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1

Decontamination and decommissioning experience at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

A continuing concern within the DOE complex is how to address the retirement contains special of a facility which nuclear material (SNM). When the life expectancy of a facility has been reached, decisions must be made pertaining to (1) rial from the facility, removing the mate (2) accounting for the material and (3) final disposition of the material. This paper will discuss such a decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) process which we are presently dealing with at the Savannah River Site. The process must follow DOE Order 5633.3A as well as internal Company procedures regarding MC&A. In some D&D cases the material can be exempt from the DOE Order when all of the following criteria are met: (1) the material has been declared waste, (2) the material has been written off the MC&A books, and (3) the material is under the control of a waste management organization.

Monson, R.W.

1994-07-01

2

Gross decontamination experiment report  

SciTech Connect

A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

1983-07-01

3

Lessons Learned from Decontamination Experiences  

SciTech Connect

This interim report describes a DOE project currently underway to establish what is known about decontamination of buildings and people and the procedures and protocols used to determine when and how people or buildings are considered ''clean'' following decontamination. To fulfill this objective, the study systematically examined reported decontamination experiences to determine what procedures and protocols are currently employed for decontamination, the timeframe involved to initiate and complete the decontamination process, how the contaminants were identified, the problems encountered during the decontamination process, how response efforts of agencies were coordinated, and the perceived social psychological effects on people who were decontaminated or who participated in the decontamination process. Findings and recommendations from the study are intended to aid decision-making and to improve the basis for determining appropriate decontamination protocols for recovery planners and policy makers for responding to chemical and biological events.

Sorensen, JH

2000-11-16

4

A return to on-site decontamination  

SciTech Connect

Non-Destructive Cleaning Mobile CO{sub 2} Decontamination Facilities have more than 120 months of operational time conducting on-site radioactive decontamination at nuclear power stations and U.S. Department of Energy sites. During this time we have compiled an extensive database on what has been decontaminated and the cost savings realized.

Gillis, P.J. Jr. [Non-Destructive Cleaning, Inc., Walpole, MA (United States)

1995-12-31

5

Urban Decontamination Experience at Pripyat Ukraine - 13526  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the efficiency of radioactive decontamination activities of the urban landscape in the town of Pripyat, Ukraine. Different methods of treatment for various urban infrastructure and different radioactive contaminants are assessed. Long term changes in the radiation condition of decontaminated urban landscapes are evaluated: 1. Decontamination of the urban system requires the simultaneous application of multiple methods including mechanical, chemical, and biological. 2. If a large area has been contaminated, decontamination of local areas of a temporary nature. Over time, there is a repeated contamination of these sites due to wind transport from neighboring areas. 3. Involvement of earth-moving equipment and removal of top soil by industrial method achieves 20-fold reduction in the level of contamination by radioactive substances, but it leads to large amounts of waste (up to 1500 tons per hectare), and leads to the re-contamination of treated areas due to scatter when loading, transport pollutants on the wheels of vehicles, etc.. (authors)

Paskevych, Sergiy [Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 36 a Kirova str. Chornobyl, Kiev region, 07200 (Ukraine)] [Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 36 a Kirova str. Chornobyl, Kiev region, 07200 (Ukraine); Voropay, Dmitry [Federal State Unitary Enterprise 'Russian State Center of Inventory and Registration and Real Estate - Federal Bureau of Technical Inventory', 37-2 Bernadsky Prospekt, Moscow Russia 119415 (Russian Federation)] [Federal State Unitary Enterprise 'Russian State Center of Inventory and Registration and Real Estate - Federal Bureau of Technical Inventory', 37-2 Bernadsky Prospekt, Moscow Russia 119415 (Russian Federation); Schmieman, Eric [Battelle Memorial Institute, PO Box 999 MSIN K6-90, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)] [Battelle Memorial Institute, PO Box 999 MSIN K6-90, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

2013-07-01

6

Experiences with decontaminating tritium-handling apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tritium-handling apparatus has been decontaminated as part of the shutdown of the LLNL Tritium Facility. Two stainless-steel gloveboxes that had been used to process lithium deuteride-tritide (LiDT) salt were decontaminated using the Portable Cleanup System so that they could be flushed with room air through the facility ventilation system. Further surface decontamination was performed by scrubbing the interior with paper

J. L. Maienschein; F. Garcia; R. G. Garza; R. L. Kanna; S. R. Mayhugh; D. T. Taylor

1991-01-01

7

Experiences with decontaminating tritium-handling apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tritium-handling apparatus has been decontaminated as part of the downsizing of the LLNL Tritium Facility. Two stainless-steel glove boxes that had been used to process lithium deuteride-tritide (LiDT) slat were decontaminated using the Portable Cleanup System so that they could be flushed with room air through the facility ventilation system. In this paper the details on the decontamination operation are

J. L. Maienschein; F. Garcia; R. G. Garza; R. L. Kanna; S. R. Mayhugh; D. T. Taylor

1992-01-01

8

Summary of decontamination cover manufacturing experience  

SciTech Connect

Decontamination cover forming cracks and vent cup assembly leaks through the decontamination covers were early manufacturing problems. The decontamination cover total manufacturing process yield was as low as 55%. Applicable tooling and procedures were examined. All manufacturing steps from foil fabrication to final assembly leak testing were considered as possible causes or contributing factors to these problems. The following principal changes were made to correct these problems: (1) the foil annealing temperature was reduced from 1375{degrees} to 1250{degrees}C, (2) the decontamination cover fabrication procedure (including visual inspection for surface imperfections and elimination of superfluous operations) was improved, (3) the postforming dye penetrant inspection procedure was revised for increased sensitivity, (4) a postforming (prewelding) 1250{degrees}C/1 h vacuum stress-relief operation was added, (5) a poststress relief (prewelding) decontamination cover piece-part leak test was implemented, (6) the hold-down fixture used during the decontamination cover-to-cup weld was modified, and concomitantly, and (7) the foil fabrication process was changed from the extruding and rolling of 63-mm-diam vacuum arc-remelted ingots (extrusion process) to the rolling of 19-mm-square arc-melted drop castings (drop cast process). Since these changes were incorporated, the decontamination cover total manufacturing process yield has been 91 %. Most importantly, more than 99% of the decontamination covers welded onto vent cup assemblies were acceptable. The drastic yield improvement is attributed primarily to the change in the foil annealing temperature from 1375{degrees} to 1250{degrees}C and secondarily to the improvements in the decontamination cover fabrication procedure.

Ulrich, G.B.; Berry, H.W.

1995-02-01

9

GUIDELINES FOR DECONTAMINATING BUILDINGS, STRUCTURES, AND EQUIPMENT AT SUPERFUND SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper identifies contaminants most likely to occur in buildings and structures or on removal equipment at remedial sites. Steps for developing a general decontamination strategy are enumerated. The paper also announces a User's Guide or handbook that will be published by the...

10

Experiences with decontaminating tritium-handling apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Tritium-handling apparatus has been decontaminated as part of the shutdown of the LLNL Tritium Facility. Two stainless-steel gloveboxes that had been used to process lithium deuteride-tritide (LiDT) salt were decontaminated using the Portable Cleanup System so that they could be flushed with room air through the facility ventilation system. Further surface decontamination was performed by scrubbing the interior with paper towels and ethyl alcohol or Swish{trademark}. The surface contamination, as shown by swipe surveys, was reduced from 4{times}10{sup 4}--10{sup 6} disintegrations per minute (dpm)/cm{sup 2} to 2{times}10{sup 2}--4{times}10{sup 4} dpm/cm{sup 2}. Details on the decontamination operation are provided. A series of metal (palladium and vanadium) hydride storage beds have been drained of tritium and flushed with deuterium in order to remove as much tritium as possible. The bed draining and flushing procedure is described, and a calculational method is presented which allows estimation of the tritium remaining in a bed after it has been drained and flushed. Data on specific bed draining and flushing are given.

Maienschein, J.L.; Garcia, F.; Garza, R.G.; Kanna, R.L.; Mayhugh, S.R.; Taylor, D.T.

1991-07-01

11

Operational concerns regarding chemical biological decontamination of fixed sites. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Existing U.S. military doctrine and practice are deficient regarding CBW decontamination capabilities and procedures for fixed sites. Currently, responsibility for decontamination is left to each service component and focused on individual unit requirements. Further, joint doctrine splits the responsibility for all phases of decontamination between the theater commander and the services. Recommendations include: Doctrinal changes to emphasize realistic CBW consequences, practical solutions, and eliminate confusion regarding fixed site responsibility; OPLAN development more specific with respect to fixed sites; Additional units must be trained and equipped to provide fixed site decontamination.

Fleisch, D.L.

1996-06-14

12

Long term decontamination at the Hanford Site: A case study  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an engineering study that evaluates decontamination requirements at Hanford and the potential reutilization of the first plutonium processing production facility as a decontamination facility. The logic used to develop the study, the options available for a long-term decontamination mission, and the resultant strategy recommended in the study are presented. The paper provides a starting point for other similar study efforts. The process flowsheets, regulatory restrictions, and preconceptual designs developed in this study are common throughout the nuclear waste industry.

Geuther, W.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Hansen, G.E. [Parsons Engineering Science, Richland, WA (United States)

1995-02-01

13

Off-site consequences of radiological accidents: methods, costs and schedules for decontamination  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a data base and a computer program for conducting a decontamination analysis of a large, radiologically contaminated area. The data base, which was compiled largely through interviews with knowledgeable persons both in the public and private sectors, consists of the costs, physical inputs, rates and contaminant removal efficiencies of a large number of decontamination procedures. The computer program utilizes this data base along with information specific to the contaminated site to provide detailed information that includes the least costly method for effectively decontaminating each surface at the site, various types of property losses associated with the contamination, the time at which each subarea within the site should be decontaminated to minimize these property losses, the quantity of various types of labor and equipment necessary to complete the decontamination, dose to radiation workers, the costs for surveying and monitoring activities, and the disposal costs associated with radiological waste generated during cleanup. The program and data base are demonstrated with a decontamination analysis of a hypothetical site. 39 refs., 24 figs., 155 tabs.

Tawil, J.J.; Bold, F.C.; Harrer, B.J.; Currie, J.W.

1985-08-01

14

DECONTAMINATION OF STRUCTURES AND DEBRIS AT SUPERFUND SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Two building decontamination technologies were demonstrated and evaluated: a method for in situ degradation of PCB's requiring application of an alkali metal/polyethylene glycolate mixture directly on concrete surfaces; and a shotblasting technique using steel shot to cut away co...

15

Monitoring the decontamination of a site polluted by DNAPLs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to monitor the decontamination of a site polluted by DNAPLs coming from an automotive industry. The contamination was caused by the poor management of the waste generated by the industrial activity, which was discharged into a seepage pit. As a result, soil contamination was produced in the seepage pit area and a plume of DNAPLs-contaminated groundwater was generated. To recover the original environmental quality, a dual action was proposed: in the first place, the removal of the source of contamination and in the second one, the treatment of the DNAPLs plume. The elimination of the source of contamination consisted on a selective excavation of the seepage pit and an offsite management of the contaminated land. To restore the groundwater quality, a passive treatment system using a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) of zero valent iron (ZVI) was implemented. In order to determine the efficiency of the remediation actions, a chemical, isotopic and hydrogeological control of the main solvents detected in groundwater (perchloroethylene -PCE-, trichloroethene -TCE- and cis-dichloroethylene -cis-DCE-) has been established. Results show a decrease in PCE concentration that has been attributed to the removal of the source more than to a degradation process. However, the presence of PCE by-products, TCE and cis-DCE, might indicate a possible PCE biotic degradation. ?13CPCE values analyzed upstream and downstream of the barrier don't show isotopic changes associated to the PRB (values are around -20‰ in all the sampling points). TCE might have experienced a natural advanced degradation process according to the high concentration of cis-DCE found prior the installation of the PRB and the isotopic enrichment in ?13CTCE in some specific areas of the plume (-19.9‰ in the source and -16‰ before the barrier). Slight isotopic changes have been observed in the water flow in a far distance after the barrier (-15.4‰). ?13Ccis-DCE experienced an enrichment upstream to downstream of the barrier (from -15.5‰ to -11.5‰) indicating that a possible abiotic degradation due to the PRB is being produced. However, an enrichment in ?13Ccis-DCE from the focus area to the barrier (from -19.9‰ to -15.5‰) was also detected, suggesting that biotic degradation of cis-DCE is occurring in the field. As a conclusion, preliminary concentration and isotopic results seem to indicate that the PRB does not intercept the whole contaminated plume. The installation of a monitoring system of multilevel piezometers of new construction around the PRB has been proposed in order to study in detail the underground sections most affected by pollution and help to define patterns of migration of DNAPLs in the subsurface, giving the possibility to improve the design of the ZVI-PRB.

Audí-Miró, C.; Espinola, R.; Torrentó, C.; Otero, N.; Rossi, A.; Palau, J.; Soler, A.

2012-04-01

16

Transportation cask decontamination and maintenance at the potential Yucca Mountain repository; Yucca Mountain Site characterization project  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates spent fuel cask handling experience at existing nuclear facilities to determine appropriate cask decontamination and maintenance operations at the potential Yucca Mountain repository. These operations are categorized as either routine or nonroutine. Routine cask decontamination and maintenance tasks are performed in the cask preparation area at the repository. Casks are taken offline to a separate cask maintenance area for major nonroutine tasks. The study develops conceptual designs of the cask preparation area and cask maintenance area. The functions, layouts, and major features of these areas are also described.

Hartman, D.J.; Miller, D.D. [Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Hill, R.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1992-04-01

17

Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The site is located within the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (R-MAD) compound and consists of Building 3126, two outdoor decontamination pads, and surrounding areas within an existing fenced area measuring approximately 50 x 37 meters (160 x 120 feet). The site was used from the early 1960s to the early 1970s as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station program to decontaminate test-car hardware and tooling. The site was reactivated in the early 1980s to decontaminate a radiologically contaminated military tank. This Closure Report (CR) describes the closure activities performed to allow un-restricted release of the R-MAD Decontamination Facility.

G. N. Doyle

2002-02-01

18

Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Decontamination Facility is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254. CAU 254 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site and consists of a single Corrective Action Site CAS 25-23-06. CAU 254 will be closed, in accordance with the FFACO of 1996. CAU 254 was used primarily to perform radiological decontamination and consists of Building 3126, two outdoor decontamination pads, and surrounding soil within an existing perimeter fence. The site was used to decontaminate nuclear rocket test-car hardware and tooling from the early 1960s through the early 1970s, and to decontaminate a military tank in the early 1980s. The site characterization results indicate that, in places, the surficial soil and building materials exceed clean-up criteria for organic compounds, metals, and radionuclides. Closure activities are expected to generate waste streams consisting of nonhazardous construction waste. petroleum hydrocarbon waste, hazardous waste, low-level radioactive waste, and mixed waste. Some of the wastes exceed land disposal restriction limits and will require off-site treatment before disposal. The recommended corrective action was revised to Alternative 3- ''Unrestricted Release Decontamination, Verification Survey, and Dismantle Building 3126,'' in an addendum to the Correction Action Decision Document.

C. M. Obi

2000-12-01

19

The Inventory of College Students' Recent Life Experiences: A decontaminated hassles scale for a special population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and validation of a new decontaminated hassles measure, the Inventory of College Students' Recent Life Experiences, are described. An initial pool of 85 items was administered to 100 undergraduates along with the Perceived Stress Scale. Forty-nine items were selected based on significant correlations against the Perceived Stress Scale. The alpha reliability of the resultant final form of the

Paul M. Kohn; Kathryn Lafreniere; Maria Gurevich

1990-01-01

20

Fiscal years 1993 and 1994 decontamination and decommissioning activities photobriefing book for the Argonne National Laboratory-East Site, Technology Development Division, Decontamination and Decommissioning Projects Department  

SciTech Connect

This photobriefing book describes the ongoing decontamination and decommissioning projects at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)-East Site near Lemont, Illinois. The book is broken down into three sections: introduction, project descriptions, and summary. The introduction elates the history and mission of the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Projects Department at ANL-East. The second section describes the active ANL-East D and D projects, giving a project history and detailing fiscal year (FY) 1993 and FY 1994 accomplishments and FY 1995 goals. The final section summarizes the goals of the D and D Projects Department and the current program status. The D/D projects include the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor, Chicago Pile-5 Reactor, that cells, and plutonium gloveboxes. 73 figs.

NONE

1995-12-31

21

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration, site characterization plan: Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility at the Nevada Test Site which will be conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Environmental Restoration Division. The objectives of the planned activities are to: obtain sufficient, sample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies may be developed for the site; obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste. The scope of the characterization may include surface radiation survey(s), surface soil sampling, subsurface soil boring (i.e., drilling), and sampling of soil in and around the pond; in situ sampling of the soil within subsurface soil borings; and sample analysis for both site characterization and waste management purposes.

NONE

1996-08-01

22

The inventory of high-school students' recent life experiences: A decontaminated measure of adolescents' hassles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new decontaminated hassles measure for adolescents, the Inventory of High-School Students' Recent Life Experiences (IHSSRLE), was validated. A pool of 49 items was administered to 99 high-school students along with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Forty-one items were selected for the final form of the IHSSRLE, based on significant positive correlations with the PSS. The alpha reliability of the

Paul M. Kohn; Jill A. Milrose

1993-01-01

23

Decontamination and decommissioning assessment for the Waste Incineration Facility (Building 232-Z) Hanford Site, [Hanford], WA  

SciTech Connect

Building 232-Z is an element of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. From 1961 until 1972, plutonium-bearing combustible materials were incinerated in the building. Between 1972 and 1983, following shutdown of the incinerator, the facility was used for waste segregation activities. The facility was placed in retired inactive status in 1984 and classified as a Limited Control Facility pursuant to DOE Order 5480.5, Safety of Nuclear Facilities, and 6430.1A, General Design Criteria. The current plutonium inventory within the building is estimated to be approximately 848 grams, the majority of which is retained within the process hood ventilation system. As a contaminated retired facility, Building 232-Z is included in the DOE Surplus Facility Management Program. The objective of this Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) assessment is to remove Building 232-Z, thereby elmininating the radiological and environmental hazards associated with the plutonium inventory within the structure. The steps to accomplish the plan objectives are: (1) identifying the locations of the most significant amounts of plutonium, (2) removing residual plutonium, (3) removing and decontaminating remaining building equipment, (4) dismantling the remaining structure, and (5) closing out the project.

Dean, L.N. [Advanced Sciences, Inc., (United States)

1994-02-01

24

Summary of the Hanford Site decontamination, decommissioning, and cleanup, FY 1974--FY 1990  

SciTech Connect

At the end of World War II, the demand for more production along with process and military surveillance changes at the Hanford Site caused a continuing cycle of building and obsolescence. This trend continued until 1964, when the cutback in plutonium production began. The cutback caused the shutdown of excess production facilities. The last of eight reactors was shut down in 1971. Since that time, N Reactor has been the only production reactor that has operated. In addition, changes in the method of separating plutonium caused a number of excess facilities in the 200 Areas. Before 1973, no structured program existed for the disposal of unusable facilities or for general cleanup. Following a plant-wide safety and housekeeping inspection in 1973, a program was developed for the disposal of all surplus facilities. Since the start of FY 1974, a total of 46 radioactively contaminated sites have been demolished and disposed of. In addition, 28 buildings have been decontaminated for in situ disposal or for reuse, 21 contaminated sites have been stabilized, 131 clean structures have been removed, and 93 clean sites have received special remedial action to eliminate potential safety and/or environmental hazards. This report summarizes these activities. 3 refs, 1 fig., 18 tabs.

Wahlen, R.K.

1991-08-01

25

Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 254 is comprised of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-06, Decontamination Facility. A corrective action investigation for this CAS as conducted in January 2000 as set forth in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Samples were collected from various media throughout the CAS and sent to an off-site laboratory for analysis. The laboratory results indicated the following: radiation dose rates inside the Decontamination Facility, Building 3126, and in the storage yard exceeded the average general dose rate; scanning and static total surface contamination surveys indicated that portions of the locker and shower room floor, decontamination bay floor, loft floor, east and west decon pads, north and south decontamination bay interior walls, exterior west and south walls, and loft walls were above preliminary action levels (PALs). The investigation-derived contaminants of concern (COCs) included: polychlorinated biphenyls, radionuclides (strontium-90, niobium-94, cesium-137, uranium-234 and -235), total volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Metals). During the investigation, two corrective action objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate human exposure to COCs. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the Nevada Test Site, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Unrestricted Release Decontamination and Verification Survey; and Alternative 3 - Unrestricted Release Decontamination and Verification Survey and Dismantling of Building 3126. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors, and the preferred CAA chosen on technical merit was Alternative 2. This CAA was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated and applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site, and reduce the potential for future exposure pathways.

U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

2000-06-01

26

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Site Environmental Restoration Site Characterization Plan, Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility, Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility (DPF) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which will be conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations OffIce (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration Division (ERD). The objectives of the planned activities are to: o Obtain sufficient, ample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies maybe developed for the site. o Obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste. All references to regulations contained in this plan are to the versions of the regulations that are current at the time of publication of this plan. The scope of the characterization may include surface radiation survey(s), surface soil sampling, subsurface soil boring (i.e., drilling), and sampling of soil in and Mound the pond; in situ sampling of the soil within subsurface soil borings; and sample analysis for both site . . characterization and waste management purposes.

NONE

1996-08-12

27

Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets; Part A, Characterization, decontamination, dismantlement  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates environmental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. Volume 2 contains logic diagrams. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use. This report is part A of Volume 3 concerning characterization, decontamination, and dismantlement.

Fellows, R.L. [ed.

1993-02-26

28

Lessons learned from commercial experience with nuclear plant decontamination to safe storage  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has successfully performed decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) on many production reactors it. DOE now has the challenge of performing D&D on a wide variety of other nuclear facilities. Because so many facilities are being closed, it is necessary to place many of them into a safe-storage status before conducting D&D-for perhaps as much as 20 yr. The challenge is to achieve this safe-storage condition in a cost-effective manner while remaining in compliance with applicable regulations. The DOE Office of Environmental Management, Office of Transition and Management, commissioned a lessons learned study of commercial experience with safe storage and transition to D&D. Although the majority of the commercial experience has been with reactors, many of the lessons learned presented in this paper are directly applicable to transitioning the DOE Weapons Complex.

Fischer, S.R.; Partain, W.L.; Sype, T.

1995-12-31

29

Decontamination and decommissioning of the JANUS reactor at the Argonne National Laboratory-East site  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory has begun the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the JANUS Reactor Facility. The project is managed by the Technology Development Division`s D&D Program personnel. D&D procedures are performed by sub-contractor personnel. Specific activities involving the removal, size reduction, and packaging of radioactive components and facilities are discussed.

Fellhauer, C.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Garlock, G.A. [MOTA Corp., Cayce, SC (United States)

1997-05-01

30

Environmental decontamination  

SciTech Connect

The record of the proceedings of the workshop on environmental decontamination contains twenty-seven presentations. Emphasis is placed upon soil and surface decontamination, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and assessments of instrumentation and equipment used in decontamination. (DLS)

Cristy, G.A.; Jernigan, H.C. (eds.)

1981-02-01

31

Decontamination and recovery of materials at nuclear facilites - operating history  

SciTech Connect

Non-Destructive Cleaning (NDC) Mobile CO{sub 2} Decontamination Facilities have more than 120 months of operational time conducting radioactive decontamination at Nuclear Power Stations and U.S. Department of Energy sites. During this time, we have compiled an extensive database on what has been decontaminated and the cost savings realized. The following are areas of interest: (1) how the CO{sub 2} decontamination process works; (2) how radioactive wastes are minimized and radioactive exposure to personnel is reduced with the use of the NDC Decontamination Facility; (3) how the self-contained Mobile Decontamination Facility works to provide adequate containment and control of the radioactive materials; (4) what kinds of items have been decontaminated, ranging from tools to underwater television cameras and from electric motors to lead shielding; (5) liquid radioactive waste volume reduction; (6) mixed-waste volume reduction; and (7) achievements in dose reduction to radiation levels that are as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) The design and operating features and performance of the Mobile Decontamination Facility, as well as the actual volumes of materials decontaminated, the decontamination factors achieved, the amounts and types of things that are free released, and the actual cost savings in all of these areas have been assessed. The data that was used is actual utility data and not the vendor`s data. All the experiences were from actual power plants.

Gillis, P.J. Jr.

1994-12-31

32

The decontamination, decommissioning, and demolition of loss-of-fluid test reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory Site  

SciTech Connect

In October 2006, CH2M-WG Idaho completed the decontamination, decommissioning and demolition of the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility. The 30-year-old research reactor, located at the Idaho National Laboratory site, posed significant challenges involving regulations governing the demolition of a historical facility, as well as worker safety issues associated with the removal of the reactor's domed structure. The LOFT facility was located at the west end of Test Area North (TAN), built in the 1950's to support the government's aircraft nuclear propulsion program. When President Kennedy cancelled the nuclear propulsion program in 1961, TAN began to host various other activities. The LOFT reactor became part of the new mission. The LOFT facility, constructed between 1965 and 1975, was a scaled-down version of a commercial pressurized water reactor. Its design allowed engineers, scientists, and operators to create or re-create loss-of-fluid accidents (reactor fuel meltdowns) under controlled conditions. The LOFT dome provided containment for a relatively small, mobile test reactor that was moved into and out of the facility on a railroad car. The dome was roughly 21 meters (70 feet) in diameter and 30 meters (98 feet) in height. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission received the results from the accident tests and incorporated the data into commercial reactor operating codes. The facility conducted 38 experiments, including several small loss-of-coolant experiments designed to simulate events such as the accident that occurred at Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania, before the LOFT facility was closed. Through formal survey and research, the LOFT facility was determined to be a DOE Signature Property, as defined by the 'INEEL Cultural Resource Management Plan', and thus eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places. Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the facility constituted an adverse effect on the historic property that required resolution through the contractor (CH2M-WG Idaho), the U.S. Department of Energy, the Idaho State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO), and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation. The project team identified multiple hazards that would result if conventional techniques were used to demolish the dome. The physical structure of the vessel containment facility reached 30 meters (98 feet) above grade, presenting significant worker safety hazards created by hoisting and rigging activities. The dome also included a polar crane, 19 meters (62 feet) above grade, that posed similar hazards to workers. The need to work on significantly elevated surfaces, and the thickness of the dome walls - 30 millimeters (1-3/16 inches) of carbon steel - would prove difficult with traditional arc plasma cutting tools. The dome's proximity to operating facilities with equipment sensitive to vibration added to the demolition challenges. To address cultural resource issues, the project team engaged all parties in negotiations and in mapping a path foreword. Open and frequent communication resulted in a Memorandum of Agreement, with stipulations that mitigated the adverse affects of the intended demolition action. The unique mitigating actions resulted in a favorable agreement being signed and issued. To mitigate hazards posed by the height of the facility, the project team had to abandon traditional D and D techniques and employ other methods to complete demolition safely. A different approach and a change in demolition sequence resulted in the safe and efficient removal of the one-of-a-kind containment facility. The approach reduced the use of aerial lifts, aboveground size reduction, and dangerous hoisting and rigging activities that could pose significant hazards to workers. (authors)

Floerke, J.P.; Borschel, Th.F.; Rhodes, L.K. [CH2M-WG Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

2007-07-01

33

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 252: Area 25 Engine Test Stand 1 Decontamination Pad, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 252 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 252 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-07-02, Engine Test Stand-1 (ETS-1) Decontamination Pad. Located in Area 25 at the intersection of Road H and Road K at the Nevada Test Site, ETS-1 was designed for use as a mobile radiation checkpoint and for vehicle decontamination. The CAS consists of a concrete decontamination pad with a drain, a gravel-filled sump, two concrete trailer pads, and utility boxes. Constructed in 1966, the ETS-1 facility was part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS) complex and used to test nuclear rockets. The ETS-1 Decontamination Pad and mobile radiation check point was built in 1968. The NRDS complex ceased primary operations in 1973. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to determine if any primary contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) (including radionuclides, total volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls) are present at this site. Vertical extent of migration of suspected vehicle decontamination effluent COPCs is expected to be less than 12 feet below ground surface. Lateral extent of migration of COPCs is expected to be limited to the sump area or near the northeast corner of the decontamination pad. Using a biased sampling approach, near-surface and subsurface sampling will be conducted at the suspected worst-case areas including the sump and soil near the northeast corner of the decontamination pad. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible e valuation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

1999-08-20

34

Site participation in the small community experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Small Community Solar Thermal Experiment, planned to test a small, developmental solar thermal power plant in a small community application, is assessed. The baseline plan is to install a field of parabolic dishes with distributed generation to provide 1 MWe of experimental power. Participation by the site proposer is an integral element of the experiment; the proposer will provide a ten-acre site, a connection to the electrical distributional system serving the small community, and various services. In addition to the primary participant, site study efforts may be pursued at as many as five alternative sites.

Holbeck, H. J.; Fellows, M.

1981-01-01

35

Site specific health and safety plan, 233-S decontamination and decommissioning  

SciTech Connect

The deactivated 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility, located in the 200 Area at the Hanford Site, is the subject of this Health and Safety Plan.The 233-S Facility operated from January 1952 until July 1967 at which time the building entered the U.S. Department of Energy`s Surplus Facility Management Program as a retired facility. The facility has since undergone severe degradation due to exposure to extreme weather conditions. Additionally, the weather caused existing cracks in concrete structures of the building to lengthen, thereby increasing the potential for failed confinement of the radioactive material in the building. Differential settlement has also occurred causing portions of the facility to separate from the main building structure, increasing the potential for release of radioactive material to the environment. An expedited response is proposed to remove this threat and ensure protection of human health and the environment. On this premise it is intended that the 233-S Facility removal action be performed as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 Time-Critical Project being conducted under the Pilot Hanford Environmental Restoration (ER) Initiative

J. E. Fasso

1997-12-31

36

EXPERIENCES IN DECONTAMINATION & DEMOLITION OF A FORMER PLUTONIUM CONCENTRATION FACILITY HANFORD RESERVATION  

SciTech Connect

The 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility received plutonium nitrate paste from the nearby Reduction-Oxidation (REDOX) Facility and concentrated the plutonium for shipment to Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant. Operations ceased in 1967 and the Facility languished in a state of minimal maintenance until the mid-1990's when a decision was made to decontaminate and demolish (D&D) it. This work is being performed as a pilot project that integrates DOE nuclear safety analysis and worker safety requirements with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements under CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 1980). The pilot project is a CERCLA non-time critical removal action. Difficulties were encountered during D&D. These included conflict between the development of the safety basis as an EPA pilot project and DOE requirements for safety analysis reports, updating the safety analysis to keep it current with field conditions, and major difficulties with nondestructive assays (NDA) of the contaminated waste. No demonstrable benefit has been obtained by integrating the EPA and DOE safety methodologies.

BISHOP, G.E.

2002-06-01

37

Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 252: Area 25 Engine Test Stand 1 Decontamination Pad, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 252: Area 25 Engine Test Stand-1 Decontamination Pad, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Located at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 252 consists of only one Corrective Action Site (25-07-04, Decontamination Pad). This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary at CAU 252. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report have been combined into one report because the potential contaminants of concern were either not detected during the corrective action investigation or were only present at naturally occurring concentrations. Based on the field results, neither corrective action or a corrective action plan is required at this site. A Notice of Completion to DOE/NV is being requested from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for closure of CAU 252, as well as a request that this site be moved from Appendix III to Appendix IV of the FFACO. Further, no use restrictions are required to be placed on this CAU.

DOE /NV

2000-10-11

38

Foam and gel decontamination techniques  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site is investigating decontamination technology to improve current decontamination techniques, and thereby reduce radiation exposure to plant personnel, reduce uptake of radioactive material, and improve safety during decontamination and decommissioning activities. When decontamination chemicals are applied as foam and gels, the contact time and cleaning ability of the chemical increases. Foam and gel applicators apply foam or gel that adheres to the surface being decontaminated for periods ranging from fifteen minutes (foam) to infinite contact (gel). This equipment was started up in a cold environment. The desired foam and gel consistency was achieved, operators were trained in its proper maintenance and operation, and the foam and gel were applied to walls, ceilings, and hard to reach surfaces. 17 figs.

McGlynn, J.F.; Rankin, W.N.

1989-01-01

39

Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0, December 2000)  

SciTech Connect

This document is an addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) that has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254, Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD) Decontamination Facility. CAU 254 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-06, Decontamination Facility. The purpose of this addendum is to provide a rationale for the recommendation of a revised preferred alternative corrective action for CAU 254. This preferred alternative corrective action, Alternative 3, consists of the removal of accessible soil/sediment and all building material above ground level from the CAU 254 Site. This alternative is being recommended because a cost-effective technology is now available to dismantle the contaminated building and ensure complete removal of all CAU 254 CADD-identified contaminants of concern and any associated contamination. This preferred closure method alternative reduces the potential for future exposure pathways. Procedures will be developed, presented in the Corrective Action Plan, and implemented to ensure worker health and safety, protection of human health and the environment, and to meet all unrestricted release requirements in accordance with applicable state and federal regulations.

DOE /NV

2000-12-12

40

Proceedings of the concrete decontamination workshop  

SciTech Connect

Fourteen papers were presented. These papers describe concrete surface removal methods and equipment, as well as experiences in decontaminating and removing both power and experimental nuclear reactors.

Halter, J.M.; Sullivan, R.G.; Currier, A.J.

1980-05-28

41

Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites Remedial Action Program. Report of the decontamination of Jones Chemical Laboratory, Ryerson Physical Laboratory, and Eckhart Hall, the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has implemented a program to decontaminate radioactively contaminated sites that were formerly utilized by the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and/or the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) for activities that included handling of radioactive material. This program is referred to as the ''Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program'' (FUSRAP). Among these sites are Jones Chemical Laboratory, Ryerson Physical Laboratory, Kent Chemical Laboratory, and Eckhart Hall of The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. Since 1977, the University of Chicago decontaminated Kent Chemical Laboratory as part of a facilities renovation program. All areas of Eckhart Hall, Ryerson Physical Laboratory, and Jones Chemical Laboratory that had been identified as contaminated in excess of current guidelines in the 1976-1977 surveys were decontaminated to levels where no contamination could be detected relative to natural backgrounds. All areas that required defacing to achieve this goal were restored to their original condition. The radiological evaluation of the sewer system, based primarily on the radiochemical analyses of sludge and water samples, indicated that the entire sewer system is potentially contaminated. While this evaluation was defined as part of this project, the decontamination of the sewer system was not included in the purview of this effort. The documentation included in this report substantiates the judgment that all contaminated areas identified in the earlier reports in the three structures included in the decontamination effort (Eckhart Hall, Ryerson Physical Laboratory, and Jones Chemical Laboratory) were cleaned to levels commensurate with release for unrestricted use.

Wynuveen, R.A.; Smith, W.H.; Sholeen, C.M.; Flynn, K.F.

1984-08-01

42

Gastrointestinal decontamination.  

PubMed

Overall, no conclusive data support the use of gastric decontamination in the routine management of the poisoned patient. Studies of asymptomatic patients suggest that no treatment is required, and, given the complications that have been reported, this may be a reasonable approach to' most patients. Even in symptomatic patients, the only demonstrable benefit was found in a post-hoc subgroup analysis and involved an outcome of questionable clinical importance. Given these data, it would be easy to conclude that GI decontamination has no role in the management of the poisoned patient. This conclusion is valid when considering poisoned patients as a group, but all poisoned patients are not the same. Patients with trivial ingestion do well without treatment, and their greatest risk is an iatrogenic complication. Even patients with more serious ingestions usually have good outcomes with supportive care alone. It is no longer sufficient to justify GL or forced administration of AC with the supposition that "the patient could have taken something bad." However,there are some overdoses where limiting the systemic absorption of the poison may limit the toxic effects and prevent serious toxicity. After careful consideration of the risks, GI decontamination should be targeted at patients who, in the opinion of the treating physician, have a potentially life-threatening exposure. PMID:16227054

Heard, Kennon

2005-11-01

43

The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor decontamination and decommissioning project and the Tokamak Physics Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Environmental Assessment  

SciTech Connect

If the US is to meet the energy needs of the future, it is essential that new technologies emerge to compensate for dwindling supplies of fossil fuels and the eventual depletion of fissionable uranium used in present-day nuclear reactors. Fusion energy has the potential to become a major source of energy for the future. Power from fusion energy would provide a substantially reduced environmental impact as compared with other forms of energy generation. Since fusion utilizes no fossil fuels, there would be no release of chemical combustion products to the atmosphere. Additionally, there are no fission products formed to present handling and disposal problems, and runaway fuel reactions are impossible due to the small amounts of deuterium and tritium present. The purpose of the TPX Project is to support the development of the physics and technology to extend tokamak operation into the continuously operating (steady-state) regime, and to demonstrate advances in fundamental tokamak performance. The purpose of TFTR D&D is to ensure compliance with DOE Order 5820.2A ``Radioactive Waste Management`` and to remove environmental and health hazards posed by the TFTR in a non-operational mode. There are two proposed actions evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA). The actions are related because one must take place before the other can proceed. The proposed actions assessed in this EA are: the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR); to be followed by the construction and operation of the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Both of these proposed actions would take place primarily within the TFTR Test Cell Complex at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The TFTR is located on ``D-site`` at the James Forrestal Campus of Princeton University in Plainsboro Township, Middlesex County, New Jersey, and is operated by PPPL under contract with the United States Department of Energy (DOE).

NONE

1994-05-27

44

On-Site Disposition of Concrete During Decommissioning and Decontamination: A Data Quality Objective-Based Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-site disposition of concrete derived during decommissioning and demolition (D and D) of buildings at industrial sites is a cost-effective, waste minimization alternative to off-site disposal. Because the concrete is to be left on-site it becomes part of the solid matrix of the site and is subject to the compositional constraints governing site soils. In addition, the concrete and its

P. A. Salpas; K. M. Skinner; G. M. Stephens; D. E. Dunning

2008-01-01

45

How to design experiments: Active site prediction  

E-print Network

? � Catalytic residues (CSA). � For others, not much hope. #12;CSA � Catalytic Site Atlas � Catalytic residue: � an original hand-annotated set containing information extracted from the primary literature, using defined Acids Res. 2004 http://www.ebi.ac.uk/thornton-srv/databases/CSA/ #12;Catalytic Site Atlas record for 1H

Sjölander, Kimmen

46

Infiltration and Injection Sites and Example Experiments  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this paper are: (1) design a characterization and monitoring strategy for vadose zone infiltration and aquifer injection sites; and (2) track spatial and temporal evolution of water and reactive chemicals through vadose zone and aquifer.

Mark Rockhold

2007-04-19

47

History of critical experiments at Pajarito Site  

SciTech Connect

This account describes critical and subcritical assemblies operated remotely at the Pajarito Canyon Site at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Earliest assemblies, directed exclusively toward the nuclear weapons program, were for safety tests. Other weapon-related assemblies provided neutronic information to check detailed weapon calculations. Topsy, the first of these critical assemblies, was followed by Lady Godiva, Jezebel, Flattop, and ultimately Big Ten. As reactor programs came to Los Alamos, design studies and mockups were tested at Pajarito Site. For example, nearly all 16 Rover reactors intended for Nevada tests were preceded by zero-power mockups and proof tests at Pajarito Site. Expanded interest and capability led to fast-pulse assemblies, culminating in Godiva IV and Skua, and to the Kinglet and Sheba solution assemblies.

Paxton, H.C.

1983-03-01

48

On-Site Disposition of Concrete During Decommissioning and Decontamination: A Data Quality Objective-Based Approach  

SciTech Connect

On-site disposition of concrete derived during decommissioning and demolition (D and D) of buildings at industrial sites is a cost-effective, waste minimization alternative to off-site disposal. Because the concrete is to be left on-site it becomes part of the solid matrix of the site and is subject to the compositional constraints governing site soils. In addition, the concrete and its contained-in materials may be subject to physical constraints such as size and shape which do not apply to soils. When considering on-site disposition of concrete, the data quality objective (DQO) process should be used to determine the compositional and physical constraints on the concrete and for developing the characterization approach to determine whether those constraints have been met. The information inputs to the compositional and physical constraints on the concrete constitute the concrete acceptance criteria (CAC) which become the basis for developing decision rules - the yes/no statements that unequivocally state the compositional and physical conditions under which concrete may be left on site. An important DQO boundary concept is concrete classification. The cost of concrete characterization can be minimized with a thorough data gap assessment by focusing resources on the concrete most in need of characterization. Concrete for which a yes/no decision can be made with reasonable certainty based on a comparison of existing data to the CAC receives a lesser amount of characterization scrutiny than does concrete for which existing data is non-existent or ambiguous relative to the CAC. In conclusion: Developing acceptance criteria for the on-site disposition of concrete through the DQO process provides a systematic methodology for determining and documenting what decisions will be made and what information is necessary to support those decisions. At each step in the process, input from all individuals or organizations that have a role in making the ultimate decision must be invited. The primary goal of the DQO process is the development of a clear and defensible set of decision rules that are acceptable, unanimously agreed upon, and approved by all decision makers. By conducting the DQO process in an analytical and systematic manner, unexpected and, perhaps, costly changes to an operational program resulting from last minute second-guessing can be prevented. (authors)

Salpas, P.A. [Salpas Consulting, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Skinner, K.M. [Perot Systems Government Services, Knoxville, TN (United States); Stephens, G.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dunning, D.E. [Argonne National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

2008-07-01

49

Corrective Action Plan for CAU No. 95: Area 15 EPA Farm Laboratory Building, Decontamination and Demolition Closure Activities - Nevada Test Site. Rev. 0  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm Laboratory Building 15-06 located in Area 15 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The facility is part of the Environmental Restoration Project managed by the U.S. Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) under the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Subproject which serves to manage and dispose of surplus facilities at the NTS in a manner that will protect personnel, the public, and the environment. It is identified as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 95 in Appendix III of the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). In July 1997, the DOE/NV verbally requested approval from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for the closure schedule to be accelerated. Currently, field activities are anticipated to be completed by September 30, 1997. In order to meet this new schedule NDEP has agreed to review this document as expeditiously as possible. Comments will be addressed in the Closure Report after field activities have been completed, unless significant issues require resolution during closure activities.

Olson, A.L.; Nacht, S.J.

1997-11-01

50

Experience Based Career Education for Mildly Mentally Disabled. Experience Site Learning Guides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided are samples of three experience-based career education (EBCE) experience-site learning guides. Each sample is organized into four basic parts. The first part describes the nature of the site (e.g., name of site, address, lunch arrangements, special regulations). The second part gives a brief description of the different sections of the…

Iowa Central Community College, Fort Dodge.

51

Reactive decontamination formulation  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a universal decontamination formulation and method for detoxifying chemical warfare agents (CWA's) and biological warfare agents (BWA's) without producing any toxic by-products, as well as, decontaminating surfaces that have come into contact with these agents. The formulation includes a sorbent material or gel, a peroxide source, a peroxide activator, and a compound containing a mixture of KHSO.sub.5, KHSO.sub.4 and K.sub.2 SO.sub.4. The formulation is self-decontaminating and once dried can easily be wiped from the surface being decontaminated. A method for decontaminating a surface exposed to chemical or biological agents is also disclosed.

Giletto, Anthony (College Station, TX); White, William (College Station, TX); Cisar, Alan J. (Cypress, TX); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Bryan, TX); Fyffe, James (Bryan, TX)

2003-05-27

52

Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning Project Summaries  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of summary descriptions of Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, and Surveillance and Maintenance projects planned for inactive facilities and sites at the INEEL from FY-2002 through FY-2010. Deactivations of contaminated facilities will produce safe and stable facilities requiring minimal surveillance and maintenance pending further decontamination and decommissioning. Decontamination and decommissioning actions remove contaminated facilities, thus eliminating long-term surveillance and maintenance. The projects are prioritized based on risk to DOE-ID, the public, and the environment, and the reduction of DOE-ID mortgage costs and liability at the INEEL.

Peterson, David Shane; Webber, Frank Laverne

2001-07-01

53

Aquatic Toxicity of the Decontamination Agent: Multipurpose (DAM) Decontamination Solution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new formulation, Decontaminating Agent: Multipurpose (DAM) Decontamination Solution, is being considered as a replacement to the DS-2 decontaminating solution. The new formulation is composed of calcium hypochlorite and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone. Sin...

