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Sample records for sinus hair follicle

  1. Hair follicle anatomy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    At the base of the hair follicle are sensory nerve fibers that wrap around each hair bulb. Bending the hair stimulates the nerve endings allowing a person to feel that the hair has been moved. One of the main functions of hair is to act ...

  2. Growth and viability of Liaoning Cashmere goat hair follicles during the annual hair follicle cycle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q L; Li, J P; Chen, Y; Chang, Q; Li, Y M; Yao, J Y; Jiang, H Z; Zhao, Z H; Guo, D

    2014-01-01

    Here, we studied hair follicle development of Liaoning Cashmere goats. Every month for 1 year, skin samples were collected from five 1.5-year-old female goats, and made into paraffin sections. A number of parameters were measured of primary and secondary hair follicles via microscopic observation including follicle depth, hair bulb width, dermis and epidermis thickness, changes in follicle activity, and histology. The results showed the presence of three phases in the annual hair cycle: anagen, catagen, and telogen. Primary and secondary hair follicle depth varied across the months; however, no significant difference was obtained between adjacent months (P>0.05). Primary hair follicles had a bigger hair bulb width compared to secondary hair follicles; however, this difference declined during hair follicle developed in anagen. As hair follicle growth slowed, the hair bulb broadened, and hair root depth became shallower. During the entire hair cycle, hair follicle depth and dermis thickness were positively correlated; however, this relationship was not significant (P>0.05) for primary and secondary hair follicle density and the ratio of secondary hair follicle density and primary hair follicle density (S/P ratio). In addition, new and old primary hair follicles coexisted with secondary hair follicles. Finally, secondary hair follicles had a higher activity rate compared to primary hair follicle in adult Liaoning Cashmere goats in certain months. PMID:25036348

  3. Effects of transient receptor potential (TRP) channel agonists and antagonists on slowly adapting type II mechanoreceptors in the rat sinus hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Cahusac, Peter M B

    2009-12-01

    The possible functional role of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels was investigated by testing various TRP agonists and antagonists in an isolated rat sinus hair follicle preparation. Extracellular recordings from slowly adapting type II mechanoreceptor units were made. The antagonist capsazepine depressed spontaneous and mechanically evoked activity, with an IC(50) of 82 microM. In one-third of units, capsazepine caused a selective depression of mechanically evoked firing, such that the existing spontaneous firing was interrupted by an absence of activity during the mechanical stimulus. The broad spectrum TRP blocker ruthenium red (30 microM) had inconsistent effects, although in some units a delayed onset (following wash) bursting and paroxysmal firing ensued. The agonist icilin (50-100 microM) had an excitatory effect on spontaneous firing, and (-)-menthol (200 microM) had inconsistent effects. Cinnamaldehyde (1-2 mM) depressed all types of activity equally, mechanically evoked and spontaneous. Camphor (0.5-2 mM) also depressed all types of activity, although it had a preferential effect on spontaneous activity. Capsaicin (1-10 microM) and allyl isothiocyanate (50-100 microM) had no clear effects. These results rule out any role for TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels in mechanotransduction processes of slowly adapting type II mechanoreceptors. PMID:20021572

  4. Reflectance spectroscopy for evaluating hair follicle cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Caihua; Guan, Yue; Wang, Jianru; Zhu, Dan

    2014-02-01

    Hair follicle, as a mini-organ with perpetually cycling of telogen, anagen and catagen, provides a valuable experimental model for studying hair and organ regeneration. The transition of hair follicle from telogen to anagen is a significant sign for successful regeneration. So far discrimination of the hair follicle stage is mostly based on canonical histological examination and empirical speculation based on skin color. Hardly a method has been proposed to quantitatively evaluate the hair follicle stage. In this work, a commercial optical fiber spectrometer was applied to monitor diffuse reflectance of mouse skin with hair follicle cycling, and then the change of reflectance was obtained. Histological examination was used to verify the hair follicle stage. In comparison with the histological examination, the skin diffuse reflectance was relatively high for mouse with telogen hair follicles; it decreased once hair follicles transited to anagen stage; then it increased reversely at catagen stage. This study provided a new method to quantitatively evaluate the hair follicle stage, and should be valuable for the basic and therapeutic investigations on hair regeneration.

  5. Proteomic Analysis of Hair Follicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishioka, Noriaki; Terada, Masahiro; Yamada, Shin; Seki, Masaya; Takahashi, Rika; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Higashibata, Akira; Mukai, Chiaki

    2013-02-01

    Hair root cells actively divide in a hair follicle, and they sensitively reflect physical conditions. By analyzing the human hair, we can know stress levels on the human body and metabolic conditions caused by microgravity environment and cosmic radiation. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has initiated a human research study to investigate the effects of long-term space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing hair samples of astronauts who stayed in the International Space Station (ISS) for 6 months. During long-term flights, the physiological effects on astronauts include muscle atrophy and bone calcium loss. Furthermore, radiation and psychological effects are important issue to consider. Therefore, an understanding of the effects of the space environment is important for developing countermeasures against the effects experienced by astronauts. In this experiment, we identify functionally important target proteins that integrate transcriptome, mineral metabolism and proteome profiles from human hair. To compare the protein expression data with the gene expression data from hair roots, we developed the protein processing method. We extracted the protein from five strands of hair using ISOGEN reagents. Then, these extracted proteins were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. These collected profiles will give us useful physiological information to examine the effect of space flight.

  6. Hair Follicle Regeneration by Transplantation of a Bioengineered Hair Follicle Germ.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Katsunari; Toyoshima, Koh-Ei; Tsuji, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Hair follicle morphogenesis is first induced by epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in the developing embryo. In the hair follicle, various stem-cell populations are maintained in specialized niches to promote repetitive hair follicle-morphogenesis, which is observed in the variable lower region of the hair follicle as a postnatal hair cycle. In contrast, the genesis of most organs is induced only once during embryogenesis. We developed a novel bioengineering technique, the Organ Germ Method, that employs three-dimensional stem cell culture for regenerating various organs and reproducing embryonic organogenesis. In this chapter, we describe a protocol for hair follicle germ reconstitution using adult follicle-derived epithelial stem cells and dermal papilla cells with intracutaneous transplantation of the bioengineered hair-follicle organ germ. This protocol can be useful not only for the clinical study of hair regeneration but also for studies of stem cell biology and organogenesis. PMID:27431248

  7. Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kertész, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Pelicon, P.; Simčič, J.; Telek, A.; Bíró, T.

    2007-07-01

    Hair follicle is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In this study we provide detailed information on the elemental distribution in human hair follicles in different growth phases (anagen and catagen) using a scanning proton microprobe. The analysis of skin samples obtained from human adults undergoing plastic surgery and of organ-cultured human hair follicles may yield a new insight into the function, development and cyclic activity of the hair follicle.

  8. Hair follicles are viable after delayed FUE procedure.

    PubMed

    Mohebbipour Laran, Alireza; Mirmohammadi, Ramin; Rezaei Bana, Mohammadreza; Manoochehri, Shaghayegh

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, male pattern hair loss is usually managed with hair transplant. However, maintaining the hair follicle viability between extraction and implantation period is a great concern which restricts the hair transplantation period. However, it is possible that the hair follicles can be preserved and be viable for few days. Here, we report a case with delayed follicular unit extraction in three consecutive days with acceptable hair growth after a 5-month follow-up. PMID:25968165

  9. Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling

    PubMed Central

    Sennett, Rachel; Rendl, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic hair follicle induction and formation are regulated by mesenchymal-epithelial interactions between specialized dermal cells and epidermal stem cells that switch to a hair fate. Similarly, during postnatal hair growth, communication between mesenchymal dermal papilla cells and surrounding epithelial matrix cells coordinates hair shaft production. Adult hair follicle regeneration in the hair cycle again is thought to be controlled by activating signals originating from the mesenchymal compartment and acting on hair follicle stem cells. Although many signaling pathways are implicated in hair follicle formation and growth, the precise nature, timing, and intersection of these inductive and regulatory signals remains elusive. The goal of this review is to summarize our current understanding and to discuss recent new insights into mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling. PMID:22960356

  10. Reflectance spectroscopy for noninvasive evaluation of hair follicle stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Caihua; Guan, Yue; Wang, Jianru; Zhong, Xiewei; Liu, Xiuli; Zhu, Dan

    2015-05-01

    Hair follicle offers an excellent model for systems biology and regenerative medicine. So far, the stages of hair follicle growth have been evaluated by histological examination. In this work, a noninvasive spectroscopy was proposed by measuring the diffuse reflectance of mouse skin and analyzing the melanin value. Results show that the skin diffuse reflectance was relatively high when hair follicles were at the telogen stage and at the beginning of the anagen stage, and decreased with the progression of the anagen stage. When the hair follicle entered into the catagen stage, the diffuse reflectance gradually increased. The changes in the melanin content of skin had contrary dynamics. Substages of the hair follicle cycle could be distinguished by comparing the changes in melanin value with the histological examination. This study provided a new method for noninvasive evaluation of the hair follicle stage, and should be valuable for basic and therapeutic investigations on hair regeneration.

  11. Reflectance spectroscopy for noninvasive evaluation of hair follicle stage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Caihua; Guan, Yue; Wang, Jianru; Zhong, Xiewei; Liu, Xiuli; Zhu, Dan

    2015-05-01

    Hair follicle offers an excellent model for systems biology and regenerative medicine. So far, the stages of hair follicle growth have been evaluated by histological examination. In this work, a noninvasive spectroscopy was proposed by measuring the diffuse reflectance of mouse skin and analyzing the melanin value. Results show that the skin diffuse reflectance was relatively high when hair follicles were at the telogen stage and at the beginning of the anagen stage, and decreased with the progression of the anagen stage. When the hair follicle entered into the catagen stage, the diffuse reflectance gradually increased. The changes in the melanin content of skin had contrary dynamics. Substages of the hair follicle cycle could be distinguished by comparing the changes in melanin value with the histological examination. This study provided a new method for noninvasive evaluation of the hair follicle stage, and should be valuable for basic and therapeutic investigations on hair regeneration. PMID:25428579

  12. [The life of human hair follicle revealed].

    PubMed

    Bernard, Bruno A

    2006-02-01

    The human hair follicle is a unique appendage which results from epithelio-mesenchymal interactions initiated around the 3rd month of development. This appendage has a very complex structure, with a dermal compartment and an epithelial compartment. The dermal compartment comprises the connective tissue sheath and the dermal papilla, both of which are irrigated by microvessels. The epithelial compartment is made of highly replicating matrix cells giving rise to three concentrical domains, namely the outer root sheath, the inner root sheath and the hair shaft. The pigmentation unit, responsible for hair color, is made of fully active melanocytes located on top of the dermal papilla. Altogether a hair follicle contains more than 20 different cell types, engaged in different differentiation pathways and/or interacting with each other. This complex appendage has a unique behavior in mammals since, after a hair production phase, it involutes in place before entering a resting phase after which it renews itself under a cyclical but stochastic way, out of a double reservoir of pluripotent stem cells able to also regenerate epidermis. For yet unknown reasons, this well ordered process can be disturbed, provoking alopecia. The pigmentation unit also renews itself under a cyclical way, out of a melanocyte progenitor reservoir which progressively declines with time, provoking the hair whitening process. Finally, the shape of the hair shaft is programmed from the bulb. What makes this appendage unique and fascinating is its high degree of autonomy, its incredibly complex though stable structure, the number of different cell types interacting under an equilibrated way and its potential of regeneration. It represents a true paradigm of tissue homeostasis, exemplifying in a small living cylinder all the fundamental laws of cell-cell and tissue interactions. This life is revealed in this short synthesis. PMID:16457752

  13. Extensive Hair Shaft Growth after Mouse Whisker Follicle Isolation, Cryopreservation and Transplantation in Nude Mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenluo; Li, Lingna; Tran, Benjamin; Kajiura, Satoshi; Amoh, Yasuyuki; Liu, Fang; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that whole hair follicles could be cryopreserved to maintain their stem-cells differentation potential. In the present study, we demonstrated that cryopreserved mouse whisker hair follicles maintain their hair growth potential. DMSO better cryopreserved mouse whisker follicles compared to glycerol. Cryopreserved hair follicles also maintained the hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells, evidenced by P75NTR expression. Subcutaneous transplantation of DMSO-cryopreserved hair follicles in nude mice resulted in extensive hair fiber growth over 8 weeks, indicating the functional recovery of hair shaft growth of cryopreserved hair follicles. PMID:26716690

  14. Mimicking hair disorders by genetic manipulation of organ cultured human hair follicles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiang; Roop, Dennis R.

    2013-01-01

    Human hair follicles can be dissected out of the scalp skin and cultured in vitro in defined growth medium. Hair follicle organ cultures have previously been used to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms through which various factors regulate the maintenance and cycling of adult hair follicles. In this issue, Samuelov et al. transfected organ-cultured human hair follicles with siRNA nucleotides and suppressed the expression of the endogenous P-cadherin gene in follicular keratinocytes. Knocking-down the expression of P-cadherin in hair follicles in vitro recapitulated the hair follicle phenotype observed in patients with hypotrichosis with juvenile macular dystrophy (HJMD), and enabled the authors to establish a cause-effect relationship between loss of P-cadherin and suppression of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and, upregulation of TGFβ2 during the development of the hair abnormalities observed in HJMD patients. PMID:22971919

  15. Protocols for Cryopreservation of Intact Hair Follicle That Maintain Pluripotency of Nestin-Expressing Hair-Follicle-Associated Pluripotent (HAP) Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Kajiura, Satoshi; Mii, Sumiyuki; Aki, Ryoichi; Hamada, Yuko; Arakawa, Nobuko; Kawahara, Katsumasa; Li, Lingna; Katsuoka, Kensei; Hoffman, Robert M; Amoh, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Hair follicles contain nestin-expressing pluripotent stem cells, the origin of which is above the bulge area, below the sebaceous gland. We have termed these cells hair-follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells. Cryopreservation methods of the hair follicle that maintain the pluripotency of HAP stem cells are described in this chapter. Intact hair follicles from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice were cryopreserved by slow-rate cooling in TC-Protector medium and storage in liquid nitrogen. After thawing, the upper part of the hair follicle was isolated and cultured in DMEM with fetal bovine serum (FBS). After 4 weeks culture, cells from the upper part of the hair follicles grew out. The growing cells were transferred to DMEM/F12 without FBS. After 1 week culture, the growing cells formed hair spheres, each containing approximately 1 × 10(2) HAP stem cells. The hair spheres contained cells which could differentiate to neurons, glial cells, and other cell types. The formation of hair spheres by the thawed and cultured upper part of the hair follicle produced almost as many pluripotent hair spheres as fresh follicles. The hair spheres derived from cryopreserved hair follicles were as pluripotent as hair spheres from fresh hair follicles. These results suggest that the cryopreservation of the whole hair follicle is an effective way to store HAP stem cells for personalized regenerative medicine, enabling any individual to maintain a bank of pluripotent stem cells for future clinical use. PMID:27431257

  16. The Hair Follicle: A Comparative Review of Canine Hair Follicle Anatomy and Physiology.

    PubMed

    Welle, Monika M; Wiener, Dominique J

    2016-06-01

    The hair follicle (HF) has a wide range of functions including thermoregulation, physical and immunological protection against external insults, sensory perception, social interactions, and camouflage. One of the most characteristic features of HFs is that they self-renew during hair cycle (HC) throughout the entire life of an individual to continuously produce new hair. HC disturbances are common in humans and comparable to some alopecic disorders in dogs. A normal HC is maintained by follicular stem cells (SCs), which are predominately found in an area known as the bulge. Due to similar morphological characteristics of the human and canine bulge area, the particularity of compound HFs in humans and dogs as well as similarities in follicular biomarker expression, the dog might be a promising model to study human HC and SC disorders. In this review, we give an overview of normal follicular anatomy, the HC, and follicular SCs and discuss the possible pathogenetic mechanisms of noninflammatory alopecia. PMID:27000375

  17. Direct immunofluorescence on hair follicles--present and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Alexandru, Adina; Zurac, Sabina; Salavastru, Carmen M; Andrei, Razvan; Tebeica, Tiberiu; Staniceanu, Florica; Tiplica, George S

    2013-06-01

    Direct immunofluorescence (DIF) is an important tool for evaluating bullous autoimmune and connective tissue disorders. We report 21 cases of pemphigus vulgaris, bullous pemphigoid and lupus erythematosus that were investigated by performing DIF on scalp hair follicles. The study was done using a simplified technique of preparing the hairs for DIF testing. The anagen hairs tested positive in pemphigus vulgaris patients while the telogen hairs were negative. In bullous pemphigoid and lupus erythematosus cases hair DIF presented negative results.Hair DIF has the potential of taking the place of skin or mucosal DIF in pemphigus patients if performed on anagen hair follicles. The technique used to perform hair DIF is important in obtaining reliable results and eliminating the possibility of generating false-negative testing. Larger studies are needed in order to validate this method. PMID:23689693

  18. Desmoglein 3 anchors telogen hair in the follicle.

    PubMed

    Koch, P J; Mahoney, M G; Cotsarelis, G; Rothenberger, K; Lavker, R M; Stanley, J R

    1998-09-01

    Little is known about the function of desmosomes in the normal structure and function of hair. Therefore, it was surprising that mice without desmoglein 3 (the autoantigen in pemphigus vulgaris) not only developed mucous membrane and skin lesions like pemphigus patients, but also developed hair loss. Analysis of this phenotype indicated that hair was normal through the first growth phase ('follicular neogenesis'). Around day 20, however, when the hair follicles entered the resting phase of the hair growth cycle (telogen), mice with a targeted disruption of the desmoglein 3 gene (DSG3-/-) lost hair in a wave-like pattern from the head to the tail. Hair then regrew and was lost again in the same pattern with the next synchronous hair cycle. In adults, hair was lost in patches. Gentle hair pulls with adhesive tape showed that anagen (growing) hairs were firmly anchored in DSG3-/- mice, but telogen hairs came out in clumps compared to that of DSG3+/- and +/+ littermates in which telogen hairs were firmly anchored. Histology of bald skin areas in DSG3-/- mice showed cystic telogen hair follicles without hair shafts. Histology of hair follicles in early telogen, just before clinical hair loss occurred, showed loss of cell adhesion (acantholysis) between the cells surrounding the telogen club and the basal layer of the outer root sheath epithelium. Electron microscopy revealed 'half-desmosomes' at the plasma membranes of acantholytic cells. Similar acantholytic histology and ultrastructural findings have been previously reported in skin and mucous membrane lesions of DSG3-/- mice and pemphigus vulgaris patients. Immunoperoxidase staining with an antibody raised against mouse desmoglein 3 showed intense staining on the cell surface of keratinocytes surrounding the telogen hair club in normal mice. Similar staining was seen in human telogen hair with an anti-human desmoglein 3 antibody. Finally, a scalp biopsy from a pemphigus vulgaris patient showed empty telogen hair

  19. Hair follicle biology and topical minoxidil: possible mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Headington, J T

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism by which minoxidil, whether given orally or applied topically, stimulates hair growth remains undetermined. Possible indirect drug action, such as vasodilatation and increased blood flow to the dermal papilla, or possible local irritation related to minoxidil or to one or more components of the vehicle used for topical application has been suggested. Possible sites of direct drug action include either the dermal papilla of the follicle or hair matrix cells or possibly both. Morphometric studies of control scalp biopsies taken from young male patients with androgenetic alopecia reveal that the primary morphologic event in androgenetic alopecia is miniaturization of terminal hair follicles. Shortening and diminution of follicle size is undoubtedly accompanied by shortening of the hair growth cycle (decreased anagen time). Morphometric evaluation of scalp biopsies of patients receiving topical minoxidil in a vehicle composed of propylene glycol, water and ethanol has revealed growth of larger normally formed follicles when compared with pretreatment biopsies from the same individual. There has been no suggestion in any morphologic studies of minoxidil-treated patients for development of new follicles (follicular neogenesis). Because the dermal papilla of the hair follicle apparently controls both growth and differentiation of hair matrix cells and because there are no observable dysplastic or atypical changes in follicular germinal epithelium during or after application of topical minoxidil, it is concluded that the most probable site for the action of minoxidil is on the specialized mesenchymal cells of the follicular dermal papilla. PMID:3319729

  20. Stem cell dynamics in the hair follicle niche

    PubMed Central

    Rompolas, Panteleimon; Greco, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Hair follicles are skin appendages of the mammalian skin that have the ability to periodically and stereotypically regenerate in order to continuously produce new hair over our lifetime. The ability of the hair follicle to regenerate is due to the presence of stem cells that along with other cell populations and non-cellular components, including molecular signals and extracellular material, make up a niche microenvironment. Mounting evidence suggests that the niche is critical for regulating stem cell behavior and thus the process of regeneration. Here we review the literature concerning past and current studies that have utilized mouse genetic models, combined with other approaches to dissect the molecular and cellular composition of the hair follicle niche. We also discuss our current understanding of how stem cells operate within the niche during the process of tissue regeneration and the factors that regulate their behavior. PMID:24361866

  1. Human hair follicle: reservoir function and selective targeting.

    PubMed

    Blume-Peytavi, U; Vogt, A

    2011-10-01

    Penetration of topically applied compounds may occur via the stratum corneum, skin appendages and hair follicles. The follicular infundibulum increases the surface area, disrupts the epidermal barrier towards the lower parts of the follicle, and serves as a reservoir. Topical delivery of active compounds to specific targets within the skin, especially to distinct hair follicle compartments or cell populations, may help to treat local inflammatory reactions selectively, with reduced systemic side-effects. Various in vitro and in vivo methods exist for studying the hair follicle structure and follicular penetration pathways. These include cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping, confocal microscopy and cyanoacrylate scalp follicle biopsy. The complex anatomical structure as well as the cyclical activity of the hair follicle must be taken into consideration when designing delivery systems. In addition, delivery into and retention inside the infundibular reservoir are controlled by, for example, molecule or particle size, their polarity and the type of preparation. Preferred penetration depth and storage time must also be considered. Particles with release mechanisms should be preferred; however, the release of drugs from nanoparticles still requires further investigations. PMID:21919898

  2. Targeted expression of GFP in the hair follicle using ex vivo viral transduction.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert M; Li, Lingna

    2008-01-01

    There are many cell types in the hair follicle, including hair matrix cells which form the hair shaft and stem cells which can initiate the hair shaft during early anagen, the growth phase of the hair cycle, as well as pluripotent stem cells that play a role in hair follicle growth but have the potential to differentiate to non-follicle cells such as neurons. These properties of the hair follicle are discussed. The various cell types of the hair follicle are potential targets for gene therapy. Gene delivery system for the hair follicle using viral vectors or liposomes for gene targeting to the various cell types in the hair follicle and the results obtained are also discussed [corrected]. PMID:19066571

  3. Intravital imaging of hair follicle regeneration in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Pineda, Cristiana M; Park, Sangbum; Mesa, Kailin R; Wolfel, Markus; Gonzalez, David G; Haberman, Ann M; Rompolas, Panteleimon; Greco, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Hair follicles are mammalian skin organs that periodically and stereotypically regenerate from a small pool of stem cells. Hence, hair follicles are a widely studied model for stem cell biology and regeneration. This protocol describes the use of two-photon laser-scanning microscopy (TPLSM) to study hair regeneration within a living, uninjured mouse. TPLSM provides advantages over conventional approaches, including enabling time-resolved imaging of single hair follicle stem cells. Thus, it is possible to capture behaviors including apoptosis, proliferation and migration, and to revisit the same cells for in vivo lineage tracing. In addition, a wide range of fluorescent reporter mouse lines facilitates TPLSM in the skin. This protocol also describes TPLSM laser ablation, which can spatiotemporally manipulate specific cellular populations of the hair follicle or microenvironment to test their regenerative contributions. The preparation time is variable depending on the goals of the experiment, but it generally takes 30–60 min. Imaging time is dependent on the goals of the experiment. Together, these components of TPLSM can be used to develop a comprehensive understanding of hair regeneration during homeostasis and injury. PMID:26110716

  4. Intravital imaging of hair follicle regeneration in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Pineda, Cristiana M; Park, Sangbum; Mesa, Kailin R; Wolfel, Markus; Gonzalez, David G; Haberman, Ann M; Rompolas, Panteleimon; Greco, Valentina

    2015-07-01

    Hair follicles are mammalian skin organs that periodically and stereotypically regenerate from a small pool of stem cells. Hence, hair follicles are a widely studied model for stem cell biology and regeneration. This protocol describes the use of two-photon laser-scanning microscopy (TPLSM) to study hair regeneration within a living, uninjured mouse. TPLSM provides advantages over conventional approaches, including enabling time-resolved imaging of single hair follicle stem cells. Thus, it is possible to capture behaviors including apoptosis, proliferation and migration, and to revisit the same cells for in vivo lineage tracing. In addition, a wide range of fluorescent reporter mouse lines facilitates TPLSM in the skin. This protocol also describes TPLSM laser ablation, which can spatiotemporally manipulate specific cellular populations of the hair follicle or microenvironment to test their regenerative contributions. The preparation time is variable depending on the goals of the experiment, but it generally takes 30-60 min. Imaging time is dependent on the goals of the experiment. Together, these components of TPLSM can be used to develop a comprehensive understanding of hair regeneration during homeostasis and injury. PMID:26110716

  5. Hairy tale of signaling in hair follicle development and cycling

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jayhun; Tumbar, Tudorita

    2012-01-01

    Hair follicle is an appendage from the vertebrate skin epithelium, and is critical for environmental sensing, animal appearance, and body heat maintenance. Hair follicles arise from the embryonic ectoderm and regenerate cyclically during adult life. Distinct morphological and functional stages from development through homeostasis have been extensively studied for the past decades to dissect the critical molecular mechanisms. Accumulating work suggests that different signaling cascades, such as Wnt, Bmp, Shh, and Notch, together with specific combinations of transcription factors are at work at different stages. Here we provide a comprehensive review of mouse genetics studies, which include lineage tracing along with knockout and over-expression of core genes from key signaling pathways, to paint an updated view of the molecular regulatory network that govern each stage of hair follicle development and adult cycling. PMID:22939761

  6. Aging hair follicles rejuvenated by transplantation to a young subcutaneous environment.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenluo; Li, Lingna; Kajiura, Satoshi; Amoh, Yasuyuki; Tan, Yuying; Liu, Fang; Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-04-17

    We demonstrate in the present study that young host mice rejuvenate aged hair follicles after transplantation. Young mice promote the hair shaft growth of transplanted old hair follicles, as well as young follicles, in contrast to old host mice, which did not support hair-shaft growth from transplanted old or young follicles. Nestin-expressing hair follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells of transplanted old and young hair follicles remained active in young host nude mice. In contrast, the nestin-expressing HAP stem cells in young and old hair follicles transplanted to old nude mice were not as active as in young nude host mice. The present study shows that transplanted old hair follicles were rejuvenated by young host mice, suggesting that aging may be reversible. PMID:26940664

  7. Hair follicle dermal stem cells regenerate the dermal sheath, repopulate the dermal papilla, and modulate hair type.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Waleed; Abbasi, Sepideh; Hagner, Andrew; Raharjo, Eko; Kumar, Ranjan; Hotta, Akitsu; Magness, Scott; Metzger, Daniel; Biernaskie, Jeff

    2014-12-01

    The dermal papilla (DP) provide instructive signals required to activate epithelial progenitors and initiate hair follicle regeneration. DP cell numbers fluctuate over the hair cycle, and hair loss is associated with gradual depletion/atrophy of DP cells. How DP cell numbers are maintained in healthy follicles remains unclear. We performed in vivo fate mapping of adult hair follicle dermal sheath (DS) cells to determine their lineage relationship with DP and found that a subset of DS cells are retained following each hair cycle, exhibit self-renewal, and repopulate the DS and the DP with new cells. Ablating these hair follicle dermal stem cells and their progeny retarded hair regrowth and altered hair type specification, suggesting that they function to modulate normal DP function. This work identifies a bipotent stem cell within the adult hair follicle mesenchyme and has important implications toward restoration of hair growth after injury, disease, and aging. PMID:25465495

  8. CCN2 modulates hair follicle cycling in mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shangxi; Leask, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    It is critical to understand how stem cell activity is regulated during regeneration. Hair follicles constitute an important model for organ regeneration because, throughout adult life, they undergo cyclical regeneration. Hair follicle stem cells—epithelial cells located in the follicle bulge—are activated by periodic β-catenin activity, which is regulated not only by epithelial-derived Wnt, but also, through as-yet-undefined mechanisms, the surrounding dermal microenvironment. The matricellular protein connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) is secreted into the microenvironment and acts as a multifunctional signaling modifier. In adult skin, CCN2 is largely absent but is unexpectedly restricted to the dermal papillae and outer root sheath. Deletion of CCN2 in dermal papillae and the outer root sheath results in a shortened telogen-phase length and elevated number of hair follicles. Recombinant CCN2 causes decreased β-catenin stability in keratinocytes. In vivo, loss of CCN2 results in elevated numbers of K15-positive epidermal stem cells that possess elevated β-catenin levels and β-catenin–dependent reporter gene expression. These results indicate that CCN2 expression by dermal papillae cells is a physiologically relevant suppressor of hair follicle formation by destabilization of β-catenin and suggest that CCN2 normally acts to maintain stem cell quiescence. PMID:24152728

  9. Activating Hair Follicle Stem Cells via R-spondin2 to Stimulate Hair Growth.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew A; Li, Jingtao; Liu, Bo; Hunter, Daniel; Pyles, Malcolm; Gillette, Martin; Dhamdhere, Girija R; Abo, Arie; Oro, Anthony; Helms, Jill A

    2016-08-01

    Wnt signaling is required for the development of the hair follicle, and for inciting the growth (anagen) phase of the hair cycle. Most strategies to enhance Wnt signaling for hair growth create a state of constitutive Wnt activation, which leads to neoplastic transformation of the epithelial hair matrix. Using Axin2(LacZ/+) and Axin2(Cre/+)R26R(mTmG/+) reporter mice and RNA analyses, we show that Wnt signaling is elevated during anagen, is reduced at the onset of catagen, and can be reamplified in the skin and surrounding hair follicles via intradermal injection of recombinant R-spondin2 protein. Using Lgr5(LacZ/+) reporter mice, we demonstrate that this amplified Wnt environment leads to activation of leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5-positive stem cells in the hair follicle. The onset of catagen is repressed by R-spondin2 injection, and the anagen phase persists. As a consequence, hair shafts grow longer. We conclude that R-spondin2 treatment activates hair follicle stem cells and therefore may have therapeutic potential to promote hair growth. PMID:27109869

  10. A model system to analyse the ability of human keratinocytes to form hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Thangapazham, Rajesh L; Klover, Peter; Li, Shaowei; Wang, Ji-An; Sperling, Leonard; Darling, Thomas N

    2014-06-01

    Earlier studies showed that dermal cells lose trichogenic capacity with passage, but studies on the effect of keratinocyte passage on human hair follicle neogenesis and graft quality have been hampered by the lack of a suitable model system. We recently documented human hair follicle neogenesis in grafted dermal-epidermal composites, and in the present study, we determined the effects of keratinocyte passage on hair follicle neogenesis. Dermal equivalents were made with cultured human dermal papilla cells and were overlaid with either primary or passaged human keratinocytes to form dermal-epidermal composites; these were then grafted onto immunodeficient mice. Superior hair follicle neogenesis was observed using early keratinocyte cultures. Characteristics such as formation of hair shafts and sebaceous glands, presence of hair follicles with features of anagen or telogen follicles, and reproducible hair and skin function parameters make this model a tool to study human hair follicle neogenesis and development. PMID:24758480

  11. Wnt-dependent de novo hair follicle regeneration in adult mouse skin after wounding.

    PubMed

    Ito, Mayumi; Yang, Zaixin; Andl, Thomas; Cui, Chunhua; Kim, Noori; Millar, Sarah E; Cotsarelis, George

    2007-05-17

    The mammalian hair follicle is a complex 'mini-organ' thought to form only during development; loss of an adult follicle is considered permanent. However, the possibility that hair follicles develop de novo following wounding was raised in studies on rabbits, mice and even humans fifty years ago. Subsequently, these observations were generally discounted because definitive evidence for follicular neogenesis was not presented. Here we show that, after wounding, hair follicles form de novo in genetically normal adult mice. The regenerated hair follicles establish a stem cell population, express known molecular markers of follicle differentiation, produce a hair shaft and progress through all stages of the hair follicle cycle. Lineage analysis demonstrated that the nascent follicles arise from epithelial cells outside of the hair follicle stem cell niche, suggesting that epidermal cells in the wound assume a hair follicle stem cell phenotype. Inhibition of Wnt signalling after re-epithelialization completely abrogates this wounding-induced folliculogenesis, whereas overexpression of Wnt ligand in the epidermis increases the number of regenerated hair follicles. These remarkable regenerative capabilities of the adult support the notion that wounding induces an embryonic phenotype in skin, and that this provides a window for manipulation of hair follicle neogenesis by Wnt proteins. These findings suggest treatments for wounds, hair loss and other degenerative skin disorders. PMID:17507982

  12. Analysis of apoptosis during hair follicle regression (catagen)

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, G.; Botchkarev, V. A.; Botchkareva, N. V.; Ling, G.; van der Veen, C.; Paus, R.

    1997-01-01

    Keratinocyte apoptosis is a central element in the regulation of hair follicle regression (catagen), yet the exact location and the control of follicular keratinocyte apoptosis remain obscure. To generate an "apoptomap" of the hair follicle, we have studied selected apoptosis-associated parameters in the C57BL/6 mouse model for hair research during normal and pharmacologically manipulated, pathological catagen development. As assessed by terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP fluorescein nick end-labeling (TUNEL) stain, apoptotic cells not only appeared in the regressing proximal follicle epithelium but, surprisingly, were also seen in the central inner root sheath, in the bulge/isthmus region, and in the secondary germ, but never in the dermal papilla. These apoptosis hot spots during catagen development correlated largely with a down-regulation of the Bcl-2/Bax ratio but only poorly with the expression patterns of interleukin-1beta converting enzyme, p55TNFR, and Fas/Apo-1 immunoreactivity. Instead, a higher correlation was found with p75NTR expression. During cyclophosphamide-induced follicle dystrophy and alopecia, massive keratinocyte apoptosis occurred in the entire proximal hair bulb, except in the dermal papilla, despite a strong up-regulation of Bax and p75NTR immunoreactivity. Selected receptors of the tumor necrosis factor/nerve growth factor family and members of the Bcl-2 family may also play a key role in the control of follicular keratinocyte apoptosis in situ. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5. a Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:9403711

  13. Endogenous retinoids in the hair follicle and sebaceous gland.

    PubMed

    Everts, Helen B

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin A and its derivatives (retinoids) are critically important in the development and maintenance of multiple epithelial tissues, including skin, hair, and sebaceous glands, as shown by the detrimental effects of either vitamin A deficiency or toxicity. Thus, precise levels of retinoic acid (RA, active metabolite) are needed. These precise levels of RA are achieved by regulating several steps in the conversion of dietary vitamin A (retinol) to RA and RA catabolism. This review discusses the localization of RA synthesis to specific sites within the hair follicle and sebaceous gland, including their stem cells, during both homeostasis and disease states. It also discusses what is known about the specific roles of RA within the hair follicle and sebaceous gland. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Retinoid and Lipid Metabolism. PMID:21914489

  14. A guide to studying human hair follicle cycling in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ji Won; Kloepper, Jennifer; Langan, Ewan A.; Kim, Yongsoo; Yeo, Joongyeub; Kim, Min Ji; Hsi, Tsai-Ching; Rose, Christian; Yoon, Ghil Suk; Lee, Seok-Jong; Seykora, John; Kim, Jung Chul; Sung, Young Kwan

    2015-01-01

    Hair follicles (HFs) undergo life-long cyclical transformations, progressing through stages of rapid growth (anagen), regression (catagen), and relative “quiescence” (telogen). Since HF cycling abnormalities underlie many human hair growth disorders, the accurate classification of individual cycle stages within skin biopsies is clinically important and essential for hair research. For preclinical human hair research purposes, human scalp skin can be xenografted onto immunocompromised mice to study human HF cycling and manipulate long-lasting anagen in vivo. While available for mice, a comprehensive guide on how to recognize different human hair cycle stages in vivo is lacking. Here, we present such a guide, which uses objective, well-defined, and reproducible criteria and integrates simple morphological indicators with advanced, (immuno)-histochemical markers. This guide also characterizes human HF cycling in xenografts and highlights the utility of this model for in vivo hair research. Detailed schematic drawings and representative micrographs provide examples of how best to identify human HF stages, even in sub-optimally sectioned tissue, and practical recommendations are given for designing human-on-mouse hair cycle experiments. Thus, this guide seeks to offer a benchmark for human hair cycle stage classification, for both hair research experts and newcomers to the field. PMID:26763421

  15. A Guide to Studying Human Hair Follicle Cycling In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji Won; Kloepper, Jennifer; Langan, Ewan A; Kim, Yongsoo; Yeo, Joongyeub; Kim, Min Ji; Hsi, Tsai-Ching; Rose, Christian; Yoon, Ghil Suk; Lee, Seok-Jong; Seykora, John; Kim, Jung Chul; Sung, Young Kwan; Kim, Moonkyu; Paus, Ralf; Plikus, Maksim V

    2016-01-01

    Hair follicles (HFs) undergo lifelong cyclical transformations, progressing through stages of rapid growth (anagen), regression (catagen), and relative "quiescence" (telogen). Given that HF cycling abnormalities underlie many human hair growth disorders, the accurate classification of individual cycle stages within skin biopsies is clinically important and essential for hair research. For preclinical human hair research purposes, human scalp skin can be xenografted onto immunocompromised mice to study human HF cycling and manipulate long-lasting anagen in vivo. Although available for mice, a comprehensive guide on how to recognize different human hair cycle stages in vivo is lacking. In this article, we present such a guide, which uses objective, well-defined, and reproducible criteria, and integrates simple morphological indicators with advanced, (immuno)-histochemical markers. This guide also characterizes human HF cycling in xenografts and highlights the utility of this model for in vivo hair research. Detailed schematic drawings and representative micrographs provide examples of how best to identify human HF stages, even in suboptimally sectioned tissue, and practical recommendations are given for designing human-on-mouse hair cycle experiments. Thus, this guide seeks to offer a benchmark for human hair cycle stage classification, for both hair research experts and newcomers to the field. PMID:26763421

  16. Ovine Hair Follicle Stem Cells Derived from Single Vibrissae Reconstitute Haired Skin

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huishan; Zhang, Shoubing; Zhao, Huashan; Qiao, Jingqiao; Liu, Shuang; Deng, Zhili; Lei, Xiaohua; Ning, Lina; Cao, Yujing; Zhao, Yong; Duan, Enkui

    2015-01-01

    Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) possess fascinating self-renewal capacity and multipotency, which play important roles in mammalian hair growth and skin wound repair. Although HFSCs from other mammalian species have been obtained, the characteristics of ovine HFSCs, as well as the methods to isolate them have not been well addressed. Here, we report an efficient strategy to obtain multipotent ovine HFSCs. Through microdissection and organ culture, we obtained keratinocytes that grew from the bulge area of vibrissa hair follicles, and even abundant keratinocytes were harvested from a single hair follicle. These bulge-derived keratinocytes are highly positive for Krt15, Krt14, Tp63, Krt19 and Itga6; in addition to their strong proliferation abilities in vitro, these keratinocytes formed new epidermis, hair follicles and sebaceous glands in skin reconstitution experiments, showing that these are HFSCs from the bulge outer root sheath. Taken together, we developed an efficient in vitro system to enrich ovine HFSCs, providing enough HFSCs for the investigations about the ovine hair cycle, aiming to promote wool production in the future. PMID:26247934

  17. Androgen actions on the human hair follicle: perspectives.

    PubMed

    Inui, Shigeki; Itami, Satoshi

    2013-03-01

    Androgens stimulate beard growth but suppress hair growth in androgenetic alopecia (AGA). This condition is known as 'androgen paradox'. Human pilosebaceous units possess enough enzymes to form the active androgens testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. In hair follicles, 5α-reductase type 1 and 2, androgen receptors (AR) and AR coactivators can regulate androgen sensitivity of dermal papillae (DP). To regulate hair growth, androgens stimulate production of IGF-1 as positive mediators from beard DP cells and of TGF-β1, TGF-β2, dickkopf1 and IL-6 as negative mediators from balding DP cells. In addition, androgens enhance inducible nitric oxide synthase from occipital DP cells and stem cell factor for positive regulation of hair growth in beard and negative regulation of balding DP cells. Moreover, AGA involves crosstalk between androgen and Wnt/β-catenin signalling. Finally, recent data on susceptibility genes have provided us with the impetus to investigate the molecular pathogenesis of AGA. PMID:23016593

  18. Therapeutic strategy for hair regeneration: Hair cycle activation, niche environment modulation, wound-induced follicle neogenesis and stem cell engineering

    PubMed Central

    Chueh, Shan-Chang; Lin, Sung-Jan; Chen, Chih-Chiang; Lei, Mingxing; Wang, Ling Mei; Widelitz, Randall B.; Hughes, Michael W.; Jiang, Ting-Xing; Chuong, Cheng Ming

    2013-01-01

    Introduction There are major new advancements in the fields of stem cell biology, developmental biology, regenerative hair cycling, and tissue engineering. The time is ripe to integrate, translate and apply these findings to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Readers will learn about new progress in cellular and molecular aspects of hair follicle development, regeneration and potential therapeutic opportunities these advances may offer. Areas covered Here we use hair follicle formation to illustrate this progress and to identify targets for potential strategies in therapeutics. Hair regeneration is discussed in four different categories. (1) Intra-follicle regeneration (or renewal) is the basic production of hair fibers from hair stem cells and dermal papillae in existing follicles. (2) Chimeric follicles via epithelial-mesenchymal recombination to identify stem cells and signaling centers. (3) Extra-follicular factors including local dermal and systemic factors can modulate the regenerative behavior of hair follicles, and may be relatively easy therapeutic targets. (4) Follicular neogenesis means the de novo formation of new follicles. In addition, scientists are working to engineer hair follicles, which require hair forming competent epidermal cells and hair inducing dermal cells. Expert opinion Ideally self-organizing processes similar to those occurring during embryonic development should be elicited with some help from biomaterials. PMID:23289545

  19. Effects of Wnt-10b on hair shaft growth in hair follicle cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Ouji, Yukiteru . E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide; Moriya, Kei; Ishizaka, Shigeaki

    2007-08-03

    Wnts are deeply involved in the proliferation and differentiation of skin epithelial cells. We previously reported the differentiation of cultured primary skin epithelial cells toward hair shaft and inner root sheath (IRS) of the hair follicle via {beta}-catenin stabilization caused by Wnt-10b, however, the effects of Wnt-10b on cultured hair follicles have not been reported. In the present study, we examined the effects of Wnt-10b on shaft growth using organ cultures of whisker hair follicles in serum-free conditions. No hair shaft growth was observed in the absence of Wnt-10b, whereas its addition to the culture promoted elongation of the hair shaft, intensive incorporation of BrdU in matrix cells flanking the dermal papilla (DP), and {beta}-catenin stabilization in DP and IRS cells. These results suggest a promoting effect of Wnt-10b on hair shaft growth that is involved with stimulation of the DP via Wnt-10b/{beta}-catenin signalling, proliferation of matrix cells next to the DP, and differentiation of IRS cells by Wnt-10b.

  20. Hair follicles stimulation effects of gelatin nanofibers containing silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tura, V; Hagiu, B A; Mangalagiu, I I

    2010-04-01

    In the present work we studied gelatin nanofibers containing silver nanoparticles of 14 +/- 6 nm mean diameter, prepared by electrospinning. The electrospinnable solution was obtained by drop-wise adding a AgNO3/acetic acid solution to gelatin which had previously been dissolved in a mixture of formic acid and acetic acid. The silver metallic nanoparticles were formed due to the reducing action of the formic acid. The resulted material was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Subcutaneous implants in rabbits demonstrated that the gelatin nanofibers containing silver nanoparticles were resorbed with no inflammatory reactions. An increased number of secondary hair follicles developed in tissue regions close to implants, suggesting the existence of a stimulation effect of silver nanoparticles on hair follicles. PMID:20738075

  1. Targeting to the hair follicles: current status and potential.

    PubMed

    Wosicka, Hanna; Cal, Krzysztof

    2010-02-01

    The pilosebaceous unit is a complex structure that undergoes a specific growth cycle and comprises a few important drug targeting sites. For example, drugs can be targeted to the bulge region with stem cells or to the sebaceous glands. Interest in pilosebaceous units is directed towards their utilization as reservoirs for localized therapy and also as a transport pathway for systemic drug delivery. Improved investigative methods, such as differential stripping, are being developed in order to determine follicular penetration. This article reviews relevant aspects of effective follicle-targeting formulations and delivery systems as well as the activity status of hair follicles, and variations in follicle size and distribution throughout various body regions. Each of these factors strongly affects follicular permeation. We provide examples of improved penetration of particle-based formulations and of a size-dependent manner of follicular penetration. Contradictions are also discussed, indicating the need for detailed future investigations. PMID:20060268

  2. Culture and characterization of rat hair follicle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Quan, Renfu; Zheng, Xuan; Ni, Yueming; Xie, Shangju; Li, Changming

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish methods for isolation, culture, expansion, and characterization of rat hair follicle stem cells (rHFSCs). Hair follicles were harvested from 1-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats and digested with dispase and collagenase IV. The bulge of the hair follicle was dissected under a microscope and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/F12 supplemented with KnockOut™ Serum Replacement serum substitute, penicillin-streptomycin, L-glutamine, non-essential amino acids, epidermal growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, polyhydric alcohol, and hydrocortisone. The rHFSCs were purified using adhesion to collagen IV. Cells were characterized by detecting marker genes with immunofluorescent staining and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The proliferation and vitality of rHFSCs at different passages were evaluated. The cultured rHFSCs showed typical cobblestone morphology with good adhesion and colony-forming ability. Expression of keratin 15, integrin α6, and integrin β1 were shown by immunocytochemistry staining. On day 1-2, the cells were in the latent phase. On day 5-6, the cells were in the logarithmic phase. Cell vitality gradually decreased from the 7th passage. Real-time PCR showed that the purified rHFSCs had good vitality and proliferative capacity and contained no keratinocytes. Highly purified rHFSCs can be obtained using tissue culture and adhesion to collagen IV. The cultured cells had good proliferative capacity and could therefore be a useful cell source for tissue-engineered hair follicles, vessels, and skin. PMID:25407732

  3. Signaling Involved in Hair Follicle Morphogenesis and Development

    PubMed Central

    Rishikaysh, Pisal; Dev, Kapil; Diaz, Daniel; Qureshi, Wasay Mohiuddin Shaikh; Filip, Stanislav; Mokry, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Hair follicle morphogenesis depends on Wnt, Shh, Notch, BMP and other signaling pathways interplay between epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The Wnt pathway plays an essential role during hair follicle induction, Shh is involved in morphogenesis and late stage differentiation, Notch signaling determines stem cell fate while BMP is involved in cellular differentiation. The Wnt pathway is considered to be the master regulator during hair follicle morphogenesis. Wnt signaling proceeds through EDA/EDAR/NF-κB signaling. NF-κB regulates the Wnt pathway and acts as a signal mediator by upregulating the expression of Shh ligand. Signal crosstalk between epithelial and mesenchymal cells takes place mainly through primary cilia. Primary cilia formation is initiated with epithelial laminin-511 interaction with dermal β-1 integrin, which also upregulates expression of downstream effectors of Shh pathway in dermal lineage. PDGF signal transduction essential for crosstalk is mediated through epithelial PDGF-A and PDGFRα expressed on the primary cilia. Dermal Shh and PDGF signaling up-regulates dermal noggin expression; noggin is a potent inhibitor of BMP signaling which helps in counteracting BMP mediated β-catenin inhibition. This interplay of signaling between the epithelial and dermal lineage helps in epithelial Shh signal amplification. The dermal Wnt pathway helps in upregulation of epithelial Notch expression. Dysregulation of these pathways leads to certain abnormalities and in some cases even tumor outgrowth. PMID:24451143

  4. Expression of decorin throughout the murine hair follicle cycle: hair cycle dependence and anagen phase prolongation.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jing; Wu, Xian-Jie; Li, Yun-Ling; Cai, Sui-Qing; Zheng, Min; Lu, Zhong-Fa

    2014-07-01

    Decorin is a prototypical member of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan (SLRP) family, which is involved in numerous biological processes. The role of decorin, as a representative SLRP, in hair follicle morphogenesis has not been elucidated. We present our initial findings on decorin expression patterns during induced murine hair follicle (HF) cycles. It was found that decorin expression is exclusively restricted to the epidermis, outer root sheath and sebaceous glands during the anagen phase, which correlates with the upregulation of decorin mRNA and protein expression in depilated murine dorsal skin. Furthermore, we used a functional approach to investigate the effects of recombinant human decorin (rhDecorin) via cutaneous injection into HFs at various murine hair cycle stages. The local injection of rhDecorin (100 μg/ml) into the hypodermis of depilated C57BL/6 mice at anagen delayed catagen progression. In contrast, rhDecorin injection during the telogen phase caused the premature onset of anagen, as demonstrated by the assessment of the following parameters: (i) hair shaft length, (ii) follicular bulbar diameter, (iii) hair follicle cycling score and (iv) follicular phase percentage. Taken together, our results suggest that decorin may modulate follicular cycling and morphogenesis. In addition, this study also provides insight into the molecular control mechanisms governing hair follicular epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. PMID:24816226

  5. Cutaneous retinoic acid levels determine hair follicle development and downgrowth.

    PubMed

    Okano, Junko; Levy, Clara; Lichti, Ulrike; Sun, Hong-Wei; Yuspa, Stuart H; Sakai, Yasuo; Morasso, Maria I

    2012-11-16

    Retinoic acid (RA) is essential during embryogenesis and for tissue homeostasis, whereas excess RA is well known as a teratogen. In humans, excess RA is associated with hair loss. In the present study, we demonstrate that specific levels of RA, regulated by Cyp26b1, one of the RA-degrading enzymes, are required for hair follicle (hf) morphogenesis. Mice with embryonic ablation of Cyp26b1 (Cyp26b1(-/-)) have excessive endogenous RA, resulting in arrest of hf growth at the hair germ stage. The altered hf development is rescued by grafting the mutant skin on immunodeficient mice. Our results show that normalization of RA levels is associated with reinitiation of hf development. Conditional deficiency of Cyp26b1 in the dermis (En1Cre;Cyp26b1f/-) results in decreased hair follicle density and specific effect on hair type, indicating that RA levels also influence regulators of hair bending. Our results support the model of RA-dependent dermal signals regulating hf downgrowth and bending. To elucidate target gene pathways of RA, we performed microarray and RNA-Seq profiling of genes differentially expressed in Cyp26b1(-/-) skin and En1Cre;Cyp26b1f/- tissues. We show specific effects on the Wnt-catenin pathway and on members of the Runx, Fox, and Sox transcription factor families, indicating that RA modulates pathways and factors implicated in hf downgrowth and bending. Our results establish that proper RA distribution is essential for morphogenesis, development, and differentiation of hfs. PMID:23007396

  6. Cutaneous Retinoic Acid Levels Determine Hair Follicle Development and Downgrowth*

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Junko; Levy, Clara; Lichti, Ulrike; Sun, Hong-Wei; Yuspa, Stuart H.; Sakai, Yasuo; Morasso, Maria I.

    2012-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is essential during embryogenesis and for tissue homeostasis, whereas excess RA is well known as a teratogen. In humans, excess RA is associated with hair loss. In the present study, we demonstrate that specific levels of RA, regulated by Cyp26b1, one of the RA-degrading enzymes, are required for hair follicle (hf) morphogenesis. Mice with embryonic ablation of Cyp26b1 (Cyp26b1−/−) have excessive endogenous RA, resulting in arrest of hf growth at the hair germ stage. The altered hf development is rescued by grafting the mutant skin on immunodeficient mice. Our results show that normalization of RA levels is associated with reinitiation of hf development. Conditional deficiency of Cyp26b1 in the dermis (En1Cre;Cyp26b1f/−) results in decreased hair follicle density and specific effect on hair type, indicating that RA levels also influence regulators of hair bending. Our results support the model of RA-dependent dermal signals regulating hf downgrowth and bending. To elucidate target gene pathways of RA, we performed microarray and RNA-Seq profiling of genes differentially expressed in Cyp26b1−/− skin and En1Cre;Cyp26b1f/− tissues. We show specific effects on the Wnt-catenin pathway and on members of the Runx, Fox, and Sox transcription factor families, indicating that RA modulates pathways and factors implicated in hf downgrowth and bending. Our results establish that proper RA distribution is essential for morphogenesis, development, and differentiation of hfs. PMID:23007396

  7. Red ginseng extract promotes the hair growth in cultured human hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-young; Cho, Hong-il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Dong Hun

    2015-03-01

    Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) were evaluated using cytotoxicity assays, immunoblot analysis of signaling proteins, and the determination of associated growth factors. We examined the ability of RGE and ginsenosides to protect hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation against dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced suppression and their effects on the expression of androgen receptor. The in vivo hair growth-promoting effect of RGE was also investigated in C57BL/6 mice. Both RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 enhanced the proliferation of hair matrix keratinocytes. hDPCs treated with RGE or ginsenoside-Rb1 exhibited substantial cell proliferation and the associated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Moreover, RGE, ginsenoside-Rb1, and ginsenoside-Rg3 abrogated the DHT-induced suppression of hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and the DHT-induced upregulation of the mRNA expression of androgen receptor in hDPCs. Murine experiments revealed that the subcutaneous injection of 3% RGE resulted in more rapid hair growth than the negative control. In conclusion, RGE and its ginsenosides may enhance hDPC proliferation, activate ERK and AKT signaling pathways in hDPCs, upregulate hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation, and inhibit the DHT-induced androgen receptor transcription. These results suggest that red ginseng may promote hair growth in humans. PMID:25396716

  8. Red Ginseng Extract Promotes the Hair Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-young; Cho, Hong-il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Dong Hun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) were evaluated using cytotoxicity assays, immunoblot analysis of signaling proteins, and the determination of associated growth factors. We examined the ability of RGE and ginsenosides to protect hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation against dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced suppression and their effects on the expression of androgen receptor. The in vivo hair growth-promoting effect of RGE was also investigated in C57BL/6 mice. Both RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 enhanced the proliferation of hair matrix keratinocytes. hDPCs treated with RGE or ginsenoside-Rb1 exhibited substantial cell proliferation and the associated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Moreover, RGE, ginsenoside-Rb1, and ginsenoside-Rg3 abrogated the DHT-induced suppression of hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and the DHT-induced upregulation of the mRNA expression of androgen receptor in hDPCs. Murine experiments revealed that the subcutaneous injection of 3% RGE resulted in more rapid hair growth than the negative control. In conclusion, RGE and its ginsenosides may enhance hDPC proliferation, activate ERK and AKT signaling pathways in hDPCs, upregulate hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation, and inhibit the DHT-induced androgen receptor transcription. These results suggest that red ginseng may promote hair growth in humans. PMID:25396716

  9. Cultured dermal papilla cells induce follicle formation and hair growth by transdifferentiation of an adult epidermis.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, A J; Jahoda, C A

    1992-06-01

    Adult rat pelage follicle dermal papilla cells induced follicle neogenesis and external hair growth when associated with adult footpad skin epidermis. They thus demonstrated a capacity to completely change the structural arrangement and gene expression of adult epidermis--an ability previously undocumented for cultured adult cells. Isolation chambers ensured that de novo follicle formation must have occurred by eliminating the possibility of cellular contributions, and/or inductive influences, from local skin follicles. These findings argue against previous suggestions of vibrissa follicle specificity, and imply that the potential for hair follicle induction may be common to all adult papilla cells. PMID:1425341

  10. Effect of helium-neon laser irradiation on hair follicle growth cycle of Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Shukla, S; Sahu, K; Verma, Y; Rao, K D; Dube, A; Gupta, P K

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of a study carried out to investigate the effect of helium-neon (He-Ne) laser (632.8 nm) irradiation on the hair follicle growth cycle of testosterone-treated and untreated mice. Both histology and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were used for the measurement of hair follicle length and the relative percentage of hair follicles in different growth phases. A positive correlation (R = 0.96) was observed for the lengths of hair follicles measured by both methods. Further, the ratios of the lengths of hair follicles in the anagen and catagen phases obtained by both methods were nearly the same. However, the length of the hair follicles measured by both methods differed by a factor of 1.6, with histology showing smaller lengths. He-Ne laser irradiation (at approximately 1 J/cm(2)) of the skin of both the control and the testosterone-treated mice was observed to lead to a significant increase (p < 0.05) in % anagen, indicating stimulation of hair growth. The study also demonstrates that OCT can be used to monitor the hair follicle growth cycle, and thus hair follicle disorders or treatment efficacy during alopecia. PMID:20016249

  11. Nfatc1 orchestrates aging in hair follicle stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Brice E.; Segal, Jeremy P.; Heller, Evan; Lien, Wen-Hui; Chang, Chiung-Ying; Guo, Xingyi; Oristian, Dan S.; Zheng, Deyou; Fuchs, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Hair production is fueled by stem cells (SCs), which transition between cyclical bouts of rest and activity. Here, we explore why hair growth wanes with age. We show that aged hair follicle SCs (HFSCs) in mice exhibit enhanced resting and abbreviated growth phases and are delayed in response to tissue-regenerating cues. Aged HFSCs are poor at initiating proliferation and show diminished self-renewing capacity upon extensive use. Only modestly restored by parabiosis, these features are rooted in elevated cell-intrinsic sensitivity and local elevation in bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling. Transcriptional profiling presents differences consistent with defects in aged HFSC activation. Notably, BMP-/calcium-regulated, nuclear factor of activated T-cell c1 (NFATc1) in HFSCs becomes recalcitrant to its normal down-regulating cues, and NFATc1 ChIP-sequencing analyses reveal a marked enrichment of NFATc1 target genes within the age-related signature. Moreover, aged HFSCs display more youthful levels of hair regeneration when BMP and/or NFATc1 are inhibited. These results provide unique insights into how skin SCs age. PMID:24282298

  12. In-vitro and in-vivo study of dye diffusion into the human skin and hair follicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Sinichkin, Yurii P.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.; Lakodina, Nina A.; Perpelitzina, Olga A.; Altshuler, Gregory B.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2000-11-01

    We present experimental results on in vitro and in vivo investigation of dye diffusion into the human skin and hair follicles. It was shown that dyeing as a method of enhancement of the absorption coefficient of hair follicle tissue components can be used for selective photodestruction of hair follicle and surrounding tissues. Strength and depth of hair follicle dyeing inside the skin were determined for various dyes.

  13. Epidermal stem cells and skin tissue engineering in hair follicle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Balañá, María Eugenia; Charreau, Hernán Eduardo; Leirós, Gustavo José

    2015-01-01

    The reconstitution of a fully organized and functional hair follicle from dissociated cells propagated under defined tissue culture conditions is a challenge still pending in tissue engineering. The loss of hair follicles caused by injuries or pathologies such as alopecia not only affects the patients’ psychological well-being, but also endangers certain inherent functions of the skin. It is then of great interest to find different strategies aiming to regenerate or neogenerate the hair follicle under conditions proper of an adult individual. Based upon current knowledge on the epithelial and dermal cells and their interactions during the embryonic hair generation and adult hair cycling, many researchers have tried to obtain mature hair follicles using different strategies and approaches depending on the causes of hair loss. This review summarizes current advances in the different experimental strategies to regenerate or neogenerate hair follicles, with emphasis on those involving neogenesis of hair follicles in adult individuals using isolated cells and tissue engineering. Most of these experiments were performed using rodent cells, particularly from embryonic or newborn origin. However, no successful strategy to generate human hair follicles from adult cells has yet been reported. This review identifies several issues that should be considered to achieve this objective. Perhaps the most important challenge is to provide three-dimensional culture conditions mimicking the structure of living tissue. Improving culture conditions that allow the expansion of specific cells while protecting their inductive properties, as well as methods for selecting populations of epithelial stem cells, should give us the necessary tools to overcome the difficulties that constrain human hair follicle neogenesis. An analysis of patent trends shows that the number of patent applications aimed at hair follicle regeneration and neogenesis has been increasing during the last decade. This

  14. Epidermal stem cells and skin tissue engineering in hair follicle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Balañá, María Eugenia; Charreau, Hernán Eduardo; Leirós, Gustavo José

    2015-05-26

    The reconstitution of a fully organized and functional hair follicle from dissociated cells propagated under defined tissue culture conditions is a challenge still pending in tissue engineering. The loss of hair follicles caused by injuries or pathologies such as alopecia not only affects the patients' psychological well-being, but also endangers certain inherent functions of the skin. It is then of great interest to find different strategies aiming to regenerate or neogenerate the hair follicle under conditions proper of an adult individual. Based upon current knowledge on the epithelial and dermal cells and their interactions during the embryonic hair generation and adult hair cycling, many researchers have tried to obtain mature hair follicles using different strategies and approaches depending on the causes of hair loss. This review summarizes current advances in the different experimental strategies to regenerate or neogenerate hair follicles, with emphasis on those involving neogenesis of hair follicles in adult individuals using isolated cells and tissue engineering. Most of these experiments were performed using rodent cells, particularly from embryonic or newborn origin. However, no successful strategy to generate human hair follicles from adult cells has yet been reported. This review identifies several issues that should be considered to achieve this objective. Perhaps the most important challenge is to provide three-dimensional culture conditions mimicking the structure of living tissue. Improving culture conditions that allow the expansion of specific cells while protecting their inductive properties, as well as methods for selecting populations of epithelial stem cells, should give us the necessary tools to overcome the difficulties that constrain human hair follicle neogenesis. An analysis of patent trends shows that the number of patent applications aimed at hair follicle regeneration and neogenesis has been increasing during the last decade. This

  15. Combination of infrared thermography and reflectance spectroscopy for precise classification of hair follicle stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianru; Guan, Yue; Liu, Caihua; Zhu, Dan

    2015-03-01

    Hair follicles enjoy continual cycle of anagen, catagen and telogen all life. They not only provide a unique opportunity to study the physiological mechanism of organ regeneration, but also benefit to guide the treatment of organ repair in regenerative medicine. Usually, the histological examination as a gold standard has been applied to determine the stage of hair follicle cycle, but noninvasive classification of hair cycle in vivo remains unsolved. In this study, the thermal infrared imager was applied to measure the temperature change of mouse dorsal skin with hair follicle cycle, and the change of diffuse reflectance was monitored by the optical fiber spectrometer. Histological examination was used to verify the hair follicle stages. The results indicated that the skin temperature increased at the beginning of anagen. After having stayed a high value for several days, the temperature began to decrease. At the same time, the skin diffuse reflectance decreased until the end of this period. Then the temperature increased gradually after slightly decreased when the hair follicle entered into catagen stage, and the diffuse reflectance increased at this time. In telogen, both the temperature and the diffuse reflectance went back to a steady state all the time. Sub-stages of hair follicle cycle could be distinguished based on the joint curves. This study provided a new method to noninvasively recognize the hair follicle stage, and should be valuable for the basic and therapeutic investigations on hair regeneration.

