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1

On dioxin formation in iron ore sintering.  

PubMed

Iron ore sintering is an important source of "dioxins", polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). This paper reports on attempts to identify materials, conditions, and mechanisms responsible for PCDD/F formation (i) by investigating salient properties of ores (viz., with respect to oxidation, condensation, and chlorination of model organics) and (ii) by mimicking the industrial process on a microscale with real-life materials. Principles of Design of Experiments (DOE) are employed. The reactivities of iron ores differ greatly. Limonite/goethite "soft" ore is a very active oxidation catalyst (e.g., for benzene and phenol), a property that may be useful in cleaning up crude sintering process offgases, whereas hematite/magnetite "hard" ore is not. The latter, however strongly promotes condensation of phenol to dibenzofuran. A newly built lab-microscale sintering facility could satisfactorily imitate the large-scale process, in part or as a whole. Results obtained with realistic feed mixtures point at dioxin formation in the sinter bed at levels significant enough to explain a major part of the outputs observed in the real-life process. With approximately 8 ppm (wt) of chloride added as NaCl, the PCDD/F output doubled, but with the same proportion of chlorine administered as C2Cl4, the dioxin output was over 2 orders of magnitude larger. The use of process reverts, etc. containing chlorinated organics should therefore be avoided. PCDD/F congener patterns are also reported and compared with those observed in practice. PMID:12966977

Cieplik, Mariusz K; Carbonell, Jose Pastor; Muñoz, Christina; Baker, Sarah; Krüger, Sophie; Liljelind, Per; Marklund, Stellan; Louw, Robert

2003-08-01

2

Ore-blending optimization model for sintering process based on characteristics of iron ores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ore-blending optimization model for the sintering process is an intelligent system that includes iron ore characteristics, expert knowledge and material balance. In the present work, 14 indices are proposed to represent chemical composition, granulating properties and high temperature properties of iron ores. After the relationships between iron ore characteristics and sintering performance are established, the "two-step" method and the simplex method are introduced to build the model by distinguishing the calculation of optimized blending proportion of iron ores from that of other sintering materials in order to improve calculation efficiency. The ore-blending optimization model, programmed by Access and Visual Basic, is applied to practical production in steel mills and the results prove that the present model can take advantage of the available iron ore resource with stable sinter yield and quality performance but at a lower cost.

Wu, Sheng-Li; Oliveira, Dauter; Dai, Yu-Ming; Xu, Jian

2012-03-01

3

Atmospheric emission of polychlorinated naphthalenes from iron ore sintering processes.  

PubMed

Iron ore sintering processes constitute significant sources of dioxins, and studies have confirmed a close correlation between polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and dioxin formation. Thus, iron ore sintering processes are thought to be a potential source of PCNs, although intensive investigations on PCN emissions from sintering processes have not been carried out. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to qualify and quantify PCN emissions from nine sintering plants operating on different industrial scales. PCN concentrations ranged from 3 to 983 ng m(-3) (0.4-23.3 pg TEQ(PCN) m(-3)) and emission factors ranged from 14 to 1749 ?g t(-1) (0.5-41.5 ng TEQ(PCN) t(-1)), with a geometric mean of 84 ?g t(-1) (2.1 ng TEQ(PCN) t(-1)). The estimated annual emission of PCNs from sintering processes in China was 1390 mg TEQ(PCN). These figures will assist in the development of a PCN emissions inventory. Regarding emission characteristics, PCNs mainly comprised low-chlorinated homologs. The ratios of several characteristic PCN congeners were also measured and compared with those from other sources. Taken together, these results may provide useful information for identifying the sources of PCNs produced by iron ore sintering processes. PMID:22739541

Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Du, Bing; Nie, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Wenbin; Li, Cheng; Hu, Jicheng

2012-10-01

4

Real-time microradiology of disintegration of iron ore sinteres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We first present real-time microradiology of disintegration of self-fluxing iron ore sinters in low temperature reduction using highly collimated synchrotron source. The experiments were performed on the 5C1 beamline at PLS (Pohang Light Source, Pohang, Korea), operating at 2.5 GeV. We used unmonochromatized ("white") light with no optical elements except beryllium windows. The images of the crack superimpose, on the two-dimensional projection of a three-dimensional phenomenon, suggest that cracks are always initiated from pores in the sinters and propagate along neighboring pores. Interestingly, cracking occurs mostly on macropores (>800 ?m), preferentially initiated from stress concentrated sites on pore surfaces. This dynamic study of the disintegration of sinters clearly shows that the crack initiation temperature is as low as 450 °C.

Kim, Jong Ryun; Kang, H. S.; Lee, Ho Jun; Je, Jung Ho; Jeong, S. K.; Tsai, W.-L.; Hsu, P. C.; Hwu, Y.

2003-01-01

5

ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM IRON ORE SINTERING PLANTS: DETERMINATION OF CAUSES AND METHODS OF ABATEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a laboratory study to develop basic information on the emission of organics from iron ore sinter beds. Samples of sinter bed mix components (including several types of iron ore fines, blast furnace flue dust, rolling mill scale, anthracite coal, and li...

6

Mechanism of sintering and fracture of superfluxed iron-ore sinters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral formation in the binders of a commercial sinter with a basicity of 1.6 at the Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Integrated Works has been found to be determined by the crystallization of two morphological forms of high-iron aluminosilicoferrite (namely, dendritic and lamellar forms) from the melt. In a sintering zone, an association of dendritic aluminosilicoferrite crystals and dicalcium silicate Ca2SiO4 forms in high-calcium melt regions separated from magnetite grains. This association leads to the fracture of the finished product as a result of the phase transformation of Ca2SiO4 from the ? into the ? modification during sinter cooling. Lamellar aluminosilicoferrites forming in high-iron sinter volumes serve as a high-strength binder for ore grains.

Malysheva, T. Ya.; Gibadulin, M. F.; Mansurova, N. R.; Lekin, V. P.

2007-06-01

7

NO x reduction by coupling combustion with recycling flue gas in iron ore sintering process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new process called `NO x reduction by coupling combustion with recycling flue gas (RCCRF)' was proposed to decrease NO x emission during the iron ore sintering process. The simulation test of NO x reduction was performed over sintered ore and in the process of coke combustion. Experimentally, NO x reduction was also carried out by sintering pot test. For sintered ore, the amount of NO x emission is reduced by 15wt%-25wt% at 400-550°C using 2.0vol% H2 or 2.0vol% CO, or reduced by 10wt%-30wt% at 560-720°C using 0.15vol% NH3. NO x reduction is around 10wt% by coupling combustion of pyrolysis gas and coke, or around 16wt% by recycling flue gas into coke combustion. By RCCRF, the maximum NO x reduction ratio is about 23wt% in coke combustion experiment and over 40wt% in sintering pot test.

Chen, Yan-Guang; Guo, Zhan-Cheng; Feng, Gen-Sheng

2011-08-01

8

Effect of Fuel Characteristics on the Thermal Processes in an Iron Ore Sintering Bed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coke in an iron ore sintering process is being replaced in part by powdered anthracite; less expensive fuel. In this study, influence of the different fuel characteristics on the thermal condition in the sintering bed has been investigated using a mathematical model. Numerical simulation along with experiments in a lab-scale sintering pot has been performed. The mathematical model is based on the assumption that the sintering bed can be treated as homogeneous medium, through which a reacting flow passes. Temperature distribution and flue gas composition are predicted for various kinds of solid fuel and various particle sizes of anthracite. The simulation results show that propagation of combustion zone is faster in the case of using coke than the case of using anthracite. Results also show that the reactivity of the anthracite can be improved by decreasing the size of fuel particles.

Yang, Won; Yang, Kwangheok; Choi, Sangmin

9

Reducing PAH emissions from the iron ore sintering process by optimizing its operation parameters.  

PubMed

This study set out to reduce polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions from the iron ore sintering process by optimizing its operation parameters obtained from the Taguchi experimental design. Four operating parameters, including the water content (Wc; range = 6.0-7.0 wt %), suction pressure (Ps; range = 1000-1400 mmH2O), bed height (Hb; range = 500-600 mm), and type of hearth layer (HL; including sinter, hematite, and limonite) were selected and conducted on a pilot-scale sinter pot to simulate various sintering operating conditions of a real-scale sinter plant. We found that the resultant optimal combination (Wc = 6.5 wt %, Hb = 600 mm, Ps = 1400 mmH2O, and HL = limonite) could reduce the emission factor of total BaP equivalent concentration (EF(BaPeq)) up to 57.6% in comparison with the current operating condition of a real-scale sinter plant (Wc = 6.5 wt %, Hb = 550 mm, Ps = 1200 mmH2O, and HL = sinter). Through the ANOVA analysis, we found that Ps and Hb were the top two parameters affecting total EF(BaPeq) (accounting, respectively, for 70.9% and 21.2% of the total contribution of the four selected parameters). By examining both the sinter productivity and sinter strength, the values obtained from the optimal combination were quite comparable to those of the current operating condition. The above results further confirm the applicability of the obtained optimal combination for the real-scale sinter plant. PMID:19603662

Chen, Yu-Cheng; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Mou, Jin-Luh

2009-06-15

10

Study of Softening and Melting Behaviour of Iron Ore Sinter and Pellets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Softening and melting behaviour of the iron ore materials was studied towards understanding the mechanism of formation of liquid slag and metal phases in the pre-reduced sinter and pellets. Wide range of the sinter and pellets samples was investigated revealing the effect of gangue amount and composition on temperature indices corresponding to gas permeability loss in the bed (T1) and to the largest portion of liquid products dripping (T2). For both sinter and pellets, the growth of bacisity is followed by T1 increase which is explained by raised temperature of primary liquid phase appearance during the heating-reduction treatment. Relationship of T2 with the bacisity corresponds to the basicity effect on slag liquidus temperature. Both slag and metal phases were only partially evacuated from the crucible with essential portions of both phases captured in the coke bed. Growing divergence of the basicities of effluent slag and of slag captured in crucible was observed with the increase of sinter basicity. Increased share of the effluent metal with the sinter bacisity growth is explained by the decreased adhesion of slag to iron surface which assists carburization. Growth of melt-down temperature with the increase of gangue amount is explained by less active carburization owing to larger quantity of slag minimising direct contact of sponge with carbonaceous materials.

Shatokha, Volodymyr; Velychko, Olexandr

2012-06-01

11

Studies into the formation of PBDEs and PBDD/Fs in the iron ore sintering process.  

PubMed

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) were detected in stack emissions from UK sinter plants. The sum of 36 PBDE congeners was measured at a mean concentration of 295 ng/N m(3) with a standard deviation of 96 ng/N m(3). The mean PBDD/F concentrations were 0.14 ng WHO-TEQ/m(3) (range=0.03-0.39). PBDD/F emission concentrations were approximately ten times lower than their PCDD/F homologues. To understand the possible formation mechanisms of brominated organic species in iron ore sintering, both full-scale and laboratory experiments using an experimental sintering process were carried out. A complete PBDE mass balance was undertaken for a full scale sinter plant showing that PBDEs were already present in the raw materials such as iron ores and coke breeze and that a significant proportion of the PBDE inputs were actually destroyed during the process. A number of controlled experiments were conducted using a laboratory-scale sintering apparatus (sinter pot). These were designed to investigate: (a) mass balance of PBDEs during sintering, (b) the relationship between the availability of bromide (as KBr) and PBDE emissions, and (c) the influence of the availability of both bromide and PBDEs on PBDD/F formation. As observed in the full scale plant, the PBDEs already present in the raw materials were mostly destroyed during the process (79-96%) for all sinter pot experiments. Increasing amounts of KBr in the raw sinter mix did not result in a significant increase in PBDE formation suggesting that there was no PBDE formation in sintering via de novo synthesis. No relationship was observed between PBDE inputs and PBDD/F emissions indicating that PBDEs did not act as precursors for PBDD/Fs formation. Finally, PBDD/F formation was enhanced substantially with increasing amounts of KBr suggesting that their formation mechanism was similar to that of PCDD/Fs via de novo synthesis. PMID:24742560

Drage, D S; Aries, E; Harrad, S

2014-07-01

12

De novo formation characteristics of dioxins in the dry zone of an iron ore sintering bed.  

PubMed

The objectives of this work are to understand the details of the mechanism of dioxin formation in the part of a sintering bed termed the dry zone, and to obtain ideas on how to prevent their formation. Sinter mixtures of various composition types were heated in a packed bed reactor, and dioxins in the outlet gas and in the sinter mixture residue were measured. The dioxin formation potential of a simple sinter mixture composed of iron ore, coke and limestone was markedly lower than that of fly ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI). In consideration of this result, a series of experiments were conducted using a sinter mixture impregnated with CuCl2. Experimental results showed that dioxin formation was temperature-dependent in the range of 300-550 degrees C, with the maximum observed at around 300 degrees C, which was quite similar to that of fly ash from the MSWI. The homologue distribution of PCDD/Fs in gas and solid reflected the possible difference in carbonaceous materials in coke and activated coke. Gaseous hydrogen chloride acted as a chlorinating reagent for dioxin formation. PMID:14559262

Suzuki, K; Kasai, E; Aono, T; Yamazaki, H; Kawamoto, K

2004-01-01

13

Formation and mitigation of PCDD/Fs in iron ore sintering.  

PubMed

The sintering of iron ore is presently a significant industrial source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) worldwide owing to the fundamental requirement of the operation of a high temperature process to pre-treat fines and to recycle plant by-products arising from the integrated iron and steelworks. The process is a noteworthy contributor of PCDD/F indirectly due to decreasing PCDD/F releases from municipal solid waste incineration. Commonly PCDD/F formation from the process is associated with the addition of oily mill scales although raw material containing a combination of C, Cl and specific metal catalyst has been shown to drastically increase PCDD/F formation in the process. The degenerate graphitic structure of carbon present in coke fuel and soot formed and the chemistry of catalytic metals and Cl are important factors. A review on PCDD/F emission in this process has been carried out, including examination of its formation mechanism, congener distribution, contributing factors and mitigation strategies, with emphasis on the use of inhibiting compound to achieve suppression. A detailed analysis of the de novo and precursor theories of formation and the contributing factor is given since the subject of PCDD/F formation is still controversial. The de novo formation pathway identified in sinter plants and controlled studies performed in the laboratory as well as at pilot-scale are discussed; where appropriate, a comparison is drawn between sintering and other thermal processes emitting PCDD/Fs. Summary of the latest developments in PCDD/F downstream abatement strategies presently employed in full scale industrial plants is provided. Potential inhibiting compounds are discussed in terms of their mode of action and merits under sintering conditions. PMID:21880347

Ooi, Tze Chean; Lu, Liming

2011-10-01

14

Sintering Characteristics of Indian Chrome Ore Fines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chrome ore concentrate consists of high-temperature melting oxides such as Cr2O3, MgO, and Al2O3. The presence of these refractory constituents makes the ore a very high melting mineral. Hence, it is difficult to produce sinter from chrome ore by a pyrometallurgical route. Currently, chrome ore is ground to below 75 ?m, pelletized, heat hardened through carbothermic reaction at 1300 °C to 1400 °C, and then charged into a submerged electric arc furnace (EAF), along with lumpy ore for ferrochrome/charge-chrome production. Electricity is a major cost element in this extraction process. This work explores the sinterability of chrome ore. The objective of this study was to: (1) determine whether chrome ore is sinterable and, if so, (2) ascertain ways of achieving satisfactory properties at a low temperature of sintering. Sintering of the raw material feed could be a way to reduce electricity consumption, because during sintering a partial reduction of minerals is expected along with agglomeration. Studies carried out by the authors show that it is possible to agglomerate chrome ore fines through sintering. The chrome ore sinter thus produced was found to be inferior in strength, comparable to that of an iron ore sinter, but strength requirements may not be the same for both. Because the heat generation during chrome ore sintering is high owing to some exothermic reactions, compared with iron ore, and because chrome ore contains a high amount of fines, shallow-bed-depth sinter cake production was attempted in the laboratory-scale pot-sintering machine. The sintered product was found to be a good conductor of electricity because of the presence of phases such as magnetite and maghemite. This characteristic of the chrome ore sinter will subsequently have a favorable impact in terms of power consumption during the production of ferrochrome in a submerged EAF. The sinter made was melted in the arc furnace and it was found that the specific melting energy is comparable to that of heat-hardened chrome ore pellets but lower than briquettes and lump ore.

Nandy, Bikash; Chaudhury, Manoj Kumar; Paul, Jagannath; Bhattacharjee, D.

2009-10-01

15

Characteristics of fly ash from the dry flue gas desulfurization system for iron ore sintering plants.  

PubMed

The characteristics of fly ash from the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system are important for its reuse and are mainly depend on the desulfurization process. The physical and chemical properties of DSF ash, which refers to fly ash from the dry FGD system for the iron ore sintering process, were investigated. Its mineralogical contents were determined by X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry analysis, and its micro-morphology was studied by scanning electric micrograph analysis. The results show that DSF ash has a higher CaO and SO3 content, and the main sulfur form is sulfite, with only a part of it oxidized to sulfate. The major minerals present in DSF ash are hannebachite, anhydrite, calcite and portlandite; a minor constituent is calcium chloride. The particles of DSF ash are irregular, fragmentary and small, and hannebachite grows on their surfaces. Particle size is affected by the FGD process, and the ash size from the maximized emission reduction of the sintering-FGD process is lower than that from the circulating fluidized bed-FGD process. The particle size distribution of DSF ash follows the Rosin--Rammler-Bennet equation. PMID:22720407

Sheng, Guanghong; Huang, Peng; Mou, Yaqin; Zhou, Chenhui

2012-01-01

16

Influence of gangue existing states in iron ores on the formation and flow of liquid phase during sintering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gangue existing states largely affect the high-temperature characteristics of iron ores. Using a micro-sintering method and scanning electron microscopy, the effects of gangue content, gangue type, and gangue size on the assimilation characteristics and fluidity of liquid phase of five different iron ores were analyzed in this study. Next, the mechanism based on the reaction between gangues and sintering materials was unraveled. The results show that, as the SiO2 levels increase in the iron ores, the lowest assimilation temperature (LAT) decreases, whereas the index of fluidity of liquid phase (IFL) increases. Below 1.5wt%, Al2O3 benefits the assimilation reaction, but higher concentrations proved detrimental. Larger quartz particles increase the SiO2 levels at the local reaction interface between the iron ore and CaO, thereby reducing the LAT. Quartz-gibbsite is more conductive to assimilation than kaolin. Quartz-gibbsite and kaolin gangues encourage the formation of liquid-phase low-Al2O3-SFCA with high IFL and high-Al2O3-SFCA with low IFL, respectively.

Zhang, Guo-liang; Wu, Sheng-li; Chen, Shao-guo; Su, Bo; Que, Zhi-gang; Hou, Chao-gang

2014-10-01

17

PCDD/F and "Dioxin-like" PCB emissions from iron ore sintering plants in the UK.  

PubMed

Investigations have been carried out at the three Corus UK sinter plants over the period 2002-2004 to characterise the emissions of both 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs and WHO-12 PCBs, to estimate annual mass releases of these organic micro-pollutants using the I-TEF and WHO-TEF schemes, and to investigate the formation of PCBs in the iron ore sintering process. Results showed that the sintering of iron ore produces a characteristic WHO-12 PCB and PCDD/F congener pattern that is substantially the same for all UK sinter plants. With regard to WHO-12 PCBs, the most abundant congeners were typically PCBs 118 (6-9 ngNm(-3)), 105 (2-4 ngNm(-3)) and 77 (2-3 ngNm(-3)). All other WHO-12 PCBs were also detected at concentrations around 1 ngNm(-3). All sinter plants investigated exhibited very similar TEQ concentrations. WHO-12 PCB emissions were in the range 0.042-0.111 ngWHO-TEQNm(-3), whereas PCDD/F emissions ranged from 0.39 to 1.62 ngWHO-TEQNm(-3). PCDF congeners were the main contributors to the overall TEQ in sintering emissions (ca. 85%). Amongst WHO-12 PCBs, PCB 126 was the only noteworthy contributor to total TEQ (ca. 5-7%), a similar contribution to that from PCDDs. Based on the measurements that Corus UK has undertaken at these three sinter plants, annual mass releases of WHO-12 PCBs and PCDD/Fs have been calculated. For UK sinter plants, a total mass release of 29.5 g WHO-TEQ per annum [WHO-12 PCBs+PCDD/Fs] has been estimated, representing 9% of the total PCDD/F emissions to the UK atmosphere. Measurements were also carried out at a UK sinter plant to determine the windleg emission profile of WHO-12 PCBs. Results showed that WHO-12 PCBs were formed in the same regions of the sinter strand as 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs, indicating that there was a strong correlation between the formation of WHO-12 PCBs and PCDD/Fs in the iron ore sintering process. PMID:16765418

Aries, Eric; Anderson, David R; Fisher, Raymond; Fray, Trevor A T; Hemfrey, Derek

2006-11-01

18

Emission characterization of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants from iron ore sintering process in China.  

PubMed

Emission of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (Unintentional POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz), were investigated in four typical iron ore sintering plants in China. The emission factors and annual mass releases of the Unintentional POPs were calculated. The results indicated that PCDFs contributed more than 60% to the overall toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) values, while the contribution of the dl-PCBs is relatively low, and only in the range of 8-9%. The dominant congeners of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs contributing most to the total TEQ were 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and PCB-126. With regard to the TEQ contributions, the most abundant homologues were PeCDFs and HxCDD/Fs, followed by PeCDDs and non-ortho dl-PCB, whereas HpCDD/Fs, OCDD/Fs and mono-ortho dl-PCBs almost made no contributions. Due to the massive use of recycled waste in the feeding materials, the average emission factor of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs of the four plants was 3.95 ?g WHO-TEQ ton(-1). Based on the results, the annual release of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in 2007-2009 were estimated to be 2070 g, 2212 g, and 2307 gWHO-TEQ, respectively. PMID:22727897

Tian, Bo; Huang, Jun; Wang, Bin; Deng, Shubo; Yu, Gang

2012-10-01

19

Influence of process changes on PCDD/Fs produced in an iron ore sintering plant  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated the influence of different charge typologies and additives on the PCDD/Fs amount produced and on the congener profiles in an iron ore sintering plant. Many tests were carried out combining different typologies of charge (iron materials) and solid fuel ('coke breeze' or 'anthracite') with or without the use of urea. The PCDD/Fs produced ranged from 1.2 to 22.7 {mu} g I-TEQ/ton of agglomerate, whereas the PCDD/Fs released to the ambient air ranged from 0.10 to 1.92 ng I-TEQ/Nm{sup 3} because of cleaning in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a Wetfine scrubber (WS). A more homogeneous charge with a higher amount of fine particles charge appeared to produce a lower PCDD/Fs concentration due to a better combustion but this hypothesis needs further investigations on charges having different dimension particles. Only a synergitic action of urea and anthracite was able to reduce the high PCDD/Fs content due to the bad combustion of the more inhomogeneous charge with a lower amount of fine particles. The congener profile was a typical combustion process fingerprint because the PCDFs predominated, the highly chlorinated congeners (HeptaCDD and OctaCDD) prevailed in PCDDs, whereas in PCDFs the profile was more varied; 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HeptaCDF was the main contributor to the total concentration while 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF was the main contributor to the I-TEQ concentration. Whereas all the parameters under scrutiny influenced strongly the amount of PCDD/Fs produced, they affected only slightly the fingerprint of PCDD/Fs. In all cases studied, the reduction obtained using urea, anthracite, or the more homogeneous charge with a higher amount of fine particles was slightly greater on the higher chlorinated congeners in respect to the lower ones.

Guerriero, E.; Bianchini, M.; Gigliucci, P.F.; Guarnieri, A.; Mosca, S.; Rossetti, G.; Varde, M.; Rotatori, M. [CNR, Monterotondo (Italy)

2009-01-15

20

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission profiles and removal efficiency by electrostatic precipitator and wetfine scrubber in an iron ore sintering plant  

SciTech Connect

A monitoring campaign of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl was carried out in an Italian iron ore sintering plant by sampling the combustion gases at the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) outlet, at the Wetfine scrubber (WS) outlet, and by collecting the ESP dust. Few data are available on these micropollutants produced in iron ore sintering plants, particularly from Italian plants. This study investigates the PAH emission profiles and the removal efficiency of ESPs and WS. PAHs were determined at the stack, ESP outlet flue gases, and in ESP dust to characterize the emission profiles and the performance of the ESP and the WS for reducing PAH emission. The 11 PAHs monitored are listed in the Italian legislative decree 152/2006. The mean total PAH sum concentration in the stack flue gases is 3.96 {mu}g/N m{sup 3}, in ESP outlet flue gases is 9.73 {mu}g/N m{sup 3}, and in ESP dust is 0.53 {mu}g/g. Regarding the emission profiles, the most abundant compound is benzo(b)fluoranthene, which has a relative low BaP toxic equivalency factors (TEF) value, followed by dibenzo(a,l)pyrene, which has a very high BaP(TEF) value. The emission profiles in ESP dust and in the flue gases after the ESP show some changes, whereas the fingerprint in ESP and stack flue gases is very similar. The removal efficiency of the ESP and of WS on the total PAH concentration is 5.2 and 59.5%, respectively. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Ettore Guerriero; Antonina Lutri; Rosanna Mabilia; Maria Concetta Tomasi Sciano; Mauro Rotatori [Istituto sull'Inquinamento Atmosferico, Monterotondo Scalo (Italy). Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche

2008-11-15

21

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission profiles and removal efficiency by electrostatic precipitator and wetfine scrubber in an iron ore sintering plant.  

PubMed

A monitoring campaign of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl was carried out in an Italian iron ore sintering plant by sampling the combustion gases at the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) outlet, at the Wetfine scrubber (WS) outlet, and by collecting the ESP dust. Few data are available on these micropollutants produced in iron ore sintering plants, particularly from Italian plants. This study investigates the PAH emission profiles and the removal efficiency of ESPs and WS. PAHs were determined at the stack, ESP outlet flue gases, and in ESP dust to characterize the emission profiles and the performance of the ESP and the WS for reducing PAH emission. The 11 PAHs monitored are listed in the Italian legislative decree 152/2006. The mean total PAH sum concentration in the stack flue gases is 3.96 microg/N x m3, in ESP outlet flue gases is 9.73 microg/N x m3, and in ESP dust is 0.53 microg/g. Regarding the emission profiles, the most abundant compound is benzo(b)fluoranthene, which has a relative low BaP toxic equivalency factors (TEF) value, followed by dibenzo(a,l)pyrene, which has a very high BaP(TEF) value. The emission profiles in ESP dust and in the flue gases after the ESP show some changes, whereas the fingerprint in ESP and stack flue gases is very similar. The removal efficiency of the ESP and of WS on the total PAH concentration is 5.2 and 59.5%, respectively. PMID:19044155

Guerriero, Ettore; Lutri, Antonina; Mabilia, Rosanna; Scianò, Maria Concetta Tomasi; Rotatori, Mauro

2008-11-01

22

Influence of MgO addition on mineralogy of iron ore sinter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of MgO addition on sinter mineralogy was studied on sinters produced in a laboratory installation, with a wide range of MgO/CaO ratios at several basicity indices [ B = (CaO + MgO)/ (SiO2 + A12O3)] between 0.7 to 1.9. The most striking influence of MgO is the suppression of hematite and Ca-ferrite phases and the increase in magnetite phase. In general, MgO favors the formation of glass and suppresses the precipitation of dicalcium silicates in favor of Ca-Fe-Mg olivines and pyroxenes. Microprobe studies revealed that most of the Mg was picked up by the magnetite phase to form mixed spinels of type (Fe, Mg)O · Fe2O3. At a constant basicity index, increased replacement of CaO by MgO also led to increased participation of FeO in the slag formation process, thus increasing the overall FeO content of sinter. A mechanism for the formation of mixed spinels has been proposed. The effect on various sinter properties resulting due to change in sinter mineralogy has been outlined.

Panigrahy, S. C.; Verstraeten, P.; Dilewijns, J.

1984-01-01

23

Determining optimal operation parameters for reducing PCDD/F emissions (I-TEQ values) from the iron ore sintering process by using the Taguchi experimental design.  

PubMed

This study is the first one using the Taguchi experimental design to identify the optimal operating condition for reducing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/ Fs) formations during the iron ore sintering process. Four operating parameters, including the water content (Wc; range = 6.0-7.0 wt %), suction pressure (Ps; range = 1000-1400 mmH2O), bed height (Hb; range = 500-600 mm), and type of hearth layer (including sinter, hematite, and limonite), were selected for conducting experiments in a pilot scale sinter pot to simulate various sintering operating conditions of a real-scale sinter plant We found that the resultant optimal combination (Wc = 6.5 wt%, Hb = 500 mm, Ps = 1000 mmH2O, and hearth layer = hematite) could decrease the emission factor of total PCDD/Fs (total EF(PCDD/Fs)) up to 62.8% by reference to the current operating condition of the real-scale sinter plant (Wc = 6.5 wt %, Hb = 550 mm, Ps = 1200 mmH2O, and hearth layer = sinter). Through the ANOVA analysis, we found that Wc was the most significant parameter in determining total EF(PCDD/Fs (accounting for 74.7% of the total contribution of the four selected parameters). The resultant optimal combination could also enhance slightly in both sinter productivity and sinter strength (30.3 t/m2/day and 72.4%, respectively) by reference to those obtained from the reference operating condition (29.9 t/m (2)/day and 72.2%, respectively). The above results further ensure the applicability of the obtained optimal combination for the real-scale sinter production without interfering its sinter productivity and sinter strength. PMID:18754384

Chen, Yu-Cheng; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Mou, Jin-Luh

2008-07-15

24

PCDD/Fs removal efficiency by electrostatic precipitator and wetfine scrubber in an iron ore sintering plant.  

PubMed

This study investigates the removal efficiency of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) by the APCDs of an iron ore sintering plant, an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a wetfine scrubbing system (WS). The removal efficiencies of the ESP on the total PCDD/Fs concentration and the total PCDD/Fs I-TEQ concentration are 44.3% and 41.4%, respectively, while those of the WS are 66.7% and 68.4%, respectively, but the vapor/solid phase distribution changes after APCDs abatement. At ESP inlet, the PCDD/Fs account for 31.2% in vapor phase and for 68.8% in particulate phase while, at ESP outlet, the PCDD/Fs account for 63.3% in vapor phase and for 36.7% in solid phase. The ESP removes effectively solid-phase PCDD/Fs for its effectiveness to capture the particulate while it is ineffective in removing vapor-phase PCDD/Fs. It, on the contrary, increase for the vaporization within the ESP, especially for these congeners with a lower chlorination degree, and for the PCDD/Fs "stripping" from particulate to gas-phase during the sampling. At WS inlet, the PCDD/Fs account for 63.3% in vapor phase and for 36.7% in solid phase while, at WS outlet, the PCDD/Fs account for 21.4% in vapor phase and for 78.6% in solid phase. Considering that WS outlet temperature is about 40 degrees C, the PCDD/Fs vapor-phase condense to particles: therefore, even if the particulate is removed by WS, the final result is that PCDD/Fs percentage decreases in vapor-phase and increases in solid-phase. PMID:19733437

Guerriero, Ettore; Guarnieri, Alessandra; Mosca, Silvia; Rossetti, Gianluca; Rotatori, Mauro

2009-12-30

25

Silico-ferrite of Calcium and Aluminum (SFCA) Iron Ore Sinter Bonding Phases: New Insights into Their Formation During Heating and Cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter phases during heating and cooling of synthetic iron ore sinter mixtures in the range 298 K to 1623 K (25 °C to 1350 °C) and at oxygen partial pressure of 5 × 10-3 atm has been characterized using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. SFCA and SFCA-I are the key bonding phases in iron ore sinter, and an improved understanding of their formation mechanisms may lead to improved efficiency of industrial sintering processes. During heating, SFCA-I formation at 1327 K to 1392 K (1054 °C to 1119 °C) (depending on composition) was associated with the reaction of Fe2O3, 2CaO·Fe2O3, and SiO2. SFCA formation (1380 K to 1437 K [1107 °C to 1164 °C]) was associated with the reaction of CaO·Fe2O3, SiO2, and a phase with average composition 49.60, 9.09, 0.14, 7.93, and 32.15 wt pct Fe, Ca, Si, Al, and O, respectively. Increasing Al2O3 concentration in the starting sinter mixture increased the temperature range over which SFCA-I was stable before the formation of SFCA, and it stabilized SFCA to a higher temperature before it melted to form a Fe3O4 + melt phase assemblage (1486 K to 1581 K [1213 °C to 1308 °C]). During cooling, the first phase to crystallize from the melt (1452 K to 1561 K [1179 °C to 1288 °C]) was an Fe-rich phase, similar in composition to SFCA-I, and it had an average composition 58.88, 6.89, 0.82, 3.00, and 31.68 wt pct Fe, Ca, Si, Al, and O, respectively. At lower temperatures (1418 K to 1543 K [1145 °C to 1270 °C]), this phase reacted with melt to form SFCA. Increasing Al2O3 increased the temperature at which crystallization of the Fe-rich phase occurred, increased the temperature at which crystallization of SFCA occurred, and suppressed the formation of Fe2O3 (1358 K to 1418 K [1085 °C to 1145 °C]) to lower temperatures.

Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Kimpton, Justin A.

2012-12-01

26

Assessment of exposure to PCDD/F, PCB, and PAH at a basic oxygen Steelmaking (BOS) and an iron ore sintering plant in the UK.  

PubMed

An assessment was carried out at a UK integrated steelworks to investigate the exposure of workers via inhalation to dioxins [polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD/F)], polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) including benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Investigations focused on a basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS) plant and an iron ore sintering plant. The highest concentrations of PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB were found at the BOS vessels and sinter strand area at the BOS and sinter plant, respectively. A risk assessment was carried out by comparing the daily intake of PCDD/F and PCB via inhalation with the recommended tolerable daily intake (TDI) proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO). For the most exposed category of worker in this study (i.e. sinter plant workers inside the strand area), the estimated daily intake via inhalation was estimated to be 0.25 pg WHO-toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQ) kg(-1) body weight (bw). Considering that the average UK adult exposure to PCDD/F from the diet is 1.8 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1), the results indicated that the estimated daily intake of PCDD/F and PCB via inhalation for sinter plant workers would not result in the recommended range of the TDI (1-4 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1)) being exceeded. Cancer risks for a 40-year occupational exposure period were determined by multiplying the estimated intake by the inhalation cancer potency factor for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. For the most exposed category of worker, cancer risks from exposure to PCDD/F and PCB ranged from 2.5 × 10(-6) to 5.2 × 10(-5). Under most regulatory programmes, excess cancer risks between 1.0 × 10(-6) and 1.0 × 10(-4) indicate an acceptable range of cancer risk, suggesting a limited risk from PCDD/F and PCB exposure for workers in the sinter plant. With regard to PAH, B[a]P concentrations were typically <10 ng m(-3) at all locations at both the sinter plant and the BOS plant. In several cases, particularly at the sinter plant, B[a]P concentrations were well below or only marginally above the target value of 1 ng m(-3) specified in ambient air by the European Commission in the fourth 'Daughter' Directive of the Air Quality Framework Directive suggesting a very low risk of exposure for workers. For PAH, excess cancer risks ranged from 2.4 × 10(-6) to 7.3 × 10(-6) for BOS plant workers and from for 5.3 × 10(-7) to 1.5 × 10(-5) for sinter plant workers, well within the acceptable range proposed by the US EPA. PMID:21989166

Jackson, Kevin; Aries, Eric; Fisher, Raymond; Anderson, David R; Parris, Adrian

2012-01-01

27

Microbial reduction of iron ore  

DOEpatents

A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry.

Hoffmann, Michael R. (Pasadena, CA); Arnold, Robert G. (Pasadena, CA); Stephanopoulos, Gregory (Pasadena, CA)

1989-01-01

28

Microbial reduction of iron ore  

DOEpatents

A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry. 11 figs.

Hoffmann, M.R.; Arnold, R.G.; Stephanopoulos, G.

1989-11-14

29

Pilot plant experience in electron-beam treatment of iron-ore sintering flue gas and its application to coal boiler flue gas cleanup  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The peresent development status of the electron-beam flue gas treatment process, which is a dry process capable of removing SOx and NOx simultaneously, is described. The most advanced demonstration of this process was accomplished with a pilot plant in Japan where the maximum gas flow rate of 10,000 Nm 3/h of an iron-ore sintering machine flue gas was successfully treated. The byproduct produced in this process is collected as a dry powder which is a mixture of ammonia sulfate and ammonium nitrate and is salable as a fertilizer or a fertilizer component. A preliminary economic projection showed that this process costs less than the lime scrubber which removes SOx but does not remove NOx. Tests using simulated coal combustion gases suggest that this process will be applicable to coal-fired boiler flue gas treatment as well. However, test on actual coal-fired flue gases are still required for commercial application decisions. A process development unit program consisting of the design, construction and testing of actual coal-fired power station flue gases is underway in the U.S.A. The design and engineering of the test plant is far advanced and the construction phase will be launched in the very near future.

Kawamura, K.; Shui, V. H.

30

Ferride geochemistry of Swedish precambrian iron ores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical analysis for major and trace elements have been performed on 30 Swedish Precambrian iron ores and on some from Iran and Chile. The Swedish ores consist of apatite iron ores, quartz-banded iron ores, skarn and limestone iron ores from the two main ore districts of Sweden, the Bergslagen and the Norrbotten province. Some Swedish titaniferous iron ores were also included in the investigation. The trace element data show that the Swedish ores can be subdivided into two major groups: 1. orthomagmatic and exhalative, 2. sedimentary. Within group 1 the titaniferous iron ores are distinguished by their high Ti-contents. From the ferride contents of the Kiruna apatite iron ores, the ores are considered to be mobilization products of skarn iron ores from the Norbotten province.

Loberg, B. E. H.; Horndahl, A.-K.

1983-10-01

31

The sources of our iron ores. II  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this instalment** the iron ore deposits of the Lake Superior States, which normally furnish about 80 per cent, of the annual output of the United States, are described together with historical notes on discovery and transportation of ore. Deposits in the Mississippi Valley and Western States are likewise outlined and the sources of imported ore are given. Reviewing the whole field, it is indicated that the great producing deposits of the Lake Superior and southern Appalachian regions are of hematite in basin areas of sedimentary rocks, that hydrated iron oxides and iron carbonates are generally found in undisturbed comparatively recent sediments, and that magnetite occurs in metamorphic and igneous rocks; also that numerical abundance of deposits is not a criterion as to their real importance as a source of supply. Statistics of production of iron ore and estimates of reserves of present grade conclude the paper.

Burchard, E.F.

1933-01-01

32

Development of carbon composite iron ore micropellets by using the microfines of iron ore and carbon-bearing materials in iron making  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron ore microfines and concentrate have very limited uses in sintering processes. They are used in pelletization; however, this process is cost intensive. Furthermore, the microfines of non-coking coal and other carbon-bearing materials, e.g., blast-furnace flue dust (BFD) and coke fines, are not used extensively in the metallurgical industry because of operational difficulties and handling problems. In the present work, to utilize these microfines, coal composite iron oxide micropellets (2-6 mm in size) were produced through an innovative technique in which lime and molasses were used as binding materials in the micropellets. The micropellets were subsequently treated with CO2 or the industrial waste gas to induce the chemical bond formation. The results show that, at a very high carbon level of 22wt% (38wt% coal), the cold crushing strength and abrasion index of the micropellets are 2.5-3 kg/cm2 and 5wt%-9wt%, respectively; these values indicate that the pellets are suitable for cold handling. The developed micropellets have strong potential as a heat source in smelting reduction in iron making and sintering to reduce coke breeze. The micropellets produced with BFD and coke fines (8wt%-12wt%) were used in iron ore sintering and were observed to reduce the coke breeze consumption by 3%-4%. The quality of the produced sinter was at par with that of the conventional blast-furnace sinter.

Pal, Jagannath; Ghorai, Satadal; Das, Avimanyu

2015-02-01

33

A pilot study for determining the optimal operation condition for simultaneously controlling the emissions of PCDD/Fs and PAHs from the iron ore sintering process.  

PubMed

In this study, the cost-benefit analysis technique was developed and incorporated into the Taguchi experimental design to determine the optimal operation combination for the purpose of providing a technique solution for controlling both emissions of PCDD/Fs and PAHs, and increasing both the sinter productivity (SP) and sinter strength (SS) simultaneously. Four operating parameters, including the water content, suction pressure, bed height, and type of hearth layer, were selected and all experimental campaigns were conducted on a pilot-scale sinter pot to simulate various sintering operating conditions of a real-scale sinter plant. The resultant optimal combination could reduce the total carcinogenic emissions arising from both emissions of PCDD/Fs and PAHs by 49.8%, and increase the sinter benefit associated with the increase in both SP and SS by 10.1%, as in comparison with the operation condition currently used in the real plant. The ANOVA results indicate that the suction pressure was the most dominant parameter in determining the optimal operation combination. The above result was theoretically plausible since the higher suction pressure provided more oxygen contents leading to the decrease in both PCDD/F and PAH emissions. But it should be noted that the results obtained from the present study were based on pilot scale experiments, conducting confirmation tests in a real scale plant are still necessary in the future. PMID:22704976

Chen, Yu-Cheng; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Mou, Jin-Luh; Kuo, Yu-Chieh; Wang, Shih-Min; Young, Li-Hao; Wang, Ya-Fen

2012-09-01

34

Leaching of the residue from the dry off-gas de-dusting and desulfurization process of an iron ore sinter plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The residue from a second-stage dry sinter plant off-gas cleaning process contains both the fine dust from the sinter plant and the sorbent used. Recycling of the material that is usually handled by landfills to the sinter plant feed is not possible because of its chloride content. Leaching of the chlorides allow the recycling of remaining solids. The saline leachate produced contains some heavy metals and must be treated before it is discharged into the sea. In laboratory experiments, leaching tests with the subsequent treatment of the leachate were conducted. After the process was optimized, all heavy-metal concentrations were below the permissible values. The optimum treatment conditions for heavy-metal precipitation were observed to be the filtration of the suspended solids followed by the dosing of liquid with lime milk (pH 10) and the subsequent precipitation using sodium sulfide.

Lanzerstorfer, Christof; Xu, Qi; Neuhold, Robert

2015-02-01

35

Characterisation and Processing of Some Iron Ores of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lack of process characterization data of the ores based on the granulometry, texture, mineralogy, physical, chemical, properties, merits and limitations of process, market and local conditions may mislead the mineral processing entrepreneur. The proper implementation of process characterization and geotechnical map data will result in optimized sustainable utilization of resource by processing. A few case studies of process characterization of some Indian iron ores are dealt with. The tentative ascending order of process refractoriness of iron ores is massive hematite/magnetite < marine black iron oxide sands < laminated soft friable siliceous ore fines < massive banded magnetite quartzite < laminated soft friable clayey aluminous ore fines < massive banded hematite quartzite/jasper < massive clayey hydrated iron oxide ore < manganese bearing iron ores massive < Ti-V bearing magnetite magmatic ore < ferruginous cherty quartzite. Based on diagnostic process characterization, the ores have been classified and generic process have been adopted for some Indian iron ores.

Krishna, S. J. G.; Patil, M. R.; Rudrappa, C.; Kumar, S. P.; Ravi, B. P.

2013-10-01

36

Direct Biohydrometallurgical Extraction of Iron from Ore  

SciTech Connect

A completely novel approach to iron extraction was investigated, based on reductive leaching of iron by anaerobic bacteria. Microorganisms were collected from an anaerobic bog where natural seepage of dissolved iron was observed. This mixed culture was used to reduce insoluble iron in a magnetite ore to the soluble ferrous (Fe{sup +2}) state. While dissolution rates were slow, concentrations of dissolved iron as high as 3487 mg/l could be reached if sufficient time was allowed. A factorial study of the effects of trace nutrients and different forms of organic matter indicated that the best dissolution rates and highest dissolved iron concentrations were achieved using soluble carbohydrate (sucrose) as the bacterial food source, and that nutrients other than nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and acetate were not necessary. A key factor in reaching high levels of dissolved iron was maintaining a high level of carbon dioxide in solution, since the solubility of iron carbonates increases markedly as the quantity of dissolved carbon dioxide increases. Once the iron is dissolved, it has been demonstrated that the ferrous iron can then be electroplated from solution, provided that the concentration of iron is sufficiently high and the hydrogen ion concentration is sufficiently low. However, if the leaching solution is electrolyzed directly, organic matter precipitates at the cathode along with the metallic iron. To prevent this problem, the ferrous iron should be separated from the bulk solution in a more concentrated, purified form. One route to accomplishing this is to take advantage of the change in solubility of ferrous iron as a function of carbon dioxide concentration. By cycling the concentration of carbon dioxide in solution, it is possible to produce an iron-rich concentrate that should be suitable for electrolysis. This represents the first viable hydrometallurgical method for leaching iron directly from ore and producing metallic iron.

T.C. Eisele

2005-10-01

37

HIDROGEOLOGICAL MODEL OF THE ITABIRA IRON ORE DISTRICT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Itabira Iron Ore District is located in the region called Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Iron Quadrangle), a very rich region with plenty of mineral resources (iron, gold, manganese, bauxite etc.). During the last 50 years, CVRD (Companhia Vale do Rio Doce) has exploited about one billion tons of iron ore in Itabira. In 1985, CVRD started dewatering activities of those mines

Agostinho Fernandez; Sobreiro Neto

2001-01-01

38

Investigation on alternative depressants for iron ore flotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron ore concentration through flotation represents an important application of reagents in mineral processing. Nowadays all Brazilian iron ore concentrators use starch as iron oxides depressant. This study evaluated the application of other depressants, which are commonly used in other flotation systems. Six carboxymethylcelluloses, three lignosulphonates, one guar gum, and four humic acids samples were investigated in the reverse cationic

H. D. G. Turrer; A. E. C. Peres

2010-01-01

39

40 CFR 440.10 - Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory. 440.10 Section...MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore Subcategory § 440.10 Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory. The provisions...

2014-07-01

40

40 CFR 440.10 - Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory. 440.10 Section...MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore Subcategory § 440.10 Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory. The provisions...

2013-07-01

41

40 CFR 440.10 - Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory. 440.10 Section...MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore Subcategory § 440.10 Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory. The provisions...

2011-07-01

42

40 CFR 440.10 - Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory. 440.10 Section...MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore Subcategory § 440.10 Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory. The provisions...

2012-07-01

43

40 CFR 440.10 - Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory. 440.10 Section...MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore Subcategory § 440.10 Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory. The provisions...

2010-07-01

44

26 CFR 1.272-1 - Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore. 1.272-1 ...Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore. (a) Introduction...hereafter sometimes referred to as a “coal royalty contract” or “iron ore...

2011-04-01

45

26 CFR 1.272-1 - Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore. 1.272-1 ...Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore. (a) Introduction...hereafter sometimes referred to as a “coal royalty contract” or “iron ore...

2012-04-01

46

26 CFR 1.272-1 - Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore. 1.272-1 ...Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore. (a) Introduction...hereafter sometimes referred to as a “coal royalty contract” or “iron ore...

2014-04-01

47

26 CFR 1.272-1 - Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore. 1.272-1 ...Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore. (a) Introduction...hereafter sometimes referred to as a “coal royalty contract” or “iron ore...

2013-04-01

48

Ceramic colorant from untreated iron ore residue.  

PubMed

This work deals with the development of a ceramic colorant for glazes from an untreated iron ore residue. 6 mass% of the residue was added in suspensions (1.80 g/cm(3) density and 30s viscosity) of white, transparent and matte glazes, which were applied as thin layers (0.5mm) on engobeb and not fired ceramic tiles. The tiles were fired in laboratory roller kiln in a cycle of 35 min and maximum temperatures between 1050 and 1180°C. The residue and glazes were characterized by chemical (XRF) and thermal (DTA and optical dilatometry) analyses, and the glazed tiles by colorimetric and XRD analyses. The results showed that the colorant embedded in the transparent glaze results in a reddish glaze (like pine nut) suitable for the ceramic roof tile industry. For the matte and white glazes, the residue has changed the color of the tiles with temperature. PMID:22795839

Pereira, Oscar Costa; Bernardin, Adriano Michael

2012-09-30

49

Magnetic Properties of Iron Compacts in Relation to Sintering Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous experiments have indicated that the magnetic permeability of sintered iron compacts is to a large extent determined by the final density of the compact. The permeability of five different iron powders has proved to be independent of the origin of the powder, if the compacts were sintered at the same temperature. The results were compared with the theory of

Robert Steinitz

1949-01-01

50

Effect of Microwave Treatment Upon Processing Oolitic High Phosphorus Iron Ore for Phosphorus Removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Influence of microwave treatment on the previously proposed phosphorus removal process of oolitic high phosphorus iron ore (gaseous reduction followed by melting separation) has been studied. Microwave treatment was carried out using a high-temperature microwave reactor (Model: MS-WH). Untreated ore fines and microwaved ore fines were then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Thereafter, experiments on the proposed phosphorus removal process were conducted to examine the effect of microwave treatment. Results show that microwave treatment could change the microstructure of the ore fines and has an intensification effect on its gaseous reduction by reducing gas internal resistance, increasing chemical reaction rate and postponing the occurrence of sintering. Results of gaseous reduction tests using tubular furnace indicate both microwave treatment and high reduction temperature high as 1273 K (1000 °C) are needed to totally break down the dense oolite and metallization rate of the ore fines treated using microwave power of 450 W could reach 90 pct under 1273 K (1000 °C) and for 2 hours. Results of melting separation tests of the reduced ore fines with a metallization rate of 90 pct show that, in addition to the melting conditions in our previous studies, introducing 3 pct Na2CO3 to the highly reduced ore fines is necessary, and metal recovery rate and phosphorus content of metal could reach 83 pct and 0.31 mass pct, respectively.

