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1

Gross decontamination experiment report  

SciTech Connect

A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

1983-07-01

2

Decontamination to achieve site-release criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project presented unique opportunities in the management and performance of component and area decontamination to meet established site-release criteria. Decontamination activities were performed to meet the following overall project objectives: (1) internal decontamination of radioactively contaminated components to meet low-specific-activity (LSA) shipping limits, (2) reduction of component radiation levels to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

Schulmeister

1988-01-01

3

Urban Decontamination Experience at Pripyat Ukraine - 13526  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the efficiency of radioactive decontamination activities of the urban landscape in the town of Pripyat, Ukraine. Different methods of treatment for various urban infrastructure and different radioactive contaminants are assessed. Long term changes in the radiation condition of decontaminated urban landscapes are evaluated: 1. Decontamination of the urban system requires the simultaneous application of multiple methods including mechanical, chemical, and biological. 2. If a large area has been contaminated, decontamination of local areas of a temporary nature. Over time, there is a repeated contamination of these sites due to wind transport from neighboring areas. 3. Involvement of earth-moving equipment and removal of top soil by industrial method achieves 20-fold reduction in the level of contamination by radioactive substances, but it leads to large amounts of waste (up to 1500 tons per hectare), and leads to the re-contamination of treated areas due to scatter when loading, transport pollutants on the wheels of vehicles, etc.. (authors)

Paskevych, Sergiy [Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 36 a Kirova str. Chornobyl, Kiev region, 07200 (Ukraine)] [Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 36 a Kirova str. Chornobyl, Kiev region, 07200 (Ukraine); Voropay, Dmitry [Federal State Unitary Enterprise 'Russian State Center of Inventory and Registration and Real Estate - Federal Bureau of Technical Inventory', 37-2 Bernadsky Prospekt, Moscow Russia 119415 (Russian Federation)] [Federal State Unitary Enterprise 'Russian State Center of Inventory and Registration and Real Estate - Federal Bureau of Technical Inventory', 37-2 Bernadsky Prospekt, Moscow Russia 119415 (Russian Federation); Schmieman, Eric [Battelle Memorial Institute, PO Box 999 MSIN K6-90, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)] [Battelle Memorial Institute, PO Box 999 MSIN K6-90, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

2013-07-01

4

Off-site consequences of radiological accidents: methods, costs and schedules for decontamination  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a data base and a computer program for conducting a decontamination analysis of a large, radiologically contaminated area. The data base, which was compiled largely through interviews with knowledgeable persons both in the public and private sectors, consists of the costs, physical inputs, rates and contaminant removal efficiencies of a large number of decontamination procedures. The computer program utilizes this data base along with information specific to the contaminated site to provide detailed information that includes the least costly method for effectively decontaminating each surface at the site, various types of property losses associated with the contamination, the time at which each subarea within the site should be decontaminated to minimize these property losses, the quantity of various types of labor and equipment necessary to complete the decontamination, dose to radiation workers, the costs for surveying and monitoring activities, and the disposal costs associated with radiological waste generated during cleanup. The program and data base are demonstrated with a decontamination analysis of a hypothetical site. 39 refs., 24 figs., 155 tabs.

Tawil, J.J.; Bold, F.C.; Harrer, B.J.; Currie, J.W.

1985-08-01

5

DECONTAMINATION OF STRUCTURES AND DEBRIS AT SUPERFUND SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Two building decontamination technologies were demonstrated and evaluated: a method for in situ degradation of PCB's requiring application of an alkali metal/polyethylene glycolate mixture directly on concrete surfaces; and a shotblasting technique using steel shot to cut away co...

6

SITE EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES: BIOSCRUBBER FOR REMOVING HAZARDOUS ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM SOIL, WATER, AND AIR DECONTAMINATION PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

An engineered biofilter was developed to digest hazardous organic emissions from soil, water, and air decontamination processes. ench scale unit was tested for >11 months for the removal of low levels of toluene in air under the SITE Emerging Technology Program. The bioscrubber c...

7

Conversion of transuranic waste to low level waste by decontamination: a site specific update  

SciTech Connect

As a followup to an FY-1984 cost/benefit study, a program was conducted in FY-1985 to transfer to the relevant DOE sites the information and technology for the direct conversion of transuranic (TRU) waste to low-level waste (LLW) by decontamination. As part of this work, the economic evaluation of the various TRUW volume reduction and conversion options was updated and expanded to include site-specific factors. The results show, for the assumptions used, that size reduction, size reduction followed by decontamination, or in situ decontamination are cost effective compared with the no-processing option. The technology transfer activities included site presentations and discussions with operations and waste management personnel to identify application opportunities and site-specific considerations and constraints that could affect the implementation of TRU waste conversion principles. These discussions disclosed definite potential for the beneficial application of these principles at most of the sites, but also confirmed the existence of site-specific factors ranging from space limitations to LLW disposal restrictions that could preclude particular applications or diminish expected benefits. 8 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Allen, R.P.; Hazelton, R.F.

1985-09-01

8

Development of major process improvements for decontamination of large, complex, highly radioactive mixed waste items at the Hanford Site T Plant  

SciTech Connect

As part of the decontamination/treatment mission at the Hanford Site, Westinghouse Hanford Company, under contract to the US Department of Energy, conducts decontamination activities at the T Plant complex. Currently, the 221-T canyon High-Level Waste Decontamination Facility and the 2706-T Low-Level Waste Decontamination Facility capabilities are limited because upgrades are needed. Major process improvements must be developed to decontaminate large, complex, highly radioactive mixed-waste items. At the T Plant complex, an engineering team process was used to project possible solid mixed-waste feed streams and develop a preconceptual system to decontaminate and treat the waste. Treatment objectives and benefits were identified. Selected technologies were reviewed and improvements required to implement a preconceptual system at T Plant were considered. Decontamination facility alternatives were discussed in conjunction with ongoing and future decontamination activities at the Hanford Site, including efforts to enhance overall decontamination operations and capabilities.

Johnson, W.L.; Veilleux, R.L.

1995-01-01

9

Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The site is located within the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (R-MAD) compound and consists of Building 3126, two outdoor decontamination pads, and surrounding areas within an existing fenced area measuring approximately 50 x 37 meters (160 x 120 feet). The site was used from the early 1960s to the early 1970s as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station program to decontaminate test-car hardware and tooling. The site was reactivated in the early 1980s to decontaminate a radiologically contaminated military tank. This Closure Report (CR) describes the closure activities performed to allow un-restricted release of the R-MAD Decontamination Facility.

G. N. Doyle

2002-02-01

10

Interim Status of the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment Integrated Decontamination and Decommissioning Project  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), and Argonne National Laboratory - East (ANL-E) teamed to establish the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) Integrated Decontamination and Decommissioning (ID&D) project to increase the use of improved technologies in D&D operations. The project is making the technologies more readily available, providing training, putting the technologies to use, and spreading information about improved performance. The improved technologies are expected to reduce cost, schedule, radiation exposure, or waste volume over currently used baseline methods. They include some of the most successful technologies proven in the large-scale demonstrations and in private industry. The selected technologies are the Pipe Explorer, the GammaCam, the Decontamination Decommissioning and Remediation Optimal Planning System (DDROPS), the BROKK Demolition Robot, the Personal Ice Cooling System (PICS), the Oxy-Gasoline Torch, the Track-Mounted Shear, and the Hand-Held Shear.

A. M Smith; G. E. Matthern; R. H. Meservey

1998-11-01

11

On-Site Decontamination System for Liquid Low Level Radioactive Waste - 13010  

SciTech Connect

This study is based on an evaluation of purification methods for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) by using natural zeolite. Generally the volume of liquid low-level waste is relatively large and the specific activity is rather low when compared to other radioactive waste types. In this study, a pilot scale column was used with natural zeolite as an ion exchanger media. Decontamination and minimization of LLLW especially at the generation site decrease operational cost in waste management operations. Portable pilot scale column was constructed for decontamination of LLW on site. Effect of temperature on the radionuclide adsorption of the zeolite was determined to optimize the waste solution temperature for the plant scale operations. In addition, effect of pH on the radionuclide uptake of the zeolite column was determined to optimize the waste solution pH for the plant scale operations. The advantages of this method used for the processing of LLLW are discussed in this paper. (authors)

OSMANLIOGLU, Ahmet Erdal [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Kucukcekmece Istanbul (Turkey)] [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Kucukcekmece Istanbul (Turkey)

2013-07-01

12

Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for decontamination at the St. Louis Downtown Site, St. Louis, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is implementing a cleanup program for three groups of properties in the St. Louis, Missouri, area: the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS), the St. Louis Airport Site (SLAPS) and vicinity properties, and the Latty Avenue Properties, including the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS). The general location of these properties is shown in Figure 1; the properties are referred to collectively as the St. Louis Site. None of the properties are owned by DOE, but each property contains radioactive residues from federal uranium processing activities conducted at the SLDS during and after World War 2. The activities addressed in this environmental evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report are being proposed as interim components of a comprehensive cleanup strategy for the St. Louis Site. As part of the Department's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), DOE is proposing to conduct limited decontamination in support of proprietor-initiated activities at the SLDS, commonly referred to as the Mallinckrodt Chemical Works. The primary goal of FUSRAP activity at the SLDS is to eliminate potential environmental hazards associated with residual contamination resulting from the site's use for government-funded uranium processing activities. 17 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Picel, M.H.; Hartmann, H.M.; Nimmagadda, M.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Williams, M.J. (Bechtel National, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

1991-05-01

13

Decontamination and decommissioning assessment for the Waste Incineration Facility (Building 232-Z) Hanford Site, [Hanford], WA  

SciTech Connect

Building 232-Z is an element of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. From 1961 until 1972, plutonium-bearing combustible materials were incinerated in the building. Between 1972 and 1983, following shutdown of the incinerator, the facility was used for waste segregation activities. The facility was placed in retired inactive status in 1984 and classified as a Limited Control Facility pursuant to DOE Order 5480.5, Safety of Nuclear Facilities, and 6430.1A, General Design Criteria. The current plutonium inventory within the building is estimated to be approximately 848 grams, the majority of which is retained within the process hood ventilation system. As a contaminated retired facility, Building 232-Z is included in the DOE Surplus Facility Management Program. The objective of this Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) assessment is to remove Building 232-Z, thereby elmininating the radiological and environmental hazards associated with the plutonium inventory within the structure. The steps to accomplish the plan objectives are: (1) identifying the locations of the most significant amounts of plutonium, (2) removing residual plutonium, (3) removing and decontaminating remaining building equipment, (4) dismantling the remaining structure, and (5) closing out the project.

Dean, L.N. [Advanced Sciences, Inc., (United States)

1994-02-01

14

Post-decontamination and dismantlement (D&D) characterization report for CFA-669 site  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results of post-decontamination and dismantling (D&D) characterization surveys performed by EG&G Idaho, Inc. (EG&G Idaho), at Central Facilities Area (CFA)-669, which was the Hot Laundry Facility. The site was characterized to determine and document the radiological and chemical conditions of the site following D&D and to determine if the site satisfies the release criteria. Constructed in 1950, CFA-669 served as the ``hot`` and ``cold`` laundry for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory site contractors until the boiler exploded in 1981. The building was shut down at that time. Before D&D activities began in 1992, the facility was characterized and the results documented. D&D activities were completed in July 1994. The post-D&D radiological characterization consisted of radiation measurements and analyses of soil samples to identify man-made radionuclides and determine the specific activity of each sample. The chemical characterization consisted of toxicity characterization leaching procedure (TCLP) analysis for metals and for volatile and semivolatile organic contamination.

Smith, D.L. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1995-01-01

15

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Site Environmental Restoration Site Characterization Plan, Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility, Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility (DPF) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which will be conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations OffIce (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration Division (ERD). The objectives of the planned activities are to: o Obtain sufficient, ample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies maybe developed for the site. o Obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste. All references to regulations contained in this plan are to the versions of the regulations that are current at the time of publication of this plan. The scope of the characterization may include surface radiation survey(s), surface soil sampling, subsurface soil boring (i.e., drilling), and sampling of soil in and Mound the pond; in situ sampling of the soil within subsurface soil borings; and sample analysis for both site . . characterization and waste management purposes.

NONE

1996-08-12

16

EXPERIENCE FROM TWO SMALL QUANTITY RH-TRU WASTE SITES IN NAVIGATING THROUGH AN EVOLVING REGULATORY LANDSCAPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two small quantity transuranic (TRU) waste generator sites have gained considerable experience in navigating through a changing regulatory landscape in their efforts to remove the TRU waste from their sites and proceed with site remediation. The Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project (BCLDP) has the objectives of decontaminating nuclear research buildings and associated grounds and remediating to a level of residual

Jennifer Biedscheid; Murthy Devarakonda; Jim Eide; Dennis Kneff

2003-01-01

17

Stationary low power reactor No. 1 (SL-1) accident site decontamination & dismantlement project  

SciTech Connect

The Army Reactor Area (ARA) II was constructed in the late 1950s as a test site for the Stationary Low Power Reactor No. 1 (SL-1). The SL-1 was a prototype power and heat source developed for use at remote military bases using a direct cycle, boiling water, natural circulation reactor designed to operate at a thermal power of 3,000 kW. The ARA II compound encompassed 3 acres and was comprised of (a) the SL-1 Reactor Building, (b) eight support facilities, (c) 50,000-gallon raw water storage tank, (d) electrical substation, (e) aboveground 1,400-gallon heating oil tank, (f) underground 1,000-gallon hazardous waste storage tank, and (g) belowground power, sewer, and water systems. The reactor building was a cylindrical, aboveground facility, 39 ft in diameter and 48 ft high. The lower portion of the building contained the reactor pressure vessel surrounded by gravel shielding. Above the pressure vessel, in the center portion of the building, was a turbine generator and plant support equipment. The upper section of the building contained an air cooled condenser and its circulation fan. The major support facilities included a 2,500 ft{sup 2} two story, cinder block administrative building; two 4,000 ft{sup 2} single story, steel frame office buildings; a 850 ft{sup 2} steel framed, metal sided PL condenser building, and a 550 ft{sup 2} steel framed decontamination and laydown building.

Perry, E.F.

1995-11-01

18

Site Characterization Plan for decontamination and decommissioning of Buildings 3506 and 3515 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Buildings 3506, the Waste Evaporator Facility, and 3515, the Fission Product Pilot Plant, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), are scheduled for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). This Site Characterization Plan (SCP) presents the strategy and techniques to be used to characterize Buildings 3506/3515 for the purpose of planning D&D activities. The elements of the site characterization for Buildings 3506/3515 are planning and preparation, field investigation, and characterization reporting. Other level of effort activities will include management and oversight, project controls, meetings, and progress reporting. The objective of the site characterization is to determine the nature and extent of radioactive and hazardous materials and other industrial hazards in and around the buildings. This information will be used in subsequent planning to develop a detailed approach for final decommissioning of the facilities: (1) to evaluate decommissioning alternatives and design the most cost-effective D&D approach; (2) to determine the level and type of protection necessary for D&D workers; and (3) to estimate the types and volumes of wastes generated during D&D activities. The current D&D characterization scope includes the entire building, including the foundation and equipment or materials within the building. To estimate potential worker exposure from the soil during D&D, some subfoundation soil sample collection is planned. Buildings 3506/3515 are located in the ORNL main plant area, to the west and east, respectively, of the South Tank Farm. Building 3506 was built in 1949 to house a liquid waste evaporator and was subsequently used for an incinerator experiment. Partial D&D was done prior to abandonment, and most equipment has been removed. Building 3515 was built in 1948 to house fission product separation equipment. In about 1960, all entrances were sealed with concrete block and mortar. Building 3515 is expected to be highly contaminated.

Not Available

1993-09-01

19

Radiological dose assessment for the decontaminated concrete removed from 183-H solar evaporation basins at the Hanford site, Richland, Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential maximum radiation dose rates over a 1,000-year time horizon were calculated for exposure to the decontaminated concrete removed from the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The RESRAD computer code, Version 5.62, which implements the methodology described in the US Department of Energy`s manual for developing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation.

S. Kamboj; E. Faillace; C. Yu

1997-01-01

20

The decontamination, decommissioning, and demolition of loss-of-fluid test reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

In October 2006, CH2M-WG Idaho completed the decontamination, decommissioning and demolition of the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility. The 30-year-old research reactor, located at the Idaho National Laboratory site, posed significant challenges involving regulations governing the demolition of a historical facility, as well as worker safety issues associated with the removal of the reactor's domed structure. The LOFT facility was located

James P. Floerke; Thomas F. Borschel; L. Kelly Rhodes

2007-01-01

21

Environmental decontamination  

SciTech Connect

The record of the proceedings of the workshop on environmental decontamination contains twenty-seven presentations. Emphasis is placed upon soil and surface decontamination, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and assessments of instrumentation and equipment used in decontamination. (DLS)

Cristy, G.A.; Jernigan, H.C. (eds.)

1981-02-01

22

Fiscal year 1996 decontamination and decommissioning activities photobriefing book for the Argonne National Laboratory-East Site, Technology Development Division, Waste Management Program, Decontamination and Decommissioning Projects Department  

SciTech Connect

The Photobriefing Book describes the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Program at the Argonne National Laboratory-East Site (ANL-E) near Lemont, Illinois. This book summarizes current D and D projects, reviews fiscal year (FY) 1996 accomplishments, and outlines FY 1997 goals. A section on D and D Technology Development provides insight on new technologies for D and D developed or demonstrated at ANL-E. Past projects are recapped and upcoming projects are described as Argonne works to accomplish its commitment to, ``Close the Circle on the Splitting of the Atom.`` Finally, a comprehensive review of the status and goals of the D and D Program is provided to give a snap-shot view of the program and the direction it`s taking as it moves into FY 1997. The D and D projects completed to date include: Plutonium Fuel Fabrication Facility; East Area Surplus Facilities; Experimental Boiling Water Reactor; M-Wing Hot Cell Facilities; Plutonium Gloveboxes; and Fast Neutron Generator.

NONE

1996-12-31

23

DEMONSTRATION AND EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

SciTech Connect

Four hand-held tools were tested for failed high-level waste melter decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). The forces felt by the tools during operation were measured using a tri-axial accelerometer since they will be operated by a remote manipulator. The efficiency of the tools was also recorded. Melter D&D consists of three parts: (1) glass fracturing: removing from the furnace the melted glass that can not be poured out through normal means, (2) glass cleaning: removing the thin layer of glass that has formed over the surface of the refractory material, and (3) K-3 refractory breakup: removing the K-3 refractory material. Surrogate glass, from a formula provided by the Savannah River Site, was melted in a furnace and poured into steel containers. K-3 refractory material, the same material used in the Defense Waste Processing Facility, was utilized for the demonstrations. Four K-3 blocks were heated at 1150 C for two weeks with a glass layer on top to simulate the hardened glass layer on the refractory surface in the melter. Tools chosen for the demonstrations were commonly used D&D tools, which have not been tested specifically for the different aspects of melter D&D. A jackhammer and a needle gun were tested for glass fracturing; a needle gun and a rotary grinder with a diamond face wheel (diamond grinder) were tested for glass cleaning; and a jackhammer, diamond grinder, and a circular saw with a diamond blade were tested for refractory breakup. The needle gun was not capable of removing or fracturing the surrogate glass. The diamond grinder only had a removal rate of 3.0 x 10-4 kg/s for K-3 refractory breakup and needed to be held firmly against the material. However, the diamond grinder was effective for glass cleaning, with a removal rate of 3.9 cm2/s. The jackhammer was successful in fracturing glass and breaking up the K-3 refractory block. The jackhammer had a glass-fracturing rate of 0.40 kg/s. The jackhammer split the K-3 refractory block into two pieces: one weighing 12.7 kg and the other 16.8 kg. However, it was not capable of fracturing smaller pieces off the block except when the chisel was applied at the edges of the block or at the fissure of the split. The circular saw successfully cut the K-3 refractory material at a rate of 0.29 cm3/s or a line at 4.1 cm/s. A Fourier transform was performed on the acceleration data to obtain the frequency domain results.

Weger, Hans, Ph.D.; Kodanda, Raja Tilek Meruva; Mazumdar, Anindra; Srivastava, Rajiv Ph.D.; Ebadian, M.A. Ph.D.

2003-02-27

24

Site emerging technologies: Bioscrubber for removing hazardous organic emissions from soil, water and air decontamination processes. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An engineered biofilter was developed to digest hazardous organic emissions from soil, water and air decontamination processes. A bench scale unit was tested for over 11 months for the removal of low levels of toluene in air under the SITE Emerging Technology Program. The bioscrubber contains a selected activated carbon medium to support microbial growth. The bioscrubber was designed for large volumes of air streams containing trace volatile organics. Almost complete removal of hazardous organics was demonstrated. Comparing with other biofilters using compost or other naturally occurred media, the use of activated carbon in the bioscrubber enhanced the degradation efficiency substantially for the test performed.

Liu, P.K.T.; Gregg, R.L.; Sabol, H.K.

1993-08-01

25

Effective Responder Communication Improves Efficiency and Psychological Outcomes in a Mass Decontamination Field Experiment: Implications for Public Behaviour in the Event of a Chemical Incident  

PubMed Central

The risk of incidents involving mass decontamination in response to a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear release has increased in recent years, due to technological advances, and the willingness of terrorists to use unconventional weapons. Planning for such incidents has focused on the technical issues involved, rather than on psychosocial concerns. This paper presents a novel experimental study, examining the effect of three different responder communication strategies on public experiences and behaviour during a mass decontamination field experiment. Specifically, the research examined the impact of social identity processes on the relationship between effective responder communication, and relevant outcome variables (e.g. public compliance, public anxiety, and co-operative public behaviour). All participants (n?=?111) were asked to visualise that they had been involved in an incident involving mass decontamination, before undergoing the decontamination process, and receiving one of three different communication strategies: 1) ‘Theory-based communication’: Health-focused explanations about decontamination, and sufficient practical information; 2) ‘Standard practice communication’: No health-focused explanations about decontamination, sufficient practical information; 3) ‘Brief communication’: No health-focused explanations about decontamination, insufficient practical information. Four types of data were collected: timings of the decontamination process; observational data; and quantitative and qualitative self-report data. The communication strategy which resulted in the most efficient progression of participants through the decontamination process, as well as the fewest observations of non-compliance and confusion, was that which included both health-focused explanations about decontamination and sufficient practical information. Further, this strategy resulted in increased perceptions of responder legitimacy and increased identification with responders, which in turn resulted in higher levels of expected compliance during a real incident, and increased willingness to help other members of the public. This study shows that an understanding of the social identity approach facilitates the development of effective responder communication strategies for incidents involving mass decontamination. PMID:24595097

Carter, Holly; Drury, John; Amlôt, Richard; Rubin, G. James; Williams, Richard

2014-01-01

26

Effective responder communication improves efficiency and psychological outcomes in a mass decontamination field experiment: implications for public behaviour in the event of a chemical incident.  

PubMed

The risk of incidents involving mass decontamination in response to a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear release has increased in recent years, due to technological advances, and the willingness of terrorists to use unconventional weapons. Planning for such incidents has focused on the technical issues involved, rather than on psychosocial concerns. This paper presents a novel experimental study, examining the effect of three different responder communication strategies on public experiences and behaviour during a mass decontamination field experiment. Specifically, the research examined the impact of social identity processes on the relationship between effective responder communication, and relevant outcome variables (e.g. public compliance, public anxiety, and co-operative public behaviour). All participants (n?=?111) were asked to visualise that they had been involved in an incident involving mass decontamination, before undergoing the decontamination process, and receiving one of three different communication strategies: 1) 'Theory-based communication': Health-focused explanations about decontamination, and sufficient practical information; 2) 'Standard practice communication': No health-focused explanations about decontamination, sufficient practical information; 3) 'Brief communication': No health-focused explanations about decontamination, insufficient practical information. Four types of data were collected: timings of the decontamination process; observational data; and quantitative and qualitative self-report data. The communication strategy which resulted in the most efficient progression of participants through the decontamination process, as well as the fewest observations of non-compliance and confusion, was that which included both health-focused explanations about decontamination and sufficient practical information. Further, this strategy resulted in increased perceptions of responder legitimacy and increased identification with responders, which in turn resulted in higher levels of expected compliance during a real incident, and increased willingness to help other members of the public. This study shows that an understanding of the social identity approach facilitates the development of effective responder communication strategies for incidents involving mass decontamination. PMID:24595097

Carter, Holly; Drury, John; Amlôt, Richard; Rubin, G James; Williams, Richard

2014-01-01

27

The decontamination, decommissioning, and demolition of loss-of-fluid test reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory Site  

SciTech Connect

In October 2006, CH2M-WG Idaho completed the decontamination, decommissioning and demolition of the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility. The 30-year-old research reactor, located at the Idaho National Laboratory site, posed significant challenges involving regulations governing the demolition of a historical facility, as well as worker safety issues associated with the removal of the reactor's domed structure. The LOFT facility was located at the west end of Test Area North (TAN), built in the 1950's to support the government's aircraft nuclear propulsion program. When President Kennedy cancelled the nuclear propulsion program in 1961, TAN began to host various other activities. The LOFT reactor became part of the new mission. The LOFT facility, constructed between 1965 and 1975, was a scaled-down version of a commercial pressurized water reactor. Its design allowed engineers, scientists, and operators to create or re-create loss-of-fluid accidents (reactor fuel meltdowns) under controlled conditions. The LOFT dome provided containment for a relatively small, mobile test reactor that was moved into and out of the facility on a railroad car. The dome was roughly 21 meters (70 feet) in diameter and 30 meters (98 feet) in height. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission received the results from the accident tests and incorporated the data into commercial reactor operating codes. The facility conducted 38 experiments, including several small loss-of-coolant experiments designed to simulate events such as the accident that occurred at Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania, before the LOFT facility was closed. Through formal survey and research, the LOFT facility was determined to be a DOE Signature Property, as defined by the 'INEEL Cultural Resource Management Plan', and thus eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places. Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the facility constituted an adverse effect on the historic property that required resolution through the contractor (CH2M-WG Idaho), the U.S. Department of Energy, the Idaho State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO), and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation. The project team identified multiple hazards that would result if conventional techniques were used to demolish the dome. The physical structure of the vessel containment facility reached 30 meters (98 feet) above grade, presenting significant worker safety hazards created by hoisting and rigging activities. The dome also included a polar crane, 19 meters (62 feet) above grade, that posed similar hazards to workers. The need to work on significantly elevated surfaces, and the thickness of the dome walls - 30 millimeters (1-3/16 inches) of carbon steel - would prove difficult with traditional arc plasma cutting tools. The dome's proximity to operating facilities with equipment sensitive to vibration added to the demolition challenges. To address cultural resource issues, the project team engaged all parties in negotiations and in mapping a path foreword. Open and frequent communication resulted in a Memorandum of Agreement, with stipulations that mitigated the adverse affects of the intended demolition action. The unique mitigating actions resulted in a favorable agreement being signed and issued. To mitigate hazards posed by the height of the facility, the project team had to abandon traditional D and D techniques and employ other methods to complete demolition safely. A different approach and a change in demolition sequence resulted in the safe and efficient removal of the one-of-a-kind containment facility. The approach reduced the use of aerial lifts, aboveground size reduction, and dangerous hoisting and rigging activities that could pose significant hazards to workers. (authors)

Floerke, J.P.; Borschel, Th.F.; Rhodes, L.K. [CH2M-WG Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

2007-07-01

28

Electro-Mechanical Manipulator for Use in the Remote Equipment Decontamination Cell at the Defense Waste Processing Facility, Savannah River Site - 12454  

SciTech Connect

One of the legacies of the cold war is millions of liters of radioactive waste. One of the locations where this waste is stored is at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. A major effort to clean up this waste is on-going at the defense waste processing facility (DWPF) at SRS. A piece of this effort is decontamination of the equipment used in the DWPF to process the waste. The remote equipment decontamination cell (REDC) in the DWPF uses electro-mechanical manipulators (EMM) arms manufactured and supplied by PaR Systems to decontaminate DWPF process equipment. The decontamination fluid creates a highly corrosive environment. After 25 years of operational use the original EMM arms are aging and need replacement. To support continued operation of the DWPF, two direct replacement EMM arms were delivered to the REDC in the summer of 2011. (authors)

Lambrecht, Bill; Dixon, Joe [Par Systems, Shoreview, Minnesota, 55126 (United States); Neuville, John R. [Savannah River Remediation, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina, 29808 (United States)

2012-07-01

29

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 252: Area 25 Engine Test Stand 1 Decontamination Pad, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 252 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 252 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-07-02, Engine Test Stand-1 (ETS-1) Decontamination Pad. Located in Area 25 at the intersection of Road H and Road K at the Nevada Test Site, ETS-1 was designed for use as a mobile radiation checkpoint and for vehicle decontamination. The CAS consists of a concrete decontamination pad with a drain, a gravel-filled sump, two concrete trailer pads, and utility boxes. Constructed in 1966, the ETS-1 facility was part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS) complex and used to test nuclear rockets. The ETS-1 Decontamination Pad and mobile radiation check point was built in 1968. The NRDS complex ceased primary operations in 1973. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to determine if any primary contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) (including radionuclides, total volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls) are present at this site. Vertical extent of migration of suspected vehicle decontamination effluent COPCs is expected to be less than 12 feet below ground surface. Lateral extent of migration of COPCs is expected to be limited to the sump area or near the northeast corner of the decontamination pad. Using a biased sampling approach, near-surface and subsurface sampling will be conducted at the suspected worst-case areas including the sump and soil near the northeast corner of the decontamination pad. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible e valuation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

1999-08-20

30

DECONTAMINATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SUBSTANCES FROM SPILLS AND UNCONTROLLED WASTE SITES BY RADIO FREQUENCY IN SITU HEATING  

EPA Science Inventory

The radio frequency (RF) heating process can be used to volumetrically heat and thus decontaminate uncontrolled landfills and hazardous substances from spills. After the landfills are heated, decontamination of the hazardous substances occurs due to thermal decomposition, vaporiz...

31

Demonstration experience with an abrasive blasting technique for decontaminating concrete pads  

Microsoft Academic Search

A demonstration was performed for decontaminating a radioactivity contaminated concrete pad with a portable abrasive blasting system. The system utilizes a rotating blast wheel that scours the concrete surface with metal abrasive. The metal abrasive, pulverized concrete dust, and contaminants rebound into a separator chamber. The reusable metal abrasive is recycled, and the pulverized media are removed to an integral

J. S. Devgun; R. R. Land; R. W. Doane

1990-01-01

32

EXPERIENCES IN DECONTAMINATION & DEMOLITION OF A FORMER PLUTONIUM CONCENTRATION FACILITY HANFORD RESERVATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility received plutonium nitrate paste from the nearby Reduction-Oxidation (REDOX) Facility and concentrated the plutonium for shipment to Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant. Operations ceased in 1967 and the Facility languished in a state of minimal maintenance until the mid-1990's when a decision was made to decontaminate and demolish (D&D) it. This work is being performed as

2002-01-01

33

Alpha characterization of concrete surfaces at Decontamination & Decommissioning (D&D) sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste minimization and worker protection at D&D sites requires continual and extensive characterization for radioactive contamination. Contamination detectors that are sensitive, rugged, fast, and capable of covering large areas are needed. The concrete surface monitor (CSM) developed at LANL supports both characterization and waste minimization efforts at D&D sites containing large concrete surfaces and structures of different forms and shapes.

T. Q. Vu; M. W. Rawool-Sullivan; J. Koster; D. Stout; A. Beasinger

1995-01-01

34

Decontamination and decommissioning  

SciTech Connect

The project scope of work included the complete decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Westinghouse ARD Fuel Laboratories at the Cheswick Site in the shortest possible time. This has been accomplished in the following four phases: (1) preparation of documents and necessary paperwork; packaging and shipping of all special nuclear materials in an acceptable form to a reprocessing agency; (2) decontamination of all facilities, glove boxes and equipment; loading of generated waste into bins, barrels and strong wooden boxes; (3) shipping of all bins, barrels and boxes containing waste to the designated burial site; removal of all utility services from the laboratories; and (4) final survey of remaining facilities and certification for nonrestricted use; preparation of final report. These four phases of work were conducted in accordance with applicable regulations for D and D of research facilities and applicable regulations for packaging, transportation, and burial and storage of radioactive materials. The final result is that the Advanced Fuel Laboratories now meet requirements of ANSI 13.12 and can be released for unrestricted use. The four principal documents utilized in the D and D of the Cheswick Site were: (1) Plan for Fully Decontaminating and Decommissioning, Revision 3; (2) Environmental Assessment for Decontaminating and Decommissioning the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Plutonium Fuel Laboratories, Cheswick, Pa.; (3) WARD-386, Quality Assurance Program Description for Decontaminating and Decommissioning Activities; and (4) Health Physics, Fire Control, and Site Emergency Manual. These documents are provided as Attachments 1, 2, 3 and 4.

Adams, G.A.; Bowen, W.C.; Cromer, P.M.; Cwynar, J.C.; Jacoby, W.R.; Woodsum, H.G.

1982-02-01

35

Site participation in the small community experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Small Community Solar Thermal Experiment, planned to test a small, developmental solar thermal power plant in a small community application, is assessed. The baseline plan is to install a field of parabolic dishes with distributed generation to provide 1 MWe of experimental power. Participation by the site proposer is an integral element of the experiment; the proposer will provide a ten-acre site, a connection to the electrical distributional system serving the small community, and various services. In addition to the primary participant, site study efforts may be pursued at as many as five alternative sites.

Holbeck, H. J.; Fellows, M.

1981-01-01

36

Closure report for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) category, Corrective Action Unit 95, EPA Farm Laboratory Building 15-06, Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

The EPA Farm Laboratory Building 15-06 was located in Area 15 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The facility is identified as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 95, Corrective Action Site 15-41-01, in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order and was assigned to Functional Category 41 (Decontamination and Decommissioning [D and D] Facility.) In August 1997, the Department of Energy/Nevada (DOE/NV) accelerated the corrective actions for CAU 95. A final Corrective Action Decision Document and a draft Corrective Action Plan were submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and notification was made to the NDEP that work would proceed at the site while the documents were reviewed. The NDEP approved the decontamination and demolition of the Laboratory Building as the corrective action alternative most suitable for the closure of CAU 95. Closure activities were initiated on September 2, 1997 and completed October 23, 1997. The decontamination of Building 15-06 was accomplished in conference with the D and D Subproject Characterization Work Plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan.

NONE

1998-02-01

37

Proceedings of the concrete decontamination workshop  

SciTech Connect

Fourteen papers were presented. These papers describe concrete surface removal methods and equipment, as well as experiences in decontaminating and removing both power and experimental nuclear reactors.

Halter, J.M.; Sullivan, R.G.; Currier, A.J.

1980-05-28

38

Proceedings of the concrete decontamination workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen papers were presented. These papers describe concrete surface removal methods and equipment, as well as experiences in decontaminating and removing both power and experimental nuclear reactors.

J. M. Halter; R. G. Sullivan; A. J. Currier

2008-01-01

39

Decontamination and Management of Human Remains Following Incidents of Hazardous Chemical Release  

SciTech Connect

Abstract Objective: To provide specific procedural guidance and resources for identification, assessment, control, and mitigation of compounds that may contaminate human remains resulting from chemical attack or release. Design: A detailed technical, policy, and regulatory review is summarized. Setting: Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present. Settings would include sites of transportation accidents, natural disasters, terrorist or military operations, mortuary affairs or medical examiner processing and decontamination points, and similar. Patients, Participants: While recommended procedures have not been validated with actual human remains, guidance has been developed from data characterizing controlled experiments with fabrics, materiel, and laboratory animals. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presentation of logic and specific procedures for remains management, protection and decontamination of mortuary affairs personnel, as well as decision criteria for determining when remains are sufficiently decontaminated so as to pose no chemical health hazard. Results: Established procedures and existing equipment/materiel available for decontamination and verification provide appropriate and reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from remains. Extensive characterization of issues related to remains decontamination indicates that supra-lethal concentrations of liquid chemical warfare agent VX may prove difficult to decontaminate and verify in a timely fashion. Specialized personnel can and should be called upon to assist with monitoring necessary to clear decontaminated remains for transport and processing. Conclusions: Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for remains processing and transport to the decedent s family and the continental United States can be followed.

Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Army Public Health Command; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Bock, Robert Eldon [ORNL

2012-01-01

40

Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites Remedial Action Program. Report of the decontamination of Jones Chemical Laboratory, Ryerson Physical Laboratory, and Eckhart Hall, the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has implemented a program to decontaminate radioactively contaminated sites that were formerly utilized by the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and/or the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) for activities that included handling of radioactive material. This program is referred to as the ''Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program'' (FUSRAP). Among these sites are Jones Chemical Laboratory, Ryerson Physical Laboratory, Kent Chemical Laboratory, and Eckhart Hall of The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. Since 1977, the University of Chicago decontaminated Kent Chemical Laboratory as part of a facilities renovation program. All areas of Eckhart Hall, Ryerson Physical Laboratory, and Jones Chemical Laboratory that had been identified as contaminated in excess of current guidelines in the 1976-1977 surveys were decontaminated to levels where no contamination could be detected relative to natural backgrounds. All areas that required defacing to achieve this goal were restored to their original condition. The radiological evaluation of the sewer system, based primarily on the radiochemical analyses of sludge and water samples, indicated that the entire sewer system is potentially contaminated. While this evaluation was defined as part of this project, the decontamination of the sewer system was not included in the purview of this effort. The documentation included in this report substantiates the judgment that all contaminated areas identified in the earlier reports in the three structures included in the decontamination effort (Eckhart Hall, Ryerson Physical Laboratory, and Jones Chemical Laboratory) were cleaned to levels commensurate with release for unrestricted use.

Wynuveen, R.A.; Smith, W.H.; Sholeen, C.M.; Flynn, K.F.

1984-08-01

41

Characterization of the Source Physics Experiment Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Designed to improve long-range treaty monitoring capabilities, the Source Physics Experiments, conducted at the Nevada National Security Site, also provide an opportunity to advance near-field monitoring and field-based investigations of suspected underground test locations. In particular, features associated with underground testing can be evaluated using Source Physics Experiment activities as analogs, linking on-site inspections with remote sensing technologies. Following a calibration shot (SPE 1), SPE 2 (10/2011) and SPE 3 (07/2012) were performed in the same emplacement hole with 1.0 ton of explosives at 150 ft depth. Because one of the goals of the Source Physics Experiments is to determine damage effects on seismic wave propagation and improve modeling capabilities, a key component in the predictive component and ultimate validation of the models is a full understanding of the intervening geology between the source and instrumented bore holes. Ground-based LIDAR and fracture mapping, mechanical properties determined via laboratory testing of rock core, discontinuity analysis and optical microscopy of the core rocks were performed prior to and following each experiment. In addition, gravity and magnetic data were collected between SPE 2 and 3. The source region of the explosions was also characterized using cross-borehole seismic tomography and vertical seismic profiling utilizing two sets of two boreholes within 40 meters of ground zero. The two sets of boreholes are co-linear with the explosives hole in two directions. Results of the LIDAR collects from both SPE 2 and 3 indicate a permanent ground displacement of up to several centimeters aligning along the projected surface traces of two faults observed in the core and fractures mapped at the surface. Laboratory testing and optical work show a difference in the characteristics of the rocks below and above 40 feet and within the fault zones.The estimated near-surface densities from the gravity survey show substantial changes in apparent near-surface density and may help explain independently-observed near-surface velocity changes. Work by Los Alamos National Laboratory was sponsored by the National Nuclear Security AdministrationAward No. DE-AC52-06NA25946/NST10-NCNS-PD00. Work by National Security Technologies, LLC, was performed under Contract No. DE AC52 06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy. Sandia National Laboratories, is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Sussman, A. J.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Broome, S. T.; Townsend, M.; Abbott, R. E.; Snelson, C. M.; Cogbill, A. H.; Conklin, G.; Mitra, G.; Sabbeth, L.

2012-12-01

42

On-Site Disposition of Concrete During Decommissioning and Decontamination: A Data Quality Objective-Based Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-site disposition of concrete derived during decommissioning and demolition (D and D) of buildings at industrial sites is a cost-effective, waste minimization alternative to off-site disposal. Because the concrete is to be left on-site it becomes part of the solid matrix of the site and is subject to the compositional constraints governing site soils. In addition, the concrete and its

P. A. Salpas; K. M. Skinner; G. M. Stephens; D. E. Dunning

2008-01-01

43

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (includes ROTC No. 1, date 01\\/25\\/1999)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 254 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-06, Decontamination Facility. Located in Area 25

1999-01-01

44

Decontamination of protective clothing against radioactive contamination.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to describe the experimental results of external surface mechanical decontamination of the studied materials forming selected suits. Seven types of personal protective suits declaring protection against radioactive aerosol contamination in different price ranges were selected for decontamination experiments. The outcome of this study is to compare the efficiency of a double-step decontamination process on various personal protective suits against radioactive contamination. A comparison of the decontamination effectiveness for the same type of suit, but for the different chemical mixtures ((140)La in a water-soluble or in a water-insoluble compound), was performed. PMID:25084793

Vošahlíková, I; Otáhal, P

2014-11-01

45

Infiltration and Injection Sites and Example Experiments  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this paper are: (1) design a characterization and monitoring strategy for vadose zone infiltration and aquifer injection sites; and (2) track spatial and temporal evolution of water and reactive chemicals through vadose zone and aquifer.

Mark Rockhold

2007-04-19

46

Update on Building and Structure Decontamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cleanup of the nation’s hazardous waste sites is a top environmental priority. Since the ultimate objective of many cleanup programs is to return the contaminated site and buildings on the site to active use, additional information regarding both established and emerging technologies for building decontamination is needed.A pilot scale study was performed at an actual Superfund Site to evaluate, side

Naomi P. Barkley

1990-01-01

47

[Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents].  

PubMed

Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister agents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, proteinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and biological terrorism, speedy decontamination of victims, facilities and equipment is required for the minimization of the damage. In the present situation, washing victims and contaminated materials with large volumes of water is the basic way, and additionally hypochlorite salt solution is used for decomposition of CWA's. However, it still remains unsolved how to dispose large volumes of waste water, and the decontamination reagents have serious limitation of high toxicity, despoiling nature against the environments, long finishing time and non-durability in effective decontamination. Namely, the existing decontamination system is not effective, nonspecifically affecting the surrounding non-target materials. Therefore, it is the urgent matter to build up the usable decontamination system surpassing the present technologies. The symposiast presents the on-going joint project of research and development of the novel decontamination system against CBWA's, in the purpose of realizing nontoxic, fast, specific, effective and economical terrorism on-site decontamination. The projects consists of (1) establishment of the decontamination evaluation methods and verification of the existing technologies and adaptation of bacterial organophosphorus hydrolase, (2) development of adsorptive elimination technologies using molecular recognition tools, and (4) development of deactivation technologies using photocatalysis. PMID:19122437

Seto, Yasuo

2009-01-01

48

Selection of promising sites for magma energy experiments  

SciTech Connect

The Long Valley and Coso Hot Springs areas of California have been identified as the most promising sites for conducting a magma energy extraction experiment. These two locations were selected from among the potential sites on the basis of several factors that are critical to the success of the proposed long-term energy extraction experiment. These factors include the likelihood of the existence of shallow magma targets as well as several other drilling, energy extraction and programmatic considerations. As the magma energy extraction program continues, these sites will be analyzed in detail so that one can be selected as the site for the planned magma experiment.

Carson, C.C.

1985-01-01

49

Electrokinetic decontamination of concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Energy has assigned a priority to the advancement of technology for decontaminating concrete surfaces which have become contaminated with radionuclides, heavy metals, and toxic organics. This agency is responsible for decontamination and decommissioning of thousands of buildings. Electrokinetic extraction is one of the several innovative technologies which emerged in response to this initiative. This technique utilizes

Lomasney

1995-01-01

50

Residual methamphetamine in decontaminated clandestine drug laboratories.  

PubMed

This pilot cross-sectional study examined three previously decontaminated residential clandestine drug laboratories (CDLs) in Washington State to determine the distribution and magnitude of residual methamphetamine concentrations relative to the state decontamination standard. A total of 159 discrete random methamphetamine wipe samples were collected from the three CDLs, focusing on the master bedroom, bathroom, living room, and kitchen at each site. Additional samples were collected from specific non-random locations likely to be contacted by future residents (e.g., door knobs and light switches). Samples were analyzed for methamphetamine by EPA method 8270 for semivolatile organic chemicals. Overall, 59% of random samples and 75% of contact point samples contained methamphetamine in excess of the state decontamination standard (0.1 micro g/100 cm(2)). At each site, methamphetamine concentrations were generally higher and more variable in rooms where methamphetamine was prepared and used. Even compared with the less stringent standard adopted in Colorado (0.5 micro g/100cm(2)), a substantial number of samples at each site still demonstrated excessive residual methamphetamine (random samples, 25%; contact samples, 44%). Independent oversight of CDL decontamination in residential structures is warranted to protect public health. Further research on the efficacy of CDL decontamination procedures and subsequent verification of methods is needed. PMID:19116862

Patrick, Glen; Daniell, William; Treser, Charles

2009-03-01

51

Decontamination and Recycling of Radioactive Material from Retired Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of the EPRI DFDX (Decontamination For Decommissioning, electrochemical ion exchange) process for the chemical decontamination of reactor coolant systems and components. A US patent has been awarded and a plant, conforming to exacting nuclear industry standards, has been constructed to demonstrate the process at a number of sites. The plant has completed successful demonstration tests

S. P. Bushart; C. J. Wood; D. Bradbury; G. Elder

2007-01-01

52

Long lasting decontamination foam  

DOEpatents

Compositions and methods for decontaminating surfaces are disclosed. More specifically, compositions and methods for decontamination using a composition capable of generating a long lasting foam are disclosed. Compositions may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6. Such compositions may further include affinity-shifting chemicals. Methods may include decontaminating a contaminated surface with a composition or a foam that may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6.

Demmer, Ricky L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tripp, Julia L. (Pocatello, ID); Cooper, David C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Karen E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2010-12-07

53

EXPERIENCE FROM TWO SMALL QUANTITY RH-TRU WASTE SITES IN NAVIGATING THROUGH AN EVOLVING REGULATORY LANDSCAPE  

SciTech Connect

Two small quantity transuranic (TRU) waste generator sites have gained considerable experience in navigating through a changing regulatory landscape in their efforts to remove the TRU waste from their sites and proceed with site remediation. The Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project (BCLDP) has the objectives of decontaminating nuclear research buildings and associated grounds and remediating to a level of residual contamination allowing future use without radiological restrictions. As directed by Congress, BCLDP must complete decontamination and decommissioning activities by the end of Fiscal Year (FY) 2006. This schedule requires the containerization of all TRU waste in 2002. BCLDP will generate a total of approximately 27 cubic meters (m3) of remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. Similarly, the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) is scheduled to close in 2006 pursuant to an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Boeing Canoga Park, the management and operating contractor for ETEC. ETEC had 11.0 m3 of RH-TRU and contact-handled (CH) TRU waste in storage, with the requirement to remove this waste in 2002 in order to meet their site closure schedule. The individual milestones for BCLDP and ETEC necessitated the establishment of site-specific programs to direct packaging and characterization of RH-TRU waste before the regulatory framework for the WIPP disposal of RH-TRU waste is finalized. The lack of large infrastructure for characterization activities, as well as the expedited schedules needed to meet regulatory milestones, provided both challenges and opportunities that are unique to small quantity sites. Both sites have developed unique programs for waste characterization based on the same premise, which directs comprehensive waste data collection efforts such that additional characterization will not be required following the finalization of the WIPP RH-TRU waste program requirements. This paper details the BCLDP program evolution in terms of strategy, innovative solutions to waste characterization, and development of alternative transportation options. Preliminary indications from various regulatory and oversight agencies and professional organizations are that the BCLDP RH-TRU waste characterization program is the ''model WIPP certification program'' and will satisfy anticipated regulatory expectations. This paper also summarizes how BCLDP lessons learned and their development of new resources were applied to the RH-TRU waste characterization and disposition program at ETEC.

Biedscheid, Jennifer; Devarakonda, Murthy; Eide, Jim; Kneff, Dennis

2003-02-27

54

Investigation of Electrokinetic Decontamination of Concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments have been conducted to investigate the capabilities of electrokinetic decontamination of conceret. Batch equilibration studies have determined that the loading of cesium and strontium on concrete may be decreased using electrolyte solutions containing competing cations, while solubilization of uranium and cobalt, that precipitate at high pH, will require lixiviants containing complexing agents. Dynamic electrokinetic experiments showed greater mobility of

D. W. DePaoli; M. T. Harris; I. L. Morgan; M. R. Ally

1997-01-01

55

Investigation of electrokinetic decontamination of concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments have been conducted to investigate the capabilities of electrokinetic decontamination of concrete. Batch equilibration studies have determined that the loading of cesium and strontium on concrete may be decreased using electrolyte solutions containing competing cations, while solubilization of uranium and cobalt, that precipitate at high pH, will require lixiviants containing complexing agents. Dynamic electrokinetic experiments showed greater mobility of

D. W. DePaoli; M. T. Harris; I. L. Morgan; M. R. Ally

1995-01-01

56

Adverse experiences with nitric acid at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

Nitric acid is used routinely at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in many processes. However, the site has experienced a number of adverse situations in handling nitric acid. These have ranged from minor injuries to personnel to significant explosions. This document compiles many of these events and includes discussions of process upsets, fires, injuries, and toxic effects of nitric acid and its decomposition products. The purpose of the publication is to apprise those using the acid that it is a potentially dangerous material and can react in many ways as demonstrated by SRS experience. 10 refs.

Durant, W.S.; Craig, D.K.; Vitacco, M.J.; McCormick, J.A.

1991-06-01

57

Decontamination n Sterilization  

E-print Network

stearothermophilis) 2.10 Decontamination Heat #12;n Dry heat sterilization n Denaturation of proteins: 1600 ­ 1700 C minimum 20 min. exposure n Examples: phenolics, iodophores, chlorine compounds, alcohols 2

Collins, Gary S.