M. V. Haley, C. W. Kurnas, N. A. Chester, W. T. Muse

1994-01-01

54

Decontamination and disposal of steam generators  

SciTech Connect

Since replacement of the first steam generator in the United States, two options have existed for disposal of the old generators: on-site storage and burial. On-site storage in a mausoleum is substantially less expensive at the time of removal but has unknown future costs for disposal when the plant is decomissioned. On-site storage also increases the quantity of waste retained on site. Burial of the generators achieves final disposal but has become uneconomical because of the high cost for burial. With the development of the metal decontamination and recycle industry, a number of firms have considered a third alternative: decontaminate the generators and recycle the metal content. Hake Associates has formed a team of highly qualified companies to achieve this objective. The SAFECON team includes Frank W. Hake Inc., for rigging and transportation; BNFL Inc., for engineering services and a primary-side chemical decontamination system; Hake Associates facility, for segmenting and secondaray decontamination; and Manufacturing Sciences Corporation (MCS), for specialty decontamination including melting and potential product fabrication from the generator components.

Hamilton, G.T.; Radomicki, J. [Frank W. Hake Assoc., Memphis, TN (United States); Hultman, C.W. [BNFL Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States); Byrne, M. [Manufacturing Sciences Corp. Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1996-12-31

55

NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION (NSF) RESEARCH EXPERIENCES FOR UNDERGRADUATES (REU) SITE  

E-print Network

NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION (NSF) RESEARCH EXPERIENCES FOR UNDERGRADUATES (REU) SITE The REU Computing in Science and Engineering June 2, 2014 - August 8, 2014 Application Deadline: March 10, 2014://faculty.salisbury.edu/~ealu/REU/ApplicationPacket.pdf The NSF REU EXERCISE is an interdisciplinary project that explores emerging paradigms in parallel

Lu, Enyue "Annie"

56

Electrokinetic decontamination of millpond sludge  

SciTech Connect

Electrokinetic decontamination of high clay containing soils is a developing technology. EPA has recently designated electrokinetic method as a viable insitu process and interested parties are attempting to apply this method at contaminated sites which have inherently low permeability soils and otherwise difficult to remediate. Electrokinetic process induces a high water flow rate in clayey soils by the mechanism known as electro-osmosis and is primarily suitable for heavy metal removal. However, chemical reactions and sorption of metal ions within the soil matrix may adversely effect the decontamination process. Presence of a significant amount of heavy molecular weight organic matter within the soil pores may reduce the mobility of the heavy metals due to the formation of insoluble organometallic compounds. There has been some research in removing heavy metals and low concentration organic matter from soil by the electrokinetic method. The effects of soil organic matter on heavy metal removal by electrokinetic method has not been adequately investigated and several unanswered questions remain about the efficiency of the process under such circumstances. This paper is a partial result of an electrokinetic decontamination investigation for Zn, Ph and Mn removal from a soil with high organic matter content. A foundry millpond sludge from North East Ohio was chosen as a high organic matter containing matrix.

Khan, L.I.; Rahman, M. [Cleveland State Univ., OH (United States)

1995-12-31

57

Adverse experiences with nitric acid at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

Nitric acid is used routinely at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in many processes. However, the site has experienced a number of adverse situations in handling nitric acid. These have ranged from minor injuries to personnel to significant explosions. This document compiles many of these events and includes discussions of process upsets, fires, injuries, and toxic effects of nitric acid and its decomposition products. The purpose of the publication is to apprise those using the acid that it is a potentially dangerous material and can react in many ways as demonstrated by SRS experience. 10 refs.

Durant, W.S.; Craig, D.K.; Vitacco, M.J.; McCormick, J.A.

1991-06-01

58

EXPERIENCE FROM TWO SMALL QUANTITY RH-TRU WASTE SITES IN NAVIGATING THROUGH AN EVOLVING REGULATORY LANDSCAPE  

SciTech Connect

Two small quantity transuranic (TRU) waste generator sites have gained considerable experience in navigating through a changing regulatory landscape in their efforts to remove the TRU waste from their sites and proceed with site remediation. The Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project (BCLDP) has the objectives of decontaminating nuclear research buildings and associated grounds and remediating to a level of residual contamination allowing future use without radiological restrictions. As directed by Congress, BCLDP must complete decontamination and decommissioning activities by the end of Fiscal Year (FY) 2006. This schedule requires the containerization of all TRU waste in 2002. BCLDP will generate a total of approximately 27 cubic meters (m3) of remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. Similarly, the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) is scheduled to close in 2006 pursuant to an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Boeing Canoga Park, the management and operating contractor for ETEC. ETEC had 11.0 m3 of RH-TRU and contact-handled (CH) TRU waste in storage, with the requirement to remove this waste in 2002 in order to meet their site closure schedule. The individual milestones for BCLDP and ETEC necessitated the establishment of site-specific programs to direct packaging and characterization of RH-TRU waste before the regulatory framework for the WIPP disposal of RH-TRU waste is finalized. The lack of large infrastructure for characterization activities, as well as the expedited schedules needed to meet regulatory milestones, provided both challenges and opportunities that are unique to small quantity sites. Both sites have developed unique programs for waste characterization based on the same premise, which directs comprehensive waste data collection efforts such that additional characterization will not be required following the finalization of the WIPP RH-TRU waste program requirements. This paper details the BCLDP program evolution in terms of strategy, innovative solutions to waste characterization, and development of alternative transportation options. Preliminary indications from various regulatory and oversight agencies and professional organizations are that the BCLDP RH-TRU waste characterization program is the ''model WIPP certification program'' and will satisfy anticipated regulatory expectations. This paper also summarizes how BCLDP lessons learned and their development of new resources were applied to the RH-TRU waste characterization and disposition program at ETEC.

Biedscheid, Jennifer; Devarakonda, Murthy; Eide, Jim; Kneff, Dennis

2003-02-27

59

Concrete decontamination scoping tests  

SciTech Connect

This report details the research efforts and scoping tests performed at the Idaho Chemical Process Plant using scabbling, chemical, and electro-osmotic decontamination techniques on radiologically contaminated concrete.

Archibald, K.E.

1995-01-01

60

Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation and Decontamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) from structures, environmental media, and even personnel has become an area of particular interest in recent years due to increased homeland security concerns. In addition to terrorist attacks, scenarios such as accidental releases of CWA from U.S. stockpile sites or from historic, buried munitions are also subjects for response planning. To facilitate rapid

Sylvia Smith Talmage; Annetta Paule Watson; Veronique Hauschild; Nancy B Munro; J. King

2007-01-01

61

Skin decontamination of mustards and organophosphates: comparative efficiency of RSDL and Fuller's earth in domestic swine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in skin decontamination and therapy of chemical warfare agents has been a difficult problem due to the simultaneous requirement of rapid action and non-aggressive behaviour. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of two decontaminating systems: the Canadian Reactive Skin Decontaminant Lotion (RSDL) and the Fuller's Earth (FE). The experiment was conducted with domestic swine, as

L. Taysse; S. Daulon; S. Delamanche; B. Bellier; P. Breton

2007-01-01

62

Source physics experiments at the Nevada Test Site.  

SciTech Connect

The U. S. capability to monitor foreign underground nuclear test activities relies heavily on measurement of explosion phenomena, including characteristic seismic, infrasound, radionuclide, and acoustic signals. Despite recent advances in each of these fields, empirical, rather than physics-based, approaches are used to predict and explain observations. Seismologists rely on prior knowledge of the variations of teleseismic and regional seismic parameters such as p- and s-wave arrivals from simple one-dimensional models for the teleseismic case to somewhat more complicated enhanced two-dimensional models for the regional case. Likewise, radionuclide experts rely on empirical results from a handful of limited experiments to determine the radiological source terms present at the surface after an underground test. To make the next step in the advancement of the science of monitoring we need to transform these fields to enable predictive, physics-based modeling and analysis. The Nevada Test Site Source Physics Experiments (N-SPE) provide a unique opportunity to gather precise data from well-designed experiments to improve physics-based modeling capability. In the seismic experiments, data collection will include time domain reflectometry to measure explosive performance and yield, free-field accelerometers, extensive seismic arrays, and infrasound and acoustic measurements. The improved modeling capability that we will develop using this data should enable important advances in our ability to monitor worldwide for nuclear testing. The first of a series of source physics experiments will be conducted in the granite of Climax Stock at the NTS, near the locations of the HARD HAT and PILE DRIVER nuclear tests. This site not only provides a fairly homogeneous and well-documented geology, but also an opportunity to improve our understanding of how fractures, joints, and faults affect seismic wave generation and propagation. The Climax Stock experiments will consist of a 220 lb (TNT equivalent) calibration shot and a 2200 lb (TNT equivalent) over-buried shot conducted in the same emplacement hole. An identical 2200 lb shot at the same location will follow to investigate the effects of pre-conditioning. These experiments also provide an opportunity to advance capabilities for near-field monitoring, and on-site inspections (OSIs) of suspected testing sites. In particular, geologic, physical, and cultural signatures of underground testing can be evaluated using the N-SPE activities as case studies. Furthermore, experiments to measure the migration of radioactive noble gases to the surface from underground explosions will enable development of higher fidelity radiological source term models that can predict migration through a variety of geologic conditions. Because the detection of short-lived radionuclides is essential to determining if an explosion was nuclear or conventional, a better understanding of the gaseous and particulate radionuclide source terms that reach the surface from underground testing is critical to development of OSI capability.

Lee, Ping (Nuclear Security Technologies, Inc.); Snelson, Catherine (Nuclear Security Technologies, Inc.); Abbott, Robert; Coblentz, David D. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Corbell, Robert; Bowyer, Theodore W. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Sussman, Aviva J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Carrigan, Charles R. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory); Bradley, Christopher R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Patton, Howard J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Seifert, Carolyn E. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Sweeney, Jerry J. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory); Brunish, Wendee M. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Hawkins, Ward L. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Antoun,Tarabay H. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory); Wohletz, Kenneth H. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Zucca, John Jay (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory)

2010-10-01

63

Steam generator decontamination: methods and past applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report reviews information pertaining to decontamination methods currently available for use on steam generators. Three types of steam generator decontamination are considerd here: decontamination of the steam generator plus the primary system, decontamination of the isolated steam generator, and decontamination of components of the steam generator. Chemical, mechanical or electrochemical decontamination methods appropriate for each type of steam generator

Card

1983-01-01

64

Development of waste minimization and decontamination technologies at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant  

SciTech Connect

Emphasis on the minimization of decontamination secondary waste has increased because of restrictions on the use of hazardous chemicals and Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) waste handling issues. The Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co. (LITCO) Decontamination Development Subunit has worked to evaluate and introduce new performed testing, evaluations, development and on-site demonstrations for a number of novel decontamination techniques that have not yet previously been used at the ICPP. This report will include information on decontamination techniques that have recently been evaluated by the Decontamination Development Subunit.

Ferguson, R.L.; Archibald, K.E.; Demmer, R.L. [and others

1995-11-01

65

Unique Construction and Social Experiences in Residential Remediation Sites - 13423  

SciTech Connect

Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc., (Sevenson) has performed several radiological remediation projects located in residential urban areas. Over the course of these projects, there has been a wide variety of experiences encountered from construction related issues to unique social situations. Some of the construction related issues included the remediation of interior basements where contaminated material was located under the footers of the structure or was used in the mortar between cinder block or field stone foundations. Other issues included site security, maintaining furnaces or other utilities, underpinning, backfilling and restoration. In addition to the radiological hazards associated with this work there were occupational safety and industrial hygiene issues that had to be addressed to ensure the safety and health of neighboring properties and residents. The unique social situations at these job sites have included arson, theft/stolen property, assault/battery, prostitution, execution of arrest warrants for residents, discovery of drugs and paraphernalia, blood borne pathogens, and unexploded ordnance. Some of these situations have become a sort of comical urban legend throughout the organization. One situation had historical significance, involving the demolition of a house to save a tree older than the Declaration of Independence. All of these projects typically involve the excavation of early 20. century items such as advertisement signs, various old bottles (milk, Listerine, perfume, whisky) and other miscellaneous common trash items. (authors)

Jung, Paul; Scarborough, Rebecca [Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc. 2749 Lockport Road, Niagara Falls, NY 14305 (United States)] [Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc. 2749 Lockport Road, Niagara Falls, NY 14305 (United States)

2013-07-01

66

Emergency department external decontamination for hazardous chemical exposure  

SciTech Connect

Although external decontamination is an integral aspect of the emergency management of hazardous chemicals exposure, no standard protocol or report of human experience is available. We performed a retrospective review of all patients decontaminated in our emergency department over a 6-y period for hazardous chemicals exposure. Patients were treated by a universal substances protocol in a specially designed decontamination area. Ocular irrigation utilizing 1500 ml of normal saline po was employed in 27 patients. Oral mucosal irrigation utilizing 1500 ml water was employed in 2 patients. All 72 patients received skin and hair decontamination. Skin was washed 3 times with detergent and cornmeal mixture, and water irrigation or shower for 3 min. Hair was shampooed 3 times with mild soap for 3 min. A subset of patients (n = 31) received pre-decontamination and post-decontamination skin swabbing. Swabs were analyzed by a certified analytical chemistry laboratory utilizing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Positive pre-decontamination swabs were seen for pesticides and PCBs. All post-decontamination swab analyses were negative, indicating that the method utilized was effective.

Lavoie, F.W.; Coomes, T.; Cisek, J.E.; Fulkerson, L. (Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, KY (United States))

1992-02-01

67

Decontamination: a microbiologist's perspective.  

PubMed

The primary objective of decontamination is to protect healthcare workers who handle medical devices from infectious diseases that may be present on those devices. Ideally, the decontamination process should provide both cleaning and biocidal activity. A wide range of equipment, from automatic washer/sterilizers to semi-automated washer/sanitizers are commercially available to satisfy this need. The primary difference between these pieces of equipment, from a microbiology perspective, is in the level of safety they provide. A summary comparison of the decontamination methods is shown in Table 1. Without a doubt, steam sterilization as a method of decontamination provides a greater safety level than may be required. However, the question is, "Do disinfection and sanitization provide an adequate safety level?" Although items do not necessarily need to be sterile to be safe to handle, sterilization processes provide the greatest margin of safety because of the significant microbial lethality and the ability to effectively monitor the process via biological indicators. Sterilization effectively eliminates the concern regarding the nearly unanswerable question of bioburden. Unfortunately, not all items are capable of being processed through a washer/sterilizer. Therefore, consideration must be given to the process compatibility of each device. Disinfection processes provide the next level of safety. Unfortunately, there is no recognized or accepted method for quantitatively describing or monitoring a thermal disinfection process. As is the case with sterilization consideration must be given to the process compatibility of each device. Sanitization provides the lowest level of safety for the decontamination process.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10285793

Graham, G S

1988-01-01

68

Decision Analysis System for Selection of Appropriate Decontamination Technologies  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective for designing Decision Analysis System for Decontamination (DASD) is to support DOE-EM's endeavor to employ the most efficient and effective technologies for treating radiologically contaminated surfaces while minimizing personnel and environmental risks. DASD will provide a tool for environmental decision makers to improve the quality, consistency, and efficacy of their technology selection decisions. The system will facilitate methodical comparisons between innovative and baseline decontamination technologies and aid in identifying the most suitable technologies for performing surface decontamination at DOE environmental restoration sites.

Ebadian, M.A.; Boudreaux, J.F.; Chinta, S.; Zanakis, S.H.

1998-01-01

69

Evaluation of Five Decontamination Methods for Filtering Facepiece Respirators  

PubMed Central

Concerns have been raised regarding the availability of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-certified N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) during an influenza pandemic. One possible strategy to mitigate a respirator shortage is to reuse FFRs following a biological decontamination process to render infectious material on the FFR inactive. However, little data exist on the effects of decontamination methods on respirator integrity and performance. This study evaluated five decontamination methods [ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), ethylene oxide, vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP), microwave oven irradiation, and bleach] using nine models of NIOSH-certified respirators (three models each of N95 FFRs, surgical N95 respirators, and P100 FFRs) to determine which methods should be considered for future research studies. Following treatment by each decontamination method, the FFRs were evaluated for changes in physical appearance, odor, and laboratory performance (filter aerosol penetration and filter airflow resistance). Additional experiments (dry heat laboratory oven exposures, off-gassing, and FFR hydrophobicity) were subsequently conducted to better understand material properties and possible health risks to the respirator user following decontamination. However, this study did not assess the efficiency of the decontamination methods to inactivate viable microorganisms. Microwave oven irradiation melted samples from two FFR models. The remainder of the FFR samples that had been decontaminated had expected levels of filter aerosol penetration and filter airflow resistance. The scent of bleach remained noticeable following overnight drying and low levels of chlorine gas were found to off-gas from bleach-decontaminated FFRs when rehydrated with deionized water. UVGI, ethylene oxide (EtO), and VHP were found to be the most promising decontamination methods; however, concerns remain about the throughput capabilities for EtO and VHP. Further research is needed before any specific decontamination methods can be recommended. PMID:19805391

Bergman, Michael S.; Eimer, Benjamin C.; Shaffer, Ronald E.

2009-01-01

70

Decontamination of radioisotopes  

PubMed Central

Contaminations with radioactive material may occur in several situations related to medicine, industry or research. Seriousness of the incident depends mainly on the radioactive element involved; usually there are no major acute health effects, but in the long term can cause malignancies, leukemia, genetic defects and teratogenic anomalies. The most common is superficial contamination, but the radioactive material can get into the body and be retained by the cells of target organs, injuring directly and permanently sensitive elements of the body. Rapid intervention is very important to remove the radioactive material without spreading it. Work must be performed in a specially prepared area and personnel involved should wear special protective clothing. For external decontamination general cleaning techniques are used, usually do not require chemical techniques. For internal decontamination is necessary to use specific agents, according to the causative element, as well physiological interventions to enhance elimination and excretion. PMID:24376972

Dominguez-Gadea, Luis; Cerezo, Laura

2011-01-01

71

Decontamination and decommissioning the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is scheduled to complete its end-of-life deuterium-tritium (D-T) experiments in September 1994. The D-T operation will result in the TFTR machine structure becoming activated, and plasma facing and vacuum components will be contaminated with tritium. The resulting machine activation levels after a two year cooldown period will allow hands on dismantling for external structures, but require remote dismantling for the vacuum vessel. The primary objective of the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Project is to provide a facility for construction of a new Department of Energy (DOE) experimental fusion reactor by March 1998. The project schedule calls for a two year shutdown period when tritium decontamination of the vacuum vessel, neutral beam injectors and other components will occur. Shutdown will be followed by an 18 month period of D&D operations. The technical objectives of the project are to: safely dismantle and remove components from the test cell complex; package disassembled components in accordance with applicable regulations; ship packages to a DOE approved disposal or material recycling site; and develop expertise using remote disassembly techniques on a large scale fusion facility. This paper discusses the D&D objectives, the facility to be decommissioned, and the technical plan that will be implemented.

Walton, G.R.; Perry, E.D.; Commander, J.C. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Bush, H. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Spampinato, P.T. [Grumman Corp., Bethpage, NY (United States)

1994-04-01

72

Decontamination of field equipment: An institutional status report  

SciTech Connect

Advances in hazardous waste remediation have forced the development and refinement of correlative activities such as the decontamination of field equipment. Specific decontamination procedures are routinely included in remediation requirements such as the quality assurance project plan (QAPP). The authors surveyed the decontamination practices of several states and major federal agencies in 1988 before ASTM promulgated D 5088-90, ``Decontamination of field equipment used at nonradioactive sites.`` They found a diversity of practices will little consistency of detail or attention. The authors revisited the practices of several states and the USEPA regions to assess the effect of D 5088-90. Their presumption was that the ASTM standard would make inroads on practices. They found that D 5088-90 has had less than the expected effect because too few practitioners are aware of it.

Bellandi, R.; Mickam, J.T. [O`Brien and Gere Engineers, Inc., Syracuse, NY (United States); Burrows, V.C. [O`Brien and Gere Engineers, Inc., Edison, NJ (United States)

1996-12-31

73

Decontamination Technologies, Task 3, Urban Remediation and Response Project  

SciTech Connect

In the aftermath of a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD, also known as a dirty bomb) it will be necessary to remediate the site including building exteriors and interiors, equipment, pavement, vehicles, personal items etc. Remediation will remove or reduce radioactive contamination from the area using a combination of removing and disposing of many assets (including possible demolition of buildings), decontaminating and returning to service other assets, and fixing in place or leaving in place contamination that is deemed 'acceptable'. The later will require setting acceptable dose standards, which will require negotiation with all involved parties and a balance of risk and cost to benefit. To accomplish the first two, disposal or decontamination, a combination of technologies will be deployed that can be loosely classified as: Decontamination; Equipment removal and size reduction; and Demolition. This report will deal only with the decontamination technologies that will be used to return assets to service or to reduce waste disposal. It will not discuss demolition, size reduction or removal technologies or equipment (e.g., backhoe mounted rams, rock splitter, paving breakers and chipping hammers, etc.). As defined by the DOE (1994), decontamination is removal of radiological contamination from the surfaces of facilities and equipment. Expertise in this field comes primarily from the operation and decommissioning of DOE and commercial nuclear facilities as well as a small amount of ongoing research and development closely related to RDD decontamination. Information related to decontamination of fields, buildings, and public spaces resulting from the Goiania and Chernobyl incidents were also reviewed and provide some meaningful insight into decontamination at major urban areas. In order to proceed with decontamination, the item being processed needs to have an intrinsic value that exceeds the cost of the cleaning and justifies the exposure of any workers during the decontamination process(es). In the case of an entire building, the value may be obvious; it's costly to replace the structure. For a smaller item such as a vehicle or painting, the cost versus benefit of decontamination needs to be evaluated. This will be determined on a case by case basis and again is beyond the scope of this report, although some thoughts on decontamination of unique, personal and high value items are given. But, this is clearly an area that starting discussions and negotiations early on will greatly benefit both the economics and timeliness of the clean up. In addition, high value assets might benefit from pre-event protection such as protective coatings or HEPA filtered rooms to prevent contaminated outside air from entering the room (e.g., an art museum).

Heiser,J.; Sullivan, T.

2009-06-30

74

Decontamination solution development studies  

SciTech Connect

This study was conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of the Hanford Grout Technology Program (HGTP). The objective of this study was to identify decontamination solutions capable of removing radioactive contaminants and grout from the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) process equipment and to determine the impact of these solutions on equipment components and disposal options. The reference grout used in this study was prepared with simulated double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) and a dry blend consisting of 40 wt % limestone flour, 28 wt % blast furnace slag, 28 wt % fly ash, and 4 wt % type I/II Portland cement.

Allen, R.P.; Fetrow, L.K.; Kjarmo, H.E.; Pool, K.H.

1993-09-01

75

Fast Track Dredged Material Decontamination  

E-print Network

Fast Track Dredged Material Decontamination Demonstration for the Port of New York and New Jersey Department of Energy Brookhaven National Laboratory Fast Track Dredged Material Decontamination Demonstration .............................................................................. 3 3.3 Relation to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers-New York District Dredged Material Management

Brookhaven National Laboratory

76

Integrated decontamination process for metals  

DOEpatents

An integrated process for decontamination of metals, particularly metals that are used in the nuclear energy industry contaminated with radioactive material. The process combines the processes of electrorefining and melt refining to purify metals that can be decontaminated using either electrorefining or melt refining processes.

Snyder, Thomas S. (Oakmont, PA); Whitlow, Graham A. (Murrysville, PA)

1991-01-01

77

Siting evaluations for the ignitor fusion experiment: Preliminary radiological assessments  

E-print Network

Ignitor is a proposed compact high-magnetic field tokamak aimed at studying plasma burning conditions in Deuterium-Tritium plasmas. Localisation of this experiment in Italy has seen growing attention during the last years. ...

Coppi, Bruno

78

Interactions among localized corrosion sites investigated through experiments and models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has often been assumed that pitting events occur randomly in time and space and that there is no effect of one event upon another. However, when a pit begins to form and current flows, the local environment is altered. Changes can occur in the local concentration of aggressive species, the potential field and damage can occur to the passivating oxide film. These three competing effects work on different time scales and can affect electrode areas through different distances. Therefore, pitting events can have some influence on the probability of future nearby events. Current time series data collected on a single working electrode experiencing metastable pitting corrosion was first analyzed. The metastable pitting events were found to have correlation and were not randomly distributed in time. Further investigation was performed on an array of 25 working electrodes in order to obtain information on the spatial interactions among metastable and stable pitting sites. The 5-by-5 array consisted of closely spaced, 0.025 cm diameter 316 stainless steel wires. The flush-mounted wire tips were exposed to 0.05 M NaCl solution at 47°C. To examine the environmental changes created by a stable pitting site, one or more electrodes in the array were held at a 1 V vs. SCE causing the entire electrode to corrode at a high rate simulating a single large pit. Two types of interactions were observed when a pit was created in the center of the array. First, inhibition of pitting on nearby electrodes occurred due to ohmic potential drop near the actively corroding pit site. Second, enhancement of pitting was observed due to alternations in the local solution composition and oxide film created by a deactivated pitting site. The ohmic shielding effect was dominant near the active site, however, it dissipated almost immediately after the pit site was deactivated. The other two interactive effects increased pitting probabilities as they endured for a longer time after the current ceased to flow, with oxide film changing lasting more than 10 minutes. The information obtained about the interactions among corrosion sites were then used to develop a spatial metastable pitting model that simulated the behavior found experimentally.

Lunt, Tracy T.

2001-08-01

79

Surgical site infections in skin surgery: a single center experience.  

PubMed

The main interests covered in this article are the determination of risk factors and incidence of surgical site infections in dermatosurgery and suggestions for rational use of antibiotic prophylaxis. A total of 3284 consecutive dermatosurgical interventions in 1088 patients were performed in our dermatosurgery department. Data regarding patient characteristics and perioperative course were prospectively collected and retrospective analysis of this data was performed. Association of perioperative parameters and postoperative surgical site infections was assessed by ?(2) -test. Rate of postoperative infections in our study was low (1.9%). Purulent surgical sites showed the highest incidence of severe postoperative infections (4.7%; P < 0.001). The lowest incidence of mild infections was seen in preoperatively clean surgical sites (0.8%; P < 0.001). All patients with severe infections and 68% patients with mild infections were older than 70 years. The head and neck and acral regions were the groups mostly affected by mild postoperative conditions (2.4% and 1.7%, respectively; P = 0.006). The frequency of mild and severe infections in procedures performed by experienced surgeons was lower than in procedures performed by less experienced surgeons (0.6% vs 3.1% in mild infections, 0.1 vs 0.8 in severe infections; P < 0.001). The main risk factors for postoperative infections were wounds in the head and neck region, lips and oral mucosa or acral regions, older age of patients, worse preoperative state of surgical sites and less experienced surgeons. In the majority of cases where risk factors were missing there was no need of antibiotic prophylaxis. PMID:23961937

Kulichová, Daniela; Geimer, Till; Mühlstädt, Michael; Ruzicka, Thomas; Kunte, Christian

2013-10-01

80

Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE): Reports from the NASA resident representative in India. [ATS 6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reports submitted by the NASA project representative for the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) at Ahmedabad, India are presented. These reports deal with the coordination of all SITE related matters between the ATS 6 Project at Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA Headquarters, and the SITE Program in India.

Galloway, H. L., Jr.

1976-01-01

81

My life changing experience following wrong site surgery.  

PubMed

Since being asked to write this article for the Journal of Perioperative Practice, I have been thinking a lot more about myself being a patient and not so much as a medical professional. Before this, being an Orthopaedic Nurse Practitioner took precedence as I couldn't get my head around being a patient or indeed that I had suffered as a result of wrong site surgery! PMID:19908669

McMonagle, Claudia

2009-10-01

82

Decontamination & decommissioning focus area  

SciTech Connect

In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

NONE

1996-08-01

83

Granulated decontamination formulations  

DOEpatents

A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a sorbent additive, and water. A highly adsorbent sorbent additive (e.g., amorphous silica, sorbitol, mannitol, etc.) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

Tucker, Mark D. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-10-02

84

Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System  

SciTech Connect

The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Tritium Systems Group has developed and fabricated an Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System (OTDS), which is designed to reduce tritium surface contamination on various components and items. The system is configured to introduce gaseous ozone into a reaction chamber containing tritiated items that require a reduction in tritium surface contamination. Tritium surface contamination (on components and items in the reaction chamber) is removed by chemically reacting elemental tritium to tritium oxide via oxidation, while purging the reaction chamber effluent to a gas holding tank or negative pressure HVAC system. Implementing specific concentrations of ozone along with catalytic parameters, the system is able to significantly reduce surface tritium contamination on an assortment of expendable and non-expendable items. This paper will present the results of various experimentation involving employment of this system.

Charles A. Gentile; John J. Parker; Gregory L. Guttadora; Lloyd P. Ciebiera

2002-02-11

85

Skin decontamination: principles and perspectives.  

PubMed

Skin decontamination is the primary intervention needed in chemical, biological and radiological exposures, involving immediate removal of the contaminant from the skin performed in the most efficient way. The most readily available decontamination system on a practical basis is washing with soap and water or water only. Timely use of flushing with copious amounts of water may physically remove the contaminant. However, this traditional method may not be completely effective, and contaminants left on the skin after traditional washing procedures can have toxic consequences. This article focuses on the principles and practices of skin decontamination. PMID:22851522

Chan, Heidi P; Zhai, Hongbo; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I

2013-11-01

86

Practical choices for infobutton customization: experience from four sites.  

PubMed

Context-aware links between electronic health records (EHRs) and online knowledge resources, commonly called "infobuttons" are being used increasingly as part of EHR "meaningful use" requirements. While an HL7 standard exists for specifying how the links should be constructed, there is no guidance on what links to construct. Collectively, the authors manage four infobutton systems that serve 16 institutions. The purpose of this paper is to publish our experience with linking various resources and specifying particular criteria that can be used by infobutton managers to select resources that are most relevant for a given situation. This experience can be used directly by those wishing to customize their own EHRs, for example by using the OpenInfobutton infobutton manager and its configuration tool, the Librarian Infobutton Tailoring Environment. PMID:24551334

Cimino, James J; Overby, Casey L; Devine, Emily B; Hulse, Nathan C; Jing, Xia; Maviglia, Saverio M; Del Fiol, Guilherme

2013-01-01

87

Ozone decontamination of bioclean rooms.  

PubMed Central

To establish a convenient method for decontaminating bioclean rooms, the effect of ozone at 80 mg/m3 for 72 h was compared with formaldehyde vaporization at an initial concentration of 150 mg/m3 with a gradual decrease to 20 mg/m3 during 72 h. Ozone was found to be inferior to formaldehyde in activity. When the bioclean room was decontaminated twice with ozone, the mean colony count per 10 cm2 was decreased to about the same level as when formaldehyde was used. Ozone had a strong caustic effect upon rubber materials. Despite these disadvantages, ozone decontamination was demonstrated to be superior to formaldehyde vaporization because of convenience, insignificant inhalation of the disinfectant by the hospital staff, and very rapid expulsion of the gas after ventilation. Because the disadvantages of ozone can be easily controlled, this study suggests that ozone decontamination is a promising method for maintaining bioclean rooms. PMID:6803668

Masaoka, T; Kubota, Y; Namiuchi, S; Takubo, T; Ueda, T; Shibata, H; Nakamura, H; Yoshitake, J; Yamayoshi, T; Doi, H; Kamiki, T

1982-01-01

88

Large-bore pipe decontamination  

SciTech Connect

The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system.

Ebadian, M.A.

1998-01-01

89

Decontamination of the populated areas contaminated as a result of nuclear accident  

SciTech Connect

Decontamination tests on urban surfaces contaminated by the Chernobyl accident have shown that Chernobyl fallout behaves differently from fallout from nuclear weapons tests and contamination on surfaces in nuclear power plant. The effectiveness of various decontamination compositions for removing Chernobyl fallout from urban surfaces and machinery was determined in a series of laboratory experiments and field trials.

Voronik, N.I.; Shatilo, N.N.; Davydov, Y.P. [Institute of Radioecological Problems, Minsk-Sosny (Belarus)

1996-12-31

90

Analysis of Potential Concerete Floor Decontamination Technologies  

SciTech Connect

During the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities to be conducted at the Femald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), contaminated concrete waste will be generated from the D&D of approximately 200 buildings and other structures [1]. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owns the Fernald site. The site is a contractor-operated federal facility that produced high-purity uranium metal products for the DOE and its predecessor agency, the Atomic Energy Commission, from 1952 to 1989. Thorium being ores were also processed at FEMP, but on a smaller scale. Production activities ceased in 1989, and the production mission of the facility ended formally in 1991. FEMP was included on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List in 1989. The current mission of the site is environmental restoration according to the requirements specified by CERCLA [1]. Decontamination and decommissioning activities require the treatment of concrete floors to segregate technetium-99 contaminated concrete from the remainder of the concrete. Many proven commercial stiace removal technologies are available. These processes vary in aggressiveness, stiety requirements, waste generation, capital requirements, and operating and maintenance costs.

M. A. Ebadian

1997-08-06

91

MERCURY CONTAMINATED MATERIAL DECONTAMINATION METHODS: INVESTIGATION AND ASSESSMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the years mercury has been recognized as having serious impacts on human health and the environment. This recognition has led to numerous studies that deal with the properties of various mercury forms, the development of methods to quantify and speciate the forms, fate and transport, toxicology studies, and the development of site remediation and decontamination technologies. This report reviews

M. A. Ebadian

2001-01-01

92

Experiences from site-specific landslide early warning systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landslide early warning systems (EWSs) have to be implemented in areas with large risk for populations or infrastructures when classical structural remediation measures cannot be set up. This paper aims to gather experiences of existing landslide EWSs, with a special focus on practical requirements (e.g., alarm threshold values have to take into account the smallest detectable signal levels of deployed sensors before being established) and specific issues when dealing with system implementations. Within the framework of the SafeLand European project, a questionnaire was sent to about one-hundred institutions in charge of landslide management. Finally, we interpreted answers from experts belonging to 14 operational units related to 23 monitored landslides. Although no standard requirements exist for designing and operating EWSs, this review highlights some key elements, such as the importance of pre-investigation work, the redundancy and robustness of monitoring systems, the establishment of different scenarios adapted to gradual increasing of alert levels, and the necessity of confidence and trust between local populations and scientists. Moreover, it also confirms the need to improve our capabilities for failure forecasting, monitoring techniques and integration of water processes into landslide conceptual models.

Michoud, C.; Bazin, S.; Blikra, L. H.; Derron, M.-H.; Jaboyedoff, M.

2013-10-01

93

Electroosmotic decontamination of concrete  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for the electroosmotic decontamination of concrete surfaces, in which an electrical field is used to induce migration of ionic contaminants from porous concrete into an electrolyte solution that may be disposed of as a low-level liquid radioactive waste (LLRW); alternately, the contaminants from the solution can be sorbed onto anion exchange media in order to prevent contaminant buildup in the solution and to minimize the amount of LLRW generated. We have confirmed the removal of uranium (and infer the removal of {sup 99}Tc) from previously contaminated concrete surfaces. In a typical experimental configuration, a stainless steel mesh is placed in an electrolyte solution contained within a diked cell to serve as the negative electrode (cathode) and contaminant collection medium, respectively, and an existing metal penetration (e.g., piping, conduit, or rebar reinforcement within the concrete surface) serves as the positive electrode (anode) to complete the cell. Typically we have achieved 70 to >90% reductions in surface activity by applying <400 V and <1 A for 1--3 h (energy consumption of 0.4--12 kWh/ft{sup 2}).

Bostick, W.D.; Bush, S.A.; Marsh, G.C.; Henson, H.M. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States); Box, W.D.; Morgan, I.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1993-03-01

94

Progress of electro-hydraulic scabbling technology for concrete decontamination  

SciTech Connect

Concrete decontamination from organics, metals, and radionuclides requires removal of up to one inch of the surface layer. The Electro- Hydraulic Scabbling (EHS) technique has been developed within a 3- phase program. A prototype 8 kW EHS unit was designed and assembled in Phase II. This system was tested initially by scabbling noncontaminated concrete, and later at the DOE Fernald site where a concrete floor containing uranium was decontaminated. In the latter test, the unit operated without problems and reduced the counts per minute by more than 90%. Currently in Phase III, a larger 30 kW unit has been assembled and prepared for testing/demonstration.

Goldfarb, V.; Gannon, R.

1997-05-01

95

Walker Branch Throughfall Displacement Experiment Data Report: Site Characterization, System Performance, Weather,  

E-print Network

Walker Branch Throughfall Displacement Experiment Data Report: Site Characterization, SystemWolfe Elizabeth G. O'NeillElizabeth G. O'Neill DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/vrc.ndp078 #12;ORNL/CDIAC-134 NDP-078A Walker

96

Resurvey of site stability quadrilaterals, Otay Mountain and Quincy, California. [San Andreas fault experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trilateration quadrilaterals established across two faults near the San Andreas Fault Experiment laser/satellite ranging sites were resurveyed after four years. No evidence of significant tectonic motion was found.

Scholz, C. H.

1977-01-01

97

MERCURY CONTAMINATED MATERIAL DECONTAMINATION METHODS: INVESTIGATION AND ASSESSMENT  

SciTech Connect

Over the years mercury has been recognized as having serious impacts on human health and the environment. This recognition has led to numerous studies that deal with the properties of various mercury forms, the development of methods to quantify and speciate the forms, fate and transport, toxicology studies, and the development of site remediation and decontamination technologies. This report reviews several critical areas that will be used in developing technologies for cleaning mercury from mercury-contaminated surfaces of metals and porous materials found in many DOE facilities. The technologies used for decontamination of water and mixed wastes (solid) are specifically discussed. Many technologies that have recently appeared in the literature are included in the report. Current surface decontamination processes have been reviewed, and the limitations of these technologies for mercury decontamination are discussed. Based on the currently available technologies and the processes published recently in the literature, several processes, including strippable coatings, chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, chemisorbing surface wipes with forager sponge and grafted cotton, and surface/pore fixation through amalgamation or stabilization, have been identified as potential techniques for decontamination of mercury-contaminated metal and porous surfaces. Their potential merits and applicability are discussed. Finally, two processes, strippable coatings and chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, were experimentally investigated in Phase II of this project.

M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

2001-01-01

98

Geomorphology and the location of nuclear power plant sites: the Czechoslovakian experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for secure sites for such sensitive installations as nuclear power plants and radioactive waste storage has brought increasing significance to the study of the geodynamic processes of the Earth's crust. Among other Earth sciences, geomorphology in Czechoslovakia is also participating in the study of both planning and operating nuclear power station sites. The experience of Czech geomorphologists has

J. Demek; J. Kalvoda

1992-01-01

99

Sites for Student Field Experiences in Refugee Mental Health. Task VI--Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report on sites for student field experiences in refugee mental health has been prepared by the University of Minnesota's Mental Health Technical Assistance Center for the state refugee assistance programs. After a brief introduction describing the mission of the Technical Assistance Center, the characteristics of field experience in mental…

Hoshino, George; And Others

100

Demonstration of Radiofrequency Soil Decontamination: Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Air Force Armstrong Laboratory, Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, has supported the research and development of Radio Frequency Soil Decontamination. Radio frequency soil decontamination is essentially a heat-assisted soil vapor extraction process. Sit...

C. F. Blanchard, C. R. Lyon, L. H. Whitt

1996-01-01

101

Decontamination of biological warfare agents by a microwave plasma torch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A portable arc-seeded microwave plasma torch running stably with airflow is described and applied for the decontamination of biological warfare agents. Emission spectroscopy of the plasma torch indicated that this torch produced an abundance of reactive atomic oxygen that could effectively oxidize biological agents. Bacillus cereus was chosen as a simulant of Bacillus anthracis spores for biological agent in the decontamination experiments. Decontamination was performed with the airflow rate of 0.393l/s, corresponding to a maximum concentration of atomic oxygen produced by the torch. The experimental results showed that all spores were killed in less than 8 s at 3 cm distance, 12 s at 4 cm distance, and 16 s at 5 cm distance away from the nozzle of the torch.

Lai, Wilson; Lai, Henry; Kuo, Spencer P.; Tarasenko, Olga; Levon, Kalle

2005-02-01

102

Challenges in Obtaining Property Access: The FUSRAP Maywood Site Experience - 13433  

SciTech Connect

The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) is the US government program started in 1974 to identify, investigate and clean up or control sites that became contaminated as a result of the nation's early atomic programs. Many of these sites are not owned by the federal government and therefore require owner permission to enter. The experience in pursuing such access at the FUSRAP Maywood Superfund Site (the Maywood Site or the Site) in Bergen County, New Jersey, is extensive. Since the US Army Corps of Engineers (the Corps) assumed responsibility for the Maywood Site from the US Department of Energy in 1997, at least 186 separate property access agreements (known in FUSRAP as a Real Estate Right-of- Entry or ROE) have been executed between the Corps and approximately 55 different land owners and tenant occupants at the Maywood Site (agreement renewals with the same owners over time account for the difference). Maywood's experience during the Corps' tenure, reflected here in three case studies of representative property access efforts, offers some lessons and best practices that may apply to other remedial programs. While the Site Community Relations Manager (the author of this paper) managed the property access task, multi-disciplinary support from across the project was also critical to success in this endeavor. (authors)

Kollar, William [Shaw Environmental, Inc., 100 West Hunter Avenue, Maywood, NJ 07607 (United States)] [Shaw Environmental, Inc., 100 West Hunter Avenue, Maywood, NJ 07607 (United States)

2013-07-01

103

Evaluation of six decontamination processes on actinide and fission product contamination  

SciTech Connect

In-situ decontamination technologies were evaluated for their ability to: (1) reduce equipment contamination levels to allow either free release of the equipment or land disposal, (2) minimize residues generated by decontamination, and (3) generate residues that are compatible with existing disposal technologies. Six decontamination processes were selected. tested and compared to 4M nitric acid, a traditional decontamination agent: fluoroboric acid (HBF{sub 4}), nitric plus hydrofluoric acid, alkaline persulfate followed by citric acid plus oxalic acid, silver(II) plus sodium persulfate plus nitric acid, oxalic acid plus hydrogen peroxide plus hydrofluoric acid, and electropolishing using nitric acid electrolyte. The effectiveness of these solutions was tested using prepared 304 stainless steel couponds contaminated with uranium, plutonium, americium, or fission products. The decontamination factor for each of the solutions and tests conditions were determined; the results of these experiments are presented.

Conner, C.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Chen, L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

104

Development of melt refining decontamination technology for low level radioactive metal waste contaminated with uranium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility study of Melt Refining Decontamination by Slagging (MRDS) havs been performed for the release and recycling of Low Level Radioactive Metal Waste (LLRMW) contaminated with uranium discharged from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Experiments and their evaluation have been performed for the decontamination performance of the waste containing aluminum and have clarified the followings. Simulated waste was decontaminated to 0.01 Bq/g when the addition of aluminum is below 1.5 wt% in laboratory scale test equipment. This was demonstrated also in the engineering scale experiment for MRDS. These results demonstrate that the MRDS is an effective processing technology for low level radioactive metal waste with uranium.

Aoyama, M.; Miyamoto, Y.; Fukumoto, M.; Suto, O.

2005-02-01

105

Thermodynamic and Experimental Feasibility of Decontaminating Thorium-Uranium Fuels by a Volatilization Technique.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thermodynamic feasibility of decontaminating a (Th,U)O sub 2 fuel by volatilization during conversion to the carbide and by subsequent electron beam melting was examined. Experiments on simulated fuels containing selected fission product element addit...