  16. Donor-derived DNA in hair follicles of recipients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jacewicz, R; Lewandowski, K; Rupa-Matysek, J; Jedrzejczyk, M; Brzezinski, P M; Dobosz, T; Jonkisz, A; Szram, S; Komarnicki, M; Berent, J

    2010-11-01

    The hair follicles of recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) constitute the tissue with the greatest need for regeneration after high-dose chemotherapy. Previous studies have shown a lack of donor-derived DNA in the hair follicles of recipients. Therefore, we carried out a study to determine whether male donor-derived genetic material can be found in female recipients' hair follicles after HSCT. Fluorescent-based PCR with analyses of Y-chromosome STR (Y-STR) and RQ-PCR with the sex-determining region Y (SRY) were used independently to evaluate chimerism status. Our results proved the existence of donor-derived stem DNA in the recipients' hair follicle cells. This report undermines the validity of data indicating that hair follicle cells maintain 100% of recipient origin. PMID:20173789

  17. Triggering of drug release of particles in hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Mak, Wing Cheung; Patzelt, Alexa; Richter, Heike; Renneberg, Reinhardt; Lai, Kwok Kei; Rühl, Eckart; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Jürgen

    2012-06-28

    Particulate drug delivery via hair follicles represents a promising concept, although requirements are high. This process must be realized at the desired depth and at the appropriate time, due to the fact that the particles themselves are not able to overcome the follicular skin barrier. In the present study, a novel triggering concept for the release of a model drug from the delivering particles is presented based on the application of two different particle types of the same size, where one particle type is the drug carrier, and the second one is loaded with a protease. The latter particle type is supposed to interact with the drug-carrying particles to trigger the drug release. A mixture of both particles was applied onto porcine skin samples, followed by follicular analysis. As a control, the particles were applied unaided without protease, whereas one skin area remained untreated. The investigations revealed that the protease was able to release the model drug from the delivering particles in significant depths within the hair follicle (866±62nm). Additionally, an uptake of the model drug in the sebaceous gland was observed after release providing a promising novel approach for the development of treatment strategies for different skin diseases. PMID:22516090

  18. Isolation of Mouse Hair Follicle Bulge Stem Cells and Their Functional Analysis in a Reconstitution Assay.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ying; Hsieh, Jen-Chih; Escandon, Julia; Cotsarelis, George

    2016-01-01

    The hair follicle (HF) is a dynamic structure readily accessible within the skin, and contains various pools of stem cells that have a broad regenerative potential during normal homeostasis and in response to injury. Recent discoveries demonstrating the multipotent capabilities of hair follicle stem cells and the easy access to skin tissue make the HF an attractive source for isolating stem cells and their subsequent application in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Here, we describe the isolation and purification of hair follicle bulge stem cells from mouse skin, and hair reconstitution assays that allows the functional analysis of multipotent stem cells. PMID:27431247

  19. Wnt7b is an important intrinsic regulator of hair follicle stem cell homeostasis and hair follicle cycling.

    PubMed

    Kandyba, Eve; Kobielak, Krzysztof

    2014-04-01

    The hair follicle (HF) is an exceptional mini-organ to study the mechanisms which regulate HF morphogenesis, cycling, hair follicle stem cell (hfSCs) homeostasis, and progeny differentiation. During morphogenesis, Wnt signaling is well-characterized in the initiation of HF patterning but less is known about which particular Wnt ligands are required and whether individual Wnt ligands act in an indispensable or redundant manner during postnatal hfSCs anagen onset and HF cycle progression. Previously, we described the function of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling target gene WNT7a in intrinsic regulation of hfSCs homeostasis in vivo. Here, we investigated the role of Wnt7b, which was also intrinsically upregulated in hfSCs during physiological and precocious anagen after BMP inhibition in vivo. We demonstrated Wnt7b to be a direct target of canonical BMP signaling in hfSCs and using Wnt7b conditional gene targeting during HF morphogenesis revealed disrupted HF cycling including a shorter anagen, premature catagen onset with overall shorter hair production, and diminished HF differentiation marker expression. Additionally, we observed that postnatal ablation of Wnt7b resulted in delayed HF activation, affecting both the hair germ and bulge hfSCs but still maintaining a two-step sequence of HF stimulation. Interestingly, Wnt7b cKO hfSCs participated in reformation of the new HF bulge, but with slower self-renewal. These findings demonstrate the importance of intrinsic Wnt7b expression in hfSCs regulation and normal HF cycling and surprisingly reveal a nonredundant role for Wnt7b in the control of HF anagen length and catagen entry which was not compensated by other Wnt ligands. PMID:24222445

  20. Epithelial Wnt ligand secretion is required for adult hair follicle growth and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Myung, Peggy; Takeo, Makoto; Ito, Mayumi; Atit, Radhika

    2012-01-01

    β-catenin, a key transducer molecule of Wnt signaling, is required for adult hair follicle growth and regeneration. However, the cellular source of Wnt ligands required for Wnt/β-catenin activation during anagen induction is unknown. In this study, we genetically deleted Wntless, a gene required for Wnt ligand secretion by Wnt-producing cells, specifically in the hair follicle epithelium during telogen phase. We show that epithelial Wnt ligands are required for anagen, as loss of Wntless in the follicular epithelium resulted in a profound hair cycle arrest. Both the follicular epithelium and dermal papilla showed markedly decreased Wnt/β-catenin signaling during anagen induction compared to control hair follicles. Surprisingly, hair follicle stem cells that are responsible for hair regeneration maintained expression of stem cell markers but exhibited significantly reduced proliferation. Finally, we demonstrate that epidermal Wnt ligands are critical for adult wound-induced de novo hair formation. Collectively, these data show that Wnt ligands secreted by the hair follicle epithelium are required for adult hair follicle regeneration and provide new insight into potential cellular targets for the treatment of hair disorders such as alopecia. PMID:22810306

  1. Candidate genes for the development of hair follicles in Hu sheep.

    PubMed

    Lv, X Y; Ni, R; Sun, W; Su, R; Musa, H H; Yin, J F; Wang, Q Z; Gao, W; Chen, L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect candidate genes for the development of hair follicles in the Hu sheep breed. Seven genes have been detected in large, medium, and small wave follicles of Hu sheep using gene chip technology. The histological features of the follicles of newborn Hu-lambs were combined with fluorescence quantitative PCR technology to detect the correlation between the expression of the seven genes and hair follicle development. Among the genes studied, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7), and sideroflexin 1 (SFXN1) showed a significantly different pattern of expression in large, medium, and small wave follicles (P < 0.05). The expression of MMP2 had a significant positive correlation with secondary follicles in large waves (P < 0.05), while the expression of BMP7 had a significant correlation with primary follicle diameter in small wave follicles, and a highly significant positive correlation with the number of secondary follicles in the small waves (P < 0.01). The expression of SFXN1 was significantly and positively correlated with the diameters of small wave primary follicles; it also showed a highly significant positive correlation with secondary follicle diameters. Although other genes are associated with hair follicles, their expression in large, medium, and small wave follicles was not significant. We propose that BMP7, MMP2, and SFXN1 genes could be important candidate genes for use in breeding Hu lambs with early coat development. PMID:27525902

  2. Functionally distinct melanocyte populations revealed by reconstitution of hair follicles in mice.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Hitomi; Hara, Akira; Motohashi, Tsutomu; Osawa, Masatake; Kunisada, Takahiro

    2011-02-01

    Hair follicle reconstitution analysis was used to test the contribution of melanocytes or their precursors to regenerated hair follicles. In this study, we first confirmed the process of chimeric hair follicle regeneration by both hair keratinocytes and follicular melanocytes. Then, as first suggested from the differential growth requirements of epidermal skin melanocytes and non-cutaneous or dermal melanocytes, we confirmed the inability of the latter to be involved as follicular melanocytes to regenerate hair follicles during the hair reconstitution assay. This clear functional discrimination between non-cutaneous or dermal melanocytes and epidermal melanocytes suggests the presence of two different melanocyte cell lineages, a finding that might be important in the pathogenesis of melanocyte-related diseases and melanomas. PMID:21054816

  3. Foxi3 Deficiency Compromises Hair Follicle Stem Cell Specification and Activation.

    PubMed

    Shirokova, Vera; Biggs, Leah C; Jussila, Maria; Ohyama, Takahiro; Groves, Andrew K; Mikkola, Marja L

    2016-07-01

    The hair follicle is an ideal system to study stem cell specification and homeostasis due to its well characterized morphogenesis and stereotypic cycles of stem cell activation upon each hair cycle to produce a new hair shaft. The adult hair follicle stem cell niche consists of two distinct populations, the bulge and the more activation-prone secondary hair germ (HG). Hair follicle stem cells are set aside during early stages of morphogenesis. This process is known to depend on the Sox9 transcription factor, but otherwise the establishment of the hair follicle stem cell niche is poorly understood. Here, we show that that mutation of Foxi3, a Forkhead family transcription factor mutated in several hairless dog breeds, compromises stem cell specification. Further, loss of Foxi3 impedes hair follicle downgrowth and progression of the hair cycle. Genome-wide profiling revealed a number of downstream effectors of Foxi3 including transcription factors with a recognized function in hair follicle stem cells such as Lhx2, Runx1, and Nfatc1, suggesting that the Foxi3 mutant phenotype results from simultaneous downregulation of several stem cell signature genes. We show that Foxi3 displays a highly dynamic expression pattern during hair morphogenesis and cycling, and identify Foxi3 as a novel secondary HG marker. Absence of Foxi3 results in poor hair regeneration upon hair plucking, and a sparse fur phenotype in unperturbed mice that exacerbates with age, caused by impaired secondary HG activation leading to progressive depletion of stem cells. Thus, Foxi3 regulates multiple aspects of hair follicle development and homeostasis. Stem Cells 2016;34:1896-1908. PMID:26992132

  4. Expression of amelogenin and effects of cyclosporin A in developing hair follicles in rats.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hong-Il; Lee, Gye-Hyeok; Lee, Su-Young; Kang, Jee-Hae; Moon, Jung-Sun; Kim, Min-Seok; Kim, Sun-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Amelogenin, an enamel matrix protein has been considered to be exclusively expressed by ameloblasts during odontogenesis. However, burgeoning evidence indicates that amelogenin is also expressed in non-mineralizing tissues. Under the hypothesis that amelogenin may be a functional molecule in developing hair follicles which share developmental features with odontogenesis, this study for the first time elucidated the presence and functional changes of amelogenin and its receptors during rat hair follicle development. Amelogenin was specifically localized in the outer epithelial root sheath of hair follicles. Its expression appeared in the deeper portion of hair follicles, i.e. the bulbar and suprabulbar regions rather than the superficial region. Lamp-1, an amelogenin receptor, was localized in either follicular cells or outer epithelial sheath cells, reflecting functional changes during development. The expression of amelogenin splicing variants increased in a time-dependent manner during postnatal development of hair follicles. Amelogenin expression was increased by treatment with cyclosporin A, which is an inducer of anagen in the hair follicle, whereas the level of Lamp-1 and -2 was decreased by cyclosporin A treatment. These results suggest that amelogenin may be a functional molecule involved in the development of the hair follicle rather than an inert hair shaft matrix protein. PMID:26426935

  5. Targeted expression of SV40 T antigen in the hair follicle of transgenic mice produces an aberrant hair phenotype.

    PubMed

    Keough, R; Powell, B; Rogers, G

    1995-03-01

    Directed expression of SV40 large T antigen (TAg) in transgenic mice can induce tissue-specific tumorigenesis and useful cell lines exhibiting differentiated characteristics can be established from resultant tumor cells. In an attempt to produce an immortalised mouse hair follicle cortical cell line for the study of hair keratin gene control, SV40 TAg expression was targeted to the hair follicles of transgenic mice using a sheep hair gene promoter. Expression of SV40 TAg in the follicle cortex disrupted normal fiber ultrastructure, producing a marked phenotypic effect. Affected hairs were wavy or severely kinked (depending on the severity of the phenotype) producing an appearance ranging from a ruffled coat to a stubble covering the back of the mouse. The transgenic hairs appeared to be weakened at the base of the fibers, leading to premature hair-loss and a thinner pelage, or regions of temporary nudity. No follicle tumors or neoplasia were apparent and immortalisation of cortical cells could not be established in culture. In situ hybridisation studies in the hair follicle using histone H3 as a cell proliferation marker suggested that cell proliferation had ceased prior to commencement of K2.10-TAg expression and was not re-established in the differentiating cortical cells. Hence, TAg was unable to induce cell immortalisation at that stage of cortical cell differentiation. However, transgenic mice developed various other abnormalities including vertebral abnormalities and bladder, liver and intestinal tumors, which resulted in reduced life expectancy. PMID:7542671

  6. Wnt7b is an important intrinsic regulator of hair follicle stem cell homeostasis and hair follicle cycling

    PubMed Central

    Kandyba, Eve; Kobielak, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The hair follicle (HF) is an exceptional mini-organ to study the mechanisms which regulate HF morphogenesis, cycling, hair follicle stem cell (hfSCs) homeostasis and progeny differentiation. During morphogenesis, Wnt signaling is well characterized in the initiation of HF patterning but less is known about which particular Wnt ligands are required and whether individual Wnt ligands act in an indispensable or redundant manner during postnatal hfSCs anagen onset and HF cycle progression. Previously, we described the function of the Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling target gene WNT7a in intrinsic regulation of hfSCs homeostasis in vivo. Here, we investigated the role of Wnt7b, which was also intrinsically up-regulated in hfSCs during physiological and precocious anagen after BMP inhibition in vivo. We demonstrated Wnt7b to be a direct target of canonical BMP signaling in hfSCs and using Wnt7b conditional gene targeting during HF morphogenesis revealed disrupted HF cycling including a shorter anagen, premature catagen onset with overall shorter hair production and diminished HF differentiation marker expression. Additionally, we observed that postnatal ablation of Wnt7b resulted in delayed HF activation, affecting both the HG and bulge hfSCs but still maintaining a two-step sequence of HF stimulation. Interestingly, Wnt7b cKO hfSCs participated in re-formation of the new HF bulge, but with slower self-renewal. These findings demonstrate the importance of intrinsic Wnt7b expression in hfSCs regulation and normal HF cycling and surprisingly reveal a non-redundant role for Wnt7b in the control of HF anagen length and catagen entry which was not compensated by other Wnt ligands. PMID:24222445

  7. Epidermal Wnt controls hair follicle induction by orchestrating dynamic signaling crosstalk between the epidermis and dermis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiang; Hsu, Wei

    2013-04-01

    A signal first arising in the dermis to initiate the development of hair follicles has been described for many decades. Wnt is the earliest signal known to be intimately involved in hair follicle induction. However, it is not clear whether the inductive signal of Wnt arises intradermally or intraepidermally. Whether Wnt acts as the first dermal signal to initiate hair follicle development also remains unclear. Here we report that Wnt production mediated by Gpr177, the mouse Wls ortholog, is essential for hair follicle induction. Gpr177, encoding a multipass transmembrane protein, regulates Wnt sorting and secretion. Cell type-specific abrogation of the signal reveals that only epidermal, but not dermal, production of Wnt is required. An intraepidermal Wnt signal is necessary and sufficient for hair follicle initiation. However, the subsequent development depends on reciprocal signaling crosstalk of epidermal and dermal cells. Wnt signals within the epidermis and dermis and crossing between the epidermis and dermis have distinct roles and specific functions in skin development. This study not only defines the cell type responsible for Wnt production, but also reveals a highly dynamic regulation of Wnt signaling at different steps of hair follicle morphogenesis. Our findings uncover a mechanism underlying hair follicle development orchestrated by the Wnt pathway. PMID:23190887

  8. Hybrid eccrine gland and hair follicle hamartoma: a new entity of adnexal nevus.

    PubMed

    Luo, Di-Qing; Huang, Chang-Zheng; Xie, Wen-Lin; Xu, Feng-Feng; Mo, Li-Qiu

    2015-02-01

    Eccrine nevus shows increase in number or size of eccrine glands, whereas hair follicle nevus is composed of densely packed normal vellus hairs, and eccrine-pilar angiomatous nevus reveals increase of eccrine, pilar, and angiomatous structures. No case with increased number of both eccrine glands and hair follicles only in the dermis has been previously reported. A 10-month-old girl presented with cutaneous hamartoma with overlying skin hyperpigmentation on her left hypochondrium since 3 months of age, in whom the lesion was completely excised. Histopathology demonstrated evidently increased number of both eccrine glands and hair follicles in the dermis with reactive hyperplasia of collagen fibers. No recurrence occurred after the tumor was completely excised. A term "hybrid eccrine gland and hair follicle hamartoma" is proposed for this unique lesion. PMID:24335519

  9. Delineating immune-mediated mechanisms underlying hair follicle destruction in the mouse mutant defolliculated.

    PubMed

    Ruge, Fiona; Glavini, Aikaterini; Gallimore, Awen M; Richards, Hannah E; Thomas, Christopher P; O'Donnell, Valerie B; Philpott, Michael P; Porter, Rebecca M

    2011-03-01

    Defolliculated (Gsdma3(Dfl)/+) mice have a hair loss phenotype that involves an aberrant hair cycle, altered sebaceous gland differentiation with reduced sebum production, chronic inflammation, and ultimately the loss of the hair follicle. Hair loss in these mice is similar to that seen in primary cicatricial, or scarring alopecias in which immune targeting of hair follicle stem cells has been proposed as a key factor resulting in permanent hair follicle destruction. In this study we examine the mechanism of hair loss in GsdmA3(Dfl)/+ mice. Aberrant expression patterns of stem cell markers during the hair cycle, in addition to aberrant behavior of the melanocytes leading to ectopic pigmentation of the hair follicle and epidermis, indicated the stem cell niche was not maintained. An autoimmune mechanism was excluded by crossing the mice with rag1-/- mice. However, large numbers of macrophages and increased expression of ICAM-1 were still present and may be involved either directly or indirectly in the hair loss. Reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry of sebaceous gland differentiation markers revealed reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), a potential cause of reduced sebum production, as well as the potential involvement of the innate immune system in the hair loss. As reduced PPARγ expression has recently been implicated as a cause for lichen planopilaris, these mice may be useful for testing therapies. PMID:21160494

  10. Runx1 modulates developmental, but not injury-driven, hair follicle stem cell activation.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Karen M; Lee, Song Eun; McDermitt, David J; Waghmare, Sanjeev K; Zhang, Ying V; Woo, Hyun Nyun; Tumbar, Tudorita

    2008-03-01

    Aml1/Runx1 controls developmental aspects of several tissues, is a master regulator of blood stem cells, and plays a role in leukemia. However, it is unclear whether it functions in tissue stem cells other than blood. Here, we have investigated the role of Runx1 in mouse hair follicle stem cells by conditional ablation in epithelial cells. Runx1 disruption affects hair follicle stem cell activation, but not their maintenance, proliferation or differentiation potential. Adult mutant mice exhibit impaired de novo production of hair shafts and all temporary hair cell lineages, owing to a prolonged quiescent phase of the first hair cycle. The lag of stem cell activity is reversed by skin injury. Our work suggests a degree of functional overlap in Runx1 regulation of blood and hair follicle stem cells at an equivalent time point in the development of these two tissues. PMID:18256199

  11. Protection against chemotherapy-induced alopecia: targeting ATP-binding cassette transporters in the hair follicle?

    PubMed

    Haslam, Iain S; Pitre, Aaron; Schuetz, John D; Paus, Ralf

    2013-11-01

    Currently, efficacious treatments for chemotherapy-induced alopecia (hair loss) are lacking, and incidences of permanent hair loss following high-dose chemotherapy are on the increase. In this article, we describe mechanisms by which the pharmacological defense status of the hair follicle might be enhanced, thereby reducing the accumulation of cytotoxic cancer drugs and preventing or reducing hair loss and damage. We believe this could be achieved via the selective increase in ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter expression within the hair follicle epithelium, following application of topical agonists for regulatory nuclear receptors. Clinical application would require the development of hair follicle-targeted formulations, potentially utilizing nanoparticle technology. This novel approach has the potential to yield entirely new therapeutic options for the treatment and management of chemotherapy-induced alopecia, providing significant psychological and physical benefit to cancer patients. PMID:24100054

  12. Stem Cell-Associated Marker Expression in Canine Hair Follicles.

    PubMed

    Gerhards, Nora M; Sayar, Beyza S; Origgi, Francesco C; Galichet, Arnaud; Müller, Eliane J; Welle, Monika M; Wiener, Dominique J

    2016-03-01

    Functional hair follicle (HF) stem cells (SCs) are crucial to maintain the constant recurring growth of hair. In mice and humans, SC subpopulations with different biomarker expression profiles have been identified in discrete anatomic compartments of the HF. The rare studies investigating canine HF SCs have shown similarities in biomarker expression profiles to that of mouse and human SCs. The aim of our study was to broaden the current repertoire of SC-associated markers and their expression patterns in the dog. We combined analyses on the expression levels of CD34, K15, Sox9, CD200, Nestin, LGR5 and LGR6 in canine skin using RT-qPCR, the corresponding proteins in dog skin lysates, and their expression patterns in canine HFs using immunohistochemistry. Using validated antibodies, we were able to define the location of CD34, Sox9, Keratin15, LGR5 and Nestin in canine HFs and confirm that all tested biomarkers are expressed in canine skin. Our results show similarities between the expression profile of canine, human and mouse HF SC markers. This repertoire of biomarkers will allow us to conduct functional studies and investigate alterations in the canine SC compartment of different diseases, like alopecia or skin cancer with the possibility to extend relevant findings to human patients. PMID:26739040

  13. Human hair follicle organ culture: theory, application and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Langan, Ewan A; Philpott, Michael P; Kloepper, Jennifer E; Paus, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    For almost a quarter of a century, ex vivo studies of human scalp hair follicles (HFs) have permitted major advances in hair research, spanning diverse fields such as chronobiology, endocrinology, immunology, metabolism, mitochondrial biology, neurobiology, pharmacology, pigmentation and stem cell biology. Despite this, a comprehensive methodological guide to serum-free human HF organ culture (HFOC) that facilitates the selection and analysis of standard HF biological parameters and points out both research opportunities and pitfalls to newcomers to the field is still lacking. The current methods review aims to close an important gap in the literature and attempts to promote standardisation of human HFOC. We provide basic information outlining the establishment of HFOC through to detailed descriptions of the analysis of standard read-out parameters alongside practical examples. The guide closes by pointing out how serum-free HFOC can be utilised optimally to obtain previously inaccessible insights into human HF biology and pathology that are of interest to experimental dermatologists, geneticists, developmental biologists and (neuro-) endocrinologists alike and by highlighting novel applications of the model, including gene silencing and gene expression profiling of defined, laser capture-microdissected HF compartments. PMID:26284830

  14. Regenerative medicine and hair loss: how hair follicle culture has advanced our understanding of treatment options for androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Claire A; Christiano, Angela M

    2014-01-01

    Many of the current drug therapies for androgenetic alopecia were discovered serendipitously, with hair growth observed as an off-target effect when drugs were used to treat a different disorder. Subsequently, several studies using cultured cells have enabled identification of hair growth modulators with similar properties to the currently available drugs, which may also provide clinical benefit. In situations where the current therapeutics do not work, follicular unit transplantation is an alternative surgical option. More recently, the concept of follicular cell implantation, or hair follicle neogenesis, has been attempted, exploiting the inherent properties of cultured hair follicle cells to induce de novo hair growth in balding scalp. In this review, we discuss both the advances in cell culture techniques that have led to a wider range of potential therapeutics to promote hair growth, in addition to detailing current knowledge on follicular cell implantation, and the challenges in making this approach a reality. PMID:24351010

  15. Regenerative metamorphosis in hairs and feathers: follicle as a programmable biological printer

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ji Won; Lin, Sung-Jan; Plikus, Maksim V.

    2015-01-01

    Present-day hairs and feathers are marvels of biological engineering perfected over 200 million years of convergent evolution. Prominently, both follicle types coevolved regenerative cycling, wherein active filament making (anagen) is intermitted by a phase of relative quiescence (telogen). Such regenerative cycling enables follicles to “reload” their morphogenetic program and make qualitatively different filaments in the consecutive cycles. Indeed, many species of mammals and birds undergo regenerative metamorphosis, prominently changing their integument between juvenile and adult forms. This phenomenon is inconspicuous in mice, which led to the conventional perception that hair type is hardwired during follicle morphogenesis and cannot switch. A series of recent works by Chi and Morgan change this perception, and show that many mouse follicles naturally switch hair morphologies, for instance from “wavy” zigzag to straight awl, in the second growth cycle. A series of observations and genetic experiments show that back and forth hair type switching depends on the number of cells in the follicle's dermal papilla, with the critical threshold being around 40-50 cells. Pigmentation is another parameter that hair and feather follicles can reload between cycles, and even midway through anagen. Recent works show that hair and feather pigmentation “printing” programs coevolved to rely on pulsed expression of Agouti, a melanocortin receptor-1 antagonist, in the follicular mesenchyme. Here, we discuss broader implications of hair and feather regenerative plasticity. PMID:25557541

  16. Decoction and Fermentation of Selected Medicinal Herbs Promote Hair Regrowth by Inducing Hair Follicle Growth in Conjunction with Wnts Signaling.

    PubMed

    Jang, Su Kil; Kim, Seung Tae; Lee, Do Ik; Park, Jun Sub; Jo, Bo Ram; Park, Jung Youl; Heo, Jong; Joo, Seong Soo

    2016-01-01

    It is well recognized that regulating the hair follicle cycle in association with Wnt signaling is one of the most interesting targets for promoting hair regrowth. In this study, we examined whether selected herbal medicines processed by decoction and fermentation promote hair growth by upregulating the number and size of hair follicles and Wnt signaling, including activation of β-catenin and Akt in telogen-synchronized C57BL/6N mice. The results revealed that the fermented extract after decoction (FDE) more effectively promoted hair growth than that of a nonfermented extract (DE). Notably, FDE effectively enhanced formation of hair follicles with clearer differentiation between the inner and outer root sheath, which is observed during the anagen phase. Mechanistic evidence was found for increased β-catenin and Akt phosphorylation levels in dorsal skin tissue along with elevated expression of hair regrowth-related genes, such as Wnt3/10a/10b, Lef1, and fibroblast growth factor 7. In conclusion, our findings suggest that FDE plays an important role in regulating the hair cycle by increasing expression of hair regrowth-related genes and activating downstream Wnt signaling targets. PMID:27110266

  17. Decoction and Fermentation of Selected Medicinal Herbs Promote Hair Regrowth by Inducing Hair Follicle Growth in Conjunction with Wnts Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Su Kil; Kim, Seung Tae; Lee, Do Ik; Park, Jun Sub; Jo, Bo Ram; Park, Jung Youl; Heo, Jong; Joo, Seong Soo

    2016-01-01

    It is well recognized that regulating the hair follicle cycle in association with Wnt signaling is one of the most interesting targets for promoting hair regrowth. In this study, we examined whether selected herbal medicines processed by decoction and fermentation promote hair growth by upregulating the number and size of hair follicles and Wnt signaling, including activation of β-catenin and Akt in telogen-synchronized C57BL/6N mice. The results revealed that the fermented extract after decoction (FDE) more effectively promoted hair growth than that of a nonfermented extract (DE). Notably, FDE effectively enhanced formation of hair follicles with clearer differentiation between the inner and outer root sheath, which is observed during the anagen phase. Mechanistic evidence was found for increased β-catenin and Akt phosphorylation levels in dorsal skin tissue along with elevated expression of hair regrowth-related genes, such as Wnt3/10a/10b, Lef1, and fibroblast growth factor 7. In conclusion, our findings suggest that FDE plays an important role in regulating the hair cycle by increasing expression of hair regrowth-related genes and activating downstream Wnt signaling targets. PMID:27110266

  18. Analysis of the penetration of a caffeine containing shampoo into the hair follicles by in vivo laser scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lademann, J.; Richter, H.; Schanzer, S.; Klenk, A.; Sterry, W.; Patzelt, A.

    2010-02-01

    In previous in vitro investigations, it was demonstrated that caffeine is able to stimulate the hair growth. Therefore, a penetration of caffeine into the hair follicle is necessary. In the present study, in vivo laser scanning microscopy (LSM) was used to investigate the penetration and storage of a caffeine containing shampoo into the hair follicles. It was shown that a 2-min contact time of the shampoo with the skin was enough to accumulate significant parts of the shampoo in the hair follicles. A penetration of the shampoo up to a depth of approx. 200 μm could be detected, which represents the detection limit of the LSM. At this depth, the close network of the blood capillaries surrounding the hair follicles commences. Even after 24 h, the substance was still detectable in the hair follicles. This demonstrates the long-term reservoir function of the hair follicles for topically applied substances such as caffeine.

  19. The role of a reaction-diffusion system in the initiation of primary hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Nagorcka, B N; Mooney, J R

    1985-05-21

    A mechanism based on a reaction-diffusion system is proposed for the initiation of hair follicles in the epidermis during fetal development. It is demonstrated that initiation of primary follicles in a series of waves, within the proposed mechanism, is a consequence of the size and shape dependent properties of the reaction-diffusion system without the need for the propagation of signals through the skin. The observed trio grouping of follicles and variation of primary follicle density per unit skin area during development are also correctly predicted. An explanation, based on the reaction-diffusion system and the variation of its characteristic spatial wavelength with time during development, is suggested for the termination of both primary and secondary follicle initiation as well as follicle neogenesis. The proposed initiation mechanism is basically the same as that used to explain various spatial patterns observed in hair fibre formation (Nagorcka & Mooney, 1982). PMID:4033155

  20. Comparison between hair follicles and split-thickness skin grafts in cutaneous wound repair

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhen; Liu, Jiaqi; Zhu, Ningwen; Qi, Fazhi

    2015-01-01

    Several clinical research studies have demonstrated that chronic cutaneous wounds can be treated with hair follicle grafts. However, the clinical outcomes of hair follicle grafting compared to split-thickness skin grafting have not been examined. This study sought to compare the clinical outcomes of patients with chronic wounds following hair follicle therapy and split-thickness skin graft therapy in a relatively large cohort of patients. Forty patients were enrolled in the study, a retrospective analysis of all patients underwent therapy with hair follicles (cohort A) and split-thickness skin grafts (cohort B) was performed. Safety, healing duration, skin quality (recipient site), scar formation (donor site) and overall postoperative outcome were analyzed. The wound sites were examined using photography at weeks 2, 8, and 12 after surgery. Five non-biased reviewers estimated the above-mentioned clinical outcomes using a five-point Likert scale. The ages and wound areas were similar between cohorts A (n=20) and B (n=20). Total wound closure was observed and adverse events were rare and controllable in both cohorts. The skin and scar quality were rated significantly higher in the hair follicle cohort than the split-thickness skin graft cohort (4.40 vs 3.45, P<0.05 and 4.65 vs 3.20, P<0.05; respectively). Hair follicle therapy resulted in a significantly higher overall score than split-thickness skin graft treatment (4.45 vs 3.40, P<0.05). This study demonstrated that hair follicles can achieve better skin/scar quality and overall clinical outcomes than split-thickness skin grafts. Hair follicles should be considered an effective surgical technique for the treatment of chronic cutaneous wounds. PMID:26629082

  1. Protease activity, localization and inhibition in the human hair follicle

    PubMed Central

    Bhogal, R K; Mouser, P E; Higgins, C A; Turner, G A

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Objective In humans, the process of hair shedding, referred to as exogen, is believed to occur independently of the other hair cycle phases. Although the actual mechanisms involved in hair shedding are not fully known, it has been hypothesized that the processes leading to the final step of hair shedding may be driven by proteases and/or protease inhibitor activity. In this study, we investigated the presence of proteases and protease activity in naturally shed human hairs and assessed enzyme inhibition activity of test materials. Methods We measured enzyme activity using a fluorescence-based assay and protein localization by indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC). We also developed an ex vivo skin model for measuring the force required to pull hair fibres from skin. Results Our data demonstrate the presence of protease activity in the tissue material surrounding club roots. We also demonstrated the localization of specific serine protease protein expression in human hair follicle by IHC. These data provide evidence demonstrating the presence of proteases around the hair club roots, which may play a role during exogen. We further tested the hypothesis that a novel protease inhibitor system (combination of Trichogen® and climbazole) could inhibit protease activity in hair fibre club root extracts collected from a range of ethnic groups (UK, Brazil, China, first-generation Mexicans in the USA, Thailand and Turkey) in both males and females. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this combination is capable of increasing the force required to remove hair in an ex vivo skin model system. Conclusion These studies indicate the presence of proteolytic activity in the tissue surrounding the human hair club root and show that it is possible to inhibit this activity with a combination of Trichogen® and climbazole. This technology may have potential to reduce excessive hair shedding. Résumé Objectif Chez l'homme, le processus de perte de cheveux, désigné comme exog

  2. Promoted growth of murine hair follicles through controlled release of vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, Makoto; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2002-06-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate whether or not the controlled release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is effective in promoting the hair follicle growth of mice in second anagen of hair cycle. VEGF was incorporated into a biodegradable collagen hydrogel for its controlled release. Following implantation of the collagen hydrogel incorporating 0 or 2 microg of VEGF and injection of 0 or 2 microg of VEGF in the solution form into the back subcutis of mice, the hair follicle growth was evaluated photometrically and histologically in terms of the skin color of reverse side of the implanted or injected site, the skin thickness, and the area occupied by hair follicle tissue. Ten days later, the skin color of mice implanted with the collagen hydrogel incorporating 2 microg of VEGF was significantly darker than that injected with 2 pg of VEGF. The collagen hydrogel incorporating VEGF increased the hair follicle area at the implanted site to a significantly greater extent than other agents while significant angiogenetic effect in the skin tissue was observed. VEGF-free, empty collagen hydrogels did not affect the skin darkness, hair follicle growth, and the angiogenesis. Moreover, the hair shaft length was significantly elongated by the collagen hydrogel incorporating VEGF, in marked contrast to other agents. Immunohistolchemicalstaining with proliferating cell nuclear antigen revealed that the collagen hydrogel incorporating VEGF promoted the proliferation of cells around the hair follicle more frequently than free VEGF. We concluded that the controlled release of VEGF more positively acted on the hair growth cycle of mice for hair growth than the injection of free VEGF. PMID:12013184

  3. An Essential Role for Dermal Primary Cilia in Hair Follicle Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Jonathan; Laag, Essam; Michaud, Edward J.; Yoder, Bradley K.

    2009-01-01

    The primary cilium is a microtubule-based organelle implicated as an essential component of a number of signaling pathways. It is present on cells throughout the mammalian body; however, its functions in most tissues remain largely unknown. Herein we demonstrate that primary cilia are present on cells in murine skin and hair follicles throughout morphogenesis and during hair follicle cycling in postnatal life. Using the Cre-lox system, we disrupted cilia assembly in the ventral dermis and evaluated the effects on hair follicle development. Mice with disrupted dermal cilia have severe hypotrichosis (lack of hair) in affected areas. Histological analyses reveal that most follicles in the mutants arrest at stage 2 of hair development and have small or absent dermal condensates. This phenotype is reminiscent of that seen in the skin of mice lacking Shh or Gli2. In situ hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicates that the hedgehog pathway is downregulated in the dermis of the cilia mutant hair follicles. Thus, these data establish cilia as a critical signaling component required for normal hair morphogenesis and suggest that this organelle is needed on cells in the dermis for reception of signals such as sonic hedgehog. PMID:18987668

  4. GENE EXPRESSION IN HEAD HAIR FOLLICLES PLUCKED FROM MEN AND WOMEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characterizing gene expression in hair follicles can help to elucidate the hair growth cycle by delineating the genes and pathways involved in follicular growth and degeneration. The objectives of this study were to determine whether intact RNA could be extracted from a small num...

  5. Spatial Distribution of Stem Cell-Like Keratinocytes in Dissected Compound Hair Follicles of the Dog

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, Dominique J.; Doherr, Marcus G.; Müller, Eliane J.; Welle, Monika M.

    2016-01-01

    Hair cycle disturbances are common in dogs and comparable to some alopecic disorders in humans. A normal hair cycle is maintained by follicular stem cells which are predominately found in an area known as the bulge. Due to similar morphological characteristics of the bulge area in humans and dogs, the shared particularity of compound hair follicles as well as similarities in follicular biomarker expression, the dog is a promising model to study human hair cycle and stem cell disorders. To gain insight into the spatial distribution of follicular keratinocytes with stem cell potential in canine compound follicles, we microdissected hair follicles in anagen and telogen from skin samples of freshly euthanized dogs. The keratinocytes isolated from different locations were investigated for their colony forming efficiency, growth and differentiation potential as well as clonal growth. Our results indicate that i) compound and single hair follicles exhibit a comparable spatial distribution pattern with respect to cells with high growth potential and stem cell-like characteristics, ii) the lower isthmus (comprising the bulge) harbors most cells with high growth potential in both, the anagen and the telogen hair cycle stage, iii) unlike in other species, colonies with highest growth potential are rather small with an irregular perimeter and iv) the keratinocytes derived from the bulbar region exhibit characteristics of actively dividing transit amplifying cells. Our results now provide the basis to conduct comparative studies of normal dogs and those with hair cycle disorders with the possibility to extend relevant findings to human patients. PMID:26788850

  6. Spatial Distribution of Stem Cell-Like Keratinocytes in Dissected Compound Hair Follicles of the Dog.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Dominique J; Doherr, Marcus G; Müller, Eliane J; Welle, Monika M

    2016-01-01

    Hair cycle disturbances are common in dogs and comparable to some alopecic disorders in humans. A normal hair cycle is maintained by follicular stem cells which are predominately found in an area known as the bulge. Due to similar morphological characteristics of the bulge area in humans and dogs, the shared particularity of compound hair follicles as well as similarities in follicular biomarker expression, the dog is a promising model to study human hair cycle and stem cell disorders. To gain insight into the spatial distribution of follicular keratinocytes with stem cell potential in canine compound follicles, we microdissected hair follicles in anagen and telogen from skin samples of freshly euthanized dogs. The keratinocytes isolated from different locations were investigated for their colony forming efficiency, growth and differentiation potential as well as clonal growth. Our results indicate that i) compound and single hair follicles exhibit a comparable spatial distribution pattern with respect to cells with high growth potential and stem cell-like characteristics, ii) the lower isthmus (comprising the bulge) harbors most cells with high growth potential in both, the anagen and the telogen hair cycle stage, iii) unlike in other species, colonies with highest growth potential are rather small with an irregular perimeter and iv) the keratinocytes derived from the bulbar region exhibit characteristics of actively dividing transit amplifying cells. Our results now provide the basis to conduct comparative studies of normal dogs and those with hair cycle disorders with the possibility to extend relevant findings to human patients. PMID:26788850

  7. Targeted delivery of a poorly water-soluble compound to hair follicles using polymeric nanoparticle suspensions.

    PubMed

    Morgen, Michael; Lu, Guang Wei; Du, Daniel; Stehle, Randall; Lembke, Franz; Cervantes, Jessica; Ciotti, Susan; Haskell, Roy; Smithey, Dan; Haley, Kevin; Fan, Conglin

    2011-09-15

    This study explored the utility of topically applied polymeric nanoparticle suspensions to target delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs to hair follicles. Several formulations of amorphous drug/polymer nanoparticles were prepared from ethyl cellulose and UK-157,147 (systematic name (3S,4R)-[6-(3-hydroxyphenyl)sulfonyl]-2,2,3-trimethyl-4-(2-methyl-3-oxo-2,3-dihydropyridazin-6-yloxy)-3-chromanol), a potassium channel opener, using sodium glycocholate (NaGC) as a surface stabilizer. Nanoparticle suspensions were evaluated to determine if targeted drug delivery to sebaceous glands and hair follicles could be achieved. In in vitro testing with rabbit ear tissue, delivery of UK-157,147 to the follicles was demonstrated with limited distribution to the surrounding dermis. Delivery to hair follicles was also demonstrated in vivo, based on stimulation of hair growth in tests of 100-nm nanoparticles with a C3H mouse model. The nanoparticles were well-tolerated, with no visible skin irritation. In vivo tests of smaller nanoparticles with a hamster ear model also indicated targeted delivery to sebaceous glands. The nanoparticles released drug rapidly in in vitro nonsink dissolution tests and were stable in suspension for 3 months. The present results show selective drug delivery to the follicle by follicular transport of nanoparticles and rapid release of a poorly water-soluble drug. Thus, nanoparticles represent a promising approach for targeted topical delivery of low-solubility compounds to hair follicles. PMID:21722722

  8. The dermal papilla: an instructive niche for epithelial stem and progenitor cells in development and regeneration of the hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Bruce A

    2014-07-01

    The dermal papilla (DP) of the hair follicle is both a chemical and physical niche for epithelial progenitor cells that regenerate the cycling portion of the hair follicle and generate the hair shaft. Here, we review experiments that revealed the importance of the DP in regulating the characteristics of the hair shaft and frequency of hair follicle regeneration. More recent work showed that the size of this niche is dynamic and actively regulated and reduction in DP cell number per follicle is sufficient to cause hair thinning and loss. The formation of the DP during follicle neogenesis provides a context to contemplate the mechanisms that maintain DP size and the potential to exploit these processes for hair preservation or restoration. PMID:24985131

  9. The Dermal Papilla: An Instructive Niche for Epithelial Stem and Progenitor Cells in Development and Regeneration of the Hair Follicle

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    The dermal papilla (DP) of the hair follicle is both a chemical and physical niche for epithelial progenitor cells that regenerate the cycling portion of the hair follicle and generate the hair shaft. Here, we review experiments that revealed the importance of the DP in regulating the characteristics of the hair shaft and frequency of hair follicle regeneration. More recent work showed that the size of this niche is dynamic and actively regulated and reduction in DP cell number per follicle is sufficient to cause hair thinning and loss. The formation of the DP during follicle neogenesis provides a context to contemplate the mechanisms that maintain DP size and the potential to exploit these processes for hair preservation or restoration. PMID:24985131

  10. Wnt5a Suppresses β-catenin Signaling during Hair Follicle Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yizhan; Ma, Xiaogen; Guo, Haiying; Deng, Fang; Yang, Jin; Li, Yuhong

    2016-01-01

    Hair follicles display periodic growth. Wnt signaling is a critical regulator for hair follicle regeneration. Previously, we reported that Wnt5a inhibits the telogen-to-anagen transition of hair follicles, but the mechanism by which this process occurs has not yet been reported. Here, we determined the expression patterns of Wnt signaling pathway molecules by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunohistochemistry and found that β-catenin signaling was suppressed by Wnt5a. We then compared the phenotypes and expression patterns following β-catenin knockdown and Wnt5a overexpression during hair follicle regeneration induced by hair depilation and observed similar patterns. In addition, we performed a rescue experiment in the JB6 cell line and found that the inhibitory effect of Wnt5a on cell proliferation could be rescued by the addition of Wnt3a. Our data reveal that Wnt5a suppresses the activation of β-catenin signaling during hair follicle regeneration. PMID:27499692

  11. Expanded flap and hair follicle transplantation for reconstruction of postburn scalp alopecia.

    PubMed

    Oh, Suk Joon; Koh, Sung Hoon; Lee, Jong Wook; Jang, Young Chul

    2010-11-01

    The advent of tissue expansion started a new era of aesthetically reconstructed scalp alopecia by providing a large hair-bearing scalp area with acceptable hair density. However, residual scalp alopecia and wide visible scars still raised aesthetic problems. The hair follicle transplantation carries the possibility of producing a more natural scalp because both the desired hair density and the natural direction of the hair can be reproduced using this procedure. Our study group consisted of 62 patients (41 males and 21 females) with a mean age of 26.3 years. The median age of suffering a burn to the scalp was 3 years. The causes of burn resulting to scalp alopecia were flame (n = 28), scald (n = 18), contact (n = 7), and electrical (n = 9) injuries. The first reconstruction for all patients was the expanded flap coverage. Three patients used 2-stage expanded flaps. Five patients underwent hair follicle transplantation after they had undergone the expanded flap coverage. Expanders (n = 86) were placed in 62 patients with a total of 9 major (9.3%) and 3 minor (3.5%) complications. The overall results after expanded flap reconstruction and hair follicle transplantation were excellent (43 patients, 69.4%), good (18 patients, 29%), and bad (1 patient, 1.6%). Postburn scalp alopecia can be reconstructed by 1-stage or multiple-stage expanded flap procedures. The visible remaining alopecia and marginal scar after the procedure, especially on the anterior hairline of the forehead and the sideburns, can be refined by hair follicle transplantation. This report also suggests the possibility that cicatrical scalp alopecia with intact deep tissue can be restored by hair follicle transplantations using hair transplanter. PMID:21119411

  12. Aqueous extract of red deer antler promotes hair growth by regulating the hair cycle and cell proliferation in hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-jie; Li, Zheng; Gu, Li-juan; Wang, Yun-bo; Lee, Mi-ra; Sung, Chang-keun

    2014-01-01

    Deer antlers are the only mammalian appendage capable of regeneration. We aimed to investigate the effect of red deer antler extract in regulating hair growth, using a mouse model. The backs of male mice were shaved at eight weeks of age. Crude aqueous extracts of deer antler were prepared at either 4 °C or 100 °C and injected subcutaneously to two separate groups of mice (n = 9) at 1 mL/day for 10 consecutive days, with water as a vehicle control group. The mice skin quantitative hair growth parameters were measured and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine was used to identify label-retaining cells. We found that, in both the 4 °C and the 100 °C deer antler aqueous extract-injection groups, the anagen phase was extended, while the number of BrdU-incorporated cells was dramatically increased. These results indicate that deer antler aqueous extract promotes hair growth by extending the anagen phase and regulating cell proliferation in the hair follicle region. PMID:24695964

  13. The 'follicular trochanter': an epithelial compartment of the human hair follicle bulge region in need of further characterization.

    PubMed

    Tiede, S; Kloepper, J E; Whiting, D A; Paus, R

    2007-11-01

    Recent articles on hair follicle stem cells have summarized the current state of knowledge of what has been termed the hair follicle 'bulge'. During the course of immunohistological studies aimed at characterizing the expression of selected extracellular matrix proteins in the - as yet insufficiently characterized - niche of human bulge hair follicle stem cells, we have recently come across a largely forgotten, peculiar epithelial protrusion of the outer root sheath, which was visible in only a minority of all examined hair follicles. The morphology and immunoreactivity patterns of this structure, the 'follicular trochanter', are described herein. PMID:17714535

  14. Trps1 deficiency inhibits the morphogenesis of secondary hair follicles via decreased Noggin expression

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yujing; Nakanishi, Masako; Sato, Fuyuki; Oikawa, Kosuke; Muragaki, Yasuteru; Zhou, Gengyin

    2015-01-16

    Highlights: • The number of secondary hair follicles is reduced by half in Trps1 KO embryonic skin compared to wild-type skin. • Noggin expression is significantly decreased and BMP signaling is promoted in Trps1 KO embryonic skin. • Treatment with a Noggin or BMP inhibitor rescued the decreased number of hair follicles in Trps1 KO skin graft cultures. • Cell proliferation and apoptosis of the epidermis were normalized by Noggin treatment. - Abstract: A representative phenotype of patients with tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome (TRPS) is sparse hair. To understand the developmental defects of these patient’s hair follicles, we analyzed the development of hair follicles histologically and biochemically using Trps1 deficient (KO) mice. First, we compared the numbers of primary hair follicles in wild-type (WT) and KO embryos at different developmental stages. No differences were observed in the E14.5 skins of WT and KO mice. However, at later time points, KO fetal skin failed to properly develop secondary hair follicles, and the number of secondary hair follicles present in E18.5 KO skin was approximately half compared to that of WT skin. Sonic hedgehog expression was significantly decreased in E17.5 KO skin, whereas no changes were observed in Eda/Edar expression in E14.5 or E17.5 skins. In addition, Noggin expression was significantly decreased in E14.5 and E17.5 KO skin compared to WT skin. In parallel with the suppression of Noggin expression, BMP signaling was promoted in the epidermal cells of KO skins compared to WT skins as determined by immunohistochemistry for phosphorylated Smad1/5/8. The reduced number of secondary hair follicles was restored in skin graft cultures treated with a Noggin and BMP inhibitor. Furthermore, decreased cell proliferation, and increased apoptosis in KO skin was rescued by Noggin treatment. Taken together, we conclude that hair follicle development in Trps1 KO embryos is impaired directly or indirectly by decreased Noggin

  15. Fgf9 from dermal γδ T cells induces hair follicle neogenesis after wounding.

    PubMed

    Gay, Denise; Kwon, Ohsang; Zhang, Zhikun; Spata, Michelle; Plikus, Maksim V; Holler, Phillip D; Ito, Mayumi; Yang, Zaixin; Treffeisen, Elsa; Kim, Chang D; Nace, Arben; Zhang, Xiaohong; Baratono, Sheena; Wang, Fen; Ornitz, David M; Millar, Sarah E; Cotsarelis, George

    2013-07-01

    Understanding molecular mechanisms for regeneration of hair follicles provides new opportunities for developing treatments for hair loss and other skin disorders. Here we show that fibroblast growth factor 9 (Fgf9), initially secreted by γδ T cells, modulates hair follicle regeneration after wounding the skin of adult mice. Reducing Fgf9 expression decreases this wound-induced hair neogenesis (WIHN). Conversely, overexpression of Fgf9 results in a two- to threefold increase in the number of neogenic hair follicles. We found that Fgf9 from γδ T cells triggers Wnt expression and subsequent Wnt activation in wound fibroblasts. Through a unique feedback mechanism, activated fibroblasts then express Fgf9, thus amplifying Wnt activity throughout the wound dermis during a crucial phase of skin regeneration. Notably, humans lack a robust population of resident dermal γδ T cells, potentially explaining their inability to regenerate hair after wounding. These findings highlight the essential relationship between the immune system and tissue regeneration. The importance of Fgf9 in hair follicle regeneration suggests that it could be used therapeutically in humans. PMID:23727932

  16. Fgf9 from dermal γδ T cells induces hair follicle neogenesis after wounding

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Denise; Kwon, Ohsang; Zhang, Zhikun; Spata, Michelle; Plikus, Maksim V; Holler, Phillip D; Ito, Mayumi; Yang, Zaixin; Treffeisen, Elsa; Kim, Chang D; Nace, Arben; Zhang, Xiaohong; Baratono, Sheena; Wang, Fen; Ornitz, David M; Millar, Sarah E; Cotsarelis, George

    2014-01-01

    Understanding molecular mechanisms for regeneration of hair follicles provides new opportunities for developing treatments for hair loss and other skin disorders. Here we show that fibroblast growth factor 9 (Fgf9), initially secreted by γδ T cells, modulates hair follicle regeneration after wounding the skin of adult mice. Reducing Fgf9 expression decreases this wound-induced hair neogenesis (WIHN). Conversely, overexpression of Fgf9 results in a two- to threefold increase in the number of neogenic hair follicles. We found that Fgf9 from γδ T cells triggers Wnt expression and subsequent Wnt activation in wound fibroblasts. Through a unique feedback mechanism, activated fibroblasts then express Fgf9, thus amplifying Wnt activity throughout the wound dermis during a crucial phase of skin regeneration. Notably, humans lack a robust population of resident dermal γδ T cells, potentially explaining their inability to regenerate hair after wounding. These findings highlight the essential relationship between the immune system and tissue regeneration. The importance of Fgf9 in hair follicle regeneration suggests that it could be used therapeutically in humans. PMID:23727932

  17. Expression and location of phospho-Artemis (Serine516) in hair follicles during induced growth of mouse hair.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xian-Jie; Zhu, Jian-Wei; Liu, Hai; Lu, Zhong-Fa; Zheng, Min

    2012-05-01

    Artemis has been implicated in having a role in NHEJ, and it is also a multifunctional protein. Previous studies have found Omenn syndrome-like phenotype due to Artemis mutations and associated with alopecia. As Artemis phosphorylation in its c-terminus including Serine516 is prerequisite for the Artemis endonuclease reaction, we postulate that Artemis (Serine516) may be expressed in hair follicle and relate to hair cycling. In this study, hair growth in C57BL/6 mice was induced by plucking the telogen hair on the back. Expression of Artemis (Serine516) in hair follicles during the hair growth cycle was evaluated by immunofluorescence using cryosections and a specific polyclonal anti-Artemis (Serine516) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody. It was detected in germ cells, cap, and club hair adjoining the epidermis in telogen. In anagen II, intense staining for Artemis (Serine516) was found in the whole interfollicular epidermis, and in strand keratinocytes. In anagen IV, intense staining for Artemis (Serine516) was detected in basal cells and upper of outer root sheath (ORS) and inner root sheath (IRS). But only upper ORS and lower medulla were stained positive in anagen VI. Upper ORS and lower cortex were positively stained with Artemis (Serine516) in catagen. Based on the phenomenon that the expression of Artemis (Serine516) in mid-anagen and mature anagen was stronger than that in telogen and catagen, we suggest it may take roles in induced growth of mouse hair. PMID:22476261

  18. Tbx18 targets dermal condensates for labeling, isolation, and gene ablation during embryonic hair follicle formation.

    PubMed

    Grisanti, Laura; Clavel, Carlos; Cai, Xiaoqiang; Rezza, Amelie; Tsai, Su-Yi; Sennett, Rachel; Mumau, Melanie; Cai, Chen-Leng; Rendl, Michael

    2013-02-01

    How cell fate decisions of stem and progenitor cells are regulated by their microenvironment or niche is a central question in stem cell and regenerative biology. Although functional analysis of hair follicle epithelial stem cells by gene targeting is well established, the molecular and genetic characterization of the dermal counterpart during embryonic morphogenesis has been lacking because of the absence of cell type-specific drivers. Here, we report that T-box transcription factor Tbx18 specifically marks dermal papilla (DP) precursor cells during embryonic hair follicle morphogenesis. With Tbx18(LacZ), Tbx18(H2BGFP), and Tbx18(Cre) knock-in mouse models, we demonstrate LacZ and H2BGFP (nuclear green fluorescent protein) expression and Cre activity in dermal condensates of nascent first-wave hair follicles at E14.5. As Tbx18 expression becomes more widespread throughout the dermis at later developmental stages, we use tamoxifen-inducible Cre-expressing mice, Tbx18(MerCreMer), to exclusively target DP precursor cells and their progeny. Finally, we ablate Tbx18 in full knockout mice, but find no perturbations in hair follicle formation, suggesting that Tbx18 is dispensable for normal DP function. In summary, our study establishes Tbx18 as a genetic driver to target for the first time embryonic DP precursors for labeling, isolation, and gene ablation that will greatly enhance investigations into their molecular functions during hair follicle morphogenesis. PMID:22992803

  19. The structure and organization of lanceolate mechanosensory complexes at mouse hair follicles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lishi; Ginty, David D

    2014-01-01

    In mouse hairy skin, lanceolate complexes associated with three types of hair follicles, guard, awl/auchene and zigzag, serve as mechanosensory end organs. These structures are formed by unique combinations of low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs), Aβ RA-LTMRs, Aδ-LTMRs, and C-LTMRs, and their associated terminal Schwann cells (TSCs). In this study, we investigated the organization, ultrastructure, and maintenance of longitudinal lanceolate complexes at each hair follicle subtype. We found that TSC processes at hair follicles are tiled and that individual TSCs host axonal endings of more than one LTMR subtype. Electron microscopic analyses revealed unique ultrastructural features of lanceolate complexes that are proposed to underlie mechanotransduction. Moreover, Schwann cell ablation leads to loss of LTMR terminals at hair follicles while, in contrast, TSCs remain associated with hair follicles following skin denervation in adult mice and, remarkably, become re-associated with newly formed axons, indicating a TSC-dependence of lanceolate complex maintenance and regeneration in adults. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01901.001 PMID:24569481

  20. Characterization and quantification of wound-induced hair follicle neogenesis using in vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Chengxiang; Luedtke, Michael A.; Prouty, Stephen M.; Burrows, Michelle; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2011-01-01

    Background In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) is a recently-developed non-invasive technique for visualizing microscopic structures with the skin. CSLM has been used to characterize proliferative and inflammatory skin diseases, neoplastic skin lesions and pigmented lesions. Objective Here, we assessed the ability of CSLM to evaluate the formation of neogenic hair follicles after a full thickness wound in mice. Methods Full-thickness wounds were made on the dorsal skin of 3-week old mice. After scab detachment (SD), the number, width, length, space and volume of neogenic hair follicles were analyzed using CSLM. The results were compared with those from conventional methods, including staining for alkaline phosphatase (AP) and keratin 17 (K17) as well as histology. Results Quantification of neogenic hair follicles using CSLM compared favorably with results from direct measurements on isolated epidermal tissue after immunostaining for K17, a marker for the epithelial portion of new hair follicles. CSLM detected 89% of K17-stained follicles. CSLM more accurately quantitated the number of new follicles compared to AP staining, which detects the dermal portion of the new follicle. The width and length measurement from CSLM and histology were very close and correlated with each other. The minimum length of a neogenic hair follicle that could be detected by CSLM was 21 μm. The space between neogenic hair follicles was decreased in histological sections compared to CSLM. Conclusions CSLM is an accurate and valuable method for counting and measuring neogenic hair follicles non-invasively. CSLM produces images similar to histology in mice. Measurements of microstructures using CSLM more accurately reflect actual sizes since this technique avoids fixation artifact. In vivo visualization of developing follicles with CSLM permits detection of serial changes in hair follicle formation, thus conserving numbers of mice required for studies and improving detection of

  1. Effects of a Closed Space Environment on Gene Expression in Hair Follicles of Astronauts in the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Terada, Masahiro; Seki, Masaya; Takahashi, Rika; Yamada, Shin; Higashibata, Akira; Majima, Hideyuki J; Sudoh, Masamichi; Mukai, Chiaki; Ishioka, Noriaki

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation to the space environment can sometimes pose physiological problems to International Space Station (ISS) astronauts after their return to earth. Therefore, it is important to develop healthcare technologies for astronauts. In this study, we examined the feasibility of using hair follicles, a readily obtained sample, to assess gene expression changes in response to spaceflight adaptation. In order to investigate the gene expression changes in human hair follicles during spaceflight, hair follicles of 10 astronauts were analyzed by microarray and real time qPCR analyses. We found that spaceflight alters human hair follicle gene expression. The degree of changes in gene expression was found to vary among individuals. In some astronauts, genes related to hair growth such as FGF18, ANGPTL7 and COMP were upregulated during flight, suggesting that spaceflight inhibits cell proliferation in hair follicles. PMID:27029003

  2. Effects of a Closed Space Environment on Gene Expression in Hair Follicles of Astronauts in the International Space Station

    PubMed Central

    Terada, Masahiro; Seki, Masaya; Takahashi, Rika; Yamada, Shin; Higashibata, Akira; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Sudoh, Masamichi; Mukai, Chiaki; Ishioka, Noriaki

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation to the space environment can sometimes pose physiological problems to International Space Station (ISS) astronauts after their return to earth. Therefore, it is important to develop healthcare technologies for astronauts. In this study, we examined the feasibility of using hair follicles, a readily obtained sample, to assess gene expression changes in response to spaceflight adaptation. In order to investigate the gene expression changes in human hair follicles during spaceflight, hair follicles of 10 astronauts were analyzed by microarray and real time qPCR analyses. We found that spaceflight alters human hair follicle gene expression. The degree of changes in gene expression was found to vary among individuals. In some astronauts, genes related to hair growth such as FGF18, ANGPTL7 and COMP were upregulated during flight, suggesting that spaceflight inhibits cell proliferation in hair follicles. PMID:27029003

  3. Micro-RNA-31 controls hair cycle-associated changes in gene expression programs of the skin and hair follicle

    PubMed Central

    Mardaryev, Andrei N.; Ahmed, Mohammed I.; Vlahov, Nikola V.; Fessing, Michael Y.; Gill, Jason H.; Sharov, Andrey A.; Botchkareva, Natalia V.

    2010-01-01

    The hair follicle is a cyclic biological system that progresses through stages of growth, regression, and quiescence, which involves dynamic changes in a program of gene regulation. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are critically important for the control of gene expression and silencing. Here, we show that global miRNA expression in the skin markedly changes during distinct stages of the hair cycle in mice. Furthermore, we show that expression of miR-31 markedly increases during anagen and decreases during catagen and telogen. Administration of antisense miR-31 inhibitor into mouse skin during the early- and midanagen phases of the hair cycle results in accelerated anagen development, and altered differentiation of hair matrix keratinocytes and hair shaft formation. Microarray, qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses revealed that miR-31 negatively regulates expression of Fgf10, the components of Wnt and BMP signaling pathways Sclerostin and BAMBI, and Dlx3 transcription factor, as well as selected keratin genes, both in vitro and in vivo. Using luciferase reporter assay, we show that Krt16, Krt17, Dlx3, and Fgf10 serve as direct miR-31 targets. Thus, by targeting a number of growth regulatory molecules and cytoskeletal proteins, miR-31 is involved in establishing an optimal balance of gene expression in the hair follicle required for its proper growth and hair fiber formation.—Mardaryev, A. N., Ahmed, M. I., Vlahov, N. V., Fessing, M. Y., Gill, J. H., Sharov, A. A., and Botchkareva, N. V. Micro-RNA-31 controls hair cycle-associated changes in gene expression programs of the skin and hair follicle. PMID:20522784

  4. Restorative effect of hair follicular dermal cells on injured human hair follicles in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Yamao, Mikaru; Inamatsu, Mutsumi; Okada, Taro; Ogawa, Yuko; Ishida, Yuji; Tateno, Chise; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi

    2015-03-01

    No model is available for examining whether in vivo-damaged human hair follicles (hu-HFs) are rescued by transplanting cultured hu-HF dermal cells (dermal papilla and dermal sheath cells). Such a model might be valuable for examining whether in vivo-damaged hu-HFs such as miniaturized hu-HFs in androgenic alopecia are improvable by auto-transplanting hu-HF dermal cells. In this study, we first developed mice with humanized skin composed of hu-keratinocytes and hu-dermal fibroblasts. Then, a 'humanized scalp model mouse' was generated by transplanting hu-scalp HFs into the humanized skin. To demonstrate the usability of the model, the lower halves of the hu-HFs in the model were amputated in situ, and cultured hu-HF dermal cells were injected around the amputated area. The results demonstrated that the transplanted cells contributed to the restoration of the damaged HFs. This model could be used to explore clinically effective technologies for hair restoration therapy by autologous cell transplantation. PMID:25557326

  5. De novo formation and ultra-structural characterization of a fiber-producing human hair follicle equivalent in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Gerd; Horland, Reyk; Wagner, Ilka; Ataç, Beren; Lauster, Roland

    2011-03-20

    Across many tissues and organs, the ability to create an organoid, the smallest functional unit of an organ, in vitro is the key both to tissue engineering and preclinical testing regimes. The hair follicle is an organoid that has been much studied based on its ability to grow quickly and to regenerate after trauma. But hair follicle formation in vitro has been elusive. Replacing hair lost due to pattern baldness or more severe alopecia, including that induced by chemotherapy, remains a significant unmet medical need. By carefully analyzing and recapitulating the growth conditions of hair follicle formation, we recreated human hair follicles in tissue culture that were capable of producing hair. Our microfollicles contained all relevant cell types and their structure and orientation resembled in some ways excised hair follicle specimens from human skin. This finding offers a new window onto hair follicle development. Having a robust culture system for hair follicles is an important step towards improved hair regeneration as well as to an understanding of how marketed drugs or drug candidates, including cancer chemotherapy, will affect this important organ. PMID:21277344

  6. Evaluation of blood, buccal swabs, and hair follicles for DNA profiling technique using STR markers

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Garima; Dogra, T D; Raina, Anupuma

    2015-01-01

    Aim To study the short tandem repeat (STR) pattern of DNA from the blood, buccal swabs, and hair follicles of the recipients of allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation to examine whether these tissues contain donor derived cells. Methods The study enrolled 25 patients who sustained engraftment. Peripheral blood, buccal swabs, and hair follicles were collected on days 21-30, 90, and 180 after transplantation and the chimeric status of the recipients was evaluated. Results Donor derived cells existed in the blood and buccal swabs, but not in hair follicles, which can be used to obtain the pre-transplant sample of the recipient after transplant. Conclusion Peripheral blood and buccal swab do not serve as a reliable source of recipient’s origin for DNA analysis of individuals who underwent allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at least within 6 months after transplant. PMID:26088848

  7. Micro-RNA-31 controls hair cycle-associated changes in gene expression programs of the skin and hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Mardaryev, Andrei N; Ahmed, Mohammed I; Vlahov, Nikola V; Fessing, Michael Y; Gill, Jason H; Sharov, Andrey A; Botchkareva, Natalia V

    2010-10-01

    The hair follicle is a cyclic biological system that progresses through stages of growth, regression, and quiescence, which involves dynamic changes in a program of gene regulation. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are critically important for the control of gene expression and silencing. Here, we show that global miRNA expression in the skin markedly changes during distinct stages of the hair cycle in mice. Furthermore, we show that expression of miR-31 markedly increases during anagen and decreases during catagen and telogen. Administration of antisense miR-31 inhibitor into mouse skin during the early- and midanagen phases of the hair cycle results in accelerated anagen development, and altered differentiation of hair matrix keratinocytes and hair shaft formation. Microarray, qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses revealed that miR-31 negatively regulates expression of Fgf10, the components of Wnt and BMP signaling pathways Sclerostin and BAMBI, and Dlx3 transcription factor, as well as selected keratin genes, both in vitro and in vivo. Using luciferase reporter assay, we show that Krt16, Krt17, Dlx3, and Fgf10 serve as direct miR-31 targets. Thus, by targeting a number of growth regulatory molecules and cytoskeletal proteins, miR-31 is involved in establishing an optimal balance of gene expression in the hair follicle required for its proper growth and hair fiber formation. PMID:20522784

  8. Intraflagellar transport 27 is essential for hedgehog signaling but dispensable for ciliogenesis during hair follicle morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ning; Li, Li; Eguether, Thibaut; Sundberg, John P; Pazour, Gregory J; Chen, Jiang

    2015-06-15

    Hair follicle morphogenesis requires precisely controlled reciprocal communications, including hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Activation of the Hh signaling pathway relies on the primary cilium. Disrupting ciliogenesis results in hair follicle morphogenesis defects due to attenuated Hh signaling; however, the loss of cilia makes it impossible to determine whether hair follicle phenotypes in these cilia mutants are caused by the loss of cilia, disruption of Hh signaling, or a combination of these events. In this study, we characterized the function of Ift27, which encodes a subunit of intraflagellar transport (IFT) complex B. Hair follicle morphogenesis of Ift27-null mice was severely impaired, reminiscent of phenotypes observed in cilia and Hh mutants. Furthermore, the Hh signaling pathway was attenuated in Ift27 mutants, which was in association with abnormal ciliary trafficking of SMO and GLI2, and impaired processing of Gli transcription factors; however, formation of the ciliary axoneme was unaffected. The ciliary localization of IFT25 (HSPB11), the binding partner of IFT27, was disrupted in Ift27 mutant cells, and Ift25-null mice displayed hair follicle phenotypes similar to those of Ift27 mutants. These data suggest that Ift27 and Ift25 operate in a genetically and functionally dependent manner during hair follicle morphogenesis. This study suggests that the molecular trafficking machineries underlying ciliogenesis and Hh signaling can be segregated, thereby providing important insights into new avenues of inhibiting Hh signaling, which might be adopted in the development of targeted therapies for Hh-dependent cancers, such as basal cell carcinoma. PMID:26023097

  9. Intraflagellar transport 27 is essential for hedgehog signaling but dispensable for ciliogenesis during hair follicle morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ning; Li, Li; Eguether, Thibaut; Sundberg, John P.; Pazour, Gregory J.; Chen, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Hair follicle morphogenesis requires precisely controlled reciprocal communications, including hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Activation of the Hh signaling pathway relies on the primary cilium. Disrupting ciliogenesis results in hair follicle morphogenesis defects due to attenuated Hh signaling; however, the loss of cilia makes it impossible to determine whether hair follicle phenotypes in these cilia mutants are caused by the loss of cilia, disruption of Hh signaling, or a combination of these events. In this study, we characterized the function of Ift27, which encodes a subunit of intraflagellar transport (IFT) complex B. Hair follicle morphogenesis of Ift27-null mice was severely impaired, reminiscent of phenotypes observed in cilia and Hh mutants. Furthermore, the Hh signaling pathway was attenuated in Ift27 mutants, which was in association with abnormal ciliary trafficking of SMO and GLI2, and impaired processing of Gli transcription factors; however, formation of the ciliary axoneme was unaffected. The ciliary localization of IFT25 (HSPB11), the binding partner of IFT27, was disrupted in Ift27 mutant cells, and Ift25-null mice displayed hair follicle phenotypes similar to those of Ift27 mutants. These data suggest that Ift27 and Ift25 operate in a genetically and functionally dependent manner during hair follicle morphogenesis. This study suggests that the molecular trafficking machineries underlying ciliogenesis and Hh signaling can be segregated, thereby providing important insights into new avenues of inhibiting Hh signaling, which might be adopted in the development of targeted therapies for Hh-dependent cancers, such as basal cell carcinoma. PMID:26023097

  10. [Content of free and bound phenols in hair follicles of sheep skin].

    PubMed

    Shvetz', S F; Makar, I A; Hzhytsky, S Z

    1975-01-01

    The content of phenols combined with sulphuric and glucoronic acids as well as the influence of vitamin A, sulphur and insulin hormone on the quantity of phenol were studied in the hair follicles of sheep skin. The presence of free and bound phenols in the hair follicles was established. An addition of vitamin A in a dose of 3500 i. u. per head a day to the ration of sheep causes an increase in the content of conjugated phenols, especially of phenolsulphates. A still more noticeable increase in the number of conjugated phenols may be observed under influence of vitamin A, insulin and sodium sulphate. PMID:1209767

  11. Mitochondrial aerobic respiration is activated during hair follicle stem cell differentiation, and its dysfunction retards hair regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yan; Luo, Binping; Deng, Zhili; Wang, Ben; Liu, Fangfen; Li, Jinmao; Shi, Wei; Xie, Hongfu; Hu, Xingwang; Li, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Background. Emerging research revealed the essential role of mitochondria in regulating stem/progenitor cell differentiation of neural progenitor cells, mesenchymal stem cells and other stem cells through reactive oxygen species (ROS), Notch or other signaling pathway. Inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis results in hair loss upon injury. However, alteration of mitochondrial morphology and metabolic function during hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) differentiation and how they affect hair regeneration has not been elaborated upon. Methods. We compared the difference in mitochondrial morphology and activity between telogen bulge cells and anagen matrix cells. Expression levels of mitochondrial ROS and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) were measured to evaluate redox balance. In addition, the level of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) were estimated to present the change in energetic metabolism during differentiation. To explore the effect of the mitochondrial metabolism on regulating hair regeneration, hair growth was observed after application of a mitochondrial respiratory inhibitor upon hair plucking. Results. During HFSCs differentiation, mitochondria became elongated with more abundant organized cristae and showed higher activity in differentiated cells. SOD2 was enhanced for redox balance with relatively stable ROS levels in differentiated cells. PDK increased in HFSCs while differentiated cells showed enhanced PDH, indicating that respiration switched from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation during differentiation. Inhibiting mitochondrial respiration in differentiated hair follicle cells upon hair plucking repressed hair regeneration in vivo. Conclusions. Upon HFSCs differentiation, mitochondria are elongated with more abundant cristae and show higher activity, accompanying with activated aerobic respiration in differentiated cells for higher energy supply. Also, dysfunction of mitochondrial respiration delays hair

  12. Mitochondrial aerobic respiration is activated during hair follicle stem cell differentiation, and its dysfunction retards hair regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yan; Luo, Binping; Deng, Zhili; Wang, Ben; Liu, Fangfen; Li, Jinmao; Shi, Wei; Xie, Hongfu; Hu, Xingwang

    2016-01-01

    Background. Emerging research revealed the essential role of mitochondria in regulating stem/progenitor cell differentiation of neural progenitor cells, mesenchymal stem cells and other stem cells through reactive oxygen species (ROS), Notch or other signaling pathway. Inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis results in hair loss upon injury. However, alteration of mitochondrial morphology and metabolic function during hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) differentiation and how they affect hair regeneration has not been elaborated upon. Methods. We compared the difference in mitochondrial morphology and activity between telogen bulge cells and anagen matrix cells. Expression levels of mitochondrial ROS and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) were measured to evaluate redox balance. In addition, the level of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) were estimated to present the change in energetic metabolism during differentiation. To explore the effect of the mitochondrial metabolism on regulating hair regeneration, hair growth was observed after application of a mitochondrial respiratory inhibitor upon hair plucking. Results. During HFSCs differentiation, mitochondria became elongated with more abundant organized cristae and showed higher activity in differentiated cells. SOD2 was enhanced for redox balance with relatively stable ROS levels in differentiated cells. PDK increased in HFSCs while differentiated cells showed enhanced PDH, indicating that respiration switched from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation during differentiation. Inhibiting mitochondrial respiration in differentiated hair follicle cells upon hair plucking repressed hair regeneration in vivo. Conclusions. Upon HFSCs differentiation, mitochondria are elongated with more abundant cristae and show higher activity, accompanying with activated aerobic respiration in differentiated cells for higher energy supply. Also, dysfunction of mitochondrial respiration delays hair

  13. Polymeric nanoparticles-embedded organogel for roxithromycin delivery to hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Główka, Eliza; Wosicka-Frąckowiak, Hanna; Hyla, Kinga; Stefanowska, Justyna; Jastrzębska, Katarzyna; Klapiszewski, Łukasz; Jesionowski, Teofil; Cal, Krzysztof

    2014-09-01

    Drug delivery into hair follicles with the use of nanoparticles (NPs) is gaining more importance as drug-loaded NPs may accumulate in hair follicle openings. The aim was to develop and evaluate a pluronic lecithin organogel (PLO) with roxithromycin (ROX)-loaded NPs for follicular targeting. Polymeric NPs were evaluated in terms of particle shape, size, zeta potential, suspension stability, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release. Lyophilized NPs were incorporated into the PLO and rheological measurements of the nanoparticles-embedded organogels were done. The fate of the NPs in the skin was traced by incorporation of a fluorescent dye into the NPs. As a result, ROX was efficiently incorporated into polymeric NPs characterized by the appropriate size (approximately 300 nm) allowing drug delivery to hair follicles. In ex vivo human skin penetration studies, horizontal skin sections revealed fluorescence deep in the hair follicles. Although the organogel has higher affinity to the lipidic follicular area than an aqueous suspension of NPs, it did not seem to improve penetration of the NPs along the hair shaft. The results proved that it was possible to achieve preferential targeting to the pilosebaceous unit using polymeric NPs formulated either into the aqueous suspension or semisolid topical formulation. PMID:25014763

  14. Immunolocalization of β-catenin and Lef-1 during postnatal hair follicle development in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Dong; Yang, Lei; Yu, Xiu-Ju; He, Jun-Ping; Fan, Lin-Hua; Dong, Yan-Jun; Dong, Chang-Sheng; Liu, Tian-Fu

    2012-12-01

    It is well recognized that the Wnt pathway, in which β-catenin and Lef-1 are important factors, is associated with many physiological processes, including embryogenesis and postnatal development. The Wnt pathway also plays a critical role in the development of skin. It regulates the formation of the dorsal dermis and epidermal appendages in the skin and the activity of epithelial stem cells. In this study, we investigated the presence and localization of β-catenin and Lef-1 in murine hair follicles through the first postnatal month, which encompasses the first hair cycle in mice, using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Our results show that β-catenin and Lef-1 are expressed during all stages in a hair cycle, most strongly in the anagen and weakly in the catagen and telogen phases. The results also suggest that the β-catenin-Lef-1 complex may regulate hair follicle cycling. This process will be of considerable interest to future studies. PMID:22521245

  15. Principles and mechanisms of regeneration in the mouse model for wound‐induced hair follicle neogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaojie; Hsi, Tsai‐Ching; Guerrero‐Juarez, Christian Fernando; Pham, Kim; Cho, Kevin; McCusker, Catherine D.; Monuki, Edwin S.; Cho, Ken W.Y.; Gay, Denise L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Wound‐induced hair follicle neogenesis (WIHN) describes a regenerative phenomenon in adult mammalian skin wherein fully functional hair follicles regenerate de novo in the center of large excisional wounds. Originally described in rats, rabbits, sheep, and humans in 1940−1960, the WIHN phenomenon was reinvestigated in mice only recently. The process of de novo hair regeneration largely duplicates the morphological and signaling features of normal embryonic hair development. Similar to hair development, WIHN critically depends on the activation of canonical WNT signaling. However, unlike hair development, WNT activation in WIHN is dependent on fibroblast growth factor 9 signaling generated by the immune system's γδ T cells. The cellular bases of WIHN remain to be fully characterized; however, the available evidence leaves open the possibility for a blastema‐like mechanism wherein epidermal and/or dermal wound cells undergo epigenetic reprogramming toward a more plastic, embryonic‐like state. De novo hair follicles do not regenerate from preexisting hair‐fated bulge stem cells. This suggests that hair neogenesis is not driven by preexisting lineage‐restricted progenitors, as is the case for amputation‐induced mouse digit tip regeneration, but rather may require a blastema‐like mechanism. The WIHN model is characterized by several intriguing features, which await further explanation. These include (1) the minimum wound size requirement for activating neogenesis, (2) the restriction of hair neogenesis to the wound's center, and (3) imperfect patterning outcomes, both in terms of neogenic hair positioning within the wound and in terms of their orientation. Future enquiries into the WIHN process, made possible by a wide array of available skin‐specific genetic tools, will undoubtedly expand our understanding of the regeneration mechanisms in adult mammals. PMID:26504521

  16. Light-emitting hair follicles: studying skin regeneration with in vivo imaging

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero-Juarez, Christian Fernando; Ramos, Raul; Oh, Ji Won; Hsi, Tsai-Ching; Plikus, Maksim V.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cutting-edge imaging technologies and new luminescent and fluorescent genetic tools now make it possible to study hair regeneration in vivo in real time at the microscopic single-cell level and at the macroscopic level of hair follicle populations. These technologies also allow for non-invasive assessment of the skin’s clinically relevant homeostatic parameters, such as oxidative stress levels and pH. PMID:24825056

  17. Evidence that initiated keratinocytes clonally expand into multiple existing hair follicles during papilloma histogenesis in SENCAR mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Binder, R L; Gallagher, P M; Johnson, G R; Stockman, S L; Smith, B J; Sundberg, J P; Conti, C J

    1997-09-01

    We have previously shown that the precursors of cutaneous papillomas in SENCAR mice initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and promoted with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate are focal hyperplastic lesions that we refer to as squamous cell hyperplastic foci (SCHF). Ha-ras gene codon 61 mutations were frequently found in SCHF, providing evidence that these lesions represent clones of initiated cells. We report here the pathogenesis of multiple hair follicle involvement in more advanced SCHF and describe the role of the hair follicle in papilloma histogenesis. Detailed histological evaluation of 83 SCHF and 25 early papillomas revealed a morphological continuum from the least developed SCHF, involving only one hair follicle, to advanced SCHF and early papillomas, which involved more than 10 hair follicles. These results provide evidence of the recruitment of additional hair follicles as SCHF progress. In advanced SCHF and early papillomas the bulk of the epithelial component in all cases consisted of several markedly hyperplastic adjacent hair follicles, whereas the involved interfollicular epidermis (IFE) was generally less hyperplastic. All of the hair follicles involved in SCHF appeared to have been preexisting, based on their pattern of spacing, that they were consistently normal appearing below the level of the sebaceous glands, and that they were in the same phase of the hair cycle as surrounding, uninvolved hair follicles. Also, no evidence of follicular neogenesis was observed in serially sectioned SCHF, and coalescence of smaller lesions was rare. To investigate whether the involvement of multiple hair follicles in SCHF was due to expansion of initiated cells into existing hair follicles or, possibly, to a paracrine mechanism, we analyzed different levels of three serially sectioned SCHF and one early papilloma for Ha-ras mutations. These analyses revealed cells with Ha-ras gene codon 61 mutations at multiple levels that involved different hair

  18. A genetic basis of variation in eccrine sweat gland and hair follicle density

    PubMed Central

    Kamberov, Yana G.; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Kamberova, Gerda L.; Lieberman, Daniel E.; Sabeti, Pardis C.; Morgan, Bruce A.; Tabin, Clifford J.

