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Sample records for single-blinded pilot study

  1. Computer-Assisted Cognitive Remediation for Schizophrenia: A Randomized Single-Blind Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Rass, Olga; Forsyth, Jennifer K.; Bolbecker, Amanda R; Hetrick, William P.; Breier, Alan; Lysaker, Paul H.; O’Donnell, Brian F.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a core symptom in schizophrenia that has a significant impact on psychosocial function, but shows a weak response to pharmacological treatment. Consequently, a variety of cognitive remediation strategies have been evaluated to improve cognitive function in schizophrenia. The efficacy of computer-based cognitive remediation as a stand-alone intervention on general measures of neuropsychological function remains unclear. We tested the effectiveness of biweekly training using computerized cognitive remediation programs on neuropsychological and event-related potential outcome measures. Schizophrenia patients were randomly assigned to cognitive remediation training (N=17), active control (TV-watching; N=17), or treatment as usual (N=10) groups for ten weeks and run in parallel. Functional, cognitive, and ERP measures revealed no differential improvement over time in the cognitive remediation group. Practice effects might explain change over time on several cognitive measures for all groups, consistent with studies indicating task-specific improvement. Computer-assisted cognitive remediation alone may not be sufficient for robust or generalized effects on cognitive and electrophysiological measures in schizophrenia patients. PMID:22682988

  2. Brief Report: Pilot Single-Blind Placebo Lead-in Study of Acamprosate in Youth with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Craig A.; Wink, Logan K.; Early, Maureen C.; Stiegelmeyer, Elizabeth; Mathieu-Frasier, Lauren; Patrick, Vanessa; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: An excitatory/inhibitory (E:I) imbalance marked by enhanced glutamate and deficient gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission may contribute to the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Objectives: We report on the first single-blind placebo lead-in trial of acamprosate, a drug with putative mechanisms restoring E:I…

  3. The effect of laughter therapy on radiation dermatitis in patients with breast cancer: a single-blind prospective pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Moonkyoo; Shin, Sung Hee; Lee, Eunmi; Yun, Eun Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    Background There have not yet been any published studies on the effects of laughter therapy on radiation-induced dermatitis in breast cancer patients treated with radiotherapy (RT). We assessed the effectiveness of laughter therapy in preventing radiation dermatitis in patients with breast cancer. Methods Thirty-seven patients were prospectively enrolled in this study. Eighteen patients were assigned to the experimental group and the other 19 patients were assigned to the control group. The patients who were assigned to the experimental group received laughter therapy during RT. Laughter therapy was started at the onset of RT and was provided twice a week until completion of RT. The patients who were assigned to the control group only received RT without laughter therapy. The grade of radiation dermatitis was scored by a radiation oncologist who was blinded to subject assignment. The patients’ evaluation of pain within the RT field was also assessed. Results In the experimental group, radiation dermatitis of grade 3, 2, and 1 developed in five (33.3%), five (33.3%), and five patients (33.3%), respectively. In comparison, in the control group, radiation dermatitis of grade 3, 2, 1, and 0 developed in seven (36.8%), nine (47.4%), two (10.5%), and one patient (5.3%), respectively. The experimental group exhibited a lower incidence of grade 2 or worse radiation dermatitis than the control group (33.3% versus 47.4%). The mean maximal pain scores in the experimental and control group were 2.53 and 3.95, respectively. The experimental group complained of less severe pain than the control group during RT. However, these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion The results of this study show that laughter therapy can have a beneficial role in preventing radiation dermatitis in patients with breast cancer. To confirm the results of our study, well-designed randomized studies with large sample sizes are required. PMID:25395864

  4. Effects of sulfur bath on hip osteoarthritis: a randomized, controlled, single-blind, follow-up trial: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, Csaba; Bozsik, Ágnes; Pecze, Mariann; Borbély, Ildikó; Fogarasi, Andrea; Kovács, Lajos; Tefner, Ildikó Katalin; Bender, Tamás

    2016-06-01

    The effects of balneotherapy were evaluated in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip. This randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded study enrolled outpatients with hip osteoarthritis according to ACR criteria. In addition to home exercise therapy, one patient group received balneotherapy for 3 weeks on 15 occasions. The mineral water used in this study is one of the mineral waters with the highest sulfide ion content (13.2 mg/L) in Hungary. The control group received exercise therapy alone. The WOMAC Likert 3.1 index and the EQ-5D quality of life self-administered questionnaire were completed three times during the study: prior to first treatment, at the end of the 3-week treatment course, and 12 weeks later. The main endpoint was achievement of Minimal Clinically Important Improvement (MCII) at 12 weeks, defined as ≥7.9 points in a normalized WOMAC function score. The intention to treat analysis included 20 controls and 21 balneotherapy patients. At 12 weeks, 17 (81 %) balneotherapy group patients had Minimal Clinically Important Improvement and 6 (30 %) of controls (p = 0.001). Comparing the results of the two groups at the end of treatment, there was a significant difference in the WOMAC stiffness score only, whereas after 12 weeks, the WOMAC pain, stiffness, function, and total scores also showed a significant difference in favor of the balneotherapy group. The difference between the two groups was significant after 12 weeks in point of EQVAS score, too. The results of our study suggest that the combination of balneotherapy and exercise therapy achieves more sustained improvement of joint function and decreases in pain than exercise therapy alone.

  5. Effect of a single acupuncture treatment on surgical wound healing in dogs: a randomized, single blinded, controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of acupuncture on wound healing after soft tissue or orthopaedic surgery in dogs. Methods 29 dogs were submitted to soft tissue and/or orthopaedic surgeries. Five dogs had two surgical wounds each, so there were totally 34 wounds in the study. All owners received instructions for post operative care as well as antibiotic and pain treatment. The dogs were randomly assigned to treatment or control groups. Treated dogs received one dry needle acupuncture treatment right after surgery and the control group received no such treatment. A veterinary surgeon that was blinded to the treatment, evaluated the wounds at three and seven days after surgery in regard to oedema (scale 0-3), scabs (yes/no), exudate (yes/no), hematoma (yes/no), dermatitis (yes/no), and aspect of the wound (dry/humid). Results There was no significant difference between the treatment and control groups in the variables evaluated three and seven days after surgery. However, oedema reduced significantly in the group treated with acupuncture at seven days compared to three days after surgery, possibly due the fact that there was more oedema in the treatment group at day three (although this difference was nor significant between groups). Conclusions The use of a single acupuncture treatment right after surgery in dogs did not appear to have any beneficial effects in surgical wound healing. PMID:20950467

  6. The interleukin 1 inhibitor rilonacept in treatment of chronic gouty arthritis: results of a placebo-controlled, monosequence crossover, non-randomised, single-blind pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Terkeltaub, R; Sundy, J S; Schumacher, H R; Murphy, F; Bookbinder, S; Biedermann, S; Wu, R; Mellis, S; Radin, A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent studies suggest that blockade of the NLRP3 (cryopyrin) inflammasome interleukin 1β (IL1β) pathway may offer a new treatment strategy for gout. Objective: To explore the potential utility of rilonacept (IL1 Trap) in patients with chronic active gouty arthritis in a proof-of-concept study. Methods: This 14-week, multicentre, non-randomised, single-blind, monosequence crossover study of 10 patients with chronic active gouty arthritis included a placebo run-in (2 weeks), active rilonacept treatment (6 weeks) and a 6-week post-treatment follow-up. Results: Rilonacept was generally well tolerated. No deaths and no serious adverse events occurred during the study. One patient withdrew owing to an injection-site reaction. Patients’ self-reported median pain visual analogue scale scores significantly decreased from week 2 (after the placebo run-in) to week 4 (2 weeks of rilonacept) (5.0 to 2.8; p<0.049), with sustained improvement at week 8 (1.3; p<0.049); 5 of 10 patients reported at least a 75% improvement. Median symptom-adjusted and severity-adjusted joint scores were significantly decreased. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels fell significantly. Conclusions: This proof-of-concept study demonstrated that rilonacept is generally well tolerated and may offer therapeutic benefit in reducing pain in patients with chronic refractory gouty arthritis, supporting the need for larger, randomised, controlled studies of IL1 antagonism such as with rilonacept for this clinical indication. PMID:19635719

  7. The Efficacy and Safety of Jaungo, a Traditional Medicinal Ointment, in Preventing Radiation Dermatitis in Patients with Breast Cancer: A Prospective, Single-Blinded, Randomized Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Moonkyoo; Hwang, Deok-Sang; Lee, Jee Young; Yoon, Seong Woo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Jaungo in preventing radiation dermatitis in patients with breast cancer. Methods. Thirty patients were prospectively enrolled and randomly assigned to receive Jaungo or general supportive skin care. Radiation dermatitis and pain were examined at daily intervals from the start of radiotherapy until 4 weeks after its completion. The primary endpoint of this study was the incidence of radiation dermatitis. The secondary endpoints were time to onset of radiation dermatitis, duration of radiation dermatitis, and maximum pain score. Results. Jaungo reduced the incidence of grade ≥2 (46.7% versus 78.6%) and grade 3 radiation dermatitis (20.0% versus 50.0%) in comparison with general supportive skin care. Jaungo also delayed the onset of grade 2 dermatitis (35 days versus 30 days). In terms of time to onset of grade 3 dermatitis, duration of dermatitis, and maximum pain score, Jaungo showed results comparable to those achieved with general supportive skin care. No patients experienced adverse effects caused by Jaungo administration. Conclusions. Jaungo minimized radiation dermatitis in patients with breast cancer without causing adverse effects. Further randomized studies with a larger sample size are required to assess clinical use of Jaungo. PMID:27066103

  8. Comparison of Dry Needling versus Orthopedic Manual Therapy in Patients with Myofascial Chronic Neck Pain: A Single-Blind, Randomized Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Campa-Moran, Irene; Rey-Gudin, Etelvina; Fernández-Carnero, Josué; Paris-Alemany, Alba; Gil-Martinez, Alfonso; Lerma Lara, Sergio; Prieto-Baquero, Almudena; Alonso-Perez, José Luis; La Touche, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of three interventions for the treatment of myofascial chronic neck pain. Methods. Thirty-six patients were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups: orthopedic manual therapy (OMT), dry needling and stretching (DN-S), and soft tissue techniques (STT). All groups received two treatment sessions with a 48 h time interval. Outcome measures included neck pain intensity measured using a visual analogue scale, cervical range of motion (ROM), pressure pain threshold for measuring mechanical hyperalgesia, and two self-reported questionnaires (neck disability index and pain catastrophizing scale). Results. The ANOVA revealed significant differences for the group × time interaction for neck disability, neck pain intensity, and pain catastrophizing. The DN-S and OMT groups reduced neck disability. Only the OMT group showed decreases in mechanical hyperalgesia and pain catastrophizing. The cervical ROM increased in OMT (i.e., flexion, side-bending, and rotation) and DN-S (i.e., side-bending and rotation) groups. Conclusions. The three interventions are all effective in reducing pain intensity. Reduction in mechanical hyperalgesia and pain catastrophizing was only observed in the OMT group. Cervical ROM improved in the DN-S and OMT groups and also neck disability being only clinically relevant for OMT group. PMID:26640708

  9. Comparison of Dry Needling versus Orthopedic Manual Therapy in Patients with Myofascial Chronic Neck Pain: A Single-Blind, Randomized Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Campa-Moran, Irene; Rey-Gudin, Etelvina; Fernández-Carnero, Josué; Paris-Alemany, Alba; Gil-Martinez, Alfonso; Lerma Lara, Sergio; Prieto-Baquero, Almudena; Alonso-Perez, José Luis; La Touche, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of three interventions for the treatment of myofascial chronic neck pain. Methods. Thirty-six patients were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups: orthopedic manual therapy (OMT), dry needling and stretching (DN-S), and soft tissue techniques (STT). All groups received two treatment sessions with a 48 h time interval. Outcome measures included neck pain intensity measured using a visual analogue scale, cervical range of motion (ROM), pressure pain threshold for measuring mechanical hyperalgesia, and two self-reported questionnaires (neck disability index and pain catastrophizing scale). Results. The ANOVA revealed significant differences for the group × time interaction for neck disability, neck pain intensity, and pain catastrophizing. The DN-S and OMT groups reduced neck disability. Only the OMT group showed decreases in mechanical hyperalgesia and pain catastrophizing. The cervical ROM increased in OMT (i.e., flexion, side-bending, and rotation) and DN-S (i.e., side-bending and rotation) groups. Conclusions. The three interventions are all effective in reducing pain intensity. Reduction in mechanical hyperalgesia and pain catastrophizing was only observed in the OMT group. Cervical ROM improved in the DN-S and OMT groups and also neck disability being only clinically relevant for OMT group. PMID:26640708

  10. Therapeutic effects of traditional Thai massage on pain, muscle tension and anxiety in patients with scapulocostal syndrome: a randomized single-blinded pilot study.

    PubMed

    Buttagat, Vitsarut; Eungpinichpong, Wichai; Chatchawan, Uraiwon; Arayawichanon, Preeda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of traditional Thai massage (TTM) on pain intensity, pressure pain threshold (PPT), muscle tension and anxiety associated with scapulocostal syndrome (SCS). Twenty patients were randomly allocated to receive a 30-min session of either TTM or physical therapy modalities (PT: ultrasound therapy and hot pack) for 9 sessions over a period of 3 weeks. Pain intensity, PPT, muscle tension and anxiety were measured before and immediately after the first treatment session, 1 day after the last treatment session and 2 weeks after the last treatment session. Results indicated that the TTM group showed a significant improvement in all parameters after the first treatment session and at 1 day and 2 weeks after the last treatment session (p < 0.05). For all outcomes, similar changes were observed in the PT group except for PPT (p < 0.05). The adjusted post-test mean values of each assessment time point for pain intensity and muscle tension were significantly lower in the TTM group than those of the PT group (p < 0.01). In addition, the values for PPT were significantly higher in the TTM group (p > 0.05). We therefore suggest that TTM could be an alternative treatment for the patient with SCS. PMID:22196428

  11. Balneotherapy in fibromyalgia: a single blind randomized controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Ozkurt, Seçil; Dönmez, Arif; Zeki Karagülle, M; Uzunoğlu, Emel; Turan, Mustafa; Erdoğan, Nergis

    2012-07-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of balneotherapy in fibromyalgia management. Fifty women with fibromyalgia under pharmacological treatment were randomly assigned to either the balneotherapy (25) or the control (25) group. Four patients from the balneotherapy group and one patient from the control group left the study after randomization. The patients in the balneotherapy group (21) had 2 thermomineral water baths daily for 2 weeks in Tuzla Spa Center. The patients in the control group (24) continued to have their medical treatment and routine daily life. An investigator who was blinded to the study arms assessed the patients. All patients were assessed four times; at the beginning of the study, at the end of the 2nd week, the 1st month, and the 3rd month after balneotherapy. Outcome measures of the study were pain intensity, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), patient's global assessment, investigator's global assessment, SF-36 scores, and tender point count. Balneotherapy was found to be superior at the end of the cure period in terms of pain intensity, FIQ, Beck Depression Inventory, patient's global assessment, investigator's global assessment scores, and tender point count as compared to the control group. The superiority of balneotherapy lasted up to the end of the 3rd month, except for the Beck Depression Inventory score and the investigator's global assessment score. Significant improvements were observed in PF, GH, and MH subscales of SF-36 during the study period in the balneotherapy group; however, no such improvement was observed in the control group. Balneotherapy was superior only in VT subscale at the end of therapy and at the end of the third month after the therapy as compared to the controls. It was concluded that balneotherapy provides beneficial effects in patients with fibromyalgia. PMID:21461716

  12. Corticosteroid injection for shoulder pain: single-blind randomized pilot trial in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Shoulder pain is a very common presentation in primary care. Evidence of benefit for subacromial corticosteroid injection is inconclusive and confined largely to studies with short follow-up. We plan a large, definitive, primary-care-based trial to determine efficacy and safety in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy, and conducted a pilot trial to explore feasibility. Methods Six general practitioners (GPs) from Oxfordshire, UK underwent update training in assessing painful shoulders and injecting the subacromial space. Each then recruited patients aged 35 to 74 years from primary care complaining of shoulder pain lasting no more than 6 months. Eligible participants were randomized to receive either methylprednisolone acetate 40 mg with lidocaine 1% (total volume 1 ml), or lidocaine 1% alone (total volume 1 ml), injected into the subacromial space. The participants were blinded to treatment allocation. Feasibility outcomes were rates of recruitment, withdrawal, adherence to the protocol, completeness of follow-up, and success of patient masking. Clinical outcomes were the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS) at baseline and at 4 and 12 weeks, and responses to three satisfaction questions at 2, 4 and 12 weeks. Outcome data were collected by postal questionnaires. Results A total of 40 participants were randomized (80% of the target 50 participants) over 26 weeks giving an overall recruitment rate of 1.5 participants per week. Rates of follow-up were maintained to a high level for the full 12 weeks. Four participants requested a ‘rescue’ corticosteroid injection but no patients withdrew. The trial GPs gave high scores for their confidence that the patient had remained blinded to treatment allocation during the procedure. The OSS at 4 and 12 weeks and the responses to the satisfaction questions are reported. Conclusions It is feasible to recruit participants with shoulder pain in the primary care setting for a blinded, randomized trial of

  13. Effect of Probiotic Lactobacillus salivarius UBL S22 and Prebiotic Fructo-oligosaccharide on Serum Lipids, Inflammatory Markers, Insulin Sensitivity, and Gut Bacteria in Healthy Young Volunteers: A Randomized Controlled Single-Blind Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Kumar, Manoj; Das, Nilita; Kumar, S Nishanth; Challa, Hanumanth R; Nagpal, Ravinder

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of 6-week supplementation of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus salivarius UBL S22 with or without prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) on serum lipid profiles, immune responses, insulin sensitivity, and gut lactobacilli in 45 healthy young individuals. The patients were divided into 3 groups (15/group), that is, placebo, probiotic, and synbiotic. After 6 weeks, a significant reduction (P < .05) in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides and increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was observed in the probiotic as well as in the synbiotic group when compared to placebo; however, the results of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were more pronounced in the synbiotic group. Similarly, when compared to the placebo group, the serum concentrations of inflammatory markers such as high sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL) 6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor α were significantly (P < .05) reduced in both the experimental groups, but again the reduction in the synbiotic group was more pronounced. Also, an increase (P < .05) in the fecal counts of total lactobacilli and a decrease (P < .05) in coliforms and Escherichia coli was observed in both the experimental groups after 6 weeks of ingestion. Overall, the combination of L salivarius with FOS was observed to be more beneficial than L salivarius alone, thereby advocating that such synbiotic combinations could be therapeutically exploited for improved health and quality of life. PMID:25331262

  14. Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser for Keratosis Pilaris: A Single-Blind, Randomized, Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Vachiramon, Vasanop; Anusaksathien, Pattarin; Kanokrungsee, Silada; Chanprapaph, Kumutnart

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Keratosis pilaris (KP) is a common condition which can frequently be cosmetically disturbing. Topical treatments can be used with limited efficacy. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of fractional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser for the treatment of KP. Patients and Methods. A prospective, randomized, single-blinded, intraindividual comparative study was conducted on adult patients with KP. A single session of fractional CO2 laser was performed to one side of arm whereas the contralateral side served as control. Patients were scheduled for follow-up at 4 and 12 weeks after treatment. Clinical improvement was graded subjectively by blinded dermatologists. Patients rated treatment satisfaction at the end of the study. Results. Twenty patients completed the study. All patients stated that the laser treatment improved KP lesions. At 12-week follow-up, 30% of lesions on the laser-treated side had moderate to good improvement according to physicians' global assessment (p = 0.02). Keratotic papules and hyperpigmentation appeared to respond better than the erythematous component. Four patients with Fitzpatrick skin type V developed transient pigmentary alteration. Conclusions. Fractional CO2 laser treatment may be offered to patients with KP. Dark-skinned patients should be treated with special caution. PMID:27247936

  15. Ultrasound-Guided Pulsed Radiofrequency for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Single-Blinded Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective We assessed the therapeutic efficiency of ultrasound-guided pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) treatment of the median nerve in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Methods We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled, single-blinded study. Forty-four patients with CTS were randomized into intervention or control groups. Patients in the intervention group were treated with PRF and night splint, and the control group was prescribed night splint alone. Primary outcome was the onset time of significant pain relief assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS), and secondary outcomes included evaluation of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire (BCTQ) results, cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve, sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) of the median nerve, and finger pinch strength. All outcome measurements were performed at 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after treatment. Results Thirty-six patients completed the study. The onset time of pain relief in the intervention group was significantly shorter (median onset time of 2 days vs. 14 days; hazard ratio = 7.37; 95% CI, 3.04–17.87) compared to the control group (p < 0.001). Significant improvement in VAS and BCTQ scores (p < 0.05) was detected in the intervention group at all follow-up periods compared to the controls (except for the severity subscale of BCTQ at week 1). Ultrasound-guided PRF treatment resulted in a lower VAS score and stronger finger pinch compared to the control group over the entire study. Conclusions Our study shows that ultrasound-guided PRF serves as a better approach for pain relief in patients with CTS. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02217293 PMID:26067628

  16. Whole body vibration exercise for chronic low back pain: study protocol for a single-blind randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low back pain affects approximately 80% of people at some stage in their lives. Exercise therapy is the most widely used nonsurgical intervention for low back pain in practice guidelines. Whole body vibration exercise is becoming increasingly popular for relieving musculoskeletal pain and improving health-related quality of life. However, the efficacy of whole body vibration exercise for low back pain is not without dispute. This study aims to estimate the effect of whole body vibration exercise for chronic low back pain. Methods/Design We will conduct a prospective, single-blind, randomized controlled trial of 120 patients with chronic low back pain. Patients will be randomly assigned into an intervention group and a control group. The intervention group will participate in whole body vibration exercise twice a week for 3 months. The control group will receive general exercise twice a week for 3 months. Primary outcome measures will be the visual analog scale for pain, the Oswestry Disability Index and adverse events. The secondary outcome measures will include muscle strength and endurance of spine, trunk proprioception, transversus abdominis activation capacity, and quality of life. We will conduct intention-to-treat analysis if any participants withdraw from the trial. Discussion Important features of this study include the randomization procedures, single-blind, large sample size, and a standardized protocol for whole body vibration in chronic low back pain. This study aims to determine whether whole body vibration exercise produces more beneficial effects than general exercise for chronic low back pain. Therefore, our results will be useful for patients with chronic low back pain as well as for medical staff and health-care decision makers. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-13003708. PMID:24693945

  17. Lung ultrasound versus chest radiography for the diagnosis of pneumothorax in critically ill patients: A prospective, single-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, W; Elgendy, M; Abdelaziz, AA; Ammar, MA

    2016-01-01

    Background: Radiologic data remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of pneumothorax (PTX). The use of ultrasonography (US) has recently emerged as the method of choice with physicians who can perform bedside US. Purpose: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of lung US against bedside chest radiography (CR) for the detection of PTX using thoracic computed tomography (CT) as the gold standard. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective, single-blind study on 192 critically ill patients; each patient received lung US examination, bedside CR, followed by thoracic CT scan searching for PTX. Results: Of the studied patients, CT of the chest confirmed the diagnosis of PTX in 36 (18.75%) patients of which 31 were diagnosed by thoracic US while CR detected only 19 cases. Overall lung US showed a considerable higher sensitivity than bedside CR (86.1% vs. 52.7%), lung US also showed higher, negative predictive values, and diagnostic accuracy against CR (96.8% vs. 90.1%), and (95.3% vs. 90.6%), respectively. CR had a slightly higher specificity than lung US (99.4% vs. 97.4%), and higher positive predictive values (95.0% vs. 88.6%). Conclusion: Lung US is an accurate modality more than anteroposterior bedside CR in comparison with CT scanning when evaluating critically ill mechanically ventilated patients, patients underwent thoracocentesis, central venous catheter insertion, or patients with polytrauma. PMID:27375379

  18. The management of cystic fibrosis with carbocysteine lysine salt: single-blind comparative study with ambroxol hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Caramia, G; Gagliardini, R; Ruffini, E; Osimani, P; Nobilini, A

    1995-01-01

    The effectiveness of carbocysteine lysine salt monohydrate (SCMC-Lys) and ambroxol hydrochloride (ABX) in the management of respiratory impairment was compared in a single-blind, randomized study of 26 cystic fibrosis patients with similar baseline characteristics. Adults received either SCMC-Lys 900 mg or ABX 33 mg three times a day and children under 14 years of age either SCMC-Lys 270 mg three times a day or ABX 10 mg four times a day. All treatments were given orally for 80 days and at the end of this control period both groups showed significant improvement in chest sound score but improvement in cough score was observed only in those receiving SCMC-Lys. Expectorate viscosity and elasticity decreased significantly in both groups. In SCMC-Lys-treated patients paCO2 decreased and paO2 and Hb O2 saturation increased while only paO2 increased significantly in those treated with ABX. An increase in tidal volume, peak expiratory flow values and forced expiratory volume were evident in those receiving SCMC-Lys while significant increases in forced expiratory flow were recorded in those receiving ABX. SCMC-Lys patient's Shwachmann index improved significantly and conversely to the ABX patients. No adverse events were recorded in either treatment group. The study concluded that SCMC-Lys is at least as effective as ABX in improving respiratory function in patients with cystic fibrosis. PMID:7589772

  19. Effectiveness of probiotic, chlorhexidine and fluoride mouthwash against Streptococcus mutans – Randomized, single-blind, in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Jothika, Mohan; Vanajassun, P. Pranav; Someshwar, Battu

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the short-term efficiency of probiotic, chlorhexidine, and fluoride mouthwashes on plaque Streptococcus mutans level at four periodic intervals. Materials and Methods: This was a single-blind, randomized control study in which each subject was tested with only one mouthwash regimen. Fifty-two healthy qualified adult patients were selected randomly for the study and were divided into the following groups: group 1- 10 ml of distilled water, group 2- 10 ml of 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash, group 3- 10 ml of 500 ppm F/400 ml sodium fluoride mouthwash, and group 4- 10 ml of probiotic mouthwash. Plaque samples were collected from the buccal surface of premolars and molars in the maxillary quadrant. Sampling procedure was carried out by a single examiner after 7 days, 14 days, and 30 days, respectively, after the use of the mouthwash. All the samples were subjected to microbiological analysis and statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc test. Results: One-way ANOVA comparison among groups 2, 3, and 4 showed no statistical significance, whereas group 1 showed statistically significant difference when compared with groups 2, 3, and 4 at 7th, 14th, and 30th day. Conclusion: Chlorhexidine, sodium fluoride, and probiotic mouthwashes reduce plaque S. mutans levels. Probiotic mouthwash is effective and equivalent to chlorhexidine and sodium fluoride mouthwashes. Thus, probiotic mouthwash can also be considered as an effective oral hygiene regimen. PMID:25984467

  20. Conductive Education as a Method of Stroke Rehabilitation: A Single Blinded Randomised Controlled Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Jutley-Neilson, Jagjeet; Russell, Nicholas C. C.; Sackley, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Conductive Education for stroke survivors has shown promise but randomised evidence is unavailable. This study assessed the feasibility of a definitive randomised controlled trial to evaluate efficacy. Methods. Adult stroke survivors were recruited through local community notices. Those completing the baseline assessment were randomised using an online program and group allocation was independent. Intervention group participants received 10 weekly 1.5-hour sessions of Conductive Education at the National Institute of Conductive Education in Birmingham, UK. The control group participants attended two group meetings. The study evaluated the feasibility of recruitment procedures, delivery of the intervention, retention of participants, and appropriateness of outcome measures and data collection methods. Independent assessments included the Barthel Index, the Stroke Impact Scale, the Timed Up and Go test, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results. Eighty-two patients were enrolled; 77 completed the baseline assessment (46 men, mean age 62.1 yrs.) and were randomised. 70 commenced the intervention (n = 37) or an equivalent waiting period (n = 33). 32/37 completed the 10-week training and 32/33 the waiting period. There were no missing items from completed questionnaires and no adverse events. Discussion. Recruitment, intervention, and assessment methods worked well. Transport issues for intervention and assessment appointments require review. Conclusion. A definitive trial is feasible. This trial is registered with ISRCTN84064492. PMID:27418997

  1. Electroacupuncture with different current intensities to treat knee osteoarthritis: a single-blinded controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Ziyong; Guo, Xianhui; Jiang, Xu; Wang, Xin; Liu, Shimin; He, Jinsen; Cui, Huashun; Wang, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Background: To assess the efficacy of Electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation with high-intensity compared with low-intensity on knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Methods: Participants with KOA were randomized to either high-intensity EA group or low-intensity EA group. EA was applied unilaterally on the affected leg with the local points GB34, ST34, EX-LE4, EX-LE5, ST36, and SP9. The visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) were measured before and after participation. Plasma TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, and apelin levels were also assessed by enzyme immunoassay (ELA) before and after treatment. Results: Of 80 participants who consented to study participation, 77 completed the program. The patients showed a significant improvement in their pain, stiffness, and physical function on the VAS and WOMAC, accompanying with a significantly reduction in plasma levels of apelin and TNFα. Furthermore, high-intensity group exhibited statistically significant improvements in stiffness and physical function symptoms compared with low-intensity group. Plasma level of IL-6 was significantly decreased only after high-intensity EA treatment. Furthermore, apelin level was significantly inhibited in high-intensity EA group than in low-intensity EA group. Conclusions: Both high- and low-intensity EA treatments alleviate the clinical symptoms of KOA patients. High-intensity EA is more effective than low-intensity EA. Changes in plasma levels of TNFα, apelin and IL-6 may be involved in the therapeutic effect of EA on KOA. PMID:26770523

  2. Effectiveness of different memory training programs on improving hyperphagic behaviors of residents with dementia: a longitudinal single-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Chieh-Chun; Lin, Li-Chan; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Lin, Ker-Neng; Liu, Ching-Kuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Hyperphagia increases eating-associated risks for people with dementia and distress for caregivers. The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term effectiveness of spaced retrieval (SR) training and SR training combined with Montessori activities (SR + M) for improving hyperphagic behaviors of special care unit residents with dementia. Methods The study enrolled patients with dementia suffering from hyperphagia resident in eight institutions and used a cluster-randomized single-blind design, with 46 participants in the SR group, 49 in the SR + M group, and 45 participants in the control group. For these three groups, trained research assistants collected baseline data on hyperphagic behavior, pica, changes in eating habits, short meal frequency, and distress to caregivers. The SR and SR + M groups underwent memory training over a 6-week training period (30 sessions), and a generalized estimating equation was used to compare data of all the three groups of subjects obtained immediately after the training period and at follow-ups 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months later. Results Results showed that the hyperphagic and pica behaviors of both the SR and SR + M groups were significantly improved (P<0.001) and that the effect lasted for 3 months after training. The improvement of fast eating was significantly superior in the SR + M group than in the SR group. The improvement in distress to caregivers in both intervention groups lasted only until the posttest. Improvement in changes in eating habits of the two groups was not significantly different from that of the control group. Conclusion SR and SR + M training programs can improve hyperphagic behavior of patients with dementia. The SR + M training program is particularly beneficial for the improvement of rapid eating. Caregivers can choose a suitable memory training program according to the eating problems of their residents. PMID:27307717

  3. Soothing and anti-itch effect of quercetin phytosome in human subjects: a single-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Maramaldi, Giada; Togni, Stefano; Pagin, Ivan; Giacomelli, Luca; Cattaneo, Roberta; Eggenhöffner, Roberto; Burastero, Samuele E

    2016-01-01

    Background We evaluated the ability of quercetin, a natural antioxidant formulated in a specific delivery system, to reduce skin inflammation induced by a variety of stimuli, including UV radiation, stimulation with a histamine solution, or contact with chemical irritants. In particular, we tested the soothing and anti-itch effect of Quercevita®, 1% cream for external use, a formulation characterized by a phospholipids-based delivery system. Patients and methods The study was a monocentric, single blind trial that enrolled a group of 30 healthy volunteers. The back of each subject was examined to identify four quadrants with no previous skin damage or naevi that were treated in order to induce a controlled and reversible form of skin stress. The areas were treated as follows: no product; Quercevita® 1% cream, 2 mg/cm2; placebo; positive control (a commercially available topical formulation containing 1% dexchlorpheniramine). Results Only quercetin phospholipids 1% and dexchlorpheniramine 1% achieved a significant reduction in erythema with comparable results: (–10.05% [P=0.00329] for quercetin phospholipids 1% vs –14.05% [P=0.00046] for the positive control). Moreover, quercetin phospholipids 1% and dexchlorpheniramine 1% were both associated with a significant decrease in mean wheal diameter: (–13.25% and –12.23% for dexchlorpheniramine 1%, respectively). Similar findings were reported for the other tested parameters. Conclusion Quercetin has a skin protective effect against damage caused by a variety of insults, including UV radiation, histamine, or contact with toxic chemical compounds. Indeed, quercetin is able to reduce redness, itching, and inflammation of damaged skin; it may also help restore skin barrier function, increasing hydration, and reducing water loss. PMID:27013898

  4. Chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy for migraine: a study protocol of a single-blinded placebo-controlled randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Chaibi, Aleksander; Šaltytė Benth, Jūratė; Tuchin, Peter J; Russell, Michael Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Migraine affects 15% of the population, and has substantial health and socioeconomic costs. Pharmacological management is first-line treatment. However, acute and/or prophylactic medicine might not be tolerated due to side effects or contraindications. Thus, we aim to assess the efficacy of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy (CSMT) for migraineurs in a single-blinded placebo-controlled randomised clinical trial (RCT). Method and analysis According to the power calculations, 90 participants are needed in the RCT. Participants will be randomised into one of three groups: CSMT, placebo (sham manipulation) and control (usual non-manual management). The RCT consists of three stages: 1 month run-in, 3 months intervention and follow-up analyses at the end of the intervention and 3, 6 and 12 months. The primary end point is migraine frequency, while migraine duration, migraine intensity, headache index (frequency x duration x intensity) and medicine consumption are secondary end points. Primary analysis will assess a change in migraine frequency from baseline to the end of the intervention and follow-up, where the groups CSMT and placebo and CSMT and control will be compared. Owing to two group comparisons, p values below 0.025 will be considered statistically significant. For all secondary end points and analyses, a p value below 0.05 will be used. The results will be presented with the corresponding p values and 95% CIs. Ethics and dissemination The RCT will follow the clinical trial guidelines from the International Headache Society. The Norwegian Regional Committee for Medical Research Ethics and the Norwegian Social Science Data Services have approved the project. Procedure will be conducted according to the declaration of Helsinki. The results will be published at scientific meetings and in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number NCT01741714. PMID:26586317

  5. [Effect of homeopathic drugs on the phagocytic activity of human granulocytes. In vitro tests in a controlled single-blind study].