O. N. Carlson, P. Chiotti, L. Shiers

1979-01-01

106

Evaluation of EPA Region IV Standard Operating Procedures for decontamination of field equipment when sampling for volatile organic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decontamination procedures for use at CERCLA sites where the US Environmental protection Agency (EPA) Region IV is the lead agency are specified in their Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) document. Under certain circumstances, the objectives of proper decontamination can be obtained without utilizing the full procedure as specified in the SOP. Because some treatment methods may introduce low levels of organic

D. A. Brice; M. E. Kelley

1991-01-01

107

Commercializationof Dredged-Material Decontamination  

E-print Network

Commercializationof Dredged- Material Decontamination Technologies Keitb U?Jones isa senior Keith375,000 mdmmnentalm@m*ng m3 of dredged material per year. The need to develop public-priuate p r o g r assessmentsand dredged materialmanagemart. He istbe tecbnfcalprogram managerfor tbe WRM NXm Harbor Sediment

Brookhaven National Laboratory

108

Flume experiments on sediment mixtures from the offshore dredged material disposal site, Galveston Texas  

E-print Network

FLUME EXP RIMENTS ON SED IliENT MIXTURES FROM 1'HE OFFSHORE DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL SITE, GALVESTON, TEXAS A Thesis by ANTHONX JOSEPH MOHEREK Submitted t. o th' Graduate Co1lege of Iexas Atli University in partial Fulfillment... of the requirement for tht degree of MASTER OF SC:ENCE August 1977 Major Sub. :e . t: Oceanograghy FLUME EXPERIMENTS ON SEDIMENT MIXTURES FROM THE OFFSHORE DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL SITE, GALVESTON, TEXAS A Thesis by ANTHONY JOSEPH MOHEREK Approved...

Moherek, Anthony Joseph

2012-06-07

109

HT to HTO conversion and field experiments near Darlington Nuclear Power Generating Station (DNPGS) site.  

PubMed

The Canadian input parameters related to tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) used in tritium dose models are currently based on experiments performed at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site in 1986, 1987 and 1994. There is uncertainty in how well other sites experiencing atmospheric HT releases are represented by these data. In order to address this uncertainty, HT to HTO conversion factors were evaluated at different locations near the Darlington Nuclear Power Generating Station (DNPGS) site using various experimental approaches. These were D2 gas exposure chamber experiments, atmospheric tritium measurements, and HTO and OBT measurements in vegetation and soil. In addition to these field experiments, chamber experiments were conducted using HT gas on field soil samples. The suggested Canadian input parameters for atmospheric tritium releases estimate the total fraction of HT oxidized in air and in soil, at the site, to be up to a maximum of 2.4%. Based on the more limited data obtained near DNPGS in early spring, this fraction would likely be closer to 0.5%. The result suggests that current parameters provide a conservative estimate for the DNPGS site. PMID:24565644

Kim, S B; Stuart, M; Bredlaw, M; Festarini, A; Beaton, D

2014-06-01

110

Managing for desired experiences and site preferences: the case of fee-fishing anglers.  

PubMed

Fee-fishing involves paying a fee for the privilege of fishing a body of water where fish populations are enhanced by stocking fish. Past literature on this activity has focused more on the operation of the enterprise and management of the fish than the people and site characteristics. The objectives of the study were to profile anglers and describe their site/management preferences. This study utilized an on-site interview and mail-back questionnaire at fee-fishing establishments in West Virginia (n = 212). Factor analysis of desired recreation experiences yielded five factors: Experience nature & adventure, Stress release & relaxation, Trophy fishing, Escape, and Family time. Cluster analysis showed that these anglers can be segmented into two distinct clusters, differing by sociodemographic characteristics, fishing behavior, and site/management preferences. The findings from this study provide baseline data to aid public resource managers and fee-fishing business owners in determining how to provide satisfying outdoor experiences and deliver desired services on-site. Future research will be needed from additional fee-fishing sites to obtain more detail about this outdoor recreation cohort and be able to generalize to a larger population of participants. PMID:17160510

Schuett, Michael A; Pierskalla, Chad D

2007-02-01

111

Interpretation of freezing nucleation experiments: singular and stochastic; sites and surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Publications of recent years dealing with laboratory experiments of immersion freezing reveal uncertainties about the fundamentals of heterogeneous freezing nucleation. While it appears well accepted that there are two major factors that determine the process, namely fluctuations in the size and configuration of incipient embryos of the solid phase and the role of the substrate to aid embryo formation, views have been evolving about the relative importance of these two elements. The importance of specific surface sites is being established in a growing number of experiments and a number of approaches have been proposed to incorporate these results into model descriptions. Many of these models share a common conceptual basis yet diverge in the way random and deterministic factors are combined. The divergence can be traced to uncertainty about the permanence of nucleating sites, to the lack of detailed knowledge about what surface features constitute nucleating sites, and to the consequent need to rely on empirical or parametric formulas to define the population of sites of different effectiveness. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that recent experiments and models, consistent with earlier work, point to the existence and primary role of permanent nucleating sites and to the continued need for empirically based formulations of heterogeneous freezing. The paper focuses on three identifiably separate but interrelated issues: (i) the combination of singular and stochastic factors, (ii) the role of specific surface sites, and (iii) the modeling of heterogeneous ice nucleation.

Vali, G.

2014-01-01

112

Robotic single-site surgery for female-to-male transsexuals: preliminary experience.  

PubMed

Hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is a part of gender reassignment surgery for the treatment of female-to-male transsexualism. Over the last years many efforts were made in order to reduce invasiveness of laparoscopic and robotic surgery such as the introduction of single-site approach. We report our preliminary experience on single-site robotic hysterectomy for cross-sex reassignment surgery. Our data suggest that single-site robotic hysterectomy is feasible and safe in female-to-male transsexualism with some benefits in terms of postoperative pain and aesthetic results. PMID:24982976

Bogliolo, Stefano; Cassani, Chiara; Babilonti, Luciana; Gardella, Barbara; Zanellini, Francesca; Dominoni, Mattia; Santamaria, Valentina; Nappi, Rossella Elena; Spinillo, Arsenio

2014-01-01

113

Unusual sites for primary hydatid cysts: self experience with five cases.  

PubMed

Hydatid disease is a zoonotic disease caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. It is common in the sheep-raising countries including Iraq. The usual site for involvement is the liver, followed by the lungs. Other sites may be affected less commonly and require a high index of suspicion for diagnosis. We present our experience with five cases of unusual sites of primary hydatid cyst, including the pancreas, the abdominal wall, the spleen, the back and the thigh. Three patients were females and two patients were males; their ages were between 15 and 39 years. All the patients were operated at our centre, and after a period of follow-up ranging between 2 and 6 years, there was no reported recurrence in any of the patients, neither at the primary site nor at other sites. PMID:24692371

Attash, Saad Muwafaq

2014-01-01

114

High-affinity dextromethorphan binding sites in guinea pig brain. II. Competition experiments.  

PubMed

Binding of dextromethorphan (DM) to guinea pig brain is stereoselective, since levomethorphan is 20 times weaker than DM in competing for DM sites. In general, opiate agonists and antagonists as well as their corresponding dextrorotatory isomers are weak competitors for tritiated dextromethorphan ([3H]DM) binding sites and display IC50 values in the micromolar range. In contrast, several non-narcotic, centrally acting antitussives are inhibitory in the nanomolar range (IC50 values for caramiphen, carbetapentane, dimethoxanate, and pipazethate are 25 nM, 9 nM, 41 nM, and 190 nM, respectively). Other antitussives, such as levopropoxyphene, chlophedianol, and fominoben, have poor affinity for DM sites whereas the antitussive noscapine enhances DM binding by increasing the affinity of DM for its central binding sites. Additional competition studies indicate that there is no correlation of DM binding with any of the known or putative neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. DM binding is also not related to tricyclic antidepressant binding sites or biogenic amine uptake sites. However, certain phenothiazine neuroleptics and typical and atypical antidepressants inhibit binding with IC50 values in the nanomolar range. Moreover, the anticonvulsant drug diphenylhydantoin enhances DM binding in a manner similar to that of noscapine. Preliminary experiments utilizing acid extracts of brain have not demonstrated the presence of an endogenous ligand for DM sites. The binding characteristics of DM sites studied in rat and mouse brain indicate that the relative potencies of several antitussives to inhibit specific DM binding vary according to species. High-affinity, saturable, and stereoselective [3H]DM binding sites are present in liver homogenates, but several differences have been found for these peripheral binding sites and those described for brain. Although the nature of central DM binding sites is not known, the potent interaction of several classes of centrally acting antitussives with DM sites suggests that they may be related to the mechanism of action of this drug. PMID:6865909

Craviso, G L; Musacchio, J M

1983-05-01

115

Practice Experiences at a Single Institutional Practice Site to Improve Advanced Pharmacy Practice Examination Performance  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine whether sequential assignment of students to the same facility for institutional practice experiences improves their advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) examination scores. Design. Student volunteers were assigned to the same healthcare facility for all institutional introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) and advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Other students completed institutional IPPEs and APPEs at separate healthcare facilities, ranging from 2 to 4 different facilities per student. APPE examination scores of students assigned to the same facility for all institutional learning experiences were compared with those of students assigned to more than 1 institutional practice site. Assessment. Holding grade point average constant, students assigned to the same facility for institutional IPPEs and APPEs scored 3 percentage points higher on the APPE institutional examination compared with students assigned to separate facilities for these experiences. Conclusion. Assigning students to the same facility for both institutional IPPEs and APPEs positively influenced knowledge-based APPE examination performance. PMID:24761021

Britton, Mark L.; Wheeler, Richard E.; Carter, Sandra M.

2014-01-01

116

Bioremediation of 60Co from simulated spent decontamination solutions.  

PubMed

Bioremediation of 60Co from simulated spent decontamination solutions by utilizing different biomass of (Neurospora crassa, Trichoderma viridae, Mucor recemosus, Rhizopus chinensis, Penicillium citrinum, Aspergillus niger and, Aspergillus flavus) fungi is reported. Various fungal species were screened to evaluate their potential for removing cobalt from very low concentrations (0.03-0.16 microM) in presence of a high background of iron (9.33 mM) and nickel (0.93 mM) complexed with EDTA (10.3 mM). The different fungal isolates employed in this study showed a pickup of cobalt in the range 8-500 ng/g of dry biomass. The [Fe]/[Co] and [Ni]/[Co] ratios in the solutions before and after exposure to the fungi were also determined. At micromolar level the cobalt pickup by many fungi especially the mutants of N. crassa is seen to be proportional to the initial cobalt concentration taken in the solution. However, R. chinensis exhibits a low but iron concentration dependent cobalt pickup. Prior saturating the fungi with excess of iron during their growth showed the presence of selective cobalt pickup sites. The existence of cobalt specific sorption sites is shown by a model experiment with R. chinensis wherein at a constant cobalt concentration (0.034 microM) and varying iron concentrations so as to yield [Fe/Co]initial ratios in solution of 10, 100, 1000 and 287000 have all yielded a definite Co pickup capacity in the range 8-47 ng/g. The presence of Cr(III)EDTA (3 mM) in solution along with complexed Fe and Ni has not influenced the cobalt removal. The significant feature of this study is that even when cobalt is present in trace level (sub-micromolar) in a matrix of high concentration (millimolar levels) of iron, nickel and chromium, a situation typically encountered in spent decontamination solutions arising from stainless steel based primary systems of nuclear reactors, a number of fungi studied in this work showed a good sensitivity for cobalt pickup. PMID:15207568

Rashmi, K; Sowjanya, T Naga; Mohan, P Maruthi; Balaji, V; Venkateswaran, G

2004-07-26

117

Surface decontamination using a teleoperated vehicle and Kelly spray/vacuum system  

SciTech Connect

A commercial teleoperated wheeled vehicle was fitted with a modified commercial spray/vacuum decontamination system to allow floor and wall decontamination of an existing process room in one of the chemical separations areas at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Custom end-of-arm tooling was designed to provide sufficient compliance for routine cleaning operations. An operator console was designed to allow complete control of the vehicle base and are movements as well as viewing operations via multiple television monitors. 3 refs.

Zollinger, W.T.; Dyches, G.M.

1990-12-31

118

Surface decontamination using a teleoperated vehicle and Kelly spray/vacuum system  

SciTech Connect

A commercial teleoperated wheeled vehicle was fitted with a modified commercial spray/vacuum decontamination system to allow floor and wall decontamination of an existing process room in one of the chemical separations areas at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Custom end-of-arm tooling was designed to provide sufficient compliance for routine cleaning operations. An operator console was designed to allow complete control of the vehicle base and are movements as well as viewing operations via multiple television monitors. 3 refs.

Zollinger, W.T.; Dyches, G.M.

1990-01-01

119

Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program  

SciTech Connect

The Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program at West Virginia University consists of research and development associated with hazardous waste remediation problems at the Department of Energy complex and elsewhere. This program seeks to facilitate expedited development and implementation of solutions to the nation`s hazardous waste clean-up efforts. By a unique combination of university research and private technology development efforts, new paths toward implementing technology and speeding clean-ups are achievable. Mechanisms include aggressive industrial tie-ins to academic development programs, expedited support of small business technology development efforts, enhanced linkages to existing DOE programs, and facilitated access to hazardous waste sites. The program topically falls into an information component, which includes knowledge acquisition, technology evaluation and outreach activities and an R and D component, which develops and implements new and improved technologies. Projects began in February 1993 due to initiation of a Cooperative Agreement between West Virginia University and the Department of Energy.

Berg, M.; Sack, W.A.; Gabr, M. [and others

1994-12-31

120

Introduction to special section on the Phoenix Mission: Landing Site Characterization Experiments, Mission Overviews, and  

E-print Network

2008. [1] Phoenix, the first Mars Scout mission, capitalizes on the large NASA investments in the Mars Polar Lander and the Mars Surveyor 2001 missions. On 4 August 2007, Phoenix was launched to Mars fromIntroduction to special section on the Phoenix Mission: Landing Site Characterization Experiments

Duck, Thomas J.

121

Courseware for ultrasonic medical diagnostics curriculum: system for on-site and remote laboratory experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to present the implementation approach of on-site and remote experimenting laboratory for ultrasound medical diagnostics curriculum. We demonstrate the implementation of such laboratory using virtual instrument that is built by using a standard computer, a ultrasonic transducer with a tissue like phantom, digitizer, function generator and the software package LabView. By controlling the virtual

R. Jurkonis; V. Marozas; A. Lukoševi?ius

2008-01-01

122

MINERAL WEATHERING RATES FROM SMALL-PLOT EXPERIMENTS, WMP SITE, BEAR BROOKS, MAINE  

EPA Science Inventory

The pH-dependence of silicate mineral weathering rates was measured in small-plot experiments at the Bear Brooks Watershed Manipulation Project site in Maine, U.S.A. ix 2 m2 plots were acidified with solutions of HCL in deionized water at pH values of 2, 2.5, and 3. Acid applicat...

123

Lessons Learned from Bacterial Transport Experiments at the South Oyster Site  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a high?level review of bacterial transport experiments conducted by a multi?investigator, multi?institution, multi?disciplinary team of researchers under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy. The experiments considered were conducted during the time period 1999?2001 at a field site near the town of Oyster, Virginia known as the South Oyster Site, and included four major experimental campaigns aimed at understanding and quantifying bacterial transport in the subsurface environment. Several key elements of the research are discussed here: 1) Quantification of bacterial transport in physically and biogeochemically heterogeneous aquifers, 2) evaluation of the efficacy of conventional colloid filtration theory, 3) scale effects in bacterial transport, 4) development of new methods for microbial enumeration and screening for low adhesion strains, 5) application of novel hydrogeophysical techniques for aquifer characterization, and 6) experiences regarding management of a large field research effort.

Scheibe, Timothy D.; Hubbard, Susan S.; Onstott, Tullis C.; Deflaun, Mary F.

2011-09-27

124

Surface electrical properties experiment. [electromagnetic properties of subsurface material at Apollo 17 landing site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The surface electrical properties (SEP) experiment was used to explore the subsurface material of the Apollo 17 landing site by means of electromagnetic radiation. The experiment was designed to detect electrical layering, discrete scattering bodies, and the possible presence of water. From the analysis of the data, it was expected that values of the electrical properties (dielectric constant and loss tangent) of lunar material in situ would be obtained. The basic principle of the SEP experiment is interferometry. This principle involves only the interference of two or more waves to produce an interference pattern. The inversion of the interference pattern in terms of the spatial distribution of the electrical properties is the basic aim of the experiment (fig. 15-1). The experiment is most easily understood in terms of a single dipole antenna for radiating electromagnetic energy and a loop receiver for measuring the magnitudes of the fields.

Simmons, G.; Strangway, D.; Annan, P.; Baker, R.; Bannister, L.; Brown, R.; Cooper, W.; Cubley, D.; Debettencourt, J.; England, A. W.

1973-01-01

125

New Waste Calcining Facility Non-radioactive Process Decontamination  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of a test of the New Calcining Facility (NWCF) process decontamination system. The decontamination system test occurred in December 1981, during non-radioactive testing of the NWCF. The purpose of the decontamination system test was to identify equipment whose design prevented effective calcine removal and decontamination. Effective equipment decontamination was essential to reduce radiation fields for in-cell work after radioactive processing began. The decontamination system test began with a pre-decontamination inspection of the equipment. The pre-decontamination inspection documented the initial condition and cleanliness of the equipment. It provided a basis for judging the effectiveness of the decontamination. The decontamination consisted of a series of equipment flushes using nitric acid and water. A post-decontamination equipment inspection determined the effectiveness of the decontamination. The pre-decontamination and post-decontamination equipment inspections were documented with hotographs. The decontamination system was effective in removing calcine from most of the NWCF equipment as evidenced by little visible calcine residue in the equipment after decontamination. The decontamination test identified four areas where the decontamination system required improvement. These included the Calciner off-gas line, Cyclone off-gas line, fluidizing air line, and the Calciner baffle plates. Physical modifications to enhance decontamination were made to those areas, resulting in an effective NWCF decontamination system.

Swenson, Michael Clair

2001-09-01

126

New Waste Calcining Facility Non-Radioactive Process Decontamination  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of a test of the New Calcining Facility (NWCF) process decontamination system. The decontamination system test occurred in December 1981, during non-radioactive testing of the NWCF. The purpose of the decontamination system test was to identify equipment whose design prevented effective calcine removal and decontamination. Effective equipment decontamination was essential to reduce radiation fields for in-cell work after radioactive processing began. The decontamination system test began with a pre-decontamination inspection of the equipment. The pre- decontamination inspection documented the initial condition and cleanliness of the equipment. It provided a basis for judging the effectiveness of the decontamination. The decontamination consisted of a series of equipment flushes using nitric acid and water. A post-decontamination equipment inspection determined the effectiveness of the decontamination. The pre-decontamination and post-decontamination equipment inspections were documented with photographs. The decontamination system was effective in removing calcine from most of the NWCF equipment as evidenced by little visible calcine residue in the equipment after decontamination. The decontamination test identified four areas where the decontamination system required improvement. These included the Calciner off-gas line, Cyclone off-gas line, fluidizing air line, and the Calciner baffle plates. Physical modifications to enhance decontamination were made to those areas, resulting in an effective NWCF decontamination system.

Swenson, Michael C.

2001-09-30

127

Creating Virtual Fieldwork Experiences of Geoheritage Sites as Educator Professional Development (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geoheritage sites are identified as such because they include excellent examples of geologic features or processes, or they have played an important role in the development of geologic understandings. These characteristics also make them excellent sites for teaching in the field, for teaching educators about the nature of fieldwork, and for making Virtual Fieldwork Experiences (VFEs, multimedia representations of field sites). Through the NSF-funded Regional and Local Earth (ReaL) Earth Inquiry Project, we have engaged educators in these practices. The nature of geoheritage sites is anomalous -- if this were not the case, the sites would not gain recognition. Anomalous features or processes can be powerful learning tools when placed into comparison with the more mundane, and the Earth system science of sites local to schools is likely to be mundane. By comparing the mundane and the extraordinary, it is hoped we can learn more about both. The professional development (PD) in ReaL Earth Inquiry begins with a face-to-face workshop within the teachers' region at a site that is interesting from an Earth system science perspective. Though we recognize and emphasize that all sites are interesting from an ESS perspective if you know how to look, the sites typically have features worthy of geoheritage designation. PD does not end with the end of the workshop but continues with online study groups where teachers work together to complete the workshop site VFE, and transition to work on VFEs of sites local to their schools. Throughout the program, participants engage in: - mentored fieldwork that pays attention to the skills and knowledge needed to lead fieldwork; - instruction in and use of a wide range of technologies for making VFEs; - study of a coherent conceptual framework connected to the project's driving question: Why does this place look the way it does? - and, use of resources for supporting all of the above The resources include templates for making VFEs and a framework summarized in the attached graphic organizer that features a series of questions that can be productively asked of any field site. By working with educators, we not only produce curriculum resources in the form of VFEs, we also engage in educator PD that produces evidence of its effectiveness, at least in terms of indications that educators are engaged in field study both at the workshop site and after they return home. Production of local VFEs sometimes involves students. The VFE Graphic Organizer, showing a series of questions that may be asked about any site, all under the project's driving question: Why does this place look the way it does?

Duggan-Haas, D.

2013-12-01

128

Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

In October 1993, Manufacturing Sciences Corporation was awarded DOE contract DE-AC21-93MC30170 to develop and test recycling of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) to high value and intermediate and final product forms. This work was conducted to help solve the problems associated with decontamination and reuse of the diffusion plant barrier nickel and other radioactively contaminated scrap metals present in the diffusion plants. Options available for disposition of the nickel include decontamination and subsequent release or recycled product manufacture for restricted end use. Both of these options are evaluated during the course of this research effort. work during phase I of this project successfully demonstrated the ability to make stainless steel from barrier nickel feed. This paved the way for restricted end use products made from stainless steel. Also, after repeated trials and studies, the inducto-slag nickel decontamination process was eliminated as a suitable alternative. Electro-refining appeared to be a promising technology for decontamination of the diffusion plant barrier material. Goals for phase II included conducting experiments to facilitate the development of an electro-refining process to separate technetium from nickel. In parallel with those activities, phase II efforts were to include the development of the necessary processes to make useful products from radioactive scrap metal. Nickel from the diffusion plants as well as stainless steel and carbon steel could be used as feed material for these products.

MacNair, V.; Muth, T.; Shasteen, K.; Liby, A.; Hradil, G.; Mishra, B.

1996-12-31

129

Alfalfa Seed Decontamination in Salmonella Outbreak  

PubMed Central

Based on in vitro data, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommends chemical disinfection of raw sprout seeds to reduce enteric pathogens contaminating the seed coats. However, little is known about the effectiveness of decontamination at preventing human disease. In 1999, an outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Mbandaka occurred in Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and California. Based on epidemiologic and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis evidence from 87 confirmed cases, the outbreak was linked to contaminated alfalfa seeds grown in California’s Imperial Valley. Trace-back and trace-forward investigations identified a single lot of seeds used by five sprout growers during the outbreak period. Cases of salmonellosis were linked with two sprout growers who had not employed chemical disinfection; no cases were linked to three sprout growers who used disinfection. This natural experiment provides empiric evidence that chemical disinfection can reduce the human risk for disease posed by contaminated seed sprouts. PMID:12702229

Gill, Christopher J.; Mohle-Boetani, Janet C.; Farrar, Jeff A.; Waller, Patti L.; Hahn, Christine G.; Cieslak, Paul R.

2003-01-01

130

Utility experiences in redevelopment of formerly used sites -- Wisconsin Electric's risk management and economic development activities  

SciTech Connect

Wisconsin Electric Power Company, which recently celebrated its 100th anniversary, has actively promoted the redevelopment of its former sites as well as those of its customers. Serving Milwaukee and southeast Wisconsin, Wisconsin Electric's (WE) sites include former power plants, landfills, right-of-ways, and manufactured gas plant sites. In setting an example for others, as well as seeking to maximize the economic value of these sites, WE has either redeveloped or promoted the redevelopment of these sites by others. Examples include the East Wells Power Plant (now home of the Milwaukee Repertory Theater), the Lakeside Power Plant Site (now the home of Harnischfeger Corporation's headquarters), and the Commerce Street Power Plant located on the Milwaukee River near downtown Milwaukee. In each case the company evaluated the potential environmental liabilities against the unrealized asset value derived from facility location, site size, architectural uniqueness, or other characteristics. At the Commerce Street Power Plant, walking distance to the downtown Milwaukee business district combined with river frontage, were significant site values leveraged against a $5 million asbestos and lead-based paint removal project done to prepare the plant for marketing. More recently, WE has used its experience in promoting the redevelopment of the Menomonee River Valley, the original core of Milwaukee's industrial community, and in advancing a more practical regulatory approach to redeveloping older sites. Finally, the company is working with a non-profit community health clinic, community groups and local foundations in linking these redevelopment activities with the economic and physical health of inner city residents.

Borofka, B.P.

1999-07-01

131

Gastrointestinal decontamination of the poisoned patient.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal decontamination has been a historically accepted modality in the emergency management of oral intoxicants. Theoretically, gastric and whole-bowel emptying procedures hinder absorption, remove toxic substances, prevent clinical deterioration, and hasten recovery. This article presents a current overview of gastrointestinal decontamination. It challenges the accepted precepts of gut decontamination and assesses the utility of syrup of ipecac-induced emesis, orogastric lavage, single-dose-activated charcoal, cathartics, and whole-bowel irrigation. PMID:18347499

Greene, Spencer; Harris, Cindy; Singer, Jonathan

2008-03-01

132

Demonstration of Radio-Frequency Soil Decontamination: KAI Technologies Demonstration (Volume III of III), Part 2, Pages 230-360.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Air Force Armstrong Laboratory, Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, has supported the research and development of Radio Frequency Soil Decontamination. Site S-1 at Kelly Air Force Base, Texas, was selected for the demonstration of two patented techniques...

G. G. Avila, D. L. Faust, R. S. Kasevich, S. L. Price

1996-01-01

133

An Analysis of NSF Geosciences 2009 Research Experience for Undergraduate Site Programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) Program at the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) provides undergraduate students the opportunity to conduct research at different institutions and in areas that may not be available in their home campuses. The Geosciences REU Sites foster research opportunities in areas closely aligned with undergraduate majors and facilitates discovery of the multidisciplinary nature of the Geosciences. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the Geosciences REU Site programs run in 2009. A survey requesting information on recruitment methods, student demographics, enrichment activities, and fields of research was sent to the Principal Investigators of each of the 50 active REU Sites; over 70% of the surveys were returned with the requested information. The internet is the most widely used mechanism to recruit participants, but the survey did not distinguish among different tools like websites, emails, social networks, etc. The admissions rate for REU Sites in Geosciences varies from less than 10% to 50%, with the majority of participants being rising seniors and juniors. A few Sites include rising sophomores. At least 40% of the participants come from non-PhD granting institutions. Among the participants, gender distribution is balanced, with a slightly larger number of female participants. Regarding ethnic diversity, the REU Sites reflect the difficulty of attracting diverse students into Geosciences as a discipline; more than 75% of the participants are Caucasian and Asian students. Furthermore, participants from minority-serving institutions constitute a small percentage of those taking part in these research experiences. The enrichment activities are very similar across the REU Sites, and mimic well activities common to the scientific community, including intellectual exchange of ideas (lab meetings, seminars, and professional meetings), networking and social activities. There are some clear similarities among REU Sites managed by the three divisions in the Directorate of Geosciences (e.g. recruitment tools, academic level of participants, and enrichment activities), but other aspects vary among the Sites managed by the different divisions (e.g. admissions rate, diversity, and distribution among research disciplines). The results from this survey will be used to examine strengths in the REU Sites in the Geosciences, opportunities that may be under utilized, and community needs to enhance this NSF wide program.

Sanchez, S. C.; Patino, L. C.; Rom, E. L.; Weiler, S. C.

2009-12-01

134

On-site underground background measurements for the KASKA reactor-neutrino experiment  

E-print Network

On-site underground background measurements were performed for the planned reactor-neutrino oscillation experiment KASKA at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station in Niigata, Japan. A small-diameter boring hole was excavated down to 70m underground level, and a detector unit for $\\gamma$-ray and cosmic-muon measurements was placed at various depths to take data. The data were analyzed to obtain abundance of natural radioactive elements in the surrounding soil and rates of cosmic muons that penetrate the overburden. The results will be reflected in the design of the KASKA experiment.

H. Furuta; K. Sakuma; M. Aoki; Y. Fukuda; Y. Funaki; T. Hara; T. Haruna; N. Ishihara; M. Katsumata; T. Kawasaki; M. Kuze; J. Maeda; T. Matsubara; T. Matsumoto; H. Miyata; Y. Nagasaka; T. Nakagawa; N. Nakajima; K. Nitta; K. Sakai; Y. Sakamoto; F. Suekane; T. Sumiyoshi; H. Tabata; N. Tamura; Y. Tsuchiya

2006-07-12

135

Precipitation Results for AN-102: A Statistically Designed Approach to Evaluate Filterability and Sr/TRU Decontamination  

SciTech Connect

The work reported in this document is a series of statistically designed tests to examine the relationship between the four responses of interest and five precipitation parameters affiliated with the new precipitation scheme. The four responses are precipitate filterability, strontium decontamination, americium decontamination, and plutonium decontamination. The precipitation parameters were the initial sodium concentration of the waste, the initial hydroxide level of the waste, and the amounts of calcium, strontium, and permanganate introduced. Experiments were also performed to evaluate the impact of other process parameters such as temperature, timing of permanganate addition, and presence of entrained solids on the proposed precipitation scheme. The objective of these experiments was to determine the primary variables that influence filterability, Sr-90 decontamination, and TRU decontamination using actual 241-AN-102 waste.

Rosencrance, S.W.; Dewberry, R.A.; DiPrete, D.P.; Edwards, T.B.; Emory, S.J.; Nash, C.A.; Smith, S.C.; Wilmarth, W.R.

2000-01-04

136

Decontamination of a canyon crane at the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

Decontamination of the crane is reviewed in terms of the health physics aspects, controls during decontamination efforts, and the resultant radiation exposure rates for decontamination efforts. 17 figs., (ACR)

Stevenson, D A; Moore, D B; Bowers, J W; Brown, D L

1985-01-01

137

The effect of site-based preservice experiences on elementary science teaching self-efficacy beliefs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current reform in science education has focused on the need for improvement of preservice teacher training (National Science Education Standards, 1996). As a situation specific construct (Bandura, 1977), self-efficacy studies have been conducted to investigate factors that impact preservice teachers' sense of confidence as it relates to their ability to become successful science teachers. This descriptive study identified factors in the site based experiences that affected preservice elementary teachers' self-efficacy as measured by the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBL-B) (Enochs and Riggs, 1990). The sample consisted of the entire population of undergraduate elementary preservice teachers in the site based teacher education program during the fall semester of 1997 at a large south central urban university. The 131 paired, pretest posttests of the entire STEBL-B and the two constructs were analyzed for significance in mean score gains. Results of the paired t test yielded a t value of 11.52 which was significant at p <.001. An analysis of covariance using the pretest as the covariate yielded an F value of 6.41 which was statistically significant at p <.001. These quantitative results were supported by interviews and by written comments on questionnaires that determined ratings for the extent of impact on self-efficacy from site based experiences. Results of this study indicate that the experiences of the site based program has a significant positive impact on the preservice teachers' self-efficacy. The implication for teacher educators is that this specific affective dimension can be significantly enhanced. The site based program can provide the four factors Bandura identified as sources of information used to determine self-efficacy. These include performance accomplishments through authentic teaching experiences, vicarious experiences through observation of the site based teachers, and verbal persuasion and physiological states from feedback given by the university coordinators. The majority of these preservice teachers started the semester with a negative attitude toward teaching science, but ended the semester with a positive view of themselves as effective science teachers in the future.

Wingfield, Mary E.

138

Experience in Grid Site Testing for ATLAS, CMS and LHCb with HammerCloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frequent validation and stress testing of the network, storage and CPU resources of a grid site is essential to achieve high performance and reliability. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling VO- and site-administrators to run such tests in an automated or on-demand manner. The ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments have all developed VO plugins for the service and have successfully integrated it into their grid operations infrastructures. This work will present the experience in running HammerCloud at full scale for more than 3 years and present solutions to the scalability issues faced by the service. First, we will show the particular challenges faced when integrating with CMS and LHCb offline computing, including customized dashboards to show site validation reports for the VOs and a new API to tightly integrate with the LHCbDIRAC Resource Status System. Next, a study of the automatic site exclusion component used by ATLAS will be presented along with results for tuning the exclusion policies. A study of the historical test results for ATLAS, CMS and LHCb will be presented, including comparisons between the experiments’ grid availabilities and a search for site-based or temporal failure correlations. Finally, we will look to future plans that will allow users to gain new insights into the test results; these include developments to allow increased testing concurrency, increased scale in the number of metrics recorded per test job (up to hundreds), and increased scale in the historical job information (up to many millions of jobs per VO).

Elmsheuser, Johannes; Medrano Llamas, Ramón; Legger, Federica; Sciabà, Andrea; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Úbeda García, Mario; van der Ster, Daniel

2012-12-01

139

Impacts of Humic Injection Experiments on the South Oyster Field Research Site  

SciTech Connect

A closure plan for the South Oyster Focus Area (SOFA) is being implemented to assess the impacts of a series of experimental injections of microorganisms, tracers and chemical amendments on the chemical and physical properties of the aquifer. The proposed research addresses environmental monitoring of humic substances injected into the aquifer, as described in the Site Closure Plan for the South Oyster Field Research Site. The goal of the research is to demonstrate that the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the groundwater at and downgradient from the injection site has returned to a pre-injection �baseline� conditions with respect to either the concentration or chemical composition of the DOM. For clarity, the humic solution injected during the experiment will be referred to as �humic injectate.� The term �DOM� will refer to the organic material recovered in the groundwater, which includes the autochthonous groundwater DOM as well as any of the humic injectate remaining in the groundwater. Specific objectives include: � Estimate the amount of humic material remaining in the aquifer at the completion of the push-pull experiment and the potential for environmental impacts due to release of humics retained on the sediments. � Monitor the DOM concentrations in groundwater over time at the injection well and at sampling locations within the potential downgradient plume of the injected tracers. � Evaluate the chemical composition of the DOM to determine whether the injection experiment had an impact of the chemical properties of the aquifer. The product of this research will be a contribution to the Site Closure Report documenting the impact of the humic experiments on the aquifer. Return of the aquifer to a �baseline� conditions will be achieved if the DOM concentrations in the groundwater are determined over the course of the research to have decreased to the pre-injection level, or if the chemical properties of the DOM are similar to that of the autochthonous DOM.

John F. McCarthy

2004-04-27

140

A study of tritium decontamination of deposits by UV irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop a new method for decontamination of tritium retained in the carbon fiber composites (CFC) tiles and other components of D–T fusion reactors, a preliminary experiment using ultra violet (UV) light source was performed. Samples simulating a co-deposited layer were prepared by glow discharge using C2H2 and a tungsten or CFC substrate. The UV light from a xenon excimer

Y. Oya; W. Shu; S. O'hira; T. Hayashi; H. Nakamura; T. Sakai; T. Tadokoro; K. Kobayashi; T. Suzuki; M. Nishi

2001-01-01

141

Phase 2 microwave concrete decontamination results  

SciTech Connect

The authors report on the results of the second phase of a four-phase program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop a system to decontaminate concrete using microwave energy. The microwave energy is directed at the concrete surface through the use of an optimized wave guide antenna, or applicator, and this energy rapidly heats the free water present in the interstitial spaces of the concrete matrix. The resulting steam pressure causes the surface to burst in much the same way popcorn pops in a home microwave oven. Each steam explosion removes several square centimeters of concrete surface that are collected by a highly integrated wave guide and vacuum system. The authors call this process the microwave concrete decontamination, or MCD, process. In the first phase of the program the principle of microwaves concrete removal concrete surfaces was demonstrated. In these experiments, concrete slabs were placed on a translator and moved beneath a stationary microwave system. The second phase demonstrated the ability to mobilize the technology to remove the surfaces from concrete floors. Area and volume concrete removal rates of 10.4 cm{sup 2}/s and 4.9 cm{sup 3}/S, respectively, at 18 GHz were demonstrated. These rates are more than double those obtained in Phase 1 of the program. Deeper contamination can be removed by using a longer residence time under the applicator to create multiple explosions in the same area or by taking multiple passes over previously removed areas. Both techniques have been successfully demonstrated. Small test sections of painted and oil-soaked concrete have also been removed in a single pass. Concrete with embedded metal anchors on the surface has also been removed, although with some increased variability of removal depth. Microwave leakage should not pose any operational hazard to personnel, since the observed leakage was much less than the regulatory standard.

White, T.L.; Foster, D. Jr.; Wilson, C.T.; Schaich, C.R.

1995-04-01

142

Magnetic separation for soil decontamination  

SciTech Connect

High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) is a physical separation process that is used to extract magnetic particles from mixtures. The technology is used on a large scale in the kaolin clay industry to whiten or brighten kaolin clay and increase its value. Because all uranium and plutonium compounds are slightly magnetic, HGMS can be used to separate these contaminants from non-magnetic soils. A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was signed in 1992 between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Company (LESAT) to develop HGMS for soil decontamination. This paper reports progress and describes the HGMS technology.

Avens, L.R.; Worl, L.A.; deAguero, K.J.; Padilla, D.D.; Prenger, F.C.; Stewart, W.F.; Hill, D.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Tolt, T.L. [Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies (United States)

1993-02-01

143

Magnetic separation for soil decontamination  

SciTech Connect

High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) is a physical separation process that is used to extract magnetic particles from mixtures. The technology is used on a large scale in the kaolin clay industry to whiten or brighten kaolin clay and increase its value. Because all uranium and plutonium compounds are slightly magnetic, HGMS can be used to separate these contaminants from non-magnetic soils. A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was signed in 1992 between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Company (LESAT) to develop HGMS for soil decontamination. This paper reports progress and describes the HGMS technology.

Avens, L.R.; Worl, L.A.; deAguero, K.J.; Padilla, D.D.; Prenger, F.C.; Stewart, W.F.; Hill, D.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Tolt, T.L. (Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies (United States))

1993-01-01

144

Remote operation of the TFTR BES experiment from an off-site location  

SciTech Connect

The capability of controlling a diagnostic subsystem and interactively participating in the experimental program on Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) from a remote site has been developed and demonstrated on the TFTR BES experiment. Interactive communications are established from multiscreen remote workstations at the University of Wisconsin to the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory VAX cluster via multiple terminal sessions across the InterNet national network. Full control of the diagnostic, access to all relevant machine parameters and wave forms, and operations run logs are all available with automatic updates between plasma shots. A real-time count-down shot clock with timer, machine event status, and shot number provides a real-time interface to the TFTR shot sequence. This means of remote participation in a central fusion experiment provides vital experience for extrapolation to implementation on an ignition device to test engineering concepts.

Fonck, R.J.; Cosby, G.; Durst, R. (Department of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)); Gibney, T.; Thompson, M.; Paul, S.F. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States))

1992-10-01

145

An Analysis of NSF Geosciences Research Experience for Undergraduate Site Programs from 2009 through 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) Program at the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) provides U.S. undergraduate students from any college or university the opportunity to conduct research at a different institution and gain a better understanding of research career pathways. The Geosciences REU Sites foster research opportunities in areas closely aligned with geoscience programs, particularly those related to earth, atmospheric and ocean sciences. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the Geosciences REU Site programs run in 2009 through 2011. A survey requesting information on recruitment methods, student demographics, enrichment activities, and fields of research was sent to the Principal Investigators of each of the active REU Sites. Over 70% of the surveys were returned with the requested information from about 50 to 60 sites each year. The internet is the most widely used mechanism to recruit participants, with personal communication as the second most important recruiting tool. The admissions rate for REU Sites in Geosciences varies from less than 10% to 50%, with the majority of participants being rising seniors and juniors. Many of the participants come from non-PhD granting institutions. Among the participants, gender distribution varies by discipline, with ocean sciences having a large majority of women and earth sciences having a majority of men. Regarding ethnic diversity, the REU Sites reflect the difficulty of attracting diverse students into Geosciences as a discipline; a large majority of participants are Caucasian and Asian students. Furthermore, participants from minority-serving institutions and community colleges constitute a small percentage of those taking part in these research experiences. The enrichment activities are very similar across the REU Sites, and mimic activities common to the scientific community, including intellectual exchange of ideas (lab meetings, seminars, and professional meetings), networking and social activities. The results from this survey will be used to examine strengths in the REU Sites in the Geosciences, opportunities that may be under utilized, and community needs to enhance this NSF wide program.

Rom, E. L.; Patino, L. C.; Weiler, S.; Sanchez, S. C.; Colon, Y.; Antell, L.

2011-12-01

146

An Analysis of NSF Geosciences Research Experience for Undergraduate Site Programs from 2009 to 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) Program at the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) provides undergraduate students from across the nation the opportunity to conduct research at a different institution and in an area that may not be available at their home campus. REU Sites funded by the Directorate of Geosciences provide student research opportunities in earth, ocean, atmospheric and geospace research. This paper provides an overview of the Geosciences REU Site programs run from 2009 to 2012. Information was gathered from over 45 REU sites each year on recruitment methods, student demographics, enrichment activities, and fields of research. The internet is the most widely used mechanism to recruit participants. The admissions rate for REU Sites in Geosciences varies by discipline but averages between 6% to 18% each year, with the majority of participants being rising seniors and juniors. A few Sites include rising sophomores and freshmen. Most students attend PhD granting institutions. Among the participants, gender distribution depends on discipline, with atmospheric and geospace sciences having more male than female participants, but ocean and earth sciences having a majority of female participants. Regarding ethnic diversity, the REU Sites reflect the difficulty of attracting diverse students into Geosciences as a discipline; a large majority of the participants are Caucasian or Asian students. Furthermore, participants from minority-serving institutions or community colleges constitute a small percentage of those taking part in these research experiences. The enrichment activities are very similar across the REU Sites, and mimic well activities common to the scientific community, including intellectual exchange of ideas (lab meetings, seminars, and professional meetings), networking and social activities. Results from this study will be used to examine strengths in the REU Sites in the Geosciences and opportunities for improvement in the program. The data provided here also represent an excellent benchmark by which to measure future changes in student participation and program design that may result from 2012 changes in the REU program solicitation. For example, one important change is that REU programs are now required to include greater participation of students who are attending non-research institutions.

Rom, E. L.; Patino, L. C.; Gonzales, J.; Weiler, C. S.; Antell, L.; Colon, Y.; Sanchez, S. C.

2012-12-01

147

DECONTAMINATION/DESTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR ORGANICS IN TRANSURANIC WASTE  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site has approximately 5000 55-gallon drums of {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste in interim storage. These may not be shipped to WIPP in TRUPACT-II containers due to the high rate of hydrogen production resulting from the radiolysis of the organic content of the drums. In order to circumvent this problem, the {sup 238}Pu needs to be separated from the organics--either by mineralization of the latter or by decontamination by a chemical separation. We have conducted ''cold'' optimization trials and surrogate tests in which a combination of a mediated electrochemical oxidation process (SILVER II{trademark}) and ultrasonic mixing have been used to decontaminate the surrogate waste materials. The surrogate wastes were impregnated with copper oxalate for plutonium dioxide. Our process combines both mineralization of reactive components (such cellulose, rubber, and oil) and surface decontamination of less reactive materials such as polyethylene, polystyrene and polyvinylchloride. By using this combination of SILVER II and ultrasonic mixing, we have achieved 100% current efficiency for the destruction of the reactive components. We have demonstrated that: The degree of decontamination achieved would be adequate to meet both WIPP waste acceptance criteria and TRUPACT II packaging and shipping requirements; The system can maintain near absolute containment of the surrogate radionuclides; Only minimal pre-treatment (coarse shredding) and minimal waste sorting are required; The system requires minimal off gas control processes and monitoring instrumentation; The laboratory trials have developed information that can be used for scale-up purposes; The process does not produce dioxins and furans; Disposal routes for secondary process arisings have already been demonstrated in other programs. Based on the results from Phase 1, the recommendation is to proceed to Phase 2 and use the equipment at Savannah River Site to demonstrate the processing of genuine plutonium contaminated wastes.

Chris Jones; Javier Del Campo; Patrick Nevins; Stuart Legg

2002-08-01

148

DISPOSAL OF RESIDUES FROM BUILDING DECONTAMINATION ACTIVITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

After a building has gone through decontamination activities from a chemical attack there will be a significant amount of building decontamination residue that will need to undergo disposal. This project consists of a fundamental study to investigate the desorption of simulated c...