    2015-01-01

    Among the unique features of humans, one of the most salient is the ability to effectively cool the body during extreme prolonged activity through the evapotranspiration of water on the skin’s surface. The evolution of this novel physiological ability required a dramatic increase in the density and distribution of eccrine sweat glands relative to other mammals and a concomitant reduction of body hair cover. Elucidation of the genetic underpinnings for these adaptive changes is confounded by a lack of knowledge about how eccrine gland fate and density are specified during development. Moreover, although reciprocal changes in hair cover and eccrine gland density are required for efficient thermoregulation, it is unclear if these changes are linked by a common genetic regulation. To identify pathways controlling the relative patterning of eccrine glands and hair follicles, we exploited natural variation in the density of these organs between different strains of mice. Quantitative trait locus mapping identified a large region on mouse Chromosome 1 that controls both hair and eccrine gland densities. Differential and allelic expression analysis of the genes within this interval coupled with subsequent functional studies demonstrated that the level of En1 activity directs the relative numbers of eccrine glands and hair follicles. These findings implicate En1 as a newly identified and reciprocal determinant of hair follicle and eccrine gland density and identify a pathway that could have contributed to the evolution of the unique features of human skin. PMID:26195765

  19. A genetic basis of variation in eccrine sweat gland and hair follicle density.

    PubMed

    Kamberov, Yana G; Karlsson, Elinor K; Kamberova, Gerda L; Lieberman, Daniel E; Sabeti, Pardis C; Morgan, Bruce A; Tabin, Clifford J

    2015-08-11

    Among the unique features of humans, one of the most salient is the ability to effectively cool the body during extreme prolonged activity through the evapotranspiration of water on the skin's surface. The evolution of this novel physiological ability required a dramatic increase in the density and distribution of eccrine sweat glands relative to other mammals and a concomitant reduction of body hair cover. Elucidation of the genetic underpinnings for these adaptive changes is confounded by a lack of knowledge about how eccrine gland fate and density are specified during development. Moreover, although reciprocal changes in hair cover and eccrine gland density are required for efficient thermoregulation, it is unclear if these changes are linked by a common genetic regulation. To identify pathways controlling the relative patterning of eccrine glands and hair follicles, we exploited natural variation in the density of these organs between different strains of mice. Quantitative trait locus mapping identified a large region on mouse Chromosome 1 that controls both hair and eccrine gland densities. Differential and allelic expression analysis of the genes within this interval coupled with subsequent functional studies demonstrated that the level of En1 activity directs the relative numbers of eccrine glands and hair follicles. These findings implicate En1 as a newly identified and reciprocal determinant of hair follicle and eccrine gland density and identify a pathway that could have contributed to the evolution of the unique features of human skin. PMID:26195765

  20. Androgen action in cultured dermal papilla cells from human hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Randall, V A; Thornton, M J; Hamada, K; Messenger, A G

    1994-01-01

    Androgens are major regulators of human hair growth with paradoxically different effects on hair follicles depending on their body site. They stimulate terminal growth in many regions including the face, have no effect on eyelashes, but may cause inhibition and balding on the scalp in genetically disposed individuals. How this occurs is unknown. However, androgens may act on the hair follicle via the cells of the dermal papilla; these would then influence the other cells of the hair follicle by altering the production of regulatory substances such as growth factors and/or extracellular matrix components. Therefore, primary lines of dermal papilla cells have been established from androgen-sensitive hair follicles, such as beard, and control, relatively androgen-independent, non-balding scalp cells and their mechanism of androgen action has been compared. Isolated beard dermal papillae were larger than those from scalp follicles. Although dermal papilla cells did not respond to in vitro androgens by alterations in growth, androgen-dependent dermal papilla cells contained higher levels of specific, low capacity, high affinity androgen receptors than non-balding scalp cells. The ability of the cells to metabolise testosterone to 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone in culture also varied in parallel to that predicted from studies of hair growth in the 5 alpha-reductase deficiency syndrome. These results support the hypothesis that androgens act via the dermal papilla. They also show that dermal papilla cells retain differences in gene expression in culture which appear to correspond with their androgenic response in vivo. Further studies of such cells should help elucidate why bald men can grow beards! PMID:8003318

  1. Telomerase activity concentrates in the mitotically active segments of human hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, R D; Wright, W E; Shay, J W; Taylor, R S

    1997-01-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme capable of adding hexanucleotide repeats onto the ends of linear chromosomal DNA. Whereas normal somatic cells with a limited replicative capacity fail to express telomerase activity, most immortal eukaryotic cells do. Cells of renewal tissues (e.g., skin, intestine, blood) require an extensive proliferative capacity. Some cells in such renewal tissues also express telomerase activity, most likely to prevent rapid erosion of their telomeres during cell proliferation. In this study, we measured the levels of telomerase activity in dissected compartments of the human hair follicle: hair shaft, gland-containing fragment, upper intermediate fragment (where it is thought undifferentiated stem cells reside), lower intermediate fragment, and in the bulb-containing fragment (an area with high mitotic activity containing a more differentiated pool of keratinocytes). In anagen follicles, high levels of telomerase activity were found almost exclusively in the bulb-containing fragment of the follicles, with low levels of telomerase in the bulge area (intermediate fragments) and gland-containing fragment. In comparison, catagen follicles had low levels of telomerase activity in the bulb-containing fragments as well as in other compartments. Such observations indicate that, in anagen hair follicles, the fragments containing cells actively dividing (e.g., transient amplifying cells) express telomerase activity, whereas fragments containing cells with low mitotic activity, for example, quiescent stem cells, express low levels of telomerase activity. PMID:8980299

  2. No evidence of plasticity in hair follicles of recipients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rovó, Alicia; Meyer-Monard, Sandrine; Heim, Dominik; Arber, Caroline; Passweg, Jakob R; Gratwohl, Alois; Tichelli, André

    2005-08-01

    Here we show in a prospective quantitative study of 115 patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation that hair follicles remain exclusively of recipient type despite full whole blood donor-type chimerism. Our data indicate that unmanipulated hematopoietic donor stem cells do not contribute directly to reconstitution even in an organ at highest need for repair. PMID:16038783

  3. Neural Potential of a Stem Cell Population in the Hair Follicle

    PubMed Central

    Mignone, John L.; Roig-Lopez, Jose L.; Fedtsova, Natalia; Schones, Dustin E.; Manganas, Louis N.; Maletic-Savatic, Mirjana; Keyes, William M.; Mills, Alea A.; Gleiberman, Anatoli; Zhang, Michael Q.; Enikolopov, Grigori

    2013-01-01

    The bulge region of the hair follicle serves as a repository for epithelial stem cells that can regenerate the follicle in each hair growth cycle and contribute to epidermis regeneration upon injury. Here we describe a population of multipotential stem cells in the hair follicle bulge region; these cells can be identified by fluorescence in transgenic nestin-GFP mice. The morphological features of these cells suggest that they maintain close associations with each other and with the surrounding niche. Upon explantation, these cells can give rise to neurosphere-like structures in vitro. When these cells are permitted to differentiate, they produce several cell types, including cells with neuronal, astrocytic, oligodendrocytic, smooth muscle, adipocytic, and other phenotypes. Furthermore, upon implantation into the developing nervous system of chick, these cells generate neuronal cells in vivo. We used transcriptional profiling to assess the relationship between these cells and embryonic and postnatal neural stem cells and to compare them with other stem cell populations of the bulge. Our results show that nestin-expressing cells in the bulge region of the hair follicle have stem cell-like properties, are multipotent, and can effectively generate cells of neural lineage in vitro and in vivo. PMID:17873521

  4. The ciliopathy gene Rpgrip1l is essential for hair follicle development

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiang; Laclef, Christine; Moncayo, Alejandra; Snedecor, Elizabeth R.; Yang, Ning; Li, Li; Takemaru, Ken-Ichi; Paus, Ralf; Schneider-Maunoury, Sylvie; Clark, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    The primary cilium is essential for skin morphogenesis through regulating the Notch, Wnt, and hedgehog signaling pathways. Prior studies on the functions of primary cilia in the skin were based on the investigations of genes that are essential for cilium formation. However, none of these ciliogenic genes has been linked to ciliopathy, a group of disorders caused by abnormal formation or function of cilia. To determine whether there is a genetic and molecular link between ciliopathies and skin morphogenesis, we investigated the role of RPGRIP1L, a gene mutated in Joubert (JBTS) and Meckel (MKS) syndromes, two severe forms of ciliopathy, in the context of skin development. We found that RPGRIP1L is essential for hair follicle morphogenesis. Specifically, disrupting the Rpgril1 gene in mice resulted in reduced proliferation and differentiation of follicular keratinocytes, leading to hair follicle developmental defects. These defects were associated with significantly decreased primary cilium formation and attenuated hedgehog signaling. In contrast, we found that hair follicle induction and polarization and the development of interfollicular epidermis were unaffected. This study indicates that RPGRIP1L, a ciliopathy gene, is essential for hair follicle morphogenesis likely through regulating primary cilia formation and the hedgehog signaling pathway. PMID:25398052

  5. Secrets of the Hair Follicle: Now on Your iPhone.

    PubMed

    Millar, Sarah E

    2015-09-14

    Skin development requires communication between epithelial and mesenchymal cells, melanocytes, and neurons. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Sennett et al. (2015) shed new light on these mechanisms by simultaneously profiling multiple different cell types in embryonic mouse skin at the onset of hair follicle formation. PMID:26374762

  6. Roles of MED1 in quiescence of hair follicle stem cells and maintenance of normal hair cycling.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Takeshi; Inui, Shigeki; Fushimi, Tomohiro; Noguchi, Fumihito; Kitagawa, Yutaka; Reddy, Janardan K; Itami, Satoshi

    2013-02-01

    MED1 (mediator complex subunit 1) is expressed by human epidermal keratinocytes and functions as a coactivator of several transcription factors. To elucidate the role of MED1 in keratinocytes, we established keratinocyte-specific Med1-null (Med1(epi-/-)) mice using the K5Cre/LoxP system. Development of the epidermis and appendages of Med1(epi-/-) mice were macroscopically and microscopically normal until the second catagen of the hair cycle. However, the hair cycle of Med1(epi-/-) mice was spontaneously repeated after the second telogen, which does not occur in wild-type (WT) mice. Hair follicles of Med1(epi-/-) mice could not enter anagen after 6 months of age, resulting in sparse pelage hair in older Med1(epi-/-) mice. Interfollicular epidermis (IFE) of Med1(epi-/-) mice was acanthotic and more proliferative than that of WT mice, whereas these findings were less evident in older Med1(epi-/-) mice. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the numbers of hair follicle bulge stem cells were reduced in Med1(epi-/-) mice from a few months after birth. These results suggest that MED1 has roles in maintaining quiescence of keratinocytes and preventing depletion of the follicular stem cells. PMID:22931914

  7. Differential Expression of Proteins Associated with the Hair Follicle Cycle - Proteomics and Bioinformatics Analyses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Xu, Wenrong; Cao, Lei; Tian, Tian; Yang, Mifang; Li, Zhongming; Ping, Fengfeng; Fan, Weixin

    2016-01-01

    Hair follicle cycling can be divided into the following three stages: anagen, catagen, and telogen. The molecular signals that orchestrate the follicular transition between phases are still unknown. To better understand the detailed protein networks controlling this process, proteomics and bioinformatics analyses were performed to construct comparative protein profiles of mouse skin at specific time points (0, 8, and 20 days). Ninety-five differentially expressed protein spots were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF as 44 proteins, which were found to change during hair follicle cycle transition. Proteomics analysis revealed that these changes in protein expression are involved in Ca2+-regulated biological processes, migration, and regulation of signal transduction, among other processes. Subsequently, three proteins were selected to validate the reliability of expression patterns using western blotting. Cluster analysis revealed three expression patterns, and each pattern correlated with specific cell processes that occur during the hair cycle. Furthermore, bioinformatics analysis indicated that the differentially expressed proteins impacted multiple biological networks, after which detailed functional analyses were performed. Taken together, the above data may provide insight into the three stages of mouse hair follicle morphogenesis and provide a solid basis for potential therapeutic molecular targets for this hair disease. PMID:26752403

  8. In vivo transcriptional governance of hair follicle stem cells by canonical Wnt regulators

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Wen-Hui; Polak, Lisa; Lin, Mingyan; Lay, Kenneth; Zheng, Deyou; Fuchs, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) regenerate hair in response to Wnt signalling. Here, we unfold genome-wide transcriptional and chromatin landscapes of β-catenin–TCF3/4–TLE circuitry, and genetically dissect their biological roles within the native HFSC niche. We show that during HFSC quiescence, TCF3, TCF4 and TLE (Groucho) bind coordinately and transcriptionally repress Wnt target genes. We also show that β-catenin is dispensable for HFSC viability, and that if TCF3/4 levels are sufficiently reduced, it is dispensable for proliferation. However, β-catenin is essential to activate genes that launch hair follicle fate and suppress sebocyte fate determination. TCF3/4 deficiency mimics Wnt–β-catenin-dependent activation of these hair follicle fate targets; TCF3 overexpression parallels their TLE4-dependent suppression. Our studies unveil TCF3/4–TLE histone deacetylases as a repressive rheostat, whose action can be relieved by Wnt–β-catenin signalling. When TCF3/4 and TLE levels are high, HFSCs can maintain stemness, but remain quiescent. When these levels drop or when Wnt–β-catenin levels rise, this balance is shifted and hair regeneration initiates. PMID:24463605

  9. Differential Expression of Proteins Associated with the Hair Follicle Cycle - Proteomics and Bioinformatics Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Tian; Yang, Mifang; Li, Zhongming; Ping, Fengfeng; Fan, Weixin

    2016-01-01

    Hair follicle cycling can be divided into the following three stages: anagen, catagen, and telogen. The molecular signals that orchestrate the follicular transition between phases are still unknown. To better understand the detailed protein networks controlling this process, proteomics and bioinformatics analyses were performed to construct comparative protein profiles of mouse skin at specific time points (0, 8, and 20 days). Ninety-five differentially expressed protein spots were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF as 44 proteins, which were found to change during hair follicle cycle transition. Proteomics analysis revealed that these changes in protein expression are involved in Ca2+-regulated biological processes, migration, and regulation of signal transduction, among other processes. Subsequently, three proteins were selected to validate the reliability of expression patterns using western blotting. Cluster analysis revealed three expression patterns, and each pattern correlated with specific cell processes that occur during the hair cycle. Furthermore, bioinformatics analysis indicated that the differentially expressed proteins impacted multiple biological networks, after which detailed functional analyses were performed. Taken together, the above data may provide insight into the three stages of mouse hair follicle morphogenesis and provide a solid basis for potential therapeutic molecular targets for this hair disease. PMID:26752403

  10. Macrophages contribute to the cyclic activation of adult hair follicle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Castellana, Donatello; Paus, Ralf; Perez-Moreno, Mirna

    2014-12-01

    Skin epithelial stem cells operate within a complex signaling milieu that orchestrates their lifetime regenerative properties. The question of whether and how immune cells impact on these stem cells within their niche is not well understood. Here we show that skin-resident macrophages decrease in number because of apoptosis before the onset of epithelial hair follicle stem cell activation during the murine hair cycle. This process is linked to distinct gene expression, including Wnt transcription. Interestingly, by mimicking this event through the selective induction of macrophage apoptosis in early telogen, we identify a novel involvement of macrophages in stem cell activation in vivo. Importantly, the macrophage-specific pharmacological inhibition of Wnt production delays hair follicle growth. Thus, perifollicular macrophages contribute to the activation of skin epithelial stem cells as a novel, additional cue that regulates their regenerative activity. This finding may have translational implications for skin repair, inflammatory skin diseases and cancer. PMID:25536657

  11. Macrophages Contribute to the Cyclic Activation of Adult Hair Follicle Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Castellana, Donatello; Paus, Ralf; Perez-Moreno, Mirna

    2014-01-01

    Skin epithelial stem cells operate within a complex signaling milieu that orchestrates their lifetime regenerative properties. The question of whether and how immune cells impact on these stem cells within their niche is not well understood. Here we show that skin-resident macrophages decrease in number because of apoptosis before the onset of epithelial hair follicle stem cell activation during the murine hair cycle. This process is linked to distinct gene expression, including Wnt transcription. Interestingly, by mimicking this event through the selective induction of macrophage apoptosis in early telogen, we identify a novel involvement of macrophages in stem cell activation in vivo. Importantly, the macrophage-specific pharmacological inhibition of Wnt production delays hair follicle growth. Thus, perifollicular macrophages contribute to the activation of skin epithelial stem cells as a novel, additional cue that regulates their regenerative activity. This finding may have translational implications for skin repair, inflammatory skin diseases and cancer. PMID:25536657

  12. Foxc1 reinforces quiescence in self-renewing hair follicle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Siegenthaler, Julie A; Dowell, Robin D; Yi, Rui

    2016-02-01

    Stem cell quiescence preserves the cell reservoir by minimizing cell division over extended periods of time. Self-renewal of quiescent stem cells (SCs) requires the reentry into the cell cycle. In this study, we show that murine hair follicle SCs induce the Foxc1 transcription factor when activated. Deleting Foxc1 in activated, but not quiescent, SCs causes failure of the cells to reestablish quiescence and allows premature activation. Deleting Foxc1 in the SC niche of gene-targeted mice leads to loss of the old hair without impairing quiescence. In self-renewing SCs, Foxc1 activates Nfatc1 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, two key mechanisms that govern quiescence. These findings reveal a dynamic, cell-intrinsic mechanism used by hair follicle SCs to reinforce quiescence upon self-renewal and suggest a unique ability of SCs to maintain cell identity. PMID:26912704

  13. Determination of the cuticula thickness of human and porcine hairs and their potential influence on the penetration of nanoparticles into the hair follicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lademann, Juergen; Patzelt, Alexa; Richter, Heike; Antoniou, Christina; Sterry, Wolfram; Knorr, Fanny

    2009-03-01

    An efficient penetration and long-term storage of topically applied substances is important for drug delivery in medical treatment and cosmetics. It has recently become apparent that the hair follicles represent an efficient and long-term reservoir for topically applied substances. It was found that particles sized 300-600 nm penetrate more efficiently into the hair follicles than smaller or larger particles. In the present paper, the hair surface structure of human and porcine hairs was analyzed by electron microscopy. It could be observed that the thickness of the cuticula corresponds to the optimal size of the nanoparticles for penetration into the hair follicles. Additionally, it could be demonstrated that the cuticula of human vellus and terminal hairs were of similar thickness (approx. 530 nm), while the thickness of the cuticula obtained from porcine ear bristles were slightly thinner (approx. 320 nm).

  14. Development of a Model for Chemotherapy-Induced Alopecia: Profiling of Histological Changes in Human Hair Follicles after Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ji-Seon; Choi, Mira; Shin, Chang Yup; Paik, Seung Hwan; Kim, Kyu Han; Kwon, Ohsang

    2016-03-01

    Optimized research models are required to further understand the pathogenesis and prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced alopecia. Our aim was to develop a mouse model for chemotherapy-induced alopecia by follicular unit transplantation of human hair follicles onto immunodeficient mice. Twenty-two weeks after transplantation, a single dose of cyclophosphamide (Cph) was administered to mice in the Cph100 (100 mg/kg) and Cph150 (150 mg/kg) groups. On day 6, hair follicles showed dystrophic changes, with swollen dermal papilla and ectopic melanin clumping in the hair bulb. In addition, upregulated expression of apoptotic regulators [P53, Fas/Fas-ligand, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand/tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor (TRAIL/TRAIL receptor), and Bax], increased apoptotic matrix keratinocytes, downregulated Ki67 expression, and decreased melanogenic protein in the hair bulb were noted in both groups. After 12 treatment days, hair follicles in Cph100 mice appeared to diminish dystrophic changes. In contrast, hair follicles of Cph150 mice prematurely entered a dystrophic catagen phase after 9 treatment days, and immunofluorescence staining for Ki67 and melanogenic protein expressions was barely visible. Two hair follicle damage response pathways were observed in this model, namely dystrophic anagen (Cph100) and catagen (Cph150) pathways. Our model might be useful for further understanding the impact of chemotherapy on human hair follicles. PMID:26774950

  15. Genetically null mice reveal a central role for epidermal growth factor receptor in the differentiation of the hair follicle and normal hair development.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, L. A.; Alexander, N.; Hogan, M. E.; Sundberg, J. P.; Dlugosz, A.; Threadgill, D. W.; Magnuson, T.; Yuspa, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    Mice harboring a targeted disruption of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) allele exhibit a severely disorganized hair follicle phenotype, fuzzy coat, and systemic disease resulting in death before 3 weeks. This skin phenotype was reproduced in whole skin grafts and in grafts of EGFR null hair follicle buds onto nude mice, providing a model to evaluate the natural evolution of skin lacking the EGFR. Hair follicles in grafts of null skin did not progress from anagen to telogen and scanning electron micrografts revealed wavy, flattened hair fibers with cuticular abnormalities. Many of the EGFR null hair follicles in the grafted skin were consumed by an inflammatory reaction resulting in complete hair loss in 67% of the grafts by 10 weeks. Localization of follicular differentiation markers including keratin 6, transglutaminase, and the hair keratins mHa2 and hacl-1 revealed a pattern of premature differentiation within the null hair follicles. In intact EGFR null mice, proliferation in the interfollicular epidermis, but not hair follicles, was greatly decreased in the absence of EGFR. In contrast, grafting of EGFR null skin resulted in a hyperplastic response in the epidermis that did not resolve even after 10 weeks, although the wound-induced hyperplasia in EGFR wild-type grafts had resolved within 3 to 4 weeks. Thus, epithelial expression of the EGFR has complex functions in the skin. It is important in delaying follicular differentiation, may serve to protect the hair follicle from immunological reactions, and modifies both normal and wound-induced epidermal proliferation but seems dispensable for follicular proliferation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9176390

  16. LIPH Expression in Skin and Hair Follicles of Normal Coat and Rex Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Diribarne, Mathieu; Mata, Xavier; Rivière, Julie; Bouet, Stéphan; Vaiman, Anne; Chapuis, Jérôme; Reine, Fabienne; Fleurot, Renaud; Auvinet, Gérard; Deretz, Séverine; Allain, Daniel; Schibler, Laurent; Cribiu, Edmond-Paul; Guérin, Gérard

    2012-01-01

    Natural mutations in the LIPH gene were shown to be responsible for hair growth defects in humans and for the rex short hair phenotype in rabbits. In this species, we identified a single nucleotide deletion in LIPH (1362delA) introducing a stop codon in the C-terminal region of the protein. We investigated the expression of LIPH between normal coat and rex rabbits during critical fetal stages of hair follicle genesis, in adults and during hair follicle cycles. Transcripts were three times less expressed in both fetal and adult stages of the rex rabbits than in normal rabbits. In addition, the hair growth cycle phases affected the regulation of the transcription level in the normal and mutant phenotypes differently. LIPH mRNA and protein levels were higher in the outer root sheath (ORS) than in the inner root sheath (IRS), with a very weak signal in the IRS of rex rabbits. In vitro transfection shows that the mutant protein has a reduced lipase activity compared to the wild type form. Our results contribute to the characterization of the LIPH mode of action and confirm the crucial role of LIPH in hair production. PMID:22272275

  17. A review of adipocyte lineage cells and dermal papilla cells in hair follicle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peipei; Kling, Russell E; Ravuri, Sudheer K; Kokai, Lauren E; Rubin, J Peter; Chai, Jia-ke

    2014-01-01

    Alopecia is an exceedingly prevalent problem effecting men and women of all ages. The standard of care for alopecia involves either transplanting existing hair follicles to bald areas or attempting to stimulate existing follicles with topical and/or oral medication. Yet, these treatment options are fraught with problems of cost, side effects, and, most importantly, inadequate long-term hair coverage. Innovative cell-based therapies have focused on the dermal papilla cell as a way to grow new hair in previously bald areas. However, despite this attention, many obstacles exist, including retention of dermal papilla inducing ability and maintenance of dermal papilla productivity after several passages of culture. The use of adipocyte lineage cells, including adipose-derived stem cells, has shown promise as a cell-based solution to regulate hair regeneration and may help in maintaining or increasing dermal papilla cells inducing hair ability. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the understanding of the cellular contribution and regulation of dermal papilla cells and summarize adipocyte lineage cells in hair regeneration. PMID:25383178

  18. Prostaglandin D2 inhibits wound-induced hair follicle neogenesis through the receptor, Gpr44.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Amanda M; Loy, Dorothy E; Lawson, John A; Katseff, Adiya S; Fitzgerald, Garret A; Garza, Luis A

    2013-04-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are key inflammatory mediators involved in wound healing and regulating hair growth; however, their role in skin regeneration after injury is unknown. Using wound-induced hair follicle neogenesis (WIHN) as a marker of skin regeneration, we hypothesized that PGD2 decreases follicle neogenesis. PGE2 and PGD2 were elevated early and late, respectively, during wound healing. The levels of WIHN, lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase (Ptgds), and its product PGD2 each varied significantly among background strains of mice after wounding, and all correlated such that the highest Ptgds and PGD2 levels were associated with the lowest amount of regeneration. In addition, an alternatively spliced transcript variant of Ptgds missing exon 3 correlated with high regeneration in mice. Exogenous application of PGD2 decreased WIHN in wild-type mice, and PGD2 receptor Gpr44-null mice showed increased WIHN compared with strain-matched control mice. Furthermore, Gpr44-null mice were resistant to PGD2-induced inhibition of follicle neogenesis. In all, these findings demonstrate that PGD2 inhibits hair follicle regeneration through the Gpr44 receptor and imply that inhibition of PGD2 production or Gpr44 signaling will promote skin regeneration. PMID:23190891

  19. Prostaglandin D2 inhibits wound-induced hair follicle neogenesis through the receptor, Gpr44

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Amanda M.; Loy, Dorothy E.; Lawson, John A.; Katseff, Adiya S.; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Garza, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are key inflammatory mediators involved in wound healing and regulating hair growth; however, their role in skin regeneration after injury is unknown. Using wound-induced hair follicle neogenesis (WIHN) as a marker of skin regeneration, we hypothesized that PGD2 decreases follicle neogenesis. PGE2 and PGD2 were elevated early and late respectively during wound healing. The levels of WIHN, lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase (Ptgds) and its product PGD2 each varied significantly among background strains of mice after wounding and all correlated such that the highest Ptgds and PGD2 levels were associated with the lowest amount of regeneration. Additionally, an alternatively spliced transcript variant of Ptgds missing exon 3 correlated with high regeneration in mice. Exogenous application of PGD2 decreased WIHN in wild type mice and PGD2 receptor Gpr44 null mice showed increased WIHN compared to strain-matched control mice. Furthermore, Gpr44 null mice were resistant to PGD2-induced inhibition of follicle neogenesis. In all, these findings demonstrate that PGD2 inhibits hair follicle regeneration through the Gpr44 receptor and imply that inhibition of PGD2 production or Gpr44 signaling will promote skin regeneration. PMID:23190891

  20. Delivery and targeting of nanoparticles into hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chia-Lang; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Li, Yi-Ching; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that nanoparticles used for follicular delivery provide some advantages over conventional pathways, including improved skin bioavailability, enhanced penetration depth, prolonged residence duration, fast transport into the skin and tissue targeting. This review describes recent developments using nanotechnology approaches for drug delivery into the follicles. Different types of nanosystems may be employed for management of follicular permeation, such as polymeric nanoparticles, metallic nanocrystals, liposomes, and lipid nanoparticles. This review systematically introduces the mechanisms of follicles for nanoparticulate penetration, highlighting the therapeutic potential of drug-loaded nanoparticles for treating skin diseases. Special attention is paid to the use of nanoparticles in treating appendage-related disorders, in particular, nanomedical strategies for treating alopecia, acne, and transcutaneous immunization. PMID:25375342

  1. Planar polarization in embryonic epidermis orchestrates global asymmetric morphogenesis of hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Devenport, Danelle; Fuchs, Elaine

    2008-11-01

    Mammalian body hairs align along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis and offer a striking but poorly understood example of global cell polarization, a phenomenon known as planar cell polarity (PCP). We have discovered that during embryogenesis, marked changes in cell shape and cytoskeletal polarization occur as nascent hair follicles become anteriorly angled, morphologically polarized and molecularly compartmentalized along the A-P axis. Hair follicle initiation coincides with asymmetric redistribution of Vangl2, Celsr1 and Fzd6 within the embryonic epidermal basal layer. Moreover, loss-of-function mutations in Vangl2 and Celsr1 show that they have an essential role in hair follicle polarization and orientation, which develop in part through non-autonomous mechanisms. Vangl2 and Celsr1 are both required for their planar localization in vivo, and physically associate in a complex in vitro. Finally, we provide in vitro evidence that homotypic intracellular interactions of Celsr1 are required to recruit Vangl2 and Fzd6 to sites of cell-cell contact. PMID:18849982

  2. Keratin network modifications lead to the mechanical stiffening of the hair follicle fiber

    PubMed Central

    Bornschlögl, Thomas; Bildstein, Lucien; Thibaut, Sébastien; Santoprete, Roberto; Fiat, Françoise; Luengo, Gustavo S.; Doucet, Jean; Bernard, Bruno A.; Baghdadli, Nawel

    2016-01-01

    The complex mechanical properties of biomaterials such as hair, horn, skin, or bone are determined by the architecture of the underlying fibrous bionetworks. Although much is known about the influence of the cytoskeleton on the mechanics of isolated cells, this has been less studied in tridimensional tissues. We used the hair follicle as a model to link changes in the keratin network composition and architecture to the mechanical properties of the nascent hair. We show using atomic force microscopy that the soft keratinocyte matrix at the base of the follicle stiffens by a factor of ∼360, from 30 kPa to 11 MPa along the first millimeter of the follicle. The early mechanical stiffening is concomitant to an increase in diameter of the keratin macrofibrils, their continuous compaction, and increasingly parallel orientation. The related stiffening of the material follows a power law, typical of the mechanics of nonthermal bending-dominated fiber networks. In addition, we used X-ray diffraction to monitor changes in the (supra)molecular organization within the keratin fibers. At later keratinization stages, the inner mechanical properties of the macrofibrils dominate the stiffening due to the progressive setting up of the cystine network. Our findings corroborate existing models on the sequence of biological and structural events during hair keratinization. PMID:27162354

  3. Reinnervation of hair follicle end organs and Meissner Corpuscles in skin grafts of Macaques.

    PubMed

    Uno, H; Montagna, W

    1982-03-01

    Plugs of occipital hairy scalp and pieces of digital pads were transplanted to the frontal scalp of stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides). Both types of grafts grew well and retained their original appearance for several years. We traced the regrowth and reinnervation of hair follicles and Meissner corpuscles in sequential biopsy specimens of these grafts. Two weeks after transplantation, hair follicles in the grafts appeared to have lost all integrity but began to regrow after 4 weeks. The nerve and organs of hair follicles began to reappear at 8 weeks. Thereafter, grafts with large terminal hairs remained viable in the host bald frontal scalp for as long as 8 yr. In the digital skin grafts, the cytoskeleton of the Meissner corpuscles could be distinguished after 4 weeks; after 8 weeks nerves from the host tissue could be traced to the end organs. Perivascular nerve plexuses and nerves to the piloerector muscles were clearly seen in both types of graft after 8 weeks. PMID:7035577

  4. Keratin network modifications lead to the mechanical stiffening of the hair follicle fiber.

    PubMed

    Bornschlögl, Thomas; Bildstein, Lucien; Thibaut, Sébastien; Santoprete, Roberto; Fiat, Françoise; Luengo, Gustavo S; Doucet, Jean; Bernard, Bruno A; Baghdadli, Nawel

    2016-05-24

    The complex mechanical properties of biomaterials such as hair, horn, skin, or bone are determined by the architecture of the underlying fibrous bionetworks. Although much is known about the influence of the cytoskeleton on the mechanics of isolated cells, this has been less studied in tridimensional tissues. We used the hair follicle as a model to link changes in the keratin network composition and architecture to the mechanical properties of the nascent hair. We show using atomic force microscopy that the soft keratinocyte matrix at the base of the follicle stiffens by a factor of ∼360, from 30 kPa to 11 MPa along the first millimeter of the follicle. The early mechanical stiffening is concomitant to an increase in diameter of the keratin macrofibrils, their continuous compaction, and increasingly parallel orientation. The related stiffening of the material follows a power law, typical of the mechanics of nonthermal bending-dominated fiber networks. In addition, we used X-ray diffraction to monitor changes in the (supra)molecular organization within the keratin fibers. At later keratinization stages, the inner mechanical properties of the macrofibrils dominate the stiffening due to the progressive setting up of the cystine network. Our findings corroborate existing models on the sequence of biological and structural events during hair keratinization. PMID:27162354

  5. Exogenous R-Spondin1 Induces Precocious Telogen-to-Anagen Transition in Mouse Hair Follicles.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Liu, Shu; Zhang, Hui-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Li; Zhao, Hua-Shan; Zhao, Qian; Lei, Xiao-Hua; Ning, Li-Na; Cao, Yu-Jing; Wang, Hai-Bin; Liu, Shuang; Duan, En-Kui

    2016-01-01

    R-spondin proteins are novel Wnt/β-catenin agonists, which signal through their receptors leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor (LGR) 4/5/6 and substantially enhance Wnt/β-catenin activity. R-spondins are reported to function in embryonic development. They also play important roles in stem cell functions in adult tissues, such as the intestine and mammary glands, which largely rely on Wnt/β-catenin signaling. However, in the skin epithelium and hair follicles, the information about R-spondins is deficient, although the expressions and functions of their receptors, LGR4/5/6, have already been studied in detail. In the present study, highly-enriched expression of the R-spondin family genes (Rspo1/2/3/4) in the hair follicle dermal papilla is revealed. Expression of Rspo1 in the dermal papilla is specifically and prominently upregulated before anagen entry, and exogenous recombinant R-spondin1 protein injection in mid-telogen leads to precocious anagen entry. Moreover, R-spondin1 activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling in cultured bulge stem cells in vitro, changing their fate determination without altering the cell proliferation. Our pioneering study uncovers a role of R-spondin1 in the activation of cultured hair follicle stem cells and the regulation of hair cycle progression, shedding new light on the governance of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in skin biology and providing helpful clues for future treatment of hair follicle disorders. PMID:27104524

  6. Exogenous R-Spondin1 Induces Precocious Telogen-to-Anagen Transition in Mouse Hair Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Na; Liu, Shu; Zhang, Hui-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Li; Zhao, Hua-Shan; Zhao, Qian; Lei, Xiao-Hua; Ning, Li-Na; Cao, Yu-Jing; Wang, Hai-Bin; Liu, Shuang; Duan, En-Kui

    2016-01-01

    R-spondin proteins are novel Wnt/β-catenin agonists, which signal through their receptors leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor (LGR) 4/5/6 and substantially enhance Wnt/β-catenin activity. R-spondins are reported to function in embryonic development. They also play important roles in stem cell functions in adult tissues, such as the intestine and mammary glands, which largely rely on Wnt/β-catenin signaling. However, in the skin epithelium and hair follicles, the information about R-spondins is deficient, although the expressions and functions of their receptors, LGR4/5/6, have already been studied in detail. In the present study, highly-enriched expression of the R-spondin family genes (Rspo1/2/3/4) in the hair follicle dermal papilla is revealed. Expression of Rspo1 in the dermal papilla is specifically and prominently upregulated before anagen entry, and exogenous recombinant R-spondin1 protein injection in mid-telogen leads to precocious anagen entry. Moreover, R-spondin1 activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling in cultured bulge stem cells in vitro, changing their fate determination without altering the cell proliferation. Our pioneering study uncovers a role of R-spondin1 in the activation of cultured hair follicle stem cells and the regulation of hair cycle progression, shedding new light on the governance of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in skin biology and providing helpful clues for future treatment of hair follicle disorders. PMID:27104524

  7. Transcriptome Sequencing Reveals Differences between Primary and Secondary Hair Follicle-derived Dermal Papilla Cells of the Cashmere Goat (Capra hircus)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jianlong; Guo, Xudong; Liu, Dongjun

    2013-01-01

    The dermal papilla is thought to establish the character and control the size of hair follicles. Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats (Capra hircus) have a double coat comprising the primary and secondary hair follicles, which have dramatically different sizes and textures. The Cashmere goat is rapidly becoming a potent model for hair follicle morphogenesis research. In this study, we established two dermal papilla cell lines during the anagen phase of the hair growth cycle from the primary and secondary hair follicles and clarified the similarities and differences in their morphology and growth characteristics. High-throughput transcriptome sequencing was used to identify gene expression differences between the two dermal papilla cell lines. Many of the differentially expressed genes are involved in vascularization, ECM-receptor interaction and Wnt/β-catenin/Lef1 signaling pathways, which intimately associated with hair follicle morphogenesis. These findings provide valuable information for research on postnatal morphogenesis of hair follicles. PMID:24069460

  8. Biology of the eyelash hair follicle: an enigma in plain sight.

    PubMed

    Paus, R; Burgoa, I; Platt, C I; Griffiths, T; Poblet, E; Izeta, A

    2016-04-01

    Because of their crucial impact on our perception of beauty, eyelashes constitute a prime target for the cosmetic industry. However, when compared with other hair shafts and the mini-organs that produce them [eyelash hair follicles (ELHFs)], knowledge on the biology underlying growth and pigmentation of eyelashes is still rudimentary. This is due in part to the extremely restricted availability of human ELHFs for experimental study, underappreciation of their important sensory and protective functions and insufficient interest in understanding why they are distinct from scalp hair follicles (HFs) (e.g. ELHFs produce shorter hair shafts, do not possess an arrector pili muscle, have a shorter hair cycle and undergo greying significantly later than scalp HFs). Here we synthesize the limited current knowledge on the biology of ELHFs, in humans and other species, their role in health and disease, the known similarities with and differences from other HF populations, and their intrinsic interethnic variations. We define major open questions in the biology of these intriguing mini-organs and conclude by proposing future research directions. These include dissecting the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie trichomegaly and the development of in vitro models in order to interrogate the distinct molecular controls of ELHF growth, cycling and pigmentation and to probe novel strategies for the therapeutic and cosmetic manipulation of ELHFs beyond prostaglandin receptor stimulation. PMID:26452071

  9. iRhom2 (Uncv) mutation blocks bulge stem cells assuming the fate of hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Yang, Leilei; Li, Wenlong; Liu, Bing; Wang, Shaoxia; Zeng, Lin; Zhang, Cuiping; Li, Yang

    2016-09-01

    iRhom2 is necessary for maturation of TNFα-converting enzyme, which is required for the release of tumor necrosis factor. In the previous study, we found that the iRhom2 (Uncv) mutation in N-terminal cytoplasmic domain-encoding region (iRhom2 (Uncv) ) leads to aberrant hair shaft and inner root sheath differentiation, thus results in a hairless phenotype in homozygous iRhom2 (Uncv/Uncv) BALB/c mice. In this study, we found iRhom2 mutation decreased hair matrix proliferation, however, iRhom2 (Uncv/Uncv) mice displayed hyperproliferation and hyperkeratosis in the interfollicular epidermis along with hypertrophy in the sebaceous glands. The number of bulge SCs was not altered and the hair follicle cycle is normal in iRhom2 (Uncv/Uncv) mice. The decreased proliferation in hair matrix but increased proliferation in epidermis and sebaceous glands in iRhom2 (Uncv/Uncv) mice may implying that iRhom2 (Uncv) mutation blocks bugle stem cells assuming the fate of hair follicle. This study identifies iRhom2 as a novel regulator for determination of keratinocyte lineages. PMID:27393687

  10. Cyclosporine A stimulated hair growth from mouse vibrissae follicles in an organ culture model

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenrong; Fan, Weixin; Yao, Kun

    2012-01-01

    Hypertrichosis is one of the most common side effects of systemic cyclosporine A therapy. It has been previously shown that cyclosporine A induces anagen and inhibits catagen development in mice. In the present study, to explore the mechanisms of cyclosporine A, we investigated the effects of cyclosporine A on hair shaft elongation, hair follicle cell proliferation, apoptosis, and mRNA expression of selected growth factors using an organ culture model of mouse vibrissae. In this model, cyclosporine A stimulated hair growth of normal mouse vibrissae follicles by inhibiting catagen-like development and promoting matrix cell proliferation. In addition, cyclosporine A caused an increase in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and nerve growth factor (NGF), and inhibited follistatin expression. Our findings provide an explanation for the clinically observed effects of cyclosporine A on hair growth. The mouse vibrissae organ culture offers an attractive model for identifying factors involved in the modulation of hair growth. PMID:23554774

  11. Permeation of topically applied Magnesium ions through human skin is facilitated by hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Navin Chandrakanth; Sanchez, Washington Y; Mohammed, Yousuf H; Grice, Jeffrey E; Roberts, Michael S; Barnard, Ross T

    2016-06-01

    Magnesium is an important micronutrient essential for various biological processes and its deficiency has been linked to several inflammatory disorders in humans. Topical magnesium delivery is one of the oldest forms of therapy for skin diseases, for example Dead Sea therapy and Epsom salt baths. Some anecdotal evidence and a few published reports have attributed amelioration of inflammatory skin conditions to the topical application of magnesium. On the other hand, transport of magnesium ions across the protective barrier of skin, the stratum corneum, is contentious. Our primary aim in this study was to estimate the extent of magnesium ion permeation through human skin and the role of hair follicles in facilitating the permeation. Upon topical application of magnesium solution, we found that magnesium penetrates through human stratum corneum and it depends on concentration and time of exposure. We also found that hair follicles make a significant contribution to magnesium penetration. PMID:27624531

  12. Adeno-associated virus expresses transgenes in hair follicles and epidermis.

    PubMed

    Hengge, U R; Mirmohammadsadegh, A

    2000-09-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are nonpathogenic, integrating DNA vectors capable of transducing dividing and nondividing cells with the potential of long-term expression. Evaluating this interesting vector system in the skin for the first time, we found that an AAV vector containing the lacZ gene (AAVlacZ) led to the expression of beta-galactosidase for more than 6 weeks following in vivo injection. Interestingly, expression was present not only in dividing and postmitotic epidermal keratinocytes but also in hair follicle epithelial cells and eccrine sweat glands. However, expression upon readministration was limited. Functional studies in swine using human erythropoietin were hampered by immunogenicity. Thus, AAV seems to be the only vector to date that efficiently targets hair follicle epithelial cells. It may also be useful when longer term expression in keratinocytes than that achievable by direct injection of plasmid DNA is desired. PMID:10985948

  13. The effect of parathyroid hormones on hair follicle physiology: implications for treatment of chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Skrok, Anna; Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Skwarek, Agata; Popow, Michał; Rudnicka, Lidia; Olszewska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) influence hair follicles through paracrine and intracrine routes. There is significant evidence that PTH and PTHrP influence the proliferation and differentiation of hair follicle cells. The PTH/PTHrP receptor signalling plays an important role in the hair follicle cycle and may induce premature catagen-telogen transition. Transgenic mice with an overexpression or blockade (PTH/PTHrP receptor knockout mice) of PTHrP activity revealed impaired or increased hair growth, respectively. Some findings also suggest that PTHrP may additionally influence the hair cycle by inhibiting angiogenesis. Antagonists of the PTH/PTHrP receptor have been shown to stimulate proliferation of hair follicle cells and hair growth. A hair-stimulating effect of a PTH/PTHrP receptor antagonist applied topically to the skin has been observed in hairless mice, as well as in mice treated with cyclophosphamide. These data indicate that the PTH/PTHrP receptor may serve as a potential target for new (topical) hair growth-stimulating drugs, especially for chemotherapy-induced alopecia. PMID:25721772

  14. Hair follicle aging is driven by transepidermal elimination of stem cells via COL17A1 proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Hiroyuki; Mohri, Yasuaki; Binh, Nguyen Thanh; Morinaga, Hironobu; Fukuda, Makoto; Ito, Mayumi; Kurata, Sotaro; Hoeijmakers, Jan; Nishimura, Emi K

    2016-02-01

    Hair thinning and loss are prominent aging phenotypes but have an unknown mechanism. We show that hair follicle stem cell (HFSC) aging causes the stepwise miniaturization of hair follicles and eventual hair loss in wild-type mice and in humans. In vivo fate analysis of HFSCs revealed that the DNA damage response in HFSCs causes proteolysis of type XVII collagen (COL17A1/BP180), a critical molecule for HFSC maintenance, to trigger HFSC aging, characterized by the loss of stemness signatures and by epidermal commitment. Aged HFSCs are cyclically eliminated from the skin through terminal epidermal differentiation, thereby causing hair follicle miniaturization. The aging process can be recapitulated by Col17a1 deficiency and prevented by the forced maintenance of COL17A1 in HFSCs, demonstrating that COL17A1 in HFSCs orchestrates the stem cell-centric aging program of the epithelial mini-organ. PMID:26912707

  15. Foxp1 Regulates the Proliferation of Hair Follicle Stem Cells in Response to Oxidative Stress during Hair Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jianzhi; Li, Hanjun; Zhou, Rujiang; Ma, Gang; Dekker, Joseph D.; Tucker, Haley O.; Yao, Zhengju; Guo, Xizhi

    2015-01-01

    Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) in the bugle circularly generate outer root sheath (ORS) through linear proliferation within limited cycles during anagen phases. However, the mechanisms controlling the pace of HFSC proliferation remain unclear. Here we revealed that Foxp1, a transcriptional factor, was dynamically relocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of HFSCs in phase transitions from anagen to catagen, coupled with the rise of oxidative stress. Mass spectrum analyses revealed that the S468 phosphorylation of Foxp1 protein was responsive to oxidative stress and affected its nucleocytoplasmic translocation. Foxp1 deficiency in hair follicles led to compromised ROS accrual and increased HFSC proliferation. And more, NAC treatment profoundly elongated the anagen duration and HFSC proliferation in Foxp1-deficient background. Molecularly, Foxp1 augmented ROS levels through suppression of Trx1-mediated reductive function, thereafter imposing the cell cycle arrest by modulating the activity of p19/p53 pathway. Our findings identify a novel role for Foxp1 in controlling HFSC proliferation with cellular dynamic location in response to oxidative stress during hair cycling. PMID:26171970

  16. Chitosan nanoparticles for targeting and sustaining minoxidil sulphate delivery to hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Matos, Breno Noronha; Reis, Thaiene Avila; Gratieri, Taís; Gelfuso, Guilherme Martins

    2015-04-01

    This work developed minoxidil sulphate-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (MXS-NP) for targeted delivery to hair follicles, which could sustain drug release and improve the topical treatment of alopecia. Chitosan nanoparticles were obtained using low-molecular weight chitosan and tripolyphosphate as crosslink agent. MXS-NP presented a monomodal distribution with hydrodynamic diameter of 235.5 ± 99.9 nm (PDI of 0.31 ± 0.01) and positive zeta potential (+38.6 ± 6.0 mV). SEM analysis confirmed nanoparticles average size and spherical shape. A drug loading efficiency of 73.0 ± 0.3% was obtained with polymer:drug ratio of 1:1 (w/w). Drug release through cellulose acetate membranes from MXS-NP was sustained in about 5 times in comparison to the diffusion rate of MXS from the solution (188.9 ± 6.0 μg/cm(2)/h and 35.4 ± 1.8 μg/cm(2)/h). Drug permeation studies through the skin in vitro, followed by selective recovery of MXS from the hair follicles, showed that MXS-NP application resulted in a two-fold MXS increase into hair follicles after 6h in comparison to the control solution (5.9 ± 0.6 μg/cm(2) and 2.9 ± 0.8 μg/cm(2)). MXS-loading in nanoparticles appears as a promising and easy strategy to target and sustain drug delivery to hair follicles, which may improve the topical treatment of alopecia. PMID:25647618

  17. Microdissection and visualization of individual hair follicles for lineage tracing studies.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, Inês; Legué, Emilie; Capgras, Suzanne; Nicolas, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    In vivo lineage tracing is a valuable technique to study cellular behavior. Our lab developed a lineage tracing method, based on the Cre/lox system, to genetically induce clonal labelling of cells and follow their progeny. Here we describe a protocol for temporally controlled clonal labelling and for microdissection of individual mouse hair follicles. We further present staining and visualization techniques used in our lab to analyze clones issued from genetically induced labelling. PMID:24281870

  18. Cyclosporine A increases hair follicle growth by suppressing apoptosis-inducing factor nuclear translocation: a new mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lan, Shaowei; Liu, Feilin; Zhao, Guifang; Zhou, Tong; Wu, Chunling; Kou, Junna; Fan, Ruirui; Qi, Xiaojuan; Li, Yahui; Jiang, Yixu; Bai, Tingting; Li, Pengdong; Liu, Li; Hao, Deshun; Zhang, Lihong; Li, Yulin; Liu, Jin Yu

    2015-04-01

    Cyclosporine A (CsA) enhances hair growth through caspase-dependent pathways by retarding anagen-to-catagen phase transition in the hair follicle growth cycle. Whether apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), a protein that induces caspase-independent apoptosis, can regulate the hair follicle cycle in response to CsA is currently unclear. Here, we show that the pro-hair growth properties of CsA are in part due to blockage of AIF nuclear translocation. We first isolate hair follicles from murine dorsal skin. We then used Western blot, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence to evaluate the expression and localization of AIF in hair follicles. We also determined whether modulation of AIF was responsible for the effects of CsA at the anagen-to-catagen transition. AIF was expressed in hair follicles during the anagen, catagen and telogen phases. There was significant nuclear translocation of AIF as hair follicles transitioned from anagen to late catagen phase; this was inhibited by CsA, likely due to reduced cyclophilin A expression and attenuated AIF release from mitochondria. However, we note that AIF translocation was not completely eliminated, which likely explains why the transition to catagen phase was severely retarded by CsA, rather than being completely inhibited. We speculate that blockade of the AIF signalling pathway is a critical event required for CsA-dependent promotion of hair growth in mice. The study of AIF-related signalling pathways may provide insight into hair diseases and suggest potential novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:25619112

  19. Hair follicle: a reliable source of recipient origin after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hong, Y C; Liu, H M; Chen, P S; Chen, Y J; Lyou, J Y; Hu, H Y; Yi, M F; Lin, J S; Tzeng, C-H

    2007-11-01

    Blood, buccal swab and hair follicles are among the most commonly used sources for forensic science, parentage testing and personal identification. A total of 29 patients who have had a sustained engraftment from 15 months to 21.5 years after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) without rejection, relapse or chronic GVHD involving oral mucosa were enrolled for a chimerism study. PCR-amplified short tandem repeat analyses were conducted per patient every 3 months for at least three consecutive times. The results for blood were all donor type except one who had a mixed chimerism, 14.5 years after receiving a transplant for lymphoma. As for buccal swab, mixed chimerism ranging from 10 to 96% donor origin was noted for 28 recipients except the one who had mixed chimerism of blood and retained total recipient type. In contrast, hair follicles were 100% recipient type for the entire group. It is concluded that the hair follicle is devoid of adult stem cell plasticity and may serve as a reliable source of recipient's origin when pre-transplant DNA fingerprinting or reference DNA is not available for people who have successfully received allogeneic HSCT while in need of a personal identification. PMID:17704789

  20. Hair Follicle Dermal Sheath Derived Cells Improve Islet Allograft Survival without Systemic Immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaojie; Hao, Jianqiang; Leung, Gigi; Breitkopf, Trisia; Wang, Eddy; Kwong, Nicole; Akhoundsadegh, Noushin; Warnock, Garth L.; Shapiro, Jerry; McElwee, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs successfully prevent rejection of islet allografts in the treatment of type I diabetes. However, the drugs also suppress systemic immunity increasing the risk of opportunistic infection and cancer development in allograft recipients. In this study, we investigated a new treatment for autoimmune diabetes using naturally immune privileged, hair follicle derived, autologous cells to provide localized immune protection of islet allotransplants. Islets from Balb/c mouse donors were cotransplanted with syngeneic hair follicle dermal sheath cup cells (DSCC, group 1) or fibroblasts (FB, group 2) under the kidney capsule of immune-competent, streptozotocin induced, diabetic C57BL/6 recipients. Group 1 allografts survived significantly longer than group 2 (32.2 ± 12.2 versus 14.1 ± 3.3 days, P < 0.001) without administration of any systemic immunosuppressive agents. DSCC reduced T cell activation in the renal lymph node, prevented graft infiltrates, modulated inflammatory chemokine and cytokine profiles, and preserved better beta cell function in the islet allografts, but no systemic immunosuppression was observed. In summary, DSCC prolong islet allograft survival without systemic immunosuppression by local modulation of alloimmune responses, enhancing of beta cell survival, and promoting of graft revascularization. This novel finding demonstrates the capacity of easily accessible hair follicle cells to be used as local immunosuppression agents in islet transplantation. PMID:26000314

  1. Whisker-like sensors with tunable follicle sinus complex for underwater applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia y Alvarado, Pablo; Bhat, Sriharsha

    2014-03-01

    In this study we present the design, analysis, and experimental validation of a tunable follicle-sinus complex (FSC) unit for whisker-like sensors. The tunable FSC unit displays variable viscoelasticity enabled by a dielectric elastomer (DE) mechanism. Our previous studies on whisker-like sensors for underwater applications have shown the dependence between both static and dynamic sensor performance and FSC material properties. Variations in FSC modulus and viscosity affect its effective stiffness and damping and in turn the sensitivity and range of the sensors. A new FSC design is presented that uses a DE mechanism to tune the effective stiffness and damping of the follicle region. A model to better predict the resulting sensitivity and measurement range is described. The model accounts for the viscoelastic of the FSC components, pre-loading of the FSK volume, and stiffness ratios between the sensor whisker-like shaft and the FSC region. The changes in both the stiffness and damping of the whisker-like sensors are characterized experimentally using loading and impulse tests and compared with model estimates.

  2. The HOXC13-controlled expression of early hair keratin genes in the human hair follicle does not involve TALE proteins MEIS and PREP as cofactors.

    PubMed

    Jave-Suárez, Luis Felipe; Schweizer, Jürgen

    2006-02-01

    We previously showed that the homeodomain protein HOXC13 is involved in the expression control of the early human hair keratin genes hHa5 and hHa2, which contain specific HOXC13 binding sites in their proximal promoters. Hox specificity is generally thought to be enhanced by the interaction with members of the TALE superclass of homeodomain proteins Pbx, Meis, and Prep. Using reverse transcription PCR with total human hair follicle RNA, we demonstrated transcripts of the major TALE proteins PBX1-4, MEIS1, 2 and PREP1, 2 in the human hair follicle. In view of the presence of MEIS/PREP responsive elements in close vicinity to the HOXC13 binding sites of the hHa5 and hHa2 promoters, we determined the expression sites of these TALE proteins in the human hair follicle. We found that MEIS1, MEIS2, PREP1 and PREP2 were differentially expressed in the three layers of the inner root sheath. In addition, MEIS2 and PREP1 exhibited expression in the mid-to upper hair cortex, with PREP1 being also expressed in the dermal papilla and the connective tissue sheath of the hair follicle. In virtually all cases, the expression of these TALE proteins was exclusively cytoplasmic. Considering that in contrast, HOXC13 is expressed in the nuclei of matrix, precortex and lower cuticle cells of the hair follicle, our data suggest that despite the presence of MEIS/PREP binding sites in the hHa5 and hHa2 promoters, the HOXC13-controlled activation of these genes in the hair follicle does not seem to involve these TALE proteins as cofactors. PMID:16292560

  3. Hair matrix germinative epidermal cells confer follicle-inducing capabilities on dermal sheath and high passage papilla cells.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, A J; Jahoda, C A

    1996-10-01

    Low passage cultured dermal papilla cells from adult rats stimulate complete hair follicle neogenesis when re-implanted into heterotypic skin. In contrast, cultured sheath cells are non-inductive despite sharing other behavioural characteristics (a common lineage and in situ proximity) with papilla cells. However, since sheath cells can behave inductively in amputated follicles after regenerating the papilla, this poses the question of what influences the sheath to papilla cell transition? During reciprocal tissue interactions specific epidermal cues are crucial to skin appendage development, and while in vivo assays to date have focussed on dermal interactive influence, our aim was to investigate epidermal potential. We have previously observed that hair follicle epidermal cells display exceptional interactive behaviour when combined with follicle dermal cells in vitro. Thus in the present study, hair follicle germinative, outer root sheath or skin basal epidermal cells were separately combined with each of three non-inductive dermal cell types (high passage papilla, low passage sheath or fibroblast) and then implanted into small ear skin wounds. The sheath/germinative and papilla/germinative cell implants repeatedly induced giant vibrissa-type follicles and fibres. In complete contrast, any single cell type and all other forms of recombination were consistently non-inductive. Hence, the adult germinative epidermal cells enable non-inductive adult dermal cells to stimulate hair follicle neogenesis, effectively, by altering their 'status', causing the sheath cells to 'specialise' and the 'aged' papilla cells to 'rejuvenate'. PMID:8898222

  4. Hair follicle-derived IL-7 and IL-15 mediate skin-resident memory T cell homeostasis and lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Takeya; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Sugihara, Eiji; Yamada, Taketo; Ikuta, Koichi; Pittaluga, Stefania; Saya, Hideyuki; Amagai, Masayuki; Nagao, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    The skin harbors a variety of resident leukocyte subsets that must be tightly regulated to maintain immune homeostasis. Hair follicles are unique structures in the skin that contribute to skin dendritic cell homeostasis via chemokine production. We demonstrate that CD4+ and CD8+ skin resident memory T cells (TRM), responsible for long-term skin immunity, resided predominantly within the hair follicle epithelium of unperturbed epidermis. TRM tropism for the epidermis and follicles was herein termed epidermotropism. Hair follicle-derived IL-15 was required for CD8+ TRM, and IL-7 for CD8+ and CD4+ TRM, to exert epidermotropism. The lack of either cytokine impaired hapten-induced contact hypersensitivity responses. In a model of cutaneous T cell lymphoma, epidermotropic CD4+ TRM lymphoma cell localization depended on hair follicle-derived IL-7. These findings implicate hair follicle-derived cytokines as regulators of malignant and non-malignant TRM cell tissue residence and suggest they may be targeted therapeutically in inflammatory skin disease and lymphoma. PMID:26479922

  5. Ageing and colony-forming efficiency of human hair follicle keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Lecardonnel, Jennifer; Deshayes, Nathalie; Genty, Gaïanne; Parent, Nathalie; Bernard, Bruno A; Rathman-Josserand, Michelle; Paris, Maryline

    2013-09-01

    The decline of tissue regenerative potential of skin and hair is a hallmark of physiological ageing and may be associated with age-related changes in tissue-specific stem cells and/or their environment. Human hair follicles (hHF) contain keratinocytes having the property of stem cells such as clonogenic potential. Growth capacity of hHF keratinocytes shows that most of the colony-forming cells are classified as holoclones, meroclones or paraclones when analysed in a clonal assay (Cell, Volume 76, page 1063). Despite the well-known impact of ageing on human hair growth, little is known about changes in hHF keratinocyte clonogenic potential with age. This study aimed at assessing the clone-forming efficiency (CFE) of hHF keratinocytes from three age groups of human donors. It demonstrates that ageing affects hHF keratinocyte CFE. PMID:23947676

  6. Treatment of MSCs with Wnt1a-conditioned medium activates DP cells and promotes hair follicle regrowth

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Liang; Hao, Haojie; Xia, Lei; Liu, Jiejie; Ti, Dongdong; Tong, Chuan; Hou, Qian; Han, Qingwang; Zhao, Yali; Liu, Huiling; Fu, Xiaobing; Han, Weidong

    2014-01-01

    Hair loss (alopecia) is a common problem for people. The dermal papilla is the key signaling center that regulates hair growth and it engage in crosstalk with the microenvironment, including Wnt signaling and stem cells. In this study, we explored the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell overexpression of Wnt1a on mouse hair follicle regeneration. Wnt-CM accelerated hair follicle progression from telogen to anagen and enhanced the ALP expression in the DP area. Moreover, the hair induction-related genes were upregulated, as demonstrated by qRT-PCR. Wnt-CM treatment restored and increased DP cell expression of genes downregulated by dihydrotestosterone treatment, as demonstrated by qRT-PCR assays. Our study reveals that BM-MSC-generated Wnt1a promotes the DP's ability to induce hair cycling and regeneration. PMID:24961246

  7. Treatment of MSCs with Wnt1a-conditioned medium activates DP cells and promotes hair follicle regrowth.

    PubMed

    Dong, Liang; Hao, Haojie; Xia, Lei; Liu, Jiejie; Ti, Dongdong; Tong, Chuan; Hou, Qian; Han, Qingwang; Zhao, Yali; Liu, Huiling; Fu, Xiaobing; Han, Weidong

    2014-01-01

    Hair loss (alopecia) is a common problem for people. The dermal papilla is the key signaling center that regulates hair growth and it engage in crosstalk with the microenvironment, including Wnt signaling and stem cells. In this study, we explored the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell overexpression of Wnt1a on mouse hair follicle regeneration. Wnt-CM accelerated hair follicle progression from telogen to anagen and enhanced the ALP expression in the DP area. Moreover, the hair induction-related genes were upregulated, as demonstrated by qRT-PCR. Wnt-CM treatment restored and increased DP cell expression of genes downregulated by dihydrotestosterone treatment, as demonstrated by qRT-PCR assays. Our study reveals that BM-MSC-generated Wnt1a promotes the DP's ability to induce hair cycling and regeneration. PMID:24961246

  8. miR-24 affects hair follicle morphogenesis targeting Tcf-3.

    PubMed

    Amelio, I; Lena, A M; Bonanno, E; Melino, G; Candi, E

    2013-01-01

    During embryonic development, hair follicles (HFs) develop from an epidermal-mesenchymal cross talk between the ectoderm progenitor layer and the underlying dermis. Epidermal stem cell activation represents a crucial point both for HF morphogenesis and for hair regeneration. miR-24 is an anti-proliferative microRNA (miRNA), which is induced during differentiation of several cellular systems including the epidermis. Here, we show that miR-24 is expressed in the HF and has a role in hair morphogenesis. We generated transgenic mice ectopically expressing miR-24 under the K5 promoter. The K5::miR-24 animals display a marked defect in HF morphogenesis, with thinning of hair coat and altered HF structure. Expression of miR-24 alters the normal process of hair keratinocyte differentiation, leading to altered expression of differentiation markers. MiR-24 directly represses the hair keratinocyte stemness regulator Tcf-3. These results support the notion that microRNAs, and among them miR-24, have an important role in postnatal epidermal homeostasis. PMID:24232098

  9. Hair follicle melanocyte precursors are awoken by ultraviolet radiation via a cell extrinsic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Blake; Kunisada, Takahiro; Aoki, Hitomi; Handoko, Herlina Y; Walker, Graeme J

    2015-06-01

    Melanocyte stem cells (MCSCs) in the upper portion of the hair follicle periodically supply melanocytes (MCs) that migrate downward into the hair bulb during anagen, the growth phase of the hair cycle. However MCs can also migrate upwards. We previously observed an increase in epidermal MC density in the mouse epidermis after a single ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure in neonatal, but not adult mice. To better understand MCSC activation by UVR we methodically studied the response of MCs to narrow band UVB (since UVA does not invoke this response) exposure in neonatal mice, and in adults at different stages of the hair cycle. We found that a single exposure of adult mice did not induce activation of MCSCs, in any stage of the hair cycle. When adult mice MCSCs were isolated in telogen, multiple UVB exposures resulted in their activation and production of daughter cells, which migrated upwards to the epidermis. Importantly, the MCSCs produced new progeny without themselves having incurred DNA damage after UVB exposure. This, together with examination of MC localisation in the skin of mice overexpressing stem cell factor in their keratinocytes, leads us to conclude that MCSC activation by UVB is driven via paracrine production of either SCF and/or other keratinocyte cytokines. We re-examined the increase in epidermal MC density in neonatal mouse skin. This effect was much more profound after only a single exposure than that of even multiple exposures to adult skin, and we show that in this setting also, the epidermal MCs mostly derive from activation of MC precursors in the upper hair follicle, and most likely via a cell extrinsic mechanism. Hence, although adaptive changes in the skin induced by repetitive UVB exposures are necessary in adult mice, in both the adult and neonatal context the division and migration upwards of follicular MCSCs is the major mode by which epidermal MC numbers increase after UVR exposure. PMID:25966309

  10. Structural and Functional Analysis of Intact Hair Follicles and Pilosebaceous Units by Volumetric Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography.

    PubMed

    Ford, Steven J; Bigliardi, Paul L; Sardella, Thomas C P; Urich, Alexander; Burton, Neal C; Kacprowicz, Marcin; Bigliardi, Mei; Olivo, Malini; Razansky, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Visualizing anatomical and functional features of hair follicle development in their unperturbed environment is key in understanding complex mechanisms of hair pathophysiology and in discovery of novel therapies. Of particular interest is in vivo visualization of the intact pilosebaceous unit, vascularization of the hair bulb, and evaluation of the hair cycle, particularly in humans. Furthermore, noninvasive visualization of the sebaceous glands could offer crucial insight into the pathophysiology of follicle-related diseases and dry or seborrheic skin, in particular by combining in vivo imaging with other phenotyping, genotyping, and microbial analyses. The available imaging techniques are limited in their ability for deep tissue in vivo imaging of hair follicles and lipid-rich sebaceous glands in their entirety without biopsy. We developed a noninvasive, painless, and risk-free volumetric multispectral optoacoustic tomography method for deep tissue three-dimensional visualization of whole hair follicles and surrounding structures with high spatial resolution below 80 μm. Herein we demonstrate on-the-fly assessment of key morphometric parameters of follicles and lipid content as well as functional oxygenation parameters of the associated capillary bed. The ease of handheld operation and versatility of the newly developed approach poise it as an indispensable tool for early diagnosis of disorders of the pilosebaceous unit and surrounding structures, and for monitoring the efficacy of cosmetic and therapeutic interventions. PMID:26743603

  11. Promotion of hair follicle development and trichogenesis by Wnt-10b in cultured embryonic skin and in reconstituted skin

    SciTech Connect

    Ouji, Yukiteru . E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide; Shiroi, Akira; Ishizaka, Shigeaki

    2006-06-30

    We previously showed that Wnt-10b promoted the differentiation of primary skin epithelial cells (MPSEC) toward hair shaft and inner root sheath of the hair follicle (IRS) cells in vitro. In the present study, we found that Wnt-10b promotes the development of hair follicles using a culture of mouse embryonic skin tissue and trichogenesis using a reconstitution experiment with nude mice. Hair follicle development was observed in skin taken from mouse embryos on embryonic day 10.5 following a 2-day culture with recombinant Wnt-10b (rWnt-10b), however, not without rWnt-10b. Brown hair growth was observed at the site of reconstituted skin in Balb/c nude mice where dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes, derived from C3H/HeN new born mice, were transplanted with Wnt-10b-producing COS cells (Wnt-COS). Without the co-transplantation of Wnt-COS, no hair growth was observed. Our results suggest an important role of Wnt-10b in the initiation of hair follicle development and following trichogenesis.