Tang, Hui-Qing; Liu, Wei-Di; Zhang, Huan-Yu; Guo, Zhan-Cheng

2014-10-01

51

Microstructure of bentonite in iron ore green pellets.  

PubMed

Sodium-activated calcium bentonite is used as a binder in iron ore pellets and is known to increase strength of both wet and dry iron ore green pellets. In this article, the microstructure of bentonite in magnetite pellets is revealed for the first time using scanning electron microscopy. The microstructure of bentonite in wet and dry iron ore pellets, as well as in distilled water, was imaged by various imaging techniques (e.g., imaging at low voltage with monochromatic and decelerated beam or low loss backscattered electrons) and cryogenic methods (i.e., high pressure freezing and plunge freezing in liquid ethane). In wet iron ore green pellets, clay tactoids (stacks of parallel primary clay platelets) were very well dispersed and formed a voluminous network occupying the space available between mineral particles. When the pellet was dried, bentonite was drawn to the contact points between the particles and formed solid bridges, which impart strength to the solid compact. PMID:24397939

Bhuiyan, Iftekhar U; Mouzon, Johanne; Schröppel, Birgit; Kaech, Andres; Dobryden, Illia; Forsmo, Seija P E; Hedlund, Jonas

2014-02-01

52

Settling characteristics of ultrafine iron ore slimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The slurry settling characteristics are the most important to design a thickener in process industries. In this work, the iron ore slurry from the screw classifier overflow was used for the settling study. It was observed that the original slurry exhibited a low settling velocity and a turbid supernatant during the settling process. Commercial flocculating agents with anionic, cationic, and nonionic characters were used to improve the settling behavior of suspensions, which were added into the slurry at different ranges of slurry pH values, respectively. The settling results show that the use of flocculants increase the settling rate by several times. Compared with the cationic and nonionic flocculants, the anionic flocculant is more effective in enhancing the slurry settling rate. The small dose of the anionic flocculant is found to be more effective, but the other flocculants are less effective even at higher dosages. The simulation of an industrial thickener was carried out based on the laboratory settling data, and the appropriate design and selection parameters of the industrial thickener were estimated.

Eswaraiah, Chinthapudi; Biswal, Surendra Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

2012-02-01

53

Mineral and Elemental Composition Features of "Loose" Oolitic Ores in Bakchar Iron Ore Cluster (Tomsk Oblast)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geo-technological investigation considerations of iron ore deposits within the Bakchar ore cluster are being carried out. The mineral and elemental composition of "loose" ores have been studied, embracing such important aspects as the distribution pattern of valuable and harmful impurities, the determination of element concentrators (such as vanadium, phosphate and sulphur) in basic minerals and the analysis of ore composition varaiation in volume ore cluster. Based on investigation results the mineral and elemental composition characteristic features of "loose" ores were defined. Although hydrogoethite was the basic identified ore mineral, such minerals as goethite, lepidocrocite, leptochlorite, siderite and hisingerite were also found. The deportment of calcium phosphate (anapaite) and phosphates of rare-earth elements (monazite, killarite), which are associated with the harmful impurity- phosphorous, are described. It has been defined that the ore constituent composition contains such persistent impurities as vanadium and manganese, the content of which is 0.35% and 0.03%, respectively. The "loose" ores are continuous in mineral composition, both in area and cross-section throughout the Bakchar ore cluster. Based on the sample element composition analysis the most perspective areas for further mineral processing could be: western with the fraction of 1....0.2mm. and eastern- fraction of 1...0.1mm.

Rudmin, M.; Mazurov, A.; Bolsunovskaya, L.

2014-08-01

54

Search for magnetic monopoles trapped in old iron ores using a superconducting detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetically trapped monopoles were sought in iron ores using a set of two SQUID (superconducting quantum-interference device) fluxmeters. We operated the apparatus under a sintering furnace in an industrial ore-processing plant for two months and tried to observe a signal of a monopole penetrating superconducting coils after its release from ore paramagnetized through a heat treatment. No candidate events were found consistent with the passage of a magnetic charge greater than 0.6 times Dirac's unit strength gD. The total weight of ore examined varies between 137 and ~104 tons, depending on what mechanism is assumed for the release of monopoles. By taking the most modest estimate, we obtain an upper limit of 2.2×10-7 monopoles/g [95% confidence level (C.L.)] for the density of very massive monopoles (1014-1017 GeV/c2) in iron ores which involve ferro/ferri-ferrimagnetic ingredients of age 107-109 yr to the extent of 10%. The free-monopole flux is also obtained as less than 1.4×10-10/cm2sec sr (90% C.L.), irrespective of its mass or velocity from a 57-d live time of two 20-cm-diam search coils.

Ebisu, Takeo; Watanabe, Tadashi

1987-12-01

55

Microbial Beneficiation of Salem Iron Ore Using Penicillium purpurogenum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High alumina and silica content in the iron ore affects coke rate, reducibility, and productivity in a blast furnace. Iron ore is being beneficiated all around the world to meet the quality requirement of iron and steel industries. Choosing a beneficiation treatment depends on the nature of the gangue present and its association with the ore structure. The advanced physicochemical methods used for the beneficiation of iron ore are generally unfriendly to the environment. Biobeneficiation is considered to be ecofriendly, promising, and revolutionary solutions to these problems. A characterization study of Salem iron ore indicates that the major iron-bearing minerals are hematite, magnetite, and goethite. Samples on average contains (pct) Fe2O3-84.40, Fe (total)-59.02, Al2O3-7.18, and SiO2-7.53. Penicillium purpurogenum (MTCC 7356) was used for the experiment . It removed 35.22 pct alumina and 39.41 pct silica in 30 days in a shake flask at 10 pct pulp density, 308 K (35 °C), and 150 rpm. In a bioreactor experiment at 2 kg scale using the same organism, it removed 23.33 pct alumina and 30.54 pct silica in 30 days at 300 rpm agitation and 2 to 3 l/min aeration. Alumina and silica dissolution follow the shrinking core model for both shake flask and bioreactor experiments.

Mishra, M.; Pradhan, M.; Sukla, L. B.; Mishra, B. K.

2011-02-01

56

Magnetic properties of some iron powders and ore concentrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the manufacture of separators for the enrichment of the iron powders and ore concentrates being produced at the Novotul'sk Iron and Steel Plant, it is necessary to know the magnetic properties of these materials, since the principal factor distinguishing the process of propagation of electromagnetic waves in a ferromagnetic material is inconstancy of magnetic permeability. The latter grows in

G. D. Degtyareva; V. L. Shvartsman

1974-01-01

57

Challenges facing the North American iron ore industry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the 20th century, the iron ore mining industries of Canada and the United States passed through several periods of transformation. The beginning of the 21st century has seen yet another period of transformation, with the economic failure of a number of steel companies, the acquisition of their facilities by more viable steelmakers, and the consolidation of control within the North American iron ore industry. Changes in Canadian and United States iron ore production and the market control structure involved are analysed. The consolidation of ownership, formation of foreign joint ventures within Nordi America, planned divestitures of upstream activities by steelmakers, and industry changes made to ensure availability of feedstocks will be reviewed. The ttaditional isolation of the Canadian and United States iron ore operations and their strong linkage to downstream steel production will be discussed in the context of a changing global economy. Management-labour conflicts that have taken place and agreements made during 2000 through 2004 will be discussed in the context of the economic environment leading up to these agreements. Cooperative agreements between competing Canadian and United States companies to resolve client needs in processing and blending will be examined. A joint industry-government project designed to use new technology to produce direct reduced iron nuggets of 96 - 98 per cent iron content using non-coking coals will also be assessed. Changes in iron ore transportation methods, ownership and infrastructure will be reviewed for both rail and inland waterway transport between Canadian and United States companies. A brief analysis of social and environmental issues relating to sustainable development of the Canadian-United States iron ore industry will be included.

Jorgenson, J.D.

2005-01-01

58

20 CFR 404.1084 - Gain or loss from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore; involuntary conversion. 404...property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore; involuntary conversion. (a...or loss; (3) From the disposal of iron ore mined in the United States,...

2010-04-01

59

Challenges facing the North American iron ore industry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Summary: This report is derived from a presentation the author presented in late September at the Iron Ore 2005 Conference sponsored by The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy and held in Fremantle, Western Australia. Some slight revisions have been made for the new audience.

Jorgenson, J.D.

2006-01-01

60

China's emergence as the world's leading iron-ore-consuming country  

USGS Publications Warehouse

China has become the leading iron ore consuming nation, and, based on recent steel production capacity increases and plans for more, its consumption will almost certainly to continue to grow. China's iron ore industry, however, faces a number of problems. China's iron ore is low-grade, expensive to process, and its mines are being depleted. For many Chinese steelmakers, particularly in the coastal regions, the delivered cost of domestic iron ore, is more than the delivered cost of foreign ore. Thus China's iron ore imports are expected to increase. As China's growth continues, it will almost certainly surpass Japan to become the leading iron ore importing country as well. Without China's increasing appetite for iron ore, the world iron ore market would be flat or declining. China's recent imports largely offset the slump in demand in North America and Europe. China is regarded by the iron ore industry as the growth sector for the next decade. Although Chinese imports are expected to continue their rapid increase and imports in other Asian countries are expected to continue growing, there appears to be enough greenfield and expansion projects to meet future demand for iron ore worldwide. Present suppliers of iron ore, Australia, Brazil, India, and South Africa, will probably be the chief beneficiaries of China's increasing consumption of iron ore. How long China can continue its extraordinary growth is the primary issue for the future of the iron ore industry. Based on the number and size of planned blast furnaces it appears that China's growth could continue for several more years. ?? 2004 Taylor and Francis.

Kirk, W.S.

2004-01-01

61

Synthesis of Fe-MCM-41 Using Iron Ore Tailings as the Silicon and Iron Source  

PubMed Central

Highly ordered Fe-MCM-41 molecular sieve was successfully synthesized by using n-hexadecyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as the template and the iron ore tailings (IOTs) as the silicon and iron source. X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectroscopy, 29Si magic-angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and nitrogen adsorption/desorption were used to characterize the samples. The results showed that the mesoporous materials had highly ordered 2-dimensional hexagonal structure. The synthesized sample had high surface area, and part of iron atoms is retained in the framework with formation of tetrahedron after removal of the template by calcinations. The results obtained in the present work demonstrate the feasibility of employing iron ore tailings as a potential source of silicon and iron to produce Fe-MCM-41 mesoporous materials. PMID:22567574

Li, Xin; Yu, Honghao; He, Yan; Xue, Xiangxin

2012-01-01

62

Thermally activated deformation. II. Deformation of sintered iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The atomic processes associated with the plastic deformation of commercial-quality sintered iron were investigated. Stress relaxation tests were carried out over the 17-19-kg mm-2 range of initial stress levels at room temperature. The experimental results were analyzed with the deformation kinetics theory discussed in Paper I. The analysis showed that the rate-controlling mechanism is associated with a system of two

T. O'd. Hanley; A. S. Krausz; N. Krishna

1974-01-01

63

Facies and sedimentation model of iron-ore sequence in Bakchar deposit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes the investigation in the behavior and structure features of the iron-ore sequence in Bakchar ore deposit. Five facies characterizing the typical sedimentation environments were identified based on the analysis of typomorphic attributes of ore-bearing and barren deposits. The facies where oolitic ores are localized have been determined. A conceptual sedimentation model of the Bakchar ore mineralization has been proposed. Two facies- littoral argillo-arenaceous ferriferous sediments and mobile shallow alluvium oolitics were proposed as prospecting indicators of oolite hydrogoethite ore deposits.

Rudmin, M.; Mazurov, A.; Ruban, A.

2015-02-01

64

Innovative methodology for comprehensive utilization of iron ore tailings: part 2: The residues after iron recovery from iron ore tailings to prepare cementitious material.  

PubMed

In order to comprehensive utilization of iron ore tailings, this experimental research was to investigate the possibility of using the residues after iron recovery from iron ore tailings as raw materials for the preparation of cementitious material, abbreviated as TSC, including analyses of its mechanical properties, physical properties and hydration products. The TSC1 was prepared by blending 30% the residues, 34% blast-furnace slag, 30% clinker and 6% gypsum. Meanwhile, the raw iron ore tailings (before iron recovery) with the same proportion of TSC1 were selected to compare the cementitious activity of raw tailings and the residues after magnetizing roasting, denoted by TSC0. The hydration products of them were mostly ettringite, calcium hydroxide and C-S-H gel, characterized by XRD, IR and SEM. It was found that ettringite and C-S-H gel were principally responsible for the strength development of TSC mortars with curing time. The results showed that the kaolinite of the tailings was decomposed completely after magnetizing roasting, which promoted the cementitious property of TSC1. Moreover, the mechanical properties of TSC1 are well comparable with those of 42.5 ordinary Portland cement according to Chinese GB175-2007 standard. PMID:19782471

Li, Chao; Sun, Henghu; Yi, Zhonglai; Li, Longtu

2010-02-15

65

Influence of porosity on fatigue cumulative damage of sintered iron  

SciTech Connect

Fatigue represents a common mechanical condition during service for materials used in structural components. This type of loading becomes particularly critical when alternating stress amplitude may be expected to vary, or change, in some way during the service life. Such variations and changes in load amplitude make the direct use of standard S-N curves inapplicable, because these curves are developed and presented for constant stress amplitude operation. In the present paper, results of cumulative damage under fatigue of porous materials are reported. The specimens used were produced by compacting and sintering iron powder. Their as-sintered porosity contents were P{sub 0} = 4.1 and 12.4%. Uniaxial fatigue tests (tensile-compression) were carried out at room temperature on a hydraulic testing machine.

Palma, E.S. [Federal Univ. of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1997-10-01

66

Influence of porosity on fatigue cumulative damage of sintered iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fatigue represents a common mechanical condition during service for materials used in structural components. This type of loading becomes particularly critical when alternating stress amplitude may be expected to vary, or change, in some way during the service life. Such variations and changes in load amplitude make the direct use of standard S-N curves inapplicable, because these curves are developed and presented for constant stress amplitude operation. In the present paper, results of cumulative damage under fatigue of porous materials are reported. The specimens used were produced by compacting and sintering iron powder. Their as-sintered porosity contents were P 0 = 4.1 and 12.4 %. Uniaxial fatigue tests (tensile-compression) were carried out at room temperature on a hydraulic testing machine.

Palma, E. S.

1997-10-01

67

Phosphorus retention capacity of iron-ore and blast furnace slag in subsurface flow constructed wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The suitability of iron-ore and blast furnace slag for subsurface flow (SSF) constructed wetlands was studied over a period of four months. Dairy farm wastewater,(TP 45 mg l,) was promoted,by predominantly anaerobic,conditions due to continuous formation of amorphous,ferrous hydroxides. None of the substrates had adverse affects on reed growth. Keywords Phosphorus retention; constructed wetlands; iron-ore; blast furnace slag; dairy

B. grüneberg; J. Kern

68

Integrated process for thermal cracking of heavy oil and reduction of iron ores  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum distillation residue oil having a conradson carbon value of 5 to 40% and a specific gravity of 0.9 to 1.10 is thermally cracked in the presence of iron ore particles in fluidized state in a thermal cracking reactor thereby to produce light oils and cracked gases and to form by-product carbon, which is caused to deposit on the iron ore particles, which are then transferred to and heated at 800 to 1200/sup 0/ C in a reducing furnace to be reduced in a solid state reaction, into sponge iron. Thus, heavy oil is thermally cracked and sponge iron is produced by an economical, integrated process.

Koizumi, K.; Miura, E.; Mori, K.; Nishida, R.

1982-06-15

69

Production of lightweight ceramisite from iron ore tailings and its performance investigation in a biological aerated filter (BAF) reactor.  

PubMed

The few reuse and large stockpile of iron ore tailings (IOT) led to a series of social and environmental problems. This study investigated the possibility of using the IOT as one of starting materials to prepare lightweight ceramisite (LWC) by a high temperature sintering process. Coal fly ash (CFA) and municipal sewage sludge (SS) were introduced as additives. The LWC was used to serve as a biomedium in a biological aerated filter (BAF) reactor for municipal wastewater treatment, and its purification performance was examined. The effects of sintering parameters on physical properties of the LWC, and leaching concentrations of heavy metals from the LWC were also determined. The microstructure and the phase composition of the LWC were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results revealed that: (1) IOT could be used to produce the LWC under the optimal sintering parameters; (2) the leaching concentrations of heavy metals from the LWC were well below their respective regulatory levels in the China Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water (CEQS); and (3) the BAF reactor with the LWC serving as the biomedium achieved high removal efficiencies for COD(Cr) (>92%), NH(4)(+)-N (>62%) and total phosphate (T-P) (>63%). Therefore, the LWC produced from the IOT was suitable to serve as the biomedium in the municipal wastewater treatment. PMID:20227178

Liu, Yangsheng; Du, Fang; Yuan, Li; Zeng, Hui; Kong, Sifang

2010-06-15

70

Relationship between polymerization degree and cementitious activity of iron ore tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to understand the relationship between the polymerization degree and cementitious activity of iron ore tailings. In light of the poor usage of iron ore tailings, stockpile samples from Tangshan were studied in terms of their ability to become cementitious materials. Compound thermal activation was used to improve the cementitious properties of the tailings, while analyzing methods, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), were employed to study the changes in phase and structure under different activation conditions. The results reveal clear relationships between the binding energies of Si2p and O1s, polymerization degree, and cementitious activity of iron ore tailings.

Yi, Zhong-Lai; Sun, Heng-Hu; Li, Chao; Sun, Yin-Ming; Li, Yu

2010-02-01

71

Environmental Mineralogy of the Kursk Iron Ore Deposit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of new technologies is one of the most effective ways to solve environmental problems related to ore-dressing. Complex mineralogical investigations are able to help in improving this process. In collaboration with researchers from the IPKON institute, we have developed an electrochemical method to improve the properties of crushed ores prepared for the wet magnetic separation. This article studies the samples before and after application of the electrochemical method. Surfaces of mineral grains investigated by the scanning electron microscopy show differences in flocculation. Measured polarization curves showed unequal electrochemical processes on surfaces of magnetite, hematite, and martite particles. X-ray analysis and Mössbauer data also confirmed the changes in compositions of the ores before and after using the electrochemical method. Magnetic properties of the studied species to be compared before and after the application of method showed relevant increase in parameters such as magnetic viscosity (Svo), breaking saturation field (Hcr), magnetic susceptibility (?), and specific magnetization (Is).

Posukhova, Tatiana V.; Riakhovskaya, Sofiya K.

72

Genesis of iron-apatite ores in Posht-e-Badam Block (Central Iran) using REE geochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare earth elements in apatites of different ore types show characteristic patterns which are related to different modes of formation of the ores. Most of the apatite-bearing iron ores are associated with alkaline magmas with LREE/HREE fractionation varying from moderate to steep. Iron-apatite deposits in Posht-e-Badam Block (Central Iran) have a high concentration of REE (more than 1000 ppm up to 2.5%), and show a strong LREE/HREE ratio with a pronounced negative Eu anomaly. This REE pattern is typical of magmatic apatite and quiet distinct from sedimentary apatites (phosphorites) which have a low REE contents and Ce negative anomalies. On the other hand, they are comparable to the REE patterns of apatites in Kiruna-type iron ores in different parts of the world. The REE patterns of apatites, iron-apatite ores and iron ores are similar and only have different REE contents. This similarity indicates a genetic relation for these rocks. Most of the iron-apatite deposits in Central Iran have similar REE patterns too, which in turn show a genetic relation for all of these deposits. This similarity indicates a similar origin and processes in their genesis. There are some small intrusions around some of the iron-apatite deposits that are petrographically identified as syenite and gabbro. These intrusions also have REE patterns similar to that of iron-apatite ores. This demonstrates a genetic relation between these intrusions and iron-apatite ores. The REE patterns of apatites in different deposits of Posht-e-Badam Block iron-apatite ores show an affinity to alkaline to sub-alkaline magmas and rifting environment. The alkaline host rocks of Central Iran iron-apatite ores are clearly related to an extensional setting where rifting was important (SSE-NNW fault lines). A probable source for this large scale ore forming processes is relatively low partial melting of mantle rocks. The ores have originated by magmatic differentiation as a late phase in the volcanic cycle forming sub-surface injections or surface flows. These ores have formed during magmatism as immiscible liquids (silicate and Fe-P-rich magmatic liquids) which separated from strongly differentiated magmas aided by a large volatile and alkali element content. Separation of an iron oxide melt and the ensuing hydrothermal processes dominated by alkali metasomatism were both involved to different degrees in the formation of Posht-e-Badam Block iron-apatite deposits. We proposed that the separation of an iron oxide melt and the ensuing hydrothermal processes dominated by alkali metasomatism were both involved to different degrees in the formation of Posht-e-Badam Block iron-apatite deposits.

Mokhtari, Mir Ali Asghar; Zadeh, Ghader Hossein; Emami, Mohamad Hashem

2013-06-01

73

Ferrous iron oxidation and leaching of copper ore with halotolerant bacteria in ore columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth on ferrous iron of a new isolate of the acidophile Thiobacillus prosperus occurred with a substrate oxidation rate similar to that of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. As well as similar capacities for iron oxidation, these species were shown to possess similar, but not identical, clusters of genes (the rus operon) that encode proteins likely to be involved in transfer of electrons

Carol S. Davis-Belmar; James Le C. Nicolle; Paul R. Norris

2008-01-01

74

Method for the production of mineral wool and iron from serpentine ore  

DOEpatents

Magnesium silicate mineral wools having a relatively high liquidus temperature of at least about 1400.degree. C. and to methods for the production thereof are provided. The methods of the present invention comprise melting a magnesium silicate feedstock (e.g., comprising a serpentine or olivine ore) having a liquidus temperature of at least about 1400.degree. C. to form a molten magnesium silicate, and subsequently fiberizing the molten magnesium silicate to produce a magnesium silicate mineral wool. In one embodiment, the magnesium silicate feedstock contains iron oxide (e.g., up to about 12% by weight). Preferably, the melting is performed in the presence of a reducing agent to produce an iron alloy, which can be separated from the molten ore. Useful magnesium silicate feedstocks include, without limitation, serpentine and olivine ores. Optionally, silicon dioxide can be added to the feedstock to lower the liquidus temperature thereof.

O'Connor, William K. (Albany, OR); Rush, Gilbert E. (Scio, OR); Soltau, Glen F. (Lebanon, OR)

2011-10-11

75

Rare view into iron-ore melting furnace with inflow pellets during inspection cycle (Corus).  

E-print Network

· Rare view into iron-ore melting furnace with inflow pellets during inspection cycle (Corus). #12 ("the Rhine") and floating granular material suggests initial simplification: · What flow regimes emerge · glass beads: inelastic, diameter: S0) d [.5, .6]mm, S) [.28, .42]mm, M) [.4, .6]mm, L) [.75, 1]mm

Al Hanbali, Ahmad

76

Rare view into iron-ore melting furnace with inflow pellets during inspection cycle (Corus).  

E-print Network

· Rare view into iron-ore melting furnace with inflow pellets during inspection cycle (Corus). #12 of dam and lake formation and its collapse? · Complexity of carrier fluid ("the Rhine") and floating = 13cm wide, 2m long, inclination , = 15o ­35o · glass beads: inelastic, diameter: S0) d [.5, .6]mm

Al Hanbali, Ahmad

77

Origin of swelling in gaseous reduction of iron-bearing ores  

SciTech Connect

Abnormal swelling due to profuse metal-whisker formation was found during CO-CO/sub 2/ reduction of iron-bearing ores. Dense, polycrystalline cobalt ferrite was reduced at 900/sup 0/C to explore the basic mechanism of the whisker formation. Various effects on the whisker formation, such as reaction conditions, initial oxide phase, and impurity species, have been clarified.

Chang, M.

1983-03-01

78

26 CFR 1.272-1 - Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...flood control, legal and technical expenses, and expenses of measuring and checking quantities of coal or iron ore disposed of under...interest therein will depend upon the use to which the borrowed monies are put. (2) Any expenditure referred to in...

2010-04-01

79

The effect of copper on iron reduction and its application to the determination of total iron content in iron and copper ores by potassium dichromate titration.  

PubMed

The International Standard Organization (ISO) specifies two titrimetric methods for the determination of total iron content in iron ores using potassium dichromate as titrant after reduction of the iron(III) by tin(II) chloride and/or titanium(III) chloride. These two ISO methods (ISO2597-1 and ISO2597-2) require nearly boiling-point temperature for iron(III) reduction and suffer from copper interference and/or mercury pollution. In this study, potassium borohydride was used for reduction of iron(III) catalyzed by copper ions at ambient temperatures. In the absence of copper, iron(III) reduction by potassium borohydride was sluggish while a trace amount of copper significantly accelerated the reduction and reduced potassium borohydride consumption. The catalytic mechanism of iron(III) reduction in sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid was investigated. Potassium borohydride in sodium hydroxide solution was stable without a significant degradation within 24h at ambient conditions and the use of potassium borohydride prepared in sodium hydroxide solution was safe and convenient in routine applications. The applicability of potassium borohydride reduction for the determination of total iron content by potassium dichromate titration was demonstrated by comparing with the ISO standard method using iron and copper ore reference materials and iron ore samples. PMID:24840467

Hu, Hanjun; Tang, Yang; Ying, Haisong; Wang, Minghai; Wan, Pingyu; Jin Yang, X

2014-07-01

80

Optimization model coupling both chemical compositions and high-temperature characteristics of sintering materials for sintering burden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a mathematical optimization model coupling chemical compositions and high-temperature characteristics of sintering materials, targeting the best quality and lowest cost. The simplex algorithm was adopted to solve this model. Four kinds of imported iron ores, two kinds of Chinese iron ore concentrates, and two kinds of fluxes were selected to verify both the model and the algorithm. The results confirmed the possibility of considering both chemical compositions and high-temperature characteristics of iron ores in the optimization model. This model provides a technical roadmap to obtain a precise mathematical correlation between the lowest cost and the grade of iron in sinters based on the condition of given raw materials, which can provide a reference to adjust the grade of iron in the sintering process for enterprise.

Li, Ke-jiang; Zhang, Jian-liang; Liu, Zheng-jian; Su, Bu-xin; Kong, Ling-tan; Yang, Tian-jun

2014-03-01

81

Utilization of Coke Oven Gas and Converter Gas in the Direct Reduction of Lump Iron Ore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of off-gases from the integrated steel plant for the direct reduction of lump iron ore could decrease not only the total production cost but also the energy consumption and CO2 emissions. The current study investigates the efficiency of reformed coke oven gas (RCOG), original coke oven gas (OCOG), and coke oven gas/basic oxygen furnace gas mixtures (RCOG/BOFG and OCOG/BOFG) in the direct reduction of lump iron ore. The results were compared to that of reformed natural gas (RNG), which is already applied in the commercial direct reduction processes. The reduction of lump ore was carried out at temperatures in the range of 1073 K to 1323 K (800 °C to 1050 °C) to simulate the reduction zone in direct reduction processes. Reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis were used to characterize the microstructure and the developed phases in the original and reduced lump iron ore. The rate-controlling mechanism of the reduced lump ore was predicted from the calculation of apparent activation energy and the examination of microstructure. At 1073 K to 1323 K (800 °C to 1050 °C), the reduction rate of lump ore was the highest in RCOG followed by OCOG. The reduction rate was found to decrease in the order RCOG > OCOG > RNG > OCOG-BOF > RCOG-BOFG at temperatures 1173 K to 1323 K (900 °C to 1050 °C). The developed fayalite (Fe2SiO4), which resulted from the reaction between wüstite and silica, had a significant effect on the reduction process. The reduction rate was increased as H2 content in the applied gas mixtures increased. The rate-determining step was mainly interfacial chemical reaction with limitation by gaseous diffusion at both initial (20 pct reduction) and moderate (60 pct reduction) stages of reduction. The solid-state diffusion mechanism affected the reduction rate only at moderate stages of reduction.

Mousa, Elsayed Abdelhady; Babich, Alexander; Senk, Dieter

2014-04-01

82

Reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore: Effect of the iron removal operation on solid waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

The process of reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore is aimed at the extraction of manganese from low grade manganese ores. This work is focused on the iron removal operation. The following items have been considered in order to investigate the effect of the main operating conditions on solid waste disposal and on the process costs: (i) type and quantity of the base agent used for iron precipitation, (ii) effective need of leaching waste separation prior to the iron removal operation, (iii) presence of a second leaching stage with the roasted ore, which might also act as a preliminary iron removal step, and (iv) effect of tailings washing on the solid waste classification. Different base compounds have been tested, including CaO, CaCO{sub 3}, NaOH, and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The latter gave the best results concerning both the precipitation process kinetics and the reagent consumption. The filtration of the liquor leach prior to iron removal was not necessary, implying significant savings in capital costs. A reduction of chemical consumption and an increase of manganese concentration in the solution were obtained by introducing secondary leaching tests with the previously roasted ore; this additional step was introduced without a significant decrease of global manganese extraction yield. Finally, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests carried out on the leaching solid waste showed: (i) a reduction of arsenic mobility in the presence of iron precipitates, and (ii) the need for a washing step in order to produce a waste that is classifiable as not dangerous, taking into consideration the existing Environmental National Laws.

De Michelis, Ida; Ferella, Francesco [University of L'Aquila, Department of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials, Monteluco di Roio, 67040 L'Aquila (Italy); Beolchini, Francesca [Polytechnic University of Marche, Department of Marine Sciences, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)], E-mail: f.beolchini@univpm.it; Veglio, Francesco [University of L'Aquila, Department of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials, Monteluco di Roio, 67040 L'Aquila (Italy)

2009-01-15

83

Determination of titanium and iron in ilmenite ores by cerate titrimetry  

E-print Network

-0. 25 gram sample of most ilmenite ores. If platinum or palladium flasks are available, then the addition of a small amount of sodium fluoride will aid the attack of the silica-containing ores by the potassium bisulfate. One gram of boric acid should... Company and National Lead Company were fused with potassium bisulfate and the melt extracted with dilute sulfuric acid. The solutions containing titanium(IV) and iron(III) ious were reduced with aluminum foil or liquid sine amalgam in a simple apparatus...

Gainer, Alvis Beryl

1959-01-01

84

Closed system Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over meteoritic iron, iron ore and nickel-iron alloy. [deuterium-carbon monoxide reaction catalysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments were performed in which meteoritic iron, iron ore and nickel-iron alloy were used to catalyze (in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) the reaction of deuterium and carbon monoxide in a closed vessel. Normal alkanes and alkenes and their monomethyl substituted isomers and aromatic hydrocarbons were synthesized. Iron oxide and oxidized-reduced Canyon Diablo used as Fischer-Tropsch catalysts were found to produce aromatic hydrocarbons in distributions having many of the features of those observed in carbonaceous chondrites, but only at temperatures and reaction times well above 300 C and 6-8 h.

Nooner, D. W.; Gibert, J. M.; Gelpi, E.; Oro, J.

1976-01-01

85

Processing and Analysis of Hyperspectral Fingerprints to Characterise Haematite of Singbhum Iron Ore Belt, Orissa, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The demand for iron ore has been increasing in the recent years, thereby requiring the adoption of fast and accurate approaches to iron ore exploration and its grade-assessment. It is in this context that hyperspectral sensing is deemed as a potential tool. This paper examines the potential of hyperspectral fingerprints in the visible, NIR and SWIR regions of the EMR to assess the grades of haematite of the western Singhbhum iron ore belt of Orissa, eastern India, in a rapid manner. Certain spectro-radiometric measurements and geochemical analysis were carried out and the results have been presented. From the spectral measurements, it is seen that the strength of reflectance and absorption at definite wavelength regions is controlled by the chemical composit ion of the iron ores. It is observed that the primary spectral characteristics of these haematites lie in the 650-750 nm, 850 to 900 nm and 2130-2230 nm regions. The laboratory based hyperspectral fingerprints and multiple regression analysis of spectral parameters and geochemical parameters (Fe% and Al2O3%) predicted the concentration of iron and alumina content in the haematite. A very strong correlation (R2 = 0.96) between the spectral parameters and Fe% in the haematite with a minimum error of 0.1%, maximum error of 7.4% and average error of 2.6% is observed. Similarly, a very strong correlation (R2 = 0.94) between the spectral parameters and Al2O3% in the iron ores with a minimum error of 0.04%, maximum error of 7.49% and average error of 2.5% is observed. This error is perhaps due to the presence of other components (SiO2, TiO2, P2O etc.) in the samples which can alter the degree of reflectance and hence the spectral parameters. Neural network based multi-layer perception (MLP) analysis of various spectral parameters and geochemical parameters helped to understand the relative importance of the spectral parameters for predictive models. The strong correlations (Iron: R2 = 0.96; Alumina: R2 = 0.94) indicate that the laboratory hyperspectral signatures in the visible, NIR and SWIR regions can give a better estimate of the grades of haematite in a rapid manner.

Magendran, T.; Sanjeevi, S.

2014-12-01

86

EVALUATION OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES FOR ATMOSPHERIC EMISSIONS FROM SINTERING IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Tests were conducted at two sintering plants of the Iron and Steel Industry to evaluate a test method under consideration by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In field tests, four modified Method 5 sampling trains, operating simultaneously at a single point in the stack, ...

87

POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME II. SINTERING, MANUAL OF PRACTICE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

88

Coronas in olivine gabbros and iron ores from Susimäki and Riuttamaa, Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coronas have been studied by petrographie and microprobe techniques in metamorphosed olivine gabbros and associated iron ores\\u000a from Susimäki and Riuttamaa in Southwest Finland. Three types of coronas are distinguished occurring between the following\\u000a primary minerals: (1) olivine-plagioclase, (2) opaque oxides-plagioclase, (3) opaque oxides-clinopy-roxene. Secondary corona\\u000a minerals are, in order of decreasing abundance, hornblende, orthopyroxene, spinel, olivine, ilmenite, and magnetite.

Hans van Lamoen

1979-01-01

89

Dinas articles with additions of tailings from iron-ore beneficiation factories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dump railings are finely dispersed powders, gray and dark gray in color, consisting mainly of quartz, carbonates and iron-ore minerals. The refractoriness of the tailings is 1440-1500~ In the Southern plant railings carbonates (47-53%)# are present in the form of grains measuring from 0i004 to 0.2, mainly 0.02-0~O6 mm. The grains are angular, partly idiomorphic, rhombohedral and have variable

N. V. Pitak; L. N. Turchinova; S. N. Romanenko; V. L. Bulakh; Z. D. Zhukova; N. M. Danil'chenko; T. P. Pushko

1988-01-01

90

Magmatic origin of giant ‘Kiruna-type’ apatite-iron-oxide ores in Central Sweden  

PubMed Central

Iron is the most important metal for modern industry and Sweden is by far the largest iron-producer in Europe, yet the genesis of Sweden's main iron-source, the ‘Kiruna-type’ apatite-iron-oxide ores, remains enigmatic. We show that magnetites from the largest central Swedish ‘Kiruna-type’ deposit at Grängesberg have ?18O values between ?0.4 and +3.7‰, while the 1.90?1.88?Ga meta-volcanic host rocks have ?18O values between +4.9 and +9‰. Over 90% of the magnetite data are consistent with direct precipitation from intermediate to felsic magmas or magmatic fluids at high-temperature (?18Omgt > +0.9‰, i.e. ortho-magmatic). A smaller group of magnetites (?18Omgt ? +0.9‰), in turn, equilibrated with high-?18O, likely meteoric, hydrothermal fluids at low temperatures. The central Swedish ‘Kiruna-type’ ores thus formed dominantly through magmatic iron-oxide precipitation within a larger volcanic superstructure, while local hydrothermal activity resulted from low-temperature fluid circulation in the shallower parts of this system. PMID:23571605

Jonsson, Erik; Troll, Valentin R.; Högdahl, Karin; Harris, Chris; Weis, Franz; Nilsson, Katarina P.; Skelton, Alasdair

2013-01-01

91

Magmatic origin of giant 'Kiruna-type' apatite-iron-oxide ores in central Sweden.  

PubMed

Iron is the most important metal for modern industry and Sweden is by far the largest iron-producer in Europe, yet the genesis of Sweden's main iron-source, the 'Kiruna-type' apatite-iron-oxide ores, remains enigmatic. We show that magnetites from the largest central Swedish 'Kiruna-type' deposit at Grängesberg have ?(18)O values between -0.4 and +3.7‰, while the 1.90-1.88?Ga meta-volcanic host rocks have ?(18)O values between +4.9 and +9‰. Over 90% of the magnetite data are consistent with direct precipitation from intermediate to felsic magmas or magmatic fluids at high-temperature (?(18)Omgt > +0.9‰, i.e. ortho-magmatic). A smaller group of magnetites (?(18)Omgt ? +0.9‰), in turn, equilibrated with high-?(18)O, likely meteoric, hydrothermal fluids at low temperatures. The central Swedish 'Kiruna-type' ores thus formed dominantly through magmatic iron-oxide precipitation within a larger volcanic superstructure, while local hydrothermal activity resulted from low-temperature fluid circulation in the shallower parts of this system. PMID:23571605

Jonsson, Erik; Troll, Valentin R; Högdahl, Karin; Harris, Chris; Weis, Franz; Nilsson, Katarina P; Skelton, Alasdair

2013-01-01

92

Sulphur isotopes in Lower Proterozoic iron and sulphide ores in northern Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present investigation deals with sulphur isotope distribution in Lower Proterozoic iron and sulphide mineralizations in northern Sweden. The contrasting sulphur isotope patterns are indicative of different genesis. Some 267 sulphur isotope analyses of pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena and bornite from 23 occurrences have been performed. Some deposits exhibit uniform compositions, although the mean ? 34S values are clearly different, while other mineralizations have widely fluctuating values. The ? 34S values in syngenetic, exhalative sedimentary skarn iron ores, quartz-banded iron ores and sulphide mineralizations of the 2.0 2.5 Ga old (Lapponian) Greenstone group show a large spread, supporting the existence of bacteriogenic sulphate reduction processes. The spread of the sulphur isotope values ( ? 34S = -8 to +25‰), and the non-equilibrium conditions, point to a biogenic rather than to an inorganic reduction of seawater sulphate. The isotopic composition of the sulphides in the epigenetic Lannavaara iron ores which were formed by a hydrothermal scapolite-tourmalme-related process, indicates a sulphur source similar to that of the Greenstone group. The ? 34S values of Cu-(Au) sulphide mineralizations in the Malmberget region (e.g. Aitik), which were formed by a similar process and hosted by the volcanics-volcanoclastics of the 1.9 Ga old Porphyry group, are slightly below zero ‰, indicating a magmatic origin. The existence of different sulphur compositions for these mineralization types formed by a similar hydrothermal process, probably reflects the influence of the host rock, the solutions leaching pre-existing sulphides. In southern Norrbotten, epigenetic, Cu-Zn-Pb veintype mineralizations in metavolcanics and metasediments have ? 34S values close to zero ‰ indicating a magmatic origin. The sulphur isotope data of the volcanogenic, massive sulphide ores of the Skellefte district, in particular the ores of the Adak dome, are close to zero ‰. The lead and sulphur isotopic features of the sulphides in northern Sweden show that the ore-forming processes were of a different nature on both sides of the Archean-Proterozoic border, implying differences in the crustal development. Lead isotopes show that lead was mobilized from specific sources on each side of the border. The sulphur of the sulphides in the Greenstone group in NE Sweden and Finland was introduced by sedimentary processes, whereas the sulphur of the sulphide occurrences towards the SW, mainly in the Porphyry group, is dominated by a magmatic sulphur component.

Frietsch, R.; Billström, K.; Perdahl, J. A.

1995-06-01

93

26 CFR 1.631-3 - Gain or loss upon the disposal of coal or domestic iron ore with a retained economic interest.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Gain or loss upon the disposal of coal or domestic iron ore with a retained economic...631-3 Gain or loss upon the disposal of coal or domestic iron ore with a retained economic...c) apply to an owner who disposes of coal (including lignite), or iron...

2010-04-01

94

40 CFR 420.20 - Applicability; description of the sintering subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...sintering operations conducted by the heating of iron bearing wastes (mill scale and dust from...steelmaking furnaces) together with fine iron ore, limestone, and coke fines in an...

2013-07-01

95

40 CFR 420.20 - Applicability; description of the sintering subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...sintering operations conducted by the heating of iron bearing wastes (mill scale and dust from...steelmaking furnaces) together with fine iron ore, limestone, and coke fines in an...

2011-07-01

96

40 CFR 420.20 - Applicability; description of the sintering subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...sintering operations conducted by the heating of iron bearing wastes (mill scale and dust from...steelmaking furnaces) together with fine iron ore, limestone, and coke fines in an...

2014-07-01

97

40 CFR 420.20 - Applicability; description of the sintering subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...sintering operations conducted by the heating of iron bearing wastes (mill scale and dust from...steelmaking furnaces) together with fine iron ore, limestone, and coke fines in an...

2012-07-01

98

40 CFR 420.20 - Applicability; description of the sintering subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...sintering operations conducted by the heating of iron bearing wastes (mill scale and dust from...steelmaking furnaces) together with fine iron ore, limestone, and coke fines in an...

2010-07-01

99

Chelatometric determination of calcium and magnesium in iron ores, slags, anorthosite, limestone, copper-nickel-lead-zinc ores and divers materials.  

PubMed

Chelatometric methods for the determination of calcium and magnesium in iron ores, slags, anorthosite, copper-nickel-lead-zinc ores and various other materials are described. Potential interfering elements are masked with triethanolamine and potassium cyanide. In one aliquot calcium is titrated at pH > 12, with calcein and thymolphthalein mixed indicator and in another aliquot calcium and magnesium are titrated in ammonia buffer, with o-cresolphthalein complexone screened with Naphthol Green B as indicator. The results compare favourably with certified values for reference materials of diverse nature. PMID:18962661

Hitchen, A; Zechanowitsch, G

1980-03-01

100

Carbothermic Reduction of Nickeliferous Laterite Ores for Nickel Pig Iron Production in China: A Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both the consumption and production of crude stainless steel in China rank first in the world. In 2011, the nickel production in China amounted to 446 kilotons, with the proportion of electrolytic nickel and nickel pig iron (NPI) registering 41.5% and 56.5%, respectively. NPI is a low-cost feedstock for stainless steel production when used as a substitute for electrolytic nickel. The existing commercial NPI production processes such as blast furnace smelting, rotary kiln-electric furnace smelting, and Krupp-Renn (Nipon Yakin Oheyama) processes are discussed. As low-temperature (below 1300°C) reduction of nickeliferous laterite ores followed by magnetic separation could provide an alternative avenue without smelting at high temperature (~1500°C) for producing ferronickel with low cost, the fundamentals and recent developments of the low-temperature reduction of nickeliferous laterite ores are reviewed.

Rao, Mingjun; Li, Guanghui; Jiang, Tao; Luo, Jun; Zhang, Yuanbo; Fan, Xiaohui

2013-11-01

101

Kinetics of chloridization of nickel-bearing lateritic iron ore by hydrogen chloride gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The selective chloridization of nickel in a lateritic iron ore by gaseous HCl is based on the principle of relative thermal stability of iron and nickel chlorides. This aspect has been discussed with differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetric (TG) data of the hydrated chlorides of iron and nickel. The kinetics of chloridization of nickel in a lateritic nickel ore from Orissa, India, have been studied by using both pure HCl (g) and the HCl (g) + N2 mixture. The sharp decrease in the rate of chloridization of nickel at temperatures above 250 °C is attributed to the rapid decomposition of molten ferric chloride hydrate (FeCl3 · 3H2O), which blocks the pores of the reactant solid. Therefore, kinetics of chloridization follow both the pore-blocking model (logarithmic rate law) and diffusion-controlled mechanisms. Very low values of apparent activation energy and effective diffusivity derived from the rate constants of the diffusion-controlled process suggest that diffusion of HCl (g) takes place either in a dissolved state in the molten ferric chloride (at 100 °C to 150 °C) or through cracks and fissures formed on the surface due to rapid decomposition of ferric chloride at 200 °C to 250 °C. Because of the complexity of the reaction system, the rate of chloridization of nickel is almost independent of grain size.

Kanungo, S. B.; Mishra, S. K.

1997-06-01

102

On the influence of porosity on the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect in sintered iron  

SciTech Connect

Sintered irons of four different porosities were strained in tension at temperatures between 295 (room temperature) and 873 K. Serrated stress-strain curves and high work hardening in the temperature range from 333 to 693 K, for all porosities, were characteristic of dynamic strain aging. The activation energy for the onset of serration was {+-}0.82 eV and was independent of porosity. On the contrary, the parameter {beta} from the relation for dislocation density increased with increasing porosity.

Palma, E.S. [UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

1996-10-01

103

Magnetic properties of sintered iron-silicon alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.A study was made of the magnetic properties of specimens from an iron-silicon powder prepared by the method of impregnation from point sources.2.Using this process, it is possible to produce, at relatively low temperatures (800–1000°C) and short treatment durations (3–4 h), homogeneous alloy powders in which the silicon is present in the form of ana solid solution.3.It is shown that

I. D. Radomysel'skii; O. A. Panasyuk; A. B. Mirzoyan

1973-01-01

104

Effect of copper and graphite addition on sinterability of iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

In ferrous powder metallurgy, copper and graphite are used as common alloying elements. Copper melts at low temperature compared\\u000a to iron and forms liquid which promote interparticle bond formation. However, it also results in compact swelling. To negate\\u000a this, graphite is used as an additive. This study examines the influence of copper and graphite addition on the densification,\\u000a dimensional changes,

Felege Nekatibeb; A. Raja Annamalai; Anish Upadhyaya

2011-01-01

105

Pressurized chemical-looping combustion of coal with an iron ore-based oxygen carrier  

SciTech Connect

Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a new combustion technology with inherent separation of CO{sub 2}. Most of the previous investigations on CLC of solid fuels were conducted under atmospheric pressure. A pressurized CLC combined cycle (PCLC-CC) system is proposed as a promising coal combustion technology with potential higher system efficiency, higher fuel conversion, and lower cost for CO{sub 2} sequestration. In this study pressurized CLC of coal with Companhia Valedo Rio Doce (CVRD) iron ore was investigated in a laboratory fixed bed reactor. CVRD iron ore particles were exposed alternately to reduction by 0.4 g of Chinese Xuzhou bituminous coal gasified with 87.2% steam/N{sub 2} mixture and oxidation with 5% O{sub 2} in N{sub 2} at 970 C. The operating pressure was varied between 0.1 MPa and 0.6 MPa. First, control experiments of steam coal gasification over quartz sand were performed. H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} are the major components of the gasification products, and the operating pressure influences the gas composition. Higher concentrations of CO{sub 2} and lower fractions of CO, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2} during the reduction process with CVRD iron ore was achieved under higher pressures. The effects of pressure on the coal gasification rate in the presence of the oxygen carrier were different for pyrolysis and char gasification. The pressurized condition suppresses the initial coal pyrolysis process while it also enhances coal char gasification and reduction with iron ore in steam, and thus improves the overall reaction rate of CLC. The oxidation rates and variation of oxygen carrier conversion are higher at elevated pressures reflecting higher reduction level in the previous reduction period. Scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) analyses show that particles become porous after experiments but maintain structure and size after several cycles. Agglomeration was not observed in this study. An EDX analysis demonstrates that there is very little coal ash deposited on the oxygen carrier particles but no appreciable crystalline phases change as verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Overall, the limited pressurized CLC experiments carried out in the present work suggest that PCLC of coal is promising and further investigations are necessary. (author)

Xiao, Rui; Song, Min; Zhang, Shuai; Shen, Laihong [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Sipailou No. 2, Nanjing 210096 (China); Song, Qilei [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Sipailou No. 2, Nanjing 210096 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Lu, Zuoji [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Sipailou No. 2, Nanjing 210096 (China); GCL Engineering Limited, Zhujiang No. 1, Nanjing 210008 (China)

2010-06-15

106

Stabilization of chromium ore processing residue (COPR) with nanoscale iron particles.  

