a program to evaluate horizontal recirculation as a means of removing contaminants from thin, interbedded aquifers. Two test sites, each containing a pair of horizontal recirculation wells, were evaluated using various hydraulic tests. Results of these evaluations showed that ground water was intercepted more than 100 feet beyond the wells, and that the hydraulic gradient increased by more than two orders of magnitude. Aquifer heterogeneity, however, controlled the efficiency and uniformity of ground water flow. Heterogeneity was assessed with a variety of techniques. Bromide tracer tests and the colloidal borescope provided the most useful data. For example, at an uncontaminated site, the leading edge of the bromide tracer traversed the 100 feet between the injection and extraction wells in 21 hours, and the peak bromide concentration was observed in 2.6 days, compared with the four days predicted by a pumping test. The resulting maximum velocity calculation was consistent with measurements made with the borescope in preferential flow zones. Data obtained from a highly contaminated location indicated that assessments of aquifer heterogeneity are further complicated by the presence of DNAPL. Very low flow occurred in a highly contaminated zone, despite the fact that lithologic descriptions indicated that this region contained permeable sand and gravel.

Korte, N.; Kearl, P.M.; Siegrist, R.L.; Muck, M.T.; Schlosser, R.M.

2000-12-31

308

Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews 43 publications on tests. The publications of J. R. Angell, W. B. Pillsburg, C. E. Seashore, R. S. Woodworth and F. L. Wells, and R. M. Yerkes and J. B. Watson, presented development of methods of testing single mental processes. The second group of tests dealing with single or groups of mental processes for determining their value as methods

Frank N. Freeman

1912-01-01

309

Tank selection for Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) system hot testing in a single shell tank  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to recommend a single shell tank in which to hot test the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) in Fiscal Year 1996. The LDUA is designed to utilize a 12 inch riser. During hot testing, the LDUA will deploy two end effectors (a High Resolution Stereoscopic Video Camera System and a Still/Stereo Photography System mounted on the end of the arm`s tool interface plate). In addition, three other systems (an Overview Video System, an Overview Stereo Video System, and a Topographic Mapping System) will be independently deployed and tested through 4 inch risers.

Bhatia, P.K.

1995-01-31

310

Characterization of Preferential Flow Paths from Single and Cross-borehole Flowmeter tests in a Fractured Aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of the permeability field and in particular the connectivity of preferential flow paths controls the fluxes at large scale as well as the transport properties. However, this information is rarely available in the field unless intensive and time-consuming packer testing is achieved. In this study, we present a characterization of flow paths connectivity at the Plumeur fractured crystalline aquifer from cross-borehole flowmeter tests. We also compare hydraulic properties estimates obtained from single borehole flowmeter experiments, cross borehole flowmeter experiments and long term pumping tests. Cross borehole flowmeter tests have been recently proposed as an efficient technique to characterize the connectivity of fractures between boreholes. Cross borehole flowmeter tests consist of measuring transient vertical flow in an observation borehole when the pumping rate is changed in a nearby pumping well. The rate of change in borehole flow between flow zones intersected by the borehole depends on the connectivity and hydraulic properties of the flow zones between the two boreholes. Flow measurements were achieved with a calibrated heat-pulse flowmeter whose principle is to measure the time for a heat pulse to travel from a heat grid to a thermistor located a few cm above or below the heat source. We combined this method with single borehole flowmeter tests and long-term pumping tests to characterize the connectivity, geometry and hydraulic properties of large scale flow paths at the Plumeur aquifer where long-screened observation boreholes does not allow the use of packers. The aquifer is located on the south coast of Brittany in crystalline bedrock terrain characterized by igneous and metamorphic rocks. We restrict our analysis to the boreholes that are the closest to a pumping station within an area of approximately 600 meters in diameter. These boreholes react relatively rapidly to the pumping variations even for large borehole separations. Most boreholes are about 100 meters deep and intersect a series of producing zones with variable inflows. We show that cross borehole flowmeter tests are an efficient method to image the geometry of preferential permeable flow paths at the Plumeur site. We found that the high transmissivity zones are well connected over distances of at least 150 meters all over the site. In parallel, the synthesis of all hydraulic tests on the Plumeur fractured crystalline aquifer show that a large range of hydraulic properties characterizes the site. However, we observe that borehole scale variability of transmissivity estimates vanishes at larger scale and that the transmissivity converges towards the high values of the transmissivity distribution. This effect may be explained by the organization of the flow field in the subsurface, and particularly the good connectivity of the permeable zones all over the site. On the other hand, storage coefficient estimates remain relatively variable even when obtained from long term pumping tests.

Bour, O.; Le Borgne, T.; Paillet, F.; Caudal, J.

2006-12-01

311

SAMstrt: statistical test for differential expression in single-cell transcriptome with spike-in normalization  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Recent transcriptome studies have revealed that total transcript numbers vary by cell type and condition; therefore, the statistical assumptions for single-cell transcriptome studies must be revisited. SAMstrt is an extension code for SAMseq, which is a statistical method for differential expression, to enable spike-in normalization and statistical testing based on the estimated absolute number of transcripts per cell for single-cell RNA-seq methods. Availability and Implementation: SAMstrt is implemented on R and available in github (https://github.com/shka/R-SAMstrt). Contact: shintaro.katayama@ki.se Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Katayama, Shintaro; Tohonen, Virpi; Linnarsson, Sten; Kere, Juha

2013-01-01

312

Molecular diagnostic testing for congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG): Detection rate for single gene testing and next generation sequencing panel testing.  

PubMed

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are comprised of over 60 disorders with the majority of defects residing within the N-glycosylation pathway. Approximately 20% of patients do not survive beyond five years of age due to widespread organ dysfunction. A diagnosis of CDG is based on abnormal glycosylation of transferrin but this method cannot identify the specific gene defect. For many individuals diagnosed with CDG the gene defect remains unknown. To improve the molecular diagnosis of CDG we developed molecular testing for 25 CDG genes including single gene testing and next generation sequencing (NGS) panel testing. From March 2010 through November 2012, a total of 94 samples were referred for single gene testing and 68 samples were referred for NGS panel testing. Disease causing mutations were identified in 24 patients resulting in a molecular diagnosis rate of 14.8%. Coverage of the 24 CDG genes using panel testing and whole exome sequencing (WES) was compared and it was determined that many exons of these genes were not adequately covered using a WES approach and a panel approach may be the preferred first option for CDG patients. A collaborative effort between physicians, researchers and diagnostic laboratories will be very important as NGS testing using panels and exome becomes more widespread. This technology will ultimately improve the molecular diagnosis of patients with CDG in hard to solve cases. PMID:23806237

Jones, Melanie A; Rhodenizer, Devin; da Silva, Cristina; Huff, Israel J; Keong, Lisa; Bean, Lora J H; Coffee, Bradford; Collins, Christin; Tanner, Alice K; He, Miao; Hegde, Madhuri R

2013-05-28

313

A Single-Question Screening Test for Drug Use in Primary Care  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Drug use (illicit drug use and nonmedical use of prescription drugs) is common but under-recognized in primary care settings. We validated a single-question screening test for drug use and drug use disorders in primary care. METHODS Adult patients recruited from primary care waiting rooms were asked the single screening question, “How many times in the past year have you used an illegal drug or used a prescription medication for non-medical reasons?” A response of ?1 was considered positive. They were also asked the 10-item Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST). The reference standard was the presence or absence of current (past year) drug use or a drug use disorder (abuse or dependence) as determined by a standardized diagnostic interview. Drug use was also determined by oral fluid testing for common drugs of abuse. RESULTS Of 394 eligible primary care patients, 286 (73%) completed the interview. The single screening question was 100% sensitive (95% CI 90.6% to 100%) and 73.5% specific (95% CI 67.7% to 78.6%) for the detection of a drug use disorder. It was less sensitive for the detection of self-reported current drug use (92.9%, 95% CI 86.1% to 96.5%) and drug use detected by oral fluid testing or self-report (81.8%, 95% CI 72.5% to 88.5%). Test characteristics were similar to that of the DAST, and were affected very little by subject demographic characteristics. CONCLUSIONS The single screening question accurately identified drug use in this sample of primary care patients, supporting the utility of this brief screen in primary care.

Smith, Peter C.; Schmidt, Susan M.; Allensworth-Davies, Donald; Saitz, Richard

2010-01-01

314

Evidence of Multi-Process Matrix Diffusion in a Single Fracturefrom a Field Tracer Test  

SciTech Connect

Compared to values inferred from laboratory tests on matrix cores, many field tracer tests in fractured rock have shown enhanced matrix diffusion coefficient values (obtained using a single-process matrix-diffusion model with a homogeneous matrix diffusion coefficient). To investigate this phenomenon, a conceptual model of multi-process matrix diffusion in a single-fracture system was developed. In this model, three matrix diffusion processes of different diffusion rates were assumed to coexist: (1) diffusion into stagnant water and infilling materials within fractures, (2) diffusion into a degraded matrix zone, and (3) further diffusion into an intact matrix zone. The validity of the conceptual model was then demonstrated by analyzing a unique tracer test conducted using a long-time constant-concentration injection. The tracer-test analysis was conducted using a numerical model capable of tracking the multiple matrix-diffusion processes. The analysis showed that in the degraded zone, a diffusion process with an enhanced diffusion rate controlled the steep rising limb and decay-like falling limb in the observed breakthrough curve, whereas in the intact matrix zone, a process involving a lower diffusion rate affected the long-term middle platform of slowly increasing tracer concentration. The different matrix-diffusion-coefficient values revealed from the field tracer test are consistent with the variability of matrix diffusion coefficient measured for rock cores with different degrees of fracture coating at the same site. By comparing to the matrix diffusion coefficient calibrated using single-process matrix diffusion, we demonstrated that this multi-process matrix diffusion may contribute to the enhanced matrix-diffusion-coefficient values for single-fracture systems at the field scale.

Zhou, Quanlin; Liu, Hui-Hai; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur; Molz, Fred J.

2005-06-11

315

Power Plant Data Base, Philadelphia Electric Company Cromby No. 2 Unit. Volume II. Open Loop Transient Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The tests included change return oil valve position; change servo position; change burner tilt position; change ID fan louvre position; change FD fan vane position; change gas proportioning damper position; change air proportioning damper position; and ch...

P. J. Clelland

1976-01-01

316

Interpretation of transmissivity estimates from single-well pumping aquifer tests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Interpretation of single-well tests with the Cooper-Jacob method remains more reasonable than most alternatives. Drawdowns from 628 simulated single-well tests where transmissivity was specified were interpreted with the Cooper-Jacob straight-line method to estimate transmissivity. Error and bias as a function of vertical anisotropy, partial penetration, specific yield, and interpretive technique were investigated for transmissivities that ranged from 10 to 10,000 m2/d. Cooper-Jacob transmissivity estimates in confined aquifers were affected minimally by partial penetration, vertical anisotropy, or analyst. Cooper-Jacob transmissivity estimates of simulated unconfined aquifers averaged twice the known values. Transmissivity estimates of unconfined aquifers were not improved by interpreting results with an unconfined aquifer solution. Judicious interpretation of late-time data consistently improved estimates where transmissivity exceeded 250 m2/d in unconfined aquifers. ?? 2006 National Ground Water Association.

Halford, K. J.; Weight, W. D.; Schreiber, R. P.

2006-01-01

317

Testing of a single-polarity piezoresistive three-dimensional stress-sensing chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new piezoresistive stress-sensing rosette is developed to extract the components of the three-dimensional (3D) stress tensor using single-polarity (n-type) piezoresistors. This paper presents the testing of a micro-fabricated sensing chip utilizing the developed single-polarity rosette. The testing is conducted using a four-point bending of a chip-on-beam to induce five controlled stress components, which are analyzed both numerically and experimentally. Numerical analysis using finite element analysis is conducted to study the levels of the induced stress components at three rosette-sites and the levels of the stress field non-uniformities, and to simulate the extracted stress components from the sensing rosette. The experimental analysis applied tensile and compressive loads over three rosette-sites at different load increments. The experimentally extracted stress components show good linearity with the applied load and values close to the numerical model.

Gharib, H. H.; Moussa, W. A.

2013-09-01

318

Atomic transient recorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Bohr's model of the hydrogen atom, the electron takes about 150 attoseconds (1 as = 10-18s) to orbit around the proton, defining the characteristic timescale for dynamics in the electronic shell of atoms. Recording atomic transients in real time requires excitation and probing on this scale. The recent observation of single sub-femtosecond (1fs = 10-15s) extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light

R. Kienberger; E. Goulielmakis; M. Uiberacker; A. Baltuska; V. Yakovlev; F. Bammer; A. Scrinzi; Th. Westerwalbesloh; U. Kleineberg; U. Heinzmann; M. Drescher; F. Krausz

2004-01-01

319

Single well surfactant test to evaluate surfactant floods using multi tracer method  

DOEpatents

Data useful for evaluating the effectiveness of or designing an enhanced recovery process said process involving mobilizing and moving hydrocarbons through a hydrocarbon bearing subterranean formation from an injection well to a production well by injecting a mobilizing fluid into the injection well, comprising (a) determining hydrocarbon saturation in a volume in the formation near a well bore penetrating formation, (b) injecting sufficient mobilizing fluid to mobilize and move hydrocarbons from a volume in the formation near the well bore, and (c) determining the hydrocarbon saturation in a volume including at least a part of the volume of (b) by an improved single well surfactant method comprising injecting 2 or more slugs of water containing the primary tracer separated by water slugs containing no primary tracer. Alternatively, the plurality of ester tracers can be injected in a single slug said tracers penetrating varying distances into the formation wherein the esters have different partition coefficients and essentially equal reaction times. The single well tracer method employed is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,623,842. This method designated the single well surfactant test (SWST) is useful for evaluating the effect of surfactant floods, polymer floods, carbon dioxide floods, micellar floods, caustic floods and the like in subterranean formations in much less time and at much reduced cost compared to conventional multiwell pilot tests.

Sheely, Clyde Q. (Ponca City, OK)

1979-01-01

320

Scale Model Test and Transient Analysis of Steam Injector Driven Passive Core Injection System for Innovative-Simplified Nuclear Power Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A steam injector (SI) is a simple, compact and passive pump and also acts as a high-performance direct-contact compact heater. This provides SI with capability to serve also as a direct-contact feed-water heater that heats up feed-water by using extracted steam from turbine. Our technology development aims to significantly simplify equipment and reduce physical quantities by applying "high-efficiency SI", which are applicable to a wide range of operation regimes beyond the performance and applicable range of existing SIs and enables unprecedented multistage and parallel operation, to the low-pressure feed-water heaters and emergency core cooling system of nuclear power plants, as well as achieve high inherent safety to prevent severe accidents by keeping the core covered with water (a severe accident-free concept). This paper describes the results of the scale model test, and the transient analysis of SI-driven passive core injection system (PCIS).

Ohmori, Shuichi; Narabayashi, Tadashi; Mori, Michitsugu

321

Evaluation of the Precept microdilution MIC system for single-drug testing in individual trays.  

PubMed Central

This study presents an evaluation of a commercial system for the MIC testing of single drugs dehydrated in disposable plastic trays (Precept, Austin Biological Laboratories, Inc., Austin, Tex.). The commercial system was compared with a reference agar dilution method, and 203 clinical bacterial isolates were tested by each method. For a total of 767 determinations, there was 94.2% agreement between the two methods, and of the discrepancies encountered, 0.8% were very major, 2.1% were major, and 2.9% were minor. The results suggest that the Precept system may provide a practical and reliable method for MIC determinations of individual antimicrobial agents.

Lairscey, R G; Kelly, M T

1984-01-01

322

A Field-Tested Task Analysis for Creating Single-Subject Graphs Using Microsoft ® Office Excel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creating single-subject (SS) graphs is challenging for many researchers and practitioners because it is a complex task with\\u000a many steps. Although several authors have introduced guidelines for creating SS graphs, many users continue to experience\\u000a frustration. The purpose of this article is to minimize these frustrations by providing a field-tested task analysis for creating\\u000a SS graphs using Microsoft Office Excel.

Ya-yu Lo; Moira Konrad

2007-01-01

323

Analysis of impact energy factors in ductile materials using single particle impact tests on gas gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wear is surface damage that involves progressive material loss due to relative motion between the contacting surfaces. Removal of material by action of impacting particles is known as erosion. Single particle impact tests were conducted using small particles (95–100?m) and impact velocity 90ms?1. A new technique has been developed to measure the impact crater using Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope (LSCM).