    PubMed

    Wagner, H; Jurcic, K; Doenicke, A; Rosenhuber, E; Behrens, N

    1986-09-01

    Four homeopathic drug preparations with extract dilutions between D1 and D30 (expression for the homeopathic grade of potencies) and some additives (minerals and animal toxins) were investigated, using two in vitro and one in vivo phagocytosis models. All preparations enhanced significantly the activity of phagocytosis in all used systems. In controlled prospective single-blind studies with the preparations C and D performed on 12 and 14 verum and 13 male placebo volunteers respectively with i.v. injections within a 5-day treatment the phagocytosis indices were measured during 11 days using the microscopic smear method. In both investigations the maximum of phagocytosis activity was reached between the 4th and 5th day of injection. After the 4th or 5th (next to the last or last) injection, a rapid decrease of activity occurred which reached normal values on the 11th day. Other laboratory parameters investigated were not influenced. PMID:3539129

  6. [Comparative study of two antitussive drugs in the treatment of acute dry cough of infectious origin (prospective, randomized, single blind study)].

    PubMed

    Pujet, J C; Keddad, K; Sévenier, F; Jolivet-Landreau, I

    2002-01-01

    The objective was to compare, during a 5-day therapy, the efficacy and tolerability of an antihistaminic antitussive syrup, oxomemazine, combining a small quantity of guaifenesine (T), with a centrally acting antitussive, clobutinol (S), in adult patients aged from 18 to 70 years and presenting with a dry cough of infectious origin. This study was performed by 22 general practitioners and 130 ambulatory patients were enrolled. The primary criterion of this multicenter, randomized, single blind study was to compare the evolution of cough intensity using a Visual Analog Squale (VAS) graduated from 0 to 10 cm. Nine secondary criteria including tolerability were also assessed. With regard to cough intensity, the treatments were not equivalent. A greater reduction was observed with T (-5.2 +/- 2.3 versus -4.3 +/- 2.3). This result was confirmed by a further reduction in cough intensity at days: 2 (p = 0.04), 4 (p = 0.05), and 5 (p = 0.02). The frequency of cough disappearance before the end of the study was significantly greater for T than for S: 46% versus 29% (p = 0.05). The time before disappearance of the cough was 4.0 + 1.1 days for both medicines. Induction of sleep and the frequency of nocturnal wakening were significantly better for T from day 4 (p = 0.02). The drowsiness induced by T meant that diurnal quality of life was better with S on days 1 (p = 0.002) and 2 (p = 0.01). Tolerability was similar for both medicines. In conclusion, as a symptomatic treatment of dry cough, T is efficient and well tolerated. Moreover, we have observed a tendency towards superior efficacy of T than S. T is therefore a useful alternative in the therapeutic armamentarium available to the general practitioner. PMID:12611200

  7. Effects of treadmill training on cognitive and motor features of patients with mild to moderate Parkinson’s disease: a pilot, single-blind, randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Picelli, Alessandro; Varalta, Valentina; Melotti, Camilla; Zatezalo, Vanja; Fonte, Cristina; Amato, Stefania; Saltuari, Leopold; Santamato, Andrea; Fiore, Pietro; Smania, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Summary The aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of treadmill training on cognitive and motor performance in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Seventeen persons with mild to moderate PD were enrolled. Nine patients were allocated to the Intervention group and received twelve 45-minute sessions of treadmill training: one session a day, three days a week, for four consecutive weeks. Eight patients were allocated to the Control group; these patients did not undergo physical training but were required to have regular social interactions, following a specific lifestyle program. All the patients were evaluated at baseline and one month later. The primary outcome measures were the Frontal Assessment Battery-Italian version (FAB-it) and the 6-minute walking test (6MWT). At the one-month evaluation significant differences were found between the groups in their performance on the FAB-it (p=0.005) and the 6MWT (p=0.018). Our findings support the hypothesis that treadmill training might effectively improve cognitive and motor features in patients with PD. PMID:27027891

  8. One-Year Follow-Up of the Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Patients' Depression: A Randomized, Single-Blinded, Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Kai-Jo; Chen, Tsai-Hui; Hsieh, Hsiu-Tsu; Tsai, Jui-Chen; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the long-term (one year) effectiveness of a 12-session weekly cognitive behavior group therapy (CBGT) on patients with depression. This was a single-blind randomized controlled study with a 2-arm parallel group design. Eighty-one subjects were randomly assigned to 12 sessions intervention group (CBGT) or control group (usual outpatient psychiatric care group) and 62 completed the study. The primary outcome was depression measured with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD). The secondary outcomes were automatic thoughts measured by automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ). Both groups were evaluated at the pretest (before 2 weeks), posttest (after 12 therapy sessions), and short- (3 months), medium- (6 months), and long-term (12 months) follow-up. After receiving CBGT, the experimental group had a statistically significant reduction in the BDI-II from 40.30 at baseline to 17.82 points at session eight and to 10.17 points at postintervention (P < 0.001). Similar effects were seen on the HRSD. ATQ significantly decreased at the 12th session, 6 months after sessions, and 1 year after the sessions ended (P < 0.001). We concluded that CBGT is effective for reducing depression and continued to be effective at 1 year of follow-up. PMID:26380359

  9. A single-blind, randomized study to compare the efficacy of two ear drop preparations ('Audax' and 'Cerumol') in the softening of ear wax.

    PubMed

    Dummer, D S; Sutherland, I A; Murray, J A

    1992-01-01

    A parallel group, single-blind, randomized study was carried out in a general practice to compare the effectiveness and tolerability of two ear drop preparations ('Audax' and 'Cerumol') in the softening of ear wax in 50 adult patients with impacted or hardened ear wax. Assessments were made on entry of the amount, colour and consistency of the ear wax, symptoms, and objective hearing. Patients were then allocated at random to receive one or other preparation and instructed to use the drops, morning and evening, for 4 days after which they were reassessed. Details were recorded of any side-effects or discomfort caused by the study medication and both physician and patients were asked to give their overall opinion of treatment efficacy. Both treatments were shown to be effective in the softening of ear wax and were well tolerated, there being no significant difference between the two groups in these parameters. However, patients who had abnormal hearing before treatment had a significantly greater improvement in objective hearing after treatment with 'Audax' ear drops compared to those patients treated with 'Cerumol' ear drops. There were no between-treatment differences in either either the physician's or patient's overall assessments of effectiveness. PMID:1468242

  10. A Randomized, Single-Blind, Substitution Study of OROS Methylphenidate (Concerta) in ADHD Adults Receiving Immediate Release Methylphenidate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Mick, Eric; Surman, Craig B. H.; Hammerness, Paul; Doyle, Robert; Aleardi, Megan; Kotarski, Meghan; Williams, Courtney G.; Biederman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this study was to examine the efficacy, tolerability, and compliance of an extended-release formulation of methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) in adults with ADHD receiving immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH). Method: Participants were outpatient adults with ADHD who were stable on IR-MPH-administered TID. Participants…

  11. Nailfold capillary microscopy in healthy children and in childhood rheumatic diseases: a prospective single blind observational study

    PubMed Central

    Dolezalova, P; Young, S; Bacon, P; Southwood, T

    2003-01-01

    differ significantly between study groups. Conclusions: This study is unique in measuring objective quantitative and qualitative parameters of the nailfold vasculature across a wide spectrum of age and disease. Differences in capillary morphology and frequency in children with CTD compared with other paediatric diseases and healthy controls were demonstrated. In the clinical situation, an assessment of the general degree of disarrangement may offer a fast tool for assessment of the nailfold vasculature which correlates well with NFC data. PMID:12695158

  12. Recurrent acute rhinosinusitis: a single blind clinical study of N-acetylcysteine vs ambroxol associated to corticosteroid therapy.

    PubMed

    Macchi, A; Terranova, P; Castelnuovo, P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of rhinosinusitis treatment is to restore sinusal eutrophism and to normalize ventilation and mucociliary transport. Frequently the improvement of sinusal physiological conditions is associated with a reduction of infections and pulmonary symptoms. The treatment of these diseases often requires the combination of medical and surgical strategies. In particular, the aim of the medical therapy is multiple: to treat the infection (with antibiotics), to reduce the mucosal swelling (with corticosteroids) and to improve mucus drainage (with mucolytics or muco-regulators). The use of atomized nasal douche, as a washing of the nasal fossas, is chosen because of its local action minimizing systemic adverse effects. The surgical treatment is secondary to medical failure, and it is focused on clearing the sinusal ostia in the sphenoethmoidal recess and the osteomeatal complex. In case of recurrent sinonasal diseases the importance of the surgical operation is represented by the fact that the medical treatment better reaches the target in the sinusal space. This study is focused on the primary medical treatment of acute recurrent rhinosinusitis. The patients who immediately needed surgical treatment were excluded from the study (because of the presence of an anatomical obstruction of the osteomeatal complex and/or the sphenoethmoidal recess, hence non-susceptible to improvement by medical therapy alone), and these patients were immediately addressed to undergo a CT scan examination in order to be involved in a future surgical programme. The medical treatment for those forms which do not require antibiotics (i.e. when infections are not involved), is based on the use of topical corticosteroids. While there are controversies on the real efficacy of adding mucolytic agents to the steroids, they are commonly prescribed in clinical practice, with the rationale of reducing viscosity and improving clearance of mucus in order to help the restoration of the physiological sinus

  13. Bowel preparation for colonoscopy using standard vs reduced doses of sodium phosphate: A single-blind randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Koshitani, Tatsuya; Kawada, Mayumi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of a colonoscopy preparation that utilizes a reduced dose of sodium phosphate (NaP) and an adjunct. METHODS: Sixty-two patients requiring screening colonoscopies were studied. Each patient was randomly allocated to receive either 50 NaP tablets (50 g) or 30 NaP tablets (30 g) with 10 mL of 0.75% sodium picosulfate for bowel preparation. NaP was administered at a rate of five tablets (5 g) or three tablets (3 g) every 15 min with 200 mL of water, beginning five to six hours before colonoscopy. The sodium picosulfate was administered with 200 mL of water on the night before the procedure. Both groups were compared in term of the efficacies of colonic cleansing, the time required for completion of the bowel preparation, and acceptability of the preparation. RESULTS: Sixty patients (n = 30 for each group) were analyzed. The cleansing efficacy tended to be higher in the 30 g NaP plus sodium picosulfate group as assessed by the mean total Ottawa scale score (50 g NaP 6.70 ± 1. 42 vs 30 g NaP plus sodium picosulfate 6.17 ± 1.18 P = 0.072). The mean time for bowel preparation tended to be shorter in the 30 g NaP plus sodium picosulfate group (50 g NaP 189.9 ± 64.0 min vs 30 g NaP plus sodium picosulfate 161.8 ± 57.6 min, P = 0.065). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the acceptability of the preparations (50 g NaP 83.3% vs 30 g NaP plus sodium picosulfate 86.7%, P = 0.500). There were no adverse events related to bowel preparation in either of the groups. CONCLUSION: The colonoscopy preparation that utilized 30 g NaP with sodium picosulfate was comparable to that utilizing 50 g NaP. This novel bowel preparation might be useful before colonoscopy. PMID:25132922

  14. Feasibility and Preliminary Efficacy of Visual Cue Training to Improve Adaptability of Walking after Stroke: Multi-Centre, Single-Blind Randomised Control Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hollands, Kristen L.; Pelton, Trudy A.; Wimperis, Andrew; Whitham, Diane; Tan, Wei; Jowett, Sue; Sackley, Catherine M.; Wing, Alan M.; Tyson, Sarah F.; Mathias, Jonathan; Hensman, Marianne; van Vliet, Paulette M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Given the importance of vision in the control of walking and evidence indicating varied practice of walking improves mobility outcomes, this study sought to examine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of varied walking practice in response to visual cues, for the rehabilitation of walking following stroke. Design This 3 arm parallel, multi-centre, assessor blind, randomised control trial was conducted within outpatient neurorehabilitation services Participants Community dwelling stroke survivors with walking speed <0.8m/s, lower limb paresis and no severe visual impairments Intervention Over-ground visual cue training (O-VCT), Treadmill based visual cue training (T-VCT), and Usual care (UC) delivered by physiotherapists twice weekly for 8 weeks. Main outcome measures: Participants were randomised using computer generated random permutated balanced blocks of randomly varying size. Recruitment, retention, adherence, adverse events and mobility and balance were measured before randomisation, post-intervention and at four weeks follow-up. Results Fifty-six participants participated (18 T-VCT, 19 O-VCT, 19 UC). Thirty-four completed treatment and follow-up assessments. Of the participants that completed, adherence was good with 16 treatments provided over (median of) 8.4, 7.5 and 9 weeks for T-VCT, O-VCT and UC respectively. No adverse events were reported. Post-treatment improvements in walking speed, symmetry, balance and functional mobility were seen in all treatment arms. Conclusions Outpatient based treadmill and over-ground walking adaptability practice using visual cues are feasible and may improve mobility and balance. Future studies should continue a carefully phased approach using identified methods to improve retention. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01600391 PMID:26445137

  15. Traditional Chinese medicine versus western medicine as used in China in the management of rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized, single-blind, 24-week study.

    PubMed

    He, Yi-Ting; Ou, Ai-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Bo; Chen, Wei; Fu, Li-Yuan; Lu, Ai-Ping; Yan, Xiao-Ping; Feng, Xing-Hua; Su, Li; Song, Yue-Jin; Zeng, Sheng-Ping; Liu, Wei; Qian, Xian; Zhu, Wan-Hua; Lao, Ying-Rong; Xu, Wei-Hua; Wen, Ze-Huai; He, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Bao-Juan; Chen, Geng-Xin; Xue, Su-Qin

    2014-12-01

    This study is designed to compare the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with western medicine (WM) in the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This is a 24-week, randomized, multicenter, single-blind study comparing TCM with WM (as used in China) carried out between June 2002 and December 2004 in nine research centers in China, involving 489 patients. Patients were randomized to receive TCM (n = 247), MTX and SSZ (n = 242). MTX was started at a dose of 5 mg to a final dose of 7.5-15 mg weekly. The maintenance dose was 2.5-7.5 mg weekly. The starting dose of SSZ was 0.25 g bid, increasing by 0.25 g a day once a week to a final dose of 0.5-1 g qid. The maintenance dose was 0.5 g tid to qid. Primary end point was the proportion of patients with response according to the American College of Rheumatology 20 % improvement criteria (ACR20) at weeks 24. At 24 weeks, ACR20 responses were 53.0 % in TCM group and 66.5 % in WM group, (P < 0.001) at 24 weeks. ACR 50 responses were 31.6 % of TCM group and 42.6 % in WM group, (P = 0.01). ACR70 responses were 12.6 % in TCM group and 17.4 % in WM group, (P = 0.14). Side effects were observed more frequently in WM group. In this study, ACR20, ACR50 responses at 24 weeks were significantly better in the WM treated group, by intention to treat (ITT) and per protocol analysis. The ACR 70 response showed no significant difference between the two groups. TCM, while effective in treating RA, appears to be less effective than WM in controlling symptoms, but TCM is associated with fewer side effects. PMID:24760484

  16. Does addition of `mud-pack and hot pool treatment' to patient education make a difference in fibromyalgia patients? A randomized controlled single blind study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bağdatlı, Ali Osman; Donmez, Arif; Eröksüz, Rıza; Bahadır, Güler; Turan, Mustafa; Erdoğan, Nergis

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled single-blind study is to explore whether addition of mud-pack and hot pool treatments to patient education make a significant difference in short and mild term outcomes of the patients with fibromyalgia. Seventy women with fibromyalgia syndrome were randomly assigned to either balneotherapy with mud-pack and hot pool treatments (35) or control (35) groups. After randomization, five patients from balneotherapy group and five patients from control group were dropped out from the study with different excuses. All patients had 6-h patient education programme about fibromyalgia syndrome and were given a home exercise programme. The patients in balneotherapy group had heated pool treatment at 38 °C for 20 min a day, and mud-pack treatment afterwards on back region at 45 °C. Balneotherapy was applied on weekdays for 2 weeks. All patients continued to take their medical treatment. An investigator who was blinded to the intervention assessed all the patients before and after the treatment, at the first and the third months of follow-up. Outcome measures were FIQ, BDI and both patient's and physician's global assessments. Balneotherapy group was significantly better than control group at after the treatment and at the end of the first month follow-up assessments in terms of patient's and physician's global assessment, total FIQ score, and pain intensity, fatigue, non-refreshed awaking, stiffness, anxiety and depression subscales of FIQ. No significant difference was found between the groups in terms of BDI scores. It is concluded that patient education combined with 2 weeks balneotherapy application has more beneficial effects in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome as compared to patient education alone.

  17. Efficacy of an essential fatty acid-enriched diet in managing canine atopic dermatitis: a randomized, single-blinded, cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Bensignor, Emmanuel; Morgan, David M; Nuttall, Tim

    2008-06-01

    Evidence suggests that high-quality diets enriched with essential fatty acids (EFA) and other nutrients can ameliorate canine atopic dermatitis (AD). This study compared such a diet (Eukanuba Veterinary Diets Dermatosis FP) with a home-cooked equivalent (fish and potato) in a randomised, single-blinded, cross-over trial. Twenty dogs with perennial AD were randomly assigned to receive either the test (group A) or the control diet (group B) for 1 month, followed by the contrasting diet for a further month. Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI version 2) and pruritus (visual analogue scale) scores were recorded at days 0, 30 and 60. Eight dogs in each group completed the study. CADESI scores significantly declined when dogs were fed the test diet (group A P < 0.01; group B P < 0.001), and increased (group A P < 0.05) or remained steady (group B) on the control diet. CADESI scores decreased in 15 of 16 dogs fed the test diet, but this was less than 50% in all cases. Pruritus scores also declined when dogs were fed the test diet compared to the control diet, but this was only significant for group A (P = 0.027). Pruritus was reduced in 11 of 16 dogs fed the test diet, but this was 50% or more in only two dogs. This trial provides evidence for the efficacy of Eukanuba Veterinary Diets Dermatosis FP in canine AD, although it is likely that most cases will require adjunct therapy. The mechanism is unclear, but may involve increased and balanced EFA levels. PMID:18477332

  18. A single-blind randomised controlled trial of the effects of a web-based decision aid on self-testing for cholesterol and diabetes. study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-tests, tests on body materials to detect medical conditions, are widely available to the general public. Self-testing does have advantages as well as disadvantages, and the debate on whether self-testing should be encouraged or rather discouraged is still ongoing. One of the concerns is whether consumers have sufficient knowledge to perform the test and interpret the results. An online decision aid (DA) with information on self-testing in general, and test specific information on cholesterol and diabetes self-testing was developed. The DA aims to provide objective information on these self-tests as well as a decision support tool to weigh the pros and cons of self-testing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the online decision aid on knowledge on self-testing, informed choice, ambivalence and psychosocial determinants. Methods/Design A single blind randomised controlled trial in which the online decision aid 'zelftestwijzer' is compared to short, non-interactive information on self-testing in general. The entire trial will be conducted online. Participants will be selected from an existing Internet panel. Consumers who are considering doing a cholesterol or diabetes self-test in the future will be included. Outcome measures will be assessed directly after participants have viewed either the DA or the control condition. Weblog files will be used to record participants' use of the decision aid. Discussion Self-testing does have important pros and cons, and it is important that consumers base their decision whether they want to do a self-test or not on knowledge and personal values. This study is the first to evaluate the effect of an online decision aid for self-testing. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register: NTR3149 PMID:22216905

  19. Goal-oriented cognitive rehabilitation in early-stage dementia: study protocol for a multi-centre single-blind randomised controlled trial (GREAT)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Preliminary evidence suggests that goal-oriented cognitive rehabilitation (CR) may be a clinically effective intervention for people with early-stage Alzheimer’s disease, vascular or mixed dementia and their carers. This study aims to establish whether CR is a clinically effective and cost-effective intervention for people with early-stage dementia and their carers. Methods/design In this multi-centre, single-blind randomised controlled trial, 480 people with early-stage dementia, each with a carer, will be randomised to receive either treatment as usual or cognitive rehabilitation (10 therapy sessions over 3 months, followed by 4 maintenance sessions over 6 months). We will compare the effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation with that of treatment as usual with regard to improving self-reported and carer-rated goal performance in areas identified as causing concern by people with early-stage dementia; improving quality of life, self-efficacy, mood and cognition of people with early-stage dementia; and reducing stress levels and ameliorating quality of life for carers of participants with early-stage dementia. The incremental cost-effectiveness of goal-oriented cognitive rehabilitation compared to treatment as usual will also be examined. Discussion If the study confirms the benefits and cost-effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation, it will be important to examine how the goal-oriented cognitive rehabilitation approach can most effectively be integrated into routine health-care provision. Our aim is to provide training and develop materials to support the implementation of this approach following trial completion. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN21027481 PMID:23710796

  20. A Randomized, Single-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study on the Efficacy of the Arthrokinematic Approach-Hakata Method in Patients with Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kogure, Akira; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Katada, Shigehiko; Takagi, Hiroshi; Kamikozuru, Masahiro; Isaji, Takashi; Hakata, Setsuo

    2015-01-01

    Study design cized, single-blind, controlled trial. Objective To investigate the efficacy of the Arthrokinematic approach (AKA)-Hakata (H) method for chronic low back pain. Summary of Background Data The AKA-H method is used to manually treat abnormalities of intra-articular movement. Methods One hundred eighty-six patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain randomly received either the AKA-H method (AKA-H group) or the sham technique (S group) monthly for 6 months. Data were collected at baseline and once a month. Outcome measures were pain intensity (visual analogue scale [VAS]) and quality of life (the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire [RDQ] and Short Form SF-36 questionnaire [SF-36]). Results At baseline, the VAS, RDQ, and SF-36 scores showed similar levels between the groups. After 6 months, the AKA-H group had more improvement in the VAS (42.8% improvement) and RDQ score (31.1% improvement) than the sham group (VAS: 10.4% improvement; RDQ: 9.8% improvement; both, P < 0.001). The respective scores for the SF-36 subscales (physical functioning, role physical, bodily pain, social functioning, general health perception, role emotional, and mental health) were also significantly more improved in the AKA-H group than in the sham group (all, P < 0.001). The scores for the physical, psychological, and social aspects of the SF-36 subscales showed similar improvement in the AKA-H group. Conclusion The AKA-H method can be effective in managing chronic low back pain. Trial Registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) UMIN000006250. PMID:26646534

  1. Co-ingestion of carbohydrate and whey protein isolates enhance PGC-1α mRNA expression: a randomised, single blind, cross over study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Whey protein isolates (WPI) supplementation is known to improve resistance training adaptations. However, limited information is available on the effects of WPI plus carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation on endurance training adaptations. Method Six endurance trained male cyclists and triathletes (age 29 ± 4 years, weight 74 ± 2 kg, VO2 max 63 ± 3 ml oxygen. kg-1. Min-1, height 183 ± 5 cm; mean ± SEM) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary interventions in a single blind cross over design; CHO or CHO + WPI. Each dietary intervention was followed for 16 days which included the last 2 days having increased CHO content, representing a CHO loading phase. The dietary interventions were iso-caloric and carbohydrate content matched. On completion of the dietary intervention, participants performed an exercise bout, consisting of cycling for 60 min at 70% VO2 max, followed by time trial to exhaustion at 90% VO2 max and recovered in the laboratory for 6 hours. Blood samples and muscle biopsies were taken at various time points at rest and through the exercise trial and recovery. Results Compared to CHO, CHO + WPI increased plasma insulin during recovery at 180 mins (P < 0.05) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) mRNA expression at the end of 6 hours of recovery (P < 0.05). Muscle glycogen did not differ between the two trials. Conclusion This study showed co-ingestion of CHO + WPI may have beneficial effects on recovery and adaptations to endurance exercise via, increased insulin response and up regulation of PGC-1α mRNA expression. PMID:23402493

  2. The effect of clove-based herbal mouthwash on radiation-induced oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer: a single-blind randomized preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Moonkyoo; Hwang, Deok-Sang; Yoon, Seong Woo; Kim, Jinsung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of clove-based herbal mouthwash in ameliorating radiation-induced oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer. Methods Fourteen patients were prospectively enrolled in this study and randomized to either an experimental group or a control group. The patients of the experimental group swished their mouths with a clove-based herbal mouthwash during radiotherapy (RT), while the patients of the control group swished with clear water. The primary end point of this study was incidence of radiation-induced oral mucositis. The secondary end points were time to onset of radiation-induced oral mucositis, duration of radiation-induced oral mucositis, incidence of supplemental nutrition through feeding tube, maximum pain score, body weight loss, incidence of RT interruption, and duration of RT interruption. Results The use of clove-based herbal mouthwash shortened the duration of grade ≥2 mucositis (24.3 days vs 37.1 days, P=0.044) and reduced body weight loss during RT (3.1% vs 7.4%, P=0.023) compared with clear water. The use of clove-based herbal mouthwash also reduced the incidence of grade 3 mucositis (28.6% vs 57.1%), supplemental nutrition (0% vs 28.6%), and RT interruption (14.3% vs 28.6%), and reduced the duration of grade 3 mucositis (5.1 days vs 17.7 days) and RT interruption (1 days vs 8.5 days). In addition, clove-based herbal mouthwash delayed the time to onset of mucositis (26.6 days vs 24.5 days) and reduced the maximum pain score (4.1 vs 4.9). However, these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion Although we could not find significant differences in some end points, this single-blind randomized study showed that a clove-based herbal mouthwash can have a potentially beneficial effect on minimizing or preventing radiation-induced oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer. To confirm the results of our study, well-designed randomized studies with large

  3. Increased masticatory activity and quality of life in elderly persons with dementia-a longitudinal matched cluster randomized single-blind multicenter intervention study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Worldwide, millions of people are suffering from dementia and this number is rising. An index of quality of life (QoL) can describe the impact a disease or treatment has on a person’s wellbeing. QoL comprises many variables, including physical health and function, and mental health and function. QoL is related to masticatory ability and physical activity. Animal studies show that disruption of mastication due to loss of teeth or a soft diet leads to memory loss and learning problems. Since these are common complaints in dementia, it is hypothesized that improvement of masticatory function and normalization of diet consistency can increase QoL in elderly persons suffering from dementia. Therefore, the goal of the present study is to examine whether an increase in masticatory activity, achieved by increased food consistency and enhancement of masticatory function through improved oral health care has a positive effect on QoL, including cognition, mood, activities of daily living (ADL), and circadian rhythm in elderly persons with dementia. Methods and design The described study is a prospective longitudinal matched cluster randomized single-blind multicenter study. Participants are elderly persons living in the Netherlands, suffering from dementia and receiving psychogeriatric care. An intervention group will receive improved oral health care and a diet of increased consistency. A control group receives care as usual. Participants will be assessed four times; outcome variables besides QoL are cognition, mood, independence, rest-activity rhythm, blood pressure, and masticatory function. Discussion This research protocol investigates the effect of an intervention executed by daily caregivers. The intervention will increase masticatory activity, which is achieved by three different actions, (providing oral health care, increasing food consistency, or a combination of both). There is a certain amount of variety in the nature of the interventions due to local

  4. Search for atoxic cereals: a single blind, cross-over study on the safety of a single dose of Triticum monococcum, in patients with celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cereals of baking quality with absent or reduced toxicity are actively sought as alternative therapy to a gluten-free diet (GFD) for patients with coeliac disease (CD). Triticum monococcum, an ancient wheat, is a potential candidate having no toxicity in in-vitro and ex-vivo studies. The aim of our study was to investigate on the safety of administration of a single dose of gluten of Tm in patients with CD on GFD. Methods We performed a single blind, cross-over study involving 12 CD patients who had been on a GFD for at least 12 months, challenged on day 0, 14 and 28 with a single fixed dose of 2.5 grams of the following (random order): Tm, rice (as reference atoxic protein) and Amygluten (as reference toxic protein) dispersed in a gluten-free pudding. The primary end-point of the study was the change in intestinal permeability, as assessed by changes in the urinary lactulose/rhamnose ratio (L/R ratio) measured by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography. We also assessed the occurrence of adverse gastrointestinal events, graded for intensity and duration according to the WHO scale. Variables were expressed as mean ± SD; paired t-test and χ2 test were used as appropriate. Results The urinary L/R ratio did not change significantly upon challenge with the 3 cereals, and was 0.055 ± 0.026 for Tm Vs 0.058 ± 0.035 for rice (p = 0.6736) and Vs 0.063 ± 0.054 with Amygluten (p = 0.6071). Adverse gastrointestinal events were 8 for Tm, Vs 11 for rice (p = 0.6321) and Vs 31 for Amygluten p = 0.0016), and, in all cases events were graded as “mild” or “moderate” with TM and rice, and as “severe” or “disabling” in 4 cases during Amygluten. Conclusions No definite conclusion can be drawn on the safety of Tm, based on no change in urinary L/R because even Amygluten, a toxic wheat protein, did not cause a significant change in urinary L/R indicating low sensitivity of this methodology in studies on acute toxicity. Tm was

  5. Single-blinded, randomised preliminary study evaluating the effects of 2 Hz electroacupuncture for postoperative pain in patients with total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Tzeng, Chung-Yuh; Chang, Shih-Liang; Wu, Chih-Cheng; Chang, Chu-Ling; Chen, Wen-Gii; Tong, Kwok-Man; Huang, Kui-Chou; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the point-specific clinical effect of 2 Hz electroacupuncture (EA) in treating postoperative pain in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA), Methods In a randomised, partially single-blinded preliminary study, 47patients with TKA were randomly divided into three groups: control group (CG, n=17) using only patient-controlled analgesia (PCA); EA group (EAG, n=16) with 2 Hz EA applied at ST36 (Zusanli) and GB34 (Yanglingquan) contralateral to the operated leg for 30 min on the first two postoperative days, also receiving PCA; and non-point group (NPG, n=14), with EA identical to the EAG except given 1 cm lateral to both ST36 and GB34. The Mann–Whitney test was used to show the difference between two groups and the Kruskal–Wallis test to show the difference between the three groups. Results The time until patients first required PCA in the CG was 34.1±22.0 min, which was significantly shorter than the 92.0±82.7 min in the EAG (p<0.001) and 90.7±94.8 min in the NPG (p<0.001); there was no difference between the EAG and NPG groups (p>0.05). The total dosage of PCA solution given was 4.6±0.9 mL/kg body weight in the CG, 4.2±1.0 mL/kg in the EAG and 4.5±1.0 mL/kg in the NPG; there were no significant differences (p>0.05) among the three groups. Conclusions In this small preliminary study, EA retarded the first demand for PCA in comparison with no EA. No effect was seen on the total dosage of PCA required and no point-specific effect was seen. PMID:25910930

  6. Pilot Training Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooz, William E.

    The purpose of the Pilot Training Study is to produce tools with which to analyze the pilot training process of the Air Force in terms of the resources required to train pilots and the cost of pilot training. These tools allow examination of the training courses themselves, and also of the policy factors which drive the need for pilots. The tools…

  7. Comparison of highly purified semi-synthetic insulin and highly purified porcine insulin in the treatment of type I diabetes: interim report of a multi-centre randomised single blind study.