  12. Derivation of Functional Smooth Muscle Cells from Multipotent Human Hair Follicle Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin Yu; Peng, Hao Fan; Gopinath, Siddhita; Tian, Jun

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the potential of human hair follicle cells for multilineage differentiation and as a source of functional smooth muscle cells (SMCs). We report that human hair follicle stem cells (HFCs) isolated from individual follicles expressed surface markers that are characteristic of mesenchymal stem cells such as CD44, CD49b, CD73, CD90, and CD105 but lacked hematopoietic markers CD45 and CD34. In addition, HFCs differentiated toward adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, or SMCs in the appropriate induction medium. Treatment with basic fibroblast growth factor increased proliferation and prevented myogenic differentiation, suggesting that basic fibroblast growth factor can be used to expand the population of undifferentiated HFCs to the large numbers needed for therapeutic applications. SMCs were isolated from HFCs using tissue-specific promoters and flow cytometry sorting. Cylindrical vascular constructs engineered with HF-SMCs showed remarkable contractility in response to receptor and nonreceptor agonists such KCl, endothelin-1, and the thromboxane mimetic, U46619, as well as superior mechanical properties compared to their counterparts with human vascular SMCs. Our results suggest that HF is a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells with great potential for myogenic differentiation providing functional SMCs for tissue regeneration and cell therapies. PMID:20236033

  13. Hair Follicle Nevus With Features of Comedo Nevus: An Expanding Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Priyadharsini; Bartholomew, Timothy S; Allen, Carl M; Peters, Sara B

    2016-06-01

    Hair follicle nevus (HFN) is a rare hamartomatous lesion of the folliculosebaceous unit, with or without admixed fibroadipose or muscular tissue. It typically has a congenital presentation in the preauricular area of infants and is frequently confused with an accessory tragus. Acquired tumors with similar histopathologic features have been described infrequently during adolescence and adult life. We report yet another unique presentation of this unusual lesion in a 4-year-old girl who had a long-standing tumor of the nasal columella that started growing rapidly after trauma. Histopathologic examination revealed increased numbers of hair follicles, some of which were associated with diminutive sebaceous glands, with no associated central cystic structure. In addition, the infundibula of the follicles were dilated and filled with keratinous debris. Although these hamartomas are common in the head and neck region, to our knowledge, this is the first report of a HFN at this anatomic location. In addition, this tumor has an overall architecture of a HFN but is accompanied by features of a comedo nevus. We also present a review of the literature and summarize the current diagnostic criteria for HFN. PMID:26844616

  14. BMP signaling in dermal papilla cells is required for their hair follicle-inductive properties.

    PubMed

    Rendl, Michael; Polak, Lisa; Fuchs, Elaine

    2008-02-15

    Hair follicle (HF) formation is initiated when epithelial stem cells receive cues from specialized mesenchymal dermal papilla (DP) cells. In culture, DP cells lose their HF-inducing properties, but during hair growth in vivo, they reside within the HF bulb and instruct surrounding epithelial progenitors to orchestrate the complex hair differentiation program. To gain insights into the molecular program that maintains DP cell fate, we previously purified DP cells and four neighboring populations and defined their cell-type-specific molecular signatures. Here, we exploit this information to show that the bulb microenvironment is rich in bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) that act on DP cells to maintain key signature features in vitro and hair-inducing activity in vivo. By employing a novel in vitro/in vivo hybrid knockout assay, we ablate BMP receptor 1a in purified DP cells. When DPs cannot receive BMP signals, they lose signature characteristics in vitro and fail to generate HFs when engrafted with epithelial stem cells in vivo. These results reveal that BMP signaling, in addition to its key role in epithelial stem cell maintenance and progenitor cell differentiation, is essential for DP cell function, and suggest that it is a critical feature of the complex epithelial-mesenchymal cross-talk necessary to make hair. PMID:18281466

  15. Assembling Composite Dermal Papilla Spheres with Adipose-derived Stem Cells to Enhance Hair Follicle Induction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chin-Fu; Chang, Ya-Ju; Hsueh, Yuan-Yu; Huang, Chia-Wei; Wang, Duo-Hsiang; Huang, Tzu-Chieh; Wu, Yi-Ting; Su, Fong-Chin; Hughes, Michael; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Wu, Chia-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Intradermal adipose tissue plays an essential role for hair follicles (HFs) regeneration by regulating hair cycles. However, the effect of reconstruction of HFs and the involvement of adipose-related cells are poorly understood. We investigated assembly strategies for the interactions of dermal papilla (DP) cells with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in promoting hair formation. DP cells lose DP traits during adherent culture, but preserved DP markers with a unified sphere diameter by seeding on chitosan-coated microenvironments. Next, ASCs isolated from rats were co-cultured with DP spheres by different assembling approaches to determine their interactions; a mixed sphere of ASCs with DP cells (MA-DPS), or a core-shell structure, outer ASCs shell and an inner DP core (CSA-DPS). CSA-DPS exhibited superior DP characteristics compared to MA-DPS. Conditional medium from ASCs, but not differentiated adipocytes, promoted DP markers and functional alkaline phosphatase activity from the DP cells. In vivo patch assay showed the core-shell assembling of CSA-DPS can reconstruct cellular arrangements and microenvironmental niches as dominated by PPARα signal in ASCs to induce the greater hair induction than MA-DPS or DP spheres alone. Therefore, the assembling of a core-shell sphere for DP with ASCs could reconstruct the HF cellular arrangement for hair formation. This paper set the groundwork for further evaluation of the input of other cell types. PMID:27210831

  16. Assembling Composite Dermal Papilla Spheres with Adipose-derived Stem Cells to Enhance Hair Follicle Induction

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chin-Fu; Chang, Ya-Ju; Hsueh, Yuan-Yu; Huang, Chia-Wei; Wang, Duo-Hsiang; Huang, Tzu-Chieh; Wu, Yi-Ting; Su, Fong-Chin; Hughes, Michael; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Wu, Chia-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Intradermal adipose tissue plays an essential role for hair follicles (HFs) regeneration by regulating hair cycles. However, the effect of reconstruction of HFs and the involvement of adipose-related cells are poorly understood. We investigated assembly strategies for the interactions of dermal papilla (DP) cells with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in promoting hair formation. DP cells lose DP traits during adherent culture, but preserved DP markers with a unified sphere diameter by seeding on chitosan-coated microenvironments. Next, ASCs isolated from rats were co-cultured with DP spheres by different assembling approaches to determine their interactions; a mixed sphere of ASCs with DP cells (MA-DPS), or a core-shell structure, outer ASCs shell and an inner DP core (CSA-DPS). CSA-DPS exhibited superior DP characteristics compared to MA-DPS. Conditional medium from ASCs, but not differentiated adipocytes, promoted DP markers and functional alkaline phosphatase activity from the DP cells. In vivo patch assay showed the core-shell assembling of CSA-DPS can reconstruct cellular arrangements and microenvironmental niches as dominated by PPARα signal in ASCs to induce the greater hair induction than MA-DPS or DP spheres alone. Therefore, the assembling of a core-shell sphere for DP with ASCs could reconstruct the HF cellular arrangement for hair formation. This paper set the groundwork for further evaluation of the input of other cell types. PMID:27210831

  17. A primer for studying cell cycle dynamics of the human hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Purba, Talveen S; Brunken, Lars; Hawkshaw, Nathan J; Peake, Michael; Hardman, Jonathan; Paus, Ralf

    2016-09-01

    The cell cycle is of major importance to human hair follicle (HF) biology. Not only is continuously active cell cycling required to facilitate healthy hair growth in anagen VI HFs, but perturbations in the cell cycle are likely to be of significance in HF pathology (i.e. in scarring, non-scarring, chemotherapy-induced and androgenic alopecias). However, cell cycle dynamics of the human hair follicle (HF) are poorly understood in contrast to what is known in mouse. The current Methods Review aims at helping to close this gap by presenting a primer that introduces immunohistological/immunofluorescent techniques to study the cell cycle in the human HF. Moreover, this primer encourages the exploitation of the human HF as a powerful and clinically relevant tool to investigate mammalian cell cycle biology in situ. To achieve this, we describe methods to study markers of general 'proliferation' (nuclei count, Ki-67 expression), apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labelling, cleaved caspase 3), mitosis (phospho-histone H3, 'pS780'), DNA synthesis (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine) and cell cycle regulation (cyclins) in the human HF. In addition, we provide specific examples of dual immunolabelling for instructive cell cycle analyses and for investigating the cell cycle behaviour of specific HF keratinocyte subpopulations, such as keratin 15+ stem/progenitor cells. PMID:27094702

  18. Human TSC2-null fibroblast-like cells induce hair follicle neogenesis and hamartoma morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaowei; Thangapazham, Rajesh L; Wang, Ji-An; Rajesh, Sangeetha; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Sperling, Leonard; Moss, Joel; Darling, Thomas N

    2011-01-01

    Hamartomas are composed of cells native to an organ but abnormal in number, arrangement or maturity. In the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), hamartomas develop in multiple organs because of mutations in TSC1 or TSC2. Here we show that TSC2-null fibroblast-like cells grown from human TSC skin hamartomas induced normal human keratinocytes to form hair follicles and stimulated hamartomatous changes. Follicles were complete with sebaceous glands, hair shafts and inner and outer root sheaths. TSC2-null cells surrounding the hair bulb expressed markers of the dermal sheath and dermal papilla. Tumour xenografts recapitulated characteristics of TSC skin hamartomas with increased mammalian target of the rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity, angiogenesis, mononuclear phagocytes and epidermal proliferation. Treatment with an mTORC1 inhibitor normalized these parameters and reduced the number of tumour cells. These studies indicate that TSC2-null cells are the inciting cells for TSC skin hamartomas, and suggest that studies on hamartomas will provide insights into tissue morphogenesis and regeneration. PMID:21407201

  19. Hair follicle defects and squamous cell carcinoma formation in Smad4 conditional knockout mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Qiao, W; Li, A G; Owens, P; Xu, X; Wang, X-J; Deng, C-X

    2006-01-12

    Smad4 is the common mediator for TGFbeta signals, which play important functions in many biological processes. To study the role of Smad4 in skin development and epidermal tumorigenesis, we disrupted this gene in skin using the Cre-loxP approach. We showed that absence of Smad4 blocked hair follicle differentiation and cycling, leading to a progressive hair loss of mutant (MT) mice. MT hair follicles exhibited diminished expression of Lef1, and increased proliferative cells in the outer root sheath. Additionally, the skin of MT mice exhibited increased proliferation of basal keratinocytes and epidermal hyperplasia. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the absence of Smad4 resulted in a block of both TGFbeta and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathways, including p21, a well-known cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. Consequently, all MT mice developed spontaneous malignant skin tumors from 3 months to 13 months of age. The majority of tumors are malignant squamous cell carcinomas. A most notable finding is that tumorigenesis is accompanied by inactivation of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (Pten), activation of AKT, fast proliferation and nuclear accumulation of cyclin D1. These observations revealed the essential functions of Smad4-mediated signals in repressing skin tumor formation through the TGFbeta/BMP pathway, which interacts with the Pten signaling pathway. PMID:16170355

  20. Relationship between urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and the invasion of human prenatal hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiangguo; Fu, Gang; Huang, Gang; Lian, Xiaohua; Yu, Jin; Yang, Tian

    2010-08-01

    During the morphogenesis of hair follicles, the invasive migration of basal keratinocytes resembles cell's dissemination of tissue remodeling. The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) appears to be a key molecule in the metastasis. In order to elucidate the relationship between uPAR and the invasion of the human hair follicle, immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, plasmids transfection, and western blot were used. The results showed that uPAR was expressed in the outermost epithelial cells of the hair follicle and the basal keratinocytes of epidermis, and that the expression decreased with the development of the hair follicle. The cells of the outer root sheath (ORS) and interfollicle epidermis, which overexpressed uPAR, acquired increased invasiveness; however, they showed decreased invasion with overexpression of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator amino terminal fragment (uPA ATF), which inhibited the combination of uPAR and uPA competitively, and the cell invasive migration with overexpressed uPAR was required activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). These results implied that overexpression of uPAR promote the invasive migration of hair follicle into the dermis in uPA-dependent and independent manner during human prenatal development. PMID:20012874

  1. Modulatory Role of Sensory Innervation on Hair Follicle Stem Cell Progeny during Wound Healing of the Rat Skin

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Martínez, Eduardo; Galván-Hernández, Claudio I.; Toscano-Márquez, Brenda; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Background The bulge region of the hair follicle contains resident epithelial stem cells (SCs) that are activated and mobilized during hair growth and after epidermal wounding. However, little is known about the signals that modulate these processes. Clinical and experimental observations show that a reduced supply of sensory innervation is associated with delayed wound healing. Since axon terminals of sensory neurons are among the components of the bulge SC niche, we investigated whether these neurons are involved in the activation and mobilization of the hair stem cells during wound healing. Methodology/Principal Findings We used neonatal capsaicin treatment to reduce sensory terminals in the rat skin and performed morphometric analyses using design-based stereological methods. Epithelial proliferation was analyzed by quantifying the number of bromodeoxyuridine-labeled (BrdU+) nuclei in the epidermis and hair follicles. After wounding, the epidermis of capsaicin-treated rats presented fewer BrdU+ nuclei than in control rats. To assess SC progeny migration, we employed a double labeling protocol with iododeoxyuridine and chlorodeoxyuridine (IdU+/CldU+). The proportion of double-labeled cells was similar in the hair follicles of both groups at 32 h postwounding. IdU+/CldU+ cell proportion increased in the epidermis of control rats and decreased in treated rats at 61 h postwounding. The epidermal volume immunostained for keratin 6 was greater in treated rats at 61 h. Confocal microscopy analysis revealed that substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor immunoreactivity were both present in CD34+ and BrdU-retaining cells of the hair follicles. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that capsaicin denervation impairs SC progeny egress from the hair follicles, a circumstance associated with a greater epidermal activation. Altogether, these phenomena would explain the longer times for healing in denervated skin. Thus, sensory innervation

  2. Expression and localization of the vascular endothelial growth factor and changes of microvessel density during hair follicle development of Liaoning cashmere goats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q L; Li, J P; Li, Y M; Chang, Q; Chen, Y; Jiang, H Z; Zhao, Z H; Guo, D

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) play important roles in neovascularization, tissue development, and angiogenesis. In this study, changes in VEGF expression patterns and microvessel density (MVD), and their correlations, were investigated during hair follicle development in epidermal appendages of Liaoning cashmere goats. Polyclonal antibodies to VEGF and microvessels were used for monthly immunohistochemical examinations of normal skin specimens from adult female goats for one year. VEGF was expressed in the hair bulb of primary and secondary hair follicles, the outer and inner root sheaths, sebaceous glands (ductal and secretory portions), eccrine sweat glands (ductal and secretory portions), and the epidermis. Abundant expression of VEGF was observed in the follicular basement membrane zone surrounding the bulb matrix and in ductal and secretory portions of eccrine sweat glands. The change in VEGFs in primary hair follicles showed a bimodal pattern, with the first peak observed from March to May, and the second in August. Maximal expression in secondary hair follicles occurred in May and August. Therefore, VEGF expression in primary and secondary hair follicles is synchronized throughout the year, and is correlated to hair development. In the later telogen and anagen phases, VEGF expression was higher in the secondary, compared to the primary, hair follicle. Changes in MVD also showed a bimodal pattern with peaks in May and August. VEGF expression and MVD showed moderate and strongly positive correlation in the primary and secondary hair follicles, respectively. Therefore, MVD and VEGF are closely related to the processes involved in hair cycle regulation. PMID:24390991

  3. Hairless Streaks in Cattle Implicate TSR2 in Early Hair Follicle Formation.

    PubMed

    Murgiano, Leonardo; Shirokova, Vera; Welle, Monika Maria; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Plattet, Philippe; Oevermann, Anna; Pienkowska-Schelling, Aldona; Gallo, Daniele; Gentile, Arcangelo; Mikkola, Marja; Drögemüller, Cord

    2015-07-01

    Four related cows showed hairless streaks on various parts of the body with no correlation to the pigmentation pattern. The stripes occurred in a consistent pattern resembling the lines of Blaschko. The non-syndromic hairlessness phenotype observed occurred across three generations of a single family and was compatible with an X-linked mode of inheritance. Linkage analysis and subsequent whole genome sequencing of one affected female identified two perfectly associated non-synonymous sequence variants in the critical interval on bovine chromosome X. Both variants occurred in complete linkage disequilibrium and were absent in more than 3900 controls. An ERCC6L missense mutation was predicted to cause an amino acid substitution of a non-conserved residue. Analysis in mice showed no specific Ercc6l expression pattern related to hair follicle development and therefore ERCC6L was not considered as causative gene. A point mutation at the 5'-splice junction of exon 5 of the TSR2, 20S rRNA accumulation, homolog (S. cerevisiae), gene led to the production of two mutant transcripts, both of which contain a frameshift and generate a premature stop codon predicted to truncate approximately 25% of the protein. Interestingly, in addition to the presence of both physiological TSR2 transcripts, the two mutant transcripts were predominantly detected in the hairless skin of the affected cows. Immunohistochemistry, using an antibody against the N-terminal part of the bovine protein demonstrated the specific expression of the TSR2 protein in the skin and the hair of the affected and the control cows as well as in bovine fetal skin and hair. The RNA hybridization in situ showed that Tsr2 was expressed in pre- and post-natal phases of hair follicle development in mice. Mammalian TSR2 proteins are highly conserved and are known to be broadly expressed, but their precise in vivo functions are poorly understood. Thus, by dissecting a naturally occurring mutation in a domestic animal

  4. Hairless Streaks in Cattle Implicate TSR2 in Early Hair Follicle Formation

    PubMed Central

    Murgiano, Leonardo; Shirokova, Vera; Welle, Monika Maria; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Plattet, Philippe; Oevermann, Anna; Pienkowska-Schelling, Aldona; Gallo, Daniele; Gentile, Arcangelo; Mikkola, Marja; Drögemüller, Cord

    2015-01-01

    Four related cows showed hairless streaks on various parts of the body with no correlation to the pigmentation pattern. The stripes occurred in a consistent pattern resembling the lines of Blaschko. The non-syndromic hairlessness phenotype observed occurred across three generations of a single family and was compatible with an X-linked mode of inheritance. Linkage analysis and subsequent whole genome sequencing of one affected female identified two perfectly associated non-synonymous sequence variants in the critical interval on bovine chromosome X. Both variants occurred in complete linkage disequilibrium and were absent in more than 3900 controls. An ERCC6L missense mutation was predicted to cause an amino acid substitution of a non-conserved residue. Analysis in mice showed no specific Ercc6l expression pattern related to hair follicle development and therefore ERCC6L was not considered as causative gene. A point mutation at the 5'-splice junction of exon 5 of the TSR2, 20S rRNA accumulation, homolog (S. cerevisiae), gene led to the production of two mutant transcripts, both of which contain a frameshift and generate a premature stop codon predicted to truncate approximately 25% of the protein. Interestingly, in addition to the presence of both physiological TSR2 transcripts, the two mutant transcripts were predominantly detected in the hairless skin of the affected cows. Immunohistochemistry, using an antibody against the N-terminal part of the bovine protein demonstrated the specific expression of the TSR2 protein in the skin and the hair of the affected and the control cows as well as in bovine fetal skin and hair. The RNA hybridization in situ showed that Tsr2 was expressed in pre- and post-natal phases of hair follicle development in mice. Mammalian TSR2 proteins are highly conserved and are known to be broadly expressed, but their precise in vivo functions are poorly understood. Thus, by dissecting a naturally occurring mutation in a domestic animal

  5. Innervation patterns of sea otter (Enhydra lutris) mystacial follicle-sinus complexes.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Christopher D; Rozas, Kelly; Kot, Brian; Gill, Verena A

    2014-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) are the most recent group of mammals to return to the sea, and may exemplify divergent somatosensory tactile systems among mammals. Therefore, we quantified the mystacial vibrissal array of sea otters and histologically processed follicle-sinus complexes (F - SCs) to test the hypotheses that the number of myelinated axons per F - SC is greater than that found for terrestrial mammalian vibrissae and that their organization and microstructure converge with those of pinniped vibrissae. A mean of 120.5 vibrissae were arranged rostrally on a broad, blunt muzzle in 7-8 rows and 9-13 columns. The F-SCs of sea otters are tripartite in their organization and similar in microstructure to pinnipeds rather than terrestrial species. Each F-SC was innervated by a mean 1339 ± 408.3 axons. Innervation to the entire mystacial vibrissal array was estimated at 161,313 axons. Our data support the hypothesis that the disproportionate expansion of the coronal gyrus in somatosensory cortex of sea otters is related to the high innervation investment of the mystacial vibrissal array, and that quantifying innervation investment is a good proxy for tactile sensitivity. We predict that the tactile performance of sea otter mystacial vibrissae is comparable to that of harbor seals, sea lions and walruses. PMID:25400554

  6. Innervation patterns of sea otter (Enhydra lutris) mystacial follicle-sinus complexes

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Christopher D.; Rozas, Kelly; Kot, Brian; Gill, Verena A.

    2014-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) are the most recent group of mammals to return to the sea, and may exemplify divergent somatosensory tactile systems among mammals. Therefore, we quantified the mystacial vibrissal array of sea otters and histologically processed follicle-sinus complexes (F - SCs) to test the hypotheses that the number of myelinated axons per F - SC is greater than that found for terrestrial mammalian vibrissae and that their organization and microstructure converge with those of pinniped vibrissae. A mean of 120.5 vibrissae were arranged rostrally on a broad, blunt muzzle in 7–8 rows and 9–13 columns. The F-SCs of sea otters are tripartite in their organization and similar in microstructure to pinnipeds rather than terrestrial species. Each F-SC was innervated by a mean 1339 ± 408.3 axons. Innervation to the entire mystacial vibrissal array was estimated at 161,313 axons. Our data support the hypothesis that the disproportionate expansion of the coronal gyrus in somatosensory cortex of sea otters is related to the high innervation investment of the mystacial vibrissal array, and that quantifying innervation investment is a good proxy for tactile sensitivity. We predict that the tactile performance of sea otter mystacial vibrissae is comparable to that of harbor seals, sea lions and walruses. PMID:25400554

  7. Sinusitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... my acute sinusitis is caused by viruses or bacteria? Acute viral sinusitis is likely if you have ... to tell if my sinusitis is caused by bacteria? Because sinusitis is treated differently based on cause. ...

  8. Sinusitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... you can get from viral sinusitis or allergic rhinitis (inflammation of the nose and sinuses due to ... doctor just in case. Viral sinusitis and allergic rhinitis are more common, but bacterial sinusitis often needs ...

  9. Transcriptional Profiling in Rat Hair Follicles following Simulated Blast Insult: A New Diagnostic Tool for Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Carnduff, Lisa; Norman, Grant; Josey, Tyson; Wang, Yushan; Sawyer, Thomas W.; Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Langlois, Valerie S.

    2014-01-01

    With wide adoption of explosive-dependent weaponry during military activities, Blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT)-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become a significant medical issue. Therefore, a robust and accessible biomarker system is in demand for effective and efficient TBI diagnosis. Such systems will also be beneficial to studies of TBI pathology. Here we propose the mammalian hair follicles as a potential candidate. An Advanced Blast Simulator (ABS) was developed to generate shock waves simulating traumatic conditions on brains of rat model. Microarray analysis was performed in hair follicles to identify the gene expression profiles that are associated with shock waves. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and sub-network enrichment analysis (SNEA) were used to identify cell processes and molecular signaling cascades affected by simulated bomb blasts. Enrichment analyses indicated that genes with altered expression levels were involved in central nervous system (CNS)/peripheral nervous system (PNS) responses as well as signal transduction including Ca2+, K+-transportation-dependent signaling, Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) signaling and Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades. Many of the pathways identified as affected by shock waves in the hair follicles have been previously reported to be TBI responsive in other organs such as brain and blood. The results suggest that the hair follicle has some common TBI responsive molecular signatures to other tissues. Moreover, various TBI-associated diseases were identified as preferentially affected using a gene network approach, indicating that the hair follicle may be capable of reflecting comprehensive responses to TBI conditions. Accordingly, the present study demonstrates that the hair follicle is a potentially viable system for rapid and non-invasive TBI diagnosis. PMID:25136963

  10. Transcriptional profiling in rat hair follicles following simulated Blast insult: a new diagnostic tool for traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Carnduff, Lisa; Norman, Grant; Josey, Tyson; Wang, Yushan; Sawyer, Thomas W; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Langlois, Valerie S

    2014-01-01

    With wide adoption of explosive-dependent weaponry during military activities, Blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT)-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become a significant medical issue. Therefore, a robust and accessible biomarker system is in demand for effective and efficient TBI diagnosis. Such systems will also be beneficial to studies of TBI pathology. Here we propose the mammalian hair follicles as a potential candidate. An Advanced Blast Simulator (ABS) was developed to generate shock waves simulating traumatic conditions on brains of rat model. Microarray analysis was performed in hair follicles to identify the gene expression profiles that are associated with shock waves. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and sub-network enrichment analysis (SNEA) were used to identify cell processes and molecular signaling cascades affected by simulated bomb blasts. Enrichment analyses indicated that genes with altered expression levels were involved in central nervous system (CNS)/peripheral nervous system (PNS) responses as well as signal transduction including Ca2+, K+-transportation-dependent signaling, Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) signaling and Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades. Many of the pathways identified as affected by shock waves in the hair follicles have been previously reported to be TBI responsive in other organs such as brain and blood. The results suggest that the hair follicle has some common TBI responsive molecular signatures to other tissues. Moreover, various TBI-associated diseases were identified as preferentially affected using a gene network approach, indicating that the hair follicle may be capable of reflecting comprehensive responses to TBI conditions. Accordingly, the present study demonstrates that the hair follicle is a potentially viable system for rapid and non-invasive TBI diagnosis. PMID:25136963

  11. Embryonic attenuated Wnt/β-catenin signaling defines niche location and long-term stem cell fate in hair follicle

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zijian; Wang, Wenjie; Jiang, Kaiju; Yu, Zhou; Huang, Huanwei; Wang, Fengchao; Zhou, Bin; Chen, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Long-term adult stem cells sustain tissue regeneration throughout the lifetime of an organism. They were hypothesized to originate from embryonic progenitor cells that acquire long-term self-renewal ability and multipotency at the end of organogenesis. The process through which this is achieved often remains unclear. Here, we discovered that long-term hair follicle stem cells arise from embryonic progenitor cells occupying a niche location that is defined by attenuated Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Hair follicle initiation is marked by placode formation, which depends on the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Soon afterwards, a region with attenuated Wnt/β-catenin signaling emerges in the upper follicle. Embryonic progenitor cells residing in this region gain expression of adult stem cell markers and become definitive long-term hair follicle stem cells at the end of organogenesis. Attenuation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is a prerequisite for hair follicle stem cell specification because it suppresses Sox9, which is required for stem cell formation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10567.001 PMID:26653852

  12. Changes after irradiation in the number of mitotic cells and apoptotic fragments in growing mouse hair follicles and in the width of their hairs

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, L.; Potten, C.S. )

    1990-07-01

    The hair follicle or its differentiated product, the hair, which represents the linear historical record of the follicular proliferative activity, could provide a biological dosimeter of value for dose distribution determinations after accidental exposure. Here we present some further studies on irradiated mouse hair follicles and hair, and discuss the difficulties in obtaining similar data for humans. The incidence of cell death in the follicles has been shown elsewhere to be maximum 12 h after irradiation, and it increases with dose. Here we confirm that doses of 0.2-0.4 Gy can be readily detected. We show here that there is only a little more cell death in the larger follicles even though they contain many more cells and mitotic figures. About one-third of all the dead cell fragments in a follicle can be seen in a good longitudinal follicle section. Mitotic activity declines progressively with dose in the large follicles, which start with more mitotic cells, showing the dose-dependent changes most readily. The dead cells are morphologically identical to apoptotic cells at the level of the light microscope, and they fragment into several bodies, the number of which increases with dose. The total number of apoptotic bodies or fragments in whole large follicles increases almost 100-fold over a range of 1.3 Gy (from 0.2 to 1.5 Gy) and about tenfold over the range 0.2-0.5 Gy. The estimated number of dead (apoptotic) cells increases about sevenfold over the same 1.3-Gy range. The width of the middle portion of the broadest, awl, hairs measured 12 days after irradiation decreases with increasing dose. About 80% of the hairs show an obvious reduction in width after 2 Gy and the effects of a dose of about 1 Gy can be detected. The width of the hair is reduced by 10-14% per Gy. A comparison has been made between BDF1 (black) and BALB-c (albino) mice.

  13. Protopanaxatirol type ginsenoside Re promotes cyclic growth of hair follicles via inhibiting transforming growth factor β signaling cascades.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Ryu, Seung-Wook; Lee, Jungsul; Choi, Kyungsun; Kim, Sunchang; Choi, Chulhee

    2016-02-19

    Ginsenosides, the major bio-active ingredients included in Panax ginseng, have been known for the hair growth activity and used to treat patients who suffer from hair loss; however, the detailed mechanisms of this action are still largely unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for hair growth promoting effect of ginsenoside Re (GRe) in vitro and in vivo. Different doses of minoxidil and GRe were administered topically to the back regions of nude mice for up to 45 days, and hair shaft length and hair cycles were determined for hair promoting activities. Topical treatment of GRe significantly increased the hair shaft length and hair existent time, which was comparable to the action of minoxidil. We also demonstrated that GRe stimulated hair shaft elongation in the ex vivo cultures of vibrissa hair follicles isolated from C57BL/6 mouse. Systemic transcriptome analysis by next generation sequencing demonstrated that TGF-β-pathway related genes were selectively down-regulated by treatment of GRe in vivo, and the same treatment suppressed TGF-β-induced phosphorylation of ERK in HeLa cells. The results clearly indicated that GRe is the effective constituent in the ginseng on hair promotion via selective inhibition of the hair growth phase transition related signaling pathways, TGF-β signaling cascades. PMID:26820528

  14. Microenvironmental reprogramming by three-dimensional culture enables dermal papilla cells to induce de novo human hair-follicle growth

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Claire A.; Chen, James C.; Cerise, Jane E.; Jahoda, Colin A. B.; Christiano, Angela M.

    2013-01-01

    De novo organ regeneration has been observed in several lower organisms, as well as rodents; however, demonstrating these regenerative properties in human cells and tissues has been challenging. In the hair follicle, rodent hair follicle-derived dermal cells can interact with local epithelia and induce de novo hair follicles in a variety of hairless recipient skin sites. However, multiple attempts to recapitulate this process in humans using human dermal papilla cells in human skin have failed, suggesting that human dermal papilla cells lose key inductive properties upon culture. Here, we performed global gene expression analysis of human dermal papilla cells in culture and discovered very rapid and profound molecular signature changes linking their transition from a 3D to a 2D environment with early loss of their hair-inducing capacity. We demonstrate that the intact dermal papilla transcriptional signature can be partially restored by growth of papilla cells in 3D spheroid cultures. This signature change translates to a partial restoration of inductive capability, and we show that human dermal papilla cells, when grown as spheroids, are capable of inducing de novo hair follicles in human skin. PMID:24145441

  15. Microenvironmental reprogramming by three-dimensional culture enables dermal papilla cells to induce de novo human hair-follicle growth.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Claire A; Chen, James C; Cerise, Jane E; Jahoda, Colin A B; Christiano, Angela M

    2013-12-01

    De novo organ regeneration has been observed in several lower organisms, as well as rodents; however, demonstrating these regenerative properties in human cells and tissues has been challenging. In the hair follicle, rodent hair follicle-derived dermal cells can interact with local epithelia and induce de novo hair follicles in a variety of hairless recipient skin sites. However, multiple attempts to recapitulate this process in humans using human dermal papilla cells in human skin have failed, suggesting that human dermal papilla cells lose key inductive properties upon culture. Here, we performed global gene expression analysis of human dermal papilla cells in culture and discovered very rapid and profound molecular signature changes linking their transition from a 3D to a 2D environment with early loss of their hair-inducing capacity. We demonstrate that the intact dermal papilla transcriptional signature can be partially restored by growth of papilla cells in 3D spheroid cultures. This signature change translates to a partial restoration of inductive capability, and we show that human dermal papilla cells, when grown as spheroids, are capable of inducing de novo hair follicles in human skin. PMID:24145441

  16. Gorab is required for dermal condensate cells to respond to hedgehog signals during hair follicle morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Snedecor, Elizabeth R.; Choi, Yeon Ja; Yang, Ning; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Yuhuan; Han, Yunlin; Jones, Evan C.; Shroyer, Kenneth R.; Clark, Richard A.; Zhang, Lianfeng; Qin, Chuan; Chen, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    GORAB is a golgin that localizes predominantly at the Golgi apparatus and physically interacts with small GTPases. GORAB is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian tissues, including the skin. However, the biological function of this golgin in skin is unknown. Here, we report that disrupting the expression of the Gorab gene in mice results in hair follicle morphogenesis defects that were characterized by impaired follicular keratinocyte differentiation. This hair follicle phenotype was associated with markedly suppressed hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway in dermal condensates in vivo. Gorab-deficient dermal mesenchymal cells also displayed significantly reduced capability to respond to Hh pathway activation in vitro. Furthermore, we found that the formation of primary cilium, a cellular organelle that is essential for the Hh pathway, was impaired in mutant dermal papilla cells, suggesting that Gorab may be required for the Hh pathway through facilitating the formation of primary cilia. Thus, data obtained from this study provided insight onto the biological functions of Gorab during embryonic morphogenesis of skin in which Hh signaling and primary cilia exert important functions. PMID:26967474

  17. Laser microdissection and DNA typing of cells from single hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, D; Giuffrè, G; Staiti, N; Simone, A; Todaro, P; Saravo, L

    2004-12-01

    Isolation and identification of single cells from tissue samples or smears assume a great relevance in pathological and forensic applications; in this latter field, the possibility to identify a specific genetic profile can be obtained by short tandem repeat (STR) typing, allowing to achieve a scientific proof important in law courts. It is well known that DNA extraction may be performed from several tissue fragments, blood traces, spermatozoa as well as telogen hair. However, in the last case, few follicle cells are coupled to a great amount of keratin reducing the efficiency of DNA amplification. Recently, the introduction of laser microdissection technique has greatly improved the capability to select single cells without any cross-contamination. In the present report, we have performed a laser microdissection using a Leica AS LMD (Leica Microsystems, Germany), utilized on cutting the telogen hair in order to exclusively collect the lower part of the follicle and reduce keratin contamination. In this way we can accurately extract an adequate amount of DNA, successfully typed by STR profile. PMID:15639565

  18. TR3 is preferentially expressed by bulge epithelial stem cells in human hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lin; Yang, Ruifeng; Liu, Shujing; Lyle, Stephen; Cotsarelis, George; Xiang, Leihong; Zhang, Litao; Li, Bin; Wan, Miaojian; Xu, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    TR3 is an orphan member of the steroid/thyroid/retinoid nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors and it plays a pivotal role in regulating cell growth and apoptosis. The expression and function of TR3 in skin have not been well investigated. Using a cDNA expression assay, we discover that TR3 is significantly enriched in human telogen bulge compared with anagen bulb. Immunohistochemical staining confirms that TR3 is highly expressed in the bulge region of human hair follicles and it colocalizes with cytokeratin 15 (K15), an epithelial stem cell marker. To study the function of TR3 in the effect of androgens in keratinocytes, we treat HaCaT keratinocytes and primary human keratinocytes with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and testosterone (T). The treated keratinocytes show a dose-dependent growth reduction to DHT and T. DHT increases the expression of TR3 in keratinocytes, associated with a concomitant increase of BAD and decrease of Bcl-2 expression. Knockdown TR3 expression by siRNA blocks the inhibitory effect of DHT on keratinocyte proliferation. Our results demonstrate that TR3 is localized to the stem cell compartment in the human hair follicles. Androgen increases TR3 expression in cultured keratinocytes. Our data suggest that TR3 mediates at least part of the inhibitory effect of androgens on keratinocytes. PMID:26707825

  19. TR3 is preferentially expressed by bulge epithelial stem cells in human hair follicles

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Lin; Yang, Ruifeng; Liu, Shujing; Lyle, Stephen; Cotsarelis, George; Xiang, Leihong; Zhang, Litao; Li, Bin; Wan, Miaojian; Xu, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    TR3 is an orphan member of the steroid/thyroid/retinoid nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors and it plays a pivotal role in regulating cell growth and apoptosis. The expression and function of TR3 in skin have not been well investigated. Using a cDNA expression assay, we discover that TR3 is significantly enriched in human telogen bulge compared with anagen bulb. Immunohistochemical staining confirms that TR3 is highly expressed in the bulge region of human hair follicles and it colocalizes with cytokeratin 15 (K15), an epithelial stem cell marker. To study the function of TR3 in the effect of androgens in keratinocytes, we treat HaCaT keratinocytes and primary human keratinocytes with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and testosterone (T). The treated keratinocytes show a dose-dependent growth reduction to DHT and T. DHT increases the expression of TR3 in keratinocytes, associated with a concomitant increase of BAD and decrease of Bcl-2 expression. Knockdown TR3 expression by siRNA blocks the inhibitory effect of DHT on keratinocyte proliferation. Our results demonstrate that TR3 is localized to the stem cell compartment in the human hair follicles. Androgen increases TR3 expression in cultured keratinocytes. Our data suggest that TR3 mediates at least part of the inhibitory effect of androgens on keratinocytes. PMID:26707825

  20. Gorab Is Required for Dermal Condensate Cells to Respond to Hedgehog Signals during Hair Follicle Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Snedecor, Elizabeth R; Choi, Yeon Ja; Yang, Ning; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Yuhuan; Han, Yunlin; Jones, Evan C; Shroyer, Kenneth R; Clark, Richard A; Zhang, Lianfeng; Qin, Chuan; Chen, Jiang

    2016-02-01

    GORAB is a golgin that localizes predominantly at the Golgi apparatus and physically interacts with small guanosine triphosphatases. GORAB is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian tissues, including the skin. However, the biological function of this golgin in skin is unknown. Here, we report that disrupting the expression of the Gorab gene in mice results in hair follicle morphogenesis defects that were characterized by impaired follicular keratinocyte differentiation. This hair follicle phenotype was associated with markedly suppressed hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway in dermal condensates in vivo. Gorab-deficient dermal mesenchymal cells also displayed a significantly reduced capability to respond to Hh pathway activation in vitro. Furthermore, we found that the formation of the primary cilium, a cellular organelle that is essential for the Hh pathway, was impaired in mutant dermal condensate cells, suggesting that Gorab may be required for the Hh pathway through facilitating the formation of primary cilia. Thus, data obtained from this study provided insight into the biological functions of Gorab during embryonic morphogenesis of the skin in which Hh signaling and primary cilia exert important functions. PMID:26967474

  1. The Modulatable Stem Cell Niche: Tissue Interactions during Hair and Feather Follicle Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Chiang; Plikus, Maksim V; Tang, Pin-Chi; Widelitz, Randall B; Chuong, Cheng Ming

    2016-04-10

    Hair and feathers are unique because (1) their stem cells are contained within a follicle structure, (2) they undergo cyclic regeneration repetitively throughout life, (3) regeneration occurs physiologically in healthy individuals and (4) regeneration is also induced in response to injury. Precise control of this cyclic regeneration process is essential for maintaining the homeostasis of living organisms. While stem cells are regulated by the intra-follicle-adjacent micro-environmental niche, this niche is also modulated dynamically by extra-follicular macro-environmental signals, allowing stem cells to adapt to a larger changing environment and physiological needs. Here we review several examples of macro-environments that communicate with the follicles: intradermal adipose tissue, innate immune system, sex hormones, aging, circadian rhythm and seasonal rhythms. Related diseases are also discussed. Unveiling the mechanisms of how stem cell niches are modulated provides clues for regenerative medicine. Given that stem cells are hard to manipulate, focusing translational therapeutic applications at the environments appears to be a more practical approach. PMID:26196442

  2. Post-transcriptional Regulation of Keratinocyte Progenitor Cell Expansion, Differentiation and Hair Follicle Regression by miR-22

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Qingyong; Zhao, Yiqiang; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Hongquan; Xue, Lixiang; Zhang, Xiuqing; Lengner, Christopher; Yu, Zhengquan

    2015-01-01

    Hair follicles (HF) undergo precisely regulated recurrent cycles of growth, cessation, and rest. The transitions from anagen (growth), to catagen (regression), to telogen (rest) involve a physiological involution of the HF. This process is likely coordinated by a variety of mechanisms including apoptosis and loss of growth factor signaling. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying follicle involution after hair keratinocyte differentiation and hair shaft assembly remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that a highly conserved microRNA, miR-22 is markedly upregulated during catagen and peaks in telogen. Using gain- and loss-of-function approaches in vivo, we find that miR-22 overexpression leads to hair loss by promoting anagen-to-catagen transition of the HF, and that deletion of miR-22 delays entry to catagen and accelerates the transition from telogen to anagen. Ectopic activation of miR-22 results in hair loss due to the repression a hair keratinocyte differentiation program and keratinocyte progenitor expansion, as well as promotion of apoptosis. At the molecular level, we demonstrate that miR-22 directly represses numerous transcription factors upstream of phenotypic keratin genes, including Dlx3, Foxn1, and Hoxc13. We conclude that miR-22 is a critical post-transcriptional regulator of the hair cycle and may represent a novel target for therapeutic modulation of hair growth. PMID:26020521

  3. Post-transcriptional Regulation of Keratinocyte Progenitor Cell Expansion, Differentiation and Hair Follicle Regression by miR-22.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shukai; Li, Feifei; Meng, Qingyong; Zhao, Yiqiang; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Hongquan; Xue, Lixiang; Zhang, Xiuqing; Lengner, Christopher; Yu, Zhengquan

    2015-05-01

    Hair follicles (HF) undergo precisely regulated recurrent cycles of growth, cessation, and rest. The transitions from anagen (growth), to catagen (regression), to telogen (rest) involve a physiological involution of the HF. This process is likely coordinated by a variety of mechanisms including apoptosis and loss of growth factor signaling. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying follicle involution after hair keratinocyte differentiation and hair shaft assembly remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that a highly conserved microRNA, miR-22 is markedly upregulated during catagen and peaks in telogen. Using gain- and loss-of-function approaches in vivo, we find that miR-22 overexpression leads to hair loss by promoting anagen-to-catagen transition of the HF, and that deletion of miR-22 delays entry to catagen and accelerates the transition from telogen to anagen. Ectopic activation of miR-22 results in hair loss due to the repression a hair keratinocyte differentiation program and keratinocyte progenitor expansion, as well as promotion of apoptosis. At the molecular level, we demonstrate that miR-22 directly represses numerous transcription factors upstream of phenotypic keratin genes, including Dlx3, Foxn1, and Hoxc13. We conclude that miR-22 is a critical post-transcriptional regulator of the hair cycle and may represent a novel target for therapeutic modulation of hair growth. PMID:26020521

  4. The spatio-temporal domains of Frizzled6 action in planar polarity control of hair follicle orientation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hao; Smallwood, Philip M; Williams, John; Nathans, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, hair follicles cover most of the body surface and exhibit precise and stereotyped orientations relative to the body axes. Follicle orientation is controlled by the planar cell polarity (PCP; or, more generally, tissue polarity) system, as determined by the follicle mis-orientation phenotypes observed in mice with PCP gene mutations. The present study uses conditional knockout alleles of the PCP genes Frizzled6 (Fz6), Vangl1, and Vangl2, together with a series of Cre drivers to interrogate the spatio-temporal domains of PCP gene action in the developing mouse epidermis required for follicle orientation. Fz6 is required starting between embryonic day (E)11.5 and E12.5. Eliminating Fz6 in either the anterior or the posterior halves of the embryo or in either the feet or the torso leads to follicle mis-orientation phenotypes that are limited to the territories associated with Fz6 loss, implying either that PCP signaling is required for communicating polarity information on a local but not a global scale, or that there are multiple independent sources of global polarity information. Eliminating Fz6 in most hair follicle cells or in the inter-follicular epidermis at E15.5 suggests that PCP signaling in developing follicles is not required to maintain their orientation. The asymmetric arrangement of Merkel cells around the base of each guard hair follicle dependents on Fz6 expression in the epidermis but not in differentiating Merkel cells. These experiments constrain current models of PCP signaling and the flow of polarity information in mammalian skin. PMID:26517967

  5. Advanced chemical imaging and comparison of human and porcine hair follicles for drug delivery by confocal Raman microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzen, Lutz; Mathes, Christiane; Hansen, Steffi; Windbergs, Maike

    2013-06-01

    Hair follicles have recently gained a lot of interest for dermal drug delivery. They provide facilitated penetration into the skin and a high potential to serve as a drug depot. In this area of research, excised pig ear is a widely accepted in vitro model to evaluate penetration of drug delivery into hair follicles. However, a comparison of human and porcine follicles in terms of chemical composition has not been performed so far. In this study, we applied confocal Raman microscopy as a chemically selective imaging technique to compare human and porcine follicle composition and to visualize component distribution within follicle cross-sections. Based on the evaluation of human and porcine Raman spectra optical similarity for both species was successfully confirmed. Furthermore, cyanoacrylate skin surface biopsies, which are generally used to determine the extent of follicular penetration, were imaged by a novel complementary analytical approach combining confocal Raman microscopy and optical profilometry. This all-encompassing analysis allows investigation of intactness and component distribution of the excised hair bulb in three dimensions. Confocal Raman microscopy shows a high potential as a noninvasive and chemically selective technique for the analysis of trans-follicular drug delivery.

  6. Barber's hair sinus in a female hairdresser: uncommon manifestation of an occupational disease: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Efthimiadis, Christopher; Kosmidis, Christopher; Anthimidis, George; Grigoriou, Marios; Levva, Sofia; Fachantidis, Panagiotis; Psihidis, George

    2008-01-01

    Background Barber's disease is an acquired occupational disease produced by short customers' hairs that penetrate the interdigital spaces of the hands. The lesion has been reported to occur mostly on the hands of male hairdressers. The purpose of this article is to report a rare case of a female hairdresser who developed a pilonidal sinus in the interdigital web of her non-dominant hand and review the relevant literature. Case presentation A 29 year-old Greek female hairdresser underwent surgical excision of the pilonidal sinus and curettage. She was not hospitalised, while prompt resolution of the condition and prevention of recurrence was achieved. Conclusion Pilonidal sinus of the interdigital spaces of the hand is a rare and preventable acquired occupational disease. The personal hygiene with thorough removal of any hairs that have penetrated the epidermis during the working day could prevent the formation of the disease. Surgical excision, curettage and primary healing seem to be a safe method of treatment. PMID:18837967

  7. Trps1 and Its Target Gene Sox9 Regulate Epithelial Proliferation in the Developing Hair Follicle and Are Associated with Hypertrichosis

    PubMed Central

    Fantauzzo, Katherine A.; Kurban, Mazen; Levy, Brynn; Christiano, Angela M.

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary hypertrichoses are a group of hair overgrowth syndromes that are extremely rare in humans. We have previously demonstrated that a position effect on TRPS1 is associated with hypertrichosis in humans and mice. To gain insight into the functional role of Trps1, we analyzed the late morphogenesis vibrissae phenotype of Trps1Δgt mutant mice, which is characterized by follicle degeneration after peg downgrowth has been initiated. We found that Trps1 directly represses expression of the hair follicle stem cell regulator Sox9 to control proliferation of the follicle epithelium. Furthermore, we identified a copy number variation upstream of SOX9 in a family with hypertrichosis that significantly decreases expression of the gene in the hair follicle, providing new insights into the long-range regulation of SOX9. Our findings uncover a novel transcriptional hierarchy that regulates epithelial proliferation in the developing hair follicle and contributes to the pathology of hypertrichosis. PMID:23133399

  8. Discrimination between basal cell carcinoma and hair follicles in skin tissue sections by Raman micro-spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larraona-Puy, M.; Ghita, A.; Zoladek, A.; Perkins, W.; Varma, S.; Leach, I. H.; Koloydenko, A. A.; Williams, H.; Notingher, I.

    2011-05-01

    Skin cancer is the most common human malignancy and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represents approximately 80% of the non-melanoma cases. Current methods of treatment require histopathological evaluation of the tissues by qualified personnel. However, this method is subjective and in some cases BCC can be confused with other structures in healthy skin, including hair follicles. In this preliminary study, we investigated the potential of Raman micro-spectroscopy (RMS) to discriminate between hair follicles and BCC in skin tissue sections excised during Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS). Imaging and diagnosis of skin sections was automatically generated using ' a priori'-built spectral model based on LDA. This model had 90 ± 9% sensitivity and 85 ± 9% specificity for discrimination of BCC from dermis and epidermis. The model used selected Raman bands corresponding to the largest spectral differences between the Raman spectra of BCC and the normal skin regions, associated mainly with nucleic acids and collagen type I. Raman spectra corresponding to the epidermis regions of the hair follicles were found to be closer to those of healthy epidermis rather than BCC. Comparison between Raman spectral images and the gold standard haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histopathology diagnosis showed good agreement. Some hair follicle regions were misclassified as BCC; regions corresponded mainly to the outermost layer of hair follicle (basal cells) which are expected to have higher nucleic acid concentration. This preliminary study shows the ability of RMS to distinguish between BCC and other tissue structures associated to healthy skin which can be confused with BCC due to their similar morphology.

  9. A Case of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Outer Hair Follicle Sheath Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Masazumi; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Maeda, Fumihiko; Akasaka, Toshihide

    2015-01-01

    A 70-year-old Japanese man presented at our hospital with an asymptomatic, blackish, irregularly shaped plaque with a gray nodule in the periphery on his left lower leg. The lesion had been present for 10 years and had recently enlarged, associated with bleeding. Histopathologically, the tumor consisted of three distinct parts: The first part showed massive aggregation of basophilic basaloid cells with peripheral palisading and abundant melanin granules, and was diagnosed as solid-type basal cell carcinoma. The second part showed aggregation of clear cells with squamous eddies, and was diagnosed as proliferating trichilemmal tumor. The third part showed reticular aggregation of basaloid cells with infundibular cysts in the papillary dermis, and was diagnosed as infundibulocystic basal cell carcinoma. We diagnosed this tumor as basal cell carcinoma with various forms of hair follicle differentiation, including differentiation into the outer root sheath. PMID:26955331

  10. Influence of the Vehicle on the Penetration of Particles into Hair Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Patzelt, Alexa; Richter, Heike; Dähne, Lars; Walden, Peter; Wiesmüller, Karl-Heinz; Wank, Ute; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that particulate substances penetrate preferentially into the hair follicles and that the penetration depth depends on the particle size. In the present study, the influence of the vehicle of the particulate substances on the penetration depth was investigated. Four different formulations (ethanolic suspension, aqueous suspension, ethanolic gel and aqueous gel) containing peptide-loaded particles of 1 μm in diameter were prepared and applied on porcine ear skin. After penetration, punch biopsies were taken and the penetration depths of the particles were investigated by laser scanning microscopy. The deepest penetration was achieved with the gel formulations demonstrating an influence of the vehicle on the penetration depth of particulate substances. PMID:24310497

  11. The mesenchymal component of hair follicle neogenesis: background, methods and molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Ohyama, Manabu; Zheng, Ying; Paus, Ralf; Stenn, Kurt S

    2010-02-01

    Hair follicle morphogenesis and regeneration occur by an extensive and collaborative crosstalk between epithelial and mesenchymal skin components. A series of pioneering studies, which revealed an indispensable role of follicular dermal papilla and dermal sheath cells in this crosstalk, has led workers in the field to study in detail the anatomical distribution, functional properties, and molecular signature of the trichogenic dermal cells. The purpose of this paper was to provide a practical summary of the development and recent advances in the study of trichogenic dermal cells. Following a short review of the relevant literature, the methods for isolating and culturing these cells are summarized. Next, the bioassays, both in vivo and in vitro, that enable the evaluation of trichogenic properties of tested dermal cells are described in detail. A list of trichogenic molecular markers identified by those assays is also provided. Finally, this methods review is completed by defining some of the major questions needing resolution. PMID:19650868

  12. A Case of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Outer Hair Follicle Sheath Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, Masazumi; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Maeda, Fumihiko; Akasaka, Toshihide

    2015-01-01

    A 70-year-old Japanese man presented at our hospital with an asymptomatic, blackish, irregularly shaped plaque with a gray nodule in the periphery on his left lower leg. The lesion had been present for 10 years and had recently enlarged, associated with bleeding. Histopathologically, the tumor consisted of three distinct parts: The first part showed massive aggregation of basophilic basaloid cells with peripheral palisading and abundant melanin granules, and was diagnosed as solid-type basal cell carcinoma. The second part showed aggregation of clear cells with squamous eddies, and was diagnosed as proliferating trichilemmal tumor. The third part showed reticular aggregation of basaloid cells with infundibular cysts in the papillary dermis, and was diagnosed as infundibulocystic basal cell carcinoma. We diagnosed this tumor as basal cell carcinoma with various forms of hair follicle differentiation, including differentiation into the outer root sheath. PMID:26955331

  13. State-dependent signaling by Cav1.2 regulates hair follicle stem cell function.

    PubMed

    Yucel, Gozde; Altindag, Banu; Gomez-Ospina, Natalia; Rana, Anshul; Panagiotakos, Georgia; Lara, Maria Fernanda; Dolmetsch, Ricardo; Oro, Anthony E

    2013-06-01

    The signals regulating stem cell activation during tissue regeneration remain poorly understood. We investigated the baldness associated with mutations in the voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) Cav1.2 underlying Timothy syndrome (TS). While hair follicle stem cells express Cav1.2, they lack detectable voltage-dependent calcium currents. Cav1.2(TS) acts in a dominant-negative manner to markedly delay anagen, while L-type channel blockers act through Cav1.2 to induce anagen and overcome the TS phenotype. Cav1.2 regulates production of the bulge-derived BMP inhibitor follistatin-like1 (Fstl1), derepressing stem cell quiescence. Our findings show how channels act in nonexcitable tissues to regulate stem cells and may lead to novel therapeutics for tissue regeneration. PMID:23752588

  14. Transcription Factor CTIP2 maintains hair follicle stem cell pool and contributes to altered expression of LHX2 and NFATC1

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Shreya; Wheeler, Heather; Leid, Mark; Ganguli-Indra, Gitali; Indra, Arup K.

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factor CTIP2 (COUP-TF-interacting protein 2), also known as BCL11B, is expressed in hair follicles of embryonic and adult skin. Ctip2-null mice exhibit reduced hair follicle density during embryonic development. In contrast, conditional inactivation of Ctip2 in epidermis (Ctip2ep−/− mice) leads to a shorter telogen and premature entry into anagen during the second phase of hair cycling without a detectable change in the number of hair follicles. Keratinocytes of the bulge stem cells niche of Ctip2ep−/− mice proliferate more and undergo reduced apoptosis than the corresponding cells of wild-type mice. However, premature activation of follicular stem cells in mice lacking CTIP2 leads to the exhaustion of this stem cell compartment in comparison to Ctip2L2/L2 mice, which retained quiescent follicle stem cells. CTIP2 modulates expression of genes encoding EGFR and NOTCH1 during formation of hair follicles, and those encoding NFATC1 and LHX2 during normal hair cycling in adult skin. The expression of most of these genes is disrupted in mice lacking CTIP2 and these alterations may underlie the phenotype of Ctip2-null and Ctip2ep−/− mice. CTIP2 appears to serve as a transcriptional organizer that integrates input from multiple signaling cues during hair follicle morphogenesis and hair cycling. PMID:26176759

  15. A Study of Noncultured Extracted Hair Follicle Outer Root Sheath Cell Suspension for Transplantation in Vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Aarti N; Marfatia, Ritu K; Saikia, Siddhartha S

    2016-01-01

    Context: Vitiligo surgeries have come a long way from tissue grafts to cultured and non cultured cell transplantation. Extracted hair follicle outer root sheath cell transplantation (EHF ORS) suspension is more enriched with melanocyte. In a hair bulb, there is one melanocyte for every five keratinocytes which is much higher than the epidermal melanin unit. Aims: To analyse the effectiveness of cultured EHF ORS and to perform objective evaluation based on clinical improvement & photographic evidence. To observe any untoward events or side effects. Settings and Design: The study was open and uncontrolled. All the patients were screened at preliminary visit. Reviews were done every two weeks. The endpoint selected was six months post procedure. Materials and Methods: Twenty five patients of stable Vitiligo were included in the study and follicular unit were harvested by Follicular Unit Extraction method. Outer root sheath cells were extracted by trypsinization. The solution was transplanted over dermabraded recipient site. Pressure dressing was given. Patients were followed up regularly. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive Statistics, Chi-Square. Results: Mean ± SD repigmentation was 80.15% ± 22.9% with excellent repigmentation (90-100%) in 60% of patients. Conclusions: This method is safe, effective, and simpler than the other methods involving cell culturing and requiring a laboratory set-up but selection of patients is crucial for the success of the outcome. PMID:27601859

  16. Inhibition of β-catenin signalling in dermal fibroblasts enhances hair follicle regeneration during wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Celine; Pisco, Angela Oliveira; Rawlins, Emma L.; Simons, Ben D.

    2016-01-01

    New hair follicles (HFs) do not form in adult mammalian skin unless epidermal Wnt signalling is activated genetically or within large wounds. To understand the postnatal loss of hair forming ability we monitored HF formation at small circular (2 mm) wound sites. At P2, new HFs formed in back skin, but HF formation was markedly decreased by P21. Neonatal tail also formed wound-associated HFs, albeit in smaller numbers. Postnatal loss of HF neogenesis did not correlate with wound closure rate but with a reduction in Lrig1-positive papillary fibroblasts in wounds. Comparative gene expression profiling of back and tail dermis at P1 and dorsal fibroblasts at P2 and P50 showed a correlation between loss of HF formation and decreased expression of genes associated with proliferation and Wnt/β-catenin activity. Between P2 and P50, fibroblast density declined throughout the dermis and clones of fibroblasts became more dispersed. This correlated with a decline in fibroblasts expressing a TOPGFP reporter of Wnt activation. Surprisingly, between P2 and P50 there was no difference in fibroblast proliferation at the wound site but Wnt signalling was highly upregulated in healing dermis of P21 compared with P2 mice. Postnatal β-catenin ablation in fibroblasts promoted HF regeneration in neonatal and adult mouse wounds, whereas β-catenin activation reduced HF regeneration in neonatal wounds. Our data support a model whereby postnatal loss of hair forming ability in wounds reflects elevated dermal Wnt/β-catenin activation in the wound bed, increasing the abundance of fibroblasts that are unable to induce HF formation. PMID:27287810

  17. Inhibition of β-catenin signalling in dermal fibroblasts enhances hair follicle regeneration during wound healing.

    PubMed

    Rognoni, Emanuel; Gomez, Celine; Pisco, Angela Oliveira; Rawlins, Emma L; Simons, Ben D; Watt, Fiona M; Driskell, Ryan R

    2016-07-15

    New hair follicles (HFs) do not form in adult mammalian skin unless epidermal Wnt signalling is activated genetically or within large wounds. To understand the postnatal loss of hair forming ability we monitored HF formation at small circular (2 mm) wound sites. At P2, new HFs formed in back skin, but HF formation was markedly decreased by P21. Neonatal tail also formed wound-associated HFs, albeit in smaller numbers. Postnatal loss of HF neogenesis did not correlate with wound closure rate but with a reduction in Lrig1-positive papillary fibroblasts in wounds. Comparative gene expression profiling of back and tail dermis at P1 and dorsal fibroblasts at P2 and P50 showed a correlation between loss of HF formation and decreased expression of genes associated with proliferation and Wnt/β-catenin activity. Between P2 and P50, fibroblast density declined throughout the dermis and clones of fibroblasts became more dispersed. This correlated with a decline in fibroblasts expressing a TOPGFP reporter of Wnt activation. Surprisingly, between P2 and P50 there was no difference in fibroblast proliferation at the wound site but Wnt signalling was highly upregulated in healing dermis of P21 compared with P2 mice. Postnatal β-catenin ablation in fibroblasts promoted HF regeneration in neonatal and adult mouse wounds, whereas β-catenin activation reduced HF regeneration in neonatal wounds. Our data support a model whereby postnatal loss of hair forming ability in wounds reflects elevated dermal Wnt/β-catenin activation in the wound bed, increasing the abundance of fibroblasts that are unable to induce HF formation. PMID:27287810

  18. Impaired hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling with abnormal epidermal differentiation in nackt mice, a cathepsin L-deficient mutation.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Fernando; Starost, Matthew F; Flores, Mónica; Gimenez-Conti, Irma B; Guénet, Jean-Louis; Conti, Claudio J

    2002-08-01

    We previously described an autosomal-recessive mutation named nackt (nkt) exhibiting partial alopecia associated with CD4(+) T-cell deficiency. Also, we recently reported that nkt (now Ctsl(nkt)) comprises a deletion in the cathepsin L (Ctsl) gene. Another recent study reported that Ctsl knockout mice have CD4(+) T-cell deficiency and periodic shedding of hair, which recapitulate the nkt mutation and the old furless (fs) mutation. The current study focuses on the dermatological aspects of the nkt mutation. Careful histological analysis of skin development of homozygous nkt mice revealed a delayed hair follicle morphogenesis and late onset of the first catagen stage. The skin of Ctsl(nkt)/Ctsl(nkt) mice showed mild epidermal hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis, severe hyperplasia of the sebaceous glands, and structural alterations of hair follicles. Epidermal differentiation seems to be affected in nkt skin, with overexpression of involucrin and profilaggrin/filaggrin along with focal areas of keratin 6 expression in the interfollicular epidermis. Severe epidermal hyperplasia, acanthosis, orthokeratosis, and hyperkeratosis were only observed in mice maintained in nonpathogen-free environments. The analysis of Rag2-/- Ctsl(nkt)/Ctsl(nkt) double-mutant mice indicates that the skin defect remains under the absence of T and B cells. This animal model provides in vivo evidence that cysteine protease cathepsin L plays a critical role in hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling, as well as epidermal differentiation. PMID:12163394

  19. Impaired Hair Follicle Morphogenesis and Cycling with Abnormal Epidermal Differentiation in nackt Mice, a Cathepsin L-Deficient Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Benavides, Fernando; Starost, Matthew F.; Flores, Mónica; Gimenez-Conti, Irma B.; Guénet, Jean-Louis; Conti, Claudio J.

    2002-01-01

    We previously described an autosomal-recessive mutation named nackt (nkt) exhibiting partial alopecia associated with CD4+ T-cell deficiency. Also, we recently reported that nkt (now Ctslnkt) comprises a deletion in the cathepsin L (Ctsl) gene. Another recent study reported that Ctsl knockout mice have CD4+ T-cell deficiency and periodic shedding of hair, which recapitulate the nkt mutation and the old furless (fs) mutation. The current study focuses on the dermatological aspects of the nkt mutation. Careful histological analysis of skin development of homozygous nkt mice revealed a delayed hair follicle morphogenesis and late onset of the first catagen stage. The skin of Ctslnkt/Ctslnkt mice showed mild epidermal hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis, severe hyperplasia of the sebaceous glands, and structural alterations of hair follicles. Epidermal differentiation seems to be affected in nkt skin, with overexpression of involucrin and profilaggrin/filaggrin along with focal areas of keratin 6 expression in the interfollicular epidermis. Severe epidermal hyperplasia, acanthosis, orthokeratosis, and hyperkeratosis were only observed in mice maintained in nonpathogen-free environments. The analysis of Rag2−/− Ctslnkt/Ctslnkt double-mutant mice indicates that the skin defect remains under the absence of T and B cells. This animal model provides in vivo evidence that cysteine protease cathepsin L plays a critical role in hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling, as well as epidermal differentiation. PMID:12163394

  20. Identification of Astrotactin2 as a Genetic Modifier That Regulates the Global Orientation of Mammalian Hair Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hao; Cahill, Hugh; Smallwood, Philip M.; Wang, Yanshu; Nathans, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling controls the global orientation of surface structures, such as hairs and bristles, in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In Frizzled6 -/- (Fz6 -/-) mice, hair follicle orientations on the head and back are nearly random at birth, but reorient during early postnatal development to eventually generate a nearly parallel anterior-to-posterior array. We report the identification of a naturally occurring exon 5 deletion in Astrotactin2 (Astn2) that acts as a recessive genetic modifier of the Fz6 -/- hair patterning phenotype. A genetically engineered Astn2 exon 5 deletion recapitulates the modifier phenotype. In Fz6 -/- ;Astn2 ex5del/del mice, hair orientation on the back is subtly biased from posterior-to-anterior, leading to a 180-degree orientation reversal in mature mice. These experiments suggest that Astn2, an endosomal membrane protein, modulates PCP signaling. PMID:26418459

  1. A rapid screening method using DNA binding dyes to determine whether hair follicles have sufficient DNA for successful profiling.