A. A. Cenna; K. C. Williams; M. G. Jones

2011-01-01

324

A tele-microrobot for manipulation and dynamic mechanical testing of single living cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-performance parallel-drive microrobot has been developed for manipulation, surgery, and dynamic mechanical testing of single living muscle cells. The microrobot has two limbs which more in overlapping spherical workspaces of 1 mm diameter with minimum open-loop and closed-loop movements of 1 nm and 10 nm, respectively. Under nonlinear model-based control the limbs can move at up to 2 m\\/s

Ian W. Hunter; Serge Lafontaine; P. M. F. Nielsen; P. J. Hunter; J. M. Hollerbach

1989-01-01

325

An end-effect model for the single-filament tensile test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of cross-sectional shape on tensile strength of pitch-based carbon fibres was investigated by extensive single-filament testing. For this study, round and trilobal pitch-based carbon fibres were produced at similar processing conditions. The application of a variety of distributions, including the simple Weibull distribution, to the strength data indicated two sources of failure, one source being the accentuation of

E. G. Stoner; D. D. Edie; S. D. Durham

1994-01-01

326

Geostatistical Modeling of Tracer Tests in a Single Fracture. Calibration of Transport Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The main objective of this work is to evaluate the usefulness of a geostatistical inverse approach in the estimation the transmissivity\\u000a field in a single fracture, and the representative transport parameters at the scale of the tracer test. We apply this methodology\\u000a to data from the GAM Project (Gas\\u000a Migration). The aim of this project is to provide a better

J. Jodar; A. Alcolea; A. Medina Sierra; J. Carrera

327

Performance of Statistical Tests for Single-Source Detection Using Random Matrix Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces aunified frameworkfor the de- tection of a single source with a sensor array in the context where the noise variance and the channel between the source and the sen- sorsareunknownatthereceiver.TheGeneralizedMaximumLike- lihood Test is studied and yields the analysis of the ratio between the maximum eigenvalue of the sampled covariance matrix and its normalized trace.Usingrecent resultsfrom random matrixtheory,

Pascal Bianchi; Mérouane Debbah; Mylène Maïda; Jamal Najim

2011-01-01

328

Study of the comminution characteristics of coal by single particle breakage test device  

SciTech Connect

Single-particle breakage tests of South Blackwater and Ensham coal from the Bowen Basin area in Queensland were conducted by a computer-monitored twin-pendulum device to measure the energy utilization pattern of the breakage particles. Three particle sizes (-16.0+13.2mm, -13.2+11.2mm, -11.2+9.5mm) of each coal were tested by a pendulum device at five input energy levels to measure the specific comminution energy. When particles were tested at constant input energy, the variation of comminution energy between the same size broken particles of Ensham coal was minimal, because Ensham coal is a softer and higher friability coal, which absorbs more input energy than harder coal during breakage tests. For different particle sizes, the specific comminution energy increases linearly with the input energy and the fineness of the breakage products increases with the specific comminution energy. The size distribution graphs are curved but approach linearity in the finer region. At a constant input energy, the twin pendulum breakage product results show that the fineness of the products increases with decrease in particle size and South Blackwater coal produced finer products than the Ensham coal. The t-curves are the family of size distribution curves, which can describe the product size distribution of the breakage particles during single-particle breakage tests.

Sahoo, R. [University of Central Queensland, Rockhampton, Qld. (Australia)

2005-09-01

329

Fabrication and Testing of Full-Length Single-Cell Externally Fueled Converters for Thermionic Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The preceding paper described designs and analyses of thermionic reactors employing full-core-length single-cell converters with their heated emitters located on the outside of their internally cooled collectors, and it presented results of detailed parametric analyses which illustrate the benefits of this unconventional design. The present paper describes the fabrication and testing of full-length prototypical converters, both unfueled and fueled, and presents parametric results of electrically heated tests. The unfueled converter tests demonstrated the practicality of operating such long converters without shorting across a 0.3-mm interelectrode gap. They produced a measured peak output of 751 watts(e) from a single diode and a peak efficiency of 15.4%. The fueled converter tests measured the parametric performance of prototypic UO(subscript 2)-fueled converters designed for subsequent in-pile testing. They employed revolver-shaped tungsten elements with a central emitter hole surrounded by six fuel chambers. The full-length converters were heated by a water-cooled RF-induction coil inside an ion-pumped vacuum chamber. This required development of high-vacuum coaxial RF feedthroughs. In-pile test rules required multiple containment of the UO (subscript 2)-fuel, which complicated the fabrication of the test article and required successful development of techniques for welding tungsten and other refractory components. The test measured a peak power output of 530 watts(e) or 7.1 watts/cm (superscript 2) at an efficiency of 11.5%. There are three copies in the file. Cross-Reference a copy FSC-ESD-217-94-529 in the ESD files with a CID #8574.

Schock, Alfred

1994-06-01

330

Single cell antimicrobial susceptibility testing by confined microchannels and electrokinetic loading.  

PubMed

Multidrug-resistant pathogens are an emerging global health problem. In addition to the need of developing new antibiotics in the pipeline, the ability to rapidly determine the antibiotic resistance profiles of bacteria represents one of the most crucial steps toward the management of infectious diseases and the prevention of multidrug-resistant pathogens. Here, we report a single cell antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) approach for rapid determination of the antibiotic resistance of bacterial pathogens. By confining individual bacteria in gas permeable microchannels with dimensions comparable to a single bacterium, the antibiotic resistance of the bacteria can be monitored in real-time at the single cell level. To facilitate the dynamic loading of the bacteria into the confined microchannels for observation, AC electrokinetics is demonstrated for capturing bacteria to defined locations in high-conductivity AST buffer. The electrokinetic technique achieves a loading efficiency of about 75% with a negligible effect on the bacterial growth rate. To optimize the protocol for single cell AST, the bacterial growth rate of individual bacteria under different antibiotic conditions has been determined systematically. The applicability of single cell AST is demonstrated by the rapid determination of the antimicrobial resistant profiles of uropathogenic clinical isolates in Mueller-Hinton media and in urine. The antibiotic resistance profiles of bacteria can be determined in less than 1 h compared to days in standard culture-based AST techniques. PMID:23445209

Lu, Yi; Gao, Jian; Zhang, Donna D; Gau, Vincent; Liao, Joseph C; Wong, Pak Kin

2013-02-27

331

A closed-form analytical solution for thermal single-well injection-withdrawal tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tests entail pumping cold water into a hot and usually fractured reservoir, and monitoring the temperature recovery during subsequent backflow. Such tests have been proposed as a potential means to characterize properties of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), such as fracture spacing, connectivity, and porosity. In this paper we develop an analytical solution for thermal SWIW tests, using an idealized model of a single vertical fracture with linear flow geometry embedded in impermeable conductive wall rocks. The analytical solution shows that the time dependence of temperature recovery is dominated by the heat exchange between fracture and matrix rock, but strong thermal diffusivities of rocks as compared to typical solute diffusivities are not necessarily advantageous for characterizing fracture-matrix interactions. The effect of fracture aperture on temperature recovery during backflow is weak, particularly when the fracture aperture is smaller than 0.1 cm. The solution also shows that temperature recovery during backflow is independent of the applied injection and backflow rates. This surprising result implies that temperature recovery is independent of the height of the fracture, or the specific fracture-matrix interface areas per unit fracture length, suggesting that thermal SWIW tests will not be able to characterize fracture growth that may be achieved by stimulation treatments.

Jung, Yoojin; Pruess, Karsten

2012-03-01

332

Aero engine test experience with CMSX-4{reg_sign} alloy single-crystal turbine blades  

SciTech Connect

A team approach involving a turbine engine company (Rolls-Royce), its single-crystal casting facilities, and a superalloy developer and ingot manufacturer (Cannon-Muskegon), utilizing the concepts of simultaneous engineering, has been used to develop CMSX-4 alloy successfully for turbine blade applications. CMSX-4 alloy is a second-generation nickel-base single-crystal superalloy containing 3 percent (wt) rhenium (Re) and 70 percent volume fraction of the coherent {gamma}{prime} precipitate strengthening phase. The paper details the single-crystal casting process and heat treatment manufacturing development for turbine blades in CMSX-4 alloy. Competitive single-crystal casting yields are being achieved in production and extensive vacuum heat treatment experience confirms CMSX-4 alloy to have a practical production solution heat treat/homogenization ``window.`` The creep-rupture data-base on CMSX-4 alloy now includes 325 data points from 17 heats including 3,630 kg (8,000 lb) production size heats. An appreciable portion of this data was machined-from-blade (MFB) properties, which indicate turbine blade component capabilities based on single-crystal casting process, component configuration, and heat treatment. The use of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) has been shown to eliminate single-crystal casting micropores, which along with the essential absence of {gamma}/{gamma}{prime} eutectic phase, carbides, stable oxide, nitride and sulfide inclusions, results in remarkably high mechanical fatigue properties, with smooth and particularly notched specimens. The Re addition has been shown not only to benefit creep and mechanical fatigue strength, but also bare oxidation, hot corrosion, and coating performance. The high level of balanced properties determined by extensive laboratory evaluation has been confirmed during engine testing of the Rolls-Royce Pegasus turbofan.

Fullagar, K.P.L.; Broomfield, R.W.; Hulands, M. [Rolls-Royce PLC, Derby (United Kingdom). Aerospace Group; Harris, K.; Erickson, G.L.; Sikkenga, S.L. [Cannon-Muskegon Corp., Muskegon, MI (United States). SPS Technologies

1996-04-01

333

Infrastructure Development of Single Cell Testing Capability at A0 Facility  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this technical note is to document the details of the infrastructure development process that was realized at the A0 photo injector facility to establish RF cold testing capability for 1.3 GHz superconducting niobium single cell cavities. The activity began the last quarter of CY 2006 and ended the first quarter of CY 2009. The whole process involved addressing various aspects such as design of vertical insert and lifting fixture, modification of existing RF test station and design of new couplers, development of a Temperature Mapping (T-Map) system, radiation considerations for the test location (north cave), update of existing High Pressure Rinse (HPR) system, preparation of necessary safety documents and eventually obtaining an Operational Readiness Clearance (ORC). Figure 1 illustrates the various components of the development process. In the past, the north cave test station at A0 has supported the cold testing 3.9 GHz nine cell and single cell cavities, thus some of the components were available for use and some needed modification. The test dewar had the capacity to accommodate 1.3 GHz single cells although a new vertical insert that could handle both cavity types (1.3 and 3.9 GHz) had to be designed. The existing cryogenic system with an average capacity of {approx} 0.5 g/sec was deemed sufficient. The RF system was updated with broadband components and an additional amplifier with higher power capacity to handle higher gradients usually achieved in 1.3 GHz cavities. The initial testing phase was arbitrated to proceed with fixed power coupling. A new temperature mapping system was developed to provide the diagnostic tool for hot spot studies, quench characterization and field emission studies. The defining feature of this system was the use of diode sensors instead of the traditional carbon resistors as sensing elements. The unidirectional current carrying capacity (forward bias) of the diodes provided for the ease of multiplexing of the system, thus substantially reducing the number of cables required to power the sensors. The high gradient capacity of the 1.3 GHz cavities required a revision of the radiation shielding and interlocks. The cave was updated as per the recommendations of the radiation safety committee. The high pressure rinse system was updated with new adapters to assist the rinsing 1.3 GHz single cell cavities. Finally, a proposal for cold testing 1.3 GHz single cell cavities at A0 north cave was made to the small experiments approval committee, radiation safety committee and the Tevatron cryogenic safety sub-committee for an operational readiness clearance and the same was approved. The project was classified under research and development of single cell cavities (project 18) and was allocated a budget of $200,000 in FY 2007.

Dhanaraj, Nandhini; Padilla, R.; Reid, J.; Khabiboulline, T.; Ge, M.; Mukherjee, A.; Rakhnov, I.; Ginsburg, C.; Wu, G.; Harms, E.; Carter, H.; /Fermilab

2009-09-01

334

Characterization of durable nanostructured thin film catalysts tested under transient conditions using analytical aberration-corrected electron microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The stability of Ru0.1Ir0.9 oxidation evolution reaction (OER) catalysts deposited on Pt-coated nanostructured thin films (NSTFs) has been investigated by aberration-corrected electron microscopy. Accelerated stress tests showed that the OER catalysts significantly improved the durability of the Pt under cell reversal conditions. High-resolution images of the end-of-life NSTFs showed significant Ir loss from the whisker surfaces, while no Pt loss was observed, indicating that the OER catalysts had protected the catalyst coated whisker surfaces from degradation.

Cullen, David A [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Reeves, Kimberly Shawn [ORNL; Vernstrom, George [3M Industrial Mineral Products; Atanasoska, Liliana [3M Industrial Mineral Products; Haugen, Gregory [3M Industrial Mineral Products; Atanasoski, Radoslav [3M Industrial Mineral Products

2011-01-01

335

Caterpillar 3406 spark-ignited natural-gas-engine emissions on EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) heavy-duty transient test cycle. Topical report, March-December 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emissions of a lean-burn natural-gas-fueled 3406 spark-ignited engine were determined on the EPA transient emission cycle for heavy-duty vehicle engines. The engine was rated at 350 hp at 1800 rpm. The engine was a minimally modified generator-set engine developed under the same GRI contract and was not optimized for truck applications or transient emissions. Transient emissions in g\\/hp-hr were

D. J. Waldman; J. R. Gladden; D. L. Endicott; B. A. Cull

1989-01-01

336

Primary Care Validation of a Single-Question Alcohol Screening Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND  Unhealthy alcohol use is prevalent but under-diagnosed in primary care settings.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE  To validate, in primary care, a single-item screening test for unhealthy alcohol use recommended by the National Institute\\u000a on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN  Cross-sectional study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PARTICIPANTS  Adult English-speaking patients recruited from primary care waiting rooms.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MEASUREMENTS  Participants were asked the single screening question, “How many times in the past year

Peter C. Smith; Susan M. Schmidt; Donald Allensworth-Davies; Richard Saitz

2009-01-01

337

Fabrication and testing on monolithic single bin bed by low temperature epoxy bonding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cryofuel System Group at University of Victoria, Canada, has been developing an active magnetic liquefier for natural gas, so-called AMRL-1. Several subsystems are included in the liquefier. One of them is the magnetic refrigeration subsystem. For the magnetic refrigeration subsystem in the AMRL-1, an efficient magnetic regenerator is crucial to achieve high performance of the AMRL-1. To understand the working process of the magnetic regenerator, a single bin model characterizing each compartment of the rotary magnetic regenerator designed for the AMRL-1 has been designed, fabricated, and tested. The main objective of this task is to verify the feasibility of fabrication process of monolithic magnetic bed for AMRL-1 wheel rotary regenerator by low temperature epoxy bonding. Because of the unique structure of the single bin with several different magnetic materials, we have tried numerous supporting and sealing methods to avoid the leaking, escaping and mixing of very tiny particles. Then we have tested the flow performance of the monolithic yet porous beds before and after bonding. The experimental results are compared with the modified Ergun correlation for predicting the flow impedance of beds filled with particles. We will introduce some testing results in the paper. .

Luo, E.; Barclay, J. A.; Reedeker, P. G.; Wysokinski, T. W.

2002-05-01

338

Tomographic test of Bell's inequality for a time-delocalized single photon  

SciTech Connect

Time-domain balanced homodyne detection is performed on two well-separated temporal modes sharing a single photon. The reconstructed density matrix of the two-mode system is used to prove and quantify its entangled nature, while the Wigner function is employed for an innovative tomographic test of Bell's inequality based on the theoretical proposal by Banaszek and Wodkiewicz [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2009 (1999)]. Provided some auxiliary assumptions are made, a clear violation of the Banaszek-Bell inequality is found.

D'Angelo, Milena [LENS, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Zavatta, Alessandro [Istituto Nazionale di Ottica Applicata, Largo E. Fermi, 6, I-50125, Florence (Italy); Parigi, Valentina [LENS, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Florence, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Bellini, Marco [LENS, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Ottica Applicata, Largo E. Fermi, 6, I-50125, Florence (Italy)

2006-11-15

339

Synthesized light transients.  

PubMed

Manipulation of electron dynamics calls for electromagnetic forces that can be confined to and controlled over sub-femtosecond time intervals. Tailored transients of light fields can provide these forces. We report on the generation of subcycle field transients spanning the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet frequency regimes with a 1.5-octave three-channel optical field synthesizer and their attosecond sampling. To demonstrate applicability, we field-ionized krypton atoms within a single wave crest and launched a valence-shell electron wavepacket with a well-defined initial phase. Half-cycle field excitation and attosecond probing revealed fine details of atomic-scale electron motion, such as the instantaneous rate of tunneling, the initial charge distribution of a valence-shell wavepacket, the attosecond dynamic shift (instantaneous ac Stark shift) of its energy levels, and its few-femtosecond coherent oscillations. PMID:21903778

Wirth, A; Hassan, M Th; Grguras, I; Gagnon, J; Moulet, A; Luu, T T; Pabst, S; Santra, R; Alahmed, Z A; Azzeer, A M; Yakovlev, V S; Pervak, V; Krausz, F; Goulielmakis, E

2011-09-08

340

Neutronics, steady-state, and transient analyses for the Poland MARIA reactor for irradiation testing of LEU lead test fuel assemblies from CERCA : ANL independent verification results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MARIA reactor at the Institute of Atomic Energy (IAE) in Swierk (30 km SE of Warsaw) in the Republic of Poland is considering conversion from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies (FA). The FA design in MARIA is rather unique; a suitable LEU FA has never been designed or tested. IAE has contracted with CERCA (the

P. L. Garner; N. A. Hanan

2011-01-01

341

Coincident Steam Generator Tube Rupture and Stuck-Open Safety Relief Valve Carryover Tests (MB-2 Steam Generator Transient Response Test Program).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In PWR steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) faults, a direct pathway for the release of radioactive fission products can exist if there is a coincident stuck-open safety relief valve (SORV) or if the safety relief valve is cycled. The test program consiste...