PubMed

Laboratory batch experiments were conducted on heavily contaminated groundwater and chromium ore processing residue (COPR) samples to determine the rate and extent of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] reduction and immobilization by nanoscale iron particles. Laboratory synthesized nanoscale iron particles (<100 nm, specific surface area 35 m(2)/g) were used for this work. Groundwater ([Cr(VI)]=42.83 +/- 0.52 mg/L, pH 11.0+/-0.5) and COPR samples ([Cr(VI)] = 3280 +/- 90 mg/kg) were collected from an industrial site in New Jersey. Cr(VI) in the water and COPR samples was quickly reduced and precipitated out of the aqueous solution. The surface area normalized reaction rate constant of Cr(VI) reduction by nanoscale iron particles was 0.157 +/- 0.018 mg m(-2) min(-1), about 25 times greater than that by iron powders (100 mesh). One gram of nanoparticles can reduce 84.4-109.3mg Cr(VI) in the groundwater and 69.3-72.7 mg Cr(VI) in the COPR. This reduction capacity is 50-70 times greater than that of iron powders under the same experimental conditions. PMID:16621279

Cao, Jiasheng; Zhang, Wei-Xian

2006-05-20

107

Mineralogical and Beneficiation Studies of a Low Grade Iron Ore Sample  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations were carried out, to establish its amenability for physical beneficiation on a low grade siliceous iron ore sample by magnetic separation. Mineralogical studies, with the help of microscope as well as XRD, SEM-EDS revealed that the sample consists of magnetite, hematite and goethite as major opaque oxide minerals where as quartz and kaolinite form the gangue minerals in the sample. Processes involving combination of classification, dry magnetic separation and wet magnetic separation were carried out to upgrade the low grade siliceous iron ore sample to make it suitable as a marketable product. The sample was first ground and each closed size sieve fractions were subjected to dry magnetic separation and it was observed that limited upgradation is possible. The ground sample was subjected to different finer sizes and separated by wet low intensity magnetic separator. Dry beneficiation studies by Permaroll separator indicated that it is possible to get a product with 60.2 % Fe at 22 % weight recovery. It is possible to get an over all concentrate with 54 % Fe at 32.4 % weight recovery by combination of size reduction followed by LIMS and WHIMS.

Dwari, R. K.; Rao, D. S.; Reddy, P. S. R.

2014-10-01

108

Are metal mining effluent regulations adequate: identification of a novel bleached fish syndrome in association with iron-ore mining effluents in Labrador, Newfoundland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality guidelines for industrial effluents are in place in many countries but they have generally evolved within a limited ecotoxicological framework. Effluents from iron-ore mines have traditionally been viewed by regulatory bodies as posing little or no risk to the aquatic environment. However, it was recently reported that lake trout taken from a large iron-ore contaminated Lake in Labrador

J. F. Payne; D. Hamoutene; P. Yeats; A. Rahimtula; D. Scruton; C. Andrews

2001-01-01

109

Palaeoproterozoic metavolcanic and metasedimentary succession hosting the Dannemora iron ore deposits, Bergslagen region, Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dannemora inlier constitutes some of the best preserved primary structures and textures in the metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks in the Bergslagen region. The aim for this study was to define and interpret the primary textures and deposition environment to obtain a better understanding of the palaeoenvironment in which the Dannemora iron ore deposit formed. In addition, the region has been subjected to at least two fold episodes therefore the establishment of stratigraphy and younging directions were crucial for structural interpretations. The Bergslagen region, located in the south-central Sweden, represents a back-arc setting active c. 1.9 Ga and consisted of numerous large calderas, that accommodated pyroclastic deposits of great thicknesses. The Dannemora inlier is composed of the supracrustal the Dannemora Formation, which is dominated by of metavolcanic rocks and subordinated by marble. The succession is 700-800 m and is divided into a lower and an upper member. The latter hosts the second largest iron ore deposit in the Bergslagen region. The ore is hosted by manganiferous skarn and dolomitic carbonate (marble) and is situated within uppermost part of the upper member positioned in an isoclinal syncline. From reflection seismic imaging and 3-D processing, the ore has been interpreted to reach depths of c. 2000 m. The presence of an anticline west of the ore bearing syncline is suggested by the geochemical similarities of rock units. Undisturbed layers of ash-siltstone with normal grading and fluid-escape structures, units of pyroclastic density currents and ash-fall in the eastern part of the Dannemora inlier indicate subaqueous deposition below wave base of the upper member. Reworking of the volcaniclastic deposits is evident in e.g. channels and cross-bedding, on the other hand, implies deposition above wave base of the upper member in the central part of Dannemora inlier. The thickness of the marble in the eastern part is c. 80 m and in the central part the < 20 m, and the magnetic anomaly is greater in the former compare to the latter. The Dannemora Formation consists mainly of ignimbrites and ash-fall deposits, and their pyroclastic origin is evident in characteristic textures e.g. fragmented crystals of mainly quartz, pumice clasts, cuspate and Y-shaped former glass shards. The presence of feldspar replaced pumice clasts, in the lower member, indicates deposition at high temperature. But, the scattered and scarcity of spherulites and lack of welding-compacted fiamme is interpreted as only slightly welding of the ignimbrites. The sericite-replaced glass shards with preserved primary shapes indicate that the upper member was not welded. Scattered epidote spots in the metavolcanic rocks were previously interpreted as altered limestone clasts and consequent subaquatic deposition. But as the matrix of their host rock and the "clasts" has similar textures, they were probably selectively altered, epidote-rich spots related to the intrusions of basaltic dykes. We conclude that the pronounced positive magnetic anomaly and the thicker marble in the eastern part of the Dannemora inlier supports an interpretation of increased amount of iron ore in the eastern compared to the central part.

Dahlin, P.

2012-04-01

110

Field responses to added organic matter, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and fertilizer in reclamation of taconite iron ore tailing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three season study was conducted to determine the effect of added composted yard waste, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and fertilizer on plant cover, standing crop biomass, species composition, AM fungal infectivity and spore density in coarse taconite iron ore tailing plots seeded with a mixture of native prairie grasses. Plant cover and biomass, percent seeded species, mycorrhizal infectivity and

Robert K. Noyd; F. L. Pfleger; Michael R. Norland

1996-01-01

111

COMPUTER SIMULATION OF HEAT TRANSFER DURING DRYING AND PREHEATING OF WET IRON ORE IN A ROTARY KILN  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, an improved numerical heat transfer model has been developed for a rotary kiln used for drying and preheating of wet iron ore. The present model includes radiation exchange among hot gas, refractory wall and the solid surface, transient conduction in the refractory wall, and mass and energy balances of the hot gas and the solids. The

P. S. Ghoshdastidar; G. Bhargava; R. P. Chhabra

2002-01-01

112

Characterization of as-deposited and sintered yttrium iron garnet thick films formed by aerosol deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have employed the aerosol deposition method (ADM) to direct-write 39-µm-thick polycrystalline films of yttrium iron garnet at room temperature onto sapphire at a rate of 1-3 µm/min as a first step toward integration into microwave magnetic circuits. The resulting randomly oriented polycrystalline films are composed of fractured compact nanosized crystallites. Upon postdeposition sintering at 1280 °C the density and magnetic properties become closer to those of the bulk. These results suggest that the ADM shows promise for depositing very thick films at high deposition rates to produce structurally and magnetically uniform films that retain the structural properties of the starting powder.

Johnson, Scooter D.; Glaser, Evan R.; Cheng, Shu-Fan; Kub, Fritz J.; Eddy, Charles R., Jr.

2014-03-01

113

A risk assessment for exposure to grunerite asbestos (amosite) in an iron ore mine  

PubMed Central

The potential for health risks to humans exposed to the asbestos minerals continues to be a public health concern. Although the production and use of the commercial amphibole asbestos minerals—grunerite (amosite) and riebeckite (crocidolite)—have been almost completely eliminated from world commerce, special opportunities for potentially significant exposures remain. Commercially viable deposits of grunerite asbestos are very rare, but it can occur as a gangue mineral in a limited part of a mine otherwise thought asbestos-free. This report describes such a situation, in which a very localized seam of grunerite asbestos was identified in an iron ore mine. The geological occurrence of the seam in the ore body is described, as well as the mineralogical character of the grunerite asbestos. The most relevant epidemiological studies of workers exposed to grunerite asbestos are used to gauge the hazards associated with the inhalation of this fibrous mineral. Both analytical transmission electron microscopy and phase-contrast optical microscopy were used to quantify the fibers present in the air during mining in the area with outcroppings of grunerite asbestos. Analytical transmission electron microscopy and continuous-scan x-ray diffraction were used to determine the type of asbestos fiber present. Knowing the level of the miner’s exposures, we carried out a risk assessment by using a model developed for the Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:10097051

Nolan, R. P.; Langer, A. M.; Wilson, Richard

1999-01-01

114

Tribological behaviour and statistical experimental design of sintered iron-copper based composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sintered iron-copper based composites for automotive brake pads have a complex composite composition and should have good physical, mechanical and tribological characteristics. In this paper, we obtained frictional composites by Powder Metallurgy (P/M) technique and we have characterized them by microstructural and tribological point of view. The morphology of raw powders was determined by SEM and the surfaces of obtained sintered friction materials were analyzed by ESEM, EDS elemental and compo-images analyses. One lot of samples were tested on a "pin-on-disc" type wear machine under dry sliding conditions, at applied load between 3.5 and 11.5 × 10-1 MPa and 12.5 and 16.9 m/s relative speed in braking point at constant temperature. The other lot of samples were tested on an inertial test stand according to a methodology simulating the real conditions of dry friction, at a contact pressure of 2.5-3 MPa, at 300-1200 rpm. The most important characteristics required for sintered friction materials are high and stable friction coefficient during breaking and also, for high durability in service, must have: low wear, high corrosion resistance, high thermal conductivity, mechanical resistance and thermal stability at elevated temperature. Because of the tribological characteristics importance (wear rate and friction coefficient) of sintered iron-copper based composites, we predicted the tribological behaviour through statistical analysis. For the first lot of samples, the response variables Yi (represented by the wear rate and friction coefficient) have been correlated with x1 and x2 (the code value of applied load and relative speed in braking points, respectively) using a linear factorial design approach. We obtained brake friction materials with improved wear resistance characteristics and high and stable friction coefficients. It has been shown, through experimental data and obtained linear regression equations, that the sintered composites wear rate increases with increasing applied load and relative speed, but in the same conditions, the frictional coefficients slowly decrease.

Popescu, Ileana Nicoleta; Ghi??, Constantin; Bratu, Vasile; Palacios Navarro, Guillermo

2013-11-01

115

Ferrous Iron and Sulfur Oxidation and Ferric Iron Reduction Activities of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans Are Affected by Growth on Ferrous Iron, Sulfur, or a Sulfide Ore  

PubMed Central

Eight strains of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans (laboratory strains Tf-1 [= ATCC 13661] and Tf-2 [= ATCC 19859] and mine isolates SM-1, SM-2, SM-3, SM-4, SM-5, and SM-8) and three strains of Thiobacillus thiooxidans (laboratory strain Tt [= ATCC 8085] and mine isolates SM-6 and SM-7) were grown on ferrous iron (Fe2+), elemental sulfur (S0), or sulfide ore (Fe, Cu, and Zn). The cells were studied for their aerobic Fe2+ - and S0-oxidizing activities (O2 consumption) and anaerobic S0-oxidizing activity with ferric iron (Fe3+) (Fe2+ formation). Fe2+-grown T. ferrooxidans cells oxidized S0 aerobically at a rate of 2 to 4% of the Fe2+ oxidation rate. The rate of anaerobic S0 oxidation with Fe3+ was equal to the aerobic oxidation rate in SM-1, SM-3, SM-4, and SM-5, but was only one-half or less that in Tf-1, Tf-2, SM-2, and SM-8. Transition from growth on Fe2+ to that on S0 produced cells with relatively undiminished Fe2+ oxidation activities and increased S0 oxidation (both aerobic and anaerobic) activities in Tf-2, SM-4, and SM-5, whereas it produced cells with dramatically reduced Fe2+ oxidation and anaerobic S0 oxidation activities in Tf-1, SM-1, SM-2, SM-3, and SM-8. Growth on ore 1 of metal-leaching Fe2+-grown strains and on ore 2 of all Fe2+-grown strains resulted in very high yields of cells with high Fe2+ and S0 oxidation (both aerobic and anaerobic) activities with similar ratios of various activities. Sulfur-grown Tf-2, SM-1, SM-4, SM-6, SM-7, and SM-8 cultures leached metals from ore 3, and Tf-2 and SM-4 cells recovered showed activity ratios similar to those of other ore-grown cells. It is concluded that all the T. ferrooxidans strains studied have the ability to produce cells with Fe2+ and S0 oxidation and Fe3+ reduction activities, but their levels are influenced by growth substrates and strain differences. PMID:16348205

Suzuki, Isamu; Takeuchi, Travis L.; Yuthasastrakosol, Trin D.; Oh, Jae Key

1990-01-01

116

Using oxygen isotope chemistry to track hydrothermal processes and fluid sources in itabirite-hosted iron ore deposits in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Minas Gerais, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil, is presently the largest accumulation of single itabirite-hosted iron ore bodies worldwide. Detailed petrography of selected hypogene high-grade iron ore bodies at, e.g. the Águas Claras, Conceição, Pau Branco and Pico deposits revealed different iron oxide generations, from oldest to youngest: magnetite ? martite (hematite pseudomorph after magnetite) ? granoblastic (recrystallised) ? microplaty (fine-grained, <100 ?m) ? specular (coarse-grained, >100 ?m) hematite. Laser-fluorination oxygen isotope analyses of selected iron ore species showed that the ?18O composition of ore-hosted martite ranges between -4.4 and 0.9 ‰ and is up to 11 ‰ depleted in 18O relative to hematite of the host itabirite. During the modification of iron ore and the formation of new iron oxide generations (e.g. microplaty and specular hematite), an increase of up to 8 ‰ in ?18O values is recorded. Calculated ?18O values of hydrothermal fluids in equilibrium with the iron oxide species indicate: (1) the involvement of isotopically light fluids (e.g. meteoric water or brines) during the upgrade from itabirite-hosted hematite to high-grade iron ore-hosted martite and (2) a minor positive shift in ?18Ofluid values from martite to specular hematite as result of modified meteoric water or brines with slightly elevated ?18O values and/or the infiltration of small volumes of isotopically heavy (metamorphic and/or magmatic) fluids into the iron ore system. The circulation of large fluid volumes that cause the systematic decrease of 18O/16O ratios from itabirite to high-grade iron ore requires the presence of, e.g. extensive faults and/or large-scale folds.

Hensler, Ana-Sophie; Hagemann, Steffen G.; Brown, Philip E.; Rosière, Carlos A.

2014-03-01

117

Effectiveness of sodium silicate as gangue depressants in iron ore slimes flotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recovery of iron from the screw classifier overflow slimes by direct flotation was studied. The relative effectiveness of sodium silicates with different silica-to-soda mole ratios as depressants for silica and silicate bearing minerals was investigated. Silica-to-soda mole ratio and silicate dosage were found to have significant effect on the separation efficiency. The results show that an increase of Fe content in the concentrate is observed with concomitant reduction in SiO2 and Al2O3 levels when a particular type of sodium silicate at a proper dosage is used. The concentrate of 58.89wt% Fe, 4.68wt% SiO2, and 5.28wt% Al2O3 with the weight recovery of 38.74% and the metal recovery of 41.13% can be obtained from the iron ore slimes with 54.44wt% Fe, 6.72wt% SiO2, and 6.80wt% Al2O3, when Na2SiO3 with a silica-to-soda mole ratio of 2.19 is used as a depressant at a feed rate of 0.2 kg/t.

Rao, Danda Srinivas; Vijayakumar, Tadiparthi Venkata; Rao, Sripada Subba; Prabhakar, Swarna; Raju, Guntamadugu Bhaskar

2011-10-01

118

3D Inversion of airborne gravity gradiomentry for iron ore exploration in Brazil Cericia Martinez,Yaoguo Li, Richard Krahenbuhl, Marco Braga  

E-print Network

of Geophysics, Colorado School of Mines Companhia Vale do Rio Doce, Brazil SUMMARY We present the 3D inversion of the present work is over an iron mine where the ore deposits are generally well understood, provid- ing

119

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. 13 the bays are more or less lined with bog iron ore which has been depos-  

E-print Network

all over the peninsula. Sulphur almost always is found combined with all iron ores, and arsenic, as their present food is rather incon- venientto furnish. The so-calledartificial hatching of lobsters has often

120

Effect of reduction roasting by using bio-char derived from empty fruit bunch on the magnetic properties of Malaysian iron ore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beneficiation of Malaysian iron ore is becoming necessary as iron resources are depleting. However, the upgrading process is challenging because of the weak magnetic properties of Malaysian iron ore. In this study, bio-char derived from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was utilized as an energy source for reduction roasting. Mixtures of Malaysian iron ore and the bio-char were pressed into briquettes and subjected to reduction roasting processes at 873-1173 K. The extent of reduction was estimated on the basis of mass loss, and the magnetization of samples was measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). When reduced at 873 K, the original goethite-rich ore was converted into hematite. An increase in temperature to 1073 K caused a significant conversion of hematite into magnetite and enhanced the magnetic susceptibility and saturation magnetization of samples. The magnetic properties diminished at 1173 K as the iron ore was partially reduced to wustite. This reduction roasting by using the bio-char can assist in upgrading the iron ore by improving its magnetic properties.

Yunus, Nurul A.; Ani, Mohd H.; Salleh, Hamzah M.; Rashid, Rusila Z. A.; Akiyama, Tomohiro; Purwanto, Hadi; Othman, Nur E. F.

2014-04-01

121

Utilization of waste polyethylene terephthalate as a reducing agent in the reduction of iron ore composite pellets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing consumption of plastics inevitably results in increasing amounts of waste plastics. Because of their long degradation periods, these wastes negatively affect the natural environment. Numerous studies have been conducted to recycle and eliminate waste plastics. The potential for recycling waste plastics in the iron and steel industry has been underestimated; the high C and H contents of plastics may make them suitable as alternative reductants in the reduction process of iron ore. This study aims to substitute plastic wastes for coal in reduction melting process and to investigate their performance during reduction at high temperature. We used a common type of waste plastic, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), because of its high carbon and hydrogen contents. Composite pellets containing PET wastes, coke, and magnetite iron ore were reduced at selected temperatures of 1400 and 1450°C for reduction time from 2 to 10 min to investigate the reduction melting behavior of these pellets. The results showed that an increased temperature and reduction time increased the reduction ratio of the pellets. The optimum experimental conditions for obtaining metallic iron (iron nuggets) were reduction at 1450°C for 10 min using composite pellets containing 60% PET and 40% coke.

Polat, Gökhan; Birol, Burak; Sar?dede, Muhlis Nezihi

2014-08-01

122

THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TONWSHIP, NEW JERSEY  

SciTech Connect

This report represents the tenth Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government-Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. At the Green Pond Mine site at the Township Compost Storage Facility, engineering continued during this reporting period toward development of the Construction Plans and Technical Specifications for the remediation work. At the Mt. Hope Road subsidence, surface monitoring was conducted periodically at the work area and adjacent areas after the January 2000 construction effort.

Gary Gartenberg

2003-02-01

123

THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP, NEW JERSEY  

SciTech Connect

This report represents the thirteenth Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this semi annual reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government--Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. At the Green Pond Mine site at the Township's Jacobs Road Compost Storage Facility, construction was completed during this reporting period and surface monitoring began. Surface monitoring was conducted periodically at the Mt. Hope Road subsidence work area and adjacent areas after the January 2000 construction effort.

Gary Gartenberg

2003-12-01

124

Reduction and immobilization of chromate in chromite ore processing residue with nanoscale zero-valent iron.  

PubMed

Chromite ore processing residue (COPR) poses a great environmental and health risk with persistent Cr(VI) leaching. To reduce Cr(VI) and subsequently immobilize in the solid matrix, COPR was incubated with nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) and the Cr(VI) speciation and leachability were studied. Multiple complementary analysis methods including leaching tests, X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to investigate the immobilization mechanism. Geochemical PHREEQC model calculation agreed well with our acid neutralizing capacity experimental results and confirmed that when pH was lowered from 11.7 to 7.0, leachate Cr(VI) concentrations were in the range 358-445mgL(-1) which contributed over 90% of dissolved Cr from COPR. Results of alkaline digestion, XANES, and XPS demonstrated that incubation COPR with nZVI under water content higher than 27% could result in a nearly complete Cr(VI) reduction in solids and less than 0.1mgL(-1) Cr(VI) in the TCLP leachate. The results indicated that remediation approaches using nZVI to reduce Cr(VI) in COPR should be successful with sufficient water content to facilitate electron transfer from nZVI to COPR. PMID:22417394

Du, Jingjing; Lu, Jinsuo; Wu, Qiong; Jing, Chuanyong

2012-05-15

125

A comparative study of the wear behaviour of sintered and laser surface melted AISI M42 high speed steel diluted with iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powders of AISI M42 high-speed steel (HSS) were blended with different proportions of water-atomised iron powders. The powders were subsequently submitted to uniaxial pressing and then divided in three lots. The first was submitted to sintering, the second was submitted to sintering plus laser surface melting (LSM) and the third was submitted to sintering plus LSM plus double tempering at

R. Colaço; E. Gordo; E. M. Ruiz-Navas; M. Otasevic; R. Vilar

2006-01-01

126

The Remediation of Abandoned Iron Ore Mine Subsidence in Rockaway Township, New Jersey  

SciTech Connect

This report represents the twenty-seventh and Final Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this last reporting period ending June 30, 2010 and a summary of the work accomplished since the agreement inception in 1997. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperatorâ??s Agreement between the United States Government - Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperatorâ??s Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800â??s, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. At the Green Pond Mine site at the Townshipâ??s Jacobs Road Compost Storage Facility, surface monitoring continued after completion of construction in September 2003. Surface monitoring was conducted periodically at the Mt. Hope Road subsidence work area and adjacent areas after the January 2000 construction effort. In March 2007, a seventh collapse occurred over a portion of the White Meadow Mine in a public roadway at the intersection of Iowa and Erie Avenues in Rockaway Township. After test drilling, this portion of the mine was remediated by drilling and grouting the stopes.

Gartenberg, Gary; Poff, Gregory

2010-06-30

127

THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP, NEW JERSEY  

SciTech Connect

This report represents the sixth Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government--Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. At the White Meadow Mine site, after amended specifications were prepared and continued negotiations took place with the Property Owner, the property ownership was transferred during the reporting period. As a result in the change in property ownership, the remediation project was then to be done by the new Property Owner out of the responsibility of Rockaway Township under this Cooperators Agreement. At the Mt. Hope Road subsidence, surface monitoring was conducted at the work area and adjacent areas after the January 2000 construction effort. At the Green Pond Mine site at the Township Compost Storage Facility, no additional field work was undertaken during this reporting period subsequent to the previous completion of the geophysical survey. With the termination of the White Meadow Mine project, work began toward development of a remedial design for the Green Pond Mines.

Gary Gartenberg, P.E., P.P.

2001-04-01

128

THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP, NEW JERSEY  

SciTech Connect

This report represents the seventh Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government--Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. At the Green Pond Mine site at the Township Compost Storage Facility, research and preliminary design was performed during this reporting period toward development of the engineering plans and Technical Specifications for the remediation work. At the White Meadow Mine site, the remediation project was conducted last reporting period by others, out of the responsibility of Rockaway Township under this Cooperators Agreement. At the Mt. Hope Road subsidence, surface monitoring was conducted at the work area and adjacent areas after the January 2000 construction effort.

Gary Gartenberg, P.E., P.P.

2001-04-01

129

THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP, NEW JERSEY  

SciTech Connect

This report represents the fourth Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government--Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. During this reporting period the Engineering Design for remediation of the surface safety hazards associated with the White Meadow Mine was completed. Construction Plans and Technical Specifications were completed and competitive bids were solicited by the Township for completion of the work. The electrical resistivity survey analysis and report was completed for the Green Pond Mines site at the Township Compost Storage Facility. The geophysical survey results confirmed evidence of abandoned mining activity at the Green Pond Mine site which was previously identified. During this reporting period, the time frame of the Cooperative Agreement between the Township and the Department of Energy was extended. An additional site of subsidence with in the Township related to abandoned mining activity at Mount Hope Road was selected by Rockaway Township to be considered for remediation and inclusion under the Cooperative Agreement.

Gary Gartenberg, P.E., P.P.

1999-10-01

130

Effect of particle fineness on the finely disseminated iron ore for beneficiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focused on Oolitic hematite ore which consists of extremely unequal disseminated particles that are fine-grained and easy to become muddy, It presents the effect of particle fineness, roasting temperature and roasting time and other variables on the beneficiation of this ore. The effect of particle fineness on the concentrate quality was also studied after magnetic roasting, the so-called process of "magnetic roasting-stage grinding-low intensity magnetic separation-cationic reverse flotation" was adopted to treat the raw ore under various experimental conditions including particle fineness, roasting temperature and roasting time, etc. it is found the concentrate grade of TFe of raw ore can be increased from 48.32%(original) to 61.30% at a recovery rate of 80.73%. Results show that the effect of particle fineness on mineral processing indexes is significant.

Qiu, T. S.; Zhang, W. X.; Fang, X. H.; Gao, G. K.

2013-06-01

131

Phytoremediation: A Novel Approach for Utilization of Iron-ore Wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Large amounts of toxic contaminants are being released to the environment around the globe from rapid urbanization and industrialization.\\u000a Among such contaminants are industrial wastes and ore tailings that result from worldwide mining activities. In mining operations,\\u000a during the processing of low-grade ores, significant quantities of wastes or tailings are produced. The overburden material\\u000a (also known as “waste”), generated during

Monalisa Mohanty; Nabin Kumar Dhal; Parikshita Patra; Bisweswar Das; Palli Sita Rama Reddy

132

By Thomas S. Jones Manganese (Mn) is essential to iron and silicomanganese increased about 7%. consisted of, in tons, natural battery-grade ore,  

E-print Network

1 MANGANESE By Thomas S. Jones Manganese (Mn) is essential to iron and silicomanganese increased-fixing, The rate slowed for disposal of manganese 23,900; chemical-grade ore, 1,640; deoxidizing, and alloying-carbon no practical approaches exist for replacing it by Government still held inventories of manganese

Torgersen, Christian

133

Banded Iron Formations from the Eastern Desert of Egypt: A new type of Ore? KHALIL, Khalil Isaac1 and EL-SHAZLY, Aley K.2  

E-print Network

Banded Iron Formations from the Eastern Desert of Egypt: A new type of Ore? KHALIL, Khalil Isaac1 and EL-SHAZLY, Aley K.2 1 Department of Geology, University of Alexandria, Egypt 2 Geology Department localities in an area approximately 30,000 km2 within the eastern desert of Egypt. With the exception

El-Shazly, Aley

134

The effect of iron-ore particles on the metal content of the brown alga Padina gymnospora (Espírito Santo Bay, Brazil).  

PubMed

The iron-ore particles discharged by a pellet processing plant (Espírito Santo Bay, Brazil) cover the seabed of Camburi Beach and consequently, the epibenthic community. In order to determine the importance of the contribution of the iron-ore deposits to the metal concentration in macroalgae of Espirito Santo Bay, four methods of cleaning particulate material adhered to the surface of thalli were tested prior to metal tissue analysis (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) of Padina gymnospora. In addition, heavy metal concentrations were determined in individuals of P. gymnospora from a site (Frade Island) not affected by the iron-ore particles. The most efficient cleaning treatment, a combination of scraping and washing with an ethanol-seawater solution (NA+SC+ET) removed a number of particles on the surface of thalli 10 times higher than that observed in the control (C). Using this treatment, the total-metal concentrations were reduced by 78% for Fe and 50% for Al respect to the control. However, Fe, Al and Cu concentrations after treatment NA+SC+ET were significantly higher than those found at Frade Island. It is suggested that the iron-ore deposit might be a source for metal availability to macroalgae exposed to the dumped material at Espirito Santo Bay. PMID:12628209

Nassar, Cristina A G; Salgado, Leonardo T; Yoneshigue-Valentin, Yocie; Amado Filho, Gilberto M

2003-01-01

135

Giant iron-ore deposits of the Hamersley province related to the breakup of Paleoproterozoic Australia: New insights from in situ SHRIMP dating of baddeleyite from mafic intrusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Banded iron formations of the ca. 2770 2405 Ma Hamersley province of Western Australia were locally upgraded to high-grade hematite ores during the Early Paleoproterozoic by a combination of hypogene and supergene processes after the initial rise of atmospheric oxygen. Ore genesis was associated with the stratigraphic break between the Lower and Upper Wyloo Groups of the Ashburton province, and has been variously linked to the Ophthalmian orogeny, late-orogenic extensional collapse, and anorogenic continental extension. Small-spot in situ Pb/Pb dating of baddeleyite by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) has resolved the ages of two key suites of mafic intrusions, constraining for the first time the tectonic evolution of the Ashburton province and the age and setting of iron-ore formation. Mafic sills dated as ca. 2208 Ma were folded during the Ophthalmian orogeny and then cut by the unconformity at the base of the Lower Wyloo Group. A mafic dike swarm that intrudes the Lower Wyloo Group and has a close genetic relationship to iron ore is ca. 2008 Ma, slightly younger than a new syneruptive 2031 ± 6 Ma zircon age for the Lower Wyloo Group. These new ages constrain the Ophthalmian orogeny to the period between ca. 2208 and 2031 Ma, before Lower Wyloo Group extension, sedimentation, and flood-basalt volcanism. The ca. 2008 Ma dikes pre s ent a new maximum age for iron-ore genesis and deposition of the Upper Wyloo Group, thereby linking ore genesis to a ca. 2050 2000 Ma period of continental extension similarly recorded by Paleoproterozoic terrains worldwide well after the initial oxidation of the atmosphere by ca. 2320 Ma.

Müller, Stefan G.; Krapež, Bryan; Barley, Mark E.; Fletcher, Ian R.

2005-07-01

136

Spectroscopic characterization of iron ores formed in different geological environments using FTIR, XPS, Mössbauer spectroscopy and thermoanalyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of thermoanalyses, FTIR, XPS and Mössbauer spectroscopic methods can differentiate between iron ores formed in different geological environments. Two types of iron ore are formed in shallow marine environments in the Bahariya Depression, Egypt, yellowish brown ooidal ironstones (type 1) and black mud and fossiliferous ironstones (type 2). Both types were subjected to subaerial weathering, producing a dark brown lateritic (pedogenic) iron ore (type 3). Microscopic investigation indicates goethite is the main mineral in types 1 and 3, while hematite is the main mineral in type 2 and also occurs in type 3. Thermoanalyses indicated the dehydroxylation endothermic peak of goethite of type 1 occurs between 329 and 345 °C, while in type 3 occurs between 284 and 330 °C. This variation can be attributed to the nanocrystalline nature of the pedogenic goethite. The presence of an exothermic peak at 754 °C in type 3 is probably attributed to goethite-hematite phase transformation. FTIR spectroscopy indicated that goethite of type 1 is characterized by the presence of the ?-OH band between 799 and 802 cm-1, the ?-OH between 898 and 904 cm-1 and the bulk hydroxyl stretch between 3124 and 3133 cm-1. Goethite of type 3 is characterized by the absence of the bulk hydroxyl stretch band and the ?-OH and ?-OH are shifted to higher Wavenumbers that can attributed to a relative Al-for Fe-substitution. Hematite is identified by two IR bands; the first is between 464 and 475 cm-1 and at the second is between 540 and 557 cm-1. Quartz is identified in all iron ore types, nitrates are identified in types 1 and 2, but absent in type 3 and Kaolinite is identified in type 2. The Mössbauer spectrum of type 1 is fitted with one magnetic sextet corresponding to goethite with an isomer shift (IS) = 0.374 mm s-1, a quadruple splitting (QS) = -0.27 mm s-1 and a hyperfine magnetic field (BHF) = ?37. The Mössbauer spectrum of type 2 is fitted with one magnetic sextet corresponding to hematite with IS = 0.363 mm s-1, QS = -0.23 mm s-1 and BHF = ?50. The Mössbauer spectrum of type 3 is best fitted with a single doublet corresponding to ferrihydrite and one sextet corresponding to hematite. The XPS survey scans and the high resolution of the Fe 2p3/2 can differentiate between the yellowish-brown and green ooidal laminae of type 1. The XPS survey scans indicate the presence of Fe, O, C, N, Na, Cl, Ca and Si in all laminae, while S, Zn, Ti and P are only restricted to the green laminae. The high resolution of the Fe 2p3/2 indicates that Fe is linked to OH- ligand in the yellowish-brown laminae that correspond to goethite, while Fe is linked to SO42- ligand in the green laminae. The XPS survey scans of types 2 and 3 indicate that Fe is linked to O2- ligand that corresponds to hematite.

Salama, Walid; El Aref, Mourtada; Gaupp, Reinhard

2015-02-01

137

Spectroscopic characterization of iron ores formed in different geological environments using FTIR, XPS, Mössbauer spectroscopy and thermoanalyses.  

PubMed

Application of thermoanalyses, FTIR, XPS and Mössbauer spectroscopic methods can differentiate between iron ores formed in different geological environments. Two types of iron ore are formed in shallow marine environments in the Bahariya Depression, Egypt, yellowish brown ooidal ironstones (type 1) and black mud and fossiliferous ironstones (type 2). Both types were subjected to subaerial weathering, producing a dark brown lateritic (pedogenic) iron ore (type 3). Microscopic investigation indicates goethite is the main mineral in types 1 and 3, while hematite is the main mineral in type 2 and also occurs in type 3. Thermoanalyses indicated the dehydroxylation endothermic peak of goethite of type 1 occurs between 329 and 345°C, while in type 3 occurs between 284 and 330°C. This variation can be attributed to the nanocrystalline nature of the pedogenic goethite. The presence of an exothermic peak at 754°C in type 3 is probably attributed to goethite-hematite phase transformation. FTIR spectroscopy indicated that goethite of type 1 is characterized by the presence of the ?-OH band between 799 and 802cm(-1), the ?-OH between 898 and 904cm(-1) and the bulk hydroxyl stretch between 3124 and 3133cm(-1). Goethite of type 3 is characterized by the absence of the bulk hydroxyl stretch band and the ?-OH and ?-OH are shifted to higher Wavenumbers that can attributed to a relative Al-for Fe-substitution. Hematite is identified by two IR bands; the first is between 464 and 475cm(-1) and at the second is between 540 and 557cm(-1). Quartz is identified in all iron ore types, nitrates are identified in types 1 and 2, but absent in type 3 and Kaolinite is identified in type 2. The Mössbauer spectrum of type 1 is fitted with one magnetic sextet corresponding to goethite with an isomer shift (IS)=0.374mms(-1), a quadruple splitting (QS)=-0.27mms(-1) and a hyperfine magnetic field (BHF)=?37. The Mössbauer spectrum of type 2 is fitted with one magnetic sextet corresponding to hematite with IS=0.363mms(-1), QS=-0.23mms(-1) and BHF=?50. The Mössbauer spectrum of type 3 is best fitted with a single doublet corresponding to ferrihydrite and one sextet corresponding to hematite. The XPS survey scans and the high resolution of the Fe 2p3/2 can differentiate between the yellowish-brown and green ooidal laminae of type 1. The XPS survey scans indicate the presence of Fe, O, C, N, Na, Cl, Ca and Si in all laminae, while S, Zn, Ti and P are only restricted to the green laminae. The high resolution of the Fe 2p3/2 indicates that Fe is linked to OH(-) ligand in the yellowish-brown laminae that correspond to goethite, while Fe is linked to SO4(2-) ligand in the green laminae. The XPS survey scans of types 2 and 3 indicate that Fe is linked to O(2-) ligand that corresponds to hematite. PMID:25467675

Salama, Walid; El Aref, Mourtada; Gaupp, Reinhard

2014-10-31

138

Monitoring Sintering Burn-Through Point Using Infrared Thermography  

PubMed Central

Sintering is a complex industrial process that applies heat to fine particles of iron ore and other materials to produce sinter, a solidified porous material used in blast furnaces. The sintering process needs to be carefully adjusted, so that the combustion zone reaches the bottom of the material just before the discharge end. This is known as the burn-through point. Many different parameters need to be finely tuned, including the speed and the quantities of the materials mixed. However, in order to achieve good results, sintering control requires precise feedback to adjust these parameters. This work presents a sensor to monitor the sintering burn-through point based on infrared thermography. The proposed procedure is based on the acquisition of infrared images at the end of the sintering process. At this position, infrared images contain the cross-section temperatures of the mixture. The objective of this work is to process this information to extract relevant features about the sintering process. The proposed procedure is based on four steps: key frame detection, region of interest detection, segmentation and feature extraction. The results indicate that the proposed procedure is very robust and reliable, providing features that can be used effectively to control the sintering process. PMID:23939585

Usamentiaga, Rubén; Molleda, Julio; Garcia, Daniel F.; Bulnes, Francisco G.

2013-01-01

139

Monitoring sintering burn-through point using infrared thermography.  

PubMed

Sintering is a complex industrial process that applies heat to fine particles of iron ore and other materials to produce sinter, a solidified porous material used in blast furnaces. The sintering process needs to be carefully adjusted, so that the combustion zone reaches the bottom of the material just before the discharge end. This is known as the burn-through point. Many different parameters need to be finely tuned, including the speed and the quantities of the materials mixed. However, in order to achieve good results, sintering control requires precise feedback to adjust these parameters. This work presents a sensor to monitor the sintering burn-through point based on infrared thermography. The proposed procedure is based on the acquisition of infrared images at the end of the sintering process. At this position, infrared images contain the cross-section temperatures of the mixture. The objective of this work is to process this information to extract relevant features about the sintering process. The proposed procedure is based on four steps: key frame detection, region of interest detection, segmentation and feature extraction. The results indicate that the proposed procedure is very robust and reliable, providing features that can be used effectively to control the sintering process. PMID:23939585

Usamentiaga, Rubén; Molleda, Julio; Garcia, Daniel F; Bulnes, Francisco G

2013-01-01

140

Study of moisture transfer during the strand sintering process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Moisture transfer during the strand sintering operation was studied both experimentally and using a mathematical model. The drying of iron ore pellets was found to occur in two distinct periods: one at a constant drying rate and the other at a decreasing drying rate, whereas the drying of zinc ore pellets always occurs at a decreasing drying rate. Characteristic drying curves were determined for both materials. The moisture transfer mechanisms during the sintering process were demonstrated in detail, including the recondensation of water in the cold layers of the bed and the formation of an inert, overmoistened zone. The mathematical model presented simulates all of these phenomena and is used to calculate the variables related to moisture transfer. The model is adaptable to other processes where a hot gas passes through a moist packed bed.

Patisson, F.; Bellot, J. P.; Ablitzer, D.

1990-02-01

141

Rock-magnetic and oxide microscopy studies of the El Laco iron-ore deposits, Chilean High Andes: implications for magnetometric modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microscopy and rock-magnetic studies of the iron oxide-ore and host rocks in the El Laco deposits were carried out to characterize the magnetic mineralogy and the processes that affected the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) during emplacement and evolution of the iron-ore deposits. Particular attention was paid to identify the magnetic mineralogical composition (magnetite and/or titanomagnetite, and hematite and/or titanohematite, and titanomaghemite) and grain size. These data help to investigate the magnetic domain states and the remanence acquisition processes, and to assess their significance as a source of magnetic anomalies. Magnetite or Ti-poor magnetite, maghemite and hematite are commonly found in the ores and host rocks, respectively. The scatter in the natural remanent magnetization and cleaned remanence directions of the ores may result from physical movement of the ores during faulting or mining, or from perturbation of the ambient geomagnetic field during remanence acquisition within these strongly magnetic ores. The microscopy study under reflected light shows that magnetic carriers are mainly magnetite, with significant amounts of ilmenite-hematite minerals. Magmatic titanomagnetite, found in igneous rocks, shows trellis texture, which is compatible with high temperature (deuteric) oxy-exsolution processes. Supergene reactions in ore deposits at the eruptions conditions (still hot ore magma) is indicated by goethite and hematite oxide minerals. Grain sizes range from a few microns to >100 µm, and dominant magnetic state PSD, in agreement with hysteresis measurements. Thermal spectra, continuous susceptibility measurements, and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) acquisition suggest a predominance of some spinels (titanomagnetite or titanomaghemite) with low-Ti content as magnetic carriers. Although the presence of (titano)hematites is evidenced by hysteresis and IRM studies, their contribution on total remanence seem to be minor. For the modeling process of the magnetic anomaly, we used data on bulk susceptibility and intensity and direction of the NRM in order to know the relative contributions of induced and remanent magnetization components and allow a greater control of the source bodies. The position and geometry of the main magnetic source are shown as an ENE-25° striking tabular body, steeply inclined (65°) to the north.

Alva-Valdivia, L.; Gogichaishvili, A.; Rivas, M. L.; Morales, J.; Gonzalez, J.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

2003-04-01

142

Reducibility of laterite ores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reducibility of several types of lateritic nickel bearing ores was investigated. The ores were reduced with hydrogen over a temperature range of 673 to 1273 K and reaction times from 5 to 80 minutes. The fraction of nickel, iron, and cobalt reduced to the metallic state was determined by leaching the reacted samples with a bromine-methanol solution followed by atomic absorption analysis for the individual elements. The reducibility of nickel increased with increasing iron concentration of the ore. Increased reduction temperature greatly raised the amount of nickel reduced for ores with high iron concentrations. The cobalt reducibility decreased with increasing iron concentration of the ore. Changes in reduction temperature affected cobalt reduction less than nickel reduction. The observed changes in reducibility have been attributed to the formation of phases which incorporate nickel and cobalt. The major ore components were plotted on the ternary phase diagram of the SiO2+(Al2O3)-MgO-FeO system. It is shown how this plot can be used to predict the reducibility of different types of lateritic ores.

Kawahara, M.; Toguri, J. M.; Bergman, R. A.

1988-04-01

143

Basic properties of sintering dust from iron and steel plant and potassium recovery.  

PubMed

With the production of crude steel, China produces several million tons of sintering dusts which contain a great deal of valuable metals such as, K, Na, Zn, Pb. If discharged directly without adequate treatment, these elements can lead to adverse effects on the environment. Therefore, it is very necessary to determine how to separate these elements from the dust before discharge. Several physical and chemical detection methods were used to study the basic properties of sintering dust. At the same time, preliminary experiments on the recovery of the potassium resources from the sintering dust were carried out. The mean particle size of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) dust determined by a laser granulometer was 41.468 microm. Multi-point BET and single-point BET analysis showed that the surface area of the ESP dust was 2.697 m2/g. XRD measurements detected the following phases in the ESP dust: Fe2O3, Fe3O4, KCl and NaCl, and Fe2O3, Fe3O4 and SiO2 in the water-washed dust. SEM-EDS results proved that in the ESP dust, K mostly existed in the form of KCl particles without being coated. Leaching experiments showed that the KCl in the ESP dust could be separated and recovered by water leaching and fractional crystallization. Through the recovery experiments, the yield of K-Na vaporized crystalline salt was 18.56%, in which the mass fractions of KCl, NaCl, CaSO4 and K2SO4 were about 61.03%, 13.58%, 14.03% and 9.97%, respectively. This process is technically viable and considerable in economic benefit. There was almost no secondary pollution produced in the whole recovery process. PMID:24191613

Zhan, Guang; Guo, Zhancheng

2013-06-01

144

High-grade iron ore at Windarling, Yilgarn Craton: a product of syn-orogenic deformation, hypogene hydrothermal alteration and supergene modification in an Archean BIF-basalt lithostratigraphy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Banded iron formation (BIF)-hosted iron ore deposits in the Windarling Range are located in the lower greenstone succession of the Marda-Diemals greenstone belt, Southern Cross domain, Yilgarn Craton and constitute a total hematite-martite-goethite ore resource of minimum 52 Mt at 60 wt.% Fe (0.07 P). Banded iron formation is interlayered with high-Mg basalts at Windarling and precipitated during episodes of volcanic quiescence. Trace element content and the rare earth element (REE) ratios Y/Ho (42 to 45), Sm/Yb (1.5), together with positive La and Gd anomalies in `least-altered' hematite-magnetite-metachert-BIF indicate the precipitation from Archean seawater that was fertilised by hydrothermal vent fluids with a basaltic HREE-Y signature. Hypogene iron ore in sub-greenschist facies metamorphosed BIF formed during three distinct stages: ore stage 1 was a syn- to post-metamorphic, syn-D1, Fe-Ca-Mg-Ni-Co-P-REE metasomatism that produced local Ni-REE-rich Fe-dolomite-magnetite alteration in BIF. Hydrothermal alteration was induced by hot fluid flow controlled by brittle-ductile reactivation of BIF-basalt margins and crosscutting D1 faults. The Ni-Co-rich content of dolomite and a shift in REE ratios in carbonate-altered BIF towards Archean mafic rock signature (Y/Ho to 31 to 40, Sm/Yb to 1 to 2 and Gd/Gd* to 1.2 to 1.4) suggest that high-Mg basalts in the Windarling Range were the primary source of introduced metals. During ore stage 2, a syn-deformational and likely acidic and oxidised fluid flow along BIF-basalt margins and within D1 faults leached carbonate and precipitated lepidoblastic and anhedral/granoblastic hematite. High-grade magnetite-hematite ore is formed during this stage. Ore stage 3 hydrothermal specular hematite (spcH)-Fe-dolomite-quartz alteration was controlled by a late-orogenic, brittle, compressional/transpressional stage (D4; the regional-scale shear-zone-related D3 is not preserved in Windarling). This minor event remobilised iron oxides, carbonate and quartz to form veins and breccia but did not generate significant volumes of iron ore. Ore stage 4 involved Mesozoic(?) to recent supergene oxidation and hydration in a weathering environment reaching down to depths of ˜100 to maximum 200 m below surface. Supergene ore formation involved goethite replacement of dolomite and quartz as well as martitisation. Important `ground preparation' for supergene modification and upgrade were mainly the formation of steep D1 to D4 structures, steep BIF/basalt margins and particularly the syn-D1 to syn-D2 carbonate alteration of BIF that is most susceptible to supergene dissolution. The Windarling deposits are structurally controlled, supergene-modified hydrothermal iron ore systems that share comparable physical, chemical and ore-forming characteristics to other iron ore deposits in the Yilgarn Craton (e.g. Koolyanobbing, Beebyn in the Weld Range, Mt. Gibson). However, the remarkable variety in pre-, syn- and post-deformational ore textures (relative to D1 and D2) has not been described elsewhere in the Yilgarn and are similar to the ore deposits in high-strain zones, such as of Brazil (Quadrilátero Ferrífero or Iron Quadrangle) and Nigeria. The overall similarity of alteration stages, i.e. the sequence of hydrothermal carbonate introduction and hypogene leaching, with other greenstone belt-hosted iron ore deposits supports the interpretation that syn-orogenic BIF alteration and upgrade was crucial in the formation of hypogene-supergene iron ore deposits in the Yilgarn Craton and possibly in other Archean/Paleoproterozoic greenstone belt settings worldwide.

Angerer, Thomas; Hagemann, Steffen G.; Danyushevsky, Leonid

2013-08-01

145

Quantitative measurements of loss on ignition in iron ore using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and partial least squares regression analysis.  

PubMed

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) have been applied to perform quantitative measurements of a multiple-species parameter known as loss on ignition (LOI), in a combined set of run-of-mine (ROM) iron ore samples originating from five different iron ore deposits. Global calibration models based on 65 samples and their duplicates from all the deposits with LOI ranging from 0.5 to 10 wt% are shown to be successful for prediction of LOI content in pressed pellets as well as bulk ore samples. A global independent dataset comprising a further 60 samples was used to validate the model resulting in the best validation R(2) of 0.87 and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.1 wt% for bulk samples. A validation R(2) of 0.90 and an RMSEP of 1.0 wt% were demonstrated for pressed pellets. Data preprocessing is shown to improve the quality of the analysis. Spectra normalization options, automatic outlier removal and automatic continuum background correction, which were used to improve the performance of the PLSR method, are discussed in detail. PMID:21144150

Yaroshchyk, Pavel; Death, David L; Spencer, Steven J

2010-12-01

146

Ore Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This three part lab introduces sulfides and other ore minerals. Part one - Ore Minerals: Students fill in a table giving the metal, formula, and mineral group of several ore minerals. Part two - Box of Rocks: Students examine trays of ore minerals and record their physical properties, composition, habit, occurence, economic value, and use and answer questions about color, luster, density, transparency, and availability. Part three - Famous Digs: Students answer a series of questions related to famous ore deposits.

Dexter Perkins

147

Use of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza and Organic Amendments to Enhance Growth of Macaranga peltata (Roxb.) Müll. Arg. in Iron Ore Mine Wastelands.  

PubMed

Macaranga peltata (Roxb.) Mull. Arg. is a disturbance tolerant plant species with potential in mine wasteland reclamation. Our study aims at studying the phyto-extraction potential of M. peltata and determining plant-soil interaction factors effecting plant growth in iron ore mine spoils. Plants were grown in pure mine spoil and spoil amended with Farm Yard Manure (FYM) and Vermicompost (VC) along with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) species Rhizophagus irregularis. Pure and amended mine spoils were evaluated for nutrient status. Plant growth parameters and foliar nutrient contents were determined at the end of one year. FYM amendment in spoil significantly increased plant biomass compared to pure mine spoil and VC amended spoil. Foliar Fe accumulation was recorded highest (594.67?g/g) in pure spoil with no mortality but considerably affecting plant growth, thus proving to exhibit phyto-extraction potential. FYM and VC amendments reduced AM colonization (30.4% and 37% resp.) and plants showed a negative mycorrhizal dependency (-30.35 and -39.83 resp.). Soil pH and P levels and, foliar Fe accumulation are major factors determining plant growth in spoil. FYM amendment was found to be superior to VC as a spoil amendment for hastening plant growth and establishment in iron ore mine spoil. PMID:25495939

Rodrigues, Cassie R; Rodrigues, Bernard F

2015-01-01

148

The influence of premolding load on the electrical behavior in the initial stage of electric current activated sintering of carbonyl iron powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the premolding load effect on the electrical behavior in the initial stage of electric current activated sintering of carbonyl iron powders. An electrical network model is put forward to estimate the uniformity of electric current in a powder compact subjected to different premolding loads in the initial stage. The improvement in current uniformity can be reflected from a simultaneous increase in the number N and the mass fraction ? of conductive particle chains in the compact. Both N and ? are found to follow a power law with the premolding load F for different exponent values. When ? is equal to 1, a critical load is reached, at which point the current flows through all particles during sintering. Using the results of the model and the electrical contact theory, it is also found that only an increased temperature of less than 20 K across the particle contacts. The distribution of temperature is uniform in particles. This is clearly different from the general acceptance that local high temperature is created at contact during electric current activated sintering. The neck formation and growth are thought to be mainly due to heat bonding and electromigration, of which effects on mass transport are pronouncedly enhanced by increasing the bulk temperature. Because of the poor current uniformity and relatively large power dissipation, a soft thermal breakdown is observed in the sample with high initial resistance. A reduction in premolding load may cause an increase in the initial electrical resistance of the compact. Owing to the unique voltage-current characteristic of electric current activated sintering, a higher initial resistance of compact means more thermal energy is involved, consequently producing a higher bulk temperature and getting a better quality of sintering. This also provides theoretical explanation for the experimental results from Inoue and Istomina.