    PubMed

    Birtwell, A J; Owens, D R; Jones, I R; Hayes, T M; Beale, D J; el-Shaboury, A H; Arora, P; Reeves, W G

    1984-12-01

    This is an interim report of a long term single-blind study of the effects of changing diabetic patients treated with highly purified porcine insulin to semi-synthetic human insulins of identical formulation. Twenty four insulin dependent diabetics were randomly allocated to continue with porcine insulin (n = 11) or human insulin (n = 13). There were no significant changes within the groups nor differences between the groups in mean preprandial capillary blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin or insulin dose during the first 24 weeks of the study. Insulin antibody levels remained low and did not differ between the groups. No local or systemic adverse reactions were observed. In this group of patients conversion to human insulin did not result in a change in diabetic control or insulin dose. PMID:6397365

  8. Effect of the Medicinal Agaricus blazei Murill-Based Mushroom Extract, AndoSanTM, on Symptoms, Fatigue and Quality of Life in Patients with Crohn’s Disease in a Randomized Single-Blinded Placebo Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Hetland, Geir; Lyberg, Torstein; Lygren, Idar; Johnson, Egil

    2016-01-01

    Background Ingestion of AndoSanTM, based on the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill, has previously shown an anti-inflammatory effect through reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in healthy individuals and patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). In this randomized single-blinded placebo-controlled study we examined whether intake of AndoSanTM also resulted in clinical effects. Methods and Findings 50 patients with symptomatic CD were randomized for oral daily consumption of AndoSanTM or placebo for a 21-day experimental period, in this per-protocol study. Patients reported validated scores for symptoms, fatigue and health related quality of life (HRQoL) at days 0, 14 and 21. Fecal calprotectin and general blood parameters were also analyzed. In the AndoSanTM group (n = 25) symptoms improved from baseline (day 0) to days 14 and 21, with respective mean scores (95% CI) of 5.52 (4.64–6.40), 4.48 (3.69–5.27) and 4.08 (3.22–4.94) (p<0,001). We found significant improvements in symptom score for both genders in the AndoSanTM group, and no significant changes in the placebo (n = 25) group. There were however no significant differences between the groups (p = 0.106), although a marginal effect in symptom score for men (p = 0.054). There were comparable improvements in physical, mental and total fatigue for both groups. HRQoL versus baseline were at day 21 improved for bodily pain and vitality in the AndoSanTM group and for vitality and social functioning in the placebo group. No crucial changes in general blood samples and fecal calprotectin were detected. Conclusions The results from this single-blinded randomized clinical trial shows significant improvement on symptoms, for both genders, in the AndoSanTM group, but no significant differences between the study groups. The results on fatigue, HRQoL, fecal calprotectin and blood samples were quite similar compared with placebo. The patients did not report any harms or unintended effects of AndoSanTM. CD patients with

  9. RAPP, a systematic e-assessment of postoperative recovery in patients undergoing day surgery: study protocol for a mixed-methods study design including a multicentre, two-group, parallel, single-blind randomised controlled trial and qualitative interview studies

    PubMed Central

    Dahlberg, K; Odencrants, S; Hagberg, L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Day surgery is a well-established practice in many European countries, but only limited information is available regarding postoperative recovery at home though there is a current lack of a standard procedure regarding postoperative follow-up. Furthermore, there is also a need for improvement of modern technology in assessing patient-related outcomes such as mobile applications. This article describes the Recovery Assessment by Phone Points (RAPP) study protocol, a mixed-methods study to evaluate if a systematic e-assessment follow-up in patients undergoing day surgery is cost-effective and improves postoperative recovery, health and quality of life. Methods and analysis This study has a mixed-methods study design that includes a multicentre, two-group, parallel, single-blind randomised controlled trial and qualitative interview studies. 1000 patients >17 years of age who are undergoing day surgery will be randomly assigned to either e-assessed postoperative recovery follow-up daily in 14 days measured via smartphone app including the Swedish web-version of Quality of Recovery (SwQoR) or to standard care (ie, no follow-up). The primary aim is cost-effectiveness. Secondary aims are (A) to explore whether a systematic e-assessment follow-up after day surgery has a positive effect on postoperative recovery, health-related quality of life (QoL) and overall health; (B) to determine whether differences in postoperative recovery have an association with patient characteristic, type of surgery and anaesthesia; (C) to determine whether differences in health literacy have a substantial and distinct effect on postoperative recovery, health and QoL; and (D) to describe day surgery patient and staff experiences with a systematic e-assessment follow-up after day surgery. The primary aim will be measured at 2 weeks postoperatively and secondary outcomes (A–C) at 1 and 2 weeks and (D) at 1 and 4 months. Trial registration number NCT02492191; Pre

  10. Evaluation of the Immediate Effect of Auricular Acupuncture on Pain and Electromyographic Activity of the Upper Trapezius Muscle in Patients with Nonspecific Neck Pain: A Randomized, Single-Blinded, Sham-Controlled, Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Andréia Cristina de Oliveira; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida; dos Santos, Douglas Meira; Melo, Nivea Cristina De; Gomes, Cid André Fidelis de Paula; Amorim, César Ferreira; Politti, Fabiano

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of auricular acupuncture (AA) on the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the upper trapezius muscle and pain in nonspecific neck pain (NS-NP) patients. Twelve patients with NS-NP (NS-NP group) and 12 healthy subjects (HS Group) were enrolled in a randomized, single-blinded, crossover study. Each subject received a single session of AA and sham AA (SAA). Surface EMG activity was measured in the upper trapezius muscle at different “step contractions” of isometric shoulder elevation (15%, 20%, 25%, and 30% MVC). The outcome measure in patients with NS-NP was based on the numerical pain rating scale (NRS). AA treatment led to a significant decrease in EMG activity in both groups (NS-NP group: p = 0.0001; HS group: p < 0.0001—ANOVA test). This was not the case for the SAA treatment (NS-NP group: p = 0.71; HS group: p < 0.54). Significant decreases (p < 0.001) in the NRS were found for both treatments (AA and SAA). This study demonstrated the immediate effect of auricular acupuncture on the electromyographic activity of the upper trapezius muscle but the effect of this intervention on pain symptoms in patients with nonspecific neck pain was inconclusive. PMID:26451155

  11. Clinical experience and results of treatment with suprofen in pediatrics. 3rd communication: Antipyretic effect and tolerability of repeat doses of suprofen and paracetamol syrup in hospitalized children/A single-blind study.

    PubMed

    Weippl, G; Michos, N; Sundal, E J; Stocker, H

    1985-01-01

    Antipyretic effect and tolerability of alpha-methyl-4-(2-thienylcarbonyl)-phenyl acetic acid (suprofen, Suprol), syrup and paracetamol (acetaminophen) were compared within the scope of the present randomized single-blind study; the test population included a total of 115 children ranging in age from 6 months to 12 years. All patients were admitted to the hospital with an average temperature of 39.3 degrees C, their disease being caused by bacterial or viral infections. The dose levels for treatment with syrup depended upon the children's age and body weight. Treatment was in most cases given for two days; a three-times-a-day schedule was used. The (rectal) temperature as well as pulse and respiratory rates were measured prior to treatment and 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 h after first administration of the test preparations. The results showed that the antipyretic effect of suprofen was in both age groups at all rating times statistically significantly superior to that of paracetamol. Pulse and respiratory rates dropped in both age groups after treatment; the means were within the normal range at all rating times. Adverse drug reactions were seen in 5 patients on suprofen and in 3 cases on paracetamol. It is, however, questionable whether such reactions are drug-dependent. PMID:3911963

  12. Clinical experience and results of treatment with suprofen in pediatrics. 5th communication: a single-blind study on antipyretic effect and tolerability of suprofen syrup versus metamizole drops in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, M; Longhi, R; Besana, R; Michos, N; Sarchi, C

    1986-06-01

    In a single-blind study, 60 children in two age groups (30 patients: 6 months to 3 years; 30 patients: 3 years to 12 years), were orally treated with either alpha-methyl-4-(2-thienyl-carbonyl)phenylacetic acid (suprofen, Suprol), syrup 10 mg/ml or metamizole drops 50% for a maximum period of 4 days, up to 4 times a day. The children presented with high fever due to bacterial or virus infections. Body temperature, pulse rate, and respiratory rate were evaluated at the beginning and then 30 min, 1, 1 1/2, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 h after the first administration of the respective drug. Significant differences between the drugs were found for all variables; this demonstrated that with suprofen the antipyretic effect set in more rapidly than with the reference drug. No side-effects were observed in children treated with suprofen syrup. Two patients showed adverse effects, i.e. sweating and hypotension, during the treatment with metamizole. Due to its good antipyretic effect and good tolerability, suprofen appears to be particularly useful for symptomatic treatment of pediatric patients with fever caused by bacterial or virus infections. PMID:3527181

  13. Intramuscular Administration of Drotaverine Hydrochloride Decreases Both Incidence of Urinary Retention and Time to Micturition in Orthopedic Patients under Spinal Anesthesia: A Single Blinded Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszewski, Dariusz; Bałkota, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Postoperative urinary retention (POUR) increases the duration of hospitalization and frequency and risk of urinary bladder catheterization. The objective of this study was to analyze the efficacy of intramuscularly administered drotaverine hydrochloride in the prevention of POUR in orthopedic patients. Methods. Two hundred and thirty patients 17–40 years of age undergoing lower limb orthopedic procedures under spinal anesthesia were enrolled in the study. The study group received 40 mg of drotaverine hydrochloride intramuscularly; the second group was the control. The main outcome measure was (1) the time to micturition and (2) the incidence of urinary bladder catheterization and time to catheterization. Results. Two hundred and one patients of 230 enrolled participants completed the study. Compared to the control group, the male patients in study group exhibited a shorter time to spontaneous micturition (441 versus 563 minutes, 95% CI of the difference of means between 39 and 205 minutes) and a lower incidence of urinary bladder catheterization (4/75 versus 10/54) (RR 0.29, 95% CI: 0.1–0.87; P = 0.0175). Conclusions. Intramuscular administration of drotaverine hydrochloride decreased the time to spontaneous micturition and decreased the incidence of urinary bladder catheterization in male patients who underwent orthopedic surgery under spinal anesthesia. This trial is registered with NCT02026427. PMID:26185766

  14. Transcutaneous Electrical Acupoint Stimulation in Children with Autism and Its Impact on Plasma Levels of Arginine-Vasopressin and Oxytocin: A Prospective Single-Blinded Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Rong; Jia, Mei-Xiang; Zhang, Ji-Sui; Xu, Xin-Jie; Shou, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Xiu-Ting; Li, Li; Li, Ning; Han, Song-Ping; Han, Ji-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Acupuncture increases brain levels of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT), which are known to be involved in the modulation of mammalian social behavior. Transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) is often used clinically to produce a similar stimulation to that of acupuncture on the acupoints. In the present study, TEAS was…

  15. Real-time kinematic biofeedback improves scapulothoracic control and performance during scapular-focused exercises: A single-blind randomized controlled laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Ana; Carnide, Filomena; Matias, Ricardo

    2016-08-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that scapular-focused therapeutic exercises hold promise for shoulder dynamic stability retraining. While recent findings show that therapeutic exercises can alter scapular neuromuscular function measured with muscle electromyography, no study has yet addressed the effects of kinematic biofeedback for improving scapulothoracic control and performance. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of kinematic biofeedback on motor relearning transfer during shoulder flexion and a daily activity, on the quality of scapular-focused exercise performance, and on execution time. Thirty healthy young adults were randomly distributed into two groups. Skin mounted electromagnetic sensors were used to collect kinematic data of the thorax, scapula and humerus while subjects performed a shoulder flexion and a daily activity, prior to and after scapular-focused exercises. For both groups, the exercise execution error and the execution time determined the scapulothoracic control and performance. Significant statistical differences were found in the exercise execution error results within the experimental group (z=5.313; p=0.037) and between groups (u=37.00; p=0.001; u=64.00; p=0.024). This study's results demonstrate that real-time kinematic biofeedback improves scapulothoracic control and performance during scapular-focused exercise execution. PMID:27107896

  16. [Results of a single blind study placebo vs Diallil-Tiosulphinate, Nucipherine and Diosgenin in patients reponders to Tadalafil 5 mg].

    PubMed

    Scaduto, Giovanna; Daricello, Giuseppe; Pavone, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of Diallil-Tiosulphinate, Nuciepherine and Diosgenin in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. In our study were selected 120 men affected by erectile dysfunction. They were filled in a self-administered questionnaire International Index of Sexual Medicine. 74 of them reported a moderate erectile dysfunction and 46 reported a severe ED. All patients were treated with Tadalafil 5 mg once a day for 90 days. They were re-evaluated with the same questionnaire after three months of therapy. In 75% of the patients there was an improvement of IIEF-5 score. Only the 90 patients responders to Tadalafil once a day were randomized and divided into two groups, each formed by 45 subjects. The group A was treated with the association of Diallil-Tiosulfinate, Nucipherine and Diosgenin on alternate days. The patients of group B were treated with placebo. After three months, there was a new evaluation with IIEF-5 score. In group A we reported a maintenance of improvement post-Tadalafil in 36 patients;in group B, only 18 patients have maintained the previous improvement, according to IIEF-5 score. The ?2 test is 13,38, with a p-value of about 0,00013.The maintenance's odds ratio, confronting the two groups, is 6 with a confidence's interval of 95%. The study shows that the utilization of the association therapy in patients with erectile dysfunction responders to Tadalafil once a day is able to duplicate the odds of maintenance's improvement compared to placebo. PMID:26391664

  17. Efficacy of Biofeedback and Cognitive-behavioural Therapy in Psoriatic PatientsA Single-blind, Randomized and Controlled Study with Added Narrow-band Ultraviolet B Therapy.

    PubMed

    Piaserico, Stefano; Marinello, Elena; Dessi, Andrea; Linder, Michael Dennis; Coccarielli, Debora; Peserico, Andrea

    2016-08-23

    Increasing data suggests that there is a connection between stress and the appearance of psoriasis symptoms. We therefore performed a clinical trial enrolling 40 participants who were randomly allocated to either an 8-week cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) (treatment group) plus narrow-band UVB phototherapy or to an 8-week course of only narrow-band UVB phototherapy (control group). We evaluated the clinical severity of psoriasis (PASI), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12, Skindex-29 and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at baseline and by the end of the study. Sixty-five percent of patients in the treatment group achieved PASI75 compared with 15% of standard UVB patients (p = 0.007). GHQ-12 cases were reduced from 45% to 10% in the treatment group and from 30% to 20% in the control group (p = 0.05). The Skindex-29 emotional domain showed a significant improvement in the CBT/biofeedback group compared with control patients (-2.8 points, p = 0.04). This study shows that an adjunctive 8-week intervention with CBT combined with biofeedback increases the beneficial effect of UVB therapy in the overall management of psoriasis, reduces the clinical severity of psoriasis, improving quality of life and decreases the number of minor psychiatric disorders. PMID:27283367

  18. Potential of Spirulina Platensis as a Nutritional Supplement in Malnourished HIV-Infected Adults in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Randomised, Single-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Azabji-Kenfack, M.; Dikosso, S. Edie; Loni, E.G.; Onana, E.A.; Sobngwi, E.; Gbaguidi, E.; Kana, A.L. Ngougni; Nguefack-Tsague, G.; Von der Weid, D.; Njoya, O.; Ngogang, J.

    2011-01-01

    compared between the two groups at the end of the trial, FFM was significantly higher in the spirulina group (42.2 vs. 39.0 Kg, P = 0.01). The haemoglobin level rose significantly within groups (P < 0.001 for each group) with no difference between groups (P = 0.77). Serum albumin level did not increase significantly within groups (P < 0.90 vs. P < 0.82) with no difference between groups (P = 0.39). The increase in CD4 cell count within groups was significant (P < 0.01 in both groups), with a significantly higher CD4 count in the spirulina group compared to subjects on soya beans at the end of the study (P = 0.02). Within each group, HIV viral load significantly reduced at the end of the study (P < 0.001 and P = 0.04 for spirulina and soya beans groups respectively). Between the groups, the viral load was similar at baseline but significantly reduced in the spirulina group at the end of the study (P = 0.02). Conclusion: We therefore conclude in this preliminary study, firstly, that both spirulina and soja improve on nutritional status of malnourished HIV-infected patients but in terms of quality of nutritional improvement, subjects on spirulina were better off than subjects on soya beans. Secondly, nutritional rehabilitation improves on immune status with a consequent drop in viral load but further investigations on the antiviral effects of this alga and its clinical implications are strongly needed. PMID:23946659

  19. Effect of workplace- versus home-based physical exercise on pain in healthcare workers: study protocol for a single blinded cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence and consequences of musculoskeletal pain is considerable among healthcare workers, allegedly due to high physical work demands of healthcare work. Previous investigations have shown promising results of physical exercise for relieving pain among different occupational groups, but the question remains whether such physical exercise should be performed at the workplace or conducted as home-based exercise. Performing physical exercise at the workplace together with colleagues may be more motivating for some employees and thus increase adherence. On the other hand, physical exercise performed during working hours at the workplace may be costly for the employers in terms of time spend. Thus, it seems relevant to compare the efficacy of workplace- versus home-based training on musculoskeletal pain. This study is intended to investigate the effect of workplace-based versus home-based physical exercise on musculoskeletal pain among healthcare workers. Methods/Design This study was designed as a cluster randomized controlled trial performed at 3 hospitals in Copenhagen, Denmark. Clusters are hospital departments and hospital units. Cluster randomization was chosen to increase adherence and avoid contamination between interventions. Two hundred healthcare workers from 18 departments located at three different hospitals is allocated to 10 weeks of 1) workplace based physical exercise performed during working hours (using kettlebells, elastic bands and exercise balls) for 5 × 10 minutes per week and up to 5 group-based coaching sessions, or 2) home based physical exercise performed during leisure time (using elastic bands and body weight exercises) for 5 × 10 minutes per week. Both intervention groups will also receive ergonomic instructions on patient handling and use of lifting aides etc. Inclusion criteria are female healthcare workers working at a hospital. Average pain intensity (VAS scale 0-10) of the back, neck and shoulder

  20. Participatory ergonomic intervention versus strength training on chronic pain and work disability in slaughterhouse workers: study protocol for a single-blind, randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in the shoulder, arm and hand is high among slaughterhouse workers, allegedly due to the highly repetitive and forceful exposure of these body regions during work. Work disability is a common consequence of these pains. Lowering the physical exposure through ergonomics intervention is the traditional strategy to reduce the workload. An alternative strategy could be to increase physical capacity of the worker through strength training. This study investigates the effect of two contrasting interventions, participatory ergonomics versus strength training on pain and work disability in slaughterhouse workers with chronic pain. Methods/design 66 slaughterhouse workers were allocated to 10 weeks of (1) strength training of the shoulder, arm and hand muscles for 3 x 10 minutes per week, or (2) participatory ergonomics involving counseling on workstation adjustment and optimal use of work tools (~usual care control group). Inclusion criteria were (1) working at a slaughterhouse for at least 30 hours per week, (2) pain intensity in the shoulder, elbow/forearm, or hand/wrist of at least 3 on a 0–10 VAS scale during the last three months, (3) pain lasting for more than 3 months, (4) frequent pain (at least 3 days per week) (5) at least moderate work disability, (6) no strength training during the last year, (7) no ergonomics instruction during the last year. Perceived pain intensity (VAS scale 0–10) of the shoulder, elbow/forearm and hand/wrist (primary outcome) and Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (Work module, DASH questionnaire) were measured at baseline and 10-week follow-up. Further, total muscle tenderness score and muscle function were assessed during clinical examination at baseline and follow-up. Discussion This RCT study will provide experimental evidence of the effectiveness of contrasting work-site interventions aiming at reducing chronic pain and work disability among employees engaged in

  1. The Effect of Radial Extracorporeal Shock Wave Stimulation on Upper Limb Spasticity in Chronic Stroke Patients: A Single-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Dymarek, Robert; Taradaj, Jakub; Rosińczuk, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the clinical, electrophysiological and thermal effects of radial extracorporeal shock wave (rESW) stimulation on upper limb muscles affected by spasticity in patients with chronic stroke. Patients included in the study were randomly assigned into the following two groups: 30 patients stimulated with active rESW (A); and 30 patients stimulated with placebo rESW (B). All patients were analyzed using the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) to test the spasticity levels of the elbow (E), radio carpal (RC) and fingers (FF) joints; surface electromyography (sEMG) was performed for the resting bioelectrical activity registration of the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) and flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) muscles; and infrared thermal imaging (IRT) was used to assess the temperature distributions of the carpal flexor muscles (CFM). All assessments were performed at baseline (t0), immediately after rESW (t1) as well as 1 and 24 h following its finalization (t2 and t3). Patients treated with active rESW showed a statistically significant reduction in the MAS score for the RC joint at t1 and for the FF joints at t1, t2 and t3 (p < 0.05). A significant decrease in sEMG activity was observed in the FCR and FCU muscles at t1, t2 and t3 (p < 0.05); significant increases in the mean and maximum values of the IRT detection was observed using inter-group comparisons in t2 and t3 (p < 0.05). No significant alterations were observed in patients after placebo rESW stimulation (p > 0.05). Applications of rESW demonstrating positive effects at reducing the level of spastic hypertonia of the upper limb muscles in patients with chronic stroke. ESW treatments should be considered as a potential anti-spastic effect to regulate vasculature. PMID:27126239

  2. Longitudinal effect of curcumin-photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy in adolescents during fixed orthodontic treatment: a single-blind randomized clinical trial study.

    PubMed

    Paschoal, Marco Aurélio; Moura, Cíntia Maria Zanin; Jeremias, Fabiano; Souza, Juliana Feltrin; Bagnato, Vanderlei S; Giusti, Juçaíra S M; Santos-Pinto, Lourdes

    2015-11-01

    White spot lesions are one of the concerns during the fixed orthodontic treatment. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial/anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin-photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (c-PACT) and chlorhexidine varnish on the plaque accumulation and gingival bleeding in adolescents under fixed orthodontic treatment. A randomized clinical trial was performed with an initial number of 45 patients being distributed into three groups: group I-chlorhexidine varnish 2%, group II-placebo varnish, and group III-c-PACT (curcumin at 1.5 mg.mL(-1)) exposed to blue Light-emitting diode (LED) light at 450 nm (power density = 165 mW.cm(-2), fluency = 96 J.cm(-2), total dose = 150.7 J). The treatments were performed for four consecutive times with an interval of 1 week each. After the interventions, two calibrated examiners (Kappa value = 0.75) analyzed the dental plaque accumulation by plaque index (PI) and gingivitis condition by gingival bleeding index (GBI) with 1 and 3 months of follow-up after the treatments comprised a final sample of 35 patients. No significant difference was found to PI between the groups during baseline and 1-month period. Group III (1.52 ± 0.51) presented significance difference from group I (0.91 ± 0.75) and group II (1.03 ± 0.51) at 3 months of follow-up. In this same period, there was more plaque accumulation with significant statistical difference (P ≤ 0.05) in comparison to the other periods to all studied groups. There was a GBI reduction statistically significant to groups I and III at 1-month follow-up in comparison to other periods. No effect was verified to dental plaque accumulation after the photodynamic application mediated with curcumin activated with a blue LED light. PMID:25543296

  3. Skin Antiageing and Systemic Redox Effects of Supplementation with Marine Collagen Peptides and Plant-Derived Antioxidants: A Single-Blind Case-Control Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Chiara; Mikhal'chik, Elena V.; Suprun, Maxim V.; Papacharalambous, Michael; Truhanov, Arseniy I.; Korkina, Liudmila G.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, development and research of nutraceuticals based on marine collagen peptides (MCPs) have been growing due to their high homology with human collagens, safety, bioavailability through gut, and numerous bioactivities. The major concern regarding safety of MCPs intake relates to increased risk of oxidative stress connected with collagen synthesis (likewise in fibrosis) and to ROS production by MCPs-stimulated phagocytes. In this clinical-laboratory study, fish skin MCPs combined with plant-derived skin-targeting antioxidants (AO) (coenzyme Q10 + grape-skin extract + luteolin + selenium) were administered to volunteers (n = 41). Skin properties (moisture, elasticity, sebum production, and biological age) and ultrasonic markers (epidermal/dermal thickness and acoustic density) were measured thrice (2 months before treatment and before and after cessation of 2-month oral intake). The supplementation remarkably improved skin elasticity, sebum production, and dermal ultrasonic markers. Metabolic data showed significant increase of plasma hydroxyproline and ATP storage in erythrocytes. Redox parameters, GSH/coenzyme Q10 content, and GPx/GST activities were unchanged, while NO and MDA were moderately increased within, however, normal range of values. Conclusions. A combination of MCPs with skin-targeting AOs could be effective and safe supplement to improve skin properties without risk of oxidative damage. PMID:26904164

  4. Effect of induced hypotensive anaesthesia vs isovolaemic haemodilution on blood loss and transfusion requirements in orthognathic surgery: a prospective, single-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Ervens, J; Marks, C; Hechler, M; Plath, T; Hansen, D; Hoffmeister, B

    2010-12-01

    Induced hypotensive anaesthesia and isovolaemic haemodilution are well-established blood-sparing techniques in major surgery. This prospective study compared them for blood loss, transfusion requirements, and surgical field quality during standardized orthognathic operations. In a surgeon-blinded trial, 60 healthy patients requiring either Le Fort I osteotomy or bimaxillary surgery were randomly allocated to receive normotensive anaesthesia, induced hypotensive anaesthesia, or induced hypotensive anaesthesia combined with isovolaemic haemodilution. Blood loss and haemoglobin level were measured intraoperatively and calculated on postoperative day 3. The surgeons rated surgical field quality. Mean blood loss was 1021.63, 392.38 (p<0.05) and 1191.65ml in the normotensive, hypotensive and haemodilution groups, respectively. Mean haemoglobin level immediately after surgery was 9.3, 10.3, and 7.4g/dl (p<0.05), respectively. No hypotensive group patients received transfusions; four normotensive group patients required allogenic transfusions; seven haemodilution group patients needed autogenous retransfusions (p<0.05). Surgical field quality was significantly better in the hypotensive than in the normotensive (p<0.05) or haemodilution (p<0.05) groups. In orthognathic surgery, hypotensive anaesthesia significantly reduces blood loss and transfusion requirements and minimizes allogenic transfusions risks. Induced hypotensive anaesthesia combined with isovolaemic haemodilution has no additional blood-sparing effects but impairs surgical field quality. PMID:20961738

  5. Does Hamulotomy during Palatoplasty Have Any Effect on Hearing Ability in Nonsyndromic Cleft Palate Patients? A Prospective, Single Blind, Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anuj; Nimonkar, Pranali; Bhola, Nitin; Borle, Rajiv; Sharma, Shishir; Oswal, Shrenik

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of palatoplasty is to achieve a tension-free palatal closure ensuring no postoperative complications. Many surgeons fracture the pterygoid hamulus to minimize tension during palatoplasty. However, this maneuver gained criticism by some authors on the grounds that it may lead to Eustachian Tube dysfunction. Our study intended to figure out the relationship of hamulus fracture with the postoperative state of middle ear in cleft palate children. Fifty consecutive cleft palate patients with an age range of 10 months to 5 years were recruited. All the patients were assigned to either hamulotomy or nonhamulotomy group preoperatively. The patients were subjected to otoscopic examination and auditory function evaluation by brainstem evoked response audiometry (BERA) preoperatively and 1 month and 6 months postoperatively. Otoscopy revealed that the difference in the improvement of middle ear status in both groups was statistically insignificant. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the BERA outcomes of the fracture and nonfracture populations. Complication rate in both groups was also statistically not significant. It can be concluded that hamulotomy does not have any effect on the hearing ability in cleft palate population, so hamulotomy can be performed for tension-free closure during palatoplasty. PMID:27006862

  6. Skin Antiageing and Systemic Redox Effects of Supplementation with Marine Collagen Peptides and Plant-Derived Antioxidants: A Single-Blind Case-Control Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Chiara; Mikhal'chik, Elena V; Suprun, Maxim V; Papacharalambous, Michael; Truhanov, Arseniy I; Korkina, Liudmila G

    2016-01-01

    Recently, development and research of nutraceuticals based on marine collagen peptides (MCPs) have been growing due to their high homology with human collagens, safety, bioavailability through gut, and numerous bioactivities. The major concern regarding safety of MCPs intake relates to increased risk of oxidative stress connected with collagen synthesis (likewise in fibrosis) and to ROS production by MCPs-stimulated phagocytes. In this clinical-laboratory study, fish skin MCPs combined with plant-derived skin-targeting antioxidants (AO) (coenzyme Q10 + grape-skin extract + luteolin + selenium) were administered to volunteers (n = 41). Skin properties (moisture, elasticity, sebum production, and biological age) and ultrasonic markers (epidermal/dermal thickness and acoustic density) were measured thrice (2 months before treatment and before and after cessation of 2-month oral intake). The supplementation remarkably improved skin elasticity, sebum production, and dermal ultrasonic markers. Metabolic data showed significant increase of plasma hydroxyproline and ATP storage in erythrocytes. Redox parameters, GSH/coenzyme Q10 content, and GPx/GST activities were unchanged, while NO and MDA were moderately increased within, however, normal range of values. Conclusions. A combination of MCPs with skin-targeting AOs could be effective and safe supplement to improve skin properties without risk of oxidative damage. PMID:26904164

  7. The Comparison of the Effects of Three Physiotherapy Techniques on Hamstring Flexibility in Children: A Prospective, Randomized, Single-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Czaprowski, Dariusz; Leszczewska, Justyna; Kolwicz, Aleksandra; Pawłowska, Paulina; Kędra, Agnieszka; Janusz, Piotr; Kotwicki, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in hamstring flexibility in 120 asymptomatic children who participated in a 6-week program consisting of one physiotherapy session per week and daily home exercises. The recruitment criteria included age (10–13 years), no pain, injury or musculoskeletal disorder throughout the previous year, physical activity limited to school sport. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: (1) post-isometric relaxation – PIR (n = 40), (2) static stretch combined with stabilizing exercises – SS (n = 40) and (3) stabilizing exercises – SE (n = 40). Hamstring flexibility was assessed with straight leg raise (SLR), popliteal angle (PA) and finger-to-floor (FTF) tests. The examinations were conducted by blinded observers twice, prior to the program and a week after the last session with the physiotherapist. Twenty-six children who did not participate in all six exercise sessions with physiotherapists were excluded from the analysis. The results obtained by 94 children were analyzed (PIR, n = 32; SS, n = 31; SE, n = 31). In the PIR and SS groups, a significant (P<0.01) increase in SLR, PA, FTF results was observed. In the SE group, a significant (P<0.001) increase was observed in the SLR but not in the PA and FTF (P>0.05). SLR result in the PIR and SS groups was significantly (P<0.001) higher than in the SE group. As far as PA results are concerned, a significant difference was observed only between the SS and SE groups (P = 0.014). There were no significant (P = 0.15) differences regarding FTF results between the three groups. Post-isometric muscle relaxation and static stretch with stabilizing exercises led to a similar increase in hamstring flexibility and trunk forward bend in healthy 10–13-year-old children. The exercises limited to straightening gluteus maximus improved the SLR result, but did not change the PA and FTF results. PMID:23951281

  8. Changes in Running Performance After Four Weeks of Interval Hypoxic Training in Australian Footballers: A Single-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    McLean, Blake D; Tofari, Paul J; Gore, Christopher J; Kemp, Justin G

    2015-11-01

    There is a paucity of data examining the impact of high-intensity interval hypoxic training (IHT) on intermittent running performance. This study assessed the effects of IHT on 17 amateur Australian Footballers, who completed 8 interval treadmill running sessions (IHT [FIO2 = 15.1%] or PLACEBO) over 4 weeks, in addition to normoxic football (2 per week) and resistance (2 per week) training sessions. To match relative training intensity, absolute IHT intensity reduced by 6% of normoxic vV[Combining Dot Above]O2peak compared with PLACEBO. Before and after the intervention, performance was assessed by Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) and a self-paced team sport running protocol. Standardized effect size statistics were calculated using Cohen's d to compare between the interventions. Compared with PLACEBO, IHT subjects experienced (a) smaller improvements in Yo-Yo IR2 performance (Cohen's d = -0.42 [-0.82 to -0.02; 90% confidence interval]); (b) similar increases in high-intensity running distance during the team sport protocol (d = 0.17 [-0.50 to 0.84]); and (c) greater improvements in total distance (d = 0.72 [0.33-1.10]) and distance covered during low-intensity activity (d = 0.59 [-0.07 to 1.11]) during the team sport protocol. The lower absolute training intensity of IHT may explain the smaller improvements in Yo-Yo IR2 performance in the hypoxic group. Conversely, the data from the self-paced protocol suggest that IHT may positively influence pacing strategies in team sport athletes. In conclusion, IHT alters pacing strategies in team sport athletes (i.e., increased distance covered during low-intensity activity). However, IHT leads to smaller improvements in externally paced high-intensity intermittent running performance (i.e., Yo-Yo IR2), which may be related to a reduced absolute training intensity during IHT sessions. PMID:25944456

  9. Anesthetic Efficacy of a Combination of 0.9 M Mannitol Plus 68.8 mg of Lidocaine With 50 μg Epinephrine in Inferior Alveolar Nerve Blocks: A Prospective Randomized, Single Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Howard; Reader, Al; Drum, Melissa; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective randomized, single blind study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of 68.8 mg of lidocaine with 50 μg epinephrine compared to 68.8 mg lidocaine with 50 μg epinephrine plus 0.9 M mannitol in inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) blocks. Forty subjects randomly received 2 IAN blocks consisting of a 1.72-mL formulation of 68.8 mg lidocaine with 50 μg epinephrine and a 5-mL formulation of 68.8 mg lidocaine with 50 μg epinephrine (1.72 mL) plus 0.9 M mannitol (3.28 mL) in 2 separate appointments spaced at least 1 week apart. Mandibular anterior and posterior teeth were blindly electric pulp tested at 4-minute cycles for 60 minutes postinjection. No response from the subject to the maximum output (80 reading) of the pulp tester was used as the criterion for pulpal anesthesia. Total percent pulpal anesthesia was defined as the total of all the times of pulpal anesthesia (80 readings), for each tooth, over the 60 minutes. One hundred percent of the subjects had profound lip numbness with both inferior alveolar nerve blocks. The results demonstrated that the 5 mL-formulation of 68.8 mg lidocaine with 50 μg epinephrine plus 0.9 M mannitol was significantly better than the 1.72-mL formulation of 68.8 mg lidocaine with 50 μg epinephrine for all teeth, except the lateral incisor. We concluded that adding 0.9 M mannitol to a lidocaine with epinephrine formulation was significantly more effective in achieving a greater percentage of total pulpal anesthesia (as defined in this study) than a lidocaine formulation without mannitol. However, the 0.9 M mannitol/lidocaine formulation would not provide 100% pulpal anesthesia for all the mandibular teeth. PMID:24423417

  10. Probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum 299v increases iron absorption from an iron-supplemented fruit drink: a double-isotope cross-over single-blind study in women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Michael; Önning, Gunilla; Berggren, Anna; Hulthén, Lena

    2015-10-28

    Iron deficiency is common, especially among young women. Adding probiotics to foods could be one way to increase iron absorption. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that non-haem iron absorption from a fruit drink is improved by adding Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (Lp299v). Iron absorption was studied in healthy women of reproductive age using a single-blind cross-over design in two trials applying the double-isotope (55Fe and 59Fe) technique. In Trial 1, iron absorption from a fruit drink containing 109 colony-forming units (CFU) Lp299v was compared with that from a control drink without Lp299v. Trial 2 had the same design but 1010 CFU were used. The test and control drinks contained approximately 5 mg of iron as ferrous lactate and were labelled with 59Fe (B) and 55Fe (A), respectively, and consumed on 4 consecutive days in the order AABB. Retention of the isotopes was measured with whole-body counting and in blood. Mean iron absorption from the drink containing 109 CFU Lp299v (28·6(sd 12·5) %) was significantly higher than from the control drink (18·5(sd 5·8) %), n 10, P<0·028). The fruit drink with 1010 CFU Lp299v gave a mean iron absorption of 29·1(sd 17·0) %, whereas the control drink gave an absorption of (20·1(sd 6·4) %) (n 11, P<0·080). The difference in iron absorption between the 109 CFU Lp299v and the 1010 CFU Lp299v drinks was not significant (P=0·941). In conclusion, intake of probiotics can increase iron absorption by approximately 50 % from a fruit drink having an already relatively high iron bioavailability. PMID:26428277

  11. Alga Ecklonia bicyclis, Tribulus terrestris, and glucosamine oligosaccharide improve erectile function, sexual quality of life, and ejaculation function in patients with moderate mild-moderate erectile dysfunction: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blinded study.