G. C. Gardner K. Garbett M. Y. Young O. J. Mendler R. Garnsey

1987-01-01

342

Summary of Group Development and Testing for Single Shell Tank Closure at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the bench-scale and large scale experimental studies performed by Savannah River National Laboratory for CH2M HILL to develop grout design mixes for possible use in producing fill materials as a part of Tank Closure of the Single-Shell Tanks at Hanford. The grout development data provided in this report demonstrates that these design mixes will produce fill materials that are ready for use in Hanford single shell tank closure. The purpose of this report is to assess the ability of the proposed grout specifications to meet the current requirements for successful single shell tank closure which will include the contracting of services for construction and operation of a grout batch plant. The research and field experience gained by SRNL in the closure of Tanks 17F and 20F at the Savannah River Site was leveraged into the grout development efforts for Hanford. It is concluded that the three Hanford grout design mixes provide fill materials that meet the current requirements for successful placement. This conclusion is based on the completion of recommended testing using Hanford area materials by the operators of the grout batch plant. This report summarizes the regulatory drivers and the requirements for grout mixes as tank fill material. It is these requirements for both fresh and cured grout properties that drove the development of the grout formulations for the stabilization, structural and capping layers.

Harbour, John, R.

2005-04-28

343

The Specificity and Sensitivity of Transient Otoacustic Emission in Neonatal Hearing Screening Compared with Diagnostic Test of Auditory Brain Stem Response in Tehran Hospitals  

PubMed Central

Objective Since early detection (specially before 6 months of age) of deaf people leads to better hearing and speech outcome after treatment, several clinical trials have been performed in order to find a cost effective, short duration screening test for diagnosis of neonatal hearing impairment. The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of Transient Otoacustic Emission (TEOAE) test in newborns comparing with auditory brain stem response (ABR) in the age of 3 months and to analyze the association between risk factors and hearing loss in neonates. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted January2008 - May 2009 in Tehran. 1000 newborns (526 boys and 474 girls) were assessed. First, all of neonates were evaluated by TEOAE 24h after birth. If responses of OAE were failing, they were retested 10 to 15 days after birth by TEOAE. Also, All Neonates were assessed by ABR in the age of 3 months. Descriptive Statistics was used to analyze data. Findings Eighteen out of 1000 neonates failed double–checked TEOAE tests, of which 6 were confirmed by ABR test (12 false positive results). Nine out of 1000 neonates had impaired ABR tests, from these patients, 6 had failed OAE as well, but 3 had normal OAE (3 false negative results). From these 9 patients 2 had profound hearing loss and received cochlear implantation. We found that OAE has 66.7% sensitivity and 98.8% specificity in diagnosis of neonatal hearing impairment. Its positive and negative predictive value was 33.3% and 99.7% respectively. Also we did not find statistically significant relationship between hearing loss and risk factors. Conclusion TEOAE as a simple, non-invasive, short duration and cost effective method, is a suitable test for neonatal hearing screening. Even though only two thirds of patients were detected by this method, 99.7% negative predictive value makes it a good screening test. We recommend OAE as a suitable primary neonatal hearing screening all over the country.

Yousefi, Jaleh; Ajalloueyan, Mohammad; Amirsalari, Susan; Hassanali Fard, Mahdieh

2013-01-01

344

Thermo-mechanical behaviour of a single slice test device for the FRIB high power target  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the major challenges of the FRIB project (Facility for Rare Isotope Beams) at Michigan State University is the design and integration of the production target to produce rare isotope beams via fragmentation reaction. In the most extreme case, a 400 kW uranium beam of 200 MeV/u will be focused in a 1 mm diameter spot, leading to a power density of 60 MW/cm3 for a C target. Up to 200 kW may be dissipated in the target.A rotating solid carbon disk concept has been selected as the target design approach for all primary beams up to uranium to provide high-power operation. A high rotational speed is necessary to compensate for the high power density. A multi-slice approach allows the evacuation of the large amount of heat deposited by the increase of the radiating area. In the present design study, the multi-slice target device has a diameter of about 30 cm and rotates at about 5000 RPM (revolutions per minute). The first step of the R&D strategy consists in the development and test of a 20 kW single-slice target prototype. This single disk device is designed to accept the same fraction of power as each disk of the final multi-slice target. Critical information on thermal-mechanical properties can be obtained thus at a lower power level than the one of the full device. Different carbon materials were tested. An electron beam of ?20 keV was used for the thermal tests. Simulations were performed using the ANSYS code for the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the target, the resulting deformation and the stress profiles of heated graphite disks. Results of the simulations were compared with experimental data.

Pellemoine, F.; Mittig, W.; Avilov, M.; Ippel, D.; Lenz, J.; Oliva, J.; Silverman, I.; Youchison, D.; Xu, T.

2011-11-01

345

A Transient Numerical Simulation of Perched Ground-Water Flow at the Test Reactor Area, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1952-94  

SciTech Connect

Studies of flow through the unsaturated zone and perched ground-water zones above the Snake River Plain aquifer are part of the overall assessment of ground-water flow and determination of the fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These studies include definition of the hydrologic controls on the formation of perched ground-water zones and description of the transport and fate of wastewater constituents as they moved through the unsaturated zone. The definition of hydrologic controls requires stratigraphic correlation of basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds within the saturated zone, analysis of hydraulic properties of unsaturated-zone rocks, numerical modeling of the formation of perched ground-water zones, and batch and column experiments to determine rock-water geochemical processes. This report describes the development of a transient numerical simulation that was used to evaluate a conceptual model of flow through perched ground-water zones beneath wastewater infiltration ponds at the Test Reactor Area (TRA).

B. R. Orr (USGS)

1999-11-01

346

Transient Ischemic Attack  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Transient Ischemic Attack Information Page Synonym(s): Mini Stroke Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Transient Ischemic ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Transient Ischemic Attack? A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a transient ...

347

Mechanical properties of transient-tested irradiated fast-reactor cladding. [811° to 1644°K; 5. 8 x 10²² n\\/cm²  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented for three high burnup PNL-11 fuel pins irradiated to goal FFTF exposure levels in testing cladding stress and strain on fast reactor fuel pins subjected to simulated power transient conditions. The mixed oxide fuel with Type 316 SS clad were tested at heating rates of 5.5 k\\/s and 200 k\\/s with internal gas pressures of 17.2 to

G. D. Johnson; C. W. Hunter

1978-01-01

348

Preliminary Test Results from 650 MHz Single Cell Medium Beta Cavities for Project X  

SciTech Connect

We have fabricated two single cell 650 MHz {beta}=0.61 cavities of a JLab design, which possibly can be used for the proposed Project X proton linac application. Both cavities were manufactured at JLab from RRR>250 niobium sheet of 4 mm thickness using standard techniques such as deep drawing, electron beam welding, buffered chemical polishing, hydrogen degassing heat treatment, high pressure ultrapure water rinsing and clean room assembly. Initially cavity #1 was – after final surface treatment by buffered chemical polishing (BCP) – measured without any provisions for stiffening. As expected, the pressure sensitivity and the Lorentz Force detuning coefficients were relatively high; however, the RF performance was very encouraging: the cavity exhibited a Q-value > 10{sup 11} at 1.6K, corresponding to a residual resistance of < 1.5 n{Omega} The initial gradient was limited to E{sub acc} ~ 18 MV/m, limited by field emission. In a subsequent test, the cavity was re-rinsed and stiffened up, resulting in a somewhat improved mechanical behavior, but no improvement in rf performance. The second cavity was also tested twice, before and after low temperature baking. The results from all tests are reported in this contribution.

Frank Marhauser, Peter Kneisel, Andrew Burrill, Peter Kushnick

2011-07-01

349

A single sample GnRHa stimulation test in the diagnosis of precocious puberty  

PubMed Central

Context Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has been the standard test for diagnosing central precocious puberty. Because GnRH is no longer available, GnRH analogues (GnRHa) are now used. Random LH concentration, measured by the third-generation immunochemiluminometric assay, is a useful screening tool for central precocious puberty. However, GnRHa stimulation test should be considered, when a basal LH measurement is inconclusive. However optimal sampling times for luteinizing hormone (LH) have yet to be established. Purpose To determine the appropriate sampling time for LH post leuprolide challenge. Methods A retrospective analysis of multi-sample GnRHa stimulation tests performed in 155 children (aged 1–9?years) referred for precocious puberty to Texas Children’s Hospital. After 20 mcg/kg of SQ leuprolide acetate, samples were obtained at 0, 1, 3, and 6 hours. Results Of 71 children with clinical evidence of central precocious puberty, fifty nine children had a peak LH >5 mIU/mL. 52 (88%) of these responders had positive responses at 1 hour (95% CI is 80–96%), whereas all 59 children (100%) had a peak LH response >5 mIU/mL at 3 hours (95% CI is 94-100%), P?=?0.005. Conclusions A single serum LH sample collected 3 hours post GnRHa challenge is the optimal sample to establish the diagnosis of central precocious puberty.

2012-01-01

350

42 CFR 84.1145 - Silica dust test; non-powered single-use dust respirators; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1145 Silica dust test; non-powered single-use dust respirators; minimum requirements. (a)...

2012-10-01

351

42 CFR 84.1145 - Silica dust test; non-powered single-use dust respirators; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1145 Silica dust test; non-powered single-use dust respirators; minimum requirements. (a)...

2011-10-01

352

Preimplantation genetic haplotyping: 127 diagnostic cycles demonstrating a robust, efficient alternative to direct mutation testing on single cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis using whole genome amplification and a haplotyping approach (PGH) was first described in 2006 and suggested as an efficient alternative to single-cell PCR for monogenic disorders. DNA from single cells was amplified using multiple displacement amplification; the resulting products were then tested using disease-specific PCR multiplexes applied under standard laboratory conditions to determine the haplotypes in the

Pamela Renwick; Jane Trussler; Alison Lashwood; Peter Braude; Caroline Mackie Ogilvie

2010-01-01

353

Spray Characteristics of Single- and Three-Hole Nozzle Injectors in Ambient Air and in a Motored Single-Cylinder Test Engine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The high-speed/high-resolution imaging system was used to evaluate two mid-pressure (15 MPa) fuel injector nozzles in ambient air and in a motored single-cylinder test engine. The nozzles are designed for use in the EPA/NVFEL program to develop clean and ...

J. P. Hahn F. J. Hamady R. M. Schaefer

1994-01-01

354

Determination of interfacial properties using a single-fiber microcomposite test  

SciTech Connect

A single-filament microcomposite consisting of 143-{micro}m-diameter CVD SiC, a thin ``interfacial`` coating, and a thick (130--160 {micro}m) CVD SiC matrix sheath was tested in tension to determine the interfacial shear properties of carbon and BN interfacial coatings. Load/displacement and acoustic emission were used to determine the mechanical behavior of the microcomposites and matrix cracking. Optical and electron microscopy were performed to confirm the extent and nature of matrix cracking and to analyze the microcomposite microstructure. The interfacial properties were determined from matrix cracking and load/displacement hysteresis techniques. Direct measurement of the interfacial sliding stress from push-out and pull-out experiments were in good agreement with two of the three microcomposite systems studied.

Morscher, G.N. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Martinez-Fernandez, J. [Univ. of Seville (Spain). Dept. de Fisica de la Materia Condensada; Purdy, M.J. [BF Goodrich Aerospace, Brecksville, OH (United States)

1996-04-01

355

An experimental proposal to test dynamic quantum non-locality with single-atom interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum non-locality based on the well-known Bell inequality is of kinematic nature. A different type of quantum non-locality, the non-locality of the quantum equation of motion, is recently put forward with connection to the Aharonov-Bohm effect (Popescu S., Nat. Phys., 6 (2010) 151). Evolution of the displacement operator provides an example to manifest such dynamic quantum non-locality. We propose an experiment using single-atom interferometry to test such dynamic quantum non-locality. We show how to measure evolution of the displacement operator with cold atoms in a spin-dependent optical lattice potential and discuss signature to identify dynamic quantum non-locality under a realistic experimental setting.

Zhu, Shi-Liang; Xue, Zheng-Yuan; Zhang, Dan-Wei; Duan, Lu-Ming

2011-06-01

356

Modeling Single Well Injection-Withdrawal (SWIW) Tests for Characterization of Complex Fracture-Matrix Systems  

SciTech Connect

The ability to reliably predict flow and transport in fractured porous rock is an essential condition for performance evaluation of geologic (underground) nuclear waste repositories. In this report, a suite of programs (TRIPOLY code) for calculating and analyzing flow and transport in two-dimensional fracture-matrix systems is used to model single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tracer tests. The SWIW test, a tracer test using one well, is proposed as a useful means of collecting data for site characterization, as well as estimating parameters relevant to tracer diffusion and sorption. After some specific code adaptations, we numerically generated a complex fracture-matrix system for computation of steady-state flow and tracer advection and dispersion in the fracture network, along with solute exchange processes between the fractures and the porous matrix. We then conducted simulations for a hypothetical but workable SWIW test design and completed parameter sensitivity studies on three physical parameters of the rock matrix - namely porosity, diffusion coefficient, and retardation coefficient - in order to investigate their impact on the fracture-matrix solute exchange process. Hydraulic fracturing, or hydrofracking, is also modeled in this study, in two different ways: (1) by increasing the hydraulic aperture for flow in existing fractures and (2) by adding a new set of fractures to the field. The results of all these different tests are analyzed by studying the population of matrix blocks, the tracer spatial distribution, and the breakthrough curves (BTCs) obtained, while performing mass-balance checks and being careful to avoid some numerical mistakes that could occur. This study clearly demonstrates the importance of matrix effects in the solute transport process, with the sensitivity studies illustrating the increased importance of the matrix in providing a retardation mechanism for radionuclides as matrix porosity, diffusion coefficient, or retardation coefficient increase. Interestingly, model results before and after hydrofracking are insensitive to adding more fractures, while slightly more sensitive to aperture increase, making SWIW tests a possible means of discriminating between these two potential hydrofracking effects. Finally, we investigate the possibility of inferring relevant information regarding the fracture-matrix system physical parameters from the BTCs obtained during SWIW testing.

Cotte, F.P.; Doughty, C.; Birkholzer, J.

2010-11-01

357

Modeling Single Well Injection-Withdrawal (SWIW) Tests for Characterization of Complex Fracture-Matrix Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An essential condition for performance evaluation of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) resides in the ability to reliably predict fluid flow and heat transport in fractured porous rocks, where fast convection-dispersive transport through the fracture network can be strongly affected by heat conduction into the adjacent rock matrix. SWIW tests are single-well tracer tests that involve an initial period of fluid and tracer injection followed by a period of fluid withdrawal. As a result of the flow field reversal, the measured breakthrough curves tend to be less sensitive to advective heterogeneities and more sensitive to matrix diffusion and sorption, making this method very valuable in characterizing fracture-matrix interaction and evaluating matrix properties. In particular, we propose using SWIW tests before and after hydrofracking operations, to help assess the means by which hydrofracking increases permeability and enhances fracture-matrix interaction. In the present study, we have modeled single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tests for non-sorbing and sorbing tracers, using the mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian transport simulator TRIPOLY, which solves tracer advection and dispersion in fracture networks together with solute exchange processes between the fractures and the porous matrix. Our simulations were conducted for hypothetical but workable SWIW test designs considering a variety of statistically generated 2D fracture-matrix systems. Parameter sensitivity studies were completed on three physical parameters of the rock matrix, namely porosity, diffusion coefficient and retardation coefficient, in order to investigate their impact on the fracture-matrix solute exchange process. Hydraulic fracturing, or hydrofracking, was modeled in two different ways, one by increasing the fracture aperture for flow and the other one by adding a new set of fractures to the fracture network. The results of all these different tests were analyzed by studying the population of matrix blocks, the tracer spatial distribution, and the breakthrough curves (BTCs), while performing mass balance checks to ensure numerical accuracy. The possibility of inferring from SWIW-test BTCs relevant information on the physical parameters of the fracture-matrix system was investigated. Our results clearly demonstrate the importance of matrix effects in the solute transport process. The sensitivity studies illustrate the increased importance of the matrix as providing a retardation mechanism as matrix porosity, diffusion coefficient, or retardation coefficient increase. Heat convection and conduction can be shown to be mathematically equivalent to advection, diffusion, and sorption of tracer, making these tracer studies directly useful for analysis of EGS. Interestingly, preliminary results before and after hydrofracking are insensitive to adding more fractures while somewhat sensitive to aperture increase, making SWIW tests a possible means of discriminating between these two potential hydrofracking effects. However, our base case fracture network is highly connected, potentially minimizing the effect of hydrofracking. Further study is needed using a sparser network to study hydrofracking under more realistic conditions.