Ye, Yongquan; Li, Xiaoqiang; Hu, Ke; Lai, Yangen; Li, Yuanyuan

2013-06-01

149

Hydrothermal alteration, fluid inclusions and stable isotope systematics of the Alvo 118 iron oxide-copper-gold deposit, Carajás Mineral Province (Brazil): Implications for ore genesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alvo 118 iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposit (170 Mt at 1.0 wt.% Cu, 0.3 g/t Au) lies in the southern sector of the Itacaúnas Shear Belt, Carajás Mineral Province, along a WNW-ESE-striking, 60-km-long shear zone, close to the contact of the ~2.76-Ga metavolcano-sedimentary Itacaiúnas Supergroup and the basement (~3.0 Ga Xingu Complex). The Alvo 118 deposit is hosted by mafic and felsic metavolcanic rocks and crosscutting granitoid and gabbro intrusions that have been subjected to the following hydrothermal alteration sequence towards the ore zones: (1) poorly developed sodic alteration (albite and scapolite); (2) potassic alteration (biotite or K-feldspar) accompanied by magnetite formation and silicification; (3) widespread, pervasive chlorite alteration spatially associated with quartz-carbonate-sulphide infill ore breccia and vein stockworks; and (4) local post-ore quartz-sericite alteration. The ore assemblage is dominated by chalcopyrite (~60%), bornite (~10%), hematite (~20%), magnetite (10%) and subordinate chalcocite, native gold, Au-Ag tellurides, galena, cassiterite, F-rich apatite, xenotime, monazite, britholite-(Y) and a gadolinite-group mineral. Fluid inclusion studies in quartz point to a fluid regime composed of two distinct fluid types that may have probably coexisted within the timeframe of the Cu-Au mineralizing episode: a hot (>200°C) saline (32.8‰ to 40.6 wt.% NaCl eq.) solution, represented by salt-bearing aqueous inclusions, and a lower temperature (<200°C), low to intermediate salinity (<15 wt.% NaCl eq.) aqueous fluid defined by two-phase (LH2O + VH2O) fluid inclusions. This trend is very similar to those defined for other IOCG systems of the Carajás Mineral Province. ? 18OH2O values in equilibrium with calcite (-1.0‰ to 7.5‰ at 277°C to 344°C) overlap the lower range for primary magmatic waters, but the more 18O-depleted values also point to the involvement of externally derived fluids, possibly of meteoric origin. Furthermore, sulphide ? 34S values (5.1‰ to 6.3‰), together with available boron isotope and Cl/Br-Na/Cl data provide evidence for a significant component of residual evaporative fluids (e.g., bittern fluids generated by seawater evaporation) in this scenario that, together with magma-derived brines, would be the main sources of the highly saline fluids involved in the formation Alvo 118 IOCG deposit. The restricted high temperature sodic alteration, the pervasive overprinting of the potassic alteration minerals by chlorite proximal to the ore zones, ore breccias with open-space filling textures in brittle structures, microthermometric and stable isotope data indicate, collectively, that the Alvo 118 IOCG system developed at structurally high levels and may be considered the shallower representative of the IOCG systems of the CMP.

Torresi, Ignacio; Xavier, Roberto Perez; Bortholoto, Diego F. A.; Monteiro, Lena V. S.

2012-03-01

150

New Process of Pellets-Metallized Sintering Process (PMSP) to Treat Zinc-Bearing Dust from Iron and Steel Company  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An innovative process of pellets-metallized sintering process (PMSP) to prepare pre-reduced ironmaking burden using zinc-bearing dust has been developed. The pre-reduced sinter product, assaying 60.53 pct Fe with the metallization degree of 45.23 pct, and the Zn and Pb content of 0.18 and 0.02 pct with the removal rate of 92.78 and 96.37 pct were obtained at the productivity of 0.471 t m-2 h-1 and tumble index of 81.31 pct. PMSP has opened a new way to utilize the zinc-bearing dust efficiently.

Chun, Tiejun; Zhu, Deqing

2015-02-01

151

Some aspects on porous properties of iron oxides containing foreign oxides reduced by hydrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study is to prepare suitable iron ores for industrial reduction processes. Therefore, the properties of porous, green and indurated hematite compacts as well as iron ore were investigated by quantitatively measuring pore volume, BET surface area and pore size distribution. Furthermore, the influence of foreign oxides on porous properties was investigated. Based on these data, the mechanism of sintering process of the compacts was discussed. The results obtained here suggest that the porosity of the compacts after almost 100 pct reduction does not depend upon whether the compacts were indurated or not. Therefore, it would be concluded that indurating the compact is not necessary for pulverized iron ores containing foreign oxides when reduced in the process such as a fluidized bed system.

Suzuki, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Kotanigawa, T.; Nishida, K.

1981-12-01

152

Assessment of vegetation establishment on tailings dam at an iron ore mining site of suburban Beijing, China, 7 years after reclamation with contrasting site treatment methods.  

PubMed

Strip-mining operations greatly disturb soil, vegetation and landscape elements, causing many ecological and environmental problems. Establishment of vegetation is a critical step in achieving the goal of ecosystem restoration in mining areas. At the Shouyun Iron Ore Mine in suburban Beijing, China, we investigated selective vegetation and soil traits on a tailings dam 7 years after site treatments with three contrasting approaches: (1) soil covering (designated as SC), (2) application of a straw mat, known as "vegetation carpet", which contains prescribed plant seed mix and water retaining agent (designated as VC), on top of sand piles, and (3) combination of soil covering and application of vegetation carpet (designated as SC+VC). We found that after 7 years of reclamation, the SC+VC site had twice the number of plant species and greater biomass than the SC and VC sites, and that the VC site had a comparable plant abundance with the SC+VC site but much less biodiversity and plant coverage. The VC site did not differ with the SC site in the vegetation traits, albeit low soil fertility. It is suggested that application of vegetation carpet can be an alternative to introduction of topsoil for treatment of tailings dam with fine-structured substrate of ore sands. However, combination of topsoil treatment and application of vegetation carpet greatly increases vegetation coverage and plant biodiversity, and is therefore a much better approach for assisting vegetation establishment on the tailings dam of strip-mining operations. While application of vegetation carpet helps to stabilize the loose surface of fine-structured mine wastes and to introduce seed bank, introduction of fertile soil is necessary for supplying nutrients to plant growth in the efforts of ecosystem restoration of mining areas. PMID:23811774

Yan, Demin; Zhao, Fangying; Sun, Osbert Jianxin

2013-09-01

153

Petrography and geochemistry of Mesoarchaean komatiites from the eastern Iron Ore belt, Singhbhum craton, India, and its similarity with 'Barberton type komatiite'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mesoarchaean supracrustals of the Gorumahishani-Badampahar belt, eastern India record sedimentation-volcanism like most other contemporary greenstone belts over the world. The current study reports unambiguous komatiitic rocks from Tua-Dungri hill, Gorumahishani-Badampahar belt, Jharkhand and presents a petrological and geochemical inventory of these very interesting rocks. The Tua-Dungri komatiites are characterised by a well distinguishable cumulate, platy and random spinifex zone. These Tua-Dungri komatiites are rich in SiO2 (47-50 wt%) like Barberton type komatiite or modern day boninite. Their Al depleted nature (Al2O3 = 1.36-2.95 wt%) with very low Al2O3/TiO2 (3.4-6.5) and high CaO/Al2O3 (2-3), high LREE/HREE ratios show further resemblance with the Barberton komatiite. The Tua Dungri komatiite data along with published geochemical, sedimentological and stratigraphic data from the Iron Ore Group of rocks suggest mantle plume activity during the Mesoarchaean on the Singhbhum craton.

Chaudhuri, Trisrota; Mazumder, Rajat; Arima, Makoto

2015-01-01

154

Numerical Analysis of Carbon Monoxide-Hydrogen Gas Reduction of Iron Ore in a Packed Bed by an Euler-Lagrange Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, various methods to decrease carbon dioxide emissions from iron and steel making industries have been developed. The latest blast furnace operation design is intended to induce the low reducing agent operation, highly reactive material is considered a promising way to improve reaction efficiency. Another method utilizes hydrogen in the blast furnace process for highly efficient reduction. Mathematical modeling may help to predict complex in-furnace phenomena, including momentum, heat, and mass transport. However, the current macroscopic continuum model gives no information on the individual particles. In this work, a new approach based on the discrete element method was introduced to consider the interaction between particles under fluid flow in accordance with the arrangement and properties of individual particles. We used an Euler-Lagrange method to precisely understand the influence of the reaction conditions on the behavior of coke and ore particles in three dimensions. The heterogeneity of the reaction rate and temperature distribution was observed to be influenced by the particle arrangement. The endothermic and exothermic reactions influenced each other in the packed bed. Temperature distributions nearly correlated with the gas velocity distribution because convection processes greatly affected the reaction rate. Although convection heat transfer was not a dominant issue in the packed bed, promotion of the reaction by a gas flow was effective.

Natsui, Shungo; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

2014-12-01

155

Dioxins from thermal and metallurgical processes: recent studies for the iron and steel industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In thermal metallurgical processes such as iron ore sintering and metal smelting operations, large flows of off-gases are generated. Mainly due to residue recycling in such processes, chlorine and volatile organics are always present in the feed. As a consequence of “de novo” formation, the off-gases from such processes typically contain dioxins in the range 0.3–30 ng I-TEQ\\/Nm3. So far

A. Buekens; L. Stieglitz; K. Hell; H. Huang; P. Segers

2001-01-01

156

REE signatures in 3.51 Ga BIF and Bedded Chert from Iron Ore Group, Singhbhum Craton, India: Implications for Paleoarchean Ocean Oxygenation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The metasedimentary rock records in Archaean greenmstone belts provide primary information on evolution of the early Earth. The bedded cherts and BIFs in particular have been studied from Paleo-Mesoarchean greenstone belts for understanding the nature of the oceanic circulation and for the record of early life. However, scarcity of low-strained Paleo-Mesoarchean successions is a major impediment in this regard. The southern Iron Ore Group (SIOG) (3506.8 × 2.3 Ma, U-Pb SHRIMP on zircon by Mukhopadhyay et al., 2008) of the Singhbhum Craton, eastern India includes low-grade bimodal volcanics-ultramafics and BIF -bearing greenstone succession. The bedded chert and BIFs in this succession show significant stratigraphic variation that suggests a stratified ocean and availability of dissolved oxygen in deep-water regime. Bedded chert occurs interleaved with either metabasics or with the silicic volcanics in the lower part of the succession. BIF occurs only towards the top of the succession conformably overlying the silicic volcanics. The bedded cherts with REE and other trace element compositions such as Cu, Co, Ni, Zr, Hf pointing towards contributions from terrigenous or silicic as well as mafic volcanic sources. In contrast BIFs with very low alumina content and superchondritic Y/Ho ratios (36.2 to 40.1) indicate negligible inputs from terrigenous source and is comparable to cherts from Cenozoic ridges. REE-compositions of the bedded chert with respect to PAAS show a flat pattern with feeble positive Eu-anomaly and negligible negative Ce-anomaly. The REE patterns in BIF though similar but show much stronger positive Eu-anomaly and negative Ce-anomaly in comparison. Stratigraphic trend in the geochemical proxies from bedded cherts to BIF, thus record a relative increase in positive Eu-anomaly and decrease in Ce-anomaly. The increase in Eu-anomaly coincident with the BIF deposition up section is likely to suggest increase in in hydrothermal input and ridge spreading. The increased rate of spreading consequently ushers in relative sea rise and much diminished terrigenous inputs during BIF deposition. The Ce-depletion on the other hand may be related to partial removal from seawater during iron formation deposition. The partial fractionation of Ce warrants oxidation in the ocean water column. In Paleoarchean oceans that are believed to be stratified, such condition of oxidation would mean BIF-deposition above the chemocline. Terrigenous starved deep-water BIF deposition in proximity to hydrothermal spreading centres and at shallow water depth would then likely to suggest a condition of pelagic platform on top of spreading ridge with thickening oceanic crust that might have accreted close to the chemocline through accumulation or tectonic underplating. Mukhopadhyay, J., Beukes, N.J., Armstrong, R.A., Zimmermann, U., Ghosh, G., and Medda, R.A. 2008. Dating the Oldest Greenstone in India: A 3.51-Ga Precise U-Pb SHRIMP Zircon Age for Dacitic Lava of the Southern Iron Ore Group, Singhbhum craton. Journal of Geolog, v. 116, p. 449-461.

Mukhopadhyay, J.; Ghosh, G.

2013-12-01

157

Sponge iron: economic, ecological, technical and process-specific aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process cycle sponge iron/hydrogen/iron oxide offers a simple possibility to store the energy of synthesis gases in the form of sponge iron, and at the same time to reform and to condition these synthesis gases. As 'product' of this energy storage one receives pure hydrogen which is intended for the running of fuel cells. The process cycle is investigated on two levels: (i) on a general level, economic, ecological and technical conditions are investigated and established, and (ii) on the process-specific level industrially produced iron ore pellets are tested for their suitability for employment in cyclic operation with synthesis gases. Mechanical strength, porosity, speed of reaction, additives and attendant materials (gangue) determine the properties of the pellets. The reaction degree of the iron contained in the pellets should be large and will remain constant. Negative influences such as sintering and carbonization should be avoided as far as possible in order to achieve a high number of cycles.

Selan, M.; Lehrhofer, J.; Friedrich, K.; Kordesch, K.; Simader, G.

158

Chromium Remediation or Release? Effect of Iron(II) Sulfate Addition on Chromium(VI) Leaching from Columns of Chromite Ore Processing Residue   

E-print Network

Chromite ore processing residue (COPR), derived from the so-called high lime processing of chromite ore, contains high levels of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) and has a pH between 11 and 12. Ferrous sulfate, which is used for ...

Geelhoed, Jeanine S; Meeussen, Johannes CL; Roe, Martin J; Hillier, Stephen; Thomas, Rhodri P; Farmer, John G; Paterson, Edward

2003-01-01

159

Reduction of Iron-Oxide-Carbon Composites: Part I. Estimation of the Rate Constants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new ironmaking concept using iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets has been proposed, which involves the combination of a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) and an iron bath smelter. This part of the research focuses on studying the two primary chemical kinetic steps. Efforts have been made to experimentally measure the kinetics of the carbon gasification by CO2 and wüstite reduction by CO by isolating them from the influence of heat- and mass-transport steps. A combined reaction model was used to interpret the experimental data and determine the rate constants. Results showed that the reduction is likely to be influenced by the chemical kinetics of both carbon oxidation and wüstite reduction at the temperatures of interest. Devolatilized wood-charcoal was observed to be a far more reactive form of carbon in comparison to coal-char. Sintering of the iron-oxide at the high temperatures of interest was found to exert a considerable influence on the reactivity of wüstite by virtue of altering the internal pore surface area available for the reaction. Sintering was found to be predominant for highly porous oxides and less of an influence on the denser ores. It was found using an indirect measurement technique that the rate constants for wüstite reduction were higher for the porous iron-oxide than dense hematite ore at higher temperatures (>1423 K). Such an indirect mode of measurement was used to minimize the influence of sintering of the porous oxide at these temperatures.

Halder, S.; Fruehan, R. J.

2008-12-01

160

Reduction of iron-oxide-carbon composites: part I. Estimation of the rate constants  

SciTech Connect

A new ironmaking concept using iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets has been proposed, which involves the combination of a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) and an iron bath smelter. This part of the research focuses on studying the two primary chemical kinetic steps. Efforts have been made to experimentally measure the kinetics of the carbon gasification by CO{sub 2} and wustite reduction by CO by isolating them from the influence of heat- and mass-transport steps. A combined reaction model was used to interpret the experimental data and determine the rate constants. Results showed that the reduction is likely to be influenced by the chemical kinetics of both carbon oxidation and wustite reduction at the temperatures of interest. Devolatilized wood-charcoal was observed to be a far more reactive form of carbon in comparison to coal-char. Sintering of the iron-oxide at the high temperatures of interest was found to exert a considerable influence on the reactivity of wustite by virtue of altering the internal pore surface area available for the reaction. Sintering was found to be predominant for highly porous oxides and less of an influence on the denser ores. It was found using an indirect measurement technique that the rate constants for wustite reduction were higher for the porous iron-oxide than dense hematite ore at higher temperatures (> 1423 K). Such an indirect mode of measurement was used to minimize the influence of sintering of the porous oxide at these temperatures.

Halder, S.; Fruehan, R.J. [Praxair Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Technological Center

2008-12-15

161

Tracking hydrothermal alteration and mineralization in rock-forming and accessory minerals from the Lyon Mountain Granite and related iron oxide apatite (IOA) ores from the Adirondack Mountains, New York State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lyon Mountain granite (LMG) is located in the northeastern Adirondack Mountains in New York State and hosts several low-titanium iron oxide apatite (IOA) ore deposits. The ores are predominately hosted by perthite bearing granite, which has been extensively altered to albite and microcline granite by Na and K metasomatism. This alteration results in several distinct groups of rocks that are dominated by either K or Na addition and a group composed of mixed Na and K addition. The different groups of altered perthite also lie on a trend suggestive of addition of Fe to each, consistent with a secondary mineralization origin. Previous work showed that the host rocks of the IOA ores have zircon with ~1150 Ma cores and 1060-1050 Ma rims and whole grains. This study aims to further constrain the timing of LMG emplacement, subsequent hydrothermal alteration, and Fe mineralization through geochemical analysis of the major, minor, and accessory phases and geochronology of accessory phases. SIMS analyses of zircon from several of the IOA ores reveal at least two periods of growth after LMG magmatism, at 1039 +/- 4.4 Ma and 1016 +/- 7 Ma to 1000 +/- 9 Ma. In situ EMPA and LA-ICPMS trace element analyses of the zircon rims and cores reveal that in two samples the zircon rims are enriched in rare earth elements (REE) compared to their cores, potentially pointing to a hydrothermal origin. Apatite has unusually high REE and Y concentrations (some total REE2O3 > 20 wt. % oxide and up to 8 wt. % oxide Y2O3), as does titanite, which allowed for the in situ analysis of Sm-Nd in apatite and titanite by LA-MC-ICP-MS. Initial Nd isotopic composition of both ore and host rock apatite and host rock titanite are consistent with published Adirondack initial Nd whole rock data, suggesting a local source for REE in these ores. EMPA and LA-ICPMS trace-element analyses of the major rock-forming minerals indicate that the feldspar have undergone Na-metasomatism and are depleted in REEs, perhaps signifying the "local source" and the mechanism of the REE enrichment in the LMG apatite in the IOA ores and host rocks. In contrast, the minor- and trace-element compositions of the other major rock-forming minerals (e.g., clinopyroxene and fayalite) as well as the zircon, and fluorite in the LMG have average igneous granitic trace- and minor-element compositions. To better understand the timing and origin of these post ~1050 Ma events, U-Pb ID-TIMS dating of apatite and titanite, and in situ LA-MC-ICPMS Sm-Nd analysis were done on the ore and host rock samples. Apatite dates range from 1050 to 850 Ma and titanite dates range from ~1015 to 970 Ma. There is significant age variation within samples and within grains. Titanite does not have sufficient spread for accurate Sm-Nd isochron dating and two ore-apatite samples have homogenous initial Nd isotopic and Sm-Nd elemental ratios, precluding calculation of Sm-Nd dates. A third ore sample shows a large spread in Sm-Nd and yields a Sm-Nd isochron date of ~850 Ma, in close agreement with U-Pb apatite dates. The Sm-Nd isochron and U-Pb apatite dates may reflect cooling recorded in these minerals or a younger hydrothermal mineralization event.

Buchanan, A.; Hanchar, J. M.; Steele-MacInnis, M. J.; Crowley, J. L.; Valley, P. M.; Fisher, C. M.; Fedo, C.; Piccoli, P. M.; Fournelle, J.

2012-12-01

162

Iron  

MedlinePLUS

Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

163

Geology of the Eymir iron mine, Edremit, Turkey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Eymir mine near Edremit on Turkey's Aegean coast (long 27?30'E.,1at 39?36'N.) was investigated as part of the Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enstitutsu (MTA)-U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) mineral exploration and training project, for the purpose of increasing the known mineral reserves. Geologic mapping of the mine area indicates that hematite is restricted to argillized, silicified, and pyritized dacite and possibly andesite. Hematite is present as massive replacements, impregnations, disseminations, and fracture fillings. Most of the upper part of the iron deposit consists of a breccia composed mostly of silicifiled dacite fragments in a hematite matrix. The iron deposit was apparently formed in three steps: 1. Argillation, silicification, and pyritization of the andesitic lava and dacite units as a result of a regional intrusion. 2. Intrusion of the Dere Oren dacite stock, with associated faulting, fracturing, and breccia formation at the surface. 3. Deposition of hematite by oxidation of pyrite, and transfer of iron via fractures and faults by hydrothermal or meteoric fluids. The Eymir iron deposit is a blanketlike deposit on the crest of the Sivritepe-Eymir ridge. It is 1300 meters long, 80 to 450 meters wide, and has an average thickness of 18.6 meters. Drill holes in the deposit show the iron content to range from 32.0 to 57.6 percent, and to average 46.5 percent. Most of the gangue is silica, and an arsenic impurity averaging 0.39 percent is present. Most of the deposit cannot be utilized as iron ore because of low iron content, high silica content, and high arsenic content. Ore-dressing tests have shown that it is feasible to concentrate the low-grade material, producing a concentrate having increased iron content and reduced silica content. Tests have shown also that the arsenic content of the ore can be reduced substantially by sintering. Further tests and economic feasibility studies are necessary to determine whether an economic marketable iron ore can be produced. If such studies indicate the technical and economic feasibility of utilizing all the Eymir iron deposit, detailed additional studies are recommended including: 1. A detailed drilling and sampling program to include 60 drill holes averaging 40 meters in depth and detailed sampling of mine dumps. 2. Pilot-plant testing of concentration and sintering procedures. 3. A detailed pre-investment economic feasibility study.

Jacobson, Herbert Samuel; Turet, Erdogan

1972-01-01

164

Ferronickel enrichment by fine particle reduction and magnetic separation from nickel laterite ore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ferronickel enrichment and extraction from nickel laterite ore were studied through reduction and magnetic separation. Reduction experiments were performed using hydrogen and carbon monoxide as reductants at different temperatures (700-1000°C). Magnetic separation of the reduced products was conducted using a SLon-100 cycle pulsating magnetic separator (1.2 T). Composition analysis indicates that the nickel laterite ore contains a total iron content of 22.50wt% and a total nickel content of 1.91wt%. Its mineral composition mainly consists of serpentine, hortonolite, and goethite. During the reduction process, the grade of nickel and iron in the products increases with increasing reduction temperature. Although a higher temperature is more favorable for reduction, the temperature exceeding 1000°C results in sintering of the products, preventing magnetic separation. After magnetic separation, the maximum total nickel and iron concentrations are 5.43wt% and 56.86wt%, and the corresponding recovery rates are 84.38% and 53.76%, respectively.

Tang, Xiao-hui; Liu, Run-zao; Yao, Li; Ji, Zhi-jun; Zhang, Yan-ting; Li, Shi-qi

2014-10-01

165

Ore Melting and Reduction in Silicomanganese Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The charge for silicomangansese production consists of manganese ore (often mixed with ferromanganese slag) dolomite or calcite, quartz, and in some cases, other additions. These materials have different melting properties, which have a strong effect on reduction and smelting reactions in the production of a silicomanganese alloy. This article discusses properties of Assman, Gabonese, and Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (CVRD) ores, CVRD sinter and high-carbon ferromanganese (HC FeMn) slag, and their change during silicomanganese production. The melting and reduction temperatures of these manganese sources were measured in a carbon monoxide atmosphere, using the sessile drop method and a differential thermal analysis/thermogravimetric analysis. Equilibrium phases were analyzed using FACTSage (CRCT, Montreal, Canada and GTT, Aachen, Germany) software. Experimental investigations and an analysis of equilibrium phases revealed significant differences in the melting behavior and reduction of different manganese sources. The difference in smelting of CVRD ore and CVRD sinter was attributed to a faster reduction of sinter by the graphite substrate and carbon monoxide. The calculation of equilibrium phases in the reduction process of manganese ores using FACTSage correctly reflects the trends in the production of manganese alloys. The temperature at which the manganese oxide concentration in the slag was reduced below 10 wt pct can be assigned to the top of the coke bed in the silicomanganese furnace. This temperature was in the range 1823 K to 1883 K (1550 °C to 1610 °C).

Ringdalen, Eli; Gaal, Sean; Tangstad, Merete; Ostrovski, Oleg

2010-12-01

166

Phase II Calderon Process to Produce Direct Reduced Iron Research and Development Project  

SciTech Connect

This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase 1 was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets, briquettes, sinter and coke.

Albert Calderon

2007-03-31

167

PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets, briquettes, sinter and coke.

Albert Calderon

2006-01-30

168

PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets, briquettes, sinter and coke.

Albert Calderon

2006-04-19

169

Evolution of ore deposits on terrestrial planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ore deposits on terrestrial planets materialized after core formation, mantle evolution, crustal development, interactions of surface rocks with the hydrosphere and atmosphere, and, where life exists on a planet, the involvement of biological activity. Core formation removed most of the siderophilic and chalcophilic elements, leaving mantles depleted in many of the strategic and noble metals relative to their chondritic abundances. Basaltic magma derived from partial melting of the mantle transported to the surface several metals contained in immiscible silicate and sulfide melts. Magmatic ore deposits were formed during cooling, fractional crystallization and density stratification from the basaltic melts. Such ore deposits found in earth's Archean rocks were probably generated during early histories of all terrestrial planets and may be the only types of igneous ores on Mars. Where plate tectonic activity was prevalent on a terrestrial planet, temporal evolution of ore deposits took place. Repetitive episodes of subduction modified the chemical compositions of the crust and upper mantles, leading to porphyry copper and molybdenum ores in calc-alkaline igneous rocks and granite-hosted tin and tungsten deposits. Such plate tectonic-induced mineralization in relatively young igneous rocks on earth may also have produced hydrothermal ore deposits on Venus in addition to the massive sulfide and cumulate chromite ores associated with Venusian mafic igneous rock. Sedimentary ore deposits resulting from mechanical and chemical weathering in reducing atmospheres in Archean earth included placer deposits (e.g., uraninite, gold, pyrite ores). Chromite, ilmenite, and other dense unreactive minerals could also be present on channel floors and in valley networks on Mars, while banded iron formations might underlie the Martian northern plains regions. As oxygen evolved in earth's atmosphere, so too did oxide ores. By analogy, gossans above sulfide ores probably occur on Mars, but not submarine ferromanganese nodules and crusts which have precipitated in oxygenated seawater on earth.

Burns, R. G.

1991-01-01

170

Evolution of ore deposits on terrestrial planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ore deposits on terrestrial planets materialized after core formation, mantle evolution, crustal development, interactions of surface rocks with the hydrosphere and atmosphere, and, where life exists on a planet, the involvement of biological activity. Core formation removed most of the siderophilic and chalcophilic elements, leaving mantles depleted in many of the strategic and noble metals relative to their chondritic abundances. Basaltic magma derived from partial melting of the mantle transported to the surface several metals contained in immiscible silicate and sulfide melts. Magmatic ore deposits were formed during cooling, fractional crystallization and density stratification from the basaltic melts. Such ore deposits found in earth's Archean rocks were probably generated during early histories of all terrestrial planets and may be the only types of igneous ores on Mars. Where plate tectonic activity was prevalent on a terrestrial planet, temporal evolution of ore deposits took place. Repetitive episodes of subduction modified the chemical compositions of the crust and upper mantles, leading to porphyry copper and molybdenum ores in calc-alkaline igneous rocks and granite-hosted tin and tungsten deposits. Such plate tectonic-induced mineralization in relatively young igneous rocks on earth may also have produced hydrothermal ore deposits on Venus in addition to the massive sulfide and cumulate chromite ores associated with Venusian mafic igneous rock. Sedimentary ore deposits resulting from mechanical and chemical weathering in reducing atmospheres in Archean earth included placer deposits (e.g., uraninite, gold, pyrite ores). Chromite, ilmenite, and other dense unreactive minerals could also be present on channel floors and in valley networks on Mars, while banded iron formations might underlie the Martian northern plains regions. As oxygen evolved in earth's atmosphere, so too did oxide ores. By analogy, gossans above sulfide ores probably occur on Mars, but not submarine ferromanganese nodules and crusts which have precipitated in oxygenated seawater on earth.

Burns, R. G.

171

Dioxins from thermal and metallurgical processes: recent studies for the iron and steel industry.  

PubMed

In thermal metallurgical processes such as iron ore sintering and metal smelting operations, large flows of off-gases are generated. Mainly due to residue recycling in such processes, chlorine and volatile organics are always present in the feed. As a consequence of "de novo" formation, the off-gases from such processes typically contain dioxins in the range 0.3-30 ng I-TEQ/Nm3. So far there are only very few studies about the mechanisms of dioxin formation and destruction in these metallurgical processes. In an European Union (EU) research project "Minimization of dioxins in thermal industrial processes: mechanisms, monitoring and abatement (MINIDIP)", integrated iron and steel plant has been selected as one of the industrial sectors for further investigation. A large number of particulate samples (feed, belt siftings, electrofilter) were collected from the iron ore sintering installations from various steel plants and analyzed for their organochlorocompound contents. Measurable amounts of PCDD/F, PCBz, PCB were found for all samples. The various parameters influencing their de novo synthesis activity were also evaluated in laboratory experiments, and such activity was found to be moderate for samples from the ore sinter belt, but extremely high for some ESP dusts. Fine dust is active in a wide range of temperatures starting at 200 degrees C and declining above 450 degrees C; the optimal temperature for de novo synthesis was found to be around 350 degrees C; some inhibitors, such as triethanolamine, may reduce de novo activity by 50%, and lowering the O2 concentration in the gas stream leads to a much lower amount of PCDD/F formation. On the basis of their relative mass, typical operating conditions and specific activity of the different samples, the regions in the sintering plant where de novo synthesis may take place were tentatively established. PMID:11219699

Buekens, A; Stieglitz, L; Hell, K; Huang, H; Segers, P

2001-01-01

172

Geochemistry of the furnace magnetite bed, Franklin, New Jersey, and the relationship between stratiform iron oxide ores and stratiform zinc oxide-silicate ores in the New Jersey highlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The New Jersey Highlands terrace, which is an exposure of the Middle Proterozoic Grenville orogenic belt located in northeastern United States, contains stratiform zinc oxide-silicate deposits at Franklin and Sterling Hill and numerous massive magnetite deposits. The origins of the zinc and magnetite deposits have rarely been considered together, but a genetic link is suggested by the occurrence of the Furnace magnetite bed and small magnetite lenses immediately beneath the Franklin zinc deposit. The Furnace bed was metamorphosed and deformed along with its enclosing rocks during the Grenvillian orogeny, obscuring the original mineralogy and obliterating the original rock fabrics. The present mineralogy is manganiferous magnetite plus calcite. Trace hydrous silicates, some coexisting with fluorite, have fluorine contents that are among the highest ever observed in natural assemblages. Furnace bed calcite has ??13C values of -5 ?? 1 per mil relative to Peedee belemnite (PDB) and ??18O values of 11 to 20 per mil relative to Vienna-standard mean ocean water (VSMOW). The isotopic compositions do not vary as expected for an original siderite layer that decarbonated during metamorphism, but they are consistent with nearly isochemical metamorphism of an iron oxide + calcite protolith that is chemically and minerlogically similar to iron-rich sediments found near the Red Sea brine pools and isotopically similar to Superior-type banded iron formations. Other magniferous magnite + calcite bodies occur at approximately the same stratigraphic position as far 50 km from the zinc deposits. A model is presented in which the iron and zinc deposits formed along the western edge of a Middle Proterozoic marine basin. Zinc was transported by sulfate-stable brines and was precipitated under sulfate-stable conditions as zincian carbonates and Fe-Mn-Zn oxides and silicates. Whether the zincian assemblages settled from the water column or formed by replacement reactions in shallowly buried sediments is uncertain. The iron deposits formed at interfaces between anoxic and oxygenated waters. The Furnace magnetite bed resulted from seawater oxidation of hydrothermally transported iron near a brine conduit. Iron deposits also formed regionally on the basin floor at the interface betveen anoxic deep waters and oxygenated shallower waters. These deposits include not only manganiferous magnetite + calcite bodies similar to the Furnace magnetite bed but also silicate-facies deposits that formed by iron oxide accumulation where detrital sediment was abundant. A basin margin model can be extended to Grenvillian stratiform deposits in the northwest Adirondacks of New York and the Mont Laurier basin of Quebec. In these areas iron deposits (pyrite or magnetite) are found basinward of marble-hosted sphalerite deposits, such as those in the Balmat-Edwards district. Whether the iron and zinc precipitated as sulfide assemblages or carbonate-oxide-silicate assemblages depended on whether sufficient organic matter or other reductants were available in local sediments or bottom waters to stabilize H2S.

Johnson, C.A.; Skinner, B.J.

2003-01-01

173

IRON  

EPA Science Inventory

The document surveys the effects of organic and inorganic iron that are relevant to humans and their environment. The biology and chemistry of iron are complex and only partially understood. Iron participates in oxidation reduction processes that not only affect its geochemical m...

174

Effects of Alloy Composition on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Iron-Based Materials Fabricated by Ball Milling and Spark Plasma Sintering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three PM steels, Fe-0.8C, Fe-2Cu-1.5Ni-0.5Mo-0.8C, and Fe-2Cu-2Ni-1Mo-1C, were fabricated by mechanical milling and spark plasma sintering. Dense sintered samples with fine and homogeneous microstructure were obtained. According to the results of X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy, it is suggested that the temperature of the sample can be ~50 K (50 °C) greater than that recorded. The microstructures of the as-sintered samples are divided into two groups. One consists of both ferritic and martensitic structures, and the others are of a ferritic structure. A considerable amount of martensite exists only in those high alloy Fe-2Cu-2Ni-1Mo-1C samples. The hardness of the sintered samples mainly depends on microstructure and composition. It shows that the hardness enhances with the volume fraction of martensite. However, a lower compressive strength is observed in the samples with higher volume fraction of martensite. The analysis of the deformation behavior demonstrates that the yield strength and ultimate strength are solely correlated to the properties of ferritic structure. Discontinuously yielding phenomenon, initial work hardening exponent, and decreasing rate of strain hardening exponent with strain are considered to be sensitive to the morphology of carbides formed in the ferritic structure.

Ye, Yongquan; Li, Xiaoqiang; Hu, Ke; Qu, Shengguan; Li, Yuanyuan

2015-01-01

175

Iron and Steel Phosphate Rock  

E-print Network

Phosphate Rock Platinum Potash Pumice Quartz Crystal Rare Earths Rhenium Rubidium Salt Sand and Gravel Cadmium Iodine Pumice Thorium Cement Iron Ore Quartz Crystal Tin Cesium Iron and Steel Rare Earths

Torgersen, Christian

176

Sources of ores of the ferroalloy metals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since all steel is made with the addition of alloying elements, the record of the metallic raw materials contributory to the steel industry would be far from complete without reference to the ferroalloy metals. This paper, therefore, supplements two preceding arvicles on the sources of our iron ores. The photographs, with the exception of those relating to molybdenum and vanadium, are by the author.

Burchard, E.F.

1933-01-01

177

Continuous Steelmaking Directly from Ore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-line continuous processing of high-grade hematite ore (crushed ore or fines) with a pure hydrogen reductant is assessed. An appraisal is made of the rate controlling mechanisms involved in the reduction of a pure layer of molten wustite being transported by floating on a molten carrier iron carbon-free medium at temperatures just in excess of the iron melting point. Published research clearly indicates that under these conditions the kinetics are principally controlled by molecular gaseous diffusion. Thus, the rate is essentially not influenced by total gas pressure above 1 atmosphere. Accordingly, on safety grounds it is recommended that high pressure should not be used for hydrogen steelmaking in the future, but the operation should be conducted close to atmospheric pressure with low pressure steam encapsulation of the plant items involved. Using hydrogen as the reductant means that sub-surface nucleation of CO bubbles cannot disrupt continuous processing. The operation is then no different to processing a normal liquid phase. The off-gases from the reduction zone of a melt circulation loop are super-clean and only contaminated with iron vapor. Accordingly, the best available technology becomes available for energy conservation without risk of non-fusible solids deposition. The net result is that the energy requirements are expected to be superior to other potential processes.

Warner, Noel A.

2014-12-01

178

Comparison of first order analysis and Monte Carlo methods in evaluating groundwater model uncertainty: a case study from an iron ore mine in the Pilbara Region of Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expansion of mining in the Pilbara region of Western Australia is resulting in the need to develop better water strategies to make below water table resources accessible, manage surplus water and deal with water demands for processing ore and construction. In all these instances, understanding the local and regional hydrogeology is fundamental to allow sustainable mining; minimising the impacts to the environment. An understanding of the uncertainties of the hydrogeology is necessary to quantify the risks and make objective decisions rather than relying on subjective judgements. The aim of this paper is to review some of the methods proposed by the published literature and find approaches that can be practically implemented in an attempt to estimate model uncertainties. In particular, this paper adopts two general probabilistic approaches that address the parametric uncertainty estimation and its propagation in predictive scenarios: the first order analysis and Monte Carlo simulations. A case example application of the two techniques is also presented for the dewatering strategy of a large below water table open cut iron ore mine in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. This study demonstrates the weakness of the deterministic approach, as the coefficients of variation of some model parameters were greater than 1.0; and suggests a review of the model calibration method and conceptualisation. The uncertainty propagation into predictive scenarios was calculated assuming the parameters with a coefficient of variation higher than 0.25 as deterministic, due to computational difficulties to achieve an accurate result with the Monte Carlo method. The conclusion of this case study was that the first order analysis appears to be a successful and simple tool when the coefficients of variation of calibrated parameters are less than 0.25.

Firmani, G.; Matta, J.

2012-04-01

179

Studies into the formation of dioxins in the sintering process used in the iron and steel industry. 1. Characterisation of isomer profiles in particulate and gaseous emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dioxin analyses using a DB5MS chromatography column are presented for samples of dust from an electrostatic precipitator and emissions from the main stack of a UK sinter plant. The analyses have been repeated using the SP2331 column, for which the elution order has been determined for the whole range of tetra to octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, and which provides a larger

Tianshu Wang; David R Anderson; Dennis Thompson; Malcolm Clench; Ray Fisher

2003-01-01

180

Continuum damage mechanics for sintered powder metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sintered metals are characterized by the high porosity (? 8%) and voids/micro-cracks in microns. Inelastic behavior of the materials is coupled with micro-crack propagation and coalescence of open voids. In the present work the damage evolution of the sintered iron under multi-axial monotonic loading conditions was investigated experimentally and computationally. The tests indicated that damage of the sintered iron initiated already at a stress level much lower than the macroscopic yield stress. The damage process can be divided into the stress-dominated elastic damage and the plastic damage described by the plastic strain. Based on the uniaxial tensile tests an elastic-plastic continuum damage model was developed which predicts both elastic damage and plastic damage in the sintered iron under general multi-axial monotonic loading conditions. Computational predictions agree with experiments with different multi-axial loading paths. A phenomenological continuum damage model for the sintered metal is developed based on the experimental observations to predict the inelastic behavior and damage process to failure under multi-axial loading conditions. The proposed damage model is experimentally verified under different loading conditions.

Yuan, Huang; Ma, SongYun; Zhang, Long

2015-01-01

181

Upgrading Titanium Ore Through Selective Chlorination Using Calcium Chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To develop a simple and effective process for upgrading low-grade titanium ore (ilmenite, mainly FeTiO3), a new selective chlorination process based on the use of calcium chloride (CaCl2) as the chlorine source was investigated in this study. Titanium ore and a titanium ore/CaCl2 mixture were placed in two separate crucibles inside a gas-tight quartz tube that was then positioned in a horizontal furnace. In the experiments, the titanium ore in the two crucibles reacted with either HCl produced from CaCl2 or CaCl2 itself at 1100 K (827 °C), leading to the selective removal of the iron present in the titanium ore as iron chlorides [FeCl x (l,g) ( x = 2, 3)]. Various kinds of titanium ores produced in different countries were used as feedstock, and the influence of the particle size and atmosphere on the selective chlorination was investigated. Under certain conditions, titanium dioxide (TiO2) with purity of about 97 pct was directly obtained in a single step from titanium ore containing 51 pct TiO2. Thus, selective chlorination is a feasible method for producing high purity titanium dioxide from low-grade titanium ore.

Kang, Jungshin; Okabe, Toru H.

2013-06-01

182

Synthesis and Processing of Iron (III) Oxide/Silica Nanopowder and Nanocomposite Structures  

E-print Network

iron oxide–silica coreshell powders compacted by using pulsed electric current sintering: Optical and magnetic properties,”iron oxide–silica coreshell powders compacted by using pulsed electric current sintering: Optical and magnetic properties,”

Chan, Kyle

2014-01-01

183

Antifriction properties of sintered piston rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Friction tests were conducted, using a machine with a reciprocating motion, on sintered materials and, for comparison, on chromium plated and gray cast irons. These tests confirmed a number of regularities observed in earlier studies, in which the same materials were tested on a friction machine providing for a rotary motion of the friction pair. For the comparative evaluation of

I. M. Fedorchenko; B. I. Chaika; A. V. Klimenko; T. V. Larin; B. M. Astashkevich

1968-01-01

184

New Alloying Systems for Sintered Steels: Critical Aspects of Sintering Behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygen-sensitive alloying elements such as Mn, Si, and Cr have a high potential for improving the properties of low alloyed sintered steels while reducing the alloying cost. However, it is necessary to find a way for avoiding, or at least minimizing, the oxidation of these elements especially during the early stages of the sintering cycle. In this study Mn, Si, and Cr were introduced in the form of a master alloy powder designed to be mixed with the iron base powder and provide the final composition of the steel during the sintering process. The reduction/oxidation phenomena taking place during the heating stage were studied by thermogravimetry, dilatometry, and mass spectroscopy, using either reducing (H2) or inert (Ar) atmospheres. The results show how the difference in chemical activity between base iron powder and master alloy causes the so called "internal-getter" effect, by which the reduction of less stable iron oxides leads to oxidation of the elements with higher affinity for oxygen. This effect can be somehow minimized when sintering in H2, since the iron oxides are reduced at lower temperatures at which the reactivity of the elements in the master alloy is lower. However, H2 concentration in the processing atmosphere needs to be carefully adapted to the specific composition of the materials being processed in order to minimize decarburization by methane formation during sintering.

Oro, Raquel; Campos, Mónica; Gierl-Mayer, Christian; Danninger, Herbert; Torralba, José Manuel

2015-03-01

185

Manufacture of soft magnetic parts from coarse iron powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.It is shown that a manufacturing process including compression with a suitable degree of reduction offers a means of improving the magnetic properties of sintered parts from iron powder. By performing sintering and annealing at temperatures which are acceptable under industrial production conditions, it is possible to obtain higher magnetic properties in iron powder components.2.Raising the sintering temperature to 1250°C

A. G. Bol'shechenko; I. D. Radomysel'skii; O. A. Panasyuk; E. L. Pechentkovskii; S. M. Makhnovskii

1972-01-01

186

Two modelling approaches to water-quality simulation in a flooded iron-ore mine (Saizerais, Lorraine, France): A semi-distributed chemical reactor model and a physically based distributed reactive transport pipe network model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flooding of abandoned mines in the Lorraine Iron Basin (LIB) over the past 25 years has degraded the quality of the groundwater tapped for drinking water. High concentrations of dissolved sulphate have made the water unsuitable for human consumption. This problematic issue has led to the development of numerical tools to support water-resource management in mining contexts. Here we examine two modelling approaches using different numerical tools that we tested on the Saizerais flooded iron-ore mine (Lorraine, France). A first approach considers the Saizerais Mine as a network of two chemical reactors (NCR). The second approach is based on a physically distributed pipe network model (PNM) built with EPANET 2 software. This approach considers the mine as a network of pipes defined by their geometric and chemical parameters. Each reactor in the NCR model includes a detailed chemical model built to simulate quality evolution in the flooded mine water. However, in order to obtain a robust PNM, we simplified the detailed chemical model into a specific sulphate dissolution-precipitation model that is included as sulphate source/sink in both a NCR model and a pipe network model. Both the NCR model and the PNM, based on different numerical techniques, give good post-calibration agreement between the simulated and measured sulphate concentrations in the drinking-water well and overflow drift. The NCR model incorporating the detailed chemical model is useful when a detailed chemical behaviour at the overflow is needed. The PNM incorporating the simplified sulphate dissolution-precipitation model provides better information of the physics controlling the effect of flow and low flow zones, and the time of solid sulphate removal whereas the NCR model will underestimate clean-up time due to the complete mixing assumption. In conclusion, the detailed NCR model will give a first assessment of chemical processes at overflow, and in a second time, the PNM model will provide more detailed information on flow and chemical behaviour (dissolved sulphate concentrations, remaining mass of solid sulphate) in the network. Nevertheless, both modelling methods require hydrological and chemical parameters (recharge flow rate, outflows, volume of mine voids, mass of solids, kinetic constants of the dissolution-precipitation reactions), which are commonly not available for a mine and therefore call for calibration data.

Hamm, V.; Collon-Drouaillet, P.; Fabriol, R.

2008-02-01

187

Two modelling approaches to water-quality simulation in a flooded iron-ore mine (Saizerais, Lorraine, France): a semi-distributed chemical reactor model and a physically based distributed reactive transport pipe network model.  

PubMed

The flooding of abandoned mines in the Lorraine Iron Basin (LIB) over the past 25 years has degraded the quality of the groundwater tapped for drinking water. High concentrations of dissolved sulphate have made the water unsuitable for human consumption. This problematic issue has led to the development of numerical tools to support water-resource management in mining contexts. Here we examine two modelling approaches using different numerical tools that we tested on the Saizerais flooded iron-ore mine (Lorraine, France). A first approach considers the Saizerais Mine as a network of two chemical reactors (NCR). The second approach is based on a physically distributed pipe network model (PNM) built with EPANET 2 software. This approach considers the mine as a network of pipes defined by their geometric and chemical parameters. Each reactor in the NCR model includes a detailed chemical model built to simulate quality evolution in the flooded mine water. However, in order to obtain a robust PNM, we simplified the detailed chemical model into a specific sulphate dissolution-precipitation model that is included as sulphate source/sink in both a NCR model and a pipe network model. Both the NCR model and the PNM, based on different numerical techniques, give good post-calibration agreement between the simulated and measured sulphate concentrations in the drinking-water well and overflow drift. The NCR model incorporating the detailed chemical model is useful when a detailed chemical behaviour at the overflow is needed. The PNM incorporating the simplified sulphate dissolution-precipitation model provides better information of the physics controlling the effect of flow and low flow zones, and the time of solid sulphate removal whereas the NCR model will underestimate clean-up time due to the complete mixing assumption. In conclusion, the detailed NCR model will give a first assessment of chemical processes at overflow, and in a second time, the PNM model will provide more detailed information on flow and chemical behaviour (dissolved sulphate concentrations, remaining mass of solid sulphate) in the network. Nevertheless, both modelling methods require hydrological and chemical parameters (recharge flow rate, outflows, volume of mine voids, mass of solids, kinetic constants of the dissolution-precipitation reactions), which are commonly not available for a mine and therefore call for calibration data. PMID:18037533

Hamm, V; Collon-Drouaillet, P; Fabriol, R

2008-02-19

188

Summary of the mineralogy of the Colorado Plateau uranium ores  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the Colorado Plateau uranium has been produced chiefly from very shallow mines in carnotite ores (oxidized vanadiferous uranium ores) until recent deeper mining penetrated black unoxidized ores in water-saturated rocks and extensive exploration has discovered many deposits of low to nonvanadiferous ores. The uranium ores include a wide range from highly vanadiferous and from as much as one percent to a trace of copper, and contain a small amount of iron and traces of lead, zinc, molybdenum, cobalt, nickel, silver, manganese, and other metals. Recent investigation indicates that the carnotite ores have been derived by progressive oxidation of primary (unoxidized) black ores that contain low-valent uranium and vanadium oxides and silicates. The uranium minerals, uraninite and coffinite, are associated with coalified wood or other carbonaceous material. The vanadium minerals, chiefly montroseite, roscoelite, and other vanadium silicates, occur in the interstices of the sandstone and in siltstone and clay pellets as well as associated with fossil wood. Calcite, dolomite, barite and minor amounts of sulfides, arsenides, and selenides occur in the unoxidized ore. Partially oxidized vanadiferous ore is blue black, purplish brown, or greenish black in contrast to the black or dark gray unoxidized ore. Vanadium combines with uranium to form rauvite. The excess vanadium is present in corvusite, fernandinite, melanovanadite and many other quadrivalent and quinquevalent vanadium minerals as well as in vanadium silicates. Pyrite and part or all of the calcite are replaced by iron oxides and gypsum. In oxidized vanadiferous uranium ores the uranium is fixed in the relatively insoluble minerals carnotite and tyuyamunite, and the excess vanadium commonly combines with one or more of the following: calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, aluminum, iron, copper, manganese, or barium, or rarely it forms the hydrated pentoxide. The relatively stable vanadium silicates are little affected by oxidation. The unoxidized nonvanadiferous ores contain uraninite and coffinite in close association with coalified wood and iron and copper sulfides, and traces of many other sulfides, arsenides and selenides. The oxidized nonvanadiferous ores differ from the vanadiferous ores because, in the absence of vanadium to complex the uranium, a great variety of secondary yellow and greenish-yellow uranyl minerals are formed. The uranyl sulfates and carbonates are more common than the oxides, phosphates, arsenates, and silicates. Because the sulfates and carbonates are much less stable that carnotite, the oxidized nonvanadiferous ores occure only as halos around cores of unoxidized ore and do not form large oxidized deposits close to the surface of the ground as carnotite ores. Oxidation has taken place since the lowering of the water table in the present erosion cycle. Because of local structures and the highly lenticular character of the fluviatile host rocks perched water tables and water-saturated lenses of sandstone are common high above the regional water table. Unoxidized ore has been preserved in these water-saturated rocks and the boundary between oxidized and unoxidized ore is very irregular.