    PubMed

    Sansalone, Salvatore; Leonardi, Rosario; Antonini, Gabriele; Vitarelli, Antonio; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Basic, Dragoslav; Morgia, Giuseppe; Cimino, Sebastiano; Russo, Giorgio Ivan

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of oral therapy with alga Ecklonia bicyclis, Tribulus terrestris, and glucosamine oligosaccharide (Tradamix TX1000) in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) at 3 months of follow-up. From January 2013 to September 2013, 177 patients diagnosed with mild-moderate ED (IIEF-EF < 26) were enrolled in this multicenter, single-blinded, placebo-controlled study and randomized in Group A (Tradamix, n = 87) and Group B (placebo, n = 90). Penile color Doppler ultrasound measures, IIEF-15 questionnaire, male sexual health questionnaire-ejaculation disorder (MSHQ-EjD), and sexual quality of life (SQoL-M) were collected. We observed significant changes of the IIEF-15 in Group A (mean difference: 11.54; P < 0.05) at 3 months versus Group B (P < 0.05). PSV (P < 0.05), IIEF-intercourse satisfaction (P < 0.05), IIEF-orgasmic function (mean P < 0.05), IIEF-sexual desire (P < 0.05), IIEF-overall satisfaction (P < 0.05), MSHQ-EjD (mean difference: 1.21; P < 0.05), and SQoL-M (mean difference: 10.2; P < 0.05) were significantly changed in Group A versus baseline and Group B. Patients with moderate arterial dysfunction showed significant increase of PSV (P < 0.05), IIEF-EF (P < 0.05), MSHQ-EjD (P < 0.05), and SQoL-M (P < 0.05) in Group A. Therapy with Tradamix improves erectile and ejaculation function and sexual quality of life in patients with mild-moderate ED and in particular for those with moderate arterial dysfunction. PMID:25136552

  12. Alga Ecklonia bicyclis, Tribulus terrestris, and Glucosamine Oligosaccharide Improve Erectile Function, Sexual Quality of Life, and Ejaculation Function in Patients with Moderate Mild-Moderate Erectile Dysfunction: A Prospective, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Single-Blinded Study

    PubMed Central

    Sansalone, Salvatore; Leonardi, Rosario; Antonini, Gabriele; Vitarelli, Antonio; Vespasiani, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of oral therapy with alga Ecklonia bicyclis, Tribulus terrestris, and glucosamine oligosaccharide (Tradamix TX1000) in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) at 3 months of follow-up. From January 2013 to September 2013, 177 patients diagnosed with mild-moderate ED (IIEF-EF < 26) were enrolled in this multicenter, single-blinded, placebo-controlled study and randomized in Group A (Tradamix, n = 87) and Group B (placebo, n = 90). Penile color Doppler ultrasound measures, IIEF-15 questionnaire, male sexual health questionnaire-ejaculation disorder (MSHQ-EjD), and sexual quality of life (SQoL-M) were collected. We observed significant changes of the IIEF-15 in Group A (mean difference: 11.54; P < 0.05) at 3 months versus Group B (P < 0.05). PSV (P < 0.05), IIEF-intercourse satisfaction (P < 0.05), IIEF-orgasmic function (mean P < 0.05), IIEF-sexual desire (P < 0.05), IIEF-overall satisfaction (P < 0.05), MSHQ-EjD (mean difference: 1.21; P < 0.05), and SQoL-M (mean difference: 10.2; P < 0.05) were significantly changed in Group A versus baseline and Group B. Patients with moderate arterial dysfunction showed significant increase of PSV (P < 0.05), IIEF-EF (P < 0.05), MSHQ-EjD (P < 0.05), and SQoL-M (P < 0.05) in Group A. Therapy with Tradamix improves erectile and ejaculation function and sexual quality of life in patients with mild-moderate ED and in particular for those with moderate arterial dysfunction. PMID:25136552

  13. A single-blinded, single-centre, controlled study in healthy adult smokers to identify the effects of a reduced toxicant prototype cigarette on biomarkers of exposure and of biological effect versus commercial cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite universal acceptance that smoking is harmful, a substantial number of adults continue to smoke. The development of potential reduced exposure products (more recently termed modified risk tobacco products) has been suggested as a way to reduce the risks of tobacco smoking. This trial is designed to investigate whether changes in toxicant exposure after switching from a commercial to reduced toxicant prototype (RTP) cigarette (7 mg International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) tar yield) can be assessed by measurement of biomarkers and other factors. The primary objective is to descriptively assess changes in selected biomarkers of exposure (BoE) and biomarkers of biological effect (BoBE) within participants and within and between groups after switching. Secondary objectives are to assess similarly changes in other biomarkers, quality of life, smoking behaviours, physiological measures, mouth-level exposure to toxicants and sensory perception. Methods/design This trial will assess current smokers, ex-smokers and never-smokers in a single-centre single-blind, controlled clinical trial with a forced-switching design and in-clinic (residential) and ambulatory (non-residential) periods. Smokers will be aged 23–55 years (minimum legal smoking age plus 5 years) and non-smokers 28–55 years (minimum legal smoking age plus 5 years, plus minimum 5 years since last smoked). Smokers will be allowed to smoke freely at all times. We will assess changes in selected BoE and BoBE and effective dose in urine and blood after switching. Creatinine concentrations in serum, creatinine clearance in urine, cotinine concentration in saliva, diaries and collection of spent cigarette filters will be used to assess compliance with the study protocol. Mouth-level exposure to toxins will be assessed by filter analysis. Discussion Data from this study are expected to improve scientific understanding of the effects of RTP cigarettes on BoE and BoBE, and

  14. Effect of a Medicinal Agaricus blazei Murill-Based Mushroom Extract, AndoSan™, on Symptoms, Fatigue and Quality of Life in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis in a Randomized Single-Blinded Placebo Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Therkelsen, Stig Palm; Hetland, Geir; Lyberg, Torstein; Lygren, Idar; Johnson, Egil

    2016-01-01

    Background Ingestion of AndoSan™, based on the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill, has previously been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects because of reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in healthy individuals and patients with ulcerative colitis. In this randomized single-blinded placebo controlled study we examined whether intake of AndoSan™ also resulted in clinical effects. Methods and Findings 50 patients with symptomatic ulcerative colitis were block-randomized and blinded for oral daily intake of AndoSan™ or placebo for the 21 days’ experimental period. The patients reported scores for symptoms, fatigue and health related quality of life (HRQoL) at days 0, 14 and 21. Fecal calprotectin and general blood parameters were also analyzed. In the AndoSan™ group (n = 24) symptoms improved from baseline (day 0) to days 14 and 21, with respective mean scores (95% CI) of 5.88 (4.92–6.83), 4.71 (3.90–5.52) (p = 0.002) and 4.50 (3.70–5.30) (p = 0.001). Corresponding improved mean scores (±SD) for total fatigue were 16.6 (5.59), 14.1 (4.50) (p = 0.001) and 15.1 (4.09) (p = 0.023). These scores in the placebo group (n = 26) were not improved. When comparing the two study groups using mixed model statistics, we found significant better scores for the AndoSan™-patients. HRQoL for dimensions bodily pain, vitality, social functioning and mental health improved in the AndoSan™ group. There were no alterations in general blood samples and fecal calprotectin. Conclusions Beneficiary effects on symptoms, fatigue and HRQoL from AndoSan™ consumption were demonstrated in this per-protocol study, supporting its use as a supplement to conventional medication for patients with mild to moderate symptoms from ulcerative colitis. The patients did not report any harms or unintended effects of AndoSan™ in this study. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01496053 PMID:26933886

  15. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Coates, J.D.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    A multi-well microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot has been performed in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit in Payne County, Oklahoma. The primary emphasis of the experiment was preferential plugging of high permeability zones for the purpose of improving waterflood sweep efficiency. Studies were performed to determine reservoir chemistry, ecology, and indigenous bacteria populations. Growth experiments were used to select a nutrient system compatible with the reservoir that encouraged growth of a group of indigenous nitrate-using bacteria and inhibit growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. A specific field pilot area behind an active line drive waterflood was selected. Surface facilities were designed and installed. Injection protocols of bulk nutrient materials were prepared to facilitate uniform distribution of nutrients within the pilot area. By the end of December, 1991, 82.5 tons (75.0 tonnes) of nutrients had been injected in the field. A tracer test identified significant heterogeneity in the SEVVSU and made it necessary to monitor additional production wells in the field. The tracer tests and changes in production behavior indicate the additional production wells monitored during the field trial were also affected. Eighty two and one half barrels (13.1 m[sup 3]) of tertiary oil have been recovered. Microbial activity has increased CO[sub 2] content as indicated by increased alkalinity. A temporary rise in sulfide concentration was experienced. These indicate an active microbial community was generated in the field by the nutrient injection. Pilot area interwell pressure interference test results showed that significant permeability reduction occurred. The interwell permeabilities in the pilot area between the injector and the three pilot production wells were made more uniform which indicates a successful preferential plugging enhanced oil recovery project.

  16. Anesthetic Efficacy of a Combination of 0.5 M Mannitol Plus 36.8 mg of Lidocaine With 18.4 μg Epinephrine in Maxillary Infiltration: A Prospective, Randomized, Single-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Younkin, Kevin; Reader, Al; Drum, Melissa; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, single-blind study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of lidocaine with epinephrine compared to lidocaine with epinephrine plus 0.5 M mannitol in maxillary lateral incisor infiltrations. Forty-one subjects randomly received 2 maxillary lateral infiltrations consisting of a 1.84-mL solution of 36.8 mg lidocaine with 18.4 μg epinephrine (control solution) and a 2.90-mL solution of 36.8 mg lidocaine with 18.4 μg epinephrine (1.84 mL) plus 0.5 M mannitol (1.06 mL) in 2 separate appointments spaced at least 1 week apart. The maxillary lateral incisor was blindly electric pulp–tested in 2-minute cycles for 60 minutes postinjection. No response from the subject to the maximum output (a reading of 80) of the pulp tester was used as the criterion for pulpal anesthesia. Total percent pulpal anesthesia was defined as the total of all pulpal anesthesia readings (at output of 80) over the 60-minute test period. Pain during solution deposition and postoperative pain were also measured. The results demonstrated that a 2.90-mL solution of 36.8 mg lidocaine with 18.4 μg epinephrine (1.84 mL) plus 0.5 M mannitol (1.06 mL) was not statistically significantly superior to a 1.84-mL solution of 36.8 mg lidocaine with 18.4 μg epinephrine. The pain of solution deposition was lower with the lidocaine/mannitol formulation. Postoperative pain was not statistically significantly different between the lidocaine/mannitol formulation and the lidocaine formulation without mannitol. We concluded that adding 0.5 M mannitol to a lidocaine with epinephrine formulation was not significantly more effective in achieving a greater percentage of total pulpal anesthesia (as defined in this study) than a lidocaine formulation without mannitol in the maxillary lateral incisor. PMID:24932979

  17. The Pilot Training Study: Personnel Flow and the PILOT Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooz, W. E.

    The results of the Rand study of pilot flows and the computer-operated decision model, called the PILOT model, are described. The flows of pilots within the Air Force are caused by policies that require the career-development rotation of pilots from cockpit jobs to desk jobs, the maintenance of a supplement of pilots in excess of cockpit-related…

  18. Local restoration of dystrophin expression with the morpholino oligomer AVI-4658 in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a single-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation, proof-of-concept study

    PubMed Central

    Kinali, Maria; Arechavala-Gomeza, Virginia; Feng, Lucy; Cirak, Sebahattin; Hunt, David; Adkin, Carl; Guglieri, Michela; Ashton, Emma; Abbs, Stephen; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros; Garralda, Maria Elena; Rutherford, Mary; Mcculley, Caroline; Popplewell, Linda; Graham, Ian R; Dickson, George; Wood, Matthew JA; Wells, Dominic J; Wilton, Steve D; Kole, Ryszard; Straub, Volker; Bushby, Kate; Sewry, Caroline; Morgan, Jennifer E; Muntoni, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background Mutations that disrupt the open reading frame and prevent full translation of DMD, the gene that encodes dystrophin, underlie the fatal X-linked disease Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Oligonucleotides targeted to splicing elements (splice switching oligonucleotides) in DMD pre-mRNA can lead to exon skipping, restoration of the open reading frame, and the production of functional dystrophin in vitro and in vivo, which could benefit patients with this disorder. Methods We did a single-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study in patients with DMD recruited nationally, to assess the safety and biochemical efficacy of an intramuscular morpholino splice-switching oligonucleotide (AVI-4658) that skips exon 51 in dystrophin mRNA. Seven patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy with deletions in the open reading frame of DMD that are responsive to exon 51 skipping were selected on the basis of the preservation of their extensor digitorum brevis (EDB) muscle seen on MRI and the response of cultured fibroblasts from a skin biopsy to AVI-4658. AVI-4658 was injected into the EDB muscle; the contralateral muscle received saline. Muscles were biopsied between 3 and 4 weeks after injection. The primary endpoint was the safety of AVI-4658 and the secondary endpoint was its biochemical efficacy. This trial is registered, number NCT00159250. Findings Two patients received 0·09 mg AVI-4658 in 900 μL (0·9%) saline and five patients received 0·9 mg AVI-4658 in 900 μL saline. No adverse events related to AVI-4658 administration were reported. Intramuscular injection of the higher-dose of AVI-4658 resulted in increased dystrophin expression in all treated EDB muscles, although the results of the immunostaining of EDB-treated muscle for dystrophin were not uniform. In the areas of the immunostained sections that were adjacent to the needle track through which AVI-4658 was given, 44–79% of myofibres had increased expression of dystrophin. In randomly chosen

  19. The Pilot Training Study: Advanced Pilot Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, P. J.

    An overview is presented of advanced pilot training and of the formal advanced pilot training program that constitutes the primary means of providing this training. Section I deals with the various phases of advanced pilot training that a pilot may encounter during his career; Section II deals with the types of aircraft that require some form of…

  20. Microbial Field Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1990-11-01

    This report covers progress made during the first year of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology and characterization, facility and treatment design, core experiments, bacterial mobility, and mathematical modeling are addressed. To facilitate an understanding of the ecology of the target reservoir analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. A preliminary design of facilities for the operation of the field pilot test was prepared. In addition, procedures for facilities installation and for injection treatments are described. The Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU), the site of the proposed field pilot study, is described physically, historically, and geologically. The fields current status is presented and the ongoing reservoir simulation is discussed. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. Two possible mechanisms, relative permeability effects and changes in the capillary number, are discussed and related to four Berea core experiments' results. The experiments were conducted at reservoir temperature using SEVVSU oil, brine, and bacteria. The movement and activity of bacteria in porous media were investigated by monitoring the growth of bacteria in sandpack cores under no flow conditions. The rate of bacteria advancement through the cores was determined. A mathematical model of the MEOR process has been developed. The model is a three phase, seven species, one dimensional model. Finite difference methods are used for solution. Advection terms in balance equations are represented with a third- order upwind differencing scheme to reduce numerical dispersion and oscillations. The model is applied to a batch fermentation example. 52 refs., 26 figs., 21 tabs.

  1. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year's report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

  2. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year`s report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

  3. MELBOURNE HIGH SCHOOL PILOT STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BESVINICK, SIDNEY L.; CRITTENDEN, JOHN

    TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE GRADUATES OF MELBOURNE HIGH SCHOOL, IN BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA, WERE SUFFICIENTLY DIFFERENT FROM GRADUATES OF ANOTHER HIGH SCHOOL IN THE SAME DISTRICT TO WARRANT FURTHER RESEARCH, A PILOT STUDY WAS CONDUCTED. MELBOURNE HAS RECEIVED ACCLAIM FOR ITS NONGRADED, CONTINUOUS PROGRESS, INNOVATIVE CURRICULUM AND FOR THE NUMEROUS…

  4. Rehabilitation Education: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Kolk, Charles; Jaques, Marceline E.

    1972-01-01

    The presentation of undergraduate courses in rehabilitation could serve several purposes: (a) preparation for graduate level work; (b) training for support personnel; and (c) interdisciplinary education. This article describes a pilot study of a course in rehabilitation to investigate through pre- and post measures, attitude change, attainment of…

  5. A multi-site single-blind clinical study to compare the effects of STAIR Narrative Therapy to treatment as usual among women with PTSD in public sector mental health settings: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This article provides a description of the rationale, design, and methods of a multisite clinical trial which evaluates the potential benefits of an evidence-based psychosocial treatment, STAIR Narrative Therapy, among women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to interpersonal violence who are seeking services in public sector community mental health clinics. This is the first large multisite trial of an evidence-based treatment for PTSD provided in the context of community settings that are dedicated to the treatment of poverty-level patient populations. Methods The study is enrolling 352 participants in a minimum of 4 community clinics. Participants are randomized into either STAIR Narrative Therapy or Treatment As Usual (TAU). Primary outcomes are PTSD, emotion management and interpersonal problems. The study will allow a flexible application of the protocol determined by patient need and preferences. Secondary analyses will assess the relationship of outcomes to different patterns of treatment implementation for different levels of baseline symptom severity. Discussion The article discusses the rationale and study issues related to the use of a flexible delivery of a protocol treatment and of the selection of treatment as it is actually practiced in the community as the comparator. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01488539. PMID:24886235

  6. Conducting pilot and feasibility studies.

    PubMed

    Cope, Diane G

    2015-03-01

    Planning a well-designed research study can be tedious and laborious work. However, this process is critical and ultimately can produce valid, reliable study findings. Designing a large-scale randomized, controlled trial (RCT)-the gold standard in quantitative research-can be even more challenging. Even the most well-planned study potentially can result in issues with research procedures and design, such as recruitment, retention, or methodology. One strategy that may facilitate sound study design is the completion of a pilot or feasibility study prior to the initiation of a larger-scale trial. This article will discuss pilot and feasibility studies, their advantages and disadvantages, and implications for oncology nursing research. 
. PMID:25806886

  7. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, A.; Moses, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Currently on the International Space Station (ISS) and other space vehicles Caution & Warning (C&W) alerts are represented with various auditory tones that correspond to the type of event. This system relies on the crew's ability to remember what each tone represents in a high stress, high workload environment when responding to the alert. Furthermore, crew receive a year or more in advance of the mission that makes remembering the semantic meaning of the alerts more difficult. The current system works for missions conducted close to Earth where ground operators can assist as needed. On long duration missions, however, they will need to work off-nominal events autonomously. There is evidence that speech alarms may be easier and faster to recognize, especially during an off-nominal event. The Information Presentation Directed Research Project (FY07-FY09) funded by the Human Research Program included several studies investigating C&W alerts. The studies evaluated tone alerts currently in use with NASA flight deck displays along with candidate speech alerts. A follow-on study used four types of speech alerts to investigate how quickly various types of auditory alerts with and without a speech component - either at the beginning or at the end of the tone - can be identified. Even though crew were familiar with the tone alert from training or direct mission experience, alerts starting with a speech component were identified faster than alerts starting with a tone. The current study replicated the results from the previous study in a more rigorous experimental design to determine if the candidate speech alarms are ready for transition to operations or if more research is needed. Four types of alarms (caution, warning, fire, and depressurization) were presented to participants in both tone and speech formats in laboratory settings and later in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA). In the laboratory study, the alerts were presented by software and participants were

  8. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Moses, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    Speech alarms have been used extensively in aviation and included in International Building Codes (IBC) and National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) Life Safety Code. However, they have not been implemented on space vehicles. Previous studies conducted at NASA JSC showed that speech alarms lead to faster identification and higher accuracy. This research evaluated updated speech and tone alerts in a laboratory environment and in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) in a realistic setup.

  9. A Randomized, Multi-Center, Single Blind, Active-Controlled, Matched Pairs Clinical Study to Evaluate Prevention of Adhesion Formation and Safety of HyFence in Patients After Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chul; Hong, Sung-Moon; Cho, Jin-Hee; Shim, Sang Yul; Cho, Jung-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Recurrent mucosal disease and anatomic obstruction are commonly cited causes of failed endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Hyaluronic acid (HA) has been reported to reduce scarring and to promote wound healing in sinonasal surgery. HyFence is HA stabilized by 1, 4-butandiol diglycidyl ether, which makes it less-water-soluble and highly viscoelastic. The purpose of this study is to examine the anti-adhesion effect of HyFence after ESS compared to that of HA-CMC (Guardix-Sol). Methods Seventy-four patients with chronic rhinosinusitis who underwent ESS were included in the study. After the ESS procedure, Merocel was placed in the ethmoidectomized areas of the both sides. Five milliliters of Guardix-Sol was then applied to the Merocel of one side and HyFence LV was applied to the other side. The effect of the agents was evaluated at one, two, and four weeks after surgery by endoscopic examination. The severity of adhesion, edema, infection and complications were evaluated. Results There was no significant difference in the incidence of postoperative adhesion between the HyFence group and the Guardix-Sol group (P>0.05). Mean postoperative grades of edema and infection showed no significant difference between groups (P>0.05). There was no significant postoperative complications associated with either anti-adhesion agent (P>0.05). Conclusion HyFence has equivalent anti-adhesion effect compared to Guardix-Sol following ESS. PMID:24587878

  10. A comparison of ketamine-midazolam and ketamine-propofol combinations used for sedation in the endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration: a prospective, single-blind, randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Dal, Tülay; Sazak, Hilal; Şahin, Şaziye; Yılmaz, Aydın

    2014-01-01

    Objective We aimed to compare the effectiveness and safety of ketamine-midazolam and ketamine-propofol combinations for procedural sedation in endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA). Methods Sixty patients who were undergoing EBUS-TBNA were included in this study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 was given 0.25 mg/kg intravenous (iv) ketamine, 2 min later than 0.05 mg/kg iv midazolam. Group 2 received 0.125 mg/kg ketamine-propofol mixture (ketofol), 2 min subsequent to injection of 0.25 mg/kg each. Sedation was maintained with additional doses of ketamine 0.25 mg/kg, and ketofol 0.125 mg/kg each in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. Blood pressure, heart rate (HR), peripheral oxygen saturation, respiratory rate (RR), Ramsay Sedation Score (RSS), and severity of cough were recorded prior to and after administration of sedation agent in the beginning of fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) and every 5 min of the procedure. The consumption of the agents, the satisfactions of the bronchoscopist and the patients, and the recovery time were also recorded. Results HR in the 10th min and RSS value in the 35th min of induction in Group 1 were higher than the other group (P<0.05). The recovery time in Group 1 was statistically longer than Group 2 (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between groups with respect to other parameters (P>0.05). Conclusions It was concluded that both ketamine-midazolam and ketamine-propofol combinations for sedation during EBUS-TBNA were similarly effective and safe without remarkable side effects. PMID:24976998

  11. Efficacy of triplet regimen antiemetic therapy for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in bone and soft tissue sarcoma patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy, and an efficacy comparison of single-shot palonosetron and consecutive-day granisetron for CINV in a randomized, single-blinded crossover study.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Norio; Shirai, Toshiharu; Nishida, Hideji; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Tanzawa, Yoshikazu; Takeuchi, Akihiko; Igarashi, Kentaro; Inatani, Hiroyuki; Shimozaki, Shingo; Kato, Takashi; Aoki, Yu; Higuchi, Takashi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    The first aim of this study was to evaluate combination antiemetic therapy consisting of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists (NK-1RAs), and dexamethasone for multiple high emetogenic risk (HER) anticancer agents in bone and soft tissue sarcoma. The second aim was to compare the effectiveness of single-shot palonosetron and consecutive-day granisetron in a randomized, single-blinded crossover study. A single randomization method was used to assign eligible patients to the palonosetron or granisetron arm. Patients in the palonosetron arm received a palonosetron regimen during the first and third chemotherapy courses and a granisetron regimen during the second and fourth courses. All patients received NK-1RA and dexamethasone. Patients receiving the palonosetron regimen were administered 0.75 mg palonosetron on day 1, and patients receiving the granisetron regimen were administered 3 mg granisetron twice daily on days 1 through 5. All 24 patients in this study received at least 4 chemotherapy courses. A total of 96 courses of antiemetic therapy were evaluated. Overall, the complete response CR rate (no emetic episodes and no rescue medication use) was 34%, while the total control rate (a CR plus no nausea) was 7%. No significant differences were observed between single-shot palonosetron and consecutive-day granisetron. Antiemetic therapy with a 3-drug combination was not sufficient to control chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) during chemotherapy with multiple HER agents for bone and soft tissue sarcoma. This study also demonstrated that consecutive-day granisetron was not inferior to single-shot palonosetron for treating CINV. PMID:25533447

  12. 90% Compliance Pilot Studies Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    In early 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced an opportunity for states to participate in energy code compliance evaluation pilot studies. DOE worked with five Regional Energy Efficiency Organizations (REEOs, formerly referred to as Energy Efficiency Partnerships, or EEPs) to fund pilot studies covering nine states. This report details conclusions stated in individual state reports, as well as conclusions drawn by DOE based on their oversight of the pilot studies, and based on discussions held with the REEOs and representatives from the pilot study states and their contractors.

  13. Classroom acoustics: Three pilot studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smaldino, Joseph J.

    2005-04-01

    This paper summarizes three related pilot projects designed to focus on the possible effects of classroom acoustics on fine auditory discrimination as it relates to language acquisition, especially English as a second language. The first study investigated the influence of improving the signal-to-noise ratio on the differentiation of English phonemes. The results showed better differentiation with better signal-to-noise ratio. The second studied speech perception in noise by young adults for whom English was a second language. The outcome indicated that the second language learners required a better signal-to-noise ratio to perform equally to the native language participants. The last study surveyed the acoustic conditions of preschool and day care classrooms, wherein first and second language learning occurs. The survey suggested an unfavorable acoustic environment for language learning.

  14. A pilot study of proximal strength training in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    PubMed

    Ramdharry, Gita M; Pollard, Alexander; Anderson, Cheryl; Laurá, Matilde; Murphy, Sinead M; Dudziec, Magdalena; Dewar, Elizabeth L; Hutton, Elspeth; Grant, Robert; Reilly, Mary M

    2014-12-01

    Gait analysis of people with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease revealed proximal adaptive gait strategies to compensate for foot drop. We previously demonstrated that hip flexor muscle fatigue can limit walking endurance. This pilot study used a single-blinded cross over design to investigate the effect of a 16-week home-based programme of resistance training on hip flexor muscle strength. Measures of walking endurance, gait speed, exertion, fatigue, and general activity were also recorded. The exercise protocol was based on American College of Sports Medicine recommendations. A mixed effects model was used for analysis. Twenty-six people finished the study, with average reported exercise participation of 93%. No negative effects of exercise were observed. Significant increase in hip flexor muscle strength was observed on the left, but not the right. No changes were observed in walking speed and endurance measures. This pilot study of home-based resistance training showed a modest improvement in hip strength but only on one side. The lack of a more significant improvement and no improvement in walking measures suggests that this training protocol may not be optimal for people with CMT and that patients may need to stratified differently for training studies in CMT. PMID:25582960

  15. Efficacy and safety of Tinospora cordifolia lotion in Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis-infected pediatric patients: A single blind, randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Agnes L.; Osi, Marina O.; Ramos, John Donnie A.; De Francia, Jean L.; Dujunco, Marylaine U.; Quilala, Peter F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of Tinospora cordifolia lotion including its cure rate and clearance time compared with permethrin lotion. Materials and Methods: A single blind, randomized, controlled, pilot clinical study was performed in three government institutions to investigate clinical efficacy of T. cordifolia lotion in sixty-six clinically-diagnosed scabies-infected patients. The patients were treated with T. cordifolia or permethrin lotions for three consecutive days for two weeks and clinical assessment of each patient was performed for five weeks. Results: T. cordifolia lotion and permethrin significantly reduced the mean global evaluation score after four weeks of treatment. The two lotions showed comparable effects as anti-scabies agent. Moreover, the clearance time (days) and cure rate using the two lotions did not differ. Clinical improvement, mean clearance time and cure rate of T. cordifolia lotion are comparable with permethrin. Conclusions: Tinospora cordifolia lotion exhibits anti-scabies activity comparable with permethrin. Its incorporation as therapeutic reagent in Sarcoptes scabiei infections is highly recommended. PMID:23662023

  16. How to improve walking, balance and social participation following stroke: a comparison of the long term effects of two walking aids--canes and an orthosis TheraTogs--on the recovery of gait following acute stroke. A study protocol for a multi-centre, single blind, randomised control trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Annually, some 9000 people in Switzerland suffer a first time stroke. Of these 60% are left with moderate to severe walking disability. Evidence shows that rehabilitation techniques which emphasise activity of the hemiplegic side increase ipsilesional cortical plasticity and improve functional outcomes. Canes are commonly used in gait rehabilitation although they significantly reduce hemiplegic muscle activity. We have shown that an orthosis "TheraTogs" (a corset with elasticated strapping) significantly increases hemiplegic muscle activity during gait. The aim of the present study is to investigate the long term effects on the recovery of gait, balance and social participation of gait rehabilitation with TheraTogs compared to gait rehabilitation with a cane following first time acute stroke. Methods/Design Multi-centre, single blind, randomised trial with 120 patients after first stroke. When subjects have reached Functional Ambulation Category 3 they will be randomly allocated into TheraTogs or cane group. TheraTogs will be applied to support hip extensor and abductor musculature according to a standardised procedure. Cane walking held at the level of the radial styloid of the sound wrist. Subjects will walk throughout the day with only the assigned walking aid. Standard therapy treatments and usual care will remain unchanged and documented. The intervention will continue for five weeks or until patients have reached Functional Ambulation category 5. Outcome measures will be assessed the day before begin of intervention, the day after completion, 3 months, 6 months and 2 years. Primary outcome: Timed "up and go" test, secondary outcomes: peak surface EMG of gluteus maximus and gluteus medius, activation patterns of hemiplegic leg musculature, temporo-spatial gait parameters, hemiplegic hip kinematics in the frontal and sagittal planes, dynamic balance, daily activity measured by accelerometry, Stroke Impact Scale. Significance levels will be 5% with 95

  17. BIMOMASS GASIFICATION PILOT PLANT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a gasification pilot program using two biomass feedstocks: bagasse pellets and wood chips. he object of the program was to determine the properties of biomass product gas and its suitability as a fuel for gas-turbine-based power generation cycles. he f...

  18. Patterns in Womanpower: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansl, Eva vB.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a pilot study conducted 25 years ago assessing challenges facing women who want to combine career, marriage, and family responsibilities. Study obtained case histories of 100 trained women whose study and/or work experience had been deflected by family responsibilities. Found a high quality of educated womanpower was latent. (Author/KS)

  19. PILOT STUDY: THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY (TACS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot research study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools for children in the age range of 1-5 years old. The pilot study focused on (a) simple, cost-...

  20. Conducting a pilot study: case study of a novice researcher.

    PubMed

    Doody, Owen; Doody, Catriona M

    Pilot studies play a vital role in health research, but are often misused, mistreated and misrepresented. A well-conducted pilot study with clear aims and objectives within a formal framework ensures methodological rigour, can lead to higher-quality research and scientifically valid work that is publishable and can benefit patients and health service delivery. A pilot study contributes valuable information to assist researchers in the conduct of their study. Conducting a pilot study provides the researcher with the opportunity to develop and enhance the skills necessary before commencing the larger study. By conducting a pilot the researcher obtains preliminary data, can evaluate their data-analysis method and clarify the financial and human resources required. This article presents an overview of pilot studies, why they are conducted, what to consider when reporting pilot studies and the authors' experience of conducting a pilot study. To conduct a successful study, researchers need to develop their skills, choose the right methods and carefully plan for all aspects of the process. PMID:26618678

  1. NEW IMMIGRANT SURVEY: A PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The principal aim of this work is to provide accurate data about immigrants and their families, including children, with regard to their economic, social, and political adaptation to the United States. This pilot study of a substantial sample of foreign-born respondents is expect...

  2. Handwashing Programme in Kindergarten: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, W. H.; Suen, L. K. P.; Kwok, Y. L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a structured programme on handwashing which has taken into account of the developmental stage of children. Design/methodology/approach: This is a pilot study using a structured handwashing programme as intervention. The intervention group (n=15) receives the structured…

  3. Tests of Reading Comprehension (TORCH) Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgon, J. R.

    A New Zealand pilot study examined Tests of Reading Comprehension (TORCH) scores compared to PAT: Reading Comprehension scores and compared with teacher ratings. TORCH is a reading test package published in 1987 by the Australian Council for Educational Research. It consists of 14 untimed passages intended to assess the extent to which readers in…

  4. Microbial field pilot study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Coates, J.D.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    A multi-well microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot has been performed in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit in Payne County, Oklahoma. The primary emphasis of the experiment was preferential plugging of high permeability zones for the purpose of improving waterflood sweep efficiency. Studies were performed to determine reservoir chemistry, ecology, and indigenous bacteria populations. Growth experiments were used to select a nutrient system compatible with the reservoir that encouraged growth of a group of indigenous nitrate-using bacteria and inhibit growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. A specific field pilot area behind an active line drive waterflood was selected. Surface facilities were designed and installed. Injection protocols of bulk nutrient materials were prepared to facilitate uniform distribution of nutrients within the pilot area. By the end of December, 1991, 82.5 tons (75.0 tonnes) of nutrients had been injected in the field. A tracer test identified significant heterogeneity in the SEVVSU and made it necessary to monitor additional production wells in the field. The tracer tests and changes in production behavior indicate the additional production wells monitored during the field trial were also affected. Eighty two and one half barrels (13.1 m{sup 3}) of tertiary oil have been recovered. Microbial activity has increased CO{sub 2} content as indicated by increased alkalinity. A temporary rise in sulfide concentration was experienced. These indicate an active microbial community was generated in the field by the nutrient injection. Pilot area interwell pressure interference test results showed that significant permeability reduction occurred. The interwell permeabilities in the pilot area between the injector and the three pilot production wells were made more uniform which indicates a successful preferential plugging enhanced oil recovery project.

  5. Psychiatrically hospitalized college students: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rosecan, A S; Goldberg, R L; Wise, T N

    1992-07-01

    This pilot study presents data on an underreported group: college students who require psychiatric hospitalization. Although the study is too small to sustain broad generalizations, the authors found indications of significant correlations between students' hospitalization and the academic cycle, substance abuse, and distance from home. It is hoped that other institutions will undertake similar studies of this group of students to provide a broader body of data from which to draw inferences regarding prevention, intervention, and psychiatric hospitalization. PMID:1506564

  6. BIOMASS GASIFICATION PILOT STUDY PLANT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a gasification pilot program using two biomass feedstocks: bagasse pellets and wood chips. he object of the program was to determine the properties of biomass product gas and its suitability as a fuel for gas-turbine-based power generation cycles. he f...