Cotte, F.; Doughty, C.; Birkholzer, J. T.

2010-12-01

358

Single-well tracer push-pull test sensitivity w. r. to fracture aperture and spacing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dealing with a parallel-fracture system of infinite lateral extension, four characteristic regimes of tracer signal sensitivity w. r. to fracture aperture and w. r. to fracture spacing s (whose reciprocal defines fracture density, or the fluid-rock interface area per volume) can be identified during the pull phase of a single-well push-pull test, also depending upon the ratio between push-phase duration Tpush and a characteristic time scale Ts (defined by s2 / D = Ts , with D denoting the tracer's effective diffusion coefficient): early-time regime: tracer signals are sensitive w. r. to fracture aperture, but insensitive w. r. to fracture spacing; sensitivity w. r. to fracture aperture first increases, then decreases with Tpush / Ts (thus there will be an optimum in terms of to Tpush / Ts , at early pull times); mid-time regime: tracer signals are sensitive w. r. to fracture spacing, but insensitive w. r. to fracture aperture; sensitivity w. r. to fracture spacing increases with Tpush / Ts ; late-time regime: with increasing pull duration, tracer signals become increasingly insensitive w. r. to fracture spacing, while regaining sensitivity w. r. to fracture aperture; 'very late'-time regime: sensitivity w. r. to fracture aperture becomes independent upon Tpush / Ts . From these different regimes, some recommendations can be derived regarding the design and dimensioning of dual-tracer single-well push-pull tests for the specific purposes of geothermal reservoir characterization, using conservative solutes and heat as tracers. Acknowledgement: This study is funded by MWK Niedersachsen (Lower-Saxony's Science and Culture Ministry) and by Baker Hughes (Celle) within task unit 'G6' of the Collaborative Research Project 'gebo' (Geothermal Energy and High-Performance Drilling).

Ghergut, I.; Behrens, H.; Karmakar, S.; Sauter, M.

2012-04-01

359

Direct evidence of lateral hyporheic flows revealed through single well tracer dilution tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterising the spatial and temporal distribution of the magnitude and direction of subsurface water fluxes within the zone of groundwater - river interaction is essential for reliable estimation of the speciation and pattern of nutrient fluxes between the two contrasting water bodies. Most conventional experimental approaches (e.g. using vertical gradients derived from piezometer heads, or one dimensional temperature profiles) ignore the role of lateral flows within this environment and yet such fluxes clearly contribute to the conceptualisation of a hyporheic zone. Single well dilution (drift) tests have been widely used in hydrogeological studies as a means of determining local lateral flux estimates. However, the adoption of such approaches in groundwater - surface water investigations has been generally ignored. Here, we present the findings from two field campaigns in which over 100 piezometers, installed within the bed and banks of a 250m reach of the River Leith in Cumbria, UK, were monitored for the dilution of an injected salt tracer. The results reveal significant lateral flows, in particular in the shallow (20cm depth) and deep (100cm depth) piezometers. In contrast, lateral fluxes within the intermediate zone (50cm depth) appear generally much smaller and are of a similar level to those derived from tests conducted in local riparian piezometers. The observed lateral fluxes in the river bed units are of a similar order to vertical fluxes determined from vertical hydraulic gradients and slug test hydraulic conductivities. Our findings corroborate with observed natural tracer profiles from multi-level samplers at the site and suggest that the zone of mixing between surface water and groundwater is constrained to the upper few tens of centimetres at the site. Furthermore, the high spatial density of our tracer testing highlights the spatial variability of fluxes within the reach and, in particular, indicates transverse and longitudinal trends along the reach.

Binley, A.; Ullah, S.; Landsdown, K.; Heathwaite, L.; Kaeser, D.; Heppell, K.; Trimmer, M.; Zhang, H.

2010-12-01

360

Force development and relaxation in single motor units of adult cats during a standard fatigue test.  

PubMed Central

1. The purpose of this study was to investigate tetanic force development and relaxation in single motor units that were subjected to a standard fatigue test. 2. Motor units of tibialis posterior, a hindlimb muscle in the adult cat, were assigned to four categories (i.e. types S, FR, FI, FF) using conventional criteria. 3. Based on the first tetanus of the fatigue test, type S units took significantly longer to develop force and to relax than the fast-twitch units. Within the fast-twitch subpopulations, type FR and FI units were significantly slower to develop force and to relax than were type FF units, but there were no significant differences between type FR and FI units. 4. After 120 s of the fatigue test, the rates of force development were faster than initial values in type S and FR units, but were largely unchanged for the type FI and FF units. Most relaxation parameters were unaffected by stimulation in type S and FR units, but all parameters became significantly slower in type FI and FF units. 5. The average time courses of force development and relaxation showed that during 240 s of the fatigue test, type S units exhibited either a progressive increase in a parameter or no change at all. In contrast, fast-twitch units displayed profiles that included initial increases in a force development or relaxation parameter followed by variable amounts of decline that corresponded to fatigability. 6. It is concluded that repetitive activation affects the development and relaxation of tetanic force in all motor-unit types. Average changes in these parameters tended to parallel the conventional classification of motor units into four categories.

Gordon, D A; Enoka, R M; Karst, G M; Stuart, D G

1990-01-01

361

Multivessel versus single vessel spasm, as assessed by the intracoronary acetylcholine provocation test, in Korean patients.  

PubMed

1. Coronary artery spasm (CAS) is known to be a major cause of myocardial ischaemia. Multivessel coronary spasm (MVS) in particular is likely to induce more severe and prolonged myocardial ischaemia than single vessel spasm (SVS). 2. In the present study, a total of 1082 consecutive patients without significant coronary artery disease who underwent an acetylcholine (ACh) provocation test between March 2004 and April 2009 were investigated. Patients were divided into three groups: an MVS group (n = 275), an SVS group (n = 376) and a non-CAS group (n = 431). Differences in clinical and angiographic characteristics following the ACh provocation test were evaluated between the MVS, SVS and non-CAS groups. 3. At baseline, patients in the MVS group had the highest prevalence of peripheral artery disease (PAD), hyperlipidaemia, smoking and old age, as well as the highest triglyceride levels. Calcium channel blockers were most frequently prescribed in MVS patients before the ACh test. During the ACh test, the highest prevalence of chest pain, ischaemic electrocardiogram changes, baseline spasms and diffuse and severe spasms were observed in the MVS group. The response rate to lower ACh doses that induce CAS was also higher in the MVS group. Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of PAD (odds ratio (OR) 2.0; P = 0.006) and baseline spasm (OR 1.4; P = 0.045) were independent predictors of ACh-induced MVS. 4. In conclusion, ischaemic symptoms, diffuse and severe spasm and baseline spasm were more frequently associated with MVS patients, suggesting more intensive medical therapies and close clinical follow up would be required for this patient group. PMID:21933225

Park, Ji Young; Rha, Seung-Woon; Jin, Zhe; Poddar, Kanhaiya L; Ramasamy, Sureshkumar; Chen, Kang-Yin; Li, Yong-Jian; Choi, Byoung Geol; Ryu, Sung Kee; Choi, Jae Woong; Song, Eun Ju; Ryou, Ji Won; Elnagar, Amro; Kim, Yun Kyung; Na, Jin Oh; Choi, Cheol Ung; Lim, Hong Euy; Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Eung Ju; Park, Chang Gyu; Seo, Hong Seog; Oh, Dong Joo

2011-12-01

362

Single-Pass Flow Through (SPFT) Testing of Fluidized-Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Waste Forms  

SciTech Connect

Two samples of fluidized-bed steam reforming (FBSR) mineral waste form product were subjected to single-pass flow-through (SPFT) testing. Sample LAW 1123 resulted from pilot-scale FBSR processing with a Hanford Envelope A low-activity waste (LAW) simulant. Sample SBW 1173 resulted from pilot-scale FBSR processing with an Idaho National Laboratory (INL) simulant commonly referred to as sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The pilot-scale waste forms were made at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The durability of the two FBSR waste forms was assessed via the SPFT test in this study. Both samples were multiphase mineral waste forms, so the SPFT test results provide an overall release rate from the multiple mineral species in each sample and are dependent on the amount of each phase present and the mineralogy of the phases present. SPFT testing was performed at temperatures of 25, 40, 70, and 90 C on LAW 1123, while SBW 1173 was only tested at 70 and 90 C. The 70 and 90 C data were compared to each other and the LAW-1123 results were compared to previous testing performed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on a LAW Envelope C (high organic content) waste simulant. The objectives of this study were to obtain forward dissolution rate data for both STAR FBSR bed products (using SPFT tests). Also, a qualitative comparison of the FBSR bed products to a glass waste form (specifically the low-activity reference material (LRM) glass) was performed. For these comparisons, the relative surface areas of the FBSR and glass products had to be measured. Due to the more porous and irregular surface of FBSR bed products, the surface area of the bed products was determined using the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) measurement method. The surface area of a glass is much smoother and the calculated geometric surface area is typically used for determining dissolution behavior. Presently there are no specifications or standard release rates that the FBSR tested materials have to meet, e.g. the data from the FBSR testing is normally used during subsequent Performance Assessment (PA) calculations. Since a PA calculation is not part of this study, the LAW and SBW steam reforming samples were compared to each other, to previous LAW FBSR SPFT results, and to the results from the LRM reference glass. The experimental durability data generated from this study suggests that an FBSR mineral waste form product would be an adequate alternative form to borosilicate glass. The tested FBSR mineral waste forms showed normalized release rates for matrix elements such as Si to be more than 200X slower than the LRM glass. However, further durability testing and mineral phase information is recommended to further substantiate these findings.

Lorier, T. H.; Pareizs, J. M.; Jantzen, C. M.

2005-08-15

363

Data-driven physical parameter estimation for lumped mass structures from a single point actuation test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data-driven subspace system identification techniques developed from control theory provide a rich set of analytical tools to estimate state-space models of structural systems. Furthermore, a recent technological advance in physical parameter extraction directly from the identified state-space models paves a way for new developments in experimental structural dynamics. In this study, a practical issue of data-driven physical parameter estimation for lumped mass structures is discussed. To cope with difficulties related to dynamic tests of multiple actuations, this study proposes a signal processing strategy to estimate physical parameters from a dynamic test of single point actuation. To demonstrate the proposed strategy, an experimental study is conducted. A three-story shear frame structure is excited by a modal shaker with an input force measured and the corresponding displacement responses at each floor are scanned using a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). Based on the proposed strategy, physically interpretable mass and stiffness matrices, as well as non-proportional damping matrix are estimated solely from the measured experimental data.

Kim, Junhee; Kim, Kiyoung; Sohn, Hoon

2013-09-01

364

Atomic transient recorder.  

PubMed

In Bohr's model of the hydrogen atom, the electron takes about 150 attoseconds (1 as = 10(-18) s) to orbit around the proton, defining the characteristic timescale for dynamics in the electronic shell of atoms. Recording atomic transients in real time requires excitation and probing on this scale. The recent observation of single sub-femtosecond (1 fs = 10(-15) s) extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light pulses has stimulated the extension of techniques of femtochemistry into the attosecond regime. Here we demonstrate the generation and measurement of single 250-attosecond XUV pulses. We use these pulses to excite atoms, which in turn emit electrons. An intense, waveform-controlled, few cycle laser pulse obtains 'tomographic images' of the time-momentum distribution of the ejected electrons. Tomographic images of primary (photo)electrons yield accurate information of the duration and frequency sweep of the excitation pulse, whereas the same measurements on secondary (Auger) electrons will provide insight into the relaxation dynamics of the electronic shell following excitation. With the current approximately 750-nm laser probe and approximately 100-eV excitation, our transient recorder is capable of resolving atomic electron dynamics within the Bohr orbit time. PMID:14985755

Kienberger, R; Goulielmakis, E; Uiberacker, M; Baltuska, A; Yakovlev, V; Bammer, F; Scrinzi, A; Westerwalbesloh, Th; Kleineberg, U; Heinzmann, U; Drescher, M; Krausz, F

2004-02-26

365

Type curve analyses of pneumatic single-hole tests in unsaturated fractured tuff: Direct evidence for a porosity scale effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large number of single- and cross-hole pneumatic injection tests have been conducted in shallow vertical and inclined boreholes in unsaturated fractured tuff at the Apache Leap Research Site (ALRS) near Superior, Arizona. Previously, direct and indirect evidence for a permeability scale effect was provided through the analysis of these tests. Direct evidence was based on the comparison of small-scale single-hole and larger-scale cross-hole test results obtained through the type curve and steady state analysis of these data separately. Indirect evidence was provided by comparing cross-hole test analyses conducted at fine and coarse scales of resolution by means of a three-dimensional numerical inverse model. The latter study also provided indirect evidence for a porosity scale effect. However, there were no small-scale porosity data from single-hole tests to directly verify this indirect evidence. This paper presents such data generated through the type curve interpretation of the recovery phase of the single-hole tests conducted at a nominal 1-m scale providing direct evidence for a porosity scale effect at the site. Statistical analysis of results revealed a strong porosity scale effect confirming an earlier finding obtained indirectly. These results also showed that (1) the injection phase of the pneumatic single-hole tests do not yield reliable estimates of porosity but the recovery phase are amenable to type curve interpretation, (2) flow dimensionality of single-hole tests at 1-m scale are three-dimensional across the site except for a few tests which exhibited two-dimensional and fracture flow behavior, (3) there is a very weak correlation between permeability and porosity, and (4) there is a lack of correlation between fracture density and both permeability and porosity.

Illman, Walter A.

2005-04-01

366

Design and Experimental Test Plan for Hybrid Sulfur Single Cell Pressurized Electrolyzer  

SciTech Connect

The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) process is one of the leading thermochemical cycles being studied as part of the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). SRNL is conducting analyses and research and development for the Department of Energy on the HyS process. A conceptual design report and development plan for the HyS process was issued on April 1, 2005 [Buckner, et. al., 2005] , and a report on atmospheric testing of a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE), a major component of the HyS process, was issued on August 1, 2005 [Steimke, 2005]. The purpose of this report is to document work related to the design and experimental test plan for a pressurized SDE. Pressurized operation of the SDE is a key requirement for development of an efficient and cost-effective HyS process. The HyS process, a hybrid thermochemical cycle proposed and investigated in the 1970s and early 1980s by Westinghouse Electric Corporation, is a high priority candidate for NHI due to the potential for high efficiency and its relatively high level of technical maturity. It was demonstrated in laboratory experiments by Westinghouse in 1978. Process improvements and component advancements that build on that work are being pursued. One of the objectives of the current work is to develop the SDE in order to permit the demonstration of a closed-loop laboratory model of the HyS process. The heart of the HyS process for generating hydrogen is a bank of electrolyzers incorporating sulfur dioxide depolarized anodes. SRNL planned, designed, built and operated a facility for testing single cell electrolyzers at ambient temperature and near atmospheric pressure during the spring and summer of 2005. The major contribution of the SRNL work was the establishment of the proof-of-concept for utilizing the proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) cell design for the SDE operation. Since PEM cells are being extensively developed for automotive fuel cell use, they offer significant potential for cost-effective application for the HyS Process. This report discusses the modifications necessary to the existing SRNL sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer test facility to allow testing at up to 80 C and 90 psig. Because of the need for significant additional equipment and the ability to infer performance results to higher pressures, it recommends delaying further modifications to support testing at up to 300 psig (the commercial goal) until other, higher priority technical issues are addressed. These issues include membrane material selection, component designs, catalyst type and loading, etc. The factors and rationale that should be considered in developing and executing a detailed test matrix for pressurized operation are also discussed. In addition, an electrolyzer assembly design has been developed to allow the testing of different Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEA's) as part of the planned FY06 HyS Development Program to complete selection of component design specifications for the HyS electrolyzer. MEA's are used in PEM cells to allow intimate contact and minimal resistance between the electrodes and the electrolyte layer. The pressurized electrolyzer assembly presented in this report will facilitate rapid change-out and testing of various MEA designs as part of the electrolyzer development effort.

Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

2005-09-01

367

Setting Passing Scores on Passage-Based Tests: A Comparison of Traditional and Single-Passage Bookmark Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, a variation of the bookmark standard setting procedure for passage-based tests is proposed in which separate ordered item booklets are created for the items associated with each passage. This variation is compared to the traditional bookmark procedure for a fifth-grade reading test. The results showed that the single-passage…

Skaggs, Gary; Hein, Serge F.; Awuor, Risper

2007-01-01

368

Type curve analyses of pneumatic single-hole tests in unsaturated fractured tuff: Direct evidence for a porosity scale effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of single- and cross-hole pneumatic injection tests have been conducted in shallow vertical and inclined boreholes in unsaturated fractured tuff at the Apache Leap Research Site (ALRS) near Superior, Arizona. Previously, direct and indirect evidence for a permeability scale effect was provided through the analysis of these tests. Direct evidence was based on the comparison of small-scale

Walter A. Illman

2005-01-01

369

Comparison of numerical predictions and experimental measurements for the transient thermal behavior of a board-mounted electronic component  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical predictive accuracy is investigated for transient component heat transfer using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code dedicated to the thermal analysis of electronic equipment. The test cases are based on a single printed circuit board (PCB)-mounted, 160-lead PQFP component, analyzed in still-air, and both 1 and 2.25 m\\/s forced airflows. Three types of transient operating conditions are considered, namely

ValCrie Eveloy; Peter Rodgers; John Lohan

2002-01-01

370

CHARACTERIZATION TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF SINGLE CELL SO2 DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER  

SciTech Connect

This document reports work performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that further develops the use of a proton exchange membrane or PEM-type electrochemical cell to produce hydrogen via SO{sub 2}-depolarized water electrolysis. This work was begun at SRNL in 2005. This research is valuable in achieving the ultimate goal of an economical hydrogen production process based on the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Cycle. The HyS Process is a hybrid thermochemical cycle that may be used in conjunction with advanced nuclear reactors or centralized solar receivers to produce hydrogen by water-splitting. Like all other sulfur-based cycles, HyS utilizes the high temperature thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid to produce oxygen. The unique aspect of HyS is the generation of hydrogen in a water electrolyzer that is operated under conditions where dissolved sulfur dioxide depolarizes the anodic reaction, resulting in substantial voltage reduction. Sulfur dioxide is oxidized at the anode, producing sulfuric acid that is sent to the acid decomposition portion of the cycle. The focus of this work was to conduct single cell electrolyzer tests in order to prove the concept of SO{sub 2}-depolarization and to determine how the results can be used to evaluate the performance of key components of the HyS Process. A test facility for conducting SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) testing was designed, constructed and commissioned. The maximum cell current is 50 amperes, which is equivalent to a hydrogen production rate of approximately 20 liters per hour. Feed to the anode of the electrolyzer is sulfuric acid solutions containing dissolved sulfur dioxide. The partial pressure of sulfur dioxide may be varied in the range of 1 to 6 atm (15 to 90 psia). Temperatures may be controlled in the range from ambient to 80 C. Hydrogen generated at the cathode of the cell is collected for the purpose of flow measurement and composition analysis. The test facility proved to be easy to operate, versatile, and reliable.

Steimke, J; Timothy Steeper, T

2006-09-15

371

Study on a test of optical stochastic cooling scheme in a single pass beam line  

SciTech Connect

A feasibility study of an experiment to test the principle of optical stochastic cooling is presented. We propose to build a new beamline in the extraction area of the ALS Booster synchrotron, where we will include a bypass lattice similar to the lattice that could be used in the cooling insertion in a storage ring. Of course, in the single pass beamline we cannot achieve cooling, but we can test all the functions of the bypass lattice that are required to achieve cooling in a storage ring. As it is stated in, there are stringent requirements on the time-of-flight properties of the bypass lattice employed in a cooling scheme. The pathlengths of particle trajectories in the bypass must be fairly insensitive to the standard set of errors that usually affect the performance of storage rings. Namely, it is necessary to preserve all fluctuations in the longitudinal particle density within the beam from the beginning to the end of the bypass lattice with the accuracy of {lambda}/2{pi}, where A is the carrying (optical) wavelength. According to, cooling will completely vanish if a combined effect of all kinds of errors will produce a spread of the pathlengths of particle trajectories larger than {lambda}/2 and the cooling time will almost double if the spread of the pathlengths is {lambda}/2{pi}. At a first glance, {lambda}/2{pi} {approx_equal} 0.1/{mu}m is such a small value that satisfying this accuracy looks nearly impossible. However, simulations show that a carefully designed bypass can meet all the requirements even with rather conservative tolerance to errors.

Chattopadhyay, S.; Kim, C.; Massoletti, D.; Zholents, A. [and others

1997-01-01

372

Scaling submillimeter single-cycle transients toward megavolts per centimeter field strength via optical rectification in the organic crystal OH1.  

PubMed

We present the generation of high-power single-cycle terahertz (THz) pulses in the organic salt crystal 2-[3-(4-hydroxystyryl)-5.5-dimethylcyclohex-2-enylidene]malononitrile or OH1. Broadband THz radiation with a central frequency of 1.5 THz (?(c)=200 ?m) and high electric field strength of 440 kV/cm is produced by optical rectification driven by the signal of a powerful femtosecond optical parametric amplifier. A 1.5% pump to THz energy conversion efficiency is reported, and pulse energy stability better than 1% RMS is achieved. An approach toward the realization of higher field strength is discussed. PMID:22378431

Ruchert, Clemens; Vicario, Carlo; Hauri, Christoph P

2012-03-01

373

Chlamydia trachomatis Test-of-Cure Cannot Be Based on a Single Highly Sensitive Laboratory Test Taken at Least 3 Weeks after Treatment  

PubMed Central

Current test-of-cure practice in patients with Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection is to confirm cure with a single test taken at least 3 weeks after treatment. Effectiveness of single-time-point testing however lacks a scientific evidence basis and the high sensitivity of laboratory assays nowadays in use for this purpose may compromise the clinical significance of their results. Prospectively following 59 treated Ct infections, administering care as usual, the presence of Ct plasmid DNA and rRNA was systematically assessed by multiple time-sequential measurements, i.e. on 18 samples taken per patient during 8 weeks following treatment with a single dose of 1000 mg Azythromycin. A high proportion (42%) of Ct infections tested positive on at least one of the samples taken after 3 weeks. Patients' test results showed substantial inter-individual and intra-individual variation over time and by type of NAAT used. We demonstrated frequent intermittent positive patterns in Ct test results over time, and strongly argue against current test-of-cure practice.

Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H. T. M.; Morre, Servaas A.; Speksnijder, Arjen; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.

2012-01-01

374

Happy eating: the single target implicit association test predicts overeating after positive emotions.  

PubMed

For many years, questionnaires have been considered the standard when examining emotional eating behavior. However, recently, some controversy has arisen about these questionnaires, and their usefulness in identifying emotional eaters has been questioned. The current study aimed to investigate the Single Target Implicit Association Test (ST-IAT) as a measure of emotional eating. Two ST-IATs (assessing food-positive and food-negative associations respectively) and the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) were compared in undergraduate students. A positive, negative or neutral mood was induced by means of a film clip, and milkshake consumption was measured during and after the mood induction. It was hypothesized that participants with strong emotion-food associations on the ST-IATs (i.e., IAT-emotional eaters) would consume more food in the emotion induction condition corresponding to that emotion, as compared to those with weak emotion-food associations as well as to those in the neutral condition. Participants who scored high on both the positive and negative ST-IATs ate more during a positive mood induction than during a negative mood induction. This effect did not extend to milkshake consumption after the mood induction procedure. In addition, IAT-positive emotional eaters consumed more food than IAT-non-emotional eaters. No effects of the DEBQ on milkshake consumption were found. It is concluded that the ST-IAT has potential as a measure of emotional eating. PMID:23910779

Bongers, Peggy; Jansen, Anita; Houben, Katrijn; Roefs, Anne

2013-06-28

375

Tests of a single-wire drift chamber for possible use in low intensity beams  

SciTech Connect

A single cell drift chamber with two dimensional readout has been evaluated as a candidate for reliable and inexpensive momentum tagging of low intensity calibration beams. Charges induced on shaped cathode pads allow a measurement of the coordinate parallel to the wire, while the drift time allows a measurement of the coordinate perpendicular to the wire. Two chamber orientations were used during the tests. In one the chambers were arranged with their wires parallel. In this case the intrinsic resolution of the chambers was measured; the top and bottom cells were used to define a track coordinate and this was compared to the coordinate in the middle chamber. To see if either of the two coordinate measurements is linear in real space, the chambers were rearranged to the second orientation, with the middle chamber rotated 90/sup 0/. The drift time was plotted against the charge ratio. The conclusion drawn from this study is that while the drift time measurement has adequate resolution, the charge ratio measurement is not a viable option for beam line use. (LEW)

Haggerty, H.

1986-02-01

376

Single spin asymmetries in lp{yields}hX processes: A test of factorization  

SciTech Connect

Predictions for the transverse single spin asymmetry (SSA), A{sub N}, are given for the inclusive processes lp{sup {up_arrow}{yields}h}X and lp{sup {up_arrow}{yields}j}et+X, which could be measured in operating or future experiments. These estimates are based on the Sivers distributions and the Collins fragmentation functions which fit the azimuthal asymmetries measured in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) processes (lp{sup {up_arrow}{yields}l'}hX). The factorization in terms of transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions (TMD factorization)--which supplies the theoretical framework in which SIDIS azimuthal asymmetries are analyzed--is assumed to hold also for the lp{yields}hX inclusive process at large P{sub T}. A measurement of A{sub N} would then provide a direct test of the validity of the TMD factorization in this case and would have important consequences for the study and understanding of SSAs in pp{sup {up_arrow}{yields}h}X processes.

Anselmino, M.; Boglione, M.; Prokudin, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); D'Alesio, U. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Cagliari, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, C.P. 170, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy); Melis, S. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Avanzate, Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Viale T. Michel 11, I-15121 Alessandria (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Murgia, F. [INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, C.P. 170, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy)

2010-02-01

377

On The Way To Off-equatorial Charged Discs Near Compact Objects - Single Test Particles Approximation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present our recent studies of charged particles motion out of the equatorial plane in strong gravitational and electromagnetic fields. Within the general relativistic approach, we have demonstrated that the interplay between gravitational and electromagnetic action may allow for stable off-equatorial circular motion along the so-called halo orbits near compact objects, such as rotating magnetic compact stars and Kerr black holes immersed in an asymptotically uniform magnetic field of external origin. Locations of halo orbits correspond to minima of the two-dimensional effective potential, which exhibits several qualitativelly different kinds of behaviour, reflecting the charge of moving particles and orientation of the motion. Along with the study of the halo motion itself, we have discussed the general motion in the related off-equatorial potential lobes, demonstrating its chaoticness or regularity in terms of the Poincaré surfaces of sections and recurrence plots. A possible outlook of this study is to build a single test particles model of putative circumpulsar discs consisting of charged dust particles. Institute of Physics and Astronomical Institute have been operated under the projects MSM 4781305903 and AV 0Z10030501, and further supported by the Centre for Theoretical Astrophysics LC06014 in the Czech Republic. JK, VK and ZS thank the Czech Science Foundation (ref. P209/10/P190, 205/07/0052, 202/09/0772). OK acknowledges the doctoral student program of the Czech Science Foundation (205/09/H033).

Kovar, Jiri; Kopacek, O.; Karas, V.; Stuchlik, Z.

2010-02-01

378

Caterpillar 3406 Spark Ignited Natural Gas Engine Emissions on EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) Heavy Duty Transient Test Cycle. Topical Report March-December 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The emissions of a lean burn natural gas fueled 3406 spark ignited engine were determined on the EPA transient emission cycle for heavy duty vehicle engines. The engine was rated at 350 hp at 1800 rpm. The engine was a minimally modified generator set eng...

D. J. Waldman J. R. Gladden D. L. Endicott B. A. Cull

1989-01-01

379

Tracer Tests in a Fractured Dolomite: 2. Controls on Mass-Recovery Rates for a Single-Porosity, Heterogeneous Conceptualization  

SciTech Connect

A single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) test is evaluated as a tool to differentiate between single- and double-porosity conceptualizations of a system. Results from single-porosity simulations incorporating plume drift are also compared to observed data from a recent series of SWIW tests conducted in a fractured dolomite unit, for which a double-porosity conceptualization has been proposed. We evaluate the difficulty of differentiating the response for a double-porosity conceptualization from that for a heterogeneous, single-porosity conceptualization incorporating plume drift. Results of sensitivity studies on multiple, stochastically generated, heterogeneous transmissivity fields indicate that to simulate extremely slow mass-recovery rates for a SWIW test with a single-porosity conceptualization, the following conditions must be present: plume drift, extreme heterogeneities (high {sigma}InT), and an unusual configuration of the high and low transmissivity regions relative to the well location. A compilation of existing data suggests that the high degree of heterogeneity necessary is rare at the SWIW test scale.The observed data from the SWIW tracer tests cannot be matched to numerical simulation results when a single-porosity conceptualization is assumed. A signature of significant drift is less than 100% mass recovery with a zero derivative with respect to time of the late-time normalized cumulative mass curve indicating mass transported outside the capture zone of the withdrawal well. To minimize the risk of misinterpretation, an important design feature for SWIW tests is the collection of late-time data so that percent total mass recovery can be calculated.

Altman, S.J.; Meigs, L.C.; Jones, T.L.

1999-03-04

380

A systems-oriented single event effects test approach for high speed digital phase-locked loops  

SciTech Connect

A systems-oriented single event effects (SEE) test approach is outlined here for two different phase-locked loop (PLL) application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) used for spaceborne local oscillator (LO) generation. The system considerations in designing the upset detection technique is described. This is the only known technique for getting information critical to the system about single event upset (SEU) sensitivity at speed for PLLs. Test results are presented for PLL devices operating at clock speeds of 1.0 and 1.5 GHz. Significant frequency effects were not observed in these devices since the clock speed varied only 50%.

Jobe, K.; Shoga, M. [Hughes Space and Communications, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Koga, R. [Aerospace Corp., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1996-12-01

381

Analysis of tracer and thermal transients during reinjection  

SciTech Connect

This work studied tracer and thermal transients during reinjection in geothermal reserviors and developed a new technique which combines the results from interwell tracer tests and thermal injection-backflow tests to estimate the thermal breakthrough times. Tracer tests are essential to determine the degree of connectivity between the injection wells and the producing wells. To analyze the tracer return profiles quantitatively, we employed three mathematical models namely, the convection-dispersion (CD) model, matrix diffusion (MD) model, and the Avodnin (AD) model, which were developed to study tracer and heat transport in a single vertical fracture. We considered three types of tracer tests namely, interwell tracer tests without recirculation, interwell tracer tests with recirculation, and injection-backflow tracer tests. To estimate the model parameters, we used a nonlinear regression program to match tracer return profiles to the solutions.

Kocabas, I.

1989-10-01

382

Integrated multimodal genetic testing of Ewing sarcoma-a single-institution experience.  

PubMed

Ewing sarcoma (ES) is an aggressive malignant small round cell tumor that arises in bone or soft tissue of adolescents and young adults. A characteristic molecular finding in ES is EWSR1 gene fusion with ETS (erythroblast transformation-specific) family genes including FLI1 (~90%) and ERG (>5%). Here we report our experience using integrated clinicopathologic, cytogenetic, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses of 32 pediatric patients with ES diagnosed in a single institution between 2005 and 2011. Diagnostic EWSR1 rearrangements were detected in 30 (93.8%) of 32 patients. Cytogenetics detected t(11;22) (n = 14) and t(21;22) (n = 1) in 15 (46.9%) patients. FISH detected EWSR1 rearrangements in 27 (96.4%) of 28 patients tested. RT-PCR was positive in 27 (84.4%) of 32 patients, including 24 EWSR1-FLI1 and 3 EWSR1-ERG. RT-PCR defined breakpoints and fusion partners in 7 cases with EWSR1 rearrangements detected by FISH. Sanger sequencing further delineated breakpoints in 21 (77.8%) of 27 RT-PCR positive cases. In summary, conventional cytogenetic analysis provided a global view but had a lower detection rate and longer turnaround time than other methods. FISH is a rapid method and theoretically can detect all EWSR1 rearrangements, but it cannot identify all partners and is not completely specific for ES. RT-PCR and sequencing are more sensitive and useful in identifying fusion partners and refining breakpoints; however, these methods can be compromised by poor RNA preservation and primer design. In conclusion, an integrated approach that uses all methods capable of detecting EWSR1 rearrangements has value in the workup of suspected cases of ES. PMID:23706910

Warren, Mikako; Weindel, Michael; Ringrose, Jo; Venable, Clint; Reyes, Adriana; Terashima, Keita; Rao, Pulivarthi; Chintagumpala, Murali; Hicks, M John; Lopez-Terrada, Dolores; Lu, Xin-Yan

2013-05-22

383

Workshop on Radio Transients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

abstract-type="normal">SummaryWe are entering a new era in the study of variable and transient radio sources. This workshop discussed the instruments and the strategies employed to study those sources, how they are identified and classified, how results from different surveys can be compared, and how radio observations tie in with those at other wavelengths. The emphasis was on learning what common ground there is between the plethora of on-going projects, how methods and code can be shared, and how best practices regarding survey strategy could be adopted. The workshop featured the four topics below. Each topic commenced with a fairly brief introductory talk, which then developed into discussion. By way of preparation, participants had been invited to upload and discuss one slide per topic to a wiki ahead of the workshop. 1. Telescopes, instrumentation and survey strategy. New radio facilities and on-going projects (including upgrades) are both studying the variability of the radio sky, and searching for transients. The discussion first centred on the status of those facilities, and on projects with a time-domain focus, both ongoing and planned, before turning to factors driving choices of instrumentation, such as phased array versus single pixel feeds, the field of view, spatial and time resolution, frequency and bandwidth, depth, area, and cadence of the surveys. 2. Detection, pipelines, and classification. The workshop debated (a) the factors that influence decisions to study variability in the (u,v) plane, in images, or in catalogues, (b) whether, and how much, pipeline code could potentially be shared between one project and another, and which software packages are best for different approaches, (c) how data are stored and later accessed, and (d) how transients and variables are defined and classified. 3. Statistics, interpretation, and synthesis. It then discussed how (i) the choice of facility and strategy and (ii) detection and classification schemes influence what is seen (in terms of types of object and rates) by different surveys, (iii) how results from different surveys could be compared, and (iv) how what we know from existing surveys drives choices (i) and (ii), particularly as regards finding new classes of object. 4. Multiwavelength approaches. The workshop concluded by discussing what information is needed from wavelengths other than radio in order to classify transients and variables adequately and predict their rates as a function of topics (1), (2) and (3). It asked what the constraints are on responding to, and issuing triggers for, follow-up observations, and how that might feed back into considerations for designing our telescopes and surveys.