58

Concrete decontamination scoping tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report details the research efforts and scoping tests performed at the Idaho Chemical Process Plant using scabbling, chemical, and electro-osmotic decontamination techniques on radiologically contaminated concrete.

1995-01-01

59

Radio-decontamination efficacy and safety studies on optimized decontamination lotion formulation.  

PubMed

Objective of the present study was to optimize decontamination lotion and to evaluate its relative decontamination efficacy using three radio-isotopes (Technetium-99m, Iodine-131 and Thallium-201) as contaminants with varying length of contaminant exposure (0-1h). Experiments were performed on Sprague Dawley rat's intact skin and human tissue equivalent models. Rat's hair was removed by using depilator after trimming with scissors. Relative decontamination efficacy of the optimized lotion was investigated and compared with water as control. Static counts were recorded before and after decontamination using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Measured decontamination efficacy (DE) values were analyzed using one way ANOVA and Student's t-test (p value<0.05) and were found statistically significant. Decontamination efficacy of the lotion was observed to be 90 ± 5%, 80 ± 2% and 85 ± 2%, for the (131)I, (201)Tl and (99m)Tc radio-contaminants respectively on skin. Reduced contaminant removal was recorded for the skin which was cleaned by depilator (50-60%). Skin decontamination was found more efficacious for rat skin decontamination than the human tissue equivalent model. Decontamination efficacy of the lotion against (99m)Tc was recorded 70 ± 15% at 0-1h on the tissue equivalent model. In vitro chelation efficacy of the lotion was also established by using the instant thin layer chromatography-slica gel (ITLC-SG) and >95% of (99m)Tc was recorded. Neither erythema nor edema was scored in the primary skin irritancy test visually observed for two weeks. PMID:22609966

Rana, S; Bhatt, S; Dutta, M; Khan, A W; Ali, J; Sultana, S; Kotta, S; Ansari, S H; Sharma, R K

2012-09-15

60

Fate of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX) on soil following accelerant-based fire and liquid decontamination.  

PubMed

In the event of alleged use of organophosphorus nerve agents, all kinds of environmental samples can be received for analysis. These might include decontaminated and charred matter collected from the site of a suspected chemical attack. In other scenarios, such matter might be sampled to confirm the site of a chemical weapon test or clandestine laboratory decontaminated and burned to prevent discovery. To provide an analytical capability for these contingencies, we present a preliminary investigation of the effect of accelerant-based fire and liquid decontamination on soil contaminated with the nerve agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX). The objectives were (a) to determine if VX or its degradation products were detectable in soil after an accelerant-based fire promoted by aviation fuel, including following decontamination with Decontamination Solution 2 (DS2) or aqueous sodium hypochlorite, (b) to develop analytical methods to support forensic analysis of accelerant-soaked, decontaminated and charred soil and (c) to inform the design of future experiments of this type to improve analytical fidelity. Our results show for the first time that modern analytical techniques can be used to identify residual VX and its degradation products in contaminated soil after an accelerant-based fire and after chemical decontamination and then fire. Comparison of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) profiles of VX and its impurities/degradation products from contaminated burnt soil, and burnt soil spiked with VX, indicated that the fire resulted in the production of diethyl methylphosphonate and O,S-diethyl methylphosphonothiolate (by an unknown mechanism). Other products identified were indicative of chemical decontamination, and some of these provided evidence of the decontaminant used, for example, ethyl 2-methoxyethyl methylphosphonate and bis(2-methoxyethyl) methylphosphonate following decontamination with DS2. Sample preparation procedures and analytical methods suitable for investigating accelerant and decontaminant-soaked soil samples are presented. VX and its degradation products and/or impurities were detected under all the conditions studied, demonstrating that accelerant-based fire and liquid-based decontamination and then fire are unlikely to prevent the retrieval of evidence of chemical warfare agent (CWA) testing. This is the first published study of the effects of an accelerant-based fire on a CWA in environmental samples. The results will inform defence and security-based organisations worldwide and support the verification activities of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), winner of the 2013 Nobel Peace Prize for its extensive efforts to eliminate chemical weapons. PMID:24972874

Gravett, M R; Hopkins, F B; Self, A J; Webb, A J; Timperley, C M; Riches, J R

2014-08-01

61

Parabolic dish test site: History and operating experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The parabolic dish test site (PDTS) was established for testing point-focusing solar concentrator systems operating at temperatures approaching 1650 C. Among tests run were evaluation and performance characterization of parabolic dish concentrators, receivers, power conversion units, and solar/fossil-fuel hybrid systems. The PDTS was fully operational until its closure in June, 1984. The evolution of the test program, a chronological listing of the experiments run, and data summaries for most of the tests conducted are presented.

Selcuk, M. K. (compiler)

1985-01-01

62

Long-term decontamination engineering study. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) with technical and cost estimating support from Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) and Parsons Environmental Services, Inc. (Parsons). This engineering study evaluates the requirements and alternatives for decontamination/treatment of contaminated equipment at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to determine the decontamination/treatment strategy that best supports the Hanford Site environmental restoration mission. It describes the potential waste streams requiring treatment or decontamination, develops the alternatives under consideration establishes the criteria for comparison, evaluates the alternatives, and draws conclusions (i.e., the optimum strategy for decontamination). Although two primary alternatives are discussed, this study does identify other alternatives that may warrant additional study. hanford Site solid waste management program activities include storage, special processing, decontamination/treatment, and disposal facilities. This study focuses on the decontamination/treatment processes (e.g., waste decontamination, size reduction, immobilization, and packaging) that support the environmental restoration mission at the Hanford Site.

Geuther, W.J.

1995-04-03

63

Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation and Decontamination  

SciTech Connect

The decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) from structures, environmental media, and even personnel has become an area of particular interest in recent years due to increased homeland security concerns. In addition to terrorist attacks, scenarios such as accidental releases of CWA from U.S. stockpile sites or from historic, buried munitions are also subjects for response planning. To facilitate rapid identification of practical and effective decontamination approaches, this paper reviews pathways of CWA degradation by natural means as well as those resulting from deliberately applied solutions and technologies; these pathways and technologies are compared and contrasted. We then review various technologies, both traditional and recent, with some emphasis on decontamination materials used for surfaces that are difficult to clean. Discussion is limited to the major threat CWA, namely sulfur mustard (HD, bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), VX (O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate), and the G-series nerve agents. The principal G-agents are GA (tabun, ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate), GB (sarin, isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate), and GD (soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate). The chemical decontamination pathways of each agent are outlined, with some discussion of intermediate and final degradation product toxicity. In all cases, and regardless of the CWA degradation pathway chosen for decontamination, it will be necessary to collect and analyze pertinent environmental samples during the treatment phase to confirm attainment of clearance levels.

Talmage, Sylvia Smith [ORNL; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Munro, Nancy B [ORNL; King, J. [U.S. Army Environmental Center

2007-02-01

64

Microwave concrete decontamination - Phase II results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents the results of the second phase of a four-phase development program to develop a system to decontaminate concrete using microwave energy. In the first phase of the program the feasibility of using microwaves to remove concrete surfaces was demonstrated. In the first phase experiments, concrete slabs were placed on a translator and moved beneath a stationery microwave

T. L. White; D. Jr. Foster

1994-01-01

65

Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System  

DOEpatents

The Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System, OTDS, provides a method and apparatus for reduction of tritium surface contamination on various items. The OTDS employs ozone gas as oxidizing agent to convert elemental tritium to tritium oxide. Tritium oxide vapor and excess ozone gas is purged from the OTDS, for discharge to atmosphere or transport to further process. An effluent stream is subjected to a catalytic process for the decomposition of excess ozone to diatomic oxygen. One of two configurations of the OTDS is employed: dynamic apparatus equipped with agitation mechanism and large volumetric capacity for decontamination of light items, or static apparatus equipped with pressurization and evacuation capability for decontamination of heavier, delicate, and/or valuable items.

Gentile, Charles A. (Plainsboro, NJ), Guttadora, Gregory L. (Highland Park, NJ), Parker, John J. (Medford, NJ)

2006-02-07

66

Decontamination of radiological agents from drinking water infrastructure: a literature review and summary.  

PubMed

This report summarizes the current state of knowledge on the persistence of radiological agents on drinking water infrastructure (such as pipes) along with information on decontamination should persistence occur. Decontamination options for drinking water infrastructure have been explored for some important radiological agents (cesium, strontium and cobalt), but important data gaps remain. Although some targeted experiments have been published on cesium, strontium and cobalt persistence on drinking water infrastructure, most of the data comes from nuclear clean-up sites. Furthermore, the studies focused on drinking water systems use non-radioactive surrogates. Non-radioactive cobalt was shown to be persistent on iron due to oxidation with free chlorine in drinking water and precipitation on the iron surface. Decontamination with acidification was an effective removal method. Strontium persistence on iron was transient in tap water, but adherence to cement-mortar has been demonstrated and should be further explored. Cesium persistence on iron water infrastructure was observed when flow was stagnant, but not with water flow present. Future research suggestions focus on expanding the available cesium, strontium and cobalt persistence data to other common infrastructure materials, specifically cement-mortar. Further exploration chelating agents and low pH treatment is recommended for future decontamination studies. PMID:24529629

Szabo, Jeff; Minamyer, Scott

2014-11-01

67

OSI Passive Seismic Experiment at the Former Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

On-site inspection (OSI) is one of the four verification provisions of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Under the provisions of the CTBT, once the Treaty has entered into force, any signatory party can request an on-site inspection, which can then be carried out after approval (by majority voting) of the Executive Council. Once an OSI is approved, a team of 40 inspectors will be assembled to carry out an inspection to ''clarify whether a nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion has been carried out in violation of Article I''. One challenging aspect of carrying out an on-site inspection (OSI) in the case of a purported underground nuclear explosion is to detect and locate the underground effects of an explosion, which may include an explosion cavity, a zone of damaged rock, and/or a rubble zone associated with an underground collapsed cavity. The CTBT (Protocol, Section II part D, paragraph 69) prescribes several types of geophysical investigations that can be carried out for this purpose. One of the methods allowed by the CTBT for geophysical investigation is referred to in the Treaty Protocol as ''resonance seismometry''. This method, which was proposed and strongly promoted by Russia during the Treaty negotiations, is not described in the Treaty. Some clarification about the nature of the resonance method can be gained from OSI workshop presentations by Russian experts in the late 1990s. Our understanding is that resonance seismometry is a passive method that relies on seismic reverberations set up in an underground cavity by the passage of waves from regional and teleseismic sources. Only a few examples of the use of this method for detection of underground cavities have been presented, and those were done in cases where the existence and precise location of an underground cavity was known. As is the case with many of the geophysical methods allowed during an OSI under the Treaty, how resonance seismology really works and its effectiveness for OSI purposes has yet to be determined. For this experiment, we took a broad approach to the definition of ''resonance seismometry''; stretching it to include any means that employs passive seismic methods to infer the character of underground materials. In recent years there have been a number of advances in the use of correlation and noise analysis methods in seismology to obtain information about the subsurface. Our objective in this experiment was to use noise analysis and correlation analysis to evaluate these techniques for detecting and characterizing the underground damage zone from a nuclear explosion. The site that was chosen for the experiment was the Mackerel test in Area 4 of the former Nevada Test Site (now named the Nevada National Security Site, or NNSS). Mackerel was an underground nuclear test of less than 20 kT conducted in February of 1964 (DOENV-209-REV 15). The reason we chose this site is because there was a known apical cavity occurring at about 50 m depth above a rubble zone, and that the site had been investigated by the US Geological Survey with active seismic methods in 1965 (Watkins et al., 1967). Note that the time delay between detonation of the explosion (1964) and the time of the present survey (2010) is nearly 46 years - this would not be typical of an expected OSI under the CTBT.

Sweeney, J J; Harben, P

2010-11-11

68

Decontamination and coating of lead  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology is being developed to decontaminate lead used in shielding applications in contaminated environments for recycle as shielding. Technology is also being developed to coat either decontaminated lead or new lead before it is used in contaminated environments. The surface of the coating is expected to be much easier to decontaminate than the original lead surface. If contamination becomes severely

W. N. Rankin; S. P. Bush; C. E. Lyon; V. Walker

1988-01-01

69

Decision Analysis System for Selection of Appropriate Decontamination Technologies  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective for designing Decision Analysis System for Decontamination (DASD) is to support DOE-EM's endeavor to employ the most efficient and effective technologies for treating radiologically contaminated surfaces while minimizing personnel and environmental risks. DASD will provide a tool for environmental decision makers to improve the quality, consistency, and efficacy of their technology selection decisions. The system will facilitate methodical comparisons between innovative and baseline decontamination technologies and aid in identifying the most suitable technologies for performing surface decontamination at DOE environmental restoration sites.

Ebadian, M.A.; Boudreaux, J.F.; Chinta, S.; Zanakis, S.H.

1998-01-01

70

Decontaminating metal surfaces  

DOEpatents

Radioactively contaminated surfaces can be electrolytically decontaminated with greatly increased efficiencies by using electrolytes containing higher than heretofore conventional amounts of nitrate, e.g., >600 g/1 of NaNO/sub 3/, or by using nitrate-containing electrolytes which are acidic, e.g., of a pH < 6.

Childs, E.L.

1984-01-23

71

Decontaminating metal surfaces  

DOEpatents

Radioactively contaminated surfaces can be electrolytically decontaminated with greatly increased efficiencies by using electrolytes containing higher than heretofore conventional amounts of nitrate, e.g.,>600 g/l of NaNO.sub.3, or by using nitrate-containing electrolytes which are acidic, e.g., of a pH<6.

Childs, Everett L. (Boulder, CO)

1984-11-06

72

Electrokinetic decontamination of concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concrete structures which have been contaminated with uranium and other radioisotopes may be decontaminated using in-situ electrokinetic remediation. By placing an electrode cell on the concrete surface and using the concrete`s rebar, a ground rod, or another surface cell as the counter electrode, the radioisotopes may be migrated from the concrete into this cell. The process is highly dependent upon

H. L. Lomasney; V. Yachmenev

1994-01-01

73

Electroosmotic decontamination of concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for the electroosmotic decontamination of concrete surfaces, in which an electrical field is used to induce migration of ionic contaminants from porous concrete into an electrolyte solution that may be disposed of as a low-level liquid radioactive waste (LLRW); alternately, the contaminants from the solution can be sorbed onto anion exchange media in order to prevent

W. D. Bostick; S. A. Bush; G. C. Marsh; H. M. Henson; W. D. Box; I. L. Morgan

1993-01-01

74

Tree Decontamination with Temporary Immunity Paola Flocchini1  

E-print Network

are viruses: extraneous mobile agents infecting any visited site. Consider a tree network that has been contaminated by a persistent and active virus: when infected, a network site will continuously attempt a single site. A cleaner is able to decontaminate any infected node it visits; however, once it departs

Mans, Bernard

75

Oleuropein site selective hydrolysis by technomimetic nuclear magnetic resonance experiments.  

PubMed

Technomimetic NMR experiments were performed in accordance with the lye treatment adopted during table olive industrial procedures for the debittering process causing oleuropein degradation. The site selective hydrolysis of the two ester groups, characterizing the biophenolic secoiridoid molecule, was shown to be dependent on the different reactivities of these functionalities. The process is controlled by the experimental conditions exerted on the olive pulp and determined by the buffering capacity of the olive mesocarp and by the epicarp molecular components influencing the reactant penetration into the fruit pulp. The overall hydrolytic process of oleuropein, the bitter principle of olives, using the technomimetic experimental mode, gave rise to its catabolic derivatives, hydroxytyrosol, 11-methyloleoside, and the monoterpene glucoside, technomimetically produced, isolated, and structurally characterized by (1)H, (13)C, and COSY spectroscopy as the oleoside. PMID:10820069

Capozzi, F; Piperno, A; Uccella, N

2000-05-01

76

Unique Construction and Social Experiences in Residential Remediation Sites - 13423  

SciTech Connect

Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc., (Sevenson) has performed several radiological remediation projects located in residential urban areas. Over the course of these projects, there has been a wide variety of experiences encountered from construction related issues to unique social situations. Some of the construction related issues included the remediation of interior basements where contaminated material was located under the footers of the structure or was used in the mortar between cinder block or field stone foundations. Other issues included site security, maintaining furnaces or other utilities, underpinning, backfilling and restoration. In addition to the radiological hazards associated with this work there were occupational safety and industrial hygiene issues that had to be addressed to ensure the safety and health of neighboring properties and residents. The unique social situations at these job sites have included arson, theft/stolen property, assault/battery, prostitution, execution of arrest warrants for residents, discovery of drugs and paraphernalia, blood borne pathogens, and unexploded ordnance. Some of these situations have become a sort of comical urban legend throughout the organization. One situation had historical significance, involving the demolition of a house to save a tree older than the Declaration of Independence. All of these projects typically involve the excavation of early 20. century items such as advertisement signs, various old bottles (milk, Listerine, perfume, whisky) and other miscellaneous common trash items. (authors)

Jung, Paul; Scarborough, Rebecca [Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc. 2749 Lockport Road, Niagara Falls, NY 14305 (United States)] [Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc. 2749 Lockport Road, Niagara Falls, NY 14305 (United States)

2013-07-01

77

[Advances in peroxide-based decontaminating technologies].  

PubMed

With the boosting demand for eco-friendly decontaminants, great achievements in peroxide-based decontaminating technologies have been made in recent years. These technologies have been applied in countering chemical/biological terrorist attacks, dealing with chemical/biological disasters and destructing environmental pollutants. Recent research advances in alpha-nucleophilic/oxidative reaction mechanisms of peroxide-based decontamination against chemical warfare agents were reviewed, and some classical peroxide-based decontaminants such as aqueous decontaminating solution, decontaminating foam, decontaminating emulsions, decontaminating gels, decontaminating vapors, and some newly developed decontaminating media (e.g., peroxide-based self-decontaminating materials and heterogeneous nano-catalytic decontamination systems) were introduced. However, currently available peroxide-based decontaminants still have some deficiencies. For example, their decontamination efficiencies are not as high as those of chlorine-containing decontaminants, and some peroxide-based decontaminants show relatively poor effect against certain agents. More study on the mechanisms of peroxide-based decontaminants and the interfacial interactions in heterogeneous decontamination media is suggested. New catalysts, multifunctional surfactants, self-decontaminating materials and corrosion preventing technologies should be developed before peroxide-based decontaminants really become true "green" decontaminants. PMID:23914512

Xi, Hai-ling; Zhao, San-ping; Zhou, Wen

2013-05-01

78

INTEGRATED VERTICAL AND OVERHEAD DECONTAMINATION (IVOD) SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The deactivation and decommissioning of 1200 buildings within the U.S. Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management complex will require the disposition of a large quantity of contaminated concrete and metal surfaces. It has been estimated that 23 million cubic meters of concrete and over 600,000 tons of metal will need disposition. The disposition of such large quantities of material presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The final disposition of this large amount of material will take time and money as well as risk to the D&D work force. A single automated system that would decontaminate and characterize surfaces in one step would not only reduce the schedule and decrease cost during D&D operations but would also protect the D&D workers from unnecessary exposures to contaminated surfaces. This report summarizes the activities performed during FY00 and describes the planned activities for FY01. Accomplishments for FY00 include the following: Development and field-testing of characterization system; Completion of Title III design of deployment platform and decontamination unit; In-house testing of deployment platform and decontamination unit; Completion of system integration design; Identification of deployment site; and Completion of test plan document for deployment of IVOD at Rancho Seco nuclear power facility.

M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

2001-01-01

79

Preconceptual design of the gas-phase decontamination demonstration cart  

SciTech Connect

Removal of uranium deposits from the interior surfaces of gaseous diffusion equipment will be a major portion of the overall multibillion dollar effort to decontaminate and decommission the gaseous diffusion plants. Long-term low-temperature (LTLT) gas-phase decontamination is being developed at the K-25 Site as an in situ decontamination process that is expected to significantly lower the decontamination costs, reduce worker exposure to radioactive materials, and reduce safeguard concerns. This report documents the preconceptual design of the process equipment that is necessary to conduct a full-scale demonstration of the LTLT method in accordance with the process steps listed above. The process equipment and method proposed in this report are not intended to represent a full-scale production campaign design and operation, since the gas evacuation, gas charging, and off-gas handling systems that would be cost effective in a production campaign are not cost effective for a first-time demonstration. However, the design presented here is expected to be applicable to special decontamination projects beyond the demonstration, which could include the Deposit Recovery Program. The equipment will therefore be sized to a 200 ft size 1 converter (plus a substantial conservative design margin), which is the largest item of interest for gas phase decontamination in the Deposit Recovery Program. The decontamination equipment will allow recovery of the UF{sub 6}, which is generated from the reaction of ClF{sub 3} with the uranium deposits, by use of NaF traps.

Munday, E.B.

1993-12-01

80

Lasers for the radioactive decontamination of concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of lasers for removing radioactive contamination from concrete surfaces is being investigated at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. A major advantage of a laser decontamination process is that no additional waste is generated. Test results using 50- and 600-W YAG (yttrium-aluminum-garnet) lasers have been extrapolated to more powerful commercially available units. The minimum removal rate for

N. S. Cannon; D. J. Flesher

1993-01-01

81

Decontamination of radioisotopes  

PubMed Central

Contaminations with radioactive material may occur in several situations related to medicine, industry or research. Seriousness of the incident depends mainly on the radioactive element involved; usually there are no major acute health effects, but in the long term can cause malignancies, leukemia, genetic defects and teratogenic anomalies. The most common is superficial contamination, but the radioactive material can get into the body and be retained by the cells of target organs, injuring directly and permanently sensitive elements of the body. Rapid intervention is very important to remove the radioactive material without spreading it. Work must be performed in a specially prepared area and personnel involved should wear special protective clothing. For external decontamination general cleaning techniques are used, usually do not require chemical techniques. For internal decontamination is necessary to use specific agents, according to the causative element, as well physiological interventions to enhance elimination and excretion. PMID:24376972

Domínguez-Gadea, Luis; Cerezo, Laura

2011-01-01

82

Surgical site infections in ambulatory surgery: A 5-year experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate the ambulatory surgical site infection rate and risk factors associated with surgical site infection. Methods: We conducted a case-control analysis of all ambulatory surgeries between January 1, 1993, and December 31, 1997. The frequency of surgical site infection per 100 surgeries was calculated. The odds ratio (OR) was estimated by using logistic regression analysis. Setting: A 140-bed

Diana Vilar-Compte; Rodrigo Roldán; Silvia Sandoval; Rebeca Corominas; Margarita de la Rosa; Patricia Gordillo; Patricia Volkow

2001-01-01

83

Cement-Lock for Decontaminating  

E-print Network

Cement-Lock® Technology for Decontaminating Dredged Estuarine Sediments Topical Report N O L O G Y I N S T I T U T E Cement-Lock Demo Plant Prepared by: Michael C. Mensinger GAS conducted as part of the overall program "Cement-Lock®1 Technology for Decontaminating Dredged Estuarine

Brookhaven National Laboratory

84

Biological decontamination by nonthermal plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonthermal gaseous discharges have been found to be effective agents for biological decontamination\\/sterilization. The ability to generate these discharges at atmospheric pressure makes the decontamination process practical and inexpensive. In addition, the fact that the plasmas generated by such discharges are cold makes their use suitable for applications where medium preservation is desired. To fully understand the biophysical and biochemical

Mounir Laroussi; Igor Alexeff; Weng L. Kang

2000-01-01

85

Integrated decontamination process for metals  

DOEpatents

An integrated process for decontamination of metals, particularly metals that are used in the nuclear energy industry contaminated with radioactive material. The process combines the processes of electrorefining and melt refining to purify metals that can be decontaminated using either electrorefining or melt refining processes.

Snyder, Thomas S. (Oakmont, PA); Whitlow, Graham A. (Murrysville, PA)

1991-01-01

86

Granulated decontamination formulations  

DOEpatents

A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a sorbent additive, and water. A highly adsorbent sorbent additive (e.g., amorphous silica, sorbitol, mannitol, etc.) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

Tucker, Mark D. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-10-02

87

Glovebox decontamination technology comparison  

SciTech Connect

Reconfiguration of the CMR Building and TA-55 Plutonium Facility for mission requirements will require the disposal or recycle of 200--300 gloveboxes or open front hoods. These gloveboxes and open front hoods must be decontaminated to meet discharge limits for Low Level Waste. Gloveboxes and open front hoods at CMR have been painted. One of the deliverables on this project is to identify the best method for stripping the paint from large numbers of gloveboxes. Four methods being considered are the following: conventional paint stripping, dry ice pellets, strippable coatings, and high pressure water technology. The advantages of each technology will be discussed. Last, cost comparisons between the technologies will be presented.

Quintana, D.M.; Rodriguez, J.B.; Cournoyer, M.E.

1999-09-26

88

Decontamination & decommissioning focus area  

SciTech Connect

In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

NONE

1996-08-01

89

Testing site size requirements in chemisorption: experiment and theory  

SciTech Connect

''Ensemble requirements'' in surface chemistry refer to the number and shape of contiguous empty sites necessary for chemisorption of a particular molecule. Ensemble effects can play a major role in directing the course of surface reactions, leading, for example, to dramatic changes in catalytic selectivity when the active metal component is diluted upon alloying with an inert metal. We will review here fundamental surface science studies that have attempted to probe this site size requirement by diluting active sites on a single crystal surface with an inert metal overlayer. We will emphasize recent results in our lab on the interaction of simple molecules (CO, H/sub 2/, O/sub 2/) with Cu-, Ag-, and Bi-dosed Pt(111). Theoretical models based upon Monte-Carlo simulations will be summarized which, when compared to such data, allow more accurate determination of ensemble sizes. These models predict uptake curves that deviate strongly from the commonly used (1-theta)/sup A/ law (A = number of sites in ensemble), which is valid only for an array of isolated ensembles. 32 refs., 3 figs.

Campbell, C.T.; Paffett, M.T.; Voter, A.F.

1985-01-01

90

Influence of Natal Experience on Nest-Site Selection by  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to environmental features early in life potentially can influence the kinds of places animals select to live later in life. We examined whether there is evidence that Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) hatched in an urban environment choose sites with features similar to their natal areas when they nest for the first time. The features we examined were the nest

R. WILLIAM MANNAN; R. NICHOLAS MANNAN; CECILIA A. SCHMIDT; WENDY A. ESTES-ZUMPF; CLINT W. BOAL

91

Siting evaluations for the ignitor fusion experiment: Preliminary radiological assessments  

E-print Network

Ignitor is a proposed compact high-magnetic field tokamak aimed at studying plasma burning conditions in Deuterium-Tritium plasmas. Localisation of this experiment in Italy has seen growing attention during the last years. ...

Coppi, Bruno

92

Decontamination of the populated areas contaminated as a result of nuclear accident  

SciTech Connect

Decontamination tests on urban surfaces contaminated by the Chernobyl accident have shown that Chernobyl fallout behaves differently from fallout from nuclear weapons tests and contamination on surfaces in nuclear power plant. The effectiveness of various decontamination compositions for removing Chernobyl fallout from urban surfaces and machinery was determined in a series of laboratory experiments and field trials.

Voronik, N.I.; Shatilo, N.N.; Davydov, Y.P. [Institute of Radioecological Problems, Minsk-Sosny (Belarus)

1996-12-31

93

Large-bore pipe decontamination  

SciTech Connect

The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system.

Ebadian, M.A.

1998-01-01

94

Simulation study on the use of strippable coatings for radiocesium decontamination of concrete.  

PubMed

The contamination and decontamination of concrete by a soluble contaminant (radiocesium) was modeled using the finite element method. The decontamination process relied on the application of a hyper-accumulating strippable polymer (HASP™) [corrected] to sequester contaminant that was transported to the concrete surface. The model accounted for the transport of cesium by diffusion, capillary pressure-driven convection, and equilibrium adsorption of cesium within the concrete substrate and HASP™ [corrected] coating. The influence of HASP™ [corrected] properties (porosity, thickness, and cesium distribution coefficient), and a wide range of operation variables (HASP™ [corrected] contact time, delay time until HASP™ [corrected] decontamination begins, influence of evaporative boundary conditions) on final decontamination efficacy were explored. Transient saturation (moisture content) and cesium concentration profiles were used to understand key factors in the decontamination process, and water wicking experiments were performed to validate the capillary convection model. The results showed that prompt HASP™ [corrected] application after the initial contamination event is critical for high decontamination efficacies. A 30-day HASP™ [corrected] treatment removed about 90% of the contaminant when HASP™ [corrected] was applied within 30min of the initial contamination event, whereas the decontamination process removed less than half as much cesium if months were allowed to elapse months prior to decontamination. Multiple applications of fresh HASP™ [corrected] were also shown to improve decontamination performance under certain circumstances. PMID:18653279

Tan, Min; Whitaker, John D; Schwartz, Daniel T

2009-03-15

95

Progress of electro-hydraulic scabbling technology for concrete decontamination  

SciTech Connect

Concrete decontamination from organics, metals, and radionuclides requires removal of up to one inch of the surface layer. The Electro- Hydraulic Scabbling (EHS) technique has been developed within a 3- phase program. A prototype 8 kW EHS unit was designed and assembled in Phase II. This system was tested initially by scabbling noncontaminated concrete, and later at the DOE Fernald site where a concrete floor containing uranium was decontaminated. In the latter test, the unit operated without problems and reduced the counts per minute by more than 90%. Currently in Phase III, a larger 30 kW unit has been assembled and prepared for testing/demonstration.

Goldfarb, V.; Gannon, R.

1997-05-01

96

Practical Choices for Infobutton Customization: Experience from Four Sites  

PubMed Central

Context-aware links between electronic health records (EHRs) and online knowledge resources, commonly called “infobuttons” are being used increasingly as part of EHR “meaningful use” requirements. While an HL7 standard exists for specifying how the links should be constructed, there is no guidance on what links to construct. Collectively, the authors manage four infobutton systems that serve 16 institutions. The purpose of this paper is to publish our experience with linking various resources and specifying particular criteria that can be used by infobutton managers to select resources that are most relevant for a given situation. This experience can be used directly by those wishing to customize their own EHRs, for example by using the OpenInfobutton infobutton manager and its configuration tool, the Librarian Infobutton Tailoring Environment. PMID:24551334

Cimino, James J.; Overby, Casey L.; Devine, Emily B.; Hulse, Nathan C.; Jing, Xia; Maviglia, Saverio M.; Del Fiol, Guilherme

2013-01-01

97

New Experiences With Steam Injection From The MÜhlacker Field Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermally enhanced remediation scheme employing steam injection has been used at a former hazardous waste disposal site near the City of Mühlacker, Germany, to remove chlorinated solvents. Finding SVE (soil vapour extraction) to be ineffective in the unsaturated soil zone, a pilot-scale project was initiated in 1999 to employ steam injection in the highly contaminated unsaturated low permeable zone 7-15 meters be- low ground surface, limited on top and bottom by very low permeable layers. After completion of the project in September 2001, approximately 2.8 tons of chlorinated hydrocarbons had been removed from the 2500 m3 target area. This project served as a pilot site in the State of Baden-Württemberg EPA (Landesanstalt für Umweltschutz, LfU) site cleanup program, which was funded through the State's "Kommunaler Alt- lastenfonds". Detailed evaluation of SVE technology had indicated that the low permeability in this soil served as a limiting factor for "cold" SVE. As a result, alternative technologies were considered and thermally enhanced SVE by steam injection was selected in 1998 to address the unsaturated zone contaminants. A 20-meter diameter, egg-shaped test- ing area was constructed at the site for pilot-scale demonstration of the steam injection process. The testing area comprised one central injection well surrounded by six ex- traction wells that could be used simultaneously for vapor and liquid extraction. Ten monitoring lances with a total of 100 temperature sensors measured subsurface tem- peratures through the soil horizon. Using a gas-fired 100 kW generator, steam was injected at a rate of up to 100 kg/hour and a pressure of up to 2.5 bars. After ten months of steam injection, nearly complete heating of the target zone had been achieved. of the 2800 kg of TCE removed, approximately 95% was extracted in the gaseous phase and the remaining part as solute in condensed water from the capillary barrier on bottom of the soil horizon. This condensed water lead to a "clog- ging" effect in the soil, displacing the steam travelling through the pore space. The use of steam with low water content was important to avoid displacement of the heat front. It also was found that conductive heat transport during breaks in the steam injec- tion process significantly warmed soil regions with low temperature, while convective heat transport brought energy to the steam front. Weak temperature gradients result- ing from a slow heating process did appear to avoid excessive saturation of the soil, thereby avoiding mobilization of the TCE. 1 Despite the low permeability of the subsurface, steam injection was found to be suc- cessful at this site. A cost of approximately 175/kg of removed chlorinated hydro- carbon through use of steam injection, compared to an estimated cost of 250/kg for cold SVE (assuming SVE would be able to remove the same amount of contaminant), was determined. Additionally, employment of steam injection has been estimated to achieve an 8.5-year time saving over the use of SVE. References: FÄRBER, A. (1997): Wärmetransport in der ungesättigten Bodenzone: Entwicklung einer ther- mischen in-situ Sanierungstechnologie. Mitteilungen des Instituts für Wasserbau, H. 96, Uni- versität Stuttgart 1997 KOSCHITZKY, H.-P., THEURER, T. (2001): Steam Injection used in unsaturated zone at german landfill. TechTrends, No. 42, Sep. 2001, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), http://clu-in.org KOSCHITZKY, H.-P., THEURER, T., FÄRBER, A. (2001): Einsatz des thermischen In-situ- Sanierungsverfahrens TUBA unter schwierigen geologischen Bedingungen. Boden und Altlas- ten Symposium 2001, Erich Schmidt Verlag, 323-347 2

Theurer, T.; Koschitzky, H.-P.; Färber, A.

98

Geology of the Source Physics Experiment Site, Climax Stock, Nevada National Security Site  

SciTech Connect

A test bed for a series of chemical explosives tests known as Source Physics Experiments (SPE) was constructed in granitic rock of the Climax stock, in northern Yucca Flat at the Nevada National Security Site in 2010-2011. These tests are sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration's National Center for Nuclear Security. The test series is designed to study the generation and propagation of seismic waves, and will provide data that will improve the predictive capability of calculational models for detecting and characterizing underground explosions. Abundant geologic data are available for the area, primarily as a result of studies performed in conjunction with the three underground nuclear tests conducted in the Climax granite in the 1960s and a few later studies of various types. The SPE test bed was constructed at an elevation of approximately 1,524 meters (m), and consists of a 91.4-centimeter (cm) diameter source hole at its center, surrounded by two rings of three 20.3-cm diameter instrument holes. The inner ring of holes is positioned 10 m away from the source hole, and the outer ring of holes is positioned 20 m from the source hole. An initial 160-m deep core hole was drilled at the location of the source hole that provided information on the geology of the site and rock samples for later laboratory testing. A suite of geophysical logs was run in the core hole and all six instruments holes to obtain matrix and fracture properties. Detailed information on the character and density of fractures encountered was obtained from the borehole image logs run in the holes. A total of 2,488 fractures were identified in the seven boreholes, and these were ranked into six categories (0 through 5) on the basis of their degree of openness and continuity. The analysis presented here considered only the higher-ranked fractures (ranks 2 through 5), of which there were 1,215 (approximately 49 percent of all fractures identified from borehole image logs). The fractures were grouped into sets based on their orientation. The most ubiquitous fracture set (50 percent of all higher-ranked fractures) is a group of low-angle fractures (dips 0 to 30 degrees). Fractures with dips of 60 to 90 degrees account for 38 percent of high-ranked fractures, and the remaining 12 percent are fractures with moderate dips (30 to 60 degrees). The higher-angle fractures are further subdivided into three sets based on their dip direction: fractures of Set 1 dip to the north-northeast, fractures of Set 2 dip to the south-southwest, and Set 3 consists of high-angle fractures that dip to the southeast and strike northeast. The low-angle fractures (Set 4) dip eastward. Fracture frequency does not appear to change substantially with depth. True fracture spacing averages 0.9 to 1.2 m for high-angle Sets 1, 2, and 3, and 0.6 m for Set 4. Two significant faults were observed in the core, centered at the depths of 25.3 and 32.3 m. The upper of these two faults dips 80 degrees to the north-northeast and, thus, is related to the Set-1 fractures. The lower fault dips 79 degrees to the south-southwest and is related to SPE Set-2 fractures. Neither fault has an identifiable surface trace. Groundwater was encountered in all holes drilled on the SPE test bed, and the fluid level averaged about 15.2 to 18.3 m below ground surface. An informal study of variations in the fluid level in the holes conducted during various phases of construction of the test bed concluded that groundwater flow through the fractured granitic rocks is not uniform, and appears to be controlled by variations in the orientation and degree of interconnectedness of the fractures. It may also be possible that an aplite dike or quartz vein may be present in the test bed, which could act as a barrier to groundwater flow and, thus, could account for anisotropy seen in the groundwater recovery measurements.

Townsend, M., Prothro, L. B., Obi, C.

2012-03-15

99

DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR FACILITY REUSE  

SciTech Connect

As nuclear research and production facilities across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex are slated for deactivation and decommissioning (D&D), there is a need to decontaminate some facilities for reuse for another mission or continued use for the same mission. Improved technologies available in the commercial sector and tested by the DOE can help solve the DOE's decontamination problems. Decontamination technologies include mechanical methods, such as shaving, scabbling, and blasting; application of chemicals; biological methods; and electrochemical techniques. Materials to be decontaminated are primarily concrete or metal. Concrete materials include walls, floors, ceilings, bio-shields, and fuel pools. Metallic materials include structural steel, valves, pipes, gloveboxes, reactors, and other equipment. Porous materials such as concrete can be contaminated throughout their structure, although contamination in concrete normally resides in the top quarter-inch below the surface. Metals are normally only contaminated on the surface. Contamination includes a variety of alpha, beta, and gamma-emitting radionuclides and can sometimes include heavy metals and organic contamination regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This paper describes several advanced mechanical, chemical, and other methods to decontaminate structures, equipment, and materials.

Bossart, Steven J.; Blair, Danielle M.

2003-02-27

100

Laser decontamination: A new strategy for facility decommissioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lasers can be employed to remove both surface and bulk contamination from metals. Experiments demonstrate that approximately 5 microns can be removed from an Al surface by one powerful laser pulse. Focusing with cylindrical lenses is shown to result in good surface coverage and reduced surface redeposition. High-resolution laser spectroscopy in a small atomic beam device is demonstrated and discussions of bulk decontamination by AVLIS-like methods are described. A plan for estimating the cost-effectiveness of laser decontamination technology is discussed.

Pang, H. M.; Lipert, R. J.; Hamrick, Y. M.; Bayrakal, S.; Gaul, K.; Davis, B.; Baldwin, D. P.; Edelson, M. C.

101

Experiences with unexploded ordnance discrimination at a live-site in Montana  

E-print Network

Experiences with unexploded ordnance discrimination at a live-site in Montana Stephen Billings1 , Sky Research Inc, Suite 112A, 2386 East Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T-1Z3 Clifton Youmans2 , Montana Army production survey conditions over a site in Montana contaminated with unexploded ordnance (UXO). All

Oldenburg, Douglas W.

102

Final Outcome Evaluation Report. Demonstration and Implementation Sites. Experience-Based Career Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation of the Appalachia Educational Laboratory's (AEL) Experience-Based Career Education (EBCE) program focused on outcome data pertaining to students, parents, and employers collected at the demonstration site at AEL, and implementation sites located in Bremen, Georgia; Crowley, Louisiana; Ames, Iowa; and Staten Island, Ithaca, and North…

Shively, Joe E.; Kessel, Phyllis

103

Reuse of Concrete within DOE from Decontamination and Decommissioning Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protocol has been developed for use in the disposition of concrete from Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) projects. The purpose of this protocol is to assist U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites in releasing concrete for re-use within the DOE complex. Current regulations allow sites to release surface-contaminated materials if they contain very low amounts of radioactivity and to possibly

Julia Lynn Tripp; Richard Harlan Meservey; Anthony Mactier Smith; S. Y. Chen; S. Kamboj

2000-01-01

104

Efficacy of Cankerguard® Sprays for Effective Decontamination of Citrus Canker  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is endemic in Florida. We used grapefruit leaf surfaces to explore the efficacy of the personnel decontaminant Cankerguard® to kill inoculum. In three experiments plants in flush (leaves 3/4 expanded) were sprayed with inoculum (2x104-9x105 CFU/ml)...

105

Electrolytic decontamination of conductive materials for hazardous waste management  

SciTech Connect

Electrolytic removal of plutonium and americium from stainless steel and uranium surfaces has been demonstrated. Preliminary experiments were performed on the electrochemically based decontamination of type 304L stainless steel in sodium nitrate solutions to better understand the metal removal effects of varying cur-rent density, pH, and nitrate concentration parameters. Material removal rates and changes in surface morphology under these varying conditions are reported. Experimental results indicate that an electropolishing step before contamination removes surface roughness, thereby simplifying later electrolytic decontamination. Sodium nitrate based electrolytic decontamination produced the most uniform stripping of material at low to intermediate pH and at sodium nitrate concentrations of 200 g L{sup -1} and higher. Stirring was also observed to increase the uniformity of the stripping process.

Wedman, D.E.; Martinez, H.E.; Nelson, T.O.

1996-12-31

106

Decontamination of biological warfare agents by a microwave plasma torch  

SciTech Connect

A portable arc-seeded microwave plasma torch running stably with airflow is described and applied for the decontamination of biological warfare agents. Emission spectroscopy of the plasma torch indicated that this torch produced an abundance of reactive atomic oxygen that could effectively oxidize biological agents. Bacillus cereus was chosen as a simulant of Bacillus anthracis spores for biological agent in the decontamination experiments. Decontamination was performed with the airflow rate of 0.393 l/s, corresponding to a maximum concentration of atomic oxygen produced by the torch. The experimental results showed that all spores were killed in less than 8 s at 3 cm distance, 12 s at 4 cm distance, and 16 s at 5 cm distance away from the nozzle of the torch.

Lai, Wilson; Lai, Henry; Kuo, Spencer P.; Tarasenko, Olga; Levon, Kalle [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Polytechnic University, New York 11201 (United States); Othmer Department of Chemical and Biological Sciences and Engineering, Polytechnic University, New York 11201 (United States)

2005-02-01

107

Sites for Student Field Experiences in Refugee Mental Health. Task VI--Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report on sites for student field experiences in refugee mental health has been prepared by the University of Minnesota's Mental Health Technical Assistance Center for the state refugee assistance programs. After a brief introduction describing the mission of the Technical Assistance Center, the characteristics of field experience in mental…

Hoshino, George; And Others

108

Modeling the Electrokinetic Decontamination of Concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decontamination of concrete is a major concern in many Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Numerous techniques (abrasive methods, manual methods, ultrasonics, concrete surface layer removal, chemical extraction methods, etc.) have been used to remove radioactive contamination from the surface of concrete. Recently, processes that are based on electrokinetic phenomena have been developed to decontaminate concrete. Electrokinetic decontamination has been

Michael T. Harris; David W. DePaoli; Moonis R. Ally

1997-01-01

109

Evaluation of six decontamination processes on actinide and fission product contamination  

SciTech Connect

In-situ decontamination technologies were evaluated for their ability to: (1) reduce equipment contamination levels to allow either free release of the equipment or land disposal, (2) minimize residues generated by decontamination, and (3) generate residues that are compatible with existing disposal technologies. Six decontamination processes were selected. tested and compared to 4M nitric acid, a traditional decontamination agent: fluoroboric acid (HBF{sub 4}), nitric plus hydrofluoric acid, alkaline persulfate followed by citric acid plus oxalic acid, silver(II) plus sodium persulfate plus nitric acid, oxalic acid plus hydrogen peroxide plus hydrofluoric acid, and electropolishing using nitric acid electrolyte. The effectiveness of these solutions was tested using prepared 304 stainless steel couponds contaminated with uranium, plutonium, americium, or fission products. The decontamination factor for each of the solutions and tests conditions were determined; the results of these experiments are presented.

Conner, C.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Chen, L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

110

Downward shortwave surface irradiance from 17 sites for the FIRE/SRB Wisconsin experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A field experiment was conducted in Wisconsin during Oct. to Nov. 1986 for purposes of both intensive cirrus cloud measurments and SRB algorithm validation activities. The cirrus cloud measurements were part of the FIRE. Tables are presented which show data from 17 sites in the First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment/Surface Radiation Budget (FIRE/SRB) Wisconsin experiment region. A discussion of intercomparison results and calibration inconsistencies is also included.

Whitlock, Charles H.; Hay, John E.; Robinson, David A.; Cox, Stephen K.; Wardle, David I.; Lecroy, Stuart R.

1990-01-01

111

Challenges in Obtaining Property Access: The FUSRAP Maywood Site Experience - 13433  

SciTech Connect

The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) is the US government program started in 1974 to identify, investigate and clean up or control sites that became contaminated as a result of the nation's early atomic programs. Many of these sites are not owned by the federal government and therefore require owner permission to enter. The experience in pursuing such access at the FUSRAP Maywood Superfund Site (the Maywood Site or the Site) in Bergen County, New Jersey, is extensive. Since the US Army Corps of Engineers (the Corps) assumed responsibility for the Maywood Site from the US Department of Energy in 1997, at least 186 separate property access agreements (known in FUSRAP as a Real Estate Right-of- Entry or ROE) have been executed between the Corps and approximately 55 different land owners and tenant occupants at the Maywood Site (agreement renewals with the same owners over time account for the difference). Maywood's experience during the Corps' tenure, reflected here in three case studies of representative property access efforts, offers some lessons and best practices that may apply to other remedial programs. While the Site Community Relations Manager (the author of this paper) managed the property access task, multi-disciplinary support from across the project was also critical to success in this endeavor. (authors)

Kollar, William [Shaw Environmental, Inc., 100 West Hunter Avenue, Maywood, NJ 07607 (United States)] [Shaw Environmental, Inc., 100 West Hunter Avenue, Maywood, NJ 07607 (United States)

2013-07-01

112

DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR FACILITY REUSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

As nuclear research and production facilities across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex are slated for deactivation and decommissioning (D&D), there is a need to decontaminate some facilities for reuse for another mission or continued use for the same mission. Improved technologies available in the commercial sector and tested by the DOE can help solve the DOE's

Steven J. Bossart; Danielle M. Blair

2003-01-01

113

Impact of Operator and Site Experience on Outcomes after Angioplasty and Stenting in the SAMMPRIS Trial  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose To investigate the relationship between physician and site experience and the risk of 30-day hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes in the stenting arm of the SAMMPRIS trial. Methods Study records and an investigator survey were examined for physician and site-related factors, including: number of Wingspan and aneurysm stents submitted for credentialing, number of study procedures performed in SAMMPRIS, years in practice after training, primary specialty, and site enrollment. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine if these factors were associated with the 30-day rate of cerebrovascular events after angioplasty and stenting. Results Two hundred and thirteen patients underwent angioplasty alone (n=5) or angioplasty and stenting (n = 208) with study devices by 63 interventionists at 48 sites. For credentialing, the median number of Wingspan and similar aneurysm stent cases submitted by study interventionists were 10 and 6, respectively. Interventionists with higher numbers (? 10) of wingspan cases submitted for credentialing tended to have higher rates of 30-day events (19.0% versus 9.9%) than those with < 10 cases. High enrolling sites in the trial tended to have lower rates of hemorrhagic stroke (9.8% at sites enrolling < 12 patients versus 2.7% at sites enrolling ? 12 patients). Conclusion Interventionists credentialed with less Wingspan experience were not responsible for the high rate of peri-procedural stroke in SAMMPRIS. Hemorrhagic stroke may be related to low enrollment in the trial but not previous Wingspan experience. PMID:22977278

Derdeyn, Colin P; Fiorella, David; Lynn, Michael J; Barnwell, Stan L; Zaidat, Osama O; Meyers, Philip; Gobin, Y. Pierre; Dion, Jaques; Lane, Bethany F; Turan, Tanya N; Janis, L Scott; Chimowitz, Marc I

2013-01-01

114

Aversive Peer Experiences on Social Networking Sites: Development of the Social Networking-Peer Experiences Questionnaire (SN-PEQ).  

PubMed

Cyber victimization is an important research area; yet, little is known about aversive peer experiences on social networking sites (SNSs), which are used extensively by youth and host complex social exchanges. Across samples of adolescents (n=216) and young adults (n=214), we developed the Social Networking-Peer Experiences Questionnaire (SN-PEQ), and examined its psychometric properties, distinctiveness from traditional peer victimization, and associations with internalized distress. The SN-PEQ demonstrated strong factorial invariance and a single factor structure that was distinct from other forms of peer victimization. Negative SNS experiences were associated with youths' symptoms of social anxiety and depression, even when controlling for traditional peer victimization. Findings highlight the importance of examining the effects of aversive peer experiences that occur via social media. PMID:24288449

Landoll, Ryan R; La Greca, Annette M; Lai, Betty S

2013-12-01

115

Finding appropriate reference sites in large-scale aquatic field experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defining the reference condition is one of the most critical aspects of ecosystem investigations since it describes the baseline\\u000a against which the experimental sites will be evaluated and compared. In large-scale ecosystem experiments, this reference\\u000a is ideally another ecosystem which is similar to the experimental system. We investigated two streams for their potential\\u000a as experimental sites for a full-size pairwise

Susanne I. Schmidt; Marie König-Rinke; Katja Kornek; Carola Winkelmann; Markus A. Wetzel; Jochen H. E. Koop; Jürgen Benndorf

2009-01-01

116

Surface decontamination using a teleoperated vehicle and Kelly spray/vacuum system  

SciTech Connect

A commercial teleoperated wheeled vehicle was fitted with a modified commercial spray/vacuum decontamination system to allow floor and wall decontamination of an existing process room in one of the chemical separations areas at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Custom end-of-arm tooling was designed to provide sufficient compliance for routine cleaning operations. An operator console was designed to allow complete control of the vehicle base and are movements as well as viewing operations via multiple television monitors. 3 refs.