    PubMed

    Haines, Alicia M; Linacre, Adrian

    2016-05-01

    We report a simple screening method to assess the viability of successful DNA profiling from single hair follicles. A total of 48 hair samples (shed and plucked) were collected from male and female donors and the root tips (0.5cm) were stained using one of three DNA binding dyes (EvaGreen™, Diamond™ Nucleic Acid Dye and RedSafe™) at 20× concentration. The hairs were subsequently viewed under a Nikon Optiphot fluorescent microscope to count the approximate number of nuclei in one plane of view. The hairs were then processed using either (1) a DNA extraction kit (QIAmp(®) Mini Kit) and then amplified using the AmpFLSTR(®) NGM™ kit, which amplifies 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci plus the gender marker amelogenin, or (2) by direct PCR amplification using the same DNA profiling kit. Diamond™ dye had the lowest background signal and plucked hairs treated with this dye produced full DNA profiles when amplified directly and was chosen to screen a further 150 mixed hair samples. These hairs were separated into one of five categories (1, >100 nuclei; 1.5, 50-99 nuclei; 2, 1-49 nuclei; 2.5, no nuclei but high fluorescent signal; 3, no nuclei and very low fluorescent signal) from which 60 of the hairs were chosen to undergo direct amplification using the NGM™ kit. It was found that there was a direct correlation to the category designation and the ability to obtain a DNA profile up-loadable to the Australian DNA Database. Approximately 91% of category 1 hairs resulted in either a full or high partial (12-29 alleles) profile by direct PCR whereas about 78% of category 3 hairs exhibited no amplification. The results show that this method can be used to predict successful STR amplification from single hair follicles. It is a rapid, sensitive, cheap, non-destructive and easy to perform methodology applicable for screening multiple hairs in order to aid forensic investigators in predicting hairs that will yield DNA results. PMID:27038658

  2. STAT5 Activation in the Dermal Papilla Is Important for Hair Follicle Growth Phase Induction.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Julien M D; Roy, Edwige; Ellis, Jonathan J; Francois, Mathias; Brooks, Andrew J; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash

    2016-09-01

    Hair follicles are skin appendages that undergo periods of growth (anagen), regression (catagen), and rest (telogen) regulated by their mesenchymal component, the dermal papilla (DP). On the basis of the reports of its specific expression in the DP, we investigated signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT5) activation during hair development and cycling. STAT5 activation in the DP began in late catagen, reaching a peak in early anagen before disappearing for the rest of the cycle. This was confirmed by the expression profile of suppressor of cytokine signaling 2, a STAT5 target in the DP. This pattern of expression starts after the first postnatal hair cycle. Quantification of hair cycling using the Flash canonical Wnt signaling in vivo bioluminescence reporter found that conditional knockout of STAT5A/B in the DP targeted through Cre-recombinase under the control of the Sox18 promoter resulted in delayed anagen entry compared with control. Microarray analysis of STAT5 deletion versus control revealed key changes in tumor necrosis factor-α, Wnt, and fibroblast growth factor ligands, known for their role in inducing anagen entry. We conclude that STAT5 activation acts as a mesenchymal switch to trigger natural anagen entry in postdevelopmental hair follicle cycling. PMID:27131881

  3. Peripheral-Nerve and Spinal-Cord Regeneration in Mice Using Hair-Follicle-Associated Pluripotent (HAP) Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Amoh, Yasuyuki; Katsuoka, Kensei; Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    Nestin, a neural stem cell marker protein, is expressed in hair follicle cells above the bulge area. These nestin-positive hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells are negative for the keratinocyte marker K15 and can differentiate into neurons, glia, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, cardiac muscle cells, and melanocytes in vitro. HAP stem cells are positive for the stem cell marker CD34, as well as K15-negative, suggesting their relatively undifferentiated state. HAP stem cells promoted the functional recovery of injured peripheral nerves and the spinal cord. HAP stem cells differentiated into glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive Schwann cells when implanted in severed sciatic nerves and spinal cords in mice. These results suggest that HAP stem cells provide an important accessible, autologous source of adult stem cells for regenerative medicine, that have critical advantages over ES and iPS stem cells. PMID:27431243

  4. Ginsenoside Rg3 up-regulates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in human dermal papilla cells and mouse hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dae Hyun; Cha, Youn Jeong; Yang, Kyeong Eun; Jang, Ik-Soon; Son, Chang-Gue; Kim, Bo Hyeon; Kim, Jung Min

    2014-07-01

    Crude Panax ginseng has been documented to possess hair growth activity and is widely used to treat alopecia, but the effects of ginsenoside Rg3 on hair growth have not to our knowledge been determined. The aim of the current study was to identify the molecules through which Rg3 stimulates hair growth. The thymidine incorporation for measuring cell proliferation was determined. We used DNA microarray analysis to measure gene expression levels in dermal papilla (DP) cells upon treatment with Rg3. The mRNA and protein expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human DP cells were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. We also used immunohistochemistry assays to detect in vivo changes in VEGF and 3-stemness marker expressions in mouse hair follicles. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed dose-dependent increases in VEGF mRNA levels on treatment with Rg3. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that expression of VEGF was significantly up-regulated by Rg3 in a dose-dependent manner in human DP cells and in mouse hair follicles. In addition, the CD8 and CD34 were also up-regulated by Rg3 in the mouse hair follicles. It may be concluded that Rg3 might increase hair growth through stimulation of hair follicle stem cells and it has the potential to be used in hair growth products. PMID:24375856

  5. Comparison of nestin-expressing multipotent stem cells in the tongue fungiform papilla and vibrissa hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Mii, Sumiyuki; Amoh, Yasuyuki; Katsuoka, Kensei; Hoffman, Robert M

    2014-06-01

    We have previously reported that hair follicles contain multipotent stem cells, which express nestin and participate in follicle growth at anagen as well as in the extension of the follicle sensory nerve. The nestin-driven green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP) transgenic mouse labels all nestin-expressing cells with GFP. The hair follicle nestin-GFP cells can differentiate into neurons, Schwann cells, and other cell types. In this study, we describe nestin-expressing multipotent stem cells in the fungiform papilla in the tongue. The nestin-expressing multipotent stem cells in the fungiform papilla are located around a peripheral sensory nerve immediately below the taste bud and co-express the neural crest cell marker p75(NTR) . The fungiform papilla cells formed spheres in suspension culture in DMEM-F12 medium supplemented with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The spheres consisted of nestin-expressing cells that co-expressed the neural crest marker p75(NTR) and which developed expression of the stem cell marker CD34. P75(NTR), CD34 and nestin co-expression suggested that nestin-expressing cells comprising the fungiform papilla spheres were in a relatively undifferentiated state. The nestin-expressing cells of these spheres acquired the following markers: β III tubulin typical of nerve cells; GFAP typical of glial cells; K15 typical of keratinocytes; and smooth-muscle antigen (SMA), after transfer to RPMI 1640 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), suggesting they differentiated into multiple cell types. The results of the current study indicate nestin-expressing fungiform papilla cells and the nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells have common features of cell morphology and ability to differentiate into multiple cell types, suggesting their remarkable similarity. PMID:24142339

  6. Reciprocal requirements for Eda/Edar/NF-κB and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways in hair follicle induction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuhang; Tomann, Philip; Andl, Thomas; Gallant, Natalie M.; Huelsken, Joerg; Jerchow, Boris; Birchmeier, Walter; Paus, Ralf; Piccolo, Stefano; Mikkola, Marja L.; Morrisey, Edward E.; Overbeek, Paul A.; Scheidereit, Claus; Millar, Sarah E.; Schmidt-Ullrich, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Wnt/β-catenin and NF-κB signaling mechanisms provide central controls in development and disease, but how these pathways intersect is unclear. Using hair follicle induction as a model system, we show that patterning of dermal Wnt/β-catenin signaling requires epithelial β-catenin activity. We find that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is absolutely required for NF-κB activation, and that Edar is a direct Wnt target gene. Wnt/β-catenin signaling is initially activated independently of Eda/Edar/NF-κB activity in primary hair follicle primordia. However, Eda/Edar/NF-κB signaling is required to refine the pattern of Wnt/β-catenin activity, and to maintain this activity at later stages of placode development. We show that maintenance of localized expression of Wnt10b and Wnt10a requires NF-κB signaling, providing a molecular explanation for the latter observation, and identify Wnt10b as a direct NF-κB target. These data reveal a complex interplay and inter-dependence of Wnt/β-catenin and Eda/Edar/NF-κB signaling pathways in initiation and maintenance of primary hair follicle placodes. PMID:19619491

  7. Corneodesmosin gene ablation induces lethal skin-barrier disruption and hair-follicle degeneration related to desmosome dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Emilie A; Huchenq, Anne; Mattiuzzo, Nicolas R; Metzger, Daniel; Chambon, Pierre; Ghyselinck, Norbert B; Serre, Guy; Jonca, Nathalie; Guerrin, Marina

    2009-08-01

    Corneodesmosin (CDSN) is specific to desmosomes of epithelia undergoing cornification, mainly the epidermis and the inner root sheath of the hair follicles. CDSN nonsense mutations are associated with hypotrichosis simplex of the scalp, a rare disease that leads to complete baldness in young adults. CDSN displays adhesive properties, mostly attributable to its N-terminal glycine-rich domain, and is sequentially proteolyzed as corneocytes migrate towards the skin surface. K14-promoter driven Cre-mediated deletion of Cdsn in mice resulted in neonatal death as a result of epidermal tearing upon minor mechanical stress. Ultrastructural analyses revealed a desmosomal break at the interface between the living and cornified layers. After grafting onto nude mice, knockout skin showed a chronic defect in the epidermal permeability barrier. The epidermis was first hyperproliferative with a thick cornified layer, then, both the epidermis and the hair follicles degenerated. In adults, Cdsn deletion resulted in similar histological abnormalities and in a lethal barrier defect. We demonstrate that Cdsn is not essential for skin-barrier formation in utero, but is vital throughout life to preserve this barrier by maintaining desmosome integrity. The strong adhesive function that the protein confers on corneodesmosomes also seems necessary for maintaining the architecture of the hair follicle. PMID:19596793

  8. Flat Mount Imaging of Mouse Skin and Its Application to the Analysis of Hair Follicle Patterning and Sensory Axon Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hao; Wang, Yanshu; Wu, Hao; Nathans, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Skin is a highly heterogeneous tissue. Intra-dermal structures include hair follicles, arrector pili muscles, epidermal specializations (such as Merkel cell clusters), sebaceous glands, nerves and nerve endings, and capillaries. The spatial arrangement of these structures is tightly controlled on a microscopic scale - as seen, for example, in the orderly arrangement of cell types within a single hair follicle - and on a macroscopic scale - as seen by the nearly identical orientations of thousands of hair follicles within a local region of skin. Visualizing these structures without physically sectioning the skin is possible because of the 2-dimensional geometry of this organ. In this protocol, we show that mouse skin can be dissected, fixed, permeabilized, stained, and clarified as an intact two dimensional object, a flat mount. The protocol allows for easy visualization of skin structures in their entirety through the full thickness of large areas of skin by optical sectioning and reconstruction. Images of these structures can also be integrated with information about position and orientation relative to the body axes. PMID:24999071

  9. Adult hair follicle stem cells do not retain the older DNA strands in vivo during normal tissue homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Waghmare, Sanjeev K; Tumbar, Tudorita

    2013-05-01

    Tissue stem cells have been proposed to segregate the chromosomes asymmetrically (in a non-random manner), thereby retaining preferentially the older "immortal" DNA strands bearing the stemness characteristics into one daughter cell, whereas the newly synthesized strands are segregated to the other daughter cell that will commit to differentiation. Moreover, this non-random segregation would protect the stem cell genome from accumulating multiple mutations during repeated DNA replication. This long-standing hypothesis remains an active subject of study due to conflicting results for some systems and lack of consistency among different tissue stem cell populations. In this review, we will focus on work done in the hair follicle, which is one of the best-understood vertebrate tissue stem cell system to date. In cell culture analysis of paired cultured keratinocytes derived from hair follicle, stem cells suggested a non-random segregation of chromosome with respect to the older DNA strand. In vivo, the hair follicle stem cells appear to self-renew and differentiate at different phases of their homeostatic cycle. The fate decisions occur in quiescence when some stem cells migrate out of their niche and commit to differentiation without self-renewal. The stem cells left behind in the niche self-renew symmetrically and randomly segregate the chromosomes at each division, making more stem cells. This model seems to apply to at least a few other vertebrate tissue stem cells in vivo. PMID:23681654

  10. Thyroxine Differentially Modulates the Peripheral Clock: Lessons from the Human Hair Follicle

    PubMed Central

    Hardman, Jonathan A.; Haslam, Iain S.; Farjo, Nilofer; Farjo, Bessam; Paus, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The human hair follicle (HF) exhibits peripheral clock activity, with knock-down of clock genes (BMAL1 and PER1) prolonging active hair growth (anagen) and increasing pigmentation. Similarly, thyroid hormones prolong anagen and stimulate pigmentation in cultured human HFs. In addition they are recognized as key regulators of the central clock that controls circadian rhythmicity. Therefore, we asked whether thyroxine (T4) also influences peripheral clock activity in the human HF. Over 24 hours we found a significant reduction in protein levels of BMAL1 and PER1, with their transcript levels also decreasing significantly. Furthermore, while all clock genes maintained their rhythmicity in both the control and T4 treated HFs, there was a significant reduction in the amplitude of BMAL1 and PER1 in T4 (100 nM) treated HFs. Accompanying this, cell-cycle progression marker Cyclin D1 was also assessed appearing to show an induced circadian rhythmicity by T4 however, this was not significant. Contrary to short term cultures, after 6 days, transcript and/or protein levels of all core clock genes (BMAL1, PER1, clock, CRY1, CRY2) were up-regulated in T4 treated HFs. BMAL1 and PER1 mRNA was also up-regulated in the HF bulge, the location of HF epithelial stem cells. Together this provides the first direct evidence that T4 modulates the expression of the peripheral molecular clock. Thus, patients with thyroid dysfunction may also show a disordered peripheral clock, which raises the possibility that short term, pulsatile treatment with T4 might permit one to modulate circadian activity in peripheral tissues as a target to treat clock-related disease. PMID:25822259

  11. Heparan sulfate regulates hair follicle and sebaceous gland morphogenesis and homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Coulson-Thomas, Vivien Jane; Gesteira, Tarsis Ferreira; Esko, Jeffrey; Kao, Winston

    2014-09-01

    Hair follicle (HF) morphogenesis and cycling are a result of intricate autonomous epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Once the first HF cycle is complete it repeatedly undergoes cyclic transformations. Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans are found on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix where they influence a variety of biological processes by interacting with physiologically important proteins, such as growth factors. Inhibition of heparanase (an HS endoglycosidase) in in vitro cultured HFs has been shown to induce a catagen-like process. Therefore, this study aimed to elucidate the precise role of HS in HF morphogenesis and cycling. An inducible tetratransgenic mouse model was generated to excise exostosin glycosyltransferase 1 (Ext1) in keratin 14-positive cells from P21. Interestingly, EXT1(StEpiΔ/StEpiΔ) mice presented solely anagen HFs. Moreover, waxing the fur to synchronize the HFs revealed accelerated hair regrowth in the EXT1(StEpiΔ/StEpiΔ) mice and hindered cycling into catagen. The ablation of HS in the interfollicular epidermal cells of mature skin led to the spontaneous formation of new HFs and an increase in Sonic Hedgehog expression resembling wild-type mice at P0, thereby indicating that the HS/Sonic Hedgehog signaling pathway regulates HF formation during embryogenesis and prevents HF formation in mature skin. Finally, the knock-out of HS also led to the morphogenesis and hyperplasia of sebaceous glands and sweat glands in mature mice, leading to exacerbated sebum production and accumulation on the skin surface. Therefore, our findings clearly show that an intricate control of HS levels is required for HF, sebaceous gland, and sweat gland morphogenesis and HF cycling. PMID:25053416

  12. Heparan Sulfate Regulates Hair Follicle and Sebaceous Gland Morphogenesis and Homeostasis*

    PubMed Central

    Coulson-Thomas, Vivien Jane; Gesteira, Tarsis Ferreira; Esko, Jeffrey; Kao, Winston

    2014-01-01

    Hair follicle (HF) morphogenesis and cycling are a result of intricate autonomous epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Once the first HF cycle is complete it repeatedly undergoes cyclic transformations. Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans are found on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix where they influence a variety of biological processes by interacting with physiologically important proteins, such as growth factors. Inhibition of heparanase (an HS endoglycosidase) in in vitro cultured HFs has been shown to induce a catagen-like process. Therefore, this study aimed to elucidate the precise role of HS in HF morphogenesis and cycling. An inducible tetratransgenic mouse model was generated to excise exostosin glycosyltransferase 1 (Ext1) in keratin 14-positive cells from P21. Interestingly, EXT1StEpiΔ/StEpiΔ mice presented solely anagen HFs. Moreover, waxing the fur to synchronize the HFs revealed accelerated hair regrowth in the EXT1StEpiΔ/StEpiΔ mice and hindered cycling into catagen. The ablation of HS in the interfollicular epidermal cells of mature skin led to the spontaneous formation of new HFs and an increase in Sonic Hedgehog expression resembling wild-type mice at P0, thereby indicating that the HS/Sonic Hedgehog signaling pathway regulates HF formation during embryogenesis and prevents HF formation in mature skin. Finally, the knock-out of HS also led to the morphogenesis and hyperplasia of sebaceous glands and sweat glands in mature mice, leading to exacerbated sebum production and accumulation on the skin surface. Therefore, our findings clearly show that an intricate control of HS levels is required for HF, sebaceous gland, and sweat gland morphogenesis and HF cycling. PMID:25053416

  13. Thyroxine differentially modulates the peripheral clock: lessons from the human hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Jonathan A; Haslam, Iain S; Farjo, Nilofer; Farjo, Bessam; Paus, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The human hair follicle (HF) exhibits peripheral clock activity, with knock-down of clock genes (BMAL1 and PER1) prolonging active hair growth (anagen) and increasing pigmentation. Similarly, thyroid hormones prolong anagen and stimulate pigmentation in cultured human HFs. In addition they are recognized as key regulators of the central clock that controls circadian rhythmicity. Therefore, we asked whether thyroxine (T4) also influences peripheral clock activity in the human HF. Over 24 hours we found a significant reduction in protein levels of BMAL1 and PER1, with their transcript levels also decreasing significantly. Furthermore, while all clock genes maintained their rhythmicity in both the control and T4 treated HFs, there was a significant reduction in the amplitude of BMAL1 and PER1 in T4 (100 nM) treated HFs. Accompanying this, cell-cycle progression marker Cyclin D1 was also assessed appearing to show an induced circadian rhythmicity by T4 however, this was not significant. Contrary to short term cultures, after 6 days, transcript and/or protein levels of all core clock genes (BMAL1, PER1, clock, CRY1, CRY2) were up-regulated in T4 treated HFs. BMAL1 and PER1 mRNA was also up-regulated in the HF bulge, the location of HF epithelial stem cells. Together this provides the first direct evidence that T4 modulates the expression of the peripheral molecular clock. Thus, patients with thyroid dysfunction may also show a disordered peripheral clock, which raises the possibility that short term, pulsatile treatment with T4 might permit one to modulate circadian activity in peripheral tissues as a target to treat clock-related disease. PMID:25822259

  14. Morphogenetic Mechanisms in the Cyclic Regeneration of Hair Follicles and Deer Antlers from Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunyi; McMahon, Chris

    2013-01-01

    We have made comparisons between hair follicles (HFs) and antler units (AUs)—two seemingly unrelated mammalian organs. HFs are tiny and concealed within skin, whereas AUs are gigantic and grown externally for visual display. However, these two organs share some striking similarities. Both consist of permanent and cyclic/temporary components and undergo stem-cell-based organogenesis and cyclic regeneration. Stem cells of both organs reside in the permanent part and the growth centres are located in the temporary part of each respective organ. Organogenesis and regeneration of both organs depend on epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Establishment of these interactions requires stem cells and reactive/niche cells (dermal papilla cells for HFs and epidermal cells for AUs) to be juxtaposed, which is achieved through destruction of the cyclic part to bring the reactive cells into close proximity to the respective stem cell niche. Developments of HFs and AUs are regulated by similar endocrine (particularly testosterone) and paracrine (particularly IGF1) factors. Interestingly, these two organs come to interplay during antlerogenesis. In conclusion, we believe that investigators from the fields of both HF and AU biology could greatly benefit from a comprehensive comparison between these two organs. PMID:24383056

  15. Penetration profile of microspheres in follicular targeting of terminal hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Toll, R; Jacobi, U; Richter, H; Lademann, J; Schaefer, H; Blume-Peytavi, U

    2004-07-01

    The transfollicular administration of pharmacologically active molecules is of current therapeutic interest, mainly with regard to delivery to specific sites of the hair follicle (HF) and the reduction of hepatic metabolism and systemic toxicity. HF are privileged pathways for specific molecules depending on formulations, which enter faster into these shunts than through the stratum corneum. The aim was to optimize the delivery of fluorescent microspheres into the HF, thereby, developing a standardized protocol for follicular targeting with microspheres. The number of HF showing penetration, as well as the depth of penetration, was determined. Freshly excised skin samples with terminal HF were divided into groups, with or without prior treatment with cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping-technique (CSSS). Thereafter microspheres at a size of 0.75-6.0 microm were applied according to the developed standardized protocol. Skin biopsies were obtained, shock-frozen, and sectioned in 5 microm slices. We demonstrated a selective penetration route of the microspheres into the HF. Optimal microsphere size proved to be approximately 1.5 microm, with a 55% rate of all HF, and with a maximum penetration depth of >2300 microm. Without previous CSSS treatment of the skin, the transfollicular microsphere penetration was below 27% with a maximum penetration depth of 1000 microm. Thus, the basis for follicular targeting of essential structures containing stem cells for keratinocytes, melanocytes, and mast cells has been laid. PMID:15191557

  16. Single transcription factor reprogramming of hair follicle dermal papilla cells to induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Su-Yi; Bouwman, Britta Am; Ang, Yen-Sin; Kim, Soo Jeong; Lee, Dung-Fang; Lemischka, Ihor R; Rendl, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Reprogramming patient-specific somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has great potential to develop feasible regenerative therapies. However, several issues need to be resolved such as ease, efficiency, and safety of generation of iPS cells. Many different cell types have been reprogrammed, most conveniently even peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However, they typically require the enforced expression of several transcription factors, posing mutagenesis risks as exogenous genetic material. To reduce this risk, iPS cells were previously generated with Oct4 alone from rather inaccessible neural stem cells that endogenously express the remaining reprogramming factors and very recently from fibroblasts with Oct4 alone in combination with additional small molecules. Here, we exploit that dermal papilla (DP) cells from hair follicles in the skin express all but one reprogramming factors to show that these accessible cells can be reprogrammed into iPS cells with the single transcription factor Oct4 and without further manipulation. Reprogramming was already achieved after 3 weeks and with efficiencies similar to other cell types reprogrammed with four factors. Dermal papilla-derived iPS cells are comparable to embryonic stem cells with respect to morphology, gene expression, and pluripotency. We conclude that DP cells may represent a preferred cell type for reprogramming accessible cells with less manipulation and for ultimately establishing safe conditions in the future by replacing Oct4 with small molecules. PMID:21563278

  17. Niche-induced cell death and epithelial phagocytosis regulate hair follicle stem cell pool.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Kailin R; Rompolas, Panteleimon; Zito, Giovanni; Myung, Peggy; Sun, Thomas Y; Brown, Samara; Gonzalez, David G; Blagoev, Krastan B; Haberman, Ann M; Greco, Valentina

    2015-06-01

    Tissue homeostasis is achieved through a balance of cell production (growth) and elimination (regression). In contrast to tissue growth, the cells and molecular signals required for tissue regression remain unknown. To investigate physiological tissue regression, we use the mouse hair follicle, which cycles stereotypically between phases of growth and regression while maintaining a pool of stem cells to perpetuate tissue regeneration. Here we show by intravital microscopy in live mice that the regression phase eliminates the majority of the epithelial cells by two distinct mechanisms: terminal differentiation of suprabasal cells and a spatial gradient of apoptosis of basal cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that basal epithelial cells collectively act as phagocytes to clear dying epithelial neighbours. Through cellular and genetic ablation we show that epithelial cell death is extrinsically induced through transforming growth factor (TGF)-β activation and mesenchymal crosstalk. Strikingly, our data show that regression acts to reduce the stem cell pool, as inhibition of regression results in excess basal epithelial cells with regenerative abilities. This study identifies the cellular behaviours and molecular mechanisms of regression that counterbalance growth to maintain tissue homeostasis. PMID:25849774

  18. Niche induced cell death and epithelial phagocytosis regulate hair follicle stem cell pool

    PubMed Central

    Mesa, Kailin R.; Rompolas, Panteleimon; Zito, Giovanni; Myung, Peggy; Sun, Thomas Yang; Brown, Samara; Gonzalez, David; Blagoev, Krastan B.; Haberman, Ann M.; Greco, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tissue homeostasis is achieved through a balance of cell production (growth) and elimination (regression)1,2. Contrary to tissue growth, the cells and molecular signals required for tissue regression remain unknown. To investigate physiological tissue regression, we use the mouse hair follicle, which cycles stereotypically between phases of growth and regression while maintaining a pool of stem cells to perpetuate tissue regeneration3. Here we show by intravital microscopy in live mice4–6 that the regression phase eliminates the majority of the epithelial cells by two distinct mechanisms: terminal differentiation of suprabasal cells and a spatial gradient of apoptosis of basal cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that basal epithelial cells collectively act as phagocytes to clear dying epithelial neighbors. Through cellular and genetic ablation we show that epithelial cell death is extrinsically induced through TGFβ activation and mesenchymal crosstalk. Strikingly, our data show that regression acts to reduce the stem cell pool as inhibition of regression results in excess basal epithelial cells with regenerative abilities. This study identifies the cellular behaviors and molecular mechanisms of regression that counterbalance growth to maintain tissue homeostasis. PMID:25849774

  19. Dynamics of Lgr6+ Progenitor Cells in the Hair Follicle, Sebaceous Gland, and Interfollicular Epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Füllgrabe, Anja; Joost, Simon; Are, Alexandra; Jacob, Tina; Sivan, Unnikrishnan; Haegebarth, Andrea; Linnarsson, Sten; Simons, Benjamin D.; Clevers, Hans; Toftgård, Rune; Kasper, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Summary The dynamics and interactions between stem cell pools in the hair follicle (HF), sebaceous gland (SG), and interfollicular epidermis (IFE) of murine skin are still poorly understood. In this study, we used multicolor lineage tracing to mark Lgr6-expressing basal cells in the HF isthmus, SG, and IFE. We show that these Lgr6+ cells constitute long-term self-renewing populations within each compartment in adult skin. Quantitative analysis of clonal dynamics revealed that the Lgr6+ progenitor cells compete neutrally in the IFE, isthmus, and SG, indicating population asymmetry as the underlying mode of tissue renewal. Transcriptional profiling of Lgr6+ and Lgr6− cells did not reveal a distinct Lgr6-associated gene expression signature, raising the question of whether Lgr6 expression requires extrinsic niche signals. Our results elucidate the interrelation and behavior of Lgr6+ populations in the IFE, HF, and SG and suggest population asymmetry as a common mechanism for homeostasis in several epithelial skin compartments. PMID:26607954

  20. Somatostatin expression in human hair follicles and its potential role in immune privilege.

    PubMed

    Breitkopf, Trisia; Lo, Blanche K K; Leung, Gigi; Wang, Eddy; Yu, Mei; Carr, Nicholas; Zloty, David; Cowan, Bryce; Shapiro, Jerry; McElwee, Kevin J

    2013-07-01

    Immune privilege (IP) is believed to exist in the anagen hair follicle (HF). Studies have shown that downregulation of major histocompatibility complex Class I occurs and immunosuppressive factors are expressed in the HF bulb and bulge. However, demonstration and quantification of functional IP in HF cells are required. We examined the middle (sheath) and lower (bulb) portions of the human HF using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR), immunohistology, ELISA, in vitro coculture with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and flow cytometry. We found that HF cells, relative to non-follicular epidermal cells, failed to promote allogeneic PBMC proliferation and CD4(+) and CD8(+) IFNγ production. By qPCR, we found significant downregulation of Class I and Class II HLA alleles in both the bulb and sheath, and upregulation of multiple immunoregulatory genes. It is noteworthy that somatostatin (SST) was significantly upregulated relative to epidermis. By immunohistochemistry, SST was most strongly expressed in the HF outer root sheath, and, by ELISA, cultured sheath cells secreted SST. PBMCs, cultured with stimulatory allogeneic epidermal cells and SST, secreted significantly less IFNγ than controls. Addition of SST antagonists to PBMCs cocultured with allogeneic HF cells increased IFNγ secretion. The data identify SST as a secretory factor potentially contributing to the HF IP repertoire. PMID:23370538

  1. An Integrated Transcriptome Atlas of Embryonic Hair Follicle Progenitors, Their Niche, and the Developing Skin.

    PubMed

    Sennett, Rachel; Wang, Zichen; Rezza, Amélie; Grisanti, Laura; Roitershtein, Nataly; Sicchio, Cristina; Mok, Ka Wai; Heitman, Nicholas J; Clavel, Carlos; Ma'ayan, Avi; Rendl, Michael

    2015-09-14

    Defining the unique molecular features of progenitors and their niche requires a genome-wide, whole-tissue approach with cellular resolution. Here, we co-isolate embryonic hair follicle (HF) placode and dermal condensate cells, precursors of adult HF stem cells and the dermal papilla/sheath niche, along with lineage-related keratinocytes and fibroblasts, Schwann cells, melanocytes, and a population inclusive of all remaining skin cells. With next-generation RNA sequencing, we define gene expression patterns in the context of the entire embryonic skin, and through transcriptome cross-comparisons, we uncover hundreds of enriched genes in cell-type-specific signatures. Axon guidance signaling and many other pathway genes are enriched in multiple signatures, implicating these factors in driving the large-scale cellular rearrangements necessary for HF formation. Finally, we share all data in an interactive, searchable companion website. Our study provides an overarching view of signaling within the entire embryonic skin and captures a molecular snapshot of HF progenitors and their niche. PMID:26256211

  2. The Transient Role for Calcium and Vitamin D during the Developmental Hair Follicle Cycle.

    PubMed

    Mady, Leila J; Ajibade, Dare V; Hsaio, Connie; Teichert, Arnaud; Fong, Chak; Wang, Yongmei; Christakos, Sylvia; Bikle, Daniel D

    2016-07-01

    The role for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and/or calcium in hair follicle cycling is not clear despite their impact on keratinocyte differentiation. We found that calbindin-D9k null (knockout) pups generated from calbindin-D9k knockout females fed a vitamin D-deficient, low-calcium (0.47%) diet develop transient alopecia. The pups appear phenotypically normal until 13 days of age, after which the hair progressively sheds in a caudocephalic direction, resulting in truncal alopecia totalis by 20-23 days, with spontaneous recovery by 28 days. Histological studies showed markedly dystrophic hair follicles, loss of hair shafts with increased apoptosis, and hyperplastic epidermis during this time. Ha1 expression is lost during catagen in all mice but recovers more slowly in the knockout pups on the vitamin D-deficient, low-calcium diet. Keratin 1 expression is reduced throughout days 19-28. The expressions of involucrin, loricrin, and cathepsin L is initially increased by day 19 but subsequently falls below those of controls by day 23, as does that of desmoglein 3. Feeding the mothers a high-vitamin D/high-calcium (2%)/lactose (20%) diet lessens the phenotype, and knockout pups fostered to mothers fed a normal diet do not develop alopecia. Our results show that in calbindin-D9k knockout pups, a maternal vitamin D-deficient/low-calcium diet leads to transient noncicatricial alopecia. PMID:26994969

  3. Ginsenosides Rb₁ and Rd regulate proliferation of mature keratinocytes through induction of p63 expression in hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Li, Jing-Jie; Gu, Li-Juan; Zhang, Dong-Liang; Wang, Yun-Bo; Sung, Chang-Keun

    2013-07-01

    Ginsenosides Rb₁ and Rd are the two main types of ginsenosides in Panax ginseng and have been used as an additive to against alopecia. However, the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. To determine how ginsenosides prevent hair loss, we topically applied protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides Rb₁ and Rd over the shaved skin of B57CL/6 mice, and monitored and assessed them for 35 days. We then investigated the effects of ginsenosides on cell genesis in different phases of adult hair follicles (HFs), using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine as a marker for dividing cells. Moreover, p63, a specific marker and a major regulator of keratinocyte progenitor cells of the multi-layered epithelia, was detected in epidermis. Results indicated that treatment with ginsenosides Rb₁ and Rd increased cell proliferation in both anagen and telogen of HFs. However, it had no significant effect on the survival of cells in the bulge and upper follicle region. Investigation of p63 demonstrated that up-regulation of p63 expression in the matrix and outer root sheath might be one of the mechanisms by which ginsenosides Rb₁ and Rd promote cell proliferation in HFs. Our study reveals a novel mechanism by which ginsenoside promotes hair growth through p63 induction in follicular keratinocytes and indicates that ginsenosides Rb₁ and Rd might be developed as a therapeutic agent for the prevention of hair loss. PMID:23007914

  4. In situ patch-clamp recordings from Merkel cells in rat whisker hair follicles, an experimental protocol for studying tactile transduction in tactile-end organs.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Ryo; Ling, Jennifer; Cha, Myeounghoon; Gu, Jianguo G

    2015-01-01

    Mammals use tactile end-organs to perform sensory tasks such as environmental exploration, social interaction, and tactile discrimination. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying tactile transduction in tactile end-organs remain poorly understood. The patch-clamp recording technique may be the most valuable approach for detecting and studying tactile transduction in tactile end-organs, but it is technically challenging because tactile transduction elements in an end-organ are normally inaccessible by patch-clamp recording electrodes. Here we describe an in situ patch-clamp recording protocol for the study of tactile transduction in Merkel cells of rat whisker hair follicles, one of the most sensitive tactile end-organs in mammals. This technique offers an opportunity to explore the identities and properties of ion channels that are involved in tactile transduction in whisker hair follicles, and it may also lend a useful tool for researchers to study other tactile end-organs. The experimental protocol describes procedures for 1) tissue dissection and whisker hair follicle preparation, 2) device setup and steps for performing patch-clamp recordings from Merkel cells in a whisker hair follicle, 3) methods of delivering mechanical stimuli, and 4) intra-follicle microinjection for receptor knockdown in whisker hair follicles. The main procedures in this protocol, from tissue preparation to whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, can be completed in a few hours. PMID:25907165

  5. Axin2 marks quiescent hair follicle bulge stem cells that are maintained by autocrine Wnt/β-catenin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Xinhong; Tan, Si Hui; Yu, Ka Lou; Lim, Sophia Beng Hui; Nusse, Roeland

    2016-01-01

    How stem cells maintain their identity and potency as tissues change during growth is not well understood. In mammalian hair, it is unclear how hair follicle stem cells can enter an extended period of quiescence during the resting phase but retain stem cell potential and be subsequently activated for growth. Here, we use lineage tracing and gene expression mapping to show that the Wnt target gene Axin2 is constantly expressed throughout the hair cycle quiescent phase in outer bulge stem cells that produce their own Wnt signals. Ablating Wnt signaling in the bulge cells causes them to lose their stem cell potency to contribute to hair growth and undergo premature differentiation instead. Bulge cells express secreted Wnt inhibitors, including Dickkopf (Dkk) and secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (Sfrp1). However, the Dickkopf 3 (Dkk3) protein becomes localized to the Wnt-inactive inner bulge that contains differentiated cells. We find that Axin2 expression remains confined to the outer bulge, whereas Dkk3 continues to be localized to the inner bulge during the hair cycle growth phase. Our data suggest that autocrine Wnt signaling in the outer bulge maintains stem cell potency throughout hair cycle quiescence and growth, whereas paracrine Wnt inhibition of inner bulge cells reinforces differentiation. PMID:26903625

  6. Axin2 marks quiescent hair follicle bulge stem cells that are maintained by autocrine Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Lim, Xinhong; Tan, Si Hui; Yu, Ka Lou; Lim, Sophia Beng Hui; Nusse, Roeland

    2016-03-15

    How stem cells maintain their identity and potency as tissues change during growth is not well understood. In mammalian hair, it is unclear how hair follicle stem cells can enter an extended period of quiescence during the resting phase but retain stem cell potential and be subsequently activated for growth. Here, we use lineage tracing and gene expression mapping to show that the Wnt target gene Axin2 is constantly expressed throughout the hair cycle quiescent phase in outer bulge stem cells that produce their own Wnt signals. Ablating Wnt signaling in the bulge cells causes them to lose their stem cell potency to contribute to hair growth and undergo premature differentiation instead. Bulge cells express secreted Wnt inhibitors, including Dickkopf (Dkk) and secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (Sfrp1). However, the Dickkopf 3 (Dkk3) protein becomes localized to the Wnt-inactive inner bulge that contains differentiated cells. We find that Axin2 expression remains confined to the outer bulge, whereas Dkk3 continues to be localized to the inner bulge during the hair cycle growth phase. Our data suggest that autocrine Wnt signaling in the outer bulge maintains stem cell potency throughout hair cycle quiescence and growth, whereas paracrine Wnt inhibition of inner bulge cells reinforces differentiation. PMID:26903625

  7. SCF/c-kit signaling is required in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced migration and differentiation of hair follicle melanocytes for epidermal pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Weiming; Yang, Ke; Lei, Mingxing; Yan, Hongtao; Tang, Hui; Bai, Xiufeng; Yang, Guihong; Lian, Xiaohua; Wu, Jinjin

    2015-05-01

    Hair follicle melanocyte stem cells (McSCs) are responsible for hair pigmentation and also function as a major melanocyte reservoir for epidermal pigmentation. However, the molecular mechanism promoting McSCs for epidermal pigmentation remains elusive. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) mimics key signaling involved in melanocyte growth, migration and differentiation. We therefore investigated the molecular basis for the contribution of hair follicle McSCs to epidermal pigmentation using the TPA induction model. We found that repetitive TPA treatment of female C57BL/6 mouse dorsal skin induced epidermal pigmentation by increasing the number of epidermal melanocytes. Particularly, TPA treatment induced McSCs to initiate proliferation, exit the stem cell niche and differentiate. We also demonstrated that TPA promotes melanoblast migration and differentiation in vitro. At the molecular level, TPA treatment induced robust expression of stem cell factor (SCF) in keratinocytes and c-kit in melanoblasts and melanocytes. Administration of ACK2, a neutralizing antibody against the Kit receptor, suppressed mouse epidermal pigmentation, decreased the number of epidermal melanocytes, and inhibited melanoblast migration. Taken together, our data demonstrate that TPA promotes the expansion, migration and differentiation of hair follicle McSCs for mouse epidermal pigmentation. SCF/c-kit signaling was required for TPA-induced migration and differentiation of hair follicle melanocytes. Our findings may provide an excellent model to investigate the signaling mechanisms regulating epidermal pigmentation from mouse hair follicle McSCs, and a potential therapeutic option for skin pigmentation disorders. PMID:25727244

  8. Transcriptome sequencing reveals differences between anagen and telogen secondary hair follicle-derived dermal papilla cells of the Cashmere goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bing; Xu, Teng; Zhang, Zhipeng; Ta, Na; Gao, Xiaoyu; Hui, Lihua; Guo, Xudong; Liu, Dongjun

    2014-02-01

    Dermal papilla is considered the control center of hair follicle growth and hair cycle. The secondary hair follicle (producing cashmere) growth cycle of the Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) is circannual, and each growth phase can be easily distinguished by its long duration. To identify gene expression patterns and differences of the dermal papilla cell (DPC) between the anagen and telogen phases, we established two DPC lines: ana-DPCs (DPCs derived from the anagen secondary hair follicle) and tel-DPCs (DPCs derived from the telogen secondary hair follicle). Compared with the ana-DPCs, the tel-DPCs lost the capacity to form cell aggregates and showed lower cell proliferation rate. Transcriptome sequencing revealed that 825 genes were differentially expressed by at least threefold between the two DPC lines. These genes were significantly enriched in cell cycle control, cell division, and chromosome partitioning from the Eukaryotic Orthologous Groups of proteins (KOG) database and in cell cycle, cell adhesion molecules, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, and p53 signaling pathway from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genomes (KEGG) database. Enrichment analyses revealed that in the middle of the telogen the DPCs of secondary hair follicles (SHFs) seemed on the one hand to promote the degeneration of SHFs and cessation of cashmere growth, while on the other hand to resist self-apoptosis and prepare for the regeneration or revivification of fully functional dermal papillae. These findings provide a better understanding of hair follicle growth and will be useful for identification of novel molecules associated with the control of hair growth cycle. PMID:24326349

  9. The Dog Mite, Demodex canis: Prevalence, Fungal Co-Infection, Reactions to Light, and Hair Follicle Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Lian-Chen; Ju, Yu-Ten; Hong, Chin-Lin; Tsai, Yu-Yang; Li, Yi-Hung; Wu, Ying-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Infection rate, reaction to light, and hair follicle apoptosis are examined in the dogmite, Demodex canis Leydig (Prostigmata: Demodicidae), in dogs from the northern area of Taiwan. An analysis of relevant samples revealed 7.2% (73/1013) prevalence of D. canis infection. Infection during the investigation peaked each winter, with an average prevalence of 12.5% (32/255). The infection rates significantly varied in accordance with month, sex, age, and breed (p < 0.05). Most of the lesions were discovered on the backs of the infected animals, where the infection rate was 52.1% (38/73) (P < 0.05). The epidemiologic analysis of infection based on landscape area factor, found that employing a map-overlapping method showed a higher infection rate in the eastern distribution of Taiwan's northern area than other areas. Isolation tests for Microsporum canis Bodin (Onygenales: Arthrodermataceae) and Trichophyton mentagrophyte Robin (Blanchard) on the D. canis infected dogs revealed prevalence rates of 4.4% (2/45) and 2.2% (1/45), respectively. Observations demonstrated that D. canis slowly moved from a light area to a dark area. Skin samples were examined for cellular apoptosis by activated caspase3 immunohistochemical staining. Cells that surrounded the infected hair follicles were activated caspase3-positive, revealing cell apoptosis in infected follicles via the activation of caspase3. PMID:21867442

  10. Lichen planopilaris is characterized by immune privilege collapse of the hair follicle's epithelial stem cell niche.

    PubMed

    Harries, Matthew J; Meyer, Katja; Chaudhry, Iskander; E Kloepper, Jennifer; Poblet, Enrique; Griffiths, Christopher Em; Paus, Ralf

    2013-10-01

    Lichen planopilaris (LPP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown pathogenesis that leads to permanent hair loss. Whilst destruction of epithelial hair follicle stem cells (eHFSCs) that reside in an immunologically protected niche of the HF epithelium, the bulge, is a likely key event in LPP pathogenesis, this remains to be demonstrated. We have tested the hypotheses that bulge immune privilege (IP) collapse and inflammation-induced eHFSC death are key components in the pathogenesis of LPP. Biopsies of lesional and non-lesional scalp skin from adult LPP patients (n = 42) were analysed by quantitative (immuno)histomorphometry, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), laser capture microdissection and microarray analysis, or skin organ culture. At both the protein and transcriptional level, lesional LPP HFs showed evidence for bulge IP collapse (ie increased expression of MHC class I and II, β2microglobulin; reduced TGFβ2 and CD200 expression). This was accompanied by a Th1-biased cytotoxic T cell response (ie increased CD8(+) GranzymeB(+) T cells and CD123(+) plasmacytoid dendritic cells, with increased CXCR3 expression) and increased expression of interferon-inducible chemokines (CXCL9/10/11). Interestingly, lesional LPP eHFSCs showed both increased proliferation and apoptosis in situ. Microarray analysis revealed a loss of eHFSC signatures and increased expression of T cell activation/binding markers in active LPP, while bulge PPARγ transcription was unaltered compared to non-lesional LPP HFs. In organ culture of non-lesional LPP skin, interferon-γ (IFNγ) induced bulge IP collapse. LPP is an excellent model disease for studying and preventing immune destruction of human epithelial stem cells in situ. These novel findings raise the possibility that LPP represents an autoimmune disease in whose pathogenesis IFNγ-induced bulge IP collapse plays an important role. Therapeutically, bulge IP protection/restoration may help to better manage

  11. Expression of pluripotency markers in Arbas Cashmere goat hair follicle stem cells.

    PubMed

    He, Nimantana; Dong, Zhenguo; Zhu, Bing; Nuo, Mingtu; Bou, Shorgan; Liu, Dongjun

    2016-08-01

    In our previous work, we found that the Inner Mongolia Arbas Cashmere goat hair follicle stem cells (gHFSCs) can be successfully differentiated into adipocyte, chondrocyte, and osteocyte lineages. In this study, we further examined the expression of the pluripotency and stemness markers Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, AKP, and TERT in gHFSCs by immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, real-time PCR, and Western blot. Immunofluorescent staining showed that the gHFSCs were positive for all five markers. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) further analyzed the positive expression of Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2 in the gHFSCs. Compared with Arbas Cashmere goat adipose-derived stem cells (gADSCs) at the mRNA expression level, Oct4 was relatively highly expressed in gHFSCs, 41.36 times of the gADSCs, and Nanog was 5.61, AKP was 2.74, and TERT was 2.10 times, respectively (p < 0.01). Western blot indicated that all markers are expressed at the protein level in the gHFSCs. When compared with gADSCs, using α-tubulin as a reference protein, gray intensity analysis showed that the expression of Oct4, Nanog, AKP, and TERT were, respectively, 5.94, 10.78, 1.33, and 1.39 times of gADSCs. Additionally, mRNA and protein expression of Sox2 were detected in the gHFSCs but not in the gADSCs. The protein expression pattern of these markers was consistent with the mRNA results. PMID:27364919

  12. Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis hormones stimulate mitochondrial function and biogenesis in human hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Vidali, Silvia; Knuever, Jana; Lerchner, Johannes; Giesen, Melanie; Bíró, Tamás; Klinger, Matthias; Kofler, Barbara; Funk, Wolfgang; Poeggeler, Burkhard; Paus, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones regulate mitochondrial function. As other hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis hormones, i.e., thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and thyrotropin (TSH), are expressed in human hair follicles (HFs) and regulate mitochondrial function in human epidermis, we investigated in organ-cultured human scalp HFs whether TRH (30 nM), TSH (10 mU ml(-1)), thyroxine (T4) (100 nM), and triiodothyronine (T3) (100 pM) alter intrafollicular mitochondrial energy metabolism. All HPT-axis members increased gene and protein expression of mitochondrial-encoded subunit 1 of cytochrome c oxidase (MTCO1), a subunit of respiratory chain complex IV, mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), and Porin. All hormones also stimulated intrafollicular complex I/IV activity and mitochondrial biogenesis. The TSH effects on MTCO1, TFAM, and porin could be abolished by K1-70, a TSH-receptor antagonist, suggesting a TSH receptor-mediated action. Notably, as measured by calorimetry, T3 and TSH increased follicular heat production, whereas T3/T4 and TRH stimulated ATP production in cultured HF keratinocytes. HPT-axis hormones did not increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Rather, T3 and T4 reduced ROS formation, and all tested HPT-axis hormones increased the transcription of ROS scavengers (catalase, superoxide dismutase 2) in HF keratinocytes. Thus, mitochondrial biology, energy metabolism, and redox state of human HFs are subject to profound (neuro-)endocrine regulation by HPT-axis hormones. The neuroendocrine control of mitochondrial biology in a complex human mini-organ revealed here may be therapeutically exploitable. PMID:23949722

  13. Quantification of nanoparticle uptake into hair follicles in pig ear and human forearm.

    PubMed

    Raber, A S; Mittal, A; Schäfer, J; Bakowsky, U; Reichrath, J; Vogt, T; Schaefer, U F; Hansen, S; Lehr, C-M

    2014-04-10

    Drug delivery via the hair follicle (HF) especially with nanoparticles (NP) recently gained attention due to a depot effect and facilitated absorption conditions within the lower HF. With the prospect of transdermal drug delivery, it is of interest to optimize the follicular uptake of NP. In this study, a method was developed to quantify NP uptake into HF and applied in vitro in a pig ear model and in vivo in human volunteers. The influence of NP material on HF uptake was investigated using fluorescence-labeled NP based on poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA). All NP had similar hydrodynamic sizes (163-170 nm) but different surface modifications: (i) plain PLGA, (ii) chitosan-coated PLGA (Chit.-PLGA), and (iii) Chit.-PLGA coated with different phospholipids (PL) (DPPC (100), DPPC:Chol (85:15), and DPPC:DOTAP (92:8). Differential stripping was performed, including complete mass balance. The samples were extracted for fluorescence quantification. An effect of the PL coating on follicular uptake was observed as DPPC (100) and DPPC:DOTAP (92:8) penetrated into HF to a higher extent than the other tested NP. The effect was observed both in the pig ear model as well as in human volunteers, although it was statistically significant only in the in vitro model. An excellent in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC, r(2)=0.987) between both models was demonstrated, further supporting the suitability of the pig ear model as a surrogate for the in vivo situation in humans for quantifying NP uptake into HF. These findings may help to optimize NP for targeting the HF and to improve transdermal delivery. PMID:24486055

  14. Transgenic flash mice for in vivo quantitative monitoring of canonical Wnt signaling to track hair follicle cycle dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Samantha S; Neufeld, Zoltan; Villani, Rehan M; Roy, Edwige; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash

    2014-06-01

    Hair follicles (HFs) upon development enter a lifelong cycle of growth, regression, and resting. These phases have been extensively studied at the cellular and molecular levels for individual HFs. However, HFs group into domains with coordinated cycling strongly influenced by their environment. These macroscopic hair domains have been difficult to study and can be influenced by physiological or pathological conditions, such as pregnancy or skin wounds. To robustly address this issue, we generated a mouse model for quantitative monitoring of β-catenin activity reflecting HF cycle dynamics macroscopically by using live bioluminescence imaging. These mice allowed live tracking of HF cycles and development, and highlighted hair regenerative patterns known to occur through macro-environmental cues, including initiation events, propagating anagen and border stability, and allowed refinement of a mechanistic mathematical model that integrates epidermal cell population dynamics into an excitable reaction-diffusion model. HF cycling could be studied in situations of pregnancy, wound healing, hair plucking, as well as in response to cyclosporine or Wnt3a stimulation. In conclusion, we developed a model for analysis of HF cycling at the macroscopic level that will allow refined analysis of hair cycle kinetics as well as its propagation dynamics. PMID:24531689

  15. High Runx1 levels promote a reversible more differentiated cell-state in hair follicle stem cells during quiescence

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Song Eun; Sada, Aiko; Zhang, Meng; McDermitt, David J.; Lu, Shu Yang; Kemphues, Kenneth J.; Tumbar, Tudorita

    2014-01-01

    Quiescent hair follicle (HF) bulge stem cells (SCs) differentiate to early progenitor (EP) hair germ (HG) cells, which divide to produce transit-amplifying (TA) matrix cells. EPs can revert to SCs upon injury, but whether this de-differentiation occurs in normal HF homeostasis (hair cycle), and the mechanisms regulating both differentiation and de-differentiation are unclear. Here we use lineage tracing, gain of function, transcriptional profiling, and functional assays to examine the role of observed endogenous Runx1 level changes in the hair cycle. We find that forced Runx1 expression induces hair degeneration (catagen) and simultaneously promotes changes in the quiescent bulge SC transcriptome towards a cell-state resembling the EP HG fate. This cell-state transition is functionally reversible. We propose that SC differentiation and de-differentiation are likely to occur during normal HF degeneration and niche restructuring in response to changes in endogenous Runx1 levels associated with SC location with respect to the niche. PMID:24462289

  16. The Nude Mutant Gene Foxn1 is a HOXC13 Regulatory Target during Hair Follicle and Nail Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Christopher S.; Pruett, Nathanael D.; Kern, Michael J.; Baybo, Mary Ann; Godwin, Alan R.; Potter, Kathleen A.; Peterson, Ron L.; Sundberg, John P.; Awgulewitsch, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Among the Hox genes, Hoxc13 has been shown to be essential for proper hair shaft differentiation as Hoxc13 gene-targeted (Hoxc13tm1Mrc) mice completely lack external hair. Because of the remarkable overt phenotypic parallels to the Foxn1nu (nude) mutant mice, we sought to determine whether Hoxc13 and Foxn1 might act in a common pathway of hair follicle (HF) differentiation. We show that the alopecia exhibited by both the Hoxc13tm1Mrc and Foxn1nu mice is due to strikingly similar defects in hair shaft differentiation and that both mutants suffer from a severe nail dystrophy. These phenotypic similarities are consistent with the extensive overlap between Hoxc13 and Foxn1 expression patterns in the HF and the nail matrix. Furthermore, DNA microarray analysis of skin from Hoxc13tm1Mrc mice identified Foxn1 as significantly down-regulated along with numerous hair keratin genes. This Foxn1 down-regulation apparently reflects the loss of direct transcriptional control by HOXC13 as indicated by our results obtained through co-transfection and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. As presented in the discussion, these data support a regulatory model of keratinocyte differentiation in which HOXC13-dependent activation of Foxn1 is part of a regulatory cascade controlling the expression of terminal differentiation markers. PMID:21191399

  17. The expression of desmosomal and corneodesmosomal antigens shows specific variations during the terminal differentiation of epidermis and hair follicle epithelia.

    PubMed

    Mils, V; Vincent, C; Croute, F; Serre, G

    1992-09-01

    Using five monoclonal antibodies (MAb), we studied by indirect immunofluorescence the desmosomes and a junctional structure specific to cornified layers, the corneodesmosome, in normal and plantar epidermis and in the various sheaths of the anagen hair follicle. The monoclonal antibodies DP1&2.2-15, PG5.1, and DG3.10, specific for desmoplakins I/II, plakoglobin, and desmoglein I, respectively, were used to study the desmosome antigens, and G36-19 and G20-21 to study the corneodesmosome antigens. The distribution and sequence of expression of the five antigens allowed the nine epithelial differentiation pathways studied to be merged into four distinct families: non-plantar epidermis, characterized by the absence of desmosome and corneodesmosome antigens in the stratum corneum; the outer root sheath of the hair follicle, which behaves like the viable layers of the epidermis with regard to the desmosome antigens but does not express the corneodesmosome antigens; plantar epidermis and the three components of the inner root sheath in which the corneodesmosome antigens are present up to the desquamating layer; and the three components of the hair shaft, which are characterized by the absence of expression of both the desmosome and the corneodesmosome antigens in its mature portion. PMID:1506670

  18. Sulfotransferase activity in plucked hair follicles predicts response to topical minoxidil in the treatment of female androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Janet; Desai, Nisha; McCoy, John; Goren, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Two percent topical minoxidil is the only US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for the treatment of female androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Its success has been limited by the low percentage of responders. Meta-analysis of several studies reporting the number of responders to 2% minoxidil monotherapy indicates moderate hair regrowth in only 13-20% of female patients. Five percent minoxidil solution, when used off-label, may increase the percentage of responders to as much as 40%. As such, a biomarker for predicting treatment response would have significant clinical utility. In a previous study, Goren et al. reported an association between sulfotransferase activity in plucked hair follicles and minoxidil response in a mixed cohort of male and female patients. The aim of this study was to replicate these findings in a well-defined cohort of female patients with AGA treated with 5% minoxidil daily for a period of 6 months. Consistent with the prior study, we found that sulfotransferase activity in plucked hair follicles predicts treatment response with 93% sensitivity and 83% specificity. Our study further supports the importance of minoxidil sulfation in eliciting a therapeutic response and provides further insight into novel targets for increasing minoxidil efficacy. PMID:24773771

  19. The in vitro use of the hair follicle closure technique to study the follicular and percutaneous permeation of topically applied drugs.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Jessica; Niedorf, Frank; Wohlert, Mareike; Kietzmann, Manfred

    2012-03-01

    Recent studies on follicular permeation emphasise the importance of hair follicles as diffusion pathways, but only a limited amount of data are available about the follicular permeation of topically applied drugs. This study examines the use of a hair follicle closure technique in vitro, to determine the participation of hair follicles in transdermal drug penetration. Various substances, with different lipophilicities, were tested: caffeine, diclofenac, flufenamic acid, ibuprofen, paracetamol, salicylic acid and testosterone. Diffusion experiments were conducted with porcine skin, the most common replacement material for human skin, in Franz-type diffusion cells over 28 hours. Different experimental settings allowed the differentiation between interfollicular and follicular permeation after topical application of the test compounds. A comparison of the apparent permeability coefficients of the drugs demonstrates that the percutaneous permeations of caffeine and flufenamic acid were significantly higher along the hair follicles. In the cases of paracetamol and testosterone, the follicular pathway appears to be of importance, while no difference was found between interfollicular and follicular permeation for diclofenac, ibuprofen and salicylic acid. Thus, the hair follicle closure technique represents an adequate in vitro method for gaining information about follicular or percutaneous permeation, and can replace in vivo testing in animals or humans. PMID:22558977

  20. VEGF induces proliferation of human hair follicle dermal papilla cells through VEGFR-2-mediated activation of ERK

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei; Man, Xiao-Yong; Li, Chun-Ming; Chen, Jia-Qi; Zhou, Jiong; Cai, Sui-Qing; Lu, Zhong-Fa; Zheng, Min

    2012-08-15

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the strongest regulators of physiological and pathological angiogenesis. VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), the primary receptor for VEGF, is thought to mediate major functional effects of VEGF. Previously, we have localized both VEGF and VEGFR-2 in human hair follicles. In this study, we further defined the expression and roles of VEGFR-2 on human hair follicle dermal papilla (DP) cells. The expression of VEGFR-2 on DP cells was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis separately, and localization of VEGFR-2 was defined by immunofluorescence. The effect of VEGF on DP cells was analyzed by MTT assays and specific inhibitors. Finally, the role of VEGF involved in the signaling pathways was investigated by Western blot. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated the expression of VEGFR-2 on DP cells. Immunostaining for VEGFR-2 showed strong signal on cultured human DP cells in vitro. Exogenous VEGF{sub 165} stimulated proliferation of DP cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, this stimulation was blocked by a VEGFR-2 neutralizing antibody (MAB3571) and an ERK inhibitor (PD98059). VEGF{sub 165}-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was abolished by MAB3571 and PD98059, while the phosphorylation of p38, JNK and AKT were not changed by VEGF{sub 165}. Taken together, VEGFR-2 is expressed on primary human hair follicle DP cells and VEGF induces proliferation of DP cells through VEGFR-2/ERK pathway, but not p38, JNK or AKT signaling. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the expression of VEGFR-2 on cultured human dermal papilla (DP) cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VEGF{sub 165} stimulated proliferation of human DP cells in a dose-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This stimulation was through VEGFR-2-mediated activation of ERK.

  1. Sinusitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... will develop sinusitis: Allergic rhinitis or hay fever Cystic fibrosis Going to day care Diseases that prevent the ... Nasal culture Nasal cytology Sweat chloride tests for cystic fibrosis Treatment SELF CARE Try the following steps to ...

  2. Cxcr4 is transiently expressed in both epithelial and mesenchymal compartments of nascent hair follicles but is not required for follicle formation.

    PubMed

    Sennett, Rachel; Rezza, Amélie; Dauber, Katherine L; Clavel, Carlos; Rendl, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Hair follicle (HF) morphogenesis relies on the coordinated exchange of signals between mesenchymal and epithelial compartments of embryonic skin. Chemokine receptor Cxcr4 expression was recently identified in dermal condensates (DCs) of nascent HFs, but its role in promoting HF morphogenesis remains unknown. Our analyses confirmed Cxcr4 expression in condensate cells, and additionally revealed transient Cxcr4 expression in incipient epithelial hair placodes. Placodal Cxcr4 appeared prior to detection in DCs, representing a switch of expression between epithelial and mesenchymal compartments. To explore the functional role of this receptor in both compartments for early HF formation, we conditionally ablated Cxcr4 with condensate-targeting Tbx18(cre) knock-in and epidermis-targeting Krt14-cre transgenic mice. Conditional knockouts for both crosses were viable throughout embryogenesis and into adulthood. Morphological and biochemical marker analyses revealed comparable numbers of HFs forming in knockout embryos compared to wild-type littermate controls in both cases, suggesting that neither dermal nor epithelial Cxcr4 expression is required for early HF morphogenesis. We conclude that Cxcr4 expression and chemokine signaling through this receptor in embryonic mouse skin is dispensable for HF formation. PMID:25066162

  3. Collapse and restoration of MHC class-I-dependent immune privilege: exploiting the human hair follicle as a model.

    PubMed

    Ito, Taisuke; Ito, Natsuho; Bettermann, Albrecht; Tokura, Yoshiki; Takigawa, Masahiro; Paus, Ralf

    2004-02-01

    The collapse of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class-I-dependent immune privilege can lead to autoimmune disease or fetal rejection. Pragmatic and instructive models are needed to clarify the as yet obscure controls of MHC class I down-regulation in situ, to dissect the principles of immune privilege generation, maintenance, and collapse as well as to develop more effective strategies for immune privilege restoration. Here, we propose that human scalp hair follicles, which are abundantly available and easily studied, are ideally suited for this purpose: interferon-gamma induces ectopic MHC class I expression in the constitutively MHC class-I-negative hair matrix epithelium of organ-cultured anagen hair bulbs, likely via interferon regulatory factor-1, along with up-regulation of the MHC class I pathway molecules beta(2)microglobulin and transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP-2). In the first report to identify natural immunomodulators capable of down-regulating MHC class I expression in situ in a normal, neuroectoderm-derived human tissue, we show that ectopic MHC class I expression in human anagen hair bulbs can be normalized by treatment with alpha-MSH, IGF-1, or TGF-beta1, all of which are locally generated, as well as by FK506. These agents are promising candidates for immune privilege restoration and for suppressing MHC class I expression where this is clinically desired (eg, in alopecia areata, multiple sclerosis, autoimmune uveitis, mumps orchitis, and fetal or allograft rejection). PMID:14742267

  4. Sinusitis: Overview

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Sinusitis Overview What are sinuses? Sinuses are the air chambers in the bone behind your cheeks, eyebrows and jaw. They make mucus, a fluid that cleans bacteria and other particles out of the air you breathe. Tiny hairs called cilia (say: “sill-ee-ah”) sweep mucus out of your ...

  5. Molecular evolution of HR, a gene that regulates the postnatal cycle of the hair follicle

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Amir Ali

    2011-01-01

    Hair is a unique mammalian trait that is absent in all other animal forms. Hairlessness is rare in mammals and humans are exceptional among primates in lacking dense layer of hair covering. HR was the first gene identified to be implicated in hair-cycle regulation. Point mutations in HR lead to congenital human hair loss, which results in the complete loss of body and scalp hairs. HR functions are indispensable for initiation of postnatal hair follicular cycling. This study investigates the phylogenetic history and analyzes the protein evolutionary rate to provide useful insight into the molecular evolution of HR. The data demonstrates an acceleration of HR sequence evolution in human branch and suggests that the ability of HR protein to mediate postnatal hair-cycling has been altered in the course of human evolution. In particular those residues were pinpointed which should be regarded as target of positive Darwinian selection during human evolution. PMID:22355551

  6. CD133 expression correlates with membrane beta-catenin and e-cadherin loss from human hair follicle placodes during morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Denise; Yang, Chao-Chun; Plikus, Maksim; Ito, Mayumi; Rivera, Charlotte; Treffeisen, Elsa; Doherty, Laura; Spata, Michelle; Millar, Sarah E.; Cotsarelis, George

    2014-01-01

    Genetic studies suggest that the major events of human hair follicle development are similar to those in mice, but detailed analyses of this process are lacking. In mice, hair follicle placode ‘budding’ is initiated by invagination of Wnt-induced epithelium into the underlying mesenchyme. Modification of adherens junctions is clearly required for budding. Snail-mediated downregulation of adherens junction component E-cadherin is important for placode budding in mice. Beta-catenin, another adherens junction component, has been more difficult to study due to its essential functions in Wnt signaling, a prerequisite for hair follicle placode induction. Here, we show that a subset of human invaginating hair placode cells expresses the stem cell marker CD133 during early morphogenesis. CD133 associates with membrane beta-catenin in early placodes and its continued expression correlates with loss of beta-catenin and E-cadherin from the cell membrane at a time when E-cadherin transcriptional repressors Snail and Slug are not implicated. Stabilization of CD133 via anti-CD133 antibody treatment of human fetal scalp explants depresses beta-catenin and E-cadherin membrane localization. We discuss this unique correlation and suggest a hypothetical model whereby CD133 promotes morphogenesis in early hair follicle placodes through the localized removal of membrane beta-catenin proteins and subsequent adherens junction dissolution. PMID:25010141

  7. DNA profiling in peripheral blood, buccal swabs, hair follicles and semen from a patient following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells transplantation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya-Ting; Xie, Ming-Kun; Wu, Jin

    2014-11-01

    Allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells transplantation (allo-PBSCT) or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) have been widely used to treat patients exhibiting certain severe illnesses. However, previous studies have shown that the biological materials of allo-PBSCT or allo-BMT recipients may not constitute credible materials for personal identification. In the present study, four types of commonly used samples were collected from a male individual following gender-matched allo-BMT. Autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) and Y-STR markers analysis, based on polymerase chain reaction, were used to evaluate the chimerism status. The results showed that the blood sample were all donor type, the buccal swab sample were mixed chimerism, and the sperm and hair follicle samples maintained a recipient origin of 100%. In conclusion, identical results were obtained by the two methods and it was confirmed that DNA extracted from hair follicles and sperm can be used as a reference for the pre-transplant genotype DNA profile of the recipient in the gender-match allo-BMT or -PBSCT. PMID:25279149

  8. Nonviral in situ green fluorescent protein labeling and culture of primary, adult human hair follicle epithelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Tiede, Stephan; Koop, Norbert; Kloepper, Jennifer E; Fässler, Reinhard; Paus, Ralf

    2009-11-01

    In this article we show that cloning of the human K15 promoter before a green fluorescence protein (GFP)/geneticin-resistance cassette and transfection of microdissected, organ-cultured adult human scalp hair follicles generates specific K15 promoter-driven GFP expression in their stem cell-rich bulge region. K15-GFP+ cells can be visualized in situ by GFP fluorescence and 2-photon laser scanning microscopy. Vital K15-GFP+ progenitor cells can then be selected by using the criteria of their green fluorescence, adhesion to collagen type IV and fibronectin, and geneticin resistance. Propagated K15-GFP+ cells express epithelial progenitor markers, show the expected differential gene expression profile of human bulge epithelium, and form holoclones. This application of nonretroviral, K15 promoter-driven, GFP labeling to adult human hair follicles facilitates the characterization and manipulation of human epithelial stem cells, both in situ and in vitro, and should be transferable to other complex human tissues. PMID:19750535

  9. Stable transfection and identification of a hair follicle-specific expression vector of IGFBP-5 in goat fetal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Wang, X J; Su, H M; Liang, Y; Wang, Y F; Guo, X D; Wang, Z G; Liu, D J

    2014-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) is one of the 6 members of the IGFBP family and is involved in the regulation of cell growth, apoptosis, and other IGF-stimulated signaling pathways. To determine the significance of IGFBP-5 in the Inner Mongolia Cashmere goat (Capra hircus), a hair follicle-specific expression vector of IGFBP-5, pCDsRed2-K-IGFBP5 (6.7 kb), was constructed by cloning IGFBP-5 downstream of the keratin-association protein (KAP)6-1 promoter and inserting this fragment into pCDsRed2, which contains a red fluorescent protein (DsRed) expression unit. Inner Mongolia Cashmere goat fetal fibroblast (GFb) cells were transfected with the expression vector by using Lipofectamine(TM) 2000. Cell clones that stably expressed red fluorescence were obtained after selection with Geneticin (G418). The transgene in the cell clones was examined by polymerase chain reaction to verify that exogenous DNA (pKAP6-1 and IGFBP-5) had integrated stably into GFb cells. These data suggest that this method can be used for the construction of a hair follicle-specific expression vector for functional genetic analyses and for obtaining stable transfection donor cells for nuclear transfer. PMID:24668676

  10. Malignant hair follicle tumors of the periorbital region: A review of literature and suggestion of a management guideline.

    PubMed

    Sia, Paul Ikgan; Figueira, Edwin; Allende, Alexandra; Selva, Dinesh

    2016-06-01

    Malignant hair follicle tumors are rare skin adnexal malignancies that have a predilection for the head and neck region. They can be categorized into a number of different subtypes. Histologically, they are distinct from their benign counterpart. To the best of our knowledge, there is no extensive review of these malignancies, especially in the periorbital region. We aim to provide a literature review and a guideline for management of these malignant tumors in the periorbital region. Database from Medline, PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar were consulted. A total of 16 cases from the literature on hair follicle malignancies in the periorbital region were included in this review. The clinical presentations, diagnostic patterns, investigations used, and best management approach of these tumors are discussed. The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 7(th) edition carcinoma of the eyelid staging system was used to describe their behaviors. We recommend wide excision surgery and a close follow-up for these tumors. Tumors presenting with a late stage require work-up for distant metastasis and consideration for exenteration procedures. The role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in this context is still uncertain. PMID:27171562

  11. DNA profiling in peripheral blood, buccal swabs, hair follicles and semen from a patient following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells transplantation

    PubMed Central

    LI, YA-TING; XIE, MING-KUN; WU, JIN

    2014-01-01

    Allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells transplantation (allo-PBSCT) or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) have been widely used to treat patients exhibiting certain severe illnesses. However, previous studies have shown that the biological materials of allo-PBSCT or allo-BMT recipients may not constitute credible materials for personal identification. In the present study, four types of commonly used samples were collected from a male individual following gender-matched allo-BMT. Autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) and Y-STR markers analysis, based on polymerase chain reaction, were used to evaluate the chimerism status. The results showed that the blood sample were all donor type, the buccal swab sample were mixed chimerism, and the sperm and hair follicle samples maintained a recipient origin of 100%. In conclusion, identical results were obtained by the two methods and it was confirmed that DNA extracted from hair follicles and sperm can be used as a reference for the pre-transplant genotype DNA profile of the recipient in the gender-match allo-BMT or -PBSCT. PMID:25279149

  12. The targeted overexpression of a Claudin mutant in the epidermis of transgenic mice elicits striking epidermal and hair follicle abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Troy, Tammy-Claire; Turksen, Kursad

    2007-06-01

    Skin is one of the largest organs of the body, and is formed during development through a highly orchestrated process involving mesenchymal-epithelial interactions, cell commitment, and terminal differentiation. It protects against microorganism invasion and UV irradiation, inhibits water loss, regulates body temperature, and is an important part of the immune system. Using transgenic mouse technology, we have demonstrated that Claudin (Cldn)-containing tight junctions (TJs) are intricately involved in cell signaling during epidermal differentiation and that an epidermal suprabasal overexpression of Cldn6 results in a perturbed epidermal terminal differentiation program with distinct phenotypic abnormalities. To delineate the role of the Cldn cytoplasmic tail domain in epidermal differentiation, we engineered transgenic mice targeting the overexpression of a Cldn6 cytoplasmic tail-truncation mutant in the epidermis. Transgenic mice were characterized by a lethal barrier dysfunction in addition to the existence of hyperproliferative squamous invaginations/cysts replacing hair follicles. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed an epidermal cytoplasmic accumulation of Cldn6, Cldn11, Cldn12, and Cldn18, downregulation of Cldn1 and aberrant expression of various classical markers of epidermal differentiation; namely the basal keratins as well as K1, involucrin, loricrin, and filaggrin. Collectively these studies suggest an important role for Cldns in epidermal/hair follicle differentiation programs likely involving cross talk to signaling pathways (e.g., Notch) directing cell fate selection and differentiation. PMID:17914196

  13. PDGF signaling in the dermis and in dermal condensates is dispensable for hair follicle induction and formation

    PubMed Central

    Rezza, Amélie; Sennett, Rachel; Tanguy, Manon; Clavel, Carlos; Rendl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic hair follicle (HF) induction and formation is dependent on signaling crosstalk between the dermis and specialized dermal condensates on the mesenchymal side and epidermal cells and incipient placodes on the epithelial side, but the precise nature and succession of signals remain unclear. Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) signaling is involved in the development of several organs and the maintenance of adult tissues, including HF regeneration in the hair cycle. As both PDGF receptors, PDGFRα and PDGFRβ, are expressed in embryonic dermis and dermal condensates, we explored in this study the role of PDGF signaling in HF induction and formation in the developing skin mesenchyme. We conditionally ablated both PDGF receptors with Tbx18Cre in early dermal condensates before follicle formation, and with Prx1-Cre broadly in the ventral dermis prior to HF induction. In both PDGFR double mutants, HF induction and formation ensued normally, and the pattern of HF formation and HF numbers were unaffected. These data demonstrate that mesenchymal PDGF signaling, either in the specialized niche or broadly in the dermis, is dispensable for HF induction and formation. PMID:25708924

  14. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Fetal Skin Reveals Key Genes Related to Hair Follicle Morphogenesis in Cashmere Goats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ye; Wang, Xiaolong; Yan, Hailong; Zeng, Jie; Ma, Sen; Niu, Yiyuan; Zhou, Guangxian; Jiang, Yu; Chen, Yulin

    2016-01-01

    Cashmere goat skin contains two types of hair follicles (HF): primary hair follicles (PHF) and secondary hair follicles (SHF). Although multiple genetic determinants associated with HF formation have been identified, the molecules that determine the independent morphogenesis of HF in cashmere goats remain elusive. The growth and development of SHF directly influence the quantity and quality of cashmere production. Here, we report the transcriptome profiling analysis of nine skin samples from cashmere goats using 60- and 120-day-old embryos (E60 and E120, respectively), as well as newborns (NB), through RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). HF morphological changes indicated that PHF were initiated at E60, with maturation from E120, while differentiation of SHF was identified at E120 until formation of cashmere occurred after birth (NB). The RNA-sequencing analysis generated over 20.6 million clean reads from each mRNA library. The number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in E60 vs. E120, E120 vs. NB, and E60 vs. NB were 1,024, 0 and 1,801, respectively, indicating that no significant differences were found at transcriptomic levels between E120 and NB. Key genes including B4GALT4, TNC, a-integrin, and FGFR1, were up-regulated and expressed in HF initiation from E60 to E120, while regulatory genes such as GPRC5D, PAD3, HOXC13, PRR9, VSIG8, LRRC15, LHX2, MSX-2, and FOXN1 were up-regulated and expressed in HF keratinisation and hair shaft differentiation from E120 and NB to E60. Several genes belonging to the KRT and KRTAP gene families were detected throughout the three HF developmental stages. The transcriptional trajectory analyses of all DEGs indicated that immune privilege, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis, extracellular matrix receptor interaction, and growth factor receptors all played dominant roles in the epithelial-mesenchymal interface and HF formation. We found that the Wnt, transforming growth factor-beta/bone morphogenetic protein, and Notch family members

  15. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Fetal Skin Reveals Key Genes Related to Hair Follicle Morphogenesis in Cashmere Goats

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hailong; Zeng, Jie; Ma, Sen; Niu, Yiyuan; Zhou, Guangxian; Jiang, Yu; Chen, Yulin

    2016-01-01

    Cashmere goat skin contains two types of hair follicles (HF): primary hair follicles (PHF) and secondary hair follicles (SHF). Although multiple genetic determinants associated with HF formation have been identified, the molecules that determine the independent morphogenesis of HF in cashmere goats remain elusive. The growth and development of SHF directly influence the quantity and quality of cashmere production. Here, we report the transcriptome profiling analysis of nine skin samples from cashmere goats using 60- and 120-day-old embryos (E60 and E120, respectively), as well as newborns (NB), through RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). HF morphological changes indicated that PHF were initiated at E60, with maturation from E120, while differentiation of SHF was identified at E120 until formation of cashmere occurred after birth (NB). The RNA-sequencing analysis generated over 20.6 million clean reads from each mRNA library. The number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in E60 vs. E120, E120 vs. NB, and E60 vs. NB were 1,024, 0 and 1,801, respectively, indicating that no significant differences were found at transcriptomic levels between E120 and NB. Key genes including B4GALT4, TNC, a-integrin, and FGFR1, were up-regulated and expressed in HF initiation from E60 to E120, while regulatory genes such as GPRC5D, PAD3, HOXC13, PRR9, VSIG8, LRRC15, LHX2, MSX-2, and FOXN1 were up-regulated and expressed in HF keratinisation and hair shaft differentiation from E120 and NB to E60. Several genes belonging to the KRT and KRTAP gene families were detected throughout the three HF developmental stages. The transcriptional trajectory analyses of all DEGs indicated that immune privilege, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis, extracellular matrix receptor interaction, and growth factor receptors all played dominant roles in the epithelial-mesenchymal interface and HF formation. We found that the Wnt, transforming growth factor-beta/bone morphogenetic protein, and Notch family members

  16. Autosomal Recessive Hypotrichosis with Woolly Hair Caused by a Mutation in the Keratin 25 Gene Expressed in Hair Follicles.

    PubMed

    Zernov, Nikolay V; Skoblov, Mikhail Y; Marakhonov, Andrey V; Shimomura, Yutaka; Vasilyeva, Tatyana A; Konovalov, Fedor A; Abrukova, Anna V; Zinchenko, Rena A

    2016-06-01

    Hypotrichosis is an abnormal condition characterized by decreased hair density and various defects in hair structure and growth patterns. In particular, in woolly hair, hypotrichosis is characterized by a tightly curled structure and abnormal growth. In this study, we present a detailed comparative examination of individuals affected by autosomal-recessive hypotrichosis (ARH), which distinguishes two types of ARH. Earlier, we demonstrated that exon 4 deletion in the lipase H gene caused an ARH (hypotrichosis 7; MIM: 604379) in populations of the Volga-Ural region of Russia. Screening for this mutation in all affected individuals revealed its presence only in the group with the hypotrichosis 7 phenotype. Other patients formed a separate group of woolly hair-associated ARH, with a homozygous missense mutation c.712G>T (p.Val238Leu) in a highly conserved position of type I keratin KRT25 (K25). Haplotype analysis indicated a founder effect. An expression study in the HaCaT cell line demonstrated a deleterious effect of the p.Val238Leu mutation on the formation of keratin intermediate filaments. Hence, we have identified a previously unreported missense mutation in the KRT25 gene causing ARH with woolly hair. PMID:26902920

  17. Protective effect of Korean Red Ginseng against chemotherapeutic drug-induced premature catagen development assessed with human hair follicle organ culture model

    PubMed Central

    Keum, Dong In; Pi, Long-Quan; Hwang, Sungjoo Tommy; Lee, Won-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is one of the most distressing side effects for patients undergoing chemotherapy. This study evaluated the protective effect of Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) on CIA in a well-established in vitro human hair follicle organ culture model as it occurs in vivo. Methods We examined whether KRG can prevent premature hair follicle dystrophy in a human hair follicle organ culture model during treatment with a key cyclophosphamide metabolite, 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4-HC). Results 4-HC inhibited human hair growth, induced premature catagen development, and inhibited proliferation and stimulated apoptosis of hair matrix keratinocytes. In addition, 4-HC increased p53 and Bax protein expression and decreased Bcl2 protein expression. Pretreatment with KRG protected against 4-HC-induced hair growth inhibition and premature catagen development. KRG also suppressed 4-HC-induced inhibition of matrix keratinocyte proliferation and stimulation of matrix keratinocyte apoptosis. Moreover, KRG restored 4-HC-induced p53 and Bax/Bcl2 expression. Conclusion Overall, our results indicate that KRG may protect against 4-HC-induced premature catagen development through modulation of p53 and Bax/Bcl2 expression. PMID:27158238

  18. Investigation of a non-invasive method of assessing the equine circadian clock using hair follicle cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A comprehensive understanding of the equine circadian clock involves the evaluation of circadian clock gene expression. A non-invasive and effective method for detecting equine clock gene expression has yet to be established. Currently, research surrounding this area has relied on collecting tissue biopsies or blood samples that can often be costly, time consuming and uncomfortable for the animal. Methods Five mares were individually stabled under a light–dark (LD) cycle that mimicked the external environmental photoperiod during a time of year corresponding with the vernal equinox. Hair follicles were collected every 4 h over a 24-h period by plucking hairs from the mane. RNA was extracted and quantitative (q) PCR assays were performed to determine temporal expression patterns for the core clock genes; ARNTL, CRY1, PER1, PER2, NR1D2 and the clock controlled gene, DBP. Results Repeated measures ANOVA for the clock gene transcripts PER1 and PER2 and the clock controlled gene, DBP, revealed significant variation in expression over time (p < .05, respectively). Cosinor analysis confirmed a significant 24-h temporal component for PER1 (p = .002) and DBP (p = .0033) and also detected rhythmicity for NR1D2 (p = .0331). Conclusions We show that the extraction of RNA from equine hair follicle cells can identify the circadian 24 h oscillations of specific clock genes and a clock-controlled gene and therefore provide a valuable non-invasive method for evaluating the equine peripheral circadian clock. This method will serve as a useful tool for future evaluations of equine circadian rhythms and their response to environmental changes. PMID:23039139

  19. Sinusitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the brow area Ethmoid sinuses—just behind the bridge of the nose, between the eyes Maxillary sinuses—inside each cheekbone Sphenoid sinuses—behind the ethmoids in the upper region of the nose and behind the eyes There are two basic types of sinusitis: Acute, which lasts up to 4 ...