  7. A multi-site single blind clinical study to compare the effects of prolonged exposure, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing and waiting list on patients with a current diagnosis of psychosis and co morbid post traumatic stress disorder: study protocol for the randomized controlled trial Treating Trauma in Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Trauma contributes to psychosis and in psychotic disorders post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often a comorbid disorder. A problem is that PTSD is underdiagnosed and undertreated in people with psychotic disorders. This study’s primary goal is to examine the efficacy and safety of prolonged exposure and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for PTSD in patients with both psychotic disorders and PTSD, as compared to a waiting list. Secondly, the effects of both treatments are determined on (a) symptoms of psychosis, in particular verbal hallucinations, (b) depression and social performance, and (c) economic costs. Thirdly, goals concern links between trauma exposure and psychotic symptomatology and the prevalence of exposure to traumatic events, and of PTSD. Fourthly predictors, moderators, and mediators for treatment success will be explored. These include cognitions and experiences concerning treatment harm, credibility and burden in both participants and therapists. Methods/Design A short PTSD-screener assesses the possible presence of PTSD in adult patients (21- to 65- years old) with psychotic disorders, while the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale interview will be used for the diagnosis of current PTSD. The M.I.N.I. Plus interview will be used for diagnosing lifetime psychotic disorders and mood disorders with psychotic features. The purpose is to include consenting participants (N = 240) in a multi-site single blind randomized clinical trial. Patients will be allocated to one of three treatment conditions (N = 80 each): prolonged exposure or EMDR (both consisting of eight weekly sessions of 90 minutes each) or a six-month waiting list. All participants are subjected to blind assessments at pre-treatment, twomonths post treatment, and six monthspost treatment. In addition, participants in the experimental conditions will have assessments at mid treatment and at 12 months follow-up. Discussion The results from the post

  8. Image processing of angiograms: A pilot study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, L. E.; Evans, R. A.; Roehm, J. O., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The technology transfer application this report describes is the result of a pilot study of image-processing methods applied to the image enhancement, coding, and analysis of arteriograms. Angiography is a subspecialty of radiology that employs the introduction of media with high X-ray absorption into arteries in order to study vessel pathology as well as to infer disease of the organs supplied by the vessel in question.

  9. Multivitamin Versus Multivitamin-mineral Supplementation and Pregnancy Outcomes: A Single-blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Asemi, Zatollah; Samimi, Mansooreh; Tabassi, Zohreh; Ahmad, Esmaillzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Increased requirement and decreased dietary intakes of micronutrients during pregnancy might affect maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. This study was aimed to examine the effects of two types of multiple micronutrient supplementations on pregnancy outcomes in Kashan, Iran. Methods: In a randomized single-blind controlled clinical trial, 104 primigravid singleton pregnant women aged 18-30 years were randomly assigned to receive either a multivitamin (n = 51) or a multivitamin-mineral (n = 53) supplements for 20 weeks. Participants consumed supplements once a day at week 16 of gestation. Maternal anthropometric data as well as newborn's weight, height, head circumference and 5-min Apgar score were also determined. Independent samples t-test was used for comparing between-group means. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to identify determinants of newborn's weight, height and head circumference. Results: Women taking multivitamin-mineral supplements gained marginally less weight until week 28 than those taking multivitamin supplements (weight at week 28 of gestation: 67.5 ± 11.4 vs. 71.6 ± 10.3 kg, P = 0.06). Mean body mass index at week 28 (25.8 ± 4.0 vs. 28.4 ± 3.7 kg/m2, P = 0.001) as well as at delivery (28.0 ± 3.9 vs. 30.1 ± 3.8 kg/m2, P = 0.006) was lower among women taking multivitamin-mineral supplements than those taking multivitamin supplements. Although no significant difference was seen in newborns’ height and Apgar score between the two groups, mean birth weight (3.3 ± 0.4 vs. 3.1 ± 0.4 kg, P = 0.04) and head circumference (35 ± 1.4 vs. 34 ± 1.3 cm, P < 0.0001) of the infants whose mothers receiving multivitamin-mineral supplements were higher than those whose mothers received multivitamins. Multivitamin-mineral use by pregnant women was a significant predictor of infants’ weight (β =0.191, P = 0.03) and head circumference (β =0.907, P = 0.005). Conclusions: In conclusion, we found that birth weight and head

  10. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Providing a web-based digital information management system of information for scientists and the public, including a system that supports the work of those officials who must make decisions that affect the state of the bay. The Tampa Bay Study is in its sixth year and will continue through September 2007. This paper presents a non-inclusive summary of key findings associated with the six primary project components listed above. Component 4 (above) is described in detail in the following chapter 13. More information on the Tampa Bay Study is available from our on-line digital information system for the Tampa Bay Study at http://gulfsci.usgs.gov.

  11. Seaside, Oregon, Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Varner, J.

    2006-12-01

    The results of a pilot study to assess the risk from tsunamis for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon region will be presented. To determine the risk from tsunamis, it is first necessary to establish the hazard or probability that a tsunami of a particular magnitude will occur within a certain period of time. Tsunami inundation maps that provide 100-year and 500-year probabilistic tsunami wave height contours for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon, region were developed as part of an interagency Tsunami Pilot Study(1). These maps provided the probability of the tsunami hazard. The next step in determining risk is to determine the vulnerability or degree of loss resulting from the occurrence of tsunamis due to exposure and fragility. The tsunami vulnerability assessment methodology used in this study was developed by M. Papathoma and others(2). This model incorporates multiple factors (e.g. parameters related to the natural and built environments and socio-demographics) that contribute to tsunami vulnerability. Data provided with FEMA's HAZUS loss estimation software and Clatsop County, Oregon, tax assessment data were used as input to the model. The results, presented within a geographic information system, reveal the percentage of buildings in need of reinforcement and the population density in different inundation depth zones. These results can be used for tsunami mitigation, local planning, and for determining post-tsunami disaster response by emergency services. (1)Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, Seaside, Oregon Tsunami Pilot Study--Modernization of FEMA Flood Hazard Maps, Joint NOAA/USGS/FEMA Special Report, U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2006, Final Draft. (2)Papathoma, M., D. Dominey-Howes, D.,Y. Zong, D. Smith, Assessing Tsunami Vulnerability, an example from Herakleio, Crete, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 3, 2003, p. 377-389.

  12. Centrifuge Study of Pilot Tolerance to Acceleration and the Effects of Acceleration on Pilot Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creer, Brent Y.; Smedal, Harald A.; Wingrove, Rodney C.

    1960-01-01

    A research program the general objective of which was to measure the effects of various sustained accelerations on the control performance of pilots, was carried out on the Aviation Medical Acceleration Laboratory centrifuge, U.S. Naval Air Development Center, Johnsville, PA. The experimental setup consisted of a flight simulator with the centrifuge in the control loop. The pilot performed his control tasks while being subjected to acceleration fields such as might be encountered by a forward-facing pilot flying an atmosphere entry vehicle. The study was divided into three phases. In one phase of the program, the pilots were subjected to a variety of sustained linear acceleration forces while controlling vehicles with several different sets of longitudinal dynamics. Here, a randomly moving target was displayed to the pilot on a cathode-ray tube. For each combination of acceleration field and vehicle dynamics, pilot tracking accuracy was measured and pilot opinion of the stability and control characteristics was recorded. Thus, information was obtained on the combined effects of complexity of control task and magnitude and direction of acceleration forces on pilot performance. These tests showed that the pilot's tracking performance deteriorated markedly at accelerations greater than about 4g when controlling a lightly damped vehicle. The tentative conclusion was also reached that regardless of the airframe dynamics involved, the pilot feels that in order to have the same level of control over the vehicle, an increase in the vehicle dynamic stability was required with increases in the magnitudes of the acceleration impressed upon the pilot. In another phase, boundaries of human tolerance of acceleration were established for acceleration fields such as might be encountered by a pilot flying an orbital vehicle. A special pilot restraint system was developed to increase human tolerance to longitudinal decelerations. The results of the tests showed that human tolerance

  13. Pre-Study Walkthrough with a Commercial Pilot for a Preliminary Single Pilot Operations Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Connor-Dreher, Ryan; Roberts, Z.; Ziccardi, J.; Vu, K-P. L.; Strybel, T.; Koteskey, Robert William; Lachter, Joel B.; Vi Dao, Quang; Johnson, Walter W.; Battiste, V.

    2013-01-01

    The number of crew members in commercial flights has decreased to two members, down from the five-member crew required 50 years ago. One question of interest is whether the crew should be reduced to one pilot. In order to determine the critical factors involved in safely transitioning to a single pilot, research must examine whether any performance deficits arise with the loss of a crew member. With a concrete understanding of the cognitive and behavioral role of a co-pilot, aeronautical technologies and procedures can be developed that make up for the removal of the second aircrew member. The current project describes a pre-study walkthrough process that can be used to help in the development of scenarios for testing future concepts and technologies for single pilot operations. Qualitative information regarding the tasks performed by the pilots can be extracted with this technique and adapted for future investigations of single pilot operations.

  14. Probing the Process of Information Source Selection Using Palm Pilots: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Wonsik

    2002-01-01

    This pilot study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using PDAs (personal digital assistants or palm pilots) as a data collection device in studying information seeking behaviors of undergraduate students. Discusses results that shows heavy use of Internet search engines and that most information searches do not extend beyond the first…

  15. Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar pilot study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A pilot study of a spaceborne sidelooking radar is summarized. The results of the system trade studies are given along with the electrical parameters for the proposed subsystems. The mechanical aspects, packaging, thermal control and dynamics of the proposed design are presented. Details of the data processor are given. A system is described that allows the data from a pass over the U. S. to be in hard copy form within two hours. Also included are the proposed schedule, work breakdown structure, and cost estimate.

  16. NORTHWEST ORGEON PILOT STUDY AREA (USA): THE USE OF LANDSCAPE SCIENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Northwest Oregon Pilot Study Area encompasses approximately 59,167 km2 and varies in elevation from sea level to 3,200 m. Annual precipitation varies with elevation and meridian and ranges from 25 - 460cm. The study area comprises a mixture of federal, state, and privately ow...

  17. A pilot study of the utility of a laboratory-based spinal fixation training program for neurosurgical residents.

    PubMed

    Sundar, Swetha J; Healy, Andrew T; Kshettry, Varun R; Mroz, Thomas E; Schlenk, Richard; Benzel, Edward C

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Pedicle and lateral mass screw placement is technically demanding due to complex 3D spinal anatomy that is not easily visualized. Neurosurgical and orthopedic surgery residents must be properly trained in such procedures, which can be associated with significant complications and associated morbidity. Current training in pedicle and lateral mass screw placement involves didactic teaching and supervised placement in the operating room. The objective of this study was to assess whether teaching residents to place pedicle and lateral mass screws using navigation software, combined with practice using cadaveric specimens and Sawbones models, would improve screw placement accuracy. METHODS This was a single-blinded, prospective, randomized pilot study with 8 junior neurosurgical residents and 2 senior medical students with prior neurosurgery exposure. Both the study group and the level of training-matched control group (each group with 4 level of training-matched residents and 1 senior medical student) were exposed to a standardized didactic education regarding spinal anatomy and screw placement techniques. The study group was exposed to an additional pilot program that included a training session using navigation software combined with cadaveric specimens and accessibility to Sawbones models. RESULTS A statistically significant reduction in overall surgical error was observed in the study group compared with the control group (p = 0.04). Analysis by spinal region demonstrated a significant reduction in surgical error in the thoracic and lumbar regions in the study group compared with controls (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively). The study group also was observed to place screws more optimally in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions (p = 0.02, p = 0.04, and p = 0.04, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Surgical resident education in pedicle and lateral mass screw placement is a priority for training programs. This study demonstrated that compared with a

  18. A single-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial evaluating the effect of face washing on acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Choi, Joanna Mimi; Lew, Vincent K; Kimball, Alexa B

    2006-01-01

    Despite the common recommendation to wash the face twice daily with a mild cleanser, there is little published evidence to support the practice. Indeed, while the general public believes that cleaner skin will result in fewer blemishes, dermatologists often warn that overwashing and scrubbing can exacerbate the condition. To clarify the effect of frequency of face washing on acne vulgaris, we designed a single-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial to be conducted on males with mild to moderate acne vulgaris. Subjects washed their faces twice daily for 2 weeks with a standard mild cleanser before being randomized to one of three study arms, in which face washing was to be done once, twice, or four times a day for 6 weeks. At the end of the study no statistically significant differences were noted between groups. However, significant improvements in both open comedones and total noninflammatory lesions were observed in the group washing twice a day. Worsening of acne condition was observed in the study group washing once a day, with significant increases in erythema, papules, and total inflammatory lesions. We concluded that slight support exists, both in terms of efficacy and convenience, for the recommendation to wash the face twice daily with a mild cleanser. However, excessive face washing may not be as culpable as previously thought. PMID:17014635

  19. A Piloted Simulation Study of Wake Turbulence on Final Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric C.

    1998-01-01

    A piloted simulation study has been conducted in a research simulator to provide a means to estimate the effects of different levels of wake turbulence on final approach. A worst-case methodology was used to ensure conservative estimates. Fourteen airline pilots voluntarily participated in the study and flew almost 1000 approaches. The pilots rated the subjective severity of the disturbances using a special rating scale developed for this study. Several objective measures of the airplane/pilot response to the simulated wake turbulence were also made. All the data showed a large amount of variation between pilots and to a lesser extent for a given pilot. Therefore, the data were presented at 50, 70, 90 percentile levels as a function of vortex strength. The data allow estimates of the vortex strength for a given subjective or objective response and vice versa. The results of this study appear to be more conservative than the results of previous studies.

  20. Does platelet-rich plasma enhance healing in the idiopathic bone cavity? A single-blind randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, R; Karagah, T; Shahidi, S; Zare, N

    2015-09-01

    The presence of an idiopathic bone cavity (IBC) is usually identified during routine dental radiographic examinations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on bone healing in the idiopathic bone cavity. This was a single-blind randomized clinical trial. Twenty-four subjects were assigned randomly to two groups. Subjects in group 1 received PRP through a buccal window approach, and those in group 2 underwent conventional management via the creation of a window on the buccal wall and curettage of the walls of the defect. Subjects were followed up at 3, 6, and 9 months after the intervention. The amount of bone formation as determined on panoramic radiographs was divided into four categories: stage 1: ≤25% of the defect showed opacity; stage 2: 25-50% of the defect showed opacity; stage 3: 50-75% of the defect showed opacity; and stage 4: >75% of the defect showed opacity. There was a significant difference between the two groups with regard to the various healing stages at the three time points (P<0.05). When compared with conventional management of the idiopathic bone cavity, the use of PRP may enhance bone formation. PMID:26074365

  1. Location Independent Professional Project: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, J.A.; Long, J.P.; Miller, M.M.

    1999-02-01

    This pilot study project explored the problem of providing access to the nomadic worker who desires to connect a computer through network access points at a number of different locations within the SNL/NM campus as well as outside the campus. The design and prototype development gathered knowledge that may allow a design to be developed that could be extended to a larger number of SNL/NM network drop boxes. The focus was to provide a capability for a worker to access the SNL IRN from a network drop box (e.g. in a conference room) as easily as when accessing the computer network from the office normally used by the worker. Additional study was done on new methods to authenticate the off campus worker, and protect and control access to data.

  2. Piloted studies of Enhanced or Synthetic Vision display parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Randall L., Sr.; Parrish, Russell V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of several studies conducted at Langley Research Center over the past few years. The purposes of these studies were to investigate parameters of pictorial displays and imaging sensors that affect pilot approach and landing performance. Pictorial displays have demonstrated exceptional tracking performance and improved the pilots' spatial awareness. Stereopsis cueing improved pilot flight performance and reduced pilot stress. Sensor image parameters such as increased field-of-view. faster image update rate, and aiding symbology improved flare initiation. Finer image resolution and magnification improved attitude control performance parameters.

  3. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT METHODS DEVELOPMENT PILOTS FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate exposure classification tools are needed to link exposure with health effects. EPA began methods development pilot studies in 2000 to address general questions about exposures and outcome measures. Selected pilot studies are highlighted in this poster. The “Literature Re...

  4. Hypericum for fatigue - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Stevinson, C; Dixon, M; Ernst, E

    1998-12-01

    Fatigue is a common reason for consulting a doctor but there is no definitive treatment. Hypericum perforatum has been shown to reduce symptoms of fatigue in depressed patients. It therefore may have potential value as a remedy for fatigue of unexplained origin. This pilot study aimed to investigate the effect of Hypericum on fatigue in a small group of patients in order to formulate a hypothesis upon which a randomized controlled trial could be subsequently based. The study protocol followed an uncontrolled, open design. Twenty patients consulting their doctors complaining of fatigue were treated with Hypericum extract (3×1 tablet daily) for six weeks. Compared to baseline values, perceived fatigue was significantly lower after 2 weeks of treatment and reduced significantly further after 6 weeks. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were also reduced. Baseline scores suggested that nearly half the sample may have been depressed at the start of the trial which was possibly related to fatigue. These results suggest there is scope for conducting a randomized placebo-controlled trial to investigate the specific effect of Hypericum on fatigue and that the study design must take account of the role of depression in fatigue. PMID:23196027

  5. A single-blinded phenobarbital-controlled trial of levetiracetam as mono-therapy in dogs with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Fredsø, N; Sabers, A; Toft, N; Møller, A; Berendt, M

    2016-02-01

    Treatment of canine epilepsy is problematic. Few antiepileptic drugs have proven efficacy in dogs and undesirable adverse effects and pharmacoresistance are not uncommon. Consequently, the need for investigation of alternative treatment options is ongoing. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of levetiracetam as mono-therapy in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. The study used a prospective single-blinded parallel group design. Twelve client-owned dogs were included and were randomised to treatment with levetiracetam (30 mg/kg/day or 60 mg/kg/day divided into three daily dosages) or phenobarbital (4 mg/kg/day divided twice daily). Control visits were at days 30, 60 and then every 3 months for up to 1 year. Two or more seizures within 3 months led to an increase in drug dosage (levetiracetam: 10 mg/kg/day, phenobarbital: 1 mg/kg/day). Five of six levetiracetam treated dogs and one of six phenobarbital treated dogs withdrew from the study within 2-5 months due to insufficient seizure control. In the levetiracetam treated dogs there was no significant difference in the monthly number of seizures before and after treatment, whereas in the phenobarbital treated dogs there were significantly (P = 0.013) fewer seizures after treatment. Five phenobarbital treated dogs were classified as true responders (≥50% reduction in seizures/month) whereas none of the levetiracetam treated dogs fulfilled this criterion. Adverse effects were reported in both groups but were more frequent in the phenobarbital group. In this study levetiracetam was well tolerated but was not effective at the given doses as mono-therapy in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. PMID:26639829

  6. The Effects of Body Position on Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting: A Single-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fathi, Mohammad; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Valiee, Sina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chemotherapy is the cornerstone of cancer treatment; however, alongside therapeutic effects, nausea and vomiting are two common complications of chemotherapy. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of body position on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Materials and Methods: This was a single-blind randomized controlled clinical trial. We recruited a convenience sample of 79 patients and randomly allocated them to either experimental or control groups. Patients in the control group received chemotherapy in supine position while the experimental group received chemotherapy in semi-Fowler’s position. All patients were assessed for the severity, duration, and frequency of nausea and vomiting episodes every three hours up to 24 hours, ie, in nine time-points. Study data was analyzed by SPSS v. 16. Results: The severity, duration, and frequency of nausea and the severity and frequency of vomiting episodes in the control group differed significantly across the nine measurement time-points (P < 0.001). In the experimental group, the severity (P = 0.254) and frequency of nausea (P = 0.002) episodes as well as the frequency of vomiting (P = 0.008) episodes differed significantly across the measurement time-points. Moreover, the study groups differed significantly across the measurement time-point in terms of the severity (P < 0.001), duration (P < 0.001), and frequency of nausea (P = 0.002) and the severity (P < 0.001) and frequency (P < 0.001) of vomiting episodes. Conclusions: Compared to supine position, semi-Fowler’s position is more effective in relieving chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. PMID:25068049

  7. [Mobbing in nursing. A pilot study].

    PubMed

    Fornés Vives, Joana; Reinés Femenia, Joan; Sureda García, Catalina

    2004-09-01

    While planning to help shed light on the phenomenon of mobbing in the work place and to develop an instrument by which to measure it, the authors carried out a pilot study in which 160 persons from varying professional classes and autonomous communities in Spain participated, 65 of whom were nurses whose ages lie between 20 and 48 years, with a medium age of 33.98. By means of a factorial analysis, the authors discovered that the most common mobbing practices are grouped in a set of eight factors; these eight factors cover 74.17% of all the various factors. The two most significant factors refer to behaviors which can be considered to be personal humiliation and professional discredit. The most common mobbing practice, according to the overall findings of this study group, consists in providing contradictory information to the victim (19.4% once or more times per week), while in nursing, this practice consists of exposing the victim to criticism by the group (50%). PMID:15526573

  8. The DOE Water Cycle Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.L.; King, A.W.; Miller, M.A.; Springer, E.P.; Wesely, M.L.; Bashford, K.E.; Conrad, M.E.; Costigan, K.; Foster, P.N.; Gibbs, H.K.; Jin, J.; Klazura, J.; Lesht, B.M.; Machavaram, M.V.; Pan, F.; Song, J.; Troyan, D.; Washington-Allen, R.A.

    2003-09-20

    A Department of Energy (DOE) multi-laboratory Water Cycle Pilot Study (WCPS) investigated components of the local water budget at the Walnut River Watershed in Kansas to study the relative importance of various processes and to determine the feasibility of observational water budget closure. An extensive database of local meteorological time series and land surface characteristics was compiled. Numerical simulations of water budget components were generated and, to the extent possible, validated for three nested domains within the Southern Great Plains; the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement/Cloud Atmospheric Radiation Testbed (ARM/CART), the Walnut River Watershed (WRW), and the Whitewater Watershed (WW), Kansas A 2-month Intensive Observation Period (IOP) was conducted to gather detailed observations relevant to specific details of the water budget, including fine-scale precipitation, streamflow, and soil moisture measurements not made routinely by other programs. Event and season al water isotope (delta 18O, delta D) sampling in rainwater, streams, soils, lakes, and wells provided a means of tracing sources and sinks within and external to the WW, WRW, and the ARM/CART domains. The WCPS measured changes in leaf area index for several vegetation types, deep groundwater variations at two wells, and meteorological variables at a number of sites in the WRW. Additional activities of the WCPS include code development toward a regional climate model with water isotope processes, soil moisture transect measurements, and water level measurements in ground water wells.

  9. Exercise Training in Older Patients with Heart Failure and Preserved Ejection Fraction: A Randomized, Controlled, Single-Blind Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kitzman, Dalane W.; Brubaker, Peter H.; Morgan, Timothy M.; Stewart, Kathryn P.; Little, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Background HF with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFPEF) is the most common form of HF in the older population. Exercise intolerance is the primary chronic symptom in HFPEF patients and is a strong determinant of their reduced quality of life (QOL). Exercise training (ET) improves exercise intolerance and QOL in HF patients with reduced ejection fraction. However, the effect of ET in HFPEF has not been examined in a randomized, controlled trial. Methods and Results This was a randomized, attention-controlled, single blind study of 16 weeks of medically supervised ET (3 days per week) on exercise intolerance and QOL in 53 elderly (mean age 70±6 yrs; range 60–82; 46 women, 7 men) patients with isolated HFPEF (EF ≥ 50%, and no significant coronary, valvular, or pulmonary disease). Attention controls received biweekly follow-up telephone calls. Forty-six patients completed the study (24 ET, 22 controls). Attendance at exercise sessions in the ET group was excellent (88%; range 64–100%). There were no trial-related adverse events. Peak exercise oxygen uptake, the primary outcome, increased significantly in the ET group compared to the control group (13.8±2.5 to 16.1±2.6 ml/kg/min, change 2.3±2.2 ml/kg/min vs. 12.8±2.6 to 12.5±3.4, change −0.3±2.1 ml/kg/min) (p=0.0002). There were significant improvements in peak power output, exercise time, 6 minute walk distance, and ventilatory anaerobic threshold (all p<0.002). There was improvement in the physical QOL score (p=0.03) but not the total score (p=0.11). Conclusions ET improves peak and submaximal exercise capacity in older patients with HFPEF. PMID:20852060

  10. Uranium-contaminated soil pilot treatment study

    SciTech Connect

    Turney, W.R.J.R.; Mason, C.F.V.; Michelotti, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    A pilot treatment study is proving to be effective for the remediation of uranium-contaminated soil from a site at the Los Alamos National Laboratory by use of a two-step, zero-discharge, 100% recycle system. Candidate uranium-contaminated soils were characterized for uranium content, uranium speciation, organic content, size fractionization, and pH. Geochemical computer codes were used to forecast possible uranium leach scenarios. Uranium contamination was not homogenous throughout the soil. In the first step, following excavation, the soil was sorted by use of the ThemoNuclean Services segmented gate system. Following the sorting, uranium-contaminated soil was remediated in a containerized vat leach process by use of sodium-bicarbonate leach solution. Leach solution containing uranium-carbonate complexes is to be treated by use of ion-exchange media and then recycled. Following the treatment process the ion exchange media will be disposed of in an approved low-level radioactive landfill. It is anticipated that treated soils will meet Department of Energy site closure guidelines, and will be given {open_quotes}no further action{close_quotes} status. Treated soils are to be returned to the excavation site. A volume reduction of contaminated soils will successfully be achieved by the treatment process. Cost of the treatment (per cubic meter) is comparable or less than other current popular methods of uranium-contamination remediation.

  11. Coal log pipeline pilot plant study

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.; Lenau, C.W.; Burkett, W.

    2000-07-01

    After 8 years of extensive R and D in the new technology of coal log pipeline (CLP), a pilot plant is being built to demonstrate and test a complete CLP system for coal transportation. The system consists of a coal log fabrication plant, a 3,000-ft-length, 6-inch-diameter underground pipeline loop to transport 5.4-inch diameter coal logs, a log injection/ejection system, a pump bypass, a reservoir that serves as both the intake and the outlet of the CLP systems, an instrumentation system that includes pressure transducers, coal log sensors, and flowmeters, and an automatic control system that includes PLCs and a central computer. The pilot plant is to be completed in May of Year 2000. Upon completion of construction, the pilot plant will be used for running various types of coal, testing the degradation rate of drag reduction in CLP using Polyox (polyethylene oxide), testing the reliability of a special coal log sensor invented at the University of Missouri, testing the reliability and the efficiency of the pump-bypass system for pumping coal log trains through the pipe, and testing various hardware components and software for operating the pilot plant. Data collected from the tests will be used for designing future commercial systems of CLP. The pilot plant experiments are to be completed in two years. Then, the technology of CLP will be ready for commercial use.

  12. Effect of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation on impaired glucose tolerance: a pilot randomized study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is a pre-diabetic state of hyperglycemia that is associated with insulin resistance, increased risk of type II diabetes, and cardiovascular pathology. Recently, investigators hypothesized that decreased vagus nerve activity may be the underlying mechanism of metabolic syndrome including obesity, elevated glucose levels, and high blood pressure. Methods In this pilot randomized clinical trial, we compared the efficacy of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) and sham taVNS on patients with IGT. 72 participants with IGT were single-blinded and were randomly allocated by computer-generated envelope to either taVNS or sham taVNS treatment groups. In addition, 30 IGT adults were recruited as a control population and not assigned treatment so as to monitor the natural fluctuation of glucose tolerance in IGT patients. All treatments were self-administered by the patients at home after training at the hospital. Patients were instructed to fill in a patient diary booklet each day to describe any side effects after each treatment. The treatment period was 12 weeks in duration. Baseline comparison between treatment and control group showed no difference in weight, BMI, or measures of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG), or glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc). Results 100 participants completed the study and were included in data analysis. Two female patients (one in the taVNS group, one in the sham taVNS group) dropped out of the study due to stimulation-evoked dizziness. The symptoms were relieved after stopping treatment. Compared with sham taVNS, taVNS significantly reduced the two-hour glucose tolerance (F(2) = 5.79, p = 0.004). In addition, we found that taVNS significantly decreased (F(1) = 4.21, p = 0.044) systolic blood pressure over time compared with sham taVNS. Compared with the no-treatment control group, patients

  13. 1999 ANNUAL REPORT NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This annual report present the proceedings of the second annual NATO/CCMS pilot study meeting in Belfast, UK in March 1999. Guest speakers focused on efforts in the research arena of clean products, clean processes, and pollution prevention tools.

  14. Folates in lettuce: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Madelene; Jägerstad, Margaretha; Frølich, Wenche

    2007-01-01

    Background Leafy vegetables are good sources of folates and food shops nowadays offer an increasing number of lettuce varieties. Objective To obtain data on the folate content and forms in common lettuce varieties and spinach sold in the Nordic countries, and to investigate effects of different storage conditions and preparations in the consumer's home or at lunchtime restaurants. Design Folate was analysed in eight different lettuce varieties and spinach using a validated high-performance liquid chromatographic method and the detected forms of folates were confirmed by a mass spectrometric detector [liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS)] following heat extraction, deconjugation with rat serum and purification by solid-phase extraction. Results Folate content, expressed in folic acid equivalents, in the lettuce samples varied six-fold, from 30 to 198 µg 100 g−1 on a fresh weight basis. The folate content was decreased by 14% after storage at 4°C for 8 days and by 2–40% after storage at 22°C for 2–4 h, depending on whether samples were stored as whole leaves, or small torn or cut pieces. LC-MS confirmed the identity of the folate forms: H4folate, 5-CH3-H4folate, 5-HCO-H4folate and 10-HCO-H4folate. Conclusion The considerable variation in folate content between varieties of lettuce in this pilot study, with one variety reaching the level found in spinach, indicates the potential to increase folate intake considerably by choosing folate-rich varieties of lettuce and storing at low temperatures.

  15. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: SOIL STABILIZATION PILOT STUDY, UNITED CHROME NPL SITE PILOT STUDY AND HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAM, UNITED CHROME NPL SITE PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is a project plan for a pilot study at the United Chrome NPL site, Corvallis, Oregon and includes the health and safety and quality assurance/quality control plans. The plan reports results of a bench-scale study of the treatment process as iieasured by the ...

  16. Long-Term Effects of Transcranial Direct-Current Stimulation in Chronic Post-Stroke Aphasia: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Vestito, Lucilla; Rosellini, Sara; Mantero, Massimo; Bandini, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) has been suggested to improve language function in patients with post-stroke aphasia. Most studies on aphasic patients, however, were conducted with a very limited follow-up period, if any. In this pilot, single-blind study on chronic post-stroke aphasic patients, we aimed to verify whether or not tDCS is able to extend its beneficial effects for a longer period of time (21 weeks after the end of stimulation). Three aphasic patients underwent anodal tDCS (A-tDCS, 20 min, 1.5 mA) and sham stimulation (S-tDCS) over the left frontal (perilesional) region, coupled with a simultaneous naming training (on-line tDCS). Ten consecutive sessions (5 days per week for 2 weeks) were implemented. In the first five sessions, we used a list of 40 figures, while in the subsequent five sessions we utilized a second set of 40 figures differing in word difficulty. At the end of the stimulation period, we found a significant beneficial effect of A-tDCS (as compared to baseline and S-tDCS) in all our subjects, regardless of word difficulty, although with some inter-individual differences. In the follow-up period, the percentage of correct responses persisted significantly better until the 16th week, when an initial decline in naming performance was observed. Up to the 21st week, the number of correct responses, though no longer significant, was still above the baseline level. These results in a small group of aphasic patients suggest a long-term beneficial effect of on-line A-tDCS. PMID:25352798

  17. Recommendations for planning pilot studies in clinical and translational research.

    PubMed

    Moore, Charity G; Carter, Rickey E; Nietert, Paul J; Stewart, Paul W

    2011-10-01

    Advances in clinical and translation science are facilitated by building on prior knowledge gained through experimentation and observation. In the context of drug development, preclinical studies are followed by a progression of phase I through phase IV clinical trials. At each step, the study design and statistical strategies are framed around research questions that are prerequisites for the next phase. In other types of biomedical research, pilot studies are used for gathering preliminary support for the next research step. However, the phrase "pilot study" is liberally applied to projects with little or no funding, characteristic of studies with poorly developed research proposals, and usually conducted with no detailed thought of the subsequent study. In this article, we present a rigorous definition of a pilot study, offer recommendations for the design, analysis and sample size justification of pilot studies in clinical and translational research, and emphasize the important role that well-designed pilot studies play in the advancement of science and scientific careers. PMID:22029804

  18. Piloted simulation study of two tilt-wing control concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birckelbaw, Lourdes G.; Corliss, Lloyd D.

    1994-01-01

    A two-phase piloted simulation study was conducted to investigate alternative wing and flap controls for tilt-wing aircraft. The initial phase of the study compared the flying qualities of both a conventional (programmed) flap and an innovative geared flap. The second phase of the study introduced an alternate method of pilot control for the geared flap and further studied the flying qualities of the programmed flap, and two geared flap configurations. In general, the pilot rating showed little variation between the programmed flap and the geared flap control concepts. Some differences between the two concepts were noticed and are discussed in this paper. The addition of pitch attitude stabilization in the second phase of the study greatly enhanced the aircraft flying qualities. This paper describes the simulated tilt-wing aircraft and the flap control concepts and presents the results of both phases of the simulation study.

  19. A single-blinded trial of methotrexate versus azathioprine as steroid-sparing agents in generalized myasthenia gravis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Long-term immunosuppression is often required in myasthenia gravis (MG). There are no published trials using methotrexate (MTX) in MG. The steroid-sparing efficacy of azathioprine (AZA) has been demonstrated after 18-months of starting therapy. However, AZA is considered expensive in Africa. We evaluated the steroid-sparing efficacy of MTX (17.5 mg weekly) compared with AZA (2.5 mg/kg daily) in subjects recently diagnosed with generalized MG by assessing their average monthly prednisone requirements. Methods The primary outcome was the average daily prednisone requirement by month between the two groups. Prednisone was given at the lowest dose to manage MG symptoms and adjusted as required according to protocol. Single-blinded assessments were performed 3-monthly for 2-years to determine the quantitative MG score and the MG activities of daily living score in order to determine those with minimal manifestations of MG. Results Thirty-one subjects (AZA n = 15; MTX n = 16) satisfied the inclusion criteria but only 24 were randomized. Baseline characteristics were similar. There was no difference between the AZA- and MTX-groups in respect of prednisone dosing (apart from months 10 and 12), in quantitative MG Score improvement, proportions in sustained remission, frequencies of MG relapses, or adverse reactions and/or withdrawals. The MTX-group received lower prednisone doses between month 10 (p = 0.047) and month 12 (p = 0.039). At month 12 the prednisone dose per kilogram bodyweight in the MTX-group (0.15 mg/kg) was half that of the AZA-group (0.31 mg/kg)(p = 0.019). Conclusions This study provides evidence that in patients with generalized MG methotrexate is an effective steroid-sparing agent 10 months after treatment initiation. Our data suggests that in generalized MG methotrexate has similar efficacy and tolerability to azathioprine and may be the drug of choice in financially constrained health systems. Trial registration SANCTR:DOH-27-0411-2436 PMID

  20. STATISTICAL COMPARISON OF RESULTS OF TWO INDOOR AIR PILOT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to compare the results between two previous indoor air PAH monitoring studies conducted by EPA in 1984 and 1987. Both of the previous studies were pilot studies involving ambient and indoor air monitoring at a small number of residences in Columbus...