Zollinger, W.T.; Dyches, G.M.

1990-12-31

117

Surface decontamination using a teleoperated vehicle and Kelly spray/vacuum system  

SciTech Connect

A commercial teleoperated wheeled vehicle was fitted with a modified commercial spray/vacuum decontamination system to allow floor and wall decontamination of an existing process room in one of the chemical separations areas at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Custom end-of-arm tooling was designed to provide sufficient compliance for routine cleaning operations. An operator console was designed to allow complete control of the vehicle base and are movements as well as viewing operations via multiple television monitors. 3 refs.

Zollinger, W.T.; Dyches, G.M.

1990-01-01

118

HT to HTO conversion and field experiments near Darlington Nuclear Power Generating Station (DNPGS) site.  

PubMed

The Canadian input parameters related to tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) used in tritium dose models are currently based on experiments performed at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site in 1986, 1987 and 1994. There is uncertainty in how well other sites experiencing atmospheric HT releases are represented by these data. In order to address this uncertainty, HT to HTO conversion factors were evaluated at different locations near the Darlington Nuclear Power Generating Station (DNPGS) site using various experimental approaches. These were D2 gas exposure chamber experiments, atmospheric tritium measurements, and HTO and OBT measurements in vegetation and soil. In addition to these field experiments, chamber experiments were conducted using HT gas on field soil samples. The suggested Canadian input parameters for atmospheric tritium releases estimate the total fraction of HT oxidized in air and in soil, at the site, to be up to a maximum of 2.4%. Based on the more limited data obtained near DNPGS in early spring, this fraction would likely be closer to 0.5%. The result suggests that current parameters provide a conservative estimate for the DNPGS site. PMID:24565644

Kim, S B; Stuart, M; Bredlaw, M; Festarini, A; Beaton, D

2014-06-01

119

Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is a one-of-a-kind, tritium-fueled fusion research reactor that ceased operation in April 1997. The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) of the TFTR is scheduled to occur over a period of three years beginning in October 1999. This is not a typical Department of Energy D and D Project where a facility is isolated and cleaned up by ''bulldozing'' all facility and hardware systems to a greenfield condition. The mission of TFTR D and D is to: (a) surgically remove items which can be re-used within the DOE complex, (b) remove tritium contaminated and activated systems for disposal, (c) clear the test cell of hardware for future reuse, (d) reclassify the D-site complex as a non-nuclear facility as defined in DOE Order 420.1 (Facility Safety) and (e) provide data on the D and D of a large magnetic fusion facility. The 100 cubic meter volume of the donut-shaped reactor makes it the second largest fusion reactor in the world. The record-breaking deuterium-tritium experiments performed on TFTR resulted in contaminating the vacuum vessel with tritium and activating the materials with 14 Mev neutrons. The total tritium content within the vessel is in excess of 7,000 Curies while dose rates approach 75 mRem/hr. These radiological hazards along with the size and shape of the Tokamak present a unique and challenging task for dismantling.

E. Perry; J. Chrzanowski; K. Rule; M. Viola; M. Williams; R. Strykowsky

1999-11-01

120

di-EOS - "distributed EOS": Initial experience with split-site persistency in a production service  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to accommodate growing demand for storage and computing capacity from the LHC experiments, in 2012 CERN tendered for a remote computer centre. The potential negative performance implications of the geographical distance (aka network latency) within the same "site" and storage service on physics computing have been investigated. Overall impact should be acceptable, but for some access patterns might be significant. Recent EOS changes should help to mitigate the effects, but experiments may need to adjust their job parameters.

Peters, A. J.; Mascetti, L.; Iven, J.; Espinal Curull, X.

2014-06-01

121

Practice Experiences at a Single Institutional Practice Site to Improve Advanced Pharmacy Practice Examination Performance  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine whether sequential assignment of students to the same facility for institutional practice experiences improves their advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) examination scores. Design. Student volunteers were assigned to the same healthcare facility for all institutional introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) and advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Other students completed institutional IPPEs and APPEs at separate healthcare facilities, ranging from 2 to 4 different facilities per student. APPE examination scores of students assigned to the same facility for all institutional learning experiences were compared with those of students assigned to more than 1 institutional practice site. Assessment. Holding grade point average constant, students assigned to the same facility for institutional IPPEs and APPEs scored 3 percentage points higher on the APPE institutional examination compared with students assigned to separate facilities for these experiences. Conclusion. Assigning students to the same facility for both institutional IPPEs and APPEs positively influenced knowledge-based APPE examination performance. PMID:24761021

Britton, Mark L.; Wheeler, Richard E.; Carter, Sandra M.

2014-01-01

122

Dry excimer laser cleaning applied to nuclear decontamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Excimer laser ablation is a very powerful tool of dry cleaning. This technique allows the removal or oxide or painting deposited on a material without any modifications of the chemical and physical properties of its surface. This method has been effectively used in many areas. In nuclear industry, there is a great interest to develop in developing an efficient dry decontamination process. A review of the main laser decontamination experiments performed in the world is presented. Our laser cleaning prototype based on excimer laser ablation process is described. This prototype has been tested in nuclear facilities. It is mainly composed of a XeCl laser, a bundle of fibers for beam transmission, optical systems, collection cell with filter for ablated particle recovery, computer control of cleaning efficiency and beam displacement. Different kinds of materials, which are representative of contamination usually found in nuclear field, have been irradiated. Decontamination factors (initial activity/residual activity) higher than 15 for fixed contamination and up to 100 for unfixed contamination have been obtained. These performances demonstrate that the laser-based technique is the most efficient one for dry and fast decontamination.

Delaporte, Ph.; Gastaud, M.; Marine, W.; Sentis, M.; Uteza, O.; Thouvenot, P.; Alcaraz, J. L.; Le Samedy, J. M.; Blin, D.

2003-03-01

123

Metal decontamination for waste minimization using liquid metal refining technology  

SciTech Connect

The current Department of Energy Mixed Waste Treatment Project flowsheet indicates that no conventional technology, other than surface decontamination, exists for metal processing. Current Department of Energy guidelines require retrievable storage of all metallic wastes containing transuranic elements above a certain concentration. This project is in support of the National Mixed Low Level Waste Treatment Program. Because of the high cost of disposal, it is important to develop an effective decontamination and volume reduction method for low-level contaminated metals. It is important to be able to decontaminate complex shapes where surfaces are hidden or inaccessible to surface decontamination processes and destruction of organic contamination. These goals can be achieved by adapting commercial metal refining processes to handle radioactive and organic contaminated metal. The radioactive components are concentrated in the slag, which is subsequently vitrified; hazardous organics are destroyed by the intense heat of the bath. The metal, after having been melted and purified, could be recycled for use within the DOE complex. In this project, we evaluated current state-of-the-art technologies for metal refining, with special reference to the removal of radioactive contaminants and the destruction of hazardous organics. This evaluation was based on literature reports, industrial experience, plant visits, thermodynamic calculations, and engineering aspects of the various processes. The key issues addressed included radioactive partitioning between the metal and slag phases, minimization of secondary wastes, operability of the process subject to widely varying feed chemistry, and the ability to seal the candidate process to prevent the release of hazardous species.

Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Lally, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1993-09-01

124

Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

In October 1993, Manufacturing Sciences Corporation was awarded DOE contract DE-AC21-93MC30170 to develop and test recycling of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) to high value and intermediate and final product forms. This work was conducted to help solve the problems associated with decontamination and reuse of the diffusion plant barrier nickel and other radioactively contaminated scrap metals present in the diffusion plants. Options available for disposition of the nickel include decontamination and subsequent release or recycled product manufacture for restricted end use. Both of these options are evaluated during the course of this research effort. work during phase I of this project successfully demonstrated the ability to make stainless steel from barrier nickel feed. This paved the way for restricted end use products made from stainless steel. Also, after repeated trials and studies, the inducto-slag nickel decontamination process was eliminated as a suitable alternative. Electro-refining appeared to be a promising technology for decontamination of the diffusion plant barrier material. Goals for phase II included conducting experiments to facilitate the development of an electro-refining process to separate technetium from nickel. In parallel with those activities, phase II efforts were to include the development of the necessary processes to make useful products from radioactive scrap metal. Nickel from the diffusion plants as well as stainless steel and carbon steel could be used as feed material for these products.

MacNair, V.; Muth, T.; Shasteen, K.; Liby, A.; Hradil, G.; Mishra, B.

1996-12-31

125

Experiences with unexploded ordnance discrimination using magnetometry at a live-site in Montana  

E-print Network

Experiences with unexploded ordnance discrimination using magnetometry at a live-site in Montana , Montana Army National Guard, PO Box 4789, Fort Harrison, MT 59636- 4789 Keywords Unexploded ordnance that was collected and processed under production survey conditions at Chevallier Ranch, Montana. All anomalies

Oldenburg, Douglas W.

126

MINERAL WEATHERING RATES FROM SMALL-PLOT EXPERIMENTS, WMP SITE, BEAR BROOKS, MAINE  

EPA Science Inventory

The pH-dependence of silicate mineral weathering rates was measured in small-plot experiments at the Bear Brooks Watershed Manipulation Project site in Maine, U.S.A. ix 2 m2 plots were acidified with solutions of HCL in deionized water at pH values of 2, 2.5, and 3. Acid applicat...

127

School Counselor Training: Differentiated Site Supervision Based on Prior Work Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over a decade after the regulation change in Virginia allowing individuals without teaching experience to pursue school counseling careers, no known study had focused exclusively on differences site supervisors observe when training school counselors from different professional backgrounds and the extent to which those counselors employ a tailored…

Loving, Rachel S.

2012-01-01

128

Skylab program earth resources experiment package: Ground truth data for test sites (SL-2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Field measurements were performed at selected ground sites in order to provide comparative calibration measurements of sensors for the Earth Resources Experiment Package. Specifically, the solar radiation (400 to 1300 namometers) and thermal radiation (8-14 micrometers) were measured. Sites employed for the thermal measurements consisted of warm and cold water lakes. The thermal brightness temperature of the lake water, the temperature and humidity profile above the lake, and near surface meteorology (wind speed, pressure, etc.) were measured near the time of overpass. Sites employed for the solar radiation measurements were two desert type sites. Ground measurements consisted of: (1) direct solar radiation - optical depth; (2) diffuse solar radiation; (3) total solar radiation, (4) target directional (normal) reflectance; (5) target hemispherical reflectance; and (6) near surface meteorology.

1975-01-01

129

Creating Virtual Fieldwork Experiences of Geoheritage Sites as Educator Professional Development (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geoheritage sites are identified as such because they include excellent examples of geologic features or processes, or they have played an important role in the development of geologic understandings. These characteristics also make them excellent sites for teaching in the field, for teaching educators about the nature of fieldwork, and for making Virtual Fieldwork Experiences (VFEs, multimedia representations of field sites). Through the NSF-funded Regional and Local Earth (ReaL) Earth Inquiry Project, we have engaged educators in these practices. The nature of geoheritage sites is anomalous -- if this were not the case, the sites would not gain recognition. Anomalous features or processes can be powerful learning tools when placed into comparison with the more mundane, and the Earth system science of sites local to schools is likely to be mundane. By comparing the mundane and the extraordinary, it is hoped we can learn more about both. The professional development (PD) in ReaL Earth Inquiry begins with a face-to-face workshop within the teachers' region at a site that is interesting from an Earth system science perspective. Though we recognize and emphasize that all sites are interesting from an ESS perspective if you know how to look, the sites typically have features worthy of geoheritage designation. PD does not end with the end of the workshop but continues with online study groups where teachers work together to complete the workshop site VFE, and transition to work on VFEs of sites local to their schools. Throughout the program, participants engage in: - mentored fieldwork that pays attention to the skills and knowledge needed to lead fieldwork; - instruction in and use of a wide range of technologies for making VFEs; - study of a coherent conceptual framework connected to the project's driving question: Why does this place look the way it does? - and, use of resources for supporting all of the above The resources include templates for making VFEs and a framework summarized in the attached graphic organizer that features a series of questions that can be productively asked of any field site. By working with educators, we not only produce curriculum resources in the form of VFEs, we also engage in educator PD that produces evidence of its effectiveness, at least in terms of indications that educators are engaged in field study both at the workshop site and after they return home. Production of local VFEs sometimes involves students. The VFE Graphic Organizer, showing a series of questions that may be asked about any site, all under the project's driving question: Why does this place look the way it does?

Duggan-Haas, D.

2013-12-01

130

The EPRI DFDX Chemical Decontamination Process  

SciTech Connect

Decommissioning of retired nuclear plants and components demands the proper management of the process, both for economic reasons and for retaining public confidence in the continued use of nuclear power for electricity generation. The cost and ease of management of radioactively contaminated components can be greatly assisted by the application of decontamination technology. EPRI initiated a program of research and development work in collaboration with Bradtec, which has led to the ''EPRI DFD'' (Decontamination for Decommissioning) Process. The Process has been patented and licensed to six companies worldwide. The purpose of this process is to achieve efficient removal of radioactivity with minimum waste from retired nuclear components and plant systems. The process uses dilute fluoroboric acid with controlled oxidation potential. By removing all the outer scale and a thin layer of base metal from the surfaces, contamination can in many cases be reduced below the levels required to allow clearance (free-release) or recycle to form new components for the nuclear industry. This reduces the need for on-site storage or burial of large amounts of contaminated material at low level radioactive disposal facilities. An additional benefit is that residual radiation fields can be reduced by a large factor, which reduces the worker radiation exposure associated with decommissioning. Furthermore, this dose rate reduction improves the viability of early dismantlement following plant closure, as opposed to waiting for a prolonged period for radioactive decay to occur. The results obtained in early applications of the EPRI DFD process demonstrated the benefits of taking this approach (reference 1).

Bushart, S.; Wood, C. J.; Bradbury, D.; Elder, G.

2003-02-25

131

Decontamination and Decommissioning activities photobriefing book FY 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Program at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) is dedicated to the safe and cost effective D{ampersand}D of surplus nuclear facilities. There is currently a backlog of more than 7,000 contaminated US Department of Energy facilities nationwide. Added to this are 110 licensed commercial nuclear power reactors operated by utilities learning to cope with deregulation and an aging infrastructure that supports the commercial nuclear power industry, as well as medical and other uses of radioactive materials. With this volume it becomes easy to understand the importance of addressing the unique issues and objectives associated with the D{ampersand}D of surplus nuclear facilities. This photobriefing book summarizes the decontamination and decommissioning projects and activities either completed or continuing at the ANL-E site during the year.

NONE

1998-04-01

132

Snow Cover Depletion and Soil Moisture Recharge at Three Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) Meteorological Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With increasing concern regarding water supply in arid and semiarid regions, knowledge of water resources in the Earth's cold regions is critical. Snow-cover depletion and soil moisture recharge are elements used in hydrologic modeling and climate modeling, as well as remote sensing applications. Modeled snow-cover depletion and soil moisture recharge are important parameters in hydrologic forecasting. We evaluate the ability of a one-dimensional mass and energy balance model (SNTHERM.89) to predict snow-cover depletion and to test the accuracy of Fast All season Soil STrength (FASST) in modeling the evolution of soil moisture recharge based on data from three NASA Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) sites. The objective is to evaluate the model's ability to predict observations at three CLPX sites: Buffalo Pass (near Steamboat Springs, CO); St. Louis Creek (in the Fraser Experimental Forest, CO); and Illinois River (located in North Park, CO). The three sites were chosen for their diverse climatic and physiographic differences. The Buffalo Pass site has a deep snowpack with discontinuous forest cover dominated by Englemann spruce (Picea englemannii) and alpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa). The St. Louis site has a moderate snowpack depth and forest cover dominated by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). The Illinois River site is irrigated grassland with no forest cover.

Holcombe, J. D.; Elder, K.; Davis, R. E.

2003-12-01

133

On-site underground background measurements for the KASKA reactor-neutrino experiment  

E-print Network

On-site underground background measurements were performed for the planned reactor-neutrino oscillation experiment KASKA at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station in Niigata, Japan. A small-diameter boring hole was excavated down to 70m underground level, and a detector unit for $\\gamma$-ray and cosmic-muon measurements was placed at various depths to take data. The data were analyzed to obtain abundance of natural radioactive elements in the surrounding soil and rates of cosmic muons that penetrate the overburden. The results will be reflected in the design of the KASKA experiment.

H. Furuta; K. Sakuma; M. Aoki; Y. Fukuda; Y. Funaki; T. Hara; T. Haruna; N. Ishihara; M. Katsumata; T. Kawasaki; M. Kuze; J. Maeda; T. Matsubara; T. Matsumoto; H. Miyata; Y. Nagasaka; T. Nakagawa; N. Nakajima; K. Nitta; K. Sakai; Y. Sakamoto; F. Suekane; T. Sumiyoshi; H. Tabata; N. Tamura; Y. Tsuchiya

2006-07-12

134

The effect of site-based preservice experiences on elementary science teaching self-efficacy beliefs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current reform in science education has focused on the need for improvement of preservice teacher training (National Science Education Standards, 1996). As a situation specific construct (Bandura, 1977), self-efficacy studies have been conducted to investigate factors that impact preservice teachers' sense of confidence as it relates to their ability to become successful science teachers. This descriptive study identified factors in the site based experiences that affected preservice elementary teachers' self-efficacy as measured by the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBL-B) (Enochs and Riggs, 1990). The sample consisted of the entire population of undergraduate elementary preservice teachers in the site based teacher education program during the fall semester of 1997 at a large south central urban university. The 131 paired, pretest posttests of the entire STEBL-B and the two constructs were analyzed for significance in mean score gains. Results of the paired t test yielded a t value of 11.52 which was significant at p <.001. An analysis of covariance using the pretest as the covariate yielded an F value of 6.41 which was statistically significant at p <.001. These quantitative results were supported by interviews and by written comments on questionnaires that determined ratings for the extent of impact on self-efficacy from site based experiences. Results of this study indicate that the experiences of the site based program has a significant positive impact on the preservice teachers' self-efficacy. The implication for teacher educators is that this specific affective dimension can be significantly enhanced. The site based program can provide the four factors Bandura identified as sources of information used to determine self-efficacy. These include performance accomplishments through authentic teaching experiences, vicarious experiences through observation of the site based teachers, and verbal persuasion and physiological states from feedback given by the university coordinators. The majority of these preservice teachers started the semester with a negative attitude toward teaching science, but ended the semester with a positive view of themselves as effective science teachers in the future.

Wingfield, Mary E.

135

Magnetic separation for soil decontamination  

SciTech Connect

High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) is a physical separation process that is used to extract magnetic particles from mixtures. The technology is used on a large scale in the kaolin clay industry to whiten or brighten kaolin clay and increase its value. Because all uranium and plutonium compounds are slightly magnetic, HGMS can be used to separate these contaminants from non-magnetic soils. A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was signed in 1992 between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Company (LESAT) to develop HGMS for soil decontamination. This paper reports progress and describes the HGMS technology.

Avens, L.R.; Worl, L.A.; deAguero, K.J.; Padilla, D.D.; Prenger, F.C.; Stewart, W.F.; Hill, D.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Tolt, T.L. (Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies (United States))

1993-01-01

136

Magnetic separation for soil decontamination  

SciTech Connect

High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) is a physical separation process that is used to extract magnetic particles from mixtures. The technology is used on a large scale in the kaolin clay industry to whiten or brighten kaolin clay and increase its value. Because all uranium and plutonium compounds are slightly magnetic, HGMS can be used to separate these contaminants from non-magnetic soils. A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was signed in 1992 between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Company (LESAT) to develop HGMS for soil decontamination. This paper reports progress and describes the HGMS technology.

Avens, L.R.; Worl, L.A.; deAguero, K.J.; Padilla, D.D.; Prenger, F.C.; Stewart, W.F.; Hill, D.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Tolt, T.L. [Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies (United States)

1993-02-01

137

Managing mass casualties and decontamination.  

PubMed

Careful planning and regular exercising of capabilities is the key to implementing an effective response following the release of hazardous materials, although ad hoc changes may be inevitable. Critical actions which require immediate implementation at an incident are evacuation, followed by disrobing (removal of clothes) and decontamination. The latter can be achieved through bespoke response facilities or various interim methods which may utilise water or readily available (dry, absorbent) materials. Following transfer to a safe holding area, each casualty's personal details should be recorded to facilitate a health surveillance programme, should it become apparent that the original contaminant has chronic health effects. PMID:24684820

Chilcott, Robert P

2014-11-01

138

Microearthquakes induced during hydraulic fracturing at the Fenton Hill HDR site: the 1982 experiments  

SciTech Connect

The on-site real-time processing of microearthquake signals that occur during massive hydraulic fracturing provides a notion of the location and growth of the fracture system being created. This enables quick decisions to be made in regard to the ongoing operations. The analytical results and impact of the hypocenter mapping during the 1982 fracturing experiments in the Fenton Hill Phase II Hot Dry Rock geothermal reservoir are reported.

Keppler, H.; Pearson, C.F.; Potter, R.M.; Albright, J.N.

1983-01-01

139

INTEGRATED VERTICAL AND OVERHEAD DECONTAMINATION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the activities performed during FY98 and describes the planned activities for FY99. Accomplishments for FY98 include identifying and selecting decontamination, the screening of potential characterization technologies, development of minimum performance factors for the decontamination technology, and development and identification of Applicable, Relevant and Appropriate Regulations (ARARs).

M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

1999-01-01

140

Electrochemical decontamination system for actinide processing gloveboxes  

SciTech Connect

An electrolytic decontamination technology has been developed and successfully demonstrated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for the decontamination of actinide processing gloveboxes. The technique decontaminates the interior surfaces of stainless steel gloveboxes utilizing a process similar to electropolishing. The decontamination device is compact and transportable allowing it to be placed entirely within the glovebox line. In this way, decontamination does not require the operator to wear any additional personal protective equipment and there is no need for additional air handling or containment systems. Decontamination prior to glovebox decommissioning reduces the potential for worker exposure and environmental releases during the decommissioning, transport, and size reduction procedures which follow. The goal of this effort is to reduce contamination levels of alpha emitting nuclides for a resultant reduction in waste level category from High Level Transuranic (TRU) to low Specific Activity (LSA, less than or equal 100 nCi/g). This reduction in category results in a 95% reduction in disposal and disposition costs for the decontaminated gloveboxes. The resulting contamination levels following decontamination by this method are generally five orders of magnitude below the LSA specification. Additionally, the sodium sulfate based electrolyte utilized in the process is fully recyclable which results in the minimum of secondary waste. The process bas been implemented on seven gloveboxes within LANL`s Plutonium Facility at Technical Area 55. Of these gloveboxes, two have been discarded as low level waste items and the remaining five have been reused.

Wedman, D.E.; Lugo, J.L.; Ford, D.K.; Nelson, T.O.; Trujillo, V.L.; Martinez, H.E.

1998-03-01

141

Testing and evaluation of eight decontamination chemicals  

SciTech Connect

This report covers experimental work comparing eight different decontamination chemicals. Seven of these chemicals have some novelty, or are not currently in use at the ICPP. The eighth is a common ICPP decontamination reagent used as a baseline for effective comparison. Decontamination factors, waste generation values, and corrosion rates are tabulated for these chemicals. Recommendations are given for effective methods of non-sodium or low-sodium decontamination chemicals. The two most effective chemical for decontamination found in these test were a dilute hydrofluoric and nitric acid (HF/HNO{sub 3}) mixture and a fluoroboric acid solution. The fluoroboric acid solution (1 molar) was by far the most effective decontamination reagent, but suffered the problem of generating significant final calcine volume. The HF/HNO{sub 3} solution performed a very good decontamination of the SIMCON coupons while generating only small amounts of calcine volume. Concentration variables were also tested, and optimized for these two solutions. Several oxidation/reduction decon chemical systems were also tested. These systems were similar to the TURCO 4502 and TURCO 4521 solutions used for general decontamination at the ICPP. A low sodium alternative, nitric acid/potassium permanganate, to the ``high sodium`` TURCO 4502 was tested extensively, optimized and recommended for general ICPP use. A reductive chemical solution, oxalic acid/nitric acid was also shown to have significant advantages.

Demmer, R.

1994-09-01

142

DISPOSAL OF RESIDUES FROM BUILDING DECONTAMINATION ACTIVITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

After a building has gone through decontamination activities from a chemical attack there will be a significant amount of building decontamination residue that will need to undergo disposal. This project consists of a fundamental study to investigate the desorption of simulated c...

143

Vibratory finishing as a decontamination process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major objective of this research is to develop vibratory finishing into a large-scale decontamination technique that can economicaly remove transuranic and other surface contamination from large volumes of waste produced by the operation and decommissioning of retired nuclear facilities. The successful development and widespread application of this decontamination technique would substantially reduce the volume of waste requiring expensive geologic

M. W. McCoy; H. W. Arrowsmith; R. P. Allen

1980-01-01

144

Surveillance and maintenance report on decontamination and decommissioning and remedial action activities at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Fiscal year 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) and Remedial Action (RA) programs are part of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Division and are funded by the Office of Environmental Management (EM-40). Building 9201-4 (known as Alpha-4), three sites located within Building 9201-3 (the Oil Storage Tank, the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Fuel Handling Facility, and the Coolant Salt Technology Facility), and Building 9419-1 (the Decontamination Facility) are currently the facilities at the Y-12 Plant included in the D&D program. The RA program provides surveillance and maintenance (S&M) and program management of ER sites at the Y-12 Plant, including selected sites listed in Appendix C of the Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA), sites listed in the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendment (HSWA) permit Solid Waste Management Unit (SWM-U) list, and sites currently closed or undergoing post-closure activities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) or the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). This report communicates the status of the program plans and specific S&M activities for the D&D and RA programs.

King, H.L.; Sollenberger, M.L.; Sparkman, D.E.; Reynolds, R.M.; Wayland, G.S.

1996-12-01

145

Preliminary numerical modeling for the G-Tunnel welded tuff mining experiment; Yucca Mountain site characterization project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yucca Mountain, located in Southern Nevada, is to be considered as a potential site for a nuclear waste repository. Located in Rainier Mesa on the Nevada Test Site, G-Tunnel has been the site of a series of experiments, part of whose purpose is to evaluate measurement techniques for rock mechanics before testing in the Exploratory Shaft. Rainier Mesa is composed

R. L. Johnson; S. J. Bauer

1991-01-01

146

Hairy skin exposure to VX in vitro: effectiveness of delayed decontamination.  

PubMed

The chemical warfare agents such as VX represent a threat for both military and civilians, which involves an immediate need of effective decontamination systems. Since human scalp is usually unprotected compared to other body regions covered with clothes, it could be a preferential site of exposure in case of terrorist acts. The purpose of this study was to determine if skin decontamination could be efficient when performed more than 1h after exposure. In addition, the impact of hairs in skin contamination was investigated. By using in vitro skin models, we demonstrated that about 75% of the applied quantity of VX was recovered on the skin surface 2h after skin exposition, which means that it is worth decontaminating even if contamination occurred 2h before. The stratum corneum reservoir for VX was quickly established and persistent. In addition, the presence of hairs modified the percutaneous penetration of the nerve agent by binding of VX to hairs. Hair shaft has thus to be taken into account in the decontamination process. Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) and Fuller's Earth (FE) were active in the skin decontamination 45min post-exposure, but RSDL was more efficient in reducing the amount of VX either in the skin or in the hair. PMID:22926045

Rolland, P; Bolzinger, M-A; Cruz, C; Josse, D; Briançon, S

2013-02-01

147

An Analysis of NSF Geosciences Research Experience for Undergraduate Site Programs from 2009 through 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) Program at the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) provides U.S. undergraduate students from any college or university the opportunity to conduct research at a different institution and gain a better understanding of research career pathways. The Geosciences REU Sites foster research opportunities in areas closely aligned with geoscience programs, particularly those related to earth, atmospheric and ocean sciences. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the Geosciences REU Site programs run in 2009 through 2011. A survey requesting information on recruitment methods, student demographics, enrichment activities, and fields of research was sent to the Principal Investigators of each of the active REU Sites. Over 70% of the surveys were returned with the requested information from about 50 to 60 sites each year. The internet is the most widely used mechanism to recruit participants, with personal communication as the second most important recruiting tool. The admissions rate for REU Sites in Geosciences varies from less than 10% to 50%, with the majority of participants being rising seniors and juniors. Many of the participants come from non-PhD granting institutions. Among the participants, gender distribution varies by discipline, with ocean sciences having a large majority of women and earth sciences having a majority of men. Regarding ethnic diversity, the REU Sites reflect the difficulty of attracting diverse students into Geosciences as a discipline; a large majority of participants are Caucasian and Asian students. Furthermore, participants from minority-serving institutions and community colleges constitute a small percentage of those taking part in these research experiences. The enrichment activities are very similar across the REU Sites, and mimic activities common to the scientific community, including intellectual exchange of ideas (lab meetings, seminars, and professional meetings), networking and social activities. The results from this survey will be used to examine strengths in the REU Sites in the Geosciences, opportunities that may be under utilized, and community needs to enhance this NSF wide program.

Rom, E. L.; Patino, L. C.; Weiler, S.; Sanchez, S. C.; Colon, Y.; Antell, L.

2011-12-01

148

Siting of USArray Seismic Stations in North Carolina and southern Virginia: Experience of NC-1 Team  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The USArray component of the EarthScope, a transportable array of 400 seismometers installed in a grid about 70 km apart, is in the next two years entering its final stage with station deployment along the Atlantic coast of the United States. Here, we present the experience of the student-faculty team from North Carolina Central University (NCCU) in finding and documenting the suitable sites for the twenty five USArray stations in North Carolina and southern Virginia. The ideal sites are easily accessible yet far from traffic and other sources of noise, with good cell phone coverage, sun exposure and out of flood-prone areas. Although the initial selection of potential locations was done using geospatial mapping and analysis software provided by EarthScope, finding and finalizing the sites involved driving more then 1,000 miles each week for over two months inspecting possible site locations. Aside from driving, the majority of time was spent talking about the EarthScope project and hosting of USArray stations to mostly reluctant landowners. In addition to facing various challenges in finding appropriate sites due to land use issues, such as suburban sprawl of central North Carolina, or topography factors, such as low lying flood prone coastal areas, by far the major challenge was finding the landowners willing to host the seismic station for the necessary three years. In addition to involving students from an HBCU in seismology related project and increasing the visibility of NCCU geophysics program in the University and local community through publicity releases in local media and on university web site, the project had an important outreach component. As North Carolina is located along the seismically quiet, passive Atlantic margin, most residents are not familiar with earthquakes and seismology and the siting experience provided students an opportunity to practice explaining the earthquake research to the general public. The dialog also highlighted science issues that are of interest to North Carolina residents as many landowners asked similar questions related to, among others, fracking, possibility of an earthquake similar to magnitude 5.8 Mineral, Virginia earthquake occurring in North Carolina, and the use of taxpayers money to fund science projects such as EarthScope.

Martin, P.; Howard, J.; Horne, T.

2012-12-01

149

Novel Problems Associated with Accounting and Control of Nuclear Material from Decontamination and Decommissioning and in Waste  

SciTech Connect

Abstract The reduction in nuclear arms and the production facilities that supported the weapons programs have produced some unique problems for nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A). Many of these problems are not limited to the weapons complex, but have the potential to appear in many legacy facilities as they undergo dismantlement and disposal. Closing facilities find that what was previously defined as product has become a waste stream bringing regulatory, human, and technological conflict. The sometimes unique compositions of these materials produce both storage and measurement problems. The nuclear material accounting and control programs have had to become very adaptive and preemptive to ensure control and protection is maintained. This paper examines some of the challenges to Safeguards generated by deinventory, decontamination decommissioning, dismantlement, demolition, and waste site remediation from predictable sources and some from unpredictable sources. 1.0 Introduction The United States is eliminating many facilities that support the nuclear weapons program. With the changing political conditions around the world and changes in military capabilities, the decreased emphasis on nuclear weapons has eliminated the need for many of the aging facilities. Additionally, the recovery of plutonium from dismantled weapons and reuse of components has eliminated the need to produce more plutonium for the near future. Because the nuclear weapons program and commercial applications generally do not mix in the United States, the facilities in the DOE complex that no longer have a weapon mission are being deinventoried, decontaminated, decommissioned, and dismantled/demolished. The materials from these activities are then disposed of in various ways but usually in select waste burial sites. Additionally, the waste in many historical burial sites associated with the weapons complex are being recovered, repackaged if necessary, and disposed of in either geological sites or low-level waste sites. The type of waste from the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities varies from uncontaminated construction materials to nuclear weapon components. This variety of forms, types, and composition of nuclear material presents many challenges to MC&A. It requires the creative application of regulations, but current regulations are adequate to ensure the security and control of the nuclear material. This paper examines some of the approaches used to meet regulatory requirements and problems that occurred during D&D. Experiences are drawn for the Hanford site and elsewhere in the DOE complex.

Schlegel, Steven C.

2007-07-10

150

Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive  

DOEpatents

A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

Tucker; Mark D. (Albuquerque, NM), Comstock; Robert H. (Gardendale, AL)

2007-10-16

151

Radiation decontamination of poultry viscera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of gamma radiation for decontamination of poultry viscera was examined. Exposure to a dose of 20 kGy rendered the viscera sterile (<1 CFU/10 g tissue), while 5 and 10 kGy reduced the total bacterial count by 4 and 6 log 10 cycles, respectively, eliminating the coliforms to <1 CFU/g of tissue. Analysis of organoleptic and biochemical parameters [proximate composition, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN), lipid peroxidation (TBARS value), and levels of TCA soluble peptides and proteolytic enzyme] showed that gamma irradiation (20 kGy) followed by storage at 4 °C for 62 days induced no significant change (except lipid peroxidation) in the acceptability of poultry viscera. However, storage at ambient temperature (26 °C) produced enhanced levels of TVBN and TCA soluble products accompanied by higher drip loss. Activities of proteolytic enzymes, except acid protease, did not show any significant change during post-irradiation storage at either temperature.

Jamdar, S. N.; Harikumar, P.

2008-04-01

152

In vitro skin permeation and decontamination of the organophosphorus pesticide paraoxon under various physical conditions--evidence for a wash-in effect.  

PubMed

Misuse of various chemicals, such as chemical warfare agents, industrial chemicals or pesticides during warfare or terrorists attacks requires adequate protection. Thus, development and evaluation of novel decontamination dispositives and techniques are needed. In this study, in vitro permeation and decontamination of a potentially hazardous compound paraoxon, an active metabolite of organophosphorus pesticide parathion, was investigated. Skin permeation and decontamination experiments were carried out in modified Franz diffusion cells. Pig skin was used as a human skin model. Commercially produced detergent-based washing solutions FloraFree(™) and ArgosTM were used as decontamination means. The experiments were done under "warm", "cold", "dry" and "wet" skin conditions in order to determine an effect of various physical conditions on skin permeation of paraoxon and on a subsequent decontamination process. There was no significant difference in skin permeation of paraoxon under warm, cold and dry conditions, whereas wet conditions provided significantly higher permeation rates. In the selected conditions, decontamination treatments performed 1 h after a skin exposure did not decrease the agent volume that permeated through the skin. An exception were wet skin conditions with non-significant decontamination efficacy 18 and 28% for the FloraFree(™) and Argos(™) treatment, respectively. In contrast, the skin permeation of paraoxon under warm, cold and dry conditions increased up to 60-290% following decontamination compared to non-decontaminated controls. This has previously been described as a skin wash-in effect. PMID:22519880

Misik, Jan; Pavlikova, Ruzena; Josse, Denis; Cabal, Jiri; Kuca, Kamil

2012-09-01

153

MPL-Net data products available at co-located AERONET sites and field experiment locations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-pulse lidar (MPL) systems are small, eye-safe lidars capable of profiling the vertical distribution of aerosol and cloud layers. There are now over 20 MPL systems around the world, and they have been used in numerous field experiments. A new project was started at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in 2000. The new project, MPL-Net, is a coordinated network of long-time MPL sites. The network also supports a limited number of field experiments each year. Most MPL-Net sites and field locations are co-located with AERONET sunphotometers. At these locations, the AERONET and MPL-Net data are combined together to provide both column and vertically resolved aerosol and cloud measurements. The MPL-Net project coordinates the maintenance and repair for all instruments in the network. In addition, data is archived and processed by the project using common, standardized algorithms that have been developed and utilized over the past 10 years. These procedures ensure that stable, calibrated MPL systems are operating at sites and that the data quality remains high. Rigorous uncertainty calculations are performed on all MPL-Net data products. Automated, real-time level 1.0 data processing algorithms have been developed and are operational. Level 1.0 algorithms are used to process the raw MPL data into the form of range corrected, uncalibrated lidar signals. Automated, real-time level 1.5 algorithms have also been developed and are now operational. Level 1.5 algorithms are used to calibrate the MPL systems, determine cloud and aerosol layer heights, and calculate the optical depth and extinction profile of the aerosol boundary layer. The co-located AERONET sunphotometer provides the aerosol optical depth, which is used as a constraint to solve for the extinction-to-backscatter ratio and the aerosol extinction profile. Browse images and data files are available on the MPL-Net web-site. An overview of the processing algorithms and initial results from selected sites and field experiments will be presented. The capability of the MPL-Net project to produce automated real-time (next day) profiles of aerosol extinction will be shown. Finally, early results from Level 2.0 and Level 3.0 algorithms currently under development will be presented. The level 3.0 data provide continuous (day/night) retrievals of multiple aerosol and cloud heights, and optical properties of each layer detected.

Welton, E. J.; Campbell, J. R.; Berkoff, T. A.

2002-05-01

154

Flume experiments on sediment mixtures from the offshore dredged material disposal site, Galveston Texas  

E-print Network

of the requirement for tht degree of MASTER OF SC:ENCE August 1977 Major Sub. :e . t: Oceanograghy FLUME EXPERIMENTS ON SEDIMENT MIXTURES FROM THE OFFSHORE DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL SITE, GALVESTON, TEXAS A Thesis by ANTHONY JOSEPH MOHEREK Approved..., most investigators resorted to usage of Prandtl-von Karman's universal velocity distribution law for fully developed turbulent flow: = 2. 5 ln /2 U Y u* 0 (2) 15 where (U) is defined as the flow speed at elevation (Y) above the bed, (2...

Moherek, Anthony Joseph

2012-06-07

155

Area 6 Decontamination Pond Corrective Action Unit 92 Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report for the Period January 2000-December 2000  

SciTech Connect

The Area 6 Decontamination Pond, Corrective Action Unit 92, was closed in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Operational Permit (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP, 1995]) and the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (NDEP, 1996) on May 11, 1999. Historically the Decontamination Pond was used for the disposal of partially treated liquid effluent discharged from the Decontamination Facility (Building 6-05) and the Industrial Laundry (Building 6-07) (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1996). The Decontamination Pond was constructed and became operational in 1979. Releases of RCRA-regulated hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents have not been discharged to the Decontamination Pond since 1988 (DOE/NV, 1996). The pipe connecting the Decontamination Pond and Decontamination Facility and Industrial Laundry were cut and sealed at the Decontamination Pad Oil/Water Separator in 1992. The Decontamination Pond was closed in place by installing a RCRA cover. Fencing was installed around the periphery to prevent accidental damage to the cover. Post-closure monitoring at the site consists of quarterly inspections of the RCRA cover and fencing, and a subsidence survey. Additional inspections are conducted if: Precipitation occurs in excess of 1.28 centimeters (cm) (0.50 inches [in]) in a 24-hour period, or An earthquake occurs with a magnitude exceeding 4.5 on the Richter scale within 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles [mi]) of the closure.

J. L. Traynor

2001-03-01

156

Radioactive Waste Decontamination Using Selentec Mag*SepSM Particles  

SciTech Connect

A sorbent containing crystalline silicotitanate (CST) tested for cesium removal from simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) soluble high activity waste showed rapid kinetics (1 h contact time) and high distribution coefficients (Kd 4000 mL/g of CST). The sorbent was prepared by Selective Environmental Technologies, Inc., (Selentec) as a MAG*SEP particle containing CST obtained from the Molecular Sieve Department of UOP, LLC, Results of preliminary tests suggest potential applications of the Selentec MAG*SEP particles to radioactive waste decontamination at SRS.

Walker, D.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1998-06-01

157

Testing and comparison of seventeen decontamination chemicals  

SciTech Connect

This report details the testing and evaluation of seventeen decontamination chemicals. Tests were conducted with SIMCON (simulated contamination) coupons under controlled conditions to compare cleaning effectiveness, overall corrosion potential for plant equipment, interim waste generation and final waste generation.

Demmer, R.L.

1996-09-01

158

'This wound has spoilt everything': emotional capital and the experience of surgical site infections.  

PubMed

In this article we explore the experience of suffering from a surgical site infection, a common complication of surgery affecting around 5 per cent of surgical patients, via an interview study of 17 patients in the Midlands in the UK. Despite their prevalence, the experience of surgical site infections has received little attention so far. In spite of the impairment resulting from these iatrogenic problems, participants expressed considerable stoicism and we interpret this via the notion of emotional capital. This idea derives from the work of Pierre Bourdieu, Helga Nowotny and Diane Reay and helps us conceptualise the emotional resources accumulated and expended in managing illness and in gaining the most from healthcare services. Participants were frequently at pains not to blame healthcare personnel or hospitals, often discounting the infection's severity, and attributing it to chance, to 'germs' or to their own failure to buy and apply wound care products. The participants' stoicism was thus partly afforded by their refusal to blame healthcare institutions or personnel. Where anger was described, this was either defused or expressed on behalf of another person. Emotional capital is associated with deflecting the possibility of complaint and sustaining a deferential and grateful position in relation to the healthcare system. PMID:25470322

Brown, Brian; Tanner, Judith; Padley, Wendy

2014-11-01

159

High-resolution seismic exploration methods for boreholes and tunnels: experiments, results and test site design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While surface to ground seismic exploration methods are well known, the utilization of seismic waves for underground surveying is less developed. The major challenge in subsurface seismics is the spatial ambiguity of the recorded wave field due to limited aperture of seismic source and receiver survey geometry. We developed novel imaging techniques and the appropriate measurement systems like phased array borehole sources for directional enhancement of seismic wave energy. Different procedures such as 3-component Kirchhoff-Migration and Fresnel-Volume-Migration were tested and improved to enhance the spatial resolution. The goal of these new approaches is to advance instruments for the detection of small-scale tectonic features or lithological changes in boreholes and tunnels. The key component for the experiments was the setup of our underground lab 150 m below surface (education and research mine Reiche Zeche, TU Freiberg, SE Germany). Surrounded by three galleries, the site comprises a block of homogeneous high-grade gneisses of about 50 m width and 100 m length ensuring constant environmental conditions. Along the galleries thirty 3-component geophones are anchored 1-2 m deep with a distance of 4-9 m from each other. Within this test site, two horizontal 8 ½" boreholes (20 and 30 m long) as well as a vertical hole (70 m depth) allow for 3D nearfield seismic experiments for high-resolution exploration and monitoring of geological structures.

Giese, R.; Harms, U.; Jaksch, K.; Krüger, K.

2012-12-01

160

Decontamination of radioactive concrete using electrokinetic technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental results of the electrokinetic decontamination with 0.01 M of nitric acid were that the cesium ions were removed\\u000a by up to 52% from the concrete after 15 days, also the cobalt ions were only removed by up to 0.7%. The concrete should be\\u000a washed with H2SO4 as a pretreatment before electrokintic decontamination to lower its pH below 4.0. The removal

Gye-Nam Kim; Wang-Kyu Choi; Kune-Woo Lee

2010-01-01

161

Decontamination and disposal of PCB wastes.  

PubMed Central

Decontamination and disposal processes for PCB wastes are reviewed. Processes are classed as incineration, chemical reaction or decontamination. Incineration technologies are not limited to the rigorous high temperature but include those where innovations in use of oxident, heat transfer and residue recycle are made. Chemical processes include the sodium processes, radiant energy processes and low temperature oxidations. Typical processing rates and associated costs are provided where possible. PMID:3928363

Johnston, L E

1985-01-01

162

Technology needs for decommissioning and decontamination  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the current view of the most important decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) technology needs for the US Department of Energy facilities for which the D & D programs are the responsibility of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. The source of information used in this assessment was a survey of the D & D program managers at each facility. A summary of needs presented in earlier surveys of site needs in approximate priority order was supplied to each site as a starting point to stimulate thinking. This document reflects a brief initial assessment of ongoing needs; these needs will change as plans for D & D are finalized, some of the technical problems are solved through successful development programs, and new ideas for D and D technologies appear. Thus, this assessment should be updated and upgraded periodically, perhaps, annually. This assessment differs from others that have been made in that it directly and solely reflects the perceived need for new technology by key personnel in the D & D programs at the various facilities and does not attempt to consider the likelihood that these technologies can be successfully developed. Thus, this list of technology needs also does not consider the cost, time, and effort required to develop the desired technologies. An R & D program must include studies that have a reasonable chance for success as well as those for which there is a high need. Other studies that considered the cost and probability of successful development as well as the need for new technology are documented. However, the need for new technology may be diluted in such studies; this document focuses only on the need for new technology as currently perceived by those actually charged with accomplishing D & D.

Bundy, R.D.; Kennerly, J.M.

1993-12-01

163

Industrial Hygiene Concerns during the Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

A significant industrial hygiene concern during the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was the oxidation of the lead bricks' surface, which were utilized for radiation shielding. This presented both airborne exposure and surface contamination issues for the workers in the field removing this material. This paper will detail the various protection and control methods tested and implemented to protect the workers, including those technologies deployed to decontaminate the work surfaces. In addition, those techniques employed to recycle the lead for additional use at the site will be discussed.

M.E. Lumia; C.A. Gentile

2002-01-18

164

Universal Oxidation for CBW Decontamination: L-Gel System Development and Deployment  

SciTech Connect

The general philosophy of this work is to develop an integrated set of decontamination methods and tools that will work on the major CBW threat agents. The work includes some near term techniques that can be demonstrated within a year and implemented soon thereafter as well as longer term research objectives. It is recognized that there is a balance between somewhat less effective methods which can be demonstrated quickly and more effective ones which may require a much longer time to fruition. The optimum goal of this study is to find a single decontamination system for chemical and biological agents which is non-toxic, non-corrosive, and easily deployable. One of the goals is to have decontamination systems that might be used by first responders as well as more complete systems to be used by specialized decontamination teams. Therefore, the overall project goal is to develop better decontamination methods that can be quickly implemented by these organizations. This includes early demonstrations and field work with companies or other government agencies who can identify implementation concerns and needs. The approach taken in this work is somewhat different than the standard military approach to decontamination. In a battlefield scenario, it is critical to decontaminate to a useful level in a very short time so the soldiers can continue their mission. In a domestic, urban scenario, time is of less consequence but collateral damage and recertification (public perception and stakeholder acceptance) are of much greater importance. The specific objective of the LLNL work to date has been to evaluate various oxidizer systems as reagents to allow for detoxification and/or degradation to non-toxic environmentally acceptable components rather than necessitate complete destruction. Detoxification requires less reagent material than total oxidation, thereby reducing the logistic burden for a decontamination team. Since we also wanted to maximize the contact time between the decontaminating reagent and the contaminant agent, we selected gelled reagents as the primary carrier material. Gels have the additional advantage of adhering to vertical and even the underside of horizontal surfaces such as ceilings and walls. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, over a period of twenty years from the late 1960's to the late 1980's, developed a series of extrudable high explosives based on the gelling of polar energetic liquids. While never going into production, this development served as an experience base for formulation, characterization and dispersal system design and fabrication. It was a logical step, therefore, to adapt this work to the gelling of aqueous oxidizers for candidate BW/CW decontaminants.

Raber, E.; McGuire, R.; Hoffman, M.; Alcaraz, A.; Shepley, D.; Elliot, J.; Krauter, P.; Garcia, E.

2000-12-16

165

[Decontamination. A treatment without indications].  

PubMed

The prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a priority in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). To achieve this goal, clinical practice guidelines recommend the simultaneous application of a heterogeneous group of preventive measures of proven effectiveness. That is why we are presently seeing a reduction in VAP incidence to values previously considered unreachable. Better compliance with clinical practice guidelines has resulted in VAP rates approaching zero in multiple studies. Faced with the measures recommended in these guidelines, selective digestive decontamination (SDD), used together with other infection control practices, has shown efficacy in hospitals with high baseline incidence of pneumonia. However, its effectiveness in hospitals with good compliance of clinical practice guidelines and lower rates of VAP is highly unlikely. A serious drawback of DDS is the risk of favoring the selection of resistant microorganisms that can spread easily through the ICU and the hospital. With current standards of infection prevention, DDS is an unnecessary and risky measure, which should not be used on a widespread basis. Those situations in which the DDS may increase the effectiveness of properly implemented standard measures are still unknown. PMID:20488583

Palencia Herrejón, E; Rico Cepeda, P

2010-01-01

166

Post-Shot Surface Damage Detected with LIDAR at the Source Physics Experiment Site (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Designed to improve long-range treaty monitoring capabilities, the Source Physics Experiment series is being conducted at a location in Nevada and provides an opportunity to advance near-field monitoring and field-based investigations of suspected underground test locations. In particular, features associated with underground testing can be evaluated using Source Physics Experiment activities as analogs, linking on-site inspections with remote sensing technologies. Following a calibration shot (SPE 1), SPE 2 (10/2011) and SPE 3 (07/2012) were performed in the same emplacement hole with 1.0 ton of explosives at 150 ft depth. A fourth shot (SPE 4) is planned for August 2013 as a 220 lb (100 kg) TNT equivalent shot at a depth of 315 ft (96 m). Because one of the goals of the Source Physics Experiments is to determine damage effects on seismic wave propagation and improve modeling capabilities, a key component in the predictive component and ultimate validation of the models is a full understanding of the intervening geology between the source and instrumented bore holes. Ground-based LIDAR and fracture mapping, mechanical properties determined via laboratory testing of rock core, discontinuity analysis and optical microscopy of the core rocks were performed prior to and following each experiment. Results of the LIDAR collects from both SPE 2 and 3 indicate a permanent ground displacement of up to several centimeters aligning along the projected surface traces of two faults observed in the core and fractures mapped at the surface. Work by Los Alamos National Laboratory was sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration Award No. DE-AC52-06NA25946.

Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Sussman, A. J.; Kelley, R. E.; Cooper, D. I.

2013-12-01

167

Tools for decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities  

SciTech Connect

The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities requires many different tools. These can vary from small hand tools to the heavy equipment used to remove concrete and soil. Tools for D and D should be reliable, versatile, economical, and easily disposed of in case they become contaminated. The experiences and information used as background for this paper where gained at the Mound Facility of the Monsanto Research Corporation in Miamisburg, Ohio. In the search to find tools to do the work proficiently, many tools were considered. The scheduled D and D tasks and the tools and equipment required for them are described.

Hermetz, R.E.

1986-01-01

168

Ground-water effects of the UCG experiments at the Hoe Creek site in northeastern Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Ground-water changes and subsidence effects associated with three underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments have been monitored at the Hoe Creek site in northeastern Wyoming. Ground-water quality measurements have extended over a period of four years and have been supplemented by laboratory studies of contaminant sorption by coal. It was found that a broad range of residual gasification products are introduced into the ground-water system. These contaminants may be of environmental significance if they find their way, in sufficient concentrations, into surface waters, or into aquifers from which water is extracted for drinking or agricultural purposes. Fortunately, the concentrations of these contaminants are substantially reduced by sorption on the surrounding coal. However, recent field measurements indicate that there may be significant limitations on this natural cleansing process. The contaminants of potential concern, and the mechanisms that affect their deposition and persistence have been identified.

Mead, S.W.; Wang, F.T.; Stuermer, D.H.

1981-06-01

169

In-situ stress measurements at DOE's multiwell experiment site, Mesaverde group, Rifle, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of the vertical distribution of the minimum principal in situ stress in the lower Mesaverde group (7300 to 8100 ft depth, 2225 to 2470 m) at DOE's Multi-Well Experiment site have been made by conducting small-volume, hydraulic-fracture stress tests through perforations. Accurate, reproducible results were obtained by conducting a number of repeat injections in each zone of interest using a specially designed pump system, modified high-resolution electronic equipment, and a down-hole shut-off tool with a bottom-hole pressure transducer. Stress tests were conducted in marine sandstones and shales as well as a coal, mudstone, and sandstone in a paludal depositional environment. These tests provide a detailed stress distribution in this region. 19 references.

Warpinski, N.R.; Branagan, P.; Wilmer, R.

1983-01-01

170

Laboratory Demonstration of Radiological Decontamination Using Radpro  

SciTech Connect

In the event of terrorist activity involving the explosive dispersion of radioactive materials (a 'dirty' bomb), a number of different types of surfaces and substrates, including concrete, granite, brick, cinder block, tile, asphalt, wood, glass, plastic, iron, and steel, may become radiologically contaminated. Incident cleanup is assumed to involve decontamination of these surfaces. Laboratory testing was conducted using samples of concrete, ferrous metal, steel, aluminum, lead, tin, glass, lexan, vinyl, asphalt shingle, wood, and rubber surfaces. The surfaces were sprayed with Cs-137 or Co-60 solutions to simulate contamination. The entire surface area of the samples was surveyed using a Ludlum Model 2360 scaler/ratemeter with Ludlum Model 43-93-2 100 cm{sup 2} open area alpha/beta scintillation probe. The surfaces were then decontaminated using RadPro{sup R} chemical decontamination technology that is currently field proven and ready to deploy. The entire surface area of the samples was re-surveyed following decontamination. The RadPro{sup R} chemical decontamination technology was able to remove virtually all of the removable contamination and over 90% of the fixed contamination from these surfaces during the laboratory testing. (authors)

Lear, P.; Greene, R.; Isham, J. [Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Martin, R.; Norton, C. [Environmental Alternatives, Inc., Keene, NH (United States)

2007-07-01

171

Gastrointestinal decontamination in the acutely poisoned patient  

PubMed Central

Objective To define the role of gastrointestinal (GI) decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Sources A computer-based PubMed/MEDLINE search of the literature on GI decontamination in the poisoned patient with cross referencing of sources. Study Selection and Data Extraction Clinical, animal and in vitro studies were reviewed for clinical relevance to GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Synthesis The literature suggests that previously, widely used, aggressive approaches including the use of ipecac syrup, gastric lavage, and cathartics are now rarely recommended. Whole bowel irrigation is still often recommended for slow-release drugs, metals, and patients who "pack" or "stuff" foreign bodies filled with drugs of abuse, but with little quality data to support it. Activated charcoal (AC), single or multiple doses, was also a previous mainstay of GI decontamination, but the utility of AC is now recognized to be limited and more time dependent than previously practiced. These recommendations have resulted in several treatment guidelines that are mostly based on retrospective analysis, animal studies or small case series, and rarely based on randomized clinical trials. Conclusions The current literature supports limited use of GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. PMID:21992527

2011-01-01

172

Bleaching process preferred to decontaminate odorants  

SciTech Connect

The problem of decontaminating and disposing of out-of-service gas odorizers has long faced both gas transmission and distribution companies since the early 1980s. Finding a methodology to safely and effectively decontaminate odorant-contaminated equipment has caused many companies to simply cap the equipment and put it in storage. The recommended process of decontamination by odorant manufacturers is currently a bleaching-type process. A sodium hypochlorite solution is added to water and either circulated or left standing in the contaminated equipment. The sodium hypochlorite effectively neutralizes the smell of the odorant and slightly corrodes the inside of the equipment to neutralize any odorant which has permeated the metal. The waste sodium hypochlorite and water is then shipped as hazardous waste (pH of 12.5) or non-hazardous waste after the pH has been adjusted. The bleaching process has proven cost-effective and less time-consuming than most other methods including bioremediation. To effectively use it, there are several problems to overcome--most importantly the removal of residual product and the release of vapors into the atmosphere. River Valley Technologies, a contractor located in Cincinnati, OH, specializing in odorant-equipment decontamination, has developed several methods and engineering controls to eliminate most of the problems associated with decontaminating odorant equipment. The paper describes these methods.

NONE

1996-10-01

173

Proceedings of the 2007 ANS Topical Meeting on Decommissioning, Decontamination, and Reutilization - DD and R 2007  

SciTech Connect

The American Nuclear Society (ANS) Topical Meeting on Decommissioning, Decontamination, and Reutilization (DD and R 2007), 'Capturing Decommissioning Lessons Learned', is sponsored by the ANS Decommissioning, Decontamination and Reutilization; Environmental Sciences; and Fuel Cycle and Waste Management Divisions. This meeting provides a forum for an international exchange of technical knowledge and project management experience gained from the ongoing process of decommissioning nuclear facilities. Of particular note is the number of projects that are approaching completion. This document gathers 113 presentations given at this meeting.

NONE

2008-01-15

174

Destruction of Spores on Building Decontamination Residue in a Commercial Autoclave  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted an experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of a commercial autoclave for treating simulated building decontamination residue (BDR). The BDR was intended to simulate porous materials removed from a building deliberately contaminated with biological agents such as Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) in a terrorist attack. The purpose of the tests was to assess whether the standard

P. Lemieux; R. Sieber; A. Osborne; A. Woodard

2005-01-01

175

Decontamination of concrete surfaces in Building 3019, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [After Nov. 20, 1959 incident  

Microsoft Academic Search

This building was built in 1943 to serve as a pilot plant for separating isotopes from irradiated fuels. A chemical explosion leading to widespread Pu contamination occurred on Nov. 20, 1959, and the steps taken to treat the building afterwards are discussed, in particular the floor and the cells. The experience shows how hard it is to decontaminate concrete; smooth

Parrott; J. R. Sr

1980-01-01

176

DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTRO-ACOUSTIC SOIL DECONTAMINATION (ESD) FOR IN-SITU APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The technical feasibility of electro-acoustic soil decontamination process through lab experiments demonstrated the removal/-concentration of heavy metals such as cadmium and zinc. Results of the decane contaminated soils were, however, inconclusive. The ESD process is based on t...

177

Effect of decontamination on aging processes and considerations for life extension  

SciTech Connect

The basis for a recently initiated program on the chemical decontamination of nuclear reactor components and the possible impact of decontamination on extended-life service is described. The incentives for extending plant life beyond the present 40-year limit are discussed, and the possible aging degradation processes that may be accentuated in extended-life service are described. Chemical decontamination processes for nuclear plant primary systems are summarized with respect to their corrosive effects on structural alloys, particularly those in the aged condition. Available experience with chemical cleaning processes for the secondary side of PWR steam generators is also briefly considered. Overall, no severe materials corrosion problems have been found that would preclude the use of these chemical processes, but concerns have been raised in several areas, particularly with respect to corrosion-related problems that may develop during extended service.

Diercks, D.R.

1987-10-01

178

COMPARING DETECTION METHODS OF AFLATOXIN AND EXPLORING AFLATOXIN DECONTAMINATION METHODS  

E-print Network

COMPARING DETECTION METHODS OF AFLATOXIN AND EXPLORING AFLATOXIN DECONTAMINATION METHODS By Rebecca DETECTION METHODS OF AFLATOXIN AND EXPLORING AFLATOXIN DECONTAMINATION METHODS By Rebecca Burgett. Ashli Brown Title of Study: COMPARING DETECTION METHODS OF AFLATOXIN AND EXPLORING AFLATOXIN

Ray, David

179

MICROBIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL-CONTAMINATED NATURAL WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Inoculation of pentachlorophenol-contaminated natural waters with cells of a pentachlorophenol-degrading Flavobacterium was shown to be an effective method for decontamination of PCB-polluted aquatic environments. Numerous types of waters were decontaminated, including: river wat...

180

40 CFR 761.79 - Decontamination standards and procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Decontamination solvents. (1) Unless otherwise provided in paragraphs (c)(3) through (c)(5) of this section, the solubility of PCBs in any solvent used for purposes of decontamination under this section must be 5 percent or more by weight....

2013-07-01

181

40 CFR 761.79 - Decontamination standards and procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Decontamination solvents. (1) Unless otherwise provided in paragraphs (c)(3) through (c)(5) of this section, the solubility of PCBs in any solvent used for purposes of decontamination under this section must be 5 percent or more by weight....

2012-07-01

182

PROPERTIES AND BEHAVIOR OF 238PU RELEVANT TO DECONTAMINATION OF BUILDING 235-F  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared to document the physical, chemical and radiological properties of plutonium oxide materials that were processed in the Plutonium Fuel Form Facility (PuFF) in building 235-F at the Savannah River Plant (now known as the Savannah River Site) in the late 1970s and early 1980s. An understanding of these properties is needed to support current project planning for the safe and effective decontamination and deactivation (D&D) of PuFF. The PuFF mission was production of heat sources to power Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) used in space craft. The specification for the PuO{sub 2} used to fabricate the heat sources required that the isotopic content of the plutonium be 83 {+-} 1% Pu-238 due to its high decay heat of 0.57 W/g. The high specific activity of Pu-238 (17.1 Ci/g) due to alpha decay makes this material very difficult to manage. The production process produced micron-sized particles which proved difficult to contain during operations, creating personnel contamination concerns and resulting in the expenditure of significant resources to decontaminate spaces after loss of material containment. This report examines high {sup 238}Pu-content material properties relevant to the D&D of PuFF. These relevant properties are those that contribute to the mobility of the material. Physical properties which produce or maintain small particle size work to increase particle mobility. Early workers with {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} felt that, unlike most small particles, Pu-238 oxide particles would not naturally agglomerate to form larger, less mobile particles. It was thought that the heat generated by the particles would prevent water molecules from binding to the particle surface. Particles covered with bound water tend to agglomerate more easily. However, it is now understood that the self-heating effect is not sufficient to prevent adsorption of water on particle surfaces and thus would not prevent agglomeration of particles. Operational experience at PuFF indicates that the Pu-238 contamination was observed to move along surfaces and through High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters over time. Recent research into the phenomenon known as alpha recoil offers a potential explanation for this observed behavior. Momentum is conserved when an alpha particle is ejected from a Pu-238 atom due to radioactive decay. Consequently, the entire particle of which that Pu-238 atom is a constituent experiences a movement similar to the recoil of a gun when a bullet is ejected. Furthermore, the particle often fractures in response to Pu-238 atom disintegration (yielding an alpha particle), with a small particle fragment also being ejected in order to conserve momentum. This process results in the continuous size reduction and transport of particles containing Pu-238 atoms, thus explaining movement of contamination along surfaces and through HEPA filters. A better understanding of the thermal behavior of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} particles is needed to inform the planning process for the PuFF D&D project at the 235-F facility. There has been a concern that the surface temperature of individual particles may be high enough to cause problems with decontamination equipment and materials as a result of heat generation due to radioactive decay. A calculation under conservative assumptions shows that the surface temperature of particles less than about 100 {micro}m diameter is not appreciably above ambient. Since most particles in PuFF are on order of 1 {micro}m in diameter, the effect of particle surface temperature on decontamination equipment and materials is expected to be minimal. The result of this calculation also indicates that thermal imaging, which has been under consideration as a method to monitor the progress of system decontamination efforts would not likely be effective. The use of strippable coating was suggested as a possible alternative to other decontamination techniques. One particular system (i.e., Decon Gel 1101) may offer significant advantages over conventional liquid decontamination solut

Duncan, A.; Kane, M.

2009-11-24

183

Radioactive scrap metal decontamination technology assessment report  

SciTech Connect

Within the DOE complex there exists a tremendous quantity of radioactive scrap metal. As an example, it is estimated that within the gaseous diffusion plants there exists in excess of 700,000 tons of contaminated stainless steel. At present, valuable material is being disposed of when it could be converted into a high quality product. Liquid metal processing represents a true recycling opportunity for this material. By applying the primary production processes towards the material`s decontamination and re-use, the value of the strategic resource is maintained while drastically reducing the volume of material in need of burial. Potential processes for the liquid metal decontamination of radioactively contaminated metal are discussed and contrasted. Opportunities and technology development issues are identified and discussed. The processes compared are: surface decontamination; size reduction, packaging and burial; melting technologies; electric arc melting; plasma arc centrifugal treatment; air induction melting; vacuum induction melting; and vacuum induction melting and electroslag remelting.

Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.; Schlienger, M.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Liquid Metal Processing Lab.

1996-04-01

184

DECONTAMINATION AND BENEFICIAL USE OF DREDGED MATERIALS.  

SciTech Connect

Our group is leading a large-sale demonstration of dredged material decontamination technologies for the New York/New Jersey Harbor. The goal of the project is to assemble a complete system for economic transformation of contaminated dredged material into an environmentally-benign material used in the manufacture of a variety of beneficial use products. This requires the integration of scientific, engineering, business, and policy issues on matters that include basic knowledge of sediment properties, contaminant distribution visualization, sediment toxicity, dredging and dewatering techniques, decontamination technologies, and product manufacturing technologies and marketing. A summary of the present status of the system demonstrations including the use of both existing and new manufacturing facilities is given here. These decontamination systems should serve as a model for use in dredged material management plans of regions other than NY/NJ Harbor, such as Long Island Sound, where new approaches to the handling of contaminated sediments are desirable.

STERN, E.A.; LODGE, J.; JONES, K.W.; CLESCERI, N.L.; FENG, H.; DOUGLAS, W.S.

2000-12-03

185

COâ pellet blasting literature search and decontamination scoping tests report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past decontamination and solvent recovery activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) have resulted in the accumulation of 1.5 million gallons of radioactively contaminated sodium-bearing liquid waste. Future decontamination activities at the ICPP could result in the production of 5 million gallons or more of sodium-bearing waste using current decontamination techniques. Chemical decontamination flushes have provided a satisfactory level

1993-01-01

186

Universal Oxidation for CBW Decontamination: L-Gel System Development and Deployment  

SciTech Connect

The optimum goal of this study is to develop a single decontamination system for chemical and biological agents which is non-toxic, non-corrosive, and easily deployable. The specific objective of this work was to evaluate oxidizer systems as reagents for detoxification and/or degradation to non-toxic environmentally acceptable components rather than necessitate complete destruction. Detoxification requires less reagent material than total oxidation, thereby reducing the logistic burden for a decontamination team. One of the goals is to develop decontamination systems for use by first responders as well as more complete systems to be used by specialized decontamination teams. Therefore, the overall project goal is to develop better decontamination methods that can be quickly implemented by these organizations. This includes early demonstrations and field work with companies or other government agencies who can identify implementation concerns and needs. The approach taken in this work is somewhat different than the standard military approach to decontamination. In a battlefield scenario, it is critical to decontaminate to a useful level in a very short time so the soldiers can continue their mission. In a domestic, urban scenario, time is of less consequence but collateral damage and re-certification (public perception and stakeholder acceptance) are of much greater importance. Since we wanted to maximize the contact time between the decontaminating reagent and the contaminant agent, we selected gelled reagents as the primary carrier material. Gels have the additional advantage of adhering to vertical or horizontal surfaces such as walls and ceilings. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, over a period of twenty years from the late 1960s to the late 1980s, developed a series of extrudable high explosives based on the gelling of polar energetic liquids. While never going into production, this development served as an experience base for formulation, characterization and dispersal system design and fabrication. It was a logical step, therefore, to adapt this work to the gelling of aqueous oxidizers for candidate BW/CW decontaminants. During this last year LLNL has focused on the development of the L-Gel oxidizer system and has primarily been involved in CW and BW laboratory and field testing which has helped to refine and improve the previous formulation. Additionally, we have evaluated the feasibility of developing an aerosolized system based on the L-Gel formulation. The results of these studies will be discussed.

Raber, E.; McGuire, R.; Hoffman, M.; Shepley, D.; Carlsen, T.; Krauter, P.; Alcaraz, A.

2000-07-10

187

Russian Experience in the Regulatory Supervision of the Uranium Legacy Sites - 12441  

SciTech Connect

Management of the uranium legacy is accompanied with environmental impact intensity of which depends on the amount of the waste generated, the extent of that waste localization and environmental spreading. The question is: how hazardous is such impact on the environment and human health? The criterion for safety assurance is adequate regulation of the uranium legacy. Since the establishment of the uranium industry, the well done regulatory system operates in the FMBA of Russia. Such system covers inter alia, the uranium legacy. This system includes the extent laboratory network of independent control and supervision, scientific researches, regulative practices. The current Russian normative and legal basis of the regulation and its application practice has a number of problems relating to the uranium legacy, connected firstly with the environmental remediation. To improve the regulatory system, the urgent tasks are: -To introduce the existing exposure situation into the national laws and standards in compliance with the ICRP system. - To develop criteria for site remediation and return, by stages, to uncontrolled uses. The similar criteria have been developed within the Russian-Norwegian cooperation for the purpose of remediation of the sites for temporary storage of SNF and RW. - To consider possibilities and methods of optimization for the remediation strategies under development. - To separate the special category - RW resulted from uranium ore mining and dressing. The current Russian RW classification is based on the waste subdivision in terms of the specific activities. Having in mind the new RW-specific law, we receive the opportunity to separate some special category - RW originated from the uranium mining and milling. Introduction of such category can simplify significantly the situation with management of waste of uranium mining and milling processes. Such approach is implemented in many countries and approved by IAEA. The category of 'RW originated from uranium mining and milling' is to be introduced as the legal acts and regulatory documents. The recent ICRP recommendations provide the flexible approaches for solving of such tasks. The FMBA of Russia recognizes the problems of radiation safety assurance related to the legacy of the former USSR in the uranium mining industry. Some part of the regulatory problems assumes to be solved within the EurAsEC inter-state target program 'Reclamation of the territories of the EurAsEC member states affected by the uranium mining and milling facilities'. Using the example of the uranium legacy sites in Kyrgyz and Tajikistan which could result in the tran-boundary disasters and require urgent reclamation, the experience will be gained to be used in other states as well. Harmonization of the national legislations and regulative documents on radiation safety assurance is envisaged. (authors)

Kiselev, M.F.; Romanov, V.V. [Federal Medical Biological Agency, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shandala, N.K.; Titov, A.V.; Kiselev, S.M.; Seregin, V.A.; Metlyaev, E.G.; Novikova, N. [Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khokhlova, E.A. [Regional Management-107 under FMBA of Russia, Krasnokamensk (Russian Federation)

2012-07-01

188

Decontamination of metals using chemical etching  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to chemical etching process for reclaiming contaminated equipment wherein a reduction-oxidation system is included in a solution of nitric acid to contact the metal to be decontaminated and effect reduction of the reduction-oxidation system, and includes disposing a pair of electrodes in the reduced solution to permit passage of an electrical current between said electrodes and effect oxidation of the reduction-oxidation system to thereby regenerate the solution and provide decontaminated equipment that is essentially radioactive contamination-free.

Lerch, Ronald E. (Kennewick, WA); Partridge, Jerry A. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01

189

Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2007  

SciTech Connect

The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Major articles/reports in this issue include: An interesting year ahead of us, by Tom Christopher, AREVA NP Inc.; U.S.-India Civil Nuclear Cooperation; Decontamination and recycling of retired components, by Sean P. Brushart, Electric Power Research Institute; and, ANO is 33 and going strong, by Tyler Lamberts, Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. The industry innovation article is: Continuous improvement process, by ReNae Kowalewski, Arkansas Nuclear One.

Agnihotri, Newal (ed.)

2007-07-15

190

Site Characterization of the Source Physics Experiment Phase II Location Using Seismic Reflection Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An objective of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is to identify low-yield nuclear explosions from a regional distance. Low-yield nuclear explosions can often be difficult to discriminate among the clutter of natural and man-made explosive events (e.g., earthquakes and mine blasts). The SPE is broken into three phases. Phase I has provided the first of the physics-based data to test the empirical models that have been used to discriminate nuclear events. The Phase I series of tests were placed within a highly fractured granite body. The evolution of the project has led to development of Phase II, to be placed within the opposite end member of geology, an alluvium environment, thereby increasing the database of waveforms to build upon in the discrimination models. Both the granite and alluvium sites have hosted nearby nuclear tests, which provide comparisons for the chemical test data. Phase III of the SPE is yet to be determined. For Phase II of the experiment, characterization of the location is required to develop the geologic/geophysical models for the execution of the experiment. Criteria for the location are alluvium thickness of approximately 170 m and a water table below 170 m; minimal fracturing would be ideal. A P-wave mini-vibroseis survey was conducted at a potential site in alluvium to map out the subsurface geology. The seismic reflection profile consisted of 168 geophone stations, spaced 5 m apart. The mini-vibe was a 7,000-lb peak-force source, starting 57.5 m off the north end of the profile and ending 57.5 m past the southern-most geophone. The length of the profile was 835 m. The source points were placed every 5 m, equally spaced between geophones to reduce clipping. The vibroseis sweep was from 20 Hz down to 180 Hz over 8 seconds, and four sweeps were stacked at each shot location. The shot gathers show high signal-to-noise ratios with clear first arrivals across the entire spread and the suggestion of some shallow reflectors. The data were processed using Seismic Processing Workshop in a standard reflection processing flow. The results from this vibroseis survey will contribute to the characterization of the location for Phase II of the SPE in order to appropriately execute the experiment. This work was done by National Security Technologies, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy. DOE/NV/25946--1836. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Sexton, E. A.; Snelson, C. M.; Chipman, V.; Emer, D. F.; White, R. L.; Emmitt, R.; Wright, A. A.; Drellack, S.; Huckins-Gang, H.; Mercadante, J.; Floyd, M.; McGowin, C.; Cothrun, C.; Bonal, N.

2013-12-01

191

Testing heterogeneity in faunal assemblages from archaeological sites. Tumbling and trampling experiments at the early-Middle Pleistocene site of Gesher Benot Ya’aqov (Israel)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current paper reports an experimental case study to test the heterogeneity of faunal assemblages from the Early-Middle Pleistocene Layers V-5 and V-6 of the Gesher Benot Ya’aqov Acheulian site (Israel). Tumbling and trampling experiments were initiated to gain qualitative insight into processes of bone modification and to assess the timing of the biostratonomic chronology, as it was assumed that

Sabine Gaudzinski-Windheuser; Lutz Kindler; Rivka Rabinovich; Naama Goren-Inbar

2010-01-01

192

Cutaneous absorption and decontamination of ( sup 3 H)T-2 toxin in the rat model  

SciTech Connect

Cutaneous absorption and decontamination of ({sup 3}H)T-2 mycotoxin using various treatment modalities incorporating water, detergent, sprays, and scrubbing of application sites were examined in the rat model at 5, 30, 60, and 1440 min (24 h) postexposure. Rats were killed immediately after treatment and radiolabeled T-2 remaining in full-thickness skin samples was determined. Absorption and decontamination were followed over time, and decontaminating treatment modalities were evaluated for efficacy. Less than 1% of the applied dose was absorbed in 5 min, and 50% was absorbed in 24 h. At 5 min, 99.5 {plus minus} 0.05% of nonabsorbed (residual) ({sup 3}H)T-2 was removed, and 58 {plus minus} 5.2% of residual toxin was removed at 24 h with a 2.5% detergent/water spray. When treatment modalities were evaluated at 60 min, a 2.5% detergent/water scrub followed by a detergent/water spray produced optimal decontamination by removing 81 {plus minus} 2.2% of residual toxin. All treatment modalities using detergent and/or water removed significant amounts of toxin, a dry scrub was not efficacious. Treatment should be initiated as soon as possible after exposure for best results. However, the stratum corneum acts as a reservoir for the toxin, and decontamination should be carried out even if delayed several hours or days after exposure. Dermal absorption pharmacokinetics found in these studies are similar to those described for other low-molecular-weight compounds, and the decontamination results from T-2 toxin should be applicable to other, similar toxic substances.

Bunner, B.L.; Wannemacher, R.W. Jr.; Dinterman, R.E.; Broski, F.H. (Army Biomedical Research and Development Laboratory, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD (USA))

1989-01-01

193

Cost Savings through Innovation in Decontamination, Decommissioning, and Dismantlement  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost effective technologies for the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsored large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs) to help bring new technologies into the D&D programs. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) LSDDP generated a list of needs defining specific problems where improved technologies could be incorporated into ongoing D&D tasks. The needs fell into 5 major categories--characterization, dismantlement, safety, material dispositioning, and decontamination. Technologies were carefully selected that provide a large benefit for a small investment. The technologies must provide significant improvements in cost, safety, radiation exposure, waste volume reduction, or schedule savings and widely applicable throughout the DOE complex. The LSDDP project provided training for the new technologies and worked with technology suppliers to resolve any questions that arose. Since 1998, 26 technologies have been demonstrated or deployed through the LSDDP for the D&D program at the INEEL. Of the 26 demonstrated and deployed technologies, 14 were in characterization, 3 were in decontamination, 4 were in dismantlement, 3 were in safety, and 2 were in material dispositioning. To promote the use of these technologies at other sites within the DOE complex, the LSDDP team published fact sheets, videos, technology summary reports, articles in INEEL star newspaper, posters, and maintained an internet home page on the project. As a result, additional deployments have taken place at the Hanford, Mound, Fernald, Oak Ridge, Ashtabula, and West Valley. Eight of the 26 technologies evaluated were developed in foreign countries. The technologies demonstrated have been shown to be faster, less expensive, and/or safer. The technologies evaluated through the LSDDP have provided improvements in the following D&D areas: robotic underwater characterization of fuel storage pools, characterization of scrap metal for recycle, PCB and RCRA metals analysis in soil, water, paint, or sludge, subsurface characterization, personnel safety, waste disposal, scaffolding use, and remote radiation characterization of buildings and soil. It is estimated that the technologies demonstrated and deployed through this program will save more than $50 million dollars over the next 10 years at the INEEL alone. Of the $50 million estimated dollars saved, about 75% of the savings will come from characterization technologies, 11% from technologies associated with material dispositioning, 10% are associated with dismantlement technologies and the balance split between safety and decontamination.

Neal A. Yancey

2003-02-27

194

In-situ stress measurements at DOE's Multi-Well Experiment site, Mesaverde group, Rifle, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of the vertical distribution of the minimum principal in-situ stress in the lower Mesaverde group (7300-8100 ft depth, 2225-2470 m) at DOE's Multi-Well Experiment site have been made by conducting small-volume, hydraulic-fracture stress tests through perforations. Accurate, reproducible results were obtained by conducting a number of repeat injections in each zone of interest using a specially designed pump system, modified high-resolution electronic equipment, and a down-hole shut-off tool with a bottom-hole pressure transducer. Stress tests were conducted in marine sandstones and shales as well as a coal, mudstone, and sandstone in a paludal depositional environment; these tests provide a detailed stress distribution in this region. The stress magnitudes were found to be dependent on lithology. Marine shales above and below the blanket sands have large horizontal stresses-near lithostatic with a frac gradient greater than 1.0 psi/ft (23 kPa/m). This indicates that these rocks do not behave elastically and processes such as creep and possibly fracturing are the dominant mechanisms controlling the stress state. On the other hand, sandstones and siltstones have much lower stresses with a frac gradient of 0.85-0.9 psi/ft (19-20 kPa/m). Containment of hydraulic fractures would be expected under these conditions.

Warpinski, N.R.; Branagan, P.; Wilmer, R.

1983-10-01

195

In-Situ Stress Measurements at U. S. DOE's Multiwell Experiment Site, Mesaverde Group, Rifle, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

Vertical distribution measurements of the minimum principal in-situ stress in the lower Mesaverde group (7,300to 8,100-ft (2225- to 2470-m) depth) at the U.S. DOE's Multiwell Experiment (MWX) site have been made by conducting small-volume, hydraulic-fracture stress tests through perforations. Accurate, reproducible results were obtained by conducting repeated injections in each zone of interest with a specially designed pump system, modified high-resolution electronic equipment, and a downhole shut-off tool with a bottomhole pressure (BHP) transducer. Stress tests were conducted in marine sandstones and shales as well as in coal, mudstone, and sandstone in a paludal depositional environment; these tests provide a detailed stress distribution in this region. The stress magnitudes were found to depend on lithology. Marine shales above and below the blanket sands have large horizontal stresses that are nearly lithostatic, with a fracture gradient greater than 1.0 psi/ft (23 kPa/m). This indicates that these rocks do not behave elastically and processes such as creep and possibly fracturing are the dominant mechanisms controlling the stress state. Sandstones and siltstones have much lower stresses, with a fracture gradient of 0.85 to 0.9 psi/ft (19 to 20 kPa/m). Containment of hydraulic fractures would be expected under these conditions. Only three data points were obtained from the paludal interval; no significant stress differences were observed in the different lithologies.

Warpinski, N.R.; Branagan, P.; Wilmer, R.

1985-03-01

196

The Source Physics Experiments (SPE) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS): An Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the changes in seismic energy as it travels from the near field to the far field is the ultimate goal in monitoring for explosive events of interest. This requires a clear understanding of explosion phenomenology as it relates to seismic, infrasound, and acoustic signals. Although there has been much progress in modeling these phenomena, this has been primarily based in the empirical realm. As a result, the logical next step in advancing the seismic monitoring capability of the United States is to conduct field tests that can expand the predictive capability of the physics-based modeling currently under development. The Source Physics Experiment at the Nevada National Security Site (SPE) is the first step in this endeavor to link the empirically based with the physics-based modeling. This is a collaborative project between National Security Technologies (NSTec), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and the Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC). The test series require both the simple and complex cases to fully characterize the problem, which is to understand the transition of seismic energy from the near field to the far field; to understand the development of S-waves in explosives sources; and how anisotropy controls seismic energy transmission and partitioning. The current series is being conducted in a granite body called the Climax Stock. This location was chosen for several reasons, including the fairly homogenous granite; the location of previous nuclear tests in the same rock body; and generally the geology has been well characterized. The simple geology series is planned for 7 shots using conventional explosives in the same shot hole surrounded by Continuous Reflectometry for Radius vs. Time Experiment (CORRTEX), Time of Arrival (TOA), Velocity of Detonation (VOD), down-hole accelerometers, surface accelerometers, infrasound, and a suite of seismic sensors of various frequency bands from the near field to the far field. This allows for the use of a single test bed in the simple geology case instead of multiple tests beds to obtain the same results. The shots are planned at various depths to obtain a Green's function, scaled-depth of burial data, nominal depth of burial data and damage zone data. SPE1 was conducted in May 2011 as a 220 lb (100 kg) TNT equivalent calibration shot at a depth of 180 ft (55 m). SPE2 was conducted in October 2011 as a 2200 lb (1000 kg) TNT equivalent calibration shot at a depth of 150 ft (46 m). SPE3 was conducted in July 2012 as a 2200 lb (1000 kg) TNT equivalent calibration shot at a depth of 150 ft (46 m) in the damaged zone. Over 400 data channels were recorded for each of these shots and data recovery was about 95% with high signal to noise ratio. Once the simple geology site data has been utilized, a new test bed will be developed in a complex geology site to test these physics based models. Ultimately, the results from this project will provide the next advances in the science of monitoring to enable a physics-based predicative capability. This work was done by National Security Technologies, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy. DOE/NV/25946--1584

Snelson, C. M.; Chipman, V.; White, R. L.; Emmitt, R.; Townsend, M.; Barker, D.; Lee, P.

2012-12-01

197

CO2 Field Laboratory at Svelvik Ridge: Site characterization after the first injection experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The safety and acceptance of CO2 storage will depend on the ability to detect and quantify CO2 within and outside the storage complex. To determine sensitivity of CO2 monitoring systems with respect to CO2 distribution and leakage detection, the CO2 Field Lab project comprises two controlled CO2 injection tests in the shallow (100-300 m) and very shallow (20 m) subsurface of the glacial deposit that forms Svelvik ridge, 50 km south of Oslo. The CO2 displacement in the subsurface and at the surface has and will be monitored with an exhaustive set of techniques. Iteratively, observations and flow modeling will provide frequent updates of the CO2 distribution. The results will be upscaled to assess monitoring systems and requirements with the ultimate objective to provide guidelines to regulators, operators and technology providers for monitoring systems. The formation that comprises the laboratory is a glaciofluvial-glaciomarine terminal deposit formed during the Ski stage of the Holocene deglaciation. Nearby outcrops show that the formation is channeled and variably laminated with a significant variation in grain size and structure. Prior to the injection experiments, the site was characterized including 2D seismic and electric surveys, the drilling, logging and sampling of a 330 m deep appraisal well, core and flow line sample analyses, ground penetrating radar (GPR), a hydrodynamic appraisal, and geochemical and soil gas baseline surveys. These data were used to populate a geomodel. Flow modeling of the plume development included some variability in permeability and anisotropy, and various injection scenarios. Accordingly, the 20 m injection experiment was conducted in fall 2011 with a monitoring plan designed to spatially and temporally monitor the expected plume development. The monitoring equipment was thus distributed around the 20 m deep injection point of an inclined well. It included seven 6 m deep monitoring wells equipped with resistivity, sonic and geochemical logging tools, with GPR, and water samplers. Surface monitoring included stationary and mobile tools for geochemical analyses of ground water, soil and atmospheric gas. Even though the trajectory of migrating CO2 deviated somewhat from the predictions, most stationary monitoring techniques picked up some trace of the CO2 plume. The surfacing CO2 flow was measured most precisely since the mobile surface stations were (re-)located over the leakage areas. After the injection test, numerous sediment samples were taken at various depths and locations around the injection point. Together with the monitoring results, these data are used to better characterize the site and to update the geological and flow model for improved interpretation of the experiments. The results show that accurate information on the stratigraphic variability is of outmost importance for understanding possible pathways of CO2 in the shallow subsurface.

Buddensiek, M. L.; Lindeberg, E.; Mørk, A.; Jones, D.; Girard, J. F.; Kuras, O.; Barrio, M.; Royse, K.; Gal, F.; Meldrum, P.; Pezard, P.; Levannier, A.; Desroches, J.; Neyens, D.; Paris, J.; Henry, G.; Bakk, A.; Wertz, F.; Aker, E.; Børresen, M.

2012-04-01

198

Continuous analysis for vanadium in LOMI decontamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods were investigated for the determination of vanadium ions in aqueous solutions used in the LOMI (Low Oxidation-state Metal Ion) process for the chemical decontamination of piping systems in nuclear power plants. In the LOMI process, a dilute solution of vanadous formate and picolinic acid is circulated at elevated temperature in the system to be cleaned. The vanadous formate reduces

S. Kottle; R. A. Stowe; J. V. Bishop

1996-01-01

199

Prion diseases and iatrogenic infections II. Decontamination.  

PubMed

We have by now methods for the safe decontamination of medical devices. They include (a) NaOH, preferably combined with autoclaving in a simultaneous process at 121-134 C (b) NaOCl, alone at ambient temperature for some delicate instruments or combined with autoclaving (but separately); (c) autoclaving alone at 134 C for 18 minutes (Consensus in most European countries); (d) chemical decontamination using alkaline detergents (pH 11-12), proteases (properase, proteinase K, pronase or others) in combination with SDS for temperature-sensitive instruments, i.e. endoscopes and (e) combination of chemicals with autoclaving for temperature-resistant devices. The way of instruments from the operation room to the department of sterilisation (decontamination) is of considerable importance to avoid dessication and fixation of proteins onto instrument surfaces. For these purpose polypropylene pans willed with 0.1N NaOH or appropriate chemicals are very useful for immersion of devices immediately after being used-and then, after transport, transferred into the autoclave using the same fluid, with some fluid added, if necessary for instruments to be immersed. Temperature-sensitive devices in pans with chemicals must not be autoclaved but treated as proposed by the chemicals producer-at ambient or low temperature. In any case devices must not be cleaned in automated washers if not previously decontaminated. The empty pans must finally be autoclaved at 134 C 18 minutes as well. PMID:17242715

Jung, Mirko; Pistolesi, Dario; Panà, Augusto

2005-01-01

200

Decontamination and decommissioning focus area. Technology summary  

SciTech Connect

This report presents details of the facility deactivation, decommissioning, and material disposition research for development of new technologies sponsored by the Department of Energy. Topics discussed include; occupational safety, radiation protection, decontamination, remote operated equipment, mixed waste processing, recycling contaminated metals, and business opportunities.

NONE

1995-06-01

201

Advances in Sterilization and Decontamination: a Survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent technical advances made in the field of sterilization and decontamination and their applicability to private and commercial interests are discussed. Government-sponsored programs by NASA produced the bulk of material presented in this survey. The summary of past and current research discussed is detailed to enhance an effective transfer of technology from NASA to potential users.

1978-01-01

202

40 CFR 170.150 - Decontamination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...170.112 and for which the pesticide labeling requires protective...an area being treated with pesticides. (4) The decontamination...activities. At the end of any exposure period for workers engaged...has been treated with the pesticide to which the...

2011-07-01

203

40 CFR 170.150 - Decontamination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...170.112 and for which the pesticide labeling requires protective...an area being treated with pesticides. (4) The decontamination...activities. At the end of any exposure period for workers engaged...has been treated with the pesticide to which the...

2010-07-01

204

40 CFR 170.150 - Decontamination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...170.112 and for which the pesticide labeling requires protective...an area being treated with pesticides. (4) The decontamination...activities. At the end of any exposure period for workers engaged...has been treated with the pesticide to which the...

2012-07-01

205

40 CFR 170.150 - Decontamination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...170.112 and for which the pesticide labeling requires protective...an area being treated with pesticides. (4) The decontamination...activities. At the end of any exposure period for workers engaged...has been treated with the pesticide to which the...

2014-07-01

206

Phase 2 microwave concrete decontamination results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report on the results of the second phase of a four-phase program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop a system to decontaminate concrete using microwave energy. The microwave energy is directed at the concrete surface through the use of an optimized wave guide antenna, or applicator, and this energy rapidly heats the free water present in the

T. L. White; D. Jr. Foster; C. T. Wilson; C. R. Schaich

1995-01-01

207

Laboratory Demonstration of Radiological Decontamination Using Radpro  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the event of terrorist activity involving the explosive dispersion of radioactive materials (a 'dirty' bomb), a number of different types of surfaces and substrates, including concrete, granite, brick, cinder block, tile, asphalt, wood, glass, plastic, iron, and steel, may become radiologically contaminated. Incident cleanup is assumed to involve decontamination of these surfaces. Laboratory testing was conducted using samples of

P. Lear; R. Greene; J. Isham; R. Martin; C. Norton

2007-01-01

208

Decontamination of large horizontal concrete surfaces outdoors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study is being conducted of the resources and planning that would be required to clean up an extensive contamination of the outdoor environment. As part of this study, an assessment of the fleet of machines needed for decontaminating large outdoor surfaces of horizontal concrete will be attempted. The operations required are described. The performance of applicable existing equipment is

M. M. Barbier; C. V. Chester

1980-01-01

209

Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Articles and reports in this issue include: D and D technical paper summaries; The role of nuclear power in turbulent times, by Tom Chrisopher, AREVA, NP, Inc.; Enthusiastic about new technologies, by Jack Fuller, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; It's important to be good citizens, by Steve Rus,

Agnihotri; Newal

2008-01-01

210

Decontamination of Building Surface Using Clay Suspension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decontamination characteristics of urban building surfaces, based on the covering of clay suspensions, have been studied. The cation converting conditions of clay suspensions were determined by a flocculation series test. Contaminated specimens for test purposes were pre-pared by application of a radioactive solution which had been extracted from the soil of a 2 km zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power

Byung Gil AHN; Hui Jun WON; Won Zin OH

1995-01-01

211

A remotely operated robot for decontamination tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineers in the Robotics Development Group at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) have developed a robot which will be used to decontaminate a pipe gallery of a tank farm used for nuclear waste storage. Personnel access is required into this pipe gallery to inspect existing pipes and perform repairs to secondary containment walls around the tank farm. Presently, the

A. M. Dudar; R. C. Vandewalle

1994-01-01

212

Elemental Analyses of Hypervelocity Microparticle Impact Sites on Interplanetary Dust Experiment Sensor Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) had over 450 electrically active ultra-high purity metal-oxide-silicon impact detectors located on the six primary sides of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Hypervelocity microparticles (approximately 0.2 to approximately 100 micron diameter) that struck the active sensors with enough energy to breakdown the 0.4 or 1.0 micron thick SiO2 insulator layer separating the silicon base (the negative electrode), and the 1000 A thick surface layer of aluminum (the positive electrode) caused electrical discharges that were recorded for the first year of orbit. The high purity Al-SiO2-Si substrates allowed detection of trace (ppm) amounts of hypervelocity impactor residues. After sputtering through a layer of surface contamination, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used to create two-dimensional elemental ion intensity maps of microparticle sites on the IDE sensors. The element intensities in the central craters of the impacts were corrected for relative ion yields and instrumental conditions and then normalized to silicon. The results classification resulted from the particles' origins as 'manmade', 'natural', or 'indeterminate'. The last classification resulted from the presence of too little impactor residue, analytical interference from high background contamination, the lack of information on silicon and aluminum residues, or a combination of these circumstances. Several analytical 'blank' discharges were induced on flight sensors by pressing down on the sensor surface with a pure silicon shard. Analyses of these blank discharges showed that the discharge energy blasts away the layer of surface contamination. Only Si and Al were detected inside the discharge zones, including the central craters, of these features. Thus far, a total of 79 randomly selected microparticle impact sites from the six primary sides of the LDEF were analyzed: 36 from tray C-9 (Leading (ram), or east, side), 18 from tray C-3 (Trailing (wake), or west, side), 12 from tray B-12 (north side), 4 from tray D-6 (south side), 3 from tray H-11 (space end), and 6 from tray G-10 (earth end). Residue from manmade debris was identified in craters on all trays (aluminum oxide particle residues were not detectable on the Al/Si substrates). These results were consistent with the IDE impact record which showed highly variable long term microparticle impact flux rates on the west, space, and Earth sides of the LDEF which could not be ascribed to astronomical variability of micrometeorite density. The IDE record also showed episodic bursts of microparticle impacts on the east, north, and south sides of the satellite, denoting passage through orbital debris clouds or rings.

Simon, C. G.; Hunter, J. L.; Griffis, D. P.; Misra, V.; Ricks, D. A.; Wortman, J. J.; Brownlee, D. E.

1992-01-01

213

Elemental analyses of hypervelocity microparticle impact sites on Interplanetary Dust Experiment sensor surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) had over 450 electrically active ultra-high purity metal-oxide-silicon impact detectors located on the six primary sides of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Hypervelocity microparticles (approximately 0.2 to approximately 100 micron diameter) that struck the active sensors with enough energy to break down the 0.4 or 1.0 micron thick SIO2 insulator layer separating the silicon base (the negative electrode), and the 1000 A thick surface layer of aluminum (the positive electrode) caused electrical discharges that were recorded for the first year of orbit. The high purity Al-SiO2-Si substrates allowed detection of trace (ppm) amounts of hypervelocity impactor residues. After sputtering through a layer of surface contamination, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used to create two-dimensional elemental ion intensity maps of microparticle impact sites on the IDE sensors. The element intensities in the central craters of the impacts were corrected for relative ion yields and instrumental conditions and then normalized to silicon. The results were used to classify the particles' origins as 'manmade,' 'natural,' or 'indeterminate.' The last classification resulted from the presence of too little impactor residue, analytical interference from high background contamination, the lack of information on silicon and aluminum residues, or a combination of these circumstances. Several analytical 'blank' discharges were induced on flight sensors by pressing down on the sensor surface with a pure silicon shard. Analyses of these blank discharges showed that the discharge energy blasts away the layer of surface contamination. Only Si and Al were detected inside the discharge zones, including the central craters of these features. Thus far a total of 79 randomly selected microparticle impact sites from the six primary sides of the LDEF have been analyzed: 36 from tray C-9 (Leading (ram), or East, side), 18 from tray C-3 (Trailing (wake), or West, side), 12 from tray B-12 (North side), 4 from tray D-6 (South side), 3 from tray H-11 (Space end), and 6 from tray G-10 (Earth end). Residue from manmade debris was identified in craters on all trays. (Aluminum oxide particle residues were not detectable on the Al/Si substrates.) These results were consistent with the IDE impact record which showed highly variable long term microparticle impact flux rates on the West, Space and Earth sides of the LDEF which could not be ascribed to astronomical variability of micrometeorite density. The IDE record also showed episodic bursts of microparticle impacts on the East, North, and South sides of the satellite, denoting passage through orbital debris clouds or rings.

Simon, Charles G.; Hunter, J. L.; Griffis, D. P.; Misra, V.; Ricks, D. A.; Wortman, Jim J.; Brownlee, D. E.

1993-01-01

214

Characterization of materials for a reactive transport model validation experiment: Interim report on the caisson experiment. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

Models used in performance assessment and site characterization activities related to nuclear waste disposal rely on simplified representations of solute/rock interactions, hydrologic flow field and the material properties of the rock layers surrounding the repository. A crucial element in the design of these models is the validity of these simplifying assumptions. An intermediate-scale experiment is being carried out at the Experimental Engineered Test Facility at Los Alamos Laboratory by the Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories to develop a strategy to validate key geochemical and hydrological assumptions in performance assessment models used by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project.

Siegel, M.D.; Cheng, W.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ward, D.B.; Bryan, C.R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

1995-08-01

215

Electrolytic decontamination of the 3013 inner can  

SciTech Connect

Disposition of plutonium recovered from nuclear weapons or production residues must be stored in a manner that ensures safety. The criteria that has been established to assure the safety of stored materials for a minimum of 50 years is DOE-STD-3013. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has designed a containment package in accordance with the DOE standard. The package consists of an optional convenience (food pack) can, a welded type 304L stainless steel inner (primary) can, and a welded type 304L stainless steel outer (secondary) can. With or without the food pack can, the material is placed inside the primary can and welded shut under a helium atmosphere. This activity takes place totally within the confinement of the glove box line. Following the welding process, the can is checked for leaks and then sent down the line for decontamination. Once decontaminated, the sealed primary can may be removed from the glove box line. Welding of the secondary container takes place outside the glove box line. The highly automated decontamination process that has been developed to support the packaging of Special Nuclear Materials is based on an electrolytic process similar to the wide spread industrial technique of electropolishing. The can is placed within a specially designed stainless steel fixture built within a partition of a glove box. This fixture is then filled with a flowing electrolyte solution. A low DC electric current is made to flow between the can, acting as the anode, and the fixture, acting as the cathode. Following the decontamination, the system provides a flow of rinse water through the fixture to rinse the can of remaining salt residues. The system then carried out a drying cycle. Finally, the fixture is opened from the opposite side of the partition and the can surface monitored directly and through surface smears to assure that decontamination is adequate.

Wedman, D.E.; Nelson, T.O.; Rivera, Y.; Weisbrod, K.; Martinez, H.E.; Limback, S.

1998-12-31

216

Characteristics of microseismic events induced during hydraulic fracturing experiments at the Hijiori hot dry rock geothermal energy site, Yamagata, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microseismicity accompanying hydraulic injection experiments at the Hijiori hot dry rock site was monitored by a network of ten borehole seismic stations deployed at an average distance of 2 km from the injection well. While expanding hydraulic fractures are almost aseismic, they can induce microseismic events. These events are probably caused by shear failures induced by high pore fluid pressures

Shunji Sasaki

1998-01-01

217

Elemental analyses of hypervelocity micro-particle impact sites on interplanetary dust experiment sensor surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) had over 450 electrically active ultra-high purity metal-oxide-silicon impact detectors located on the six primary sides of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Hypervelocity micro-particles that struck the active sensors with enough energy to breakdown the 0.4 to 1.0 micron thick SiO2 insulator layer separating the silicon base (the negative electrode), and the 1000 A thick surface layer of aluminum (the positive electrode) caused electrical discharges that were recorded for the first year of orbit. These discharge features, which include 50 micron diameter areas where the aluminum top layer has been vaporized, facilitate the location of the impacts. The high purity Al-SiO2-Si substrates allow detection of trace (ppm) amounts of hypervelocity impactor residues. After sputtering through a layer of surface contamination, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is used to create two-dimensional elemental ion intensity maps of micro-particle impact sites on the IDE sensors. The element intensities in the central craters of the impacts are corrected for relative ion yields and instrumental conditions and then normalized to silicon. The results are used to classify the particles' origins as 'manmade', 'natural' or 'indeterminate'. The last classification results from the presence of too little impactor residue (a frequent occurrence on leading edge impacts), analytical interference from high background contamination, the lack of information on silicon residue, the limited usefulness of data on aluminum in the central craters, or a combination of these circumstances. Several analytical 'blank' discharges were induced on flight sensors by pressing down on the sensor surface with a pure silicon shard. Analyses of these blank discharges showed that the discharge energy blasts away the layer of surface contamination. Only Si and Al were detected inside the discharge zones, including the central craters, of these features. A total of 35 impacts on leading edge sensors and 22 impacts on trailing edge sensors were analyzed.