  20. Dermal papilla cells improve the wound healing process and generate hair bud-like structures in grafted skin substitutes using hair follicle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Leirós, Gustavo José; Kusinsky, Ana Gabriela; Drago, Hugo; Bossi, Silvia; Sturla, Flavio; Castellanos, María Lía; Stella, Inés Yolanda; Balañá, María Eugenia

    2014-10-01

    Tissue-engineered skin represents a useful strategy for the treatment of deep skin injuries and might contribute to the understanding of skin regeneration. The use of dermal papilla cells (DPCs) as a dermal component in a permanent composite skin with human hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) was evaluated by studying the tissue-engineered skin architecture, stem cell persistence, hair regeneration, and graft-take in nude mice. A porcine acellular dermal matrix was seeded with HFSCs alone and with HFSCs plus human DPCs or dermal fibroblasts (DFs). In vitro, the presence of DPCs induced a more regular and multilayered stratified epidermis with more basal p63-positive cells and invaginations. The DPC-containing constructs more accurately mimicked the skin architecture by properly stratifying the differentiating HFSCs and developing a well-ordered epithelia that contributed to more closely recapitulate an artificial human skin. This acellular dermal matrix previously repopulated in vitro with HFSCs and DFs or DPCs as the dermal component was grafted in nude mice. The presence of DPCs in the composite substitute not only favored early neovascularization, good assimilation and remodeling after grafting but also contributed to the neovascular network maturation, which might reduce the inflammation process, resulting in a better healing process, with less scarring and wound contraction. Interestingly, only DPC-containing constructs showed embryonic hair bud-like structures with cells of human origin, presence of precursor epithelial cells, and expression of a hair differentiation marker. Although preliminary, these findings have demonstrated the importance of the presence of DPCs for proper skin repair. PMID:25161315

  1. Dermal Papilla Cells Improve the Wound Healing Process and Generate Hair Bud-Like Structures in Grafted Skin Substitutes Using Hair Follicle Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Leirós, Gustavo José; Kusinsky, Ana Gabriela; Drago, Hugo; Bossi, Silvia; Sturla, Flavio; Castellanos, María Lía; Stella, Inés Yolanda

    2014-01-01

    Tissue-engineered skin represents a useful strategy for the treatment of deep skin injuries and might contribute to the understanding of skin regeneration. The use of dermal papilla cells (DPCs) as a dermal component in a permanent composite skin with human hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) was evaluated by studying the tissue-engineered skin architecture, stem cell persistence, hair regeneration, and graft-take in nude mice. A porcine acellular dermal matrix was seeded with HFSCs alone and with HFSCs plus human DPCs or dermal fibroblasts (DFs). In vitro, the presence of DPCs induced a more regular and multilayered stratified epidermis with more basal p63-positive cells and invaginations. The DPC-containing constructs more accurately mimicked the skin architecture by properly stratifying the differentiating HFSCs and developing a well-ordered epithelia that contributed to more closely recapitulate an artificial human skin. This acellular dermal matrix previously repopulated in vitro with HFSCs and DFs or DPCs as the dermal component was grafted in nude mice. The presence of DPCs in the composite substitute not only favored early neovascularization, good assimilation and remodeling after grafting but also contributed to the neovascular network maturation, which might reduce the inflammation process, resulting in a better healing process, with less scarring and wound contraction. Interestingly, only DPC-containing constructs showed embryonic hair bud-like structures with cells of human origin, presence of precursor epithelial cells, and expression of a hair differentiation marker. Although preliminary, these findings have demonstrated the importance of the presence of DPCs for proper skin repair. PMID:25161315

  2. MicroRNA-214 controls skin and hair follicle development by modulating the activity of the Wnt pathway.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohammed I; Alam, Majid; Emelianov, Vladimir U; Poterlowicz, Krzysztof; Patel, Ankit; Sharov, Andrey A; Mardaryev, Andrei N; Botchkareva, Natalia V

    2014-11-24

    Skin development is governed by complex programs of gene activation and silencing, including microRNA-dependent modulation of gene expression. Here, we show that miR-214 regulates skin morphogenesis and hair follicle (HF) cycling by targeting β-catenin, a key component of the Wnt signaling pathway. miR-214 exhibits differential expression patterns in the skin epithelium, and its inducible overexpression in keratinocytes inhibited proliferation, which resulted in formation of fewer HFs with decreased hair bulb size and thinner hair production. The inhibitory effects of miR-214 on HF development and cycling were associated with altered activities of multiple signaling pathways, including decreased expression of key Wnt signaling mediators β-catenin and Lef-1, and were rescued by treatment with pharmacological Wnt activators. Finally, we identify β-catenin as one of the conserved miR-214 targets in keratinocytes. These data provide an important foundation for further analyses of miR-214 as a key regulator of Wnt pathway activity and stem cell functions during normal tissue homeostasis, regeneration, and aging. PMID:25422376

  3. Scalable production of controllable dermal papilla spheroids on PVA surfaces and the effects of spheroid size on hair follicle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Ching; Chan, Chih-Chieh; Lin, Wei-Ting; Chiu, Hsien-Yi; Tsai, Ren-Yeu; Tsai, Tsung-Hua; Chan, Jung-Yi; Lin, Sung-Jan

    2013-01-01

    Organ size and numbers are vital issues in bioengineering for hair follicle (HF) regeneration. Murine HF dermal papilla (DP) cells are able to induce HF neogenesis when transplanted as aggregates. However, how the preparation of murine and human DP aggregates affects HF inductivity and the size of regenerated HF is yet to be determined. Here we report a scalable method for production of controllable human and rat DP spheroids in general labs for reproducible experiments. Compared with more hydrophobic polyethylene and poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol), DP cells are poorly adhesive to hydrophilic polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Seeded in PVA-coated 96-welled commercial PCR tube arrays, DP cells quickly aggregate into single spheroids with progressive compaction. Varying seeded cell numbers and culture periods enables us to control the size and cell number of the spheroids. The spheroids obtained have high viability and preserve DP characters. A proof of principle experiment was conducted to examine the size effect on the efficiency and efficacy of HF regeneration. We found that both human and rat DP spheroids are able to induce HF neogenesis and larger DP spheroids exhibit higher HF inductivity. However, the average diameter of regenerated hair fiber did not significantly change with the increasing size of transplanted DP spheroids. The result suggests that an appropriate size of DP spheroid is essential for HF inductivity, but its size cannot be directly translated to a thicker regenerated hair. Our results also have implications on the efficiency and efficacy in the regeneration of other epithelial organs. PMID:23092862

  4. BMP Signaling and Its pSMAD1/5 Target Genes Differentially Regulate Hair Follicle Stem Cell Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Genander, Maria; Cook, Peter J.; Ramsköld, Daniel; Keyes, Brice E.; Mertz, Aaron F.; Sandberg, Rickard; Fuchs, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) and their transit amplifying cell (TAC) progeny sense BMPs at defined stages of the hair cycle to control their proliferation and differentiation. Here, we exploit the distinct spatial and temporal localizations of these cells to selectively ablate BMP signaling in each compartment and examine its functional role. We find that BMP signaling is required for HFSC quiescence and to promote TAC differentiation along different lineages as the hair cycle progresses. We also combine in vivo genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation and deep-sequencing, transcriptional profiling, and loss-of-function genetics to define BMP-regulated genes. We show that some pSMAD1/5 targets, like Gata3, function specifically in TAC lineage-progression. Others, like Id1 and Id3, function in both HFSCs and TACs, but in distinct ways. Our study therefore illustrates the complex differential roles that a key signaling pathway can play in regulation of closely-related stem/progenitor cells within the context of their overall niche. PMID:25312496

  5. Tyrosinase Depletion Prevents the Maturation of Melanosomes in the Mouse Hair Follicle

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Elyse K.; Fielder, Thomas J.; MacGregor, Grant R.; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Gillen, Daniel L.; Eby, Victoria; Boissy, Raymond E.; Ganesan, Anand K.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms that lead to variation in human skin and hair color are not fully understood. To better understand the molecular control of skin and hair color variation, we modulated the expression of Tyrosinase (Tyr), which controls the rate-limiting step of melanogenesis, by expressing a single-copy, tetracycline-inducible shRNA against Tyr in mice. Moderate depletion of TYR was sufficient to alter the appearance of the mouse coat in black, agouti, and yellow coat color backgrounds, even though TYR depletion did not significantly inhibit accumulation of melanin within the mouse hair. Ultra-structural studies revealed that the reduction of Tyr inhibited the accumulation of terminal melanosomes, and inhibited the expression of genes that regulate melanogenesis. These results indicate that color in skin and hair is determined not only by the total amount of melanin within the hair, but also by the relative accumulation of mature melanosomes. PMID:26619124

  6. Tyrosinase Depletion Prevents the Maturation of Melanosomes in the Mouse Hair Follicle.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Elyse K; Fielder, Thomas J; MacGregor, Grant R; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Gillen, Daniel L; Eby, Victoria; Boissy, Raymond E; Ganesan, Anand K

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms that lead to variation in human skin and hair color are not fully understood. To better understand the molecular control of skin and hair color variation, we modulated the expression of Tyrosinase (Tyr), which controls the rate-limiting step of melanogenesis, by expressing a single-copy, tetracycline-inducible shRNA against Tyr in mice. Moderate depletion of TYR was sufficient to alter the appearance of the mouse coat in black, agouti, and yellow coat color backgrounds, even though TYR depletion did not significantly inhibit accumulation of melanin within the mouse hair. Ultra-structural studies revealed that the reduction of Tyr inhibited the accumulation of terminal melanosomes, and inhibited the expression of genes that regulate melanogenesis. These results indicate that color in skin and hair is determined not only by the total amount of melanin within the hair, but also by the relative accumulation of mature melanosomes. PMID:26619124

  7. Keratin-6 driven ODC expression to hair follicle keratinocytes enhances stemness and tumorigenesis by negatively regulating Notch

    SciTech Connect

    Arumugam, Aadithya; Weng, Zhiping; Chaudhary, Sandeep C.; Afaq, Farrukh; Elmets, Craig A.; Athar, Mohammad

    2014-08-29

    Highlights: • Targeting ODC to hair follicle augments skin carcinogenesis and invasive SCCs. • Hair follicle ODC expands stem cell compartment carrying CD34{sup +}/K15{sup +}/p63{sup +} keratinocytes. • Negatively regulated Notch1 is associated with expansion of stem cell compartment. - Abstract: Over-expression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is known to be involved in the epidermal carcinogenesis. However, the mechanism by which it enhances skin carcinogenesis remains undefined. Recently, role of stem cells localized in various epidermal compartments has been shown in the pathogenesis of skin cancer. To direct ODC expression in distinct epidermal compartments, we have developed keratin 6 (K6)-ODC/SKH-1 and keratin 14 (K14)-ODC/SKH-1 mice and employed them to investigate the role of ODC directed to these epidermal compartments on UVB-induced carcinogenesis. K6-driven ODC over-expression directed to outer root sheath (ORS) of hair follicle was more effective in augmenting tumorigenesis as compared to mice where K14-driven ODC expression was directed to inter-follicular epidermal keratinocytes. Chronically UVB-irradiated K6-ODC/SKH-1 developed 15 ± 2.5 tumors/mouse whereas K14-ODC/SKH-1 developed only 6.8 ± 1.5 tumors/mouse. K6-ODC/SKH-1 showed augmented UVB-induced proliferation and much higher pro-inflammatory responses than K14-ODC/SKH-1 mice. Tumors induced in K6-ODC/SKH-1 were rapidly growing, invasive and ulcerative squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) showing decreased expression of epidermal polarity marker E-cadherin and enhanced mesenchymal marker, fibronectin. Interestingly, the number of CD34/CK15/p63 positive stem-like cells was significantly higher in chronically UVB-irradiated K6-ODC/SKH-1 as compared to K14-ODC/SKH-1 mice. Reduced Notch1 expression was correlated with the expansion of stem cell compartment in these animals. However, other signaling pathways such as DNA damage response or mTOR signaling pathways were not significantly different in

  8. Tactile hairs on the postcranial body in Florida manatees: a Mammalian lateral line?

    PubMed

    Reep, R L; Marshall, C D; Stoll, M L

    2002-01-01

    Previous reports have suggested that the sparsely distributed hairs found on the entire postcranial body of sirenians are all sinus type tactile hairs. This would represent a unique arrangement because no other mammal has been reported to possess tactile hairs except on restricted regions of the body, primarily the face. In order to investigate this issue further, hair counts were made systematically in three Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), and hair follicle microanatomy was studied in 110 specimens gathered from 9 animals. We found that the postcranial body possesses approximately 1500 hairs per side, and hair density decreases from dorsal to ventral. External hair length ranged from 2-9 mm, and most hairs were separated from their nearest neighbor by 20-40 mm, resulting in an independent domain of movement for each hair. All hairs exhibited the anatomical characteristics of follicle-sinus complexes typical of tactile hairs, including a dense connective tissue capsule containing an elongated circumferential blood sinus and innervation by 20-50 axons which ascend the mesenchymal sheath. We conclude that this represents a unique distributed underwater tactile system capable of conveying detailed and significant external information concerning approaching animals, water currents and possibly the presence of large stationary features of the environment. Such a system would be analogous to the lateral line in fish, and would be particularly useful in the turbid habitat frequented by Florida manatees. PMID:12119533

  9. Expression of a dominant negative mutant of epidermal growth factor receptor in the epidermis of transgenic mice elicits striking alterations in hair follicle development and skin structure.

    PubMed Central

    Murillas, R; Larcher, F; Conti, C J; Santos, M; Ullrich, A; Jorcano, J L

    1995-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a key regulator of keratinocyte biology. However, the physiological role of EGFR in vivo has not been well established. To analyze the role of EGFR in skin, we have generated transgenic mice expressing an EGFR dominant negative mutant in the basal layer of epidermis and outer root sheath of hair follicles. Mice expressing the mutant receptor display short and waved pelage hair and curly whiskers during the first weeks of age, but subsequently pelage and vibrissa hairs become progressively sparser and atrophic. Eventually, most mice present severe alopecia. Histological examination of the skin of transgenic mice shows striking alterations in the development of hair follicles, which fail to enter into catagen stage. These alterations eventually lead to necrosis and disappearance of the follicles, accompanied by strong infiltration of the skin with inflammatory elements. The interfollicular epidermis of these mice shows marked hyperplasia, expression of hyperproliferation-associated keratin K6 and increased 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine incorporation. EGFR function was inhibited in transgenic skin keratinocytes, since in vivo and in vitro autophosphorylation of EGFR was almost completely abolished on EGF stimulation. These results implicate EGFR in the control of hair cycle progression, and provide new information about its role in epidermal growth and differentiation. Images PMID:7489711

  10. Home-applied IPL epilation may prevent the problems due to hair follicle in amputees.

    PubMed

    Ergözen, S; Ercan, E; Demir, Y

    2016-08-01

    Amputees may suffer from dermatoses such as folliculitis and pilonidal sinus caused by pressure on the stump in hairy parts of the skin. These conditions commonly cause pain and need treatment that result in abandonment of prosthesis use and disrupt the patient's daily living activities. We believe these conditions may be easily, effectively and cheaply prevented with the use of intense pulsed light technology, which is produced for home epilation. The use of this kind of epilator in the early period post-amputation may prevent the development of folliculitis and pilonidal sinus. This application may also be cost-effective in long term. PMID:27372856

  11. Optical Monitoring of Living Nerve Terminal Labeling in Hair Follicle Lanceolate Endings of the Ex Vivo Mouse Ear Skin.

    PubMed

    Bewick, Guy S; Banks, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    A novel dissection and recording technique is described for optical monitoring staining and de-staining of lanceolate terminals surrounding hair follicles in the skin of the mouse pinna. The preparation is simple and relatively fast, reliably yielding extensive regions of multiple labeled units of living nerve terminals to study uptake and release of styryl pyridinium dyes extensively used in studies of vesicle recycling. Subdividing the preparations before labeling allows test vs. control comparisons in the same ear from a single individual. Helpful tips are given for improving the quality of the preparation, the labeling and the imaging parameters. This new system is suitable for assaying pharmacologically and mechanically-induced uptake and release of these vital dyes in lanceolate terminals in both wild-type and genetically modified animals. Examples of modulatory influences on labeling intensity are given. PMID:27077818

  12. Optical Monitoring of Living Nerve Terminal Labeling in Hair Follicle Lanceolate Endings of the Ex Vivo Mouse Ear Skin

    PubMed Central

    Bewick, Guy S.; Banks, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    A novel dissection and recording technique is described for optical monitoring staining and de-staining of lanceolate terminals surrounding hair follicles in the skin of the mouse pinna. The preparation is simple and relatively fast, reliably yielding extensive regions of multiple labeled units of living nerve terminals to study uptake and release of styryl pyridinium dyes extensively used in studies of vesicle recycling. Subdividing the preparations before labeling allows test vs. control comparisons in the same ear from a single individual. Helpful tips are given for improving the quality of the preparation, the labeling and the imaging parameters. This new system is suitable for assaying pharmacologically and mechanically-induced uptake and release of these vital dyes in lanceolate terminals in both wild-type and genetically modified animals. Examples of modulatory influences on labeling intensity are given. PMID:27077818

  13. Partial Proteasome Inhibitors Induce Hair Follicle Growth by Stabilizing β-catenin

    PubMed Central

    Yucel, Gozde; Van Arnam, John; Means, Paula Casey; Huntzicker, Erik; Altindag, Banu; Lara, Maria Fernanda; Yuan, Jenny; Kuo, Calvin; Oro, Anthony E.

    2014-01-01

    The activation of tissue stem cells from their quiescent state represents the initial step in the complex process of organ regeneration and tissue repair. While the identity and location of tissue stem cells are becoming known, how key regulators control the balance of activation and quiescence remains mysterious. The vertebrate hair is an ideal model system where hair cycling between growth and resting phases is precisely regulated by morphogen signaling pathways, but how these events are coordinated to promote orderly signaling in a spatial and temporal manner remains unclear. Here, we show that hair cycle timing depends on regulated stability of signaling substrates by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Topical application of partial proteasomal inhibitors (PaPIs) inhibits epidermal and dermal proteasome activity throughout the hair cycle. PaPIs prevent the destruction of the key anagen signal β-catenin, resulting in more rapid hair growth and dramati cally shortened telogen. We show that PaPIs induce excess β-catenin, act similarly to the GSK3β antagonist LiCl, and antagonize Dickopf-related protein-mediated inhibition of anagen. PaPIs thus represent a novel class of hair growth agents that act through transiently modifying the balance of stem cell activation and quiescence pathways. PMID:23963711

  14. Partial proteasome inhibitors induce hair follicle growth by stabilizing β-catenin.

    PubMed

    Yucel, Gozde; Van Arnam, John; Means, Paula Casey; Huntzicker, Erik; Altindag, Banu; Lara, Maria Fernanda; Yuan, Jenny; Kuo, Calvin; Oro, Anthony E

    2014-01-01

    The activation of tissue stem cells from their quiescent state represents the initial step in the complex process of organ regeneration and tissue repair. While the identity and location of tissue stem cells are becoming known, how key regulators control the balance of activation and quiescence remains mysterious. The vertebrate hair is an ideal model system where hair cycling between growth and resting phases is precisely regulated by morphogen signaling pathways, but how these events are coordinated to promote orderly signaling in a spatial and temporal manner remains unclear. Here, we show that hair cycle timing depends on regulated stability of signaling substrates by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Topical application of partial proteasomal inhibitors (PaPIs) inhibits epidermal and dermal proteasome activity throughout the hair cycle. PaPIs prevent the destruction of the key anagen signal β-catenin, resulting in more rapid hair growth and dramatically shortened telogen. We show that PaPIs induce excess β-catenin, act similarly to the GSK3β antagonist LiCl, and antagonize Dickopf-related protein-mediated inhibition of anagen. PaPIs thus represent a novel class of hair growth agents that act through transiently modifying the balance of stem cell activation and quiescence pathways. PMID:23963711

  15. Removing Hair Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... the skin, and into the hair follicle. An electric current travels down the wire and destroys the hair ... a period of time. Tweezer epilators also use electric current to remove hair. The tweezers grasp the hair ...

  16. Squarticles as a lipid nanocarrier for delivering diphencyprone and minoxidil to hair follicles and human dermal papilla cells.

    PubMed

    Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Sung, Calvin T; Shen, Feng-Ming; Huang, Chi-Ting; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-01-01

    Delivery of diphencyprone (DPCP) and minoxidil to hair follicles and related cells is important in the treatment of alopecia. Here we report the development of "squarticles," nanoparticles formed from sebum-derived lipids such as squalene and fatty esters, for use in achieving targeted drug delivery to the follicles. Two different nanosystems, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and nanoemulsions (NE), were prepared. The physicochemical properties of squarticles, including size, zeta potential, drug encapsulation efficiency, and drug release, were examined. Squarticles were compared to a free control solution with respect to skin absorption, follicular accumulation, and dermal papilla cell targeting. The particle size of the NLC type was 177 nm; that of the NE type was 194 nm. Approximately 80% of DPCP and 60% of minoxidil were entrapped into squarticles. An improved drug deposition in the skin was observed in the in vitro absorption test. Compared to the free control, the squarticles reduced minoxidil penetration through the skin. This may indicate a minimized absorption into systemic circulation. Follicular uptake by squarticles was 2- and 7-fold higher for DPCP and minoxidil respectively compared to the free control. Fluorescence and confocal images of the skin confirmed a great accumulation of squarticles in the follicles and the deeper skin strata. Vascular endothelial growth factor expression in dermal papilla cells was significantly upregulated after the loading of minoxidil into the squarticles. In vitro papilla cell viability and in vivo skin irritancy tests in nude mice suggested a good tolerability of squarticles to skin. Squarticles provide a promising nanocarrier for topical delivery of DPCP and minoxidil. PMID:24307611

  17. 15-deoxy prostaglandin J2, the nonenzymatic metabolite of prostaglandin D2, induces apoptosis in keratinocytes of human hair follicles: a possible explanation for prostaglandin D2-mediated inhibition of hair growth.

    PubMed

    Joo, Hyun Woo; Kang, Yoo Ri; Kwack, Mi Hee; Sung, Young Kwan

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and its nonenzymatic metabolite, 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15-dPGJ2), inhibit in vitro growth of explanted human hair follicles and inhibit hair growth in mice through the GPR44 (DP2). However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we first investigated the expression of DP2 in human hair follicles and in cultured follicular cells. We found that DP2 is strongly expressed in the outer root sheath (ORS) cells and weakly expressed in the dermal papilla (DP) cells. We observed slight growth stimulation when ORS and DP cells were treated with PGD2. We also observed slight growth stimulation when DP and ORS cells were treated with low concentrations (0.5 and 1 μM) of 15-dPGJ2. However, 5 μM 15-dPGJ2 inhibited the viability and caused apoptosis of both cell types. Exposure of cultured human hair follicles to 15-dPGJ2 resulted in significant apoptosis in follicular keratinocytes. Altogether, our data provide an evidence that 15-dPGJ2 promotes apoptosis in follicular keratinocytes and provide rationale for developing remedies for the prevention and treatment of hair loss based on DP2 antagonism. PMID:27185495

  18. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Each hair follicle contains a certain number of pigment cells. These pigment cells continuously produce a chemical called melanin (say: ... each hair contains. As we get older, the pigment cells in our hair follicles gradually die. When ...

  19. Aging changes in hair and nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... of aging. Hair color is due to a pigment called melanin , which hair follicles produce. Follicles are ... slows. Hair strands become smaller and have less pigment. So the thick, coarse hair of a young ...

  20. Combined Recording of Mechanically Stimulated Afferent Output and Nerve Terminal Labelling in Mouse Hair Follicle Lanceolate Endings.

    PubMed

    Bewick, Guy S; Cahusac, Peter M B; Banks, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    A novel dissection and recording technique is described for monitoring afferent firing evoked by mechanical displacement of hairs in the mouse pinna. The technique is very cost-effective and easily undertaken with materials commonly found in most electrophysiology laboratories, or easily purchased. The dissection is simple and fast, with the mechanical displacement provided by a generic electroceramic wafer controlled by proprietary software. The same software also records and analyses the electroneurogram output. The recording of the evoked nerve activity is through a commercial differential amplifier connected to fire-polished standard glass microelectrodes. Helpful tips are given for improving the quality of the preparation, the stimulation and the recording conditions to optimize recording quality. The system is suitable for assaying the electrophysiological and optical properties of lanceolate terminals of palisade endings of hair follicles, as well as the outcomes from their pharmacological and/or genetic manipulation. An example of combining electrical recording with mechanical stimulation and labeling with a styryl pyridinium vital dye is given. PMID:27213522

  1. Signaling Networks among Stem Cell Precursors, Transit-Amplifying Progenitors, and their Niche in Developing Hair Follicles.

    PubMed

    Rezza, Amélie; Wang, Zichen; Sennett, Rachel; Qiao, Wenlian; Wang, Dongmei; Heitman, Nicholas; Mok, Ka Wai; Clavel, Carlos; Yi, Rui; Zandstra, Peter; Ma'ayan, Avi; Rendl, Michael

    2016-03-29

    The hair follicle (HF) is a complex miniorgan that serves as an ideal model system to study stem cell (SC) interactions with the niche during growth and regeneration. Dermal papilla (DP) cells are required for SC activation during the adult hair cycle, but signal exchange between niche and SC precursors/transit-amplifying cell (TAC) progenitors that regulates HF morphogenetic growth is largely unknown. Here we use six transgenic reporters to isolate 14 major skin and HF cell populations. With next-generation RNA sequencing, we characterize their transcriptomes and define unique molecular signatures. SC precursors, TACs, and the DP niche express a plethora of ligands and receptors. Signaling interaction network analysis reveals a bird's-eye view of pathways implicated in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Using a systematic tissue-wide approach, this work provides a comprehensive platform, linked to an interactive online database, to identify and further explore the SC/TAC/niche crosstalk regulating HF growth. PMID:27009580

  2. Polycaprolactone fiber meshes provide a 3D environment suitable for cultivation and differentiation of melanocytes from the outer root sheath of hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Savkovic, Vuk; Flämig, Franziska; Schneider, Marie; Sülflow, Katharina; Loth, Tina; Lohrenz, Andrea; Hacker, Michael Christian; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela; Simon, Jan-Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Melanocytes differentiated from the stem cells of human hair follicle outer root sheath (ORS) have the potential for developing non-invasive treatments for skin disorders out of a minimal sample: of hair root. With a robust procedure for melanocyte cultivation from the ORS of human hair follicle at hand, this study focused on the identification of a suitable biocompatible, biodegradable carrier as the next step toward their clinical implementation. Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a known biocompatible material used for a number of medical devices. In this study, we have populated electrospun PCL fiber meshes with normal human epidermal melanocytes (NHEM) as well as with hair-follicle-derived human melanocytes from the outer root sheath (HUMORS) and tested their functionality in vitro. PCL fiber meshes evidently provided a niche for melanocytes and supported their melanotic properties. The cells were tested for gene expression of PAX3, PMEL, TYR and MITF, as well as for proliferation, expression of melanocyte marker proteins tyrosinase and glycoprotein 100 (gp100), L-DOPA-tautomerase enzymatic activity and melanin content. Reduced mitochondrial activity and PAX-3 gene expression indicated that the three-dimensional PCL scaffold supported differentiation rather than proliferation of melanocytes. The monitored melanotic features of both the NHEM and HUMORS cultivated on PCL scaffolds significantly exceeded those of two-dimensional adherent cultures. PMID:26126647

  3. Herbal Extracts Induce Dermal Papilla Cell Proliferation of Human Hair Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Rastegar, Hosein; Aghaei, Mahmoud; Barikbin, Behrooz; Ehsani, Amirohushang

    2015-01-01

    Background The number of people suffering from balding or hair thinning is increasing, despite the advances in various medical therapies. Therefore, it is highly important to develop new therapies to inhibit balding and increase hair proliferation. Objective We investigated the effects of herbal extracts commonly used for improving balding in traditional medicine to identify potential agents for hair proliferation. Methods The expression levels of 5α-reductase isoforms (type I and II) were analyzed using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in the human follicular dermal papilla cells (DPCs). The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenylteterazolium bromide and bromodeoxyuridine tests were used to evaluate the cell proliferation effect of herbal extracts in DPCs. The expression levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Akt, cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4), B-cell lymphoma (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) were measured using western blot analysis. Results The 5α-reductase isoform mRNAs and proteins were detected in the cultured DPCs, and the expression level of 5α-R2 in DPCs in the presence of the herbal extracts was gradually decreased. Herbal extracts were found to significantly increase the proliferation of human DPCs at concentrations ranging from 1.5% to 4.5%. These results show that the herbal extracts tested affected the protein expressions of ERK, Akt, cyclin D1, Cdk4, Bcl-2, and Bax in DPCs. Conclusion These results suggest that herbal extracts exert positive effects on hair proliferation via ERK, Akt, cyclin D1, and Cdk4 signaling in DPCs; they also suggest that herbal extracts could be a great alternative therapy for increasing hair proliferation. PMID:26719634

  4. Adaptations in the structure and innervation of follicle-sinus complexes to an aquatic environment as seen in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    PubMed

    Sarko, Diana K; Reep, Roger L; Mazurkiewicz, Joseph E; Rice, Frank L

    2007-09-20

    Florida manatees are large-bodied aquatic herbivores that use large tactile vibrissae for several purposes. Facial vibrissae are used to forage in a turbid water environment, and the largest perioral vibrissae can also grasp and manipulate objects. Other vibrissae distributed over the entire postfacial body appear to function as a lateral line system. All manatee vibrissae emanate from densely innervated follicle-sinus complexes (FSCs) like those in other mammals, although proportionately larger commensurate with the caliber of the vibrissae. As revealed by immunofluorescence, all manatee FSCs have many types of C, Adelta and Abeta innervation including Merkel, club, and longitudinal lanceolate endings at the level of the ring sinus, but they lack other types such as reticular and spiny endings at the level of the cavernous sinus. As in non-whisking terrestrial species, the inner conical bodies of facial FSCs are well innervated but lack Abeta-fiber terminals. Importantly, manatee FSCs have two unique types of Abeta-fiber endings. First, all of the FSCs have exceptionally large-caliber axons that branch to terminate as novel, gigantic spindle-like endings located at the upper ring sinus. Second, facial FSCs have smaller caliber Abeta fibers that terminate in the trabeculae of the cavernous sinus as an ending that resembles a Golgi tendon organ. In addition, the largest perioral vibrissae, which are used for grasping, have exceptionally well-developed medullary cores that have a structure and dense small-fiber innervation resembling that of tooth pulp. Other features of the epidermis and upper dermis structure and innervation differ from that seen in terrestrial mammals. PMID:17640045

  5. Smad1 and 5 but not Smad8 establish stem cell quiescence which is critical to transform the premature hair follicle during morphogenesis toward the postnatal state.

    PubMed

    Kandyba, Eve; Hazen, Virginia M; Kobielak, Agnieszka; Butler, Samantha J; Kobielak, Krzysztof

    2014-02-01

    Hair follicles (HFs) are regenerative miniorgans that offer a highly informative model system to study the regulatory mechanisms of hair follicle stem cells (hfSCs) homeostasis and differentiation. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is key in both of these processes, governing hfSCs quiescence in the bulge and differentiation of matrix progenitors. However, whether canonical or noncanonical pathways of BMP signaling are responsible for these processes remains unresolved. Here, we conditionally ablated two canonical effectors of BMP signaling, Smad1 and Smad5 during hair morphogenesis and postnatal cycling in mouse skin. Deletion of Smad1 and Smad5 (dKO) in the epidermis during morphogenesis resulted in neonatal lethality with lack of visible whiskers. Interestingly, distinct patterns of phospho-Smads (pSmads) activation were detected with pSmad8 restricted to epidermis and pSmad1 and pSmad5 exclusively activated in HFs. Engraftment of dKO skin revealed retarded hair morphogenesis and failure to differentiate into visible hair. The formation of the prebulge and bulge reservoir for quiescent hfSCs was precluded in dKO HFs which remained in prolonged anagen. Surprisingly, in postnatal telogen HFs, pSmad8 expression was no longer limited to epidermis and was also present in dKO bulge hfSCs and matrix progenitors. Although pSmad8 activity alone could not prevent dKO hfSCs precocious anagen activation, it sustained efficient postnatal differentiation and regeneration of visible hairs. Together, our data suggest a pivotal role for canonical BMP signaling demonstrating distinguished nonoverlapping function of pSmad8 with pSmad1 and pSmad5 in hfSCs regulation and hair morphogenesis but a redundant role in adult hair progenitors differentiation. PMID:24023003

  6. Proteomics demonstration that histone H4 is a colchicine-induced retro-modulator of growth and alkaline phosphatase activity in hair follicle dermal papilla culture.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Ching-Wu; Shui, Hao-Ai; Wang, Chih-Yuan; Yu, Hui-Ming; Ho, Ming-Yi; Cheng, Kur-Ta; Tseng, Min-Jen

    2011-05-16

    Dermal papilla cells (DPCs) control the development of hair follicles via cell-cell interactions and extracellular molecules. Colchicine affected active anagen DPCs to result in hair loss in the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to identify the retro-modulator released by DPCs exposed to sub-toxic dose of colchicine and elucidate its effect on dermal papilla culture. The molecular-weight cutoff ultrafiltration and HPLC were used to purify the components of colchicine-treated DPC secretomes and examined their ability to down-regulate the growth and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of DPCs. The active product was identified by in-gel trypsin digestion, nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS and validated by Western blot to be histone H4 (P62804), which inhibited the proliferation and diminished the ALP activity of cultured DPCs. Treating DPCs with recombinant histone H4 reproduced the growth inhibition effect whereas adding antibody to immunoneutralize histone H4 abolished this growth inhibitory consequence. DPCs with high ALP activity can induce the neogenesis of hair follicles and support the hair fiber growth in vivo. Our results indicated that sub-lethal colchicine can inactivate DPCs through releasing histone H4. Through the investigation of the retro-modulation of histone H4 on dermal papillae may give implications for understanding the mechanism of colchicine-induced hair disorder. PMID:21362507

  7. Benign hair-follicle derived tumours in the differential diagnosis of basal-cell carcinoma of the eyelids: a clinicopathological comparison.

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, W; Garner, A; Collin, J R

    1989-01-01

    Benign eyelid tumours derived from hair follicles are rare and frequently misdiagnosed as basal-cell carcinoma when evaluation is based on clinical evidence alone. They include trichoepithelioma, trichofolliculoma, trichilemmoma, and pilomatrixoma. We reviewed 117 such tumours received in the Department of Pathology, Institute of Ophthalmology, London, in the last 30 years, a number which compared with 2447 basal-cell carcinomas seen over the same period. The hair follicle tumours may be safely excised with a narrow margin of clearance, whereas a macroscopic clearance of 3 to 5 mm or surgery with frozen section histological control is desirable for excision of basal-cell carcinoma. Therefore confirmation by incisional biopsy of the nature of any large lesion suspected of being a basal-cell carcinoma is essential in order to avoid performing an unnecessarily extensive or time consuming excision. Images PMID:2730855

  8. An Integrated Analysis of MicroRNA and mRNA Expression Profiles to Identify RNA Expression Signatures in Lambskin Hair Follicles in Hu Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xiaoyang; Sun, Wei; Yin, Jinfeng; Ni, Rong; Su, Rui; Wang, Qingzeng; Gao, Wen; Bao, Jianjun; Yu, Jiarui; Wang, Lihong; Chen, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Wave patterns in lambskin hair follicles are an important factor determining the quality of sheep’s wool. Hair follicles in lambskin from Hu sheep, a breed unique to China, have 3 types of waves, designated as large, medium, and small. The quality of wool from small wave follicles is excellent, while the quality of large waves is considered poor. Because no molecular and biological studies on hair follicles of these sheep have been conducted to date, the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of different wave patterns is currently unknown. The aim of this article was to screen the candidate microRNAs (miRNA) and genes for the development of hair follicles in Hu sheep. Two-day-old Hu lambs were selected from full-sib individuals that showed large, medium, and small waves. Integrated analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression profiles employed high-throughout sequencing technology. Approximately 13, 24, and 18 differentially expressed miRNAs were found between small and large waves, small and medium waves, and medium and large waves, respectively. A total of 54, 190, and 81 differentially expressed genes were found between small and large waves, small and medium waves, and medium and large waves, respectively, by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis. Differentially expressed genes were classified using gene ontology and pathway analyses. They were found to be mainly involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, growth, immune response, and ion transport, and were associated with MAPK and the Notch signaling pathway. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses of differentially-expressed miRNA and genes were consistent with sequencing results. Integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression indicated that, compared to small waves, large waves included 4 downregulated miRNAs that had regulatory effects on 8 upregulated genes and 3 upregulated miRNAs, which in turn influenced 13 downregulated genes. Compared to small waves

  9. Lhx2 is a direct NF-κB target gene that promotes primary hair follicle placode down-growth.

    PubMed

    Tomann, Philip; Paus, Ralf; Millar, Sarah E; Scheidereit, Claus; Schmidt-Ullrich, Ruth

    2016-05-01

    In the epidermis of mice lacking transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity, primary hair follicle (HF) pre-placode formation is initiated without progression to proper placodes. NF-κB modulates WNT and SHH signaling at early stages of HF development, but this does not fully account for the phenotypes observed upon NF-κB inhibition. To identify additional NF-κB target genes, we developed a novel method to isolate and transcriptionally profile primary HF placodes with active NF-κB signaling. In parallel, we compared gene expression at the same developmental stage in NF-κB-deficient embryos and controls. This uncovered novel NF-κB target genes with potential roles in priming HF placodes for down-growth. Importantly, we identify Lhx2 (encoding a LIM/homeobox transcription factor) as a direct NF-κB target gene, loss of which replicates a subset of phenotypes seen in NF-κB-deficient embryos. Lhx2 and Tgfb2 knockout embryos exhibit very similar abnormalities in HF development, including failure of the E-cadherin suppression required for follicle down-growth. We show that TGFβ2 signaling is impaired in NF-κB-deficient and Lhx2 knockout embryos and that exogenous TGFβ2 rescues the HF phenotypes in Lhx2 knockout skin explants, indicating that it operates downstream of LHX2. These findings identify a novel NF-κB/LHX2/TGFβ2 signaling axis that is crucial for primary HF morphogenesis, which may also function more broadly in development and disease. PMID:26952977

  10. Nestin-expressing stem cells from the hair follicle can differentiate into motor neurons and reduce muscle atrophy after transplantation to injured nerves.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Zhang, Chuansen; Hoffman, Robert M

    2014-02-01

    We have previously shown that nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells from the mouse and human are multipotent and can differentiate into many cell types, including neurons and glial cells. The nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells can effect nerve and spinal cord repair upon transplantation in mouse models. In the present study, nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) were induced by retinoic acid and fetal bovine serum to differentiate and then transplanted together with Matrigel into the transected distal sciatic or tibial nerve stump of transgenic nude mice ubiquitously expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). Control mice were transplanted with Matrigel only. The transplanted cells appeared neuron like, with large round nuclei and long extensions. Immunofluorescence staining showed that some of the transplanted cells in the distal nerve stump expressed the neuron marker Tuj1 as well as motor neuron markers Isl 1/2 and EN1. These transplanted cells contacted each other as well as host nerve fibers. Two weeks post-transplantation, nerve fibers in the distal sciatic nerve stump of the transplanted mice had greater expression of motor neuron markers and neurotrophic factor-3 than those in the Matrigel-only transplanted mice. Muscle fiber areas in the nestin-expressing stem cell plus Matrigel-transplanted animals were much bigger than that in the Matrigel-only transplanted animals after 4 weeks. The present results suggest that transplanted nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells can differentiate into motor neurons and reduce muscle atrophy after sciatic nerve transection. This study demonstrates a new and accessible neuron source to reduce muscle atrophy after nerve injury. PMID:24020586

  11. FOXC1 maintains the hair follicle stem cell niche and governs stem cell quiescence to preserve long-term tissue-regenerating potential.

    PubMed

    Lay, Kenneth; Kume, Tsutomu; Fuchs, Elaine

    2016-03-15

    Adult tissue stem cells (SCs) reside in niches, which orchestrate SC behavior. SCs are typically used sparingly and exist in quiescence unless activated for tissue growth. Whether parsimonious SC use is essential to conserve long-term tissue-regenerating potential during normal homeostasis remains poorly understood. Here, we examine this issue by conditionally ablating a key transcription factor Forkhead box C1 (FOXC1) expressed in hair follicle SCs (HFSCs). FOXC1-deficient HFSCs spend less time in quiescence, leading to markedly shortened resting periods between hair cycles. The enhanced hair cycling accelerates HFSC expenditure, and impacts hair regeneration in aging mice. Interestingly, although FOXC1-deficient HFs can still form a new bulge that houses HFSCs for the next hair cycle, the older bulge is left unanchored. As the new hair emerges, the entire old bulge, including its reserve HFSCs and SC-inhibitory inner cell layer, is lost. We trace this mechanism first, to a marked increase in cell cycle-associated transcripts upon Foxc1 ablation, and second, to a downstream reduction in E-cadherin-mediated inter-SC adhesion. Finally, we show that when the old bulge is lost with each hair cycle, overall levels of SC-inhibitory factors are reduced, further lowering the threshold for HFSC activity. Taken together, our findings suggest that HFSCs have restricted potential in vivo, which they conserve by coupling quiescence to adhesion-mediated niche maintenance, thereby achieving long-term tissue homeostasis. PMID:26912458

  12. FOXC1 maintains the hair follicle stem cell niche and governs stem cell quiescence to preserve long-term tissue-regenerating potential

    PubMed Central

    Lay, Kenneth; Kume, Tsutomu; Fuchs, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Adult tissue stem cells (SCs) reside in niches, which orchestrate SC behavior. SCs are typically used sparingly and exist in quiescence unless activated for tissue growth. Whether parsimonious SC use is essential to conserve long-term tissue-regenerating potential during normal homeostasis remains poorly understood. Here, we examine this issue by conditionally ablating a key transcription factor Forkhead box C1 (FOXC1) expressed in hair follicle SCs (HFSCs). FOXC1-deficient HFSCs spend less time in quiescence, leading to markedly shortened resting periods between hair cycles. The enhanced hair cycling accelerates HFSC expenditure, and impacts hair regeneration in aging mice. Interestingly, although FOXC1-deficient HFs can still form a new bulge that houses HFSCs for the next hair cycle, the older bulge is left unanchored. As the new hair emerges, the entire old bulge, including its reserve HFSCs and SC-inhibitory inner cell layer, is lost. We trace this mechanism first, to a marked increase in cell cycle-associated transcripts upon Foxc1 ablation, and second, to a downstream reduction in E-cadherin–mediated inter-SC adhesion. Finally, we show that when the old bulge is lost with each hair cycle, overall levels of SC-inhibitory factors are reduced, further lowering the threshold for HFSC activity. Taken together, our findings suggest that HFSCs have restricted potential in vivo, which they conserve by coupling quiescence to adhesion-mediated niche maintenance, thereby achieving long-term tissue homeostasis. PMID:26912458

  13. Clonal multipotency and effect of long-term in vitro expansion on differentiation potential of human hair follicle derived mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Vivek K.; Mistriotis, Panagiotis; Andreadis, Stelios T.

    2011-01-01

    Hair follicle harbors a rich stem cell pool with mesenchymal lineage differentiation potential. Although previous studies with rodent cells demonstrated that hair follicle sheath and papilla cells possess multi-lineage differentiation potential, human hair follicle derived mesenchymal stem cells (hHF-MSCs) have not been characterized in detail in terms of their multipotency. In addition, it is not clear whether these cells are true stem cells that can differentiate along multiple lineages or whether they represent a collection of progenitor cells with restricted differentiation potential. Here we report that hHF-MSCs are highly proliferative cells that can be maintained in culture for ~45 population doublings before they start to show signs of cellular senescence. Under appropriate culture conditions, hHF-MSCs differentiated along the myogenic, osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages, as demonstrated by kinetic gene expression profiling and functional assays. Interestingly, the differentiation potential decreased with time in culture in a lineage-specific manner. Specifically, myogenesis and chondrogenesis showed a moderate decrease over time; osteogenesis was maximum at intermediate passages and adipogenesis was highly sensitive to long-term culture and was diminished at late passages. Finally, hHF-MSCs were clonally multipotent as the majority of hHF-MSCs clones (73%) demonstrated bi- or tri-lineage differentiation potential. These results suggest that hHF-MSCs may present an alternative source of easily accessible, autologous stem cells for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:22099022

  14. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of prostaglandin E receptor 2 gene in cashmere goat (Capra hircus) skin during hair follicle development.

    PubMed

    Geng, Rong-Qing; Yuan, Chao; Chen, Yu-Lin

    2014-04-01

    As a member of the four subtypes of receptors for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), prostaglandin E receptor 2 (PTGER2) is in the family of G-protein coupled receptors and has been characterized to be involved in the development and growth of hair follicles. In this study, we cloned and characterized the full-length coding sequence (CDS) of PTGER2 gene from cashmere goat skin. The entire open reading frame (ORF) of PTGER2 gene was 1047 bp and encoded 348 amino acid residues. The deduced protein contained one G-protein coupled receptors family 1 signature, seven transmembrane domains, and other potential sites. Tissue expression analysis showed that PTGER2 gene was expressed strongly in the skin. The general expression tendency of PTGER2 gene at different hair follicle developmental stages in the skin was gradually decreased from anagen to catagen to telogen. After comparing with the expression of BMP4 gene and related reports, we further presume that it seems to have a relationship between the hair follicle cycle and the expression level of PTGER2 gene in cashmere goat skin. PMID:24555795

  15. Molecular characterization, expression and methylation status analysis of BMP4 gene in skin tissue of Liaoning cashmere goat during hair follicle cycle.

    PubMed

    Bai, Wen L; Dang, Yun L; Wang, Jiao J; Yin, Rong H; Wang, Ze Y; Zhu, Yu B; Cong, Yu Y; Xue, Hui L; Deng, Liang; Guo, Dan; Wang, Shi Q; Yang, Shu H

    2016-08-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) is a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family (BMPs). It is involved in the development and cycle of hair follicle, as well as, is thought to be a potential candidate gene for cashmere traits in goats. In the present study, we isolated and characterized a full-length open reading frame (ORF) of BMP4 cDNA from the skin tissue of Liaoning cashmere goat, and investigated the transcriptional pattern and methylation status of BMP4 gene in skin tissue of this breed during different stages of hair follicle cycle. The sequence analysis indicated that the isolated cDNA was 1264-bp in length containing a complete ORF of 1230-bp. It encoded a precursor peptide of 409 amino acids with a signal peptide of 19 amino acids. The structural analysis indicated that goat BMP4 contains typical TGF-β propeptide and TGF-β domains. In skin tissue, BMP4 is generally transcribed in an ascendant pattern from anagen to telogen. The methylation level of 5' flanking regulatory region of BMP4 gene might be involved in its mRNA expression in skin tissue: a higher BMP4 methylation level in skin coincides with a lower expression of BMP4 mRNA. These results from the present work provided a foundation for further insight into the functional and regulatory characteristics of BMP4 in the development and cycle of hair follicle in Liaoning Cashmere goat. PMID:27406581

  16. Nanoparticle-based targeting of vaccine compounds to skin antigen-presenting cells by hair follicles and their transport in mice.

    PubMed

    Mahe, Brice; Vogt, Annika; Liard, Christelle; Duffy, Darragh; Abadie, Valérie; Bonduelle, Olivia; Boissonnas, Alexandre; Sterry, Wolfram; Verrier, Bernard; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Combadiere, Behazine

    2009-05-01

    Particle-based drug delivery systems target active compounds to the hair follicle and may result in a better penetration and higher efficiency of compound uptake by skin resident cells. As previously proposed, such delivery systems could be important tools for vaccine delivery. In this study, we investigated the penetration of solid fluorescent 40 or 200 nm polystyrene nanoparticles (NPs) as well as virus particles in murine skin to further investigate the efficacy of transcutaneously (TC) applied particulate vaccine delivery route. We demonstrated that 40 and 200 nm NPs and modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) expressing the green-fluorescent protein penetrated deeply into hair follicles and were internalized by perifollicular antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Fibered-based confocal microscopy analyses allowed visualizing in vivo particle penetration along the follicular duct, diffusion into the surrounding tissue, uptake by APCs and transport to the draining lymph nodes. The application of small particles, such as ovalbumin coding DNA or MVA, induced both humoral and cellular immune responses. Furthermore, TC applied MVA induced protection against vaccinia virus challenge. Our results strengthen the concept of TC targeting of cutaneous APCs by hair follicles and will contribute to the development of advanced vaccination protocols using NPs or viral vectors. PMID:19052565

  17. Mycophenolate antagonizes IFN-γ-induced catagen-like changes via β-catenin activation in human dermal papilla cells and hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Sunhyo; Lee, Yonghee; Hyun, Moo Yeol; Choi, Sun Young; Jeong, Kwan Ho; Park, Young Min; Kang, Hoon; Park, Kui Young; Armstrong, Cheryl A; Johnson, Andrew; Song, Peter I; Kim, Beom Joon

    2014-01-01

    Recently, various immunosuppressant drugs have been shown to induce hair growth in normal hair as well as in alopecia areata and androgenic alopecia; however, the responsible mechanism has not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigate the influence of mycophenolate (MPA), an immunosuppressant, on the proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) and on the growth of human hair follicles following catagen induction with interferon (IFN)-γ. IFN-γ was found to reduce β-catenin, an activator of hair follicle growth, and activate glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β, and enhance expression of the Wnt inhibitor DKK-1 and catagen inducer transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2. IFN-γ inhibited expression of ALP and other dermal papillar cells (DPCs) markers such as Axin2, IGF-1, and FGF 7 and 10. MPA increased β-catenin in IFN-γ-treated hDPCs leading to its nuclear accumulation via inhibition of GSK3β and reduction of DKK-1. Furthermore, MPA significantly increased expression of ALP and other DPC marker genes but inhibited expression of TGF-β2. Therefore, we demonstrate for the first time that IFN-γ induces catagen-like changes in hDPCs and in hair follicles via inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and that MPA stabilizes β-catenin by inhibiting GSK3β leading to increased β-catenin target gene and DP signature gene expression, which may, in part, counteract IFN-γ-induced catagen in hDPCs. PMID:25247578

  18. Mycophenolate Antagonizes IFN-γ-Induced Catagen-Like Changes via β-Catenin Activation in Human Dermal Papilla Cells and Hair Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Sunhyo; Lee, Yonghee; Hyun, Moo Yeol; Choi, Sun Young; Jeong, Kwan Ho; Park, Young Min; Kang, Hoon; Park, Kui Young; Armstrong, Cheryl A.; Johnson, Andrew; Song, Peter I.; Kim, Beom Joon

    2014-01-01

    Recently, various immunosuppressant drugs have been shown to induce hair growth in normal hair as well as in alopecia areata and androgenic alopecia; however, the responsible mechanism has not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigate the influence of mycophenolate (MPA), an immunosuppressant, on the proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) and on the growth of human hair follicles following catagen induction with interferon (IFN)-γ. IFN-γ was found to reduce β-catenin, an activator of hair follicle growth, and activate glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β, and enhance expression of the Wnt inhibitor DKK-1 and catagen inducer transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2. IFN-γ inhibited expression of ALP and other dermal papillar cells (DPCs) markers such as Axin2, IGF-1, and FGF 7 and 10. MPA increased β-catenin in IFN-γ-treated hDPCs leading to its nuclear accumulation via inhibition of GSK3β and reduction of DKK-1. Furthermore, MPA significantly increased expression of ALP and other DPC marker genes but inhibited expression of TGF-β2. Therefore, we demonstrate for the first time that IFN-γ induces catagen-like changes in hDPCs and in hair follicles via inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and that MPA stabilizes β-catenin by inhibiting GSK3β leading to increased β-catenin target gene and DP signature gene expression, which may, in part, counteract IFN-γ-induced catagen in hDPCs. PMID:25247578

  19. Visualization of hair follicles using high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a Fourier domain mode locking laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, M.-T.; Chang, F.-Y.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, a swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system with a Fourier domain mode locking (FDML) laser is proposed for a dermatology study. The homemade FDML laser is one kind of frequency-sweeping light source, which can provide output power of >20 mW and an output spectrum of 65 nm in bandwidth centered at 1300 nm, enabling imaging with an axial resolution of 12 μm in the OCT system. To eliminate the forward scans from the laser output and insert the delayed backward scans, a Mach-Zehnder configuration is implemented. Compared with conventional frequency-sweeping light sources, the FDML laser can achieve much higher scan rates, as high as ˜240 kHz, which can provide a three-dimensional imaging rate of 4 volumes/s. Furthermore, the proposed high-speed SS-OCT system can provide three-dimensional (3D) images with reduced motion artifacts. Finally, a high-speed SS-OCT system is used to visualize hair follicles, demonstrating the potential of this technology as a tool for noninvasive diagnosis of alopecia.

  20. Repressing the Keratinocyte Genome: How the Polycomb Complex Subunits Operate in Concert to Control Skin and Hair Follicle Development.

    PubMed

    Botchkarev, Vladimir A; Mardaryev, Andrei N

    2016-08-01

    The Polycomb group proteins are transcriptional repressors that are critically important in the control of stem cell activity and maintenance of the identity of differentiated cells. Polycomb proteins interact with each other to form chromatin-associated repressive complexes (Polycomb repressive complexes 1 and 2) leading to chromatin compaction and gene silencing. However, the roles of the distinct components of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 in the control of skin development and keratinocyte differentiation remain obscure. Dauber et al. demonstrate the conditional ablations of three essential Polycomb repressive complex 2 subunits (EED, Suz12, or Ezh1/2) in the epidermal progenitors result in quite similar skin phenotypes including premature acquisition of a functional epidermal barrier, formation of ectopic Merkel cells, and defective postnatal hair follicle development. The reported data demonstrate that in skin epithelia, EED, Suz12, and Ezh1/2 function largely as subunits of the Polycomb repressive complex 2, which is important in the context of data demonstrating their independent activities in other cell types. The report provides an important platform for further analyses of the role of distinct Polycomb components in the control of gene expression programs in the disorders of epidermal differentiation, such as psoriasis and epidermal cancer. PMID:27450498

  1. miR-128 regulates differentiation of hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells into smooth muscle cells by targeting SMAD2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhihao; Pang, Li; Zhao, Huiying; Song, Lei; Wang, Yuehui; Sun, Qi; Guo, Chunjie; Wang, Bin; Qin, Xiujiao; Pan, Aiqun

    2016-05-01

    Human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells (hHFMSCs) are an important source of cardiovascular tissue engineering for their differentiation potential into smooth muscle cells (SMCs), yet the molecular pathways underlying such fate determination is unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that play critical roles in cell differentiation. In present study, we found that miR-128 was remarkably decreased during the differentiation of hHFMSCs into SMCs induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Moreover, overexpression of miR-128 led to decreased expression of SMC cellular marker proteins, such as smooth muscle actin (SMA) and calponin, in TGF-β1-induced SMC differentiation. Further, we identified that miR-128 targeted the 3'-UTR of SMAD2 transcript for translational inhibition of SMAD2 protein, and knockdown of SMAD2 abrogated the promotional effect of antagomir-128 (miR-128 neutralizer) on SMC differentiation. These results suggest that miR-128 regulates the differentiation of hHFMSCs into SMCs via targeting SMAD2, a main transcription regulator in TGF-β signaling pathway involving SMC differentiation. The miR-128/SMAD2 axis could therefore be considered as a candidate target in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine for SMCs. PMID:27087048

  2. Dynamics of Lgr6⁺ Progenitor Cells in the Hair Follicle, Sebaceous Gland, and Interfollicular Epidermis.

    PubMed

    Füllgrabe, Anja; Joost, Simon; Are, Alexandra; Jacob, Tina; Sivan, Unnikrishnan; Haegebarth, Andrea; Linnarsson, Sten; Simons, Benjamin D; Clevers, Hans; Toftgård, Rune; Kasper, Maria

    2015-11-10

    The dynamics and interactions between stem cell pools in the hair follicle (HF), sebaceous gland (SG), and interfollicular epidermis (IFE) of murine skin are still poorly understood. In this study, we used multicolor lineage tracing to mark Lgr6⁺ -expressing basal cells in the HF isthmus, SG, and IFE.We show that these Lgr6⁺ cells constitute long-term self-renewing populations within each compartment in adult skin. Quantitative analysis of clonal dynamics revealed that the Lgr6⁺ progenitor cells compete neutrally in the IFE, isthmus, and SG, indicating population asymmetry as the underlying mode of tissue renewal. Transcriptional profiling of Lgr6⁺ and Lgr6⁺ cells did not reveal a distinct Lgr6⁺ -associated gene expression signature, raising the question of whether Lgr6⁺ expression requires extrinsic niche signals. Our results elucidate the interrelation and behavior of Lgr6⁺ populations in the IFE, HF, and SG and suggest population asymmetry as a common mechanism for homeostasis in several epithelial skin compartments. PMID:26607954

  3. Mitochondrial function in murine skin epithelium is crucial for hair follicle morphogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.

    PubMed

    Kloepper, Jennifer E; Baris, Olivier R; Reuter, Karen; Kobayashi, Ken; Weiland, Daniela; Vidali, Silvia; Tobin, Desmond J; Niemann, Catherin; Wiesner, Rudolf J; Paus, Ralf

    2015-03-01

    Here, we studied how epithelial energy metabolism impacts overall skin development by selectively deleting intraepithelial mtDNA in mice by ablating a key maintenance factor (Tfam(EKO)), which induces loss of function of the electron transport chain (ETC). Quantitative (immuno)histomorphometry demonstrated that Tfam(EKO) mice showed significantly reduced hair follicle (HF) density and morphogenesis, fewer intrafollicular keratin15+ epithelial progenitor cells, increased apoptosis, and reduced proliferation. Tfam(EKO) mice also displayed premature entry into (aborted) HF cycling by apoptosis-driven HF regression (catagen). Ultrastructurally, Tfam(EKO) mice exhibited severe HF dystrophy, pigmentary abnormalities, and telogen-like condensed dermal papillae. Epithelial HF progenitor cell differentiation (Plet1, Lrig1 Lef1, and β-catenin), sebaceous gland development (adipophilin, Scd1, and oil red), and key mediators/markers of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during skin morphogenesis (NCAM, versican, and alkaline phosphatase) were all severely altered in Tfam(EKO) mice. Moreover, the number of mast cells, major histocompatibility complex class II+, or CD11b+ immunocytes in the skin mesenchyme was increased, and essentially no subcutis developed. Therefore, in contrast to their epidermal counterparts, pilosebaceous unit stem cells depend on a functional ETC. Most importantly, our findings point toward a frontier in skin biology: the coupling of HF keratinocyte mitochondrial function with the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that drive overall development of the skin and its appendages. PMID:25371971

  4. Transcription Factor CTIP2 Maintains Hair Follicle Stem Cell Pool and Contributes to Altered Expression of LHX2 and NFATC1.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Shreya; Wheeler, Heather; Leid, Mark; Ganguli-Indra, Gitali; Indra, Arup K

    2015-11-01

    Transcription factor CTIP2 (chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor-interacting protein 2), also known as BCL11B, is expressed in hair follicles (HFs) of embryonic and adult skin. Ctip2-null mice exhibit reduced HF density during embryonic development. In contrast, conditional inactivation of Ctip2 in the epidermis (Ctip2(ep-/-) mice) leads to a shorter telogen and a premature entry into anagen during the second phase of hair cycling without a detectable change in the number of HFs. Keratinocytes of the bulge stem cells (SCs) niche of Ctip2(ep-/-) mice proliferate more and undergo reduced apoptosis compared with the corresponding cells of wild-type mice. However, premature activation of follicular SCs in mice lacking CTIP2 leads to the exhaustion of this SC compartment in comparison with Ctip2(L2/L2) mice, which retained quiescent follicle SCs. CTIP2 modulates expression of genes encoding EGFR and NOTCH1 during formation of HFs and those encoding nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic calcineurin-dependent 1 and LIM homeobox 2 during normal hair cycling in adult skin. The expression of most of these genes is disrupted in mice lacking CTIP2, and these alterations may underlie the phenotype of Ctip2-null and Ctip2(ep-/-) mice. CTIP2 appears to serve as a transcriptional organizer that integrates input from multiple signaling cues during HF morphogenesis and hair cycling. PMID:26176759

  5. Advances in Understanding Hair Growth.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Bruno A

    2016-01-01

    In this short review, I introduce an integrated vision of human hair follicle behavior and describe opposing influences that control hair follicle homeostasis, from morphogenesis to hair cycling. The interdependence and complementary roles of these influences allow us to propose that the hair follicle is a true paradigm of a "Yin Yang" type, that is a cold/slow-hot/fast duality. Moreover, a new promising field is emerging, suggesting that glycans are key elements of hair follicle growth control. PMID:26918186

  6. Nuclear aberrations in hair follicle cells of patients receiving cyclophosphamide. A possible in vivo assay for human exposure to genotoxic agents.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, M T; Tackaberry, L E; Hardy, M H; Noseworthy, J H

    1990-01-01

    The toxic effect of cyclophosphamide on the proliferative cell population of hair follicles plucked from the human scalp was examined by the in vivo nuclear aberration assay. Patients participating in an independent clinical trial received oral low dose cyclophosphamide, intravenous high dose cyclophosphamide or oral placebo treatment. The percent of cells with nuclear aberrations (indicating apoptosis, a special form of cell death) and the percent of mitotic cells, in the hair matrix, were calculated for each patient before treatment and at several time points following cyclophosphamide or placebo treatment. The mean percentages of nuclear aberrations in both the treated Low dose and High dose cyclophosphamide patients were significantly higher than those for the pre-treatment and Placebo patients. The nuclear aberrations in hair follicle cells increased from pre-treatment (and Placebo) to treated Low dose and finally to treated High dose patients. The average percentage for pre-treatment samples from all patients was 0.06 +/- 0.03 SE. For 1 week and 1 month samples from Low dose patients it was 0.35 +/- 0.08 SE, and for combined 2,3 and 4 day samples from High dose patients it was 1.08 +/- 0.12 SE. Cyclophosphamide also had a significant effect on mitosis. A decrease in mitotic activity was observed at 1 month following the initial low dose cyclophosphamide treatment and at 24 +/- 2 h following each of the first two high dose cyclophosphamide treatments. The observed increase in nuclear aberrations following low dose as well as high dose cyclophosphamide suggests that it is feasible to use the nuclear aberration assay for in vivo human genotoxicity testing, using proliferating hair follicle cells. PMID:2190540

  7. Maintenance of high proliferation and multipotent potential of human hair follicle-derived mesenchymal stem cells by growth factors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueyan; Wang, Yimei; Gao, Yunhe; Liu, Xuejuan; Bai, Tingting; Li, Meiying; Li, Lisha; Chi, Guanfan; Xu, Hui; Liu, Feilin; Liu, Jin Yu; Li, Yulin

    2013-04-01

    Cell therapy and cell-based tissue engineering is becoming increasingly important in regenerative medicine. Stem cells that are characterized by self-renewal, high proliferation and multiple differentiation potentials have attracted attention in cell-based regenerative medicine. Maintaining the aforementioned characteristics of stem cells is the first key step in cell-based regenerative medicine. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a well-known growth factor that efficiently maintains the self-renewal, high proliferation and multilineage differentiation potential of stem cells. Whether or not other growth factors, such as acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) have similar effects has yet to be fully elucidated. Human hair follicle-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HF-MSCs) were obtained by organ culture. They exhibited surface markers of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells as shown by positive staining for CD44, CD73, CD90 and CD105, and they also displayed trilineage differentiation potentials into adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblasts by cytochemistry and qRT-PCR. Flow cytometry analysis showed that up to 70% of HF-MSCs cultured in the presence of aFGF, bFGF or EGF stayed at the G0/G1 phase. Proliferation analysis showed that both bFGF and EGF at as low as 1 ng/ml and aFGF at above 5 ng/ml levels significantly increased the proliferation of HF-MSCs by cell counting. Consistent with proliferation analysis, immunofluorescence staining showed that more than 95% of HF-MSCs cultured in the presence of aFGF, bFGF and EGF were positively stained for proliferating cell nuclear antigen. HF-MSCs cultured in the presence of aFGF, bFGF or EGF retained marked trilineage differentiation potentials. By contrast, HF-MSCs cultured in the absence of bFGF, aFGF and EGF lost multipotency. PMID:23403715

  8. Corneal limbal microenvironment can induce transdifferentiation of hair follicle stem cells into corneal epithelial-like cells.

    PubMed

    Blazejewska, Ewa Anna; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Zenkel, Matthias; Bachmann, Björn; Chankiewitz, Erik; Jacobi, Christina; Kruse, Friedrich E

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the transdifferentiation potential of murine vibrissa hair follicle (HF) stem cells into corneal epithelial-like cells through modulation by corneal- or limbus-specific microenvironmental factors. Adult epithelial stem cells were isolated from the HF bulge region by mechanical dissection or fluorescence-activated cell sorting using antibodies to alpha6 integrin, enriched by clonal expansion, and subcultivated on various extracellular matrices (type IV collagen, laminin-1, laminin-5, fibronectin) and in different conditioned media derived from central and peripheral corneal fibroblasts, limbal stromal fibroblasts, and 3T3 fibroblasts. Cellular phenotype and differentiation were evaluated by light and electron microscopy, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunocytochemistry, and Western blotting, using antibodies against putative stem cell markers (K15, alpha6 integrin) and differentiation markers characteristic for corneal epithelium (K12, Pax6) or epidermis (K10). Using laminin-5, a major component of the corneo-limbal basement membrane zone, and conditioned medium from limbal stromal fibroblasts, clonally enriched HF stem and progenitor cells adhered rapidly and formed regularly arranged stratified cell sheets. Conditioned medium derived from limbal fibroblasts markedly upregulated expression of cornea-specific K12 and Pax6 on the mRNA and protein level, whereas expression of the epidermal keratinocyte marker K10 was strongly downregulated. These findings suggest that adult HF epithelial stem cells are capable of differentiating into corneal epithelial-like cells in vitro when exposed to a limbus-specific microenvironment. Therefore, the HF may be an easily accessible alternative therapeutic source of autologous adult stem cells for replacement of the corneal epithelium and restoration of visual function in patients with ocular surface disorders. PMID:19074417

  9. Lithium chloride promotes the odontoblast differentiation of hair follicle neural crest cells by activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Shan, Tengfei; Zhou, Cheng; Yang, Rong; Yan, Fei; Zhang, Ping; Fu, Yu; Jiang, Hongbing

    2015-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway contributes to the maintenance of pluripotency and partial reprogramming of stem cells. Postnatal neural crest cells (NCCs) can differentiate into odontoblast-like cells due to their multi-potential property, but further endeavors need to be made to promote odontogenic differentiation of hair follicle neural crest cells (hfNCCs). This study investigated whether the Wnt pathway activator lithium chloride (LiCl) promotes odontoblast differentiation of hfNCCs. Change of proliferation, β-catenin and pluripotency markers of hfNCCs were examined after treatment with LiCl. An in vitro odontoblast differentiation model of hfNCCs was built using dental cell conditioned media (DC-CM). The effects of LiCl on odontoblast differentiation of hfNCCs showed that proliferation and expression of β-catenin in the cytosolic and nuclear compartments were increased in the LiCl-treated hfNCCs, and the pluripotency marks, Oct4, Klf4, Sox2 and Nanog, were more highly expressed in the LiCl-treated group than in the control group. The odontoblast markers such as DSP, DMP1 and Runx2, could be detected in hfNCCs induced by DC-CM, but in LiCl -treated group all three markers had stronger expression. Expression of β-catenin in the nuclear of LiCl-treated hfNCCs induced by DC-CM was higher than in the other groups. The data indicate that the Wnt pathway activator LiCl can promote proliferation and odontoblast differentiation of hfNCCs, and chemical approaches are of benefit in obtaining more desirable seed cell types for cell-based therapies. PMID:25044369

  10. CARI ONE induces anagen phase of telogenic hair follicles through regulation of β-catenin, stimulation of dermal papilla cell proliferation, and melanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Jin

    2014-12-01

    The use of herbal mixtures in the hair growth market has increased dramatically over the last decade. In this study, we investigated the hair growth-promoting activity of CARI ONE, a mixture of medicinal plants and mushrooms, in telogenic 6-week-old C57BL/6N mice. CARI ONE promoted hair growth through stimulation of the telogen to anagen transition. Histomorphometry analysis data indicated that topical application of CARI ONE induced an earlier anagen phase and prolonged the mature anagen phase, and also increased the number and size of hair follicles (HFs) as compared to either the control or 1% minoxidil-treated group. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed an earlier induction of β-catenin and Trp-1 protein in the HFs of the CARI ONE-treated group compared to that in the control group or 1% minoxidil-treated group. In vitro, CARI ONE promoted the proliferation of dermal papilla cells and resulted in increased melanin content in B16F10 cells in a dose-dependent manner without affecting cell viability. These results suggest that CARI ONE promotes hair growth through induction of the anagen phase in resting HFs. PMID:24773048

  11. Signalling couples hair follicle stem cell quiescence with reduced histone H3 K4/K9/K27me3 for proper tissue homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jayhun; Kang, Sangjo; Lilja, Karin C.; Colletier, Keegan J.; Scheitz, Cornelia Johanna Franziska; Zhang, Ying V.; Tumbar, Tudorita

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms of plasticity to acquire different cell fates are critical for adult stem cell (SC) potential, yet are poorly understood. Reduced global histone methylation is an epigenetic state known to mediate plasticity in cultured embryonic SCs and T-cell progenitors. Here we find histone H3 K4/K9/K27me3 levels actively reduced in adult mouse skin and hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) during G0 quiescence. The level of marks over specific gene promoters did not correlate to mRNA level changes in quiescent HFSCs. Skin hypomethylation during quiescence was necessary for subsequent progression of hair homeostasis (cycle). Inhibiting BMP signal, a known HFSC anti-proliferative factor, elevated HFSC methylation in vivo during quiescence prior to proliferation onset. Furthermore, removal of proliferation factors and addition of BMP4 reduced histone methylases and increased demethylases mRNAs in cultured skin epithelial cells. We conclude that signalling couples hair follicle stem cell quiescence with reduced H3 K4/K9/K27me3 levels for proper tissue homeostasis. PMID:27080563

  12. Androgen receptor co-activator Hic-5/ARA55 as a molecular regulator of androgen sensitivity in dermal papilla cells of human hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Inui, Shigeki; Fukuzato, Yoko; Nakajima, Takeshi; Kurata, Sotaro; Itami, Satoshi

    2007-10-01

    Androgen site-specifically affects human hair growth after puberty through androgen receptors in the dermal papilla, which transactivate target genes acting in conjunction with co-activators. To examine the regulation of androgen sensitivity in hair follicles, we focused on androgen receptor co-activator Hic-5/ARA55. Its interaction with transfected androgen receptor in beard dermal papilla cells was confirmed with mammalian two-hybrid assays. The semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction showed that Hic-5/ARA55 mRNA expression was high in dermal papilla cells from the beard and bald frontal scalp but low in cells from the occipital scalp. To determine whether Hic-5/ARA55 mRNA level correlates with its endogenous activity, we studied the effect of dominant negative Hic-5/ARA55 on transfected androgen receptor transactivation induced by R1881 using mouse mammary tumor virus-luciferase assays. We found that it suppressed the transactivation by 64.5 and 71.4% in dermal papilla cells from the beard and bald frontal scalp, respectively, whereas it showed no significant effect in cells from the occipital scalp. Our findings suggest that Hic-5/ARA55 is a molecular regulator for androgen sensitivity in human hair follicles. PMID:17508020

  13. Signalling couples hair follicle stem cell quiescence with reduced histone H3 K4/K9/K27me3 for proper tissue homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jayhun; Kang, Sangjo; Lilja, Karin C; Colletier, Keegan J; Scheitz, Cornelia Johanna Franziska; Zhang, Ying V; Tumbar, Tudorita

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms of plasticity to acquire different cell fates are critical for adult stem cell (SC) potential, yet are poorly understood. Reduced global histone methylation is an epigenetic state known to mediate plasticity in cultured embryonic SCs and T-cell progenitors. Here we find histone H3 K4/K9/K27me3 levels actively reduced in adult mouse skin and hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) during G0 quiescence. The level of marks over specific gene promoters did not correlate to mRNA level changes in quiescent HFSCs. Skin hypomethylation during quiescence was necessary for subsequent progression of hair homeostasis (cycle). Inhibiting BMP signal, a known HFSC anti-proliferative factor, elevated HFSC methylation in vivo during quiescence prior to proliferation onset. Furthermore, removal of proliferation factors and addition of BMP4 reduced histone methylases and increased demethylases mRNAs in cultured skin epithelial cells. We conclude that signalling couples hair follicle stem cell quiescence with reduced H3 K4/K9/K27me3 levels for proper tissue homeostasis. PMID:27080563

  14. Differential Expression of microRNAs and their Regulatory Networks in Skin Tissue of Liaoning Cashmere Goat during Hair Follicle Cycles.