149

Decon2 (Decon Squared): Deconstructing Decontamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decon is short for decontamination (e.g. stripdown and washdown in response to anthrax scares, etc.), but the term decon is also a short form for deconstruction (literary criticism asserting multiple conflicting interpretations of philosophical, political or social implications rather than an author's intention). The author describes an anthrax ready mailroom exhibit that included mass casualty decontamination showers, which he built

Steve Mann

2003-01-01

150

Testing and evaluation of eight decontamination chemicals  

SciTech Connect

This report covers experimental work comparing eight different decontamination chemicals. Seven of these chemicals have some novelty, or are not currently in use at the ICPP. The eighth is a common ICPP decontamination reagent used as a baseline for effective comparison. Decontamination factors, waste generation values, and corrosion rates are tabulated for these chemicals. Recommendations are given for effective methods of non-sodium or low-sodium decontamination chemicals. The two most effective chemical for decontamination found in these test were a dilute hydrofluoric and nitric acid (HF/HNO{sub 3}) mixture and a fluoroboric acid solution. The fluoroboric acid solution (1 molar) was by far the most effective decontamination reagent, but suffered the problem of generating significant final calcine volume. The HF/HNO{sub 3} solution performed a very good decontamination of the SIMCON coupons while generating only small amounts of calcine volume. Concentration variables were also tested, and optimized for these two solutions. Several oxidation/reduction decon chemical systems were also tested. These systems were similar to the TURCO 4502 and TURCO 4521 solutions used for general decontamination at the ICPP. A low sodium alternative, nitric acid/potassium permanganate, to the ``high sodium`` TURCO 4502 was tested extensively, optimized and recommended for general ICPP use. A reductive chemical solution, oxalic acid/nitric acid was also shown to have significant advantages.

Demmer, R.

1994-09-01

151

An integrated decontamination process for metals  

SciTech Connect

An integrated process for decontamination of metals, particularly metals that are used in the nuclear energy industry contaminated with radioactive material. The process combines the processes of electrorefining and melt refining to purify metals that can be decontaminated using either electrorefining or melt refining processes.

Snyder, T.S.; Whitlow, G.A.

1989-06-08

152

DECONTAMINATION OF ZIRCALOY SPENT FUEL CLADDING HULLS  

SciTech Connect

The reprocessing of commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) generates a Zircaloy cladding hull waste which requires disposal as a high level waste in the geologic repository. The hulls are primarily contaminated with fission products and actinides from the fuel. During fuel irradiation, these contaminants are deposited in a thin layer of zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) which forms on the cladding surface at the elevated temperatures present in a nuclear reactor. Therefore, if the hulls are treated to remove the ZrO{sub 2} layer, a majority of the contamination will be removed and the hulls could potentially meet acceptance criteria for disposal as a low level waste (LLW). Discard of the hulls as a LLW would result in significant savings due to the high costs associated with geologic disposal. To assess the feasibility of decontaminating spent fuel cladding hulls, two treatment processes developed for dissolving fuels containing zirconium (Zr) metal or alloys were evaluated. Small-scale dissolution experiments were performed using the ZIRFLEX process which employs a boiling ammonium fluoride (NH{sub 4}F)/ammonium nitrate (NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}) solution to dissolve Zr or Zircaloy cladding and a hydrofluoric acid (HF) process developed for complete dissolution of Zr-containing fuels. The feasibility experiments were performed using Zircaloy-4 metal coupons which were electrochemically oxidized to produce a thin ZrO{sub 2} layer on the surface. Once the oxide layer was in place, the ease of removing the layer using methods based on the two processes was evaluated. The ZIRFLEX and HF dissolution processes were both successful in removing a 0.2 mm (thick) oxide layer from Zircaloy-4 coupons. Although the ZIRFLEX process was effective in removing the oxide layer, two potential shortcomings were identified. The formation of ammonium hexafluorozirconate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}ZrF{sub 6}) on the metal surface prior to dissolution in the bulk solution could hinder the decontamination process by obstructing the removal of contamination. The thermal decomposition of this material is also undesirable if the cladding hulls are melted for volume reduction or to produce waste forms. Handling and disposal of the corrosive off-gas stream and ZrO{sub 2}-containing dross must be addressed. The stability of Zr{sup 4+} in the NHF{sub 4}/NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} solution is also a concern. Precipitation of ammonium zirconium fluorides upon cooling of the dissolving solution was observed in the feasibility experiments. Precipitation of the solids was attributed to the high fluoride to Zr ratios used in the experiments. The solubility of Zr{sup 4+} in NH{sub 4}F solutions decreases as the free fluoride concentration increases. The removal of the ZrO{sub 2} layer from Zircaloy-4 coupons with HF showed a strong dependence on both the concentration and temperature. Very rapid dissolution of the oxide layer and significant amounts of metal was observed in experiments using HF concentrations {ge} 2.5 M. Treatment of the coupons using HF concentrations {le} 1.0 M was very effective in removing the oxide layer. The most effective conditions resulted in dissolution rates which were less than approximately 2 mg/cm{sup 2}-min. With dissolution rates in this range, uniform removal of the oxide layer was obtained and a minimal amount of Zircaloy metal was dissolved. Future HF dissolution studies should focus on the decontamination of actual spent fuel cladding hulls to determine if the treated hulls meet criteria for disposal as a LLW.

Rudisill, T; John Mickalonis, J

2006-09-27

153

Infiltration experiment for closure cap evaluation at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

This document discusses several large waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site which are being closed. These facilities include two seepage basins and the low-level waste disposal facility. The key element of the closures is the construction of a cap system to limit the infiltration of water which might reach the disposed waste. Cap designs have been modeled using the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) computer code. This code was developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers for the Environmental Protection Agency to model the effects of various cap and liner designs on the water balance at landfills. A field experiment has been set up which will allow the results of the HELP Code to be verified at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by measuring the actual water balance created by closure cap configurations which will be used in waste site closures at SRS. Two of the caps will be similar to those used for the planned closure activities. Each one has a specific closure arrangement. Once operational, the experiment will be evaluated for a five-year period.

Roddy, N.S.; Cook, J.R.

1990-12-31

154

Infiltration experiment for closure cap evaluation at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

This document discusses several large waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site which are being closed. These facilities include two seepage basins and the low-level waste disposal facility. The key element of the closures is the construction of a cap system to limit the infiltration of water which might reach the disposed waste. Cap designs have been modeled using the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) computer code. This code was developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers for the Environmental Protection Agency to model the effects of various cap and liner designs on the water balance at landfills. A field experiment has been set up which will allow the results of the HELP Code to be verified at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by measuring the actual water balance created by closure cap configurations which will be used in waste site closures at SRS. Two of the caps will be similar to those used for the planned closure activities. Each one has a specific closure arrangement. Once operational, the experiment will be evaluated for a five-year period.

Roddy, N.S.; Cook, J.R.

1990-01-01

155

Past On-Site Experience, Crowding Perceptions, and Use Displacement of Visitor Groups to a Peri-Urban National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past on-site experience was linked to the crowding perceptions and use displacement of 383 on-site visitors to the peri-urban\\u000a Danube Floodplains National Park, Austria. Three visitor groups were determined according to their area experience: local\\u000a residents from Vienna and rural communities, having the highest level of experience; regional visitors from the city and eastern\\u000a Austria; and tourists from Austria and

Arne Arnberger; Christiane Brandenburg

2007-01-01

156

Surveillance and maintenance report on decontamination and decommissioning and remedial action activities at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Fiscal year 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) and Remedial Action (RA) programs are part of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Division and are funded by the Office of Environmental Management (EM-40). Building 9201-4 (known as Alpha-4), three sites located within Building 9201-3 (the Oil Storage Tank, the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Fuel Handling Facility, and the Coolant Salt Technology Facility), and Building 9419-1 (the Decontamination Facility) are currently the facilities at the Y-12 Plant included in the D&D program. The RA program provides surveillance and maintenance (S&M) and program management of ER sites at the Y-12 Plant, including selected sites listed in Appendix C of the Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA), sites listed in the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendment (HSWA) permit Solid Waste Management Unit (SWM-U) list, and sites currently closed or undergoing post-closure activities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) or the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). This report communicates the status of the program plans and specific S&M activities for the D&D and RA programs.

King, H.L.; Sollenberger, M.L.; Sparkman, D.E.; Reynolds, R.M.; Wayland, G.S.

1996-12-01

157

Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive  

DOEpatents

A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

Tucker; Mark D. (Albuquerque, NM), Comstock; Robert H. (Gardendale, AL)

2007-10-16

158

Radiation decontamination of poultry viscera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of gamma radiation for decontamination of poultry viscera was examined. Exposure to a dose of 20 kGy rendered the viscera sterile (<1 CFU/10 g tissue), while 5 and 10 kGy reduced the total bacterial count by 4 and 6 log 10 cycles, respectively, eliminating the coliforms to <1 CFU/g of tissue. Analysis of organoleptic and biochemical parameters [proximate composition, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN), lipid peroxidation (TBARS value), and levels of TCA soluble peptides and proteolytic enzyme] showed that gamma irradiation (20 kGy) followed by storage at 4 °C for 62 days induced no significant change (except lipid peroxidation) in the acceptability of poultry viscera. However, storage at ambient temperature (26 °C) produced enhanced levels of TVBN and TCA soluble products accompanied by higher drip loss. Activities of proteolytic enzymes, except acid protease, did not show any significant change during post-irradiation storage at either temperature.

Jamdar, S. N.; Harikumar, P.

2008-04-01

159

An estimation of the social costs of landfill siting using a choice experiment.  

PubMed

The paper by Sasao on using a choice experiment (CE) to incorporate social costs in siting a landfill is a good step forward in siting landfills and other waste handling facilities in a more socially responsible manner. However, Sasao's method, which is well-established in the economics literature, has a number of underlying assumptions that practitioners must be careful to consider in applying the approach. The focus of this discussion is on three issues: (1) the form of utility function used, (2) the perceptions of the survey questions by the respondents versus the intended perception, and (3) the application of the results to situations beyond the assessed situations. This discussion article urges practitioners to carefully check their implementation of a choice experiment method to make sure the elicited values correctly represent those of the community. This discussion should not be construed as suggesting that the approach or results of Sasao (2004) are incorrect. Instead this discussion is meant to elaborate on the ideas and approach presented by Sasao with the hope that the approach will be applied more widely. PMID:15823749

Guikema, Seth D

2005-01-01

160

Decontamination and decommissioning surveillance and maintenance report for FY 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D D) Program has three distinct phases: (1) surveillance and maintenance (S M); (2) decontamination and removal of hazardous materials and equipment (which DOE Headquarters in Washington, D.C., calls Phase I of remediation); and (3) decommissioning and ultimate disposal, regulatory compliance monitoring, and property transfer (which DOE Headquarters calls Phase II of remediation). A large part of D D is devoted to S M at each of the sites. Our S M activities, which are performed on facilities awaiting decommissioning, are designed to minimize potential hazards to human health and the environment by: ensuring adequate containment of residual radioactive and hazardous materials; and, providing physical safety and security controls to minimize potential hazards to on-site personnel and the general public. Typically, we classify maintenance activities as either routine or special (major repairs). Routine maintenance includes such activities as painting, cleaning, vegetation control, minor structural repairs, filter changes, and building system(s) checks. Special maintenance includes Occupational Safety and Health Act facility upgrades, roof repairs, and equipment overhaul. Surveillance activities include inspections, radiological measurements, reporting, records maintenance, and security (as required) for controlling and monitoring access to facilities. This report summarizes out FY 1991 S M activities for the Tennessee plant sites, which include the K-25 Site, the Gas Centrifuge facilities, ORNL, and the Y-12 Plant.

Not Available

1991-12-01

161

Catching the boat with Strudel: experiences with a Web Site management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing Web sites is a tedious data-management task, because today's Web sites oftenare derived from multiple data sources and have complex structures. To simplify these tasks,Web-site builders need tools for managing Web sites\\

Mary F. Fernández; Daniela Florescu; Jaewoo Kang; Alon Y. Levy; Dan Suciu

1998-01-01

162

Development of the Decontamination Approach for the West Valley Demonstration Project Decontamination Project Plan  

SciTech Connect

This paper details the development of a decontamination approach for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), Decontamination Project Plan (Plan). The WVDP is operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO), a subsidiary of Westinghouse Government and Environmental Services, and its parent companies Washington Group International and British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL). The WVDP is a waste management effort being conducted by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) at the site of the only commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing facility to have operated in the United States. This facility is part of the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC), which is owned by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). As authorized by Congress in 1980 through the West Valley Demonstration Project Act (WVDP Act, Public Law 96-368), the DOE's primary mission at the WVDP is to solidify high-level liquid nuclear waste safely; transport the high-level waste (HLW) to a federal repository; and decontaminate and decommission the facilities and hardware used to solidify the HLW and conduct the WVDP. This includes a provision for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and transuranic waste (TRU) produced during processing of the HLW. Continuation of the effort to reduce the hazard and risk associated with historic operations to the extent needed to ensure the health and safety of the public and the environment will see a change in focus from stabilization of liquid HLW to stabilization of former plutonium and uranium extraction (PUREX) reprocessing plant facilities. This will be achieved through the activities of in-cell component removal and packaging, and preparation for long-term disposal of the long- lived radionuclides. These radionuclides are associated with the former PUREX facility operations, including, and upstream from, facilities utilized in the primary separation and first plutonium/uranium split cycles. The closure strategy for the WVDP is subject to ongoing evaluation and decision-making involving DOE and NYSERDA. Implementation will be subject to a future Record of Decision (ROD) and an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

Milner, T. N.; Watters, W. T.

2002-02-25

163

Data acquisition system for steady-state experiments at multiple sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-performance data acquisition (DAQ) system has been developed for steady-state fusion experiments at the Large Helical Device (LHD). Its significant characteristics are 110 MB s-1 continuous DAQ capability and the performance scalability using an unlimited number of DAQ units. Incoming data streams are first transferred temporarily onto the shared random access memory, and then cut into definite time chunks to be stored. They are also thinned out to 1/N to be served for the real-time monitoring clients. In LHD steady-state experiment, the DAQ cluster has established the world record for acquiring 90 GB/shot. The established technology of this steady-state acquisition and store can contribute to the ITER experiments whose data amount is estimated in the range 100 or 1000 GB/shot. This system also acquires experimental data from multiple remote sites through the fusion-dedicated virtual private network in Japan. The speed lowering problem in long-distance TCP/IP data transfer has been improved by the packet pacing optimization. The demonstrated collaboration scheme will be analogous to that of ITER and the supporting machines.

Nakanishi, H.; Ohsuna, M.; Kojima, M.; Imazu, S.; Nonomura, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Emoto, M.; Yoshida, M.; Iwata, C.; Shoji, M.; Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K.; Hasegawa, M.; Higashijima, A.; Nakamura, K.; Ono, Y.; Yoshikawa, M.; Urushidani, S.

2011-11-01

164

Metal Surface Decontamination by the PFC Solution  

SciTech Connect

PFC (per-fluorocarbon) spray decontamination equipment was fabricated and its decontamination behavior was investigated. Europium oxide powder was mixed with the isotope solution which contains Co-60 and Cs-137. The different shape of metal specimens artificially contaminated with europium oxide powder was used as the surrogate contaminants. Before and after the application of the PFC spray decontamination method, the radioactivity of the metal specimens was measured by MCA. The decontamination factors were in the range from 9.6 to 62.4. The spent PFC solution was recycled by distillation. Before and after distillation, the turbidity of PFC solution was also measured. From the test results, it was found that more than 98% of the PFC solution could be recycled by a distillation. (authors)

Hui-Jun Won; Gye-Nam Kim; Wang-Kyu Choi; Chong-Hun Jung; Won-Zin Oh [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute - KAERI, P.O.Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon, Korea, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

165

Pediatric gastrointestinal decontamination in acute toxin ingestion.  

PubMed

The appropriate implementation of the various modalities of gastrointestinal (GI) decontamination is critical in the management of the pediatric patient who is examined in the emergency department or private office after an acute ingestion. Gastrointestinal decontamination includes gastric lavage, syrup of ipecac, activated charcoal, and whole bowel irrigation. Clinical studies have delineated the role and efficacy of these procedures. Trends in GI decontamination place less emphasis on ipecac and gastric lavage and more emphasis on activated charcoal alone in the patient with a mild overdose. Gastric lavage is indicated in serious ingestion and is most effective if done soon after the exposure. Whole bowel irrigation is the newest addition and has important clinical use in the treatment of serious iron ingestions as well as in older adolescent cocaine body suffers and packers. Indications and contraindications of the various forms of GI decontamination are discussed and relevant clinical studies are reviewed. PMID:8103525

Phillips, S; Gomez, H; Brent, J

1993-06-01

166

Area 6 Decontamination Pond Corrective Action Unit 92 Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report for the Period January 2000-December 2000  

SciTech Connect

The Area 6 Decontamination Pond, Corrective Action Unit 92, was closed in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Operational Permit (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP, 1995]) and the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (NDEP, 1996) on May 11, 1999. Historically the Decontamination Pond was used for the disposal of partially treated liquid effluent discharged from the Decontamination Facility (Building 6-05) and the Industrial Laundry (Building 6-07) (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1996). The Decontamination Pond was constructed and became operational in 1979. Releases of RCRA-regulated hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents have not been discharged to the Decontamination Pond since 1988 (DOE/NV, 1996). The pipe connecting the Decontamination Pond and Decontamination Facility and Industrial Laundry were cut and sealed at the Decontamination Pad Oil/Water Separator in 1992. The Decontamination Pond was closed in place by installing a RCRA cover. Fencing was installed around the periphery to prevent accidental damage to the cover. Post-closure monitoring at the site consists of quarterly inspections of the RCRA cover and fencing, and a subsidence survey. Additional inspections are conducted if: Precipitation occurs in excess of 1.28 centimeters (cm) (0.50 inches [in]) in a 24-hour period, or An earthquake occurs with a magnitude exceeding 4.5 on the Richter scale within 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles [mi]) of the closure.

J. L. Traynor

2001-03-01

167

Post-Shot Surface Damage Detected with LIDAR at the Source Physics Experiment Site (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Designed to improve long-range treaty monitoring capabilities, the Source Physics Experiment series is being conducted at a location in Nevada and provides an opportunity to advance near-field monitoring and field-based investigations of suspected underground test locations. In particular, features associated with underground testing can be evaluated using Source Physics Experiment activities as analogs, linking on-site inspections with remote sensing technologies. Following a calibration shot (SPE 1), SPE 2 (10/2011) and SPE 3 (07/2012) were performed in the same emplacement hole with 1.0 ton of explosives at 150 ft depth. A fourth shot (SPE 4) is planned for August 2013 as a 220 lb (100 kg) TNT equivalent shot at a depth of 315 ft (96 m). Because one of the goals of the Source Physics Experiments is to determine damage effects on seismic wave propagation and improve modeling capabilities, a key component in the predictive component and ultimate validation of the models is a full understanding of the intervening geology between the source and instrumented bore holes. Ground-based LIDAR and fracture mapping, mechanical properties determined via laboratory testing of rock core, discontinuity analysis and optical microscopy of the core rocks were performed prior to and following each experiment. Results of the LIDAR collects from both SPE 2 and 3 indicate a permanent ground displacement of up to several centimeters aligning along the projected surface traces of two faults observed in the core and fractures mapped at the surface. Work by Los Alamos National Laboratory was sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration Award No. DE-AC52-06NA25946.

Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Sussman, A. J.; Kelley, R. E.; Cooper, D. I.

2013-12-01

168

Selective decontamination in bone marrow transplant recipients.  

PubMed Central

Patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation become immunocompromised for various reasons. Deep granulocytopenia, induced by conditioning (chemotherapy and total body irradiation), renders the patient at risk for serious bacterial and fungal infections. Our strategy for prevention of these infections by selective decontamination (SD) is the result of more than 15 years of clinical experience and research. The combination of antibiotics, used as standard SD (neomycin, polymyxin B, pipemidic acid and amphotericin B), with the application of local antimicrobial agents eliminates aerobic Gram-negative rods, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida spp. from the mucosal surfaces of the digestive tract, while the majority of the anaerobic flora persist and support colonization resistance (CR). The antibiotics used either are not resorbed or do not yield therapeutic serum concentrations. Antibiotics which induce therapeutic serum concentrations, such as ciprofloxacin and cotrimoxazole, are only used for SD on a limited scale. When Gram-negative rods persist despite intake of the standard regimen, ciprofloxacin is given until these persisting rods are eliminated. If the patients cannot swallow the oral regimen, i.v. cotrimoxazole is given temporarily. Streptococcal infections are prevented by the i.v. administration of penicillin for 14 days starting on the first day after cytotoxic treatment (conditioning for bone marrow transplantation). The combination of SD and systemic prophylaxis has been shown to be adequate; the major problem then remaining is a relatively mild catheter-associated infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci. PMID:1468520

Guiot, H. F.; van Furth, R.

1992-01-01

169

Nuclear reactor cooling system decontamination reagent regeneration  

DOEpatents

An improved method for decontaminating the coolant system of water-cooled nuclear power reactors and for regenerating the decontamination solution. A small amount of one or more weak-acid organic complexing agents is added to the reactor coolant, and the pH is adjusted to form a decontamination solution which is circulated throughout the coolant system to dissolve metal oxides from the interior surfaces and complex the resulting metal ions and radionuclide ions. The coolant containing the complexed metal ions and radionuclide ions is passed through a strong-base anion exchange resin bed which has been presaturated with a solution containing the complexing agents in the same ratio and having the same pH as the decontamination solution. As the decontamination solution passes through the resin bed, metal-complexed anions are exchanged for the metal-ion-free anions on the bed, while metal-ion-free anions in the solution pass through the bed, thus removing the metal ions and regenerating the decontamination solution.

Anstine, Larry D. (San Jose, CA); James, Dean B. (Saratoga, CA); Melaika, Edward A. (Berkeley, CA); Peterson, Jr., John P. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01

170

Technology needs for decommissioning and decontamination  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the current view of the most important decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) technology needs for the US Department of Energy facilities for which the D & D programs are the responsibility of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. The source of information used in this assessment was a survey of the D & D program managers at each facility. A summary of needs presented in earlier surveys of site needs in approximate priority order was supplied to each site as a starting point to stimulate thinking. This document reflects a brief initial assessment of ongoing needs; these needs will change as plans for D & D are finalized, some of the technical problems are solved through successful development programs, and new ideas for D and D technologies appear. Thus, this assessment should be updated and upgraded periodically, perhaps, annually. This assessment differs from others that have been made in that it directly and solely reflects the perceived need for new technology by key personnel in the D & D programs at the various facilities and does not attempt to consider the likelihood that these technologies can be successfully developed. Thus, this list of technology needs also does not consider the cost, time, and effort required to develop the desired technologies. An R & D program must include studies that have a reasonable chance for success as well as those for which there is a high need. Other studies that considered the cost and probability of successful development as well as the need for new technology are documented. However, the need for new technology may be diluted in such studies; this document focuses only on the need for new technology as currently perceived by those actually charged with accomplishing D & D.

Bundy, R.D.; Kennerly, J.M.

1993-12-01

171

Rock Springs Site 12 hydraulic/explosive true in situ oil shale fracturing experiment  

SciTech Connect

The experiment plan involved the creation and characterization of three horizontal hydraulic fractures, followed by the insertion and simultaneous detonation of slurry explosive in the two lower fractures. Core analyses, wellbore logging, and airflow and /sup 85/Kr tracer tests were used for site characterization and assessment of the hydraulic and explosive fracturing. Tiltmeters, wellhead pressure and flow gages, and in-formation pressure, flow and crack-opening sensors were used to monitor hydrofracture creation and explosive insertion. Explosive detonation diagnostic data were taken with stress and time-of-arrival gages and surface and in-formation accelerometers. The post-fracturing assessments indicated that: (1) hydrofracture creation and explosive insertion and detonation were accomplished essentially as planned; (2) induced fractures were randomly distributed through the shale with no extensively fractured regions or dislocation of shale; and (3) enhancement of permeability was limited to enlargement of the explosive-filled fractures.

Parrish, R.L.; Boade, R.R.; Stevens, A.L.; Long, A. Jr.; Turner, T.F.

1980-06-01

172

Ground-water effects of the UCG experiments at the Hoe Creek site in northeastern Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Ground-water changes and subsidence effects associated with three underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments have been monitored at the Hoe Creek site in northeastern Wyoming. Ground-water quality measurements have extended over a period of four years and have been supplemented by laboratory studies of contaminant sorption by coal. It was found that a broad range of residual gasification products are introduced into the ground-water system. These contaminants may be of environmental significance if they find their way, in sufficient concentrations, into surface waters, or into aquifers from which water is extracted for drinking or agricultural purposes. Fortunately, the concentrations of these contaminants are substantially reduced by sorption on the surrounding coal. However, recent field measurements indicate that there may be significant limitations on this natural cleansing process. The contaminants of potential concern, and the mechanisms that affect their deposition and persistence have been identified.

Mead, S.W.; Wang, F.T.; Stuermer, D.H.

1981-06-01

173

BoCaTFBS: a boosted cascade learner to refine the binding sites suggested by ChIP-chip experiments  

PubMed Central

Comprehensive mapping of transcription factor binding sites is essential in postgenomic biology. For this, we propose a mining approach combining noisy data from ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation)-chip experiments with known binding site patterns. Our method (BoCaTFBS) uses boosted cascades of classifiers for optimum efficiency, in which components are alternating decision trees; it exploits interpositional correlations; and it explicitly integrates massive negative information from ChIP-chip experiments. We applied BoCaTFBS within the ENCODE project and showed that it outperforms many traditional binding site identification methods (for instance, profiles). PMID:17078876

Wang, Lu-yong; Snyder, Michael; Gerstein, Mark

2006-01-01

174

Instructor Experiences with a Social Networking Site in a Higher Education Setting: Expectations, Frustrations, Appropriation, and Compartmentalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers and practitioners have suggested that the use of social networking sites in formal education may be a worthwhile endeavor. Toward this goal, emerging learning platforms have included social networking features. Nevertheless, empirical literature examining user experiences, and more specifically instructor experiences, with these tools…

Veletsianos, George; Kimmons, Royce; French, Karen D.

2013-01-01

175

The technical basis for air pathway assessment of resuspended radioactive aerosols: LLNL experiences at seven sites around the world  

SciTech Connect

There is a large uncertainty in quantifying the inhalation pathway and the aerosol emission rate in human health assessments of radioactive-contamination sites. The need for site-specific assessments led to formation of our team of specialists at LLNL, who have participated in numerous field campaigns around the world. Our goal was to obtain all the information necessary for determining potential human exposures and to estimate source terms for turbulent transport of the emissions during both normal and disturbed soil conditions. That is, measurements were made of the key variables to quantify the suspended aerosols at the actual contamination sites, but different scenarios for habitation, site management, and site cleanup were included. The most notable locations of these site-investigations were the Marshall Islands (Bikini, Enewetak, and Rongelap), Nevada Test Site (GMX, Little Feller, Palanquin, and Plutonium Valley), Tonopah (Nevada--site of Roller Coaster), Savannah River Lab (South Carolina--H-Area site), Johnston Island (cleanup of rocket-impact site), Chernobyl (Ukraine--grass field end sandy beach sites near Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4), and Palomares (Spain--site of aircraft accident). This discussion will review the variables quantified, methods developed, general results, uncertainty of estimations, and recommendations for future research that are a result of our experience in these field studies.

Shinn, J.H.

1993-09-01

176

Laparoendoscopic single-site donor nephrectomy: a single-center initial experience.  

PubMed

Background This study presents our initial experience with laparoendoscopic single-site donor nephrectomy. Ten patients (8 females, 2 males; mean age 45.3±13.2 years) underwent LESS-DN. Material and Methods Transumbilical laparoscopic donor nephrectomy was performed using an SILS™ port. Standard laparoscopic instruments and a 30-degree angled camera were used during the surgery. We evaluated the following parameters: warm and cold ischemia time, duration of the operation, amount of blood loss during the operation, duration of hospitalization, creatinine level, and visual analogue scale score for pain at discharge. Results The means for duration of operation, warm ischemia time, and duration of hospitalization were 140 min, 194 s, and 1.4 days, respectively. Intraoperative and/or postoperative complications were not observed. Low pain score and cosmetic advantage were remarkable. All recipients had functional grafts. The results of our initial experience with LESS-DN appeared to be positive. Conclusions Further studies on the LESS-DN technique with larger series conducted in different centers are needed. PMID:25356806

Gurluler, Ercument; Berber, Ibrahim; Cakir, Ulkem; Gurkan, Alihan

2014-01-01

177

Chemical System Decontamination at PWR Power Stations Biblis A and B by Advanced System Decontamination by Oxidizing Chemistry (ASDOC-D) Process Technology - 13081  

SciTech Connect

For chemical decontamination of PWR primary systems the so called ASDOC-D process has been developed and qualified at the German PWR power station Biblis. In comparison to other chemical decontamination processes ASDOC-D offers a number of advantages: - ASDOC-D does not require separate process equipment but is completely operated and controlled by the nuclear site installations. Feeding of chemical concentrates into the primary system is done by means of the site's dosing systems. Process control is performed by standard site instrumentation and analytics. - ASDOC-D safely prevents any formation and precipitation of insoluble constituents - Since ASDOC-D is operated without external equipment there is no need for installation of such equipment in high radioactive radiation surrounding. The radioactive exposure rate during process implementation and process performance may therefore be neglected in comparison to other chemical decontamination processes. - ASDOC-D does not require auxiliary hose connections which usually bear high leakage risk. The above mentioned technical advantages of ASDOC-D together with its cost-effectiveness gave rise to Biblis Power station to agree on testing ASDOC-D at the volume control system of PWR Biblis unit A. By involving the licensing authorities as well as expert examiners into this test ASDOC-D received the official qualification for primary system decontamination in German PWR. As a main outcome of the achieved results NIS received contracts for full primary system decontamination of both units Biblis A and B (each 1.200 MW) by end of 2012. (authors)

Loeb, Andreas; Runge, Hartmut; Stanke, Dieter [NIS Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Industriestrasse 13, 63755 Alzenau (Germany)] [NIS Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Industriestrasse 13, 63755 Alzenau (Germany); Bertholdt, Horst-Otto [NCT Consulting, Leonhardstrasse 16-18, 90443 Nuernberg (Germany)] [NCT Consulting, Leonhardstrasse 16-18, 90443 Nuernberg (Germany); Adams, Andreas; Impertro, Michael; Roesch, Josef [RWE Power, 68643 Biblis (Germany)] [RWE Power, 68643 Biblis (Germany)

2013-07-01

178

Industrial Hygiene Concerns during the Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

A significant industrial hygiene concern during the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was the oxidation of the lead bricks' surface, which were utilized for radiation shielding. This presented both airborne exposure and surface contamination issues for the workers in the field removing this material. This paper will detail the various protection and control methods tested and implemented to protect the workers, including those technologies deployed to decontaminate the work surfaces. In addition, those techniques employed to recycle the lead for additional use at the site will be discussed.

M.E. Lumia; C.A. Gentile

2002-01-18

179

Rockwell International Hot Laboratory decontamination and dismantlement interim progress report 1987-1996  

SciTech Connect

OAK A271 Rockwell International Hot Laboratory decontamination and dismantlement interim progress report 1987-1996. The Rockwell International Hot Laboratory (RIHL) is one of a number of former nuclear facilities undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The RIHL facility is in the later stages of dismantlement, with the final objective of returning the site location to its original natural state. This report documents the decontamination and dismantlement activities performed at the facility over the time period 1988 through 1996. At this time, the support buildings, all equipment associated with the facility, and the entire above-ground structure of the primary facility building (Building 020) have been removed. The basement portion of this building and the outside yard areas (primarily asphalt and soil) are scheduled for D&D activities beginning in 1997.

None

1997-05-06

180

Decision Analysis Science Modeling for Application and Fielding Selection Applied to Concrete Decontamination Technologies  

SciTech Connect

Concrete surfaces contaminated with radionuclides present a significant challenge during the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) process. As structures undergo D and D, coating layers and/or surface layers of the concrete containing the contaminants must be removed for disposal in such a way as to present little to no risk to human health or the environment. The selection of a concrete decontamination technology that is safe, efficient, and cost-effective is critical to the successful D and D of contaminated sites. To support U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management objectives and to assist DOE site managers in the selection of the best-suited concrete floor decontamination technology(s) for a given site, two innovative and three baseline technologies have been assessed under standard, non-nuclear conditions at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU). The innovative technologies assessed include the Pegasus Coating Removal System and Textron's Electro-Hydraulic Scabbling System. The three baseline technologies assessed include: the Wheelabrator Blastrac model 1-15D, the NELCO Porta Shot Blast{trademark} model GPx-1O-18 HO Rider, and the NELCO Porta Shot Blast{trademark} model EC-7-2. These decontamination technology assessments provide directly comparable performance data that have previously been available for only a limited number of technologies under restrictive site-specific constraints. Some of the performance data collected during these technology assessments include: removal capability, production rate, removal gap, primary and secondary waste volumes, and operation and maintenance requirements. The performance data generated by this project is intended to assist DOE site managers in the selection of the safest, most efficient, and cost-effective decontamination technologies to accomplish their remediation objectives.

Ebadian, M.A. Ross, T.L.

1998-01-01

181

Mechanical decontamination techniques for floor drain systems  

SciTech Connect

The unprecedented nature of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) following the 1979 accident has necessitated the development of new techniques to deal with radiation and contamination in the plant. One of these problems was decontamination of floor drain systems, which had become highly contaminated with various forms of dirt and sludge containing high levels of fission products and fuel from the damaged reactor core. The bulk of this contamination is loosely adherent to the drain pipe walls; however, significant amounts of contamination have become incorporated into pipe wall oxide and corrosion layers and embedded in microscopic pits and fissures in the pipe wall material. The need to remove this contamination was recognized early in the TMI-2 cleanup effort. A program consisting of development and laboratory testing of floor drain decontamination techniques was undertaken early in the cleanup with support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Based on this initial research, two techniques were judged to show promise for use at TMI-2: a rotating brush hone system and a high-pressure water mole nozzle system. Actual use of these devices to clean floor drains at TMI-2 has yielded mixed decontamination results. The decontamination effectiveness that has been obtained is highly dependent on the nature of the contamination in the drain pipe and the combination of decontamination techniques used.

Palau, G.L.; Saigusa, Moriyuki

1987-01-01

182

Novel Laser Ablation Technology for Surface Decontamination  

SciTech Connect

Laser ablation for surface cleaning has been pursued for the removal of paint on airplanes. It has also been pursued for the cleaning of semiconductor surfaces. However, all these approaches have been pursued by laser ablation in air. For highly contaminated surface, laser ablation in air can easily cause secondary contamination. Thus it is not suitable to apply to achieve surface decontamination for DOE facilities since many of these facilities have radioactive contaminants on the surface. Any secondary contamination will be a grave concern. The objective of this project is to develop a novel technology for laser ablation in liquid for surface decontamination. It aims to achieve more efficient surface decontamination without secondary contamination and to evaluate the economic feasibility for large scale surface decontamination with laser ablation in liquid. When laser ablation is pursued in the solution, all the desorbed contaminants will be confined in liquid. The contaminants can be precipitated and subsequently contained in a small volume for disposal. It can reduce the risk of the decontamination workers. It can also reduce the volume of contaminants dramatically.

Cheng, Chung H.

2004-06-01

183

W-12 valve pit decontamination demonstration  

SciTech Connect

Waste tank W-12 is a tank in the ORNL Low-Level Liquid Waste (LLLW) system that collected waste from Building 3525. Because of a leaking flange in the discharge line from W-12 to the evaporator service tank (W-22) and continual inleakage into the tank from an unknown source, W-12 was removed from service to comply with the Federal Facilities Agreement requirement. The initial response was to decontaminate the valve pit between tank W-12 and the evaporator service tank (W-22) to determine if personnel could enter the pit to attempt repair of the leaking flange. Preventing the spread of radioactive contamination from the pit to the environment and to other waste systems was of concern during the decontamination. The drain in the pit goes to the process waste system; therefore, if high-level liquid waste were generated during decontamination activities, it would have to be removed from the pit by means other than the available liquid waste connection. Remote decontamination of W-12 was conducted using the General Mills manipulator bridge and telescoping trolley and REMOTEC RM-10 manipulator. The initial objective of repairing the leaking flange was not conducted because of the repair uncertainty and the unknown tank inleakage. Rather, new piping was installed to empty the W-12 tank that would bypass the valve pit and eliminate the need to repair the flange. The radiological surveys indicated that a substantial decontamination factor was achieved.

Benson, C.E.; Parfitt, J.E.; Patton, B.D.

1995-12-01

184

Gastrointestinal decontamination in the acutely poisoned patient  

PubMed Central

Objective To define the role of gastrointestinal (GI) decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Sources A computer-based PubMed/MEDLINE search of the literature on GI decontamination in the poisoned patient with cross referencing of sources. Study Selection and Data Extraction Clinical, animal and in vitro studies were reviewed for clinical relevance to GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Synthesis The literature suggests that previously, widely used, aggressive approaches including the use of ipecac syrup, gastric lavage, and cathartics are now rarely recommended. Whole bowel irrigation is still often recommended for slow-release drugs, metals, and patients who "pack" or "stuff" foreign bodies filled with drugs of abuse, but with little quality data to support it. Activated charcoal (AC), single or multiple doses, was also a previous mainstay of GI decontamination, but the utility of AC is now recognized to be limited and more time dependent than previously practiced. These recommendations have resulted in several treatment guidelines that are mostly based on retrospective analysis, animal studies or small case series, and rarely based on randomized clinical trials. Conclusions The current literature supports limited use of GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. PMID:21992527

2011-01-01

185

Bleaching process preferred to decontaminate odorants  

SciTech Connect

The problem of decontaminating and disposing of out-of-service gas odorizers has long faced both gas transmission and distribution companies since the early 1980s. Finding a methodology to safely and effectively decontaminate odorant-contaminated equipment has caused many companies to simply cap the equipment and put it in storage. The recommended process of decontamination by odorant manufacturers is currently a bleaching-type process. A sodium hypochlorite solution is added to water and either circulated or left standing in the contaminated equipment. The sodium hypochlorite effectively neutralizes the smell of the odorant and slightly corrodes the inside of the equipment to neutralize any odorant which has permeated the metal. The waste sodium hypochlorite and water is then shipped as hazardous waste (pH of 12.5) or non-hazardous waste after the pH has been adjusted. The bleaching process has proven cost-effective and less time-consuming than most other methods including bioremediation. To effectively use it, there are several problems to overcome--most importantly the removal of residual product and the release of vapors into the atmosphere. River Valley Technologies, a contractor located in Cincinnati, OH, specializing in odorant-equipment decontamination, has developed several methods and engineering controls to eliminate most of the problems associated with decontaminating odorant equipment. The paper describes these methods.

NONE

1996-10-01

186

[Environmental intervention in sites contaminated by lead: the United States of America experience].  

PubMed

For a decade, state and federal agencies have worked jointly with communities throughout the USA, with the objective of measuring the health-risk from lead pollution in residential zones. Often these communities have been linked with facilities previously associated with activities like mining and metallurgy; nevertheless, there are other industries like paint manufacturing and battery recycling, that have also been identified as lead pollution sources. The vast experience in cleaning up the contaminated sites has shown that ample programs designed to identify and handle the exposure routes can help, in an effective manner, to diminish blood lead levels (BLL) in susceptible populations, such as in young children. Environmental intervention programs are more effective when the affected communities carry out health education/intervention programs, geared towards the development of individualized strategies for handling the risk implied by the presence of lead in the atmosphere. The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html. PMID:14746009

Ceto, Nicholas

2003-01-01

187

Proceedings of the 2007 ANS Topical Meeting on Decommissioning, Decontamination, and Reutilization - DD and R 2007  

SciTech Connect

The American Nuclear Society (ANS) Topical Meeting on Decommissioning, Decontamination, and Reutilization (DD and R 2007), 'Capturing Decommissioning Lessons Learned', is sponsored by the ANS Decommissioning, Decontamination and Reutilization; Environmental Sciences; and Fuel Cycle and Waste Management Divisions. This meeting provides a forum for an international exchange of technical knowledge and project management experience gained from the ongoing process of decommissioning nuclear facilities. Of particular note is the number of projects that are approaching completion. This document gathers 113 presentations given at this meeting.

NONE

2008-01-15

188

Potential Offsite Radiological Doses Estimated for the Proposed Divine Strake Experiment, Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of the potential radiation dose that residents offsite of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) might receive from the proposed Divine Strake experiment was made to determine compliance with Subpart H of Part 61 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities. The Divine Strake experiment, proposed by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, consists of a detonation of 700 tons of heavy ammonium nitrate fuel oil-emulsion above the U16b Tunnel complex in Area 16 of the NTS. Both natural radionuclides suspended, and historic fallout radionuclides resuspended from the detonation, have potential to be transported outside the NTS boundary by wind. They may, therefore, contribute radiological dose to the public. Subpart H states ''Emissions of radionuclides to the ambient air from Department of Energy facilities shall not exceed those amounts that would cause any member of the public to receive in any year an effective dose equivalent of 10 mrem/yr'' (Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 61.92) where mrem/yr is millirem per year. Furthermore, application for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approval of construction of a new source or modification of an existing source is required if the effective dose equivalent, caused by all emissions from the new construction or modification, is greater than or equal to 0.1 mrem/yr (40 CFR 61.96). In accordance with Section 61.93, a dose assessment was conducted with the computer model CAP88-PC, Version 3.0. In addition to this model, a dose assessment was also conducted by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This modeling was conducted to obtain dose estimates from a model designed for acute releases and which addresses terrain effects and uses meteorology from multiple locations. Potential radiation dose to a hypothetical maximally exposed individual at the closest NTS boundary to the proposed Divine Strake experiment, as estimated by the CAP88-PC model, was 0.005 mrem with wind blowing directly towards that location. Boundary dose, as modeled by NARAC, ranged from about 0.006 to 0.007 mrem. Potential doses to actual offsite populated locations were generally two to five times lower still, or about 40 to 100 times lower then the 0.1 mrem level at which EPA approval is required pursuant to Section 61.96.

Ron Warren

2006-12-01

189

Biotechnological Slurry Process for the Decontamination of Excavated Polluted Soils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the thesis the development of a new biotechnological slurry process for the decontamination of excavated polluted soils is described. The slurry process is especially designed to decontaminate soils polluted with organic compounds (e.g. oil). Crucial i...

R. Kleijntjens

1991-01-01

190

Radioactive scrap metal decontamination technology assessment report  

SciTech Connect

Within the DOE complex there exists a tremendous quantity of radioactive scrap metal. As an example, it is estimated that within the gaseous diffusion plants there exists in excess of 700,000 tons of contaminated stainless steel. At present, valuable material is being disposed of when it could be converted into a high quality product. Liquid metal processing represents a true recycling opportunity for this material. By applying the primary production processes towards the material`s decontamination and re-use, the value of the strategic resource is maintained while drastically reducing the volume of material in need of burial. Potential processes for the liquid metal decontamination of radioactively contaminated metal are discussed and contrasted. Opportunities and technology development issues are identified and discussed. The processes compared are: surface decontamination; size reduction, packaging and burial; melting technologies; electric arc melting; plasma arc centrifugal treatment; air induction melting; vacuum induction melting; and vacuum induction melting and electroslag remelting.

Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.; Schlienger, M.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Liquid Metal Processing Lab.

1996-04-01

191

Imaging the site of the Source Physics Experiment using seismic interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is a series of precisely designed explosions recorded by a dense network of seismometers. Its purpose is to obtain a physics-based understanding of how seismic waves are created at and scattered near the source. In order to separate source-specific effects from those due to geological heterogeneity, we need a precise picture of the subsurface. In this study, we are using several methods of seismic interferometry to obtain highly detailed images of the SPE site. Coda wave interferometry (CI) uses the diffuse coda from earthquakes or explosions as a source of coherent energy. Ambient noise correlation (ANC) uses the energy of the ambient background field. In each technique, the data recorded at one seismometer are correlated with the data recorded at another to obtain an estimate of the Green's function (GF) between the two. More than 150 instruments were deployed around the site, predominantly along 5 lines extending radially outward from the shot point. Most of those are located within 2 km. We used the records of one of the SPE shots as an energy source for the CI technique and 3 months of high gain continuous data for ANC. Each technique has advantages over the other. CI is very fast (only a few minutes of data are needed, compared to the weeks to years of continuous data often required for ANC), and the GF obtained has the same frequency content as the original shot (while the spectrum of ANC is determined by the natural background noise). Using CI on the SPE data, we obtain very good quality estimate of the GF to very high frequency. The key disadvantages of CI are that we can only correlate energy propagating radially outward and the source point itself is hidden. ANC requires more data and processing time, but allows us to estimate the GF between any two of the seismometers. By combining the two techniques, we obtain a very sharp image of seismic velocity and attenuation in the upper several kilometers beneath the site. Using CI, we recovered 860 high quality GFs along the 5 main lines. ANC gave us several thousand more, including paths that cross the source point and between the lines. Among key observations, we are able to map a thin (20-50 m), very low velocity (150-250 m/s) layer at the surface in the southeast portion of the site, which results in significant differences in dispersion along the 5 lines. Our end result is a fully 3D tomogram of the subsurface with lateral resolution as small as 100 m. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-609858

Matzel, E.; Mellors, R. J.; Pitarka, A.