Weeks, Alice D.; Coleman, Robert Griffin; Thompson, Mary E.

1956-01-01

189

The connection between iron ore formations and "mud-shrimp" colonizations around sunken wood debris and hydrothermal sediments in a Lower Cretaceous continental rift basin, Mecsek Mts., Hungary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Early Cretaceous, the continental rift basin of the Mecsek Mts. (Hungary), was situated on the southern edge of the European plate. The opening of the North Atlantic Ocean created a dilatational regime that expanded to the southern edge of the European plate, where several extensional basins and submarine volcanoes were formed during the Early Cretaceous epoch. Permanent seaquake activity caused high swell events during which a large amount of terrestrial wood fragments entered into submarine canyons from rivers or suspended woods which had sunk into the deep seafloor. These fragments created extended wood-fall deposits which contributed large-scale flourishing of numerous burrowing thalassinid crustaceans. Twelve different thalassinid coprolite ichnospecies can be found in the Berriasian-Hauterivian volcano-sedimentary formations. According to the seladonitic crustacean burrows which associated with framboidal pyrite containing Zoophycos and Chondrites ichnofossils (i.e. a "fodinichnia" trace fossil association), the bottom water was aerobic and the pore water was anaerobic; in the latter sulfate reduction occurred. The preservation of wood fragments around thalassinid burrows can be explained by rapid sedimentation related to turbidity currents. Due to the low temperature hydrothermal circulations of seawater, large amounts of iron were released from intrusive, pillowed basaltic sills; these sills intruded into soft, water-saturated sediments containing large amounts of thalassinid excrement. In the coprolites can be found idiomorphic mineral particles originating from the basalts, and coprolites can often be found in peperitic interpillow sediments. This indicates that the life-activity of the decapoda crustaceans in many Lower Cretaceous occurrences initially preceded the first magmatic eruptions. The paroxysm of the rift volcanism took place during the Valanginian age, when some submarine volcanoes emerged above sea level, reaching a maximum height of 300 m (above sea level); from these volcanoes further terrestrial plant debris got into the basin. Hydrothermal vents, which periodically occurred around basaltic bodies until the Hauterivian, could have contributed to the creation of favourable temperature or nutritional conditions for some decapoda crustaceans - e.g the recently described new callianassid (Nihonotrypaea thermophila), which is known only from hydrothermally infuenced habitats. Around the intrusive pillow basalts, hydrothermal circulation of oxygenated seawater occured and thick seladonitic and goethitic fills formed along the cracks and cavities of pillowed basalts. When oxidized, sulfate-rich fluids passed into the crustacean coprolite-rich, reductive and anaerobic interpillow sediments, these fluids underwent an intensive sulfate reduction. This was primarily due to termophil sulfate reducers which as proved by the negative sulfur isotope values (- 35.9‰ and - 28.0‰ ? 34S) of sulfidic hydrothermal chimneys which contain framboidal pyrite and which were formed between the pillow basalts. The largest chimney structure reached a height of 1 m, with a mass of about 150 kg. The sulfide phase is characterized by Mo enrichments up to 511 ppm. The fluid inclusion measurements from the calcitic precipitations of the sulfide chimneys indicate low temperature (~ 129 °C) hydrothermal activity, and the salinity of the primary fluid inclusions proves the seawater origin of the hydrothermal fluids. In some thalassinid crustacean coprolite rich interpillow sediments and in the cracks of some hydrothermal calcite, there is the presence of black, lustrous bitumine (gilsonite) which is the distillation product of hydrothermal petroleum formed mainly by the coprolites. Hydrothermal circulations of oxygenated seawater caused subsequent oxidation of the sulfidic, interpillow sediments and chimneys; these were altered to form goethite. Due to the short-period of the hydrothermal activity among the intrusive pillowed basalts, sulfidized interpillow sediments could not be oxidized completely. The text

Jáger, Viktor; Molnár, Ferenc; Buchs, David; Kod?ra, Peter

2012-09-01

190

Catalytic activity of oxide and sulfide ore catalysts in lignite hydrogenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of various iron-containing ore catalysts during hydrogenation of Kansk-Achinsk lignite into liquid products in H-donor solvent (tetraline) has been studied. Ore samples contained pyrite, hematite and magnetite minerals. The most active appear to be pyrite samples. The catalytic effect of ore systems is, apparently, associated with the fact that during hydrogenation more active than tetraline H-donors are formed

P. N. Kuznetsov; V. I. Sharypov; M. G. Kurochkin; T. M. Pospelova; E. D. Kornietz; V. A. Trukhacheva; V. G. Chumakov

1989-01-01

191

Mercury in itabirite-hosted soft hematite ore in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero of Minas Gerais  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury contents in Precambrian banded iron formation-hosted hematite ores are virtually unknown. In an attempt to provide information on the abundance and distribution of Hg in Fe ore, we present analyses for Hg in samples of high-grade soft hematite ore from Gongo Soco, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Bulk samples contain from < 5 to 25 ppb Hg without obvious correlation with major elements.

Alexandre Raphael Cabral; Orlando Garcia Rocha Filho; Richard David Jones

2008-01-01

192

Iron and Steel Phosphate Rock  

E-print Network

Phosphate Rock Platinum Potash Pumice Quartz Crystal Rare Earths Rhenium Rubidium Salt Sand and Gravel Platinum Tellurium Bromine Indium Potash Thallium Cadmium Iodine Pumice Thorium Cement Iron Ore Quartz

Torgersen, Christian

193

Sintered plaque characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structural transformations occurring during sintering, the fabrication of a slurry produced sintered plaque, are detailed. Degradation of the positive electrode in performance in cycling in a nickel hydrogen battery were traced to the quality of the sintered plaque. Electrode degradation was found to be a limiting factor in the battery cycle life. Details of microstructural characterization and distribution of pores, examination of plastic flow during shrinkage, and observations of the rounding of nickel powder particles during the slurry process are presented.

Vaidyanathan, H.

1982-01-01

194

Introduction to ore geology  

SciTech Connect

This textbook on ore geology is for second and third year undergraduates and closely parallels the undergraduate course given in this subject at England's University of Leicester. The volume covers three major areas: (1) principles of ore geology, (2) examples of the most important types of ore deposits, and (3) mineralization in space and time. Many chapters have been thoroughly revised for this edition and a chapter on diamonds has been added. Chapters on greisen and pegmatite have also been added, the former in response to the changing situation in tin mining following the recent tin crisis, and the latter in response to suggestions from geologists in a number of overseas countries. Some chapters have been considerably expanded and new sections added, including disseminated gold deposits and unconformity-associated uranium deposits. The author also expands on the importance of viewing mineral deposits from an economic standpoint.

Evans, A.M.

1987-01-01

195

Silicon nitride sintered body  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sintering of silicon carbide and it production are described. The method of production is by calcination in which molding is followed by sintering without compression. The invention improves the composition of the silicon carbide ceramic. Six examples of the invention are illustrated and discussed.

Suzuki, K.; Shinohara, N.

1984-01-01

196

Sintering Reaction of Pseudoleucite Syenite: Thermodynamic Analysis and Process Evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of comprehensive analysis of the modal composition of a pseudoleucite syenite ore sample, collected from the Zijin Hill of Lin County, Shanxi Province, thermodynamic analysis of the pseudoleucite syenite sintering process with sodium carbonate as the additive was carried out. It indicated that when the pseudoleucite syenite was sintered at 760-880°C for 1.0-1.5 h, with sodium carbonate as the additive. The decomposition rate of minerals in the pseudoleucite syenite could reach 97.1%. The thermodynamic calculation shows that it needs to consume Na 2CO 3, i.e., 0.65 t treating per ton pseudoleucite syenite ore and approximately 95% of Na 2CO 3 could be recycled. This process consumes heat energy (2.29-2.48)×10 -6 kJ, corresponding to standard coal 190.97-206.82 kg as the thermal efficiency was 40% and CO 2 emission was 0.77-0.81 t. Compared with the Russian limestone-sintering technique, the natural mineral resources and energy consumptions and greenhouse gas emissions of the soda-sintering technique were reduced by 65%, 63%, and 65%, respectively. It is, therefore, feasible that the procedure suggested in this article could be industrialized providing both economic benefit and environmental conservation.

TAN, Danjun; MA, Hongwen; LI, Ge; LIU, Hao; ZOU, Dan

197

Sintering titanium powders  

SciTech Connect

Recently, there has been renewed interest in low-cost titanium. Near-net-shape powder metallurgy offers the potential of manufacturing titanium articles without costly and difficult forming and machining operations; hence, processing methods such as conventional press-and-sinter, powder forging and powder injection molding are of interest. The sintering behavior of a variety of commercial and experimental titanium powders was studied. Commercial powders were acquired that were produced different routes: (i) sponge fines from the primary titanium processing; (ii) via the hydride-dehydride process; and (iii) gas atomization. The influence of vacuum sintering time (0.5 to 32 hrs) and temperature (1200, 1275 or 1350°C) on the microstructure (porosity present) of cold pressed powders was studied. The results are discussed in terms of the difference in powder characteristics, with the aim of identify the characteristics required for full density via press-and-sinter processing. Near-net-shape tensile bars were consolidated via cold pressed and sintered. After sintering, a sub-set of the tensile bars was hot-isostatic pressed (HIPed). The microstructure and properties of the bars were compared in the sintered and HIPed conditions.

Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Alman, David E.

2005-09-01

198

Bioprocessing of ores: Application to space resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of microorganisms in the oxidation and leaching of various ores (especially those of copper, iron, and uranium) is well known. This role is increasingly being applied by the mining, metallurgy, and sewage industries in the bioconcentration of metal ions from natural receiving waters and from waste waters. It is concluded that bioprocessing using bacteria in closed reactors may be a variable option for the recovery of metals from the lunar regolith. Obviously, considerable research must be done to define the process, specify the appropriate bacteria, determine the necessary conditions and limitations, and evaluate the overall feasibility.

Johansson, Karl R.

1992-01-01

199

77 FR 44204 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Control of Iron and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Implementation Plans; Maryland; Control of Iron and Steel Production Installations; Sintering...Maryland SIP's regulation for the Control of Iron and Steel Production Installations as they...section of the regulation for the Control of Iron and Steel Production Installations...

2012-07-27

200

A Novel Sintering Gas Desulphurization Technology Applied in the Sintering Plants in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) produced by the sinter machine takes up more than 50% of the total SO2 emission of the iron and steel industry in China. So it is necessary to take effective measures to strengthen the control of sintering gas desulphurization. A novel sintering gas desulphurization technology, the inner and outer circulating fluidized bed (IOCFB) which is suitable for retrofitting the existing metallurgical industry plants in China will be introduced in this paper. The novel composite internals which can improve the removal efficiency of SO2 is also described. Current research and development needs for IOCFB are to further increase desulphurization efficiency and improve the reliability of plant components. To solve these problems, a pilot plant emulating IOCFB desulfurization processes had been built.

Ting, Jin; Tingyu, Zhu; Pengfei, Jing; Meng, Ye

2010-05-01

201

Single-Step Ironmaking from Ore to Improve Energy Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

The pig iron nugget process was developed as an alternative to the traditional blast furnace process by Kobe Steel. The process aimed to produce pig iron nuggets, which have similar chemical and physical properties to blast furnace pig iron, in a single step. The pig iron nugget process utilizes coal instead of coke and self reducing and fluxing dried green balls instead of pellets and sinters. In this process the environmental emissions caused by coke and sinter production, and energy lost between pellet induration (heat hardening) and transportation to the blast furnace can be eliminated. The objectives of this research were to (1) produce pig iron nuggets in the laboratory, (2) characterize the pig iron nugget produced and compare them with blast furnace pig iron, (3) investigate the furnace temperature and residence time effects on the pig iron nugget production, and (4) optimize the operational furnace temperatures and residence times. The experiments involved heat treatment of self reducing and fluxing dried green balls at various furnace temperatures and residence times. Three chemically and physically different products were produced after the compete reduction of iron oxides to iron depending on the operational furnace temperatures and/or residence times. These products were direct reduced iron (DRI), transition direct reduced iron (TDRI), and pig iron nuggets. The increase in the carbon content of the system as a function of furnace temperature and/or residence time dictated the formation of these products. The direct reduced iron, transition direct reduced iron, and pig iron nuggets produced were analyzed for their chemical composition, degree of metallization, apparent density, microstructure and microhardness. In addition, the change in the carbon content of the system with the changing furnace temperature and/or residence time was detected by optical microscopy and Microhardness measurements. The sufficient carbon dissolution required for the production of pig iron nuggets was determined. It was determined that pig iron nuggets produced had a high apparent density (6.7-7.2 gr/cm3), highly metallized, slag free structure, high iron content (95-97%), high microhardness values (> 325 HVN) and microstructure similar to white cast iron. These properties made them a competitive alternative to blast furnace pig iron.

S.K. Kawatra; B. Anamerie; T.C. Eisele

2005-10-01

202

Preparation and mechanism of the sintered bricks produced from Yellow River silt and red mud.  

PubMed

The preparation, characteristics and mechanisms of sintered bricks manufactured by Yellow River silt and red mud were studied. The sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, water absorption and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition. Sintering mechanisms were discussed through linear regression analysis. Crystalline components of raw materials and bricks were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. Leaching toxicity of raw materials and bricks were measured according to sulphuric acid and nitric acid method. Radiation safety of the sintered bricks was characterized by calculating internal exposure index and external exposure index. The results showed that at the chosen best parameters (red mud content of 40%, sintering temperature of 1050°C and sintering time of 2h), the best characteristics of sintered bricks could be obtained. The weight loss on ignition of sintered bricks was principally caused by the removal of absorbed water and crystal water. The sintering shrinkage of sintered bricks mainly depended on sodium compounds and iron compounds of red mud. The sintering process made some components of raw materials transform into other crystals having better thermostability. Besides, the leaching toxicity and radioactivity index of sintered bricks produced under the optimum condition were all below standards. PMID:22192584

He, Hongtao; Yue, Qinyan; Su, Yuan; Gao, Baoyu; Gao, Yue; Wang, Jingzhou; Yu, Hui

2012-02-15

203

OBLIQUE/EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, WITH SINTERING PLANT RUINS AND TRACES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OBLIQUE/EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, WITH SINTERING PLANT RUINS AND TRACES OF L. & N. RAILROAD EXTENDING THROUGH GRACE'S GAP TOWARD THE BIRMINGHAM CITY CENTER. - Republic Steel, Spaulding Red Ore Mine (Ruins), Spanning Grace's Pass at Louisville & Nashville Railroad, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

204

Effect of the powder characteristics of Sisub3Nsub4 on the microstructure of sintered bodies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silicon nitride powders sintered with the addition of 2 wt% Mg0 to 95% theoretical density after attrition milling and subsequent purification were evaluated. Preparation of the powders is described. The powder characteristics (specific surfaces, iron concentration, and oxygen content), and density, weight loss, and phase state of the sinter bodies as a function of powder preparation are presented.

Woetting, G.; Hausner, H.

1981-01-01

205

Effect of attrition milling on the reaction sintering of silicon nitride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silicon powder was ground in a steel attrition mill under nitrogen. Air exposed powder was compacted, prefired in helium, and reaction sintered in nitrogen-4 v/o hydrogen. For longer grinding times, oxygen content, surface area and compactability of the powder increased; and both alpha/beta ratio and degreee of nitridation during sintering increased. Iron content remained constant.

Herbell, T. P.; Glasgow, T. K.; Yeh, H. C.

1978-01-01

206

Gaseous reduction of iron oxides: Part III. Reduction-oxidation of porous and dense iron oxides and iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The internal reduction of high-grade granular hematite ore in hydrogen and carbon monoxide, and also the internal oxidation\\u000a of porous iron granules in CO2-CO mixtures have been investigated. To assist the interpretation of the rate data for porous iron and iron oxides, rate measurements\\u000a have been made also with dense wustite, previously grown on iron by oxidation. The iron formed

E. T. Turkdogan; J. V. Vinters

1972-01-01

207

Sintered wire annode  

DOEpatents

A plurality of high atomic number wires are sintered together to form a porous rod that is parted into porous disks which will be used as x-ray targets. A thermally conductive material is introduced into the pores of the rod, and when a stream of electrons impinges on the sintered wire target and generates x-rays, the heat generated by the impinging x-rays is removed by the thermally conductive material interspersed in the pores of the wires.

Falce, Louis R. (Surprise, AZ); Ives, R. Lawrence (Saratoga, CA)

2007-12-25

208

Molecular Structure of Iron  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since antiquity, Iron has been known for its malleability and abundance. Iron is a soft grey metal that is very ductile and easy to work; it can be rolled, hammered, bent, and tempered. Iron makes up 5% of the earth's crust in the form of ores such as hematite, limonite, magnetite, and taconite. This makes it the second most abundant metal, following aluminum. Most iron is used to manufacture carbon steel: iron with about 1.5% carbon and traces of other elements, but it is also used for many other alloys and steels of various types. Iron melts at 1808 degrees Kelvin and boils at 3023 degrees Kelvin. Insufficient iron in the bloodstream causes anemia, a medical condition causing unusual tiredness and other symptoms resulting from underdeveloped or few red blood cells.

2003-04-16

209

Sintering Theory and Practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although sintering is an essential process in the manufacture of ceramics and certain metals, as well as several other industrial operations, until now, no single book has treated both the background theory and the practical application of this complex and often delicate procedure. In Sintering Theory and Practice, leading researcher and materials engineer Randall M. German presents a comprehensive treatment of this subject that will be of great use to manufacturers and scientists alike. This practical guide to sintering considers the fact that while the bonding process improves strength and other engineering properties of the compacted material, inappropriate methods of control may lead to cracking, distortion, and other defects. It provides a working knowledge of sintering, and shows how to avoid problems while accounting for variables such as particle size, maximum temperature, time at that temperature, and other problems that may cause changes in processing. The book describes the fundamental atomic events that govern the transformation from particles to solid, covers all forms of the sintering process, and provides a summary of many actual production cycles. Building from the ground up, it begins with definitions and progresses to measurement techniques, easing the transition, especially for students, into advanced topics such as single-phase solid-state sintering, microstructure changes, the complications of mixed particles, and pressure-assisted sintering. German draws on some six thousand references to provide a coherent and lucid treatment of the subject, making scientific principles and practical applications accessible to both students and professionals. In the process, he also points out and avoids the pitfalls found in various competing theories, concepts, and mathematical disputes within the field. A unique opportunity to discover what sintering is all about--both in theory and in practice What is sintering? We see the end product of this thermal process all around us--in manufactured objects from metals, ceramics, polymers, and many compounds. From a vast professional literature, Sintering Theory and Practice emerges as the only comprehensive, systematic, and self-contained volume on the subject. Covering all aspects of sintering as a processing topic, including materials, processes, theories, and the overall state of the art, the book Offers numerous examples, illustrations, and tables that detail actual processing cycles, and that stress existing knowledge in the field Uses the specifics of various consolidation cycles to illustrate the basics Leads the reader from the fundamentals to advanced topics, without getting bogged down in various mathematical disputes over treatments and measurements Supports the discussion with critically selected references from thousands of sources Examines the sintering behavior of a wide variety of engineered materials--metals, alloys, oxide ceramics, composites, carbides, intermetallics, glasses, and polymers Guides the reader through the sintering processes for several important industrial materials and demonstrates how to control these processes effectively and improve present techniques Provides a helpful reference for specific information on materials, processing problems, and concepts For practitioners and researchers in ceramics, powder metallurgy, and other areas, and for students and faculty in materials science and engineering, this book provides the know-how and understanding crucial to many industrial operations, offers many ideas for further research, and suggests future applications of this important technology. This book offers an unprecedented opportunity to explore sintering in both practical and theoretical terms, whether at the lab or in real-world applications, and to acquire a broad, yet thorough, understanding of this important technology.

German, Randall M.

1996-01-01

210

APPLIED METALLURGY. KINETICS OF SINTERING IN fi-FeGe  

E-print Network

-Fe,Ge, by sinteringa compact mixture of powders of the basic elements, viz. iron and germanium. It was interesting magnetically ordered phases in the wide range of compositions. The structural and magnetic properties of /3-Fez appearing during the sintering of bFe5Ge3froma mixture of powders of thepure elements,Fe and Ge

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

211

Sintering of Lunar and Simulant Glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most oxygen-extraction techniques are temperature-dependent, with specific temperatures resulting in optimized oxygen yield. An example is hydrogen reduction, in which the optimum process temperature is 1050 °C. However, glass-rich lunar soil begins to show the effects of sintering at temperatures of 900 °C or lower. Sintering welds particles together due to viscous relaxation of the glass in the sample. One approach to avoid problems related to sintering, such as difficulty in removing waste material from the reactor, is to keep the soil in motion. One of several methods being studied to accomplish this is fluidized-bed processing techniques, in which the grains are kept in motion by the action of flowing reductant gas. The spent material can be removed from the chamber while still fluidized, or the fluidizing motion can continue until the material has cooled below ~500 °C. Until end-to-end prototypes are built that can remove the heated soil, the most practical option is to keep the bed fluidized while cooling the waste material. As ISRU technology advances, another option will become valuable, which is to intentionally sinter the material to a great enough extent that it becomes a brick. The free iron in lunar soil is magnetic, and ferromagnetic bricks can be manipulated by robotic systems using electromagnetic end effectors. Finally, if an electromagnetic field is applied to the soil while the brick is being formed, the brick itself will become a magnet. This property can be used to create self-aligning bricks or other building materials that do not require fasteners. Although sintering creates a challenge for early lunar surface systems, knowledge gained during prototype development will be valuable for the advanced lunar outpost.

Cooper, Bonnie L.

2008-01-01

212

Sintering of Lunar and Simulant Glass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most oxygen-extraction techniques are temperature-dependent, with higher temperatures resulting in higher oxygen yield. An example is hydrogen reduction, in which the optimum process temperature is 1050 C. However, glass-rich lunar soil begins to show the effects of sintering at temperatures of 900 C or lower. Sintering welds particles together due to viscous relaxation of the glass in the sample. One approach to avoid problems related to sintering, such as difficulty in removing waste material from the reactor, is to keep the soil in motion. One of several methods being studied to accomplish this is fluidized-bed processing techniques, in which the grains are kept in motion by the action of flowing reductant gas. The spent material can be removed from the chamber while still fluidized, or the fluidizing motion can continue until the material has cooled below approx. 500 C. Until end-to-end prototypes are built that can remove the heated soil, the most practical option is to keep the bed fluidized while cooling the waste material. As ISRU technology advances, another option will become valuable, which is to intentionally sinter the material to a great enough extent that it becomes a brick. The free iron in lunar soil is magnetic, and ferromagnetic bricks can be manipulated by robotic systems using electromagnetic end effectors. Finally, if an electromagnetic field is applied to the soil while the brick is being formed, the brick itself will become a magnet. This property can be used to create self-aligning bricks or other building materials that do not require fasteners. Although sintering creates a challenge for early lunar surface systems, knowledge gained during prototype development will be valuable for the advanced lunar outpost.

Cooper, Bonnie L.

2007-01-01

213

SinterHab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project describes a design study for a core module on a Lunar South Pole outpost, constructed by 3D printing technology with the use of in-situ resources and equipped with a bio-regenerative life support system. The module would be a hybrid of deployable (CLASS II) and in-situ built (CLASS III) structures. It would combine deployable membrane structures and pre-integrated rigid elements with a sintered regolith shell for enhanced radiation and micrometeorite shielding. The closed loop ecological system would support a sustainable presence on the Moon with particular focus on research activities. The core module accommodates from four to eight people, and provides laboratories as a test bed for development of new lunar technologies directly in the environment where they will be used. SinterHab also includes an experimental garden for development of new bio-regenerative life support system elements. The project explores these various concepts from an architectural point-of-view particularly, as they constitute the building, construction and interior elements. The construction method for SinterHab is based on 3D printing by sintering of the lunar regolith. Sinterator robotics 3D printing technology proposed by NASA JPL enables construction of future generations of large lunar settlements with little imported material and the use of solar energy. The regolith is processed, placed and sintered by the Sinterator robotics system which combines the NASA ATHLETE and the Chariot remotely controlled rovers. Microwave sintering creates a rigid structure in the form of walls, vaults and other architectural elements. The interior is coated with a layer of inflatable membranes inspired by the TransHab project. The life-support system is mainly bio-regenerative and several parts of the system are intrinsically multifunctional and serve more than one purpose. The plants for food production are also an efficient part of atmosphere revitalization and water treatment. Moreover, the plants will be used as a "winter garden" for psychological and recreational purposes. The water in the revitalization system has a multifunctional use, as radiation shielding in the safe-haven habitat core. The garden module creates an artificial outdoor environment mitigating the notion of confinement on the lunar surface. Fiber optics systems and plasma lamps are used for transmission of natural and artificial light into the interior.

Rousek, Tomáš; Eriksson, Katarina; Doule, Ond?ej

2012-05-01

214

Sintering Atmosphere Effects on the Ductility of W- Ni- Fe Heavy Metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Residual porosity has a strong negative effect on the ductility of tungsten-nickel-iron heavy metals. This investigation examines the sintering atmosphere role in stabilizing detrimental residual pore structures. Two types of experiments are reported on alloys containing 93, 95, or 97 wt pct W with Ni:Fe ratios of 7:3. The negative effect of prolonged sintering is attributed to pore coarsening involving trapped gas in the pores. Calculated pore growth rates for hydrogen filled pores suggest that pore coarsening involves both ripening and coalescence driven by tungsten grain growth. The effect of the sintering atmosphere is analyzed for final stage pore elimination. It is demonstrated that a change in sintering atmosphere from hydrogen to argon midway through the sintering cycle can aid pore degassing and increase the sintered ductility and strength.

German, R. M.; Churn, K. S.

1984-04-01

215

Leaching of metals from fresh and sintered red mud.  

PubMed

The disposal of red mud, a solid waste generated during the extraction of alumina from bauxite, is one of the major problems faced by the aluminum industry. Proper disposal followed by its utilization, for example as bricks, can provide a satisfactory solution to this problem. Pollution potential of red mud and its finished product, due to metals leaching out from them under certain environmental conditions, need to be studied. Sintering of red mud was performed in a resistance type vertical tube furnace to simulate the brick-making conditions in lab-scale. Leachability of metals in red mud and the sintered product was evaluated by performing sequential extraction experiments on both. The metals studied were the 'macro metals' iron and aluminum and the 'trace metals' copper and chromium. The total extractabilities of all the metals estimated by the microwave digestion of red mud samples decreased due to sintering. The leachability in sequential extraction of the macro metals iron and aluminum, on the other hand, increased due to sintering in all phases of sequential extraction. However, the effect of sintering on the leachability of the trace metals by sequential extraction was different for copper and chromium in different fractions of sequential extraction. PMID:21035262

Ghosh, Indrani; Guha, Saumyen; Balasubramaniam, R; Kumar, A V Ramesh

2011-01-30

216

Sintering silicon nitride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oxides having a composition of (Ba(1-x)Sr(x))O-Al2O3-2SiO2 are used as sintering aids for producing an improved silicon nitride ceramic material. The x must be greater than 0 to insure the formation of the stable monoclinic celsian glass phase.

Bansal, Narottam P. (inventor); Levine, Stanley R. (inventor); Sanders, William A. (inventor)

1993-01-01

217

Determination of beryllium in ores and rocks by a dilution-fluorometric method with morin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beryllium in concentrations as little as a few parts per million is determined fluorometrically with morin in low grade ores by a dilution method without separations. A high sensitivity is obtained by the adoption of instrumental and reaction conditions that give a satisfactory ratio of beryllium to blank fluorescence and at the same time minimize iron interference. Data on the behavior of 47 ions are given. The method is applied to ores containing bertrandite and beryl as the beryllium minerals.

May, R.; Grimaldi, F.S.

1961-01-01

218

The role of volatiles in the reduction of iron oxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With iron ore reduction processes using coal-ore pellets or mixtures, it is possible that volatiles from the coals can contribute to the overall reduction. By identifying the possible reducing species in the volatiles as H2/CO and simulating these constituents, the rates for H2 and CO were investigated in the temperature and reduction range of interest where hydrogen was the major reductant and studied in detail. In the initial stages of the present study, the fundamentals of hydrogen reduction of fine powder were found to be a complex mechanism of chemical kinetics and mass transfer. Complete uniform reduction for porous and dense iron ores were not observed contrary to existing work regarding this subject. Morphological observations of iron ores reduced at low and high temperatures showed a topochemical receding interface to be dominating with an intermediate region developing for higher temperature samples indicating the importance of pore mass transfer at the later stages of reduction. Although the activation energy of 50˜56 kJ/mole for these powder samples were comparable to the literature values for solely chemical kinetics controlled reactions, the reaction rates were not proportional to sample weight and also did not exhibit complete uniform internal reduction. The calculated mass transfer rates were comparable to the observed rate which suggested that bulk mass transfer is important to the mixed-control. The reaction rate at the mixed control regime was found to be first order with respect to hydrogen partial pressure. Results of reducing iron oxide powders in a mixture of He-40%H2 -5%CO and H2-1%H2S showed that H2S and CO which is involved with the volatiles does not affect the rate at the reduction range of interest indicating the role of volatiles is dominated by the hydrogen reduction. The single composite pellet experiments at 900 and 1000°C showed significant fixed carbon reduction to occur above 1000°C. Depending upon the type of carbon reductant in the composite pellet, secondary reactions with carbon and H2O was possible. Sintering of the pellets did not occur until a significant amount of reduction was obtained and thus for volatile reduction it is likely that the effects of sintering was negligible. To determine the possibility of volatile reduction, a layer of Fe 2O3 powders were spread over HV coals resulting in the reduction of the top layer by about 20% at 1000°C after 1000 seconds. The morphology of the reduced Fe2O3 layer indicated that the reduction is higher near the interface of Coal/Fe2O3. The volatile reduction of a single layer of composite pellet was found to be negligible. However, the reduction of Fe2O3 pellets at the top layer by the volatiles from the bottom layers of a three-layer pellet geometry was observed to be about 15%. From the morphological observations and the computed rates of bulk mass transfer, volatile reduction seems to be controlled by a mixed-controlled mechanism of bulk mass transfer and the limited-mixed control. Using the reduction information obtained from the single pellet experiments reduced in hydrogen, an empirical relationship was obtained to approximately predict the amount of volatile reduction up to 20%.

Sohn, Il

219

The Middle Precambrian ore-bearing generation of continental depression structures and its derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principal characteristics of the supracrustal formations dating from the Middle Precambrian (2400-1800 million years ago) are briefly reviewed. These formations include numerous ore deposits which are generally stratiform and often multicomponent. The ores contain iron, manganese, copper, zinc, lead, nickel, cobalt, silver, uranium, gold, tin, platinum, rare earths, arsenic, bismuth, selenium, cadmium, tellurium, and germanium. An analysis of the characteristics of these formations suggests that they are a result of the global development of specific paleotectonic and paleographic conditions and can be classified as the Middle Precambrian generation of ore-bearing depression structures.

Afanasev, G. V.

220

Structure formation during the sintering of powder steels alloyed with copper, chromium, and phosphorous  

SciTech Connect

The process of structure formation during the sintering of powder steels alloyed with copper, chromium, and phosphorous was investigated. The microstructure of the materials, and distribution of alloying elements in the iron grains, were studied by the methods of electron and scanning electron microscopy. The effect of dispersion of the ferrochromium powder on its solubility in iron was examined.

Romanov, S.M. [Kirov Factory for the Manufacture of Articles from Metal Powder, Kirov (Russian Federation)

1995-11-01

221

Cobalt extraction in ammoniacal solution: Electrochemical effect of metallic iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dissolution behavior of iron and cobalt in ammoniacal ammonium carbonate solution has been investigated with the aid of Eh-pH diagrams for the Fe-NH3-H2O-CO3 and Co-NH3-H2O-CO3 systems, and electrochemical techniques such as open circuit potential measurements and potentiostatic and potentiodynamic polarization experiments. The polarization measurements indicate that both Fe and Co electrodes show active and passive behavior, and that Co dissolves at a more oxidizing potential than does Fe (e.g., E = -0.34 V (SHE) for Co and E = -0.52 V for Fe at a dissolution rate of 1 mA cm-2). The active and passive current densities for Co are both greater than for Fe. In sintered Fe-Co mixtures, the presence of Fe shifts the potential of the maximum current to less noble values and also lowers the magnitude of this current. In addition there is practically no cobalt dissolution when the potential exceeds 0.6 V (SHE). It is suggested that the well-known poor recovery of cobalt from reductive-roasted ferruginous oxide ores may be partly related to the dissolution behavior of a metallic alloy phase containing both iron and cobalt.

Osseo-Asare, K.; Lee, J. W.; Kim, H. S.; Pickering, H. W.

1983-12-01

222

A genetic reinterpretation of the Falun and Åmmeberg ore types, Bergslagen, Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stratiform sulphide and oxide ores of Bergslagen, south-central Sweden, constitute the largest concentration of base metal and iron ores in northern Europe. They are hosted by Early Proterozoic metamorphosed volcanic and sedimentary successions, which (together with later granitoids) belong to the Svecofennian Domain. An earlier genetic model suggested that two principal types of sulphide ores existed in Bergslagen (Falun and Åmmeberg), which had been formed through two contrasting granitoid-related processes, whereas the iron oxide ores were considered exhalative-volcanogenic. The prevailing view for the Bergslagen ores is that all stratiform sulphide (and oxide) ores were formed by exhalative-volcanogenic processes from one homogenous metal source. In this paper are presented new high-precision determinations of the ore lead isotopic composition of twentytwo stratiform sulphide and oxide ores in Bergslagen (among them Falun, Zinkgruvan-Åmmeberg and Dannemora), in order to provide an improved base for their genesis. The results show that significant variations in metal sources existed in Bergslagen for the volcanogenic ores. Most ores (including the Falun Cu-Zn-Pb deposit) were formed from a major isotopic reservoir that occurs in the interior parts of Bergslagen. This source is defined as the Falun reservoir and is dominated by calcalkaline felsic volcanic rocks. A variable input from a more evolved source component (recycled pre-Svecofennian crustal components) is locally important in sedimentdominated areas, particularly the Stockholm archipelago. A third source, representing relatively primitive metabasalts, influenced the lead isotopic pattern of ores in westernmost Bergslagen. The composition of the Zinkgruvan (Åmmeberg) ore lead is distinctly different from that of the Falun reservoir, but forms, together with other sulphide deposits along the southern margin of Bergslagen, a pronounced linear trend in standard isotope diagrams. The linear trend is interpreted as a mixing line and shows that the lead in these ores were derived partly from evolved and partly from primitive sources. The evolved end member has an isotopic composition, which is comparable with the sediment-dominated sources in the interior parts of Bergslagen and in the Stockholm archipelago. The primitive end member is represented by tholeiitic volcanics, which are more abundant in the southern margin of Bergslagen than elsewhere in Bergslagen. A significant variation with respect to metal sources and depositional environments can thus be recognized for the Bergslagen ores and a renaissance for the genetic concepts Falun and Åmmeberg types is suggested.

Sundblad, K.

1994-06-01

223

Two modelling approaches to water-quality simulation in a flooded iron-ore mine (Saizerais, Lorraine, France): A semi-distributed chemical reactor model and a physically based distributed reactive transport pipe network model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flooding of abandoned mines in the Lorraine Iron Basin (LIB) over the past 25 years has degraded the quality of the groundwater tapped for drinking water. High concentrations of dissolved sulphate have made the water unsuitable for human consumption. This problematic issue has led to the development of numerical tools to support water-resource management in mining contexts. Here we examine

V. Hamm; P. Collon-Drouaillet; R. Fabriol

2008-01-01

224

REMOVAL OF ARSENIC FROM GROUNDWATER USING NATURALLY OCCURRING IRON OXIDES IN RURAL REGIONS OF MONGOLIA  

EPA Science Inventory

We have found that the iron oxide particles produced by grinding naturally occurring iron ores are very effective in removing arsenic from water. The arsenic adsorption isothermal of the particles h...

225

Sintered composite filter  

DOEpatents

A particulate filter medium formed of a sintered composite of 0.5 micron diameter quartz fibers and 2 micron diameter stainless steel fibers is described. Preferred composition is about 40 vol.% quartz and about 60 vol.% stainless steel fibers. The media is sintered at about 1100/sup 0/C to bond the stainless steel fibers into a cage network which holds the quartz fibers. High filter efficiency and low flow resistance are provided by the smaller quartz fibers. High strength is provided by the stainless steel fibers. The resulting media has a high efficiency and low pressure drop similar to the standard HEPA media, with tensile strength at least four times greater, and a maximum operating temperature of about 550/sup 0/C. The invention also includes methods to form the composite media and a HEPA filter utilizing the composite media. The filter media can be used to filter particles in both liquids and gases.

Bergman, W.

1986-05-02

226

StORe Business Analysis   

E-print Network

The StORe project is multidisciplinary in scope, embracing the seven scientific domains of archaeology, astronomy, biochemistry, biosciences, chemistry, physics and the social sciences (originally described in the project ...

Miller, Ken

2006-12-15

227

Liquid Phase Sintering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Industry spends billions of dollars each year on machine tools to manufacture products out of metal. This includes tools for cutting every kind of metal part from engine blocks to Shuttle main engine components. Cutting tool tips often break because of weak spots or defects in their composition. Based on a new concept called defect trapping, space offers a novel environment to study defect formation in molten metal materials as they solidify. After the return of these materials from space, researchers can evaluate the source of the defect and seek ways to eliminate them in products prepared on Earth. A widely used process for cutting tip manufacturing is liquid phase sintering. Compared to Earth-sintered samples which slump due to buoyancy induced by gravity, space samples are uniformly shaped and defects remain where they are formed. By studying metals sintered in space the US tool industry can potentially enhance its worldwide competitiveness. The Consortium for Materials Development in Space along with Wyle Labs, Teledyne Advanced Materials, and McDornell Douglas have conducted experiments in space.

2004-01-01

228

Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore  

SciTech Connect

Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures that can be used for improving the energy efficiency of heap leaching, by preventing the ''ponding'' and ''channeling'' effects that currently cause reduced recovery and extended leaching cycle times. Methods have also been developed for iron ore processing which are intended to improve the performance of pellet binders, and have directly saved energy by increasing filtration rates of the pelletization feed by as much as 23%.

S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

2006-12-31

229

Reactive sintering of SiC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigation of the sintering processes involved in the sintering of SiC revealed a connection between the types and quantities of sintering additives or catalysts and densification, initial shrinkage, and weight loss of the sintered SiC material. By sintering processes, is meant the methods of mass transport, namely solid vapor transport and grain boundary diffusion.

Kim, Y. W.; Lee, J. G.

1984-01-01

230

Upgrading Metals Via Direct Reduction from Poly-metallic Titaniferous Magnetite Ore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pre-reduction is the thermo-chemical beneficiation process which is very useful technique for upgradation of metal values from complex low grade ore. The isothermal reduction behaviour of eastern Indian titaniferous magnetite lump ore without pre-treatment, pre-treated and ore-coke composite briquettes has been investigated in the present study. During pre-reduction of lump ore at 1473 K, magnetite and some part of ilmenite are transformed to metallic iron but most of the ilmenite has not reduced. Pre-treatment by multiple heating to high temperature (1373 K and 1473 K, respectively) and subsequently sudden cooling to room temperature by water successfully increase the porosity as well as many fissures in dense grain, which significantly enhance the degree of reduction. Ilmenite and magnetite phases are transformed to pseudobrookite and hematite during high temperature air soaking, and metallic iron is the dominant phase after reduction. Metallic iron and titanium dioxide are the major phases after reduction at 1373 K, but treatments above 1413 K lead to the formation of ferrous pseudobrookite (FeTi2O5). Finally, the different constitutes are separated by magnetic separation. The phases of reduced pre-treated and briquettes samples cannot be separated by magnetic separation, whereas reduced lump ore is separated successfully. The cause is perhaps due to association and interlocking of high intensity magnetic metallic iron with titanium oxide. Fe:TiO2 is upgraded about to 7.06:1 in the magnetic fraction of reduced lump ore which is formerly 2.14:1 in the case of raw ore. Vanadium is simultaneously distributed at a 3.81:1 ratio in magnetic and non-magnetic fraction.

Samanta, Saikat; Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Dey, Rajib

2015-02-01

231

Zone sintering of ceramic fuels  

SciTech Connect

Cold pressed UC{sup 2} fuel compacts are sintered at temperatures greater than about 1850 C while in contract with a sintering facilitator material, e.g., tantalum, niobium, tungsten or a metal carbide such as uranium carbide, thereby allowing for a reduction in the overall porosity and leaving the desired product, i.e., a highly dense, large-grained uranium dicarbide. The process of using the sintering facilitator materials can be applied in the preparation of other carbide materials.

Matthews, R.B.; Chidester, K.M.; Moore, H.G.

1991-12-31

232

Zone sintering of ceramic fuels  

DOEpatents

Cold pressed UC.sub.2 fuel compacts are sintered at temperatures greater than about 1850.degree. C. while in contact with a sintering facilitator material, e.g., tantalum, niobium, tungsten or a metal carbide such as uranium carbide, thereby allowing for a reduction in the overall porosity and leaving the desired product, i.e., a highly dense, large-grained uranium dicarbide. The process of using the sintering facilitator materials can be applied in the preparation of other carbide materials.

Matthews, R. Bruce (Falls Church, VA); Chidester, Kenneth M. (Los Alamos, NM); Moore, H. Gene (Los Alamos, NM)

1994-01-01

233

Natural Ores as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion  

SciTech Connect

Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology that utilizes oxygen from oxygen carriers (OC), such as metal oxides, instead of air to combust fuels. The use of natural minerals as oxygen carriers has advantages, such as lower cost and availability. Eight materials, based on copper or iron oxides, were selected for screening tests of CLC processes using coal and methane as fuels. Thermogravimetric experiments and bench-scale fixed-bed reactor tests were conducted to investigate the oxygen transfer capacity, reaction kinetics, and stability during cyclic reduction/oxidation reaction. Most natural minerals showed lower combustion capacity than pure CuO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to low-concentrations of active oxide species in minerals. In coal CLC, chryscolla (Cu-based), magnetite, and limonite (Fe-based) demonstrated better reaction performances than other materials. The addition of steam improved the coal CLC performance when using natural ores because of the steam gasification of coal and the subsequent reaction of gaseous fuels with active oxide species in the natural ores. In methane CLC, chryscolla, hematite, and limonite demonstrated excellent reactivity and stability in 50-cycle thermogravimetric analysis tests. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ores possess greater oxygen utilization but require an activation period before achieving full performance in methane CLC. Particle agglomeration issues associated with the application of natural ores in CLC processes were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Tian, Hanjing; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

2013-08-01

234

Mineral phases and release behaviors of as in the process of sintering residues containing as at high temperature.  

PubMed

To investigate the effect of sintering temperature and sintering time on arsenic volatility and arsenic leaching in the sinter, we carried out experimental works and studied the structural changes of mineral phases and microstructure observation of the sinter at different sintering temperatures. Raw materials were shaped under the pressure of 10 MPa and sintered at 1000~1350°C for 45 min with air flow rate of 2000 mL/min. The results showed that different sintering temperatures and different sintering times had little impact on the volatilization of arsenic, and the arsenic fixed rate remained above 90%; however, both factors greatly influenced the leaching concentration of arsenic. Considering the product's environmental safety, the best sintering temperature was 1200°C and the best sintering time was 45 min. When sintering temperature was lower than 1000°C, FeAsS was oxidized into calcium, aluminum, and iron arsenide, mainly Ca3(AsO4)2 and AlAsO4, and the arsenic leaching was high. When it increased to 1200°C, arsenic was surrounded by a glass matrix and became chemically bonded inside the matrix, which lead to significantly lower arsenic leaching. PMID:24723798

Wang, Xingrun; Zhang, Fengsong; Nong, Zexi

2014-01-01

235

Mineral Phases and Release Behaviors of As in the Process of Sintering Residues Containing As at High Temperature  

PubMed Central

To investigate the effect of sintering temperature and sintering time on arsenic volatility and arsenic leaching in the sinter, we carried out experimental works and studied the structural changes of mineral phases and microstructure observation of the sinter at different sintering temperatures. Raw materials were shaped under the pressure of 10?MPa and sintered at 1000~1350°C for 45?min with air flow rate of 2000?mL/min. The results showed that different sintering temperatures and different sintering times had little impact on the volatilization of arsenic, and the arsenic fixed rate remained above 90%; however, both factors greatly influenced the leaching concentration of arsenic. Considering the product's environmental safety, the best sintering temperature was 1200°C and the best sintering time was 45?min. When sintering temperature was lower than 1000°C, FeAsS was oxidized into calcium, aluminum, and iron arsenide, mainly Ca3(AsO4)2 and AlAsO4, and the arsenic leaching was high. When it increased to 1200°C, arsenic was surrounded by a glass matrix and became chemically bonded inside the matrix, which lead to significantly lower arsenic leaching. PMID:24723798

Wang, Xingrun; Zhang, Fengsong; Nong, Zexi

2014-01-01

236

Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility versus lattice-and shape-preferred orientation in the Lac Tio hemo-ilmenite ore body  

E-print Network

Keywords: Magnetic fabric EBSD Image analysis Iron­titanium ore Anorthosite The Lac Tio hemo-ilmenite ore body crops out in the outer portion of the 1.06 Ga Lac Allard anorthosite, a member of the Havre-Saint-Pierre anorthosite suite from the Grenville province of North America. It is made up of ilmenitite (commonly

Bascou, Jérôme

237

2. Photocopied June 1978 'THE IRON DAM.' VIEW OF THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Photocopied June 1978 'THE IRON DAM.' VIEW OF THE IRON DAM, THE OUTCROPPING OF THE ORE FOUND IN 1826 BY HENDERSON. FURNISHED WATER TO SAWMILL. SOURCE: BENSON LOSSING, THE HUDSON, FROM THE WILDERNESS TO THE SEA, TROY, NEW YORK, 1866, p. 25 - Adirondack Iron & Steel Company, New Furnace, Hudson River, Tahawus, Essex County, NY

238

Characterization of spark plasma sintered Ag nanopowders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low temperature sintering behaviour of nanocrystalline Ag powder (with an average size of 70 nm) was characterized. Using spark plasma sintering (SPS), the Ag nanopowders can be successfully sintered at low pressure for only 5 min without external heating, and the sintering density increases and porosity decreases significantly with increase in the sintering temperature. Nanoindentation has been used to characterize the SPS sintered Ag samples. The mechanisms of the low sintering temperature behaviour of the nano-Ag powder and the nanoscale mechanical performance have been discussed. Compression tests were also used to characterize the mechanical properties of the sintered Ag sample with a maximum strain up to 15%.

Fu, Y. Q.; Shearwood, C.; Xu, B.; Yu, L. G.; Khor, K. A.

2010-03-01

239

Microwave sintering of multiple articles  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and method for producing articles of alumina and of alumina and silicon carbide in which the articles are sintered at high temperatures using microwave radiation. The articles are placed in a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled.

Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM); Katz, Joel D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1993-01-01

240

Leaching of molybdenum and arsenic from uranium ore and mill tailings  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A sequential, selective extraction procedure was used to assess the effects of sulfuric acid milling on the geochemical associations of molybdenum and arsenic in a uranium ore blend, and the tailings derived therefrom. The milling process removed about 21% of the molybdenum and 53% of the arsenic initially present in the ore. While about one-half of the molybdenum in the ore was water soluble, only about 14% existed in this form in the tailings. The major portion of the extractable molybdenum in the tailings appears to be associated with hydrous oxides of iron, and with alkaline earth sulfate precipitates. In contrast with the pattern seen for molybdenum, the partitioning of arsenic into the various extractable fractions differs little between the ore and the tailings. ?? 1984.