  1. THE EFFECT OF THERMAL ENVIRONMENT ON LEARNING, A PILOT STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PECCOLO, CHARLES

    THIS IS A REPORT OF A FIRST PILOT STUDY WHICH PRECEDES A SERIES OF STUDIES BEING CONDUCTED BY THE IOWA CENTER FOR RESEARCH IN SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION AND LENNOX INDUSTRIES INC., MARSHALLTOWN, IOWA. IT IS A DIGEST OF A THESIS BY DR. CHARLES PECCOLO WHO SERVED AS RESEARCHER ON THIS FIRST STUDY. THE STUDY AIMED AT MEASURING THE EFFECTS OF THERMAL…

  2. Differential effect of beetroot bread on postprandial DBP according to Glu298Asp polymorphism in the eNOS gene: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, D A; George, T W; Lovegrove, J A

    2014-12-01

    Our objective was to investigate whether the presence of Glu298Asp polymorphism in the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) gene differentially affects the postprandial blood pressure response to dietary nitrate-rich beetroot bread. A randomised, single-blind, controlled, crossover acute pilot study was performed in 14 healthy men (mean age: 34±9 years) who were retrospectively genotyped for Glu298Asp polymorphism (7GG; T carriers 7). Volunteers were randomised to receive 200 g beetroot-enriched bread (1.1 mmol nitrate) or control bread (no beetroot; 0.01 mmol nitrate) on two separate occasions 10 days apart. Baseline and incremental area under the curve of blood pressure and NOx (nitrate/nitrite) were measured for a 6-h postprandial period. A treatment × genotype interaction was observed for diastolic blood pressure (P<0.02), which was significantly lower in T carriers (P<0.01) after consumption of beetroot bread compared with control bread. No significant differences were observed in the GG group. The beneficial diastolic blood pressure reduction was observed only in the T carriers of the Glu298Asp polymorphism in the eNOS gene after consumption of nitrate-rich beetroot bread. These data require confirmation in a larger population group. PMID:24670328

  3. Pilot Biofeedback Training in the Cognitive Awareness Training Study (CATS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uenking, M.

    2000-01-01

    One of the ongoing problems that pilots face today is a diminished state of awareness such as boredom, sleepiness, or fatigue during cruise conditions that could result in various pilot errors. This study utilized a cognitive training exercise to sharpen the pilot's awareness during simulated flight thereby providing them with a means to overcome these diminished states of awareness. This study utilizes psychophysiological methods in an attempt to assess a pilot's state of awareness more directly. In turn, the pilots will be able to train themselves to recognize these states of awareness and be more mentally sharp during mundane tasks such as those experienced in cruise conditions. The use of these measurement tools may be beneficial for researchers working within the NASA Aviation Safety Program. This paper will provide the reader with some background information concerning the motivation for the study, a brief description of the experimental setup and design matrix, the dependent and independent variables that were employed, and some preliminary findings based on some of the subjective and objective data that was collected. These preliminary findings are of part of an ongoing study being conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia.

  4. Therapist guided internet based cognitive behavioural therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: single blind randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Erik; Mataix-Cols, David; Lichtenstein, Linn; Alström, Katarina; Andersson, Gerhard; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Rück, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of therapist guided internet based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD-NET) compared with online supportive therapy. Design A 12 week single blind parallel group randomised controlled trial. Setting Academic medical centre. Participants 94 self referred adult outpatients with a diagnosis of body dysmorphic disorder and a modified Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (BDD-YBOCS) score of ≥20. Concurrent psychotropic drug treatment was permitted if the dose had been stable for at least two months before enrolment and remained unchanged during the trial. Interventions Participants received either BDD-NET (n=47) or supportive therapy (n=47) delivered via the internet for 12 weeks. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the BDD-YBOCS score after treatment and follow-up (three and six months from baseline) as evaluated by a masked assessor. Responder status was defined as a ≥30% reduction in symptoms on the scale. Secondary outcomes were measures of depression (MADRS-S), global functioning (GAF), clinical global improvement (CGI-I), and quality of life (EQ5D). The six month follow-up time and all outcomes other than BDD-YBOCS and MADRS-S at 3 months were not pre-specified in the registration at clinicaltrials.gov because of an administrative error but were included in the original trial protocol approved by the regional ethics committee before the start of the trial. Results BDD-NET was superior to supportive therapy and was associated with significant improvements in severity of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD-YBOCS group difference −7.1 points, 95% confidence interval −9.8 to −4.4), depression (MADRS-S group difference −4.5 points, −7.5 to −1.4), and other secondary measures. At follow-up, 56% of those receiving BDD-NET were classed as responders, compared with 13% receiving supportive therapy. The number needed to treat was 2.34 (1.71 to 4.35). Self

  5. Automatic Generation of Test Oracles - From Pilot Studies to Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Smith, Ben

    1998-01-01

    There is a trend towards the increased use of automation in V&V. Automation can yield savings in time and effort. For critical systems, where thorough V&V is required, these savings can be substantial. We describe a progression from pilot studies to development and use of V&V automation. We used pilot studies to ascertain opportunities for, and suitability of, automating various analyses whose results would contribute to V&V. These studies culminated in the development of an automatic generator of automated test oracles. This was then applied and extended in the course of testing an Al planning system that is a key component of an autonomous spacecraft.

  6. Olanzapine vs. Risperidone in Treating Aggressive Behaviours in Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Single Blind Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amore, M.; Bertelli, M.; Villani, D.; Tamborini, S.; Rossi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Aggressive behaviour represents a frequent symptom in people with intellectual disability (PWID). Despite uncertain evidence of effectiveness, the use of antipsychotics (APs) drugs to treat aggressive behaviour is very common. Antipsychotic medication of aggressivity in PWID has recently become one of the most debated issues in mental…

  7. 78 FR 52548 - The National Children's Study, Vanguard (Pilot) Study Proposed Collection; 60-day Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health The National Children's Study, Vanguard (Pilot) Study... Children's Study, Vanguard (Pilot) Study, 0925-0593, Expiration 8/31/2014--Revision, Eunice Kennedy Shriver... activities for the NCS Vanguard Study and receive a renewal of the Vanguard Study clearance. The NCS...

  8. Behavioral Activation for Depressed Teens: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritschel, Lorie A.; Ramirez, Cynthia L.; Jones, Meredith; Craighead, W. Edward

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral activation (BA) is a psychosocial intervention that has shown promising treatment outcome results with depressed adults. The current pilot study evaluated a version of BA adapted for depressed adolescents. Six teens (3 male, 3 female, ages 14-17) who met criteria for major depressive disorder participated in the study. Participants were…

  9. Alkaline flood prediction studies, Ranger VII pilot, Wilmington Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, E.H.; Breit, V.S.

    1982-01-01

    The paper discusses: (1) The design of a simulator to model alkaline displacement mechanisms and the current state-of-the-art understanding of in-situ caustic consumption. (2) Assimilation of laboratory core flood and rock consumption data. Use of this data in 1-D and 2-D limited area simulations, and a 3-D model of the entire pilot project. (3) Simulation studies of alkaline flood behavior in a small 2-D area of the field for various concentrations, slug sizes, long term consumption functions and two relative permeability adjustment mechanisms. (4) Scale up of 2-D simulation results, and their use in a 271 acre 1.097 x 10/sup 6/m/sup 2/), 7 layered 3-D model of the pilot. (5) Comparison of 3-D simulator results with initial field alkaline flood performance. (6) Recommended additional application of the simulator methods developed in this pilot and in other alkaline floods. 10 refs.

  10. Will More Diversified Staffs Diversify Newspaper Content? A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedler, Fred; and Others

    A pilot study asked 94 students enrolled in introductory newswriting classes at three separate universities to evaluate 18 news stories. About half the stories concerned topics that proponents of multiculturalism have suggested would receive more emphasis if newspapers employed more women and minorities: topics such as breast cancer, divorce,…

  11. NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY ON CLEAN PRODUCTS & PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Led by the United States, represented by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) National Risk Management Research Laboratory, the Pilot Study on Clean Products and Processes was instituted to create an international forum where current trends, developments, and expert...

  12. Human Exposures to PAHs: an Eastern United States Pilot Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposure monitoring for select polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was performed as part of the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Pilot Study in Baltimore, MD and in four surrounding counties (NHEXAS-Maryland). An objective of this effort was to esta...

  13. Outcome evaluation of a pilot study using "nudges"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Every school day, over 31 million U.S. children eat school lunches. Unfortunately, students often do not choose the healthy options in the school cafeteria. This paper describes outcome results of a pilot study using "nudges" to improve elementary school students' fruits and vegetables selections. A...

  14. Results of the "In Control: No Alcohol!" Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mares, Suzanne H. W.; van der Vorst, Haske; Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E. E.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    More than 50% of Dutch 12-year olds already started drinking. Since it is known that delaying the onset of alcohol use results in a lower risk of alcohol-related problems, the recently developed "In control: No alcohol!" prevention program is targeted at elementary school children and their mothers. In this pilot study, the success of program…

  15. PILOT STUDY OF FLUORIDE AND ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM POTABLE WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pilot plant studies were conducted on the removal of fluoride and arsenic from potable water using activated alumina as the adsorbent. The tests were run using water from the community of Why, Arizona, that contained 3 mg/L fluoride and 0.15 mg/L arsenic. The experimental data sh...

  16. Nutrition education program for food bank clients: A pilot study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many low income families depend on foods from food banks. The objective of the study was to determine program content and examine feasibility of a pilot nutrition education program for food bank clients. Formative research was conducted with staff at a local food bank and its pantries and adult clie...

  17. Tai Chi for People with Visual Impairments: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miszko, Tanya A.; Ramsey, Vincent K.; Blasch, Bruce B.

    2004-01-01

    This pilot study assessed the physical and psychological outcomes of a tai chi exercise program for eight adults with visual impairments. It found that after eight weeks of orientation and mobility training and tai chi practice, the participants' single leg-stance time and total knee flexion work and power improved, as did their frequency of,…

  18. Danish Health Professionals' Experiences of Being Coached: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammentorp, Jette; Jensen, Hanne Irene; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, coaching, as a supplement to professional development, has received increased attention, especially in nursing. Still, only little is known about how health professionals experience participating in coaching sessions. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe and analyze health professionals' experiences from…

  19. Community College Administrators and Faculty Scholarship: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshood, Nabil

    1995-01-01

    Describes a pilot study examining the attitudes of presidents and chief academic officers at the 19 New Jersey community colleges toward faculty scholarship. Indicates that although 81% of respondents were willing to offer more incentives for scholarship, 87% were unwilling to reduce teaching loads and 77% were unwilling to require scholarship.…

  20. Assessing the Flipped Classroom in Operations Management: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prashar, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    The author delved into the results of a flipped classroom pilot conducted for an operations management course module. It assessed students' perception of a flipped learning environment after making them experience it in real time. The classroom environment was construed using a case research approach and students' perceptions were studied using…

  1. Causes of Mortality among American College Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, James C.; Leno, E. Victor; Keller, Adrienne

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study from self-selected institutions of higher education provides an estimate of the causes and rates of mortality among college students between the ages of 18 and 24 years old. One hundred fifty-seven 4-year colleges participated in an online survey of student deaths during one academic year. A total of 254 deaths were reported. The…

  2. The Effect of Background Music on Bullying: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Naomi; Dolev, Einat

    2013-01-01

    School bullying is a source of growing concern. A number of intervention programs emphasize the importance of a positive school climate in preventing bullying behavior. The aim of the presented pilot study was to examine whether calming background music, through its effect on arousal and mood, could create a pleasant atmosphere and reduce bullying…

  3. Minesweeper and Hypothetical Thinking Action Research & Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    This Action Research project and Pilot Study was designed and implemented to improve students' hypothetical thinking abilities by exploring the possibility that learning and playing the computer game Minesweeper may inherently help improve hypothetical thinking. One objective was to use educational tools to make it easier for students to learn the…

  4. Achieving Competence: Army-VOTEC School Partnership Pilot Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Mary W.

    To reduce Army training costs, the Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) investigated use of training at civilian secondary and postsecondary vocational-technical (VOTEC) institutions as an alternative to initial job training in Army service schools. Three models were used in the pilot study: the preservice training model in which…

  5. Job Rotation at Cardiff University Library Service: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earney, Sally; Martins, Ana

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents case study research of a job rotation pilot involving six library assistants in Cardiff University Library Service (ULS). Firstly, it investigates whether job rotation improves motivation and secondly, whether there is an improvement in skills, both technical and "soft". Following a review of the literature, semi-structured…

  6. Assessing Student Engagement: HSSSE Pilot Study with Independent Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    NAIS and the NAIS Commission on Accreditation recently launched a three-year pilot study on the use of the High School Survey of Student Engagement (HSSSE) among independent schools. HSSSE, administered by Indiana University, is a survey designed to investigate the attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs of high school students about their work. This…

  7. Initial Scale Development: Sample Size for Pilot Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johanson, George A.; Brooks, Gordon P.

    2010-01-01

    Pilot studies are often recommended by scholars and consultants to address a variety of issues, including preliminary scale or instrument development. Specific concerns such as item difficulty, item discrimination, internal consistency, response rates, and parameter estimation in general are all relevant. Unfortunately, there is little discussion…

  8. [Treatment of spasticity with a transcutaneous neurostimulator. A pilot study].

    PubMed

    Kirkeby, R; Jordt, M; Hansen, E

    1995-04-24

    In this pilot study the neurostimulator KDC 5000 is used with efficacy on seven out of 11 patients with spastic palsy, and treatment was given without any side-effects. No other treatment has sufficiently helped these patients, and we therefore conclude that such treatment with a neuro-stimulator could be beneficial for selected patients with spastic palsy of extremities. PMID:7762102

  9. CSO DISINFECTION PILOT STUDY: SPRING CREEK CSO STORAGE FACILITY UPGRADE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research summary presents the results of a pilot-scale disinfection study performed for the New York City Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) under a contract to Camp Dresser & McKee of Woodbury, New York. The main ob...

  10. RESEARCH PLAN FOR PILOT STUDIES OF THE BIODIVERSITY RESEARCH CONSORTIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a research plan for an assessment of risks to biodiversity. he plan describes the theoretical basis of the research approach and the data and methods to be used in the assessment. nitial research activities are formulated as a set of pilot studies that will e...

  11. The CITRA Pilot Studies Program: Mentoring Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Wethington, Elaine; Breckman, Risa; Meador, Rhoda; Reid, M. Carrington; Sabir, Myra; Lachs, Mark; Pillemer, Karl A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We developed an innovative pilot studies program to foster partnerships between university researchers and agencies serving older people in New York City. The development of researchers willing to collaborate with frontline service agencies and service agencies ready to partner with researchers is critical for translating scientific research into evidence-based practice that benefits community-dwelling older adults. Design and Methods We adapted the traditional academic pilot studies model to include key features of community-based participatory research. Results In partnership with a network of 265 senior centers and service agencies, we built a multistep program to recruit and educate scientific investigators and agencies in the principles of community-based research and to fund research partnerships that fulfilled essential elements of research translation from university to community: scientific rigor, sensitivity to community needs, and applicability to frontline practice. We also developed an educational and monitoring infrastructure to support projects. Implications Pilot studies programs developing community-based participatory research require an infrastructure that can supplement individual pilot investigator efforts with centralized resources to ensure proper implementation and dissemination of the research. The financial and time investment required to maintain programs such as those at the Cornell Institute for Translational Research on Aging, or CITRA, may be a barrier to establishing similar programs. PMID:18192638

  12. Pilot interaction with cockpit automation 2: An experimental study of pilots' model and awareness of the Flight Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarter, Nadine B.; Woods, David D.

    1994-01-01

    Technological developments have made it possible to automate more and more functions on the commercial aviation flight deck and in other dynamic high-consequence domains. This increase in the degrees of freedom in design has shifted questions away from narrow technological feasibility. Many concerned groups, from designers and operators to regulators and researchers, have begun to ask questions about how we should use the possibilities afforded by technology skillfully to support and expand human performance. In this article, we report on an experimental study that addressed these questions by examining pilot interaction with the current generation of flight deck automation. Previous results on pilot-automation interaction derived from pilot surveys, incident reports, and training observations have produced a corpus of features and contexts in which human-machine coordination is likely to break down (e.g., automation surprises). We used these data to design a simulated flight scenario that contained a variety of probes designed to reveal pilots' mental model of one major component of flight deck automation: the Flight Management System (FMS). The events within the scenario were also designed to probe pilots' ability to apply their knowledge and understanding in specific flight contexts and to examine their ability to track the status and behavior of the automated system (mode awareness). Although pilots were able to 'make the system work' in standard situations, the results reveal a variety of latent problems in pilot-FMS interaction that can affect pilot performance in nonnormal time critical situations.

  13. Dissolution Studies With Pilot Plant and Actual INTEC Calcines

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Ronald Scott; Garn, Troy Gerry

    1999-04-01

    The dissolution of Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) pilot plant calcines was examined to determine solubility of calcine matrix components in acidic media. Two representatives pilot plant calcine types were studied: Zirconia calcine and Zirconia/ Sodium calcine. Dissolution of these calcines was evaluated using lower initial concentrations of nitric acid than used in previous tests to decrease the [H+] concentration in the final solutions. Lower [H+] concentrations contribute to more favorable TRUEX/SREX solvent extraction flowsheet performance. Dissolution and analytical results were also obtained for radioactive calcines produced using high sodium feeds blended with non-radioactive A1(NO3)3 solutions to dilute the sodium concentration and prevent bed agglomeration during the calcination process. Dissolution tests indicated >95 wt. % of the initial calcine mass can be dissolved using the baseline dissolution procedure, with the exception that higher initial nitric acid concentrations are required. The higher initial acid concentration is required for stoichiometric dissolution of the oxides, primarily aluminum oxide. Statistically designed experiments using pilot plant calcine were performed to determine the effect of mixing rate on dissolution efficiency. Mixing rate was determined to provide minimal effects on wt. % dissolution. The acid/calcine ratio and temperature were the predominate variables affecting the wt. % dissolution, a result consistent with previous studies using other similar types of pilot plant calcines.

  14. Dissolution studies with pilot plant and actual INTEC calcines

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, R.S.; Garn, T.G.

    1999-04-01

    The dissolution of Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) pilot plant calcines was examined to determine solubility of calcine matrix components in acidic media. Two representatives pilot plant calcine types were studied: Zirconia calcine and Zirconia/Sodium calcine. Dissolution of these calcines was evaluated using lower initial concentrations of nitric acid than used in previous tests to decrease the [H+] concentration in the final solutions. Lower [H+] concentrations contribute to more favorable TRUEX/SREX solvent extraction flowsheet performance. Dissolution and analytical results were also obtained for radioactive calcines produced using high sodium feeds blended with non-radioactive Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solutions to dilute the sodium concentration and prevent bed agglomeration during the calcination process. Dissolution tests indicated {gt}95 wt.% of the initial calcine mass can be dissolved using the baseline dissolution procedure, with the exception that higher initial nitric acid concentrations are required. The higher initial acid concentration is required for stoichiometric dissolution of the oxides, primarily aluminum oxide. Statistically designed experiments using pilot plant calcine were performed to determine the effect of mixing rate on dissolution efficiency. Mixing rate was determined to provide minimal effects on wt.% dissolution. The acid/calcine ratio and temperature were the predominate variables affecting the wt.% dissolution, a result consistent with previous studies using other similar types of pilot plant calcines.

  15. Nursing Student Perceptions of Digital Textbooks: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Mennenga, Heidi A

    2016-01-01

    Digital textbooks are increasing in popularity, often resulting from the perception that students demand the use of technology in academics. However, few studies have been done on student perceptions of digital textbooks. A pilot study was conducted with students enrolled in a nursing research course; 123 nursing students participated. This study found that students overwhelmingly preferred print textbooks over digital textbooks. More research needs to be done before assuming students would prefer digital textbooks over print. PMID:27209871

  16. The effect of Camellia Sinensis (green tea) mouthwash on plaque-induced gingivitis: a single-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background and the purpose of the Study Complementary medicine received high attention during last decades. We aimed to assess the efficacy of Green tea mouthwash on plaque-induced gingivitis as the most common form of periodontal disease. Methods and materials We designed a single blinded placebo controlled clinical trial. High school female students with chronic generalized plaque-induced gingivitis were distributed to receive either 5 ml of Green tea 5% two times/day or normal saline with the same dosage. Gingival index (Sillness & Loe), plaque index (Sillness & Loe) and bleeding index (Barnett) were recorded at baseline and five consecutive weeks. Comparisons were made by a general linear model, repeated measure ANOVA and a Bonferroni test applied for multiple comparisons. Results Twenty five students were recruited in each arm of the study. A significant improvement was observed in all periodontal indices during the study (P < 0.001). Two groups were contrasted by changing patterns of alteration of indices (P < 0.05). Although total amount of improvement was higher in mouthwash group, the differences did not reach a statistically significant level (P > 0.05, observed power for GI: 0.09, PI: 0.11 and BI: 0.07). Conclusion Green tea mouthwash may be a safe and feasible adjunct treatment for inflammatory periodontal diseases. A future larger scale study is warranted for better evaluating the effect of green tea. PMID:23351842

  17. A Study of the Characteristics of Human-Pilot Control Response to Simulated Aircraft Lateral Motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheatham, Donald C

    1954-01-01

    Report presents the results of studies made in an attempt to provide information on the control operations of the human pilot. These studies included an investigation of the ability of pilots to control simulated unstable yawing oscillations, a study of the basic characteristics of human-pilot control response, and a study to determine whether and to what extent pilot control response can be represented in an analytical form.

  18. A Randomised Single-Blinded Controlled Trial on the Effectiveness of Brief Advice on Smoking Cessation among Tertiary Students in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    De Silva, WDAS; Awang, R; Samsudeen, S; Hanna, F

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco smoking, a habitual behavior, is addictive and detrimental to health. Quitting requires personal abilities and environmental opportunities and therefore, improving these abilities and opportunities will undoubtedly act on smokers’ motivation to quit. Methods A prospective single-blinded randomized controlled interventional study was conducted among first year undergraduate students in Malaysia. A total of eighty smokers were randomly allocated to a control or intervention groups (40/40). Randomization remained concealed from research personnel. All participants were followed up for six months to evaluate abstinence. Results Quit line enrolment rate of the intervention group was 55% (22) compared to 7.5% (3) in the control (P < 0.001 95% CI 30.1 - 64.9). In the intervention group 27% (6) sustained quitting for six months compared to none in the control group. Conclusion This study has shown that brief advice for smoking cessation is more effective than an information leaflet alone to promote quitting and that to maintain abstinence quit line follow up is necessary. Larger samples size and longer follow up studies are needed to further confirm these findings. PMID:27081575

  19. Effects of L-carnitine supplementation on respiratory distress syndrome development and prognosis in premature infants: A single blind randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    OZTURK, MEHMET ADNAN; KARDAS, ZEHRA; KARDAS, FATİH; GUNES, TAMER; KURTOGLU, SELİM

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of L-carnitine therapy on the occurrence and prognosis of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). A single blind, randomized controlled trial study was conducted on 130 infants with gestational ages of 28–36 weeks. Infants were assigned to experimental groups (groups 1 and 2) and control groups (groups 3 and 4). Groups 1 and 3 consisted of infants with RDS, and groups 2 and 4 groups were composed of infants without RDS. The experimental groups were treated with carnitine. No statistically significant differences in serum carnitine levels were detected between the study and the control groups on day 1 of treatment (P=0.06). However, on day 7 of treatment, serum carnitine levels in the experimental groups were significantly increased (P=0.02), as compared with the control groups. The surfactant requirement value, which is how many rounds of surfactant therapy were required, was 1.56±0.97 in group 1, and 2.12±0.99 in group 3 (P<0.001). The mean duration of mechanical ventilation required was 3.04±3.60 days in group 1, and 4.73±5.63 days in group 3 (P<0.001). The present results indicate that carnitine supplementation in premature infants with RDS may help to increase carnitine levels, thus decreasing the duration of mechanical ventilation and surfactant requirement. PMID:26998047

  20. Structural Differences in Gray Matter between Glider Pilots and Non-Pilots. A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    PubMed

    Ahamed, Tosif; Kawanabe, Motoaki; Ishii, Shin; Callan, Daniel E

    2014-01-01

    Glider flying is a unique skill that requires pilots to control an aircraft at high speeds in three dimensions and amidst frequent full-body rotations. In the present study, we investigated the neural correlates of flying a glider using voxel-based morphometry. The comparison between gray matter densities of 15 glider pilots and a control group of 15 non-pilots exhibited significant gray matter density increases in left ventral premotor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and the supplementary eye field. We posit that the identified regions might be associated with cognitive and motor processes related to flying, such as joystick control, visuo-vestibular interaction, and oculomotor control. PMID:25506339

  1. Structural Differences in Gray Matter between Glider Pilots and Non-Pilots. A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahamed, Tosif; Kawanabe, Motoaki; Ishii, Shin; Callan, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    Glider flying is a unique skill that requires pilots to control an aircraft at high speeds in three dimensions and amidst frequent full-body rotations. In the present study, we investigated the neural correlates of flying a glider using voxel-based morphometry. The comparison between gray matter densities of 15 glider pilots and a control group of 15 non-pilots exhibited significant gray matter density increases in left ventral premotor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and the supplementary eye field. We posit that the identified regions might be associated with cognitive and motor processes related to flying, such as joystick control, visuo-vestibular interaction, and oculomotor control. PMID:25506339

  2. Spinal patterns as predictors of personality profiles: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Koren, T; Rosenwinkel, E

    1992-01-01

    The present pilot study is part of an ongoing effort to further the investigation of the relationship between spinal patterns and personality. The present pilot study seeks to identify likely spinal patterns of certain personality profiles and asks whether changing posture can affect personality, and/or can emotional states alter posture? Forty patients of a private chiropractic practice participated in the study. Four radiographs (x-rays) of each subject were taken and each subject completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Measurements obtained from the radiographs and the MMPI data were used to derive general linear models of the predictability of the MMPI in terms of the spinal/postural measures. Several models were highly significant and preliminary support for the authors' hypothesis that spinal patterns are likely to be predictive of personality profiles is suggested. Support for previous research is offered and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:1428613

  3. Support for Students Exposed to Trauma: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Jaycox, Lisa H.; Langley, Audra K.; Stein, Bradley D.; Wong, Marleen; Sharma, Priya; Scott, Molly; Schonlau, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    With high rates of trauma exposure among students, the need for intervention programs is clear. Delivery of such programs in the school setting eliminates key barriers to access, but there are few programs that demonstrate efficacy in this setting. Programs to date have been designed for delivery by clinicians, who are a scarce resource in many schools. This study describes preliminary feasibility and acceptability data from a pilot study of a new program, Support for Students Exposed to Trauma, adapted from the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS) program. Because of its “pilot” nature, all results from the study should be viewed as preliminary. Results show that the program can be implemented successfully by teachers and school counselors, with good satisfaction among students and parents. Pilot data show small reductions in symptoms among the students in the SSET program, suggesting that this program shows promise that warrants a full evaluation of effectiveness. PMID:20811511

  4. The effects of open and closed endotracheal suctioning on intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure: a crossover, single-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Uğraş, Gülay Altun; Aksoy, Güler

    2012-12-01

    Although endotracheal suctioning is a routine nursing intervention, this procedure can lead to an increase in intracranial pressure (ICP). This study was planned to determine the appropriate suctioning technique (open system suctioning [OS] and closed system suctioning [CS]) to minimize variability of ICP and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) in neurologically impaired patients. The study, which was designed as a crossover, single-blind clinical trial, consisted of 32 neurosurgical patients who underwent ICP monitoring, intra-arterial blood pressure monitoring, and endotracheal intubation in the intensive care unit. According to the need for suctioning, each patient in the experimental and control groups underwent suctioning with both closed and open systems. Recordings were composed of the patients' ICP, mean arterial blood pressure, CPP, heart rate (HR), and arterial blood gases during suctioning. It was observed that both suctioning techniques significantly increased ICP, mean arterial blood pressure, CPP, and HR; ICP was found to be significantly higher in OS compared with CS, whereas there were no significant differences in CPP and HR between the two techniques. The patients suctioned using OS had significantly lower mean PaO(2) than those suctioned using CS; however, the comparison of the two techniques revealed no significant differences in PaCO(2). The data obtained indicate that CS, compared with OS, can be used safely on this patient group. PMID:23124126

  5. Life and Microgravity Sciences Spacelab Mission: Human Research Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B. (Editor); Walker, Karen R. (Editor); Hargens, Alan (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The Life Sciences, Microgravity Science and Spacelab Mission contains a number of human experiments directed toward identifying the functional, metabolic and neurological characteristics of muscle weakness and atrophy during space flight. To ensure the successful completion of the flight experiments, a ground-based pilot study, designed to mimic the flight protocols as closely as possible, was carried out in the head-down tilt bed rest model. This report records the rationales, procedures, preliminary results and estimated value of the pilot study, the first of its kind, for 12 of the 13 planned experiments in human research. The bed rest study was conducted in the Human Research Facility at Ames Research Center from July 11 - August 28, 1995. Eight healthy male volunteers performed the experiments before, during and after 17 days bed rest. The immediate purposes of this simulation were to integrate the experiments, provide data in a large enough sample for publication of results, enable investigators to review individual experiments in the framework of a multi-disciplinary study and relay the experience of the pilot study to the mission specialists prior to launch.

  6. A pilot study of energy efficient air cleaning for ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Gundel, Lara A.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Katsapov, Gregory Y.; Fisk, William J.

    2002-11-01

    A laboratory pilot study has been undertaken with the material that showed the most promise (high capacity and low pressure drop) based on the literature review and associated calculations. The best-performing air cleaner was a commercially available pleated filter that contained a thin layer of small activated carbon particles between two sheets of non-woven fibrous webbing. We will refer to this unit as the ''ozone filter'' although it is marketed for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from automobile passenger compartments. This pilot study strongly suggests that ozone air cleaning can be practical in commercial air handling systems; however, further tests are needed to assess air cleaner performance under a wider range of conditions.

  7. The H-ATLAS 1000 lens survey: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussmann, Robert; Coppin, Kristen; Serjeant, Stephen; Verma, Aprajita; Gonzalez-Nuevo, Joaquin; Negrello, Mattia; Dye, Simon; Ivison, Rob; Riechers, Dominik; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Michalowski, Michal; Van Der Werf, Paul; Bremer, Malcolm; Clements, Dave; Lapi, Andrea; Temi, Pasquale; Baker, Andrew; Omont, Alain; De Zotti, Gianfranco

    2013-02-01

    Strong gravitational lensing is one of the very few probes capable of mapping galactic dark matter distributions. Lensing provides independent cosmological parameter estimates and enables the study of galaxy populations that are otherwise too faint for detailed study. We pioneered a major new strong gravitational lens selection method via submm-wave surveys (Negrello et al. 2010 Science). When combined with near-IR surveys we can now generate the first ever 1000-lens survey. We request a pilot foreground lens redshift survey for 50 lenses. This pilot alone increases the number of confirmed submm-selected lens systems at z > 0.5 by x5, placing our new lensing discoveries on a par with SLACS (but at much higher lens redshifts), and distinguishing between NFW and SIS models of the foreground population. Combining this data with ongoing mm-wave source redshifts, we will constrain Omega_Lambda to around +/-0.01.

  8. Cost analysis of cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation: a single blind randomised clinical trial comparing extracapsular cataract extraction and phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    Rizal, A M; Aljunid, S M; Normalina, M; Hanom, A Faridah; Chuah, K L; Suzainah, Y; Zainal, M; Azman, A B

    2003-08-01

    A randomised single blinded clinical trial to compare the cost of cataract surgery between extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) and phacoemulsification (PEA) was conducted at Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (HUKM) between March and December 2000. A total of 60 patients were included in this study. The cost of a cataract surgery incurred by hospital, patients and households up to two months after discharge were included. The costs of training, loss of patients' income after discharge and intangible costs were excluded. Results showed that the average cost for one ECCE operation is RM1,664.46 (RM1,233.04-RM2,377.64) and for PEA is RM1,978.00 (RM1,557.87-RM3,334.50). During this short period of follow up, it can be concluded that ECCE is significantly cheaper than PEA by an average difference of RM 313.54 per patient (p < 0.001). Cost of equipment and low frequency of PEA technique done in HUKM were the two main reasons for the high unit cost of PEA as compared to ECCE. PMID:14750378

  9. Risk factors for hidradenitis suppurativa: a pilot study*

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde; Bombonatto, Giovana; Martin, Manoela; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2012-01-01

    The hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic debilitating inflammatory disease whose etiology is not fully understood. We conducted a pilot case-control study matched by sex and age with other dermatological patients to analyze possible risk factors associated with this disease. We included 15 cases and 45 controls, 67% were women. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis identified significant association with smoking, higher body mass index and family history. The use of hormonal contraceptives was less frequent in women with hidradenitis. PMID:23197222

  10. Patient education and migraine: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Centonze, V; Polito, B M; Cassiano, M A; Albano, M G; Ricchetti, G; Bassi, A; Causarano, V; Dalfino, L; Albano, O

    1998-01-01

    Our study examines the effectiveness of an educational approach to migraine patients. A course in migraine education was set up for 30 patients suffering from this disease; meetings were structured taking into consideration specific educational aims, with parameters evaluated before the course, at the end of the course and at a 3-month follow-up. The results, particularly the increase in the migraineurs' knowledge of their disease and the decrease in the use of symptomatic drugs, suggest the effectiveness of the course. Furthermore, our study suggests that there is a need to build educational processes into therapeutic protocols, as they enable patients to manage their chronic diseases more correctly. PMID:9626596

  11. Low-Cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, William B.; Francisco, Paul W.; Merrin, Zachary

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the research was to conduct a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation-living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity the foundation was improved. However, this improved isolation did not lead to significant reductions in radon concentration in the living space. Other factors such as outdoor temperature were shown to have an impact on radon concentration.