2013-12-01

192

Applying best practices in web site redesign: the Queens College Libraries experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the best practices in web site redesign the authors established for its two interconnected parts, the web development process and web design. The paper demonstrates how best practices were applied to coordinate a library web site redesign project and to engineer the web site for optimum usability, resulting in the

James T. Mellone; David J. Williams

2010-01-01

193

Phase diagrams of bond and site frustrated magnetic materials: Experiments and theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have carried out large scale Monte Carlo simulations of site and bond frustrated Heisenberg models in order to gain insight into experimental phase diagrams on bond and site frustrated magnetic materials. In the case of site frustrated models, we find that spin glass ordering does not take place on either the simple cubic or body-centered cubic lattices which are

Alexander D. Beath

2008-01-01

194

The Role of Education and Experience in Developing Site Investigation Skills  

E-print Network

Terms: Education, Site Investigation, Site Char- acterization ABSTRACT A computer simulation program the most important. Those who have only Engineer-in-Train- ing or Geologist-in-Training registration showed this concern, in 1998 we began develop- ing BEST SiteSim, a computer simulation program that would place

195

PROPERTIES AND BEHAVIOR OF 238PU RELEVANT TO DECONTAMINATION OF BUILDING 235-F  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared to document the physical, chemical and radiological properties of plutonium oxide materials that were processed in the Plutonium Fuel Form Facility (PuFF) in building 235-F at the Savannah River Plant (now known as the Savannah River Site) in the late 1970s and early 1980s. An understanding of these properties is needed to support current project planning for the safe and effective decontamination and deactivation (D&D) of PuFF. The PuFF mission was production of heat sources to power Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) used in space craft. The specification for the PuO{sub 2} used to fabricate the heat sources required that the isotopic content of the plutonium be 83 {+-} 1% Pu-238 due to its high decay heat of 0.57 W/g. The high specific activity of Pu-238 (17.1 Ci/g) due to alpha decay makes this material very difficult to manage. The production process produced micron-sized particles which proved difficult to contain during operations, creating personnel contamination concerns and resulting in the expenditure of significant resources to decontaminate spaces after loss of material containment. This report examines high {sup 238}Pu-content material properties relevant to the D&D of PuFF. These relevant properties are those that contribute to the mobility of the material. Physical properties which produce or maintain small particle size work to increase particle mobility. Early workers with {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} felt that, unlike most small particles, Pu-238 oxide particles would not naturally agglomerate to form larger, less mobile particles. It was thought that the heat generated by the particles would prevent water molecules from binding to the particle surface. Particles covered with bound water tend to agglomerate more easily. However, it is now understood that the self-heating effect is not sufficient to prevent adsorption of water on particle surfaces and thus would not prevent agglomeration of particles. Operational experience at PuFF indicates that the Pu-238 contamination was observed to move along surfaces and through High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters over time. Recent research into the phenomenon known as alpha recoil offers a potential explanation for this observed behavior. Momentum is conserved when an alpha particle is ejected from a Pu-238 atom due to radioactive decay. Consequently, the entire particle of which that Pu-238 atom is a constituent experiences a movement similar to the recoil of a gun when a bullet is ejected. Furthermore, the particle often fractures in response to Pu-238 atom disintegration (yielding an alpha particle), with a small particle fragment also being ejected in order to conserve momentum. This process results in the continuous size reduction and transport of particles containing Pu-238 atoms, thus explaining movement of contamination along surfaces and through HEPA filters. A better understanding of the thermal behavior of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} particles is needed to inform the planning process for the PuFF D&D project at the 235-F facility. There has been a concern that the surface temperature of individual particles may be high enough to cause problems with decontamination equipment and materials as a result of heat generation due to radioactive decay. A calculation under conservative assumptions shows that the surface temperature of particles less than about 100 {micro}m diameter is not appreciably above ambient. Since most particles in PuFF are on order of 1 {micro}m in diameter, the effect of particle surface temperature on decontamination equipment and materials is expected to be minimal. The result of this calculation also indicates that thermal imaging, which has been under consideration as a method to monitor the progress of system decontamination efforts would not likely be effective. The use of strippable coating was suggested as a possible alternative to other decontamination techniques. One particular system (i.e., Decon Gel 1101) may offer significant advantages over conventional liquid decontamination solut

Duncan, A.; Kane, M.

2009-11-24

196

Proceedings of the workshop on transite decontamination dismantlement and recycle/disposal  

SciTech Connect

On February 3--4, 1993, a workshop was conducted to examine issues associated with the decontamination, dismantlement, and recycle/disposal of transite located at the US Department of Energy Fernald site near Cincinnati, OH. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is a Superfund Site currently undergoing remediation. A major objective of the workshop was to assess the state-of-the-art of transite remediation, and generate concepts that could be useful to the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Co. (FERMCO) for remediation of transite. Transite is a building material consisting of asbestos fiber and cement and may be radioactively contaminated as a result of past uranium processing operations at the FEMP. Many of the 100 buildings within the former uranium production area were constructed of transite siding and roofing and consequently, over 180,000 m{sup 2} of transite must be disposed or recycled. Thirty-six participants representing industry, academia, and government institutions such as the EPA and DOE assembled at the workshop to present their experience with transite, describe work in progress, and address the issues involved in remediating transite.

Not Available

1993-12-31

197

Green coffee decontamination by electron beam irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbiological load of green coffee is a real problem considering that it is extremely sensitive to contamination. Irradiation is a decontamination method for a lot of foodstuffs, being a feasible, very effective and environment friendly one. Beans and ground green coffee were irradiated with electron beams up to 40 kGy. Microbial load, rheological behavior, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and visible spectroscopy were carried out. The results show that electron beam irradiation of green coffee could decontaminate it without severe changes in its properties.

Nemtanu, Monica R.; Brasoveanu, Mirela; Grecu, Maria Nicoleta; Minea, R.

2005-10-01

198

Cold plasma decontamination using flexible jet arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arrays of atmospheric discharge cold plasma jets have been used to decontaminate surfaces of a wide range of microorganisms quickly, yet not damage that surface. Its effectiveness in decomposing simulated chemical warfare agents has also been demonstrated, and may also find use in assisting in the cleanup of radiological weapons. Large area jet arrays, with short dwell times, are necessary for practical applications. Realistic situations will also require jet arrays that are flexible to adapt to contoured or irregular surfaces. Various large area jet array prototypes, both planar and flexible, are described, as is the application to atmospheric decontamination.

Konesky, Gregory

2010-04-01

199

Decontamination of metals using chemical etching  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to chemical etching process for reclaiming contaminated equipment wherein a reduction-oxidation system is included in a solution of nitric acid to contact the metal to be decontaminated and effect reduction of the reduction-oxidation system, and includes disposing a pair of electrodes in the reduced solution to permit passage of an electrical current between said electrodes and effect oxidation of the reduction-oxidation system to thereby regenerate the solution and provide decontaminated equipment that is essentially radioactive contamination-free.

Lerch, Ronald E. (Kennewick, WA); Partridge, Jerry A. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01

200

Elemental analyses of hypervelocity microparticle impact sites on Interplanetary Dust Experiment sensor surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) had over 450 electrically active ultra-high purity metal-oxide-silicon impact detectors located on the six primary sides of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Hypervelocity microparticles (approximately 0.2 to approximately 100 micron diameter) that struck the active sensors with enough energy to break down the 0.4 or 1.0 micron thick SIO2 insulator layer separating the silicon base (the negative electrode), and the 1000 A thick surface layer of aluminum (the positive electrode) caused electrical discharges that were recorded for the first year of orbit. The high purity Al-SiO2-Si substrates allowed detection of trace (ppm) amounts of hypervelocity impactor residues. After sputtering through a layer of surface contamination, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used to create two-dimensional elemental ion intensity maps of microparticle impact sites on the IDE sensors. The element intensities in the central craters of the impacts were corrected for relative ion yields and instrumental conditions and then normalized to silicon. The results were used to classify the particles' origins as 'manmade,' 'natural,' or 'indeterminate.' The last classification resulted from the presence of too little impactor residue, analytical interference from high background contamination, the lack of information on silicon and aluminum residues, or a combination of these circumstances. Several analytical 'blank' discharges were induced on flight sensors by pressing down on the sensor surface with a pure silicon shard. Analyses of these blank discharges showed that the discharge energy blasts away the layer of surface contamination. Only Si and Al were detected inside the discharge zones, including the central craters of these features. Thus far a total of 79 randomly selected microparticle impact sites from the six primary sides of the LDEF have been analyzed: 36 from tray C-9 (Leading (ram), or East, side), 18 from tray C-3 (Trailing (wake), or West, side), 12 from tray B-12 (North side), 4 from tray D-6 (South side), 3 from tray H-11 (Space end), and 6 from tray G-10 (Earth end). Residue from manmade debris was identified in craters on all trays. (Aluminum oxide particle residues were not detectable on the Al/Si substrates.) These results were consistent with the IDE impact record which showed highly variable long term microparticle impact flux rates on the West, Space and Earth sides of the LDEF which could not be ascribed to astronomical variability of micrometeorite density. The IDE record also showed episodic bursts of microparticle impacts on the East, North, and South sides of the satellite, denoting passage through orbital debris clouds or rings.

Simon, Charles G.; Hunter, J. L.; Griffis, D. P.; Misra, V.; Ricks, D. A.; Wortman, Jim J.; Brownlee, D. E.

1993-01-01

201

Hard chemical decontamination of steam generator tube bundles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work presented here concerns hard chemical decontamination of steam generator (SG) tube bundles removed from service subsequent to SG replacement operations.The aim of the program is to undertake an SG tube bundle decontamination operation that will facilitate the dismantling of an SG removed from service.The proposed decontamination method associates a combination of nitric acid and cerium nitrate, with regeneration

Michel Dubourg

1995-01-01

202

Decontamination of process equipment using recyclable chelating solvent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy (DOE) is now faced with the task of meeting decontamination and decommissioning obligations at numerous facilities by the year 2019. Due to the tremendous volume of material involved, innovative decontamination technologies are being sought that can reduce the volumes of contaminated waste materials and secondary wastes requiring disposal. With sufficient decontamination, some of the material from

J. Jevec; C. Lenore; S. Ulbricht

1995-01-01

203

EVALUATION OF DECONTAMINATION SYSTEMS CHALLENGED WITH NERVE AGENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current doctrine describes the use of the M291 Skin Decontamination Kit (SDK), 0.5% hypochlorite solution (household bleach diluted 1 to 10) and 1% soapy water solution to decontaminate skin exposed to chemical warfare agents. Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) is a new product being considered and was recently approved by the FDA. This study directly compares the efficacy of these

K. A. Hanssen; B. F. Doxzon; H. L. Lumpkin; E. Clarkson; E. H. Braue

204

Cost Savings through Innovation in Decontamination, Decommissioning, and Dismantlement  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost effective technologies for the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsored large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs) to help bring new technologies into the D&D programs. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) LSDDP generated a list of needs defining specific problems where improved technologies could be incorporated into ongoing D&D tasks. The needs fell into 5 major categories--characterization, dismantlement, safety, material dispositioning, and decontamination. Technologies were carefully selected that provide a large benefit for a small investment. The technologies must provide significant improvements in cost, safety, radiation exposure, waste volume reduction, or schedule savings and widely applicable throughout the DOE complex. The LSDDP project provided training for the new technologies and worked with technology suppliers to resolve any questions that arose. Since 1998, 26 technologies have been demonstrated or deployed through the LSDDP for the D&D program at the INEEL. Of the 26 demonstrated and deployed technologies, 14 were in characterization, 3 were in decontamination, 4 were in dismantlement, 3 were in safety, and 2 were in material dispositioning. To promote the use of these technologies at other sites within the DOE complex, the LSDDP team published fact sheets, videos, technology summary reports, articles in INEEL star newspaper, posters, and maintained an internet home page on the project. As a result, additional deployments have taken place at the Hanford, Mound, Fernald, Oak Ridge, Ashtabula, and West Valley. Eight of the 26 technologies evaluated were developed in foreign countries. The technologies demonstrated have been shown to be faster, less expensive, and/or safer. The technologies evaluated through the LSDDP have provided improvements in the following D&D areas: robotic underwater characterization of fuel storage pools, characterization of scrap metal for recycle, PCB and RCRA metals analysis in soil, water, paint, or sludge, subsurface characterization, personnel safety, waste disposal, scaffolding use, and remote radiation characterization of buildings and soil. It is estimated that the technologies demonstrated and deployed through this program will save more than $50 million dollars over the next 10 years at the INEEL alone. Of the $50 million estimated dollars saved, about 75% of the savings will come from characterization technologies, 11% from technologies associated with material dispositioning, 10% are associated with dismantlement technologies and the balance split between safety and decontamination.

Neal A. Yancey

2003-02-27

205

Characterization of materials for a reactive transport model validation experiment: Interim report on the caisson experiment. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

Models used in performance assessment and site characterization activities related to nuclear waste disposal rely on simplified representations of solute/rock interactions, hydrologic flow field and the material properties of the rock layers surrounding the repository. A crucial element in the design of these models is the validity of these simplifying assumptions. An intermediate-scale experiment is being carried out at the Experimental Engineered Test Facility at Los Alamos Laboratory by the Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories to develop a strategy to validate key geochemical and hydrological assumptions in performance assessment models used by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project.

Siegel, M.D.; Cheng, W.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ward, D.B.; Bryan, C.R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

1995-08-01

206

DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED MATERIAL FROM PORT OF NY/NJ DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED MATERIAL FROM THE PORT OF  

E-print Network

DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED MATERIAL FROM PORT OF NY/NJ DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED MATERIAL FROM method of ocean disposal following the dredging operations required for the efficient operation of the Port. Decontamination and beneficial reuse of the dredged materials is one component of a comprehensive

Brookhaven National Laboratory

207

Characteristics of microseismic events induced during hydraulic fracturing experiments at the Hijiori hot dry rock geothermal energy site, Yamagata, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microseismicity accompanying hydraulic injection experiments at the Hijiori hot dry rock site was monitored by a network of ten borehole seismic stations deployed at an average distance of 2 km from the injection well. While expanding hydraulic fractures are almost aseismic, they can induce microseismic events. These events are probably caused by shear failures induced by high pore fluid pressures

Shunji Sasaki

1998-01-01

208

Remotely operated robot for decontamination tasks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Engineers in the Robotics Development Group at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) have developed a robot which will be used to decontaminate a pipe gallery of a tank farm used for nuclear waste storage. Personnel access is required into this p...

A. M. Dudar, R. C. Vandewalle

1994-01-01

209

Decontamination and Disinfection Fact Sheet Terminology  

E-print Network

of water to the bag to aid in steam generation. Do not attempt to make autoclave bags air tight the level of microbial contamination to an acceptably safe level. Antisepsis-the application of a chemical laboratory applications. Decontamination is accomplished by steam heat sterilization in an autoclave. Steam

Kemner, Ken

210

Mechanical decontamination techniques for floor drain systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unprecedented nature of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) following the 1979 accident has necessitated the development of new techniques to deal with radiation and contamination in the plant. One of these problems was decontamination of floor drain systems, which had become highly contaminated with various forms of dirt and sludge containing high levels of fission

G. L. Palau; Moriyuki Saigusa

1987-01-01

211

Phase 2 microwave concrete decontamination results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report on the results of the second phase of a four-phase program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop a system to decontaminate concrete using microwave energy. The microwave energy is directed at the concrete surface through the use of an optimized wave guide antenna, or applicator, and this energy rapidly heats the free water present in the

T. L. White; D. Jr. Foster; C. T. Wilson; C. R. Schaich

1995-01-01

212

HAZARDOUS WASTE DECONTAMINATION WITH PLASMA REACTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of electrical energy in the form of plasma has been considered as a potentially efficient means of decontaminating hazardous waste, although to date only a few attempts have been made to do so. There are a number of relative advantages and some potential disadvantages to...

213

Testing and evaluation of light ablation decontamination  

SciTech Connect

This report details the testing and evaluation of light ablation decontamination. It details WINCO contracted research and application of light ablation efforts by Ames Laboratory. Tests were conducted with SIMCON (simulated contamination) coupons and REALCON (actual radioactive metal coupons) under controlled conditions to compare cleaning effectiveness, speed and application to plant process type equipment.

Demmer, R.L.; Ferguson, R.L.

1994-10-01

214

Biological Decontamination Using Pulsed Filamentary Microplasma Jet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microplasma jet for the generation of pulsed filamentary discharge at atmospheric pressure has been devised for biological decontamination as well as for modification of surface properties. Long plasma-filament is generated inside a quartz tube and characterized using optical emission spectroscopy, current voltage measurements, numerical simulations and microphotography. Efficiency of our plasma source for the decontamination on inner surface of the tube as well as on objects placed in proximity of plasma effluent is studied. Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacteria) and spores of Bacillus atrophaeus (Gram-positive bacteria) are used for the decontamination studies. Decontamination of Bacillus atrophaeus endospores, which are layered on PET polymer material, and placed in the proximity of plasma effluent, shows the mean logarithmic bacterial reduction of 3.67 for the treatment time of 120 s. Inactivation of Escherichia coli coated on inner surface of the tube shows the mean logarithmic bacterial reduction of about 5 for the treatment time of 30 s. In addition to this, inhibition studies of bacteria coated on agar plate are also carried out. It shows plasma effluent generated in our plasma source is very effective for the inhibition of bacterial colonization.

Pothiraja, Ramasamy; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Keil, Gernot; Bibinov, Nikita; Awakowicz, Peter

215

Advances in Sterilization and Decontamination: a Survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent technical advances made in the field of sterilization and decontamination and their applicability to private and commercial interests are discussed. Government-sponsored programs by NASA produced the bulk of material presented in this survey. The summary of past and current research discussed is detailed to enhance an effective transfer of technology from NASA to potential users.

1978-01-01

216

US Department of Energy Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project, final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of Building 36 at the Grand Junction Projects Office Facility  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) occupies a 61.7-acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot milling experiments conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the GJPO Remedial Action Project to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor for the facility, Rust Geotech, also is the remedial action contractor. Building 36 was found to be radiologically contaminated and was demolished in 1996. The soil beneath the building was remediated in accordance with identified standards and can be released for unlimited exposure and unrestricted use. This document was prepared in response to a DOE request for an individual final report for each contaminated GJPO building.

Widdop, M.R.

1996-08-01

217

Web site design, trust, satisfaction and e-loyalty: the Indian experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – With the rapid expansion of global online markets including India, researchers and practitioners are challenged to understand drivers of customer satisfaction, trust and loyalty towards web sites. The paper aims to focus on web site design, which is expected to influence whether customers revisit an online vendor. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Participants in India evaluated a local and foreign web

Dianne Cyr; Gurprit S. Kindra; Satyabhusan Dash

2008-01-01

218

Influence of site-specific geology on oil shale fragmentation experiments at the Colony Mine, Garfield County, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory executed 19 intermediate scale cratering experiments in oil shale at the Colony Mine in Garfield County, Colorado. These experiments have led to a better understanding of fracture characteristics and fragmentation of in situ oil shale by use of a conventional high explosive. Geologic site characterization included detailed mapping, coring, and sample analyses. Site-specific geology was observed to be a major influence on the resulting crater geometry. The joint patterns at the experimental site frequently defined the final crater symmetry. Secondary influences included vugs, lithology changes, and grade fluctuations in the local stratigraphy. Most experiments, in both the rib and floor, were conducted to obtain data to investigate the fragmentation results within the craters. The rubble was screened for fragment-size distributions. Geologic features in proximity to the explosive charge had minimal effect on the rubble due to the overpowering effect of the detonation. However, these same features became more influential on the fracture and rubble characteristics with greater distances from the shothole. Postshot cores revealed a direct relationship between the grade of the oil shale and its susceptibility to fracturing. The Colony Mine experiments have demonstrated the significant role of geology in high explosive/oil shale interaction. It is probable that this role will have to be considered for larger applications to blast patterns and potential problems in retort stability in the future of oil shale development.

Ray, J.M.; Harper, M.D.; Craig, J.L.; Edwards, C.L.

1982-01-01

219

Field-Scale Experiments for Site-Specific Crop Management. Part II: A Geostatistical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part II analyses approach C experiments. Field-scale experiments were applied to four wheat fields in the Western Australian wheat belt. Different experimental designs were used two two-dimensional sine-waves, a chequerboard, and a two-factor strip arrangement. In each experiment, the yield associated with a particular treatment was predicted by kriging to where the other treatments were located. Different forms of kriging

M. J. Pringle; A. B. McBratney; S. E. Cook

2004-01-01

220

Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination  

SciTech Connect

DOE sites contain a broad spectrum of asbestos materials (cloth, pipe lagging, sprayed insulation and other substances) which are contaminated with a combination of hazardous and radioactive wastes due to its use during the development of the U.S. nuclear weapons complex. These wastes consist of cutting oils, lubricants, solvents, PCB`s, heavy metals and radioactive contaminants. The radioactive contaminants are the activation, decay and fission products of DOE operations. The asbestos must be converted by removing and separating the hazardous and radioactive materials to prevent the formation of mixed wastes and to allow for both sanitary disposal and effective decontamination. Currently, no technology exists that can meet these sanitary and other objectives.

Kasevich, R.S.; Vaux, W.G.; Nocito, T.

1995-12-01

221

Treatment of uncommon sites of focal primary hyperhidrosis: experience with pharmacological therapy using oxybutynin  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Primary hyperhidrosis usually affects the hands, armpits, feet and cranio-facial region. Sweating in other areas is common in secondary hyperhidrosis (after surgery or in specific clinical conditions). Oxybutynin has provided good results and is an alternative for treating hyperhidrosis at common sites. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of oxybutynin as a treatment for primary sweating at uncommon sites (e.g., the back and groin). METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed 20 patients (10 females) who received oxybutynin for primary focal hyperhidrosis at uncommon sites. The subjects were evaluated to determine quality of life before beginning oxybutynin and six weeks afterward and they were assigned grades (on a scale from 0 to 10) to measure their improvement at each site of excessive sweating after six weeks and at the last consult. RESULTS: The median follow-up time with oxybutynin was 385 days (133-1526 days). The most common sites were the back (n?=?7) and groin (n?=?5). After six weeks, the quality of life improved in 85% of the subjects. Dry mouth was very common and was reported by 16 patients, 12 of whom reported moderate/severe dry mouth. Five patients stopped treatment (two: unbearable dry mouth, two: excessive somnolence and one: palpitations). At the last visit, 80% of patients presented with moderate/great improvement at the main sites of sweating. CONCLUSION: After six weeks, more than 80% of the patients presented with improvements in their overall quality of life and at the most important site of sweating. Side effects were common (80% reported at least one side effect) and caused 25% of the patients to discontinue treatment. Oxybutynin is effective for treating bothersome hyperhidrosis, even at atypical locations and most patients cope well with the side effects.

Teivelis, Marcelo Passos; Wolosker, Nelson; Krutman, Mariana; Kauffman, Paulo; de Campos, Jose Ribas Milanez; Puech-Leao, Pedro

2014-01-01

222

Contaminated concrete: Occurrence and emerging technologies for DOE decontamination  

SciTech Connect

The goals of the Facility Deactivation, Decommissioning, and Material Disposition Focus Area, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development, are to select, demonstrate, test, and evaluate an integrated set of technologies tailored to provide a complete solution to specific problems posed by deactivation, decontamination, and decommissioning, (D&D). In response to these goals, technical task plan (TTP) OR152002, entitled Accelerated Testing of Concrete Decontamination Methods, was submitted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report describes the results from the initial project tasks, which focused on the nature and extent of contaminated concrete, emerging candidate technologies, and matching of emerging technologies to concrete problems. Existing information was used to describe the nature and extent of contamination (technology logic diagrams, data bases, and the open literature). To supplement this information, personnel at various DOE sites were interviewed, providing a broad perspective of concrete contamination. Because characterization is in the initial stage at many sites, complete information is not available. Assimilation of available information into one location is helpful in identifying potential areas of concern in the future. The most frequently occurring radiological contaminants within the DOE complex are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}U (and it daughters), and {sup 60}Co, followed closely by {sup 90}Sr and tritium, which account for {minus}30% of the total occurrence. Twenty-four percent of the contaminants were listed as unknown, indicating a lack of characterization information, and 24% were listed as other contaminants (over 100 isotopes) with less than 1% occurrence per isotope.

Dickerson, K.S.; Wilson-Nichols, M.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Morris, M.I. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-08-01

223

Single-well and large-scale cross-hole tracer experiments in fractured rocks at two sites in Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Swedish site investigations and research associated with the disposal of spent nuclear fuel, tracer experiments in deep boreholes have been employed in order to characterize solute transport and hydraulic connectivity in the fractured bedrock at two sites—Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. Performance and analytical results are presented from a suite of tracer experiments in varying scales, from single-hole injection-withdrawal tests, intermediate-scale tests with sorbing tracers, to large-scale connectivity tests over distances up to several hundred meters in major fracture zones or networks of zones. In addition to demonstrating transport connectivity over large distances, a general result is that the single-hole tests, as well as the cross-hole tests with sorbing tracers, have clearly demonstrated the process of solute retention of water-conductive features in the rock at different scales.

Nordqvist, Rune; Hjerne, Calle; Andersson, Peter

2012-05-01

224

Support for the delisting of decontaminated liquid chemical surety materials as listed hazardous waste from specific sources (state) MD02 in COMAR 10. 51. 02. 16-1. Technical report, December 1987February 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maryland recently enacted regulations that listed decontaminated residues of certain chemical warfare agents as hazardous wastes. The State would consider delisting if the Army document the effects of its decontamination procedures. Army specialists at U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center (CRDEC), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, have had exhaustive experience in this area since 1918 when chemical agents were

H. D. Durst; E. W. Sarver; H. W. Yurow; W. T. Beaudry; P. A. DEramo

1988-01-01

225

Bacterial decontamination using ambient pressure nonthermal discharges  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric pressure nonthermal plasmas can efficiently deactivate bacteria in gases, liquids, and on surfaces, as well as can decompose hazardous chemicals. This paper focuses on the changes to bacterial spores and toxic biochemical compounds, such as mycotoxins, after their treatment in ambient pressure discharges. The ability of nonthermal plasmas to decompose toxic chemicals and deactivate hazardous biological materials has been applied to sterilizing medical instruments, ozonating water, and purifying air. In addition, the fast lysis of bacterial spores and other cells has led us to include plasma devices within pathogen detection instruments, where nucleic acids must be accessed. Decontaminating chemical and biological warfare materials from large, high value targets such as building surfaces, after a terrorist attack, are especially challenging. A large area plasma decontamination technology is described.

Birmingham, J.G.; Hammerstrom, D.J.

2000-02-01

226

Evaluation of commercially available decontamination chemicals  

SciTech Connect

The effectiveness of commercially available decontamination solutions was compared with the effectiveness of 10% oxalic acid in controlled laboratory tests. Type 304L stainless steel and Inconel 625 specimens were used. Contamination was sludge from Savannah River Plant (SRP) high level waste tanks. Measured amounts of contamination were placed on each specimen. They were then heated to bond the contamination to the surface and cleaned according to the manufacturer's directions. The effectiveness of the product was determined by monitoring specimens before and after cleaning. Four of the 16 solutions evaluated removed all the contamination from Type 304L stainless steel. Inconel 625 was more difficult to decontaminate. Further tests are planned with the chemicals that were most effective in this test. 4 refs., 6 tabs.

Shurte, E.A.; Rankin, W.N.

1988-01-01

227

Technology for treatment of decontamination products  

SciTech Connect

The research concerning the methods of management and processing of products generated as the result of post Chernobyl decontamination activities is being carried out by the Institute of Radioecological Problems of Belarus Academy of Science (IRP) in the framework of the Belarus National Programme. The main goal of this work is choice and development of an appropriate system for treatment of the decontamination radwastes, based on currently available information and experimental studies. This paper presents the technological schemes being studied for treating the post-Chernobyl liquid and solid wastes and will also briefly discuss the approach being used to settle a problem on collecting/management of low-level radioactive ash wastes, generated from the use of contaminated fuel.

Kavkhuta, G.A.; Rozdzyalovskaya, L.F. [Institute of Radioecological Problems of Belarus Academy of Science, Minsk (Belarus)

1994-12-31

228

Web damage and feeding experience influence web site tenacity in the orb-web spider Argiope keyserlingi Karsch.  

PubMed

For orb-web spiders, the decision to remain at a particular site or to relocate elsewhere will ultimately depend on the quality of the site. In the past, the quality of the site has been measured in terms of prey availability; spiders experiencing large numbers of prey items are less likely to relocate. However, regular web damage caused by larger nonprey animals may also contribute to the quality of a particular site. Laboratory experiments revealed that the frequency and extent of web relocation by the orb-web spider Argiope keyserlingi was influenced by the feeding regime and the rate of nonprey web damage. Daily movement patterns were influenced by web damage, and these movements were in the direction away from the source of damage. However, the cumulative distance moved during the 7 days of the experiment was influenced by the frequency with which spiders were fed. Spiders that were not given prey moved further than spiders that obtained prey. These data indicate that spiders respond to web damage on a daily basis, but the cumulative movement of spiders over a longer period is influenced mostly by the history of prey ingestion rate. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:11124881

Chmiel; Herberstein; Elgar

2000-12-01

229

Preliminary numerical modeling for the G-Tunnel welded tuff mining experiment; Yucca Mountain site characterization project  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain, located in Southern Nevada, is to be considered as a potential site for a nuclear waste repository. Located in Rainier Mesa on the Nevada Test Site, G-Tunnel has been the site of a series of experiments, part of whose purpose is to evaluate measurement techniques for rock mechanics before testing in the Exploratory Shaft. Rainier Mesa is composed of welded and nonwelded tuffs that have thermal and mechanical properties and stress states similar to those of tuffs expected to be encountered at Yucca Mountain. A series of finite element calculations were performed to aid in designing instrumentation for the experiments in G-Tunnel and later to correlate with measured data. In this report are presented the results of the preliminary finite element calculations performed in conjunction with experimental measurements of drift convergence, or closure, and rock mass relaxation zones made before, during, and after completing the welded tuff mining experiment in G-Tunnel. Tape extensometer measurements of drift convergences and measurements determined by multiple point borehole extensometers are compared with corresponding calculated values using linear elastic and jointed rock material models. 9 refs., 25 figs., 7 tabs.

Johnson, R.L.; Bauer, S.J.

1991-09-01

230

Treatability Studies Used to Test for Exothermic Reactions of Plutonium Decontamination Chemicals  

SciTech Connect

Fluor Hanford is decommissioning the PFP at the Hanford Site and is considering using agressive chemicals to remove transuranium contaminants. As part of the evaluation of these methods, Fluor is considering the path for disposal and the thermal stability of the waste products from the decontamination process. This paper provides the results of our studies on cerium nitrate and RadPro(TM), a nitric acid based complexant.

Ewalt, John R.; Minette, Michael J.; Hopkins, Andrea M.; Cooper, Thurman D.; Simiele, Connie J.; Scott, Paul A.; Scheele, Randall D.; Charboneau, Stacy L.

2005-08-07

231

Advanced robotics for decontamination and dismantlement  

SciTech Connect

The decontamination and dismantlement (D&D) robotics technology application area of the US Department of Energy`s Robotics Technology Development Program is explained and described. D&D robotic systems show real promise for the reduction of human exposure to hazards, for improvement of productivity, and for the reduction of secondary waste generation. Current research and development pertaining to automated floor characterization, robotic equipment removal, and special inspection is summarized. Future research directions for these and emerging activities is given.

Hamel, W.R.; Haley, D.C.

1994-06-01

232

Remote administration and user experience evaluation of the iLab Heat Transfer Project site  

E-print Network

The iLab Heat Transfer Project provides a means for students to remotely execute, via a web interface, experiments related to the topic of heat transfer. The website associated with this project provides instructors with ...

Graham, Rodney K

2006-01-01

233

Funding Opportunity: Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) in Engineering and Computer Science Site  

E-print Network

Funding Opportunity: Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) in Engineering and Computer Science science research in order to bring knowledge of engineering, computer science, and technological the teachers and community college faculty in engineering and computer science research and helping them

Suzuki, Masatsugu

234

The RNA experiment, 2D animationSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sydney Brenner, Francois Jacob and Matt Meselson's experiment showed that RNA was a copy of the information in DNA. As a messenger, RNA transported the information from the nucleus to the protein-making machinery in the cell.

2008-10-06

235

Teenagers’ Experiences With Social Network Sites: Relationships to Bridging and Bonding Social Capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have examined the relationship between social network sites (SNSs) and the development of social capital. However, most studies to date have only considered college and adult populations. This study examines the patterns of SNS use in an urban, teenage sample in the United States. It tests the hypothesis that use of SNSs is related to higher levels of

June Ahn

2012-01-01

236

Endoscopic stenting for recurrence-related colorectal anastomotic site obstruction: Preliminary experience  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of stents in treating patients with anastomotic site obstructions due to cancer recurrence following colorectal surgery. METHODS: The medical records of patients who underwent endoscopic self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) insertion for colorectal obstructions between February 2004 and January 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. During the study period, a total of 218 patients underwent endoscopic stenting for colorectal obstructions. We identified and examined the patients who underwent endoscopic stenting for obstructions caused by cancer recurrence at the anastomotic site following colorectal surgeries for primary colorectal cancer. RESULTS: Five consecutive patients [mean age, 56.4 years (range: 39-82 years); 4 women, 1 man] underwent endoscopic stenting for obstructions caused by cancer recurrence at the anastomotic site following colorectal surgeries for primary colorectal cancer. Technical and clinical success was achieved in all 5 patients, without any early complications. During follow-up, 3 patients did not need further intervention, prior to their death, after the first stent insertion; thus, the overall success rate was 3/5 (60%). Perforations occurred in 2 patients who required a second SEMS insertion due to re-obstruction; none of the patients experienced stent migration. CONCLUSION: SEMS placement is a promising treatment option for patients who develop obstructions of their colonic anastomosis sites due to cancer recurrence.

Kim, Jung Ho; Lee, Jong Joon; Cho, Jae Hee; Kim, Kyoung Oh; Chung, Jun-Won; Kim, Yoon Jae; Kwon, Kwang An; Park, Dong Kyun; Kim, Ju Hyun

2014-01-01

237

Redesigning a Web Site In-House to Improve Information Literacy: Experiences of a Small Library  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The paper aims to provide advice, suggestions and encouragement for small budget-restricted libraries contemplating the need for web site redesign where an underlying goal for improving users' information literacy is a key factor. Design/methodology/approach: The initial planning is set within the context of a broader project examining…

Humbert, S. I.; Tilley, E. A.

2006-01-01

238

Laser decontamination of the radioactive lightning rods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 1970 and 1980 Brazil experienced a significant market for radioactive lightning rods (RLR). The device consists of an air terminal with one or more sources of americium-241 attached to it. The sources were used to ionize the air around them and to increase the attraction of atmospheric discharges. Because of their ineffectiveness, the nuclear regulatory authority in Brazil suspended the license for manufacturing, commerce and installation of RLR in 1989, and determined that the replaced RLR were to be collected to a centralized radioactive waste management facility for treatment. The first step for RLR treatment is to remove the radioactive sources. Though they can be easily removed, some contaminations are found all over the remaining metal scrap that must decontaminated for release, otherwise it must be treated as radioactive waste. Decontamination using various chemicals has proven to be inefficient and generates large amounts of secondary wastes. This work shows the preliminary results of the decontamination of 241Am-contaminated metal scrap generated in the treatment of radioactive lightning rods applying laser ablation. A Nd:YAG nanoseconds laser was used with 300 mJ energy leaving only a small amount of secondary waste to be treated.

Potiens, A. J.; Dellamano, J. C.; Vicente, R.; Raele, M. P.; Wetter, N. U.; Landulfo, E.

2014-02-01

239

[Decontamination of chemical warfare agents by photocatalysis].  

PubMed

Photocatalysis has been widely applied to solar-energy conversion and environmental purification. Photocatalyst, typically titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), produces active oxygen species under irradiation of ultraviolet light, and can decompose not only conventional pollutants but also different types of hazardous substances at mild conditions. We have recently started the study of photocatalytic decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) under collaboration with the National Research Institute of Police Science. This article reviews environmental applications of semiconductor photocatalysis, decontamination methods for CWAs, and previous photocatalytic studies applied to CWA degradation, together with some of our results obtained with CWAs and their simulant compounds. The data indicate that photocatalysis, which may not always give a striking power, certainly helps detoxification of such hazardous compounds. Unfortunately, there are not enough data obtained with real CWAs due to the difficulty in handling. We will add more scientific data using CWAs in the near future to develop useful decontamination systems that can reduce the damage caused by possible terrorism. PMID:19122438

Hirakawa, Tsutomu; Mera, Nobuaki; Sano, Taizo; Negishi, Nobuaki; Takeuchi, Koji

2009-01-01

240

Final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of the exterior land areas at the Grand Junction Projects Office facility  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) facility occupies approximately 56.4 acres (22.8 hectares) along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. The site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium-refining activities conducted by the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot-milling experiments conducted for the US Atomic Energy Commission`s (AEC`s) domestic uranium procurement program. The GJPO facility was the collection and assay point for AEC uranium and vanadium oxide purchases until the early 1970s. The DOE Decontamination and Decommissioning Program sponsored the Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project (GJPORAP) to remediate the facility lands, site improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor, Rust Geotech, was the Remedial Action Contractor for GJPORAP. The exterior land areas of the facility assessed as contaminated have been remediated in accordance with identified standards and can be released for unrestricted use. Restoration of the aquifer will be accomplished through the natural flushing action of the aquifer during the next 50 to 80 years. The remediation of the DOE-GJPO facility buildings is ongoing and will be described in a separate report.

Widdop, M.R.

1995-09-01

241

Remote methods for decontamination and decommissioning operations. [Fission Product Development Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Three methods for the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities are described along with operational experience associated with each method. Each method described in some way reduces radiation exposure to the operating personnel involved. Electrochemical decontamination of process tanks is described using an in-situ method. Descriptions of two processes, electropolishing and cerium redox decontamination, are listed. A method of essentially smokeless cutting of process piping using a plasma-arc cutting torch is described. In one technique, piping is cut remotely from a distance using a specially modified torch holder. In another technique, cutting is done with master-slave manipulators inside a hot cell. Finally, a method for remote cutting and scarification of contaminated concrete is described. This system, which utilizes high-pressure water jets, is coupled to a cutting head or rotating scarification head. The system is suited for cutting contaminated concrete for removal or removing a thin layer in a controlled manner for decontamination. 4 refs., 6 figs.

DeVore, J.R.

1986-01-01

242

Decontamination of Chemical/Biological Warfare (CBW) Agents Using an Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is a non-thermal, high pressure, uniform glow discharge that produces a high velocity effluent stream of highly reactive chemical species. The discharge operates on a feedstock gas (e.g. He/O_2/H_2O) which flows between an outer, grounded, cylindrical electrode and an inner, coaxial electrode powered at 13.56 MHz RF. While passing through the plasma, the feedgas becomes excited, dissociated or ionized by electron impact. Once the gas exits the discharge volume, ions and electrons are rapidly lost by recombination, but the fast-flowing effluent still contains metastables (e.g. O2*, He*) and radicals (e.g. O, OH). These reactive species have been shown to be effective neutralizers of surrogates for anthrax spores, mustard blister agent and VX nerve gas. Unlike conventional, wet decontamination methods, the plasma effluent does not cause corrosion of most surfaces and does not damage wiring, electronics, nor most plastics. This makes it highly suitable for decontamination of high value sensitive equipment such as is found in vehicle interiors (i.e. tanks, planes...) for which there is currently no good decontamination technique. Furthermore, the reactive species rapidly degrade into harmless products leaving no lingering residue or harmful byproducts. Physics of the APPJ will be discussed and results of surface decontamination experiments using simulant and actual CBW agents will be presented.

Herrmann, Hans W.

1998-11-01

243

A study of tritium decontamination of deposits by UV irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To develop a new method for decontamination of tritium retained in the carbon fiber composites (CFC) tiles and other components of D-T fusion reactors, a preliminary experiment using ultra violet (UV) light source was performed. Samples simulating a co-deposited layer were prepared by glow discharge using C 2H 2 and a tungsten or CFC substrate. The UV light from a xenon excimer lump (172 nm) was irradiated to the samples in 423 K. Small amounts of species were released only by the heating procedure to 423 K. By UV irradiation, large quantities of hydrogen, carbon and hydrocarbons were released from the samples. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) analysis showed hydrocarbons were formed on the sample by acetylene glow discharge and C-H bonds were decomposed by irradiation with UV light. It is concluded that the combination of heating and UV irradiation causes release of tritium from the surface of the materials.

Oya, Y.; Shu, W.; O'hira, S.; Hayashi, T.; Nakamura, H.; Sakai, T.; Tadokoro, T.; Kobayashi, K.; Suzuki, T.; Nishi, M.

2001-03-01

244

Plasma Decontamination of Uranium From the Interior of Aluminum Objects  

SciTech Connect

RF plasma glow discharges are being investigated for removing and recovering radioactive elements from contaminated objects, especially those contaminated with transuranic (TRU) materials. These plasmas, using nitrogen trifluoride as the working gas, have been successful at removing uranium and plutonium contaminants from test coupons of stainless steel and aluminum surfaces, including small cracks and crevices, and the interior surfaces of relatively hard to reach aluminum pipes. Contaminant removal exceeded 99.9% from simple surfaces and contaminant recovery using cryogenic traps has exceeded 50%. Work continues with the objective of demonstrating that transuranic contaminated waste can be transformed to low level waste (LLW) and to better understand the physics of the interaction between plasma and surface contaminants. This work summarizes the preliminary results from plasma decontamination from the interior of aluminum objects--the nooks and crannies experiments.

Veilleux, J.M.; Munson, C.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Chamberlin, E.P.; El-Genk, M.S.

1997-04-21

245

Modeling sequence-specific polymers using anisotropic coarse-grained sites allows quantitative comparison with experiment  

E-print Network

Certain sequences of peptoid polymers (synthetic analogs of peptides) assemble into bilayer nanosheets via a nonequilibrium assembly pathway of adsorption, compression, and collapse at an air-water interface. As with other large-scale dynamic processes in biology and materials science, understanding the details of this supramolecular assembly process requires a modeling approach that captures behavior on a wide range of length and time scales, from those on which individual sidechains fluctuate to those on which assemblies of polymers evolve. Here we demonstrate that a new coarse-grained modeling approach is accurate and computationally efficient enough to do so. Our approach uses only a minimal number of coarse-grained sites, but retains independently fluctuating orientational degrees of freedom for each site. These orientational degrees of freedom allow us to accurately parameterize both bonded and nonbonded interactions, and to generate all-atom configurations with sufficient accuracy to perform atomic sca...

Haxton, Thomas K; Zuckermann, Ronald N; Whitelam, Stephen

2014-01-01

246

Negotiated compensation for solid-waste disposal facility siting: An analysis of the Wisconsin experience  

SciTech Connect

Since enacting a unique facility siting law in 1981, Wisconsin has had unusual success in siting solid-waste management facilities. The law mandates a state-level technical review and licensing process and a local-level negotiation/arbitration process that deals with host community impacts and concerns. Data from the negotiated compensation agreements, a survey of facility proposers, and secondary data for the host communities are analyzed in relation to compensation levels. Concerns with community image and health risks and with facility management and equity issues are found to significantly and substantially increase negotiated compensation levels. In contrast, a focus on logistics and transportation concerns is associated with lower levels of compensation. Compensation increases with facility capacity but at a less than proportional rate. Higher levels of compensation are obtained by communities that accept compensation in kind in the form of free or reduced fees for host community waste disposal.