Croft, Steve; Gaensler, Bryan

2012-04-01

384

A single-well tracer test with in-situ-generated CO[sub 2] as the oil tracer  

SciTech Connect

This paper documents a new single-well tracer chemistry that uses hydrolysis of halogen-organic acid salts as a means to generate CO[sub 2] and to trace residual-oil-saturation. The availability of generators with different, well-behaved hydrolysis rates allows the test to be tailored to each individual well. Suitable water tracers include methanol, tritium, bicarbonate, or the spent CO[sub 2] generator. Field results demonstrate test application and interpretation.

Wellington, S.L.; Richardson, E.A. (Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-05-01

385

Developing a realistic FE analysis method for the welding of a NET single-bead-on-plate test specimen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Net (A European network) single-bead-on-plate test specimen was modeled using FE method (Abaqus) in order to predict the final residual stress in the plate following welding to compare with measured distributions. The welding of the specimen was modeled using 3D uncoupled analysis. Because the complexity of the 3D analysis, sensitivity tests on it were expensive. A 2D FE mesh

X. Y. Shan; M. J. Tan; N. P. O’Dowd

2007-01-01

386

A Transient Dynamo on Vesta?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A core dynamo on 4 Vesta is impossible now. At best a hot core would yield a transient field early on. We test a hypothesis that an impact restarts the dynamo. In fact, the projectile we need to accomplish the deed won't leave Vesta intact.

Roberts, J. H.; Rivkin, A. S.; Chabot, N. L.

2011-03-01

387

Dissolution Kinetics of Titanate-Based Ceramic Waste Forms: Results from Single-Pass Flow Tests on Radiation Damaged Specimens  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary report in which the data from the single-pass flow-through test on resintered 238Pu-bearing ceramics are reported. These results show that radiation damage has litte effect on the dissolution kinetics of candidate titanate ceramics for plutonium immobilization.

Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Strachan, Denis M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Elsa A.; Steele, Jackie L.

2003-05-01

388

Simplified single sample 13Carbon urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori: comparison with histology, culture, and ELISA serology  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no ideal method for detecting Helicobacter pylori. The 'standard' 13Carbon urea breath test (13C-UBT), which involves collecting eight to 15 breath samples and subsequent costly analysis, was modified by pooling 21 samples of expired breath taken at five minute intervals for 40 minutes into a collecting bag, from which a single 20 ml aliquot was taken and analysed

R P Logan; R J Polson; J J Misiewicz; G Rao; N Q Karim; D Newell; P Johnson; J Wadsworth; M M Walker; J H Baron

1991-01-01

389

Data exploration, quality control and testing in single-cell qPCR-based gene expression experiments  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Cell populations are never truly homogeneous; individual cells exist in biochemical states that define functional differences between them. New technology based on microfluidic arrays combined with multiplexed quantitative polymerase chain reactions now enables high-throughput single-cell gene expression measurement, allowing assessment of cellular heterogeneity. However, few analytic tools have been developed specifically for the statistical and analytical challenges of single-cell quantitative polymerase chain reactions data. Results: We present a statistical framework for the exploration, quality control and analysis of single-cell gene expression data from microfluidic arrays. We assess accuracy and within-sample heterogeneity of single-cell expression and develop quality control criteria to filter unreliable cell measurements. We propose a statistical model accounting for the fact that genes at the single-cell level can be on (and a continuous expression measure is recorded) or dichotomously off (and the recorded expression is zero). Based on this model, we derive a combined likelihood ratio test for differential expression that incorporates both the discrete and continuous components. Using an experiment that examines treatment-specific changes in expression, we show that this combined test is more powerful than either the continuous or dichotomous component in isolation, or a t-test on the zero-inflated data. Although developed for measurements from a specific platform (Fluidigm), these tools are generalizable to other multi-parametric measures over large numbers of events. Availability: All results presented here were obtained using the SingleCellAssay R package available on GitHub (http://github.com/RGLab/SingleCellAssay). Contact: rgottard@fhcrc.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

McDavid, Andrew; Finak, Greg; Chattopadyay, Pratip K.; Dominguez, Maria; Lamoreaux, Laurie; Ma, Steven S.; Roederer, Mario; Gottardo, Raphael

2013-01-01

390

Single Stage Rocket Technology (SSRT) DC-X Test Program Environmental Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents an assessment of the potential environmental consequences of the development and subsequent validation of the single stage rocket technology (SSRT) using a subscale vehicle that is capable of vertical takeoff and landing. Findings f...

1992-01-01

391

Single-flux-quantum (SFQ) circuit design and test of crossbar switch scheduler  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single-flux-quantum (SFQ) device provides fast operation with low power consumption. As SFQ devices can be applied in network switches requiring high throughput, we have been developing an SFQ network switch system. Not only the switch fabric but also the switch scheduler is a key component for a high-throughput network switch. The switch scheduler orders multiple inputs to a single

Yoshio Kameda; Shinichi Yorozu; Yoshihito Hashimoto; Hirotaka Terai; Akira Fujimaki; Nobuyuki Yoshikawa

2005-01-01

392

Aero engine test experience with CMSX-4{reg_sign} alloy single-crystal turbine blades  

Microsoft Academic Search

A team approach involving a turbine engine company (Rolls-Royce), its single-crystal casting facilities, and a superalloy developer and ingot manufacturer (Cannon-Muskegon), utilizing the concepts of simultaneous engineering, has been used to develop CMSX-4 alloy successfully for turbine blade applications. CMSX-4 alloy is a second-generation nickel-base single-crystal superalloy containing 3 percent (wt) rhenium (Re) and 70 percent volume fraction of the

K. P. L. Fullagar; R. W. Broomfield; M. Hulands; K. Harris; G. L. Erickson; S. L. Sikkenga

1996-01-01

393

Transient drainage summary report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the history of transient drainage issues on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. It defines and describes the UMTRA Project disposal cell transient drainage process and chronicles UMTRA Project treatment of the transient drainage phenomenon. Section 4.0 includes a conceptual cross section of each UMTRA Project disposal site and summarizes design and construction information, the ground water protection strategy, and the potential for transient drainage.

NONE

1996-09-01

394

Fabrication and Testing of Full-Length Single-Cell Externally Fueled Converters for Thermionic Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Paper presented at the 29th IECEC in Monterey, CA in August 1994. The present paper describes the fabrication and testing of full-length prototypcial converters, both unfueled and fueled, and presents parametric results of electrically heated tests.

Schock, Alfred

1995-08-01

395

Single Group, Pre- and Post-Test Research Designs: Some Methodological Concerns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article provides two illustrations of some of the factors that can influence findings from pre- and post-test research designs in evaluation studies, including regression to the mean (RTM), maturation, history and test effects. The first illustration involves a re-analysis of data from a study by Marsden (2004), in which pre-test scores are…

Marsden, Emma; Torgerson, Carole J.

2012-01-01

396

The anomaly in a breakthrough curve of a single well "push-pull" tracer test: A density driven effect?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What method is appropriate to investigate an aquifer when there is only one well available? A single well "push-pull" tracer test (PP Test) may be a suitable method in order to characterize an aquifer and to obtain information about the hydraulic and chemical properties when only one well is available for the investigations. In a PP test, a test solution that contains a known amount of solutes and a conservative tracer is injected into the aquifer ("push") and extracted afterwards ("pull"). Optionally, the test solution is flushed out of the well and the casing with untreated test solution with a so called "chaser" before being extracted. Also between the injection and the extraction phase a drifting time may be included. The breakthrough of the tracer during the extraction phase is measured and used for analyses and interpretation. In the last three years, several PP Test campaigns were conducted at two different test sites in Japan (Hebig et al. 2011, Zeilfelder et al. 2012). The aim was to investigate the applicability of the PP Test method in different geological settings and in different types of aquifers. The latest field campaign thus focussed on the question how variations of the setup are influencing the breakthrough curve of the PP Test in order to develop and enhance this method. Also the standardization of the PP Test was an aim of this study. During the campaign, a total of seven PP Tests were performed, while only single aspects of the setup were varied from test to test. The tests differed in injection and extraction rate, in the salinity of the injected test solution and in the use of a chaser solution. The general shapes of the breakthrough curves were similar and conclusions about the repeatability of the PP Test could be drawn. However, a sharp anomaly was observed in the breakthrough curve of one specific setup type. By repeating this PP test under the same boundary conditions, we were able to recreate the anomaly and could exclude any technical aspects as a source. In this version of the PP test higher salinized test solution was injected into the aquifer. There are several hypotheses that could explain the behavior of the breakthrough curves of the tracer in this test design. Of all the possibilities (like sorption processes, unexpected tracer reactions, inhomogeneities in the aquifer, influence of the well design), we assume that ion exchange processes and density driven flow are the main reasons for the repeatedly observed anomaly. References: Hebig, K.H., Ito, N., Scheytt, T.J. & Marui, A. (2011). Hydraulic and hydrochemical characterization of deep coastal sedimentary basins by single-well Push-Pull tests. GSA Annual Meeting, 9-12 October 2011, Minneapolis, USA. Zeilfelder, S., Ito, N., Marui, A., Hebig, K. & Scheytt, T. (2012). Push-Pull-Test und Tracer-Test in einem tiefen Grundwasserleiter in Kameoka, Japan. Kurzfassung in: Liedl, R., Burghardt, D., Simon, E., Reimann, T. & Kaufmann-Knoke (Hg.). Grundwasserschutz und Grundwassernutzung. Tagung der Fachsektion Hydrogeologie in der DGG (FH-DGG). 16. - 20. Mai 2012, Dresden. Kurfassungen der Vorträge und Poster. Schriftenreihe der DGG, Heft 78, S. 192.

Zeilfelder, Sarah; Hebig, Klaus; Ito, Narimitsu; Machida, Isao; Scheytt, Traugott; Marui, Atsunao

2013-04-01

397

Evaluation of the single-pass flow-through test to support a low-activity waste specification  

SciTech Connect

A series of single-pass flow-through (SPFT) tests was performed on five reference low-activity waste glasses and a reference glass from the National Institute of Standards and Technology to support a product specification for low-activity waste (LAW) forms. The results showed that the SPFT test provides a means to quantitatively distinguish among LAW glass forms in terms of their forward reaction rate at a given temperature and solution pH. Two of the test glasses were also subjected to SPFT testing at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Forward reaction rate constants calculated from the ANL test data were 100 to over 1,000 times larger than the values obtained from the SPFT tests conducted at PNL. An analysis of the ANL results showed that they were inconsistent with independent measurements done on glasses of similar composition, the known pH-dependence of the forward rate, and with the results from low surface-area-to-volume, short duration product consistency tests. Because the data set obtained from the SPFT tests done at PNL was consistent with each of these same factors, a detailed examination of the test procedures used at both laboratories was performed to determine the cause(s) of the discrepancy. The omission of background subtraction in the data analysis procedure and the short-duration (on the order of hours) of the ANL tests are factors that may have significantly affected the calculated rates.

McGrail, B.P. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Peeler, D.K. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

1995-09-01

398

Prediction of single versus multivessel disease following myocardial infarction using 201-thallium scintigraphy and electrocardiographic stress testing  

SciTech Connect

Fifty patients were evaluated who suffered a single myocardial infarction with graded electrocardiographic stress testing, 201-thallium myocardial perfusion imaging and coronary angiography to assess the role of noninvasive indices as predictors of single versus multivessel coronary artery disease. Multivessel involvement was defined angiographically as the presence of two or more major coronary arteries with at least a 70% intraluminal diameter narrowing. Multivessel disease was defined scintigraphically as the presence of stress and/or redistribution perfusion defects in the distribution of more than one coronary artery. The results of stress electrocardiography were not useful in differentiating patients with single (9/16 positive) versus multivessel (22/34 positive) disease. The degree of exercise-induced ST-segment depression was also not helpful. Stress 201-thallium imaging did offer limited additional information with correct predictions of multivessel disease in 21 of 26 patients. Predictions of single-vessel disease were accurate in 11 of 24 patients. Eleven of these 13 incorrect predictions of single-vessel disease were due to the relative insensitivity of the thallium stress image to perceive defect in the anterior wall when the left anterior descending artery had significant obstruction at catheterization. Further refinements of stress perfusion imaging are needed before this method can be used to reliably separate patients with single and multivessel disease after myocardial infarction.

Weiss, R.J.; Morise, A.P.; Raabe, D.S. Jr.; Sbarbaro, J.A.

1983-11-01

399

Parametric modeling of transient electromagnetic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modeling of a transient electromagnetic system as a single-input, single-output, linear, causal process is considered. Two canonical forms are discussed; one for impulse function input and the other for more general input. Expressions are derived for errors in the estimation of the model parameters caused by errors in the process data. It is shown that Prony's method is a

D. G. Dudley

1979-01-01

400

Single-legged Hop Tests as Predictors of Self-reported Knee Function After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Background Single-legged hop tests are commonly used functional performance measures that can capture limb asymmetries in patients after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Hop tests hold potential as predictive factors of self-reported knee function in individuals after ACL reconstruction. Hypothesis Single-legged hop tests conducted preoperatively would not and 6 months after ACL reconstruction would predict self-reported knee function (International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC] 2000) 1 year after ACL reconstruction. Study Design Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods One hundred twenty patients who were treated with ACL reconstruction performed 4 single-legged hop tests preoperatively and 6 months after ACL reconstruction. Self-reported knee function within normal ranges was defined as IKDC 2000 scores greater than or equal to the age- and sex-specific normative 15th percentile score 1 year after surgery. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of self-reported knee function within normal ranges. The area under the curve (AUC) from receiver operating characteristic curves was used as a measure of discriminative accuracy. Results Eighty-five patients completed single-legged hop tests 6 months after surgery and the 1-year follow-up with 68 patients classified as having self-reported knee function within normal ranges 1 year after reconstruction. The crossover hop and 6-m timed hop limb symmetry index (LSI) 6 months after ACL reconstruction were the strongest individual predictors of self-reported knee function (odds ratio, 1.09 and 1.10) and the only 2 tests in which the confidence intervals of the discriminatory accuracy (AUC) were above 0.5 (AUC = 0.68). Patients with knee function below normal ranges were over 5 times more likely of having a 6-m timed hop LSI lower than the 88% cutoff than those with knee function within normal ranges. Patients with knee function within normal ranges were 4 times more likely to have a crossover hop LSI greater than the 95% cutoff than those with knee function below normal ranges. No preoperative single-legged hop test predicted self-reported knee function within normal ranges 1 year after ACL reconstruction (all P > .353). Conclusion Single-legged hop tests conducted 6 months after ACL reconstruction can predict the likelihood of successful and unsuccessful outcome 1 year after ACL reconstruction. Patients demonstrating less than the 88% cutoff score on the 6-m timed hop test at 6 months may benefit from targeted training to improve limb symmetry in an attempt to normalize function. Patients with minimal side-to-side differences on the crossover hop test at 6 months possibly will have good knee function at 1 year if they continue with their current training regimen. Preoperative single-legged hop tests are not able to predict postoperative outcomes.

Logerstedt, David; Grindem, Hege; Lynch, Andrew; Eitzen, Ingrid; Engebretsen, Lars; Risberg, May Arna; Axe, Michael J.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

2012-01-01

401

Practical application of non-destructive test methods at a single-shell tunnel lining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-destructive test methods are often used in tunnel construction to check the required lining thicknesses. Hereby, mostly ground penetrating radar, impact-echo and ultrasonic echo are applied. However, the current knowledge and experience is largely limited to testing the concrete thickness of double-shell tunnels. Problems with the application of non-destructive test methods can arise, when definitive interfaces are not present, cracks

FRANK LEHMANN

402

Pressure Transient Analysis of Fractal Reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a formulation for a fractal fracture network embedded into a Euclidean matrix. Single-phase flow in the fractal object is described by an appropriate modification of the diffusivity equation. The system's pressure-transient response is then analyzed in the absence of matrix participation and when both the fracture network and the matrix participate. The results obtained extend previous pressure-transient

Jincai Chang; Yanis Yortsos

1990-01-01

403

Race, Gender, Single-Mother Households, and Delinquency: A Further Test of Power-Control Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using power-control theory as the theoretical framework, the present study examines the gender gap in delinquency for White and African American youth from single-mother households. The research is driven by the need to focus more attention on understanding how delinquency theories apply across different racial groups. Results from both bivariate…

Mack, Kristin Y.; Leiber, Michael J.