Landa, E.R.

1984-01-01

241

Manufacture of sintered silicon nitrides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sintered silicon nitrides are manufactured by sintering Si3N powder containing 2 to 15% in wt of a powder mixture composed of nitride powder of lanthanide or Y 100 parts and AIN powder less than 100 parts at 1500 to 1900 deg. temperature under a pressure of less than 200 Kg/sq. cm. The sintered Si3N has high mechanical strength in high temperature. Thus, Si3N4 93.0, Y 5.0 and AlN 2.0% in weight were wet mixed in acetone in N atom, molded and sintered at 1750 deg. and 1000 Kg/sq. cm. to give a sintered body having high hardness.

Iwai, T.

1985-01-01

242

A MIXED CHEMICAL REDUCTANT FOR TREATING HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM IN A CHROMITE ORE PROCESSING SOLID WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

We evaluated a method for delivering ferrous iron into the subsurface to enhance chemical reduction of Cr(VI) in a chromite ore processing solid waste (COPSW). The COPSW is characterized by high pH (8.5 -11.5), high Cr(VI) concentrations in the solid phase (up to 550 mg kg-1) and...

243

Nutrient Effect on the Biological Leaching of a Black-Schist Ore  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of inorganic N (NH4+, NO3-) and phosphate on the biological oxidation of a sulfidic black-schist ore which contained pyrrhotite as the main iron sulfide. Iron was initially solubilized as Fe2+ from the ore and subsequently oxidized to Fe3+ in shake flask experiments. Under these experimental conditions, iron dissolution from pyrrhotite was mainly a chemical reaction, with some enhancement by bacteria, whereas the subsequent Fe2+ oxidation was bacterially mediated, with negligible contribution from chemical oxidation. Phosphate amendment did not enhance Fe2+ oxidation. Chemical analysis of leach solutions with no exogenous phosphate revealed that phosphate was solubilized from the black-schist ore. Ammonium amendment (6 mM) enhanced Fe2+ oxidation, whereas the addition of nitrate (6 and 12 mM) had a negative effect. An increase in the temperature from 30 to 35°C slightly enhanced Fe2+ oxidation, but the effect was statistically not significant. The precipitation of potassium jarosite was indicative of Fe2+ oxidation and was absent in nitrate-inhibited cultures because of the lack of Fe2+ oxidation. The black-schist ore also contained phlogopite, which was altered to vermiculite in iron-oxidizing cultures. PMID:16349236

Niemelä, Seppo I.; Riekkola-Vanhanen, Marja; Sivelä, Carita; Viguera, Felipe; Tuovinen, Olli H.

1994-01-01

244

Utilizing a Value of Information Framework to Improve Ore Collection and Classification Procedures  

E-print Network

decisions and increase the overall profitability of the mine. This case study provides a framework of information methodology to analyze a mine company's decision to purchase ore grade scanners. We demonstrate-term contractual agreements. The Loussavaara-Kiirunavarra Aktiebolag (LKAB) company operates an underground iron

245

Bog iron formation in the Nassawango Creek watershed, Maryland, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Nassawango bog ores in the modern environment for surficial geochemical processes were studied. The formation of Nassawango bog ores was suggested to be due to inorganic oxidation when groundwater rich in ferrous iron emerges into the oxic, surficial environment. It was suggested that the process, providing a phosphorus sink, may be an unrecognized benefit for mitigating nutrient loading from agricultural lands. It is found that without the effect of iron fixing bacteria, bog deposites could not form at significant rates.

Bricker, O.P.; Newell, W.L.; Simon, N.S.

2004-01-01

246

Accuracy in Powder Diffraction IV NIST, Gaithersburg MD, USA  

E-print Network

applications in the iron making process: ­ Iron ore ­ Iron ore sinter ­ DRI (sponge iron) ­ Steel ­ Slag #12;Iron making - value chain Raw materials Coal Lumpy ore Mining Waste Slag Final product Steel (Retained, magnetite Fe3O4, goethite FeOOH) ­ Al content (increases viscosity of the slag in blast furnace) ­ Plus

Magee, Joseph W.

247

[Structural changes in mineral phases and environmental release behavior of arsenic during sintering of arsenic-containing waste].  

PubMed

An experimental work was carried out to investigate the effect of sintering temperature on arsenic volatility, arsenic leaching of the sinter and structural changes in mineral phases of arsenic in the sinter. The raw materials were shaped under the pressure of 10 MPa and sintered at 1 000-1 350 degrees C for 60 min with the air flow rate of 2 000 mL x min(-1). The results showed that there was little impact between the volatilization of arsenic before and after sintering, and arsenic fixed-rate remained above 90%, however, the sintering temperature had an important influence on the leaching concentration of arsenic. When sintering temperature was lower than 1 000 degrees C, FeAsS was oxidized into calcium arsenate, aluminum arsenate, and iron-arsenate. Ca3 (AsO4)2 was the main compound, and the release of arsenic leaching was high. When sintering temperature was up to 1 200 degrees C, the arsenic was surrounded by a glass matrix and became chemically bonded inside the matrix. Arsenates can be converted into silicoarsenates during sintering, which led to the leaching of arsenic was significantly lower. Considering the product's environmental safety, the best sintering temperature was 1 200 degrees C. PMID:23379173

Wang, Xing-Run; Nong, Ze-Xi; Wang, Qi

2012-12-01

248

Conical O-ring seal  

DOEpatents

A shipping container for radioactive or other hazardous materials which has a conical-shaped closure containing grooves in the conical surface thereof and an O-ring seal incorporated in each of such grooves. The closure and seal provide a much stronger, tighter and compact containment than with a conventional flanged joint.

Chalfant, Jr., Gordon G. (North Augusta, SC)

1984-01-01

249

DETERMINATION OF THORIUM IN ORES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for the determination of thorium in ores is as follows: The ; sample is decomposed with perchloric and hydrofluoric acids and is dissolved in ; hydrochloric acid. The residue is reserved. Sodium hydroxide precipitation is ; made and the precipitate is dissolved in nitric acid (solution A). The reserved ; residue is then used with sodium peroxide and

S. Sekine; T. Mochizuki

1961-01-01

250

Gaseous reduction of laterite ores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lateritic nickel ores have been reduced under laboratory conditions. The reduction experiments were carried out at temperatures from 500 °C to 1100 °C in a horizontal tube furnace using various mixtures of H2 and CO2. The hydrogen evolution method was used to measure the degree of metallization of the reduced ore. It was found that the rate of reduction was very low at 500 °C but then increased rapidly upon heating the ore to 600 °C. The percent metallics increased with increasing H2 to CO2 ratios in the reducing gas. At temperatures between 600 °C and 1100 °C, a H2 to CO2 ratio of 3 leads to the formation of 5 to 6 pct metallics in the reduced calcine was shown. Heating the ore in air or nitrogen prior to reduction does not affect the degree of metallization. A H2 to CO2 ratio of at least 4 is required to obtain a ferronickel product analyzing 36 pct nickel if no further reduction is carried out during the subsequent smelting operation.

Utigard, T.; Bergman, R. A.

1993-04-01

251

Endogenic Au-Ag polymetallic ore deposits and ore-bearing potentiality of strata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of ore-bearing potentiality of the strata involves metallogenic theory and ore-search orientation. Studies of\\u000a the spatial distribution of endogenic Au-Ag polymetallic ore deposits in North Hebei indicated that the strata in which ore\\u000a deposits occurred range in age from Paleozoic, Proterozoic to Mesozoic. In addition the ore deposits are characterized as\\u000a being strata-bound in nature. The arise and

Baode Wang; Shuyin Niu; Aiqun Sun; Yan Xie; Yi Luo; Hailong Liu; Yanhua Wang

2010-01-01

252

PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The commercialization path of the Calderon technology for making a feedstock for steelmaking with assistance from DOE initially focused on making coke and work was done which proved that the Calderon technology is capable of making good coke for hard driving blast furnaces. U.S. Steel which participated in such demonstration felt that the Calderon technology would be more meaningful in lowering the costs of making steel by adapting it to the making of iron--thus obviating the need for coke. U.S. Steel and Calderon teamed up to jointly work together to demonstrate that the Calderon technology will produce in a closed system iron units from iron concentrate (ore) and coal competitively by eliminating pelletizing, sintering, coking and blast furnace operation. If such process steps could be eliminated, a huge reduction in polluting emissions and greenhouse gases (including CO{sub 2}) relating to steelmaking would ensue. Such reduction will restructure the steel industry away from the very energy-intensive steelmaking steps currently practiced and drastically reduce costs of making steel. The development of a technology to lower U.S. steelmaking costs and become globally competitive is a priority of major importance. Therefore, the development work which Calderon is conducting presently under this Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy becomes more crucial than ever. During the 3rd quarter of 2005 which the present report covers, virtually all the effort to advance the Calderon technology to make iron units was concentrated towards forming a team with a steelmaker who needs both iron units in the form of hot metal and a substitute for natural gas (SNG), both being major contributors to higher costs in steelmaking. Calderon felt that a very good candidate would be Steel Dynamics (SDI) by virtue that it operates a rotary hearth facility in Butler, Indiana that uses large amounts of natural gas to reduce briquettes made from ore and coal that they subsequently melt in a submerged arc furnace that is a large consumer of electric power. This facility is operated as a division of SDI under the name of Iron Dynamics (IDI). It is no secret that IDI has had and still has a great number of operational problems, including high cost for natural gas.

Albert Calderon

2005-10-14

253

Ceramic powder for sintering materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface activity of ceramic powders such as MgO and Al2O3, for use in sintering with sp. emphasis on their particle size, shape, particle size distribution, packing, and coexisting additives and impurities are reviewed.

Akiya, H.; Saito, A.

1984-01-01

254

Sintering of injection molded M2 high-speed steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sintering of injection molded M2 high speed steel (HSS) was studied. The sintering parameters investigated were: sintering atmosphere, heating rate, sintering temperature and sintering time. Mechanical properties and SEM microstructures were used to determine an optimum sintering schedule. It was found that sintering in vacuum is better than in nitrogen as densification is faster in the former. In vacuum

Z. Y Liu; N. H Loh; K. A Khor; S. B Tor

2000-01-01

255

Effect of anions on selective solubilization of zinc and copper in bacterial leaching of sulfide ores.  

PubMed

Bacterial leaching of sulfide ores using Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, Thiobacillus thiooxidans, or a combination of the two was studied at various concentrations of specific anions. Selective zinc and copper solubilization was obtained by inhibiting iron oxidation without affecting sulfur/sulfide oxidation. Phosphate reduced iron solubilization from a pyrite (FeS(2))-sphalerite (ZnS) mixture without significantly affecting zinc solubilization. Copper leaching from a chalcopyrite (CuFeS(2))-sphalerite mixture was stimulated by phosphate, whereas chloride accelerated zinc extraction. In a complex sulfide ore containing pyrite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite, both phosphate and chloride reduced iron solubilization and increased copper extraction, whereas only chloride stimulated zinc extraction. Maximum leaching obtained was 100% zinc and 50% copper. Time-course studies of copper and zinc solubilization suggest the possibility of selective metal recovery following treatment with specific anions. PMID:10861398

Harahuc, L; Lizama, H M; Suzuki, I

2000-07-20

256

Magnetization curves of sintered heavy tungsten alloys for applications in MRI-guided radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Due to the current interest in MRI-guided radiotherapy, the magnetic properties of the materials commonly used in radiotherapy are becoming increasingly important. In this paper, measurement results for the magnetization (BH) curves of a range of sintered heavy tungsten alloys used in radiation shielding and collimation are presented. Methods: Sintered heavy tungsten alloys typically contain >90?% tungsten and <10?% of a combination of iron, nickel, and copper binders. Samples of eight different grades of sintered heavy tungsten alloys with varying binder content were investigated. Using a superconducting quantum interference detector magnetometer, the induced magnetic momentm was measured for each sample as a function of applied external field H{sub 0} and the BH curve derived. Results: The iron content of the alloys was found to play a dominant role, directly influencing the magnetizationM and thus the nonlinearity of the BH curve. Generally, the saturation magnetization increased with increasing iron content of the alloy. Furthermore, no measurable magnetization was found for all alloys without iron content, despite containing up to 6% of nickel. For two samples from different manufacturers but with identical quoted nominal elemental composition (95% W, 3.5% Ni, 1.5% Fe), a relative difference in the magnetization of 11%–16% was measured. Conclusions: The measured curves show that the magnetic properties of sintered heavy tungsten alloys strongly depend on the iron content, whereas the addition of nickel in the absence of iron led to no measurable effect. Since a difference in the BH curves for two samples with identical quoted nominal composition from different manufacturers was observed, measuring of the BH curve for each individual batch of heavy tungsten alloys is advisable whenever accurate knowledge of the magnetic properties is crucial. The obtained BH curves can be used in FEM simulations to predict the magnetic impact of sintered heavy tungsten alloys.

Kolling, Stefan [Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)] [Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Oborn, Bradley M. [Illawarra Cancer Care Centre (ICCC), Wollongong, NSW 2500, Australia and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP), University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia)] [Illawarra Cancer Care Centre (ICCC), Wollongong, NSW 2500, Australia and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP), University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Keall, Paul J., E-mail: paul.keall@sydney.edu.au [Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia and Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, NSW 2170 (Australia); Horvat, Joseph [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500, Australia and School of Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia)] [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500, Australia and School of Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia)

2014-06-15

257

Geochronology and stable isotope signature of alteration related to hydrothermal magnetite ores in Central Anatolia, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrothermal iron ores at Divri?i, east Central Anatolia, are contained in two orebodies, the magnetite-rich A-kafa and the\\u000a limonitic B-kafa (resources of 133.8 Mt with 56% Fe and 0.5% Cu). The magnetite ores are hosted in serpentinites of the Divri?i\\u000a ophiolite at the contact with plutons of the Murmano complex. Hydrothermal biotite from the Divri?i A-kafa yield identical\\u000a weighted mean plateau

Robert Marschik; Richard Spikings; Ilkay Kuscu

2008-01-01

258

Technological possibilities of manufacturing high-grade ferrotitanium from crude ore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The content of metal and oxide phases that form during aluminothermic melting of a mixture of ilmenite and rutile concentrates is studied by X-ray diffraction, electron probe, and metallographic analyses. The main components of the high-grade ferrotitanium melted from the crude ore are represented by the solid solutions of oxygen and iron in titanium and the Ti4Fe2O phase, which is not reduced to TiO2. It has been shown experimentally that rich ferrotitanium (60-70% Ti) containing <5 wt % oxygen cannot be produced by the aluminothermic melting of the crude ore.

Chumarev, V. M.; Dubrovskii, A. Ya.; Pazdnikov, I. P.; Shurygin, Yu. Yu.; Sel'Menskikh, N. I.

2008-12-01

259

Reduction of dioxin emission by a multi-layer reactor with bead-shaped activated carbon in simulated gas stream and real flue gas of a sinter plant.  

PubMed

A laboratory-scale multi-layer system was developed for the adsorption of PCDD/Fs from gas streams at various operating conditions, including gas flow rate, operating temperature and water vapor content. Excellent PCDD/F removal efficiency (>99.99%) was achieved with the multi-layer design with bead-shaped activated carbons (BACs). The PCDD/F removal efficiency achieved with the first layer adsorption bed decreased as the gas flow rate was increased due to the decrease of the gas retention time. The PCDD/F concentrations measured at the outlet of the third layer adsorption bed were all lower than 0.1 ng I-TEQ Nm?³. The PCDD/Fs desorbed from BAC were mainly lowly chlorinated congeners and the PCDD/F outlet concentrations increased as the operating temperature was increased. In addition, the results of pilot-scale experiment (real flue gases of an iron ore sintering plant) indicated that as the gas flow rate was controlled at 15 slpm, the removal efficiencies of PCDD/F congeners achieved with the multi-layer reactor with BAC were better than that in higher gas flow rate condition (20 slpm). Overall, the lab-scale and pilot-scale experiments indicated that PCDD/F removal achieved by multi-layer reactor with BAC strongly depended on the flow rate of the gas stream to be treated. PMID:21040943

Hung, Pao Chen; Lo, Wei Chiao; Chi, Kai Hsien; Chang, Shu Hao; Chang, Moo Been

2011-01-01

260

Method of making bonded or sintered permanent magnets  

DOEpatents

An isotropic permanent magnet is made by mixing a thermally responsive, low viscosity binder and atomized rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) alloy powder having a carbon-bearing (e.g., graphite) layer thereon that facilitates wetting and bonding of the powder particles by the binder. Prior to mixing with the binder, the atomized alloy powder may be sized or classified to provide a particular particle size fraction having a grain size within a given relatively narrow range. A selected particle size fraction is mixed with the binder and the mixture is molded to a desired complex magnet shape. A molded isotropic permanent magnet is thereby formed. A sintered isotropic permanent magnet can be formed by removing the binder from the molded mixture and thereafter sintering to full density.

McCallum, R.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Lograsso, B.K.; Anderson, I.E.

1993-08-31

261

Method of making bonded or sintered permanent magnets  

DOEpatents

An isotropic permanent magnet is made by mixing a thermally responsive, low viscosity binder and atomized rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) alloy powder having a carbon-bearing (e.g., graphite) layer thereon that facilitates wetting and bonding of the powder particles by the binder. Prior to mixing with the binder, the atomized alloy powder may be sized or classified to provide a particular particle size fraction having a grain size within a given relatively narrow range. A selected particle size fraction is mixed with the binder and the mixture is molded to a desired complex magnet shape. A molded isotropic permanent magnet is thereby formed. A sintered isotropic permanent magnet can be formed by removing the binder from the molded mixture and thereafter sintering to full density.

McCallum, R. William (Ames, IA); Dennis, Kevin W. (Ames, IA); Lograsso, Barbara K. (Ames, IA); Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA)

1995-11-28

262

Estimation and characterization of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs from Chinese iron foundries.  

PubMed

The iron foundry industry is considered to be a potential source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). This study investigated the emission factors and total emission amounts of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) from iron foundries in China. The concentrations and the World Health Organization toxicity equivalents (WHO-TEQs) are presented and the congener profiles are discussed in this paper. In the present work, 26 fly ash samples were collected and tested to quantify the PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs generated by 14 plants of different scales, and five stack gas samples were collected from two (named as EFG and LFG) of those plants. The emission levels of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs indicated that hot-air cupolas had lower emissions than cold-air cupolas. When iron ore lump and sinter were used as raw material, the emission factors were about 250ng TEQt(-1) of product. However, if the raw material was scrap, the emission factors varied owing to the different contents of organic materials in the raw materials. It was found that the mean WHO-TEQ values of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were 144 and 34.2pgNm(-3) in stack gas and 20.0 and 1.58pgg(-1) in fly ash. In multiple tests, it was estimated that the mean emission factors of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were 365 and 10.9ng WHO-TEQt(-1) released to residue and 2719 and 555ng TEQt(-1) released to air. The total emission amounts of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs from Chinese iron foundries with cupola furnaces released to residue and air were 16.8 and 146g WHO-TEQ in 2008, respectively. PMID:21075413

Lv, Pu; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Guorui; Liu, Wenbin; Xiao, Ke

2011-01-01

263

Iron and Iron Deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... from these substances is usually not of concern. Vegetarian diets are low in heme iron, but careful meal ... heme iron sources in the diet (e.g., vegetarian diets) Low absorption Taking antacids beyond the recommended dose ...

264

Cold and hot deformation and densification studies on sintered Fe-C-Cr-Ni low alloy P\\/M steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research work pertains to the study of the densification behaviour of sintered low alloy P\\/M steels with Ni and\\u000a Cr during cold and hot deformation processing. Elemental powders of atomized iron, graphite, chromium and nickel were mixed\\u000a in suitable proportions using a ball mill, compacted and sintered in order to yield the following alloy compositions: Fe-0.2%\\u000a C, Fe-0.2%

D. Shanmugasundaram; R. Chandramouli; T. K. Kandavel

2009-01-01

265

Optimization of flotation variables for the recovery of hematite particles from BHQ ore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technology for beneficiation of banded iron ores containing low iron value is a challenging task due to increasing demand of quality iron ore in India. A flotation process has been developed to treat one such ore, namely banded hematite quartzite (BHQ) containing 41.8wt% Fe and 41.5wt% SiO2, by using oleic acid, methyl isobutyl carbinol (MIBC), and sodium silicate as the collector, frother, and dispersant, respectively. The relative effects of these variables have been evaluated in half-normal plots and Pareto charts using central composite rotatable design. A quadratic response model has been developed for both Fe grade and recovery and optimized within the experimental range. The optimum reagent dosages are found to be as follows: collector concentration of 243.58 g/t, dispersant concentration of 195.67 g/t, pH 8.69, and conditioning time of 4.8 min to achieve the maximum Fe grade of 64.25% with 67.33% recovery. The predictions of the model with regard to iron grade and recovery are in good agreement with the experimental results.

Rath, Swagat S.; Sahoo, Hrushikesh; Das, B.

2013-07-01

266

Noble metals in rocks and ores of Maysko-Lebed ore field (Mountain Shoriya)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First the authors determined platinum and palladium in the ores and rocks of Maysk-Lebed ore deposit via stripping voltammetry. Based on research data the increased platinoid (platinum group elements) content was identified both in the source host rocks and in metasomatically altered ones in ores.

Pshenichkin, A.; Timkin, T.; Oskina, Yu

2015-02-01

267

Iron versus Copper II. Principles and Applications in Bioinorganic Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the differences between iron and copper. Describes various aspects of the behaviors of these two elements, including those of biological and environmental significance. Addresses the evolution of the atmosphere and sedimentary ore formation, the phylogeny of iron and copper, and some anthropological notes regarding the use of the metals.…

Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro

1986-01-01

268

The origin of Cu/Au ratios in porphyry-type ore deposits.  

PubMed

Microanalysis of major and trace elements in sulfide and silicate melt inclusions by laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry indicates a direct link between a magmatic sulfide liquid and the composition of porphyry-type ore deposits. Copper (Cu), gold (Au), and iron (Fe) are first concentrated in a sulfide melt during magmatic evolution and then released to an ore-forming hydrothermal fluid exsolved late in the history of a magma chamber. The composition of sulfide liquids depends on the initial composition and source of the magma, but it also changes during the evolution of the magma in the crust. Magmatic sulfide melts may exert the dominant direct control on the economic metal ratios of porphyry-type ore deposits. PMID:12052953

Halter, Werner E; Pettke, Thomas; Heinrich, Christoph A

2002-06-01

269

The modes of occurrence of rare-earths ores and the issues on their beneficiation processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare-earths (RE) ores can largely be divided into the following four types in terms of the modes of occurrence. In each type of RE ores, there are some issues on beneficiation processes, which should be resolved for their successful exploitation. 1. Fine-grained phosphates with iron oxides: This type ores are commonly found from weathered carbonatite and IOCG deposits. The former is Araxa (Brazil), Zandkopsdrift (South Africa), Mt. Weld (Australia) and Yen Phu (Vietnam), and the latter Bayan Obo (China), Vergenoeg (South Africa) and Olympic Dam (Australia). Main RE minerals are monazite, xenotime and florencite contained in the aggregates of iron oxides such as goethite, hematite and magnetite. Fluorite often occurs in the latter type ores. The phosphates and iron oxides occur commonly as very fine grains (< 10 micron meters), and thus they are not readily separated by conventional physical processing. 2. Fluorapatite veins: This type ores are found from the deposits related to alkaline igneous rocks. Nolans Bore (Australia), Palabora (South Africa) and Mushugai Khudag (Mongolia) are the examples. RE is contained mostly in fluorapatite and associated monazite. It is expected that RE can be produced as byproducts of phosphorus fertilizer. However, dissolution of fluorapatite by sulfuric acid causes the coprecipitation of RE with gypsum, which is a refractory material. 3. Silicates and niobium oxides: This type ores are found from hydrothermally altered alkaline plutonic rocks or pegmatitic veins related to alkaline magmatism. Nechalacho and Strange Lake (Canada), Kvanefjeld (Greenland), Bokan Mountain (US), Norra Karr (Sweden) and Dubbo (Australia) are the representative deposits. Main RE minerals are zircon, eudialyte, mosandrite, fergusonite and allanite. They are relatively enriched in heavy RE, and it is expected that part of RE can be produced as byproducts of zirconium. However, their acid dissolution often causes the coprecipitation of RE with silica gel, which is also a refractory material. 4. Medium- to coarse-grained carbonates: This type ores occur in less weathered carbonatite bodies. Mountain Pass (US), Maoniuping (China) and Dong Pao (Vietnam) are the representative deposits. Bastnasite is a main RE mineral. Though, the ores can readily be beneficiated by conventional flotation and dissolved by acid solution, they are always depleted in heavy RE.

Takagi, T.

2012-04-01

270

Compositional Variability of Rutile in Hydrothermal Ore Deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rutile is a relatively common accessory phase in many geological environments, and although it is almost always composed dominantly of TiO2, it is also associated with a wide range of minor and trace element substitutions. The most prominent minor elements that occur in rutile are Fe, Cr, V, Nb and Ta. Like Ti, the latter two elements are essentially immobile in most non-magmatic metallic ore deposits, and their concentrations in rutile are largely influenced by precursor mineral compositions. Iron, Cr and V concentrations vary considerably in rutile hosted by ore deposits, and reflect combinations of precursor mineral composition and the bulk chemistry of the local mineralized or altered rock environment. However, in hydrothermal alteration zones, rutile compositions are clearly anomalous compared to those in unaltered host rocks, and have distinctive elemental associations and substitutions in different types of ore deposits. We have evaluated the mineral chemistry of rutile in >40 ore deposits worldwide. In general, rutile in volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits contains Sn (and locally W, Sb and/or Cu). Rutile from mesothermal and related gold deposits invariably contains W, and in some of the larger and more important deposits, also contains Sb and/or V. Tungsten-bearing detrital rutile grains from the Witwatersrand suggest that paleoplacer mineralization may have had a mesothermal/orogenic gold source. In some magmatic-hydrothermal Pd-Ni-Cu deposits, rutile contains Ni and Cu. Rutile associated with granite-related Sn deposits has strongly elevated concentrations of Sn and W, and granite-pegmatite W-Sn deposits contain rutile with these elements plus Nb and Ta. The Olympic Dam deposit hosts rutile that is enriched in W, Sn and Cu. Rutile associated with porphyry and skarn Cu and Cu-Au deposits tends to contain elevated W, Cu (and sometimes V). Although many ore deposits have well-defined and diagnostic rutile compositions, there are some compositional overlaps between mineralization types. Nevertheless, element combinations and ratios can be used to distinguish qualitatively between rutile compositions for most ore deposit types, and statistical methods can be used to provide more quantitative evaluation. Rutile occurs in significant abundance (typically 0.05 to 0.5 vol%) in most metallic ore deposits and is most plentiful in sulfidic systems where high fS2 and/or fO2 conditions stabilize rutile in the presence of minerals such as pyrite and hematite. Rutile is also persistent in weathering environments, and is likely to survive transport by glacial and fluvial processes. As a common component of heavy mineral sands, rutile is readily separable by routine magnetic, heavy liquid, and other density methods. These features, combined with the sensitive compositional variations in altered and mineralized rocks noted above, and the relative ease of analyses by routine electron microprobe methods, suggest that rutile has considerable potential as a geochemical indicator mineral for hydrothermal ore deposits, analogous to the kimberlite indicator minerals such as Cr-pyrope, magnesiochromite and picroilmenite that are used regularly in diamond exploration.

Clark, J. R.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

2009-05-01

271

Sintering behavior of lead metaniobate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The densification behavior and microstructure development were examined on low and high temperature modifications of PbNb2O6. The phase transformation occurred during the sintering of the low temperature form and increased the grain growth rate, resulting in the reduction in densification rate. Dense, fine-grained ceramics were obtained from fine powder with the high temperature form.

Ho Sung Lee; Toshio Kimura

1997-01-01

272

Microwave sintering of boron carbide  

DOEpatents

A method for forming boron carbide into a particular shape and densifying the green boron carbide shape. Boron carbide in powder form is pressed into a green shape and then sintered, using a microwave oven, to obtain a dense boron carbide body. Densities of greater than 95% of theoretical density have been obtained. 1 tab.

Blake, R.D.; Katz, J.D.; Petrovic, J.J.; Sheinberg, H.

1988-06-10

273

SINTERING OF NASCENT CALCIUM OXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the measurement of the sintering rate of CaO in a nitrogen atmosphere at temperatures of 700-1100 C. CaO prepared from ultrapure CaCO3 was compared with an impure CaO derived from limestone. Both materials yielded an initial surface area of 104 sq m/g. The rat...

274

Post-merger time series analysis: Iron ore mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Brazil, mergers and acquisitions are usually analyzed by the antitrust authorities ex post, following a Structure-Conduct-Performance approach close to the US Merger Guidelines. However, this framework was unable to address the complexity posed by a series of acquisitions of four mining companies by the newly privatized national champion Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (known then as CVRD, nowadays as

Eduardo P. S. Fiuza; Fabiana F. M. Tito

2010-01-01

275

Cold press sintering of simulated lunar basalt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to predict the conditions for which the lunar regolith may be adequately sintered, experiments were conducted in which samples of simulated lunar basalt (MLS-1) were pressed at high pressures and then heated in an electric furnace. This sintering process may be referred to as cold press sintering since the material is pressed at room temperature. Although test articles were produced which possessed compressive strengths comparable to that of terrestrial concrete, the cold press sintering process requires very high press pressures and sintering temperatures in order to achieve that strength. Additionally, the prospect of poor internal heat transfer adversely affecting the quality of sintered lunar material is a major concern. Therefore, it is concluded that cold press sintering will most likely be undesirable for the production of lunar construction materials.

Altemir, D. A.

1993-01-01

276

Gravitational Role in Liquid Phase Sintering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To comprehensively understand the gravitational effects on the evolution of both the microstructure and the macrostructure during liquid phase sintering, W-Ni-Fe alloys with W content varying from 35 to 98 wt.% were sintered in microgravity. Compositions that slump during ground-based sintering also distort when sintered under microgravity. In ground-based sintering, low solid content alloys distort with a typical elephant-foot profile, while in microgravity, the compacts tend to spheroidize. This study shows that microstructural segregation occurs in both ground-based as well as microgravity sintering. In ground-based experiments, because of the density difference between the solid and the liquid phase, the solid content increases from top to the bottom of the sample. In microgravity, the solid content increases from periphery to the center of the samples. This study also shows that the pores during microgravity sintering act as a stable phase and attain anomalous shapes.

Upadhyaya, Anish; Iacocca, Ronald G.; German, Randall M.

1998-01-01

277

Determination of small amounts of molybdenum in tungsten and molybdenum ores  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A rapid method has been developed for the determination of small amounts of molybdenum in tungsten and molybdenum ores. After removing iron and other major constituents the molybdenum thiocyanate color is developed in water-acetone solutions, using ammonium citrate to eliminate the interference of tungsten. Comparison is made by titrating a blank with a standard molybdenum solution. Aliquots are adjusted to deal with amounts of molybdenum ranging from 0.01 to 1.30 mg.

Grimaldi, F.S.; Wells, R.C.

1943-01-01

278

Iron impurities in Si3N4 processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The atomic environment of iron impurities is investigated during the processing cycle of reaction-bonding silicon nitride (RBSN). Several analysis techniques are utilized, including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), and electron spin resonance (ESR), to examine iron impurities in the starting silicon powder, in sintered silicon compacts, and in RBSN materials. Results indicate that iron impurities in as-received metallurgical grade silicon powder are incorporated in the silicon bulk as a highly distorted FeSi2 compound. No surface iron or iron-based particulate is observed in the starting material. Upon sintering, the iron environment becomes an ordered FeSi2 structure. In the RBNS material, the FeSi2 structure is again distorted, as observed by both EXAFS and ESR.

Bouldin, C. E.; Stern, E. A.; Donley, M. S.; Stoebe, T. G.

1985-01-01

279

Bioinformatics and Genomics of Iron and Sulfur-Oxidizing Acidophiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Important protagonists in geomicrobiology are the “biomining” microorganisms which are used to recover valuable metals from\\u000a mineral ores and concentrates. These microorganisms either convert insoluble metal sulfides to soluble metal sulfates, a process\\u000a referred to as bioleaching, or weaken the ore by removing iron and\\/or sulfur making the valuable metal accessible to subsequent\\u000a chemical treatment, a process known as biooxidation

Violaine Bonnefoy

280

Sintered wire cesium dispenser photocathode  

DOEpatents

A photoelectric cathode has a work function lowering material such as cesium placed into an enclosure which couples a thermal energy from a heater to the work function lowering material. The enclosure directs the work function lowering material in vapor form through a low diffusion layer, through a free space layer, and through a uniform porosity layer, one side of which also forms a photoelectric cathode surface. The low diffusion layer may be formed from sintered powdered metal, such as tungsten, and the uniform porosity layer may be formed from wires which are sintered together to form pores between the wires which are continuous from the a back surface to a front surface which is also the photoelectric surface.

Montgomery, Eric J; Ives, R. Lawrence; Falce, Louis R

2014-03-04

281

Sintered titanium carbide hard alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.A study was made of the preparation of titanium carbide hard alloys with a nickel binder. It is shown that satisfactory mechanical properties (bend strength 107–115 kg\\/mm2, hardness 90–90.5 HRA) are exhibited by 80% TiC-20% Ni alloys produced from fine-milled mixtures by sintering in a vacuum of 5·10-3 mm Hg at a temperature of 1300‡C and an isothermal holding time

G. V. Samsonov; N. N. Sergeev; G. T. Dzodziev; V. K. Vitryanyuk; L. V. Latyaeva

1971-01-01

282

Non-Sintered Nickel Electrode  

DOEpatents

A non-sintered nickel electrode contains a conductive support and a paste comprising an electrochemically active material containing nickel hydroxide and a binder which is a mixture of an elastomer and a crystalline polymer. The proportion of the elastomer is in the range 25% to 60% by weight of the binder and the proportion of the crystalline polymer is in the range 40% to 75% by weight of the binder.

Bernard, Patrick (Massy, FR); Dennig, Corinne (Asnieres sur Seine, FR); Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel (Bordeaux, FR); Alcorta, Jose (Bordeaux, FR); Coco, Isabelle (Dax, FR)

2002-01-01

283

Low Temperature Sintering of PZT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the fabrication and characterization of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films fired in a liquid-phase sintering process at 900 °C in air. In detail the manufacturing of piezoelectric multilayers with internal pure silver (Tm = 961 °C) electrodes are reported. The feasibility of ten sintering aids in two different volume fractions was investigated for a commercial hard PZT powder (PIC 181, PI Ceramics) with respect to density, microstructure, mechanical behaviour, and piezoelectric properties. Li2O, Li2CO3, PbO, MnO2, V2O5, CuO, Bi2O3, the eutectic mixtures Cu2O·PbO and PbO·WO3 and the ternary system Li2CO3·Bi2O3·CuO (LBCu) have been tested as liquid phase sintering aids. The combination of PZT with LBCu showed the best results. With 5 vol.% LBCu an average relative density of 97% and a characteristic breaking strength of 77 MPa was achieved. Composition of PZT with 2 vol.% LBCu exhibits the highest averaged piezoelectrical charge constant (d33) of 181 pC/N.

Medesi, A.; Greiner, T.; Benkler, M.; Megnin, C.; Hanemann, T.

2014-11-01

284

11-15 giugno 2012 Aula I ore 20  

E-print Network

CARMELO BENE. IN - CONTRO CINEMA TEATRO acuradi Antonella Ottaie Fabrizio Deriu Lunedì 11 giugno ore 20 Deriu ore 20,15 Un Amleto di meno (1973) ore 21,30 Carmelo Bene. Le tecniche dell'assenza (1984) Giovedì Ferruccio Marotti Venerdì 15 giugno ore 20,00 Antonella Ottai e Fabrizio Deriu intervistano Alessandro

Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

285

Distribution of ore deposits and spectrographic analyses of some rocks and ores on the Colorado Plateau  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geographic pattern of known igneous rocks and ore deposits on the Colorado Plateau suggests a zonal arrangement of several types of ore deposits around centers of igneous activity. Spectrographic analyses of rocks and ores on the Plateau have been obtained in an effort to determine the distribution of elements and to examine the relationships between types of ore deposits and between the ore deposits and igneous rocks. Over 170 analyses of rocks and ores are given in this report. A preliminary study of these analyses suggests that the proportion of uranium, vanadium, copper, and silver in the uranium ores varies geographically, and that the pattern of variation may be in part concentric about some of the major laccolithic intrusions. It is also suggested that the following ratios of metals contained in the uranium ores are possible guides to larger-than-average ore deposits: (1) lead/uranium greater than 1, (2) lead/zinc greater than 10, and (3) zinc/geometric mean of cobalt and nickel less than 10.

Riley, Leonard Benjamin; Shoemaker, Eugene Merle

1952-01-01

286

Project StORe: Chemistry Report   

E-print Network

The StORe project (http://jiscstore.jot.com/WikiHome) is a collaboration of seven universities across the UK and the Johns Hopkins University in the USA and under funding from the Joint Information Systems Committee ...

Polydoratou, Panayiota

287

Project StORe: Biochemistry report   

E-print Network

Biochemistry departments at UK universities were invited to take part in the Project StORe questionnaire. Potential sites were identified by using the list of departments submitting to the 1996 Research Assessment Exercise ...

Tonkin, Suzanne

2006-01-01

288

Project StORe: Biosciences report   

E-print Network

This report was written as part of the first phase of the national higher education research project StORe (Source-to-Output Repositories). The project included a large scale analysis of repository user behaviour, with ...

Biegon, Dagmar

2006-09-15

289

Project StORe: Physics Report   

E-print Network

Results are presented on the Physics Survey of Researcher Use of Repositories which constitutes the culmination of Work Package 2 (in Physics) of Project StORe (Source to Output Repositories). The data were obtained by ...

Bull, Stephen

290

Project StORe: Archaeology report   

E-print Network

The StORe project commenced in September 2005, with the aim of developing ways of enabling repositories of published reports and papers to interact directly with repositories of source data from which thay are derived. This report constitutes...

Hull, Daniel

2006-07-10

291

Open Scholarship 2006 StORe poster   

E-print Network

StORe is a project within the JISC digital repositories programme. It has a declared mission to enhance the value of academic research output by enabling direct interaction between source and output repositories

Pryor, Graham

2006-01-01

292

Project StORe: Social Science report   

E-print Network

There was widespread support across the social science research community regarding the aims of the StORe Project Nearly half of social science respondents claimed that both source-to-output and out-put-to source repositories ...

Burton, Guy

293

Production of nickel and iron nanopowders by hydrogen reduction from salts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of nickel and iron nanoparticles produced by a chemical—metallurgical method and steels made of composite iron powders with nanosized nickel additions is studied. A procedure is developed for calculating the nanopowder particle size and the activation energy of sintering. The results obtained make it possible to decrease the temperature of the process of powder production, to decrease the energy consumed for powder sintering, and to predict the powder nanoparticle size.

Oglezneva, S. A.; Bulanov, V. Ya.; Kontsevoi, Yu. V.; Ignat'ev, I. E.

2012-07-01

294

Sintered hydroxyfluorapatites. Part III: sintering and resultant mechanical properties of sintered blends of hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite.  

PubMed

The presence of chemically dissimilar apatites occurs widely in biological systems as a result of exposure to chemically enriched media, but also to optimize the mechanical properties. The use of mechanical blends of apatites can be used to manufacture high temperature processed fluoride containing hydroxyapatites with improved properties. Mechanical blends of fluorapatite and hydroxyapatite were produced with 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% fluorapatite. Pellets were sintered at 1150 degrees C, 1200 degrees C and 1250 degrees C and the density determined by the Archimedes method. Mechanical properties including hardness, elastic modulus and fracture toughness were measured using indentation. It was found that mechanical blends of 150 nm sized hydroxyapatite and 300 nm sized fluorapatite lead to solid solutions after sintering. The mechanical blends do not sinter as effectively as homogeneous hydroxyfluorapatite solid solutions and exhibit a minimum density at 80 wt.% fluorapatite. The hardness, elastic modulus and brittleness decreases with a higher flourapatite content, attributed primarily to a decrease in density. The higher fracture toughness for mechanical blends indicates that these materials are more crack resistant and provide a means for improving mechanical properties. PMID:14643614

Gross, K?rlis A; Bhadang, Kinnari A

2004-01-01

295

Sintering behaviour of cobalt ferrite ceramic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pure cobalt ferrite ceramic powder was prepared using standard solid-state ceramic processing. Uniaxially pressed pure cobalt ferrite discs, sintered under isothermal ramp rate and single dwell time conditions, yielded a maximum theoretical density (%Dth) of <90%. Discs made from finer particle size powder yielded a %Dth of 91.5%. Based on dilatometry analysis, a sintering profile comprising non-isothermal sintering, and two-step

A. Rafferty; T. Prescott; D. Brabazon

2008-01-01

296

A REAL-TIME COAL CONTENT/ORE GRADE (C2OC) SENSOR  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three year DOE funded project titled ''A real-time coal content/ore grade (C{sub 2}OG) sensor''. The sensor, which is based on hyperspectral imaging technology, was designed to give a machine vision assay of ore or coal. Sensors were designed and built at Resonon, Inc., and then deployed at the Stillwater Mining Company core room in southcentral Montana for analyzing platinum/palladium ore and at the Montana Tech Spectroscopy Lab for analyzing coal and other materials. The Stillwater sensor imaged 91' of core and analyzed this data for surface sulfides which are considered to be pathfinder minerals for platinum/palladium at this mine. Our results indicate that the sensor could deliver a relative ore grade provided tool markings and iron oxidation were kept to a minimum. Coal, talc, and titanium sponge samples were also imaged and analyzed for content and grade with promising results. This research has led directly to a DOE SBIR Phase II award for Resonon to develop a down-hole imaging spectrometer based on the same imaging technology used in the Stillwater core room C{sub 2}OG sensor. The Stillwater Mining Company has estimated that this type of imaging system could lead to a 10% reduction in waste rock from their mine and provide a $650,000 benefit per year. The proposed system may also lead to an additional 10% of ore tonnage, which would provide a total economic benefit of more than $3.1 million per year. If this benefit could be realized on other metal ores for which the proposed technology is suitable, the possible economic benefits to U.S. mines is over $70 million per year. In addition to these currently lost economic benefits, there are also major energy losses from mining waste rock and environmental impacts from mining, processing, and disposing of waste rock.

Rand Swanson

2005-04-01

297

Biomining: metal recovery from ores with microorganisms.  

PubMed

Biomining is an increasingly applied biotechnological procedure for processing of ores in the mining industry (biohydrometallurgy). Nowadays the production of copper from low-grade ores is the most important industrial application and a significant part of world copper production already originates from heap or dump/stockpile bioleaching. Conceptual differences exist between the industrial processes of bioleaching and biooxidation. Bioleaching is a conversion of an insoluble valuable metal into a soluble form by means of microorganisms. In biooxidation, on the other hand, gold is predominantly unlocked from refractory ores in large-scale stirred-tank biooxidation arrangements for further processing steps. In addition to copper and gold production, biomining is also used to produce cobalt, nickel, zinc, and uranium. Up to now, biomining has merely been used as a procedure in the processing of sulfide ores and uranium ore, but laboratory and pilot procedures already exist for the processing of silicate and oxide ores (e.g., laterites), for leaching of processing residues or mine waste dumps (mine tailings), as well as for the extraction of metals from industrial residues and waste (recycling). This chapter estimates the world production of copper, gold, and other metals by means of biomining and chemical leaching (bio-/hydrometallurgy) compared with metal production by pyrometallurgical procedures, and describes new developments in biomining. In addition, an overview is given about metal sulfide oxidizing microorganisms, fundamentals of biomining including bioleaching mechanisms and interface processes, as well as anaerobic bioleaching and bioleaching with heterotrophic microorganisms. PMID:23793914

Schippers, Axel; Hedrich, Sabrina; Vasters, Jürgen; Drobe, Malte; Sand, Wolfgang; Willscher, Sabine

2014-01-01

298

Oil shales, evaporites and ore deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationships between oil shales, evaporites and sedimentary ore deposits can be classified in terms of stratigraphic and geochemical coherence. Oil shale and black shale deposition commonly follows continental red beds and is in turn followed by evaporite deposition. This transgressive-regressive sequence represents an orderly succession of depositional environments in space and time and results in stratigraphic coherence. The amount of organic carbon of a sediment depends on productivity and preservation, both of which are enhanced by saline environments. Work on Great Salt Lake. Utah, allows us to estimate that only 5% of TOC originally deposited is preserved. Inorganic carbonate production is similar to TOC production, but preservation is much higher. Oil shales and black shales commonly are enriched in heavy metals through scavenging by biogenic particles and complexation by organic matter. Ore deposits are formed from such rocks through secondary enrichment processes, establishing a geochemical coherence between oil shales and ore deposits. The Permian Kupferschiefer of N. Europe is used as an example to define a Kupferschiefer type (KST) deposit. Here oxygenated brines in contact with red beds become acidified through mineral precipitation and acquire metals by dissolving oxide coatings. Oxidation of the black shale leads to further acid production and metal acquisition and eventually to sulfide deposition along a reducing front. In order to form ore bodies, the stratigraphic coherence of the red bed-black shale-evaporite succession must be joined by the geochemical coherence of the ore body-evaporite-black shale association. The Cretaceous Cu-Zn deposits of Angola, the Zambian Copperbelt as well as the Creta, Oklahoma, deposits are other KST examples. In the Zambian Copperbelt, evaporites are indicated by the carbonate lenticles thought to be pseudomorphs after gypsum-anhydrite nodules. MVT deposits are also deposited by acid brines, but at more elevated temperatures and with carbonates as principal host rocks. The Pine Point deposits are cited for their close association with evaporites. Alkaline, metal-rich brines are postulated for the HYC deposit of McArthur River, Australia. Such brines are known from the Green River Formation and deposits formed from such brines constitute the GRT class. They can be recognized by the presence of Magadi-type cherts and zeolite-analcime-K-spar tuffs. The Cu-Co ore bodies of Outokumpu, Finland, might also belong to this type. A new classification of sedimentary ore deposits is proposed, based on their geochemical environment. KST and MVT are formed from acid ore fluids, while GRT and CT (Creede type) are derived from basic ore fluids. pH of the fluids is best evaluated not from the ores themselves, but from their effect on the host-rocks.

Eugster, Hans P.

1985-03-01

299

Geochronology and stable isotope signature of alteration related to hydrothermal magnetite ores in Central Anatolia, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal iron ores at Divri?i, east Central Anatolia, are contained in two orebodies, the magnetite-rich A-kafa and the limonitic B-kafa (resources of 133.8 Mt with 56% Fe and 0.5% Cu). The magnetite ores are hosted in serpentinites of the Divri?i ophiolite at the contact with plutons of the Murmano complex. Hydrothermal biotite from the Divri?i A-kafa yield identical weighted mean plateau ages of 73.75 ± 0.62 and 74.34 ± 0.83 Ma (2?). This biotite represents a late alteration phase, and its age is a minimum age for the magnetite ore. Similar magnetite ores occur at Hasançelebi and Karakuz, south of Divri?i. There, the iron ores are hosted in volcanic or subvolcanic rocks, respectively, and are associated with a voluminous scapolite ± amphibole ± biotite alteration. At Hasançelebi, biotite is intergrown with parts of the magnetite, and both minerals formed coevally. The weighted mean plateau ages of hydrothermal biotite of 73.43 ± 0.41 and 74.92 ± 0.39 Ma (2?), therefore, represent mineralization ages. Hydrothermal biotite from a vein cutting the scapolitized host rocks south of the Hasançelebi prospect has a weighted mean plateau age of 73.12 ± 0.75 Ma (2?). This age, together with the two biotite ages from the Hasançelebi ores, constrains the minimum age of the volcanic host rocks, syenitic porphyry dikes therein, and the scapolite alteration affecting both rock types. Pyrite and calcite also represent late hydrothermal stages in all of these magnetite deposits. The sulfur isotope composition of pyrite between 11.5 and 17.4‰ ?34S(VCDT) points towards a non-magmatic sulfur source of probably evaporitic origin. Calcite from the Divri?i deposit has ?18O(VSMOV) values between +15.1 and +26.5‰ and ?13C(VPDB) values between -2.5 and +2.0‰, which are compatible with an involvement of modified marine evaporitic fluids during the late hydrothermal stages, assuming calcite formation temperatures of about 300°C. The presence of evaporite-derived brines also during the early stages is corroborated by the pre-magnetite scapolite alteration at Divri?i, and Hasançelebi-Karakuz, and with paleogeographic and paleoclimatic reconstructions. The data are compatible with a previously proposed genetic model for the Divri?i deposit in which hydrothermal fluids leach and redistribute iron from ophiolitic rocks concomitant with the cooling of the nearby plutons.