    PubMed

    Bai, Wen L; Dang, Yun L; Yin, Rong H; Jiang, Wu Q; Wang, Ze Y; Zhu, Yu B; Wang, Shi Q; Zhao, Ying Y; Deng, Liang; Luo, Guang B; Yang, Shu H

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small noncoding RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression. Herein, we investigated a selective number of miRNAs for their expression in skin tissue of Liaoning Cashmere goat during hair follicle cycles, and their intracellular regulatory networks were constructed based on bioinformatics analysis. The relative expression of six miRNAs (mir-103-3p, -15b-5p, 17-5p, -200b, -25-3p, and -30c-5p) at anagen phase is significantly higher than that at catagen and/or telogen phases. In comparison to anagen, the relative expression of seven miRNAs (mir-148a-3p, -199a-3p, -199a-5p, -24-3p, -30a-5p, -30e-5p, and -29a-3p) was revealed to be significantly up-regulated at catagen and/or telogen stages. The network analyses of miRNAs indicated those miRNAs investigated might be directly or indirectly involved in several signaling pathways through their target genes. These results provided a foundation for further insight into the roles of these miRNAs in skin tissue of Liaoning Cashmere goat during hair follicle cycles. PMID:26913551

  15. A highly enriched niche of precursor cells with neuronal and glial potential within the hair follicle dermal papilla of adult skin.

    PubMed

    Hunt, David P J; Morris, Paul N; Sterling, Jane; Anderson, Jane A; Joannides, Alexis; Jahoda, Colin; Compston, Alastair; Chandran, Siddharthan

    2008-01-01

    Skin-derived precursor cells (SKPs) are multipotent neural crest-related stem cells that grow as self-renewing spheres and are capable of generating neurons and myelinating glial cells. SKPs are of clinical interest because they are accessible and potentially autologous. However, although spheres can be readily isolated from embryonic and neonatal skin, SKP frequency falls away sharply in adulthood, and primary sphere generation from adult human skin is more problematic. In addition, the culture-initiating cell population is undefined and heterogeneous, limiting experimental studies addressing important aspects of these cells such as the behavior of endogenous precursors in vivo and the molecular mechanisms of neural generation. Using a combined fate-mapping and microdissection approach, we identified and characterized a highly enriched niche of neural crest-derived sphere-forming cells within the dermal papilla of the hair follicle of adult skin. We demonstrated that the dermal papilla of the rodent vibrissal follicle is 1,000-fold enriched for sphere-forming neural crest-derived cells compared with whole facial skin. These "papillaspheres" share a phenotypic and developmental profile similar to that of SKPs, can be readily expanded in vitro, and are able to generate both neuronal and glial cells in response to appropriate cues. We demonstrate that papillaspheres can be efficiently generated and expanded from adult human facial skin by microdissection of a single hair follicle. This strategy of targeting a highly enriched niche of sphere-forming cells provides a novel and efficient method for generating neuronal and glial cells from an accessible adult somatic source that is both defined and minimally invasive. PMID:17901404

  16. Surface Tension Guided Hanging-Drop: Producing Controllable 3D Spheroid of High-Passaged Human Dermal Papilla Cells and Forming Inductive Microtissues for Hair-Follicle Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bojie; Miao, Yong; Wang, Jin; Fan, Zhexiang; Du, Lijuan; Su, Yongsheng; Liu, Bingcheng; Hu, Zhiqi; Xing, Malcolm

    2016-03-01

    Human dermal papilla (DP) cells have been studied extensively when grown in the conventional monolayer. However, because of great deviation from the real in vivo three-dimensional (3D) environment, these two-dimensional (2D) grown cells tend to lose the hair-inducible capability during passaging. Hence, these 2D caused concerns have motivated the development of novel 3D culture techniques to produce cellular microtissues with suitable mimics. The hanging-drop approach is based on surface tension-based technique and the interaction between surface tension and gravity field that makes a convergence of liquid drops. This study used this technique in a converged drop to form cellular spheroids of dermal papilla cells. It leads to a controllable 3Dspheroid model for scalable fabrication of inductive DP microtissues. The optimal conditions for culturing high-passaged (P8) DP spheroids were determined first. Then, the morphological, histological and functional studies were performed. In addition, expressions of hair-inductive markers including alkaline phosphatase, α-smooth muscle actin and neural cell adhesion molecule were also analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR, immunostaining and immunoblotting. Finally, P8-DP microtissues were coimplanted with newborn mouse epidermal cells (EPCs) into nude mice. Our results indicated that the formation of 3D microtissues not only endowed P8-DP microtissues many similarities to primary DP, but also confer these microtissues an enhanced ability to induce hair-follicle (HF) neogenesis in vivo. This model provides a potential to elucidate the native biology of human DP, and also shows the promising for the controllable and scalable production of inductive DP cells applied in future follicle regeneration. PMID:26886167

  17. Identification of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in dermal papilla cells of human scalp hair follicles: TCF4 regulates the proliferation and secretory activity of dermal papilla cell.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ya; Liu, Yi; Song, Zhiqiang; Hao, Fei; Yang, Xichuan

    2014-01-01

    It is clear that the dermal papilla cell (DPC), which is located at the bottom of the hair follicle, is a special mesenchymal component, and it plays a leading role in regulating hair follicle development and periodic regeneration. Recent studies showed that the Wnt signaling pathway through β-catenin (canonical Wnt signaling pathway) is an essential component in maintaining the hair-inducing activity of the dermal papilla and growth of hair papilla cells. However, the intrinsic pathways and regulating mechanism are largely unknown. In the previous work, we constructed a cDNA subtractive library of DPC and first found that the TCF4 gene, as a key factor of Wnt signaling pathway, was expressed as the upregulated gene of the hair follicle in low-passage DPC. This study was to explore the role of TCF4 in regulating the proliferation and secretory activity of DPC. We constructed a pcDNA3.0-TCF4 expression vector and transfected it into DPC to achieve stable expression by bangosome 2000. Furthermore, we used the method of chemosynthesis to synthesize three pairs of TCF4 siRNA and transfected them into DPC. Meanwhile, we compared the transfection group and non-transfection group. We first proposed that there was expression difference in TCF4 in DPC under different biological condition. This study may have a high impact on the molecular mechanism of follicular lesions and provide a new vision for the treatment of clinic diseases. PMID:24354472

  18. In vivo Quantification of the Effects of Radiation and Presence of Hair Follicle Pores on the Proliferation of Fibroblasts in an Acellular Human Dermis in a Dorsal Skinfold Chamber: Relevance for Tissue Reconstruction following Neoadjuvant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Patrick; Hohenberger, Peter; Roessner, Eric Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In neoadjuvant therapy, irradiation has a deleterious effect on neoangiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the post-implantation effects of neoadjuvant irradiation on the survival and proliferation of autologous cells seeded onto an acellular human dermis (hAD; Epiflex). Additionally, we examined the influence of dermal hair follicle pores on viability and proliferation. We used dorsal skinfold chambers implanted in rats and in-situ microscopy to quantify cell numbers over 9 days. Methods 24 rats received a skinfold chamber and were divided into 2 main groups; irradiated and unirradiated. In the irradiated groups 20Gy were applied epicutaneously at the dorsum. Epiflex pieces were cut to size 5x5mm such that each piece had either one or more visible hair follicle pores, or no such visible pores. Fibroblasts were transduced lentiviral with a fluorescent protein for cell tracking. Matrices were seeded statically with 2.5x104 fluorescent fibroblasts and implanted into the chambers. In each of the two main groups, half of the rats received Epiflex with hair follicle pores and half received Epiflex without pores. Scaffolds were examined in-situ at 0, 3, 6 and 9 days after transplantation. Visible cells on the surface were quantified using ImageJ. Results In all groups cell numbers were decreased on day 3. A treatment-dependent increase in cell numbers was observed at subsequent time points. Irradiation had an adverse effect on cell survival and proliferation. The number of cells detected in both irradiated and non-irradiated subjects was increased in those subjects that received transplants with hair follicle pores. Discussion This in-vivo study confirms that radiation negatively affects the survival and proliferation of fibroblasts seeded onto a human dermis transplant. The presence of hair follicle pores in the dermis transplants is shown to have a positive effect on cell survival and proliferation even in irradiated subjects. PMID:25955842

  19. Induction of Hair Growth by Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 in 1,763 MHz Radiofrequency-Irradiated Hair Follicle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Seong Jin; Cho, A-Ri; Jeon, Soon-Ik; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Kyu Han; Park, Gun-Sik; Pack, Jeong-Ki; Kwon, Oh Sang; Park, Woong-Yang

    2011-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) radiation does not transfer high energy to break the covalent bonds of macromolecules, but these low energy stimuli might be sufficient to induce molecular responses in a specific manner. We monitored the effect of 1,763 MHz RF radiation on cultured human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) by evaluating changes in the expression of cytokines related to hair growth. The expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mRNA in hDPCs was significantly induced upon RF radiation at the specific absorption rate of 10 W/kg, which resulted in increased expression of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) and cyclin D1 (CCND1) proteins and increased phosphorylation of MAPK1 protein. Exposure to 10 W/kg RF radiation 1 h per day for 7 days significantly enhanced hair shaft elongation in ex vivo hair organ cultures. In RF-exposed follicular matrix keratinocytes in the hair bulb, the expression of Ki-67 was increased, while the signal for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling was reduced. From these results, we suggest that 1,763 MHz RF exposure stimulates hair growth in vitro through the induction of IGF-1 in hDPCs. PMID:22164296

  20. Biochemical and ultrastructural processing of (/sup 125/I)epidermal growth factor in rat epidermis and hair follicles: accumulation of nuclear label

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.R.; Mycock, C.; Smith, C.G.; Couchman, J.R.

    1987-03-01

    Although the intracellular ultrastructural processing of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor have been described in cell culture systems, very few studies have examined this phenomenon in intact tissues. We have examined the ultrastructural and biochemical handling of (/sup 125/I)EGF in the epidermis and hair follicle bulb of intact, viable, 3- to 5-day-old rat skin the EGF receptor distribution of which has already been documented and in which EGF has been shown to be biologically active. After incubation of explants with 10 nM (/sup 125/I)EGF for 2.5 h at 25 degrees or 37 degrees C, radiolabel was detected over the basal cells of the epidermis and hair follicle outer root sheath, confirming previous light microscope observations. More specifically, silver grains were observed near coated and uncoated plasma membrane and coated membrane invaginations, Golgi apparatus, lysosomal structures, and nuclei. Sodium azide inhibited internalization of label, whereas a series of lysosomal inhibitors (chloroquine, monensin, and iodoacetamide) caused a slight increase in silver grains associated with lysosomal vesicles and a decrease in nuclear label. Biochemical analysis indicated that greater than 35% of radioactivity following incubation at 37 degrees C was in the form of degraded (/sup 125/I)EGF fragments and that inclusion of chloroquine, monensin, and iodoacetamide reduced this value to 20.8%, 8.6%, and 4.0%, respectively. In addition, chloramine T-prepared (/sup 125/I)EGF was found to be covalently cross-linked with low efficiency to a protein having the molecular weight of the EGF receptor. These data are discussed in the light of the effects of EGF on epithelial cell proliferation in skin.

  1. The role of P-cadherin in skin biology and skin pathology: lessons from the hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Samuelov, Liat; Sprecher, Eli; Paus, Ralf

    2015-06-01

    Adherens junctions (AJs) are one of the major intercellular junctions in various epithelia including the epidermis and the follicular epithelium. AJs connect the cell surface to the actin cytoskeleton and comprise classic transmembrane cadherins, such as P-cadherin, armadillo family proteins, and actin microfilaments. Loss-of-function mutations in CDH3, which encodes P-cadherin, result in two allelic autosomal recessive disorders: hypotrichosis with juvenile macular dystrophy (HJMD) and ectodermal dysplasia, ectrodactyly, and macular dystrophy (EEM) syndromes. Both syndromes feature sparse hair heralding progressive macular dystrophy. EEM syndrome is characterized in addition by ectodermal and limb defects. Recent studies have demonstrated that, together with its involvement in cell-cell adhesion, P-cadherin plays a crucial role in regulating cell signaling, malignant transformation, and other major intercellular processes. Here, we review the roles of P-cadherin in skin and hair biology, with emphasize on human hair growth, cycling and pigmentation. PMID:25707507

  2. Integrated Analysis of the Roles of Long Noncoding RNA and Coding RNA Expression in Sheep (Ovis aries) Skin during Initiation of Secondary Hair Follicle

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianbin; Guo, Jian; Feng, Ruilin; Niu, Chune; Sun, Xiaoping; Yang, Bohui

    2016-01-01

    Initiation of hair follicle (HF) is the first and most important stage of HF morphogenesis. However the precise molecular mechanism of initiation of hair follicle remains elusive. Meanwhile, in previous study, the more attentions had been paid to the function of genes, while the roles of non-coding RNAs (such as long noncoding RNA and microRNA) had not been described. Therefore, the roles of long noncoding RNA(LncRNA) and coding RNA in sheep skin during the initiation of sheep secondary HF were integrated and analyzed, by using strand-specific RNA sequencing (ssRNA-seq).A total of 192 significant differentially expressed genes were detected, including 67 up-regulated genes and 125 down-regulated genes between stage 0 and stage 1 of HF morphogenesis during HF initiation. Only Wnt2, FGF20 were just significant differentially expressed among Wnt, Shh, Notch and BMP signaling pathways. Further expression profile analysis of lncRNAs showed that 884 novel lncRNAs were discovered in sheep skin expression profiles. A total of 15 lncRNAs with significant differential expression were detected, 6 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated. Among of differentially expressed genes and LncRNA, XLOC002437 lncRNA and potential target gene COL6A6 were all significantly down-regulated in stage 1. Furthermore, by using RNAhybrid, XLOC005698 may be as a competing endogenous RNA ‘‘sponges” oar-miR-3955-5p activity. Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analyses indicated that the significantly enriched pathway was peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) pathway (corrected P-value < 0.05), indicating that PPAR pathway is likely to play significant roles during the initiation of secondary HF.Results suggest that the key differentially expressed genes and LncRNAs may be considered as potential candidate genes for further study on the molecular mechanisms of HF initiation, as well as supplying some potential values for understanding human hair disorders. PMID:27276011

  3. Advances in Understanding Hair Growth

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Bruno A.

    2016-01-01

    In this short review, I introduce an integrated vision of human hair follicle behavior and describe opposing influences that control hair follicle homeostasis, from morphogenesis to hair cycling. The interdependence and complementary roles of these influences allow us to propose that the hair follicle is a true paradigm of a “Yin Yang” type, that is a cold/slow-hot/fast duality. Moreover, a new promising field is emerging, suggesting that glycans are key elements of hair follicle growth control. PMID:26918186

  4. Disrupted hair follicle activity in cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue in the summer insulates core body temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids produced by an endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infects most plants of tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) causes cattle to have rough hair coats during the summer and persistent vascular constriction that impedes heat dissipation via blood flow to peripheral tissues. Experi...

  5. Future horizons in hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Bryan T; Ingraham, Chris A; Wu, Xunwei; Washenik, Ken

    2013-08-01

    This article reviews the history of hair follicle regeneration from follicular fragments and dissociated cells. The challenges of trichogenic in vitro culture and subsequent delivery into the patient are discussed, as well as cosmetic acceptance, recent achievements on regeneration of human hair follicles, and new potential cell sources for hair regeneration. PMID:24017993

  6. Hair follicle targeting, penetration enhancement and Langerhans cell activation make cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping a promising delivery technique for transcutaneous immunization with large molecules and particle-based vaccines.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Annika; Hadam, Sabrina; Deckert, Iliane; Schmidt, Julia; Stroux, Andrea; Afraz, Zahra; Rancan, Fiorenza; Lademann, Jürgen; Combadiere, Behazine; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) requires targeting of a maximum number of skin antigen-presenting cells as non-invasive as possible on small skin areas. In two clinical trials, we introduced cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping (CSSS) as a safe method for TCI. Here, using ex vivo human skin, we demonstrate that one CSSS procedure removed only 30% of stratum corneum, but significantly increased the penetration of 200 nm polystyrene particles deep into vellus and intermediate hair follicles from where they could not been retrieved by conventional tape stripping. Two subsequent CSSS had no striking additional effect. CSSS increased particle penetration in superficial stratum corneum and induced Langerhans cell activation. Formulation in amphiphilic ointment or massage did not substantially influences the interfollicular penetration profiles. Hair follicle (HF) targeting by CSSS could become a highly effective tool for TCI when combined with carrier-based delivery and is gaining new attention as our understanding on the HF immune system increases. PMID:25382068

  7. Protein Kinase Cε, Which Is Linked to Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Development of Squamous Cell Carcinomas, Stimulates Rapid Turnover of Adult Hair Follicle Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ashok; Singh, Anupama; Sand, Jordan M.; Heninger, Erika; Hafeez, Bilal Bin; Verma, Ajit K.

    2013-01-01

    To find clues about the mechanism by which kinase C epsilon (PKCε) may impart susceptibility to ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), we compared PKCε transgenic (TG) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates for (1) the effects of UVR exposures on percent of putative hair follicle stem cells (HSCs) and (2) HSCs proliferation. The percent of double HSCs (CD34+ and α6-integrin or CD34+/CD49f+) in the isolated keratinocytes were determined by flow cytometric analysis. Both single and chronic UVR treatments (1.8 kJ/m2) resulted in an increase in the frequency of double positive HSCs in PKCε TG mice as compared to their WT littermates. To determine the rate of proliferation of bulge region stem cells, a 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine labeling (BrdU) experiment was performed. In the WT mice, the percent of double positive HSCs retaining BrdU label was 28.4 ± 0.6% compared to 4.0 ± 0.06% for the TG mice, an approximately 7-fold decrease. A comparison of gene expression profiles of FACS sorted double positive HSCs showed increased expression of Pes1, Rad21, Tfdp1 and Cks1b genes in TG mice compared to WT mice. Also, PKCε over expression in mice increased the clonogenicity of isolated keratinocytes, a property commonly ascribed to stem cells. PMID:23738074

  8. Hair Follicle Morphogenesis in the Treatment of Mouse Full-Thickness Skin Defects Using Composite Human Acellular Amniotic Membrane and Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Minjuan, Wu; Jun, Xiong; Shiyun, Shao; Sha, Xu; Haitao, Ni

    2016-01-01

    Early repair of skin injury and maximal restoration of the function and appearance have become important targets of clinical treatment. In the present study, we observed the healing process of skin defects in nude mice and structural characteristics of the new skin after transplantation of isolated and cultured adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) onto the human acellular amniotic membrane (AAM). The result showed that ADMSCs were closely attached to the surface of AAM and grew well 24 h after seeding. Comparison of the wound healing rate at days 7, 14, and 28 after transplantation showed that ADMSCs seeded on AAM facilitated the healing of full-thickness skin wounds more effectively as compared with either hAM or AAM alone, indicating that ADMSCs participated in skin regeneration. More importantly, we noticed a phenomenon of hair follicle development during the process of skin repair. Composite ADMSCs and AAM not only promoted the healing of the mouse full-thickness defects but also facilitated generation of the appendages of the affected skin, thus promoting restoration of the skin function. Our results provide a new possible therapy idea for the treatment of skin wounds with respect to both anatomical regeneration and functional restoration. PMID:27597871

  9. Hair Follicle Morphogenesis in the Treatment of Mouse Full-Thickness Skin Defects Using Composite Human Acellular Amniotic Membrane and Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Minjuan, Wu; Jun, Xiong; Shiyun, Shao; Sha, Xu; Haitao, Ni; Yue, Wang; Kaihong, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Early repair of skin injury and maximal restoration of the function and appearance have become important targets of clinical treatment. In the present study, we observed the healing process of skin defects in nude mice and structural characteristics of the new skin after transplantation of isolated and cultured adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) onto the human acellular amniotic membrane (AAM). The result showed that ADMSCs were closely attached to the surface of AAM and grew well 24 h after seeding. Comparison of the wound healing rate at days 7, 14, and 28 after transplantation showed that ADMSCs seeded on AAM facilitated the healing of full-thickness skin wounds more effectively as compared with either hAM or AAM alone, indicating that ADMSCs participated in skin regeneration. More importantly, we noticed a phenomenon of hair follicle development during the process of skin repair. Composite ADMSCs and AAM not only promoted the healing of the mouse full-thickness defects but also facilitated generation of the appendages of the affected skin, thus promoting restoration of the skin function. Our results provide a new possible therapy idea for the treatment of skin wounds with respect to both anatomical regeneration and functional restoration. PMID:27597871

  10. Blockade of Androgen Markers Using a Novel Betasitosterol, Thioctic Acid and Carnitine-containing Compound in Prostate and Hair Follicle Cell-based Assays.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Wang, Jiaolong; Mouser, Glen; Li, Yan Chun; Marcovici, Geno

    2016-06-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) affects approximately 70% of men and 40% of women in an age-dependent manner and is partially mediated by androgen hormones. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) similarly affects 50% of the male population, rising by 10% each decade. Finasteride inhibits 5-alpha reductase (5AR) and is used to treat both disorders, despite offering limited clinical benefits accompanied by significant adverse side effects. Building on our previous work demonstrating the efficacy of naturally derived 5AR inhibitors (such as stigmasterol and beta sitosterol), we hypothesize that targeting 5AR as well as inflammatory pathways may yield improved efficacy in AGA and BPH. Here we address these dual pathomechanisms by examining the potency of a novel composition using in vitro assays of representative cell lines for AGA (hair follicle dermal papilla cells) and BPH (LNCaP prostate cells), respectively. Exposure of cells to the novel test composition down-regulated mRNA expression profiles characteristic of both disease processes, which outperformed finasteride. Changes in mRNA expression were corroborated at the protein level as assessed by western blotting. These studies provide proof of concept that novel, naturally derived compositions simultaneously targeting 5AR and inflammatory mediators may represent a rational approach to treating AGA and BPH. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26990224

  11. Self-assembly of dermal papilla cells into inductive spheroidal microtissues on poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) membranes for hair follicle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Young, Tai-Horng; Lee, Chiao-Yun; Chiu, Hsien-Ching; Hsu, Chih-Jung; Lin, Sung-Jan

    2008-09-01

    Self-aggregation is key to hair follicle (HF) induction ability of dermal papilla (DP) cells and neogenesis of HF can be achieved by transplanting DP microtissues. However, there is currently lack of a suitable system that allows efficient production of DP microtissues and analysis of DP self-aggregation in vitro. We demonstrate that, at a higher seeding cell density, poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVAL) membranes facilitate DP self-assembly into many compact spheroidal microtissues that are able to induce new HFs. This self-assembling process is associated with an enhanced cell movement and a declined cell-substrate adhesivity on EVAL. A compromised cell growth is also revealed on EVAL. On the contrary, a more adherent surface allows faster cell expansion but maintains DP cells in a flat morphology. Dynamically, cell migration, intercellular collision and intercellular adhesion contribute to DP microtissue formation on EVAL. Our results suggest that, for large-scale production of DP microtissues for HF regeneration, an adhesive surface is needed for quick cell expansion and a biomaterial with a lower adhesivity is required for self-aggregation. In addition, this system can be a model for investigation of DP self-aggregation in vitro. PMID:18533254

  12. Homing of allogeneic nestin-positive hair follicle-associated pluripotent stem cells after maternal transplantation in experimental model of cortical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Omidi, Ameneh; Kashani, Iraj Ragerdi; Akbari, Mohammad; Mortezaee, Keywan; Ghasemi, Soudabeh; Beyer, Cordian; Zendedel, Adib

    2015-12-01

    An embryo has the capability to accept allo- or xeno-geneic cells, which probably makes it an ideal candidate for stem cell transplantation of various cerebral cortex abnormalities, such as cortical dysplasia. The aim of this study was to determine hair follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells homing into various organs of mother and fetus. Cells were obtained, analyzed for immunophenotypic features, and then labelled with CM-Dil; nestin(+)HAP stem cells or media phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were intravenously delivered on day 16 of gestation in BALB/c mice, which intraperitoneally received methylazoxymethanol (MAM) one day in advance, and homing was assessed at 24 h after cell injection. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry manifested positive expression of nestin in HAP stem cells. For both mother and fetus, brain, lungs, liver, and spleen were the host organs for cell implants. For the brain, the figure was considerably higher in fetus, 4.05 ± 0.5% (p ≤ 0.05 vs. mother). MAM-injected mice had a downward trend for SDF-1α and CXCR4 (p ≤ 0.05 vs. control), but HAP stem cells group showed an upward trend for CXCR4 (p ≤ 0.05 vs. MAM). We conclude the HAP stem cells show homing potential in experimental cortical dysplasia, which may permit these cells to be a target in future work on prenatal therapy of neural disorders. PMID:26568364

  13. The role of biodegradable engineered random polycaprolactone nanofiber scaffolds seeded with nestin-positive hair follicle stem cells for tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Yari, Abazar; Teimourian, Shahram; Amidi, Fardin; Bakhtiyari, Mehrdad; Heidari, Fatemeh; Sajedi, Nayereh; Veijouye, Sanaz Joulai; Dodel, Masumeh; Nobakht, Maliheh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tissue engineering is a new approach to reconstruction and/or regeneration of lost or damaged tissue. The purpose of this study was to fabricate the polycaprolactone (PCL) random nanofiber scaffold as well as evaluation of the cell viability, adhesion, and proliferation of rat nestin-positive hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) in the graft material using electrospun PCL nanofiber scaffold in regeneration medicine. Materials and Methods: The bulge HFSCs was isolated from rat whiskers and cultivated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/F12. To evaluate the biological nature of the bulge stem cells, flow cytometry using nestin, CD34 and K15 antibodies was performed. Electrospinning was used for the production of PCL nanofiber scaffolds. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for HFSCs attachment, infiltration, and morphology, 3-(4, 5-di-methylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay for cell viability and cytotoxicity, tensile strength of the scaffolds mesh, and histology analysis were used. Results: Flow cytometry showed that HFSCs were nestin and CD34 positive but K15 negative. The results of the MTT assay showed cell viability and cell proliferation of the HFSCs on PCL nanofiber scaffolds. SEM microscopy photographs indicated that HFSCs are attached and spread on PCL nanofiber scaffolds. Furthermore, tensile strength of the scaffolds mesh was measured. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that modified PCL nanofiber scaffolds are suitable for HFSCs seeding, attachment, and proliferation. Furthermore, HFSCs are attached and proliferated on PCL nanofiber scaffolds. PMID:26962524

  14. Morphogenesis of chimeric hair follicles in engineered skin substitutes with human keratinocytes and murine dermal papilla cells.

    PubMed

    Sriwiriyanont, Penkanok; Lynch, Kaari A; Maier, Elizabeth A; Hahn, Jennifer M; Supp, Dorothy M; Boyce, Steven T

    2012-10-01

    Engineered skin substitutes (ESS) have been used successfully to treat life-threatening burns, but lack cutaneous appendages. To address this deficiency, dermal constructs were prepared using collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffolds populated with murine dermal papilla cells expressing green fluorescent protein (mDPC-GFP), human dermal papilla cells (hDPC) and/or human fibroblasts (hF). Subsequently, human epidermal keratinocytes (hK) or hK genetically modified to overexpress stabilized β-catenin (hK') were used to prepare ESS epithelium. After 10 days incubation at air-liquid interface, ESS were grafted to athymic mice and were evaluated for 6 weeks. Neofollicles were observed in ESS containing mDPC-GFP, but not hDPC or hF, independent of whether or not the hK were genetically modified. Based on detection of GFP fluorescence, mDPC were localized to the dermal papillae of the well-defined follicular structures of grafted ESS. In addition, statistically significant increases in LEF1, WNT10A and WNT10B were found in ESS with neofollicles. These results demonstrate a model for generation of chimeric hair in ESS. PMID:23078401

  15. Ingrowing Hair

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Di-Qing; Liang, Yu-Hua; Li, Xi-Qing; Zhao, Yu-Kun; Wang, Fang; Sarkar, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cutaneous pili migrans and creeping eruption caused by parasitic diseases may present as a moving linear lesion in skin. The former, caused by a hair shaft or fragment embedded in the superficial skin or middle dermis, is a rare condition characterized by creeping eruption with a black line observed at the advancing end. In exceptionally rare instance, the hair grows inside the skin and burrows in the uppermost dermis, such a condition has been called “ingrown hair.” We report a 30-year-old Chinese man, who was accustomed to pull or extrude the beard hairs, with 1-year history of slowly extending black linear eruption on his right chin. Cutaneous examination revealed a 4-cm long black linear lesion beneath the skin associated with edematous erythema around and folliculitis on both ends of the lesion. After treatment with topical mupirocin ointment, the erythema and folliculitis improved and 2 hairs of the beard with hair follicles were pulled out from the skin. Two weeks later, another similar black line about 1 cm in length in the skin presented on the prior lesional area, which was pulled out by a shallow incision of the skin and was also demonstrated as a beard hair with hair follicle. The patient was diagnosed as “ingrowing hair” with multiple recurrences. The lesions recovered after the beard hairs were pulled out. No recurrence occurred in a year of follow-up. We suggest that “ingrowing hair” is better than “ingrown hair” to describe such a condition. Pulling out the involved hair and correcting the bad practice are its optimal management strategies. PMID:27175694

  16. Aging of hair.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2005-06-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today's increasing life expectation, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and also more capable to deliver active products that are directed toward meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft and aging of the hair follicle. The latter manifests as decrease of melanocyte function or graying, and decrease in hair production in androgenetic and senescent alopecia. The scalp is also subject to intrinsic or physiologic aging and extrinsic aging caused by external factors. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation. Prototypes are familial premature graying and androgenetic alopecia. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and smoking. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a role in skin and hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds for hair include humefactants, hair conditioners, photoprotectors, and antioxidants. Current available treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil, oral finasteride, and autologous hair transplantation. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants are the mainstays of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are under current investigation. PMID:17166201

  17. Scurvy, corkscrew hair (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Scurvy is a nutritional disease caused by deficiency of vitamin C. Pinpoint bleeding around hair follicles, and " ... this picture, can occur as a result of scurvy. Bleeding along the gums is common. This disease ...

  18. miR-18b inhibits TGF-β1-induced differentiation of hair follicle stem cells into smooth muscle cells by targeting SMAD2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuejuan; Song, Lei; Liu, Jinyu; Wang, Shichao; Tan, Xiaohua; Bai, Xiaoguang; Bai, Tingting; Wang, Yimei; Li, Meiying; Song, Yaolin; Li, Yulin

    2013-08-30

    Human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells (hHF-MSCs) are capable of differentiating into smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in response to transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and thus can be used for cardiovascular tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying SMC conversion of hHF-MSCs are still undefined. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that modulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by binding to the complementary sequences of targeted mRNAs. Accumulating evidence indicates that miRNAs are associated with SMC differentiation in vitro andin vivo. In this study, we revealed that miR-18b was significantly downregulated during TGF-β1-induced hHF-MSCs differentiation into SMC using miRNA array profiling and quantitative RT- PCR (qRT-PCR). Over-expression of miR-18b in hHF-MSCs led to remarkable downregulation of SMC-specific markers such as SMA and calponin proteins. On the contrary, inhibition of endogenous miR-18b by its antisense oligonucleotide antagomir-18b reversed the changes of SMA and calponin proteins. We also showed that SMAD2, a key transcription regulator in TGF-β signaling which was involved in SMC differentiation, is regulated by miR-18b. miR-18b could suppress the expression of SMAD2 protein by targeting the 3'UTR of SMAD2 gene without affecting its mRNA level in hHF-MSCs. Moreover, knockdown of SMAD2 by RNA interference could block the effect of inhibition of miR-18b on SMC differentiation, indicating that SMAD2 contributed to miR-18b mediated regulation of TGF-β-induced SMC differentiation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that miR-18b regulated the TGF-β1-induced differentiation of hHF-MSCs into SMCs by targeting SMAD2 gene, and provided novel insights into the regulatory mechanisms of TGF-β-induced SMC differentiation. PMID:23916701

  19. Isoproterenol directs hair follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells to differentiate in vitro to cardiac muscle cells which can be induced to form beating heart-muscle tissue sheets.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Aiko; Yashiro, Masateru; Mii, Sumiyuki; Aki, Ryoichi; Hamada, Yuko; Arakawa, Nobuko; Kawahara, Katsumasa; Hoffman, Robert M; Amoh, Yasuyuki

    2016-03-01

    Nestin-expressing hair-follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells are located in the bulge area of the follicle. Previous studies have shown that HAP stem cells can differentiate to neurons, glia, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, and melanocytes in vitro. HAP stem cells effected nerve and spinal cord regeneration in mouse models. Recently, we demonstrated that HAP stem cells differentiated to beating cardiac muscle cells. The differentiation potential to cardiac muscle cells was greatest in the upper part of the follicle. The beat rate of the cardiac muscle cells was stimulated by isoproterenol. In the present study, we observed that isoproterenol directs HAP stem cells to differentiate to cardiac muscle cells in large numbers in culture compared to HAP stem cells not supplemented with isoproterenol. The addition of activin A, bone morphogenetic protein 4, and basic fibroblast growth factor, along with isoproternal, induced the cardiac muscle cells to form tissue sheets of beating heart muscle cells. These results demonstrate that HAP stem cells have great potential to form beating cardiac muscle cells in tissue sheets. PMID:27104748

  20. Hair transplantation in mice: Challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Asgari, Azar Z; Rufaut, Nicholas W; Morrison, Wayne A; Dilley, Rodney J; Knudsen, Russle; Jones, Leslie N; Sinclair, Rodney D

    2016-07-01

    Hair follicle cells contribute to wound healing, skin circulation, and skin diseases including skin cancer, and hair transplantation is a useful technique to study the participation of hair follicle cells in skin homeostasis and wound healing. Although hair follicle transplantation is a well-established human hair-restoration procedure, follicular transplantation techniques in animals have a number of shortcomings and have not been well described or optimized. To facilitate the study of follicular stem and progenitor cells and their interaction with surrounding skin, we have established a new murine transplantation model, similar to follicular unit transplantation in humans. Vibrissae from GFP transgenic mice were harvested, flip-side microdissected, and implanted individually into needle hole incisions in the back skin of immune-deficient nude mice. Grafts were evaluated histologically and the growth of transplanted vibrissae was observed. Transplanted follicles cycled spontaneously and newly formed hair shafts emerged from the skin after 2 weeks. Ninety percent of grafted vibrissae produced a hair shaft at 6 weeks. After pluck-induced follicle cycling, growth rates were equivalent to ungrafted vibrissae. Transplanted vibrissae with GFP-positive cells were easily identified in histological sections. We established a follicular vibrissa transplantation method that recapitulates human follicular unit transplantation. This method has several advantages over current protocols for animal hair transplantation. The method requires no suturing and minimizes the damage to donor follicles and recipient skin. Vibrissae are easier to microdissect and transplant than pelage follicles and, once transplanted, are readily distinguished from host pelage hair. This facilitates measurement of hair growth. Flip-side hair follicle microdissection precisely separates donor follicular tissue from interfollicular tissue and donor cells remain confined to hair follicles. This makes it

  1. Sinus Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... ANATOMY > Sinus Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  2. Hair and scalp disorders in ethnic populations.

    PubMed

    Rodney, Ife J; Onwudiwe, Oge C; Callender, Valerie D; Halder, Rebat M

    2013-04-01

    Human hair has been classified into 3 major groups, as determined by ethnic origin. In these populations, significant structural and biochemical variations of the hair follicle and shaft are seen, as well as unique hair grooming practices. These structural variations of the hair are closely linked to the common disorders of the hair and scalp, such as acquired trichorrhexis nodosa, seborrheic dermatitis, traction alopecia, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, dissecting cellulitis, frontal fibrosing alopecia, and pseudofolliculitis barbae. PMID:23652889

  3. Hair growth in neonatally undernourished rats.

    PubMed

    Salas, M; Pulido, S; Torrero, C; Regalado, M; Loranca, A

    1995-01-01

    Interaction between neonatal undernutrition and the increased self-grooming activity upon hair growth of several body areas was analyzed in rats of 10, 20 and 30 days of age. Light microscopic observations on methylene blue impregnated hairs showed that these perinatal influences delayed the growth of hair follicles and thickness and length of hair measurements of the head and thoracic areas. The hair growth of lateral abdominal regions was less affected. Data suggest that hair alterations are primarily related to food deprivation since hair follicle measures of all skin areas were more affected than the distal hair measurements. Moreover, the distribution of impaired hair growth on different body areas correlates well with the increased self-grooming components associated to neonatal undernourishment. PMID:8914627

  4. Aging changes in hair and nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... of a young adult eventually becomes thin, fine, light-colored hair. Many hair follicles stop producing new hairs. Men may start showing signs of baldness by the time they are 30 years old. Many men are nearly bald by age ...

  5. Canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling control the regeneration of amputated rodent vibrissae follicles.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yan-Ping; Huang, Keng; Xu, Yan-Min; Chen, Xian-Cai; Li, Hai-Hong; Cai, Bo-Zhi; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Huan; Li, Yu; Lin, Chang-Min

    2016-02-01

    Although mammals are notoriously poor at regeneration compared with many lower-order species, the hair follicle, particular to mammals, is capable of regeneration following partial amputation. The detailed internal mechanism of this phenomenon is still unclear. Development and regrowth of the hair follicle depends on dermal-epidermal interaction within the hair follicle. Previous studies have shown that Wnt/β-catenin, Shh, Bmp, PDGF, TGF and Notch signals all take part in the development and growth of the hair follicle, and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling additionally plays an indispensable role in hair follicle morphogenesis and regrowth. In this study, we investigated the localization, as well as, protein levels of Wnt/β-catenin signaling molecules during amputated whisker follicle regeneration. PMID:26742765

  6. Sinus Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tumors Nasal Deformities Choanal Atresia Epiphora (Excessive Tearing) Disclosure Statement Printer Friendly Sinus Tumors Abtin Tabaee, MD Introduction Tumors of the nose and paranasal sinuses are rare, accounting for fewer than 1% of all tumors. These ...

  7. Adult Sinusitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hay Fever) Headaches and Sinus Disease Disorders of Smell & Taste Upper Respiratory Infections Nasal Congestion & Snoring CSF ... Hay Fever) Headaches and Sinus Disease Disorders of Smell & Taste Upper Respiratory Infections Nasal Congestion & Snoring CSF ...

  8. Interrogating the integument: the role of the epidermis in hair induction.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Claire A

    2014-10-01

    Hair follicle development is driven by interactions between the epithelium and underlying mesenchyme. These reciprocal interactions are essential for development, as a lack of response from either the mesenchyme or epithelium results in arrested growth. A large body of research has focused on the role of mesenchymal cells during hair follicle development and their inductive properties for hair neogenesis. In this commentary, the role of the epidermis during hair follicle induction will be discussed. PMID:24909914

  9. Pediatric Sinusitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... scan may help to determine how completely your child's sinuses are developed, where any blockage has occurred, and confirm the diagnosis of sinusitis. The doctor may look for factors that make your child more likely to get sinus infection, including structural ...

  10. Leptin of dermal adipose tissue is differentially expressed during the hair cycle and contributes to adipocyte-mediated growth inhibition of anagen-phase vibrissa hair.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao-Chun; Sheu, Hamm-Ming; Chung, Pei-Lun; Chang, Chung-Hsing; Tsai, Yau-Sheng; Hughes, Michael W; Tuan, Tai-Lan; Huang, Lynn L H

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue encircles the lower portion of anagen hair follicles and may regulate hair cycle progression. As leptin is a major adipokine, its level of expression from the dermal white adipose tissue during hair cycle progression was studied. The result shows that leptin level is differentially expressed during hair cycle, the lowest in early anagen phase, upregulated in late anagen phase and the highest in the telogen phase. On the other hand, leptin receptor is detected in keratin 15-positive hair bulge epithelium of both anagen- and telogen-phase hair follicles of mice pelage and vibrissa hair, and hair from human scalp. Leptin contributes to adipocyte-mediated growth inhibition of anagen-phase vibrissa hair as demonstrated in organ culture and coculture system. Our data suggest that leptin of dermal white adipose tissue might regulate hair growth and, therefore, hair cycle progression via leptin receptor on the hair follicle epithelium. PMID:25313970

  11. Evaluation Indicators of Aesthetic Effects on Hair Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yong; Liu, Bing-Cheng; Fan, Zhe-Xiang; Hu, Zhi-Qi

    2016-02-01

    Hair transplantation involves the transplantation of hair, beard, eyebrows, eyelashes, and pubic hair. Based on our experience, the aesthetic result of hair transplantation mainly relies on 4 indicators, including selection of the donor site, direction and angle of grafted hairs, density, and survival rate of implanted hair follicles. We believe that good results can be achieved as long as attention is paid to the above 4 points. PMID:26954740

  12. Evaluation Indicators of Aesthetic Effects on Hair Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yong; Liu, Bing-cheng; Fan, Zhe-xiang; Hu, Zhi-qi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hair transplantation involves the transplantation of hair, beard, eyebrows, eyelashes, and pubic hair. Based on our experience, the aesthetic result of hair transplantation mainly relies on 4 indicators, including selection of the donor site, direction and angle of grafted hairs, density, and survival rate of implanted hair follicles. We believe that good results can be achieved as long as attention is paid to the above 4 points. PMID:26954740

  13. High-efficiency production of bioactive recombinant human fibroblast growth factor 18 in Escherichia coli and its effects on hair follicle growth.

    PubMed

    Song, Lintao; Huang, Zhifeng; Chen, Yu; Li, Haiyan; Jiang, Chao; Li, Xiaokun

    2014-01-01

    Using fusion tags, expression of recombinant human fibroblast growth factor 18 (rhFGF18) in mammalian cells and Escherichia coli has been extensively used for fundamental research and clinical applications, including chondrogenesis and osteogenesis, hair growth, and neuroprotection. However, high-level rhFGF18 expression is difficult and the products are often not homogeneous. Furthermore, fusion-tagged protein has higher immunogenicity and lower bioactivity, and the removal of the fused tag is expensive. To overcome the limitations of fusion-tagged expression of protein and to prepare soluble highly bioactive rhFGF18, we have developed a rapid and efficient expression strategy. Optimized hFGF18 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and cloned into pET22b and pET3c vectors, then transformed into E. coli strains Origima (DE3) and BL21 (DE3)PlysS. The best combination of plasmid and host strain was selected, and only Origima (DE3)/pET3c-rhFGF18 was screened for high-level expressed rhFGF18. Under optimal conditions in a 30-L fermentor, the average bacterial yield and expression level of rhFGF18 of three batches were more than 652 g and 30 % respectively, after treatment with 1 mM isopropyl-thio-β-galactopyranoside for 10 h at 25 °C. The target protein was purified by CM Sepharose FF and heparin affinity chromatography. The purity of rhFGF18 was shown by HPLC to be higher than 95 %, and the yield was 155 mg/L. In vitro MTT assays demonstrated that the purified rhFGF18 could stimulate significant proliferation of NIH3T3 cells, and animal experiments showed that rhFGF18 could effectively regulate hair growth. In conclusion, this may be a better method of producing rhFGF18 to meet the increasing demand in its pharmacological application. PMID:23624709

  14. Laser hair removal pearls.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Emily P; Goldberg, David J

    2008-03-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the follicle through the targeting of melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Pearls of laser hair removal are presented in this review, focusing on four areas of recent development: 1 treatment of blond, white and gray hair; 2 paradoxical hypertrichosis; 3 laser hair removal in children; and 4 comparison of lasers and IPL. Laser and light-based technologies to remove hair represents one of the most exciting areas where discoveries by dermatologists have led to novel treatment approaches. It is likely that in the next decade, continued advancements in this field will bring us closer to the development of a more permanent and painless form of hair removal. PMID:18330794

  15. Sinus pericranii.

    PubMed

    Jones, Tammy L

    2012-01-01

    Sinus pericranii is a rare anomaly that occurs when there is communication between the intracranial and extracranial venous systems. Accurate diagnosis is complicated because several other cranial masses can mimic sinus pericranii. Clinical, laboratory, and imaging assessments are all essential for identifying the anomaly. This article examines the comparative advantages of various diagnostic imaging modalities, current imaging techniques, and typical findings associated with sinus pericranii. Treatment and management options also are discussed. PMID:22461344

  16. Hoxc13 is a crucial regulator of murine hair cycle.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Weiming; Lei, Mingxing; Tang, Hui; Yan, Hongtao; Wen, Xuhong; Zhang, Wei; Tan, Ranjing; Wang, Duan; Wu, Jinjin

    2016-04-01

    Hair follicles undergo cyclical growth and regression during postnatal life. Hair regression is an apoptosis-driven process strictly controlled by micro- and macro-environmental signals. However, how these signals are controlled remains largely unknown. Hoxc13, a member of the Hox gene family, is reported to play an important role in hair follicle differentiation. In the present study, we observed that Hoxc13 was highly expressed in the outer root sheath, matrix, medulla and inner root sheath of hair follicles in a hair cycle-dependent manner. We therefore investigated the role of Hoxc13 in hair follicle cycling. Injection of ShRNA (ShHoxc13) to suppress Hoxc13 in early anagen promoted premature catagen entry, shown by significantly decreased hair length and hair bulb size, increased percentage of catagen hair follicles, hair cycle score and TUNEL+ cells and inhibited proliferation. In contrast, local injection of recombinant Hoxc13 polypeptide (rhHoxc13) during the late anagen phase prolonged the anagen phase. Additionally, rhHoxc13 injections during the telogen phase significantly promoted hair growth and induced the anagen progression. At the molecular level, the expression of phosphorylated smad2 (p-smad2), a key factor of active TGF-β1 signaling, was up-regulated in the ShHoxc13-treated hair follicles and down-regulated in rhHoxc13-treated hair follicles, suggesting that Hoxc13 might block anagen-catagen transition by inhibiting the TGF-β1 signaling. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that Hoxc13 is a novel and crucial regulator of the hair cycle. This might also provide an understanding of the mechanism of the 'hair cycle clock' and the development of alopecia treatments. PMID:26553656

  17. Cells in the bulge of the mouse telogen follicle give rise to the lower anagen follicle.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C L; Sun, T T; Lavker, R M

    1994-01-01

    The slow-cycling cells in the bulge of the outer root sheath may represent stem cells for the hair follicle. With each new anagen (growing) phase bulge cells would give rise to a population of transient-amplifying cells which differentiate into outer root sheath and matrix keratinocytes. The lowermost part of the telogen (resting) follicle is composed of bulge cells lying in close proximity to the dermal papilla. In the mouse the first hair follicle growth is characterized by rapid follicular neogenesis, but the second and third growth cycles follow the normal follicular growth pattern. We have examined activity of cells in the bulge at the onset of anagen (growing phase) in the third hair cycle in Sencar mice, by treating animals at the end of the second telogen with colchicine to localize mitotic activity in the hair follicle. Mitoses were only seen in bulge cells during early anagen. This confirms that they proliferate transiently, solely at the onset of anagen and strongly supports the suggestion that bulge cells are the origin of the whole lower follicle in anagen. PMID:8003329

  18. Nutrition and hair: deficiencies and supplements.

    PubMed

    Finner, Andreas M

    2013-01-01

    Hair follicle cells have a high turnover. A caloric deprivation or deficiency of several components, such as proteins, minerals, essential fatty acids, and vitamins, caused by inborn errors or reduced uptake, can lead to structural abnormalities, pigmentation changes, or hair loss, although exact data are often lacking. The diagnosis is established through a careful history, clinical examination of hair loss activity, and hair quality and confirmed through targeted laboratory tests. Examples of genetic hair disorders caused by reduced nutritional components are zinc deficiency in acrodermatitis enteropathica and copper deficiency in Menkes kinky hair syndrome. PMID:23159185

  19. Hair transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... this procedure: Scarring Unnatural-looking tufts of new hair growth It is possible that the transplanted hair will ... Most hair transplants result in excellent hair growth within several ... may be needed to create best results. The replaced hairs are ...

  20. Body Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  1. To grow or not to grow: Hair morphogenesis and human genetic hair disorders

    PubMed Central

    Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I.

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models have greatly helped in elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in hair formation and regeneration. Recent publications have reviewed the genes involved in mouse hair development based on the phenotype of transgenic, knockout and mutant animal models. While much of this information has been instrumental in determining molecular aspects of human hair development and cycling, mice exhibit a specific pattern of hair morphogenesis and hair distribution throughout the body that cannot be directly correlated to human hair. In this mini-review, we discuss specific aspects of human hair follicle development and present an up-to-date summary of human genetic disorders associated with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, structure or regeneration. PMID:24361867

  2. To grow or not to grow: hair morphogenesis and human genetic hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models have greatly helped in elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in hair formation and regeneration. Recent publications have reviewed the genes involved in mouse hair development based on the phenotype of transgenic, knockout and mutant animal models. While much of this information has been instrumental in determining molecular aspects of human hair development and cycling, mice exhibit a specific pattern of hair morphogenesis and hair distribution throughout the body that cannot be directly correlated to human hair. In this mini-review, we discuss specific aspects of human hair follicle development and present an up-to-date summary of human genetic disorders associated with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, structure or regeneration. PMID:24361867

  3. Normal and aging hair biology and structure 'aging and hair'.

    PubMed

    Goodier, Molly; Hordinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Much like an individual's hairstyle, hair fibers along the scalp see a number of changes over the course of one's lifetime. As the decades pass, the shine and volume synonymous with youthful hair may give way to thin, dull, and brittle hair commonly associated with aging. These changes are a result of a compilation of genetic and environmental elements influencing the cells of the hair follicle, specifically the hair follicle stem cells and melanocytes. Telomere shortening, decrease in cell numbers, and particular transcription factors have all been implicated in this process. In turn, these molecular alterations lead to structural modifications of the hair fiber, decrease in melanin production, and lengthening of the telogen phase of the hair cycle. Despite this inevitable progression with aging, there exists an array of treatments such as light therapy, minoxidil, and finasteride which have been designed to mitigate the effects of aging, particularly balding and thinning hair. Although each works through a different mechanism, all aim to maintain or potentially restore the youthful quality of hair. PMID:26370639

  4. The biology of hair diversity.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Gillian E; Botchkareva, Natalia V; Tobin, Desmond J

    2013-08-01

    Hair diversity, its style, colour, shape and growth pattern is one of our most defining characteristics. The natural versus temporary style is influenced by what happens to our hair during our lifetime, such as genetic hair loss, sudden hair shedding, greying and pathological hair loss in the various forms of alopecia because of genetics, illness or medication. Despite the size and global value of the hair care market, our knowledge of what controls the innate and within-lifetime characteristics of hair diversity remains poorly understood. In the last decade, drivers of knowledge have moved into the arena of genetics where hair traits are obvious and measurable and genetic polymorphisms are being found that raise valuable questions about the biology of hair growth. The recent discovery that the gene for trichohyalin contributes to hair shape comes as no surprise to the hair biologists who have believed for 100 years that hair shape is linked to the structure and function of the inner root sheath. Further conundrums awaiting elucidation include the polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR) described in male pattern alopecia whose location on the X chromosome places this genetic contributor into the female line. The genetics of female hair loss is less clear with polymorphisms in the AR not associated with female pattern hair loss. Lifestyle choices are also implicated in hair diversity. Greying, which also has a strong genetic component, is often suggested to have a lifestyle (stress) influence and hair follicle melanocytes show declining antioxidant protection with age and lowered resistance to stress. It is likely that hair research will undergo a renaissance on the back of the rising information from genetic studies as well as the latest contributions from the field of epigenetics. PMID:23363384

  5. Advances in hair transplantation: longitudinal partial follicular unit transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gho, Coen G; Neumann, H A Martino

    2015-01-01

    There are different techniques of hair transplantation. The most common and known hair transplantation methods are the 'strip' method, where a strip of skin containing hair follicles is removed, cut into grafts and implanted in the recipient area, and the follicle unit extraction (FUE) method, in which whole follicle units are extracted one by one and implanted one by one back into the recipient area. The FUE method is more patient friendly and leaves only tiny scars compared to the strip method, which leaves visible linear scars at the donor area. Both methods, however, have the major disadvantage that the extracted hair follicles are removed and the availability of donor hair follicles are limited and results in a decrease in hair density, as no re-grow will occur in the donor area. Since partial longitudinal-follicular unit transplantation (PL-FUT) extracts partial longitudinal follicular units that can be used as complete follicular units to regenerate completely differentiated hair growth and the partial follicular units that remain in the dermis in the donor area can survive and produce hair, PL-FUT enables us to multiply hair follicles in vivo while preserving the donor area. Although this technique is suitable for androgenic alopecia, PL-FUT could also be suitable in persons who have a relative small donor area compared to the recipient area like burn victims, as well as scarring alopecia's like frontal fibrosing alopecia. PMID:26370653

  6. Histopathological insights into hair loss in Cronkhite-Canada syndrome: diffuse anagen-telogen conversion precedes clinical hair loss progression.

    PubMed

    Watanabe-Okada, Emiko; Inazumi, Toyoko; Matsukawa, Hidehiko; Ohyama, Manabu

    2014-05-01

    Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS) is a rare disorder characterised by gastrointestinal polyposis and ectodermal changes, represented by extensive alopecia. Detailed histopathological investigations of alopecic lesions in two female CCS patients with severe hair loss revealed a marked increase in telogen hair follicles with no sign of loss or of the minaturisation or atrophy of hair follicle structures and the absence of inflammatory change, despite severe inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. These findings suggested that hair regrowth can be expected without systemic corticosteroids, if they are not necessary for treatment of the gastrointestinal tract, and that anagen-telogen transition is an early event preceding clinical hair loss in CCS. PMID:23714002

  7. Hair radioactivity as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strain, W. H.; Pories, W. J.; Fratianne, R. B.; Flynn, A.

    1972-01-01

    Since many radioisotopes accumulate in hair, this tropism was investigated by comparing the radioactivity of shaved with plucked hair collected from rats at various time intervals up to 24 hrs after intravenous injection of the ecologically important radioisotopes, iodine-131, manganese-54, strontium-85, and zinc-65. The plucked hair includes the hair follicles where biochemical transformations are taking place. The data indicate a slight surge of each radioisotpe into the hair immediately after injection, a variation of content of each radionuclide in the hair, and a greater accumulation of radioactivity in plucked than in shaved hair. These results have application not only to hair as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes, but also to tissue damage and repair at the hair follicle.

  8. Sinus aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    De Foer, C; Fossion, E; Vaillant, J M

    1990-01-01

    The prevalence of Aspergillus sinusitis is often underestimated because the vast majority of cases are classified as "unspecified sinusitis". Two possible aetio-pathogenic mechanisms can be involved in the development of this fungal infection. Traditionally, the literature emphasised the "anglophone" hypothesis which is based on the inhalation of spores. More recently, the "french" model, based on oro-sinusal fistula and/or the perforation of the maxillary sinus by root canal-filling material, is believed to explain the majority of cases in our industrialised environments. Still, neither model explains the totality of cases and several remain beyond comprehension. The disease most commonly presents as a chronic bacterial sinusitis. The process can however become invasive, thus resembling malignancy, with eventually a fatal outcome. Doctors and dentists should know the possible danger, presented by zinc-oxide-eugenol-paste in the sinus. Radical surgery is the treatment of choice, since a prolonged conservative approach (antibiotics, corticosteroids) can only worsen the prognosis. This paper discusses different aspects of the disease, and presents 10 cases, observed at the University Hospitals of Paris (France) and Leuven (Belgium). PMID:2406288

  9. Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people’s overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today’s increasing life-expectations, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and is delivering active products directed towards meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft, decrease of melanocyte function, and decrease in hair production. The scalp is subject to intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation: prototypes are familial premature graying, and androgenetic alopecia. Currently available pharmacologic treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil and oral finasteride. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and air pollution. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress also plays a role in hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds include photoprotectors and antioxidants. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants remain the mainstay of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are currently under investigation. PMID:18044109

  10. Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today's increasing life-expectations, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and is delivering active products directed towards meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft, decrease of melanocyte function, and decrease in hair production. The scalp is subject to intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation: prototypes are familial premature graying, and androgenetic alopecia. Currently available pharmacologic treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil and oral finasteride. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and air pollution. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress also plays a role in hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds include photoprotectors and antioxidants. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants remain the mainstay of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are currently under investigation. PMID:18044109

  11. Hair Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Body Looking and feeling your best Hair care Hair care Short, long, curly, straight, up, down. Hair options can seem endless! Not all of what makes your hair look good comes from the outside, though. Good ...

  12. Oily hair

    MedlinePlus

    Hair - oily ... are some tips for preventing and treating oily hair: Shampoo your hair every day. Leaving the shampoo on your head ... minutes before rinsing may help. Avoid brushing your hair too often or too vigorously, since the brushing ...

  13. Hair Transplants

    MedlinePlus

    ... How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Hair Transplants What are hair transplants? In punch transplanting, a plug containing hair ... What should first be done before considering a hair transplant? Before the procedure, an ASDS doctor will ...

  14. Sinus CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - sinus; Computed axial tomography scan - sinus; Computed tomography scan - sinus; CT scan - sinus ... 2014:chap 67. Shaw AS, Dixon AK. Multidetector computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, eds. Grainger & Allison's ...

  15. Dkk4 and Eda regulate distinctive developmental mechanisms for subtypes of mouse hair.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chang-Yi; Kunisada, Makoto; Piao, Yulan; Childress, Victoria; Ko, Minoru S H; Schlessinger, David

    2010-01-01

    The mouse hair coat comprises protective "primary" and thermo-regulatory "secondary" hairs. Primary hair formation is ectodysplasin (Eda) dependent, but it has been puzzling that Tabby (Eda(-/y)) mice still make secondary hair. We report that Dickkopf 4 (Dkk4), a Wnt antagonist, affects an auxiliary pathway for Eda-independent development of secondary hair. A Dkk4 transgene in wild-type mice had no effect on primary hair, but secondary hairs were severely malformed. Dkk4 action on secondary hair was further demonstrated when the transgene was introduced into Tabby mice: the usual secondary follicle induction was completely blocked. The Dkk4-regulated secondary hair pathway, like the Eda-dependent primary hair pathway, is further mediated by selective activation of Shh. The results thus reveal two complex molecular pathways that distinctly regulate subtype-based morphogenesis of hair follicles, and provide a resolution for the longstanding puzzle of hair formation in Tabby mice lacking Eda. PMID:20386733

  16. Analysis of the efficiency of hair removal by different optical methods: comparison of Trichoscan, reflectance confocal microscopy, and optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuck, Monika; Schanzer, Sabine; Ulrich, Martina; Bartels, Natalie Garcia; Meinke, Martina C.; Fluhr, Joachim; Krah, Martin; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Stockfleth, Eggert; Lademann, Jürgen

    2012-10-01

    Noninvasive diagnostic tools, such as Trichoscan, reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM), and optical coherence tomography (OCT), are efficient methods of hair shaft and growth evaluation. The aim of this study was to carry out a comparative assessment of these three medical procedures by measuring the hair shaft and hair growth after hair removal for a defined period of five days. The application of these techniques was demonstrated by measuring hair growth on the lower leg of six female volunteers. After removal of the hair shaft with a shaving system, the hair follicle infundibula and the length of the growing hairs were measured with the Trichoscan, RCM, and OCT method. All three methods are reliable hair measuring tools after hair removal. Trichoscan is best suited in the implementation of hair growth measurement and RCM in the analysis of hair follicles, whereas the OCT system can be consulted as an additional measurement for the evaluation of the hair follicle and length.

  17. Frizzled6 controls hair patterning in mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Nini; Hawkins, Charles; Nathans, Jeremy

    2004-06-22

    Hair whorls and other macroscopic hair patterns are found in a variety of mammalian species, including humans. We show here that Frizzled6 (Fz6), one member of a large family of integral membrane Wnt receptors, controls macroscopic hair patterning in the mouse. Fz6 is expressed in the skin and hair follicles, and targeted deletion of the Fz6 gene produces stereotyped whorls on the hind feet, variable whorls and tufts on the head, and misorientation of hairs on the torso. Embryo chimera experiments imply that Fz6 acts locally to control or propagate the macroscopic hair pattern and that epithelial cells rather than melanocytes are the source of Fz6-dependent signaling. The Fz6 phenotype strongly resembles the wing-hair and bristle patterning defects observed in Drosophila frizzled mutants. These data imply that hair patterning in mammals uses a Fz-dependent tissue polarity system similar to the one that patterns the Drosophila cuticle. PMID:15169958

  18. Age-related hair changes in men: mechanisms and management of alopecia and graying.

    PubMed

    Mirmirani, Paradi

    2015-01-01

    The appearance of human scalp hair is often tied to perceptions of youth and virility, especially in men. Hair loss, or alopecia and hair graying are commonly associated with advancing age and are frequently a source for emotional distress and anxiety. Our understanding of the complex molecular signals and mechanisms that regulate and influence the hair follicle has expanded in recent years. By harnessing this understanding we are poised to address the esthetic concerns of aging hair. Additionally, changes in the hair follicle may be a reflection of systemic senescent signals, thus because of its accessibility, the hair follicle may serve as an important research tool in gerontology. In this review, the most current knowledge and research regarding mechanisms of androgenetic alopecia, senescent alopecia, and graying are discussed, as are extrinsic factors that may contribute to hair changes with age. Evidence based management strategies for treatment of age-related hair changes are also reviewed. PMID:25466305

  19. Potential use of beards for single-follicle micrografts: convenient follicle-harvesting technique using an injection needle.

    PubMed

    Hirai, T; Inoue, N; Nagamoto, K

    2001-07-01

    The authors developed a convenient hair-harvesting procedure using a disposable 18-gauge injection needle, which is common in every clinical scene. The needle was used as a skin puncher to harvest single follicles. The harvested micrografts were transplanted without trimming any of the adjacent tissue around the follicle. Clinical applications for the reconstruction of eyebrows in cases of anhydrotic ectodermal dysplasia and facial scars are demonstrated. Each patient showed a favorable result, and there was no scar formation at the donor site. This procedure makes hair harvesting smooth, speedy, and less traumatic. Beards as well as occipital hairs can be used as donors for single-follicle micrografts with this method in male patients. PMID:11756801

  20. Sinusitis (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Acute sinusitis is defined pathologically, by transient inflammation of the mucosal lining of the paranasal sinuses lasting less than 4 weeks. Clinically, it is characterised by nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea, facial pain, hyposmia, sneezing, and, if more severe, additional malaise and fever. It affects 1−5% of the adult population each year in Europe. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments in people with clinically diagnosed acute sinusitis, and with radiologically or bacteriologically confirmed acute sinusitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to August 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 19 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics (amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides, different doses [amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides], long-course regimens), antihistamines, cephalosporins or macrolides, decongestants (xylometazoline, phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine), doxycycline, saline nasal washes, steam inhalation, and topical corticosteroids (intra-nasal). PMID:19450327

  1. Sinusitis (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Acute sinusitis is defined pathologically, by transient inflammation of the mucosal lining of the paranasal sinuses lasting less than 4 weeks. Clinically, it is characterised by nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea, facial pain, hyposmia, sneezing, and, if more severe, additional malaise and fever. It affects 1% to 5% of the adult population each year in Europe. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments in people with clinically diagnosed acute sinusitis, and in people with radiologically or bacteriologically confirmed acute sinusitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 19 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics (amoxicillin, amoxicillin–clavulanic acid [co-amoxiclav], doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides; different doses, long-course regimens), antihistamines, decongestants (xylometazoline, phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine), saline nasal washes, steam inhalation, and topical corticosteroids (intranasal). PMID:22189346

  2. Hair: what is new in diagnosis and management? Female pattern hair loss update: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Atanaskova Mesinkovska, Natasha; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2013-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common cause of alopecia in women. FPHL is characterized histologically with increased numbers of miniaturized, velluslike hair follicles. The goal of treatment of FPHL is to arrest hair loss progression and stimulate hair regrowth. The treatments for FPHL can be divided into androgen-dependent and androgen-independent. There is an important adjuvant role for nutritional supplements, light therapy, and hair transplants. All treatments work best when initiated early. Combinations of treatments tend to be more efficacious. PMID:23159181

  3. Hair Removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... maintain a steady temperature by providing some insulation. Terminal hair is coarser, darker, and longer than vellus ... hair that grows on your head. Around puberty, terminal hair starts to grow in the armpits and ...

  4. Hair transplant

    MedlinePlus

    Hair restoration ... MR, Keene SA, Stough DB, Rogers NE. Hair restoration. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV, eds. ... Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 157. Fisher J. Hair restoration. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. ...

  5. Dry hair

    MedlinePlus

    Some causes of dry hair are: Anorexia nervosa Excessive hair washing, or using harsh soaps or alcohols Excessive blow-drying Dry air Menkes kinky hair syndrome Malnutrition Underactive parathyroid ( ...

  6. Hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... that is applied to the scalp to stimulate hair growth. Other medicines, such as hormones, may be prescribed to decrease hair loss and promote hair growth. Drugs such as finasteride and dutasteride can be ...

  7. Optical coherence tomography examination of hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Wei; Huang, Zheng; Xu, Jianshu; Yang, Hongqin; Li, Hui; Xie, Shusen

    2014-09-01

    Human hair is a keratinous tissue composed mostly of flexible keratin, which can form a complex architecture consisting of distinct compartments or units (e.g. hair bulb, inner root sheath, shaft). Variations in hair shaft morphology can reflect ethnical diversity, but may also indicate internal diseases, nutritional deficiency, or hair and scalp disorders. Hair shaft abnormalities in cross section and diameter, as well as ultramorphological characterization and follicle shapes, might be visualized non-invasively by high-speed 2D and 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT). In this study, swept source OCT (ThorLabs) was used to examine human hair. Preliminary results showed that the high-speed OCT was a suitable and promising tool for non-invasive analysis of hair conditions.

  8. Epidermal Patterning and Induction of Different Hair Types during Mouse Embryonic Development

    PubMed Central

    Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I.

    2010-01-01

    An intriguing question is how epidermal pattern formation processes are established, and which are the molecular mechanisms involved in these events. The establishment of the pattern is concomitant with the formation of ectodermal appendages, which involves complex interactions between the epithelium and the underlying mesenchyme. Among ectodermal appendages, hair follicles are the ‘mini organs’ that produce hair shafts. Several developmental and structural features are common to all hair follicles and to the hair shaft they produce. However, many different hair types are produced in a single organism. Also, different characteristics can be observed depending on the part of the body where the hair follicle is formed. Here, we review the mechanisms involved in the patterning of different hair types during mouse embryonic development, as well as the influence of the body axes on hair patterning. PMID:19750518

  9. Epidermal patterning and induction of different hair types during mouse embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I

    2009-09-01

    An intriguing question in developmental biology is how epidermal pattern formation processes are established and what are the molecular mechanisms involved in these events. The establishment of the pattern is concomitant with the formation of ectodermal appendages, which involves complex interactions between the epithelium and the underlying mesenchyme. Among ectodermal appendages, hair follicles are the "mini organs" that produce hair shafts. Several developmental and structural features are common to all hair follicles and to the hair shaft they produce. However, many different hair types are produced in a single organism. Also, different characteristics can be observed depending on the part of the body where the hair follicle is formed. Here, we review the mechanisms involved in the patterning of different hair types during mouse embryonic development as well as the influence of the body axes on hair patterning. PMID:19750518

  10. The water-soluble extract of Illicium anisatum stimulates mouse vibrissae follicles in organ culture.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Ikuyo; Ishimoto, Hiroko; Matsuo, Masaki; Ikeda, Norikazu; Minamino, Miki; Kato, Yoshiko

    2004-08-01

    It is well known that reduced blood flow in the scalp is a cause of alopecia. We have shown previously that the extract of Illicium anisatum increases subcutaneous blood flow in mice. In the present study, we used an organ culture system to examine whether this extract promoted hair follicle elongation. B6C3HF1 mouse vibrissae follicles were cultured in serum-free medium for 7 days at 31 degrees C. Follicles treated with water-soluble (WS) extracts of the leaves, fruits and roots of Illicium anisatum or shikimic acid grew significantly longer than controls. In contrast, ethyl acetate-soluble (AS) extracts and n-hexane-soluble (HS) extracts of the leaves, fruits and roots of the plant inhibited hair follicles and shaft growth. Fractionation of the WS fruit extract showed that the number 1 and number 2 fractions possessed hair follicle elongation activity. GC/MS analysis revealed that the number 1 fraction contained shikimic acid, and that the number 2 fraction was a mixture of many components including glycosides and polysaccharides. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that shikimic acid also induced mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor-1, keratinocyte growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor in the hair follicles. These results suggest that the WS extract of Illicium anisatum promotes hair growth and may be a useful additive in hair growth products. PMID:15265014

  11. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  12. Sick sinus syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... chambers is a common cause of sick sinus syndrome. Coronary artery disease , high blood pressure, and aortic and ... pressure may be normal or low. Sick sinus syndrome may cause symptoms of heart failure to start or get worse. Sick sinus ...

  13. Saline Sinus Rinse Recipe

    MedlinePlus

    ... Saline Sinus Rinse Recipe Share | Saline Sinus Rinse Recipe Saline sinus rinses can bring relief to patients ... at a fraction of the cost. Saline Rinse Recipe Ingredients 1. Pickling or canning salt-containing no ...