2005-01-01

404

A Single-Transformation Gene Function Test in Diploid Candida albicans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungal pathogen Candida albicans is naturally diploid, and current gene disruption strategies require two successive transformations. We describe here a genetic construct (UAU1) for which two copies may be selected. Insertion of UAU1 into one genomic site, after a single transformation, allows selection for segregants with two copies of the insertion. Major classes of segregants are those carrying homozygous

BRIAN ENLOE; AVIVA DIAMOND; AARON P. MITCHELL

2000-01-01

405

Magnetoelastic analysis and tensile testing of a soft ferromagnetic strip with a single-edge crack  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the results of an analytical and experimental study of the effect of magnetic fields on the stress intensity factors in a soft ferromagnetic strip under uniaxial tension. The linear magneto-elastic problem for a soft ferromagnetic strip with a single-edge crack is analyzed. Fourier transform techniques are used to formulate the mixed boundary value problem as a singular

Yasuhide Shindo; Tetsu Komatsu; Fumio Narita; Katsumi Horiguchi

2006-01-01

406

Least-Squares Equalizers for Transient Signals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report we present specific methods for designing and implementing digital nonrecursive and recursive least-squares equalizers for devices such as cables that are used with transient signals. The equalizers are designed using test signals and are, ...

S. D. Stearns

1988-01-01

407

In situ evaluation of solute retardation using single-well push–pull tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

More efficient methods are needed for the in situ evaluation of solute sorption to aquifer sediments. The objective of this study was to develop a simplified method for estimating retardation factors for injected solutes from “push–pull” test extraction phase breakthrough curves (BTCs). Sensitivity analyses based on numerical simulations were used to evaluate the method performance for a variety of test

M. H Schroth; J. D Istok; R Haggerty

2000-01-01

408

Single wire fretting fatigue tests for electrical conductor bending fatigue evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overhead electrical conductors are often subjected to aeolian vibrations which may induce fretting fatigue damage of individual aluminium wires in suspension clamp regions. Many bending fatigue tests have been performed on electrical conductors. Depending on the test conditions, wire fracture may be found to occur in the external as well as internal layers. Individual wire fretting fatigue is very difficult

Z. R. Zhou; S. Goudreau; M. Fiset; A. Cardou

1995-01-01

409

Energy absorbed in breakage of single particles in drop weight testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drop weight tests are a useful tool to determine energy-size reduction relationships for breakage of particulate materials. Their use in modeling and simulation of size reduction operations has increased significantly in recent years. The main limitation of the classical drop weight test lies in the fact that it does not allow the direct measurement of the fraction of the input

L. M. Tavares

1999-01-01

410

High speed single transient microwave spectrum analyzer  

SciTech Connect

Recent experiments have required the measurement of short pulse high bandwidth microwave spectra. To meet this need we built a GHz-bandwidth acousto-optic spectrum analyzer. The hardware includes a HeNe laser, collimating optics, Brag cell, steak camera, microchannel plate intensifier and film cassette. The frequency range measured was 350--2000 MHz with a dynamic range greater than 20 dB. Pulse widths from 10 ns were measured with this system. 4 figs.

Stokes, J.; Ogle, J.; Looney, L.; Gallegos, C.; Anaya, R.; Lilijestrand, R.

1989-01-01

411

Columbia University flow instability experimental program: Volume 2. Single tube uniformly heated tests -- Part 2: Uncertainty analysis and data  

SciTech Connect

In June 1988, Savannah River Laboratory requested that the Heat Transfer Research Facility modify the flow excursion program, which had been in progress since November 1987, to include testing of single tubes in vertical down-flow over a range of length to diameter (L/D) ratios of 100 to 500. The impetus for the request was the desire to obtain experimental data as quickly as possible for code development work. In July 1988, HTRF submitted a proposal to SRL indicating that by modifying a facility already under construction the data could be obtained within three to four months. In January 1990, HTFR issued report CU-HTRF-T4, part 1. This report contained the technical discussion of the results from the single tube uniformly heated tests. The present report is part 2 of CU-HTRF-T4 which contains further discussion of the uncertainty analysis and the complete set of data.

Dougherty, T.; Maciuca, C.; McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Reddy, D.G.; Yang, B.W.

1990-05-01

412

Estimates of ambient groundwater velocity in the alluvium south of Yucca Mountain from single-well tracer tests.  

SciTech Connect

The saturated alluvium located south of Yucca Mountain, Nevada is expected to serve as the final barrier to radionuclide transport from the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The alluvium will act as a barrier if radionuclides breach the engineered barriers in the repository, move through the unsaturated zone beneath the repository to the water table, and then migrate through saturated volcanic tuffs to the alluvium. Three single-well injection-withdrawal tracer tests were conducted between December 2000 and April 2001 in the saturated alluviuni at NC-EWDP-19D1, a Nye County-Early Warning Drilling Program well located about 18 km south of Yucca Mountain. The tests had the objectives of (1) distinguishing between a single- and a dual-porosity conceptual radionuclide transport model for the alluvium, and (2) obtaining estimates of ambient groundwater velocity in the alluvium.

Reimus, P. W. (Paul William); Umari M. J.; Roback, R. (Robert); Earle, John,; Darnell Jon; Farnham, Irene

2002-01-01

413

Megajoule-class single-pulse KrF laser test facility as a logical step toward inertial fusion commercialization  

SciTech Connect

The cost and efficiency of megajoule-class KrF laser single pulse test facilities have been examined. A baseline design is described which illuminates targets with 5 MJ with shaped 10-ns pulses. The system uses 24 main amplifiers and operates with an optics operating fluence of 4.0 J/cm/sup 2/. This system has 9.0% efficiency and costs $200/joule. Tradeoff studies indicate that large amplifier modules and high fluences lead to the lowest laser system costs, but that only a 20% cost savings can be realized by going to amplifier modules larger than 200 kJ and/or fluences greater than 4 J/cm/sup 2/. The role of the megajoule-class single-pulse test facility towards inertial fusion commercialization will also be discussed.

Harris, D.B.; Pendergrass, J.H.

1985-01-01

414

Elastoviscoplastic micromechanical modeling of the transient creep of ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A salient feature of the rheology of isotropic polycrystalline ices is the decrease of the strain rate by more than 2 orders of magnitude during transient creep tests to reach a secondary creep regime at a strain which is systematically of ˜1%. We use a recent (so-called "affine") version of the self-consistent mean-field theory to model the elastoviscoplastic behavior of ice. The model aims at bridging scales between the rheology of single grain and the one of polycrystals by evaluating the intergranular interactions. It takes into account the long-term memory effects, which manifests itself by the fact that local stress and strain rate in grains depend on the whole mechanical history of the polycrystal. It is shown that the strong hardening amplitude during the transient creep is entirely explained by the stress redistribution within the specimen, from an almost uniform stress distribution upon instantaneous loading (purely elastic response) to strong interphase and intraphase heterogeneities in the stationary regime (purely viscoplastic response). The experimental hardening kinetic is much too slow to be explained by the same process; it is attributed to the hardening of hard glide slip systems (prismatic slip) in the transient regime. Moreover, the model very well reproduces the permanent creep rate of several highly anisotropic specimens of the Greenland Ice Core Project ice core (pronounced crystallographic textures), when accounting for a single-grain rheology that well matches the experimental one. Our results are consistent with recent findings concerning dislocation dynamics in ice.

Castelnau, O.; Duval, P.; Montagnat, M.; Brenner, R.

2008-11-01

415

A Simple Correction for Multiple Testing for Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Linkage Disequilibrium with Each Other  

PubMed Central

In this report, we describe a simple correction for multiple testing of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with each other, on the basis of the spectral decomposition (SpD) of matrices of pairwise LD between SNPs. This method provides a useful alternative to more computationally intensive permutation tests. A user-friendly interface (SNPSpD) for performing this correction is available online (http://genepi.qimr.edu.au/general/daleN/SNPSpD/). Additionally, output from SNPSpD includes eigenvalues, principal-component coefficients, and factor “loadings” after varimax rotation, enabling the selection of a subset of SNPs that optimize the information in a genomic region.

Nyholt, Dale R.

2004-01-01

416

Long-Term and Accelerated Life Testing of a Novel Single-Wafer Vacuum Encapsulation for MEMS Resonators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a single-wafer vacuum encapsulation for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), using a thick (20-mum) polysilicon encapsulation to package micromechanical resonators in a pressure 600 cycles of -50 to 80degC, and no measurable change in cavity pressure was seen. We have also performed accelerated leakage tests by driving hydrogen gas in and out of the encapsulation at elevated temperature. Two

Rob N. Candler; Matthew A. Hopcroft; Bongsang Kim; Woo-Tae Park; Renata Melamud; Manu Agarwal; Gary Yama; Aaron Partridge; Markus Lutz; Thomas W. Kenny

2006-01-01

417

Genotoxicity of N -nitrosodicyclohexylamine in V79 cells in the sister chromatid exchange test and the single cell gel assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dicyclohexylamine2nitrite is used in chemical formulations as an anti-corrosion agent. N-Nitrosodicyclohexylamine (N-NO-DCHA) can be formed by nitrosation from dicyclohexylamine during the application of these formulations. As most of the nitrosamines are genotoxic carcinogens, the genotoxic potential of N-NO-DCHA was investigated in V79 Chinese hamster cells in the single cell gel assay and the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test. In addition,

T. Gebel; M. Müller; G. Westphal; E. Hallier

2001-01-01

418

Comparison of Relative Accuracy between Testing Semimonthly Composites or Single Random Samples of Herd Milk for Composition1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUSI~IARY The relative accuracy of testing composites or single random samples for composition was compared for milk samples from 30 herds. The bulk milk from each herd was sampled on alternate days for 2 wk during February, May, August, and November. Percentage milk fat in composite samples averaged 0.055 and 0.021% less than the average of the fresh milk aliquots,

L. J. Manus; R. E. Erb

1963-01-01

419

Application of modern tests for stationarity to single-trial MEG data: transferring powerful statistical tools from econometrics to neuroscience.  

PubMed

Stationarity is a crucial yet rarely questioned assumption in the analysis of time series of magneto- (MEG) or electroencephalography (EEG). One key drawback of the commonly used tests for stationarity of encephalographic time series is the fact that conclusions on stationarity are only indirectly inferred either from the Gaussianity (e.g. the Shapiro-Wilk test or Kolmogorov-Smirnov test) or the randomness of the time series and the absence of trend using very simple time-series models (e.g. the sign and trend tests by Bendat and Piersol). We present a novel approach to the analysis of the stationarity of MEG and EEG time series by applying modern statistical methods which were specifically developed in econometrics to verify the hypothesis that a time series is stationary. We report our findings of the application of three different tests of stationarity--the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Schin (KPSS) test for trend or mean stationarity, the Phillips-Perron (PP) test for the presence of a unit root and the White test for homoscedasticity--on an illustrative set of MEG data. For five stimulation sessions, we found already for short epochs of duration of 250 and 500 ms that, although the majority of the studied epochs of single MEG trials were usually mean-stationary (KPSS test and PP test), they were classified as nonstationary due to their heteroscedasticity (White test). We also observed that the presence of external auditory stimulation did not significantly affect the findings regarding the stationarity of the data. We conclude that the combination of these tests allows a refined analysis of the stationarity of MEG and EEG time series. PMID:22095173

Kipi?ski, Lech; König, Reinhard; Sielu?ycki, Cezary; Kordecki, Wojciech

2011-11-18

420

An evaluation of methods for testing hypotheses relating to two endpoints in a single clinical trial.  

PubMed

The issues and dangers involved in testing multiple hypotheses are well recognised within the pharmaceutical industry. In reporting clinical trials, strenuous efforts are taken to avoid the inflation of type I error, with procedures such as the Bonferroni adjustment and its many elaborations and refinements being widely employed. Typically, such methods are conservative. They tend to be accurate if the multiple test statistics involved are mutually independent and achieve less than the type I error rate specified if these statistics are positively correlated. An alternative approach is to estimate the correlations between the test statistics and to perform a test that is conditional on those estimates being the true correlations. In this paper, we begin by assuming that test statistics are normally distributed and that their correlations are known. Under these circumstances, we explore several approaches to multiple testing, adapt them so that type I error is preserved exactly and then compare their powers over a range of true parameter values. For simplicity, the explorations are confined to the bivariate case. Having described the relative strengths and weaknesses of the approaches under study, we use simulation to assess the accuracy of the approximate theory developed when the correlations are estimated from the study data rather than being known in advance and when data are binary so that test statistics are only approximately normally distributed. PMID:22337619

Su, Ting-Li; Glimm, Ekkehard; Whitehead, John; Branson, Mike

2012-02-15

421

Potential application of a single-particle aerosol spectrometer for monitoring aerosol size at the DOE filter test facilities  

SciTech Connect

At each of the three Department of Energy (DOE) filter test facilities (FTF), a commercial single particle aerosol spectrometer, the LAS-X, was used to demonstrate that the test aerosol produced by each of the Q107 high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter test systems was polydisperse with a geometric standard deviation greater than 1.35, and a geometric mean diameter less than 0.2 ..mu..m. These results confirm the work of others that the OWL (mechanical analyzer) is inadequate for assuring that these test aerosols are monodisperse with a mean diameter of 0.3 ..mu..m. Use of the LAS-X for monitoring aerosol size was evaluated. The LAS-X is relatively insensitive to changes in aerosol concentration and refractive index over the range of interest for filter testing. It appears that the LAS-X would provide a better instrument for monitoring aerosol size, and would permit the FTF test operator to adjust the test aerosol to approximate the size characteristics currently recommended for this test.

Salzman, G.C.; Ettinger, H.J.; Tillery, M.I.; Wheat, L.D.; Grace, W.K.

1982-01-01

422

Magnetoelastic analysis and tensile testing of a soft ferromagnetic strip with a single-edge crack  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes the results of an analytical and experimental study of the effect of magnetic fields on the stress intensity factors in a soft ferromagnetic strip under uniaxial tension. The linear magneto-elastic problem for a soft ferromagnetic strip with a single-edge crack is analyzed. Fourier transform techniques are used to formulate the mixed boundary value problem as a singular integral equation. The stress intensity factors are obtained for several values of material and geometrical parameters, and magnetic field. Static experiments are also conducted on nickel-iron soft magnetic materials with a single-edge cracked plate specimen geometry in the bore of a superconducting magnet at room temperature. A strain gauge method is employed in experiments to determine the stress intensity factor. A comparison of the stress intensity factor is made between theory and experiment, and the agreement is good for the magnetic field considered.

Shindo, Yasuhide; Komatsu, Tetsu; Narita, Fumio; Horiguchi, Katsumi

2006-08-01

423

Development of infrared single-mode fibers for 2 wavelength bands of the Darwin mission: test results of prototypes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various space telescope array systems are being considered to investigate other terrestrial planets orbiting around nearby stars in order to find extra-terrestrial life. One of them is the DARWIN mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). The required technology is the nulling interferometer. The challenge of nulling is making the null in the interferometric signal sufficiently deep to cancel the light from the bright star during the collection of light from its surrounding planets. The performance of the nulling is limited by the wavefront quality of the beams. The wavefront error can be reduced by filtering using a single mode fiber. For the DARWIN mission, the operational wavelength range is 6.5-20?m. Within the current ESA project, this is covered by a dual-band fiber system. A chalcogenide glass fiber based on the Te-As-Se (TAS) composition is selected to be used for the short wavelength band. For the long wavelength band up to 20 ?m, Tellurium based glass is proposed. Different samples of various composition based on Te glass are manufactured and tested. The fibers are designed by TNO and different prototypes have been manufactured by the University of Rennes. Test setups are developed to demonstrate/investigate the single mode operation. Cladding modes are found to disturb the single mode operation. The effect of cladding modes is modeled. Solutions to eliminate the cladding modes are investigated and tested.

Cheng, Lun K.; Dijkhuizen, Niels; Nieuwland, Remco; Faber, Anne-Jans; Gielesen, Wim; Lucas, Jacques; Boussard-Plédel, Catherine; Houizot, Patrick; Pereira Do Carmo, João

2009-08-01

424

Electron beam test results with a DC-coupled single-sided strip detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because silicon strip sensor has a high position resolution compared to the other detectors such as proportional chamber, drift chamber, etc., it has been used in medical imaging, high energy experiment, and space science. We designed and fabricated DC-coupled single-sided silicon strip sensors in a 5-inch fabrication line, and developed the signal readout electronics system. We reported the electrical characteristics

H. J. Hyun; J. B. Bae; S. W. Jung; D. H. Kah; H. D. Kang; H. J. Kim; M. H. Lee; A. Malinin; E. S. Seo

2007-01-01

425

Single event effect ground test results for a fiber optic data interconnect and associated electronics  

SciTech Connect

As spacecraft unlock the potential of fiber optics for spaceflight applications, system level bit error rates become of concern to the system designer. The authors present ground test data and analysis on candidate system components.