Simon, Charles G.; Hunter, J. L.; Griffis, D. P.; Misra, V.; Ricks, D. R.; Wortman, Jim J.

1992-01-01

218

The First Experiences of Robotic Single-Site Cholecystectomy in Asia: A Potential Way to Expand Minimally-Invasive Single-Site Surgery?  

PubMed Central

Purpose Herein, we firstly present the robotic single-site cholecystectomy (RSSC) as performed in Asia and evaluate whether it could overcome the limitations of conventional laparoscopic single-site cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods From October 2013 to November 2013, RSSC for benign gallbladder (GB) disease was firstly performed consecutively in five patients. We evaluated these early experiences of RSSC and compared factors including clinicopathologic factors and operative outcomes with our initial cases of single-fulcrum laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SFLC). Results Four female patients and one male patient underwent RSSC. Neither open conversion nor bile duct injury or bile spillage was noted during surgery. In comparisons with SFLC, patient-related factors in terms of age, sex, Body Mass Index, diagnosis, and American Society of Anesthesiologist score showed no significant differences between two groups. There were no significant differences in the operative outcomes regarding intraoperative blood loss, bile spillage during operation, postoperative pain scale values, postoperative complications, and hospital stay between the two groups (p<0.05). Actual dissection time (p=0.003) and total operation time (p=0.001) were significantly longer in RSSC than in SFLC. There were no drain insertion or open conversion cases in either group. Conclusion RSSC provides a comfortable environment and improved ergonomics to laparoscopic single-site cholecystectomy; however, this technique needs to be modified to allow for more effective intracorporeal movement. As experience and technical innovations continue, RSSC will soon be alternative procedure for well-selected benign GB disease. PMID:25510764

Lee, Sung Hwan; Jung, Myung Jae; Hwang, Ho Kyoung; Lee, Woo Jung

2015-01-01

219

Plan for fully decontaminating and decommissioning of the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Fuel Laboratories at Cheswick, Revision 3  

SciTech Connect

The project scope of work included the complete decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Westinghouse ARD Fuel Laboratories at the Cheswick Site in the shortest possible time. This has been accomplished in the following four phases: (1) preparation of documents and necessary paperwork; packaging and shipping of all special nuclear materials in an acceptable form to a reprocessing agency; (2) decontamination of all facilities, glove boxes and equipment; loading of generated waste into bins, barrels and strong wooden boxes; (3) shipping of all bins, barrels and boxes containing waste to the designated burial site; removal of all utility services from the laboratories; (4) final survey of remaining facilities and certification for nonrestricted use; preparation of final report. This volume contains the following 3 attachments: (1) Plan for Fully Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Fuel Laboratories at Cheswick; (2) Environmental Assessment for Decontamination and Decommissioning the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Plutonium Fuel Laboratories, Cheswick, PA; and (3) WARD-386, Quality Assurance Program Description for Decontamination and Decommissioning Activities.

Not Available

1982-01-01

220

Footprint Experiments in a Model of a Complex Forest Stand (ECHO Site)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study takes part to the project "Emission and CHemical transformation of biogenic volatile Organic compounds: investigations in and above a mixed forest stand" (ECHO) funded by the German atmospheric research program AFO 2000. The contribution of Hamburg University is a better understanding of the transport of biogenic emissions in the atmospheric boundary layer influenced by a very rough environment as a finite forest area. The finite forest area surrounding the Research Centre of J\\x81lich (Germany) was modelled to a scale of 1:300 and studied in the large boundary layer wind tunnel of the Meteorological institute of Hamburg University. The model of the forest must reproduce the resistance to the wind generated by this porous environment. Using rings of metallic mesh to represent some group of trees, some preliminary tests were carried out to find the arrangement of these rings that would provide the appropriate aerodynamic characteristics for a forest. The agreement between wind and turbulence profiles measured in the wind tunnel and in the field ensured that the physical modelling of the complex forest area was realistic. The comparison of the turbulence properties of the flow, inside and above the canopy, with the literature about dense canopies showed strong similarities for the spectral densities and integral length scale profiles. Since the flow structure inside the forest area is well replicated, further measurements can be carried out on the model of the complex forest stand in order to answer questions of project partners. During field campaigns in the ECHO site, profiles of VOC concentrations are measured at three different measurement towers located in the forest stand. The origin, the trajectory and the travel time of these biogenic emissions are very important parameters for the analysis of the field data. In consequence, footprint experiments were performed in the wind tunnel by moving a release point source all over the forest area upwind of the measurement towers, and measuring which fraction of tracer-gas reached the measurement towers. These experiments gave the distribution of the probability of origin of the emissions, which are sampled at the measurement towers. The principal outcome was that the inhomogeneity of the forest (clearings and the presence of the research center within the forest) plays a disturbing role in the dispersion process of the emissions. Air masses with completely different trajectories and histories are simultaneously sampled, mixed and analyzed during field experiments. The few clearings located in the forest cause the upward deflection of air masses, which were in contact with the ground. In consequence, the contribution of biogenic emissions from the soil must not be neglected, even in the analysis of samples taken above the canopy. Some simple relationships to quickly estimate the travel time and the travel height of the air masses inside this specific forest, just knowing the wind speed at the monitoring station, were also proposed. In a next future, the vertical transport of the emissions above the forest will be studied in the physical model of this complex forest area. In order to replicate in the model the emissions released by the trees, an area source releasing gas at 80% of the tree height (location of the tree crown) will be designed and the turbulent mass fluxes above the canopy will be measured.

Aubrun, S.; Leitl, B.; Schatzmann, M.; Koppmann, R.

2003-12-01

221

Decontaminating and Melt Recycling Tritium Contaminated Stainless Steel  

SciTech Connect

The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and several university and industrial partners are evaluating recycling radioactively contaminated stainless steel. The goal of this program is to recycle contaminated stainless steel scrap from US Department of Energy national defense facilities. There is a large quantity of stainless steel at the DOE Savannah River Site from retired heavy water moderated Nuclear material production reactors (for example heat exchangers and process water piping), that will be used in pilot studies of potential recycle processes. These parts are contaminated by fission products, activated species, and tritium generated by neutron irradiation of the primary reactor coolant, which is heavy (deuterated) water. This report reviews current understanding of tritium contamination of stainless steel and previous studies of decontaminating tritium exposed stainless steel. It also outlines stainless steel refining methods, and proposes recommendations based on this review.

Clark, E.A.

1995-04-03

222

Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination  

SciTech Connect

DOE sites contain a broad spectrum of asbestos materials (cloth, pipe lagging, sprayed insulation and other substances) which are contaminated with a combination of hazardous and radioactive wastes due to its use during the development of the U.S. nuclear weapons complex. These wastes consist of cutting oils, lubricants, solvents, PCB`s, heavy metals and radioactive contaminants. The radioactive contaminants are the activation, decay and fission products of DOE operations. The asbestos must be converted by removing and separating the hazardous and radioactive materials to prevent the formation of mixed wastes and to allow for both sanitary disposal and effective decontamination. Currently, no technology exists that can meet these sanitary and other objectives.

Kasevich, R.S.; Vaux, W.G.; Nocito, T.

1995-12-01

223

Modeling Complex Equilibria in ITC Experiments: Thermodynamic Parameters Estimation for a Three Binding Site Model  

PubMed Central

Isothermal Titration Calorimetry, ITC, is a powerful technique that can be used to estimate a complete set of thermodynamic parameters (e.g. Keq (or ?G), ?H, ?S, and n) for a ligand binding interaction described by a thermodynamic model. Thermodynamic models are constructed by combination of equilibrium constant, mass balance, and charge balance equations for the system under study. Commercial ITC instruments are supplied with software that includes a number of simple interaction models, for example one binding site, two binding sites, sequential sites, and n-independent binding sites. More complex models for example, three or more binding sites, one site with multiple binding mechanisms, linked equilibria, or equilibria involving macromolecular conformational selection through ligand binding need to be developed on a case by case basis by the ITC user. In this paper we provide an algorithm (and a link to our MATLAB program) for the non-linear regression analysis of a multiple binding site model with up to four overlapping binding equilibria. Error analysis demonstrates that fitting ITC data for multiple parameters (e.g. up to nine parameters in the three binding site model) yields thermodynamic parameters with acceptable accuracy. PMID:23262283

Le, Vu H.; Buscaglia, Robert; Chaires, Jonathan B.; Lewis, Edwin A.

2013-01-01

224

Funding Opportunity: Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) in Engineering and Computer Science Site  

E-print Network

Funding Opportunity: Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) in Engineering and Computer Science and Information Science and Engineering (CISE), Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) in Engineering science research in order to bring knowledge of engineering, computer science, and technological

Suzuki, Masatsugu

225

Decision Analysis Modeling for Application and Fielding Selection Applied to Concrete Decontamination Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this two-year investigation is to field test innovative technologies for coating and surface removal on concrete floors and compare the compiled data to baseline technologies, thereby ensuring that the best and most cost-effective options are developed and subsequently used during the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE-EM) sites. Comprehensive

J. F. Boudreaux; M. A. Ebadian

1998-01-01

226

QM/MM model of the mouse olfactory receptor MOR244-3 validated by site-directed mutagenesis experiments.  

PubMed

Understanding structure/function relationships of olfactory receptors is challenging due to the lack of x-ray structural models. Here, we introduce a QM/MM model of the mouse olfactory receptor MOR244-3, responsive to organosulfur odorants such as (methylthio)methanethiol. The binding site consists of a copper ion bound to the heteroatoms of amino-acid residues H105, C109, and N202. The model is consistent with site-directed mutagenesis experiments and biochemical measurements of the receptor activation, and thus provides a valuable framework for further studies of the sense of smell at the molecular level. PMID:25185561

Sekharan, Sivakumar; Ertem, Mehmed Z; Zhuang, Hanyi; Block, Eric; Matsunami, Hiroaki; Zhang, Ruina; Wei, Jennifer N; Pan, Yi; Batista, Victor S

2014-09-01

227

Evaluation of commercially available decontamination chemicals  

SciTech Connect

The effectiveness of commercially available decontamination solutions was compared with the effectiveness of 10% oxalic acid in controlled laboratory tests. Type 304L stainless steel and Inconel 625 specimens were used. Contamination was sludge from Savannah River Plant (SRP) high level waste tanks. Measured amounts of contamination were placed on each specimen. They were then heated to bond the contamination to the surface and cleaned according to the manufacturer's directions. The effectiveness of the product was determined by monitoring specimens before and after cleaning. Four of the 16 solutions evaluated removed all the contamination from Type 304L stainless steel. Inconel 625 was more difficult to decontaminate. Further tests are planned with the chemicals that were most effective in this test. 4 refs., 6 tabs.

Shurte, E.A.; Rankin, W.N.

1988-01-01

228

Combined decontamination processes for wastes containing PCBs.  

PubMed

This project has focused on the development of a complex assembly of mutually corresponding technological units: a low temperature thermal process for the desorption of PCBs and other organics from soils and other contaminated solid wastes; the extraction of PCBs from soils by an ecological friendly aqueous solution of selected surfactants; the chemical decontamination of PCBs in oils and in-oil-in-water emulsions by metallic sodium and potassium in polyethylene glycols in the presence of aluminum powder; the modified alkaline catalyzed chemical decontamination of PCBs in oil-in-water dispersions in a solid-state reactor (in a film of reacting emulsion on solid carriers); and the breakdown of PCBs in aqueous emulsions with activated hydroxyl radicals enhanced by UV radiation. The processes operate in a closed loop configuration with effluents circulating among the process unit. These technologies have been verified at laboratory and pilot-plant scales. PMID:15629577

Kastánek, Frantisek; Kastánek, Petr

2005-01-31

229

Microwave radiometer experiment of soil moisture sensing at BARC test site during summer 1981  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soil moisture was measured by truck mounted microwave radiometers at the frequencies of 1.4 GHz, 5 GHz, and 10.7 GHz. The soil textures in the two test sites were different so that the soil type effect of microwave radiometric response could be studied. Several fields in each test site were prepared with different surface roughnesses and vegetation covers. Ground truth on the soil moisture, temperature, and the biomass of the vegetation was acquired in support of the microwave radiometric measurements. Soil bulk density for each of the fields in both test sites was sampled. The soils in both sites were measured mechanically and chemically. A tabulation of the measured data is presented and the sensors and operational problems associated with the measurements are discussed.

Wang, J.; Jackson, T.; Engman, E. T.; Gould, W.; Fuchs, J.; Glazer, W.; Oneill, P.; Schmugge, T. J.; Mcmurtrey, J., III

1984-01-01

230

Advanced robotics for decontamination and dismantlement  

SciTech Connect

The decontamination and dismantlement (D&D) robotics technology application area of the US Department of Energy`s Robotics Technology Development Program is explained and described. D&D robotic systems show real promise for the reduction of human exposure to hazards, for improvement of productivity, and for the reduction of secondary waste generation. Current research and development pertaining to automated floor characterization, robotic equipment removal, and special inspection is summarized. Future research directions for these and emerging activities is given.

Hamel, W.R.; Haley, D.C.

1994-06-01

231

Laser decontamination of the radioactive lightning rods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 1970 and 1980 Brazil experienced a significant market for radioactive lightning rods (RLR). The device consists of an air terminal with one or more sources of americium-241 attached to it. The sources were used to ionize the air around them and to increase the attraction of atmospheric discharges. Because of their ineffectiveness, the nuclear regulatory authority in Brazil suspended the license for manufacturing, commerce and installation of RLR in 1989, and determined that the replaced RLR were to be collected to a centralized radioactive waste management facility for treatment. The first step for RLR treatment is to remove the radioactive sources. Though they can be easily removed, some contaminations are found all over the remaining metal scrap that must decontaminated for release, otherwise it must be treated as radioactive waste. Decontamination using various chemicals has proven to be inefficient and generates large amounts of secondary wastes. This work shows the preliminary results of the decontamination of 241Am-contaminated metal scrap generated in the treatment of radioactive lightning rods applying laser ablation. A Nd:YAG nanoseconds laser was used with 300 mJ energy leaving only a small amount of secondary waste to be treated.

Potiens, A. J.; Dellamano, J. C.; Vicente, R.; Raele, M. P.; Wetter, N. U.; Landulfo, E.

2014-02-01

232

Decontamination of high-level waste canisters  

SciTech Connect

This report presents evaluations of several methods for the in-process decontamination of metallic canisters containing any one of a number of solidified high-level waste (HLW) forms. The use of steam-water, steam, abrasive blasting, electropolishing, liquid honing, vibratory finishing and soaking have been tested or evaluated as potential techniques to decontaminate the outer surfaces of HLW canisters. Either these techniques have been tested or available literature has been examined to assess their applicability to the decontamination of HLW canisters. Electropolishing has been found to be the most thorough method to remove radionuclides and other foreign material that may be deposited on or in the outer surface of a canister during any of the HLW processes. Steam or steam-water spraying techniques may be adequate for some applications but fail to remove all contaminated forms that could be present in some of the HLW processes. Liquid honing and abrasive blasting remove contamination and foreign material very quickly and effectively from small areas and components although these blasting techniques tend to disperse the material removed from the cleaned surfaces. Vibratory finishing is very capable of removing the bulk of contamination and foreign matter from a variety of materials. However, special vibratory finishing equipment would have to be designed and adapted for a remote process. Soaking techniques take long periods of time and may not remove all of the smearable contamination. If soaking involves pickling baths that use corrosive agents, these agents may cause erosion of grain boundaries that results in rough surfaces.

Nesbitt, J.F.; Slate, S.C.; Fetrow, L.K.

1980-12-01

233

Plasma Decontamination of Uranium From the Interior of Aluminum Objects  

SciTech Connect

RF plasma glow discharges are being investigated for removing and recovering radioactive elements from contaminated objects, especially those contaminated with transuranic (TRU) materials. These plasmas, using nitrogen trifluoride as the working gas, have been successful at removing uranium and plutonium contaminants from test coupons of stainless steel and aluminum surfaces, including small cracks and crevices, and the interior surfaces of relatively hard to reach aluminum pipes. Contaminant removal exceeded 99.9% from simple surfaces and contaminant recovery using cryogenic traps has exceeded 50%. Work continues with the objective of demonstrating that transuranic contaminated waste can be transformed to low level waste (LLW) and to better understand the physics of the interaction between plasma and surface contaminants. This work summarizes the preliminary results from plasma decontamination from the interior of aluminum objects--the nooks and crannies experiments.

Veilleux, J.M.; Munson, C.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Chamberlin, E.P.; El-Genk, M.S.

1997-04-21

234

Initial Experience of Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Radical Prostatectomy Requiring Well-Equipped Appliances and a Skilled Technique  

PubMed Central

We report an initial experience in laparoendoscopic single-site radical prostatectomy (LESSRP) using a homemade single-port device for prostate cancer. A 63-year-old man was diagnosed with prostate cancer. The patient underwent LESSRP using an Alexis® wound retractor, which was inserted through an umbilical incision. A homemade single-port device was made by fixing a 6 1/2 surgical glove to the retractor's outer ring and securing the glove finger to the end of 4 trocars with a tie. Using the flexible laparoscopic and rigid instruments, LESSRP was performed using a procedure similar to conventional laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP). In the current case, we could not perform complete LESSRP, so we report our initial experience and consider the reason why laparoendoscopic single-site surgery was converted to conventional LRP. PMID:21611141

Lee, Joo Yong; Ha, U-Syn; Lee, Seung Wook

2010-01-01

235

Aquatic toxicity of the decontamination agent: Multipurpose (DAM) decontamination solution. Final report, May-December 1992  

SciTech Connect

A new formulation, Decontaminating Agent: Multipurpose (DAM) Decontamination Solution, is being considered as a replacement to the DS-2 decontaminating solution. The new formulation is composed of calcium hypochlorite and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone. Since this is a new formulation little environmental data exists. To estimate potential impact to an aquatic environment, Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum (a luminescent marine bacterium) were exposed to the DAM solution and to the individual components (Calcium hypochlorite and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone). The toxicity of the DAM solution to D. magna and P. phosphoreum was 5000 and 0.00053, respectively (highly toxic). The toxicity of calcium hypochlorite' and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone to daphnia was 0.04 mg/L (highly toxic) and 107 mg/L (moderately toxic), respectively.

Haley, M.V.; Kurnas, C.W.; Chester, N.A.; Muse, W.T.

1994-05-01

236

Radiative Closure Experiments at a Cloud-Free Desert Site, Nevada, as Part of MISR Algorithm Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiative closure experiments involving a comparison between surface-measured spectral irradiance and the surface irradiance calculated according to a radiative transfer code at a desert site in Nevada under clear skies, yield the result that agreement between the two requires presence of an absorbing aerosol component with an imaginary refractive index equal to 0.03 and a 50:50 mix by optical depth of small and large particles with log-normal size distributions.

Conel, J. E.; Abdou, W. A.; Bruegge, C. J.; Gaitley, B. J.; Helmlinger, M. C.; Ledeboer, W. C.; Pilorz, S. H.; Martonchik, J. V.

1997-01-01

237

Crystallization In High Level Waste (HLW) Glass Melters: Operational Experience From The Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

processing strategy for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The basis of this alternative approach is an empirical model predicting the crystal accumulation in the WTP glass discharge riser and melter bottom as a function of glass composition, time, and temperature. When coupled with an associated operating limit (e.g., the maximum tolerable thickness of an accumulated layer of crystals), this model could then be integrated into the process control algorithms to formulate crystal tolerant high level waste (HLW) glasses targeting higher waste loadings while still meeting process related limits and melter lifetime expectancies. This report provides a review of the scaled melter testing that was completed in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. Testing with scaled melters provided the data to define the DWPF operating limits to avoid bulk (volume) crystallization in the un-agitated DWPF melter and provided the data to distinguish between spinels generated by K-3 refractory corrosion versus spinels that precipitated from the HLW glass melt pool. This report includes a review of the crystallization observed with the scaled melters and the full scale DWPF melters (DWPF Melter 1 and DWPF Melter 2). Examples of actual DWPF melter attainment with Melter 2 are given. The intent is to provide an overview of lessons learned, including some example data, that can be used to advance the development and implementation of an empirical model and operating limit for crystal accumulation for WTP. Operation of the first and second (current) DWPF melters has demonstrated that the strategy of using a liquidus temperature predictive model combined with a 100 °C offset from the normal melter operating temperature of 1150 °C (i.e., the predicted liquidus temperature (TL) of the glass must be 1050 °C or less) has been successful in preventing any detrimental accumulation of spinel in the DWPF melt pool, and spinel has not been observed in any of the pour stream glass samples. Spinel was observed at the bottom of DWPF Melter 1 as a result of K-3 refractory corrosion. Issues have occurred with accumulation of spinel in the pour spout during periods of operation at higher waste loadings. Given that both DWPF melters were or have been in operation for greater than 8 years, the service life of the melters has far exceeded design expectations. It is possible that the DWPF liquidus temperature approach is conservative, in that it may be possible to successfully operate the melter with a small degree of allowable crystallization in the glass. This could be a viable approach to increasing waste loading in the glass assuming that the crystals are suspended in the melt and swept out through the riser and pour spout. Additional study is needed, and development work for WTP might be leveraged to support a different operating limit for the DWPF. Several recommendations are made regarding considerations that need to be included as part of the WTP crystal tolerant strategy based on the DWPF development work and operational data reviewed here. These include: Identify and consider the impacts of potential heat sinks in the WTP melter and glass pouring system; Consider the contributions of refractory corrosion products, which may serve to nucleate additional crystals leading to further accumulation; Consider volatilization of components from the melt (e.g., boron, alkali, halides, etc.) and determine their impacts on glass crystallization behavior; Evaluate the impacts of glass REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) conditions and the distribution of temperature within the WTP melt pool and melter pour chamber on crystal accumulation rate; Consider the impact of precipitated crystals on glass viscosity; Consider the impact of an accumulated crystalline layer on thermal convection currents and bubbler effectiveness within the melt pool; Evaluate the impact of spinel accumulation on Joule heating of the WTP melt pool; and Include noble metals in glass melt experiments because of their potential to act as nucleation site

Fox, K. M.

2014-02-27

238

Decontamination demonstration facility (D. D. F) modularization/mobility study  

SciTech Connect

The component decontamination technology, developed under the DOE sponsored TRU Waste Decontamination Program, has potential benefits to nuclear utility owners in four strategic areas: (1) Meeting ALARA Criteria for Maintenance/Operations; (2) Management of wastes and waste forms; (3) Accident Response; (4) Decommissioning. The most significant step in transferring this technology directly to the nuclear industry is embodied in the TMI Decontamination Demonstration Facility (D.D.F.).

FitzPatrick, V.F.; Butts, H.L.; Moles, R.G.; Lundgren, R.A.

1980-11-01

239

Preliminary numerical modeling for the G-Tunnel welded tuff mining experiment; Yucca Mountain site characterization project  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain, located in Southern Nevada, is to be considered as a potential site for a nuclear waste repository. Located in Rainier Mesa on the Nevada Test Site, G-Tunnel has been the site of a series of experiments, part of whose purpose is to evaluate measurement techniques for rock mechanics before testing in the Exploratory Shaft. Rainier Mesa is composed of welded and nonwelded tuffs that have thermal and mechanical properties and stress states similar to those of tuffs expected to be encountered at Yucca Mountain. A series of finite element calculations were performed to aid in designing instrumentation for the experiments in G-Tunnel and later to correlate with measured data. In this report are presented the results of the preliminary finite element calculations performed in conjunction with experimental measurements of drift convergence, or closure, and rock mass relaxation zones made before, during, and after completing the welded tuff mining experiment in G-Tunnel. Tape extensometer measurements of drift convergences and measurements determined by multiple point borehole extensometers are compared with corresponding calculated values using linear elastic and jointed rock material models. 9 refs., 25 figs., 7 tabs.

Johnson, R.L.; Bauer, S.J.

1991-09-01

240

Immobilization of Russian VX skin depots by localized cooling: implications for decontamination and medical countermeasures.  

PubMed

The chemical weapon nerve agent known as Russian VX (VR) is a potent organophosphorus (OP) compound that is much less studied than its VX analogue with respect to toxicity, as well as to the effectiveness of several known countermeasures against it. An anaesthetized domestic swine model was utilized to assess several approaches in mitigating its toxicity, including the utility of cooling VR treated skin to increase the therapeutic window for treatment. The 6h LD?? for VR topically applied on the ear was 100 ?g/kg. Treatment of VR exposed animals (5 × LD??) with pralidoxime (2PAM) very poorly regenerated inhibited blood cholinesterase activity, but was partially effective in preventing signs of OP poisoning and increasing survival. In contrast, treatment with the Hagedorn oxime HI-6 reactivated cholinesterase, eliminated all signs of poisoning and prevented death. Decontamination with the Reactive Skin Decontaminant Lotion (RSDL) 15 min after VR exposure was completely effective in preventing death. Cooling of the VR exposure sites for 2 or 6h prevented signs of OP poisoning and death during the cooling period. However, these animals died very quickly after the cessation of cooling, unless they were treated with oxime or decontaminated with RSDL. Blood analyses showed that cooling of agent exposure sites delayed the entry of VR into the bloodstream. Medical treatment with HI-6 and to a lesser extent 2PAM, or decontamination with RSDL are effective in protecting against the toxic effects of cutaneous exposure to VR. Immobilizing this agent (and related compounds) within the dermal reservoir by cooling the exposure sites, dramatically increases the therapeutic window in which these medical countermeasures are effective. PMID:21704135

Mikler, J; Tenn, C; Worek, F; Reiter, G; Thiermann, H; Garrett, M; Bohnert, S; Sawyer, T W

2011-09-25

241

Personal Protective Equipment and Decontamination of Adults and Children.  

PubMed

Accurate identification of the hazardous material is essential for proper care. Efficient hospital security and triage must prevent contaminated victims from entering the emergency department (ED) and causing secondary contamination. The decontamination area should be located outside the ambulance entrance. Decontamination priorities are protection of the health care worker, utilization of Level C personal protective equipment, and proper decontamination of the exposed patient. Decontamination proceeds in a head-to-toe sequence. Run-off water is a hazardous waste. Hospital and Community Management Planning for these emergencies is essential for proper preparation and effective response to the hazardous materials incident. PMID:25455662

Holland, Michael G; Cawthon, David

2015-02-01

242

Available decontamination and decommissioning capabilities at the Savannah River Technology Center  

SciTech Connect

The Safety Analysis and Engineering Services Group has performed a survey of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) technical capabilities, skills, and experience in Decontamination and Decommissioning (D D) activities. The goal of this survey is to enhance the integration of the SRTC capabilities with the technical needs of the Environmental Restoration Department D D program and the DOE Office of Technology Development through the Integrated Demonstration Program. This survey has identified technical capabilities, skills, and experience in the following D D areas: Characterization, Decontamination, Dismantlement, Material Disposal, Remote Systems, and support on Safety Technology for D D. This review demonstrates the depth and wealth of technical capability resident in the SRTC in relation to these activities, and the unique qualifications of the SRTC to supply technical support in the area of DOE facility D D. Additional details on specific technologies and applications to D D will be made available on request.

Polizzi, L.M.; Norkus, J.K.; Paik, I.K.; Wooten, L.A.

1992-08-19

243

Available decontamination and decommissioning capabilities at the Savannah River Technology Center  

SciTech Connect

The Safety Analysis and Engineering Services Group has performed a survey of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) technical capabilities, skills, and experience in Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) activities. The goal of this survey is to enhance the integration of the SRTC capabilities with the technical needs of the Environmental Restoration Department D&D program and the DOE Office of Technology Development through the Integrated Demonstration Program. This survey has identified technical capabilities, skills, and experience in the following D&D areas: Characterization, Decontamination, Dismantlement, Material Disposal, Remote Systems, and support on Safety Technology for D&D. This review demonstrates the depth and wealth of technical capability resident in the SRTC in relation to these activities, and the unique qualifications of the SRTC to supply technical support in the area of DOE facility D&D. Additional details on specific technologies and applications to D&D will be made available on request.

Polizzi, L.M.; Norkus, J.K.; Paik, I.K.; Wooten, L.A.

1992-08-19

244

DECONTAMINATION OF PLUTONIUM FOR FLUORIDE AND CHLORIDE DURING OXALATE PRECIPITATION, FILTRATION AND CALCINATION PROCESSES  

SciTech Connect

Due to analytical limitations for the determination of fluoride (F) and chloride (Cl) in a previous anion exchange study, an additional study of the decontamination of Pu from F and Cl by oxalate precipitation, filtration and calcination was performed. Anion product solution from the previous impurity study was precipitated as an oxalate, filtered, and calcined to produce an oxide for analysis by pyrohydrolysis for total Cl and F. Analysis of samples from this experiment achieved the purity specification for Cl and F for the proposed AFS-2 process. Decontamination factors (DF's) for the overall process (including anion exchange) achieved a DF of {approx}5000 for F and a DF of {approx}100 for Cl. Similar experiments where both HF and HCl were spiked into the anion product solution to a {approx}5000 {micro}g /g Pu concentration showed a DF of 5 for F and a DF of 35 for Cl across the combined precipitation-filtration-calcination process steps.

Kyser, E.

2012-07-25

245

In-Situ Biological Decontamination of an Ice Melting Probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major concern in space and even many terrestrial missions is the forward contamination of the alien environment with microbes and biological molecules, transported on spacecraft from Earth. Furthermore, organisms and molecules can be brought to the sampling place from the surface. All this can lead to serious misinterpretations of the obtained data and more impor-tantly, could irreversibly alter the pristine nature of the extraterrestrial environments. These issues were addressed and are constantly updated in COSPAR planetary protection policy (20 October 2002; Amended 24 March 2005; 20 July 2008). The objective of our study was to investigate the efficacy of different in-situ decontamination protocols in the conditions of thermo-mechanical ice-melting. We evaluated survival rate of microorganisms on the melting probe as a function of both time and penetration depth. Special focus was made on deter-mination of the optimal concentration of chemical decontaminants (hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite) the peculiarities of their antimicrobial action at low temperatures (-80 to 0C) combined with constant dilution with melted ice and mechanical abrasion. Common, non-pathogenic microbial strains belonging to different morphological and metabolic groups (Pseudomonas, Micrococcus, Escherichia, Bacillus and others) were chosen as test objects for this study. The working part of the melting probe was first controllably contaminated by in-cubation in suspension of microbial cells. After appropriate sedimentation of microbial cells had been reached, the drilling-melting process was started using specially prepared sterile ice blocks. Every 2 minutes the samples were taken and analyzed. In the control tests, 1 mL of distilled water was injected into the penetration site at the onset of drilling. In the other tests, 1 mL of hydrogen peroxide (30Collected data suggest high efficacy of both used compounds in respect of all tested microbial groups. Typically, 99.9

Digel, Ilya

246

Surveillance of Surgical Site Infections: Decade of Experience at a Colombian Tertiary Care Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protocol for surveillance of surgical site infections (SSIs) was established in a tertiary care center in 1991 in Bogota, Colombia and followed for 10 years. Wounds were classified according to the Centers for Disease Control guidelines. The National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance and Study of the Efficacy of Nosocomial Infection Control scores for risk factors were included from June 1999.

Cesar A. Arias; Gustavo Quintero; Blanca E. Vanegas; Clara Luz Rico; Jose Felix Patiño

2003-01-01

247

INTERSPECIFIC AGGRESSION FOR NEST SITES: MODEL EXPERIMENTS WITH LONG-TAILED FINCHES (POEPHILA ACUTICAUDA)  

E-print Network

ACUTICAUDA) AND ENDANGERED GOULDIAN FINCHES (ERYTHRURA GOULDIAE) RÃ?sumÃ?.--Pour les oiseaux nichant dans des experimentally tested aggression and nest-defense behaviors in Gouldian Finches (Erythrura gouldiae) and Long and heterospecific nest-site competitors (black and red Gouldian Finch morph and Long-tailed Finch models), as well

248

Visiting the Site of Death: Experiences of the Bereaved after the 2004 Southeast Asian Tsunami  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined how many bereaved relatives of Norwegian tourists who perished in the 2004 Southeast Asian Tsunami had visited the site of death and the most important outcome from the visit. We conducted in-depth interviews (n = 110) and used self-report questionnaires (Impact of Event Scale--Revised, Inventory of Complicated Grief, and…

Kristensen, Pal; Tonnessen, Arnfinn; Weisaeth, Lars; Heir, Trond

2012-01-01

249

Remote administration and user experience evaluation of the iLab Heat Transfer Project site  

E-print Network

The iLab Heat Transfer Project provides a means for students to remotely execute, via a web interface, experiments related to the topic of heat transfer. The website associated with this project provides instructors with ...

Graham, Rodney K

2006-01-01

250

An exact solution for R2,eff in CPMG experiments in the case of two site chemical exchange  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Car-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) experiment is widely used to quantitatively analyse the effects of chemical exchange on NMR spectra. In a CPMG experiment, the effective transverse relaxation rate, R2,eff, is typically measured as a function of the pulse frequency, ?CPMG. Here, an exact expression for how R2,eff varies with ?CPMG is derived for the commonly encountered scenario of two-site chemical exchange of in-phase magnetisation. This result, summarised in Appendix A, generalises a frequently used equation derived by Carver and Richards, published in 1972. The expression enables more rapid analysis of CPMG data by both speeding up calculation of R2,eff over numerical methods by a factor of ca. 130, and yields exact derivatives for use in data analysis. Moreover, the derivation provides insight into the physical principles behind the experiment.

Baldwin, Andrew J.

2014-07-01

251

An exact solution for R2,eff in CPMG experiments in the case of two site chemical exchange  

PubMed Central

The Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill (CPMG) experiment is widely used to quantitatively analyse the effects of chemical exchange on NMR spectra. In a CPMG experiment, the effective transverse relaxation rate, R2,eff, is typically measured as a function of the pulse frequency, ?CPMG. Here, an exact expression for how R2,eff varies with ?CPMG is derived for the commonly encountered scenario of two-site chemical exchange of in-phase magnetisation. This result, summarised in Appendix A, generalises a frequently used equation derived by Carver and Richards, published in 1972. The expression enables more rapid analysis of CPMG data by both speeding up calculation of R2,eff over numerical methods by a factor of ca. 130, and yields exact derivatives for use in data analysis. Moreover, the derivation provides insight into the physical principles behind the experiment. PMID:24852115

Baldwin, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

252

DECISION ANALYSIS AND TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENTS FOR METAL AND MASONRY DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this investigation was to conduct a comparative analysis of innovative technologies for the non-aggressive removal of coatings from metal and masonry surfaces and the aggressive removal of one-quarter to one-inch thickness of surface from structural masonry. The technologies tested should be capable of being used in nuclear facilities. Innovative decontamination technologies are being evaluated under standard, non-nuclear conditions at the FIU-HCET technology assessment site in Miami, Florida. This study is being performed to support the OST, the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) Focus Area, and the environmental restoration of DOE facilities throughout the DOE complex by providing objective evaluations of currently available decontamination technologies.

M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

1999-01-01

253

Influence of Natal Experience on Nest-Site Selection by Urban-Nesting Cooper's Hawks  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Exposure to environmental,features early in life potentially can influence the kinds of places animals select to live later in life. We examined,whether,there is evidence,that Cooper’s hawks,(Accipiter cooperii) hatched,in an urban environment,choose,sites with features similar to their natal areas when,they nest for the first time. The features we examined,were the nest tree species and the level of development surrounding the

R. WILLIAM MANNAN; R. NICHOLAS MANNAN; CECILIA A. SCHMIDT; WENDY A. ESTES-ZUMPF; CLINT W. BOAL

2007-01-01

254

ELECTROSTATICALLY CHARGED AEROSOL DECONTAMINATION SYSTEM FOR SMALL BUILDING DECONTAMINATION - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

Existing decontamination procedures are time-consuming, labor-intensive, and produce low-yielding results, and they have a high risk of personnel exposure and equipment damage. Foster-Miller, Inc., has teamed with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and other reagent suppl...

255

Early Regulatory Engagement for Successful Site Remediation: the UK Experience - 13173  

SciTech Connect

The Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR) is an independent safety, security and transport regulator of the UK nuclear industry. ONR regulates all civil nuclear reactor power stations, fuel manufacture, enrichment, spent fuel reprocessing, most defence sites and installations that store and process legacy spent fuel and radioactive waste. The responsibility for funding and strategic direction of decommissioning and radioactive waste management of state owned legacy sites has rested solely with the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) since 2005. A key component of NDA's mandate was to encourage new strategic approaches and innovation to dealing with the UK's waste legacy and which deliver value-for-money to the UK taxpayer. ONR, as an agency of the Health and Safety Executive, is entirely independent of NDA and regulates all prescribed activities on NDA's sites. NDA's competition of site management and closure contracts has attracted significant international interest and the formation of consortia comprised of major British, US, French and Swedish organizations bidding for those contracts. The prominence of US organizations in each of those consortia reflects the scale and breadth of existing waste management and D and D projects in the US. This paper will articulate, in broad terms, the challenges faced by international organizations seeking to employ 'off-the-shelf' technology and D and D techniques, successfully employed elsewhere, into the UK regulatory context. The predominantly 'goal-setting' regulatory framework in the UK does not generally prescribe a minimum standard to which a licensee must adhere. The legal onus on licensees in the UK is to demonstrate, whatever technology is selected, that in its applications, risks are reduced 'So Far As Is Reasonably Practicable' or 'SFAIRP'. By the nature of its role, ONR adopts a conservative approach to regulation; however ONR also recognises that in the decommissioning (and ultimately the site closure) domain, it is often necessary to consider and support novel approaches to achieve the nationally desired end-state. Crucial to successful and compliant operation in this regulatory environment is early and sustained engagement of the contractor with the regulator. There must be a 'no-surprises' culture to engender regulatory confidence early in a project. The paper considers some of the challenges facing international prime and lower tier contractors when undertaking D and D contracts in the UK, and emphasizes the importance of constructive and transparent dialogue with all regulators to sustain confidence at all stages of a major decommissioning project. The paper will also articulate ONR's strategy to increase collaboration with the US Department of Energy in light of increasing UK-US synergy in the area of waste management and to benchmark respective regulatory approaches. (authors)

Maitland, R.P.; Senior, D. [Office for Nuclear Regulation, Redgrave Court, Liverpool L20 7HS (United Kingdom)] [Office for Nuclear Regulation, Redgrave Court, Liverpool L20 7HS (United Kingdom)

2013-07-01

256

Decontamination and reuse of ORGDP aluminum scrap  

SciTech Connect

The Gaseous Diffusion Plants, or GDPs, have significant amounts of a number of metals, including nickel, aluminum, copper, and steel. Aluminum was used extensively throughout the GDPs because of its excellent strength to weight ratios and good resistance to corrosion by UF{sub 6}. This report is concerned with the recycle of aluminum stator and rotor blades from axial compressors. Most of the stator and rotor blades were made from 214-X aluminum casting alloy. Used compressor blades were contaminated with uranium both as a result of surface contamination and as an accumulation held in surface-connected voids inside of the blades. A variety of GDP studies were performed to evaluate the amounts of uranium retained in the blades; the volume, area, and location of voids in the blades; and connections between surface defects and voids. Based on experimental data on deposition, uranium content of the blades is 0.3%, or roughly 200 times the value expected from blade surface area. However, this value does correlate with estimated internal surface area and with lengthy deposition times. Based on a literature search, it appears that gaseous decontamination or melt refining using fluxes specific for uranium removal have the potential for removing internal contamination from aluminum blades. A melt refining process was used to recycle blades during the 1950s and 1960s. The process removed roughly one-third of the uranium from the blades. Blade cast from recycled aluminum appeared to perform as well as blades from virgin material. New melt refining and gaseous decontamination processes have been shown to provide substantially better decontamination of pure aluminum. If these techniques can be successfully adapted to treat aluminum 214-X alloy, internal and, possibly, external reuse of aluminum alloys may be possible.

Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Wilson, D.F.

1996-12-01

257

Career Field Experience: A Look at On-site Usage by High School Communication Class.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The career field experience program at a midwestern high school places broadcasting students on location for observation of the profession and optional job training or work. In addition to radio and television stations, field locations include advertising agencies with production studios, corporate production facilities, recording studios, cable…

Kaye, Thomas

258

Decontamination formulations for disinfection and sterilization  

DOEpatents

Aqueous decontamination formulations that neutralize biological pathogens for disinfection and sterilization applications. Examples of suitable applications include disinfection of food processing equipment, disinfection of areas containing livestock, mold remediation, sterilization of medical instruments and direct disinfection of food surfaces, such as beef carcasses. The formulations include at least one reactive compound, bleaching activator, inorganic base, and water. The formulations can be packaged as a two-part kit system, and can have a pH value in the range of 7-8.

Tucker, Mark D. (Albuquerque, NM); Engler, Daniel E. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-09-18

259

Atmospheric pressure plasma jet for decontamination purposes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced oxidation processes, especially induced by non-thermal plasmas, are widely known for their high sanitation efficiency. The paper presents general overview of atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) reactors for bactericidal decontamination purposes. In the conclusion part, the basic requirements for APPJ as a tool for biomedical applications including the treatment of living tissues are highlighted. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

Paw?at, Joanna

2013-02-01

260

Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2005  

SciTech Connect

The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Major interviews, articles and reports in this issue include: Increasing momentum, by Gary Taylor, Entergy Nuclear, Inc.; An acceptable investment, by Tom Chrisopher, Areva, Inc.; Fuel recycling for the U.S. and abroad, by Philippe Knoche, Areva, France; We're bullish on nuclear power, by Dan R. Keuter, Entergy Nuclear, Inc.; Ten key actions for decommissioning, by Lawrence E. Boing, Argonne National Laboratory; Safe, efficient and cost-effective decommissioning, by Dr. Claudio Pescatore and Torsten Eng, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), France; and, Plant profile: SONGS decommissioning.

Agnihotri, Newal (ed.)

2005-07-15

261

WRDA SEDIMENT DECONTAMINATION PILOT-SCALE DATA REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Thermal and non-thermal decontamination technologies have been undergoing demonstrations at the bench through full/commercial-scale levels. The decontamination program is being conducted under the auspices of the Water Resources Development Acts (92, 96) working in conjunction wi...

262

SEDIMENT DECONTAMINATION TREATMENT TRAIN: COMMERCIAL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION  

E-print Network

sediments in the rivers, lakes, and coastal waters of the United States are a major environmental problem1 SEDIMENT DECONTAMINATION TREATMENT TRAIN: COMMERCIAL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION FOR THE PORT OF NEW YORK York and New Jersey. We describe here a regional contaminated sediment decontamination program

Brookhaven National Laboratory

263

Demonstration recommendations for accelerated testing of concrete decontamination methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of aging US Department of Energy (DOE) surplus facilities located throughout the US require deactivation, decontamination, and decommissioning. Although several technologies are available commercially for concrete decontamination, emerging technologies with potential to reduce secondary waste and minimize the impact and risk to workers and the environment are needed. In response to these needs, the Accelerated Testing of

K. S. Dickerson; M. R. Ally; C. H. Brown; M. I. Morris; M. J. Wilson-Nichols

1995-01-01

264

Decontamination of concrete surfaces at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past two years the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has been engaged in decontaminating its former plutonium facility. The facility was in use for over 30 years for plutonium operations varying from dry metallurgical processes to wet (solution) recovery processes. To date approximately 3400 square meters of floor surface have been decontaminated to permit re-use for nonplutonium work. Approximately

E. J. Cox; R. Garde

1980-01-01

265

Decontamination of Hypercubes by Mobile Agents Paola Flocchini  

E-print Network

of the network are assumed to be contaminated and they have to be decontaminated by a sufficient number of agents the nodes it touches. A decontaminated node that is not occupied by an agent is re-contaminated if it has a contaminated neighbour. We consider some variations of the model based on the capabilities of mobile agents

Flocchini, Paola

266

Site Characterization Work Plan for Gnome-Coach Site, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Project Gnome was the first nuclear experiment conducted under the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Plowshare Program. Gnome was part of a joint government-industry experiment focused on developing nuclear devices exclusively for peaceful purposes. The intent of the Gnome experiment was to evaluate the effects of a nuclear detonation in a salt medium. Historically, Project Gnome consisted of a single detonation of a nuclear device on December 10, 1961. Since the Gnome detonation, the AEC/DOE has conducted surface restoration, site reconnaissance, and decontamination and decommissioning activities at the site. In addition, annual groundwater sampling is performed under a long-term hydrological monitoring program begun in 1980. Coach, an experiment to be located near the Gnome project, was initially scheduled for 1963. Although construction and rehabilitation were completed for Coach, the experiment was canceled and never executed. Known collectively as Project Gnome-Coach, the site is situated within the Salado Formation approximately 25 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, in Eddy County, and is comprised of nearly 680 acres, of which 60 acres are disturbed from the combined AEC/DOE operations. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the project. The subsurface at the Gnome-Coach site has two contaminant sources that are fundamentally different in terms of both their stratigraphic location and release mechanism. The goal of this characterization is to collect data of sufficient quantity and quality to establish current site conditions and to use the data to identify and evaluate if further action is required to protect human health and the environment and achieve permanent closure of the site. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent corrective action decision document.

DOE/NV

2001-02-13

267

Shear wave experiments at the US site at the Grimsel laboratory  

SciTech Connect

As part of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) cooperative project with the National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste (Nagra) of Switzerland, there have been a series of studies carried out at the Nagra underground test facility at Grimsel. The Grimsel test facility is several 3.5 meter diameter tunnels excavated with a tunnel boring machine in the southern Swiss Alps. The rock type is granitic, although there is a large variation in the granitic fabric throughout the facility. The work described here was the first phase of a multiyear project to evaluate and develop seismic imaging techniques for fracture detection and characterization for the use in siting underground nuclear waste facilities. Data from a crosshole tomographic survey in the Underground Seismic (US) site at the Nagra Grimsel test facility in Switzerland and successfully reprocessed to enhance the S-wave arrivals. The results indicate that in a saturated granite Vp/Vs ratios approach 2.0 in the fractured rock. These results indicate that S-wave data would be very useful for fracture detection, especially in detecting thinner fractures.

Majer, E.L.; Peterson, J.E. Jr. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Bluemling, P.; Sattel, G. (Swiss National Cooperative for the Storage of Nuclear Waste, Baden (Switzerland))

1990-07-01

268

Simple economic evaluation and applications experiments for photovoltaic systems for remote sites  

SciTech Connect

A simple evaluation of the cost effectiveness of photovoltaic systems is presented. The evaluation is based on a calculation of breakeven costs of photovoltaics (PV) arrays with the levelized costs of two alternative energy sources (1) extension of the utility grid and (2) diesel generators. A selected number of PV applications experiments that are in progress in remote areas of the US are summarized. These applications experiments range from a 23 watt insect survey trap to a 100 kW PV system for a national park complex. It is concluded that PV systems for remote areas are now cost effective in remote small applications with commercially available technology and will be cost competitive for intermediate scale systems (approx. 10 kW) in the 1980s if the DOE 1986 Commercial Readiness Goals are achieved.

Rios, M. Jr.

1980-01-01

269

MISTY ECHO tunnel dynamics experiment data report; Volume 2, Appendices: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

Tunnel damage resulting from seismic loading is an important issue for the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. The tunnel dynamics experiment was designed to obtain and document ground motions, permanent displacements, observable changes in fracture patterns, and visible damage at ground motion levels of interest to the Yucca Mountain Project. Even though the maximum free-field loading on this tunnel was 28 g, the damage observed was minor. Fielding details, data obtained, and supporting documentation are reported.

Phillips, J.S.; Luke, B.A.; Long, J.W.; Lee, J.G.

1992-04-01

270

MISTY ECHO Tunnel Dynamics Experiment--Data report: Volume 1; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

Tunnel damage resulting from seismic loading is an important issue for the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. The tunnel dynamics experiment was designed to obtain and document ground motions, permanent displacements, observable changes in fracture patterns, and visible damage at ground motion levels of interest to the Yucca Mountain Project. Even though the maximum free-field loading on this tunnel was 28 g, the damage observed was minor. Fielding details, data obtained, and supporting documentation are reported.

Phillips, J.S.; Luke, B.A.; Long, J.W.; Lee, J.G.

1992-04-01

271

Chemicals associated with site-specific neoplasia in 1394 long-term carcinogenesis experiments in laboratory rodents.  