Nieves, L.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Himmelberger, J.J.; Ratick, S.J. (Clark Univ., Worcester, MA (United States)); White, A.L. (Clark Univ., Worcester, MA (United States) Tellus Institute, Boston, MA (United States))

1992-12-01

247

Waste and decontamination services FY 94 Multi-Year Program Plan Phase II WBS No. 1.2.3  

SciTech Connect

During the remediation of the Hanford Site large volumes of radioactive and mixed solid waste are expected to be produced, thus creating the need for subsequent decontamination, treatment, storage, and/or waste disposal. The program mission is to manage current and future contaminated solid waste streams in a safe, responsible, cost effective and legally compliant manner. This document presents the strategy and technical requirements, along with key objectives and deliverables for the waste and decontamination services program for fiscal year 1994. Time schedules, cost estimates, and justification for each proposed activity are given in tables and charts.

Cruz, E.A.

1994-05-01

248

Laparoscopic single-site surgery for placement of an adjustable gastric band: initial experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery for cholecystectomy and appendectomy are described in the literature. The benefits\\u000a of these procedures compared with traditional laparoscopic approaches have yet to be determined. To date, no series of LESS\\u000a surgeries for placement of an adjustable gastric band has been published or documented. This study aimed to determine the\\u000a safety and feasibility of LESS surgery for

J. Teixeira; K. McGill; S. Binenbaum; G. Forrester

2009-01-01

249

Mercury contaminated sites — Behaviour of mercury and its species in lysimeter experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a polluted site in Germany not only metallic, ionic and MeHg could be detected, but also organomercurials such as methyl- ethyl- and phenyl-mercury. In addition sometimes other organomercurials could be separated but up to now not identified. Extraction of the organomercurials from soil and percolating water was performed by dithizone, differentiation and detection by High-Performance-Liquid-Chromatography and atomic fluorescence detection,

M. Hempel; R.-D. Wilken; R. Miess; J. Hertwich; K. Beyer

1995-01-01

250

Characteristics of low-level radioactive waste: Decontamination waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of Project FIN A6359, Characteristics of Low-Level Radioactive Waste: Decontamination Waste Forms,'' funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is to provide base-line data on the stability and leachability of solidified decontamination wastes that are generated at operating commercial nuclear power stations following the chemical decontamination of primary coolant systems. This work is being performed to assess the

C. V. McIsaac; D. W. Akers

1991-01-01

251

Decontamination and dismantlement of Plant 7 at Fernald  

SciTech Connect

Decontamination and dismantlement (D&D) tasks have been successfully completed on Plant 7 at the Fernald Environmental Management Project. The seven story facility was radiologically, chemically, and biologically contaminated. The work involved the D&D work beginning with safe shutdown and gross decontamination, and ended with removal of the structural steel. A series of lessons learned were gained which include use of explosives, bidding tactics, safe shutdown, building decontamination and lockdown, use of seam climbers, etc.

Albertin, M.; Borgman, T.; Zebick, B.

1994-11-07

252

78 FR 73518 - Notice Inviting Suggestions for New Experiments for the Experimental Sites Initiative; Federal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The Secretary of Education invites institutions of higher education that participate in the student assistance programs authorized under Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended (the HEA), and other parties, to propose ideas for new institutionally based experiments designed to test alternative ways of administering the student financial assistance programs to be a part of the......

2013-12-06

253

Career Field Experience: A Look at On-site Usage by High School Communication Class.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The career field experience program at a midwestern high school places broadcasting students on location for observation of the profession and optional job training or work. In addition to radio and television stations, field locations include advertising agencies with production studios, corporate production facilities, recording studios, cable…

Kaye, Thomas

254

Pigeon homing: Effects of manipulation of sensory experience at home site  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a treatment that lasted approximately 100 days beginning at fledging time, four groups of pigeons were kept for ten 3-day periods in an aviary of wire-netting located in Arnino. Here they could acquire a visual experience of the landmarks and leave for exercise flights. During these 3-day sojourns, the birds wore masks which prevented or limited their breathing through

N. E. Baldaccini; S. Benvenuti; V. Fiaschi; P. Ioalé; F. Papi

1974-01-01

255

Blended Learning Environments: Using Social Networking Sites to Enhance the First Year Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores blending virtual and physical learning environments to enhance the experience of first year by immersing students into university culture through social and academic interaction between peers. It reports on the progress made from 2008 to 2009 using an existing academic platform, the first year design elective course "Imaging…

McCarthy, Joshua

2010-01-01

256

The National Criticality Experiments Research Center at the Device Assembly Facility, Nevada National Security Site: Status and Capabilities, Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The National Criticality Experiments Research Center (NCERC) was officially opened on August 29, 2011. Located within the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), the NCERC has become a consolidation facility within the United States for critical configuration testing, particularly those involving highly enriched uranium (HEU). The DAF is a Department of Energy (DOE) owned facility that is operated by the National Nuclear Security Agency/Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). User laboratories include the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Personnel bring their home lab qualifications and procedures with them to the DAF, such that non-site specific training need not be repeated to conduct work at DAF. The NNSS Management and Operating contractor is National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) and the NNSS Safeguards and Security contractor is Wackenhut Services. The complete report provides an overview and status of the available laboratories and test bays at NCERC, available test materials and test support configurations, and test requirements and limitations for performing sub-critical and critical tests. The current summary provides a brief summary of the facility status and the method by which experiments may be introduced to NCERC.

S. Bragg-Sitton; J. Bess; J. Werner

2011-09-01

257

A model for selection and assessment of community-based sites for dental students' extramural clinical experiences.  

PubMed

As a recipient of the Robert Wood Johnson's Pipeline, Profession, and Practice: Community-Based Dental Education grant, the Extramural Education Program (EEP) at the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Dentistry was charged with developing partnerships with community-based oral health programs throughout Illinois. These programs are to be used for clinical service-learning rotations for fourth-year dental students, relying on the utilization of the dentists employed at the community site as preceptors for the students. Because the College of Dentistry had essentially no community-based service-learning experiences prior to the Robert Wood Johnson grant, procedures and protocols needed to be developed to standardize a process for site and preceptor selection. An administrative process was developed to engage, recruit, and partner with community-based oral health programs that provided direct clinical services. This article will discuss the development of criteria used to select sites and preceptors for extramural clinical rotations; the development of a set of standardized assessment instruments; and the credentialing process for community-based adjunct faculty that leads to the affiliation agreements. These community-based rotations have been integrated into the College of Dentistry curriculum as a required extramural service-learning course referred to as Extramural Clinical Experience (DADM 325). PMID:18250395

Hryhorczuk, Christine; Bolden, Aljernon J; Knight, G William; Punwani, Indru; Mulvihill, Daniel M; Noorullah, Khatija; Evans, Caswell A

2008-02-01

258

In-Situ Biological Decontamination of an Ice Melting Probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major concern in space and even many terrestrial missions is the forward contamination of the alien environment with microbes and biological molecules, transported on spacecraft from Earth. Furthermore, organisms and molecules can be brought to the sampling place from the surface. All this can lead to serious misinterpretations of the obtained data and more impor-tantly, could irreversibly alter the pristine nature of the extraterrestrial environments. These issues were addressed and are constantly updated in COSPAR planetary protection policy (20 October 2002; Amended 24 March 2005; 20 July 2008). The objective of our study was to investigate the efficacy of different in-situ decontamination protocols in the conditions of thermo-mechanical ice-melting. We evaluated survival rate of microorganisms on the melting probe as a function of both time and penetration depth. Special focus was made on deter-mination of the optimal concentration of chemical decontaminants (hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite) the peculiarities of their antimicrobial action at low temperatures (-80 to 0C) combined with constant dilution with melted ice and mechanical abrasion. Common, non-pathogenic microbial strains belonging to different morphological and metabolic groups (Pseudomonas, Micrococcus, Escherichia, Bacillus and others) were chosen as test objects for this study. The working part of the melting probe was first controllably contaminated by in-cubation in suspension of microbial cells. After appropriate sedimentation of microbial cells had been reached, the drilling-melting process was started using specially prepared sterile ice blocks. Every 2 minutes the samples were taken and analyzed. In the control tests, 1 mL of distilled water was injected into the penetration site at the onset of drilling. In the other tests, 1 mL of hydrogen peroxide (30Collected data suggest high efficacy of both used compounds in respect of all tested microbial groups. Typically, 99.9

Digel, Ilya

259

DECONTAMINATION OF PLUTONIUM FOR FLUORIDE AND CHLORIDE DURING OXALATE PRECIPITATION, FILTRATION AND CALCINATION PROCESSES  

SciTech Connect

Due to analytical limitations for the determination of fluoride (F) and chloride (Cl) in a previous anion exchange study, an additional study of the decontamination of Pu from F and Cl by oxalate precipitation, filtration and calcination was performed. Anion product solution from the previous impurity study was precipitated as an oxalate, filtered, and calcined to produce an oxide for analysis by pyrohydrolysis for total Cl and F. Analysis of samples from this experiment achieved the purity specification for Cl and F for the proposed AFS-2 process. Decontamination factors (DF's) for the overall process (including anion exchange) achieved a DF of {approx}5000 for F and a DF of {approx}100 for Cl. Similar experiments where both HF and HCl were spiked into the anion product solution to a {approx}5000 {micro}g /g Pu concentration showed a DF of 5 for F and a DF of 35 for Cl across the combined precipitation-filtration-calcination process steps.

Kyser, E.

2012-07-25

260

Available decontamination and decommissioning capabilities at the Savannah River Technology Center  

SciTech Connect

The Safety Analysis and Engineering Services Group has performed a survey of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) technical capabilities, skills, and experience in Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) activities. The goal of this survey is to enhance the integration of the SRTC capabilities with the technical needs of the Environmental Restoration Department D&D program and the DOE Office of Technology Development through the Integrated Demonstration Program. This survey has identified technical capabilities, skills, and experience in the following D&D areas: Characterization, Decontamination, Dismantlement, Material Disposal, Remote Systems, and support on Safety Technology for D&D. This review demonstrates the depth and wealth of technical capability resident in the SRTC in relation to these activities, and the unique qualifications of the SRTC to supply technical support in the area of DOE facility D&D. Additional details on specific technologies and applications to D&D will be made available on request.

Polizzi, L.M.; Norkus, J.K.; Paik, I.K.; Wooten, L.A.

1992-08-19

261

Available decontamination and decommissioning capabilities at the Savannah River Technology Center  

SciTech Connect

The Safety Analysis and Engineering Services Group has performed a survey of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) technical capabilities, skills, and experience in Decontamination and Decommissioning (D D) activities. The goal of this survey is to enhance the integration of the SRTC capabilities with the technical needs of the Environmental Restoration Department D D program and the DOE Office of Technology Development through the Integrated Demonstration Program. This survey has identified technical capabilities, skills, and experience in the following D D areas: Characterization, Decontamination, Dismantlement, Material Disposal, Remote Systems, and support on Safety Technology for D D. This review demonstrates the depth and wealth of technical capability resident in the SRTC in relation to these activities, and the unique qualifications of the SRTC to supply technical support in the area of DOE facility D D. Additional details on specific technologies and applications to D D will be made available on request.

Polizzi, L.M.; Norkus, J.K.; Paik, I.K.; Wooten, L.A.

1992-08-19

262

Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery in kidney surgery: clinical experience and future perspectives.  

PubMed

Laparoscopic surgery of the upper urinary tract has reduced the morbidity related to large abdominal incisions and has resulted in significant advantages over open surgery. Nevertheless, the pursuit for even more minimally invasive alternatives to laparoscopy has led to the concept of scarless surgery and the approach of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS). LESS is currently a feasible approach for the majority of kidney surgical procedures, and there is intense debate regarding its efficiency and advantages. In the present review of the literature, the current status of upper urinary LESS and its advantages and disadvantages, as well the technological and technical evolution, are presented. PMID:23740382

Kallidonis, Panagiotis; Kontogiannis, Stavros; Kyriazis, Iason; Georgiopoulos, Ioannis; Al-Aown, Abdulrahman; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Liatsikos, Evangelos

2013-10-01

263

Simple economic evaluation and applications experiments for photovoltaic systems for remote sites  

SciTech Connect

A simple evaluation of the cost effectiveness of photovoltaic systems is presented. The evaluation is based on a calculation of breakeven costs of photovoltaics (PV) arrays with the levelized costs of two alternative energy sources (1) extension of the utility grid and (2) diesel generators. A selected number of PV applications experiments that are in progress in remote areas of the US are summarized. These applications experiments range from a 23 watt insect survey trap to a 100 kW PV system for a national park complex. It is concluded that PV systems for remote areas are now cost effective in remote small applications with commercially available technology and will be cost competitive for intermediate scale systems (approx. 10 kW) in the 1980s if the DOE 1986 Commercial Readiness Goals are achieved.

Rios, M. Jr.

1980-01-01

264

Modeling sequence-specific polymers using anisotropic coarse-grained sites allows quantitative comparison with experiment  

E-print Network

Certain sequences of peptoid polymers (synthetic analogs of peptides) assemble into bilayer nanosheets via a nonequilibrium assembly pathway of adsorption, compression, and collapse at an air-water interface. As with other large-scale dynamic processes in biology and materials science, understanding the details of this supramolecular assembly process requires a modeling approach that captures behavior on a wide range of length and time scales, from those on which individual sidechains fluctuate to those on which assemblies of polymers evolve. Here we demonstrate that a new coarse-grained modeling approach is accurate and computationally efficient enough to do so. Our approach uses only a minimal number of coarse-grained sites, but retains independently fluctuating orientational degrees of freedom for each site. These orientational degrees of freedom allow us to accurately parameterize both bonded and nonbonded interactions, and to generate all-atom configurations with sufficient accuracy to perform atomic scattering calculations and to interface with all-atom simulations. We have used this approach to reproduce all available experimental X-ray scattering spectra (for stacked nanosheets, and for peptoids adsorbed at air-water interfaces and in solution), in order to resolve the microscopic, real-space structures responsible for these Fourier-space features. By interfacing with all-atom simulations, we have also laid the foundations for future multiscale simulations of sequence-specific polymers that communicate in both directions across scales.

Thomas K. Haxton; Ranjan V. Mannige; Ronald N. Zuckermann; Stephen Whitelam

2014-09-30

265

Shear wave experiments at the US site at the Grimsel laboratory  

SciTech Connect

As part of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) cooperative project with the National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste (Nagra) of Switzerland, there have been a series of studies carried out at the Nagra underground test facility at Grimsel. The Grimsel test facility is several 3.5 meter diameter tunnels excavated with a tunnel boring machine in the southern Swiss Alps. The rock type is granitic, although there is a large variation in the granitic fabric throughout the facility. The work described here was the first phase of a multiyear project to evaluate and develop seismic imaging techniques for fracture detection and characterization for the use in siting underground nuclear waste facilities. Data from a crosshole tomographic survey in the Underground Seismic (US) site at the Nagra Grimsel test facility in Switzerland and successfully reprocessed to enhance the S-wave arrivals. The results indicate that in a saturated granite Vp/Vs ratios approach 2.0 in the fractured rock. These results indicate that S-wave data would be very useful for fracture detection, especially in detecting thinner fractures.

Majer, E.L.; Peterson, J.E. Jr. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Bluemling, P.; Sattel, G. (Swiss National Cooperative for the Storage of Nuclear Waste, Baden (Switzerland))

1990-07-01

266

The left ventricular apex is the optimal site for pediatric pacing: correlation with animal experience.  

PubMed

Pacing at the commonly used right ventricular (RV) apex results in impaired ventricular performance. Previous animal studies indicated that the left ventricular (LV) apex is a superior pacing site. The purpose of this study was to investigate in dogs whether this good performance is associated with a more synchronous electrical activation pattern of the LV and whether the LV apex is also a good pacing site in children. In 11 healthy dogs and 8 children undergoing cardiac surgery, dual chamber pacing was performed at the RV apex, LV apex and LV lateral free wall (LVFW). In dogs, a basket electrode was inserted into the LV to assess pattern and timing of LV endocardial activation. In the children, hemodynamic measurements were performed immediately after recovery from cardiopulmonary bypass. In dogs, LV apex pacing resulted in synchronous activation around the LV circumference whereas RV apex and LVFW pacing resulted in asynchrony of activation between the septum and LVFW. In both canine and children's hearts most hemodynamic variables remained at sinus rhythm level during LV apex pacing, but LVdPdtmax, stroke work (dogs), and pulse pressure (children) were reduced as compared with sinus rhythm during RV apex and LVFW pacing. LV apex pacing results in synchronous activation of the LV and is, in adult dogs and in children, associated with superior hemodynamic performance. PMID:15189513

Vanagt, Ward Y; Verbeek, Xander A; Delhaas, Tammo; Mertens, Luc; Daenen, Willem J; Prinzen, Frits W

2004-06-01

267

Decontamination of concrete surfaces in Building 3019, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [After Nov. 20, 1959 incident  

SciTech Connect

This building was built in 1943 to serve as a pilot plant for separating isotopes from irradiated fuels. A chemical explosion leading to widespread Pu contamination occurred on Nov. 20, 1959, and the steps taken to treat the building afterwards are discussed, in particular the floor and the cells. The experience shows how hard it is to decontaminate concrete; smooth coatings should be utilized. (DLC)

Parrott, J.R. Sr.

1980-01-01

268

Putting up emotional (Facebook) walls? Attachment status and emerging adults' experiences of social networking sites.  

PubMed

Social networking sites (SNS) like Facebook can increase interpersonal connections but also intensify jealousy, envy, and surveillance behaviors. Attachment styles may help explain differences in experiencing SNS. This study investigated the role of attachment in influencing emerging adults' perceptions and feelings about SNS and their disclosures on SNS. Disorganized and anxious attachment predicted subjects' use of SNS to avoid more personal face-to-face communication, suggesting individuals with these tendencies use SNS to hold relationships at a psychological arm's distance. Anxious attachment also predicted feelings of intimacy when using SNS, perhaps reflecting online needs for comfort from others. A case narrative is presented to show how those with insecure attachment patterns may struggle to avoid interpersonal conflict when being continuously presented with ambiguous social information. PMID:23996299

Nitzburg, George C; Farber, Barry A

2013-11-01

269

Fluidized-bed potato waste drying experiments at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site  

SciTech Connect

A fluidized-bed dryer was built and operated at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site in south central Idaho to test the feasibility of using low-temperature (145/sup 0/C or lower) geothermal fluids as an energy source for drying operations. The dryer performed successfully on two potato industry waste products that had a solid content of 5 to 13%. The dried product was removed as a sand-like granular material or as fines with a flour-like texture. Test results, observations, and design recommendations are presented. Also presented is an economic evaluation for commercial-scale drying plants using either geothermal low-temperature water or oil as a heat source.

Cole, L.T.; Schmitt, R.C.

1980-06-01

270

Establishing a health demographic surveillance site in Bhaktapur district, Nepal: initial experiences and findings  

PubMed Central

Background A health demographic surveillance system (HDSS) provides longitudinal data regarding health and demography in countries with coverage error and poor quality data on vital registration systems due to lack of public awareness, inadequate legal basis and limited use of data in health planning. The health system in Nepal, a low-income country, does not focus primarily on health registration, and does not conduct regular health data collection. This study aimed to initiate and establish the first HDSS in Nepal. Results We conducted a baseline survey in Jhaukhel and Duwakot, two villages in Bhaktapur district. The study surveyed 2,712 households comprising a total population of 13,669. The sex ratio in the study area was 101 males per 100 females and the average household size was 5. The crude birth and death rates were 9.7 and 3.9/1,000 population/year, respectively. About 11% of births occurred at home, and we found no mortality in infants and children less than 5 years of age. Various health problems were found commonly and some of them include respiratory problems (41.9%); headache, vertigo and dizziness (16.7%); bone and joint pain (14.4%); gastrointestinal problems (13.9%); heart disease, including hypertension (8.8%); accidents and injuries (2.9%); and diabetes mellitus (2.6%). The prevalence of non-communicable disease (NCD) was 4.3% (95% CI: 3.83; 4.86) among individuals older than 30 years. Age-adjusted odds ratios showed that risk factors, such as sex, ethnic group, occupation and education, associated with NCD. Conclusion Our baseline survey demonstrated that it is possible to collect accurate and reliable data in a village setting in Nepal, and this study successfully established an HDSS site. We determined that both maternal and child health are better in the surveillance site compared to the entire country. Risk factors associated with NCDs dominated morbidity and mortality patterns. PMID:22950751

2012-01-01

271

Field-Scale Transplantation Experiment To Investigate Structures of Soil Bacterial Communities at Pioneering Sites?†  

PubMed Central

Studies on the effect of environmental conditions on plants and microorganisms are a central issue in ecology, and they require an adequate experimental setup. A strategy often applied in geobotanical studies is based on the reciprocal transplantation of plant species at different sites. We adopted a similar approach as a field-based tool to investigate the relationships of soil bacterial communities with the environment. Soil samples from two different (calcareous and siliceous) unvegetated glacier forefields were reciprocally transplanted and incubated for 15 months between 2009 and 2010. Controls containing local soils were included. The sites were characterized over time in terms of geographical (bedrock, exposition, sunlight, temperature, and precipitation) and physicochemical (texture, water content, soluble and nutrients) features. The incubating local (“home”) and transplanted (“away”) soils were monitored for changes in extractable nutrients and in the bacterial community structure, defined through terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of the 16S rRNA gene. Concentrations of soluble ions in most samples were more significantly affected by seasons than by the transplantation. For example, NO3? showed a seasonal pattern, increasing from 1 to 3 ?g NO3? (g soil dry weight)?1 after the melting of snow but decreasing to <1 ?g NO3? (g soil dry weight)?1 in autumn. Seasons, and in particular strong precipitation events occurring in the summer of 2010 (200 to 300 mm of rain monthly), were also related to changes of bacterial community structures. Our results show the suitability of this approach to compare responses of bacterial communities to different environmental conditions directly in the field. PMID:21965395

Lazzaro, Anna; Gauer, Andreas; Zeyer, Josef

2011-01-01

272

Chemicals associated with site-specific neoplasia in 1394 long-term carcinogenesis experiments in laboratory rodents.  

PubMed Central

The carcinogenicity data base used for this paper originated in the late 1960s by the National Cancer Institute and since 1978 has been continued and made more comprehensive by the National Toxicology Program. The extensive files contain among other sets of information detailed pathology data on more than 400 long-term (most often 24 month) chemical carcinogenesis studies, comprised of nearly 1600 individual experiments having at least 10 million tissue sections that have been evaluated for toxicity and carcinogenicity. Using the current data set of 379 studies made up of 1394 experiments, we have compiled listings of chemicals having like carcinogenic target sites for each of the 34 organs or systems for which histopathology diagnoses have been recorded routinely. The most common tumor site is the liver (15% of all experiments), followed in rank order by: lung, hematopoietic system and kidneys, mammary glands, forestomach, thyroid glands, Zymbal glands, urinary bladder, skin and uterus/cervix, and circulatory system and adrenal glands. These compilations are most useful for maintaining a historic perspective when evaluating the carcinogenicity of contemporary experiments. Equally important, the chemical-tumor-organ connection permits an evaluation of how well chemically induced cancers in a particular organ in one sex or species will predict or correlate with the other sex or species. Using liver cancers as an example, the overall interspecies concordance is 80%. Likewise target site predictions can be made for chemicals selected for study that may be similar to those already evaluated; thereby experimental protocols could be adjusted to allow, for example, more extensive pathology on preselected target organs (i.e., serial sections of the kidney). Further from these observations, one could decide to use two strains of mice to evaluate a short-chain chlorinated aliphatic compound or to study a human carcinogen in a sex-species known to develop chemically induced tumors in the same site observed in humans. Structural classes of chemicals having a propensity for certain organs can be easily identified from these data. Sex-species responders to particular induced cancers become clearly evident, such as in the ovary of female mice or in the kidney of male rats. PMID:1773796

Huff, J; Cirvello, J; Haseman, J; Bucher, J

1991-01-01

273

Decontamination and reuse of ORGDP aluminum scrap  

SciTech Connect

The Gaseous Diffusion Plants, or GDPs, have significant amounts of a number of metals, including nickel, aluminum, copper, and steel. Aluminum was used extensively throughout the GDPs because of its excellent strength to weight ratios and good resistance to corrosion by UF{sub 6}. This report is concerned with the recycle of aluminum stator and rotor blades from axial compressors. Most of the stator and rotor blades were made from 214-X aluminum casting alloy. Used compressor blades were contaminated with uranium both as a result of surface contamination and as an accumulation held in surface-connected voids inside of the blades. A variety of GDP studies were performed to evaluate the amounts of uranium retained in the blades; the volume, area, and location of voids in the blades; and connections between surface defects and voids. Based on experimental data on deposition, uranium content of the blades is 0.3%, or roughly 200 times the value expected from blade surface area. However, this value does correlate with estimated internal surface area and with lengthy deposition times. Based on a literature search, it appears that gaseous decontamination or melt refining using fluxes specific for uranium removal have the potential for removing internal contamination from aluminum blades. A melt refining process was used to recycle blades during the 1950s and 1960s. The process removed roughly one-third of the uranium from the blades. Blade cast from recycled aluminum appeared to perform as well as blades from virgin material. New melt refining and gaseous decontamination processes have been shown to provide substantially better decontamination of pure aluminum. If these techniques can be successfully adapted to treat aluminum 214-X alloy, internal and, possibly, external reuse of aluminum alloys may be possible.

Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Wilson, D.F.

1996-12-01

274

Use of the Kelly Decontamination System for the cleanup of the auxiliary and fuel-handling buildings at TMI-2  

SciTech Connect

Following the accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) substantial areas in the auxiliary and fuel-handling buildings were contaminated. Overflowing sumps backed up floor drains and contaminated a substantial portion of the 282-ft elevation floor. In addition, contamination was spread into the overheads when the nitrogen purge system, which had become internally contaminated, was relieved of overpressure. Operating experience with the Kelly Decontamination System has been exceptional. The system has been defined as a tool of the trade for labor personnel to operate as part of their duties. A detailed training program was provided by the Kelly Division of Container Products Corporation for the engineers who then trained labor personnel in the operation of the equipment. There were very few problems with personnel on the equipment for routine decontamination operations. The Kelly Decontamination System has proven to be a dose and cost-effective alternative to hands-on decontamination techniques at TMI-2 and should have wide application for large-scale decontamination operations.

Hoyt, K.R.; Pavelek, M.D. II

1987-01-01

275

SAFETY STUDIES TO MEASURE EXOTHERMIC REACTIONS OF SPENT PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATION CHEMICALS USING WET AND DRY DECONTAMINATION METHODS  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) at the Hanford site in Eastern Washington is currently being decommissioned by Fluor Hanford. Chemicals being considered for decontamination of gloveboxes in PFP include cerium (IV) nitrate in a nitric acid solution, and proprietary commercial solutions that include acids and sequestering agents. Aggressive chemicals are commonly used to remove transuranic contaminants from process equipment to allow disposal of the equipment as low level waste. Fluor's decontamination procedure involves application of chemical solutions as a spray on the contaminated surfaces, followed by a wipe-down with rags. Alternatively, a process of applying oxidizing Ce IV ions contained in a gel matrix and vacuuming a dry gel material is being evaluated. These processes effectively transfer the transuranic materials to rags or a gel matrix which is then packaged as TRU waste and disposed. Fluor is investigating plutonium decontamination chemicals as a result of concerns regarding the safety of chemical procedures following a fire at Rocky Flats in 2003. The fire at Rocky Flats occurred in a glovebox that had been treated with cerium nitrate, which is one of the decontamination chemicals that Fluor Hanford has proposed to use. Although the investigation of the fire was not conclusive as to cause, the reviewers noted that rags were found in the glovebox, suggesting that the combination of rags and chemicals may have contributed to the fire. Because of this underlying uncertainty, Fluor began an investigation into the potential for fire when using the chemicals and materials using wet disposition and dry disposition of the waste generated in the decontamination process and the storage conditions to which the waste drum would be exposed. The focus of this work has been to develop a disposal strategy that will provide a chemically stable waste form at expected Hanford waste storage temperatures. Hanford waste storage conditions are such that there is added heat to the containers from ambient conditions during storage especially during the summer months. Treatability tests under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) were used to assess the use of certain chemicals and wipes (wet method) and chemical-gel matrices (dry method) during the decontamination process. Chemicals being considered for decontamination of gloveboxes at PFP include cerium (IV) nitrate in a nitric acid solution, and proprietary commercial decontamination agents such as RadPro? , Glygel? and ASPIGEL 100?. As part of the treatability study, Fluor and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) personnel have evaluated the potential for self-heating and exothermic reactions in the residual decontamination materials. From these wet and dry method treatability studies, certain limiting conditions have been defined that will aid in assuring safe operations and waste packaging during the decommissioning and waste disposition process.

Hopkins, Andrea M.; Jackson, George W.; Minette, Michael J.; Ewalt, John R.; Cooper, Thurman D.; Scott, Paul A.; Jones, Susan A.; Scheele, Randall D.; Charboneau, Stacy L.

2005-10-12

276

Decontamination of radioactive-contaminated soils: Evaluation of chemical extraction/selective dissolution processes  

SciTech Connect

Rust Federal Services, Inc.`s Clemson Technical Center (CTC) has investigated the remediation of several radioactive-contaminated soils, from various DOE-FUSRAP sites, via soil washing/chemical extraction of the radioactive contaminants. The second phase of this work, which is the subject of this presentation, focused on chemical extraction via selective dissolution of radioactive contaminants. In those instances where simple physical separation processes are not practicable, e.g., when there are relatively high proportions of silt and/or clay particles, chemical extraction and the selective dissolution of target contaminants is required. Soil-decontamination processes frequently employ chelating agents which are meant to selectively enhance the dissolution of target contaminants while minimizing the dissolution of benign soil constituents. This paper will present the dissolution kinetics results from the bench-scale soil-decontamination studies.

Diel, B.N.; North, J.R.; Widner, D.G. [Rust-Clemson Technical Center, Anderson, SC (United States)

1995-12-31

277

An overview of plutonium-238 decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) projects at Mound  

SciTech Connect

Mound is currently decontaminating for restricted reuse and/or decommissioning for conditional release four major plutonium-238 contaminated facilities that contained 1700 linear feet of gloveboxes and associated equipment and services. Several thousand linear feet of external underground piping, associated tanks, and contaminated soil are being removed. Two of the facilities contain ongoing operations and will be reused for both radioactive and nonradioactive programs. Two others will be completely demolished and the land area will become available for future DOE building sites. An overview of the successful techniques and equipment used in the decontamination and decommissioning of individual pieces of equipment, gloveboxes, services, laboratories, sections of buildings, entire buildings, and external underground piping, tanks, and soil in a highly populated residential area is described and pictorially presented.

Bond, W.H.; Davis, W.P.; Draper, D.G.; Geichman, J.R.; Harris, J.C.; Jaeger, R.R.; Sohn, R.L.

1987-01-01

278

Atmospheric pressure plasma jet for decontamination purposes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced oxidation processes, especially induced by non-thermal plasmas, are widely known for their high sanitation efficiency. The paper presents general overview of atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) reactors for bactericidal decontamination purposes. In the conclusion part, the basic requirements for APPJ as a tool for biomedical applications including the treatment of living tissues are highlighted. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

Paw?at, Joanna

2013-02-01

279

Agile methods in biomedical software development: a multi-site experience report  

PubMed Central

Background Agile is an iterative approach to software development that relies on strong collaboration and automation to keep pace with dynamic environments. We have successfully used agile development approaches to create and maintain biomedical software, including software for bioinformatics. This paper reports on a qualitative study of our experiences using these methods. Results We have found that agile methods are well suited to the exploratory and iterative nature of scientific inquiry. They provide a robust framework for reproducing scientific results and for developing clinical support systems. The agile development approach also provides a model for collaboration between software engineers and researchers. We present our experience using agile methodologies in projects at six different biomedical software development organizations. The organizations include academic, commercial and government development teams, and included both bioinformatics and clinical support applications. We found that agile practices were a match for the needs of our biomedical projects and contributed to the success of our organizations. Conclusion We found that the agile development approach was a good fit for our organizations, and that these practices should be applicable and valuable to other biomedical software development efforts. Although we found differences in how agile methods were used, we were also able to identify a set of core practices that were common to all of the groups, and that could be a focus for others seeking to adopt these methods. PMID:16734914

Kane, David W; Hohman, Moses M; Cerami, Ethan G; McCormick, Michael W; Kuhlmman, Karl F; Byrd, Jeff A

2006-01-01

280

Summary of Radionuclide Reactive Transport Experiments in Fractured Tuff and Carbonate Rocks from Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

In the Yucca Flat basin of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), 747 shaft and tunnel nuclear detonations were conducted primarily within the tuff confining unit (TCU) or the overlying alluvium. The TCU in the Yucca Flat basin is hypothesized to inhibit radionuclide migration to the highly transmissive and regionally extensive lower carbonate aquifer (LCA) due to its wide-spread aerial extent, low permeability, and chemical reactivity. However, fast transport pathways through the TCU by way of fractures may provide a migration path for radionuclides to the LCA. Radionuclide transport in both TCU and the LCA fractures is likely to determine the location of the contaminant boundary for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit (CAU). Radionuclide transport through the TCU may involve both matrix and fracture flow. However, radionuclide migration over significant distances is likely to be dominated by fracture transport. Transport through the LCA will almost certainly be dominated by fracture flow, as the LCA has a very dense, low porosity matrix with very low permeability. Because of the complex nature of reactive transport in fractures, a stepwise approach to identifying mechanisms controlling radionuclide transport was used. The simplest LLNL experiments included radionuclide transport through synthetic parallel-plate fractured tuff and carbonate cores. These simplified fracture transport experiments isolated matrix diffusion and sorption effects from all other fracture transport processes (fracture lining mineral sorption, heterogeneous flow, etc.). Additional fracture transport complexity was added by performing induced fractured LCA flowthrough experiments (effect of aperture heterogeneity) or iron oxide coated parallel plate TCU flowthrough experiments (effect of fracture lining minerals). Finally naturally fractured tuff and carbonate cores were examined at LLNL and LANL. All tuff and carbonate core used in the experiments was obtained from the USGS Core Library, Mercury, Nevada. Readers are referred to the original reports ''Radionuclide Transport in Tuff and Carbonate Fractures from Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site'' (Zavarin et al., 2005) and ''Radionuclide Sorption and Transport in Fractured Rocks of Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site'' (Ware et al., 2005) for specific details not covered in this summary report.

Zavarin, M; Roberts, S; Reimus, P; Johnson, M

2006-10-11

281

Low activity decontamination wastes storage in the Republic of Belarus  

SciTech Connect

Special features and volumes of radioactive wastes of natural and engineering objects decontamination in Belarus lands contaminated by radionuclides due to the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant are characterized. Data of their burial conditions and of ecological efficiency of decontamination of low background radiation territories are cited.

Kudelsky, A.V.

1995-12-31

282

AN EXPERIMENT TO LOCATE THE SITE OF TeV FLARING IN M87  

SciTech Connect

We describe a Chandra X-ray target-of-opportunity project designed to isolate the site of TeV flaring in the radio galaxy M87. To date, we have triggered the Chandra observations only once (2010 April) and by the time of the first of our nine observations, the TeV flare had ended. However, we found that the X-ray intensity of the unresolved nucleus was at an elevated level for our first observation. Of the more than 60 Chandra observations we have made of the M87 jet covering nine years, the nucleus was measured at a comparably high level only three times. Two of these occasions can be associated with TeV flaring, and at the time of the third event, there were no TeV monitoring activities. From the rapidity of the intensity drop of the nucleus, we infer that the size of the emitting region is of order a few light days Multiplication-Sign the unknown beaming factor; comparable to the same sort of estimate for the TeV emitting region. We also find evidence of spectral evolution in the X-ray band which seems consistent with radiative losses affecting the non-thermal population of the emitting electrons within the unresolved nucleus.

Harris, D. E.; Massaro, F. [SAO, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cheung, C. C. [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC 20001 (United States); Horns, D.; Raue, M. [Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Stawarz, L. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 229-8510 (Japan); Wagner, S. [Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Koenigstuhl, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Colin, P.; Wagner, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, D-80805 Muenchen (Germany); Mazin, D. [IFAE, Edifici Cn., Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Beilicke, M. [Department of Physics and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, Campus Box 1105, 1 Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); LeBohec, S.; Hui, M. [Department of Physics, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East, Salt-Lake-City, UT 84112-0830 (United States); Mukherjee, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

2011-12-20

283

Final report of the decontamination and decommission of Building 31 at the Grand Junction Projects Office Facility  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) occupies a 61.7-acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot milling experiments conducted for the domestic uranium procurement program funded by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the GJPO Remedial Action Project to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor for the facility, Rust Geotech, also was the remedial action contractor. Radiological contamination was identified in Building 31 and the building was demolished in 1992. The soil area within the footprint of the building has been remediated in accordance with the identified standards and the area can be released for unlimited exposure and unrestricted use. This area was addressed in the summary final report of the remediation of the exterior areas of the GJPO facility. This document was prepared in response to a DOE request for an individual final report for each contaminated GJPO building.

Krabacher, J.E.

1996-07-01

284

Final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of Building 39 at the Grand Junction Projects Office Facility  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) occupies a 61.7-acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot milling experiments conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the GJPO Remedial Action Project to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor for the facility, Rust Geotech, is also the remedial action contractor. The soil beneath Building 39 was radiologically contaminated and the building was demolished in 1992. The soil area within the footprint of the building has been remediated in accordance with the identified standards and the area can be released for unlimited exposure and unrestricted use. This document was prepared in response to a DOE request for an individual final report for each contaminated GJPO building.

Widdop, M.R.

1996-07-01

285

Final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of Building 6 at the Grand Junction Projects Office Facility  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) occupies a 61.7-acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot milling experiments conducted for the domestic uranium procurement program funded by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the GJPO Remedial Action Project to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor for the facility, Rust Geotech, is also the remedial action contractor. Radiological contamination was identified in Building 6, and the building was demolished in 1992. The soil area within the footprint of the building has been remediated in accordance with the identified standards and the area can be released for unlimited exposure and unrestricted use. This document was prepared in response to a DOE request for an individual final report for each contaminated GJPO building.

Widdop, M.R.

1996-07-01

286

Final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of Building 44 at the Grand Junction Projects Office Facility  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Junction Projects Office (GJPO) occupies a 61.7 acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot milling experiments conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor for the facility, Rust Geotech, is also the remedial action contractor. Building 44 was radiologically contaminated and the building was demolished in 1994. The soil area within the footprint of the building was not contaminated; it complies with the identified standards and the area can be released for unlimited exposure and unrestricted use. This document was prepared in response to a DOE request for an individual final report for each contaminated GJPO building.

Widdop, M.R.

1996-07-01

287

Final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of Building 34 at the Grand Junction Projects Office Facility  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) occupies a 61.7 acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot milling experiments conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor for the facility, Rust Geotech, was also the remedial action contractor. Building 34 was radiologically contaminated and the building was demolished in 1996. The soil area within the footprint of the building was analyzed and found to be not contaminated. The area can be released for unlimited exposure and unrestricted use. This document was prepared in response to a DOE request for an individual closeout report for each contaminated GJPO building.

Widdop, M.R.

1996-08-01

288

Final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of Building 1 at the Grand Junction Projects Office Facility  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) occupies a 61.7-acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot milling experiments conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the GJPO Remedial Action Project to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor for the facility, Rust Geotech, also is the remedial action contractor. Building 1 was found to be radiologically contaminated and was demolished in 1996. The soil beneath and adjacent to the building was remediated in accordance with identified standards and can be released for unlimited exposure and unrestricted use. This document was prepared in response to a DOE request for an individual final report for each contaminated GJPO building.

Widdop, M.R.

1996-08-01

289

Final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of Building 18 at the Grand Junction Projects Office Facility  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) occupies a 61.7-acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot milling experiments conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the GJPO Remedial Action Project to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor for the facility, Rust Geotech, also is the remedial action contractor. The soil beneath Building 18 was found to be radiologically contaminated; the building was not contaminated. The soil was remediated in accordance with identified standards. Building 18 and the underlying soil can be released for unlimited exposure and unrestricted use. This document was prepared in response to a DOE request for an individual final report for each contaminated GJPO building.

Widdop, M.R.

1996-08-01

290

Site Characterization Work Plan for Gnome-Coach Site, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Project Gnome was the first nuclear experiment conducted under the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Plowshare Program. Gnome was part of a joint government-industry experiment focused on developing nuclear devices exclusively for peaceful purposes. The intent of the Gnome experiment was to evaluate the effects of a nuclear detonation in a salt medium. Historically, Project Gnome consisted of a single detonation of a nuclear device on December 10, 1961. Since the Gnome detonation, the AEC/DOE has conducted surface restoration, site reconnaissance, and decontamination and decommissioning activities at the site. In addition, annual groundwater sampling is performed under a long-term hydrological monitoring program begun in 1980. Coach, an experiment to be located near the Gnome project, was initially scheduled for 1963. Although construction and rehabilitation were completed for Coach, the experiment was canceled and never executed. Known collectively as Project Gnome-Coach, the site is situated within the Salado Formation approximately 25 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, in Eddy County, and is comprised of nearly 680 acres, of which 60 acres are disturbed from the combined AEC/DOE operations. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the project. The subsurface at the Gnome-Coach site has two contaminant sources that are fundamentally different in terms of both their stratigraphic location and release mechanism. The goal of this characterization is to collect data of sufficient quantity and quality to establish current site conditions and to use the data to identify and evaluate if further action is required to protect human health and the environment and achieve permanent closure of the site. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent corrective action decision document.

DOE/NV

2001-02-13

291

Analysis of the mine-by experiment, climax granite, Nevada test site  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is conducting a generic test of retrievable geologic storage of nuclear spent fuel assemlbies, in an underground chamber, at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This generic test is located 420 m below the surface, in the Climax granitic stock. Eleven canisters of spent fuel approximately 2.5 years out of reactor core (about 1.6 kW/canister thermal output) are now emplaced in a storage drift, along with 6 electrical heaters which simulate fuel canisters. Two adjacent drifts contain other electrical heaters, which will be operated to simulate the thermal field of a large repository. An analysis of the mine-by at SFT-C was performed by means of refined finite element models using the JPLAXD code (Jointed, PLane and AXisymmetric, Dilatant). The input for the new models was derived from our field program, which is reported separately. Stress results obtained by modeling methods are compared. All models show that, during mining of the center drift, all caverns close vertically, and the center drift closes horizontally. The walls of the two heater drifts move toward the center drift, with a slight opening or a slight closing of the heater drifts, depending upon the geology. All calculations show both pillars expanding laterally during mine-by. The field-reported lateral contraction of the pillars leads to the very suspicious conclusion that the pillars end up in a state of tension. The field-reported values from horizontal MPEs and horizontal tapes appear to be inconsistent with each other. (DMC)

Heuze, F.E.; Butkovich, T.R.; Peterson, J.C.

1981-06-01

292

L-band radiometer experiment in the SMOS test site Upper Danube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frame of calibration and validation activities for ESA's soil moisture and ocean salinity mission, SMOS, the University of Munich operates a ground based L-band radiometer (ELBARA II) on an experimental farm in Southern Germany since September 2009. It is being used to validate the radiative transfer model, L-MEB, used in the SMOS Level 2 processor. The radiometer measures the natural emission of two fields in the microwave domain with a wavelength of 1.4 GHz. Its working principle is similar to that of SMOS, for which reason it can be used for validation of the radiative transfer model on the field scale. To support the validation, extensive environmental measurements are being made at the test site. The radiometer is situated on an experimental farm near Puch, about 30 km west of Munich in the Upper Danube watershed in southern Germany in a temperate agricultural area. It is mounted on a 4 m high scaffolding that allows to turn the radiometer to look at 2 different fields with grass and winter rape as land use respectively. In addition to the L-band measurements, thermal infrared (IR) measurements are performed. For this purpose, one thermal IR radiometer is attached to the ELBARA antenna to look into the same direction and two IR radiometers are constantly pointed at the two fields. Next to the radiometer is a meteorological station providing soil and air temperature profiles, precipitation, global radiation, wind speed and relative humidity measurements with an hourly resolution. In addition to that, soil moisture is measured with TDR probes in 2 profiles under each of the two fields with several probes installed at depths between 5 and 50cm. Vegetation and snow parameters are also recorded on a regularly basis. Soil roughness is measured with a photogrammetric approach. An overview about the infrastructure and existing datasets is presented.