  12. A Pilot Study of Hungarian Discourse Markers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Der, Csilla Ilona; Marko, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    This study is the first attempt at detecting formal and positional characteristics of single-word simple discourse markers in a spontaneous speech sample of Hungarian. In the first part of the research, theoretical claims made in the relevant literature were tested. The data did not confirm or only partially confirmed the claims that Hungarian…

  13. DISCOVER in Lebanon: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarouphim, Ketty M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of DISCOVER, a performance-based assessment, in identifying gifted students in Lebanon. DISCOVER is grounded in Gardner's MI theory and consists of tasks involving problem-solving and creative abilities. The sample consisted of 49 middle-class 5-th graders, with a mean age of 10.2…

  14. THE NORTH CAROLINA HERALD PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory



    The sampling design for the National Children's Study (NCS) calls for a population-based, multi-stage, clustered household sampling approach. The full sample is designed to be representative of both urban and rural births in the United States, 2007-2011. While other sur...

  15. Commercial conspiracy theories: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    There are many ways to categorise conspiracy theories. In the present study, we examined individual and demographic predictors of beliefs in commercial conspiracy theories among a British sample of over 300 women and men. Results showed many people were cynical and sceptical with regard to advertising tricks, as well as the tactics of organisations like banks and alcohol, drug and tobacco companies. Beliefs sorted into four identifiable clusters, labelled sneakiness, manipulative, change-the-rules and suppression/prevention. The high alpha for the overall scale suggested general beliefs in commercial conspiracy. Regressions suggested that those people who were less religious, more left-wing, more pessimistic, less (self-defined as) wealthy, less Neurotic and less Open-to-Experience believed there was more commercial conspiracy. Overall the individual difference variables explained relatively little of the variance in these beliefs. The implications of these findings for the literature on conspiracy theories are discussed. Limitations of the study are also discussed. PMID:23818886

  16. Commercial conspiracy theories: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    There are many ways to categorise conspiracy theories. In the present study, we examined individual and demographic predictors of beliefs in commercial conspiracy theories among a British sample of over 300 women and men. Results showed many people were cynical and sceptical with regard to advertising tricks, as well as the tactics of organisations like banks and alcohol, drug and tobacco companies. Beliefs sorted into four identifiable clusters, labelled sneakiness, manipulative, change-the-rules and suppression/prevention. The high alpha for the overall scale suggested general beliefs in commercial conspiracy. Regressions suggested that those people who were less religious, more left-wing, more pessimistic, less (self-defined as) wealthy, less Neurotic and less Open-to-Experience believed there was more commercial conspiracy. Overall the individual difference variables explained relatively little of the variance in these beliefs. The implications of these findings for the literature on conspiracy theories are discussed. Limitations of the study are also discussed. PMID:23818886

  17. Cavity wounds management: a multicentre pilot study.

    PubMed

    Meaume, Sylvie; Facy, Olivier; Munoz-Bongrand, Nicolas; Ribemont, Annie-Claude; Sigal, Michele-Lea; Couffinhal, Jean-Claude; Trial, Chloe; Tacca, Olivier; Bohbot, Serge

    The objective of this study was to assess acceptability (based on pain at removal), efficacy and tolerance of an absorbent and cohesive rope(UrgoClean Rope, Laboratoires Urgo) in the local management of deep cavity wounds. This study was a prospective, multicentre (13), non comparative clinical study. Patients presenting with an acute or chronic non-infected cavity wound were followed up for four weeks and assessed weekly with a physical examination, in addition to volumetric,planimetric and photographic evaluations. Pain at removal was the primary criterion, assessed on a Visual Analogic Scale. The percentage of the wound surface area reduction and volumetric reduction were considered as secondary efficacy criteria. Forty three patients were included in this study. After one week of treatment dressing removal was painless and continued to be so throughout the period of the trial(four weeks). Median surface area at baseline was 7.74 cm2 and was reduced by 54.5% at week 4 (relative area reduction). Median wound volumetric value was noted 12 ml at baseline and was reduced by 72.7% by the end of treatment. The cohesiveness of the new rope was considered very good by health professionals. No residue was observed on the wound bed during the dressing change with the new rope. There were no adverse events related to the tested rope, during this trial.Pain-free removal associated with good efficacy and tolerance were observed with this new cohesive rope in the healing process of deep cavity wounds and could represent a therapeutic alternative to the usual ropes used in such indications. PMID:24180023

  18. Tri-county pilot study. [Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, C. A. (Principal Investigator); Austin, T. W.; Kerber, A. G.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An area inventory was performed for three southeast Texas counties (Montgomery, Walker, and San Jacinto) totaling 0.65 million hectares. The inventory was performed using a two level hierarchy. Level 1 was divided into forestland, rangeland, and other land. Forestland was separated into Level 2 categories: pine, hardwood, and mixed; rangeland was not separated further. Results consisted of area statistics for each county and for the entire study site for pine, hardwood, mixed, rangeland, and other land. Color coded county classification maps were produced for the May data set, and procedures were developed and tested.

  19. Low-cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, William B.; Francisco, Paul W.; Merrin, Zachary

    2015-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Building America research team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofits conducted a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation and living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois, area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity measurements. Blower door and zone pressure diagnostics were conducted at each house. The treatments consisted of using air-sealing foams at the underside of the floor that separated the living space from the foundation and providing duct sealing on the ductwork that is situated in the foundation area. The hypothesis was that air sealing the floor system that separated the foundation from the living space should better isolate the living space from the foundation; this isolation should lead to less radon entering the living space from the foundation. If the hypothesis had been proven, retrofit energy-efficiency programs may have chosen to adopt these isolation methods for enhanced radon protection to the living space.

  20. High-Resolution Scintimammography: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel F. Brem; Joelle M. Schoonjans; Douglas A. Kieper; Stan Majewski; Steven Goodman; Cahid Civelek

    2002-07-01

    This study evaluated a novel high-resolution breast-specific gamma camera (HRBGC) for the detection of suggestive breast lesions. Methods: Fifty patients (with 58 breast lesions) for whom a scintimammogram was clinically indicated were prospectively evaluated with a general-purpose gamma camera and a novel HRBGC prototype. The results of conventional and high-resolution nuclear studies were prospectively classified as negative (normal or benign) or positive (suggestive or malignant) by 2 radiologists who were unaware of the mammographic and histologic results. All of the included lesions were confirmed by pathology. Results: There were 30 benign and 28 malignant lesions. The sensitivity for detection of breast cancer was 64.3% (18/28) with the conventional camera and 78.6% (22/28) with the HRBGC. The specificity with both systems was 93.3% (28/30). For the 18 nonpalpable lesions, sensitivity was 55.5% (10/18) and 72.2% (13/18) with the general-purpose camera and the HRBGC, respectively. For lesions 1 cm, 7 of 15 were detected with the general-purpose camera and 10 of 15 with the HRBGC. Four lesions (median size, 8.5 mm) were detected only with the HRBGC and were missed by the conventional camera. Conclusion: Evaluation of indeterminate breast lesions with an HRBGC results in improved sensitivity for the detection of cancer, with greater improvement shown for nonpalpable and 1-cm lesions.

  1. Pilot study of MK-462 in migraine.

    PubMed

    Cutler, N R; Claghorn, J; Sramek, J J; Block, G; Panebianco, D; Cheng, H; Olah, T V; Reines, S A

    1996-04-01

    MK-462 is a potent, selective 5HT1D receptor agonist which may be useful in treating acute migraine. We conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled inpatient study to assess the preliminary efficacy and safety of oral doses of MK-462 20 mg (n = 8) and 40 mg (n = 36) vs placebo (n = 21), administered to 65 male and post-menopausal female migraine patients aged 22-51 with moderate or severe migraine headache. Headache severity and functional disability were measured at 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 h post-dose. The 20 mg dose was well tolerated and 4/8 patients obtained relief in headache severity at the 2 h time point. The 40 mg dose was well tolerated and was significantly (p < 0.05) superior to placebo at the 1.5 and 2 h time points (with 27/36 or 75% obtaining relief at 2 h compared to 7/21 or 33% for placebo). Adverse events occurred in 50% of patients on 20 mg MK-462, 72% of those on 40 mg MK-462, and in 52% of placebo-treated subjects. The most common adverse events associated with MK-462 were drowsiness (20 mg 12%; 40 mg 44%; placebo 24%), dry mouth (40 mg 36%; placebo 19%), and lightheadedness/dizziness (40 mg 17%; placebo 10%). Based on these preliminary results, MK-462 appears worthy of continued study for the treatment of acute migraine. PMID:8665577

  2. Piloted Simulation Study of Rudder Pedal Force/Feel Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Ronald A.

    2007-01-01

    A piloted, fixed-base simulation was conducted in 2006 to determine optimum rudder pedal force/feel characteristics for transport aircraft. As part of this research, an evaluation of four metrics for assessing rudder pedal characteristics previously presented in the literature was conducted. This evaluation was based upon the numerical handling qualities ratings assigned to a variety of pedal force/feel systems used in the simulation study. It is shown that, with the inclusion of a fifth metric, most of the rudder pedal force/feel system designs that were rated poorly by the evaluation pilots could be identified. It is suggested that these metrics form the basis of a certification requirement for transport aircraft.

  3. Airflow Hazard Visualization for Helicopter Pilots: Flight Simulation Study Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Long, Kurtis R.

    2005-01-01

    Airflow hazards such as vortices or low level wind shear have been identified as a primary contributing factor in many helicopter accidents. US Navy ships generate airwakes over their decks, creating potentially hazardous conditions for shipboard rotorcraft launch and recovery. Recent sensor developments may enable the delivery of airwake data to the cockpit, where visualizing the hazard data may improve safety and possibly extend ship/helicopter operational envelopes. A prototype flight-deck airflow hazard visualization system was implemented on a high-fidelity rotorcraft flight dynamics simulator. Experienced helicopter pilots, including pilots from all five branches of the military, participated in a usability study of the system. Data was collected both objectively from the simulator and subjectively from post-test questionnaires. Results of the data analysis are presented, demonstrating a reduction in crash rate and other trends that illustrate the potential of airflow hazard visualization to improve flight safety.

  4. SERDP munition disposal source characterization pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R.C.; Couch, R.G.; Fried, L.E.

    1995-09-01

    The Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) is supporting studies to develop and implement technologies for the safe, efficient, and environmentally sound disposal of obsolete munitions and propellants which are stored at various locations across the country. One proposed disposal technique is the open-air burning or detonation (OB/OD) of this material. Although OB/OD is viewed as an efficient and cost-effective method for reducing the inventory of unwanted munitions and propellants, questions regarding its safety and environmental impacts must be addressed. Since very large amounts of munitions and propellants must be consumed inexpensively in relatively short time periods and with the very restrictive Federal and State regulations on environmental issues, it is clear that traditional OB/OD procedures will not be acceptable and that it is necessary to develop modified or advanced OB/OD technology. The effectiveness and environmental impact of the OB/OD technology must be verified by experimental data and with validated numerical models for acceptance by Federal and State regulators. Specifically, technology must be developed and tested that minimizes toxic bum and detonation products the noise (peak pressure) and destructive effect (impulse) of the explosive blast generation and travel distance of shrapnel, and entrainment of dust. Three explosion attenuation scenarios are analyzed: Contained water, aqueous foams, and wet sand.

  5. Telemedicine and Plastic Surgery: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Valente, Denis Souto; Silveira Eifler, Luciano; Carvalho, Lauro Aita; Filho, Gustavo Azambuja Pereira; Ribeiro, Vinicius Weissheimer; Padoin, Alexandre Vontobel

    2015-01-01

    Background. Telemedicine can be defined as the use of electronic media for transmission of information and medical data from one site to another. The objective of this study is to demonstrate an experience of telemedicine in plastic surgery. Methods. 32 plastic surgeons received a link with password for real-time streaming of a surgery. At the end of the procedure, the surgeons attending the procedure by the Internet answered five questions. The results were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results. 27 plastic surgeons attended the online procedure in real-time. 96.3% considered the access to the website as good or excellent and 3.7% considered it bad. 14.8% reported that the transmission was bad and 85.2% considered the quality of transmission as good or excellent. 96.3% classified the live broadcasting as a good or excellent learning experience and 3.7% considered it a bad experience. 92.6% reported feeling able to perform this surgery after watching the demo and 7.4% did not feel able. 100% of participants said they would like to participate in other surgical demonstrations over the Internet. Conclusion. We conclude that the use of telemedicine can provide more access to education and medical research, for plastic surgeons looking for medical education from distant regions. PMID:26609429

  6. Telemedicine and Plastic Surgery: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Denis Souto; Silveira Eifler, Luciano; Carvalho, Lauro Aita; Filho, Gustavo Azambuja Pereira; Ribeiro, Vinicius Weissheimer; Padoin, Alexandre Vontobel

    2015-01-01

    Background. Telemedicine can be defined as the use of electronic media for transmission of information and medical data from one site to another. The objective of this study is to demonstrate an experience of telemedicine in plastic surgery. Methods. 32 plastic surgeons received a link with password for real-time streaming of a surgery. At the end of the procedure, the surgeons attending the procedure by the Internet answered five questions. The results were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results. 27 plastic surgeons attended the online procedure in real-time. 96.3% considered the access to the website as good or excellent and 3.7% considered it bad. 14.8% reported that the transmission was bad and 85.2% considered the quality of transmission as good or excellent. 96.3% classified the live broadcasting as a good or excellent learning experience and 3.7% considered it a bad experience. 92.6% reported feeling able to perform this surgery after watching the demo and 7.4% did not feel able. 100% of participants said they would like to participate in other surgical demonstrations over the Internet. Conclusion. We conclude that the use of telemedicine can provide more access to education and medical research, for plastic surgeons looking for medical education from distant regions. PMID:26609429

  7. Alkaline flood prediction studies, Ranger VII pilot, Wilmington Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, E.H.; Breit, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of a simulator to model alkaline displacement mechanisms, along with the current understanding of in-situ caustic consumption. Assimilation of laboratory coreflood and rock consumption data, and their use in one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) limited area simulations and in three-dimensional (3D) models of the entire pilot project are given. This paper also reports simulation studies of alkaline flood behavior in a small 2D area of a field for various concentrations, slug sizes, long-term consumption functions, and two relative-permeability adjustment mechanisms. The scale-up of 2D simulation results and their use in a 271-acre (1096.7-ha), seven-layered, 3D model of the pilot are also discussed and 3D simulator results are compared with initial field alkaline flood performance. Finally, recommended additional applications of the simulator methods developed in this pilot and in other alkaline floods are discussed.

  8. Preliminary Hydrogeologic Characterization Results from the Wallula Basalt Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    B.P. McGrail; E. C. Sullivan; F. A. Spane; D. H. Bacon; G. Hund; P. D. Thorne; C. J. Thompson; S. P. Reidel; F. S. Colwell

    2009-12-01

    The DOE's Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership has completed drilling the first continental flood basalt sequestration pilot borehole to a total depth (TD) of 4,110 feet on the Boise White Paper Mill property at Wallula, Washington. Site suitability was assessed prior to drilling by the 2007-2008 acquisition, processing and analysis of a four-mile, five-line three component seismic swath, which was processed as a single data-dense line. Analysis of the seismic survey data indicated a composite basalt formation thickness of {approx}8,000 feet and absence of major geologic structures (i.e., faults) along the line imaged by the seismic swath. Drilling of Wallula pilot borehole was initiated on January 13, 2009 and reached TD on April 6, 2009. Based on characterization results obtained during drilling, three basalt breccia zones were identified between the depth interval of 2,716 and 2,910 feet, as being suitable injection reservoir for a subsequent CO2 injection pilot study. The targeted injection reservoir lies stratigraphically below the massive Umtanum Member of the Grande Ronde Basalt, whose flow-interior section possesses regionally recognized low-permeability characteristics. The identified composite injection zone reservoir provides a unique and attractive opportunity to scientifically study the reservoir behavior of three inter-connected reservoir intervals below primary and secondary caprock confining zones. Drill cuttings, wireline geophysical logs, and 31one-inch diameter rotary sidewall cores provided geologic data for characterization of rock properties. XRF analyses of selected rock samples provided geochemical characterizations of the rocks and stratigraphic control for the basalt flows encountered by the Wallula pilot borehole. Based on the geochemical results, the pilot borehole was terminated in the Wapshilla Ridge 1 flow of the Grande Ronde Basalt Formation. Detailed hydrologic test characterizations of 12 basalt interflow reservoir

  9. Baclofen-assisted detoxification from opiates. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Krystal, J H; McDougle, C J; Kosten, T R; Price, L H; Aghajanian, G K; Charney, D S

    1992-01-01

    In an open label pilot study, five opiate-dependent patients underwent baclofen-assisted opiate detoxification after abrupt discontinuation of methadone. Patients received baclofen in oral doses up to 80 mg/day, and all patients subjectively reported some reduction in discomfort. However, 3 of 5 (60%) patients could not complete detoxification with baclofen, primarily because of insufficient suppression of vomiting, myalgias, and headache. These patients successfully completed their detoxification with clonidine. These findings suggest that, in the dose range studied, baclofen is of limited use as a primary treatment for opiate dependence, although adjunctive roles for this medication in detoxification should be explored. PMID:1324986

  10. Interaction and efficacy of Keigai-rengyo-to extract and acupuncture in male patients with acne vulgaris: A study protocol for a randomized controlled pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In consideration of patients seeking to use traditional Chinese medicine, an evidence-based potentiality for safe and effective use of herbal medicine and acupuncture in treatment of acne vulgaris has been suggested. However, despite common use of a combination of herbal medicine and acupuncture in clinical practice, the current level of evidence is insufficient to draw a conclusion for an interaction and efficacy of herbal medicine and acupuncture. Therefore, considering these methodological flaws, this study was designed to assess the interaction and efficacy of an available herbal medicine, Keigai-rengyo-to extract (KRTE), and acupuncture for treatment of acne using the 2 × 2 factorial design and the feasibility of a large clinical trial. Methods/Design A randomized, assessor single blinded, 2 × 2 factorial pilot trial will be conducted. Forty four participants with acne vulgaris will be randomized into one of four groups: waiting list group (WL), KRTE only group (KO), acupuncture only group (AO), and KRTE and acupuncture combined treatment group (KA). After randomization, a total of 8 sessions of acupuncture treatment will be performed twice a week in the AO- and KA groups, respectively. Patients in the KO- and KA groups will be prescribed KRTE 3 times a day at a dose of 7.4 g after meals for 4 weeks. The following outcome measurements will be used in examination of subjects: the mean percentage change and the count change of inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions, the Skindex 29, visual analogue scale (VAS) and investigator global assessment (IGA) from baseline to the end of the trial. Trial Registration The trial is registered with the Clinical Research Information Service (CRiS), Republic of Korea: KCT0000071. PMID:21418585

  11. Single-blind randomized clinical trial to evaluate clinical and radiological outcomes after one year of immediate versus delayed implant placement supporting full-arch prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Pellicer-Chover, Hilario; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Bagán, Leticia; Fichy-Fernandez, Antonio J.; Canullo, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare peri-implant health, marginal bone loss and success of immediate and delayed implant placement for rehabilitation with full-arch fixed prostheses. Material and Methods: The present study was a prospective, randomized, single-blind, clinical preliminary trial. Patients were randomized into two treatment groups. In Group A implants were placed immediately post-extraction and in Group B six months after extraction. The following control time-points were established: one week, six months and twelve months after loading. Measurements were taken of peri-implant crevicular fluid volume, plaque index, gingival retraction, keratinized mucosa, probing depth, modified gingival index and presence of mucositis. Implant success rates were evaluated for the two groups. The study sample included fifteen patients (nine women and six men) with a mean average age of 63.7 years. One hundred and forty-four implants were placed: 76 placed in healed sites and 68 placed immediately. Results: At the moment of prosthetic loading, keratinized mucosa width and probing depth were higher in immediate implants than delayed implants, with statistically significant differences. However, after six and twelve months, differences between groups had disappeared. Bone loss was 0.54 ± 0.39 mm for immediate implants and 0.66 ± 0.25 mm for delayed implants (p=0.201). No implants failed in either group. Conclusions: The present study with a short follow-up and a small sample yielded no statistically significant differences in implant success and peri-implant marginal bone loss between immediate and delayed implants with fixed full-arch prostheses. Peri-implant health showed no statistically significant differences for any of the studied parameters (crevicular fluid volume, plaque index, gingival retraction, keratinized mucosa, probing depth, modified gingival index and presence of mucositis) at the twelve-month follow-up. Key words:Immediate implants, delayed implants

  12. Effect of Radial Shock Wave Therapy on Spasticity of the Upper Limb in Patients With Chronic Stroke: A Prospective, Randomized, Single Blind, Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Li, Tsung-Ying; Chang, Chih-Ya; Chou, Yu-Ching; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Chu, Heng-Yi; Chiang, Shang-Lin; Chang, Shin-Tsu; Wu, Yung-Tsan

    2016-05-01

    Recently, studies have reported that extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is a safe, noninvasive, alternative treatment for spasticity. However, the effect of ESWT on spasticity cannot be determined, because most studies to date have enrolled small patient numbers and have lacked placebo-controlled groups and/or long-term follow-up. In addition, whether varying the number of ESWT sessions would affect the duration of the therapeutic effect has not been investigated in a single study. Hence, we performed a prospective, randomized, single blind, placebo-controlled study to investigate the long-term effect of radial ESWT (rESWT) in patients with poststroke spasticity and surveyed the outcome of functional activity.Sixty patients were randomized into 3 groups. Group A patients received 1 session of rESWT per week for 3 consecutive weeks; group B patients received a single session of rESWT; group C patients received one session of sham rESWT per week for 3 consecutive weeks. The primary outcome was Modified Ashworth Scale of hand and wrist, whereas the secondary outcomes were Fugl-Meyer Assessment of hand function and wrist control. Evaluations were performed before the first rESWT treatment and immediately 1, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks after the last session of rESWT.Compared to the control group, the significant reduction in spasticity of hand and wrist lasted at least 16 and 8 weeks in group A and B, respectively. Three sessions of rESWT had a longer-lasting effect than one session. Furthermore, the reduction in spasticity after 3 sessions of rESWT may be beneficial for hand function and wrist control and the effect was maintained for 16 and 12 weeks, respectively.rESWT may be valuable in decreasing spasticity of the hand and wrist with accompanying enhancement of wrist control and hand function in chronic stroke patients. PMID:27149465

  13. The therapeutic effects of acupuncture on patients with chronic neck myofascial pain syndrome: a single-blind randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mei-Yuan; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Cheng, Yung-Yen; Hung, Hung-Chang; Li, Tsai-Chung; Yen, Sch-May; Huang, I-Shin

    2010-01-01

    Chronic neck myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a common disorder seen in clinics. There is no gold standard method to treat myofascial pain. We investigated the effects of acupuncture on patients with chronic neck MPS by a single-blind randomized controlled trial. A total of 35 patients were randomly allocated to an acupuncture group (AG) or a sham acupuncture group (SG). Each subject received acupuncture treatment twice per week for three consecutive weeks. The primary outcome measure was quality of life as assessed with Short Form-36, and secondary outcome measures were neck range of motion (ROM), motion-related pain, and Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), as determined by a blinded investigator. The clinical assessments were made before treatment (BT) and after six acupuncture treatments (AT), as well as four weeks (F1) and 12 weeks (F2) after the end of the treatment. A total of 34 patients completed the trial. The results indicated that there is no significant difference in the ROM, motion-related pain, and SF-MPQ scores between AG and SG at AT, F1 and F2 (all p > 0.05). However, AG has greater improvement in physical functioning and role emotional of Short Form-36 quality of life at F2. The results indicate that acupuncture may be used to improve the quality of life in patients with chronic neck MPS. PMID:20821817

  14. Congestive Heart Failure home monitoring pilot study in urban Denver.

    PubMed

    Bakhshi, Saba; Li, Xin; Semenov, Nikolay; Apodaca-Madrid, Jesús; Mahoor, Mohammad H; Newman, Kimberly E; Long, Carlin S; Neuman, Christine

    2011-01-01

    With a growing number of low-income patients developing Congestive Heart Failure in urban Denver, accessible and affordable solutions are needed to provide home management options. A multidisciplinary team evaluated currently available options for telemonitoring and developed a solution for an initial pilot study. This system is currently used in the Denver Metro area (Colorado) for 44 CHF patients. Preliminary results show this approach is effective and has reduced the patients' average length of stay at the hospital compared to historical data and control patients who do not use a remote monitoring system. PMID:22255008

  15. Nursing Students' Clinical Experience With Death: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Heise, Barbara A; Gilpin, Laura C

    2016-01-01

    Although debriefing in simulation settings is routine in nursing education, debriefing does not routinely take place in clinical settings with nursing students after a patient has died. This pilot study sought to explore nursing students' perceptions of their first experience with the death of a patient. Students reported emotional distress and feelings of inadequacy with regard to communicating with and supporting the family of the dying patient. Only half the students sampled reported debriefing by their clinical instructor or staff. Nurse educators must include debriefing and student support following a patient death in the clinical setting. PMID:27209870

  16. Research plan for pilot studies of the biodiversity research consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Kiester, A.R.; White, D.; Preston, E.M.; Master, L.L.; Loveland, T.R.

    1993-06-03

    This report presents a research plan for an assessment of risks to biodiversity. The plan describes the theoretical basis of the research approach and the data and methods to be used in the assessment. Initial research activities are formulated as a set of pilot studies that will examine nine research questions concerning the assumptions, data, and methods of the approach. A collection of government, academic, and nongovernmental organizations, called the Biodiversity Research Consortium, has developed this research approach and prepared the plan. Authors of the plan represent current members of the Consortium.

  17. A single blind randomized control trial on support groups for Chinese persons with mild dementia

    PubMed Central

    Young, Daniel KW; Kwok, Timothy CY; Ng, Petrus YN

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Persons with mild dementia experience multiple losses and manifest depressive symptoms. This research study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a support group led by a social worker for Chinese persons with mild dementia. Research methods Participants were randomly assigned to either a ten-session support group or a control group. Standardized assessment tools were used for data collection at pretreatment and post-treatment periods by a research assistant who was kept blind to the group assignment of the participants. Upon completion of the study, 20 treatment group participants and 16 control group participants completed all assessments. Results At baseline, the treatment and control groups did not show any significant difference on all demographic variables, as well as on all baseline measures; over one-half (59%) of all the participants reported having depression, as assessed by a Chinese Geriatric Depression Scale score ≥8. After completing the support group, the depressive mood of the treatment group participants reduced from 8.83 (standard deviation =2.48) to 7.35 (standard deviation =2.18), which was significant (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; P=0.017, P<0.05), while the control group’s participants did not show any significant change. Conclusion This present study supports the efficacy and effectiveness of the support group for persons with mild dementia in Chinese society. In particular, this present study shows that a support group can reduce depressive symptoms for participants. PMID:25587218

  18. Comparing the Healing Effects of Arnebia euchroma Ointment With Petrolatum on the Ulcers Caused by Fractional CO2 Laser: A Single-Blinded Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Aliasl, Jale; Khoshzaban, Fariba; Barikbin, Behrooz; Naseri, Mohsen; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Emadi, Fatemeh; Razzaghi, Zahra; Talei, Daryush; Yousefi, Maryam; Aliasl, Fatemeh; Barati, Maryam; Mohseni-Moghaddam, Parvaneh; Hasheminejad, Seyed Abbas; Esmailzad Nami, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Arnebia euchroma ointment (AEO) has been used in Iranian traditional medicine for burn wound healing. Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate wound healing efficacy of AEO in burn wounds after fractional Co2 laser. Patients and Methods: This split-face, single-blinded, single-center clinical study was performed in Shohada-e-Tajrish Hospital, Tehran, Iran. A total of 26 subjects with facial acne scar, who were to receive fractional CO2 laser resurfacing were recruited. After laser procedure, AEO was applied to one side of the face and petrolatum on the other side for wound healing. Digital photographs were taken from acne scar area before resurfacing and on each of the assessment sessions. Three researchers, who were unaware of the applied medications, assessed these digital photographs for erythema, edema, epithelial confluence, crusting/scabbing, and general wound appearance. Subject’s irritations such as dryness and itching were evaluated on the second, fifth, and seventh days. Results: Our study indicated higher epithelial confluence and general wound appearance scores (P = 0.045 for both) and less erythema and edema on fifth day in petrolatum (P = 0.009 and P = 0.034, respectively). The results showed less crusting and erythema (P = 0.016 and P = 0.035, respectively) and higher general wound appearance scores in petrolatum on the second day (P = 0.035 and P = 0.001, respectively). Dryness was the most common subjective complaint in both groups; however, it was more severe in AEO, especially on the second day (P = 0.023). Conclusions: Despite the healing effects of AEO in burn wounds, petrolatum was more effective than AEO in post-laser wound. PMID:25558382

  19. Effect of family members’ voice on level of consciousness of comatose patients admitted to the intensive care unit: A single-blind randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tavangar, Hossein; Shahriary-Kalantary, Manijeh; Salimi, Tahereh; Jarahzadeh, Mohammadhossein; Sarebanhassanabadi, Mohammadtaghi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coma is one of the most important complications of brain injury. Comatose patients in the intensive care units are exposed to sensory deprivation. This study aims to survey the effect of family members’ voice on level of consciousness of comatose patients hospitalized in the intensive care units. Materials and Methods: In this single-blind randomized controlled trial, 40 comatose patients with brain injury with acute subdural hematoma in intensive care units were randomly assigned into two groups. The intervention group was stimulated twice a day each time 5-15 min with a recorded MP3 from family members’ voice for 10 days. The patients’ level of consciousness was measured with Glasgow Coma Scale before and after auditory stimulations. In the control group, GCS was measured without auditory stimulation with the same time duration like intervention group. Data analysis in software SPSS version 15 and using Chi-square test, independent t-test, paired t- test and analysis of variance with repeated measures was done. Results: On the first day before the intervention, there was no a statistically significant difference between the mean of GCS in both groups (P = 0.89), but on the tenth day after the intervention, there was a significant difference (P = 0.0001) between the mean GCS in both control and intervention groups. Also, there was a significant difference between the mean daily GCS scores in two groups (P = 0.003). The findings during ten days showed the changes in the level of consciousness in the intervention group from the 4rd day of the study were more in the mean daily GCS scores than control group. Conclusion: This study indicated that family members’ voice can increase level of consciousness of comatose patients with acute subdural hematoma. PMID:26261808

  20. Comparative electrocardiographic effects of intravenous ondansetron and granisetron in patients undergoing surgery for carcinoma breast: A prospective single-blind randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Ganjare, Ashish; Kulkarni, Atul P

    2013-01-01

    Background: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are common and distressing symptoms after surgery performed under general anaesthesia. 5-hydroxytryptamine3 antagonists are routinely used for prevention and treatment of PONV. The aim of our study was to compare the incidence of QTc prolongation and quantify the amount of QTc prolongation with ondansetron and granisetron. Methods: This prospective, randomised, single-blind study was carried out in the OT and Recovery Room (RR) of a tertiary referral cancer centre. After obtaining Institutional Review Board approval and written informed consent from the patients, 70 patients undergoing elective surgery for carcinoma breast were included. In the RR, patients randomly received 8 mg of ondansetron or 1 mg of granisetron intravenously. Serial ECGs were recorded at various intervals, Non-invasive blood pressure and SpO2 were also recorded. Chi-square test and Mann-Whiteny test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The demographics were similar in both groups. The incidence of significant QTc prolongation was significantly higher in the ondansetron group (22 of 37 (59.4%) vs. 11 of 33 patients (33.33%) (P<0.05)). There was an increase in the QTc interval in both the groups as compared to the baseline. The median prolongation in QTc interval from baseline was much more in the ondansetron group; this was statistically significant only at 5 and 15 min. Conclusion: Granisetron may be a safer option than ondanasetron for prevention and treatment of PONV due to lesser prolongation QTc interval. (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01352130) PMID:23716765

  1. Prevention of oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy by a polyamine-reduced diet—NEUROXAPOL: protocol of a prospective, randomised, controlled, single-blind and monocentric trial

    PubMed Central

    Balayssac, David; Ferrier, Jérémy; Pereira, Bruno; Gillet, Brigitte; Pétorin, Caroline; Vein, Julie; Libert, Frédéric; Eschalier, Alain; Pezet, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oxaliplatin remains the most widely used chemotherapeutic agent for treating advanced colorectal cancer but its efficacy is hampered by dose-limiting neurotoxicity manifested by a painful polyneuropathy. Oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (OIPN) is characterised by acute and transient cold hyperaesthesia in the hours and days following oxaliplatin infusion (>90% of patients), but also by retarded chronic neuropathy due to the repetition of chemotherapy cycles (30–50% of patients). OIPN impairs the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients and no preventive or curative strategies have as yet proven effective. A polyamine-reduced diet (PRD) has recently demonstrated its efficacy to prevent OIPN in animals without adverse effects. Methods and analysis The NEUROXAPOL trial is a prospective, randomised, controlled, single-blind, monocentric and interventional study. This trial is aimed at evaluating the efficacy and feasibility of a PRD compared to a normal polyamine containing diet to prevent OIPN in patients treated by oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Patients (n=40 per group) will be randomly assigned to receive either a PRD or a normal diet before and during the chemotherapy regimen. The main objectives are to improve the cold pain thresholds, neuropathic pain symptoms, comorbidities (anxiety and depression) and HRQOL of patients. The primary end point is the assessment of cold pain thresholds 2 weeks after the third cycle of chemotherapy. The secondary end points are the evaluation of thermal pain thresholds, the grade of neuropathy, neuropathic pain, symptoms of anxiety and depression and HRQOL, until the 12th cycle of chemotherapy. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by an independent medical ethics committee 1 (CPP Sud Est 1, Saint Etienne, France) and registered by the competent French authority (ANSM, Saint Denis, France). The results will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international

  2. Comparison of Pap Smear Quality With Anatomical Spatula Method and the Common Method (Spatula-Cytobrush): A Single Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, M; Abdali, Kh; Khajehei, M; Tabatabaee, HR; Komar, PV; Riaz Montazer, N