PubMed Central

The carcinogenicity data base used for this paper originated in the late 1960s by the National Cancer Institute and since 1978 has been continued and made more comprehensive by the National Toxicology Program. The extensive files contain among other sets of information detailed pathology data on more than 400 long-term (most often 24 month) chemical carcinogenesis studies, comprised of nearly 1600 individual experiments having at least 10 million tissue sections that have been evaluated for toxicity and carcinogenicity. Using the current data set of 379 studies made up of 1394 experiments, we have compiled listings of chemicals having like carcinogenic target sites for each of the 34 organs or systems for which histopathology diagnoses have been recorded routinely. The most common tumor site is the liver (15% of all experiments), followed in rank order by: lung, hematopoietic system and kidneys, mammary glands, forestomach, thyroid glands, Zymbal glands, urinary bladder, skin and uterus/cervix, and circulatory system and adrenal glands. These compilations are most useful for maintaining a historic perspective when evaluating the carcinogenicity of contemporary experiments. Equally important, the chemical-tumor-organ connection permits an evaluation of how well chemically induced cancers in a particular organ in one sex or species will predict or correlate with the other sex or species. Using liver cancers as an example, the overall interspecies concordance is 80%. Likewise target site predictions can be made for chemicals selected for study that may be similar to those already evaluated; thereby experimental protocols could be adjusted to allow, for example, more extensive pathology on preselected target organs (i.e., serial sections of the kidney). Further from these observations, one could decide to use two strains of mice to evaluate a short-chain chlorinated aliphatic compound or to study a human carcinogen in a sex-species known to develop chemically induced tumors in the same site observed in humans. Structural classes of chemicals having a propensity for certain organs can be easily identified from these data. Sex-species responders to particular induced cancers become clearly evident, such as in the ovary of female mice or in the kidney of male rats. PMID:1773796

Huff, J; Cirvello, J; Haseman, J; Bucher, J

1991-01-01

272

Decontamination of nuclear systems at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station  

SciTech Connect

Early in 1994 Management at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station realized that a potential decontamination of several reactor systems was needed to maintain the commitments to the {open_quotes}As Low As Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) program. There was a substantial amount of planned outage work required to repair and replace some internals in loop isolation valves and there were inspections and other outage work that needed to be accomplished as it had been postponed from previous outages because of the radiation exposure levels in and around the system equipment. Management scheduled for the procurement specification to be revised to incorporate additional boundary areas which had not been previously considered. The schedule included the period for gathering bids, awarding a contract, and reviewing the contractor`s procedures and reports and granting approval for the decontamination to proceed during the upcoming outage. In addition to the reviews required by the engineering group for overall control of the process, the plant system engineers had to prepare procedures at the system level to provide for a smooth operation to be made during the decontamination of the systems. The system engineers were required to make certain that the decontamination fluids would be contained within the systems being decontaminated and that they would not cross contaminate any other system not being decontaminated. Since these nuclear stations do not have the provisions for decontaminating these systems with using additional equipment, the equipment required is furnished by the contractor as skid mounted packaged units which can be moved into the area, set up near the system being decontaminated, and after the decontamination is completed, the skid mounted packages are removed as part of the contract. Figure 1 shows a typical setup in block diagram required to perform a reactor system decontamination. 1 fig.

Weed, R.D. [R.D. Weed Consulting Engineers, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Baker, K.R.

1996-12-31

273

Active Waste Materials Corrosion and Decontamination Tests  

SciTech Connect

Stainless steel alloys, 304L and 316L, were corrosion tested in representative radioactive samples of three actual Hanford tank waste solutions (Tanks AW-101, C-104, AN-107). Both the 304L and 316L exhibited good corrosion performance when immersed in boiling waste solutions. The maximum general corrosion rate was 0.015 mm/y (0.60 mils per year). Generally, the 304L had a slightly higher rate than the 316L. No localized attack was observed after 122 days of testing in the liquid phase, liquid/vapor phase, or vapor phase. Radioactive plate-out decontamination tests indicated that a 24-hour exposure to 1 {und M} HNO{sub 3} could remove about 99% of the radioactive components in the metal film when exposed to the C-104 and AN-107 solutions. The decontamination results are less certain for the AW-101 solution, since the initial contamination readings exceeded the capacity of the meter used for this test.

MJ Danielson; MR Elmore; SG Pitman

2000-08-15

274

A remotely operated robot for decontamination tasks  

SciTech Connect

Engineers in the Robotics Development Group at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) have developed a robot which will be used to decontaminate a pipe gallery of a tank farm used for nuclear waste storage. Personnel access is required into this pipe gallery to inspect existing pipes and perform repairs to secondary containment walls around the tank farm. Presently, the pipe gallery is littered with debris of various sizes and its surface is contaminated with activity levels up to 2.5E6 DPM (disintegrations per minute) alpha and exposure levels as high as 20 Rad/hr. Cleaning up this pipe gallery win be the mission of an all-hydraulic robotic vehicle developed in-house at WSRC caged the ``Remote Decon`` robot. The Remote Decon is a tracked vehicle which utilizes skid steering and features a six-degree-of-freedom (DOF) manipulator arm, a five-DOF front end loader type bucket with a rotating brush for scrubbing and decontaminating surfaces, and a three-DOF pan/tilt mechanism with cameras and lights. The Remote Decon system is connected to a control console via a 200 foot tethered cable. The control console was designed with ergonomics and simplicity as the main design factors and features three joysticks, video monitors, LED panels, and audible alarms.

Dudar, A.M.; Vandewalle, R.C.

1994-02-01

275

Initial decontamination of the equipment decontamination room at the West Valley Demonstration Project. Topical report, September 1983May 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this report is to document the initial decontamination of the Equipment Decontamination Room (EDR). The effort spanned a two-year period and included packaging and removal of waste; grinding away contaminated concrete floors; pump-out and spraydown of an equipment soaking pit; washing and painting of walls, equipment, and floors; refurbishment of utilities and various pieces of equipment; and

Meigs

1985-01-01

276

Petrophysical characterization of first ever drilled core samples from an active CO2 storage site, the German Ketzin Pilot Site - Comparison with long term experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Petrophysical properties like porosity and permeability are key parameters for a safe long-term storage of CO2 but also for the injection operation itself. These parameters may change during and/or after the CO2 injection due to geochemical reactions in the reservoir system that are triggered by the injected CO2. Here we present petrophysical data of first ever drilled cores from a newly drilled well at the active CO2 storage site - the Ketzin pilot site in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. By comparison with pre-injection baseline data from core samples recovered prior to injection, the new samples provide the unique opportunity to evaluate the impact of CO2 on pore size related properties of reservoir and cap rocks at a real injection site under in-situ reservoir conditions. After injection of 61 000 tons CO2, an additional well was drilled and new rock cores were recovered. In total 100 core samples from the reservoir and the overlaying caprock were investigated by NMR relaxation. Permeability of 20 core samples was estimated by nitrogen and porosity by helium pycnometry. The determined data are comparable between pre-injection and post-injection core samples. The lower part of the reservoir sandstone is unaffected by the injected CO2. The upper part of the reservoir sandstone shows consistently slightly lower NMR porosity and permeability values in the post-injection samples when compared to the pre-injection data. This upper sandstone part is above the fluid level and CO2 present as a free gas phase and a possible residual gas saturation of the cores distorted the NMR results. The potash-containing drilling fluid can also influence these results: NMR investigation of twin samples from inner and outer parts of the cores show a reduced fraction of larger pores for the outer core samples together with lower porosities and T2 times. The drill mud penetration depth can be controlled by the added fluorescent tracer. Due to the heterogeneous character of the Stuttgart Formation it is difficult to estimate definite CO2 induced changes from petrophysical measurements. The observed changes are only minor. Several batch experiments on Ketzin samples drilled prior injection confirm the results from investigation of the in-situ rock cores. Core samples of the pre-injection wells were exposed to CO2 and brine in autoclaves over various time periods. Samples were characterized prior to and after the experiments by NMR and Mercury Injection Porosimetry (MIP). The results are consistent with the logging data and show only minor change. Unfortunately, also in these experiments observed mineralogical and petrophysical changes were within the natural heterogeneity of the Ketzin reservoir and precluded unequivocal conclusions. However, given the only minor differences between post-injection well and pre-injection well, it is reasonable to assume that the potential dissolution-precipitation processes appear to have no severe consequences on reservoir and cap rock integrity or on the injection behaviour. This is also in line with the continuously recorded injection operation parameter. These do not point to any changes in reservoir injectivity.|

Zemke, Kornelia; Liebscher, Axel

2014-05-01

277

Bio-Decontamination of Water and Surfaces by DC Discharges in Atmospheric Air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two types of DC-driven atmospheric air discharges, including a streamer corona and a transient spark with short high current pulses of limited energy, were employed for bio-decontamination of water and various surfaces (agar plates, plastic foils, human teeth) contaminated by bacteria or spores (Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus). Both discharges generate cold non-equilibrium plasma. The discharges combined with the electro-spraying of the treated water through the needle electrode lead to fast and efficient bio-decontamination. Experiments comparing direct and indirect plasma effects, oxidation stress measurements in the cell membranes, and chemical changes induced in the treated water enable assessment of the plasma agents being responsible for microbial inactivation. Radicals and reactive oxygen species seem to be dominant biocidal agents, although deeper understanding of the plasma-induced water chemistry and of the temporal evolution of the bio-inactivation processes is needed.

Machala, Zdenko; Tarabová, Barbora; Pelach, Michal; Šipoldová, Zuzana; Hensel, Karol; Janda, Mário; Šikurová, Libuša

278

FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Plasma agents in bio-decontamination by dc discharges in atmospheric air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bio-decontamination of water and surfaces contaminated by bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium) was investigated in two types of positive dc discharges in atmospheric pressure air, in needle-to-plane geometry: the streamer corona and its transition to a novel regime called transient spark with short high current pulses of limited energy. Both generate a cold non-equilibrium plasma. Electro-spraying of treated water through a needle electrode was applied for the first time and resulted in fast bio-decontamination. Experiments providing separation of various biocidal plasma agents, along with the emission spectra and coupled with oxidation stress measurements in the cell membranes helped to better understand the mechanisms of microbial inactivation. The indirect exposure of contaminated surfaces to neutral active species was almost as efficient as the direct exposure to the plasma, whereas applying only UV radiation from the plasma had no biocidal effects. Radicals and reactive oxygen species were identified as dominant biocidal agents.

Machala, Zdenko; Chládeková, Lenka; Pelach, Michal

2010-06-01

279

Putting up emotional (Facebook) walls? Attachment status and emerging adults' experiences of social networking sites.  

PubMed

Social networking sites (SNS) like Facebook can increase interpersonal connections but also intensify jealousy, envy, and surveillance behaviors. Attachment styles may help explain differences in experiencing SNS. This study investigated the role of attachment in influencing emerging adults' perceptions and feelings about SNS and their disclosures on SNS. Disorganized and anxious attachment predicted subjects' use of SNS to avoid more personal face-to-face communication, suggesting individuals with these tendencies use SNS to hold relationships at a psychological arm's distance. Anxious attachment also predicted feelings of intimacy when using SNS, perhaps reflecting online needs for comfort from others. A case narrative is presented to show how those with insecure attachment patterns may struggle to avoid interpersonal conflict when being continuously presented with ambiguous social information. PMID:23996299

Nitzburg, George C; Farber, Barry A

2013-11-01

280

Field-Scale Transplantation Experiment To Investigate Structures of Soil Bacterial Communities at Pioneering Sites?†  

PubMed Central

Studies on the effect of environmental conditions on plants and microorganisms are a central issue in ecology, and they require an adequate experimental setup. A strategy often applied in geobotanical studies is based on the reciprocal transplantation of plant species at different sites. We adopted a similar approach as a field-based tool to investigate the relationships of soil bacterial communities with the environment. Soil samples from two different (calcareous and siliceous) unvegetated glacier forefields were reciprocally transplanted and incubated for 15 months between 2009 and 2010. Controls containing local soils were included. The sites were characterized over time in terms of geographical (bedrock, exposition, sunlight, temperature, and precipitation) and physicochemical (texture, water content, soluble and nutrients) features. The incubating local (“home”) and transplanted (“away”) soils were monitored for changes in extractable nutrients and in the bacterial community structure, defined through terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of the 16S rRNA gene. Concentrations of soluble ions in most samples were more significantly affected by seasons than by the transplantation. For example, NO3? showed a seasonal pattern, increasing from 1 to 3 ?g NO3? (g soil dry weight)?1 after the melting of snow but decreasing to <1 ?g NO3? (g soil dry weight)?1 in autumn. Seasons, and in particular strong precipitation events occurring in the summer of 2010 (200 to 300 mm of rain monthly), were also related to changes of bacterial community structures. Our results show the suitability of this approach to compare responses of bacterial communities to different environmental conditions directly in the field. PMID:21965395

Lazzaro, Anna; Gauer, Andreas; Zeyer, Josef

2011-01-01

281

Field-scale transplantation experiment to investigate structures of soil bacterial communities at pioneering sites.  

PubMed

Studies on the effect of environmental conditions on plants and microorganisms are a central issue in ecology, and they require an adequate experimental setup. A strategy often applied in geobotanical studies is based on the reciprocal transplantation of plant species at different sites. We adopted a similar approach as a field-based tool to investigate the relationships of soil bacterial communities with the environment. Soil samples from two different (calcareous and siliceous) unvegetated glacier forefields were reciprocally transplanted and incubated for 15 months between 2009 and 2010. Controls containing local soils were included. The sites were characterized over time in terms of geographical (bedrock, exposition, sunlight, temperature, and precipitation) and physicochemical (texture, water content, soluble and nutrients) features. The incubating local ("home") and transplanted ("away") soils were monitored for changes in extractable nutrients and in the bacterial community structure, defined through terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of the 16S rRNA gene. Concentrations of soluble ions in most samples were more significantly affected by seasons than by the transplantation. For example, NO(3)(-) showed a seasonal pattern, increasing from 1 to 3 ?g NO(3)(-) (g soil dry weight)(-1) after the melting of snow but decreasing to <1 ?g NO(3)(-) (g soil dry weight)(-1) in autumn. Seasons, and in particular strong precipitation events occurring in the summer of 2010 (200 to 300 mm of rain monthly), were also related to changes of bacterial community structures. Our results show the suitability of this approach to compare responses of bacterial communities to different environmental conditions directly in the field. PMID:21965395

Lazzaro, Anna; Gauer, Andreas; Zeyer, Josef

2011-12-01

282

Data Release Report for Source Physics Experiment 1 (SPE-1), Nevada National Security Site  

SciTech Connect

The first Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-1) was conducted in May 2011. The explosive source was a ~100-kilogram TNT-equivalent chemical set at a depth of 60 meters. It was recorded by an extensive set of instrumentation that includes sensors both at near-field (less than 100 meters) and far-field (more than 100 meters) distances. The near-field instruments consisted of three-component accelerometers deployed in boreholes around the shot and a set of singlecomponent vertical accelerometers on the surface. The far-field network comprised a variety of seismic and acoustic sensors, including short-period geophones, broadband seismometers, three-component accelerometers, and rotational seismometers at distances of 100 meters to 25 kilometers. This report coincides with the release of these data for analysts and organizations that are not participants in this program. This report describes the first Source Physics Experiment and the various types of near-field and far-field data that are available.

Townsend, Margaret [NSTec] [NSTec; Mercadente, Jennifer [NSTec] [NSTec

2014-04-28

283

Successful Introduction of Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Donor Nephrectomy After Experience with Laparoscopic Single-Site Plus-One Trocar Donor Nephrectomy.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: To assess the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of the laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) donor nephrectomy (LESSDN) procedure after experience with the LESS-plus-one-trocar donor nephrectomy (LEPODN) procedure. Patients and Methods: From 2009 to 2014, 126 left laparoscopic donor nephrectomies (LDNs) were performed, including 59 Standard (Std)-LDN, 30 LEPODN, and 37 LESSDN. In the LEPODN procedure, a 5-mm trocar was added as a right-hand working trocar to the LESSDN procedure. A GelPOINT(®) platform was applied on a pararectal single incision in both LEPODN and LESSDN procedures. After performing the LEPODN procedure several times, each surgeon performed the LESSDN procedure. Results: Std-LDN, LEPODN, and LESSDN procedures were performed by 10, 10, and 7 surgeons, respectively. The mean operative time, estimated blood loss, warm ischemia time, time to ambulation, and length of postoperative hospital stay were the shortest for the LESSDN procedure (P<0.012, P=0.007, P<0.001, P=0.027, and P=0.001, respectively). No significant difference in the complication rate, delayed graft function rate, and mean 7-day post-transplant serum creatinine levels was observed among the three procedures. Individual results of the operative time and estimated blood loss for the LESSDN procedure were not significantly inferior to those of Std-LDN and LEPODN procedures for each surgeon. Conclusions: The LESSDN procedure can be introduced safely and effectively without compromising the operative time, complication rate, and graft function after experience with the LEPODN procedure among multiple surgeons. The LEPODN procedure may be an effective bridge from standard multiport LDN to LESSDN. PMID:25286117

Inoue, Takamitsu; Tsuchiya, Norihiko; Narita, Shintaro; Tsuruta, Hiroshi; Akihama, Susumu; Saito, Mitsuru; Satoh, Shigeru; Habuchi, Tomonori

2014-11-14

284

A practical comparison of methods for detecting transcription factor binding sites in ChIP-seq experiments  

PubMed Central

Background Chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq) is increasingly being applied to study transcriptional regulation on a genome-wide scale. While numerous algorithms have recently been proposed for analysing the large ChIP-seq datasets, their relative merits and potential limitations remain unclear in practical applications. Results The present study compares the state-of-the-art algorithms for detecting transcription factor binding sites in four diverse ChIP-seq datasets under a variety of practical research settings. First, we demonstrate how the biological conclusions may change dramatically when the different algorithms are applied. The reproducibility across biological replicates is then investigated as an internal validation of the detections. Finally, the predicted binding sites with each method are compared to high-scoring binding motifs as well as binding regions confirmed in independent qPCR experiments. Conclusions In general, our results indicate that the optimal choice of the computational approach depends heavily on the dataset under analysis. In addition to revealing valuable information to the users of this technology about the characteristics of the binding site detection approaches, the systematic evaluation framework provides also a useful reference to the developers of improved algorithms for ChIP-seq data. PMID:20017957

2009-01-01

285

Designing an in-flight airborne calibration site using experience from vicarious radiometric satellite calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory calibration of electro-optical sensors is preferably complemented by regular in-flight verification. This checks whether the lab calibration parameters remain valid or recalibration is necessary. In-flight verification can be achieved by vicarious calibration using in-flight measurements of calibration targets. We intend to identify and design a set of suitable radiometric calibration targets. For this, we borrow from expertise gained with the PROBA-V satellite calibration system, which uses multiple vicarious methods relying on diverse natural on-ground targets. Besides reflectance based calibration using ground measurements, the PROBA-V calibration methods are unproven for use in airborne calibration. The selected targets should be suitable for the calibration of both multispectral and hyperspectral imagers. We start from general requirements for radiometric targets and investigate their applicability to airborne calibration. From this we identify two possible sets of natural calibration sites in Belgium. One set, located in the Campine region, contains small water bodies and sandy lakesides. Another set is located in the Westhoek region near the Belgian coast. It offers better suitable water bodies, as well as sandy areas, grass fields and dark targets. Airborne calibration lends itself to the use of smaller artifical targets. We propose to complement the natural targets with a portable target consisting of agricultural nets with different densities. The definition of sets of calibration targets, both natural and artificial can facilitate the investigation of the usability of vicarious targets and method for inflight radiometric verification.

Livens, Stefan; Debruyn, Walter; Sterckx, Sindy; Reusen, Ils

2011-11-01

286

Site Characterization Work Plan for the Gnome-Coach Site, New Mexico (Rev. 1, January 2002)  

SciTech Connect

Project Gnome was the first nuclear experiment conducted under the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Plowshare Program. The Plowshare Program focused on developing nuclear devices exclusively for peaceful purposes. The intent of the Gnome experiment was to evaluate the effects of a nuclear detonation in a salt medium. Historically, Project Gnome consisted of a single detonation of a nuclear device on December 10, 1961 with the Salado Formation. Since the Gnome detonation, the AEC/DOE has conducted surface restoration, site reconnaissance, and decontamination and decommissioning activities at the site. In addition, annual groundwater sampling is performed under a long-term hydrological monitoring program begun in 1972. Coach, an experiment to be located near the Gnome project, was initially scheduled for 1963. Although construction and rehabilitation were completed for Coach, the experiment was canceled and never executed. Known collectively as Project Gnome-Coach, the site is located approximately 25 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, in Eddy County, and is comprised of nearly 680 acres, of which approximately 60 acres are disturbed from the combined AEC/DOE operations. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the project. The subsurface at the Gnome-Coach site has two contaminant sources that are fundamentally different in terms of both their stratigraphic location and release mechanism. The goal of this characterization is to collect data of sufficient quantity and quality to establish current site conditions and to use the data to identify and evaluate if further action is required to protect human health and the environment and achieve permanent closure of the site. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent corrective action decision document.

U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV)

2002-01-14

287

First Two Years of Observations NASA ACTS Propagation Experiment Central Oklahoma Site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuous observations from December 1, 1993 through November 30, 1995 were made at the ACTS Propagation Terminal on the roof of the Sarkeys Energy Center at the University of Oklahoma in Norman, Oklahoma. Beacon and radiometer observations were combined to calibrate the beacon system for the estimation of total attenuation (attenuation relative to free space) and attenuation relative to clear sky (gaseous absorption component removed). Empirical cumulative distributions (edf's) were compiled for each month of observation and for each year. The annual edf's are displayed in the figures, the monthly and annual edf's are listed in the tables. The tables are organized by blocks and pages within a block. The blocks correspond to the headings in the edf files generated by the ACTS Preprocessing (actspp) software and contained in the fourth disk in the set of ACTS Propagation Experiment CD-ROMs generated by the University of Texas.

Crane, Robert K.

1996-01-01

288

What have we Learned after a Decade of Experiments and Monitoring at the NEES@UCSB Permanently Instrumented Field Sites?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wildlife Liquefaction Array (WLA) and Garner Valley Downhole Array (GVDA) located in southern California are facilities that for the last decade have been supported under the National Science Foundations George E. Brown, Jr., Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) program. These densely instrumented geotechnical and structural engineering field sites continuously record both acceleration and pore pressure, with accelerometers located on the surface and at various depths below the surface, and pore pressure transducers installed at depth within the liquefiable layers. Permanently instrumented structures for examining soil-foundation-structure interaction and a permanent cross-hole array at the sites have transformed these sites into multi-disciplinary earthquake engineering research facilities. Over the last decade, local and regional seismic activity, including multiple extremely active earthquake swarms, have produced a valuable new data set providing a unique opportunity to observe site response and the evolution of pore pressure generation with time throughout the liquefiable layer at an unprecedented level of detail. In addition to the earthquakes provided by nature, active testing experiments using the mobile shakers from NEES@UTexas and NEES@UCLA have produced an equally valuable data set on both site characterization studies and soil-foundation-structure interaction. The new observations of pore pressure and acceleration with depth are providing in situ empirical evidence documenting the range of ground motion levels at which the onset of nonlinear behavior and excess pore pressure begins, augmenting previous case history data, and laboratory data from cyclic tri-axial and centrifuge testing. The largest static pore pressure increases observed in the 'NEES' decade of monitoring were generated by four events at the WLA site, ranging in magnitude from 4.6 to 5.4 and all at distances less than 10km from the site. The largest peak horizontal acceleration of ~325 gals was generated by a M4.9 event. This event generated ~20 kPa of excess pore pressure on multiple transducers, with a pore pressure ratio Ru of ~60% near the top of the liquefiable layer. Using displacements calculated from the accelerometers above and below the liquefiable layer, peak strain levels reached as high as 1.5 x 10-3. During these events, which did not completely liquefy the site, the excess pore pressure can be seen migrating from the top of the layer towards the bottom in the continuous time history data, as well as dissipation that can take hours, highlighting the importance of continuous monitoring instead of triggered. Nonlinear soil behavior associated with the larger events in this swarm is analyzed in terms of changes in travel times (decrease in shear wave velocity) between accelerometers in the array for the largest ground motions, as well as a reduction in high frequency amplification for these events. The location of accelerometers at the surface and at five additional depths provides the opportunity to examine the contribution of the various layers to the overall site response. Analysis of data during the largest excitation at the WLA site show that the nonlinear soil behavior occurs both near the surface and even at depths below 30 meters.

Steidl, J. H.; Civilini, F.; Seale, S. H.; Hegarty, P.

2013-12-01

289

Analysis of the mine-by experiment, climax granite, Nevada test site  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is conducting a generic test of retrievable geologic storage of nuclear spent fuel assemlbies, in an underground chamber, at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This generic test is located 420 m below the surface, in the Climax granitic stock. Eleven canisters of spent fuel approximately 2.5 years out of reactor core (about 1.6 kW/canister thermal output) are now emplaced in a storage drift, along with 6 electrical heaters which simulate fuel canisters. Two adjacent drifts contain other electrical heaters, which will be operated to simulate the thermal field of a large repository. An analysis of the mine-by at SFT-C was performed by means of refined finite element models using the JPLAXD code (Jointed, PLane and AXisymmetric, Dilatant). The input for the new models was derived from our field program, which is reported separately. Stress results obtained by modeling methods are compared. All models show that, during mining of the center drift, all caverns close vertically, and the center drift closes horizontally. The walls of the two heater drifts move toward the center drift, with a slight opening or a slight closing of the heater drifts, depending upon the geology. All calculations show both pillars expanding laterally during mine-by. The field-reported lateral contraction of the pillars leads to the very suspicious conclusion that the pillars end up in a state of tension. The field-reported values from horizontal MPEs and horizontal tapes appear to be inconsistent with each other. (DMC)

Heuze, F.E.; Butkovich, T.R.; Peterson, J.C.

1981-06-01

290

Probing Binding Sites and Mechanisms of Action of an IKs Activator by Computations and Experiments.  

PubMed

The slow delayed rectifier (IKs) channel is composed of the KCNQ1 channel and KCNE1 auxiliary subunit, and functions to repolarize action potentials in the human heart. IKs activators may provide therapeutic efficacy for treating long QT syndromes. Here, we show that a new KCNQ1 activator, ML277, can enhance IKs amplitude in adult guinea pig and canine ventricular myocytes. We probe its binding site and mechanism of action by computational analysis based on our recently reported KCNQ1 and KCNQ1/KCNE1 3D models, followed by experimental validation. Results from a pocket analysis and docking exercise suggest that ML277 binds to a side pocket in KCNQ1 and the KCNE1-free side pocket of KCNQ1/KCNE1. Molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations based on the most favorable channel/ML277 docking configurations reveal a well-defined ML277 binding space surrounded by the S2-S3 loop and S4-S5 helix on the intracellular side, and by S4-S6 transmembrane helices on the lateral sides. A detailed analysis of MD trajectories suggests two mechanisms of ML277 action. First, ML277 restricts the conformational dynamics of the KCNQ1 pore, optimizing K(+) ion coordination in the selectivity filter and increasing current amplitudes. Second, ML277 binding induces global motions in the channel, including regions critical for KCNQ1 gating transitions. We conclude that ML277 activates IKs by binding to an intersubunit space and allosterically influencing pore conductance and gating transitions. KCNE1 association protects KCNQ1 from an arrhythmogenic (constitutive current-inducing) effect of ML277, but does not preclude its current-enhancing effect. PMID:25564853

Xu, Yu; Wang, Yuhong; Zhang, Mei; Jiang, Min; Rosenhouse-Dantsker, Avia; Wassenaar, Tsjerk; Tseng, Gea-Ny

2015-01-01

291

L-band radiometer experiment in the SMOS test site Upper Danube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frame of calibration and validation activities for ESA's soil moisture and ocean salinity mission, SMOS, the University of Munich operates a ground based L-band radiometer (ELBARA II) on an experimental farm in Southern Germany since September 2009. It is being used to validate the radiative transfer model, L-MEB, used in the SMOS Level 2 processor. The radiometer measures the natural emission of two fields in the microwave domain with a wavelength of 1.4 GHz. Its working principle is similar to that of SMOS, for which reason it can be used for validation of the radiative transfer model on the field scale. To support the validation, extensive environmental measurements are being made at the test site. The radiometer is situated on an experimental farm near Puch, about 30 km west of Munich in the Upper Danube watershed in southern Germany in a temperate agricultural area. It is mounted on a 4 m high scaffolding that allows to turn the radiometer to look at 2 different fields with grass and winter rape as land use respectively. In addition to the L-band measurements, thermal infrared (IR) measurements are performed. For this purpose, one thermal IR radiometer is attached to the ELBARA antenna to look into the same direction and two IR radiometers are constantly pointed at the two fields. Next to the radiometer is a meteorological station providing soil and air temperature profiles, precipitation, global radiation, wind speed and relative humidity measurements with an hourly resolution. In addition to that, soil moisture is measured with TDR probes in 2 profiles under each of the two fields with several probes installed at depths between 5 and 50cm. Vegetation and snow parameters are also recorded on a regularly basis. Soil roughness is measured with a photogrammetric approach. An overview about the infrastructure and existing datasets is presented.

Schlenz, Florian; Gebhardt, Timo; Loew, Alexander; Marzahn, Philip; Mauser, Wolfram

2010-05-01

292

The Relationships of On-Site Film-Tourism Experiences, Satisfaction, and Behavioral Intentions: The Case of Asian Audience's Responses to a Korean Historical TV Drama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the growing interest in film-tourism research, little research has explored the extent to which on-site film-tourism experiences influence tourist satisfaction and post-visit behavioral intentions. Within the context of Asian audience's responses to a Korean historical TV drama, Daejanggeum, this article adopted a structured quantitative survey instrument. Exploratory factor analysis identified three salient dimensions to represent the on-site film-tourism experiences:

Sangkyun Kim

2012-01-01

293

System Chemical Decontamination Technology by the IF7 Gas  

SciTech Connect

When we decommission the equipments contaminated by the uranium, both the dismantling process of the equipments and the disposal process of the radioactive waste will be carried out. However, costs of these processes will be very expensive because the dismantling facilities are required in the dismantling process and many radioactive wastes are generated. Here, if it is possible to decontaminate the equipments below the clearance level, the amount of radioactive wastes is reduced very much. As a result, costs of the disposal will be able to reduce extremely. Moreover, if it is possible to decontaminate the equipments before dismantling, costs of the dismantling will be reduced, too. In other words, the total costs of the dismantling process and the disposal process will be minimized by decontaminating below the clearance level without dismantling. So, we have developed new decontamination technology to decontaminate below the clearance level without dismantling. In this paper, as an example, we tried to decontaminate the uranium enrichment plant in order to reveal the practicality of our technology. In conclusion: we proposed new decontamination technology by the IF7 gas. And, as an example, we tried to decontaminate the uranium enrichment plant. As a result, we could reveal that our technology has the high performance which can decontaminate below the assumed clearance level: 1.0 Bq/g in the limited time. Finally, we simulated the amount of the radioactive waste for decommissioning the uranium enrichment plant. As a result, though a lot of radioactive wastes will usually be generated, we obtained the prospect that it is possible to reduced 85% of the radioactive waste by using our technology.

Ema, Akira; Sugitsue, Noritake; Zaitsu, Tomohisa [Ningyo-Toge Environmental Engineering Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1550, Kamisaibara, Kagamino, Okayama, 708-0698 (Japan)

2008-01-15

294

A serendipitous, long-term infiltration experiment: Water and tritium circulation beneath the CAMBRIC trench at the Nevada Test Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site introduced numerous radionuclides that may be used subsequently to characterize subsurface hydrologic transport processes in arid climates. In 1965, a unique, 16-year pumping experiment designed to examine radionuclide migration away from the CAMBRIC nuclear test, conducted in the saturated zone beneath Frenchman Flat, Nevada, USA, gave rise to an unintended second experiment involving radionuclide infiltration through the vadose zone, as induced by seepage of pumping effluents beneath an unlined discharge trench. The combined experiments have been reanalyzed using a detailed, three-dimensional numerical model of transient, variably saturated flow and mass transport in a heterogeneous subsurface, tailored specifically for large-scale and efficient calculations. Simulations have been used to estimate tritium travel and residence times in various parts of the system for comparison with observations in wells. Model predictions of mass transport were able to clearly demonstrate radionuclide recycling behavior between the trench and pumping well previously suggested by isotopic age dating information; match travel time estimates for radionuclides moving between the trench, the water table, and monitoring and pumping wells; and provide more realistic ways in which to interpret the pumping well elution curves. Collectively, the results illustrate the utility of integrating detailed numerical modeling with diverse observational data in developing more accurate interpretations of contaminant migration processes.

Maxwell, Reed M.; Tompson, Andrew F. B.; Kollet, Stefan

2009-08-01

295

Radioactive hot cell access hole decontamination machine  

DOEpatents

Radioactive hot cell access hole decontamination machine. A mobile housing has an opening large enough to encircle the access hole and has a shielding door, with a door opening and closing mechanism, for uncovering and covering the opening. The housing contains a shaft which has an apparatus for rotating the shaft and a device for independently translating the shaft from the housing through the opening and access hole into the hot cell chamber. A properly sized cylindrical pig containing wire brushes and cloth or other disks, with an arrangement for releasably attaching it to the end of the shaft, circumferentially cleans the access hole wall of radioactive contamination and thereafter detaches from the shaft to fall into the hot cell chamber.

Simpson, William E. (Richland, WA)

1982-01-01

296

Uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund  

SciTech Connect

One of the most challenging issues facing the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management is the cleanup of the three gaseous diffusion plants. In October 1992, Congress passed the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and established the Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund to accomplish this task. This mission is being undertaken in an environmentally and financially responsible way by: devising cost-effective technical solutions; producing realistic life-cycle cost estimates, based on practical assumptions and thorough analysis; generating coherent long-term plans which are based on risk assessments, land use, and input from stakeholders; and, showing near-term progress in the cleanup of the gaseous diffusion facilities at Oak Ridge.

NONE

1994-12-31

297

Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2008  

SciTech Connect

The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Articles and reports in this issue include: D and D technical paper summaries; The role of nuclear power in turbulent times, by Tom Chrisopher, AREVA, NP, Inc.; Enthusiastic about new technologies, by Jack Fuller, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; It's important to be good citizens, by Steve Rus, Black and Veatch Corporation; Creating Jobs in the U.S., by Guy E. Chardon, ALSTOM Power; and, and, An enviroment and a community champion, by Tyler Lamberts, Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. The Industry Innovations article is titled Best of the best TIP achievement 2008, by Edward Conaway, STP Nuclear Operating Company.

Agnihotri, Newal (ed.)

2008-07-15

298

Comparison and Evaluation of Various Tritium Decontamination Techniques and Processes  

SciTech Connect

In support of fusion energy development, various techniques and processes have been developed over the past two decades for the removal and decontamination of tritium from a variety of items, surfaces, and components. Tritium decontamination, by chemical, physical, mechanical, or a combination of these methods, is driven by two underlying motivational forces. The first of these motivational forces is safety. Safety is paramount to the established culture associated with fusion energy. The second of these motivational forces is cost. In all aspects, less tritium contamination equals lower operational and disposal costs. This paper will discuss and evaluate the various processes employed for tritium removal and decontamination.

C.A. Gentile; S.W. Langish; C.H. Skinner; L.P. Ciebiera

2004-09-10

299

ONLINE MEASUREMENT OF THE PROGRESS OF DECONTAMINATION  

SciTech Connect

In order to determine if the sensor technology and the decontamination technology will face problems once integrated, a feasibility study (see Appendix B) was produced in which the effect of motion on the efficiency of a radiation sensor was measured. It was found that the effect is not negligible; however, it is not catastrophic, and if the sensors are properly calibrated, this obstacle can be overcome. During the first year of this project, many important tasks have been accomplished. The search for radiation sensors provided knowledge on the technologies commercially available. This, in turn, allowed for a proper assessment of the properties, limitations, different methods of measurement, and requirements of a large number of sensors. The best possible characterization and data collection instrument and decontamination technologies were chosen using the requirement information in Appendix A. There are technical problems with installing sensors within the blasting head, such as steel shot and dust interference. Therefore, the sensor array is placed so that it will measure the radioactivity after the blasting. Sensors are rather sensitive, and therefore it is not feasible to place the sensor windows in such an abrasive environment. Other factors, such as the need for radiation hardening in extreme cases, and the possible interference of gamma rays with the radio frequency modem, have been considered. These factors are expected to be negligible and can be revisited at the time of prototype production. Factors that need to be addressed are the vibrations of the blasting unit and how to isolate the sensor array from these. In addition, an electromagnetic survey must be performed to ensure there will be no interference with the electronic component that will be integrated. The integration design is shown in section 4.0.

M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

1999-01-01

300

Surface Decontamination Using Laser Ablation Process - 12032  

SciTech Connect

A new decontamination method has been investigated and used during two demonstration stages by the Clean-Up Business Unit of AREVA. This new method is based on the use of a Laser beam to remove the contaminants present on a base metal surface. In this paper will be presented the type of Laser used during those tests but also information regarding the efficiency obtained on non-contaminated (simulated contamination) and contaminated samples (from the CEA and La Hague facilities). Regarding the contaminated samples, in the first case, the contamination was a quite thick oxide layer. In the second case, most of the contamination was trapped in dust and thin grease layer. Some information such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray scattering spectroscopy and decontamination factors (DF) will be provided in this paper. Laser technology appears to be an interesting one for the future of the D and D applications. As shown in this paper, the results in terms of efficiency are really promising and in many cases, higher than those obtained with conventional techniques. One of the most important advantages is that all those results have been obtained with no generation of secondary wastes such as abrasives, chemicals, or disks... Moreover, as mentioned in introduction, the Laser ablation process can be defined as a 'dry' process. This technology does not produce any liquid waste (as it can be the case with chemical process or HP water process...). Finally, the addition of a vacuum system allows to trap the contamination onto filters and thus avoiding any dissemination in the room where the process takes place. The next step is going to be a commercial use in 2012 in one of the La Hague buildings. (authors)

Moggia, Fabrice; Lecardonnel, Xavier; Damerval, Frederique [AREVA, Back End Business Group, Clean Up Business Unit (France)

2012-07-01

301

Industrial Technology of Decontamination of Liquid Radioactive Waste in SUE MosSIA 'Radon' - 12371  

SciTech Connect

SUE MosSIA 'RADON' - this enterprise was created more than 50 years ago, which deals with the recycling of radioactive waste and conditioning of spent sources of radiation in stationary and mobile systems in the own factory and operating organizations. Here is represented the experience SUE MosSIA 'Radon' in the field of the management with liquid radioactive waste. It's shown, that the activity of SUE MosSIA 'RADON' is developing in three directions - improvement of technical facilities for treatment of radioactive waters into SUE MosSIA 'RADON' development of mobile equipment for the decontamination of radioactive waters in other organizations, development of new technologies for decontamination of liquid radioactive wastes as part of various domestic Russian and international projects including those related to the operation of nuclear power and nuclear submarines. SUE MosSIA 'RADON' has processed more than 270 thousand m{sup 3} of radioactive water, at that more than 7000 m{sup 3} in other organizations for more than 50 years. It is shown that a number of directions, particularly, the development of mobile modular units for decontamination of liquid radioactive waste, SUE MosSIA 'RADON' is a leader in the world. (authors)

Adamovich, Dmitry V.; Neveykin, Petr P.; Karlin, Yuri V.; Savkin, Alexander E. [SUE MosSIA 'Radon', 7th Rostovsky lane 2/14, Moscow 119121 (Russian Federation)

2012-07-01

302

Concrete decontamination by electro-hydraulic scabbling (EHS). Final report  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of concrete structures by radionuclides, hazardous metals and organic substances (including PCB`s) occurs at many DOE sites. The contamination of concrete structures (walls, floors, ceilings, etc.) varies in type, concentration, and especially depth of penetration into the concrete. In many instances, only the surface layer of concrete is contaminated, up to a depth of one inch, according to estimates provided in the R and D ID document. Then, removal of the concrete surface layer (scabbling) is considered to be the most effective decontamination method. Textron Systems Corp. (TSC) has developed a scabbling concept based on electro-mechanical phenomena accompanying strong electric pulses generated by applying high voltage at the concrete/water interface. Depending on the conditions, the electric discharge may occur either through a waste layer or through the concrete body itself. This report describes the development, testing, and results of this electro-mechanical process. Phase 1 demonstrated the feasibility of the process for the controlled removal of a thin layer of contaminated concrete. Phase 2 designed, fabricated, and tested an integrated subscale unit. This was tested at Fernald. In Phase 3, the scabbling unit was reconfigured to increase its power and processing rate. Technology transfer to an engineering contracting company is continuing.

NONE

1997-10-01

303

Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination  

SciTech Connect

DOE sites contain a broad spectrum of asbestos materials (cloth, pipe lagging, sprayed insulation and other substances) which are contaminated with a combination of hazardous and radioactive wastes due to its use during the development of the US nuclear weapons complex. These wastes consist of cutting oils, lubricants, solvents, PCBs, heavy metals and radioactive contaminants. The radioactive contaminants are the activation, decay, and fission products of DOE operations. To allow disposal, the asbestos must be converted chemically, followed by removing and separating the hazardous and radioactive materials to prevent the formation of mixed wastes and to allow for both sanitary disposal and effective decontamination. Currently, no technology exists that can meet these sanitary and other objectives. An attempt was made to apply techniques that have already proved successful in the mining, oil, and metals processing industries to the development of a multi-stage process to remove and separate hazardous chemical radioactive materials from asbestos. This process uses three methods: ABCOV chemicals which converts the asbestos to a sanitary waste; dielectric heating to volatilize the organic materials; and electrochemical processing for the removal of heavy metals, RCRA wastes and radionuclides. This process will result in the destruction of over 99% of the asbestos; limit radioactive metal contamination to 0.2 Bq alpha per gram and 1 Bq beta and gamma per gram; reduce hazardous organics to levels compatible with current EPA policy for RCRA delisting; and achieve TCLP limits for all solidified waste.

Kasevich, R.S.; Nocito, T.; Vaux, W.G.; Snyder, T.

1994-12-31

304

Destruction of Spores on Building Decontamination Residue in a Commercial Autoclave?  

PubMed Central

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted an experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of a commercial autoclave for treating simulated building decontamination residue (BDR). The BDR was intended to simulate porous materials removed from a building deliberately contaminated with biological agents such as Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) in a terrorist attack. The purpose of the tests was to assess whether the standard operating procedure for a commercial autoclave provided sufficiently robust conditions to adequately destroy bacterial spores bound to the BDR. In this study we investigated the effects of several variables related to autoclaving BDR, including time, temperature, pressure, item type, moisture content, packing density, packing orientation, autoclave bag integrity, and autoclave process sequence. The test team created simulated BDR from wallboard, ceiling tiles, carpet, and upholstered furniture, and embedded in the BDR were Geobacillus stearothermophilus biological indicator (BI) strips containing 106 spores and thermocouples to obtain time and temperature profile data associated with each BI strip. The results indicated that a single standard autoclave cycle did not effectively decontaminate the BDR. Autoclave cycles consisting of 120 min at 31.5 lb/in2 and 275°F and 75 min at 45 lb/in2 and 292°F effectively decontaminated the BDR material. Two sequential standard autoclave cycles consisting of 40 min at 31.5 lb/in2 and 275°F proved to be particularly effective, probably because the second cycle's evacuation step pulled the condensed water out of the pores of the materials, allowing better steam penetration. The results also indicated that the packing density and material type of the BDR in the autoclave could have a significant impact on the effectiveness of the decontamination process. PMID:17012597

Lemieux, P.; Sieber, R.; Osborne, A.; Woodard, A.

2006-01-01

305

Destruction of spores on building decontamination residue in a commercial autoclave.  

PubMed

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted an experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of a commercial autoclave for treating simulated building decontamination residue (BDR). The BDR was intended to simulate porous materials removed from a building deliberately contaminated with biological agents such as Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) in a terrorist attack. The purpose of the tests was to assess whether the standard operating procedure for a commercial autoclave provided sufficiently robust conditions to adequately destroy bacterial spores bound to the BDR. In this study we investigated the effects of several variables related to autoclaving BDR, including time, temperature, pressure, item type, moisture content, packing density, packing orientation, autoclave bag integrity, and autoclave process sequence. The test team created simulated BDR from wallboard, ceiling tiles, carpet, and upholstered furniture, and embedded in the BDR were Geobacillus stearothermophilus biological indicator (BI) strips containing 10(6) spores and thermocouples to obtain time and temperature profile data associated with each BI strip. The results indicated that a single standard autoclave cycle did not effectively decontaminate the BDR. Autoclave cycles consisting of 120 min at 31.5 lb/in2 and 275 degrees F and 75 min at 45 lb/in2 and 292 degrees F effectively decontaminated the BDR material. Two sequential standard autoclave cycles consisting of 40 min at 31.5 lb/in2 and 275 degrees F proved to be particularly effective, probably because the second cycle's evacuation step pulled the condensed water out of the pores of the materials, allowing better steam penetration. The results also indicated that the packing density and material type of the BDR in the autoclave could have a significant impact on the effectiveness of the decontamination process. PMID:17012597

Lemieux, P; Sieber, R; Osborne, A; Woodard, A

2006-12-01

306

Middle-Eastern plant communities tolerate 9 years of drought in a multi-site climate manipulation experiment.  

PubMed

For evaluating climate change impacts on biodiversity, extensive experiments are urgently needed to complement popular non-mechanistic models which map future ecosystem properties onto their current climatic niche. Here, we experimentally test the main prediction of these models by means of a novel multi-site approach. We implement rainfall manipulations--irrigation and drought--to dryland plant communities situated along a steep climatic gradient in a global biodiversity hotspot containing many wild progenitors of crops. Despite the large extent of our study, spanning nine plant generations and many species, very few differences between treatments were observed in the vegetation response variables: biomass, species composition, species richness and density. The lack of a clear drought effect challenges studies classifying dryland ecosystems as most vulnerable to global change. We attribute this resistance to the tremendous temporal and spatial heterogeneity under which the plants have evolved, concluding that this should be accounted for when predicting future biodiversity change. PMID:25283495

Tielbörger, Katja; Bilton, Mark C; Metz, Johannes; Kigel, Jaime; Holzapfel, Claus; Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin; Konsens, Irit; Parag, Hadas A; Sternberg, Marcelo

2014-01-01

307

Middle-Eastern plant communities tolerate 9 years of drought in a multi-site climate manipulation experiment  

PubMed Central

For evaluating climate change impacts on biodiversity, extensive experiments are urgently needed to complement popular non-mechanistic models which map future ecosystem properties onto their current climatic niche. Here, we experimentally test the main prediction of these models by means of a novel multi-site approach. We implement rainfall manipulations—irrigation and drought—to dryland plant communities situated along a steep climatic gradient in a global biodiversity hotspot containing many wild progenitors of crops. Despite the large extent of our study, spanning nine plant generations and many species, very few differences between treatments were observed in the vegetation response variables: biomass, species composition, species richness and density. The lack of a clear drought effect challenges studies classifying dryland ecosystems as most vulnerable to global change. We attribute this resistance to the tremendous temporal and spatial heterogeneity under which the plants have evolved, concluding that this should be accounted for when predicting future biodiversity change. PMID:25283495

Tielbörger, Katja; Bilton, Mark C.; Metz, Johannes; Kigel, Jaime; Holzapfel, Claus; Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin; Konsens, Irit; Parag, Hadas A.; Sternberg, Marcelo

2014-01-01

308

The DOS 1 neutron dosimetry experiment at the HB-4-A key 7 surveillance site on the HFIR pressure vessel  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive neutron dosimetry experiment was made at one of the prime surveillance sites at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) pressure vessel to aid radiation embrittlement studies of the vessel and to benchmark neutron transport calculations. The thermal neutron flux at the key 7, position 5 site was found, from measurements of radioactivation of four cobalt wires and four silver wires, to be 2.4 {times} 10{sup 12} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}s{sup {minus}1}. The thermal flux derived from two helium accumulation monitors was 2.3 {times} 10{sup 12} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}{sup {minus}1}. The thermal flux estimated by neutron transport calculations was 3.7 {times} 10{sup 12} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}. The fast flux, >1 MeV, determined from two nickel activation wires, was 1.5 {times} 10{sup 12} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}s{sup {minus}1}, in keeping with values obtained earlier from stainless steel surveillance monitors and with a computed value of 1.2 {times} 10{sup 13} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}{sup {minus}1}. The fast fluxes given by two reaction-product-type monitors, neptunium-237 and beryllium, were 2.6 {times} 10{sup 13} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}s {sup {minus}1} and 2.2 {times} 10{sup 13} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Follow-up experiments indicate that these latter high values of fast flux are reproducible but are false; they are due to the creation of greater levels of reaction products by photonuclear events induced by an exceptionally high ratio of gamma flux to fast neutron flux at the vessel.

Farrell, K.; Kam, F.B.; Baldwin, C.A. [and others

1994-01-01

309

Iron budgets for three distinct biogeochemical sites around the Kerguelen archipelago (Southern Ocean) during the natural fertilisation experiment KEOPS-2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron availability in the Southern Ocean controls phytoplankton growth, community composition and the uptake of atmospheric CO2 by the biological pump. The KEOPS-2 experiment took place around the Kerguelen plateau in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean, a region naturally fertilised with iron at the scale of hundreds to thousands of square kilometres, producing a mosaic of spring blooms which showed distinct biological and biogeochemical responses to fertilisation. This paper presents biogeochemical iron budgets (incorporating vertical and lateral supply, internal cycling, and sinks) for three contrasting sites: an upstream high-nutrient low-chlorophyll reference, over the plateau, and in the offshore plume east of Kerguelen Island. These budgets show that distinct regional environments driven by complex circulation and transport pathways are responsible for differences in the mode and strength of iron supply, with vertical supply dominant on the plateau and lateral supply dominant in the plume. Iron supply from "new" sources to surface waters of the plume was double that above the plateau and 20 times greater than at the reference site, whilst iron demand (measured by cellular uptake) in the plume was similar to the plateau but 40 times greater than the reference. "Recycled" iron supply by bacterial regeneration and zooplankton grazing was a relative minor component at all sites (<8% of "new" supply), in contrast to earlier findings from other biogeochemical iron budgets in the Southern Ocean. Over the plateau, a particulate iron dissolution term of 2.5% was invoked to balance the budget; this approximately doubled the standing stock of dissolved iron in the mixed layer. The exchange of iron between dissolved, biogenic and lithogenic particulate pools was highly dynamic in time and space, resulting in a decoupling of iron supply and carbon export and, importantly, controlling the efficiency of fertilisation.