Schlenz, Florian; Gebhardt, Timo; Loew, Alexander; Marzahn, Philip; Mauser, Wolfram

2010-05-01

293

Prospective Single-Site Experience with Radiofrequency-Targeted Vertebral Augmentation for Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fracture  

PubMed Central

Vertebral augmentation procedures are widely used to treat osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). We report our initial experience with radiofrequency-targeted vertebral augmentation (RF-TVA) in 20 patients aged 50 to 90 years with single-level, symptomatic osteoporotic VCF between T10 and L5, back pain severity >?4 on a 0 to 10 scale, Oswestry Disability Index ??21%, 20% to 90% vertebral height loss compared to adjacent vertebral body, and fracture age

Moser, Franklin G.; Maya, Marcel M.; Blaszkiewicz, Laura; Scicli, Andrea; Miller, Larry E.; Block, Jon E.

2013-01-01

294

Decontamination of nuclear systems at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station  

SciTech Connect

Early in 1994 Management at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station realized that a potential decontamination of several reactor systems was needed to maintain the commitments to the {open_quotes}As Low As Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) program. There was a substantial amount of planned outage work required to repair and replace some internals in loop isolation valves and there were inspections and other outage work that needed to be accomplished as it had been postponed from previous outages because of the radiation exposure levels in and around the system equipment. Management scheduled for the procurement specification to be revised to incorporate additional boundary areas which had not been previously considered. The schedule included the period for gathering bids, awarding a contract, and reviewing the contractor`s procedures and reports and granting approval for the decontamination to proceed during the upcoming outage. In addition to the reviews required by the engineering group for overall control of the process, the plant system engineers had to prepare procedures at the system level to provide for a smooth operation to be made during the decontamination of the systems. The system engineers were required to make certain that the decontamination fluids would be contained within the systems being decontaminated and that they would not cross contaminate any other system not being decontaminated. Since these nuclear stations do not have the provisions for decontaminating these systems with using additional equipment, the equipment required is furnished by the contractor as skid mounted packaged units which can be moved into the area, set up near the system being decontaminated, and after the decontamination is completed, the skid mounted packages are removed as part of the contract. Figure 1 shows a typical setup in block diagram required to perform a reactor system decontamination. 1 fig.

Weed, R.D. [R.D. Weed Consulting Engineers, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Baker, K.R.

1996-12-31

295

What have we Learned after a Decade of Experiments and Monitoring at the NEES@UCSB Permanently Instrumented Field Sites?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wildlife Liquefaction Array (WLA) and Garner Valley Downhole Array (GVDA) located in southern California are facilities that for the last decade have been supported under the National Science Foundations George E. Brown, Jr., Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) program. These densely instrumented geotechnical and structural engineering field sites continuously record both acceleration and pore pressure, with accelerometers located on the surface and at various depths below the surface, and pore pressure transducers installed at depth within the liquefiable layers. Permanently instrumented structures for examining soil-foundation-structure interaction and a permanent cross-hole array at the sites have transformed these sites into multi-disciplinary earthquake engineering research facilities. Over the last decade, local and regional seismic activity, including multiple extremely active earthquake swarms, have produced a valuable new data set providing a unique opportunity to observe site response and the evolution of pore pressure generation with time throughout the liquefiable layer at an unprecedented level of detail. In addition to the earthquakes provided by nature, active testing experiments using the mobile shakers from NEES@UTexas and NEES@UCLA have produced an equally valuable data set on both site characterization studies and soil-foundation-structure interaction. The new observations of pore pressure and acceleration with depth are providing in situ empirical evidence documenting the range of ground motion levels at which the onset of nonlinear behavior and excess pore pressure begins, augmenting previous case history data, and laboratory data from cyclic tri-axial and centrifuge testing. The largest static pore pressure increases observed in the 'NEES' decade of monitoring were generated by four events at the WLA site, ranging in magnitude from 4.6 to 5.4 and all at distances less than 10km from the site. The largest peak horizontal acceleration of ~325 gals was generated by a M4.9 event. This event generated ~20 kPa of excess pore pressure on multiple transducers, with a pore pressure ratio Ru of ~60% near the top of the liquefiable layer. Using displacements calculated from the accelerometers above and below the liquefiable layer, peak strain levels reached as high as 1.5 x 10-3. During these events, which did not completely liquefy the site, the excess pore pressure can be seen migrating from the top of the layer towards the bottom in the continuous time history data, as well as dissipation that can take hours, highlighting the importance of continuous monitoring instead of triggered. Nonlinear soil behavior associated with the larger events in this swarm is analyzed in terms of changes in travel times (decrease in shear wave velocity) between accelerometers in the array for the largest ground motions, as well as a reduction in high frequency amplification for these events. The location of accelerometers at the surface and at five additional depths provides the opportunity to examine the contribution of the various layers to the overall site response. Analysis of data during the largest excitation at the WLA site show that the nonlinear soil behavior occurs both near the surface and even at depths below 30 meters.

Steidl, J. H.; Civilini, F.; Seale, S. H.; Hegarty, P.

2013-12-01

296

FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Plasma agents in bio-decontamination by dc discharges in atmospheric air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bio-decontamination of water and surfaces contaminated by bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium) was investigated in two types of positive dc discharges in atmospheric pressure air, in needle-to-plane geometry: the streamer corona and its transition to a novel regime called transient spark with short high current pulses of limited energy. Both generate a cold non-equilibrium plasma. Electro-spraying of treated water through a needle electrode was applied for the first time and resulted in fast bio-decontamination. Experiments providing separation of various biocidal plasma agents, along with the emission spectra and coupled with oxidation stress measurements in the cell membranes helped to better understand the mechanisms of microbial inactivation. The indirect exposure of contaminated surfaces to neutral active species was almost as efficient as the direct exposure to the plasma, whereas applying only UV radiation from the plasma had no biocidal effects. Radicals and reactive oxygen species were identified as dominant biocidal agents.

Machala, Zdenko; Chládeková, Lenka; Pelach, Michal

2010-06-01

297

THE USE OF A TREATABILITY STUDY TO INVESTIGATE THE POTENTIAL FOR SELF HEATING & EXOTHERMIC REACTIONS IN DECONTAMINATION MATERIALS AT PFP  

SciTech Connect

Cerium Nitrate has been proposed for use in the decontamination of plutonium contaminated equipment at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located on the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in eastern Washington. A Treatability Study was conducted to determine the validity of this decontamination technology in terms of meeting its performance goals and to understand the risks associated with the use of Cerium Nitrate under the conditions found at the PFP. Fluor Hanford is beginning the decommissioning of the PFP at the Hanford site. Aggressive chemicals are commonly used to remove transuranic contaminants from process equipment to allow disposal as low level waste. Chemicals being considered for decontamination of gloveboxes in PFP include cerium (IV) nitrate in a nitric acid solution, and proprietary commercial solutions that include acids, degreasers, and sequestering agents. Fluor's decontamination procedure involves application of the chemicals, followed by a wipe-down of the contaminated surfaces with rags. This process effectively transfers the decontamination liquids containing the transuranic materials to the rags, which can then be readily packaged for disposal as TRU waste. As part of a treatability study, Fluor Hanford and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have evaluated the potential for self-heating and exothermic reactions in the residual decontamination materials and the waste packages. Laboratory analyses and thermal-hydraulic modeling reveal a significant self-heating risk for cerium nitrate solutions when used with cotton rags. Exothermic reactions that release significant heat and off-gas have been discovered for cerium nitrate at higher temperatures. From these studies, limiting conditions have been defined to assure safe operations and waste packaging.

HOPKINS, A.M.

2005-02-23

298

A serendipitous, long-term infiltration experiment: water and tritium circulation beneath the CAMBRIC trench at the Nevada Test Site.  

PubMed

Underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site introduced numerous radionuclides that may be used subsequently to characterize subsurface hydrologic transport processes in arid climates. In 1965, a unique, 16-year pumping experiment designed to examine radionuclide migration away from the CAMBRIC nuclear test, conducted in the saturated zone beneath Frenchman Flat, Nevada, USA, gave rise to an unintended second experiment involving radionuclide infiltration through the vadose zone, as induced by seepage of pumping effluents beneath an unlined discharge trench. The combined experiments have been reanalyzed using a detailed, three-dimensional numerical model of transient, variably saturated flow and mass transport in a heterogeneous subsurface, tailored specifically for large-scale and efficient calculations. Simulations have been used to estimate tritium travel and residence times in various parts of the system for comparison with observations in wells. Model predictions of mass transport were able to clearly demonstrate radionuclide recycling behavior between the trench and pumping well previously suggested by isotopic age dating information; match travel time estimates for radionuclides moving between the trench, the water table, and monitoring and pumping wells; and provide more realistic ways in which to interpret the pumping well elution curves. Collectively, the results illustrate the utility of integrating detailed numerical modeling with diverse observational data in developing more accurate interpretations of contaminant migration processes. PMID:19501933

Maxwell, Reed M; Tompson, Andrew F B; Kollet, Stefan

2009-08-11

299

The Relationships of On-Site Film-Tourism Experiences, Satisfaction, and Behavioral Intentions: The Case of Asian Audience's Responses to a Korean Historical TV Drama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the growing interest in film-tourism research, little research has explored the extent to which on-site film-tourism experiences influence tourist satisfaction and post-visit behavioral intentions. Within the context of Asian audience's responses to a Korean historical TV drama, Daejanggeum, this article adopted a structured quantitative survey instrument. Exploratory factor analysis identified three salient dimensions to represent the on-site film-tourism experiences:

Sangkyun Kim

2012-01-01

300

75 FR 4805 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Portsmouth  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Environmental Management Site-Specific...announces a meeting of the Environmental Management Site-Specific...Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) and Future Land...management in the areas of environmental restoration, waste...

2010-01-29

301

Decontamination and decommissioning of the Kerr-McGee Cimarron Plutonium Fuel Plant  

SciTech Connect

This final report is a summary of the events that completes the decontamination and decommissioning of the Cimarron Corporation`s Mixed Oxides Fuel Plant (formally Sequoyah Fuels Corporation and formerly Kerr-McGee Nuclear Corporation - all three wholly owned subsidiaries of the Kerr-McGee Corporation). Included are details dealing with tooling and procedures for performing the unique tasks of disassembly decontamination and/or disposal. That material which could not be economically decontaminated was volume reduced by disassembly and/or compacted for disposal. The contaminated waste cleaning solutions were processed through filtration and ion exchange for release or solidified with cement for L.S.A. waste disposal. The L.S.A. waste was compacted, and stabilized as required in drums for burial in an approved burial facility. T.R.U. waste packaging and shipping was completed by the end of July 1987. This material was shipped to the Hanford, Washington site for disposal. The personnel protection and monitoring measures and procedures are discussed along with the results of exposure data of operating personnel. The shipping containers for both T.R.U. and L.S.A. waste are described. The results of the decommissioning operations are reported in six reports. The personnel protection and monitoring measures and procedures are contained and discussed along with the results of exposure data of operating personnel in this final report.

Not Available

1994-05-01

302

Site Characterization Work Plan for the Gnome-Coach Site, New Mexico (Rev. 1, January 2002)  

SciTech Connect

Project Gnome was the first nuclear experiment conducted under the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Plowshare Program. The Plowshare Program focused on developing nuclear devices exclusively for peaceful purposes. The intent of the Gnome experiment was to evaluate the effects of a nuclear detonation in a salt medium. Historically, Project Gnome consisted of a single detonation of a nuclear device on December 10, 1961 with the Salado Formation. Since the Gnome detonation, the AEC/DOE has conducted surface restoration, site reconnaissance, and decontamination and decommissioning activities at the site. In addition, annual groundwater sampling is performed under a long-term hydrological monitoring program begun in 1972. Coach, an experiment to be located near the Gnome project, was initially scheduled for 1963. Although construction and rehabilitation were completed for Coach, the experiment was canceled and never executed. Known collectively as Project Gnome-Coach, the site is located approximately 25 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, in Eddy County, and is comprised of nearly 680 acres, of which approximately 60 acres are disturbed from the combined AEC/DOE operations. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the project. The subsurface at the Gnome-Coach site has two contaminant sources that are fundamentally different in terms of both their stratigraphic location and release mechanism. The goal of this characterization is to collect data of sufficient quantity and quality to establish current site conditions and to use the data to identify and evaluate if further action is required to protect human health and the environment and achieve permanent closure of the site. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent corrective action decision document.

U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV)

2002-01-14

303

Planning guidance for nuclear-power-plant decontamination. [PWR; BWR  

SciTech Connect

Direct and indirect costs of decontamination are considered in the benefit-cost analysis. A generic form of the benefit-cost ratio is evaluated in monetary and nonmonetary terms, and values of dollar per man-rem are cited. Federal and state agencies that may have jurisiction over various aspects of decontamination and waste disposal activities are identified. Methods of decontamination, their general effectiveness, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are outlined. Dilute or concentrated chemical solutions are usually used in-situ to dissolve the contamination layer and a thin layer of the underlying substrate. Electrochemical techniques are generally limited to components but show high decontamination effectiveness with uniform corrosion. Mechanical agents are particularly appropriate for certain out-of-system surfaces and disassembled parts. These processes are catagorized and specific concerns are discussed. The treatment, storage, and disposal or discharge or discharge of liquid, gaseous, and solid wastes generated during the decontamination process are discussed. Radioactive and other hazardous chemical wastes are considered. The monitoring, treatment, and control of radioactive and nonradioactive effluents, from both routine operations and possible accidents, are discussed. Protecting the health and safety of personnel onsite during decontamination is of prime importance and should be considered in each facet of the decontamination process. The radiation protection philosophy of reducing exposure to levels as low as reasonably achievable should be stressed. These issues are discussed.

Munson, L.F.; Divine, J.R.; Martin, J.B.

1983-06-01

304

Comparative analysis of showering protocols for mass-casualty decontamination.  

PubMed

A well-established provision for mass-casualty decontamination that incorporates the use of mobile showering units has been developed in the UK. The effectiveness of such decontamination procedures will be critical in minimizing or preventing the contamination of emergency responders and hospital infrastructure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate three empirical strategies designed to optimize existing decontamination procedures: (1) instructions in the form of a pictorial aid prior to decontamination; (2) provision of a washcloth within the showering facility; and (3) an extended showering period. The study was a three-factor, between-participants (or "independent") design with 90 volunteers. The three factors each had two levels: use of washcloths (washcloth/no washcloth), washing instructions (instructions/no instructions), and shower cycle duration (three minutes/six minutes). The effectiveness of these strategies was quantified by whole-body fluorescence imaging following application of a red fluorophore to multiple, discrete areas of the skin. All five showering procedures were relatively effective in removing the fluorophore "contaminant", but the use of a cloth (in the absence of instructions) led to a significant ( appox. 20%) improvement in the effectiveness of decontamination over the standard protocol (p <0.05). Current mass-casualty decontamination effectiveness, especially in children, can be optimized by the provision of a washcloth. This simple but effective approach indicates the value of performing controlled volunteer trials for optimizing existing decontamination procedures. PMID:21053192

Amlot, Richard; Larner, Joanne; Matar, Hazem; Jones, David R; Carter, Holly; Turner, Elizabeth A; Price, Shirley C; Chilcott, Robert P

2010-01-01

305

Metal retention on pine bark and blast furnace slag--on-site experiment for treatment of low strength landfill leachate.  

PubMed

Treatment of landfill leachate using blast furnace slag and pine bark as reactive sorbents was studied in an in situ column experiment at the Lilla Nyby landfill site in Eskilstuna, Sweden. The columns were filled with approximately 101 of each sorbent and leachate was supplied at three different flow rates during a period of 4 months. Samples of inflow and outflow were collected three times a week and were analyzed for physical and chemical parameters, including concentrations of some metals, and toxicity. It was found that pine bark removed metals more efficiently than did the blast furnace slags; that Zn was most efficiently retained in the filters and that both retention time and initial concentration played an important role in the sorption process. It was also observed that the pine bark column did not release COD. No toxicity of the untreated or the treated leachate was found with the test organisms and test responses used. PMID:17462882

Nehrenheim, Emma; Waara, Sylvia; Johansson Westholm, Lena

2008-03-01

306

Middle-Eastern plant communities tolerate 9 years of drought in a multi-site climate manipulation experiment.  

PubMed

For evaluating climate change impacts on biodiversity, extensive experiments are urgently needed to complement popular non-mechanistic models which map future ecosystem properties onto their current climatic niche. Here, we experimentally test the main prediction of these models by means of a novel multi-site approach. We implement rainfall manipulations-irrigation and drought-to dryland plant communities situated along a steep climatic gradient in a global biodiversity hotspot containing many wild progenitors of crops. Despite the large extent of our study, spanning nine plant generations and many species, very few differences between treatments were observed in the vegetation response variables: biomass, species composition, species richness and density. The lack of a clear drought effect challenges studies classifying dryland ecosystems as most vulnerable to global change. We attribute this resistance to the tremendous temporal and spatial heterogeneity under which the plants have evolved, concluding that this should be accounted for when predicting future biodiversity change. PMID:25283495

Tielbörger, Katja; Bilton, Mark C; Metz, Johannes; Kigel, Jaime; Holzapfel, Claus; Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin; Konsens, Irit; Parag, Hadas A; Sternberg, Marcelo

2014-01-01

307

Middle-Eastern plant communities tolerate 9 years of drought in a multi-site climate manipulation experiment  

PubMed Central

For evaluating climate change impacts on biodiversity, extensive experiments are urgently needed to complement popular non-mechanistic models which map future ecosystem properties onto their current climatic niche. Here, we experimentally test the main prediction of these models by means of a novel multi-site approach. We implement rainfall manipulations—irrigation and drought—to dryland plant communities situated along a steep climatic gradient in a global biodiversity hotspot containing many wild progenitors of crops. Despite the large extent of our study, spanning nine plant generations and many species, very few differences between treatments were observed in the vegetation response variables: biomass, species composition, species richness and density. The lack of a clear drought effect challenges studies classifying dryland ecosystems as most vulnerable to global change. We attribute this resistance to the tremendous temporal and spatial heterogeneity under which the plants have evolved, concluding that this should be accounted for when predicting future biodiversity change. PMID:25283495

Tielborger, Katja; Bilton, Mark C.; Metz, Johannes; Kigel, Jaime; Holzapfel, Claus; Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin; Konsens, Irit; Parag, Hadas A.; Sternberg, Marcelo

2014-01-01

308

Chemical decontamination of steam generator channel heads at the R. E. Ginna Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

In April of 1983, the channel heads of the A and B steam generators at Rochester Gas and Electric Corporation's R.E. Ginna Station were decontaminated using the CAN-DECON chemical cleaning process. In this paper the chemistry of this dilute, regenerative, chemical decontamination process is described, and the chemical parameters for the Ginna decontamination are detailed. The decontamination factors achieved are

J. L. Smee; T. A. Beaman; D. L. Filkins

1984-01-01

309

Application of Ozone Chemical Decontamination (T-OZON ) to the Equipment for Disposal  

SciTech Connect

The new decontamination process, T-OZON was applied to the decontamination of PLR pump impellers and bearings with casing covers. As the results, it was confirmed T-OZON was effective to reduce dose rate and secondary waste. The results make the further applications of T-OZON process on the decontamination for equipment disposal and system decontamination for primary coolant loops. (authors)

Enda, M.; Yaita, Y.; Sakai, H.; Aoi, H.; Inami, I. [Toshiba Corporation (Japan); Nakagami, M.; Kani, K. [Chubu Electric Power Company Inc., 1, Higashi-shincho Higashi-ku, Nagoya-shi, ACH 461-8680 (Japan)

2002-07-01

310

Decontamination of chemical warfare agents. Final report, June 1991August 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews of the development of systems to decontaminate chemical warfare agents and of the chemical reactions involved in decontamination are presented in this report. Decontamination is defined as the rapid removal of agents from contaminated surfaces. Simple physical methods, such as evaporation, washing, and scrubbing, fall under this broad definition; however, most of the decontaminants contain reactive components to detoxify

Y. C. Yang; J. A. Baker; J. R. Ward

1992-01-01

311

The DOS 1 neutron dosimetry experiment at the HB-4-A key 7 surveillance site on the HFIR pressure vessel  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive neutron dosimetry experiment was made at one of the prime surveillance sites at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) pressure vessel to aid radiation embrittlement studies of the vessel and to benchmark neutron transport calculations. The thermal neutron flux at the key 7, position 5 site was found, from measurements of radioactivation of four cobalt wires and four silver wires, to be 2.4 {times} 10{sup 12} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}s{sup {minus}1}. The thermal flux derived from two helium accumulation monitors was 2.3 {times} 10{sup 12} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}{sup {minus}1}. The thermal flux estimated by neutron transport calculations was 3.7 {times} 10{sup 12} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}. The fast flux, >1 MeV, determined from two nickel activation wires, was 1.5 {times} 10{sup 12} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}s{sup {minus}1}, in keeping with values obtained earlier from stainless steel surveillance monitors and with a computed value of 1.2 {times} 10{sup 13} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}{sup {minus}1}. The fast fluxes given by two reaction-product-type monitors, neptunium-237 and beryllium, were 2.6 {times} 10{sup 13} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}s {sup {minus}1} and 2.2 {times} 10{sup 13} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Follow-up experiments indicate that these latter high values of fast flux are reproducible but are false; they are due to the creation of greater levels of reaction products by photonuclear events induced by an exceptionally high ratio of gamma flux to fast neutron flux at the vessel.

Farrell, K.; Kam, F.B.; Baldwin, C.A. [and others

1994-01-01

312

Enhanced bioremediation of PAH contaminated soils from coal processing sites  

SciTech Connect

The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are a potential hazard to health due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic nature and acute toxicity and there is an imminent need for remediation of PAH contaminated soils abounding the several coke oven and town gas sites. Aerobic biological degradation of PAHs is an innovative technology and has shown high decontamination efficiencies, complete mineralization of contaminants, and is environmentally safe. The present study investigates the remediation of PAH contaminated soils achieved using Acinetobacter species and fungal strain Phanerochaete Chrysosporium. The soil used for the experiments was an industrially contaminated soil obtained from Alberta Research Council (ARC) primary cleanup facility, Alberta, Canada. Soil characterization was done using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to qualitatively and quantitatively determine the contaminants in the soil. Artificially contaminated soil was also used for some experiments. All the experiments were conducted under completely mixed conditions with suitable oxygen and nutrient amendments. The removal efficiency obtained for various PAHs using the two microorganisms was compared.

Joshi, M.M.; Lee, S. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States)

1995-12-31

313

The ROVCO2 surface decontamination system  

SciTech Connect

DOE needs to decontaminated over one million square feet of nuclear contaminated concrete surfaces. The 1000 lb ROVCO2 system, which automates blasting functions and eliminates secondary blasting waste, integrates a remotely operated vehicle and an enhanced commercial CO{sub 2} blasting system with an Oceaneering-developed work arm and control system. The remote operation protects the operation from contamination and supports functional automation of tedious tasks. The blasting system shoots pellets of dry ice propelled by pressurized gas at the surface to be cleaned. Impact of the pellets fractures and scales off a layer of the contaminated surface. At impact, the pellets return to a gaseous state which is vacuumed up with the debris. The CO{sub 2} gas and debris are passed through the vacuum filter, leaving only the removed material for waste disposal. Phase 2 testing achieved nearly all of the success criteria, with the exception of the commercial workhead`s performance.

Resnick, A.M.; Reed, M. [Oceaneering Technologies, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Lopez-Yanes, O. [Oceaneering International, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-12-31

314

Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2008  

SciTech Connect

The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Articles and reports in this issue include: D and D technical paper summaries; The role of nuclear power in turbulent times, by Tom Chrisopher, AREVA, NP, Inc.; Enthusiastic about new technologies, by Jack Fuller, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; It's important to be good citizens, by Steve Rus, Black and Veatch Corporation; Creating Jobs in the U.S., by Guy E. Chardon, ALSTOM Power; and, and, An enviroment and a community champion, by Tyler Lamberts, Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. The Industry Innovations article is titled Best of the best TIP achievement 2008, by Edward Conaway, STP Nuclear Operating Company.

Agnihotri, Newal (ed.)

2008-07-15

315

Radioactive hot cell access hole decontamination machine  

DOEpatents

Radioactive hot cell access hole decontamination machine. A mobile housing has an opening large enough to encircle the access hole and has a shielding door, with a door opening and closing mechanism, for uncovering and covering the opening. The housing contains a shaft which has an apparatus for rotating the shaft and a device for independently translating the shaft from the housing through the opening and access hole into the hot cell chamber. A properly sized cylindrical pig containing wire brushes and cloth or other disks, with an arrangement for releasably attaching it to the end of the shaft, circumferentially cleans the access hole wall of radioactive contamination and thereafter detaches from the shaft to fall into the hot cell chamber.

Simpson, William E. (Richland, WA)

1982-01-01

316

Uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund  

SciTech Connect

One of the most challenging issues facing the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management is the cleanup of the three gaseous diffusion plants. In October 1992, Congress passed the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and established the Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund to accomplish this task. This mission is being undertaken in an environmentally and financially responsible way by: devising cost-effective technical solutions; producing realistic life-cycle cost estimates, based on practical assumptions and thorough analysis; generating coherent long-term plans which are based on risk assessments, land use, and input from stakeholders; and, showing near-term progress in the cleanup of the gaseous diffusion facilities at Oak Ridge.

NONE

1994-12-31

317

Decontamination and decommissioning activities photobriefing book FY 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Chicago Pile 5 (CP-5) Reactor, the first reactor built on the Argonne National Laboratory-East site, followed a rich history that had begun in 1942 with Enrico Fermi's original pile built under the west stands at the Stagg Field Stadium of The University of Chicago. CP-5 was a 5-megawatt, heavy water-moderated, enriched uranium-fueled reactor used to produce neutrons for scientific research from 1954--79. The reactor was shut down and defueled in 1979, and placed into a lay-up condition pending funding for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). In 1990, work was initiated on the D and D of the facility in order to alleviate safety and environmental concerns associated with the site due to the deterioration of the building and its associated support systems. A decision was made in early Fiscal Year (FY) 1999 to direct focus and resources to the completion of the CP-5 Reactor D and D Project. An award of contract was made in December 1998 to Duke Engineering and Services (Marlborough, MA), and a D and D crew was on site in March 1999 to begin work, The project is scheduled to be completed in July 2000. The Laboratory has determined that the building housing the CP-5 facility is surplus to the Laboratory's needs and will be a candidate for demolition. In addition to a photographic chronology of FY 1999 activities at the CP-5 Reactor D and D Project, brief descriptions of other FY 1999 activities and of projects planned for the future are provided in this photobriefing book.

NONE

2000-03-08

318

Comparison and Evaluation of Various Tritium Decontamination Techniques and Processes  

SciTech Connect

In support of fusion energy development, various techniques and processes have been developed over the past two decades for the removal and decontamination of tritium from a variety of items, surfaces, and components. Tritium decontamination, by chemical, physical, mechanical, or a combination of these methods, is driven by two underlying motivational forces. The first of these motivational forces is safety. Safety is paramount to the established culture associated with fusion energy. The second of these motivational forces is cost. In all aspects, less tritium contamination equals lower operational and disposal costs. This paper will discuss and evaluate the various processes employed for tritium removal and decontamination.

C.A. Gentile; S.W. Langish; C.H. Skinner; L.P. Ciebiera

2004-09-10

319

Decontamination and decommissioning surveillance and maintenance report for FY 1991. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program has three distinct phases: (1) surveillance and maintenance (S&M); (2) decontamination and removal of hazardous materials and equipment (which DOE Headquarters in Washington, D.C., calls Phase I of remediation); and (3) decommissioning and ultimate disposal, regulatory compliance monitoring, and property transfer (which DOE Headquarters calls Phase II of remediation). A large part of D&D is devoted to S&M at each of the sites. Our S&M activities, which are performed on facilities awaiting decommissioning, are designed to minimize potential hazards to human health and the environment by: ensuring adequate containment of residual radioactive and hazardous materials; and, providing physical safety and security controls to minimize potential hazards to on-site personnel and the general public. Typically, we classify maintenance activities as either routine or special (major repairs). Routine maintenance includes such activities as painting, cleaning, vegetation control, minor structural repairs, filter changes, and building system(s) checks. Special maintenance includes Occupational Safety and Health Act facility upgrades, roof repairs, and equipment overhaul. Surveillance activities include inspections, radiological measurements, reporting, records maintenance, and security (as required) for controlling and monitoring access to facilities. This report summarizes out FY 1991 S&M activities for the Tennessee plant sites, which include the K-25 Site, the Gas Centrifuge facilities, ORNL, and the Y-12 Plant.

Not Available

1991-12-01

320

Safety analysis factors for environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning  

SciTech Connect

Environmental restoration (ER) and facility decontamination/decommissioning (D&D) operations can be grouped into two general categories. ``Nonstationary cleanup`` or simply ``cleanup`` activities are where the operation must relocate to the site of new contaminated material at the completion of each task (i.e., the operation moves to the contaminated material). ``Stationary production`` or simply ``production`` activities are where the contaminated material is moved to a centralized location (i.e., the contaminated material is moved to the operation) for analysis, sorting, treatment, storage, and disposal. This paper addresses the issue of nonstationary cleanup design. The following are the specific assigned action items: Collect and compile a list of special safety-related ER/D&D design factors, especially ones that don`t follow DOE Order 6430.1A requirements. Develop proposal of what makes sense to recommend to designers; especially consider recommendations for short-term projects. Present proposal at the January meeting. To achieve the action items, applicable US Department of Energy (DOE) design requirements, and cleanup operations and differences from production activities are reviewed and summarized; basic safety requirements influencing design are summarized; and finally, approaches, considerations, and methods for safe, cost-effective design of cleanup activities are discussed.

Ellingson, D.R.

1993-04-01

321

Decontamination and decarburization of stainless and carbon steel by melt refining  

SciTech Connect

With many nuclear reactors and facilities being decommissioned in the next ten to twenty years the concern for handling and storing Radioactive Scrap Metal (RSM) is growing. Upon direction of the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Lockheed Idaho Technology Company (LITCO) is developing technologies for the conditioning of spent fuels and high-level wastes for interim storage and repository acceptance, including the recycling of Radioactive Scrap Metals (RSM) for beneficial reuse with the DOE complex. In February 1993, Montana Tech of the University of Montana was contracted to develop and demonstrate technologies for the decontamination of stainless steel RSM. The general objectives of the Montana Tech research program included conducting a literature survey, performing laboratory scale melt refining experiments to optimize decontaminating slag compositions, performing an analysis of preferred melting techniques, coordinating pilot scale and commercial scale demonstrations, and producing sufficient quantities of surrogate-containing material for all of the laboratory, pilot and commercial scale test programs. Later on, the program was expanded to include decontamination of carbon steel RSM. Each research program has been completed, and results are presented in this report.

Mizia, R.E.; Worcester, S.A.; Twidwell, L.G.; Webber, D.; Paolini, D.J.; Weldon, T.A.

1996-09-05

322

Destruction of Spores on Building Decontamination Residue in a Commercial Autoclave?  

PubMed Central

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted an experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of a commercial autoclave for treating simulated building decontamination residue (BDR). The BDR was intended to simulate porous materials removed from a building deliberately contaminated with biological agents such as Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) in a terrorist attack. The purpose of the tests was to assess whether the standard operating procedure for a commercial autoclave provided sufficiently robust conditions to adequately destroy bacterial spores bound to the BDR. In this study we investigated the effects of several variables related to autoclaving BDR, including time, temperature, pressure, item type, moisture content, packing density, packing orientation, autoclave bag integrity, and autoclave process sequence. The test team created simulated BDR from wallboard, ceiling tiles, carpet, and upholstered furniture, and embedded in the BDR were Geobacillus stearothermophilus biological indicator (BI) strips containing 106 spores and thermocouples to obtain time and temperature profile data associated with each BI strip. The results indicated that a single standard autoclave cycle did not effectively decontaminate the BDR. Autoclave cycles consisting of 120 min at 31.5 lb/in2 and 275°F and 75 min at 45 lb/in2 and 292°F effectively decontaminated the BDR material. Two sequential standard autoclave cycles consisting of 40 min at 31.5 lb/in2 and 275°F proved to be particularly effective, probably because the second cycle's evacuation step pulled the condensed water out of the pores of the materials, allowing better steam penetration. The results also indicated that the packing density and material type of the BDR in the autoclave could have a significant impact on the effectiveness of the decontamination process. PMID:17012597

Lemieux, P.; Sieber, R.; Osborne, A.; Woodard, A.

2006-01-01

323

Enhanced toxic cloud knockdown spray system for decontamination applications  

DOEpatents

Methods and systems for knockdown and neutralization of toxic clouds of aerosolized chemical or biological warfare (CBW) agents and toxic industrial chemicals using a non-toxic, non-corrosive aqueous decontamination formulation.

Betty, Rita G. (Rio Rancho, NM); Tucker, Mark D. (Albuquerque, NM); Brockmann, John E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lucero, Daniel A. (Albuquerque, NM); Levin, Bruce L. (Tijeras, NM); Leonard, Jonathan (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-09-06

324

Equipment and Facilities Decontamination and Disposal at Army Ammunition Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The only proven and defensible method to effectively: desensitize explosive contanimants within buildings and equipment, decontaminate production and R&D equipment/piping, and flash (5X) residual agent and energetics in/on munitions and materials.

P. Ihrke

2010-01-01

325

Review of Processes for the Decontamination of Transuranic Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Decontamination processing is being considered as an alternative to placing TRU waste in permanent repositories. The advantages would be to reduce the high costs of emplacement in a permanent repository, reduce transportation and handling of TRU waste, an...

P. G. Hagan

1981-01-01

326

Experimental Boiling Water Reactor decontamination and decommissioning project  

SciTech Connect

The author begins by discussing the problems encountered during decontamination and decommissioning. Next, he discusses waste packaging and recycling. His last topic of lessons learned is subdivided into prevention and early detection, recovery issues, management issues, and noteworthy practices.

Fellhauer, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Technology Development Div.

1995-08-01

327

Bionanoconjugate-based composites for decontamination of nerve agents.  

PubMed

We have developed enzyme-based composites that rapidly and effectively detoxify simulants of V- and G-type chemical warfare nerve agents. The approach was based on the efficient immobilization of organophosphorus hydrolase onto carbon nanotubes to form active and stable conjugates that were easily entrapped in commercially available paints. The resulting catalytic-based composites showed no enzyme leaching and rendered >99% decontamination of 10 g/m(2) paraoxon, a simulant of the V-type nerve agent, in 30 minutes and >95% decontamination of diisopropylfluorophosphate, a simulant of G-type nerve agent, in 45 minutes. The formulations are expected to be environmentally friendly and to offer an easy to use, on demand, decontamination alternative to chemical approaches for sustainable material self-decontamination. PMID:20859933

Borkar, Indrakant V; Dinu, Cerasela Zoica; Zhu, Guangyu; Kane, Ravi S; Dordick, Jonathan S

2010-01-01

328

Planetary protection protocol using multi-jet cold plasma decontamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of extraterrestrial life in-situ assumes that a positive indication is the result of an indigenous life form, and not the result of forward contamination from Earth. Atmospheric discharge cold plasma jets have proven effective in the decontamination of a wide range of microorganisms, including Deinococcus radiodurans, through multiple modes of action, yet the effect is relatively gentle on surfaces being decontaminated. An individual plasma jet may have a beam diameter of only a few millimeters, requiring extensive decontamination time for a given surface area. Techniques are discussed for assembling large area multi-jet arrays, and their mechanisms of decontamination. Application to back contamination in sample return missions is also considered.

Konesky, Gregory A.

2010-09-01

329

Modification of the Decontamination Facility at the Kruemmel NPP - 13451  

SciTech Connect

In February 2009, Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH was awarded the contract for the design, manufacture, delivery and construction of a new Decontamination Facility in the controlled area for Kruemmel NPP. The new decontamination equipment has been installed according to the state of art of Kruemmel NPP. The existing space required the following modification, retrofitting and reconstruction works: - Demounting of the existing installation: to create space for the new facility it was necessary to dismantle the old facility. The concrete walls and ceilings were cut into sizes of no more than 400 kg for ease of handling. This enabled decontamination so largest possible amount could be released for recycling. All steel parts were cut into sizes fitting for iron-barred boxes, respecting the requirement to render the parts decontaminable and releasable. - Reconstructing a decontamination facility: Reconstruction of a decontamination box with separate air lock as access area for the decontamination of components and assemblies was conducted using pressurized air with abrasives (glass beads or steel shots). The walls were equipped with sound protection, the inner walls were welded gap-free to prevent the emergence of interstices and were equipped with changeable wear and tear curtains. Abrasive processing unit positioned underneath the dry blasting box adjacent to the two discharge hoppers. A switch has been installed for the separation of the glass beads and the steel shot. The glass beads are directed into a 200 l drum for the disposal. The steel shot was cleaned using a separator. The cleaned steel shot was routed via transportation devices to the storage container, making it available for further blasting operations. A decontamination box with separate air lock as access area for the decontamination of components and assemblies using high pressure water technology was provided by new construction. Water pressures between 160 bar and 800 bar can be selected. The inner walls are welded gap-free and all rough edges are rounded off. All wetted parts are steel grade 1.4301 or higher. In an extension to the high pressure water decontamination box, 2 ultrasonic ponds and one washing station for small components as provide by new construction. A long pond with 3.25 m length for the decontamination of large components (e.g. turbine blades, pump rotors, driving rods) was installed. For the handling heavy components, a 2 t crane was installed. New construction of a mechanical effluent treatment facility including oil separator was connected to the existing effluent storage tank provided by the customer. One exhaust air filtration system is provided for each decontamination box, with the following requirements. The exhaust air is sent back to the room (recirculated air system). Dry blasting box including raw separator with dust collection in 200 l drum, filter for suspended particles; High pressure water decontamination box and wet area with water separator, pre-separator, filter for suspended particles. Installation of a steel platform at building height +12.85 above the decontamination boxes + 8.50 m for the erection of the high pressure water facilities, the recirculating air filter system, the air compressor and the respiratory air supply unit. The aforementioned components are placed on the steel platform and have been encased in a sound-lowering and accessible manner. New construction of the entire E and C technology for the TU system including modification of the supply lines from the switch gear. All devices are to be operated automatically. Dry blasting box, high pressure water decontamination box and wet area are designed to guarantee a unitary 'exterior view' of the decontamination facility. (authors)

Klute, Stefan; Kupke, Peter [Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH Am Taubenfeld 25/1, 69123 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH Am Taubenfeld 25/1, 69123 Heidelberg (Germany)

2013-07-01

330

COMPILATION OF AVAILABLE DATA ON BUILDING DECONTAMINATION ALTERNATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents an analysis of selected technologies that have been tested for their potential effectiveness in decontaminating a building that has been attacked using biological or chemical warfare agents, or using toxic industrial compounds. The technologies selected to be ...

331

Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the ORNL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program FY 1993--2002  

SciTech Connect

The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D D) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration D D program. The purpose and objectivesof this program include: (1) surveillance and maintenance (S M) of facilities awaiting decommissioning; (2) planning for the orderly decommissioning of these facilities; and (3) implementation of a program to accomplish facility disposition in a safe, cost-effective, and timely manner. Participating D D contractors are required to prepare formal plans that document the S M programs established for each site. This report has been prepared to provide this documentation for those facilities included in the ORNL D D Program.

Ford, M.K.; Holder, L. Jr.

1992-07-01

332

Cesium powder and pellets inner container decontamination method determination  

SciTech Connect

The cesium powder and pellets inner container is to be performance tested per the criteria specified in Section 4.0 of HNF-2399, ``Design, Fabrication, and Assembly Criteria for Cesium Powder and Pellet Inner Container.`` The test criteria specifies that the inner container be water tight during decontamination of the exterior surface. Three prototypes will be immersed into a pool of water to simulate a water decontamination process.

Ferrell, P.C.

1998-07-09

333

Role of condensate decontamination in single circuit atomic power stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that the principal impurities in the supply water of single-circuit atomic-power stations (APS) are corrosion products. In view of the high solubility of these impurities in saturated steam, the efficiency of their removal with the scavenging water is relatively low, and decontamination of the whole condensate in ion-exchange filters becomes necessary. This condensate decontamination also ensures continuous

T. Kh. Margulova

1967-01-01

334

Creating a Research Experience for Undergraduates that meets the Student Halfway: The REU Site on Sustainable Land and Water Resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are excellent opportunities for undergraduate students to participate in research programs across the country, but often they suffer from a lack of applicants from underrepresented groups and non-traditional students. Potential applicants are out there, but too often they are lost through the recruitment and application process. We present the results here of a decade of experience in reaching the students where they are at, metaphorically and physically. Each aspect of the REU recruitment and application process will be considered in terms of barriers to participation that occur before the student even applies, in the program design and application process. We examine the application itself, the recruiting process, reaching students through their mentors and student organizations, the non-traditional student, and how programs can be constructed that allow for a wider diversity of participants. The Research Experience for Undergraduates on Sustainable Land and Water Resources strives to meet the student at least halfway through our unique program design. Our team-orientated REU places teams of students at three sites: Salish Kootenai College on the Flathead Reservation in Montana, the Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Reservation in Northern Minnesota, and at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Students from across the country participate in research related to land and water resources while also learning about the sustainable management practices of these communities. Every effort is made to include the non-traditional student, including parents, through the design of the program, the materials we recruit with, and our application process. Students learn about all aspects of research, from experimental design, to field and laboratory practices, to modeling and quantitative analysis. In addition, all of our mentors are encouraged to work as a team to meet the individual needs of the students in our program—academic, cultural, and social—and work for student success.

Dalbotten, D. M.; Hill, K. M.; Berthelote, A. R.; Ito, E.; Pellerin, H.; Howes, T.; Myrbo, A.

2012-12-01

335

Exploration of the impacts of distributed-site Research Experiences for Undergraduates using pre-/post- student interviews  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The benefits for student participants of undergraduate research opportunities have been well documented. However, advancements in information and communications technologies (ICT) and cultural shifts around online education and virtual peer-to-peer interaction have lead to new models in which to structure such experiences. Currently, these ICT-enabled Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) programs connect geographically distributed interns in supportive e-learning communities while maintaining a traditional local mentoring arrangement. To document and explore the effects of distributed REU Sites in more depth, six interns from such a program, the Incorporated Research Institution for Seismology (IRIS) REU, were selected at random and asked to be interviewed about the REU experience. The primary targets of the interviews are to understand the mentor/mentee relationships, feeling of support and development and value of near-peer and far-peer relationships throughout their internship in a distributed REU program, and whether they receive the training necessary to gain confidence as a researcher. We also examine the various communication technologies as well as best practices and strategies that can increase intern connectedness. Pre-internship interviews were conducted in-person at the start of the centralized internship orientation week, while post-internship interviews were virtual (e.g. video chat with Skype or Google Hangout). These semi-structured interviews have full audio recordings and subsequent transcriptions. An additional, virtual follow-up interview will be conducted next spring after the interns have an opportunity to attend and present their research at a national conference (e.g., AGU). Interview material will be analyzed through a process of coding, sorting, local integration, and inclusive integration. Results will also be triangulated with pre- and post- survey data both from participants and other survey data from previous years of the IRIS program. Our presentation will highlight the key findings of these analyses. GeoCorps and RESESS will begin to employ this interview style assessment beginning this fall and next year, respectively, which will facilitate detailed comparisons between distributed and non-distributed REU approaches.

Colella, H.; Hubenthal, M.; Brudzinski, M. R.

2013-12-01

336

Kit systems for granulated decontamination formulations  

DOEpatents

A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a sorbent additive, and water. A highly adsorbent sorbent additive (e.g., amorphous silica, sorbitol, mannitol, etc.) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field. The formulation can be pre-mixed and pre-packaged as a multi-part kit system, where one or more of the parts are packaged in a powdered, granulated form for ease of handling and mixing in the field.