    2012-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women in the world. Papanicolaou smear is known as a standard test for cervical cancer screening; however, the most important challenge is high rates of false negative results. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of smears obtained by anatomical spatula and spatula-cytobrush. The most important factor in false negative result is inappropriate tool of sampling. Methods One hundred married women participated in this single blind clinical trial. All participants were interviewed; two samples were obtained from every participant: one with spatula-cytobrush and another one with anatomical spatula. All slides were encoded and were assessed by two pathologists. Then, data were analyzed by means of kappa coefficient. Results Cell adequacy was 96.1 % in anatomical spatula method and 91.2 % in spatula-cytobrush method (p= 0.016). The rates for endocervical cells and metaplasia cells in anatomical spatula method were 70.6% and 24.5% respectively and these amounts were 69.6% and 24.5% respectively in the spatula-cytobrush method (p <0.001). No one reported any pain and the amount of bleeding was 38.2% in both methods (P>0.05). Regarding infection and inflammatory reactions there was no statistically significant difference between two methods (p>0.05). Conclusion Based on our findings in this study, results of sampling with anatomical spatula method were more acceptable and better than those with spatula-cytobrush sampling. PMID:25780537

  3. The Impact of Aerobic Exercise on Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Neurocognition in Individuals With Schizophrenia: A Single-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Kimhy, David; Vakhrusheva, Julia; Bartels, Matthew N; Armstrong, Hilary F; Ballon, Jacob S; Khan, Samira; Chang, Rachel W; Hansen, Marie C; Ayanruoh, Lindsey; Lister, Amanda; Castrén, Eero; Smith, Edward E; Sloan, Richard P

    2015-07-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia display substantial neurocognitive deficits for which available treatments offer only limited benefits. Yet, findings from studies of animals, clinical and nonclinical populations have linked neurocognitive improvements to increases in aerobic fitness (AF) via aerobic exercise training (AE). Such improvements have been attributed to up-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, the impact of AE on neurocognition, and the putative role of BDNF, have not been investigated in schizophrenia. Employing a proof-of-concept, single-blind, randomized clinical trial design, 33 individuals with schizophrenia were randomized to receive standard psychiatric treatment (n = 17; "treatment as usual"; TAU) or attend a 12-week AE program (n = 16) utilizing active-play video games (Xbox 360 Kinect) and traditional AE equipment. Participants completed assessments of AF (indexed by VO2 peak ml/kg/min), neurocognition (MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery), and serum-BDNF before and after and 12-week period. Twenty-six participants (79%) completed the study. At follow-up, the AE participants improved their AF by 18.0% vs a -0.5% decline in the TAU group (P = .002) and improved their neurocognition by 15.1% vs -2.0% decline in the TAU group (P = .031). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that enhancement in AF and increases in BDNF predicted 25.4% and 14.6% of the neurocognitive improvement variance, respectively. The results indicate AE is effective in enhancing neurocognitive functioning in people with schizophrenia and provide preliminary support for the impact of AE-related BDNF up-regulation on neurocognition in this population. Poor AF represents a modifiable risk factor for neurocognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia for which AE training offer a safe, nonstigmatizing, and side-effect-free intervention. PMID:25805886

  4. Effects of Lumbosacral Manipulation on Isokinetic Strength of the Knee Extensors and Flexors in Healthy Subjects: A Randomized, Controlled, Single-Blind Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Grant D.; Nitz, Arthur J.; Abel, Mark G.; Symons, T. Brock; Shapiro, Robert; Black, W. Scott; Yates, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of manual manipulations targeting the lumbar spine and/or sacroiliac joint on concentric knee extension and flexion forces. Torque production was measured during isometric and isokinetic contractions. Methods This was a randomized, controlled, single-blind crossover design with 21 asymptomatic, college-aged subjects who had never received spinal manipulation. During 2 separate sessions, subjects’ peak torques were recorded while performing maximal voluntary contractions on an isokinetic dynamometer. Isometric knee extension and flexion were recorded at 60° of knee flexion, in addition to isokinetic measurements obtained at 60°/s and 180°/s. Baseline measurements were acquired before either treatment form of lumbosacral manipulation or sham manipulation, followed by identical peak torque measurements within 5 and 20 minutes posttreatment. Data were analyzed with a repeated measures analysis of variance. Results A statistically significant difference did not occur between the effects of lumbosacral manipulation or the sham manipulation in the percentage changes of knee extension and flexion peak torques at 5 and 20 minutes posttreatment. Similar, nonsignificant results were observed in the overall percentage changes of isometric contractions (spinal manipulation 4.0 ± 9.5 vs sham 1.2 ± 6.3, P = .067), isokinetic contractions at 60°/s (spinal manipulation − 4.0 ± 14.2 vs sham − 0.3 ± 8.2, P = .34), and isokinetic contractions at 180°/s (spinal manipulation − 1.4 ± 13.9 vs sham − 5.5 ± 20.0, P = .18). Conclusion The results of the current study suggest that spinal manipulation does not yield an immediate strength-enhancing effect about the knee in healthy, college-aged subjects when measured with isokinetic dynamometry. PMID:26793035

  5. Pharmacovigilance in veterinary medicine in Chile: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Iragüen, D; Urcelay, S; San Martín, B

    2011-04-01

    Iragüen, D., Urcelay, S., San Martín, B. Pharmacovigilance in veterinary medicine in Chile: a pilot study. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap.34, 108-115. In Chile, there is no present government policy to survey and analyse adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the field of veterinary medicine. The intent of this study is to assess, for the first time, ADR frequency in treated animals. To this purpose, a 6-month period pilot study based on WHO recommendations was conducted to monitor ADRs in cats and dogs for frequently used drugs and common labelled signs. Of a total of 149 detected ADRs, 29 (6 in cats and 23 in dogs) were notified by means of ADR report forms, while the rest was identified after reviewing patient clinical records, thus evidencing strong under-reporting problems. More than 70% of ADRs were related to antimicrobials, vaccines and tranquilizers. In dogs, there was a significant effect on ADRs' presentation when acepromazine, amoxicillin, carprofen, ivermectin, sextuple vaccine (polyvalent vaccine that confers immunity against canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus, Leptospira canicola, L. icterohemmoragiae, canine adenovirus type 2 and canine parainfluenza virus) and phytomenadione (subcutaneous injection) were administered. In the case of cats, a significant influence on ADRs was detected when acepromazine, amoxicillin or vitamin K was administered. Present results suggest the need for a pharmacovigilance programme in veterinary medicine for timely ADR-presenting drug detection and drug safety improvement. PMID:21395600

  6. Development of a Burn Escharotomy Assessment Tool: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Ur, Rebecca; Holmes, James H; Johnson, James E; Molnar, Joseph A; Carter, Jeffrey E

    2016-01-01

    Severe burn injuries can require escharotomies which are urgent, infrequent, and relatively high-risk procedures necessary to preserve limb perfusion and sometimes ventilation. The American Burn Association Advanced Burn Life Support© course educates surgeons and emergency providers about escharotomy incisions but lacks a biomimetic trainer to demonstrate, practice, or provide assessment. The goal was to build an affordable biomimetic trainer with discrete points of failure and pilot a validation study. Fellowship-trained burn and plastic surgeons worked with special effect artists and anatomists to develop a biomimetic trainer with three discrete points of failure: median or ulnar nerve injury, fasciotomy, and failure to check distal pulse. Participants were divided between experienced and inexperienced, survey pre- and post-procedure on a biomimetic model while being timed. The trainer total cost per participant was less than $35. Eighteen participants were involved in the study. The inexperienced (0-1 prior escharotomies performed) had significantly more violations at the discrete points of failure relative to more experienced participants (P = .036). Face validity was assessed with 100% of participants agreement that the model appeared similar to real life and was valuable in their training. Given the advancements in biomimetic models and the need to train surgeons in how to perform infrequent, emergent surgical procedures, an escharotomy trainer is needed today. The authors developed an affordable model with a successful pilot study demonstrating discrimination between experienced and inexperienced surgeons. Additional research is needed to increase the reliability and assessment metrics. PMID:26594860

  7. Fascial Manipulation® for chronic aspecific low back pain: a single blinded randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Branchini, Mirco; Lopopolo, Francesca; Andreoli, Ernesto; Loreti, Ivano; Marchand, Aurélie M; Stecco, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background: The therapeutic approach to chronic aspecific low back pain (CALBP) has to consider the multifactorial aetiology of the disorder. International guidelines do not agree on unequivocal treatment indications. Recommendations for fascial therapy are few and of low level evidence but several studies indicate strong correlations between fascial thickness and low back pain. This study aims at comparing the effectiveness of Fascial Manipulation® associated with a physiotherapy program following guidelines for CALBP compared to a physiotherapy program alone. Methods: 24 subjects were randomized into two groups, both received eight treatments over 4 weeks. Outcomes were measured at baseline, at the end of therapy and at a 1 month and a 3 months follow-up. Pain was measured with the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the brief pain inventory (BPI), function with the Rolland-Morris disability questionnaire (RMDQ), state of well-being with the short-form 36 health-survey (SF-36). The mean clinical important difference (MCID) was also measured. Results: Patients receiving Fascial Manipulation® showed statistically and clinically significant improvements at the end of care for all outcomes, in the short (RMDQ, VAS, BPI) and medium term for VAS and BPI compared to manual therapy. The MCID show significant improvements in the means and percentage of subjects in groups in all outcomes post-treatment, in the short and medium term. Conclusion: Fascial tissues were implicated in the aetiology of CALBP and treatment led to decreased symptomatic, improved functional and perceived well-being outcomes that were of greater amplitude compared to manual therapy alone. PMID:26834998

  8. Photobiomodulation by helium neon and diode lasers in an excisional wound model: A single blinded trial

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Snehil; Maiya, Arun; Rao, Laxmi; Rao, M. Arjun; Shastry, Barkur Ananthakrishna; Ramachandra, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Application of different kinds of lasers in clinical and experimental studies causes photobiomodulation that works at localized cellular and humoral level on various biological systems. Increased numbers of fibroblasts, myofibroblast, and degranulation of mast cells have been the observed benefits post-irradiation. Objective: Was to find out the effect of irradiation with energy densities of 3.38 J/cm2, 8 J/cm2, and 18 J/cm2 on animal tissue (albino wistar rats) in an excisional wound model and to assess changes in biochemical (hydroxyproline) and histopathological levels in excisional wound model. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into 4 groups, which were labeled as L1, diode laser (18 J/cm2), L2 Helium-neon (He-Ne, 8 J/cm2), L3 diode laser (3.38 J/cm2), and sham treatment for control was depicted by C, respectively. Histological and hydroxyproline analysis was performed on 7, 14, 21 days of post-wounding. One-way analysis of variance, ANOVA and Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests were done for tissue hydroxyproline levels. Results: There was no significant increase in the hydroxyproline content (P < 0.005) when observed in study group and compared to controls. Whereas significant epithelizations was seen in group treated with He-Ne laser of intensity of 8 J/cm2. Conclusion: The experimental observations suggest that low intensity helium-neon laser of 8 J/cm2 intensity facilitated photo stimulation by tissue repair, but failed to show significant tissue hydroxyproline levels in excisional wound model. PMID:23326769

  9. Effectiveness of dry needling for chronic nonspecific neck pain: a randomized, single-blinded, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cerezo-Téllez, Ester; Torres-Lacomba, María; Fuentes-Gallardo, Isabel; Perez-Muñoz, Milagros; Mayoral-Del-Moral, Orlando; Lluch-Girbés, Enrique; Prieto-Valiente, Luis; Falla, Deborah

    2016-09-01

    Chronic neck pain attributed to a myofascial pain syndrome is characterized by the presence of muscle contractures referred to as myofascial trigger points. In this randomized, parallel-group, blinded, controlled clinical trial, we examined the effectiveness of deep dry needling (DDN) of myofascial trigger points in people with chronic nonspecific neck pain. The study was conducted at a public Primary Health Care Centre in Madrid, Spain, from January 2010 to December 2014. A total of 130 participants with nonspecific neck pain presenting with active myofascial trigger points in their cervical muscles were included. These participants were randomly allocated to receive: DDN plus stretching (n = 65) or stretching only (control group [n = 65]). Four sessions of treatment were applied over 2 weeks with a 6-month follow-up after treatment. Pain intensity, mechanical hyperalgesia, neck active range of motion, neck muscle strength, and perceived neck disability were measured at baseline, after 2 sessions of intervention, after the intervention period, and 15, 30, 90, and 180 days after the intervention. Significant and clinically relevant differences were found in favour of dry needling in all the outcomes (all P < 0.001) at both short and long follow-ups. Deep dry needling and passive stretching is more effective than passive stretching alone in people with nonspecific neck pain. The results support the use of DDN in the management of myofascial pain syndrome in people with chronic nonspecific neck pain. PMID:27537209

  10. Low-intensity case management increases contact with primary care in recently released prisoners: a single-blinded, multisite, randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Alati, Rosa; Longo, Marie; Spittal, Matthew J; Boyle, Frances M; Williams, Gail M; Lennox, Nicholas G

    2016-01-01

    Background The world prison population is large and growing. Poor health outcomes after release from prison are common, but few programmes to improve health outcomes for ex-prisoners have been rigorously evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of individualised case management on contact with health services during the first 6 months post-release. Methods Single-blinded, randomised, controlled trial. Baseline assessment with N=1325 adult prisoners in Queensland, Australia, within 6 weeks of expected release; follow-up interviews 1, 3 and 6 months post-release. The intervention consisted of provision of a personalised booklet (‘Passport’) at the time of release, plus up to four brief telephone contacts in the first 4 weeks post-release. Results Of 1179 eligible participants, 1003 (85%) completed ≥1 follow-up interview. In intention-to-treat analyses, 53% of the intervention group and 41% of the control group reported contacting a general practitioner (GP) at 1 month post-release (difference=12%, 95% CI 5% to 19%). Similar effects were observed for GP contact at 3 months (difference=9%, 95% CI 2% to 16%) and 6 months (difference=8%, 95% CI 1% to 15%), and for mental health (MH) service contact at 6 months post release (difference=8%, 95% CI 3% to 14%). Conclusions Individualised case management in the month after release from prison increases usage of primary care and MH services in adult ex-prisoners for at least 6 months post-release. Given the poor health profile of ex-prisoners, there remains an urgent need to develop and rigorously evaluate interventions to increase health service contact in this profoundly marginalised population. Trial registration number ACTRN12608000232336. PMID:26787201

  11. Effects on obese women of the sugar sucrose added to the diet over 28 d: a quasi-randomised, single-blind, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Reid, Marie; Hammersley, Richard; Duffy, Maresa; Ballantyne, Carrie

    2014-02-01

    To investigate whether obese women can compensate for sucrose added to the diet when it is given blind, rather than gaining weight or exhibiting dysfunctional regulation of intake, in the present study, forty-one healthy obese (BMI 30-35 kg/m²) women (age 20-50 years), not currently dieting, were randomly assigned to consume sucrose (n 20) or aspartame (n 21) drinks over 4 weeks in a parallel single-blind design. Over the 4 weeks, one group consumed 4 × 250 ml sucrose drinks (total 1800 kJ/d) and the other group consumed 4 × 250 ml aspartame drinks. During the baseline week and experimental weeks, body weight and other biometric data were measured and steps per day, food intake using 7 d unweighed food diaries, and mood using ten- or seven-point Likert scales four times a day were recorded. At the end of the experiment, the participants weighed 1·72 (SE 0·47) kg less than the value predicted by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) model; the predicted body weight accounted for 94·3% of the variance in the observed body weight and experimental group accounted for a further 1·1% of the variance in the observed body weight, showing that women consuming sucrose drinks gained significantly less weight than predicted. The reported daily energy intake did not increase significantly, and sucrose supplements significantly reduced the reported voluntary sugar, starch and fat intake compared with aspartame. There were no effects on appetite or mood. Over 4 weeks, as part of everyday eating, sucrose given blind in soft drinks was partially compensated for by obese women, as in previous experiments with healthy and overweight participants. PMID:24164779

  12. Traffic scenario generation technique for piloted simulation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David H.; Wells, Douglas C.

    1985-01-01

    Piloted simulation studies of cockpit traffic display concepts require the development of representative traffic scenarios. With the exception of specific aircraft interaction issues, most research questions can be addressed using traffic scenarios consisting of prerecorded aircraft movements merged together to form a desired traffic pattern. Prerecorded traffic scenarios have distinct research advantages, allowing control of traffic encounters with repeatability of scenarios between different test subjects. A technique is described for generation of prerecorded jet transport traffic scenarios suitable for use in piloted simulation studies. Individual flight profiles for the aircraft in the scenario are created interactively with a computer program designed specifically for this purpose. The profiles are then time-correlated and merged into a complete scenario. This technique was used to create traffic scenarios for the Denver, Colorado area with operations centered at Stapleton International Airport. Traffic scenarios for other areas may also be created using this technique, with appropriate modifications made to the navigation fix locations contained in the flight profile generation program.

  13. Pilot Study of Enhanced Minor Planet Detection Using NEOWISE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cukrov, Greta; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J. M.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J. R.; Cutri, R. M.; Wright, E. L.; Nugent, C.; Stevenson, R.; Clyne, E.; Masci, F. J.

    2014-01-01

    The solar system science component of NASA’s Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), known as NEOWISE, extracted detections of more than 158,000 asteroids and comets, including 34,000 new discoveries. These objects were detected through a search algorithm that actively rejected inertially fixed sources such as stars and galaxies and selected candidate moving objects through the construction of position-time pairs known as tracklets. A minimum of five detections were required in order to construct a tracklet; this system enabled the discovery of new minor planets as well as detection of previously known objects. However, many more asteroids are potentially recoverable in the NEOWISE data, such as objects that failed to appear in five or more images. Stacking of objects with well-known ephemerides at the observational epoch has allowed for the recovery of many objects that fell below the single-frame detection threshold. Additional objects were recovered by searching the NEOWISE source lists for objects that appeared fewer than five times in single frames. We present the results of a pilot study that has allowed for the recovery of minor planets from the NEOWISE data using both techniques, resulting in the derivation of diameters and albedos for the sample. This pilot study will be extended to the entire catalog of known minor planets by the NEOWISE project in the near future.

  14. Acupuncture Treatment of Lateral Elbow Pain: A Nonrandomized Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan-Song; Gadau, Marcus; Zhang, Guo-Xue; Liu, Hao; Wang, Fu-Chun; Zaslawski, Christopher; Li, Tie; Tan, Yuan-Sheng; Berle, Christine; Li, Wei-Hong; Bangrazi, Sergio; Liguori, Stefano; Zhang, Shi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    In planning for a large-scale multicenter trial to evaluate the effect of acupuncture for the treatment of lateral elbow pain, a pilot study was conducted. This was a prospective, investigator- and patient-blinded, nonrandomized, placebo controlled trial. Subjects were evaluated at baseline, before fourth, seventh, and ninth treatment, and at a two-week posttreatment follow-up. The treatment group received unilateral acupuncture at LI 10 and LI 11 at the affected side with manual needle manipulation; the control group received sham-laser acupuncture at the same acupoints. Measures included (i) disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) questionnaire, (ii) pain-free grip strength (PFGS), and (iii) a visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain. Significant differences in DASH score, PFGS, and VAS between treatment and control group were found at the ninth treatment (n = 20 for each group, P < 0.05). Only DASH showed significant differences compared to the control for all the measurement time points after treatment commenced and appears to be a sensitive and appropriate primary outcome measure for the future multisite trial. Results from this pilot study provided relevant information about treatment efficacy, credibility of control treatment, and sensitivity of different outcome measures for the planning of the future trial. PMID:27006679

  15. Quality assurance project plan: 1991 EMAP wetlands southeastern pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, E.M.; Lee, J.M.; Turner, R.E.

    1992-12-01

    The goal of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program - Wetlands (EMAP-Wetlands) Southeastern Pilot Study is to develop field indicators of salt marsh condition. These indicators are of four general types: (1) vegetation; (2) hydrology; (3) soil parameters; and (4) soil constituents. Field measurements and samples will be collected during late summer/early fall in 1991 and will be analyzed to identify which indicators and measurements best delineate salt marsh in good condition from that in impaired condition. Thus the project will involve field work, laboratory analysis, and data analysis. Results from this project will be used to establish criteria and parameters for long-term monitoring and assessment of salt marshes, particularly those parameters that may serve as indicators of healthy salt marsh and deteriorated salt marsh. Since EMAP-Wetlands-Southeastern is a pilot study, the measurement criteria will be evaluated as one of the project goals. Of concern will be how well the standardized sampling methods performed in actual field conditions, and which of these methods can be used to assess and characterize salt marshes.

  16. Endoscopic procedure with a modified Reiki intervention: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hulse, Rosalinda S; Stuart-Shor, Eileen M; Russo, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This pilot study examined the use of Reiki prior to colonoscopy to reduce anxiety and minimize intraprocedure medications compared with usual care. A prospective, nonblinded, partially randomized patient preference design was employed using 21 subjects undergoing colonoscopy for the first time. Symptoms of anxiety and pain were assessed using a Likert-type scale. Between-group differences were assessed using chi-square analyses and analysis of variance. There were no differences between the control (n = 10) and experimental (n = 11) groups on age (mean = 58 years, SD = 8.5) and gender (53% women). The experimental group had higher anxiety (4.5 vs. 2.6, p = .03) and pain (0.8 vs. 0.2, p = .42) scores prior to colonoscopy. The Reiki intervention reduced mean heart rate (-9 beats/minute), systolic blood pressure (-10 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (-4 mmHg), and respirations (-3 breaths/minute). There were no between-group differences on intraprocedure medication use or postprocedure physiologic measures. Although the experimental group patients had more symptoms, they did not require additional pain medication during the procedure, suggesting that (1) anxious people may benefit from an adjunctive therapy; (2) anxiety and pain are decreased by Reiki therapy for patients undergoing colonoscopy, and (3) additional intraprocedure pain medication may not be needed for colonoscopy patients receiving Reiki therapy. This pilot study provided important insights in preparation for a rigorous, randomized, controlled clinical trial. PMID:20145447

  17. Using singing to nurture children's hearing? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Welch, Graham F; Saunders, Jo; Edwards, Sian; Palmer, Zoe; Himonides, Evangelos; Knight, Julian; Mahon, Merle; Griffin, Susanna; Vickers, Deborah A

    2015-09-01

    This article reports a pilot study of the potential benefits of a sustained programme of singing activities on the musical behaviours and hearing acuity of young children with hearing impairment (HI). Twenty-nine children (n=12 HI and n=17 NH) aged between 5 and 7 years from an inner-city primary school in London participated, following appropriate ethical approval. The predominantly classroom-based programme was designed by colleagues from the UCL Institute of Education and UCL Ear Institute in collaboration with a multi-arts charity Creative Futures and delivered by an experienced early years music specialist weekly across two school terms. There was a particular emphasis on building a repertoire of simple songs with actions and allied vocal exploration. Musical learning was also supported by activities that drew on visual imagery for sound and that included simple notation and physical gesture. An overall impact assessment of the pilot programme embraced pre- and post-intervention measures of pitch discrimination, speech perception in noise and singing competency. Subsequent statistical data analyses suggest that the programme had a positive impact on participant children's singing range, particularly (but not only) for HI children with hearing aids, and also in their singing skills. HI children's pitch perception also improved measurably over time. Findings imply that all children, including those with HI, can benefit from regular and sustained access to age-appropriate musical activities. PMID:26561889

  18. A piloted simulation study of data link ATC message exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Marvin C.; Lohr, Gary W.

    1989-01-01

    Data link Air Traffic Control (ATC) and Air Traffic Service (ATS) message and data exchange offers the potential benefits of increased flight safety and efficiency by reducing communication errors and allowing more information to be transferred between aircraft and ground facilities. Digital communication also presents an opportunity to relieve the overloading of ATC radio frequencies which hampers message exchange during peak traffic hours in many busy terminal areas. A piloted simulation study to develop pilot factor guidelines and assess potential flight crew benefits and liabilities from using data link ATC message exchange was completed. The data link ATC message exchange concept, implemented on an existing navigation computer Control Display Unit (CDU) required maintaining a voice radio telephone link with an appropriate ATC facility. Flight crew comments, scanning behavior, and measurements of time spent in ATC communication activities for data link ATC message exchange were compared to similar measures for simulated conventional voice radio operations. The results show crew preference for the quieter flight deck environment and a perception of lower communication workload.

  19. Connecting Primary Health Care: A Comprehensive Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Maghsoudloo, Mehran; Abolhassani, Farid; Lotfibakhshaiesh, Nasrin

    2016-07-01

    The collection of data within the primary health care facilities in Iran is essentially paper-based. It is focused on family's health, monitoring of non-infectious and infectious diseases. Clearly due to the paper-based nature of the tasks, timely decision making at most can be difficult if not impossible. As part of an on-going electronic health record implementation project at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, for the first time in the region, based on a comprehensive pilot project, four urban healthcare facilities are connected to their headquarters and beyond, covering all aspects of primary health care, for the last four years. Without delving into the technical aspects of its software engineering processes, the progress of the implementation is reported, selection of summarized data is presented, and experience gained thus far are discussed. Four years passed and if time is any important reason to go by, then it is safe to accept that the software architecture and electronic health record structural model implemented are robust and yet extensible. Aims and duration of a pilot study should be clearly defined prior to start and managed till its completion. Resistance to change and particularly to information technology, apart from its technical aspects, is also based on human factors. PMID:27424015

  20. Caffeine Awareness in Children: Insights from a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Thakre, Tushar P.; Deoras, Ketan; Griffin, Catherine; Vemana, Aarthi; Podmore, Petra; Krishna, Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Caffeine, a commonly consumed psychoactive substance, can have significant effects on sleep. Caffeine intake among children is increasing, mainly in the form of sodas. However, adolescent caffeine consumers may lack knowledge about the caffeine content in common beverages. If true, this very fact may hamper the assessment of the effects of caffeine consumption on sleep in children if such assessments are a priori dependent on responders being able to reliably distinguish between caffeinated and noncaffeinated beverages. This preliminary study investigated adolescents' caffeine knowledge and intake at a Cleveland-area public middle school. Methods: Seventh- and eighth-grade students were surveyed using: (1) the Caffeine Literacy and Sleep Study (CLASS), a 15-question pilot instrument designed to assess caffeine knowledge and intake by type, quantity and timing, as well as sleep habits; and (2) the Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire (CASQ), a validated survey measuring excessive daytime sleepiness in adolescents. These questionnaires were distributed and collected during a specified class period. Results: Of the 635 seventh- and eighth-grade students who attended school on the day of the study, 555 (87%) participated. Lack of knowledge about caffeine content of particular drinks was noted in seventh and eighth graders of both sexes with nearly 29% unaware that their favorite drinks contain caffeine and more than 50% unable to correctly identify the drinks with the most caffeine. A low percentage of students correctly identified light-colored sodas lacking caffeine: 7-Up (24.1%), Sierra Mist (38.9%), ginger ale (39.8%), Sprite (39.8%), and Fresca (53.7%). The percentages of students correctly identifying caffeinated light-colored beverages were: Arizona Green Tea (43.5%), Mello Yellow (50.9%), and A&W cream soda (67.6%). However, Mountain Dew was correctly identified by most (93.5%) as caffeinated. Conclusions: Students were not

  1. Enhancing Patient Safety Using Clinical Nursing Data: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeeyae; Choi, Jeungok E

    2016-01-01

    To enhance patient safety from falls, many hospital information systems have been implemented to collect clinical data from the bedside and have used the information to improve fall prevention care. However, most of them use administrative data not clinical nursing data. This necessitated the development of a web-based Nursing Practice and Research Information Management System (NPRIMS) that processes clinical nursing data to measure nurses' delivery of fall prevention care and its impact on patient outcomes. This pilot study developed computer algorithms based on a falls prevention protocol and programmed the prototype NPRIMS. It successfully measured the performance of nursing care delivered and its impact on patient outcomes using clinical nursing data from the study site. Results of the study revealed that NPRIMS has the potential to pinpoint components of nursing processes that are in need of improvement for preventing patient from falls. PMID:27332171

  2. Self-Efficacy in Foot-Care and Effect of Training: A Single-Blinded Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Seyyedrasooli, Alehe; Parvan, Kobra; Valizadeh, Leila; Rahmani, Azad; Zare, Maryam; Izadi, Tayyebeh

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common metabolic and non-communicable disorders worldwide and the mortality rates caused by the complications associated with the disease, such as diabetic foot ulcer, is increasing dramatically. Patient education is considered as an essential part of controlling DM. Therefore, we aimed to compare the effects of individual and group training methods on self-efficacy in foot care among the patients with DM. Methods In this single-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial, we enrolled 150 patients with type 1 and 2 DM. The final participants were randomly assigned into two intervention groups (collective and individual training group) and a control group. Data were collected using foot-care self-efficacy questionnaire (Corrbet, 2003). A research assistant collected the data by interviewing the participants using the questionnaire once before and once one month after the intervention. The participants of the intervention groups attended a training program consisting of three sessions per week for one week. Statistical descriptive tests such as mean and standard deviation (SD) percentage were used to describe the features of the data inferential statistics test such as Chi-square, independent t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance and analysis co-variance (ANOVA, ANCOVA) tests were also used as appropriate. The significance level was set at <0.05. Results The results indicated that there was no significant difference between the three groups regarding the mean of self-efficacy scores before foot-care training intervention (P=0.39). But, comparison of the scores before and after the intervention showed that both group and individual training interventions increased the patients’ self-efficacy (P≤0/05). Conclusion It can be concluded that both group and individual training approaches could increase foot care self-efficacy in the patients with DM. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201203086918N6. PMID

  3. Magnetic stimulation of peripheral nerves in dogs: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Soens, Iris Van; Polis, Ingeborgh E; Nijs, Jozef X; Struys, Michel M; Bhatti, Sofie F; Ham, Luc M Van

    2008-11-01

    A model for magnetic stimulation of the radial and sciatic nerves in dogs was evaluated. Onset-latencies and peak-to-peak amplitudes of magnetic and electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve were compared, and the effect of the direction of the current in the magnetic coil on onset-latencies and peak-to-peak amplitude of the magnetic motor evoked potential was studied in both nerves. The results demonstrate that magnetic stimulation is a feasible method for stimulating the radial and sciatic nerves in dogs. No significant differences were observed in onset-latencies and peak-to-peak amplitudes during magnetic and electrical stimulation, indicating conformity between the techniques. Orthodromic or antidromic magnetic nerve stimulation resulted in no significant differences. This pilot study demonstrates the potential of magnetic stimulation of nerves in dogs. PMID:17869140

  4. Pilot study on agricultural pesticide poisoning in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ouedraogo, Mustapha; Ouedraogo, Richard; Ilboudo, Sylvain; Guissou, Pierre I.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic data related to agricultural pesticide poisoning cases in Burkina Faso were collected. The study was carried out using retrospective (from January 2002 to June 2010) surveys conducted among farmers and healthcare centers. One hundred and fifty-three (153) pest control products were recorded during the survey and 56 active ingredients were identified. Out of the 153 pest control products, 49 (i.e. 32%) were authorized for sale in Burkina Faso. The main risk factors are socio-demographic characteristics of farmers, their low education level, and some attitudes and practices on using agricultural pesticides. Pesticide poisonings are relatively frequent and their management was not always efficacious. Actions are needed to reduce pesticide poisoning as a global public health problem and to improve management of pesticide poisoning. To this purpose, advanced investigations should be carried out over a longer period of time to complement the present pilot study. PMID:24678256

  5. Musical Stimulation in the Developmentally Delayed Child: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Nanelle Lavina; Molnar, Eva T.; Knasel, Anne L.

    1987-01-01

    Music is a convenient way of bypassing barriers of communication and eliciting responses that may be helpful in the diagnoses and treatment of illness. The use of background music in elevators, in doctors' offices, and in stores are good examples of how music can be used to affect the subconscious mind. In this pilot study drums were used to better define the effects of particular elements of music and sound. When repetitive rhythms are presented as background music to a group of severely developmentally delayed children, three out of four subjects show a definite change in level of development in the unstructured task of free drawing. To discover more about the effects of the various elements of music and to better identify patterns in the environment that are conducive to optimal functioning, further studies are indicated. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:2468780

  6. Frequency of Mia antigen: A pilot study among blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Makroo, Raj Nath; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Chowdhry, Mohit; Rosamma, N.L.; Karna, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    The Miltenberger (Mi) classes represent a group of phenotypes for red cells that carry low frequency antigens associated with the MNSs blood group system. This pilot study was aimed at determining the Mia antigen positivity in the blood donor population in a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India. The study was performed between June to August 2014 on eligible blood donors willing to participate. Antigen typing was performed using monoclonal anti-Mia antiserum by tube technique. Only one of the 1000 blood donors (0.1%) tested was found to be Mia antigen positive. The Mia antigen can, therefore, be considered as being rare in the Indian blood donor population. PMID:27488007

  7. The Pilot Training Study: A Cost-Estimating Model for Undergraduate Pilot Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, S. L.

    A means for estimating the resource requirements and attendant costs of any configuration of the undergraduate pilot training system (UPT) is described by inputs that are supplied by the user of the model. The inputs consist of data such as UPT graduate requirements, course syllabus requirements, instructor-student ratios, administrative and…

  8. 76 FR 12367 - Proposed Information Collection; Visibility Valuation Survey Pilot Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; Visibility Valuation Survey Pilot Study AGENCY... visibility benefits are required because the studies conducted in the 1970s and 1980s do not reflect current... Control Number 1024-0255). The purpose of this IC is to conduct a pilot study to test the...

  9. International Youth Foundation Program Identification System. Pilot Study One: Analysis and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss (William L.) and Associates, Ltd., Alexandria, VA.

    An evaluation of Round One of a pilot study of a system for identifying effective youth organizations around the world is presented in this report. The report begins with a page of general observations about the successes and shortcomings of the pilot study, indicating that in general the study accomplished its objectives but that a need for…

  10. Study to determine the IFR operational profile and problems of the general aviation single pilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weislogel, G. S.

    1983-01-01

    General aviation single pilot operating under instrument flight rules (GA SPIFR) was studied. The objectives of the study were to (1) develop a GA SPIFR operational profile, (2) identify problems experienced by the GA SPIFR pilot, and (3) identify research tasks which have the potential for eliminating or reducing the severity of the problems. To obtain the information necessary to accomplish these objectives, a mail questionnaire survey of instrument rated pilots was conducted. The general aviation IFR single pilot operational profile and selected data analysis examples are presented.