Bowie, A. R.; van der Merwe, P.; Quéroué, F.; Trull, T.; Fourquez, M.; Planchon, F.; Sarthou, G.; Chever, F.; Townsend, A. T.; Obernosterer, I.; Sallée, J.-B.; Blain, S.

2014-12-01

310

Decontamination and dismantlement of the old hot laundry, CFA-669. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This final report describes the decontamination and dismantlement (D&D) of the old hot laundry, located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Central Facilities Area (CFA). The report describes the site before and after D&D, processes used, cost and duration, and waste volume generated. In addition, lessons learned are presented. Pre-D&D characterization indicated gross alpha concentrations in the building ranged from 6 to 310 pCi/g and gross beta measurements from 6 to 15,000 pCi/g. Gamma spectrum analysis identified cobalt-60, cesium-137, antimony-125, europium-152, europium-154, and niobium-94.

Smith, D.L.; Perry, E.F.

1995-01-01

311

Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the ORNL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program FY 1993--2002  

SciTech Connect

The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D D) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration D D program. The purpose and objectivesof this program include: (1) surveillance and maintenance (S M) of facilities awaiting decommissioning; (2) planning for the orderly decommissioning of these facilities; and (3) implementation of a program to accomplish facility disposition in a safe, cost-effective, and timely manner. Participating D D contractors are required to prepare formal plans that document the S M programs established for each site. This report has been prepared to provide this documentation for those facilities included in the ORNL D D Program.

Ford, M.K.; Holder, L. Jr.

1992-07-01

312

40 CFR 1065.516 - Sample system decontamination and preconditioning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROCEDURES Performing an Emission Test Over Specified Duty Cycles § 1065.516 Sample system decontamination and preconditioning...measure hydrocarbon and PM emissions by sampling purified air or nitrogen. (3) When calculating zero emission levels, apply...

2014-07-01

313

COMPILATION OF AVAILABLE DATA ON BUILDING DECONTAMINATION ALTERNATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents an analysis of selected technologies that have been tested for their potential effectiveness in decontaminating a building that has been attacked using biological or chemical warfare agents, or using toxic industrial compounds. The technologies selected to be ...

314

Steam Generator Group Project. Task 6. Channel head decontamination  

SciTech Connect

The Steam Generator Group Project utilizes a retired-from-service pressurized-water-reactor steam generator as a test bed and source of specimens for research. An important preparatory step to primary side research activities was reduction of the radiation field in the steam generator channel head. This task report describes the channel head decontamination activities. Though not a programmatic research objective it was judged beneficial to explore the use of dilute reagent chemical decontamination techniques. These techniques presented potential for reduced personnel exposure and reduced secondary radwaste generation, over currently used abrasive blasting techniques. Two techniques with extensive laboratory research and vendors prepared to offer commercial application were tested, one on either side of the channel head. As indicated in the report, both techniques accomplished similar decontamination objectives. Neither technique damaged the generator channel head or tubing materials, as applied. This report provides details of the decontamination operations. Application system and operating conditions are described.

Allen, R.P.; Clark, R.L.; Reece, W.D.

1984-08-01

315

VAPOR-PHASE DECONTAMINATION OF APPLES CONTAINING ESCHERICHIA COLI  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Improved methods of decontaminating apples containing human pathogens are required. In this investigation, application of gaseous antimicrobial agents was investigated. An apparatus, which transfers vapor from hot antimicrobial solutions to a treatment vessel, was evaluated with Golden Delicious app...

316

Data collection and field experiments at the Apache Leap research site. Annual report, May 1995--1996  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the research performed during the period May 1995-May 1996 for a project of the U.S. Regulatory Commission (sponsored contract NRC-04-090-051) by the University of Arizona. The project manager for this research in Thomas J. Nicholson, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The objectives of this research were to examine hypotheses and test alternative conceptual models concerning unsaturated flow and transport through fractured rock, and to design and execute confirmatory field and laboratory experiments to test these hypotheses and conceptual models at the Apache Leap Research Site near Superior, Arizona. Each chapter in this report summarizes research related to a specific set of objectives and can be read and interpreted as a separate entity. Topics include: crosshole pneumatic and gaseous tracer field and modeling experiments designed to help validate the applicability of contiuum geostatistical and stochastic concepts, theories, models, and scaling relations relevant to unsaturated flow and transport in fractured porous tuffs; use of geochemistry and aquifer testing to evaluate fracture flow and perching mechanisms; investigations of {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U fractionation to evaluate leaching selectivity; and transport and modeling of both conservative and non-conservative tracers.

Woodhouse, E.G. [ed.; Bassett, R.L.; Neuman, S.P.; Chen, G. [and others

1997-08-01

317

Multiple pathways from three types of sugar receptor sites to metabotropic transduction pathways of the blowfly: study by the whole cell-clamp experiments.  

PubMed

Multiple pathways from three types of multiple receptor sites to three types of metabotropic signal transduction pathways were investigated in the whole cell-clamp experiments using isolated labellar sugar receptor neurons (cells) of the adult blowfly, Phormia regina. First, the concentration-response curves of three types of sweet taste components specialized to multiple receptor sites were obtained: sucrose for the pyranose sites (P-sites), fructose for the furanose sites (F-sites), and l-valine for the alkyl sites (R-sites). Next, the effects of inhibitors such as 2', 5'-dideoxyadenosine on adenylyl cyclase in the cAMP pathway, LY 83583 on guanylyl cyclase in the cGMP pathway, and U-73122 on phospholipase C in the IP? pathway were examined. The results showed that all of the inhibitors affected each specific target in the second-messenger transduction pathways. The obtained results verified that the P-site corresponded to the cAMP, the F-site to the cGMP, and the R-site to the IP? transduction pathway, and that these three signal pathways did not have crossing points. PMID:21624494

Kan, Hideko; Kataoka-Shirasugi, Naoko; Amakawa, Taisaku

2011-09-01

318

A survey of decontamination processes applicable to DOE nuclear facilities  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this survey was to select an appropriate technology for in situ decontamination of equipment interiors as part of the decommissioning of U.S. Department of Energy nuclear facilities. This selection depends on knowledge of existing chemical decontamination methods. This report provides an up-to-date review of chemical decontamination methods. According to available information, aqueous systems are probably the most universally used method for decontaminating and cleaning metal surfaces. We have subdivided the technologies, on the basis of the types of chemical solvents, into acid, alkaline permanganate, highly oxidizing, peroxide, and miscellaneous systems. Two miscellaneous chemical decontamination methods (electrochemical processes and foam and gel systems) are also described. A concise technical description of various processes is given, and the report also outlines technical considerations in the choice of technologies, including decontamination effectiveness, waste handing, fields of application, and the advantages and limitations in application. On the basis of this survey, six processes were identified for further evaluation. 144 refs., 2 tabs.

Chen, L.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.; Vandegrift, G.F.

1997-05-01

319

Annual summary report of the Decontamination and Decommissioning Surveillance and Maintenance Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for period ending September 30, 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 1976 to provide collective management of all surplus sites under ORNL`s control on the Oak Ridge Reservation. Presently, over 50 facilities, grouped into projects, are currently managed by the Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, the successor program to the SFMP. Support includes (1) surveillance and maintenance

L. A. Anderson; T. W. Burwinkle; M. K. Ford; H. R. Gaddis; L. Jr. Holder; G. J. Mandry; T. R. Nelson; B. D. Patton

1995-01-01

320

Nondestructive decontamination of mortar and concrete by electro-kinetic methods: application to the extraction of radioactive heavy metals.  

PubMed

Because the service lives of nuclear power plants are limited to a certain number of years, the need for the management of quite a large volume of radioactive contaminated concrete arises, which, in most cases, was not taken into account when the capacities of the low and medium activity repositories were designed. Therefore, the decontamination of these structures would be of great interest in order to declassify the wastes as radioactive and manage them as conventional ones. This research studies the reliability of the application of electrical fields to decontaminate radioactive contaminated concrete. Three series of decontamination experiments have been carried out, using Cs+, Sr2-, Co2+, and Fe3+ ions added during casting and that have penetrated from the outside, testing carbonated and uncarbonated matrixes, and using laboratory devices as well as the homemade device for in situ application named "honeycomb device". As a result, the application of electrical fields to concrete-contaminated structures has been developed as a new technique to extract radioactive ionic species from concrete. This method of decontamination has been patented by ENRESA (Spanish Company for the Management of Radioactive Wastes) in association with the IETcc. PMID:12038838

Castellote, Marta; Andrade, Carmen; Alonso, Cruz

2002-05-15

321

Treatment methods for spent decontamination electrolyte produced in the ABB Atom electrochemical decontamination process ELDECON  

E-print Network

for chromate but also for leachable total chromium. The objective of this work is to investigate treatment methods for spent decontamination electrolyte aiming at a non mixed waste and a low waste volume compatible with standard solidification and storage... the ELDECON process to Cr3+ ions. This reduction is required in order to meet levels set by 40 CFR 261. This federal code is a toxicity leachable test which sets the amount of total chromium in generated waste to be less than 5 ppm. Secondary...

Carlsson, Charlotta Elisabeth

2012-06-07

322

Implications of a Multi-well Tracer Test in the Transport of Pathogens at a Riverbank Filtration Experiment Site.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study tracks the transport of bromide and microspheres mimicking pathogens in an arid environment. The study site uses the Rio Grande that experiences significant annual fluctuations in both water quantity and quality. The pumping well is 17 m from the stream bank and the water table was 2 m below the stream surface. The aquifer is medium and fine-grained sand comprising two flow units. Observation wells are screened over 1 or 1.5 m intervals. The average hydraulic conductivity was about 2 x 10-3 m/s based on a test analysis, however, the responses indicated that sediment heterogeneities affected the hydraulic behavior. A 427 hour tracer test using bromide and fluorescent microspheres provides initial results that are relevant to the transport of pathogens through the subsurface under riverbank filtration conditions. Bromide was injected into an observation well at the channel margin. Differently colored fluorescent microspheres (0.25nm, 1?m, 6?m and 10?m) were injected into the stream bottom and into two observation wells. Conclusions from the tracer test are: 1) Both bromide and microspheres continued to be observed throughout the 18 days of the experiment. 2) The bromide recovery in the pumping well and in the deeper observation wells showed early and late peaks with a long tails indicating that the geological medium at the field site behaves like a double-porosity medium allowing the tracer to move relatively quickly through the higher conductivity units while being significantly retarded in the low hydraulic conductivity units. 3) Some wells showed consistently higher concentrations of bromide. 4) The 1? micospheres were abundant in the observation wells and allowed tracing of flowpaths. These showed multiple peaks similar to the bromide results. This indicates highly preferential transport paths in the sediment. 5) Microspheres from the three injection sites had distinctly different transport paths and rates. 6) Both bromide and microspheres appeared in the stream soon after injection, moving apparently against an 2-m head difference. 7) The 6 ? and 10 ? microspheres were observed in low concentrations and were episodically detected in the stream and in two widely spaced observation wells. The significance of these results is that: 1) Inorganic microspheres may mimic the episodic occurrence of microorganisms in wells. 2) Even in this relatively homogeneous aquifer, preferential transport within the aquifer results in highly divergent transport paths and rates. Microspheres from one of the injection sites traveled essentially perpendicular to the expected transport direction. 3) Even small variations in the sand grain size can effectively compartmentalize the aquifer. The next steps of this project will include field studies to observe the migration and persistence of selected organisms (E.coli, enterococci, coliphages, cysts, oocysts and enteroviruses) in the pumping well and observation wells under different pumping rates. Continued combined chemical sampling along with the microbial sampling will document the whether changes in water chemistry alter the behavior of the organisms.

Langford, R. P.; Pillai, S.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Widmer, K.; Abdel-Fattah, A.; Lerhner, T.

2003-12-01

323

Decontamination Strategy for Large Area and/or Equipment Contaminated with Chemical and Biological Agents using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL)  

SciTech Connect

A strategy for the decontamination of large areas and or equipment contaminated with Biological Warfare Agents (BWAs) and Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) was demonstrated using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL) photolysis system. This strategy offers an alternative that is potentially quicker, less hazardous, generates far less waste, and is easier to deploy than those currently fielded by the Department of Defense (DoD). For example, for large frame aircraft the United States Air Force still relies on the combination of weathering (stand alone in environment), air washing (fly aircraft) and finally washing the aircraft with Hot Soapy Water (HSW) in an attempt to remove any remaining contamination. This method is laborious, time consuming (upwards of 12+ hours not including decontamination site preparation), and requires large amounts of water (e.g., 1,600+ gallons for a single large frame aircraft), and generates large amounts of hazardous waste requiring disposal. The efficacy of the HEAL system was demonstrated using diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP) a G series CWA simulant, and Bacillus globigii (BG) a simulant of Bacillus anthracis. Experiments were designed to simulate the energy flux of a field deployable lamp system that could stand-off 17 meters from a 12m2 target area and uniformly expose a surface at 1360 W/m2. The HEAL system in the absence of a catalyst reduced the amount of B. globigii by five orders of magnitude at a starting concentration of 1.63 x 107 spores. In the case of CWA simulants, the HEAL system in the presence of the catalyst TiO2 effectively degraded DIMP sprayed onto a 100mm diameter Petri dish in 5 minutes.

Schoske, Richard [ORNL; Kennedy, Patrick [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Smith, Rob R [ORNL; Huxford, Theodore J [ORNL; Bonavita, Angelo M [ORNL; Engleman, Greg [ORNL; Vass, Arpad Alexander [ORNL; Griest, Wayne H [ORNL; Ilgner, Ralph H [ORNL; Brown, Gilbert M [ORNL

2009-04-01

324

Effects of water contamination on site selection by amphibians: experiences from an arena approach with European frogs and newts.  

PubMed

Pesticide residues in breeding ponds can cause avoidance by at least some amphibian species. So far, outdoor experiments have been performed only with artificial pools in areas where the focus species usually occur and new colonization has been observed. Results of this kind of study are potentially influenced by natural disturbances and therefore are of limited comparability. We used an easily manufactured and standardizable arena approach, in which animals in reproductive condition for some hours had a choice among pools with different concentrations of a contaminant. Because there has been much debate on the potential environmental impacts of glyphosate-based herbicides, we investigated the impact of glyphosate isopropylamine salt (GLY-IS), Roundup LB PLUS (RU-LB-PLUS), and glyphosate's main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) on individual residence time in water. The following European amphibian species were tested: Common frog (Rana temporaria), Palmate newt (Lissotriton helveticus), and Alpine newt (Ichthyosaura alpestris). The residence time in water was not significantly affected by concentrations below or slightly above the European Environmental Quality Standards for AMPA or the German "worst-case" expected environmental concentrations for GLY-IS and RU-LB-PLUS. Occasionally, microclimatic cofactors (nightly minimum ground temperature, water temperature) apparently influenced the residence time. The major drawback of such quick behavior studies is that results can only be transferred to perception and avoidance of contaminated water but not easily to site selection by amphibians. For example, testing oviposition site selection requires more natural water bodies and more time. Hence, to develop a standard procedure in risk assessment, an intermediate design between an arena approach, as presented here, and previously performed field studies should be tested. PMID:23377318

Wagner, Norman; Lötters, Stefan

2013-07-01

325

Establishing the irradiation dose for paper decontamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Museums, libraries and archives are preserving documents that are slowly degrading due to the inherent ageing of the cellulose substrate or to the technological errors of the past (acid paper, iron gall ink). Beside this, large quantities of paper are rapidly damaged by biological attacks following natural disasters and improper storage conditions. The treatment of paper documents with ionizing radiation can be used for mass decontamination of cultural heritage items but conservators and restaurators are still reserved because of the radiation induced degradation. We conducted a study for establishing the dose needed for the effective treatment of paper documents, taking into account the biological burden and the irradiation effects on paper structure. We used physical testing specific to paper industry and less destructive analytical methods (thermal analysis). Our results show that an effective treatment can be performed with doses lower than 10 kGy. Old paper appears to be less affected by gamma radiation than recent paper but the sampling is highly affected by the non-uniform degree of the initial degradation status. The extent of testing for degradation and the magnitude of acceptable degradation should take into account the biological threat and the expected life time of the paper documents.

Moise, Ioan Valentin; Virgolici, Marian; Negut, Constantin Daniel; Manea, Mihaela; Alexandru, Mioara; Trandafir, Laura; Zorila, Florina Lucica; Talasman, Catalina Mihaela; Manea, Daniela; Nisipeanu, Steluta; Haiducu, Maria; Balan, Zamfir

2012-08-01

326

Decontamination & Decommissioning Equipment Tracking System (DDETS)  

SciTech Connect

At the request of the Department of Energy (DOE)(EM-50), the Scientific Computing Unit developed a prototype system to track information and data relevant to equipment and tooling removed during decontamination and decommissioning activities. The DDETS proof-of-concept tracking system utilizes a one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) bar coding technology to retain and track information such as identification number, manufacturer, requisition information, and various contaminant information, etc. The information is encoded in a bar code, printed on a label and can be attached to corresponding equipment. The DDETS was developed using a proven relational database management system which allows the addition, modification, printing, and deletion of data. In addition, communication interfaces with bar code printers and bar code readers were developed. Additional features of the system include: (a) Four different reports available for the user (REAPS, transaction, and two inventory), (b) Remote automated inventory tracking capabilities, (c) Remote automated inventory tracking capability (2D bar codes allow equipment to be scanned/tracked without being linked to the DDETS database), (d) Edit, update, delete, and query capabilities, (e) On-line bar code label printing utility (data from 2D bar codes can be scanned directly into the data base simplifying data entry), and (f) Automated data backup utility. Compatibility with the Reportable Excess Automated Property System (REAPS) to upload data from DDETS is planned.

Cook, S.

1994-07-01

327

Kit systems for granulated decontamination formulations  

DOEpatents

A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a sorbent additive, and water. A highly adsorbent sorbent additive (e.g., amorphous silica, sorbitol, mannitol, etc.) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field. The formulation can be pre-mixed and pre-packaged as a multi-part kit system, where one or more of the parts are packaged in a powdered, granulated form for ease of handling and mixing in the field.

Tucker, Mark D. (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-07-06

328

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing  

SciTech Connect

On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. At the request of WIPP’s operations contractor, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) personnel developed several methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using surrogate contaminants and also americium (241Am). The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent possible, quantitatively. One of the requirements of this effort was delivering initial results and recommendations within a few weeks. That requirement, in combination with the limited scope of the project, made in-depth analysis impractical in some instances. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, strippable coatings, and mechanical grinding), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and it is very easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from the strippable coating and water washing coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System (PBS) proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

Rick Demmer; Stephen Reese

2014-09-01

329

Mobile workstation for decontamination and decommissioning operations  

SciTech Connect

This project is an interdisciplinary effort to develop effective mobile worksystems for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities within the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex. These mobile worksystems will be configured to operate within the environmental and logistical constraints of such facilities and to perform a number of work tasks. Our program is designed to produce a mobile worksystem with capabilities and features that are matched to the particular needs of D&D work by evolving the design through a series of technological developments, performance tests and evaluations. The project has three phases. In this the first phase, an existing teleoperated worksystem, the Remote Work Vehicle (developed for use in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building basement), was enhanced for telerobotic performance of several D&D operations. Its ability to perform these operations was then assessed through a series of tests in a mockup facility that contained generic structures and equipment similar to those that D&D work machines will encounter in DOE facilities. Building upon the knowledge gained through those tests and evaluations, a next generation mobile worksystem, the RWV II, and a more advanced controller will be designed, integrated and tested in the second phase, which is scheduled for completion in January 1995. The third phase of the project will involve testing of the RWV II in the real DOE facility.

Whittaker, W.L.; Osborn, J.F.; Thompson, B.R. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Robotics Inst.

1993-10-01

330

Bacillus anthracis spore decontamination in food grease.  

PubMed

Bacillus anthracis Sterne strain spores were analyzed for their resistance against five disinfectants: commercial sodium hypochlorite, Spor-Klenz Ready-to-Use Cold Sterilant, accelerated hydrogen peroxide (AHP), Virkon, and surface decontamination foam (SDF). The aim of this study was to find an effective disinfectant that would reduce the viability of B. anthracis Sterne spores at ?6 log in the presence of variables such as animal grease and fat, stainless steel, and temperature (room temperature and 4 °C). SDF and 10% sodium hypochlorite consistently reduced the growth of viable B. anthracis Sterne spores after 5 min in the presence of stainless steel at room temperature. It took at least 10 min of contact time for AHP to consistently reduce spore growth by ?6 log, while it took at least 20 min for 5% bleach and Spor-Klenz to consistently inactivate ?6 log spores in the presence of stainless steel at room temperature. AHP was the only disinfectant that reduced the viability of B. anthracis Sterne spores at ?6 log in the presence of stainless steel and animal grease, both at room temperature and 4 °C after 24 h of contact time. PMID:23575137

Amoako, Kingsley K; Santiago-Mateo, Kristina; Shields, Michael J; Rohonczy, Elizabeth

2013-04-01

331

UPDATE ON BUILDING AND STRUCTURE DECONTAMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Cleanup of the nation's hazardous waste sites is one of the top environmental priorities. ince the ultimate objective of many cleanup programs is to return the contaminated site and buildings on the site to active use, additional information regarding both established and emergin...

332

Injection of CO2-saturated water through a siliceous sandstone plug from the Hontomin test site (Spain): experiment and modeling.  

PubMed

Massive chemical reactions are not expected when injecting CO(2) in siliceous sandstone reservoirs, but their performance can be challenged by small-scale reactions and other processes affecting their transport properties. We have conducted a core flooding test with a quartzarenite plug of Lower Cretaceous age representative of the secondary reservoir of the Hontomín test site. The sample, confined at high pressure, was successively injected with DIW and CO(2)-saturated DIW for 49 days while monitoring geophysical, chemical, and hydrodynamic parameters. The plug experienced little change, without evidence of secondary carbonation. However, permeability increased by a factor of 4 (0.022-0.085 mD), and the V(P)/V(S) ratio, whose change is related with microcracking, rose from ~1.68 to ~1.8. Porosity also increased (7.33-8.1%) from the beginning to the end of the experiment. Fluid/rock reactions were modeled with PHREEQC-2, and they are dominated by the dissolution of Mg-calcite. Mass balances show that ~4% of the initial carbonate was consumed. The results suggest that mineral dissolution and microcracking may have acted in a synergistic way at the beginning of the acidic flooding. However, dissolution processes concentrated in pore throats can better explain the permeability enhancement observed over longer periods of time. PMID:22770515

Canal, J; Delgado, J; Falcón, I; Yang, Q; Juncosa, R; Barrientos, V

2013-01-01

333

Pilot plant experiences using physical and biological treatment steps for the remediation of groundwater from a former MGP site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of manufactured gas at a site in Vienna, Austria led to the contamination of soil and groundwater with various pollutants including PAHs, hydrocarbons, phenols, BTEX, and cyanide. The site needs to be remediated to alleviate potential impacts to the environment. The chosen remediation concept includes the excavation of the core contaminated site and the setup of a hydraulic

T. Wirthensohn; P. Schoeberl; U. Ghosh; W. Fuchs

2009-01-01

334

Skin decontamination cream for radiological contaminants: Formulation development and evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background: Increased use of the radioactive materials in the field of research, medical, nuclear power plant, and industry has increased the risk of accidental exposure. Intentional use of the radioisotopes by terrorist organizations could cause exposure/contamination of a number of the population. In view of the accidental contamination, there is a need to develop self-usable decontamination formulations that could be used immediately after contamination is suspected. Materials and Methods: Present work was planned to optimize and develop self-usable radiation decontamination cream formulation. Various pharmaceutical parameters were characterized. 99mTc-sodium pertechnetate was used as radiocontaminant. Static counts were recorded before and after decontamination using single photon emission computed tomography. Results: Decontamination efficacy of the cream was found to be 42% ± 3% at 0-0.5 h after the exposure. Primary skin irritancy test was satisfactory as no erythema or edema was observed visually after 2 weeks of the formulation application. Conclusion: The decontamination studies proved the potential of EDTA to remove the radiological contaminants effectively. PMID:23799206

Khan, Abdul Wadood; Kotta, Sabna; Rana, Sudha; Ansari, Shahid Husain; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Ali, Javed

2013-01-01

335

A review of plant decontamination methods: 1988 Update: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This document updates the state-of-the-art in decontamination technology since the publication of the previous review (EPRI NP- 1128) in May 1981. A brief description of the corrosion-film characteristics is presented as well as corrosion film differences between a BWR and PWR. The generation transportation, activation, and deposition of the radioisotopes found throughout the reactor coolant system is also discussed. Successful, well executed, decontamination campaigns are always preceded by meticulous planning and careful procedure preparation which include contingency operations. The Decontamination Planning and Preparation Section describes the technical planning steps as well as the methodology that should be followed in order to select the optimum decontamination technique for a specific application. A review of a number of the decontamination methods commercialized since 1980 is presented. The basic mechanism for each process is described as well as specific applications of the technology in the fields. Where possible, results obtained in the field are presented. The information was obtained from industry vendors as well as personnel at the plant locations that have utilized the technology. 72 refs., 5 tabs.

Remark, J.F.

1989-01-01

336

Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were performed on the CERN cyclotron. Pion capture in Ta, Re, and Bi, quadrupole moments, nuclear gamma transitions, pion absorption in the nucleus, neutron multiplicity and angular momentum, and charged particles emission after pion absorption were studied.

Konijn, J.

337

Riser equipment decontamination engineering task plan  

SciTech Connect

On October 15, 1998, two Characterization Project Operations (CPO) employees were found to have contaminated clothing. An operator had 300,000-dpm/100cm2 beta/gamma, no alpha, contamination on his coat sleeve and a Radiation Control Technician (RCT) had 10,000 dpm/100cm2 beta/gamma, no alpha, on his shirt sleeve. The CPO swing shift crew was working in TX tank farm, performing sampling activities at 241-TX-113. TX tank farm is a ''clean farm'' and does not require anti-contamination clothing for entry. The CPO personnel were dressed in normal work clothes. An operator and an RCT were performing a pre-job survey that involved removing bagging around the riser equipment. When the RCT saw that the contamination readings from smear samples of the riser equipment were greater than expected, the job was suspended. Crew members were then directed to areas of lower background radiation for personnel surveys. During personnel surveys, reportable contamination was found on the coat sleeve of the operator who had been involved in the pre-job survey and on the shirt sleeve of the RCT who had been involved in the pre-job survey. No other personnel were found to be contaminated. Because of this off normal event Characterization Engineering was given the following corrective action: Examine the process methodology used for core sampling operations to determine practicality and potential long-term advantages of reducing personnel contact with contaminated equipment. This Engineering Task Plan ensures that LMHC 1998a, Corrective Action No.7 is completely addressed by Characterization Engineering. The deliverable is an Engineering Study that evaluates decontamination of riser equipment components and considers additional engineered features to reduce potential exposure to workers operating the riser equipment. This engineering study shall also address any released design features that have failed to be implemented.

BOGER, R.M.

1999-05-12

338

Decontamination by cleaning with fluorocarbon surfactant solutions  

SciTech Connect

In the nuclear industry, facilities and their components inevitably become contaminated with radioactive materials. This report documents the application of a novel particle-removal process developed by Entropic Systems, Inc. (ESI), to decontaminate critical instruments and parts that are contaminated with small radioactive particles that adhere to equipment surfaces. The tests were performed as a cooperative effort between ESI and the Chemical Technology Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ESI developed a new, environmentally compatible process to remove small particles from solid surfaces that is more effective than spraying or sonicating with CFC-113. This process uses inert perfluorinated liquids as working media; the liquids have zero ozone-depleting potential, are nontoxic and nonflammnable, and are generally recognized as nonhazardous materials. In the ESI process, parts to be cleaned are first sprayed or sonicated with a dilute solution of a high-molecular-weight fluorocarbon surfactant in an inert perfluorinated liquid to effect particle removal. The parts are then rinsed with the perfluorinated liquid to remove the fluorocarbon surfactant applied in the first step, and the residual rinse liquid is then evaporated from the parts into an air or nitrogen stream from which it is recovered. Nuclear contamination is inherently a surface phenomenon. The presence of radioactive particles is responsible for all ``smearable`` contamination and, if the radioactive particles are small enough, for some of the fixed contamination. Because radioactivity does not influence the physical chemistry of particle adhesion, the ESI process should be just as effective in removing radioactive particles as it is in removing nonradioactive particles.

Kaiser, R. [Entropic Systems, Inc., Winchester, MA (United States); Benson, C.E.; Meyers, E.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Vaughen, V.C.A. [Chemical Engineering and Safety Consulting Services, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1994-02-01

339

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2, Technology Logic Diagram: Part A, Decontamination and Decommissioning  

SciTech Connect

This report documents activities of decontamination and decommissioning at ORNL. Topics discussed include general problems, waste types, containment, robotics automation and decontamination processes.

Not Available

1993-09-01

340

40 CFR 265.114 - Disposal or decontamination of equipment, structures and soils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. 265.114 Section 265.114 Protection...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. During the partial and final closure...contaminated equipment, structures and soil must be properly disposed of,...

2014-07-01

341

40 CFR 264.114 - Disposal or decontamination of equipment, structures and soils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. 264.114 Section 264.114 Protection...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. During the partial and final closure...contaminated equipment, structures and soils must be properly disposed of or...

2010-07-01

342

40 CFR 264.114 - Disposal or decontamination of equipment, structures and soils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. 264.114 Section 264.114 Protection...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. During the partial and final closure...contaminated equipment, structures and soils must be properly disposed of or...

2011-07-01

343

40 CFR 265.114 - Disposal or decontamination of equipment, structures and soils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. 265.114 Section 265.114 Protection...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. During the partial and final closure...contaminated equipment, structures and soil must be properly disposed of,...

2012-07-01

344

40 CFR 264.114 - Disposal or decontamination of equipment, structures and soils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. 264.114 Section 264.114 Protection...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. During the partial and final closure...contaminated equipment, structures and soils must be properly disposed of or...

2013-07-01

345

40 CFR 265.114 - Disposal or decontamination of equipment, structures and soils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. 265.114 Section 265.114 Protection...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. During the partial and final closure...contaminated equipment, structures and soil must be properly disposed of,...

2013-07-01

346

40 CFR 264.114 - Disposal or decontamination of equipment, structures and soils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. 264.114 Section 264.114 Protection...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. During the partial and final closure...contaminated equipment, structures and soils must be properly disposed of or...

2012-07-01

347

40 CFR 265.114 - Disposal or decontamination of equipment, structures and soils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. 265.114 Section 265.114 Protection...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. During the partial and final closure...contaminated equipment, structures and soil must be properly disposed of,...

2011-07-01

348

40 CFR 265.114 - Disposal or decontamination of equipment, structures and soils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. 265.114 Section 265.114 Protection...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. During the partial and final closure...contaminated equipment, structures and soil must be properly disposed of,...

2010-07-01

349

40 CFR 264.114 - Disposal or decontamination of equipment, structures and soils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. 264.114 Section 264.114 Protection...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. During the partial and final closure...contaminated equipment, structures and soils must be properly disposed of or...

2014-07-01

350

Soil removal as a decontamination practice and radiocesium accumulation in tadpoles in rice paddies at Fukushima.  

PubMed

We investigated the biological accumulation of radiocesium in tadpoles [Rana (Pelophylax) porosa porosa] in rice paddies with and without decontamination practice at Fukushima. Radiocesium was accumulated in surface part of soils both in the control and decontaminated paddies one year after decontamination. Mean (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations in tadpoles in the control and decontaminated paddies were 3000 and 4500, and 600 and 890 Bq/kg dry weight, respectively. Radiocesium concentrations in surface soil (0-5 cm depth) and tadpoles in the decontaminated paddy were five times smaller than in the control paddy. These results suggest that decontamination practice can reduce radiocesium concentrations in both soil and tadpoles. However, at the decontaminated paddy, radiocesium concentrations in surface soils became 3.8 times greater one year after decontamination, which indicates that monitoring the subsequent movement of radiocesium in rice paddies and surrounding areas is essential for examining contamination propagation. PMID:24463474

Sakai, Masaru; Gomi, Takashi; Nunokawa, Masanori; Wakahara, Taeko; Onda, Yuichi

2014-04-01

351

Inequalities in reported cancer patient experience by socio-demographic characteristic and cancer site: evidence from respondents to the English Cancer Patient Experience Survey  

PubMed Central

Patient experience is a critical dimension of cancer care quality. Understanding variation in experience among patients with different cancers and characteristics is an important first step for designing targeted improvement interventions. We analysed data from the 2011/2012 English Cancer Patient Experience Survey (n = 69 086) using logistic regression to explore inequalities in care experience across 64 survey questions. We additionally calculated a summary measure of variation in patient experience by cancer, and explored inequalities between patients with cancers treated by the same specialist teams. We found that younger and very old, ethnic minority patients and women consistently reported worse experiences across questions. Patients with small intestine/rarer lower gastrointestinal, multiple myeloma and hepatobiliary cancers were most likely to report negative experiences whereas patients with breast, melanoma and testicular cancer were least likely (top-to-bottom odds ratio = 1.91, P < 0.0001). There were also inequalities in experience among patients with cancers treated by the same specialty for five of nine services (P < 0.0001). Specifically, patients with ovarian, multiple myeloma, anal, hepatobiliary and renal cancer reported notably worse experiences than patients with other gynaecological, haematological, gastrointestinal and urological malignancies respectively. Initiatives to improve cancer patient experience across oncology services may be suitably targeted on patients at higher risk of poorer experience. PMID:25327713

Saunders, CL; Abel, GA; Lyratzopoulos, G

2015-01-01

352

Nondestructive decontamination of radioactive electronic equipment by fluorinated surfactant solutions  

SciTech Connect

The application of ESI`s enhanced particle removal process, initially developed for the cleaning of inertial guidance instrument parts, to the nondestructive decontamination of nuclear equipment is discussed. The cleaning medium used in this process is a solution of a high molecular weight fluorocarbon surfactant in an inert perfluorinated liquid which results in enhanced particle removal. The perfluorinated liquids of interest, which are recycled in the process, are non-toxic, nonflammable, generally safe to use, and do not present a hazard to the atmospheric ozone layer. An experimental cleaning system has been developed by ESI to demonstrate the application of this cleaning process to nuclear decontamination of electronic circuit boards. A high degree of decontamination is obtained and with no resulting physical damage to the circuits.

Yam, C.S.; Harling, O.K. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Kaiser, R. [Entropic Systems, Inc., Winchester, MA (United States)

1995-12-31

353

Decontamination of actinides and fission products from stainless steel surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Seven in situ decontamination processes were evaluated as possible candidates to reduce radioactivity levels in nuclear facilities throughout the DOE complex. These processes were tested using stainless steel coupons (Type 304) contaminated with actinides (Pu and Am) or fission products (a mixture of Cs, Sr, and Gd). The seven processes were decontamination with nitric acid, nitric acid plus hydrofluoric acid, fluoboric acid, silver(II) persulfate, hydrogen peroxide plus oxalic acid plus hydrofluoric acid, alkaline persulfate followed by citric acid plus oxalic acid, and electropolishing using nitric acid electrolyte. Of the seven processes, the nitric acid plus hydrofluoric acid and fluoboric acid solutions gave the best results; the decontamination factors for 3- to 6-h contacts at 80{degree}C were as high as 600 for plutonium, 5500 for americium, 700 for cesium, 15000 for strontium, and 1100 for gadolinium.

Mertz, C.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Chen, L.; Conner, C.; Vandegrift, G.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Drockelman, D.; Kaminski, M.; Landsberger, S.; Stubbins, J. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

1996-04-01

354

Systems analysis of decontamination options for civilian vehicles.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project, which was supported by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) Chemical and Biological Division (CBD), was to investigate options for the decontamination of the exteriors and interiors of vehicles in the civilian setting in order to restore those vehicles to normal use following the release of a highly toxic chemical. The decontamination of vehicles is especially challenging because they often contain sensitive electronic equipment, multiple materials some of which strongly adsorb chemical agents, and in the case of aircraft, have very rigid material compatibility requirements (i.e., they cannot be exposed to reagents that may cause even minor corrosion). A systems analysis approach was taken examine existing and future civilian vehicle decontamination capabilities.

Foltz, Greg W.; Hoette, Trisha Marie

2010-11-01

355

Testing and evaluation of electrokinetic decontamination of concrete  

SciTech Connect

The goals and objectives of the technical task plan (TTP) are to (1) describe the nature and extent of concrete contamination within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and emerging and commercial technologies applicable to these problems; (2) to match technologies to the concrete problems and recommend up to four demonstrations; (3) to initiate recommended demonstrations; and (4) to continue investigation and evaluation of the application of electrokinetic decontamination processes to concrete. This document presents findings of experimental and theoretical studies of the electrokinetic decontamination (EK) process and their implications for field demonstrations. This effort is an extension of the work performed under TTP 142005, ``Electroosmotic Concrete Decontamination. The goals of this task were to determine the applicability of EK for treating contaminated concrete and, if warranted, to evaluate EK as a potential technology for demonstration. 62 refs.

DePaoli, D.W.; Harris, M.T.; Ally, M.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.] [and others

1996-10-01

356

Pre-Shot Simulations of Far-Field Ground Motions for the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Explosions at the Climax Stock, Nevada National Security Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) will involve a series of explosions in various geologic and emplacement conditions to validate numerical simulation methods to predict behavior of seismic wave excitation and propagation for nuclear test monitoring. The first SPE's currently underway involve explosions in the Climax Stock (granitic geology) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Detailed geologic data and published

A J Rodgers; J Wagoner; N A Petersson; B Sjogreen

2010-01-01

357

Pre-shot simulations of far-field ground motion for the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Explosions at the Climax Stock, Nevada National Security Site: SPE2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is planning a 1000 kg (TNT equivalent) shot (SPE2) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in a granite borehole at a depth (canister centroid) of 45 meters. This shot follows an earlier shot of 100 kg in the same borehole at a depth 60 m. Surrounding the shotpoint is an extensive array of seismic

R J Mellors; A Rodgers; W Walter; S Ford; H Xu; E Matzel; S Myers; N A Petersson; B Sjogreen; T Hauk; J Wagoner

2011-01-01

358

Field testing at the Climax Stock on the Nevada Test Site: spent fuel test and radionuclide migration experiments  

SciTech Connect

Two field tests in the Climax Stock are being conducted. The Climax Stock, a granitic instrusive, has been administratively excluded from consideration as a full-scale repository site. However, it provides a readily available facility for field testing with high-level radioactive materials at a depth (420 m) approaching that of a repository. The major test activity in the 1980 fiscal year has been initiation of the Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C). This test, which was authorized in June 1978, is designed to evaluate the generic feasibility of geologic storage and retrievability of commercial power reactor spent fuel assemblies in a granitic medium. In addition, the test is configured and instrumented to provide thermal and thermomechanical response data that will be relevant to the design of a repository in hard crystalline rock. The other field activity in the Climax Stock is a radionuclide migration test. It combines a series of field and laboratory migration experiments with the use of existing hydrologic models for pretest predictions and data interpretation. Goals of this project are to develop: (1) field measurement techniques for radionuclide migration studies in a hydrologic regime where the controlling mechanism is fracture permeability; (2) field test data on radionuclide migration; and (3) a comparison of laboratory- and field-measured retardation factors. This radionuclide migration test, which was authorized in the middle of the 1980 fiscal year, is in the preliminary design phase. The detailed program plan was prepared and subjected to formal peer review in August. In September/October researchers conducted preliminary flow tests with water in selected near-vertical fractures intersected by small horizontal boreholes. These tests were needed to establish the range of pressures, flow rates, and other operating parameters to be used in conducting the nuclide migration tests. 21 references, 14 figures, 1 table.

Ballou, L.B.; Isherwood, D.J.; Patrick, W.C.

1982-12-31

359

Decontamination Options for Drinking Water Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis Spores  

SciTech Connect

Five parameters were evaluated with surrogates of Bacillus anthracis spores to determine effective decontamination options for use in a contaminated drinking water supply. The parameters were: (1) type of Bacillus spore surrogate (B. thuringiensis or B. atrophaeus); (2) spore concentration in suspension (10{sup 2} to 10{sup 6} spores/ml); (3) chemical characteristics of decontaminant [sodium dicholor-s-triazinetrione dihydrate (Dichlor), hydrogen peroxide, potassium peroxymonosulfate (Oxone), sodium hypochlorite, and VirkonS{reg_sign}]; (4) decontaminant concentration (0.01% to 5%); and (5) decontaminant exposure time (10 min to 24 hr). Results from 162 suspension tests with appropriate controls are reported. Hydrogen peroxide at a concentration of 5%, and Dichlor and sodium hypochlorite at a concentration of 2%, were effective at spore inactivation regardless of spore type tested, spore exposure time, or spore concentration evaluated. This is the first reported study of Dichlor as an effective decontaminant for B. anthracis spore surrogates. Dichlor's desirable characteristics of high oxidation potential, high level of free chlorine, and more neutral pH than that of other oxidizers evaluated appear to make it an excellent alternative. All three oxidizers were effective against B. atrophaeus spores in meeting EPA's biocide standard of greater than a 6 log kill after a 10-minute exposure time and at lower concentrations than typically reported for biocide use. Solutions of 5% VirkonS{reg_sign} and Oxone were less effective decontaminants than other options evaluated in this study and did not meet the EPA's efficacy standard for biocides. Differences in methods and procedures reported by other investigators make quantitative comparisons among studies difficult.

Raber, E; Burklund, A

2010-02-16

360

Concrete decontamination by Electro-Hydraulic Scabbling (EHS)  

SciTech Connect

EHS is being developed for decontaminating concrete structures from radionuclides, organic substances, and hazardous metals. EHS involves the generation of powerful shock waves and intense cavitation by a strong pulsed electric discharge in a water layer at the concrete surface; high impulse pressure results in stresses which crack and peel off a concrete layer of controllable thickness. Scabbling produces contaminated debris of relatively small volume which can be easily removed, leaving clean bulk concrete. Objective of Phase I was to prove the technical feasibility of EH for controlled scabbling and decontamination of concrete. Phase I is complete.

NONE

1994-11-01

361

Electron beam irradiation for biological decontamination of Spirulina platensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cyanobacterium Spirulina is commercialized for its use in health foods and for therapeutic purposes due to its valuable constituents particularly proteins and vitamins. The aim of the paper is to study the Spirulina platensis behaviour when it is electron beam irradiated for biological decontamination. Microbial load, antioxidant activity, enzymatic inhibition, electron spin resonance (ESR) and UV-Vis spectra were measured for doses up to 80 kGy. The results were correlated with doses in order to find where decontamination is efficient, keeping the Spirulina qualities.

Brasoveanu, Mirela; Nemtanu, Monica; Minea, R.; Grecu, Maria Nicoleta; Mazilu, Elena; Radulescu, Nora

2005-10-01

362

Process for decontaminating radioactive liquids using a calcium cyanamide-containing composition. [Patent application  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a process for decontaminating a radioactive liquid containing a radioactive element capable of forming a hydroxide. This process includes the steps of contacting the radioactive liquid with a decontaminating composition and separating the resulting radioactive sludge from the resulting liquid. The decontaminating composition contains calcium cyanamide.

Silver, G.L.

1980-09-24

363

Application of a laser to decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities at JAERI  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the research and development of various advanced technologies needed for decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, laser was applied to decontamination of metal and concrete surfaces and to cutting of large metal of low level radioactive waste. (a) Laser decontamination for metal waste: Metal waste was irradiated by laser in the atmosphere of chloride gas, and contaminant was changed

Takakuni Hirabayashi; Yutaka Kameo; Masato Myodo

2000-01-01

364

Post-remedial action report for the Water Boiler Reactor Site  

SciTech Connect

The TA-2 Water Boiler Reactor Decommissioning Project decontaminated and decommissioned the Water Boiler Reactor, TA-2-1-122, at Los Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, to provide reusable space at the TA-2 site and to eliminate the hazard of accidental intrusion into a contaminated structure. This report documents the radiological condition of the site after the decommissioning and decontamination between June 1989 and April 1990. 7 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Montoya, G.M.

1991-05-01

365

Fixed-Price Subcontracting for Decontamination and Decommissioning of Small Facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Abandoned facilities were decontaminated and decommissioned in preparation for final remediation of Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 4 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The facilities varied in age from approximately 5 years to more than 40 years, with radiological conditions ranging from clean to highly contaminated with fission products. A fixed-price subcontract (FPSC) was awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Management (EM) Management and Integration (M&I) contractor for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of these facilities. Included in the FPSC scope were the following: preparation of pre-D&D regulatory documentation; demolition of surface structures to slab; stabilization of below-grade structures; waste management and disposal; and preparation of post-D&D regulatory documentation. Using stand-off techniques to the extent possible, building structures and ancillary equipment were prepared for demolition and demolished. A fixative coating system was used in conjunction with continuous water misting to control airborne contamination. Demolition waste consisted of two major streams: clean construction and demolition waste and low-level (radioactive) waste. The debris was size-reduced and packaged, again via remote means. At all times during the D&D, personnel safety, environmental compliance, and as low as reasonably achievable exposure considerations were paramount. Upon completion of D&D activities, each site was inspected and accepted by the M&I contractor. This project is a success story for fixed-price subcontracting of D&D work under DOE's M&I arrangement.

Harper, M. A.; Julius, J. F. K.; McKenna, M. K.

2002-02-26

366

Testing, expanding and implementing pollution prevention tools for environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning  

SciTech Connect

Pollution Prevention (P2) programs and projects within the DOE Environmental Restoration (ER) and Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Programs have been independently developed and implemented at various sites. As a result, unique, innovative solutions used at one site may not be known to other sites, and other sites may continue to duplicate efforts to develop and implement similar solutions. Several DOE Program offices have funded the development of tools to assist ER/D and D P2 projects. To realize the full value of these tools, they need to be evaluated and publicized to field sites. To address these needs and concerns, Sandia National Laboratory (SNL/NM), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) have teamed to pilot test DOE training and tracking tools; transfer common P2 analyses between sites, and evaluate and expand P2 tools and methodologies. The project is supported by FY 98 DOE Pollution Prevention Complex-Wide Project Funds. This paper presents the preliminary results for each of the following project modules: Training, Waste Tracking Pilot, Information Exchange, Evaluate P2 Tools for ER/D and D, Field Test of P2 Tools; and DOE Information Exchange.

Roybal, J.A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McInroy, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Watson, J. [GTS Duratek, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mizner, J. [ICF Kaiser, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-06-01

367

Colonie Interim Storage Site annual site environmental report for calendar year 1989, Colonie, New York  

SciTech Connect

IN 1984, Congress assigned the cleanup of the National Lead (NL) Industries site in Colonie, New York, to the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a decontamination research and development project under the 1984 Energy and Water Appropriations Act. DOE then included the site in the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), an existing DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain for the early years of the nation's atomic energy program. DOE instituted an environmental monitoring program at the site in 1984. Results are presented annually in reports such as this. Under FUSRAP, the first environmental monitoring report for this site presented data for calendar year 1984. This report presents the findings of the environmental monitoring program conducted during calendar year 1989. 16 refs., 17 figs., 14 tabs.

Not Available

1990-05-01

368

Infrasound Observations from the Source Physics Experiment (Tests 1, 2, and 3) at the Nevada National Security Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall mission of the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS) Source Physics Experiment (SPE-N) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) near Las Vegas, Nevada is to improve upon and develop new physics-based models for underground nuclear explosions using scaled, underground chemical explosions as proxies. Infrasound has been used for many years to study explosive sources both above and below ground. For most of these studies, the explosions were single shot events located in different areas. With the SPE-N series of explosions, we have the rare opportunity to study infrasound generated by a well-characterized source from the same borehole. This reduces the number of variables that must be accounted for when generating models using the acoustic data. At the time of submission, the first three explosive tests (SPE-N-1, SPE-N-2, and SPE-N-3) were successfully conducted on May 3, 2011, October 25, 2011, and July 24, 2012, respectively. SPE-N-1 had a yield of 0.1 ton at a depth of 60 m with a scaled depth of burial of 1,026 m. This explosion was used as a calibration shot as it was the first in the series. SPE-N-2 and SPE-N-3 both had a yield of 1 ton at a depth of 45 m, corresponding to a scaled depth of burial of 357 m. The acoustic amplitudes ranged from ~0.5 Pa at 225 m, to not being detected after 1 km for the SPE-N-1; and ~14 Pa at 225 m, to ~0.1 Pa at 5 km for SPE-N-2 and ~10 Pa to ~0.1 Pa for SPE-N-3. We will focus on detailed acoustic observations from all three tests as well as our efforts to model the infrasound generation at the surface in the area above the explosion.lt;img border=0 src="images/S21C-04_B.jpg">

Jones, K. R.; Arrowsmith, S.; Whitaker, R. W.

2012-12-01

369

Energy balance comparison of the Hartheim forest and an adjacent grassland site during the HartX experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy balance components over a grassland surface were compared to those obtained above an adjacent, uniform Scots pine plantation during a five-day period of fine, sunny, spring weather. Soils were judged to contain ample water. Shortwave and total radiation flux densities were measured at both sites with pyranometers and total pyrradiometers. Soil heat flux densities were measured with heat flux plates at both sites, and additional storage changes were estimated for air and canopy at the forest site. The forest gained more shortwave energy than the grassland during daytime because of its lower albedo, but it lost more longwave radiation at night. The turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent energy were evaluated with the Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) method at both sites. Temperature and humidity gradients were measured with fixed psychrometers at the grassland site, and with interchanging psychrometers at the forest site. Mean daily evapotranspiration (ET) averaged 2.26 mm over the five days for the Scots pine, or only 57 percent of the 3.94 mm measured at the grassland site. The mean Bowen ratios were 2.6 and 0.8, respectively. An error analysis was carried out for the BREB estimates of latent heat flux at the two sites. For a given error in latent heat flux and at a specified Bowen ratio the demands on accuracy of dry- and wet-bulb temperature gradients above the rough forest canopy was found to be 10 times higher than above the smoother grassland. If additionally the observed differences in transpiration rates between the two sites were taken into account, the precision for temperature gradient measurements above the slowly transpiring forest becomes fortyfold greater than required above the rapidly transpiring grass. At present, BREB precision requirements for gradients above rougher, drier canopies appear achievable only through use of specialized instrumentation, such as measurement systems that incorporate interchangeable psychrometers into their design.