LaBel, K.A.; Hawkins, D.K.; Cooley, J.A.; Stassinopoulos, E.G. (NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD (United States)); Seidleck, C.M. (Hughes/ST Systems Corp., Greenbelt, MD (United States)); Marshall, P. (NRL/SFA, Washington, DC (United States)); Dale, C. (NRL, Washington, DC (United States)); Gates, M.M.; Kim, H.S. (Jackson and Tull, Greenbelt, MD (United States))

1994-12-01

426

Single event effect ground test results for a fiber optic data interconnect and associated electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

As spacecraft unlock the potential of fiber optics for spaceflight applications, system level bit error rates become of concern to the system designer. We present ground test data and analysis on candidate system components

Kenneth A. LaBel; Donald K. Hawkins; James A. Cooley; Christina M. Seidleck; Paul Marshall; Cheryl Dale; Michele M. Gates; Hak S. Kim; E. G. Stassinopoulos

1994-01-01

427

Single event upset test structures for digital CMOS application specific integrated circuits  

SciTech Connect

An approach has been developed for the design and utilization of SEU test structures for digital CMOS ASICs. This approach minimizes the number of test structures required by categorizing ASIC library cells according to their SEU response and designing a structure to characterize each response for each category. Critical SEU response parameters extracted from these structures are used to evaluate the SEU hardness of ASIC libraries and predict the hardness of ASIC chips.

Baze, M.P.; Bartholet, W.G.; Braatz, J.C.; Dao, T.A. (Boeing Defense and Space Group, Seattle, WA (United States))

1993-12-01

428

Switching transients in the MFTF yin-yang coils  

SciTech Connect

This report is a study of the transients caused by the fast dump of large superconducting coils. Theoretical analysis, computer simulation, and actual measurements are used. Theoretical analysis can only be applied to the simplest of models. In the computer simulations two models are used, one in which the coil is divided into ten segments and another in which a single coil is employed. The circuit breaker that interrupts the current to the power supply, causing a fast dump, is represented by a time and current dependent conductance. Actual measurements are limited to measurements made incidental to the coils' performance tests.

Owen, E.W.; Shimer, D.W.

1982-11-02

429

Vehicle performance tests of the Ford/GE first generation single-shaft (ETX-I) alternating current propulsion system  

SciTech Connect

This report is concerned with the test and evaluation of the ETX-I electric test vehicle, which is a Mercury LN7 retrofitted with the single-shaft AC electric powertrain developed by Ford and General Electric under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) during the period 1982--1985. The lead-acid battery used in the ETX-I was developed by Lucas Chloride Electric Vehicle (EV) Systems (LCEVS) as part of the same DOE contract. Extensive tests of the powertrain and battery were done by General Electric and Lucas Chloride before they were integrated into the ETX-I test vehicle by Ford. Ford did limited testing of the ETX-I vehicle on a chassis dynamometer to determine the energy consumption of the powertrain for several driving schedules before the vehicle was shipped to INEL for complete dynamometer testing. Ford also performed track tests with the ETX-I to determine its acceleration performance characteristics. 8 refs., 36 figs., 13 tabs.

Crumley, R.L.; MacDowall, R.D.; Hardin, J.E.; Burke, A.F.

1989-04-01

430

A Test of the Role of the Medial Temporal Lobe in Single-Word Decoding  

PubMed Central

The degree to which the MTL system contributes to effective language skills is not well delineated. We sought to determine if the MTL plays a role in single-word decoding in healthy, normal skilled readers. The experiment follows from the implications of the dual-process model of single-word decoding, which provides distinct predictions about the nature of MTL involvement. The paradigm utilized word (regular and irregularly spelled words) and pseudoword (phonetically regular) stimuli that differed in their demand for non-lexical as opposed lexical decoding. The data clearly showed that the MTL system was not involved in single word decoding in skilled, native English readers. Neither the hippocampus, nor the MTL system as a whole showed significant activation during lexical or non-lexical based decoding. The results provide evidence that lexical and non-lexical decoding are implemented by distinct but overlapping neuroanatomical networks. Non-lexical decoding appeared most uniquely associated with cuneus and fusiform gyrus activation biased toward the left hemisphere. In contrast, lexical decoding appeared associated with right middle frontal and supramarginal, and bilateral cerebellar activation. Both these decoding operations appeared in the context of a shared widespread network of activations including bilateral occipital cortex and superior frontal regions. These activations suggest that the absence of MTL involvement in either lexical or non-lexical decoding appears likely a function of the skilled reading ability of our sample such that whole-word recognition and retrieval processes do not utilize the declarative memory system, in the case of lexical decoding, and require only minimal analysis and recombination of the phonetic elements of a word, in the case of non-lexical decoding.

Osipowicz, Karol; Rickards, Tyler; Shah, Atif; Sharan, Ashwini; Sperling, Michael; Kahn, Waseem; Tracy, Joseph

2012-01-01

431

Testing the validity of the single-spin approximation in inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravitational-wave signals from black-hole binaries with nonprecessing spins are described by four parameters—each black hole’s mass and spin. It has been shown that the dominant spin effects can be modeled by a single spin parameter, leading to the development of several three-parameter waveform models. Previous studies indicate that these models should be adequate for gravitational-wave detection. In this paper we focus on the systematic biases that would result from using them to estimate binary parameters, and consider a one-parameter family of configurations at mass ratio 4 and for one choice of effective single spin. We find that for low-mass binaries within that family of configurations, where the observable waveform is dominated by the inspiral, the systematic bias in all physical parameters is smaller than the parameter uncertainty due to degeneracies between the mass ratio and the spins, at least up to signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of 50. For higher-mass binaries, where the merger and ringdown make a greater contribution to the observed signal, the bias in the mass ratio is comparable to its uncertainty at SNRs of only ˜30, and the bias in the measurement of the total spin is larger than the uncertainty defined by the 90% confidence region even at an SNR of only 10. Although this bias may be mitigated in future models by a better choice of single-effective-spin parameter, these results suggest that it may be possible to accurately measure both black-hole spins in intermediate-mass binaries.

Pürrer, Michael; Hannam, Mark; Ajith, P.; Husa, Sascha

2013-09-01

432

Crosstalk testing methods for a wavelength-multiplexed single-fiber blood-gas sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New fluorescence based optical fiber sensors have been developed for the monitoring of pH, Carbon Dioxide, and Oxygen in radial arteries. These sensors utilize wavelength multiplexing for detection of three parameters with one optical fiber. Unlike sensing systems in which separate fibers are used for each parameter, wavelength multiplexed systems have the potential for parameter to parameter optical interference. We refer to this interference as 'crosstalk'. Wavelength multiplexed systems and their potential for crosstalk are described. Investigating methods for obtaining independent isolation of multiple parameters under laboratory conditions are discussed. Computational methods of quantifying crosstalk are shown. Specific test protocols are provided, along with representative test results. Minimal crosstalk was found in the systems tested.

Barber, Christopher K.; Ring, Lawrence S.

1993-05-01

433

Model refinement using transient response  

SciTech Connect

A method is presented for estimating uncertain or unknown parameters in a mathematical model using measurements of transient response. The method is based on a least squares formulation in which the differences between the model and test-based responses are minimized. An application of the method is presented for a nonlinear structural dynamic system. The method is also applied to a model of the Department of Energy armored tractor trailer. For the subject problem, the transient response was generated by driving the vehicle over a bump of prescribed shape and size. Results from the analysis and inspection of the test data revealed that a linear model of the vehicle`s suspension is not adequate to accurately predict the response caused by the bump.

Dohrmann, C.R.; Carne, T.G.

1997-12-01

434

Test for determining a subdiffusive model in ergodic systems from single trajectories.  

PubMed

Experiments on particle motion show that it is often subdiffusive. This subdiffusion may be due to trapping, percolationlike structures, or viscoelastic behavior of the medium. While the models based on trapping (leading to continuous-time random walks) can easily be distinguished from the rest by testing their nonergodicity, the latter two cases are harder to distinguish. We propose a statistical test for distinguishing between these two based on the space-filling properties of trajectories, and prove its feasibility and specificity using synthetic data. We moreover present a flow chart for making a decision on a type of subdiffusion for a broader class of models. PMID:23496698

Meroz, Yasmine; Sokolov, Igor M; Klafter, Joseph

2013-02-25

435

Determination of Ace.1Genotypes in Single Mosquitoes: Toward an Ecumenical Biochemical Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of two acetylcholinesterases, AChE1 and AChE2, in the mosquitoCulex pipienshas been recently documented. Resistance to organophosphates and carbamates due to target insensitivity is the result of a qualitative change of only AChE1, encoded by theAce.1gene. Because AChE1 and AChE2 differ in their sensitivity to inhibitors,Ace.1genotypes can be misclassified by previous tests. We describe a new rapid microplate test

Denis Bourguet; Nicole Pasteur; Juan Bisset; Michel Raymond

1996-01-01

436

Longer-term risk of Mycobacterium bovis in Irish cattle following an inconclusive diagnosis to the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test.  

PubMed

In Ireland, new bovine tuberculosis (bTB) cases are detected using both field and abattoir surveillance. During field surveillance, an animal may be deemed a 'standard inconclusive reactor' (SIR) to the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test (SICTT) if the bovine response is >2mm, and from 1 to 4mm greater than the avian response. Little is known about the future infection risk posed by SIR animals that pass a subsequent retest, so-called 'transient SIR' (TIR) animals. The objective of this study was to critically evaluate the future bTB status of TIR animals, by examining the future risk of bTB diagnosis over the 4 years following initial SIR diagnosis and clearance at the subsequent retest. The study included all TIRs that were identified as SIRs in 2005 in otherwise free herds at tests with no other reactors at that test and that were clear at the subsequent retest. The analysis was restricted to cows that were neither sold, other than direct to slaughter, nor exported from the herd during the follow up period (to the end of 2009). Five control cows were randomly selected from each study herd. A parametric survival model with shared frailties, to account for clustering within herds, was developed to model time from passing a retest to future bTB diagnosis. The final parametric survival model contained the variables: TIR status in 2005, inconclusive status during the follow-up period, location, herd restricted during the study, time since last restriction within the herd and age. The time ratio for the TIR status variable was significant (p<0.001) indicating that on average the time to diagnosis with bTB for TIRs was 78% shorter compared to the non-TIRs. The frailty term was significant (p<0.001) indicating that animals within some herds were more likely to become reactors compared to other herds. These results have important implications for national policy and future management of TIR animals. Further, private veterinary practitioners and their clients should be aware of the increased risk associated with TIRs. PMID:21474194

Clegg, T A; Good, M; Duignan, A; Doyle, R; Blake, M; More, S J

2011-04-06

437

Determination of Ace.1 Genotypes in Single Mosquitoes: Toward an Ecumenical Biochemical Test  

PubMed

The occurrence of two acetylcholinesterases, AChE1 and AChE2, in the mosquito Culex pipiens has been recently documented. Resistance to organophosphates and carbamates due to target insensitivity is the result of a qualitative change of only AChE1, encoded by the Ace.1 gene. Because AChE1 and AChE2 differ in their sensitivity to inhibitors, Ace.1 genotypes can be misclassified by previous tests. We describe a new rapid microplate test that allows unambiguous identification of Ace.1 genotypes. This test involves comparing AChE activities in the absence of insecticide and in the presence of two propoxur concentrations: a low concentration that inhibits only the sensitive AChE1 and a higher concentration that inhibits also AChE2 but not the insensitive AChE1 responsible of insecticide resistance. This comparison allows the identification of the three Ace.1 genotypes: resistant (Ace.1RR), susceptible (Ace.1SS) homozygotes, and heterozygotes (Ace.1RS). The similarity of propoxur sensitivity of modified AChE1s found in various resistant strains from the United States, Europe, and Africa indicates that this test is probably suitable for all the Ace.1 alleles described so far in C. pipiens. PMID:8980036

Bourguet; Pasteur; Bisset; Raymond

1996-06-01

438

Single and duplex creep tests at intermediate temperatures on Ni 3Al  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creep tests and parallel transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies on Ni3Al in the intermediate temperature regime (where strength is increasing with temperature) are described. Under certain circumstances inverse creep is observed. Lower stress and higher temperature both inhibit the transition to cube cross-slip. Pretesting at constant strain rate can both increase or decrease the subsequent creep rate, depending on the

L. P. Jones; T. S. Rong; R. E. Smallman

1997-01-01

439

Methods of Testing and Diagnosing Model Error: Dual and Single Route Cascaded Models of Reading Aloud  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Models of visual word recognition have been assessed by both factorial and regression approaches. Factorial approaches tend to provide a relatively weak test of models, and regression approaches give little indication of the sources of models' mispredictions, especially when parameters are not optimal. A new alternative method, involving…

Adelman, James S.; Brown, Gordon D. A.

2008-01-01

440

Halting in Single Word Production: A Test of the Perceptual Loop Theory of Speech Monitoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The "perceptual loop theory" of speech monitoring (Levelt, 1983) claims that inner and overt speech are monitored by the comprehension system, which detects errors by comparing the comprehension of formulated utterances to originally intended utterances. To test the perceptual loop monitor, speakers named pictures and sometimes attempted to halt…

Slevc, L. Robert; Ferreira, Victor S.

2006-01-01

441

Redesigned ester single-well tracer test that incorporates pH-driven hydrolysis rate changes  

SciTech Connect

Field tests in carbonate-cemented California turbidite and shaly gulf coast sandstone reservoirs, laboratory studies, literature review, and computer model calculations confirm that alkyl ester hydrolysis rate is sensitive to pH changes observed under field conditions in some oil reservoirs. pH dependence is a consequent of (1) formation of acid, a byproduct of ester hydrolysis, and (2) the partial oil solubility of esters, which causes the ester bank to lag behind the brine front. During injection, generated acid is carried away by the overflush brine as it passes through and runs ahead of the slower ester bank. Therefore, pH and hydrolysis rate remain relatively high in the ester bank. When injection stops, the produced acid remains in the ester bank, lowers the pH, and retards hydrolysis. As production begins, the hydrolysis rate increases because the brine overflushes the ester bank again, carries away the acid, and raises the pH. The paper includes field-tested methods to detect pH-driven rate effects and a test sequence that measures and accounts for transit reactions that can invalidate the results. The authors hope that the detection methods and new test sequence can be used to minimize the problem and improve the reliability of the ester-based SWTT.

Wellington, S.L.; Richardson, E.A. (Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-11-01

442

Single Session Treatment of Test Anxiety with Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One session of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) appeared to be an effective treatment for test anxiety, reducing reported physiological distress, worry, and fears of negative evaluation. The research design included two components: a comparison study, comparing Immediate Treatment and Wait List groups, and a replication study, comparing the treatment response of Immediate and Delayed (Treated Wait List) groups.

Louise Maxfield; W. T. Melnyk

2000-01-01

443

A single sample GnRHa stimulation test in the diagnosis of precocious puberty  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has been the standard test for diagnosing central precocious puberty. Because GnRH is no longer available, GnRH analogues (GnRHa) are now used. Random LH concentration, measured by the third-generation immunochemiluminometric assay, is a useful screening tool ...

444

Friction characterisation of polymers abrasion (UHWMPE) during scratch tests: single and multi-asperity contact  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of abrasion resistance and the associated surfaces deformation mechanisms is of primary importance in materials engineering and design [Wear (1998)].Instrumented scratch testing has proven to be a useful tool for the characterisation of the abrasion resistance of material. Although most studies on scratch resistance have been conducted for metals, assuming a purely plastic behaviour, recent studies focus on

S Ducret; C Pailler-Mattéi; V Jardret; R Vargiolu; H Zahouani

2003-01-01

445

AN EXPERIMENTAL TEST OF SUPERRADIANCE IN A SINGLE PASS SEEDED FEL.  

SciTech Connect

Superradiance and nonlinear evolution of a FEL pulse in a single-pass FEL were experimentally demonstrated at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) Source Development Laboratory (SDL). The experiment was performed using a 1.5 ps high-brightness electron beam and a 100fs Ti:Sapphire seed laser. The seed laser and electron beam interact in the 10 meter long NISUS undulator with a period of 3.89 cm. The FEL spectrum, energy and pulse length along the undulator were measured. FEL saturation was observed, and gain of more the 200 (relative to seed laser) was measured. Both FEL spectrum widening and pulse length shortening were observed; FEL pulses as short as 65 fs FWHM were measured. The superradiance and nonlinear evolution were also simulated using the numerical code GENESIS1.3 yielding good agreement with the experimental results.

WATANABE, T.; LIU, D.; MURPHY, J.B.; ROSE, J.; SHAFTAN, T.; TSANG, T.; WANG, X.J.; YU, L.H.

2005-08-21

446

Towards Compressed Super-Parameterization: Test of NAM-SCA under Single-Column GCM Configurations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NAM-SCA (nonhydrostatic anelastic model with segmentally-constant approximation) is a type of cloud-resolving model (CRM) wit