Marschik, Robert; Spikings, Richard; Ku?cu, Ilkay

2008-01-01

300

Antimony ore in the Fairbanks district, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Antimony-bearing ores in the Fairbanks district, Alaska, are found principally in two areas, the extremities of which are at points 10 miles west and 23 miles northeast of Fairbanks; and one of two minor areas lies along this same trend 30 miles farther to the northeast. These areas are probably only local manifestations of mineralization that affected a much broader area and formed antimony-bearing deposits in neighboring districts, the closest of which is 50 miles away. The ores were exposed largely as a result of lode gold mining, but at two periods in the past, high prices for antimony ore warranted an independent production and about 2500 tons of stibnite ore was shipped. The sulfide deposits occupy the same fractures along which a gold-quartz mineralization of greater economic importance occurred; and both are probably genetically related to igneous rocks which intrude the schistose country rock. The sulfide is in part contemporaneous with some late-stage quartz in which it occurs as disseminated crystals; and in part the latest filling in the mineralized zones where it forms kidney-shaped masses of essentially solid sulfide. One extremely long mass must have contained nearly 100 tons of ore, but the average of the larger kidneys is closer to several tons. Much of the ore is stibnite, with quartz as a minor impurity, and assays show the tenor to vary from 40 to 65 percent antimony. Sulphantimonites are less abundant but likewise occur as disseminated crystals and as kidney-shaped bodies. Antimony oxides appear on the weathered surface and along fractures within the sulfide ore. Deposits containing either stibnite or sulphantimonite are known at more than 50 localities, but only eighteen have produced ore and the bulk of this came from the mines. The geology of the deposit, and the nature, extent, and period of the workings are covered in the detailed descriptions of individual occurrences. Several geologic and economic factors, which greatly affect prospecting and mining for stibnite ore in the area, are outlined. The principal available ore and reserves are considered to be ores earlier mined but never shipped, ore minable from near-surface deposits, and ores recoverable as a by-product of future gold mining. The outlook for stibnite production in the district is very uncertain. Apparently the greater portion of stibnite ore has already been recovered and present operations will strip the two principal areas of the district. This conclusion is based on the scanty discoveries since the last war and the fact that the areas are so pock-marked with prospects that there is little likelihood that any other large near-surface bodies remain to be discovered. Future prospecting would essentially be limited to attempts to seek the continuation of lodes previously having high yields of stibnite.

Killeen, Pemberton Lewis; Mertie, John B., Jr.

1951-01-01

301

Method of sintering materials with microwave radiation  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method of sintering ceramic materials. A compacted article comprising inorganic particles coated with carbon is provided, the carbon providing improved microwave coupling. The compacted article is then heated by microwave radiation to a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to sinter the compacted article. No Drawings

Kimrey, H.D. Jr.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Dykes, N.L.

1994-06-14

302

Method of sintering materials with microwave radiation  

DOEpatents

A method of sintering ceramic materials following: A compacted article comprising inorganic particles coated with carbon is provided, the carbon providing improved microwave coupling. The compacted article is then heated by microwave radiation to a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to sinter the compacted article.

Kimrey, Jr., Harold D. (Knoxville, TN); Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E. (Farragut, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01

303

Microwave tunnel kiln for ceramic sintering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given, as follows. A tunnel kiln heated only by microwaves has been developed. The industrial ceramics are sintered continuously in the roller hearth. The minimum sintering time is an hour which is shorter than the time in the fastest conventional tunnel kiln with electric heaters. The maximum processing rate is 50 kg\\/hour. The dimensions of the tunnel

M. Sato; T. Mutoh; T. Shimotuma; S. Takayama; M. Mizuno; T. Hirai; T. Ochiai; K. Kato; M. Nakajima; T. Sawada; S. Sato

2002-01-01

304

DESULFURIZATION OF STEEL MILL SINTER PLANT GASES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of using limestone scrubbing technology to control sinter plant emissions. Data from Soviet and Japanese sinter plants employing limestone scrubbing technology were used to develop a realistic des...

305

How many ore-bearing asteroids?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple formalism is presented to assess how many asteroids contain ore, i.e., commercially profitable material, and not merely a high concentration of a resource. I apply this formalism to two resource cases: platinum group metals (PGMs) and water. Assuming for now that only Ni-Fe asteroids are of interest for PGMs, then 1% of NEOs are rich in PGMs. The dearth of ultra-low delta-v (<4.5 km s-1) NEOs larger than 100 m diameter reduces the ore-bearing fraction to only 1 in 2000 NEOs. As 100 m diameter NEOs are needed to have a value ?US$1B and the population of near-Earth objects (NEOs) larger than 100 m diameter is 20,000 (Mainzer et al., 2011) the total population of PGM ore-bearing NEOs is roughly 10. I stress that this is a conservative and highly uncertain value. For example, an order of magnitude increase in PGM ore-bearing NEOs occurs if delta-v can be as large as 5.7 km s-1. Water ore for utilization in space is likely to be found in 1/1100 NEOs. NEOs as small as 18 m diameter can be water-ore-bodies because of the high richness of water ( 20%) expected in 25% of carbonaceous asteroids, bringing the number of water-ore-bearing NEOs to 9000 out of the 10 million NEOs of this size. These small NEOs are, however, hard to find with present surveys. There will be 18 water-ore-bearing NEOs >100 m diameter. These estimates are at present highly imprecise and sensitive to small changes, especially in the maximum delta-v allowed. Nonetheless the low values found here mean that much improved determinations of each of the terms of the formalism are urgently needed. If better estimates still find small numbers of ore-bearing NEOs then thorough surveys for NEA discovery and, especially, characterization are needed. Strategies for the two classes are likely to be different.

Elvis, Martin

2014-02-01

306

Manufacture of high-density ceramic sinters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High density ceramic sinters are manufactured by coating premolded or presintered porous ceramics with a sealing material of high SiO2 porous glass or nitride glass and then sintering by hot isostatic pressing. The ceramics have excellent abrasion and corrosion resistances. Thus LC-10 (Si3N2 powder) and Y2O3-Al2O3 type sintering were mixed and molded to give a premolded porous ceramic (porosity 37%, relative bulk density 63%). The ceramic was dipped in a slurry containing high SiO2 porous glass and an alcohol solution of cellulose acetate and dried. The coated ceramic was treated in a nitrogen atmosphere and then sintered by hot isostatic pressing to give a dense ceramic sinter.

Hibata, Y.

1986-01-01

307

Mineralogy and formation conditions of ores in the Bereznyakovskoe ore field, the Southern Urals, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bereznyakovskoe ore field is situated in the Birgil’da-Tomino ore district of the East Ural volcanic zone. The ore field comprises several centers of hydrothermal mineralization, including the Central Bereznyakovskoe and Southeastern Bereznyakovskoe deposits, which are characterized in this paper. The disseminated and stringer-disseminated orebodies at these deposits are hosted in Upper Devonian-Lower Carboniferous dacitic-andesitic tuff and are accompanied by quartz-sericite hydrothermal alteration. Three ore stages are recognized: early ore (pyrite); main ore (telluride-base-metal, with enargite, fahlore-telluride, and gold telluride substages); and late ore (galena-sphalerite). The early and the main ore stages covered temperature intervals of 320-380 to 180°C and 280-300 to 170°C, respectively; the ore precipitated from fluids with a predominance of NaCl. The mineral zoning of the ore field is expressed in the following change of prevalent mineral assemblages from the Central Bereznyakovskoe deposit toward the Southeastern Bereznyakovskoe deposit: enargite, tennantite, native tellurium, tellurides, and selenides ? tennantite-tetrahedrite, tellurides, and sulfoselenides (galenoclausthalite) ? tetrahedrite, tellurides, native gold, galena, and sphalerite. The established trend of mineral assemblages was controlled by a decrease in f_{S_2 } , f_{Te_2 } and f_{O_2 } and an increase in pH of mineral-forming fluids from early to late assemblages and from the Central Bereznyakovskoe deposit toward the Southeastern Bereznyakovskoe deposit. Thus, the Central Bereznyakovskoe deposit was located in the center of an epithermal high-sulfidation ore-forming system. As follows from widespread enargite and digenite, a high Au/Ag ratio, and Au-Cu specialization of this deposit, it is rather deeply eroded. The ore mineralization at the Southeastern Bereznyakovskoe deposit fits the intermediate- or low-sulfidation type and is distinguished by development of tennantite, a low Au/Ag ratio, and enrichment in base metals against a lowered copper content. In general, the Bereznyakovskoe ore field is a hydrothermal system with a wide spectrum of epithermal mineralization styles.

Plotinskaya, O. Yu.; Groznova, E. O.; Kovalenker, V. A.; Novoselov, K. A.; Seltmann, R.

2009-10-01

308

Mortality among sulfide ore miners  

SciTech Connect

Lung cancer mortality was studied during 1965-1985 in Outokumpu township in North Karelia, where an old copper mine was located. Age-specific lung cancer death rates (1968-1985) were higher among the male population of Outokumpu than among the North Karelian male population of the same age excluding the Outokumpu district (p less than .01). Of all 106 persons who died from lung cancer during 1965-1985 in Outokumpu township, 47 were miners of the old mine, 39 of whom had worked there for at least three years and been heavily exposed to radon daughters and silica dust. The study cohort consisted of 597 miners first employed between 1954 and 1973 by a new copper mine and a zinc mine, and employed there for at least 3 years. The period of follow-up was 1954-1986. The number of person-years was 14,782. The total number of deaths was 102; the expected number was 72.8 based on the general male population and 97.8 based on the mortality of the male population of North Karelia. The excess mortality among miners was due mainly to ischemic heart disease (IHD); 44 were observed, the expected number was 22.1, based on the general male population, and the North Karelian expected number was 31.2 (p less than .05). Of the 44 miners who died from IHD, 20 were drillers or chargers exposed to nitroglycerin in dynamite charges, but also to several simultaneous stress factors including PAHs, noise, vibration, heavy work, accident risk, and working alone. Altogether 16 tumors were observed in the cohort. Ten of these were lung cancers, the expected number being 4.3. Miners who had died from lung cancer were 35-64 years old, and had entered mining work between 1954 and 1960. Five of the ten lung cancer cases came from the zinc mine (1.7 expected). Three of them were conductors of diesel-powered ore trains.

Ahlman, K.; Koskela, R.S.; Kuikka, P.; Koponen, M.; Annanmaeki, M. (Department of Epidemiology and Biometry, Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland))

1991-01-01

309

Exploring the engine of anthropogenic iron cycles  

PubMed Central

Stocks of products in use are the pivotal engines that drive anthropogenic metal cycles: They support the lives of people by providing services to them; they are sources for future secondary resources (scrap); and demand for in-use stocks generates demand for metals. Despite their great importance and their impacts on other parts of the metal cycles and the environment, the study of in-use stocks has heretofore been widely neglected. Here we investigate anthropogenic and geogenic iron stocks in the United States (U.S.) by analyzing the iron cycle over the period 1900–2004. Our results show the following. (i) Over the last century, the U.S. iron stock in use increased to 3,200 Tg (million metric tons), which is the same order of magnitude as the remaining U.S. iron stock in identified ores. On a global scale, anthropogenic iron stocks are less significant compared with natural ores, but their relative importance is increasing. (ii) With a perfect recycling system, the U.S. could substitute scrap utilization for domestic mining. (iii) The per-capita in-use iron stock reached saturation at 11–12 metric tons in ?1980. This last finding, if applicable to other economies as well, could allow a significant improvement of long-term forecasting of steel demand and scrap availability in emerging market economies and therefore has major implications for resource sustainability, recycling technology, and industrial and governmental policy. PMID:17053079

Müller, Daniel B.; Wang, Tao; Duval, Benjamin; Graedel, T. E.

2006-01-01

310

Exploring the engine of anthropogenic iron cycles.  

PubMed

Stocks of products in use are the pivotal engines that drive anthropogenic metal cycles: They support the lives of people by providing services to them; they are sources for future secondary resources (scrap); and demand for in-use stocks generates demand for metals. Despite their great importance and their impacts on other parts of the metal cycles and the environment, the study of in-use stocks has heretofore been widely neglected. Here we investigate anthropogenic and geogenic iron stocks in the United States (U.S.) by analyzing the iron cycle over the period 1900-2004. Our results show the following. (i) Over the last century, the U.S. iron stock in use increased to 3,200 Tg (million metric tons), which is the same order of magnitude as the remaining U.S. iron stock in identified ores. On a global scale, anthropogenic iron stocks are less significant compared with natural ores, but their relative importance is increasing. (ii) With a perfect recycling system, the U.S. could substitute scrap utilization for domestic mining. (iii) The per-capita in-use iron stock reached saturation at 11-12 metric tons in approximately 1980. This last finding, if applicable to other economies as well, could allow a significant improvement of long-term forecasting of steel demand and scrap availability in emerging market economies and therefore has major implications for resource sustainability, recycling technology, and industrial and governmental policy. PMID:17053079

Müller, Daniel B; Wang, Tao; Duval, Benjamin; Graedel, T E

2006-10-31

311

Insights into the iron and sulfur energetic metabolism of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans by microarray transcriptome profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is a well known acidophilic, chemolithoautotrophic, Gram negative, bacterium involved in bioleaching and acid mine drainage. In aerobic conditions, it gains energy mainly from the oxidation of ferrous iron and\\/or reduced sulfur compounds present in ores. After initial oxidation of the substrate, electrons from ferrous iron or sulfur enter respiratory chains and are transported through several redox proteins

Raquel Quatrini; Corinne Appia-Ayme; Yann Denis; Jeanine Ratouchniak; Felipe Veloso; Jorge Valdes; Claudia Lefimil; Simon Silver; Frank Roberto; Omar Orellana; François Denizot; Eugenia Jedlicki; David Holmes; Violaine Bonnefoy

2006-01-01

312

Iron Mountain Electromagnetic Results  

SciTech Connect

Iron Mountain Mine is located seventeen miles northwest of Redding, CA. After the completion of mining in early 1960s, the mine workings have been exposed to environmental elements which have resulted in degradation in water quality in the surrounding water sheds. In 1985, the EPA plugged ore stoops in many of the accessible mine drifts in an attempt to restrict water flow through the mine workings. During this process little data was gathered on the orientation of the stoops and construction of the plugs. During the last 25 years, plugs have begun to deteriorate and allow acidic waters from the upper workings to flow out of the mine. A team from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed geophysical surveys on a single mine drift and 3 concrete plugs. The project goal was to evaluate several geophysical methods to determine competence of the concrete plugs and orientation of the stopes.

Gail Heath

2012-07-01

313

Tribological properties of sintered polycrystalline and single crystal silicon carbide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tribological studies and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses were conducted with sintered polycrystalline and single crystal silicon carbide surfaces in sliding contact with iron at various temperatures to 1500 C in a vacuum of 30 nPa. The results indicate that there is a significant temperature influence on both the friction properties and the surface chemistry of silicon carbide. The main contaminants on the as received sintered polycrystalline silicon carbide surfaces are adsorbed carbon, oxygen, graphite, and silicon dioxide. The surface revealed a low coefficient of friction. This is due to the presence of the graphite on the surface. At temperatures of 400 to 600 C graphite and copious amount of silicon dioxide were observed on the polycrystalline silicon carbide surface in addition to silicon carbide. At 800 C, the amount of the silicon dioxide decreased rapidly and the silicon carbide type silicon and carbon peaks were at a maximum intensity in the XPS spectra. The coefficients of friction were high in the temperature range 400 to 800 C. Small amounts of carbon and oxygen contaminants were observed on the as received single crystal silicon carbide surface below 250 C. Silicon carbide type silicon and carbon peaks were seen on the silicon carbide in addition to very small amount of graphite and silicon dioxide at temperatures of 450 to 800 C.

Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.; Srinivasan, M.

1982-01-01

314

Nondestructive evaluation of sintered ceramics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiography and several acoustic and thermoacoustic microscopy techniques are investigated for application to structural ceramics for advanced heat engines. A comparison is made of the results obtained from the use of scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM), scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM), and thermoacoustic microscopy (TAM). These techniques are evaluated on research samples of green and sintered monolithic silicon nitrides and silicon carbides in the form of modulus-of-rupture (MOR) bars containing deliberately introduced flaws. Strengths and limitations of the techniques are described, with the emphasis being on statistics of detectability of flaws that constitute potential fracture origins. Further, it is shown that radiographic evaluation and guidance helped develop uniform high-density Si3N4 MOR bars with improved four-point flexural strength (875, 544, and 462 MPa at room temperature, 1200 C, 1370 C, respectively) and reduced scatter in bend strength.

Baaklini, George Y.; Klima, Stanley J.; Sanders, William A.

1988-01-01

315

AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH, WITH FORMER TCIUS STEEL ORE MINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH, WITH FORMER TCI-US STEEL ORE MINE HEADQUARTERS (BOTTOM) AND SUPERINTENDENT'S AND FOREMAN HOUSING ALONG MINNESOTA AVENUE AT CREST OF RED MOUNTAIN (TOP LEFT). - Muscoda Red Ore Mining Community, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

316

4. DETAIL OF ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM AND GRIZZLY, VIEW TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. DETAIL OF ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM AND GRIZZLY, VIEW TO EAST. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Sampling Building & Ore Receiving Platform, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

317

3. DETAIL OF ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM AND GRIZZLY, VIEW TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. DETAIL OF ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM AND GRIZZLY, VIEW TO WEST. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Sampling Building & Ore Receiving Platform, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

318

2. VIEW TO NORTHEAST (ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM OUT OF VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW TO NORTHEAST (ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM OUT OF VIEW TO RIGHT). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Sampling Building & Ore Receiving Platform, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

319

1. VIEW TO SOUTH (RETAINING WALL OF ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW TO SOUTH (RETAINING WALL OF ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM TO LEFT). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Sampling Building & Ore Receiving Platform, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

320

Microwave Sinterator Freeform Additive Construction System (MS-FACS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The harmful properties of lunar dust, such as small size, glass composition, abnormal surface area, and coatings of imbedded nanophase iron, lead to a unique coupling of the dust with microwave radiation. This coupling can be exploited for rapid sintering of lunar soil for use as a construction material that can be formed to take on an infinite number of shapes and sizes. This work describes a system concept for building structures on the lunar surface using lunar regolith (soil). This system uses the ATHLETE (All-Terrain Hex- Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer) mobility system as a positioning system with a microwave print head (similar to that of a smaller-scale 3D printer). A processing system delivers the lunar regolith to the microwave print head, where the microwave print head/chamber lays down a layer of melted regolith. An arm on the ATHLETE system positions the layer depending on the desired structure.

Howe, Alan S.; Wilcox, Brian H.; Barmatz, Martin B.; Mercury, Michael B.; Siebert, Michael A.; Rieber, Richard R.

2013-01-01

321

TREATMENT OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM IN CHROMITE ORE PROCESSING SOLID WASTE USING A MIXED REDUCTANT SOLUTION OF FERROUS SULFATE AND SODIUM DITHIONITE  

EPA Science Inventory

We developed a method for disseminating ferrous iron in the subsurface to enhance chemical reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in a chromite ore processing solid waste derived from the production of ferrochrome alloy. The method utilizes ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) in combinati...

322

Enery Efficient Press and Sinter of Titanium Powder for Low-Cost Components in Vehicle Applications  

SciTech Connect

This is the final technical report for the Department of Energy NETL project NT01931 Energy Efficient Press and Sinter of Titanium Powder for Low-Cost Components in Vehicle Applications. Titanium has been identified as one of the key materials with the required strength that can reduce the weight of automotive components and thereby reduce fuel consumption. Working with newly developed sources of titanium powder, Webster-Hoff will develop the processing technology to manufacture low cost vehicle components using the single press/single sinter techniques developed for iron based powder metallurgy today. Working with an automotive or truck manufacturer, Webster-Hoff will demonstrate the feasibility of manufacturing a press and sinter titanium component for a vehicle application. The project objective is two-fold, to develop the technology for manufacturing press and sinter titanium components, and to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a titanium component for a vehicle application. The lowest cost method for converting metal powder into a net shape part is the Powder Metallurgy Press and Sinter Process. The method involves compaction of the metal powder in a tool (usually a die and punches, upper and lower) at a high pressure (up to 60 TSI or 827 MPa) to form a green compact with the net shape of the final component. The powder in the green compact is held together by the compression bonds between the powder particles. The sinter process then converts the green compact to a metallurgically bonded net shape part through the process of solid state diffusion. The goal of this project is to expand the understanding and application of press and sinter technology to Titanium Powder applications, developing techniques to manufacture net shape Titanium components via the press and sinter process. In addition, working with a vehicle manufacturer, demonstrate the feasibility of producing a titanium component for a vehicle. This is not a research program, but rather a project to develop a process for press and sinter of net shape Titanium components. All of these project objectives have been successfully completed.

Thomas Zwitter; Phillip Nash; Xiaoyan Xu; Chadwick Johnson

2011-03-31

323

32. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH ON THE ORE BREAKER LEVEL. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH ON THE ORE BREAKER LEVEL. THE ORE BREAKER, A BLAKE JAW CRUSHER, IS IN THE BOX IN THE LEFT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH, THE ORE TO BE BROKEN IS FED INTO THE OPENING ON THE FLOOR AND NEXT TO ORE BREAKER BOX. THE GRIZZLY BARS ARE ON THE RIGHT AND THE PULLEYS FROM THE POWER SYSTEM ARE OVERHEAD. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

324

Cognome e nome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ALGA 14 novembre 2011 Compitino (2 ore)  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ALGA 14 novembre 2011­ Compitino (2 ore) Giustificare ogni affermazione Salvare il file CoCoA come

Robbiano, Lorenzo

325

Cognome e nome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ALGA 2 febbraio 2012 Compitino (2 ore)  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ALGA 2 febbraio 2012­ Compitino (2 ore) Giustificare ogni affermazione Salvare il file CoCoA come

Robbiano, Lorenzo

326

Placement Of O-Rings In Solid Rocket Booster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brief report proposes to modify placement of O-ring seals in joints of Solid Rocket Booster of Space Shuttle. Modified joint and seal essentially "inside-out" version of old joint and seal. O-rings placed between outer side of tang and clevis. Joint rotation pushes tang harder against O-rings, thereby making even tighter seal. Proposal derived from analysis of Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, attributed to failure of these O-ring seals.

Wood, Charles

1991-01-01

327

Sintering aid for lanthanum chromite refractories  

SciTech Connect

A method of forming an electronically conductive, integral layer including lanthanum chromite is described comprising: depositing a layer including particulate lanthanum chromite containing a minor fraction of a sintering acid which includes a eutectic affording composition of at least two components providing a minor portion of a liquid phase in the layer during the sintering step, and eutectic affording composition having a melting point substantially below the melting point of the lanthanum chromite; sintering the layer at a sufficiently high temperature of not more than 1800/sup 0/K to form and densify an integral layer including lanthanum chromite.

Flandermeyer, B.K.; Poeppel, R.B.; Ellyn, G.; Dusek, J.T.; Anderson, H.U.

1988-06-07

328

Liquid phase sintering of silicon carbide  

DOEpatents

Liquid phase sintering is used to densify silicon carbide based ceramics using a compound comprising a rare earth oxide and aluminum oxide to form liquids at temperatures in excess of 1600.degree. C. The resulting sintered ceramic body has a density greater than 95% of its theoretical density and hardness in excess of 23 GPa. Boron and carbon are not needed to promote densification and silicon carbide powder with an average particle size of greater than one micron can be densified via the liquid phase process. The sintered ceramic bodies made by the present invention are fine grained and have secondary phases resulting from the liquid phase.

Cutler, Raymond A. (Bountiful, UT); Virkar, Anil V. (Salt Lake City, UT); Hurford, Andrew C. (Salt Lake City, UT)

1989-01-01

329

Liquid phase sintering of silicon carbide  

DOEpatents

Liquid phase sintering is used to densify silicon carbide based ceramics using a compound comprising a rare earth oxide and aluminum oxide to form liquids at temperatures in excess of 1,600 C. The resulting sintered ceramic body has a density greater than 95% of its theoretical density and hardness in excess of 23 GPa. Boron and carbon are not needed to promote densification and silicon carbide powder with an average particle size of greater than one micron can be densified via the liquid phase process. The sintered ceramic bodies made by the present invention are fine grained and have secondary phases resulting from the liquid phase. 4 figs.

Cutler, R.A.; Virkar, A.V.; Hurford, A.C.

1989-05-09

330

Thermal barrier coating resistant to sintering  

DOEpatents

A device (10) having a ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (16) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (18) with a sintering inhibiting material (22) disposed on the columns (20) within the gaps (18). The sintering resistant material (22) is stable over the range of operating temperatures of the device (10) and is not soluble with the underlying ceramic layer (16). For a YSZ ceramic layer (16) the sintering resistant layer (22) may preferably be aluminum oxide or yttrium aluminum oxide, deposited as a continuous layer or as nodules.

Subramanian, Ramesh (Orlando, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01

331

Rajkonkoski gold-telluride ore occurrence: A new high prospective type of complex noble metal mineralization in the Karelian Proterozoic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rajkonkoski ore occurrence is located within the region of the Karelian craton (AR2) and the Svecofennian folded belt (PR1) conjugation. It is presented by quartz-carbonate veins in metadoleriles and a zone of brecciation, crumple, and silification of carbonaceous shales within the volcanites of the Soanlakhtinsky suite (PR1). Ore mineralization in black shales and quartz veins has features of genetic similarity presenting different levels of the ore system controlled by different range strike-slip fault dislocations. At the Rajkonkoski ore occurrence, 41 ore minerals have been identified: 12 tellurides (native tellurium, hedleyite, pilsenite, tsumoite, tellurobismuthite, hessite, stuetzite, radclidzhite, joseite-B, altaite, volynskite, petzite); 4 bismuth-tellurides of the following compositions Bi3Te, Bi3Te2, BiTe4, PbBiTe; 3 selenides (clausthalite, tellurolaitakarite, native selenium); and 12 native metals (gold, silver, electrum, copper, iron, lead, tin, bismuth, osmiridium). The contents of the main ore minerals in places exceed 10%, and the concentrations of elements reach as follows: Cu and Pb, 5%; Zn, Bi, 1%; Se, 219 ppm; Te, 171 ppm; Sb, 3 ppm; As, 5 ppm; Ag, >0.1%; Au, 35.28 ppm. Ore mineralization is formed during the temperature interval from 550°C up to <170oC in the conditions of high activity of Se and Te, and beginning from medium temperatures (>300°C) complete miscibilities galenite-clausthalite and galenite-altaite are observed. In aggregate with a wide temperature interval (>400°C) of ore process evolution and mineral specia variety of telluride and native metal mineralizations, the original “torsion” of different temperature mineralizations makes it possible to determine the affiliation of the Rajkonkoski ore occurrence to the xenothermal type deposits or epithermal “alkaline,” gold-telluride A-type characterized by a close connection with magmatism of increased alkalinity and the original geochemical (Te-V-F) and mineral (tellurides of gold, silver and other metals, fluorite, roscoelite, vanadium-containing sulfides) associations. Taking into consideration that many of the xenothermal and epithermal A-type gold and silver deposits are large commercial objects, the prospects of the Rajkonkoski ore occurrence and the region of the Karelian craton and Svecofennian folded belt conjugation seem to be significant for noble metal mineralization.

Ivashchenko, V. I.; Sundblad, K.; Toritsin, A. N.; Golubev, A. I.; Lavrov, O. B.

2008-11-01

332

Platinum metals magmatic sulfide ores.  

PubMed

Platinum-group elements (PGE) are mined predominantly from deposits that have formed by the segregation of molten iron-nickel-copper sulfides from silicate magmas. The absolute concentrations of PGE in sulfides from different deposits vary over a range of five orders of magnitude, whereas those of other chalcophile elements vary by factors of only 2 to 100. However, the relative proportions of the different PGE in a given deposit are systematically related to the nature of the parent magma. The absolute and relative concentrations of PGE in magmatic sulfides are explained in terms of the degree of partial melting of mantle peridotite required to produce the parent magma and the processes of batch equilibration and fractional segregation of sulfides. The Republic of South Africa and the U.S.S.R. together possess more than 97 percent of the world PGE reserves, but significant undeveloped resources occur in North America. The Stillwater complex in Montana is perhaps the most important example. PMID:17796685

Naldrett, A J; Duke, J M

1980-06-27

333

Microstructure and magnetic properties of low-temperature sintered CoTi-substituted barium ferrite for LTCC application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the influences of the BaCu(B2O5) (BCB) additive on sintering behavior, structure and magnetic properties of iron deficient M-type barium ferrite Ba(CoTi)xFe11.8?2xO19 (BaM) have been investigated. It is found that the maximum sintered densities of BaM change from 86% to 94% as the BCB content varies from 1 to 4wt%. Single-phase BaM can be detected by the XRD

Daming Chen; Yingli Liu; Yuanxun Li; Wenguo Zhong; Huaiwu Zhang

2011-01-01

334

A comparative study of conventionally sintered and microwave sintered nickel zinc ferrite  

SciTech Connect

For the present work, nickel zinc ferrite having compositional formula Ni{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was synthesized by conventional solid state method and sintered in conventional and microwave furnaces. Pellets were sintered with very short soaking time of 10 min at 1150 °C in microwave furnace whereas 4 hrs of soaking time was selected for conventional sintering at 1200 °C. Phase formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis technique. Scanning electron micrographs were taken for microstructural study. Dielectric properties were studied as a function of temperature. To study magnetic behavior, M-H hysteresis loops were recorded for both samples. It is observed that microwave sintered sample could obtain comparable properties to the conventionally sintered one in lesser soaking time at lower sintering temperature.

Rani, Rekha [Electroceramics Research Lab, GVM Girls College, Sonepat-131001, India and School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala-147004 (India); Juneja, J. K. [Department of Physics, Hindu College, Sonepat-131001 (India); Raina, K. K. [School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala-147004 (India); Kotnala, R. K. [National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi -110012 (India); Prakash, Chandra, E-mail: cprakash2014@gmail.com [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Timarpur, Delhi - 110054 (India)

2014-04-24

335

17. ORE DOCK, LOOKING EAST FROM HULETT NO. 1. WHEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. ORE DOCK, LOOKING EAST FROM HULETT NO. 1. WHEN BUILT IN 1911-1912, THIS WAS THE LARGEST ORE-UNLOADING DOCK ON THE GREAT LAKES. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

336

Improvement on inverse distance weighted interpolation for ore reserve estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve accuracy of estimation for ore reserves and average grade, it is important to select suitable interpolation method. Firstly, traditional inverse distance weighted method is analyzed and grade estimation model is improved. Specifically, irregular ellipsoid interpolation model is put forward, which is suitable for vein thin ore body or layer-like ore body, etc. The new model, based

Zhongxue Li; Xin Li; Cuiping Li; Zhiguo Cao

2010-01-01

337

6. Looking west showing top of dock: steaming frozen ore ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Looking west showing top of dock: steaming frozen ore which had been put in pockets in December 1959, May 6, 1990. Photographer: unknown - Marquette Ore Dock No. 6, Ore Dock, On pilings in Marquette City Lower Harbor, Marquette, Marquette County, MI

338

Behavior of uranium under conditions of interaction of rocks and ores with subsurface water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of uranium during interaction of subsurface water with crystalline rocks and uranium ores is considered in connection with the problem of safe underground insulation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Since subsurface water interacts with crystalline rocks formed at a high temperature, the mineral composition of these rocks and uranium species therein are thermodynamically unstable. Therefore, reactions directed toward the establishment of equilibrium proceed in the water-rock system. At great depths that are characterized by hindered water exchange, where subsurface water acquires near-neutral and reducing properties, the interaction is extremely sluggish and is expressed in the formation of micro- and nanoparticles of secondary minerals. Under such conditions, the slow diffusion redistribution of uranium with enrichment in absorbed forms relative to all other uranium species is realized as well. The products of secondary alteration of Fe- and Ti-bearing minerals serve as the main sorbents of uranium. The rate of alteration of minerals and conversion of uranium species into absorbed forms is slow, and the results of these processes are insignificant, so that the rocks and uranium species therein may be regarded as unaltered. Under reducing conditions, subsurface water is always saturated with uranium. Whether water interacts with rock or uranium ore, the equilibrium uranium concentration in water is only ?10-8 mol/l. Uraninite ore under such conditions always remains stable irrespective of its age. The stability conditions of uranium ore are quite suitable for safe insulation of SNF, which consists of 95% uraninite (UO2) and is a confinement matrix for all other radionuclides. The disposal of SNF in massifs of crystalline rocks at depths below 500 m, where reducing conditions are predominant, is a reliable guarantee of high SNF stability. Under oxidizing conditions of the upper hydrodynamic zone, the rate of interaction of rocks with subsurface water increases by orders of magnitude and subsurface water is commonly undersaturated with uranium. Uranium absorbed by secondary minerals, particularly by iron hydroxides and leucoxene, is its single stable species under oxidizing conditions. The impact of oxygen-bearing water leads to destruction of uranium ore. This process is realized simultaneously at different hypsometric levels even if the permeability of the medium is variable in both the lateral and vertical directions. As a result, intervals containing uranyl minerals and relics of primary uranium ore are combined in ore-bearing zones with intervals of completely dissolved uranium minerals. A wide halo of elevated uranium contents caused by sorption is always retained at the location of uranium ore entirely destroyed by weathering. Uranium ore commonly finds itself in the aeration zone due to technogenic subsidence of the groundwater table caused by open-pit mining or pumping out of water from underground mines. The capillary and film waters that interact with rocks and ores in this zone are supplemented by free water filtering along fractures when rain falls or snow is thawing. The interaction of uranium ore with capillary water results in oxidation of uraninite, accompanied by loosening of the mineral surface, formation of microfractures, and an increase in solubility with enrichment of capillary water in uranium up to 10-4 mol/l. Secondary U(VI) minerals, first of all, uranyl hydroxides and silicates, replace uraninite, and uranium undergoes local diffusion redistribution with its sorption by secondary minerals of host rocks. The influx of free water facilitates the complete dissolution of primary and secondary uranium minerals, the removal of uranium at the sites of groundwater discharge, and its redeposition under reducing conditions at a greater depth. It is evident that the conditions of the upper hydrodynamic zone and the aeration zone are unfit for long-term insulation of SNF and high-level wastes because, after the failure of containers, the leakage of radionuclides into the environment becomes inevi

Omel'Yanenko, B. I.; Petrov, V. A.; Poluektov, V. V.

2007-10-01

339

Geology and ore deposits of the Whitepine area, Tomichi mining district, Gunnison County, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Tomichi mining district is on the western slope of the Continental Divide near the southern end of the Sawatch Range in southeastern Gunnison County, Colorado. The most productive part of the Tomichi district was the Whitepine area. It is estimated that since the discovery of ore in 1879 the area has produced approximately $7,000,000, principally in lead and zinc, with lesser amounts of silver, copper, and gold. Geologically, the Whitepine area is a faulted syncline of Paleozoic rocks that was intruded by Tertiary igneous rocks. The oldest rock of the area is the Silver Plume granite of pre-Cambrian age. Deposited upon this successively were the Sawatch quartzite (Late Cambrian), Manitou dolomite (Early Ordovician), Harding quartzite (Middle Ordovician), Fremont dolomite (Lade Ordovician), Chaffee formation (Late Devonian), Leadville limestone (Late Mississippian), and Beldon shale (Late Pennsylvanian); a total thickness of about 1,450 feet. During the Laramide Revolution, the sedimentary rocks were folded into a broad northward-plunging syncline, faulted, and intruded by a series of igneous rocks. The igneous rocks, in order of relative age from oldest to youngest, are: a rhyolite stock, the Princeton quartz monzonite batholith, quartz monzonite or quartz latite porphyry dikes, and rhyolite or pitchstone porphyry dikes. The ore deposits of the Whitepine area may be classified into replacement deposits, vein deposits, and contact metamorphic deposits. The replacement deposits may be further subdivided into deposits along faults and bedded deposits. Of the types of deposits, the most productive have been the replacement deposits along faults. The major replacement deposits along faults are those of the Akron, Morning Star, and Victor mines. The ore deposits of these mines are in the foot wall of the Star faults in the Akron mine in the Manitou dolomite and in the Morning Star and Victor mines in the Leadville limestone. The chief bedded replacement deposits are those of the Erie, North Star, and Tenderfoot mines. In the Erie mine the ore deposits are in the Leadville limestone at, or just below, its contact with the Belden shale. In the North Star and Tenderfoot mines the ore bodies are in the Manitou dolomite along the crest of an anticline and the trough of a syncline, respectively. The vein deposits occur in the Silver Plume granite, Princeton quartz monzonite, and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. The only vein of commercial importance was that of the Spar Copper mine, which is in the Silver Plume granite. Contact metamorphic minerals are found chiefly in the top of the Leadville limestone in the vicinity of the Erie mine, and in the limestone of the Belden shale. Magnetite is the only ore mineral and it was produced only from the Iron King mine. The replacement deposits consist, in general, of sphalerite, galena, pyrite, and chalcopyrite in a gangue of siliclfied limestone or dolomite, quartz, and calcite. The veins, for the most part, consist of pyrite and quartz with only minor amounts of galena, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite. In both types of deposits gold is believed to be associated with the pyrite and sphalerite and silver with the galena. Oxidized ore was the chief product of the early mining. This ore consists of calamine, cerussite, smithsonite, or anglesite, or a combination of these minerals, in a gangue of siliceous limestone or silicified limestone or dolomite. Oxidation did not extend, in most cases, for more than 150 feetbelow the surface. The ore deposits are believed to be genetically related to the Princeton quartz monzonite batholith. Ore-bearing solutions derived from the cooling of magma are believed to have migrated upwards along the pre-existing faults replacing favorable zones in the sedimentary rocks, or depositing quartz and ore minerals in open fissures in the igneous rocks.

Robinson, Charles Sherwood

1956-01-01

340

Oxide Transformation in Cr-Mn-Prealloyed Sintered Steels: Thermodynamic and Kinetic Aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main obstacle for utilization of Cr and Mn as alloying elements in powder metallurgy is their high oxygen affinity leading to oxidation risk during powder manufacturing, handling, and especially during further consolidation. Despite the high purity of the commercially available Cr- and Mn-prealloyed iron powder grades, the risk of stable oxide formation during the sintering process remains. Thermodynamic and kinetic simulation of the oxide formation/transformation on the former powder surface during heating and sintering stages using thermodynamic modeling tools (Thermo-Calc and HSC Chemistry) was performed. Simulation is based on the results from the analysis of amount, morphology, and composition of the oxide phases inside the inter-particle necks in the specimens from interrupted sintering trials utilizing advanced analysis tools (HRSEM + EDX and XPS). The effect of the processing parameters, such as sintering atmosphere composition, temperature profile as well as graphite addition on the possible scenarios of oxide reduction/formation/transformation for Fe-Cr-Mn-C powder systems, was evaluated. Results indicate that oxide transformation occurs in accordance with the thermodynamic stability of oxides as follows: Fe2O3 ? FeO ? Fe2MnO4 ? Cr2FeO4 ? Cr2O3 ? MnCr2O4 ? MnO/MnSiO x ? SiO2. Spinel MnCr2O4 was identified as the most stable oxide phase at applied sintering conditions up to 1393 K (1120 °C). Controlled conditions during the heating stage minimize the formation of stable oxide products and produce oxide-free sintered parts.

Hryha, Eduard; Nyborg, Lars

2014-04-01

341

Project StORe: Biosciences interviews   

E-print Network

This report was written as part of the first phase of the national higher education research project StORe (Source-to-Output Repositories). Data was acquired through a series of individual interviews which are presented here in full. The anonymous...

Biegon, Dagmar

2006-11-08

342

In brief: Project StORe   

E-print Network

Project StORe is one of twenty-five projects supported in the UK by the JISC (http://www.jisc.ac.uk) Digital Repositories Programme, which aims to bring together people and practices from across the domains of research, learning, information...

Pryor, Graham

343

Production of uranium ore in capitalist countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uranium deposits of the USA are concentrated in the sedimentary rocks of the Colorado plateau [2, 12]. The ore bodies are adapted to arkosic sandstones, conglomerates, limestones, and argillites. The reserves are distributed into a rather small number of large deposits and a large number of small deposits. Large deposits, each with reserves of from 50 to 100 thousand

N. I. Chesnokov; V. G. Ivanov

1973-01-01

344

Mechanism of Reduction in an Oxygen Reactor for Ore–Coal Pellets Prepared with Low-Grade Manganese Ore  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on a study of the physicochemical laws that govern the reduction of manganese from oxidized and carbonate ores in the Polynochnoye deposit. The optimum regime for processing these ores was also determined. (The reserves of these ores total 0.5 million tons [2]). We conducted chemical, laser mass-spectrometric, and x-ray diffraction analyses of manganese ores of the given

V. A. Peretyagin; A. V. Pavlov

2003-01-01

345

Estimation of the activation energy of sintering in KNN ceramics using master sintering theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The master sintering curve (MSC) of K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN) ceramics was constructed using constant heating rate dilatometry data based on the combined stage sintering model. The linear shrinkage was recorded using three heating rates 5 °C, 7 °C and 11 °C/ min. The obtained results suggest that in MSC, the sintered density is a unique function of the integral of a temperature function over time and it is independent of the sintering history. The MSC theory can be applied to predict shrinkage and final density. Also, it can be used to design a reproducible process to fabricate ceramics with required density.

Singh, Rajan; Patro, P. K.; Kulkarni, Ajit R.; Harendranath, C. S.

2014-04-01

346

Pressureless sintering of whiskered-toughened ceramic composites  

DOEpatents

A pressureless sintering method is disclosed for use in the production of whisker-toughened ceramic composites wherein the sintered density of composites containing up to about 20 vol. % SiC whiskers is improved by reducing the average aspect ratio of the whiskers to from about 10 to about 20. Sintering aids further improve the density, permitting the production of composites containing 20 vol. % SiC with sintered densities of 94% or better of theoretical density by a pressureless sintering method.

Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN)

1994-01-01

347

Pressureless sintering of whisker-toughened ceramic composites  

DOEpatents

A pressureless sintering method is disclosed for use in the production of whisker-toughened ceramic composites wherein the sintered density of composites containing up to about 20 vol. % SiC whiskers is improved by reducing the average aspect ratio of the whiskers to from about 10 to about 20. Sintering aids further improve the density, permitting the production of composites containing 20 vol. % SiC with sintered densities of 94% or better of theoretical density by a pressureless sintering method.

Tiegs, T.N.

1993-05-04

348

Pressureless sintering of whisker-toughened ceramic composites  

DOEpatents

A pressureless sintering method is disclosed for use in the production of whisker-toughened ceramic composites wherein the sintered density of composites containing up to about 20 vol. % SiC whiskers is improved by reducing the average aspect ratio of the whiskers to from about 10 to about 20. Sintering aids further improve the density, permitting the production of composites containing 20 vol. % SiC with sintered densities of 94% or better of theoretical density by a pressureless sintering method.

Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN)

1993-01-01

349

Phase transformations during sintering of titania nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The size below which anatase nanoparticles become more stable than rutile nanoparticles (crossover diameter) is dependent on the environment of the nanoparticles. It is smaller for nanoparticles in vacuum than those in water and continues to decrease with increase in temperature. Phase transformation between anatase and rutile phases is facilitated by enhanced ionic mobility at temperatures near the melting point of the nanoparticles. Multiparticle multiphase molecular dynamics simulations of TiO(2) nanoparticles undergoing sintering-induced phase transformations are reported here. Over the time scales accessible to molecular dynamics simulations, we found that the final sintering agglomerate transformed to the rutile phase, provided one of the sintering nanoparticles was rutile, while sintering of anatase and amorphous nanoparticles resulted in a brookite agglomerate. No such phase transformations were observed at temperatures away from nanoparticle's melting temperatures. PMID:19206364

Koparde, Vishal N; Cummings, Peter T

2008-08-01

350

Thermal barrier coating resistant to sintering  

DOEpatents

A device (10) is made, having a ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (16) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (18) with a sintering inhibiting material (22) disposed on the columns (20) within the gaps (18). The sintering resistant material (22) is stable over the range of operating temperatures of the device (10), is not soluble with the underlying ceramic layer (16) and is applied by a process that is not an electron beam physical vapor deposition process. The sintering inhibiting material (22) has a morphology adapted to improve the functionality of the sintering inhibiting material (22), characterized as continuous, nodule, rivulet, grain, crack, flake and combinations thereof and being disposed within at least some of the vertical and horizontal gaps.

Subramanian, Ramesh; Seth, Brig B.

2005-08-23

351

Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOEpatents

A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Warner, Kathryn A. (Bryan, TX)

1999-01-01

352

The Kiruna-type apatite-iron oxide system in central Sweden: geology and geochemical character  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The only apatite-iron oxide ores in the classic Palaeoproterozoic Bergslagen ore province, central Sweden, occur semi-continuously between Grängesberg and Idkerberget. Together, they represent the largest concentration of iron ore in this part of the Fennoscandian shield. Their mineralogy, geochemistry, geometry and host rock relations all suggest that they belong to the Kiruna-type class of deposits. The apatite-iron oxide ores in Bergslagen are hosted by 1.9 Ga variably altered, metavolcanic to meta-subvolcanic rocks ranging from rhyolitic to andesitic in composition. The region has been affected by three episodes of deformation (D1-3) and regional, greenschist to amphibolite facies metamorphism during the c. 1.9-1.8 Ga Svecokarelian orogeny. The Grängesberg deposits occur as narrow, moderately SE-dipping lenses that are concordant to S0 surfaces in the host rocks. Magnetic anomaly data indicate that they extend to a depth of at least 1.7 km. The lens geometry is mainly controlled by deformation during D2. Reverse, oblique, top-to-the NNW shear is evident in the footwall, and strain partitioning due to competence contrasts between the ore and altered host rocks resulted in flattening at competent ore lens crests, leading to asymmetrical folds with opposite vergence towards pinch areas where prolate strain prevailed. D1 is evident as a crenulated cleavage and D3 appears as gentle, large-scale open folds. Geochemical data on host rocks show a systematic enrichment in REE from the least to the most altered rocks. The ore-associated alteration assemblages and the apatite-iron oxide ore feature similar and elevated REE concentrations and profiles, suggesting a link between hydrothermal alteration and oxide ore formation. However, most ore magnetite has ?18O values between +0.3 and +3.4 ‰ (ranging from -0.4 to +4.9 ‰), consistent with fractionation of oxygen between magnetite and a felsic to intermediate magma at high temperatures (Jonsson et al. 2011). These values partly overlap with published data from the Kiruna ores, as well as with young Chilean deposits of a comparable type (Nyström et al. 2008). The lighter values can be explained by either (or a combination of both) later oxidation of the ores and a hydrothermal process of formation. A majority of moderately altered host rock ?18O (+5 to +10 ‰ (V-SMOW)), plot within the normal spectrum of igneous rocks. Based on isotope systematics, geochemistry and geological observations, we conclude that formation of these ores included a hydrothermal component, most likely directly related to an orthomagmatic process.

Högdahl, K.; Jonsson, E.; Nilsson, K.; Troll, V.

2012-04-01

353

The Selective Laser Sintering of Polycarbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates thermal modelling of the selective laser sintering process for amorphous polycarbonate powders. The aim is to develop a simulation for process accuracy and control which are key areas of developement for the new layer manufacturing rapid prototyping technologies. A state-of-the-art adaptive mesh 2D finite difference code is used simultaneously to consider heating and sintering and its results

M. Berzins; T. H. C. Childs; G. R. Ryder

1996-01-01

354

Thermal barrier coating resistant to sintering  

DOEpatents

A device (10) is made, having a ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (16) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (18) with a sintering inhibiting material (22) disposed on the columns (20) within the gaps (18). The sintering resistant material (22) is stable over the range of operating temperatures of the device (10), is not soluble with the underlying ceramic layer (16) and is applied by a process that is not an electron beam physical vapor deposition process.

Subramanian, Ramesh; Seth, Brij B.

2004-06-29

355

Sintering Behavior of Diboride Based Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief history of diboride research, an overview of processing, and sintering studies are covered in this viewgraph presentation. UHTCs are a family of ceramic materials, including diborides of Hf and Zr, with extremely high melting temperatures. Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) is a novel processing technique useful in consolidating difficult materials. The presentation also contains microphotographs of the microstructure of HfB2 and ZrB2 processed in different ways.

Gasch, Matt; Gusman, Michael; Irby, Edward; Ellerby, Don; Beckman, Sarah; Johnson, Sylvia

2003-01-01

356

Mechanically sintered gallium-indium nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Liquid metal nanoparticles that are mechanically sintered at and below room temperature are introduced. This material can be sintered globally on large areas of entire deposits or locally to create liquid traces within deposits. The metallic nanoparticles are fabricated by dispersing a liquid metal in a carrier solvent via sonication. The resulting dispersion is compatible with inkjet printing, a process not applicable to the bulk liquid metal in air. PMID:25728533

Boley, John William; White, Edward L; Kramer, Rebecca K

2015-04-01

357

Iron overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Iron is an ingredient in many mineral and vitamin supplements. Iron supplements are also sold by themselves. Types include: Ferrous sulfate (Feosol, Slow Fe) Ferrous gluconate (Fergon) Ferrous fumarate (Femiron, Feostat) Note: This list may not be all-inclusive.

358

Iron Range Research Center Archival Collections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For many people, Minnesota's Iron Range isn't just a geographic region, it is a way of life. Stretching across the northeastern section of the state, the Iron Range includes everything from vast bands of iron ore to counties with piquant names, like Koochiching. It is a largely rural area, where people's winter pastimes tend to involve skiing, snowmobiles, and ice fishing. This digital collection from the Minnesota Discovery Center preserves the culture and folkways of this area via photographs, oral histories, government records, and manuscripts. Within the Oral History Collection, visitors can look over memories of this region captured and preserved for all time. Visitors can explore labor struggles, internecine political battles in the region, and recreational pursuits. Additionally, the Map Collection is a great way to learn about forest distribution, geological landforms, and iron deposits across the area. All in all, it is a wonderful resource and one that may serve as a model to other institutions.