Wicke, W.; Bernhofer, Ch.

1996-03-01

370

Refined Preparation and Use of Anti-diglycine Remnant (K-?-GG) Antibody Enables Routine Quantification of 10,000s of Ubiquitination Sites in Single Proteomics Experiments*  

PubMed Central

Detection of endogenous ubiquitination sites by mass spectrometry has dramatically improved with the commercialization of anti-di-glycine remnant (K-?-GG) antibodies. Here, we describe a number of improvements to the K-?-GG enrichment workflow, including optimized antibody and peptide input requirements, antibody cross-linking, and improved off-line fractionation prior to enrichment. This refined and practical workflow enables routine identification and quantification of ?20,000 distinct endogenous ubiquitination sites in a single SILAC experiment using moderate amounts of protein input. PMID:23266961

Udeshi, Namrata D.; Svinkina, Tanya; Mertins, Philipp; Kuhn, Eric; Mani, D. R.; Qiao, Jana W.; Carr, Steven A.

2013-01-01

371

Biological Safety Cabinets, Decontamination or Sterilization with Paraformaldehyde  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores were used to determine the exposure time for formaldehyde decontamination of biological safety cabinets. Formaldehyde contact times less than 3?hr were insufficient for sterilization. A contact time of 4?hr or more resulted in a reproducible killing of the spore strips placed inside the cabinets. At 6?hr sufficient formaldehyde had diffused through the high efficiency particulate

RICHARD FINK; DANIEL F. LIBERMAN; KIM MURPHY; DAVID LUPO; EITAN ISRAELI

1988-01-01

372

Ultrasonic decontamination of prototype fast breeder reactor fuel pins.  

PubMed

Fuel pin decontamination is the process of removing particulates of radioactive material from its exterior surface. It is an important process step in nuclear fuel fabrication. It assumes more significance with plutonium bearing fuel known to be highly radio-toxic owing to its relatively longer biological half life and shorter radiological half life. Release of even minute quantity of plutonium oxide powder in the atmosphere during its handling can cause alarming air borne activity and may pose a severe health hazard to personnel working in the vicinity. Decontamination of fuel pins post pellet loading operation is thus mandatory before they are removed from the glove box for further processing and assembly. This paper describes the setting up of ultrasonic decontamination process, installed inside a custom built fume-hood in the production line, comprising of a cleaning tank with transducers, heaters, pin handling device and water filtration system and its application in cleaning of fuel pins for prototype fast breeder reactor. The cleaning process yielded a typical decontamination efficiency of more than 99%. PMID:24405906

Kumar, Aniruddha; Bhatt, R B; Behere, P G; Afzal, Mohd

2014-04-01

373

Infection and decontamination of citrus-canker-inoculated leaf surfaces  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is now considered endemic in Florida and continues to spread. Personnel and equipment decontamination is practiced in both disease-endemic and disease-free areas to reduce the risk of bacterial spread by man or machinery. We used grapefruit leaf su...

374

Ris-R-1029(EN) Mechanical decontamination tests in  

E-print Network

Risø-R-1029(EN) Mechanical decontamination tests in areas affected by the Chernobyl accident J of one of the houses was replaced with a new roof. This reduced the Chernobyl related dose rate by 10;3 Contents 1 Introduction 7 1.1 The Chernobyl Accident 7 1.2 The Contamination of Novozybkov district 8 1

375

10. INTERIOR VIEW OF DECONTAMINATION ROOM ON MAIN FLOOR. CAMERA ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. INTERIOR VIEW OF DECONTAMINATION ROOM ON MAIN FLOOR. CAMERA FACING SOUTH. NOTE DRAIN PAN ON FLOOR. THIS WAS THE ONLY PROCESS-RELATED ROOM ACCESSIBLE TO PHOTOGRAPHER. INEEL PROOF SHEET NOT NUMBERED. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

376

8. DETAIL VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF BUILDING, DECONTAMINATION ROOM. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. DETAIL VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF BUILDING, DECONTAMINATION ROOM. BETWEEN DATE OF THIS VIEW AND THAT OF ID-33-C-4, EXTERIOR TANK AND PIPING HAS BEEN REMOVED. INEEL PROOF NUMBER HD-17-1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

377

Worker Protection Standard: Decontamination Frederick M. Fishel2  

E-print Network

for washing off pesticides and pesticide residues are provided to handlers while they are doing handling tasks. Employers must make sure that decontamination supplies for washing off pesticide residues are provided is PI-116, one of a series of the Pesticide Information Office, Florida Cooperative Extension Service

Watson, Craig A.

378

Atmospheric-pressure plasma decontamination/sterilization chamber  

DOEpatents

An atmospheric-pressure plasma decontamination/sterilization chamber is described. The apparatus is useful for decontaminating sensitive equipment and materials, such as electronics, optics and national treasures, which have been contaminated with chemical and/or biological warfare agents, such as anthrax, mustard blistering agent, VX nerve gas, and the like. There is currently no acceptable procedure for decontaminating such equipment. The apparatus may also be used for sterilization in the medical and food industries. Items to be decontaminated or sterilized are supported inside the chamber. Reactive gases containing atomic and metastable oxygen species are generated by an atmospheric-pressure plasma discharge in a He/O.sub.2 mixture and directed into the region of these items resulting in chemical reaction between the reactive species and organic substances. This reaction typically kills and/or neutralizes the contamination without damaging most equipment and materials. The plasma gases are recirculated through a closed-loop system to minimize the loss of helium and the possibility of escape of aerosolized harmful substances.

Herrmann, Hans W. (Los Alamos, NM); Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-01-01

379

Decontamination Methods For Drinking Water Treatment And Distribution Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

Once contamination has occurred in drinking water systems and the contaminated segment has been isolated from other parts of the system, there will be great urgency to decontaminate the areas as rapidly and cost effectively as possible. This article describes available and deve...

380

Decontamination of Radionuclides from Concrete During and After Thermal Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to clarify from the theoretical viewpoint the mechanical, diffusional, thermodynamic and electromagnetic aspects of the decontaminations problem, by means of developing a powerful computational model to evaluate the effect of a very rapid heating regime on the on the contaminated concrete walls or slabs. The practical objective was to assess the feasibility of the microwave heating scheme

Bazant

1998-01-01

381

Development of a remotely operated concrete decontamination vehicle. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document describes the design, fabrication, testing and demonstration of a remotely operated (tethered) concrete scabbling vehicle. This vehicle was designed to remotely decontaminate concrete floor surfaces in nuclear facilities, and thereby increase productivity and reduce operator radiation exposure. The completed unit consists of a tethered chassis, a portable remote control console, a seven cylinder scabbler head, and a vacuum

H. G. Baker; A. V. Cugini; S. Lefkowitz

1985-01-01

382

Surface concrete decontamination equipment developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents a project that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted to identify and develop techniques for removing contaminated concrete surfaces. A major problem associated with nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning is how to economically demolish and dispose of contaminated concrete. Removing only the contaminated portion of the concrete can substantially reduce costs. Evaluation of various methods for removing concrete

J. M. Halter; R. G. Sullivan; J. L. Bevan

1982-01-01

383

Decontamination in the Aftermath of a Radiological Attack  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the damage caused by a radiological weapon would result from long-term contamination, yet the U.S. lacks a coherent plan for cleanup in the aftermath of an attack. A rapidly implemented decontamination strategy could minimize economic damage by restoring normal activity, when possible, and could ease the cleanup process, which can become more difficult as time passes. Loose dust

Jaime Yassif

2004-01-01

384

Progress of electro-hydraulic scabbling technology for concrete decontamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concrete decontamination from organics, metals, and radionuclides requires removal of up to one inch of the surface layer. The Electro- Hydraulic Scabbling (EHS) technique has been developed within a 3- phase program. A prototype 8 kW EHS unit was designed and assembled in Phase II. This system was tested initially by scabbling noncontaminated concrete, and later at the DOE Fernald

V. Goldfarb; R. Gannon

1997-01-01

385

DECONTAMINATION OF RADIONUCLIDES FROM CONCRETE DURING AND AFTER THERMAL TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The total area of contaminated concrete within all DOE facilities is estimated at 7.9 x 108 ft2 or approximately 18,000 acres with the major contaminating radionuclides being U, 90Sr, 60Co, and 137Cs (Dickerson et al. 1995). Techniques to decontaminate concrete through the appli...

386

Contaminated concrete: Occurrence and emerging technologies for DOE decontamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals of the Facility Deactivation, Decommissioning, and Material Disposition Focus Area, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development, are to select, demonstrate, test, and evaluate an integrated set of technologies tailored to provide a complete solution to specific problems posed by deactivation, decontamination, and decommissioning, (D&D). In response to these goals, technical task plan

K. S. Dickerson; M. J. Wilson-Nichols; M. I. Morris

1995-01-01

387

WIRELESS ELECTROCHEMICAL CLO2 MONITOR FOR DECONTAMINATION OPERATIONS - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has identified the need for an accurate and field-rugged instrument to monitor chlorine dioxide (ClO2) for use in monitoring building decontamination operations. The proposed Phase I study will evaluate the feasibil...

388

WIRELESS ELECTROCHEMICAL CLO2 MONITOR FOR DECONTAMINATION OPERATIONS - PHASE II  

EPA Science Inventory

Recognizing the importance of ClO2 in disinfection and decontamination operations, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) had identified the need for portable, accurate and field-rugged chlorine dioxide (ClO2) monitors for use in monitoring buildi...

389

Decontamination of 2-Chloroethyl Ethyl Sulfide by Pulsed Corona Plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decontamination of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2-CEES, CH3CH2SCH2CH2Cl) by pulsed corona plasma was investigated. The results show that 212.6 mg/m3 of 2-CEES, with the gas flow rate of 2 m3/h, can be decontaminated to 0.09 mg/m3. According to the variation of the inlet and outlet concentration of 2-CEES vapor with retention time, it is found that the reaction of 2-CEES in a pulsed corona plasma system follows the first order reaction, with the reaction rate constant of 0.463 s?1. The decontamination mechanism is discussed based on an analysis of the dissociation energy of chemical bonds and decontamination products. The C–S bond adjacent to the Cl atom will be destroyed firstly to form CH3CH2S· and ·CH2CH2Cl radicals. CH3CH2S· can be decomposed to ·C2H5 and ·S. ·S can be oxidized to SO2, while ·C2H5 can be finally oxidized to CO2 and H2O. The C–Cl bond in the ·CH2CH2Cl radical can be destroyed to form ·CH2CH2. and ·Cl, which can be mineralized to CO2, H2O and HCl. The H atom in the ·CH2CH2Cl radical can also be substituted by ·Cl to form CHCl2–CHCl2.

Li, Zhanguo; Hu, Zhen; Cao, Peng; Zhao, Hongjie

2014-11-01

390

Chemical decontamination technical resources at Los Alamos National Laboratory (2008)  

SciTech Connect

This document supplies information resources for a person seeking to create planning or pre-planning documents for chemical decontamination operations. A building decontamination plan can be separated into four different sections: Pre-planning, Characterization, Decontamination (Initial response and also complete cleanup), and Clearance. Of the identified Los Alamos resources, they can be matched with these four sections: Pre-planning -- Dave Seidel, EO-EPP, Emergency Planning and Preparedness; David DeCroix and Bruce Letellier, D-3, Computational fluids modeling of structures; Murray E. Moore, RP-2, Aerosol sampling and ventilation engineering. Characterization (this can include development projects) -- Beth Perry, IAT-3, Nuclear Counterterrorism Response (SNIPER database); Fernando Garzon, MPA-11, Sensors and Electrochemical Devices (development); George Havrilla, C-CDE, Chemical Diagnostics and Engineering; Kristen McCabe, B-7, Biosecurity and Public Health. Decontamination -- Adam Stively, EO-ER, Emergency Response; Dina Matz, IHS-IP, Industrial hygiene; Don Hickmott, EES-6, Chemical cleanup. Clearance (validation) -- Larry Ticknor, CCS-6, Statistical Sciences.

Moore, Murray E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

391

The International Atomic Energy Agency's program on decontamination and decommissioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Atomic energy Agency (IAEA) is developing an integrated information base that will systematically cover the technical, regulatory, radiation protection, planning, and economic aspects related to the decontamination and decommissioning (D\\/D) of nuclear facilities. The object of this program is to assist member states in developing the required expertise, equipment, and programs so that they can decommission their nuclear

Feraday

1989-01-01

392

Legionella on board trains: effectiveness of environmental surveillance and decontamination  

PubMed Central

Background Legionella pneumophila is increasingly recognised as a significant cause of sporadic and epidemic community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. Many studies describe the frequency and severity of Legionella spp. contamination in spa pools, natural pools, hotels and ships, but there is no study analysing the environmental monitoring of Legionella on board trains. The aims of the present study were to conduct periodic and precise environmental surveillance of Legionella spp. in water systems and water tanks that supply the toilet systems on trains, to assess the degree of contamination of such structures and to determine the effectiveness of decontamination. Methods A comparative pre-post ecological study was conducted from September 2006 to January 2011. A total of 1,245 water samples were collected from plumbing and toilet water tanks on passenger trains. The prevalence proportion of all positive samples was calculated. The unpaired t-test was performed to evaluate statistically significant differences between the mean load values before and after the decontamination procedures; statistical significance was set at p???0.05. Results In the pre-decontamination period, 58% of the water samples were positive for Legionella. Only Legionella pneumophila was identified: 55.84% were serogroup 1, 19.03% were serogroups 2–14 and 25.13% contained both serogroups. The mean bacterial load value was 2.14?×?103?CFU/L. During the post-decontamination period, 42.75% of water samples were positive for Legionella spp.; 98.76% were positive for Legionella pneumophila: 74.06% contained serogroup 1, 16.32% contained serogroups 2–14 and 9.62% contained both. The mean bacterial load in the post-decontamination period was 1.72?×?103?CFU/L. According to the t-test, there was a statistically significant decrease in total bacterial load until approximately one and a half year after beginning the decontamination programme (p?=?0.0097). Conclusions This study indicates that systematic environmental surveillance could be a useful approach for assessing the risk of exposure to Legionella bacteria, which still represents a public health threat. According to the study results, an environmental surveillance programme, followed by decontamination procedures where necessary, would decrease the total bacterial count, protecting the health of travellers and workers. PMID:22870945

2012-01-01

393

Decontamination Processes for Restorative Operations and as a Precursor to Decommissioning: A Literature Review  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted an comprehensive literature review of actual reactor decontamination processes that are currently available. In general, any decontamination process should be based on the following criteria: effectiveness, efficiency, safety, and waste production. The information that was collected and analyzed has been divided into three major categories of decontamination: chemical, mechanical, and electrochemical. Chemical methods can be further classified as either low-concentration, singlestep processes or high-concentration, single- or multistep processes. Numerous chemical decontamination methods are detailed. Mechanical decontamination methods are usually restricted to the removal of a contaminated surface layer, whlch limits their versatility; several mechanical decontamination methods are described. Electrochemical decontamination. is both fast and easily controlled, and numerous processes that have been used in industry for many years are discussed. Information obtained from this work is tabulated in Appendix A for easy access, and a bibliography and a glossary have been provided.

Nelson, J. L.; Divine, J. R.

1981-05-01

394

Efficacy of decontaminants and disinfectants against Clostridium difficile.  

PubMed

Clostridium difficile is a common nosocomial pathogen transmitted mainly via its spores. These spores can remain viable on contaminated surfaces for several months and are resistant to most commonly used cleaning agents. Thus, effective decontamination of the environment is essential in preventing the transmission of C. difficile in health-care establishments. However, this emphasis on decontamination must also be extended to laboratories due to risk of exposure of staff to potentially virulent strains. Though few cases of laboratory-acquired infection have been reported, the threat of infection by C. difficile in the laboratory is real. Our aim was to test the efficacy of four disinfectants, Actichlor, MicroSol 3+, TriGene Advance and Virkon, and one laboratory decontaminant, Decon 90, against vegetative cells and spores of C. difficile. Five strains were selected for the study: the three most commonly encountered epidemic strains in Scotland, PCR ribotypes 106, 001 and 027, and control strains 630 and VPI 10463. MICs were determined by agar dilution and broth microdilution. All the agents tested inhibited the growth of vegetative cells of the selected strains at concentrations below the recommended working concentrations. Additionally, their effect on spores was determined by exposing the spores of these strains to different concentrations of the agents for different periods of time. For some of the agents, an exposure of 10 min was required for sporicidal activity. Further, only Actichlor was able to bring about a 3 log(10) reduction in spore numbers under clean and dirty conditions. It was also the only agent that decontaminated different hard, non-porous surfaces artificially contaminated with C. difficile spores. However, this too required an exposure time of more than 2 min and up to 10 min. In conclusion, only the chlorine-releasing agent Actichlor was found to be suitable for the elimination of C. difficile spores from the environment, making it the agent of choice for the decontamination of laboratory surfaces. PMID:21474613

Vohra, Prerna; Poxton, Ian R

2011-08-01

395

Mercury bioaccumulation and decontamination kinetics in the edible cockle Cerastoderma edule.  

PubMed

Mercury bioaccumulation and decontamination kinetics in the edible cockle Cerastoderma edule were studied through a mesocosms experiment after a medium-term exposure to the metal. The results revealed that the bivalve presented distinct bioaccumulation kinetics according to the different tissues. While the gills showed a linear accumulation pattern, the digestive gland and the entire organism presented a saturation model, with higher accumulation during the first 7d of exposure and lower during the rest of the time. In addition, the bioaccumulation rate was not proportional to the Hg concentration, since the organisms under lower contamination presented higher bioconcentration factors than the ones under higher contamination. Gills were the tissues with higher mercury accumulation capability. Concerning the decontamination phase, C. edule lost approximately 80% of the mercury after 24h exposure in clean seawater. Nevertheless, never reached the original condition, showing in the final (20 d detox), Hg levels (>0.5 ppm) higher than those allowed by the legislation regulating human food consumption. This represents a matter of concern for Human health. PMID:23141557

Cardoso, P G; Grilo, T F; Pereira, E; Duarte, A C; Pardal, M A

2013-02-01

396

Cladding hull decontamination and densification process. Part 2. Densification by inductoslag melting  

SciTech Connect

The Inductoslag melting process was developed to densify Zircaloy-4 cladding hulls. It is a cold crucible process that uses induction heating, a segmented water-cooled copper crucible, and a calcium fluoride flux. Metal and flux are fed into the furnace through the crucible, located at the top of the furnace, and the finished ingot is withdrawn from the bottom of the furnace. Melting rates of 40 to 50 kg/h are achieved, using 100 to 110 kW at an average energy use of 2.5 kWh/kg. The quality of ingots produced from factory supplied cladding tubing is sufficient to satisfy nuclear grade standards. An ingot of Zircaloy-4, made from melted cladding tubing that had been autoclaved to near reactor exposure and then descaled by the hydrogen fluoride decontamination process prior to Inductoslag melting, did not meet nuclear grade standards because the hydrogen, nitrogen, and hardness levels were too high. Melting development work is described that could possibly be used to test the capability of the Inductoslag process to satisfactorily melt a variety and mix of materials from LWR reprocessing, decontamination, and storage options. Results of experiments are also presented that could be used to improve remote operation of the melting process.

Nelson, R.G.; Montgomery, D.R.

1980-04-01

397

Adjunctive use of monthly physician questionnaires for surveillance of surgical site infections after hospital discharge and in ambulatory surgical patients: Report of a seven-year experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report our experience with the use of monthly physician questionnaires, in conjunction with traditional in-house monitoring, for surveillance of surgical site infections (SSIs) in inpatients after hospital discharge and in ambulatory surgical patients (i.e., those not requiring perioperative hospitalization) over a 7-year period (July 1988 to June 1995) involving 156,977 surgical procedures. The mean annual response rate was 73%

Farrin A. Manian; Lynn Meyer

1997-01-01

398

Interpretation of seismic data from hydraulic fracturing experiments at the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, hot dry rock geothermal site  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt was made to synthesize the results of active seismic experiments carried out by the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Hot Dry Rock Project staff for determining the geometrical and physical properties of the fracture system produced by hydraulic fracturing in a hot, low-permeability rock. Interpretation of data from several reflection, transmission, and attenuation experiments using seismic probes in the

Keiiti Aki; Michael Fehler; R. L. Aamodt; J. N. Albright; R. M. Potter; C. M. Pearson; J. W. Tester

1982-01-01

399

Investigating the Macrodispersion Experiment (MADE) site in Columbus, Mississippi, using a three-dimensional inverse flow and transport model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flowmeter-measured hydraulic conductivities from the heterogeneous MADE site have been used predictively in advection-dispersion models. Resulting simulated concentrations failed to reproduce even major plume characteristics and some have concluded that other mechanisms, such as dual porosity, are important. Here an alternative possibility is investigated: that the small-scale flowmeter measurements are too noisy and possibly too biased to use so directly in site-scale models and that the hydraulic head and transport data are more suitable for site-scale characterization. Using a calibrated finite element model of the site and a new framework to evaluate random and systematic model and measurement errors, the following conclusions are derived. (1) If variations in subsurface fluid velocities like those simulated in this work (0.1 and 2.0 m per day along parallel and reasonably close flow paths) exist, it is likely that classical advection-dispersion processes can explain the measured plume characteristics. (2) The flowmeter measurements are possibly systematically lower than site-scale values when the measurements are considered individually and using common averaging methods and display variability that obscures abrupt changes in hydraulic conductivities that are well supported by changes in hydraulic gradients and are important to the simulation of transport.

Barlebo, H.C.; Hill, M.C.; Rosbjerg, D.

2004-01-01

400

ANL CP-5 decontamination and decommissioning project necessary and sufficient pilot. Report of the standards identification team on the selection of the necessary and sufficient standards set  

SciTech Connect

The CP-5 reactor was a heavy-water moderated and cooled, highly-enriched uranium-fueled thermal reactor designed for supplying neutrons for research. The reactor was operated almost continuously for 25 years until its final shutdown in 1979. It is situated on approximately three acres in the southwestern section of Argonne National Laboratory. In 1980, all nuclear fuel and the heavy water that could be drained from the process systems were shipped off-site, and the CP-5 facility was placed into lay-up pending funding for decommissioning. It was maintained in the lay-up condition with a minimum of maintenance until 1990, when the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) project began. This D and D project provides for the disassembly and removal of all radioactive components, equipment, and structures that are associated with the CP-5 facility. The experimental area around the CP-5 reactor has been prepared for D and D, and the area outside the facility has been remediated. The reactor primary coolant and support systems have been removed and packaged as waste. The significant remaining tasks are (1) removal of the reactor internals and the biological shield structure; (2) decontamination of the rod storage area; (3) decontamination of the various radioactive material storage and handling facilities, including the fuel pool; and (4) decontamination and dismantlement of the building. This report describes the scope of the project, identification of standards for various aspects of the project, the lessons learned, and consideration for implementation.

NONE

1996-05-01

401

Change Detection via Cross-Borehole and VSP Seismic Surveys for the Source Physics Experiments (SPE) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In support of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), we have conducted two cross-borehole seismic experiments in the Climax Stock. The first experiment was conducted prior to the third shot in this multi-detonation program using two available boreholes and the shot hole, while the second experiment was conducted after the shot using four of the available boreholes. The first study focused on developing a well-characterized 2D pre-explosion Vp model including two VSPs and a seismic refraction survey, as well as quantifying baseline waveform similarity at reoccupied sites. This was accomplished by recording both "sparker" and accelerated weight drop sources on a hydrophone string and surface geophones. In total more than 18,500 unique source-receiver pairs were acquired during this testing. In the second experiment, we reacquired aproximately 8,800 source-receiver pairs and performed a cross-line survey allowing for a 3D post-explosion Vp model. The data acquired from the reoccupied sites was processed using cross-correlation methods and change detection methodologies, including comparison of the tomographic images. The survey design and subsequent processing provided an opportunity to investigate seismic wave propagation through damaged rock. We also performed full waveform forward modelling for a granitic body hosting a perched aquifer. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Knox, H. A.; Abbott, R. E.; Bonal, N. D.; Aldridge, D. F.; Preston, L. A.; Ober, C.

2012-12-01

402

Detection of decontamination solution chelating agents using ion selective coated-wire electrodes  

SciTech Connect

This thesis explores feasibility of using coated-wire electrodes to measure chelating agent concentration. Chelating agents are often found in radioactive decontamination solutions because they aid in the removal of radionuclides from contaminated surfaces by increasing their solubility. However, this characteristic will also enhance the mobility of the radionuclide and thus its transport out of a waste disposal site. Coated-wire ion selective electrodes, based on a polyvinylchloride membrane using dioctylphthalate as a plasticizer and dinonylnaphthalenesulfonic acid as a counterion, were constructed for five commonly utilized chelating agents (ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), citric acid, oxalic acid and tartaric add). The EDTA and NTA electrodes` calibration characteristics exhibited acceptable behavior in pure standard solutions. From data obtained while using the EDTA and NTA electrodes in a cement environment, further research needs to be done in the area of ion interference.

Banks, M.L. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)

1992-12-31

403

Decontamination and dismantlement of the Argonne National Laboratory-East Map Tube Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Map Tube Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) was used to temporarily store small, highly radioactive objects and waste materials. The facility contained 129 cast-iron pipes set vertically in a 21 feet deep concrete monolithic structure. Deterioration of the unit allowed water to enter the pipes, carrying radioactive materials into surrounding soil and groundwater. Radioactive sediment and numerous small metallic objects were found in the pipes. Decontamination was undertaken to remove the radioactive water and sediment. The highly radioactive metallic objects were removed and characterized. Residual radioactivity was removed from the structure by removing each pipe from the concrete matrix through a deep concrete coring operation. Each 21 foot long pipe was removed from the concrete matrix as a single unit, lead in two joints in each pipe was removed and the cores were shipped to the DOE Hanford site for disposal. The coring operation successfully removed all residual radioactive material from the structure.

Moos, L.P.; Wescott, J.B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Fleming, D.L. [Jacobs Engineering Group, St. Charles, MO (United States); Subbaraman, G.; Horton, P. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Energy Technology Engineering Center

1994-12-31

404

Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the ORNL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program FY 1993--2002  

SciTech Connect

The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration D&D program. The purpose and objectivesof this program include: (1) surveillance and maintenance (S&M) of facilities awaiting decommissioning; (2) planning for the orderly decommissioning of these facilities; and (3) implementation of a program to accomplish facility disposition in a safe, cost-effective, and timely manner. Participating D&D contractors are required to prepare formal plans that document the S&M programs established for each site. This report has been prepared to provide this documentation for those facilities included in the ORNL D&D Program.

Ford, M.K.; Holder, L. Jr.

1992-07-01

405

Decontamination of adsorbed chemical warfare agents on activated carbon using hydrogen peroxide solutions.  

PubMed

Mild treatment with hydrogen peroxide solutions (3-30%) efficiently decomposes adsorbed chemical warfare agents (CWAs) on microporous activated carbons used in protective garments and air filters. Better than 95% decomposition of adsorbed sulfur mustard (HD), sarin, and VX was achieved at ambient temperatures within 1-24 h, depending on the H2O2 concentration. HD was oxidized to the nontoxic HD-sulfoxide. The nerve agents were perhydrolyzed to the respective nontoxic methylphosphonic acids. The relative rapidity of the oxidation and perhydrolysis under these conditions is attributed to the microenvironment of the micropores. Apparently, the reactions are favored due to basic sites on the carbon surface. Our findings suggest a potential environmentally friendly route for decontamination of adsorbed CWAs, using H2O2 without the need of cosolvents or activators. PMID:25133545

Osovsky, Ruth; Kaplan, Doron; Nir, Ido; Rotter, Hadar; Elisha, Shmuel; Columbus, Ishay

2014-09-16

406

Heat flow experiment. [direct measurement of vertical flow of heat through lunar soil in Apollo 17 lunar landing site area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The heat flow experiment conducted during the Apollo 17 flight in the Taurus-Littrow area of the moon is discussed. The concept of the experiment is based on the direct measurement of the vertical flow of heat through the regolith. The measurement is made far enough below the surface so that the time-varying heat flow resulting from the very large diurnal variations of the surface temperature is small as compared with the flow from the interior. The equipment used for the experiment is described and illustrated. Graphs are developed to present the results of heat flow and surface temperature measurements.

Langseth, M. G., Jr.; Keihm, S. J.; Chute, J. L., Jr.

1973-01-01

407

Abandoned sites. January 1988-February 1992 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 88-Feb 92  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the identification, assessment, and decontamination of foreign and domestic sites of pollution. Topics include hazardous materials, mill tailings, radioactive wastes, regulations, remedial action, and pollution. (Contains 156 citations with title list and subject index.)

Not Available

1992-01-01

408

Thermal and physical property determination for IONSIV/256 IE-911 crystalline silicotitanate and Savannah River Site waste simulant solutions  

SciTech Connect

This document describes physical and thermophysical property determinations that were made in order to resolve questions associated with the decontamination of Savannah River Site waste streams using ion exchange on crystalline silicotitanate.

NONE

1999-12-08

409

Properties and classification of soils of the Swedish long-term fertility experiments: V. Sites at Vreta Kloster and Högåsa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of this study was to discover the most limiting soil properties for crop production at two fertility sites. The Vreta Kloster soil, classified as a very fine, mixed, semiactive Oxyaquic Haplocryoll, according to the Soil Taxonomy and as a Haplic Phaeozem according to the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB), consisted of very dark greyish brown

Holger Kirchmann; Sven Snäll; Jan Eriksson; Lennart Mattsson

2005-01-01

410

Acoustic Emissions as a Tool for Hydraulic Fracture Location: Experience at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microearthquakes with magnitudes between -6 and -2 have been observed in three successive massive injections of water at the hot dry rock geothermal energy development project's demonstration site at Fenton Hill, NM. The injections were part of a program to increase the heat transfer area of hydraulic fractures and to decrease the flow-through impedance between wells in the energy extraction

James Albright; Christopher Pearson

1982-01-01

411

EVALUATION OF ISOTOPIC DIAGNOSTICS FOR SUBSURFACE CHARACTERIZATION AND MONITORING: FIELD EXPERIMENTS AT THE TAN AND RWMC (SDA) SITES, INEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The research will explore and refine the use of isotopic ratio measurements on aquifer roundwaters and vadose zone gas for improving remediation strategies and increasing the efficiency of ongoing remediation activities at the TAN and RWMC (SDA) sites at Idaho National Engineerin...

412

Intermediate photovoltaic-system application experiment operational performance report. Volume 1. For Mt. Laguna Radar Station Site, Mt. Laguna, CA  

SciTech Connect

A program for constructing a remote military photovoltaic power network and for demonstrating that a dc-ac photovoltaic energy conversion system, without on site energy storage, can effectively augment a diesel-powered electric grid, is outlined. Included are a list of participants, insolation and operating data, definitions of operational and data collection modes, system specifications and subsystem descriptions. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-07-01

413

Tank Leak Experiment at the Monk Tank Site, 200 East Area: Electrical Resistance Tomography-Preliminary Results  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the electrical resistance tomography (ERT) work performed at the Mock Tank site, 200 East Area, Hanford Reservation, during the months of July and August, 2001. The work reported herein is to be considered preliminary because it is work in progress. Some of the analyses and interpretation of results are incomplete at this time.

Ramirez, A.; Daily, W.D.; Binley, A.

2001-09-20

414

Overview of a 10-year experience on methods and compositions for inducing site-specific immunosuppression with topical immunosuppressants.  

PubMed

Methods and formulations have been successfully developed to bring about site-specific immune suppression of local T-cell-mediated immune responses involved in contact hypersensitivity, skin allograft rejection, and, putatively, autoimmune inflammatory conditions such as psoriasis. The induction of site-specific immune suppression results in reduced systemic pharmacology and toxicity. Certain formatulations have been devised that can effect dramatic transdermal drug delivery and systemic immunopharmacology. Local site-specific or systemic efficacy by transdermal delivery can be dependent upon carrier composition with respect to the hydrophilic/lipophilic nature of the solvent system, active principal solubilization, and concentration. Multiple classes of active immunosuppressive agents can be successfully combined to produce novel and extremely potent topical drugs. Specifically, either cyclosporine or rapamycin inhibit local inflammatory/immune responses by topical application to skin tissue in vivo. Rapamycin is particularly efficacious during the late local inflammatory/immune phase. Cyclosporine is particularly efficacious during the early local inflammatory-immune phase. Also, skin allograft survival may be prolonged via topical use of CyA, alone and in combination with other anti-inflammatory agents. This includes combined immunosuppressant and steroidal anti-inflammatory agents that can produce synergistic results. Systemic immunity in these instances is normal. Expression of MHC class I and MHC class II molecules is dramatically decreased in these CyA/steroid SITE-treated grafts. In summary, the induction of local immune suppression at the tissue site and focal responding immunocytes can result in surprising efficacy when used in conjunction with limited systemic administration, which could have significant immunologic and clinical ramifications. PMID:8623464

Hewitt, C W; Black, K S

1996-04-01

415

Development of haemostatic decontaminants for the treatment of wounds contaminated with chemical warfare agents. 2: Evaluation of in vitro topical decontamination efficacy using undamaged skin.  

PubMed

The risk of penetrating, traumatic injury occurring in a chemically contaminated environment cannot be discounted. Should a traumatic injury be contaminated with a chemical warfare (CW) agent, it is likely that standard haemostatic treatment options would be complicated by the need to decontaminate the wound milieu. Thus, there is a need to develop haemostatic products that can simultaneously arrest haemorrhage and decontaminate CW agents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a number of candidate haemostats for efficacy as skin decontaminants against three CW agents (soman, VX and sulphur mustard) using an in vitro diffusion cell containing undamaged pig skin. One haemostatic product (WoundStat™) was shown to be as effective as the standard military decontaminants Fuller's earth and M291 for the decontamination of all three CW agents. The most effective haemostatic agents were powder-based and use fluid absorption as a mechanism of action to sequester CW agent (akin to the decontaminant Fuller's earth). The envisaged use of haemostatic decontaminants would be to decontaminate from within wounds and from damaged skin. Therefore, WoundStat™ should be subject to further evaluation using an in vitro model of damaged skin. Copyright © 2014 Crown copyright. Journal of Applied Toxicology © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25219755

Dalton, Christopher H; Hall, Charlotte A; Lydon, Helen L; Chipman, J K; Graham, John S; Jenner, John; Chilcott, Robert P

2014-09-12

416

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act corrective measures study: Area 6 decontamination pond facility, corrective action unit no. 92  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 92, the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility (DPF), is an historic disposal unit located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada (Figures 1 - 1, 1-2, and 1-3). The NTS is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), which has been required by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) to characterize the DPF under the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part A Permit (NDEP, 1995) for the NTS and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265 (1996c). The DPF is prioritized in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) but is governed by the permit. The DPF was characterized through sampling events in 1994, 1996, and 1997. The results of these sampling events are contained in the Final Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Site Environmental Restoration Site Characterization Report, Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility, Revision I (DOE/NV, 1997). This Corrective Measures Study (CMS) for the Area 6 DPF has been prepared for the DOE/NV`s Environmental Restoration Project. The CMS has been developed to support the preparation of a Closure Plan for the DPF. Because of the complexities of the contamination and regulatory issues associated with the DPF, DOE/NV determined a CMS would be beneficial to the evaluation and selection of a closure alternative.

NONE

1997-10-01

417

Multi-Institutional Experience Using the MammoSite Radiation Therapy System in the Treatment of Early-Stage Breast Cancer: 2-Year Results  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To present a retrospective multi-institutional experience of patients treated with the MammoSite radiation therapy system (RTS). Methods and Materials: Nine institutions participated in a pooled analysis of data evaluating the clinical experience of the MammoSite RTS for delivering accelerated partial breast irradiation. Between 2000 and 2004, 483 patients were treated with the MammoSite RTS to 34 Gy delivered in 10 fractions. Treatment parameters were analyzed to identify factors affecting outcome. Results: Median follow-up was 24 months (minimum of 1 year). Overall, infection was documented in 9% of patients, but the rate was only 4.8% if the catheter was placed after lumpectomy. Six patients (1.2%) experienced an in-breast failure; four failures occurred remote from the lumpectomy site (elsewhere failure). Cosmetic results were good/excellent in 91% of patients. Treatment parameters identified as significant on univariate analysis were tested in multivariate regression analysis. The closed-cavity placement technique significantly reduced the risk of infection (p = 0.0267). A skin spacing of <6 mm increased the risk of severe acute skin reaction (p 0.0178) and telangiectasia (p = 0.0280). The use of prophylactic antibiotics reduced the risk of severe acute skin reaction (p < 0.0001). The use of multiple dwell positions reduced the risk of severe hyperpigmentation (p 0.0278). Infection was associated with an increased risk of fair or poor overall cosmesis (p = 0.0009). Conclusions: In this series of patients, the MammoSite RTS seems to have acceptable toxicity rates and cosmetic outcomes, comparable to those with whole-breast radiotherapy. On the basis of these data, the closed-cavity placement technique, use of prophylactic antibiotics, use of multiple dwell positions, and a minimum skin spacing of 6 mm seem to improve patient outcome.

Cuttino, Laurie W. [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)], E-mail: lcuttino@mcvh-vcu.edu; Keisch, Martin [Cedars Medical Center, Miami, FL (United States); Jenrette, Joseph M.; Dragun, Anthony E. [Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Prestidge, Bradley R. [Texas Cancer Clinic, San Antonio, TX (United States); Quiet, Coral A. [Arizona Oncology Services, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Vicini, Frank A. [William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Rescigno, John [St. Vincent's Comprehensive Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Wazer, David E.; Kaufman, Seth A. [Rhode Island Hospital/Brown University, Providence, RI (United States); Ramakrishnan, V. Ramesh [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Patel, Rakesh [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Arthur, Douglas W. [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

2008-05-01

418

Chemical decontamination of NORM-contaminated processing equipment  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses the application of chemical decontamination processes to the treatment of processing equipment from the oil and gas production industry, to reduce the activity of the equipment for the purpose of service, repair, or dramatically reduced disposal costs. The author discusses examples of lead 210 and polonium 210 contamination, as well as Radium 226 or 228 contamination, which can be found in greases and hydrocarbons, scales and oxides, is often in inaccessible areas, mixed with other corrosion products as well as the metal surface, and occurs in a variety of chemical forms. Using chemical blends which are registered, often non-toxic and non-corrosive, the author presents examples of decontamination activities which can often be brought off within equipment down times without disrupting other activities.

Zietlow, T.C. [CORPEX Technologies, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1997-12-31

419

Contaminant Organic Complexes: Their Structure and Energetics in Surface Decontamination  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy has a goal of decontaminating an estimated 180,000 metric tons of metal wastes in various surplus facilities. Uranium (U) and other radioactive actinides and lanthanides are embedded within the mixed oxide structures of the passivity layers of corroded iron and steel. These toxic metals can be dissolved out of the surface layers by a naturally occurring bacterial siderophore called Desferrioxamine B (DFB). DFB is a trihydroxamate ligand with one amine and three hydroxamate groups, which chelates with metals through hydroxamate coordination. Complexation of DFB with U can be utilized in decontamination strategy of the passivity layers. Therefore, we have been studying reactions of uranyl U(VI) with zerovalent iron (Fe0) followed by dissolution by DFB. The objectives were to determine the structure and speciation of solution and solid phases of U and to assess the effectiveness of DVB in U dissolution.

Samuel Traina; Shankar Sharma

2005-07-12

420

Ultrasonic decontamination in perfluorinated liquids of radioactive circuit boards  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory-scale ultrasonic decontamination system has been developed to demonstrate the application of Entropic System`s enhanced particle removal process to the radioactive decontamination of electronic circuit boards. The process uses inert perfluorinated liquids as the working media; the liquids have zero ozone depletion potential, are nontoxic, non-flammable, and are generally recognized as nonhazardous materials. The parts to be cleaned are first sonicated with a dilute solution of a high-molecular-weight fluorocarbon surfactant in an inert perfluorinated liquid. The combination of ultrasonic agitation and liquid flow promotes the detachment of the particles from the surface of the part being cleaned, their transfer from the boundary layer into the bulk liquid, and their removal from the cleaning environment, thereby reducing the probability of particle redeposition. After the cleaning process, the parts are rinsed with the pure perfluorinated liquid to remove residual surfactant. The parts are recovered after the perfluorinated liquid is evaporated into air.

Yam, C.S.; Harling, O.K. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Kaiser, R.

1994-12-31

421

Decontamination of concrete surfaces at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

For the past two years the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has been engaged in decontaminating its former plutonium facility. The facility was in use for over 30 years for plutonium operations varying from dry metallurgical processes to wet (solution) recovery processes. To date approximately 3400 square meters of floor surface have been decontaminated to permit re-use for nonplutonium work. Approximately 330 square meters of concrete surfaces required scarifying the contamination after all other attempts such as detergents and acid solutions had proven ineffective. The uses of hand-held and floor type pneumatic scarifiers are described as well as an inexpensive but effective contamination containment chamber built at Los Alamos for use with the hand-held model. Contamination control, waste handling, manpower requirements, and cost are documented for the techniques used at LASL.

Cox, E.J.; Garde, R.

1980-01-01

422

Relevance of visual cues for orientation at familiar sites by homing pigeons: an experiment in a circular arena.  

PubMed Central

Whether pigeons use visual landmarks for orientation from familiar locations has been a subject of debate. By recording the directional choices of both anosmic and control pigeons while exiting from a circular arena we were able to assess the relevance of olfactory and visual cues for orientation from familiar sites. When the birds could see the surroundings, both anosmic and control pigeons were homeward oriented. When the view of the landscape was prevented by screens that surrounded the arena, the control pigeons exited from the arena approximately in the home direction, while the anosmic pigeons' distribution was not different from random. Our data suggest that olfactory and visual cues play a critical, but interchangeable, role for orientation at familiar sites. PMID:11571054

Gagliardo, A.; Odetti, F.; Ioalè, P.

2001-01-01

423

Investigating the Macrodispersion Experiment (MADE) site in Columbus, Mississippi, using a three-dimensional inverse flow and transport model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flowmeter-measured hydraulic conductivities from the heterogeneous MADE site have been used predictively in advection-dispersion models. Resulting simulated concentrations failed to reproduce even major plume characteristics and some have concluded that other mechanisms, such as dual porosity, are important. Here an alternative possibility is investigated: that the small-scale flowmeter measurements are too noisy and possibly too biased to use so directly

Heidi Christiansen Barlebo; Mary C. Hill; Dan Rosbjerg

2004-01-01

424

Site-Specific Management of Meloidogyne chitwoodi in Idaho Potatoes Using 1,3-Dichloropropene; Approach, Experiences, and Economics.  

PubMed

Fumigation for nematode management in irrigated potato production systems of Idaho is widely practiced. Soil injection is the only labeled application method for 1,3-dichloropropene that is conventionally applied on a whole-field basis. Plant-parasitic nematode species exhibit spatially variable population densities that provide an opportunity to practice site-specific fumigation to reduce chemical usage and production costs. During 2002 to 2008, 62 fields intended for commercial potato production in eastern Idaho were sampled using a geo-referenced grid sampling system for plant-parasitic nematode population densities. In total, 4,030 grid samples were collected representing nearly 3,200 ha of commercial potato production. Collectively, 73% of the grid samples had Columbia root knot (CRN) (Meloidogyne chitwoodi) population densities below detectable levels. Site-specific fumigation is the practice of varying application rate of a fumigant based on nematode population density. In 2007, 640 ha of potato production were site-specific fumigated for CRN nematode control in eastern Idaho. On average, this practice resulted in a 30% reduction in chemical usage and production cost savings of $209/ha when 1,3-dichloropropene was used as the sole source of nematode suppression. Reductions in usage of 1,3-dichloropropene can exceed 50% if used in combination with a nonfumigant nematicide such as oxamyl. This combination approach can have production cost savings exceeding $200/ha. Based on farm-gate receipts and USDA inspections provided by potato producers from 2001 to 2011, potato tuber yield and quality have not been adversely affected using site-specific fumigation. PMID:24115785

King, Bradley A; Taberna, John P

2013-09-01

425

Portable UV light as an alternative for decontamination.  

PubMed

We evaluated the capability of a commercially available hand-held device that emits ultraviolet (UV) light to disinfect plain surfaces. Eight bacterial species were tested, including Clostridium difficile ribotype 027 and 3 other spore-forming species. Even bacterial spores could be successfully inactivated within a few seconds of irradiation. UV light may provide an alternative for the decontamination of medical products, such as mobile phones or tablet computers, that cannot be treated otherwise. PMID:25465267

Petersson, Lasse Per; Albrecht, Urs-Vito; Sedlacek, Ludwig; Gemein, Stefanie; Gebel, Jürgen; Vonberg, Ralf-Peter

2014-12-01

426

Development of simulated contamination (SIMCON) and miscellaneous decontamination scoping tests  

SciTech Connect

This report details the development of a method of simulating ICPP type contamination (SIMCON) with surrogate, nonradioactive materials and some miscellaneous testing and results that were completed using SIMCON. An analysis of historical ICPP decontamination samples is given, along with the justification relating SIMCON to this historical data. Some SIMCON testing of the following methods are given as miscellaneous examples: water rinse, water ultrasonic, cerric nitrate, CO{sub 2} snowflake blasting, nitrogen ``Cryogenic`` blasting and strippable coating removal.

Demmer, R.L.

1994-01-01

427

Methods for Decontamination of a Bipropellant Propulsion System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most propulsion systems are designed to be filled and flown, draining can be done but decontamination may be difficult. Transport of these systems may be difficult as well because flight weight vessels are not designed around DOT or UN shipping requirements. Repairs, failure analysis work or post firing inspections may be difficult or impossible to perform due to the hazards of residual propellants being present.

McClure, Mark B.; Greene, Benjamin

2012-01-01

428

Steam Generator Group Project. Task 6. Channel head decontamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Steam Generator Group Project utilizes a retired-from-service pressurized-water-reactor steam generator as a test bed and source of specimens for research. An important preparatory step to primary side research activities was reduction of the radiation field in the steam generator channel head. This task report describes the channel head decontamination activities. Though not a programmatic research objective it was judged

R. P. Allen; R. L. Clark; W. D. Reece

1984-01-01

429

Test Plan for Field Experiments to Support the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Disposal Performance Assessment at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

Much of the data collected to support the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Assessment (ILAW PA) simulations have been obtained in the laboratory on a relatively small scale (less than 10 cm). In addition, the PA simulations themselves are currently the only means available to integrate the chemical and hydrologic processes involved in the transport of contaminants from the disposal facility into the environment. This report describes the test plan for field experiments to provide data on the hydraulic, transport, and geochemical characteristics of the near-field materials on a more representative (i.e., larger) scale than the laboratory data currently available. The experiments will also provide results that encompass a variety of transport processes likely to occur within the actual disposal facility. These experiments will thus provide the first integrated data on the ILAW facility performance and will provide a crucial dataset to evaluate the simulation-based estimates of overall facility performance used in the PA.

Meyer, Philip D.; McGrail, B. Peter; Bacon, Diana H.

2001-09-01

430

Decontamination of High-risk Animal and Zoonotic Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Preparedness for the decontamination of affected environments, premises, facilities, and products is one prerequisite for an immediate response to an animal disease outbreak. Various information sources provide recommendations on how to proceed in an outbreak situation to eliminate biological contaminants and to stop the spread of the disease. In order to facilitate the identification of the right decontamination strategy, we present an overview of relevant references for a collection of pathogenic agents. The choice of pathogens is based on a survey of lists containing highly pathogenic agents and/or biological agents considered to be potential vehicles for deliberate contamination of food, feed, or farm animals. European legislation and guidelines from national and international institutions were screened to find decontamination protocols for each of the agents. Identified recommendations were evaluated with regard to their area of application, which could be facilities and equipment, wastes, food, and other animal products. The requirements of a disinfectant for large-scale incidents were gathered, and important characteristics (eg, inactivating spectrum, temperature range, toxicity to environment) of the main recommended disinfectants were summarized to assist in the choice of a suitable and efficient approach in a crisis situation induced by a specific high-risk animal or zoonotic pathogen. The literature search revealed numerous relevant recommendations but also legal gaps for certain diseases, such as Q fever or brucellosis, and legal difficulties for the use of recommended disinfectants. A lack of information about effective disinfectants was identified for some agents. PMID:23971795

Menrath, Andrea; Tomuzia, Katharina; Braeunig, Juliane; Appel, Bernd

2013-01-01

431

Methyl parathion in residential properties: relocation and decontamination methodology.  

PubMed Central

In November 1994 methyl parathion (MP), a restricted agricultural pesticide, was discovered to have been illegally sprayed within hundreds of residences in Lorain County, Ohio. Surface levels and air concentrations of MP revealed detectable levels of the pesticide 3 years after spraying. Because of the high toxicity of MP (lethal dose to 50% of rats tested [LD50] = 15 mg/kg) and long half-life indoors, risk-based relocation and decontamination criteria were created. Relocation criteria were derived based on levels of p-nitrophenol in urine, a metabolic byproduct of MP exposure. In Ohio, concentrations of MP on surfaces and in the air were also used to trigger relocations. The criteria applied in Ohio underwent refinement as cases of MP misuse were found in Mississippi and then in several other states. The MP investigation (1994-1997) was the largest pesticide misuse case in the nation, ultimately involving the sampling of 9,000 residences and the decontamination of 1,000 properties. This article describes the methodology used for relocation of residents and decontamination of properties having MP. PMID:12634141

Clark, J Milton; Bing-Canar, John; Renninger, Steve; Dollhopf, Ralph; El-Zein, Jason; Star, Dave; Zimmerman, Dea; Anisuzzaman, Abul; Boylan, Kathline; Tomaszewski, Terrence; Pearce, Ken; Yacovac, Rebecca; Erlwein, Bobby; Ward, John

2002-01-01

432