  14. The silent sinus syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhi, Mahnaz; Jalalian, Faranak

    2013-01-01

    The silent sinus syndrome (SSS) involves painless facial asymmetry and enophthalmos, which is the result of chronic maxillary sinus atelectasis. In most cases, it is diagnosed clinically, however, using the characteristic imaging features including maxillary sinus outlet obstruction, sinus opacification, and sinus volume loss caused by inward retraction of the sinus walls. Obstruction of the maxillary ostium appears to play a critical role in the development of SSS. Treatment involves functional endoscopic surgery. PMID:23946747

  15. Pilonidal sinus cyst of the penis: a rare manifestation of a common disease

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qassim, Zubair; Reddy, Kiran; Khan, Zeb; Reddy, Ippala Sreenath

    2013-01-01

    Pilonidal sinus is a chronic inflammatory condition owing to the subcutaneous trapping of hair. Most commonly it is found in the sacrococcygeal region (natal cleft) but rarely it is found on the penis with very few cases reported in the literature worldwide. We are reporting a case of a pilonidal sinus growing on the distal penile shaft with the sinus opening to the mucosal layer of the foreskin, in a young and fit patient. The cyst was removed with a circumcision and found to contain hair. This was confirmed by histology as a pilonidal sinus cyst. PMID:23697453

  16. Laser assisted hair-removal.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, S; Elsaie, M L; Nouri, K

    2009-10-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the hair follicle by targeting melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Laser hair removal is achieved through follicular unit destruction based on selective photothermolysis. The principle of selective photothermolysis predicts that the thermal injury will be restricted to a given target if there is sufficient selective absorption of light and the pulse duration is shorter than the thermal relaxation time of the target. This review will focus on the mechanisms of laser assisted hair removal and provide an update on the newer technologies emerging in the field of lasers assisted hair removal. PMID:19834437

  17. Hair transplantation.

    PubMed

    Avram, Marc R

    2012-12-01

    Hair transplantation is a purely dermatologic surgical procedure that dermatologists should be able to perform in appropriate candidates with hair loss. Hair transplantation techniques performed in the 1960s through the 1990s utilized large grafts that created an unfortunate public image of unnatural-appearing transplanted hair. Over the last 15 years, hair transplantation has been performed using follicular units to create consistently natural-looking transplanted hair in both men and women. This article provides an overview of candidate selection and state-of-the-art techniques for performing hair transplantation. PMID:23409484

  18. EEMCO guidance for the assessment of hair shedding and alopecia.

    PubMed

    Piérard, G E; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Marks, R; Elsner, P

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge of the hair follicle anatomy and the dynamics of hair cycling is substantial. Recognizing the anagen, catagen and telogen phases as well as teloptosis and the hair eclipse phenomenon clearly characterizes the typical hair chronobiology. Physiological modulators include hormones, neuromediators, miscellaneous biomolecules, seasons, micro-inflammation and ageing. For individuals who present with the complaint of increased hair shedding or alopecia, a host of evaluation techniques are available in addition to history, physical examination and laboratory assessment. Various clinical hair techniques can help in assessing the efficacy of drugs and cosmetics on hair growth. The methods are quite similar to those used to establish a definite diagnosis in dermatological practice. Great strides have been made during the recent decades in the methodology of hair growth trials in dermatology and cosmetology. Clinical evaluations benefit from a few additional specific techniques that enhance the perception of hair (re-) growth, shedding and alopecia. These assessments include the determination of hair patterning and density that may be helped by the 'black-and-white felt' examination. Daily hair counts, the 'hair pull test' and the 'hair feathering test' are also available. Instrumental methods provide reliable quantitative information that is useful if there are adequate controls. Some photographic methods, the trichogram, hair weighing and variants of the hair growth window technique including the phototrichogram, videotrichogram and tractio-phototrichogram provide insight into the complexities of hair cycling and shedding. Skin biopsy is indicated for diagnostic purposes, especially when the hair loss is accompanied by scarring. PMID:14976387

  19. Modeling Chemotherapy-Induced Hair Loss: From Experimental Propositions toward Clinical Reality.

    PubMed

    Botchkarev, Vladimir A; Sharov, Andrey A

    2016-03-01

    Chemotherapy-induced hair loss is one of the most devastating side effects of cancer treatment. To study the effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the hair follicle, a number of experimental models have been proposed. Yoon et al. report that transplantation of human scalp hair follicles onto chemotherapy-treated immunodeficient mice serves as an excellent in vivo model for chemotherapy-induced hair loss. Yoon et al. demonstrate that (i) the response of human hair follicles grafted onto immunodeficient mice to cyclophosphamide resembles the key features of the chemotherapy-induced hair loss seen in patients with cancer and (ii) this human in vivo model for chemotherapy-induced hair loss is closer to clinical reality than to any earlier models. Undoubtedly, this model will serve as a valuable tool for analyses of the mechanisms that underlie this devastating side effect of anti-cancer therapy. PMID:26902124

  20. Notch Signaling Regulates Late-Stage Epidermal Differentiation and Maintains Postnatal Hair Cycle Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsien-Yi; Kao, Cheng-Heng; Lin, Kurt Ming-Chao; Kaartinen, Vesa; Yang, Liang-Tung

    2011-01-01

    Background Notch signaling involves ligand-receptor interactions through direct cell-cell contact. Multiple Notch receptors and ligands are expressed in the epidermis and hair follicles during embryonic development and the adult stage. Although Notch signaling plays an important role in regulating differentiation of the epidermis and hair follicles, it remains unclear how Notch signaling participates in late-stage epidermal differentiation and postnatal hair cycle homeostasis. Methodology and Principal Findings We applied Cre/loxP system to generate conditional gene targeted mice that allow inactivation of critical components of Notch signaling pathway in the skin. Rbpj, the core component of all four Notch receptors, and Pofut1, an essential factor for ligand-receptor interactions, were inactivated in hair follicle lineages and suprabasal layer of the epidermis using the Tgfb3-Cre mouse line. Rbpj conditional inactivation resulted in granular parakeratosis and reactive epidermal hyperplasia. Pofut1 conditional inactivation led to ultrastructural abnormalities in the granular layer and altered filaggrin processing in the epidermis, suggesting a perturbation of the granular layer differentiation. Disruption of Pofut1 in hair follicle lineages resulted in aberrant telogen morphology, a decrease of bulge stem cell markers, and a concomitant increase of K14-positive keratinocytes in the isthmus of mutant hair follicles. Pofut1-deficent hair follicles displayed a delay in anagen re-entry and dysregulation of proliferation and apoptosis during the hair cycle transition. Moreover, increased DNA double stand breaks were detected in Pofut1-deficent hair follicles, and real time PCR analyses on bulge keratinocytes isolated by FACS revealed an induction of DNA damage response and a paucity of DNA repair machinery in mutant bulge keratinocytes. Significance our data reveal a role for Notch signaling in regulating late-stage epidermal differentiation. Notch signaling is

  1. Flame Hair

    PubMed Central

    Miteva, Mariya; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Background ‘Flame hairs’ is a trichoscopic feature described as hair residue from pulling anagen hairs in trichotillomania. Objective: To detect whether flame hairs are present in other hair loss disorders. Methods We retrospectively, independently and blindly reviewed the trichoscopic images of 454 consecutive patients with alopecia areata (99 cases), trichotillomania (n = 20), acute chemotherapy-induced alopecia (n = 6), acute radiotherapy-induced alopecia (n = 2), tinea capitis (n = 13), lichen planopilaris (n = 33), frontal fibrosing alopecia (n = 60), discoid lupus erythematosus (n = 30), dissecting cellulitis (n = 11), central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (n = 94) and traction alopecia (n = 86) for the presence of flame hairs. We prospectively obtained trichoscopy-guided scalp biopsies from flame hairs in trichotillomania, alopecia areata, traction alopecia and central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (1 case each). Results Flame hairs were detected in 100% of the acute chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-induced alopecias, where they were the predominant hair abnormality. They were also found in trichotillomania (55%), alopecia areata (21%), traction alopecia (4%) and central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (3%). On pathology, they corresponded to distorted hair shafts. Conclusion The flame hair is a type of broken hair which can be seen in various hair loss disorders. It results from traumatic pulling of anagen hairs or from anagen arrest due to inflammation or drugs. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel PMID:27171360

  2. Hair Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... To get rid of unwanted hair growth: Tweeze, wax or shave, which are all safe during pregnancy. ... To get rid of unwanted hair growth: Tweeze, wax or shave, which are all safe during pregnancy. ...

  3. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... may cause hair loss in women. If your hair loss has occurred gradually with advancing age, FOLLICULAR DEGENERATION may be the cause. Post-pregnancy hormone changes usually reverse themselves without any treatment. While follicular degeneration cannot ...

  4. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Common baldness" usually means male-pattern baldness, or permanent-pattern baldness. It is also called androgenetic alopecia. ... will grow back normally. However, scarring can cause permanent hair loss. Hot oil hair treatments or chemicals ...

  5. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... are stress, a low protein diet, a family history, or poor nutrition. Treatment for hair loss depends on the cause. In some cases, treating the underlying cause will correct the problem. Other treatments include medicines and hair restoration.

  6. Hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... continual hair pulling or scalp rubbing Radiation therapy Tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp) Tumor of the ovary or ... a plucked hair Skin biopsy If you have ringworm on the scalp, you may be prescribed an ...

  7. Bad Hair Day: Testosterone and Wnts.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Amanda M; Garza, Luis A

    2015-11-01

    Androgens have an important role in normal skin physiology, as well as in the pathogenesis of many skin conditions, such as acne vulgaris, hirsutism, and androgenic alopecia. Kretzchumar et al. (2015) investigate the relationship between androgen receptor (AR) signaling and β-catenin/Wnt signaling pathways in murine hair follicles. PMID:26548488

  8. Bad Hair Day: Testosterone and Wnts

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Amanda M.; Garza, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    Androgens have an important role in normal skin physiology, as well as in the pathogenesis of many skin conditions, such as acne vulgaris, hirsutism, and androgenic alopecia. Kretzchumar et al. (2015) investigate the relationship between androgen receptor (AR) signaling and β-catenin/Wnt signaling pathways in murine hair follicles. PMID:26548488

  9. Your Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... someone's hair, the less melanin there is. A person with brown or black hair has much more melanin than someone with ... example, many blondes have light skin, whereas many people with darker skin have dark brown or black hair. And don't forget genes (genes are ...

  10. Cavernous sinus gas.

    PubMed

    Chen, S S; Shao, K N; Chiang, J H; Chang, C Y; Luo, C B; Lirng, J F; Teng, M M

    2000-07-01

    Gas within the cavernous sinus is an unusual finding. We report three patients who demonstrated gas in the cavernous sinus on computerized tomography (CT). The clinical information of these patients was reviewed for the possible source of the gas and the symptoms induced by the gas. Cavernous sinus gas was seen in two patients with sphenoid sinus fracture and in one patient after intravenous fluid infusion. None of the patients had symptoms referable to the cavernous sinus gas, but one patient had a grave prognosis due to trauma. Identification of cavernous sinus gas on CT and correlation with the clinical information is mandatory for further management. PMID:10934814

  11. Role of Arachidonic Acid in Promoting Hair Growth

    PubMed Central

    Munkhbayar, Semchin; Jang, Sunhyae; Cho, A-Ri; Choi, Soon-Jin; Shin, Chang Yup; Eun, Hee Chul; Kim, Kyu Han

    2016-01-01

    Background Arachidonic acid (AA) is an omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid present in all mammalian cell membranes, and involved in the regulation of many cellular processes, including cell survival, angiogenesis, and mitogenesis. The dermal papilla, composed of specialized fibroblasts located in the bulb of the hair follicle, contributes to the control of hair growth and the hair cycle. Objective This study investigated the effect of AA on hair growth by using in vivo and in vitro models. Methods The effect of AA on human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) and hair shaft elongation was evaluated by MTT assay and hair follicle organ culture, respectively. The expression of various growth and survival factors in hDPCs were investigated by western blot or immunohistochemistry. The ability of AA to induce and prolong anagen phase in C57BL/6 mice was analyzed. Results AA was found to enhance the viability of hDPCs and promote the expression of several factors responsible for hair growth, including fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7) and FGF-10. Western blotting identified the role of AA in the phosphorylation of various transcription factors (ERK, CREB, and AKT) and increased expression of Bcl-2 in hDPCs. In addition, AA significantly promoted hair shaft elongation, with increased proliferation of matrix keratinocytes, during ex vivo hair follicle culture. It was also found to promote hair growth by induction and prolongation of anagen phase in telogen-stage C57BL/6 mice. Conclusion This study concludes that AA plays a role in promoting hair growth by increasing the expression of growth factors in hDPCs and enhancing follicle proliferation and survival. PMID:26848219

  12. Double-wavelength laser scanning microphotometer (DWLSM) for in-vitro hair shaft and surrounding tissue imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedosov, Ivan V.; Zimnyakov, Dmitry A.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Genina, Elina A.; Altshuler, Gregory B.

    2001-05-01

    The double-wavelength laser scanning microphotometer (DWLSM) with high spatial resolution had been developed for in vitro measuring of hair shaft and follicle absorbance. The instrument allows for determining the absorbance distribution across and along hair shaft and follicle. The instrument is based on standard universal binocular microscope. The construction of the instrument and the data processing reduces the influence of the light scattering on the hair and tissue samples.

  13. Intelligent image analysis for image-guided hair removal and skin therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Brian; Lu, Thomas; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2012-02-01

    We present the development of advanced automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms for the hair follicles identification in digital skin images to accurately direct the laser beam to remove the hair. The ATR system first performs a wavelet filtering to enhance the contrast of the hair features in the image. The system then extracts the unique features of the targets and sends the features to an Adaboost based classifier for training and recognition operations. The ATR system automatically classifies the hair, moles, or other skin lesion and provides the accurate coordinates of the intended hair follicle locations. The coordinates can be used to guide a scanning laser to focus energy only on the hair follicles. The intended benefit would be to protect the skin from unwanted laser exposure and to provide more effective skin therapy.

  14. Intelligent Image Analysis for Image-Guided Laser Hair Removal and Skin Therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Brian; Lu, Thomas; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    We present the development of advanced automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms for the hair follicles identification in digital skin images to accurately direct the laser beam to remove the hair. The ATR system first performs a wavelet filtering to enhance the contrast of the hair features in the image. The system then extracts the unique features of the targets and sends the features to an Adaboost based classifier for training and recognition operations. The ATR system automatically classifies the hair, moles, or other skin lesion and provides the accurate coordinates of the intended hair follicle locations. The coordinates can be used to guide a scanning laser to focus energy only on the hair follicles. The intended benefit would be to protect the skin from unwanted laser exposure and to provide more effective skin therapy.

  15. Polyclonal origin and hair induction ability of dermal papillae in neonatal and adult mouse back skin

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Charlotte A.; Jensen, Kim B.; MacRae, Elizabeth J.; Mansfield, William; Watt, Fiona M.

    2012-01-01

    Hair follicle development and growth are regulated by Wnt signalling and depend on interactions between epidermal cells and a population of fibroblasts at the base of the follicle, known as the dermal papilla (DP). DP cells have a distinct gene expression signature from non-DP dermal fibroblasts. However, their origins are largely unknown. By generating chimeric mice and performing skin reconstitution assays we show that, irrespective of whether DP form during development, are induced by epidermal Wnt activation in adult skin or assemble from disaggregated cells, they are polyclonal in origin. While fibroblast proliferation is necessary for hair follicle formation in skin reconstitution assays, mitotically inhibited cells readily contribute to DP. Although new hair follicles do not usually develop in adult skin, adult dermal fibroblasts are competent to contribute to DP during hair follicle neogenesis, irrespective of whether they originate from skin in the resting or growth phase of the hair cycle or skin with β-catenin-induced ectopic follicles. We propose that during skin reconstitution fibroblasts may be induced to become DP cells by interactions with hair follicle epidermal cells, rather than being derived from a distinct subpopulation of cells. PMID:22537489

  16. Polyclonal origin and hair induction ability of dermal papillae in neonatal and adult mouse back skin.

    PubMed

    Collins, Charlotte A; Jensen, Kim B; MacRae, Elizabeth J; Mansfield, William; Watt, Fiona M

    2012-06-15

    Hair follicle development and growth are regulated by Wnt signalling and depend on interactions between epidermal cells and a population of fibroblasts at the base of the follicle, known as the dermal papilla (DP). DP cells have a distinct gene expression signature from non-DP dermal fibroblasts. However, their origins are largely unknown. By generating chimeric mice and performing skin reconstitution assays we show that, irrespective of whether DP form during development, are induced by epidermal Wnt activation in adult skin or assemble from disaggregated cells, they are polyclonal in origin. While fibroblast proliferation is necessary for hair follicle formation in skin reconstitution assays, mitotically inhibited cells readily contribute to DP. Although new hair follicles do not usually develop in adult skin, adult dermal fibroblasts are competent to contribute to DP during hair follicle neogenesis, irrespective of whether they originate from skin in the resting or growth phase of the hair cycle or skin with β-catenin-induced ectopic follicles. We propose that during skin reconstitution fibroblasts may be induced to become DP cells by interactions with hair follicle epidermal cells, rather than being derived from a distinct subpopulation of cells. PMID:22537489

  17. Black women's hair: the main scalp dermatoses and aesthetic practices in women of African ethnicity *

    PubMed Central

    Tanus, Aline; Oliveira, Camila Caberlon Cruz; Villarreal, Delky Johanna Villarreal; Sanchez, Fernando Andres Vargas; Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni

    2015-01-01

    Afro-ethnic hair is different from Caucasian and Asian hair and has unique features. Ethnic hair is more prone to certain conditions or diseases. Such diseases are not only related to the fragile inner structure of the hair, but also to the cultural habits of hairstyles that often exert traction forces upon the pilosebaceous follicle. Women with African hair subject their hair to chemical treatments such as hair straightening and relaxing, and thus modify the structure of their hair shaft, making it more susceptible to damage. For this reason, hair complaints are common among black women and represent a diagnostic challenge to the dermatologist, requiring a thorough clinical examination of the hair and scalp, and a detailed medical history of the patient. The purpose of this review is to warn of the potential side effects and sequelae related to hairstyles and hair treatments used by black women, and to highlight the major diseases that affect this ethnicity. PMID:26375213

  18. Diffuse Hair Loss Induced by Sertraline Use

    PubMed Central

    Kıvrak, Yüksel; Yağcı, İbrahim; Üstündağ, Mehmet Fatih; Özcan, Halil

    2015-01-01

    Hair loss is a rare side effect of psychotropic drugs. The most related drug class with this side effect is the mood stabilizers. Studies reporting the sertraline-induced alopecia are limited in number. Sertraline is a potent antidepressant which inhibits the serotonin reuptake from the presynaptic terminals selectively. The reason for hair loss could not be elucidated completely. Psychotropic drugs are usually considered to lead to hair loss through influencing the telogen phase of hair follicle. This paper reports a 21-year-old male with diffuse hair loss induced by sertraline use and improved by quitting the drug. To the best of our knowledge, there are no other case reports on sertraline-induced alopecia within 2 weeks. PMID:26457219

  19. Loss of a quiescent niche but not follicle stem cells in the absence of bone morphogenetic protein signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kobielak, Krzysztof; Stokes, Nicole; de la Cruz, June; Polak, Lisa; Fuchs, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    During the hair cycle, follicle stem cells (SCs) residing in a specialized niche called the “bulge” undergo bouts of quiescence and activation to cyclically regenerate new hairs. Developmental studies have long implicated the canonical bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway in hair follicle (HF) determination and differentiation, but how BMP signaling functions in the hair follicle SC niche remains unknown. Here, we use loss and gain of function studies to manipulate BMP signaling in the SC niche. We show that when the Bmpr1a gene is conditionally ablated, otherwise quiescent SCs are activated to proliferate, causing an expansion of the niche and loss of slow-cycling cells. Surprisingly, follicle SCs are not lost, however, but rather, they generate long-lived, tumor-like branches that express Sox4, Lhx2, and Sonic Hedgehog but fail to terminally differentiate to make hair. A key component of BMPR1A-deficient SCs is their elevated levels of both Lef1 and β-catenin, which form a bipartite transcription complex required for initiation of the hair cycle. Although β-catenin can be stabilized by Wnt signaling, we show that BMPR1A deficiency enhances β-catenin stabilization in the niche through a pathway involving PTEN inhibition and PI3K/AKT activation. Conversely, sustained BMP signaling in the SC niche blocks activation and promotes premature hair follicle differentiation. Together, these studies reveal the importance of balancing BMP signaling in the SC niche. PMID:17553962

  20. [Maxillary sinus hypoplasia].

    PubMed

    Plaza, G; Ferrando, J; Martel, J; Toledano, A; de los Santos, G

    2001-03-01

    Maxillary sinus hypoplasia is rare, with an estimated prevalence of 1-5%. Out of the CT scans performed in sinusal patients between March 1998 and June 1999, we report on 4 isolated maxillary sinus hypoplasia, 4 maxillary sinus hypoplasia associated to concha bullosa, and 10 isolated conchae bullosas. All cases were evaluated by nasosinusal endoscopy and CT scan. Size, location and uni/bilateral presentation of concha bullosa is correlated to maxillary sinus hypoplasia presence, specially with regards to uncinate process presence, medial or lateral retraction. The pathogenesis of maxillary sinus hypoplasia is reviewed, and its relation to concha bullosa, evaluating how this could explain some cases of the so called chronic maxillary sinus atelectasia, as an acquired and progressive variant of maxillary sinus hypoplasia in adults. PMID:11428268

  1. Approaching chronic sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Sarber, Kathleen M; Dion, Gregory Robert; Weitzel, Erik K; McMains, Kevin C

    2013-11-01

    Chronic sinusitis is a common disease that encompasses a number of syndromes that are characterized by sinonasal mucosal inflammation. Chronic sinusitis can be defined as two or more of the following symptoms lasting for more than 12 consecutive weeks: discolored rhinorrhea, postnasal drip, nasal obstruction, facial pressure or pain, or decreased sense of smell. Chronic sinusitis is further classified as chronic sinusitis with polyposis, chronic sinusitis without polyposis, or allergic fungal sinusitis using physical examination, and histologic and radiographic findings. Treatment methods for chronic sinusitis are based upon categorization of the disease and include oral and inhaled corticosteroids, nasal saline irrigations, and antibiotics in selected patients. Understanding the various forms of chronic sinusitis and managing and ruling out comorbidities are key to successful management of this common disorder. PMID:24192597

  2. Complications of Sinusitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hay Fever) Headaches and Sinus Disease Disorders of Smell & Taste Upper Respiratory Infections Nasal Congestion & Snoring CSF ... Hay Fever) Headaches and Sinus Disease Disorders of Smell & Taste Upper Respiratory Infections Nasal Congestion & Snoring CSF ...

  3. The female pattern hair loss: review of etiopathogenesis and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Vujovic, Anja; Del Marmol, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common hair loss disorder in women. Initial signs may develop during teenage years leading to a progressive hair loss with a characteristic pattern distribution. The condition is characterized by progressive replacement of terminal hair follicles over the frontal and vertex regions by miniaturized follicles, that leads progressively to a visible reduction in hair density. Women diagnosed with FPHL may undergo significant impairment of quality of life. FPHL diagnosis is mostly clinical. Depending on patient history and clinical evaluation, further diagnostic testing may be useful. The purpose of the paper is to review the current knowledge about epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of FPHL. PMID:24812631

  4. The Female Pattern Hair Loss: Review of Etiopathogenesis and Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Vujovic, Anja; Del Marmol, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common hair loss disorder in women. Initial signs may develop during teenage years leading to a progressive hair loss with a characteristic pattern distribution. The condition is characterized by progressive replacement of terminal hair follicles over the frontal and vertex regions by miniaturized follicles, that leads progressively to a visible reduction in hair density. Women diagnosed with FPHL may undergo significant impairment of quality of life. FPHL diagnosis is mostly clinical. Depending on patient history and clinical evaluation, further diagnostic testing may be useful. The purpose of the paper is to review the current knowledge about epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of FPHL. PMID:24812631

  5. Pharmacologic inhibition of JAK-STAT signaling promotes hair growth

    PubMed Central

    Harel, Sivan; Higgins, Claire A.; Cerise, Jane E.; Dai, Zhenpeng; Chen, James C.; Clynes, Raphael; Christiano, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    Several forms of hair loss in humans are characterized by the inability of hair follicles to enter the growth phase (anagen) of the hair cycle after being arrested in the resting phase (telogen). Current pharmacologic therapies have been largely unsuccessful in targeting pathways that can be selectively modulated to induce entry into anagen. We show that topical treatment of mouse and human skin with small-molecule inhibitors of the Janus kinase (JAK)–signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway results in rapid onset of anagen and subsequent hair growth. We show that JAK inhibition regulates the activation of key hair follicle populations such as the hair germ and improves the inductivity of cultured human dermal papilla cells by controlling a molecular signature enriched in intact, fully inductive dermal papillae. Our findings open new avenues for exploration of JAK-STAT inhibition for promotion of hair growth and highlight the role of this pathway in regulating the activation of hair follicle stem cells. PMID:26601320

  6. Pharmacologic inhibition of JAK-STAT signaling promotes hair growth.

    PubMed

    Harel, Sivan; Higgins, Claire A; Cerise, Jane E; Dai, Zhenpeng; Chen, James C; Clynes, Raphael; Christiano, Angela M

    2015-10-01

    Several forms of hair loss in humans are characterized by the inability of hair follicles to enter the growth phase (anagen) of the hair cycle after being arrested in the resting phase (telogen). Current pharmacologic therapies have been largely unsuccessful in targeting pathways that can be selectively modulated to induce entry into anagen. We show that topical treatment of mouse and human skin with small-molecule inhibitors of the Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway results in rapid onset of anagen and subsequent hair growth. We show that JAK inhibition regulates the activation of key hair follicle populations such as the hair germ and improves the inductivity of cultured human dermal papilla cells by controlling a molecular signature enriched in intact, fully inductive dermal papillae. Our findings open new avenues for exploration of JAK-STAT inhibition for promotion of hair growth and highlight the role of this pathway in regulating the activation of hair follicle stem cells. PMID:26601320

  7. Lack of Collagen VI Promotes Wound-Induced Hair Growth.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peiwen; Cescon, Matilde; Bonaldo, Paolo

    2015-10-01

    Collagen VI is an extracellular matrix molecule that is abundantly expressed in the skin. However, the role of collagen VI in hair follicle growth is unknown. Here, we show that collagen VI is strongly deposited in hair follicles, and is markedly upregulated by skin wounding. Lack of collagen VI in Col6a1(-/-) mice delays hair cycling and growth under physiological conditions, but promotes wound-induced hair regrowth without affecting skin regeneration. Conversely, addition of purified collagen VI rescues the abnormal wound-induced hair regrowth in Col6a1(-/-) mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that the increased wound-induced hair regrowth of Col6a1(-/-) mice is triggered by activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and is abolished by inhibition of this pathway. These findings highlight the essential relationships between extracellular matrix (ECM) and hair follicle regeneration, and suggest that collagen VI could be a potential therapeutic target for hair loss and other skin-related diseases. PMID:25989472

  8. Carotid sinus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mallet, Mark

    2003-02-01

    This article reviews the recent literature about carotid sinus syndrome. It looks principally at the various ways in which it may present, the limited knowledge of its pathophysiology, and the role of carotid sinus massage in the investigation of carotid sinus syndrome. PMID:12619336

  9. Sinus x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    Paranasal sinus radiography; X-ray - sinuses ... sinus x-ray is taken in a hospital radiology department. Or the x-ray may be taken ... Brown J, Rout J. ENT, neck, and dental radiology. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH Schaefer- ...

  10. Root Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Grierson, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Ketelaarc, Tijs; Schiefelbein, John

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair specification in Arabidopsis is determined by position-dependent signaling and molecular feedback loops causing differential accumulation of a WD-bHLH-Myb transcriptional complex. The initiation of root hairs is dependent on the RHD6 bHLH gene family and auxin to define the site of outgrowth. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, which involves multiple integrated processes including cell secretion, endomembrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and cell wall modifications. The study of root hair biology in Arabidopsis has provided a model cell type for insights into many aspects of plant development and cell biology. PMID:24982600

  11. Beam shaping for cosmetic hair removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Tuttle, Tracie

    2007-09-01

    Beam shaping has the potential to provide comfort to people who require or seek laser based cosmetic skin procedures. Of immediate interest is the procedure of aesthetic hair removal. Hair removal is performed using a variety of wavelengths from 480 to 1200 nm by means of filtered Xenon flash lamps (pulsed light) or 810 nm diode lasers. These wavelengths are considered the most efficient means available for hair removal applications, but current systems use simple reflector designs and plane filter windows to direct the light to the surface being exposed. Laser hair removal is achieved when these wavelengths at sufficient energy levels are applied to the epidermis. The laser energy is absorbed by the melanin (pigment) in the hair and hair follicle which in turn is transformed into heat. This heat creates the coagulation process, which causes the removal of the hair and prevents growth of new hair [1]. This paper outlines a technique of beam shaping that can be applied to a non-contact based hair removal system. Several features of the beam shaping technique including beam uniformity and heat dispersion across its operational treatment area will be analyzed. A beam shaper design and its fundamental testing will be discussed in detail.

  12. [Hair colorants].

    PubMed

    Urbanek-Karłowska, B; Luks, E; Jedra, M; Kiss, E; Malanowska, M

    1997-01-01

    The properties, mode of action and its duration of the preparations used for hair dyeing are described, together with their chemical components, and also preparations of herbal origin. The chemical reactions are described in detail which lead the development of a color polymer occurring during hair dyeing. The studies are presented which are used for toxicological assessment of the raw materials which are the components of the colorants, and the list is included of hair colorants permitted for use in Poland. PMID:9562811

  13. Idiopathic hirsutism: excessive bodily and facial hair in women.

    PubMed

    Elghblawi, Ebtisam

    Hirsutism is the excessive and increased bodily and facial hair growth in women in locations where hair is normally minimal or absent. It refers to the growth of hair in a pattern normally occurring only in men, and therefore primarily raises psychological, cosmetic and social concerns. Idiopathic hirsutism (IH), where the cause of excessive hair growth is unknown, is considered to be the most common form of hirsutism. It is suspected that this type of hirsutism may be familial, as there is often a family history of the condition. Women with IH will generally have normal menses and normal levels of testosterone. There are many treatment modalities that fall into two broad groups: medical and mechanical treatment. An example of a medical treatment is when an agent is used, which interferes with the synthesis of androgen at the ovarian or adrenal level, or by inhibiting the effect of androgen at the receptor level. An example of a mechanical treatment is laser hair removal, where the hair follicle is destroyed; however, much depends on the on the skill of the treating practitioner, laser type, laser spot size, skin type, hair colour, and the stage at which the hair follicles were during their hair growth cycle, and the delivered wavelength. Laser offers the fastest method of hair loss. Other mechanical treatments include electrolysis, depilatory creams, plucking and waxing. This article presents a general overview of IH, including a definition, diagnostic measures, clinical manifestations, normal and abnormal physiology, and treatment options. PMID:18414261

  14. Dietary vitamin A regulates wingless-related MMTV integration site signaling to alter the hair cycle

    PubMed Central

    Suo, Liye; Sundberg, John P; Everts, Helen B.

    2016-01-01

    Alopecia areata is an autoimmune hair loss disease caused by a cell mediated immune attack of the lower portion of the cycling hair follicle. Feeding mice 3–7 times the recommended level of dietary vitamin A accelerated the progression of alopecia areata in the graft-induced C3H/HeJ mouse model of alopecia areata. In this study we also found that dietary vitamin A, in a dose dependent manner, activated the hair follicle stem cells to induce the development and growth phase of the hair cycle (anagen), which may have made the hair follicle more susceptible to autoimmune attack. Our purpose here is to determine the mechanism by which dietary vitamin A regulates the hair cycle. We found that vitamin A in a dose dependent manner increased nuclear localized beta-catenin (CTNNB1; a marker of canonical WNT signaling) and levels of WNT7A (wingless-related MMTV integration site 7A) within the hair follicle bulge in these C3H/HeJ mice. These findings suggest that feeding mice high levels of dietary vitamin A increases WNT signaling to activate hair follicle stem cells. PMID:25361771

  15. Hair growth promoting potential of phospholipids purified from porcine lung tissues.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seong-Hyun; Moon, Jeong-Su; Jeon, Byung-Suk; Jeon, Yeon-Jeong; Yoon, Byung-Il; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2015-03-01

    BP201, porcine lung tissue-derived phospholipids, consists of phosphatidylcholine as a major phospholipid species. BP201 promoted hair growth after application onto the shaved backs of BALB/c and C3H mice. Its effect was enhanced when applied together with minoxidil (MNX) in C3H mice. When the tissue specimens prepared from the shaved skins of BP201-treated and control mice were microscopically examined, the total numbers of hair follicles in both anagen and telogen phases of BP201-treated mice were significantly higher than those of control mice. The numbers of hair follicles in the anagen phase of BP201-treated mice were also higher than those of control mice. In combination with MNX, BP201 further increased the total number of hair follicles, but did not alter the percentage of hair follicles in the anagenic phase. BP201 also increased the proliferation of human hair follicle dermal papilla cells. Collectively, BP201 possesses hair growth promoting potential, which would suggest its use singly or in combination for hair growth products. PMID:25767686

  16. Hair Growth Promoting Potential of Phospholipids Purified from Porcine Lung Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seong-Hyun; Moon, Jeong-Su; Jeon, Byung-Suk; Jeon, Yeon-Jeong; Yoon, Byung-Il; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2015-01-01

    BP201, porcine lung tissue-derived phospholipids, consists of phosphatidylcholine as a major phospholipid species. BP201 promoted hair growth after application onto the shaved backs of BALB/c and C3H mice. Its effect was enhanced when applied together with minoxidil (MNX) in C3H mice. When the tissue specimens prepared from the shaved skins of BP201-treated and control mice were microscopically examined, the total numbers of hair follicles in both anagen and telogen phases of BP201-treated mice were significantly higher than those of control mice. The numbers of hair follicles in the anagen phase of BP201-treated mice were also higher than those of control mice. In combination with MNX, BP201 further increased the total number of hair follicles, but did not alter the percentage of hair follicles in the anagenic phase. BP201 also increased the proliferation of human hair follicle dermal papilla cells. Collectively, BP201 possesses hair growth promoting potential, which would suggest its use singly or in combination for hair growth products. PMID:25767686

  17. In situ labeling of DNA reveals interindividual variation in nuclear DNA breakdown in hair and may be useful to predict success of forensic genotyping of hair.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Sandra; Jaeger, Karin; Fischer, Heinz; Tschachler, Erwin; Parson, Walther; Eckhart, Leopold

    2012-01-01

    Hair fibers are formed by keratinocytes of the hair follicle in a process that involves the breakdown of the nucleus including DNA. Accordingly, DNA can be isolated with high yield from the hair bulb which contains living keratinocytes, whereas it is difficult to prepare from the distal portions of hair fibers and from shed hair. Nevertheless, forensic investigations are successful in a fraction of shed hair samples found at crime scenes. Here, we report that interindividual differences in the completeness of DNA removal from hair corneocytes are major determinants of DNA content and success rates of forensic investigations of hair. Distal hair samples were permeabilized with ammonia and incubated with the DNA-specific dye Hoechst 33258 to label DNA in situ. Residual nuclear DNA was visualized under the fluorescence microscope. Hair from some donors did not contain any stainable nuclei, whereas hair of other donors contained a variable number of DNA-positive nuclear remnants. The number of DNA-containing nuclear remnants per millimeter of hair correlated with the amount of DNA that could be extracted and amplified by quantitative PCR. When individual hairs were investigated, only hairs in which DNA could be labeled in situ gave positive results in short tandem repeat typing. This study reveals that the completeness of DNA degradation during cornification of the hair is a polymorphic trait. Furthermore, our results suggest that in situ labeling of DNA in hair may be useful for predicting the probability of success of forensic analysis of nuclear DNA in shed hair. PMID:21475959

  18. Long-term removal of unwanted hair using light.

    PubMed

    Zandi, Soodabeh; Lui, Harvey

    2013-01-01

    Laser (or light) hair removal, also referred to as photoepilation, is the most commonly used laser or light-based cosmetic medical procedure. The extended theory of selective photothermolysis is the basic principle for destruction of hair follicles using light. In this type of laser application the chromophore is follicular melanin. Several types of lasers and light sources have been effective for hair reduction, including the ruby, alexandrite, diode, and neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet lasers and broadband, intense pulsed light sources. This article provides a broad overview of how hair can be removed using light, with an emphasis on practical considerations. PMID:23159187

  19. Hair Growth Promotion Activity and Its Mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunfei; Han, Mingnuan; Lin, Pei; He, Yanran; Yu, Jie; Zhao, Ronghua

    2015-01-01

    Polygonum multiflorum Radix (PMR) has long history in hair growth promotion and hair coloring in clinical applications. However, several crucial problems in its clinic usage and mechanisms are still unsolved or lack scientific evidences. In this research, C57BL/6J mice were used to investigate hair growth promotion activity and possible mechanism of PMR and Polygonum multiflorum Radix Preparata (PMRP). Hair growth promotion activities were investigated by hair length, hair covered skin ratio, the number of follicles, and hair color. Regulation effects of several cytokines involved in the hair growth procedure were tested, such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF-7), Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), β-catenin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Oral PMR groups had higher hair covered skin ratio (100 ± 0.00%) than oral PMRP groups (48%~88%). However, topical usage of PMRP had about 90% hair covered skin ratio. Both oral administration of PMR and topically given PMRP showed hair growth promotion activities. PMR was considered to be more suitable for oral administration, while PMRP showed greater effects in external use. The hair growth promotion effect of oral PMR was most probably mediated by the expression of FGF-7, while topical PMRP promoted hair growth by the stimulation of SHH expression. PMID:26294926

  20. Stimulatory effect of Brazilian propolis on hair growth through proliferation of keratinocytes in mice.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Shota; Oda, Yozo; Matsuo, Chika; Kumura, Haruto; Kobayashi, Ken

    2014-12-10

    Propolis is a natural honeybee hive product with the potential for use in the treatment of dermatological conditions, such as cutaneous abrasions, burns, and acne. In this study, we investigated whether propolis stimulates hair growth in mice. Ethanol-extracted propolis, which contains various physiologically active substances such as caffeic acid and kaempferol, stimulated anagen induction in shaved back skin. Anagen induction occurred without any detectable abnormalities in the shape of the hair follicles (HFs), hair stem cells in the bulge, proliferating hair matrix keratinocytes in the hair bulb, or localization of versican in the dermal papilla. Propolis treatment also stimulated migration of hair matrix keratinocytes into the hair shaft in HFs during late anagen in the depilated back skin. Organotypic culture of skin containing anagen stage HFs revealed significant stimulation of hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation by propolis. Furthermore, propolis facilitated the proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes. These results indicate that propolis stimulates hair growth by inducing hair keratinocyte proliferation. PMID:25418897

  1. The use of polyethylenimine-DNA to topically deliver hTERT to promote hair growth.

    PubMed

    Jan, H-M; Wei, M-F; Peng, C-L; Lin, S-J; Lai, P-S; Shieh, M-J

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the efficacy of polyethylenimine (PEI)-DNA complex that expressed human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) to transfect hair follicle stem cells and produce sufficient hTERT to stimulate hair growth. Transfection with pLC-hTERT-DNA-PEI complex (D+P group) in vitro induced expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in 35.8% of the purified stem cell population, suggesting enhanced cell proliferation. In vivo transfection efficiency of rat dorsal skin was determined by staining for β-gal activity. Cells positive for β-gal were located in the bulge region and dermal sheath of hair follicles. The follicles in the hTERT-transfected region entered anagenon day 15 after transfection, whereas non-transfected (Neg) controls remained in telogen. The similar effect was observed in 50-day-old rat dorsal skin. D+P group displayed a specific expression of hTERT and sufficient to initiate a transition to the anagen phase and promote new hair synthesis 18 days after the transfection. hTERT promoted follicle neogenesis following wounding. In all, 60 days after wounding, tissues of the D+P group showed more newly regenerating hair follicles (83±52 regenerated follicles per rat) in contrast to control group tissues (15±15 regenerated follicles per rat). These studies provide a potential approach for gene therapy of skin disease. PMID:21593794

  2. Stress and the Hair Growth Cycle: Cortisol-Induced Hair Growth Disruption.

    PubMed

    Thom, Erling

    2016-08-01

    The stress hormone, cortisol, is known to affect the function and cyclic regulation of the hair follicle. When cortisol is present at high levels it has been demonstrated to reduce the synthesis and accelerate the degradation of important skin elements, namely hyaluronan and proteoglycans by approximately 40%. The following discussion outlines the relationship between stress, cortisol, and the effect on the normal function of the hair follicle. As a result of this connection, important correlations have been established in the literature to form a basis for novel, effective treatments of stress-related hair growth disorders.
    Amongst various treatment methods and substances, oral supplementation with a specific bioavailable proteoglycan stands out as a promising new therapeutic treatment method.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(8):1001-1004. PMID:27538002

  3. Derivation of hair-inducing cell from human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gnedeva, Ksenia; Vorotelyak, Ekaterina; Cimadamore, Flavio; Cattarossi, Giulio; Giusto, Elena; Terskikh, Vasiliy V; Terskikh, Alexey V

    2015-01-01

    Dermal Papillae (DP) is a unique population of mesenchymal cells that was shown to regulate hair follicle formation and growth cycle. During development most DP cells are derived from mesoderm, however, functionally equivalent DP cells of cephalic hairs originate from Neural Crest (NC). Here we directed human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to generate first NC cells and then hair-inducing DP-like cells in culture. We showed that hESC-derived DP-like cells (hESC-DPs) express markers typically found in adult human DP cells (e.g., p-75, nestin, versican, SMA, alkaline phosphatase) and are able to induce hair follicle formation when transplanted under the skin of immunodeficient NUDE mice. Engineered to express GFP, hESC-derived DP-like cells incorporate into DP of newly formed hair follicles and express appropriate markers. We demonstrated that BMP signaling is critical for hESC-DP derivation since BMP inhibitor dorsomorphin completely eliminated hair-inducing activity from hESC-DP cultures. DP cells were proposed as the cell-based treatment for hair loss diseases. Unfortunately human DP cells are not suitable for this purpose because they cannot be obtained in necessary amounts and rapidly loose their ability to induce hair follicle formation when cultured. In this context derivation of functional hESC-DP cells capable of inducing a robust hair growth for the first time shown here can become an important finding for the biomedical science. PMID:25607935

  4. Derivation of Hair-Inducing Cell from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gnedeva, Ksenia; Vorotelyak, Ekaterina; Cimadamore, Flavio; Cattarossi, Giulio; Giusto, Elena; Terskikh, Vasiliy V.; Terskikh, Alexey V.

    2015-01-01

    Dermal Papillae (DP) is a unique population of mesenchymal cells that was shown to regulate hair follicle formation and growth cycle. During development most DP cells are derived from mesoderm, however, functionally equivalent DP cells of cephalic hairs originate from Neural Crest (NC). Here we directed human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to generate first NC cells and then hair-inducing DP-like cells in culture. We showed that hESC-derived DP-like cells (hESC-DPs) express markers typically found in adult human DP cells (e.g. p-75, nestin, versican, SMA, alkaline phosphatase) and are able to induce hair follicle formation when transplanted under the skin of immunodeficient NUDE mice. Engineered to express GFP, hESC-derived DP-like cells incorporate into DP of newly formed hair follicles and express appropriate markers. We demonstrated that BMP signaling is critical for hESC-DP derivation since BMP inhibitor dorsomorphin completely eliminated hair-inducing activity from hESC-DP cultures. DP cells were proposed as the cell-based treatment for hair loss diseases. Unfortunately human DP cells are not suitable for this purpose because they cannot be obtained in necessary amounts and rapidly loose their ability to induce hair follicle formation when cultured. In this context derivation of functional hESC-DP cells capable of inducing a robust hair growth for the first time shown here can become an important finding for the biomedical science. PMID:25607935

  5. Lichen planopilaris following hair transplantation and face-lift surgery.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Y Z; Tosti, A; Chaudhry, I H; Lyne, L; Farjo, B; Farjo, N; Cadore de Farias, D; Griffiths, C E M; Paus, R; Harries, M J

    2012-03-01

    Cosmetic surgical procedures, including hair transplantation and face-lift surgery, are becoming increasingly popular. However, there is very little information regarding the associated development of dermatological conditions following these procedures. Lichen planopilaris (LPP) is an uncommon inflammatory hair disorder of unknown aetiology that results in permanent alopecia and replacement of hair follicles with scar-like fibrous tissue. Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA), a variant of LPP, involves the frontal hairline and shares similar histological findings with those of LPP. We report 10 patients who developed LPP/FFA following cosmetic scalp surgery. Seven patients developed LPP following hair transplantation, and three patients developed FFA following face-lift surgery. In all cases there was no previous history of LPP or FFA. There is currently a lack of evidence to link the procedures of hair transplantation and cosmetic face-lift surgery to LPP and FFA, respectively. This is the first case series to describe this connection and to postulate the possible pathological processes underlying the clinical observation. Explanations include Koebner phenomenon induced by surgical trauma, an autoimmune process targeting an (as yet, unknown) hair follicle antigen liberated during surgery or perhaps a postsurgery proinflammatory milieu inducing hair follicle immune privilege collapse and follicular damage in susceptible individuals. PMID:21985326

  6. Hox in hair growth and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awgulewitsch, Alexander

    2003-05-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Hox gene family of transcriptional regulators has originally been known for specifying positional identities along the longitudinal body axis of bilateral metazoans, including mouse and man. It is believed that subsequent to this archaic role, subsets of Hox genes have been co-opted for patterning functions in phylogenetically more recent structures, such as limbs and epithelial appendages. Among these, the hair follicle is of particular interest, as it is the only organ undergoing cyclical phases of regression and regeneration during the entire life span of an organism. Furthermore, the hair follicle is increasingly capturing the attention of developmental geneticists, as this abundantly available miniature organ mimics key aspects of embryonic patterning and, in addition, presents a model for studying organ renewal. The first Hox gene shown to play a universal role in hair follicle development is Hoxc13, as both Hoxc13-deficient and overexpressing mice exhibit severe hair growth and patterning defects. Differential gene expression analyses in the skin of these mutants, as well as in vitro DNA binding studies performed with potential targets for HOXC13 transcriptional regulation in human hair, identified genes encoding hair-specific keratins and keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) as major groups of presumptive Hoxc13 downstream effectors in the control of hair growth. The Hoxc13 mutant might thus serve as a paradigm for studying hair-specific roles of Hoxc13 and other members of this gene family, whose distinct spatio-temporally restricted expression patterns during hair development and cycling suggest discrete functions in follicular patterning and hair cycle control. The main conclusion from a discussion of these potential roles vis-à-vis current expression data in mouse and man, and from the perspective of the results obtained with the Hoxc13 transgenic models, is that members of the Hox family are likely to fulfill essential roles

  7. Topical Treatment of Hair Loss with Formononetin by Modulating Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Hye; Choi, You Yeon; Lee, Ji Eun; Kim, Kyuseok; Yang, Woong Mo

    2016-01-01

    Formononetin is one of the main components of red clover plants and its role on hair regrowth against hair loss has not been established yet. In the present study, we assessed the potential effects of formononetin on alopecia, along with impaired hair cycles by induction of apoptosis-regression.Depilated C57BL/6 mice were used for monitoring the hair cycles. Formononetin (1 and 100 µM) was topically treated to the dorsal skin for 14 days. Topical formononetin treatment induced miniaturized hair follicles to recover to normal sizes. Tapering hair shaft began to grow newly, emerging from the hair follicles by formononetin. In addition, formononetin inhibited the activation of caspase-8 and decreased the procaspase-9 expression. As a result of formononetin treatment, anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 was up-regulated, whereas pro-apoptotic Bax and p53 were down-regulated, resulting in a decrease of caspase-3 activation. Formononetin showed the obvious inhibition of apoptosis under terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling staining thereafter.Taken together, our findings demonstrate that formononetin exerted the hair regrowth effect on hair loss, in which the underlying mechanisms were associated with Fas/Fas L-induced caspase activation, thus inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:26756818

  8. Activation of β-Catenin Signaling in CD133-Positive Dermal Papilla Cells Drives Postnatal Hair Growth.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Linli; Xu, Mingang; Yang, Yongguang; Yang, Kun; Wickett, Randall R; Andl, Thomas; Millar, Sarah E; Zhang, Yuhang

    2016-01-01

    The hair follicle dermal papilla (DP) contains a unique prominin-1/CD133-positive (CD133+) cell subpopulation, which has been shown to possess hair follicle-inducing capability. By assaying for endogenous CD133 expression and performing lineage tracing using CD133-CreERT2; ZsGreen1 reporter mice, we find that CD133 is expressed in a subpopulation of DP cells during the growth phase of the murine hair cycle (anagen), but is absent at anagen onset. However, how CD133+ DP cells interact with keratinocytes to induce hair regenerative growth remains unclear. Wnt/β-catenin has long been recognized as a major signaling pathway required for hair follicle morphogenesis, development, and regeneration. Nuclear Wnt/β-catenin activity is observed in the DP during the hair growth phase. Here we show that induced expression of a stabilized form of β-catenin in CD133+ DP cells significantly accelerates spontaneous and depilation-induced hair growth. However, hair follicle regression is not affected in these mutants. Further analysis indicates that CD133+ DP-expressed β-catenin increases proliferation and differentiation of epithelial matrix keratinocytes. Upregulated Wnt/β-catenin activity in CD133+ DP cells also increases the number of proliferating DP cells in each anagen follicle. Our data demonstrate that β-catenin signaling potentiates the capability of CD133+ DP cells to promote postnatal hair growth. PMID:27472062

  9. Activation of β-Catenin Signaling in CD133-Positive Dermal Papilla Cells Drives Postnatal Hair Growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Linli; Xu, Mingang; Yang, Yongguang; Yang, Kun; Wickett, Randall R.; Andl, Thomas; Millar, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    The hair follicle dermal papilla (DP) contains a unique prominin-1/CD133-positive (CD133+) cell subpopulation, which has been shown to possess hair follicle-inducing capability. By assaying for endogenous CD133 expression and performing lineage tracing using CD133-CreERT2; ZsGreen1 reporter mice, we find that CD133 is expressed in a subpopulation of DP cells during the growth phase of the murine hair cycle (anagen), but is absent at anagen onset. However, how CD133+ DP cells interact with keratinocytes to induce hair regenerative growth remains unclear. Wnt/β-catenin has long been recognized as a major signaling pathway required for hair follicle morphogenesis, development, and regeneration. Nuclear Wnt/β-catenin activity is observed in the DP during the hair growth phase. Here we show that induced expression of a stabilized form of β-catenin in CD133+ DP cells significantly accelerates spontaneous and depilation-induced hair growth. However, hair follicle regression is not affected in these mutants. Further analysis indicates that CD133+ DP-expressed β-catenin increases proliferation and differentiation of epithelial matrix keratinocytes. Upregulated Wnt/β-catenin activity in CD133+ DP cells also increases the number of proliferating DP cells in each anagen follicle. Our data demonstrate that β-catenin signaling potentiates the capability of CD133+ DP cells to promote postnatal hair growth. PMID:27472062

  10. Roles of GasderminA3 in Catagen-Telogen Transition During Hair Cycling.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiufeng; Lei, Mingxing; Shi, Jiazhong; Yu, Yu; Qiu, Weiming; Lai, Xiangdong; Liu, Yingxin; Yang, Tian; Yang, Li; Widelitz, Randall B; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Lian, Xiaohua

    2015-09-01

    Hair follicles undergo cyclic behavior through regression (catagen), rest (telogen), and regeneration (anagen) during postnatal life. The hair cycle transition is strictly regulated by the autonomous and extrinsic molecular environment. However, whether there is a switch controlling catagen-telogen transition remains largely unknown. Here we show that hair follicles cycle from catagen to the next anagen without transitioning through a morphologically typical telogen after Gsdma3 mutation. This leaves an ESLS (epithelial strand-like structure) during the time period corresponding to telogen phase in WT mice. Molecularly, Wnt10b is upregulated in Gsdma3 mutant mice. Restoration of Gsdma3 expression in AE (alopecia and excoriation) mouse skin rescues hair follicle telogen entry and significantly decreases the Wnt10b-mediated Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Overexpression of Wnt10b inhibits telogen entry by increasing epithelial strand cell proliferation. Subsequently, hair follicles with a Gsdma3 mutation enter the second anagen simultaneously as WT mice. Hair follicles cannot enter the second anagen with ectopic WT Gsdma3 overexpression. A luciferase reporter assay proves that Gsdma3 directly suppresses Wnt signaling. Our findings suggest that Gsdma3 has an important role in catagen-telogen transition by balancing the Wnt signaling pathway and that morphologically typical telogen is not essential for the initiation of a new hair cycle. PMID:25860385

  11. Activating β-catenin signaling in CD133-positive dermal papilla cells increases hair inductivity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Linli; Yang, Kun; Xu, Mingang; Andl, Thomas; Millar, Sarah E; Boyce, Steven; Zhang, Yuhang

    2016-08-01

    Bioengineering hair follicles using cells isolated from human tissue remains a difficult task. Dermal papilla (DP) cells are known to guide the growth and cycling activities of hair follicles by interacting with keratinocytes. However, DP cells quickly lose their inductivity during in vitro passaging. Rodent DP cell cultures need external addition of growth factors, including WNT and BMP molecules, to maintain the hair inductive property. CD133 is expressed by a subpopulation of DP cells that are capable of inducing hair follicle formation in vivo. We report here that expression of a stabilized form of β-catenin promoted clonal growth of CD133-positive (CD133+) DP cells in in vitro three-dimensional hydrogel culture while maintaining expression of DP markers, including alkaline phosphatase (AP), CD133, and integrin α8. After a 2-week in vitro culture, cultured CD133+ DP cells with up-regulated β-catenin activity led to an accelerated in vivo hair growth in reconstituted skin compared to control cells. Further analysis showed that matrix cell proliferation and differentiation were significantly promoted in hair follicles when β-catenin signaling was up-regulated in CD133+ DP cells. Our data highlight an important role for β-catenin signaling in promoting the inductive capability of CD133+ DP cells for in vitro expansion and in vivo hair follicle regeneration, which could potentially be applied to cultured human DP cells. PMID:27312243

  12. Roles of GasderminA3 in catagen- telogen transition during hair cycling

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiufeng; Lei, Mingxing; Shi, Jiazhong; Yu, Yu; Qiu, Weiming; Lai, Xiangdong; Liu, Yingxin; Yang, Tian; Yang, Li; Widelitz, Randall Bruce; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Lian, Xiaohua

    2015-01-01

    Hair follicles undergo cyclic behavior through regression (catagen), rest (telogen) and regeneration (anagen) during postnatal life. The hair cycle transition is strictly regulated by the autonomous and extrinsic molecular environment. However, whether there is a switch controlling catagen-telogen transition remains largely unknown. Here we show that hair follicles cycle from catagen to the next anagen without transitioning through a morphologically typical telogen after Gsdma3 mutation. This leaves an ESLS (epithelial strand-like structure) during the time period corresponding to telogen phase in WT mice. Molecularly, Wnt10b is upregulated in Gsdma3 mutant mice. Restoration of Gsdma3 expression in AE (alopecia and excoriation) mouse skin rescues hair follicle telogen entry and significantly decreases the Wnt10b-mediated Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Overexpression of Wnt10b inhibits telogen entry by increasing epithelial strand cell proliferation. Subsequently, hair follicles with a Gsdma3 mutation enter the second anagen simultaneously as WT mice. Hair follicles cannot enter the second anagen with ectopic WT Gsdma3 overexpression. A luciferase reporter assay proves Gsdma3 directly suppresses Wnt signaling. Our findings suggest Gsdma3 plays an important role in catagen-telogen transition by balancing the Wnt signaling pathway, and that morphologically typical telogen is not essential for the initiation of a new hair cycle. PMID:25860385

  13. Microbiology of sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Brook, Itzhak

    2011-03-01

    Most sinus infections are viral, and only a small proportion develops a secondary bacterial infection. Rhinoviruses, influenza viruses, and parainfluenza viruses are the most common causes of sinusitis. The most common bacteria isolated from pediatric and adult patients with community-acquired acute purulent sinusitis are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pyogenes. Staphylococcus aureus and anaerobic bacteria (Prevotella and Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium and Peptostreptococcus spp.) are the main isolates in chronic sinusitis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other aerobic and facultative gram-negative rods are commonly isolated from patients with nosocomial sinusitis, the immunocompromised host, those with HIV infection, and in cystic fibrosis. Fungi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the most common isolates in neutropenic patients. The microbiology of sinusitis is influenced by the previous antimicrobial therapy, vaccinations, and the presence of normal flora capable of interfering with the growth of pathogens. PMID:21364226

  14. Context based algorithmic framework for identifying and classifying embedded images of follicle units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md. Mahbubur; Iyengar, S. S.; Zeng, Wei; Hernandez, Frank; Nusbaum, Bernard P.; Rose, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Medical image processing has been very emerging research areas in recent days. These types of images are naturally so noisy. To count the target objects is never easy. But the proper treatment depends on the accuracy of the successful locating and counting of the desired objects in an image. Some research work can do this type of segmentation of images, but they include so many constraints on the input images that these solutions cannot be applied in a generalized way to most of the images. Even a slight variation in nature of an input image can lead to a major incorrectness of the result. So we developed a generalized way to count a very noisy part of human body, the hair follicle on the scalp. The objective of this research is to count the number of hair follicle groups and the number of follicles into each group in a microscopic image of human scalp. The follicles are nonstandard in shape i.e. they do not maintain any standard shape like rectangle, oval, circle etc. Moreover the follicles are overlapping with one another in many cases. So it is hard to separate them. Here we will present a technique to count the number of follicle group as well as number of follicles in each group. We also applied well-known techniques to cluster the objects detected and a method to generate a neighboring connected graph in order to calculate the inter follicular distances.

  15. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse ... much heat on your hair (like using a hot iron or hot blow drying). Another type of ...

  16. Dry hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... or using harsh soaps or alcohols Excessive blow-drying Dry air Menkes kinky hair syndrome Malnutrition Underactive ... or twice a week Add conditioners Avoid blow drying and harsh styling products

  17. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems, diabetes, or lupus. If you take certain medicines or have chemotherapy for cancer, you may also ... cause will correct the problem. Other treatments include medicines and hair restoration.

  18. The many paths to alopecia, with compromised hair stem cell regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ji; Jiang, Ting Xin; Chuong, Cheng Ming

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia can be caused by defective formation or increased destruction of hair follicles. Much work has elucidated the control of alopecia caused by regenerative problems due to morphogen signaling. Recently investigators started to reveal nuclear pathways required for the activation and progression of hair stem cells. Taken together these studies will provide new clues to the design of therapeutic strategies. PMID:23673497

  19. Responses of hair follicle–associated structures to loss of planar cell polarity signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hao; Nathans, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian hair follicle unit consists of a central follicle and a series of associated structures: sebaceous glands, arrector pili muscles, Merkel cells, and sensory nerve endings. The architecture of this multicellular structure is highly polarized with respect to the body axes. Previous work has implicated Frizzled6 (Fz6)-mediated planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling in the initial specification of hair follicle orientation. Here we investigate the origin of polarity information among structures within the hair follicle unit. Merkel cell clusters appear to have direct access to Fz6-based polarity information, and they lose polarity in the absence of Fz6. By contrast, the other follicle-associated structures likely derive some or all of their polarity cues from hair follicles, and as a result, their orientations closely match that of their associated follicle. These experiments reveal the interplay between global and local sources of polarity information for coordinating the spatial arrangement of diverse multicellular structures. They also highlight the utility of mammalian skin as a system for quantitative analyses of biological polarity. PMID:23431170

  20. KF19418, a new compound for hair growth promotion in vitro and in vivo mouse models.

    PubMed

    Shirai, A; Ikeda, J; Kawashima, S; Tamaoki, T; Kamiya, T

    2001-04-01

    KF19418, a newly synthesized compound, stimulated proliferation of cultured hair bulb cells from new born mice in concentration-dependent manner in the range under 10 microM. In the culture system of whole skin pieces from 4-week-old mice which we earlier established, KF19418 promoted hair follicle elongation as in the case of minoxidil. After topical application for 2 weeks of KF19418 or minoxidil to dorsal skin of hair-clipped mouse alopecia model, KF19418 at 1% suspension accelerated hair regrowth at a rate comparable to 1% minoxidil solution. Thus, it was shown that KF19418 directly stimulated hair follicle in vitro and had hair growth promoting activities in vivo. PMID:11240269

  1. Age-related hair pigment loss.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2015-01-01

    Humans are social animals that communicate disproportionately via potent genetic signals imbued in the skin and hair, including racial, ethnic, health, gender, and age status. For the vast majority of us, age-related hair pigment loss becomes the inescapable signal of our disappearing youth. The hair follicle (HF) pigmentary unit is a wonderful tissue for studying mechanisms generally regulating aging, often before this becomes evident elsewhere in the body. Given that follicular melanocytes (unlike those in the epidermis) are regulated by the hair growth cycle, this cycle is likely to impact the process of aging in the HF pigmentary unit. The formal identification of melanocyte stem cells in the mouse skin has spurred a flurry of reports on the potential involvement of melanocyte stem cell depletion in hair graying (i.e., canities). Caution is recommended, however, against simple extrapolation of murine data to humans. Regardless, hair graying in both species is likely to involve an age-related imbalance in the tissue's oxidative stress handling that will impact not only melanogenesis but also melanocyte stem cell and melanocyte homeostasis and survival. There is some emerging evidence that the HF pigmentary unit may have regenerative potential, even after it has begun to produce white hair fibers. It may therefore be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some aging-associated changes to maintain melanin production for longer. PMID:26370651

  2. Dkk4 and Eda Regulate Distinctive Developmental Mechanisms for Subtypes of Mouse Hair

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Chang-Yi; Kunisada, Makoto; Piao, Yulan; Childress, Victoria; Ko, Minoru S. H.; Schlessinger, David

    2010-01-01

    The mouse hair coat comprises protective “primary” and thermo-regulatory “secondary” hairs. Primary hair formation is ectodysplasin (Eda) dependent, but it has been puzzling that Tabby (Eda-/y) mice still make secondary hair. We report that Dickkopf 4 (Dkk4), a Wnt antagonist, affects an auxiliary pathway for Eda-independent development of secondary hair. A Dkk4 transgene in wild-type mice had no effect on primary hair, but secondary hairs were severely malformed. Dkk4 action on secondary hair was further demonstrated when the transgene was introduced into Tabby mice: the usual secondary follicle induction was completely blocked. The Dkk4-regulated secondary hair pathway, like the Eda-dependent primary hair pathway, is further mediated by selective activation of Shh. The results thus reveal two complex molecular pathways that distinctly regulate subtype-based morphogenesis of hair follicles, and provide a resolution for the longstanding puzzle of hair formation in Tabby mice lacking Eda. PMID:20386733

  3. Experimental study on apoptosis induced by semiconductor laser to hair removal and armpit odor treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Hongmin; Yan, Min; Zhang, Meijue

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To observe and explore the effects and mechanism of apoptosis on canine induced by Laser. Try to find a new approach to treat of armpit odor with no traumatism. Method: We used different power of semiconductor Laser to irradiate the black hair canine to observe and evaluate the tissue effects with electroscope, flow cytometry and Tunel technique at different period of time after irradiation. Result: The apoptosis has been observed within the hair follicle cells and apocrine gland cells after irradiation. After repeat irradiation in low power level, more apoptosis has been observed. Conclusion: Apoptosis exists in hair follicle cells and apocrine gland cells after Laser irradiation.

  4. Expression patterns of keratin intermediate filament and keratin associated protein genes in wool follicles.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhidong; Gordon, Steven W; Nixon, Allan J; Bawden, C Simon; Rogers, Michael A; Wildermoth, Janet E; Maqbool, Nauman J; Pearson, Allan J

    2009-03-01

    The catalogue of hair keratin intermediate filaments (KIFs) and keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) present in wool follicles is incomplete. The full coding sequences for three novel sheep KIFs (KRT27, KRT35 and KRT38) and one KAP (KRTAP4-3) were established in this study. Spatial expression patterns of these and other genes (KRT31, KRT85, KRTAP6-1 and trichohyalin) were determined by in situ hybridisation in wool follicles at synchronised stages of growth. Transcription proceeded in the order: trichohyalin, KRT27, KRT85, KRT35, KRT31, KRT38, KRTAP6-1 and KRTAP4-3, as determined by increasing distance of their expression zones from the germinal matrix in anagen follicles. Expression became gradually more restricted to the lower follicle during follicle regression (catagen), and ceased during dormancy (telogen). Some genes (KRT27, KRT31, KRT85 and KRTAP6-1), but not others, were expressed in cortical cells forming the brush-end, indicating specific requirements for the formation of this anchoring structure. The resumption of keratin expression was observed only in later stages of follicle reactivation (proanagen). KIF expression patterns in primary wool follicles showed general resemblance to their human homologues but with some unique features. Consistent differences in localisation between primary and secondary wool follicles were observed. Asymmetrical expression of KRT27, KRT31, KRT35, KRT85 and trichohyalin genes in secondary follicles were associated with bulb deflection and follicle curvature, suggesting a role in the determination of follicle and fibre morphology. PMID:19272529

  5. Hair Growth-Promoting Effects of Lavender Oil in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Boo Hyeong; Lee, Jae Soon; Kim, Young Chul

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the hair growth effects of lavender oil (LO) in female C57BL/6 mice. The experimental animals were divided into a normal group (N: saline), a vehicle control group (VC: jojoba oil), a positive control group (PC: 3% minoxidil), experimental group 1 (E1: 3% LO), and experimental group 2 (E2: 5% LO). Test compound solutions were topically applied to the backs of the mice (100 μL per application), once per day, 5 times a week, for 4 weeks. The changes in hair follicle number, dermal thickness, and hair follicle depth were observed in skin tissues stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and the number of mast cells was measured in the dermal and hypodermal layers stained with toluidine blue. PC, E1, and E2 groups showed a significantly increased number of hair follicles, deepened hair follicle depth, and thickened dermal layer, along with a significantly decreased number of mast cells compared to the N group. These results indicated that LO has a marked hair growth-promoting effect, as observed morphologically and histologically. There was no significant difference in the weight of the thymus among the groups. However, both absolute and relative weights of the spleen were significantly higher in the PC group than in the N, VC, E1, or E2 group at week 4. Thus, LO could be practically applied as a hair growth-promoting agent. PMID:27123160

  6. Hair Growth-Promoting Effects of Lavender Oil in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Boo Hyeong; Lee, Jae Soon; Kim, Young Chul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the hair growth effects of lavender oil (LO) in female C57BL/6 mice. The experimental animals were divided into a normal group (N: saline), a vehicle control group (VC: jojoba oil), a positive control group (PC: 3% minoxidil), experimental group 1 (E1: 3% LO), and experimental group 2 (E2: 5% LO). Test compound solutions were topically applied to the backs of the mice (100 μL per application), once per day, 5 times a week, for 4 weeks. The changes in hair follicle number, dermal thickness, and hair follicle depth were observed in skin tissues stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and the number of mast cells was measured in the dermal and hypodermal layers stained with toluidine blue. PC, E1, and E2 groups showed a significantly increased number of hair follicles, deepened hair follicle depth, and thickened dermal layer, along with a significantly decreased number of mast cells compared to the N group. These results indicated that LO has a marked hair growth-promoting effect, as observed morphologically and histologically. There was no significant difference in the weight of the thymus among the groups. However, both absolute and relative weights of the spleen were significantly higher in the PC group than in the N, VC, E1, or E2 group at week 4. Thus, LO could be practically applied as a hair growth-promoting agent. PMID:27123160

  7. Can a topical scalp treatment reduce hair bulb extraction?

    PubMed

    Gruber, James V; Bouldin, Lisa; Lou, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Generally speaking, when people talk about "hair breakage" they are typically referring to the idea that as they comb or brush their hair, the fibers are elongating and snapping at some weak point in the fiber length. It is well established that as people chemically treat their hair, the keratin proteins are degraded further and the hair become more brittle and susceptible to breakage. For the consumer, hair breakage is registered as hair fibers noted in their comb or brush, and in the drain that they see after a cosmetic treatment. However, a fundamental question that needs to be asked is whether or not the hairs that are seen in the drain are really the result of hair breakage (i.e., a fiber snapping) or are they the result of hairs that are actually being extracted from the scalp by their root bulbs. If the bulk of the hair fibers are actually extracted by the bulb, than it seems somewhat superfluous to try and improve hair strength by improving the exterior of the fiber. The fiber is dead and topical treatments can only smooth, and possibly moisten already established fiber structure and integrity. This paper will attempt to address hair strength by looking at the scalp and follicle as the target for treatment, showing that topical application of a product containing a blend of well-known skin active ingredients can demonstrate potential reductions in hair extractions. An in vivo testing protocol in which 15 voluntary participants with at least 12" hair length were professionally shampooed, and then treated, half-head, with a commercial conditioner, or the same conditioner that contained 5% of a mixture of yeast peptides, fruit acids and green tea polyphenols every day for five days will be discussed. At the beginning and end of the treatment period, the number of hairs that either broke along the fiber, or extracted by the bulb were gathered, separated and counted for both the treated and untreated side of the head. The results of this one-week study

  8. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... psychosocial impact of hair loss have found patients’ self-esteem, body image and self-confidence to be negatively ... 1-2 Known psychosocial complications include depression, low self-esteem, altered self-image, and less frequent and enjoyable ...

  9. Spaying-induced coat changes: the role of gonadotropins, GnRH and GnRH treatment on the hair cycle of female dogs.

    PubMed

    Reichler, Iris Margaret; Welle, Monika; Eckrich, Christine; Sattler, Ursula; Barth, Andrea; Hubler, Madeleine; Nett-Mettler, Claudia S; Jöchle, Wolfgang; Arnold, Susi

    2008-04-01

    Although spaying can result in qualitative hair coat changes in dogs, the influence of spaying on the hair growth cycle has never been described. The study aims were to examine the effect of spaying and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) treatment on canine hair coat, cycle stages of hair follicles, plasma gonadotropin concentrations and mRNA transcription of luteinizing hormone (LH) and GnRH receptors in hair follicles. Fifteen female dogs were examined before and 1 year after spaying and 24 spayed dogs before and after GnRH treatment. Spaying resulted in increased plasma gonadotropin concentrations and increased anagen : telogen ratio of hair follicles, but only 20% of the dogs developed coat changes. No differences were found in mRNA transcription of LH and GnRH receptors. GnRH treatment resulted in reduced plasma gonadotropin concentrations and improvement of coat changes in 79% of patients. This was associated with an increase in catagen hair follicles without changes in the anagen : telogen ratio. The present study demonstrated that spaying had an effect on the anagen : telogen ratio of hair follicles. Spaying-induced coat changes did not correlate with the anagen : telogen ratio. GnRH treatment reduced gonadotropin concentrations and reversed coat changes in some dogs, but had no effect on the hair growth cycle other than increasing the number of