359

13. ORE DOCK, LOOKING EAST FROM HULETT NO. 1. WHEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. ORE DOCK, LOOKING EAST FROM HULETT NO. 1. WHEN BUILT IN 1911-1912, THIS WAS THE LARGEST ORE-UNLOADING DOCK ON THE GREAT LAKES. THE DOCK FEATURED FOUR HULETT UNLOADERS, EACH WITH A BUCKET CAPACITY OF 17 TONS; A 15-TON CAPACITY ORE STOCKING AND REHANDLING BRIDGE; AND A ONE-MILLION-TON CAPACITY ORE STORAGE YARD. THE WILLIAM-SEAVER-MORGAN COMPANY OF CLEVELAND BUILT THE DOCK EQUIPMENT. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

360

Influence of ferrous iron incorporation on the structure of hydroxyapatite.  

PubMed

Iron is a vital element of cellular function within the body. High concentrations of iron can be found in the kidneys and the circulatory system. In bones and teeth it is present as a trace element. The use of iron-based compounds in combination with hydroxyapatite offers a new alternative for prosthetic devices. This work investigates the synthesis and processing of iron containing apatites as a possible new type of ceramic for biomedical devices. Stoichiometric and calcium deficient iron containing apatites were synthesized by a wet chemical reaction with di-ammonium-hydrogen-phosphate, calcium nitrate and a ferrous iron nitrate solution. A secondary phase of tri-calcium-phosphate (TCP) was observed after heat treatment of iron containing, calcium deficient, hydroxyapatite. The apatite structure was maintained after heat treatment of stoichiometric apatite, synthesized in the presence of iron. Sintering in air produced oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+, resulting in the formation of hematite as a secondary phase. The introduction of iron into the synthesis of hydroxyapatite causes: (i) an increase of the a-lattice parameter after synthesis and heat treatment in air; (ii) an increase in the c-lattice parameter after sintering in air. PMID:15875246

Morrissey, R; Rodríguez-Lorenzo, L M; Gross, K A

2005-05-01

361

Sintering of ash during fluidized bed combustion  

SciTech Connect

Agglomeration of bed material and fuel ash may sometimes cause problems during fluidized bed combustion. In this paper a laboratory test method has been applied on different coal ashes to predict how they behave in temperatures typical for circulating fluidized bed boilers. The method is also useful when the influence of the different bed compounds on the sintering is studied or when the effect of the surrounding gas phase is investigated. The method is based on compression strength measurements of sintered cylindrical pellets and has been used earlier when slagging and fouling tendencies of different coal ashes in pulverized coal fired boilers have been studied. The results showed clear differences in sintering tendencies between the five different coal ashes studied. Temperatures where the sintering was initiated could vary between 500 and 900 [degrees]C, depending on the ash. The sintering tendency seemed also to correlate well with the experiences achieved from full-scale and pilot-scale operation. Addition of limestone decreased sintering of one coal ash when the amount exceeded the Ca/S ratio of 1.3. The decrease was even greater when an Al-Si-based clay mineral was used.

Bkrifvars, B.J.; Hupa, M. (Abo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland)); Hiltunen, M. (A. Ahlstrom Corp., Ahlstrom Pyropower, Karhula (Finland))

1992-04-01

362

Characterization of the distribution of the sintering activator boron in powder metallurgical steels with SIMS.  

PubMed

Powder metallurgy is a well-established method for manufacturing ferrous precision parts. A very important step is sintering, which can be strongly enhanced by the formation of a liquid phase during the sintering process. Boron activates this process by forming such a liquid phase at about 1200 degrees C. In this work, the sintering of Fe-B was performed under the protective atmospheres of hydrogen, argon or nitrogen. Using different grain sizes of the added ferroboron leads to different formations of pores and to the formation of secondary pores. The effect of boron was investigated by means of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) supported by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Light Microscopy (LM). To verify the influence of the process parameters on the mechanical properties, the microstructure (pore shape) was examined and impact energy measurements were performed. The concentrations of B in different samples were varied from 0.03-0.6 weight percent (wt%). Higher boron concentrations are detectable by EPMA, whereas the distributions of boron in the samples with interesting overall concentration in the low wt% range are only detectable by means of SIMS. This work shows that the distribution of boron strongly depends on its concentration and the sintering atmosphere used. At low concentration (up to 0.1 wt%) there are boride precipitations; at higher concentration there is a eutectic iron-boron grain boundary network. There is a decrease of the impact energy observed that correlates with the amount of eutectic phase. PMID:15004734

Krecar, Dragan; Vassileva, Vassilka; Danninger, Herbert; Hutter, Herbert

2004-06-01

363

Eat Iron?!!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To gain an understanding of mixtures and the concept of separation of mixtures, students use strong magnets to find the element of iron in iron-fortified breakfast cereal flakes. Through this activity, they see how the iron component of this heterogeneous mixture (cereal) retains its properties and can thus be separated by physical means.

NSF GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

364

DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL, SECONDARY ORE BIN, CRUSHER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL, SECONDARY ORE BIN, CRUSHER FOUNDATION, AND BALL MILL FOUNDATIONS, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. ORE FROM THE MINES WAS DUMPED FROM THE TRAM BUCKETS INTO THE PRIMARY ORE BIN UNDER THE TRAM TERMINAL. A SLIDING CONTROL DOOR INTRODUCED THE INTO THE JAW CRUSHER (FOUNDATIONS,CENTER). THE CRUSHED ORE WAS THEN CONVEYED INTO THE SECONDARY ORE BIN AT CENTER LEFT. A HOLE IN THE FLOOR OF THE ORE BIN PASSED ORE ONTO ANOTHER CONVEYOR THAT BROUGHT IT OUT TO THE BALL MILL(FOUNDATIONS,CENTER BOTTOM). THIS SYSTEM IS MOST LIKELY NOT THE ORIGINAL SET UP, PROBABLY INSTALLED IN THE MINE'S LAST OCCUPATION IN THE EARLY 1940s. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

365

Sintered silicon nitrode recuperator fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preliminary design and a demonstration of the feasibility of fabricating submodules of an automotive Stirling engine recuperator for waste heat recovery at 370 C are described. Sinterable silicon nitride (Sialon) tubing and plates were fabricated by extrusion and hydrostatic pressing, respectively, suitable for demonstrating a potential method of constructing ceramic recuperator-type heat exchangers. These components were fired in nitrogen atmosphere to 1800 C without significant scale formation so that they can be used in the as-fired condition. A refractory glass composition (Al2O3 x 4.5 CaO.MgO x 11SiO2) was used to join and seal component parts by a brazing technique which formed strong recuperator submodules capable of withstanding repeated thermal cycling to 1370 C. The corrosion resistance of these materials to Na2SO4 + NaCl carbon mixtures was also assessed in atmospheres of air, hydrogen and CO2-N2-H2O mixtures at both 870 C and 1370 C for times to 1000 hours. No significant reaction was observed under any of these test conditions.

Gatti, A.; Chiu, W. S.; Mccreight, L. R.

1980-01-01

366

Liquid phase sintering of tungsten composites under microgravity: Influence of liquid/particle surface energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tungsten-nickel-iron heavy metals are fabricated from powders by liquid phase sintering. A study of the sintering mechanism of heavy metals with a low amount of tungsten particles can, depending on sedimentation, only be done under microgravity. At two earlier Texus flights, No 10 & 19, the growth rate and agglomeration of tungsten particles under microgravity were compared to that under gravity and sedimentation. During the first minute sintering period the particles in the agglomerates were separated and the particle distribution became even. The particle growth rate under microgravity, initially high, is slowing down. At further studies under gravity the influence of surface energy between the liquid phase and the tungsten particles have been investigated. Additions of sulphur and cobolt were used to decrease the surface energy and the use of nickel without iron to increase the energy. At a high surface energy the growth rate increases due to increased driving force. Preliminary results from the Texus 26 flight (April 90) are included.

Ekbom, L. B.; Lei, B.; Eliasson, A.; Jarfors, A.

367

Comparison of effect of induction and classical sintering to mechanical properties of powder metal components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of solidifying to component, sintering is the most important step of the production of powder metal parts. Generally it is made classical furnace. Alternatively sintering furnace, it is done that induction sintering studies. Induction sintering provide a grand time and energy savings since components hot up rapidly and sintering time is lower than classical sintering in furnace. Because of that induction sintering is an important alternative at sintering process. In this study, mechanical properties of induction sintered Fe based components included Cu and Graphite were compared with classical sintered components. Parameters of same mechanical properties of induction sintered and classical sintered components were identified.

Çivi, Can; Atik, Enver

2012-09-01

368

Early medieval origins of iron mining and settlement in central Sweden: multiproxy analysis of sediment and peat records from the Norberg mining district  

Microsoft Academic Search

The historical Norberg mining district in central Sweden with its shallow, easily accessible iron ores figures prominently in the earliest documents from the 14th century concerning mining or metallurgy. This 1000-km2 district is considered to be one of the first areas in Sweden exploited for iron ores and, in fact, Europe’s oldest known blast furnace, Lapphyttan, is located in the

Richard Bindler; Ulf Segerström; Ing-Marie Pettersson-Jensen; Anna Berg; Sophia Hansson; Harald Holmström; Karin Olsson; Ingemar Renberg

2011-01-01

369

Sintering of silicon nitride ceramics with magnesium silicon nitride and yttrium oxide as sintering aids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramics had been produced through pressureless sintering and hot-pressing sintering with MgSiN2-Y2O3 or only MgSiN2 as sintering aids. The influences of the amount of MgSiN2 and Y2O3 and sintering methods on the properties of Si3N4 ceramics were investigated. The results show that the bend strength of Si3N4 ceramic fabricated through pressureless sintering at 1820 °C for 4 h with 5.6 wt.% MgSiN2-15.8 wt.% Y2O3 as sintering additive could achieve 839 MPa. However, the bend strength of Si3N4 ceramic produced by hot-pressing sintering at 1750 °C for 1 h under uniaxial pressure of 20 MPa with 4.76 wt.% MgSiN2 was 1149 MPa. The thermal conductivity of the Si3N4 ceramic 2 3 4 could reach to 129 W·m-1·K1. The present work demonstrated that MgSiN2 aids and hot-pressing sintering were effective to improve the thermal conductivity of Si3N4 ceramic.

Jiang, J.; Xu, J. Y.; Peng, G. H.; Zhuang, H. R.; Li, W. L.; Xu, S. Y.; Mao, Y. J.

2011-10-01

370

Sintering effect on structural and magnetic properties of Ni0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 ferrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ni0.60Zn0.40Fe2O4 ferrite was prepared via microwave assisted combustion method and sintered at three different temperatures (1100, 1200 &1300 °C). The lattice constant and bulk density increases whereas the porosity decreases (from 12% to 8% at 1100 to 1300 °C) with increasing sintering temperature. High saturation magnetization value (72.9 emu/g) is observed for the sample sintered at 1200 °C. Room temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy provided information on the magnetic phase and amount of Fe at A and B site in the lattice. Isomer shift (?) values show that iron is in high spin Fe+3 states. Quadrupole splitting (?) values show the cubic symmetry at A-sites, possibility of local distortion at octahedral site and increase in hyperfine field with sintering temperature.

Kothawale, Manoj M.; Tangsali, R. B.; Naik, G. K.; Budkuley, J. S.; Meena, Sher Singh; Bhatt, Pramod

2013-02-01

371

Preliminary reduction of oxidized nickel ores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laws of gas reduction of oxidized nickel ores (ONOs) are studied. The theoretical prerequisites of the selective reduction of ONO nickel, which are based on the difference between the oxygen partial pressures over the NiO-Ni and FeO-Fe systems, are discussed. The effect of the oxygen partial pressure during reducing roasting of ONOs of ferruginous and magnesia types on the reduction parameters and the quality of the ferronickel formed upon subsequent melting of cinders is experimentally investigated. The optimum conditions of preliminary gas reduction of ONOs are determined. Melting of the cinder of reducing roasting leads to the formation of nickel-rich ferronickel (20-50 wt % Ni for various types of ores) upon the extraction of nickel into ferronickel of >95%, which substantially exceeds the parameters of the existing commercial processes.

Pakhomov, R. A.; Starykh, R. V.

2014-11-01

372

Magnetic properties of high silicon iron sheet fabricated by direct powder rolling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, the high silicon–iron strips (near to 6.5%Si) were produced by the direct powder rolling (DPR) technique. The continuous strips could be compacted by rolling from silicon and iron powders and sintered by the following heat treatments. The chemical formula, Fe+Si?Fe (Si)+Fe3Si (Si), controls the reaction of silicon and iron powders. Optimized mechanical properties of the strip due

Ran Li; Qiang Shen; Lianmeng Zhang; Tao Zhang

2004-01-01

373

Tourmaline in the central Swedish ore district  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 40 recently discovered tourmaline occurrences have been investigated in the Mid-Proterozoic Bergslagen ore district of central Sweden. Some are spatially associated with ores, others with zones of leaching, remobilization and migmatization. Among the tourmaline-bearing ore deposits are the Dammberg ZnPb-Fe sulphide deposit, the Sala Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, the Dalkarlsberg, Pershyttan and Håksberg Fe oxide deposits, the Leja Cu deposit, and the Zinkgruvan Zn-Pb-Ag deposit. Tourmaline has been recorded a) as tourmalinites and tourmaline-bearing chemical sediments; b) in tourmaline-bearing skarns; c) in tourmaline-quartz veins; d) as disseminations along the foliation in schists; e) in tourmaline pegmatites; f) in tourmalinized haloes in metavolcanites along tourmaline pegmatites; and g) in late joints. Tourmalinites, tourmaline-bearing chemical sediments and tourmaline-bearing skarns are spatially associated with sulphide and oxide mineralizations. The dravite components in these tourmalines are proportional to the size of Zn-Pb sulphide mineralizations. Tourmalines from quartz veins close to and within ore deposits contain high Zr and Cr contents. With increasing distance away from these deposits, the Zr and Cr contents fall significantly. Tourmalines from pegmatites have inherited a number of trace element enrichments through partial melting and assimilation of volcaniclastic sediments into granitic melts. Despite magmatic homogenization, Zn contents in these tourmalines reflect the proximity of Zn-Pb-sulphide deposits, decreasing away from them. Tourmalines from late joints with Zn contents above the 100 ppm level are also indicative for the proximity of Zn-Pb sulphide mineralizations. Thus, some trace elements in these tourmalines may represent suitable exploration tools.

Hellingwerf, R. H.; Gatedal, K.; Gallagher, V.; Baker, J. H.

1994-06-01

374

Gravitational Effects on Distortion in Sintering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During sintering a powder compact gains strength through low-temperature interparticle bonding, usually induced by solid-state surface diffusion, followed by further strength contributions from high-temperature densification. In cases where a liquid phase forms, sintering densification is accelerated and shape retention is sustained while open pores remain and contribute capillary forces. Unfortunately, sintering densification requires the compact become thermally softened to a point where creep strain rates reach levels near 10(exp -2)/s when the liquid forms. On the other hand, thermal softening of the powder compact substantially reduces the strength at high temperatures. Therefore, the in situ strength evolution during sintering is a primary focus to separate compact densification (as required for high performance) with minimized distortion (as required for net-shaping). With respect to gravitation effects on distortion during sintering there are two points of substantial weakness - prior to significant interparticle bonding and during final pore closure. This research is focused on understanding the competition among interparticle neck growth, densification, thermal softening, grain boundary wetting, capillary effects associated with liquid wetting and residual porosity, and gravity. Most surprising is the apparent role of gravity, where the deviatoric stress acting on the powder structure induces skeletal formation that reduces distortion. In contrast with theory, microgravity samples exhibit more distortion yet fail to fully densify. Results are presented on the experimental concepts supporting an emerging model of sintering strength evolution that enables understanding of both distortion and densification. The experiments have relied on tungsten heavy alloys, various combinations of dihedral angle, pore size, initial porosity, liquid:solid ratio, and heating rates. On Earth, the dominant factor with respect to distortion is the starting body heterogeneity. Current modeling efforts are seeking some means to uniformly predict the distortion based on a starting pore structure heterogeneity parameter. Densification is largely unaffected by the initial pore structure, but distortion is highly variable, suggesting that nonuniform pore closure might be a significant parameter during sintering. With respect to flight experiments, plans include removal of the solid body forces acting on the solid grains, allowing stabilization of the pore structure and examination of the buoyancy effects with regard to distortion. In microgravity there is the surprising result that compacts do not densify, yet distort a factor that is contrary to all current sintering models. Densification without distortion during liquid phase sintering was achieved by manipulating microstructure and its evolution during sintering. Microstructure parameters such as the solid volume fraction, dihedral angle, initial porosity, and pore size were varied to measure densification and distortion behavior during LPS using W-Ni-Cu alloys. Green compacts were formed using ethylene-bis-stearamide as a pore-forming agent with the amount of polymer controlling the initial porosity. Different initial pore sizes were generated by varying the polymer particle size. Dihedral angle was varied by changing the Ni:Cu ratio in the alloys. Finally, the solid volume fraction was adjusted via the tungsten content. Distortion was quantified using profiles determined with a coordinate measuring machine to calculate a distortion parameter. Sintering results showed that solid volume fraction and dihedral angle are the dominant factors on densification and distortion during liquid phase sintering. Distortion decreases with increasing solid volume fraction and dihedral angle, while initial porosity and pore size have no observable effect on distortion at nearly full densification. Various strategies emerge to improve distortion control in liquid phase sintering.

German, Randall M.

2003-01-01

375

Nonisothermal viscous sintering of volcanic ash  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic ash is often deposited in a hot state. Volcanic ash containing glass, deposited above the glass transition interval, has the potential to sinter viscously both to itself (particle-particle) and to exposed surfaces. Here we constrain the kinetics of this process experimentally under nonisothermal conditions using standard glasses. In the absence of external load, this process is dominantly driven by surface relaxation. In such cases the sintering process is rate limited by the melt viscosity, the size of the particles and the melt-vapor interfacial tension. We propose a polydisperse continuum model that describes the transition from a packing of particles to a dense pore-free melt and evaluate its efficacy in describing the kinetics of volcanic viscous sintering. We apply our model to viscous sintering scenarios for cooling crystal-poor rhyolitic ash using the 2008 eruption of Chaitén volcano as a case example. We predict that moderate linear cooling rates of > 0.1°C min-1 can result in the common observation of incomplete sintering and the preservation of pore networks.

Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Vasseur, Jérémie; Aulock, Felix W.; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Scheu, Bettina; Lavallée, Yan; Dingwell, Donald B.

2014-12-01

376

Physical-chemical conditions of ore deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ore deposits form under a wide range of physical and chemical conditions, but those precipitating from hot, aqueous fluids-i.e. the hydrothermal deposits-form generally below 700°C and at pressures of only 1 or 2 kbar or less. Natural aqueous fluids in rocks may extract metal and sulfur from a variety of rock types or may acquire them as a residual heritage from a crystallizing silicate magma. Ore-forming hydrothermal fluids never appear as hot springs (except in deep, submarine situations) because they boil, mix with surface waters, and cool, thereby losing their ore-bearing ability before reaching the surface. Mineral systems function as chemical buffers and indicators just as buffers and indicators function in a chemical laboratory. By reading the record written in the buffer/indicator assemblages of minerals one can reconstruct many aspects of the former chemical environment. By studying the record of changing conditions one may deduce information regarding the processes functioning to create the succession of chemical environments and the ore deposits they represent. The example of the OH vein at Creede, Colorado, shows a pH buffered by the K-feldspar + muscovite + quartz assemblage and the covariation of S 2 and O 2 buffered by the assemblage chlorite + pyrite + quartz. Boiling of the ore fluid led to its oxidation to hematite-bearing assemblages and simultaneously produced an intensely altered, sericitic capping over the vein in response to the condensation of vapors bearing acidic components. The solubility of metals as calculated from experimental and theoretical studies of mineral solubility appears too low by at least one or two powers of ten to explain the mineralization at Creede. In contrast to Creede where the mineral stabilities all point to a relatively consistent chemistry, the Mississippi Valley type deposits present a puzzle of conflicting chemical clues that are impossible to reconcile with any single equilibrium situation. Thus we must seriously consider metastable equilibria; those most likely involve redox disequilibrium among the sulfur species in solution and perhaps also involve organic compounds.

Barton, Paul B.

377

Violent volcanism, stagnant oceans and some inferences regarding petroleum, strata-bound ores and mass extinctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Past changes from a well-mixed aerated ocean to a stratified stagnant ocean are indicated by decreasing ?13C of limestone (opposite to prior conclusions) as well as by increasing ?34S of marine sulfates. The proposed stagnant ocean model includes a warm CO 2-enriched atmosphere and a bathyal to abyssal marine system dominated by bacterial components in the food web and by consequent 'light' carbon in organic material and biogenic carbonates. Culminations of prolonged stagnant episodes correspond with marine faunal extinctions of Late Permian and Late Cretaceous time, and the protracted changes and correlations provide evidence against any hypothesis of mass extinction by sudden worldwide catastrophe, including the asteroid impact hypothesis. The Cretaceous stagnant ocean, taken as the prime example, is attributed to climatic warming triggered by volcanic CO 2 (greenhouse effect) and several feedbacks, including decreased Earth albedo and increased sinking of warm evaporite brines instead of aerated polar waters. Marine extinctions are attributed to upward expansion of the oxygen minimum zone and to catastrophic mixing of surface waters with poisonous sulfidic waters of the deeps. The stagnant ocean provided a counterbalance between deep reduction and shallow oxidation, conditions that favored maximal formation of black sulfidic shales, protopetroleum and sedimentary sulfide ores and shallow to mid-depth barite, phosphorite, iron ore, cherty iron formation, and sulfate-bearing red-beds. Trace elements concentrated in stagnant ocean sediments include chalcophile and Pt-group metals, negating claims that Ir provides a unique 'fingerprint' of meteorite impact and cosmic accretion.

Keith, M. L.

1982-12-01

378

Activation pretreatment of limonitic laterite ores by alkali-roasting using NaOH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Activation pretreatment of Cr-containing limonitic laterite ores by NaOH roasting to remove Cr, Al, and Si, as well as its effect on Ni and Co extraction in the subsequent pressure acid leaching process was investigated. Characterization results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/XEDS) show that goethite is the major Ni-bearing mineral, and chromite is the minor one. Experimental results show that the leaching rates of Cr, Al, and Si are 95.6wt%, 83.8wt%, and 40.1wt%, respectively, under the optimal alkali-roasting conditions. Compared with the direct pressure acid leaching of laterite ores, the leaching rates of Ni and Co increase from 80.1wt% to 96.9wt% and 70.2wt% to 95.1wt% after pretreatment, respectively. Meanwhile, the grade of acid leaching iron residues increases from 54.4wt% to 62.5wt%, and these residues with low Cr content are more suitable raw materials for iron making.

Guo, Qiang; Qu, Jing-Kui; Qi, Tao; Wei, Guang-Ye; Han, Bing-Bing

2012-02-01

379

A circulation mud system used in long-distance ore pipeline transportation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-distance ore pipeline transportation is a new and high-tech industry, which is non-polluting, zero emissions, and in line with the strategy needs of national low-carbon economy and energy demand reduction. The long-distance ore transport needs multi-station pumping station transportation, however, the low concentration slurry that does not match the technological requirements, such as slurry head and so on. This paper designs a circulation mud system used in long-distance pipeline transportation, which solves the following issues: (1) the technical pool can't storage water during the period of cleaning mine, so can't meet the needs of non-suspension production; (2) slurry spot cool dry easy to bring serious environmental pollution; (3) the refined iron dug out from the process pool need transport to iron and steel industry, trucking transportation needs a huge costs. Experience has shown that the system effectively improve the production efficiency and propagate.

Li, Youling; Wang, Hua

2011-10-01

380

The Association of Tourmaline With Cassiterite Ores: Implications for the Genesis of the World's Richest Tin Lode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The San Rafael deposit in the Eastern Cordillera of the Peruvian Central Andes is the world's richest hydrothermal tin lode, with a total resource of ~1 million tonnes Sn (metal) at an average tin grade of 4.7 wt.%. The mineralization is of the cassiterite-sulfide type and occurs in a vertically extensive vein-breccia system, centered on a shallow-level, Late Oligocene granitoid stock. The tin ores form cassiterite-quartz-chlorite-bearing veins and breccias, hosted by several large fault-jogs at depth in the lode. By contrast, the copper ores, which contain disseminated acicular cassiterite, are localized in the upper part of the system. Both ore types are associated with a very distinctive strong chloritic alteration, which was preceded by intense sericitization, tourmalinization and tourmaline veining. Tourmaline also continued to crystallize during tin mineralization. The early hydrothermal tourmaline is the Mg-rich variety, dravite, which forms tourmaline-quartz veins and tourmaline-quartz microbreccias. This was followed by the appearance of buergerite (a rare, Fe-rich variety of tourmaline) with cassiterite and chlorite, at the transition to the tin ore stage. Fe-rich tourmaline (buergerite ?) is also common as overgrowths on earlier dravite in the strongly chloritized wallrock, adjacent to tin mineralization. These observations corroborate evidence from mass-balance calculations, that the ore-fluid was very iron-rich. Potentially, the most interesting feature of the tourmaline chemistry from the perspective of tin mineralization is the oxidation state of Fe. All tourmaline samples analyzed have Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios that are unusually high for an S-type tin granite. However, tourmaline accompanying tin mineralization has a significantly lower Fe3+/Fe2+ ratio. This suggests that the rich tin ores of San Rafael were produced by a sudden injection of "late", deep-seated, reducing, (presumably magmatic) fluids, strongly enriched in iron, and that cassiterite deposition occurred in response to the increase in fO2 that accompanied mixing of the ore fluid with more oxidizing fluids circulating in the upper parts of the system.

Mlynarczyk, M. S.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

2004-05-01

381

ASTER, ALI and Hyperion sensors data for lithological mapping and ore minerals exploration.  

PubMed

This paper provides a review of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Advanced Land Imager (ALI), and Hyperion data and applications of the data as a tool for ore minerals exploration, lithological and structural mapping. Spectral information extraction from ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion data has great ability to assist geologists in all disciplines to map the distribution and detect the rock units exposed at the earth's surface. The near coincidence of Earth Observing System (EOS)/Terra and Earth Observing One (EO-1) platforms allows acquiring ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion imagery of the same ground areas, resulting accurate information for geological mapping applications especially in the reconnaissance stages of hydrothermal copper and gold exploration, chromite, magnetite, massive sulfide and uranium ore deposits, mineral components of soils and structural interpretation at both regional and district scales. Shortwave length infrared and thermal infrared bands of ASTER have sufficient spectral resolution to map fundamental absorptions of hydroxyl mineral groups and silica and carbonate minerals for regional mapping purposes. Ferric-iron bearing minerals can be discriminated using six unique wavelength bands of ALI spanning the visible and near infrared. Hyperion visible and near infrared bands (0.4 to 1.0 ?m) and shortwave infrared bands (0.9 to 2.5 ?m) allowed to produce image maps of iron oxide minerals, hydroxyl-bearing minerals, sulfates and carbonates in association with hydrothermal alteration assemblages, respectively. The techniques and achievements reviewed in the present paper can further introduce the efficacy of ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion data for future mineral and lithological mapping and exploration of the porphyry copper, epithermal gold, chromite, magnetite, massive sulfide and uranium ore deposits especially in arid and semi-arid territory. PMID:25674434

Beiranvand Pour, Amin; Hashim, Mazlan

2014-01-01

382

Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California.  

PubMed

The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination. PMID:23464669

Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N

2013-03-01

383

Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination.

Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N.

2013-01-01

384

Device For Testing Compatibility Of An O-Ring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fixture designed for use in exposing compressed elastomeric O-ring or other ring seal to test fluid. Made of metal or plastic, with threaded recess into which O-ring placed. Opposite threaded end is opening through which test fluid introduced and placed in contact with O-ring. After exposure, compression set and swell or shrinkage of ring measured. Fixture set to compress ring by selected amount, providing for reproducible compression.

Davis, Dennis D.

1995-01-01

385

Calculation of O-ring failure due to material aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications where O-rings are used to isolate atmospheric environments within a structure are critical to weapon reliability. Failure occurs when gases are able to travel from one side of the O-ring to the other. The anticipated cause of failure is the relaxation of the rubber over decades, the reduction in closure force, and the O-ring`s consequent inability to offer a

D. Segalman; L. Weingarten; R. Chambers

1997-01-01

386

Fusibility and sintering characteristics of ash  

SciTech Connect

The temperature characteristics of ash fusibility are studied for a wide range of bituminous and brown coals, lignites, and shales with ratios R{sub B/A} of their alkaline and acid components between 0.03 and 4. Acritical value of R{sub B/A} is found at which the fusion temperatures are minimal. The sintering properties of the ashes are determined by measuring the force required to fracture a cylindrical sample. It is found that the strength of the samples increases sharply at certain temperatures. The alkali metal content of the ashes has a strong effect on their sintering characteristics.

Ots, A. A., E-mail: aots@sti.ttu.ee [Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)

2012-03-15

387

34. VIEW OF VIVIANNA WORKS ORE SORTING AND CRUSHING PLATFORM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. VIEW OF VIVIANNA WORKS ORE SORTING AND CRUSHING PLATFORM LOOKING EAST, NORTHEAST. NOTICE RAIL TIES EMBEDDED IN CONCRETE. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

388

Experimenting With Ore: Creating the Taconite Process; flow chart of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Experimenting With Ore: Creating the Taconite Process; flow chart of process - Mines Experiment Station, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities Campus, 56 East River Road, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

389

Recovery of Cu and Zn from Complex Sulphide Ore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex Sulphide Ores are often found to be a close mutual association with each other and with the nonmetallic gangue. The beneficiation experiments showed that it would be very difficult to recover Cu and Zn from the lean complex Sulphide ores using traditional ore beneficiation methods. In the present work, leaching of complex sulfide ores in sulfuric acid was investigated by the Electro hydrometallurgy process. The lab-scale experiments were conducted to investigate the influences of pulp-density, electrolyte concentration, particle size, current density and time on recovery of Cu and Zn. The leach liquor obtained after electrolysis was subjected to Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy analysis for the recovery of minerals.

Talapaneni, Trinath; Sarkar, S.; Yedla, N.; Reddy, P. L. N., Dr

2015-02-01

390

Sintered-reaction Bonded Silicon Nitride Densified by a Gas Pressure Sintering Process Effects of Rare Earth Oxide Sintering Additives  

SciTech Connect

Reaction-bonded silicon nitrides containing rare-earth oxide sintering additives were densified by gas pressure sintering. The sintering behavior, microstructure and mechanical properties of the resultant specimens were analyzed. For that purpose, Lu2O3-SiO2 (US), La2O3-MgO (AM) and Y2O3-Al2O3 (YA) additive systems were selected. Among the tested compositions, densification of silicon nitride occurred at the lowest temperature when using the La2O3-MgO system. Since the Lu2O3-SiO2 system has the highest melting temperature, full densification could not be achieved after sintering at 1950oC. However, the system had a reasonably high bending strength of 527 MPa at 1200oC in air and a high fracture toughness of 9.2 MPa m1/2. The Y2O3-Al2O3 system had the highest room temperature bending strength of 1.2 GPa

Lee, S. H. [Korea Institute of Materials Science; Ko, J. W. [Korea Institute of Materials Science; Park, Y. J. [Korea Institute of Materials Science; Kim, H. D. [Korea Institute of Materials Science; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL; Becher, Paul F [ORNL

2012-01-01

391

Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia  

PubMed Central

Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is a hereditary recessive anemia due to a defect in the TMPRSS6 gene encoding Matriptase-2. This protein is a transmembrane serine protease that plays an essential role in down-regulating hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis. Hallmarks of this disease are microcytic hypochromic anemia, low transferrin saturation and normal/high serum hepcidin values. The anemia appears in the post-natal period, although in some cases it is only diagnosed in adulthood. The disease is refractory to oral iron treatment but shows a slow response to intravenous iron injections and partial correction of the anemia. To date, 40 different Matriptase-2 mutations have been reported, affecting all the functional domains of the large ectodomain of the protein. In vitro experiments on transfected cells suggest that Matriptase-2 cleaves Hemojuvelin, a major regulator of hepcidin expression and that this function is altered in this genetic form of anemia. In contrast to the low/undetectable hepcidin levels observed in acquired iron deficiency, in patients with Matriptase-2 deficiency, serum hepcidin is inappropriately high for the low iron status and accounts for the absent/delayed response to oral iron treatment. A challenge for the clinicians and pediatricians is the recognition of the disorder among iron deficiency and other microcytic anemias commonly found in pediatric patients. The current treatment of iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is based on parenteral iron administration; in the future, manipulation of the hepcidin pathway with the aim of suppressing it might become an alternative therapeutic approach. PMID:23729726

De Falco, Luigia; Sanchez, Mayka; Silvestri, Laura; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Iolascon, Achille; Gouya, Laurent; Camaschella, Clara; Beaumont, Carole

2013-01-01

392

Stress evolution in graded materials during densification by sintering processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of constitutive laws for describing functionally graded materials behaviour during entire sintering process was developed. It can be used to get stress distribution arising during sintering and cooling as well as to check various parameters on sintering of FGM (particle size, density and graded profile of concentration) to optimise the process. It was implemented in ABAQUS code as

Baosheng Zhang; Michael M. Gasik

2002-01-01

393

Microwave sintering of single plate-shaped articles  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and method for high temperature sintering of plate-shaped articles of alumina, magnesia, silica, yttria, zirconia, and mixtures thereof using microwave radiation. An article is placed within a sintering structure located within a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled.

Katz, Joel D. (Los Alamos, NM); Blake, Rodger D. (Tucson, AZ)

1995-01-01

394

Analysis of particle growth by coalescence during liquid phase sintering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical approach has been applied to particle coarsening during liquid phase sintering assuming direct particle coalescence as basic growth mechanism instead of Ostwald ripening. The coalescence process controlled by diffusion through the melt results in an increase of the average particle size proportional to the cube root of sintering time. After a short initial sintering interval the particle size

S. Takajo; W. A. Kaysser; G. Petzow

1984-01-01

395

Numerical simulation of selective laser sintering transient temperature field  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical simulation pattern based on finite element algorithm is proposed for calculation of selective laser sintering transient temperature field. The patter is based on the transient thermal radiation and the boundary conditions is concerned soundly, particularly during the transient sintering the relation between thermal conductivity and transient sintering temperature is set up on the basis of practical test to

Jian Xing; Xiaogang Sun

2009-01-01

396

Microwave sintering of single plate-shaped articles  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and method are disclosed for high temperature sintering of plate-shaped articles of alumina, magnesia, silica, yttria, zirconia, and mixtures thereof using microwave radiation. An article is placed within a sintering structure located within a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled. 2 figs.

Katz, J.D.; Blake, R.D.

1995-07-11

397

MASTER SINTERING CURVE CONSTRUCTION SOFTWARE AND ITS APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sintering behavior can be modeled using the simple but powerful concept of master sintering curves both for relative density and for grain size. In this study, the computer software was developed for automatic construction of master sintering curves from experimental data such as dilatometery test, density and\\/or grain size measurement. This software consists of three steps for both for relative

Seong Jin Park; Suk Hwan Chung; Debby Blaine; Pavan Suri; Randall M. German

398

Thermionic Emission from Sintered Cathode of Thoria and Tungsten Mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain suitable conductivity for direct heating, tungsten powder is added to sintered thoria cathodes. The thermionic properties of a cathode, sintered from a mixture of 67 percent thoria and 33 percent tungsten, were investigated. Emission constants were determined and the emission was found to be somewhat lower than that of cathodes sintered from pure thoria.Change of cathode activity with

H. Y. Fan

1949-01-01

399

Mixing from below in hydrothermal ore deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unconformity-related hydrothermal ore deposits typically show indications of mixing of two end-member fluids: (a) hot, deep, rock-buffered basement brines and (b) colder fluids derived from the surface or overlying sediments. The hydromechanics of bringing these fluids together from above and below remain unclear. Classical percolative Darcy-flow models are inconsistent with (1) fluid overpressure indicated by fracturing and brecciation, (2) fast fluid flow indicated by thermal disequilibrium, and (3) strong fluid composition variations on the mm-scale, indicated by fluid inclusion analyses (Bons et al. 2012; Fusswinkel et al. 2013). We propose that fluids first descend, sucked down by desiccation reactions in exhumed basement. Oldest fluids reach greatest depths, where long residence times and elevated temperatures allow them the extensively equilibrate with their host rock, reach high salinity and scavenge metals, if present. Youngest fluids can only penetrate to shallower depths and can (partially) retain signatures from their origin, for example high Cl/Br ratios from the dissolution of evaporitic halite horizons. When fluids are released from all levels of the crustal column, these fluids mix during rapid ascent to form hydrothermal ore deposits. Mixing from below provides a viable hydromechanical mechanism to explain the common phenomenon of mixed shallow and deep fluids in hydrothermal ore deposits. Bons, P.D., Elburg, M.A., Gomez-Rivas, E. 2012. A review of the formation of tectonic veins and their microstructures. J. Struct. Geol. doi:10.1016/j.jsg.2012.07.005 Fusswinkel, T., Wagner, T., Wälle, M., Wenzel, T., Heinrich, C.A., Markl, M. 2013. Fluid mixing forms basement-hosted Pb-Zn deposits: Insight from metal and halogen geochemistry of individual fluid inclusions. Geology. doi:10.1130/G34092.1

Bons, Paul D.; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Markl, Gregor; Walter, Bejamin

2014-05-01

400

The Idaho cobalt belt, northwestern United States — A metamorphosed Proterozoic exhalative ore district  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Idaho cobalt belt, originally exhalative, stratiform mineralization within the Proterozoic Yellow-jacket Formation has become increasingly coarse-grained and remobilized toward the northwest in the direction of increasing regional metamorphic grade. The Idaho cobalt belt is located about 40 km west of Salmon, Idaho in the northwestern United States. The most important deposit in the district is the Blackbird mine which produced copper-cobalt ore sporadically from the early 1900's until about 1960. The Iron Creek deposit at the southeast end of the belt has undergone greenschist fades, biotite zone metamorphism; zones of disseminated, veinlet and massive sulfides lie more or less parallel to bedding of quartzites and phyllites. The main ore minerals are chalcopyrite and cobaltiferous pyrite. Toward the northwest at the Blackpine mine, remobilization has concentrated most of the mineralization into relatively thin concordant and discordant veins containing chalcopyrite, pyrite and arsenopyrite. The cobalt is reported to occur within arsenopyrite. Further northwest at the Blackbird mine where the Yellowjacket formation has been metamorphosed to the lower amphibolite facies, zones of disseminated and coarse-grained vein ores lie approximately along the same stratigraphic zone. Chalcopyrite, cobaltite, arsenopyrite, pyrite and pyrrhotite are the dominant ore minerals. Up to 0.22 oz. Au/ton was present in some of the ore. In addition, tourmaline-bearing sedimentary rocks (tourmalinites) are associated with some of the Blackbird ores. The Salmon Canyon deposit at the northwest end of the belt has undergone upper amphibolite facies, sillimanite zone metamorphism. In these garnet-sillimanite gneisses, chalcopyrite is found as coarse blebs and cobaltite as large porphyroblastic crystals. Gold occurs in amounts up to 0.02 oz. Au/ton. Elsewhere in the world the two most similar districts are the cobalt-bearing portion of the Zambian-Zairian Copperbelt of central Africa where Proterozoic Roan sedimentary rocks contain stratiform copper-cobalt ore-bodies over a distance of more than 500 kilometers, and the Sheep Creek district of Meagher County, Montana, which contains strata-bound copper-cobalt mineralization. The Idaho cobalt belt is a strata-bound copper-cobalt district hosted by the Proterozoic Yellowjacket Formation and located in east-central Idaho within Lemhi County, approximately 40 kilometers west of Salmon, Idaho, northwestern United States (Fig. 1). Of the four main deposits described here (from southeast to northwest, the Iron Creek, Blackpine, Blackbird, and the Salmon Canyon deposits), the Blackbird mine is the most important in the district. It was discovered in 1893 and sporadically produced copper and cobalt until about 1960. The Yellowjacket Formation has undergone an increasing degree of metamorphism toward the northwest. The deposits are largely strata-bound in a belt over 50 km in length, strongly suggesting a syngenetic mode of origin. However, the proximity of the district to satellitic granitic plutons of the Idaho batholith has prompted many investigators to suggest an epigenetic hydrothermal origin (Anderson 1947 and Purdue 1975). Remobilization of some of the mineralization into veins at the Blackbird mine, where most of the previous work has been concentrated, has also suggested an epigenetic origin. A more district-wide view of the mineralization points to a strong degree of stratigraphic control.

Nold, J. L.

1990-07-01

401

Sintering of antifriction materials containing solid lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that the structure and consequently the properties of composite materials are determined to a significant degree by the processes occurring in sintering. As the final result the structure of the material must be polyhedrons of the metallic base with particles of the solid lubriant not interacting with the metals and preserved in the original condition uniformly distributed

V. A. Al'tman; B. N. Dukhan; V. L. Memelov; E. G. Osipova

1989-01-01

402

Boron suboxide materials with Co sintering additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Difficulties in the densification as well as the low fracture toughness of the resulting polycrystalline materials have delayed the application of boron suboxide as a superhard material in industry. In this work, efforts have been made to improve the fracture toughness and densification of these materials by incorporating suitable secondary phases. Possible candidates are transition metals, which form under sintering

O. T. Johnson; I. Sigalas; E. N. Ogunmuyiwa; H. J. Kleebe; M. M. Müller; M. Herrmann

2010-01-01

403

Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOEpatents

A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation. 4 figs.

Ruka, R.J.; Warner, K.A.

1999-06-01

404

Sintered Diamond Compacts with a Cobalt Binder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamond powder can be successfully cemented with cobalt. At 62 kilobars the sintering occurs over the temperature range from 1570 degrees to 1610 degrees C. The maximum microhardness of the compact (> 3000 kilograms per square millimeter on the Knoop scale) is obtained with a mixture of 20 percent cobalt (by volume) and a diamond particle size of 1 to

Howard Katzman; W. F. Libby

1971-01-01

405

Sedimentary exhalative nickel-molybdenum ores in south China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Unique bedded Ni-Mo ores hosted by black shales were discovered in localized paleobasins along the Yangzte platform of southern China in 1971. Textural evidence and radiometric dates imply ore formation during sedimentation of black shales that grade into readily combustible beds, termed stone coals, which contain 10 to 15 percent organic carbon. Studies of 427 fluid inclusions indicate extreme variation in hydrothermal brine salinities that were contained by Proterozoic dolostones underlying the ore zone in Hunan and Guizhou. Variations of fluid inclusion salinities, which range from 0.1 to 21.6 wt percent NaCl equiv, are attributed to differences in the compositions of brines in strata underlying the ore bed, complicated by the presence of seawater and dilute fluids that represent condensates of vapors generated by boiling of mineralizing fluids or Cambrian meteoric water. The complex processes of ore deposition led to scattered homogenization temperatures ranging from 100??to 187??C within the Hunan ore zone and from 65??to 183??C within the Guizhou ore zone. While living organisms probably did not directly accumulate metals in situ in sufficient amounts to explain the unusually high grades of the deposits, sulfur isotope ratios indicate that bacteria, now preserved as abundant microfossils, provided sufficient sulfide for the ores by reduction of seawater sulfate. Such microbiota may have depended on vent fluids and transported organic matter for key nutrients and are consistent with a sedex origin for the ores. Vent fluids interacted with organic remains, including rounded fragments of microbial mats that were likely transported to the site of ore deposition by the action of waves and bottom currents prior to replacement by ore minerals.

Lott, D.A.; Coveney, R.M., Jr.; Murowchick, J.B.; Grauch, R.I.

1999-01-01

406

40 CFR 440.30 - Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. 440.30 Section...SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.30 Applicability...description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

407

40 CFR 440.80 - Applicability; description of the vanadium ore subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applicability; description of the vanadium ore subcategory. 440.80 Section...MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vanadium Ore Subcategory (Mined Alone and Not... Applicability; description of the vanadium ore subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

408

40 CFR 440.90 - Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory. 440.90 Section...AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.90 Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory. The...

2014-07-01

409

40 CFR 440.90 - Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory. 440.90 Section...AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.90 Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory. The...

2011-07-01

410

40 CFR 440.90 - Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory. 440.90 Section...AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.90 Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory. The...

2012-07-01

411

40 CFR 440.90 - Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory. 440.90 Section...AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.90 Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory. The...

2013-07-01

412

40 CFR 440.90 - Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory. 440.90 Section...AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.90 Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

413

40 CFR 440.30 - Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory...MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory...30 Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores...

2011-07-01

414

40 CFR 440.30 - Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory...MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory...30 Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores...

2012-07-01

415

40 CFR 440.30 - Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory...MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory...30 Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores...

2013-07-01

416

40 CFR 440.30 - Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory...MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory...30 Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores...

2014-07-01

417

40 CFR 440.80 - Applicability; description of the vanadium ore subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Applicability; description of the vanadium ore subcategory. 440.80 Section...MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vanadium Ore Subcategory (Mined Alone and Not... Applicability; description of the vanadium ore subcategory. The...

2012-07-01

418

40 CFR 440.80 - Applicability; description of the vanadium ore subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Applicability; description of the vanadium ore subcategory. 440.80 Section...MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vanadium Ore Subcategory (Mined Alone and Not... Applicability; description of the vanadium ore subcategory. The...

2013-07-01

419

40 CFR 440.80 - Applicability; description of the vanadium ore subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Applicability; description of the vanadium ore subcategory. 440.80 Section...MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vanadium Ore Subcategory (Mined Alone and Not... Applicability; description of the vanadium ore subcategory. The...

2014-07-01

420

40 CFR 440.80 - Applicability; description of the vanadium ore subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Applicability; description of the vanadium ore subcategory. 440.80 Section...MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vanadium Ore Subcategory (Mined Alone and Not... Applicability; description of the vanadium ore subcategory. The...

2011-07-01

421

40 CFR 440.60 - Applicability; description of the tungsten ore subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Applicability; description of the tungsten ore subcategory. 440.60 Section...AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tungsten Ore Subcategory § 440.60 Applicability; description of the tungsten ore subcategory. The...

2014-07-01

422

40 CFR 440.60 - Applicability; description of the tungsten ore subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Applicability; description of the tungsten ore subcategory. 440.60 Section...AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tungsten Ore Subcategory § 440.60 Applicability; description of the tungsten ore subcategory. The...

2013-07-01

423

40 CFR 440.60 - Applicability; description of the tungsten ore subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Applicability; description of the tungsten ore subcategory. 440.60 Section...AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tungsten Ore Subcategory § 440.60 Applicability; description of the tungsten ore subcategory. The...

2012-07-01

424

40 CFR 440.60 - Applicability; description of the tungsten ore subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applicability; description of the tungsten ore subcategory. 440.60 Section...AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tungsten Ore Subcategory § 440.60 Applicability; description of the tungsten ore subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

425

40 CFR 440.60 - Applicability; description of the tungsten ore subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Applicability; description of the tungsten ore subcategory. 440.60 Section...AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tungsten Ore Subcategory § 440.60 Applicability; description of the tungsten ore subcategory. The...

2011-07-01

426

40 CFR 440.40 - Applicability; description of the mercury ore subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Applicability; description of the mercury ore subcategory. 440.40 Section...AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory § 440.40 Applicability; description of the mercury ore subcategory. The...

2014-07-01

427

40 CFR 440.40 - Applicability; description of the mercury ore subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Applicability; description of the mercury ore subcategory. 440.40 Section...AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory § 440.40 Applicability; description of the mercury ore subcategory. The...

2013-07-01

428

40 CFR 440.40 - Applicability; description of the mercury ore subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Applicability; description of the mercury ore subcategory. 440.40 Section...AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory § 440.40 Applicability; description of the mercury ore subcategory. The...

2012-07-01

429

40 CFR 440.40 - Applicability; description of the mercury ore subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applicability; description of the mercury ore subcategory. 440.40 Section...AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory § 440.40 Applicability; description of the mercury ore subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

430

40 CFR 440.40 - Applicability; description of the mercury ore subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Applicability; description of the mercury ore subcategory. 440.40 Section...AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory § 440.40 Applicability; description of the mercury ore subcategory. The...

2011-07-01

431

40 CFR 440.20 - Applicability; description of the aluminum ore subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Applicability; description of the aluminum ore subcategory. 440.20 Section...AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Ore Subcategory § 440.20 Applicability; description of the aluminum ore subcategory. The...

2011-07-01

432

40 CFR 440.20 - Applicability; description of the aluminum ore subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Applicability; description of the aluminum ore subcategory. 440.20 Section...AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Ore Subcategory § 440.20 Applicability; description of the aluminum ore subcategory. The...

2013-07-01

433

40 CFR 440.20 - Applicability; description of the aluminum ore subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applicability; description of the aluminum ore subcategory. 440.20 Section...AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Ore Subcategory § 440.20 Applicability; description of the aluminum ore subcategory. The...

2010-07-01