Tucker, Mark D. (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-07-06

337

Mobile worksystems for decontamination and dismantlement  

SciTech Connect

Many DOE nuclear facilities have aged beyond their useful lifetimes. They need to be decommissioned in order to be safe for human presence in the short term, to eventually recover valuable materials they contain, and ultimately to be transitioned to alternative uses or green field conditions. Decontamination and dismantlement are broad classes of activities that will enable these changes to occur. Most of these facilities - uranium enrichment plants, weapons assembly plants, research and production reactors, and fuel recycling facilities - are dormant, though periodic inspection, surveillance and maintenance activities within them are on-going. DOE estimates that there are over 5000 buildings that require deactivation to reduce the costs of performing such work with manual labor. In the long term, 1200 buildings will be decommissioned, and millions of metric tons of metal and concrete will have to be recycled or disposed of The magnitude of the problem calls for new approaches that are far more cost effective than currently available techniques. This paper describes two technologies that are viable solutions for facility D&D.

Osborn, J.; Bares, L.C.; Thompson, B.R.

1995-12-01

338

Mobile workstation for decontamination and decommissioning operations  

SciTech Connect

This project is an interdisciplinary effort to develop effective mobile worksystems for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities within the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex. These mobile worksystems will be configured to operate within the environmental and logistical constraints of such facilities and to perform a number of work tasks. Our program is designed to produce a mobile worksystem with capabilities and features that are matched to the particular needs of D&D work by evolving the design through a series of technological developments, performance tests and evaluations. The project has three phases. In this the first phase, an existing teleoperated worksystem, the Remote Work Vehicle (developed for use in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building basement), was enhanced for telerobotic performance of several D&D operations. Its ability to perform these operations was then assessed through a series of tests in a mockup facility that contained generic structures and equipment similar to those that D&D work machines will encounter in DOE facilities. Building upon the knowledge gained through those tests and evaluations, a next generation mobile worksystem, the RWV II, and a more advanced controller will be designed, integrated and tested in the second phase, which is scheduled for completion in January 1995. The third phase of the project will involve testing of the RWV II in the real DOE facility.

Whittaker, W.L.; Osborn, J.F.; Thompson, B.R. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Robotics Inst.

1993-10-01

339

Mars 96 small station biological decontamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of extraterrestrial exploration missions and since the beginning of solar system exploration, it is required, according to the article IX of the Outer Space Treaty (London/Washington January 27, 1967) to preserve planets and the Earth from cross contamination. Consequently, COSPAR (Committee of Space Research) has established some planetary protection recommendations in order to protect the environments of other worlds from biological contamination by terrestrial microorganisms, to protect exobiological science for searching for life on planets, and to protect the Earth's environment from back contamination. For the upcoming Mars exploration missions, and after updating the planetary protection recommendations, a biological decontamination program has been designed for Mars 96 landers. After sterilization or biocleaning of equipment and instruments, these are integrated into a cleanroom and kept in sterile conditions with recontamination control in order to satisfy the surface contamination requirements. The Mars 96 orbiter does not need any implementation of sterilization procedures because the probability of spacecraft crash does not exceed 10^-5 and because it's orbit is in accordance with quarantine requirements (orbit lifetime with 0.9999 confidence for the first 20 years and 0.95 confidence during the next 20 years). For the Mars 96 small stations, different methods have been used and especially for the French and Finnish payload, a complete description of hydrogen peroxide gas plasma sterilization will be given, including bioburden assessments and sterility level determination. Probe integration implementation and procedures are described in the second part of this paper.

Debus, A.; Runavot, J.; Rogovski, G.; Bogomolov, V.; Khamidullina, N.; Darbord, J. C.; Plombin, B. J.; Trofimov, V.; Ivanov, M.

340

Web damage and feeding experience influence web site tenacity in the orb-web spider Argiope keyserlingi Karsch  

Microsoft Academic Search

For orb-web spiders, the decision to remain at a particular site or to relocate elsewhere will ultimately depend on the quality of the site. In the past, the quality of the site has been measured in terms of prey availability; spiders experiencing large numbers of prey items are less likely to relocate. However, regular web damage caused by larger nonprey

Kate Chmiel; Marie E. Herberstein; Mark A. Elgar

2000-01-01

341

Vibrations on the Roll - MANA, a Roll Along Array Experiment to map Local Site Effects Across a Fault System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of surficial geology on seismic motion (site effects) are considered one of the major controlling factors to the damage distribution during earthquakes. Qualitative and quantitative estimates of local site amplifications provide important information for the identification of potential high risk areas. In this context, the analysis of ambient vibrations is an attractive tool for the mapping of site

M. Ohrnberger; F. Scherbaum; K. G. Hinzen; S. K. Reamer; B. Weber

2001-01-01

342

Decontamination of metal surfaces in nuclear power reactors  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of decontaminating metal surfaces coated with oxides containing radioactive substances which consists of: (A) providing a decontamination solution which comprises (1) water; (2) about 0.02 to about 0.5% of at least one water-soluble organic acid which has an equilibrium constant in a complex with ferric ion of at least 10/sup 9/, and which is capable of producing a pH of 2 to 3 in water; and (3) about 0.01 to about 0.4% of a chelate in free acid form which has an equilibrium constant in a complex with ferric ion of about 10/sup 15/ to about 10/sup 19/, and which is soluble at at least 0.4% at 40/sup 0/C in water having a pH of about 2 to about 3; (B) heating the decontamination solution to about 70/sup 0/ to about 200/sup 0/C; (C) circulating the decontamination solution over he metal surfaces and through a cation exchange resin until until the radioactivity of the decontamination solution does not increase significantly after contacting the metal surfaces; (D) providing an oxidizing solution which comprises (1) water; (2) 0.2 to 2.5% of an alkali metal permanganate; and (3) about 0.2 to about 2.5% of an alkali metal hydroxide; (E) heating the oxidizing solution to about 70/sup 0/ to about 200/sup 0/C; (F) circulating the oxidizing solution over the metal surfaces until the dichromate level in the oxidizing solution ceases to increase significantly; and (G) circulating the decontamination solution over the metal surfaces and through a cation exchange resin until the radioactivity of the decontamination solution does not increase significantly after contacting the metal surfaces.

Murray, A.P.; Weisberg, S.L.; Becker, L.F. Jr.

1986-05-06

343

Decontamination Strategy for Large Area and/or Equipment Contaminated with Chemical and Biological Agents using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL)  

SciTech Connect

A strategy for the decontamination of large areas and or equipment contaminated with Biological Warfare Agents (BWAs) and Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) was demonstrated using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL) photolysis system. This strategy offers an alternative that is potentially quicker, less hazardous, generates far less waste, and is easier to deploy than those currently fielded by the Department of Defense (DoD). For example, for large frame aircraft the United States Air Force still relies on the combination of weathering (stand alone in environment), air washing (fly aircraft) and finally washing the aircraft with Hot Soapy Water (HSW) in an attempt to remove any remaining contamination. This method is laborious, time consuming (upwards of 12+ hours not including decontamination site preparation), and requires large amounts of water (e.g., 1,600+ gallons for a single large frame aircraft), and generates large amounts of hazardous waste requiring disposal. The efficacy of the HEAL system was demonstrated using diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP) a G series CWA simulant, and Bacillus globigii (BG) a simulant of Bacillus anthracis. Experiments were designed to simulate the energy flux of a field deployable lamp system that could stand-off 17 meters from a 12m2 target area and uniformly expose a surface at 1360 W/m2. The HEAL system in the absence of a catalyst reduced the amount of B. globigii by five orders of magnitude at a starting concentration of 1.63 x 107 spores. In the case of CWA simulants, the HEAL system in the presence of the catalyst TiO2 effectively degraded DIMP sprayed onto a 100mm diameter Petri dish in 5 minutes.

Schoske, Richard [ORNL; Kennedy, Patrick [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Smith, Rob R [ORNL; Huxford, Theodore J [ORNL; Bonavita, Angelo M [ORNL; Engleman, Greg [ORNL; Vass, Arpad Alexander [ORNL; Griest, Wayne H [ORNL; Ilgner, Ralph H [ORNL; Brown, Gilbert M [ORNL

2009-04-01

344

Results of a cleanup and treatment test at the Nevada test site: evaluation of vacuum removal of Pu-contaminated soil.  

PubMed

We have conducted experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of removing contaminated soils from the Nevada Test Site with a large truck-mounted vacuum cleaner. Our results show that this method is effective, relatively easy, and safe for equipment operators. With four passes of the truck-mounted vacuum, 92% of the 241Am (and the accompanying 239 + 240Pu) was removed and resuspension rates were reduced by more than 99%. The ecological impact was, however, serious in terms of soil erosion and destruction of small animal habitats. Compared to standard earth-moving techniques, vacuuming permits a significant reduction in the volume of soil collected to achieve the desired level of decontamination, and the volume reduction could result in cost savings for packaging, shipment, and burial. This cost savings would only be realized for projects involving decontamination of the top 5 cm of soil. PMID:2592211

Shinn, J H; Essington, E H; Miller, F L; O'Farrell, T P; Orcutt, J A; Romney, E M; Shugart, J W; Sorom, E R

1989-11-01

345

Decontamination Systems Information and Reseach Program  

SciTech Connect

The following paragraphs comprise the research efforts during the first quarter of 1998 (January 1 - March 31). These tasks have been granted a continuation from the 1997 work and will all end in June 1998. This report represents the last technical quarterly report deliverable for the WVU Cooperative Agreement - Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program. Final reports for all of the 1997 projects will be submitted afterwards as one document. During this period, groundwater extraction operations were completed on Task 1.6 - Pilot Scale Demonstration of TCE Flushing Through PVDs at the DOE/RMI Extrusion Plant. The data have been evaluated and graphs are presented. The plot of TCE Concentration versus Time shows that the up-gradient groundwater monitoring well produced consistent levels of TCE contamination. A similar trend was observed for the down-gradient wells via grab samples tested. Groundwater samples from the PVD test pad Zone of Influence showed consistent reductions in TCE concentrations with respect to time. In addition, a natural pulse frequency is evident which will have a significant impact on the efficiency of the contaminant removal under natural groundwater advection/diffusion processes. The relationships between the PVD Extraction Flow Rate versus Cumulative Time shows a clear trend in flow rate. Consistent values between 20 to 30 g.p.m. at the beginning of the extraction duration, to less than 10 g.p.m. by the end of the extraction cycle are observed. As evidenced by the aquifer?s diminishing recharge levels, the PVD extraction is affecting the response of the aquifer?s natural attenuation capability. Progress was also marked on the Injection and Circulation of Potable Water Through PVDs task. Data reduction from this sequence of testing is ongoing. Work planned for next quarter includes completing the Injection / Extraction of potable water task and beginning the Surfactant Injection and removal task.

Echol E. Cook

1998-04-01

346

Skin decontamination cream for radiological contaminants: Formulation development and evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background: Increased use of the radioactive materials in the field of research, medical, nuclear power plant, and industry has increased the risk of accidental exposure. Intentional use of the radioisotopes by terrorist organizations could cause exposure/contamination of a number of the population. In view of the accidental contamination, there is a need to develop self-usable decontamination formulations that could be used immediately after contamination is suspected. Materials and Methods: Present work was planned to optimize and develop self-usable radiation decontamination cream formulation. Various pharmaceutical parameters were characterized. 99mTc-sodium pertechnetate was used as radiocontaminant. Static counts were recorded before and after decontamination using single photon emission computed tomography. Results: Decontamination efficacy of the cream was found to be 42% ± 3% at 0-0.5 h after the exposure. Primary skin irritancy test was satisfactory as no erythema or edema was observed visually after 2 weeks of the formulation application. Conclusion: The decontamination studies proved the potential of EDTA to remove the radiological contaminants effectively. PMID:23799206

Khan, Abdul Wadood; Kotta, Sabna; Rana, Sudha; Ansari, Shahid Husain; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Ali, Javed

2013-01-01

347

Characteristics of low-level radioactive waste: Decontamination waste  

SciTech Connect

The objective of Project FIN A6359, Characteristics of Low-Level Radioactive Waste: Decontamination Waste Forms,'' funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is to provide base-line data on the stability and leachability of solidified decontamination wastes that are generated at operating commercial nuclear power stations following the chemical decontamination of primary coolant systems. This work is being performed to assess the adequacy of tests identified in Technical Position on Waste Forms,'' prepared by the NRC Low-Level Waste Management Branch, to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61. As part of the project, samples of decontamination waste stream resins and cement waste forms were obtained from commercial nuclear power stations. During Fiscal Year 1990, samples from the FitzPatrick and Brunswick nuclear stations were examined. Samples were subjected to the leach tests described in Technical Position on Waste Forms'' to assess the effects of the decontamination wastes on the stability and leachability of the waste forms. Demineralized water and four different synthetic leachates with pH ranging from 4.2 to 10.4 were used for the tests. The results of these tests are tabulated and preliminary analyses are presented. In addition, samples from the Peach Bottom nuclear station were acquired for examination during Fiscal Year 1991. 1 ref., 21 tabs.

McIsaac, C.V.; Akers, D.W. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

1991-02-01

348

Skylab 3 preliminary reference Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP) pass planning document. Volume 2: EREP sites and S190 swath study of selected revs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ground tracks and S190 swaths are presented of selected revolutions over areas containing earth resources experiment package (EREP) sites. The following eight EREP disciplines are shown: sensor performance evaluation, forestry, geology, hydrology, land use mapping, oceanography, pollution, and weather. Most of the data reported consists of passes over the continental United States.

Lunde, A. N.

1971-01-01

349

Site evaluation and RFI spectrum measurements in Portugal at the frequency range 0.408 10 GHz for a GEM polarized galactic radio emission experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We probed for radio frequency interference (RFI) at three potential galactic emission mapping experiment (GEM) sites in Portugal using custom made omnidirectional disconic antennas and directional pyramidal horn antennas. For the installation of a 10-m dish dedicated to the mapping of polarized galactic emission foreground planned for 2005-2007 in the 5-10 GHz band, the three sites chosen as suitable to host the antenna were surveyed for local radio pollution in the frequency range 0.01-10 GHz. Tests were done to look for radio broadcasting and mobile phone emission lines in the radio spectrum. The results show one of the sites to be almost entirely RFI clean and showing good conditions to host the experiment.

Fonseca, Rui; Barbosa, Domingos; Cupido, Luis; Mourão, Ana; dos Santos, Dinis M.; Smoot, George F.; Tello, Camilo

2006-07-01

350

40 CFR 265.114 - Disposal or decontamination of equipment, structures and soils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. 265.114 Section 265.114 Protection...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. During the partial and final closure...contaminated equipment, structures and soil must be properly disposed of,...

2012-07-01

351

40 CFR 264.114 - Disposal or decontamination of equipment, structures and soils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. 264.114 Section 264.114 Protection...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. During the partial and final closure...contaminated equipment, structures and soils must be properly disposed of or...

2012-07-01

352

40 CFR 265.114 - Disposal or decontamination of equipment, structures and soils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. 265.114 Section 265.114 Protection...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. During the partial and final closure...contaminated equipment, structures and soil must be properly disposed of,...

2011-07-01

353

40 CFR 265.114 - Disposal or decontamination of equipment, structures and soils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. 265.114 Section 265.114 Protection...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. During the partial and final closure...contaminated equipment, structures and soil must be properly disposed of,...

2013-07-01

354

40 CFR 264.114 - Disposal or decontamination of equipment, structures and soils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. 264.114 Section 264.114 Protection...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. During the partial and final closure...contaminated equipment, structures and soils must be properly disposed of or...

2011-07-01

355

40 CFR 264.114 - Disposal or decontamination of equipment, structures and soils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. 264.114 Section 264.114 Protection...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. During the partial and final closure...contaminated equipment, structures and soils must be properly disposed of or...

2013-07-01

356

Vaporous Decontamination Methods: Potential Uses and Research Priorities for Chemical and Biological Contamination Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vaporous decontamination methods were used in the remediation of anthrax contaminated buildings following the 2001 attacks in the U.S.A. Since then the development of vaporous decontamination methods has received considerable interest with significant adv...

A. M. McAnoy

2006-01-01

357

Soil removal as a decontamination practice and radiocesium accumulation in tadpoles in rice paddies at Fukushima.  

PubMed

We investigated the biological accumulation of radiocesium in tadpoles [Rana (Pelophylax) porosa porosa] in rice paddies with and without decontamination practice at Fukushima. Radiocesium was accumulated in surface part of soils both in the control and decontaminated paddies one year after decontamination. Mean (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations in tadpoles in the control and decontaminated paddies were 3000 and 4500, and 600 and 890 Bq/kg dry weight, respectively. Radiocesium concentrations in surface soil (0-5 cm depth) and tadpoles in the decontaminated paddy were five times smaller than in the control paddy. These results suggest that decontamination practice can reduce radiocesium concentrations in both soil and tadpoles. However, at the decontaminated paddy, radiocesium concentrations in surface soils became 3.8 times greater one year after decontamination, which indicates that monitoring the subsequent movement of radiocesium in rice paddies and surrounding areas is essential for examining contamination propagation. PMID:24463474

Sakai, Masaru; Gomi, Takashi; Nunokawa, Masanori; Wakahara, Taeko; Onda, Yuichi

2014-04-01

358

40 CFR 265.114 - Disposal or decontamination of equipment, structures and soils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. 265.114 Section 265.114 Protection...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. During the partial and final closure...contaminated equipment, structures and soil must be properly disposed of,...

2010-07-01

359

40 CFR 264.114 - Disposal or decontamination of equipment, structures and soils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. 264.114 Section 264.114 Protection...decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. During the partial and final closure...contaminated equipment, structures and soils must be properly disposed of or...

2010-07-01

360

Report on the decontamination and decommissioning of the Technical (T) Building at Mound Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The T Building was used for separation and purification of ²¹°Po. General and special termination procedures and equipment used in its decontamination and decommissioning are described. Recommendations are given for improvements of equipment for easier decontamination in the future. (DLC)

K. V. Gilbert; E. M. Wright; R. D. Madding

1976-01-01

361

Systems analysis of decontamination options for civilian vehicles.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project, which was supported by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) Chemical and Biological Division (CBD), was to investigate options for the decontamination of the exteriors and interiors of vehicles in the civilian setting in order to restore those vehicles to normal use following the release of a highly toxic chemical. The decontamination of vehicles is especially challenging because they often contain sensitive electronic equipment, multiple materials some of which strongly adsorb chemical agents, and in the case of aircraft, have very rigid material compatibility requirements (i.e., they cannot be exposed to reagents that may cause even minor corrosion). A systems analysis approach was taken examine existing and future civilian vehicle decontamination capabilities.

Foltz, Greg W.; Hoette, Trisha Marie

2010-11-01

362

Dwell time considerations for large area cold plasma decontamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric discharge cold plasmas have been shown to be effective in the reduction of pathogenic bacteria and spores and in the decontamination of simulated chemical warfare agents, without the generation of toxic or harmful by-products. Cold plasmas may also be useful in assisting cleanup of radiological "dirty bombs." For practical applications in realistic scenarios, the plasma applicator must have both a large area of coverage, and a reasonably short dwell time. However, the literature contains a wide range of reported dwell times, from a few seconds to several minutes, needed to achieve a given level of reduction. This is largely due to different experimental conditions, and especially, different methods of generating the decontaminating plasma. We consider these different approaches and attempt to draw equivalencies among them, and use this to develop requirements for a practical, field-deployable plasma decontamination system. A plasma applicator with 12 square inches area and integral high voltage, high frequency generator is described.

Konesky, Gregory

2009-05-01

363

Decontamination and decommissioning activities photobriefing book FY 1998.  

SciTech Connect

Fiscal Year (FY) 1998 was very successful in terms of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) project completions. This photobriefing book highlights these projects and activities in one ongoing project. Brief descriptions of projects planned for the future are also provided. Two D&D projects funded by the US DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM-40) were completed safely and on schedule in FY 1998: (1) Argonne Thermal Source Reactor (ATSR) was a low-power research reactor that operated from 1950 to 1989; and (2) The Building 594 (a.k.a. 579) Waste Ion-Exchange Facility was an obsolete facility constructed in the 1950s to process waste fluids from a collecting lagoon. Field work at one project was ongoing during FY 1998: (1) Chicago Pile 5 (CP-5) was a 5-megawatt, heavy water-moderated, enriched uranium-fueled reactor used to produce neutrons for scientific research from 1954-79. The reactor was shut down and defueled in 1979. D&D is scheduled to be completed in FY 2000. Project experience has lent itself to developing unique staff capabilities. The D&D group was chosen as lead organization for a project supported with operating funds provided by Argonne's Plant Facilities and Services (PFS) Division. This project was also completed safely and on schedule in FY 1998: (1) The Building 200/205 Pneumatic Transfer Tube was constructed in the late 1960s between Hot Cell M-4 in Building 200 and a glove box in Room F-131, Building 205, and used to transfer irradiated fuel specimens and other samples between the two buildings.

NONE

1999-07-23

364

Decontamination and functional reclamation of dredged brackish sediments.  

PubMed

The continuous stream of sediments, dredged from harbors and waterways for keeping shipping traffic efficiency, is a considerable ongoing problem recognized worldwide. This problem gets worse as most of the sediments dredged from commercial ports and waterways turn out to be polluted by a wide range of organic and inorganic contaminants. In this study, phytoremediation was explored as a sustainable reclamation technology for turning slightly-polluted brackish dredged sediments into a matrix feasible for productive use. To test this possibility, a phytoremediation experimentation was carried out in containers of about 0.7 m(3) each, filled with brackish dredged sediments contaminated by heavy metals and hydrocarbons. The sediments were pre-conditioned by adding an agronomic soil (30 % v/v) to improve their clayey granulometric composition, and by topping the mixture with high quality compost (4 kg m(-2)) to favour the initial adaptation of the selected vegetal species. The following plant treatments were tested: (1) Paspalum vaginatum, (2) Phragmites australis, (3) Spartium junceum + P. vaginatum, (4) Nerium oleander + P. vaginatum, (5) Tamarix gallica + P. vaginatum, and (6) unplanted control. Eighteen months after the beginning of the experimentation, all the plant species were found in healthy condition and well developed. Throughout the whole experiment, the monitored biological parameters (total microbial population and dehydrogenase activity) were generally observed as constantly increasing in all the planted sediments more than in the control, pointing out an improvement of the chemico-physical conditions of both microorganisms and plants. The concentration decrease of organic and inorganic contaminants (>35 and 20 %, respectively) in the treatments with plants, particularly in the T. gallica + P. vaginatum, confirmed the importance of the root-microorganism interaction in activating the decontamination processes. Finally, the healthy state of the plants and the sediment characteristics, approaching those of an uncontaminated natural soil (technosoil), indicated the efficiency and success of this technology for brackish sediments reclamation. PMID:23183938

Doni, S; Macci, C; Peruzzi, E; Iannelli, R; Ceccanti, B; Masciandaro, G

2013-07-01

365

US Department of Energy Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project. Final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of Building 52 at the Grand Junction Projects Office Facility  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) occupies a 61.7-acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot milling experiments conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the GJPO Remedial Action Project to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor for the facility, Rust Geotech, also was the remedial action contractor. Building 52 was found to be radiologically contaminated and was demolished in 1994. The soil area within the footprint of the building has been remediated in accordance with the identified standards and the area can be released for unlimited exposure and unrestricted use. This document was prepared in response to a DOE request for an individual final report for each contaminated GJPO building.

Krabacher, J.E.

1996-08-01

366

The reactions of sulfur mustard with the active components of organic decontaminants.  

PubMed

Reactions of sulfur mustard with active components of decontaminants ORO and C9 (Polish abbreviations of organic decontaminating solutions) were studied and their products were identified by GC/AED. Quantitative determinations of individual products in the reaction mixtures allowed to evaluate the kinetic parameters of the mustard reactions. The major decontamination product was divinyl sulfide, the product of the elimination reaction. At certain proportions of mustard to the decontaminant's active component, substitution products were also formed. PMID:15978721

Popiel, Stanis?aw; Witkiewicz, Zygfryd; Nalepa, Tomasz

2005-08-31

367

Decontamination of 2-chloroethyl ethylsulfide using titanate nanoscrolls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanate nanoscrolls, a recently discovered variant of TiO 2 nanocrystals, are tested as reactive sorbent for chemical warfare agent (CWA) decontamination. The large surface area of the uncapped tubules provides the desired rapid absorption of the contaminant while water molecules, intrinsic constituents of titanate nanoscrolls, provide the necessary chemistry for hydrolytic reaction. In this study the decomposition of 2-chloroethyl ethylsulfide (CEES), a simulant for the CWA mustard, was monitored using 13C NMR. The NMR spectra reveal reaction products as expected from the hydrolysis of CEES. This demonstrates that titanate nanoscrolls could potentially be employed as a decontaminant for CWAs.

Kleinhammes, Alfred; Wagner, George W.; Kulkarni, Harsha; Jia, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Qi; Qin, Lu-Chang; Wu, Yue

2005-08-01

368

Decontamination of Dredged Material from The Port of New York and New Jersey  

E-print Network

Decontamination of Dredged Material from The Port of New York and New Jersey .K.W. Jones Brookhaven copyrightcoveringthispaper. #12;Decontamination of Dredged Material from The Port of New York and New Jersey K. W. Jones the dredging operations required for the efficient operation of the Port. Decontamination and beneficial reuse

Brookhaven National Laboratory

369

Office of Fusion Energy recommendations on the Elmo Bumpy Torus proof-of-principle experiment site selection  

SciTech Connect

This report provies background information and rationale for the procedures used and decisions made up to this point. A brief history and technical description of the EBT concept are given. The OFE recommendations as to siting are included. (MOW)

None

1980-09-09

370

Aliphatic hydrocarbons in an oil-contaminated soil: Carbon economy during microbiological decontamination.  

PubMed

Microbial decontamination of hydrocarbon-polluted soil was paralleled with soil respiration measurements. About 1,500 tons of a loamy top soil were found to be contaminated with approximately 2000 mg/kg of aliphatic hydrocarbons, mainly oleic (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) found in the vicinity of a linoleum manufacturing and then a car dewaxing plant. The contaminated soil was analysed for dry matter, pH, dehydrogenase activity, electrical conductivity and nutrient content viz. nitrate, phosphorus and potassium, as well as a number of indigenous microbes. The soil was low in salt and nutrients. This paper describes the procedure and measures to decontaminate this bulk soil on site from approx. 2,000 to 500 mg of aliphatic hydrocarbons/kg dry matter by use of a nutrient emulsion, indigenous micro-organisms and aeration over 13 months. This 75% reduction in aliphatic hydrocarbons resulted in a concomitant carbon efflux, measured as soil respiration, and was used to calculate carbon fluxes. PMID:19005855

Wibbe, M L; Blanke, M M

1999-01-01

371

Colonie Interim Storage Site annual site environmental report for calendar year 1989, Colonie, New York  

SciTech Connect

IN 1984, Congress assigned the cleanup of the National Lead (NL) Industries site in Colonie, New York, to the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a decontamination research and development project under the 1984 Energy and Water Appropriations Act. DOE then included the site in the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), an existing DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain for the early years of the nation's atomic energy program. DOE instituted an environmental monitoring program at the site in 1984. Results are presented annually in reports such as this. Under FUSRAP, the first environmental monitoring report for this site presented data for calendar year 1984. This report presents the findings of the environmental monitoring program conducted during calendar year 1989. 16 refs., 17 figs., 14 tabs.

Not Available

1990-05-01

372

Testing, expanding and implementing pollution prevention tools for environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning  

SciTech Connect

Pollution Prevention (P2) programs and projects within the DOE Environmental Restoration (ER) and Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Programs have been independently developed and implemented at various sites. As a result, unique, innovative solutions used at one site may not be known to other sites, and other sites may continue to duplicate efforts to develop and implement similar solutions. Several DOE Program offices have funded the development of tools to assist ER/D and D P2 projects. To realize the full value of these tools, they need to be evaluated and publicized to field sites. To address these needs and concerns, Sandia National Laboratory (SNL/NM), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) have teamed to pilot test DOE training and tracking tools; transfer common P2 analyses between sites, and evaluate and expand P2 tools and methodologies. The project is supported by FY 98 DOE Pollution Prevention Complex-Wide Project Funds. This paper presents the preliminary results for each of the following project modules: Training, Waste Tracking Pilot, Information Exchange, Evaluate P2 Tools for ER/D and D, Field Test of P2 Tools; and DOE Information Exchange.

Roybal, J.A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McInroy, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Watson, J. [GTS Duratek, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mizner, J. [ICF Kaiser, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-06-01

373

Validation, Revision, and Evaluation of a Clinical Experience Using Ambulatory Care Facilities as Learning Sites for Student Nurses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study confirmed the need for an ambulatory nursing experience as part of the vocational nursing (VN) program at the Long Beach City College (LBCC). Information on which to base the revision of the ambulatory care (AC) experience was obtained from a literature review and interviews with the following: AC administrators, California Board of…

Gregory, Faye M.

374

Interpretation of seismic data from hydraulic fracturing experiments at the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, hot dry rock geothermal site  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt was made to synthesize the results of active seismic experiments carried out by the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Hot Dry Rock Project staff for determining the geometrical and physical properties of the fracture system produced by hydraulic fracturing in a hot, low-permeability rock. Interpretation of data from several reflection, transmission, and attenuation experiments using seismic probes in the

Keiiti Aki; Michael Fehler; R. L. Aamodt; J. N. Albright; R. M. Potter; C. M. Pearson; J. W. Tester

1982-01-01

375

Chemical decontamination technical resources at Los Alamos National Laboratory (2008)  

SciTech Connect

This document supplies information resources for a person seeking to create planning or pre-planning documents for chemical decontamination operations. A building decontamination plan can be separated into four different sections: Pre-planning, Characterization, Decontamination (Initial response and also complete cleanup), and Clearance. Of the identified Los Alamos resources, they can be matched with these four sections: Pre-planning -- Dave Seidel, EO-EPP, Emergency Planning and Preparedness; David DeCroix and Bruce Letellier, D-3, Computational fluids modeling of structures; Murray E. Moore, RP-2, Aerosol sampling and ventilation engineering. Characterization (this can include development projects) -- Beth Perry, IAT-3, Nuclear Counterterrorism Response (SNIPER database); Fernando Garzon, MPA-11, Sensors and Electrochemical Devices (development); George Havrilla, C-CDE, Chemical Diagnostics and Engineering; Kristen McCabe, B-7, Biosecurity and Public Health. Decontamination -- Adam Stively, EO-ER, Emergency Response; Dina Matz, IHS-IP, Industrial hygiene; Don Hickmott, EES-6, Chemical cleanup. Clearance (validation) -- Larry Ticknor, CCS-6, Statistical Sciences.

Moore, Murray E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

376

Decontamination of Mutually Contaminated Models Gilles Blanchard Clayton Scott  

E-print Network

Decontamination of Mutually Contaminated Models Gilles Blanchard Clayton Scott Universit¨at Potsdam International Con- ference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics (AISTATS) 2014, Reykjavik, Iceland. JMLR: W will in general lead to a biased classifier at test time (Scott et al., 2013), and in particular be asymptotically

Scott, Clayton

377

SEDIMENT DECONTAMINATION TREATMENT TRAIN: COMMERCIAL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION  

E-print Network

of dredged material is a component of a comprehensive Dredged Material Management Plan for the Port of New York and New Jersey. We describe here a regional contaminated sediment decontamination program information for commercial scale operations. This pilot test was completed in March, 1999. The next phase

Brookhaven National Laboratory

378

Decontamination of Hypercubes by Mobile Agents Paola Flocchini  

E-print Network

a contaminated neighbour. We consider some variations of the model based on the capabilities of mobile agents as an alternative system requirement. For each model, we design a decontamination strategy and we make several, contam- inated, or guarded. A node is guarded when it contains at least one agent, clean when an agent

Flocchini, Paola

379

10. INTERIOR VIEW OF DECONTAMINATION ROOM ON MAIN FLOOR. CAMERA ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. INTERIOR VIEW OF DECONTAMINATION ROOM ON MAIN FLOOR. CAMERA FACING SOUTH. NOTE DRAIN PAN ON FLOOR. THIS WAS THE ONLY PROCESS-RELATED ROOM ACCESSIBLE TO PHOTOGRAPHER. INEEL PROOF SHEET NOT NUMBERED. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

380

8. DETAIL VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF BUILDING, DECONTAMINATION ROOM. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. DETAIL VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF BUILDING, DECONTAMINATION ROOM. BETWEEN DATE OF THIS VIEW AND THAT OF ID-33-C-4, EXTERIOR TANK AND PIPING HAS BEEN REMOVED. INEEL PROOF NUMBER HD-17-1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

381

Ultrasonic decontamination of prototype fast breeder reactor fuel pins.  

PubMed

Fuel pin decontamination is the process of removing particulates of radioactive material from its exterior surface. It is an important process step in nuclear fuel fabrication. It assumes more significance with plutonium bearing fuel known to be highly radio-toxic owing to its relatively longer biological half life and shorter radiological half life. Release of even minute quantity of plutonium oxide powder in the atmosphere during its handling can cause alarming air borne activity and may pose a severe health hazard to personnel working in the vicinity. Decontamination of fuel pins post pellet loading operation is thus mandatory before they are removed from the glove box for further processing and assembly. This paper describes the setting up of ultrasonic decontamination process, installed inside a custom built fume-hood in the production line, comprising of a cleaning tank with transducers, heaters, pin handling device and water filtration system and its application in cleaning of fuel pins for prototype fast breeder reactor. The cleaning process yielded a typical decontamination efficiency of more than 99%. PMID:24405906

Kumar, Aniruddha; Bhatt, R B; Behere, P G; Afzal, Mohd

2014-04-01

382

Research on the low-temperature decontamination of soil  

SciTech Connect

Decontamination of organically contaminated soil requires at least two processes: (1) separation of the contaminants from the soil and (2) destruction or stabilization and recovery of the organic contaminants. Techniques used to convert the organic contaminants must produce environmentally acceptable products. A process is seen as more favorable if the inorganic portion remaining after destruction of the organic contaminants retains a {open_quotes}natural{close_quotes} state, since ideally the residual should be returned to the original ecological system. Low-temperature plasma (LTP) processing has the potential to offer decontamination equivalent to incineration with decreased production of harmful by-products and without changing the morphology of the inorganic matrix. Low-temperature plasmas are formed by electric discharge (rather than thermal means) at conditions that do not result in thermal equilibrium. It is possible with an LTP system for typical plasma reactions to occur at nearly ambient bulk temperatures. The purpose of this project is to perform the appropriate engineering evaluations needed to scale up an LTP soil decontamination process developed at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). The LTP process under development uses oxygen plasma, resulting in oxidation of the contaminant species. Previous research at the EERC proved that the technique successfully separates organic contaminants from soil. The success of this previous research indicated that the use of LTP as a decontamination technique should be investigated further, with possible scale up to real-world application.

Hetland, M.D.; Rindt, J.R. [Univ. of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

1995-10-01

383

Effectiveness of a decontamination method for donor corneas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study was made of the effectiveness of an eye bank decontamination and storage method. A comparison was made between microbial cultures taken from the limbus at enucleation and from scleral remnants recovered after surgery. Organisms were isolated from the limbus of 73% of donor eyes and from 4% of remnants. Standard eye bank procedures were found to eradicate

P R Badenoch; S J Alfrich; T R Wedding; D J Coster

1988-01-01

384

A decontamination study of simulated chemical and biological agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive decontamination scheme of the chemical and biological agents, including airborne agents and surface contaminating agents, is presented. When a chemical and biological attack occurs, it is critical to decontaminate facilities or equipments to an acceptable level in a very short time. The plasma flame presented here may provide a rapid and effective elimination of toxic substances in the interior air in isolated spaces. As an example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22cm diameter and 30cm length, purifies air with an airflow rate of 5000l/min contaminated with toluene, the simulated chemical agent, and soot from a diesel engine, the simulated aerosol for biological agents. Although the airborne agents in an isolated space are eliminated to an acceptable level by the plasma flame, the decontamination of the chemical and biological agents cannot be completed without cleaning surfaces of the facilities. A simulated sterilization study of micro-organisms was carried out using the electrolyzed ozone water. The electrolyzed ozone water very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) within 3min. The electrolyzed ozone water also kills the vegetative micro-organisms, fungi, and virus. The electrolyzed ozone water, after the decontamination process, disintegrates into ordinary water and oxygen without any trace of harmful materials to the environment.

Uhm, Han S.; Lee, Han Y.; Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Park, Yun H.; Hong, Yi F.; Lee, Chong K.

2007-07-01

385

Decontamination Methods For Drinking Water Treatment And Distribution Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

Once contamination has occurred in drinking water systems and the contaminated segment has been isolated from other parts of the system, there will be great urgency to decontaminate the areas as rapidly and cost effectively as possible. This article describes available and deve...

386

Atmospheric-pressure plasma decontamination/sterilization chamber  

DOEpatents

An atmospheric-pressure plasma decontamination/sterilization chamber is described. The apparatus is useful for decontaminating sensitive equipment and materials, such as electronics, optics and national treasures, which have been contaminated with chemical and/or biological warfare agents, such as anthrax, mustard blistering agent, VX nerve gas, and the like. There is currently no acceptable procedure for decontaminating such equipment. The apparatus may also be used for sterilization in the medical and food industries. Items to be decontaminated or sterilized are supported inside the chamber. Reactive gases containing atomic and metastable oxygen species are generated by an atmospheric-pressure plasma discharge in a He/O.sub.2 mixture and directed into the region of these items resulting in chemical reaction between the reactive species and organic substances. This reaction typically kills and/or neutralizes the contamination without damaging most equipment and materials. The plasma gases are recirculated through a closed-loop system to minimize the loss of helium and the possibility of escape of aerosolized harmful substances.

Herrmann, Hans W. (Los Alamos, NM); Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-01-01

387

Investigating the Macrodispersion Experiment (MADE) site in Columbus, Mississippi, using a three-dimensional inverse flow and transport model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flowmeter-measured hydraulic conductivities from the heterogeneous MADE site have been used predictively in advection-dispersion models. Resulting simulated concentrations failed to reproduce even major plume characteristics and some have concluded that other mechanisms, such as dual porosity, are important. Here an alternative possibility is investigated: that the small-scale flowmeter measurements are too noisy and possibly too biased to use so directly in site-scale models and that the hydraulic head and transport data are more suitable for site-scale characterization. Using a calibrated finite element model of the site and a new framework to evaluate random and systematic model and measurement errors, the following conclusions are derived. (1) If variations in subsurface fluid velocities like those simulated in this work (0.1 and 2.0 m per day along parallel and reasonably close flow paths) exist, it is likely that classical advection-dispersion processes can explain the measured plume characteristics. (2) The flowmeter measurements are possibly systematically lower than site-scale values when the measurements are considered individually and using common averaging methods and display variability that obscures abrupt changes in hydraulic conductivities that are well supported by changes in hydraulic gradients and are important to the simulation of transport.

Barlebo, H. C.; Hill, M. C.; Rosbjerg, D.

2004-01-01

388

Decontamination of the Warm Aisles at the West Valley Demonstration Project. Final topical report, January 1985-February 1986  

SciTech Connect

The West Valley Demonstration Project is a DOE project to solidify in a glass form the 2,120 m/sup 3/ (560,000 gallons) of liquid high-level waste stored in two underground steel tanks at the site of the world's first commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, West Valley, New York. One project objective is to utilize as much of the existing plant areas as practical for the installation of solidification support systems. Previously, Extraction Cell Three (XC3) and the Product Purification Cell (PPC) had been chosen as the location of the Liquid Waste Treatment System (LWTS). Subsequently, it was decided that areas of the Upper Warm Aisle (UWA) and the Lower Warm Aisle (LWA) which are located adjacent to the south wall of XC3 and PPC would also be needed for the installation of LWTS equipment. Shielded concrete niches which contained pumps and valve manifolds are located in the warm aisles. One pump niche and one valve manifold niche in the UWA and one pump niche in the LWA were identified as needed for the LWTS. Also, it was necessary to remove some equipment which was located outside the niches. Subsequently, decontamination plans were made and carried out to prepare these areas for modification and installation activities. Predecontamination survey activities began in January 1985, and decontamination operations were completed in February 1986. Decontamination efforts, results, and lessons learned are reported.

Allen, J.C.

1986-06-01

389

Ground-water hydrologic effects resulting from underground coal gasification experiments at the Hoe Creek Site near Gillette, Wyoming. Interim report, October 1979March 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

This technical note summarizes our activities, to date, on the research project: Ground-Water Hydrologic Effects Resulting from Underground Coal Gasification Experiments (EPA-IAG-79-D-X0795). The gasified coal seam (Felix No. 2 coal) and two overlying aquifers (Felix No. 1 coal and overlying sand) appear to have become interconnected as a result of roof collapse and subsidence at both Hoe Creek Sites II

E. Raber; R. Stone

1980-01-01

390

Large-scale decontamination and decommissioning technology demonstration project at a former uranium metal production facility  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Science and Technology Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Focus Area, led by the Federal Energy Technology Center, has been charged with improving upon baseline D&D technologies with the goal of demonstrating and validating more cost-effective and safer technologies to characterize, deactivate, survey, decontaminate, dismantle, and dispose of surplus structures, buildings, and their contents at DOE sites. The D&D Focus Area`s approach to verifying the benefits of the improved D&D technologies is to use them in large-scale technology demonstration (LSTD) projects at several DOE sites. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) was selected to host one of the first three LSTD`s awarded by the D&D Focus Area. The FEMP is a DOE facility near Cincinnati, Ohio, that was formerly engaged in the production of high quality uranium metal. The FEMP is a Superfund site which has completed its RUFS process and is currently undergoing environmental restoration. With the FEMP`s selection to host an LSTD, the FEMP was immediately faced with some challenges. The primary challenge was that this LSTD was to be integrated into the FEMP`s Plant 1 D&D Project which was an ongoing D&D Project for which a firm fixed price contract had been issued to the D&D Contractor. Thus, interferences with the baseline D&D project could have significant financial implications. Other challenges include defining and selecting meaningful technology demonstrations, finding/selecting technology providers, and integrating the technology into the baseline D&D project. To date, twelve technologies have been selected, and six have been demonstrated. The technology demonstrations have yielded a high proportion of {open_quotes}winners.{close_quotes} All demonstrated, technologies will be evaluated for incorporation into the FEMP`s baseline D&D strategy.

Martineit, R.A.; Borgman, T.D.; Peters, M.S.; Stebbins, L.L. [and others

1997-03-05

391

Plasma Decontamination of Space Equipment for Planetary Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for extraterrestrial life is one of the most challenging science topics for the next decades. Space missions, like ExoMars, plan to land and search for biological remnants on planets and moons in our nearby Solar system. Planetary protection regulations defined by COSPAR prevent that during the mission biological contamination of the bodies occur through the space probes. Therefore decontamination of the probes and more general space equipment is necessary before the launch. The up-to-date accepted decontamination procedure originate from the old NASA Viking missions and use dry heat (T>110°C for 30h) – a technology not well suited for sensitive equipment nowadays. We investigated in a study financed by the German Space Agency* cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) as an alternative for such decontamination. It is well known that CAP can kill bacteria or spores within seconds or minutes, respectively, if the plasma is in direct contact with the treated sample. This procedure might also be quite aggressive to the treated surface materials. Therefore, we developed an afterglow CAP device specially designed for the soft treatment of space equipment. Afterglow plasma produced by a SMD device in air is transported into a “larger” treatment chamber where the samples are positioned. It could be shown that samples of different bacteria and spores, the latter defined by COSPAR as a means to show the effectiveness of the decontamination process, positioned on different materials (steel, Teflon, quartz) could be effectively inactivated. The surface materials were investigated after the plasma treatment to identify etching or deposition problems. The afterglow in the treatment chamber could even overcome obstacles (tubes of different height and diameter) which simulate more complicated structures of the relevant surfaces. Up to now, CAP looks like a quite promising alternative to decontaminate space equipment and need to be studied in greater detail in the near future. Details will be presented here. ________________________________ * Work supported by DLR/BMWi under the grant FKZ 50RJ1005.

Thomas, Hubertus; Barczyk, Simon; Rettberg, Petra; Shimizu, Satoshi; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Klaempfl, Tobias; Morfill, Gregor; Zimmermann, Julia; Weber, Peter

392

Decontamination Processes for Restorative Operations and as a Precursor to Decommissioning: A Literature Review  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted an comprehensive literature review of actual reactor decontamination processes that are currently available. In general, any decontamination process should be based on the following criteria: effectiveness, efficiency, safety, and waste production. The information that was collected and analyzed has been divided into three major categories of decontamination: chemical, mechanical, and electrochemical. Chemical methods can be further classified as either low-concentration, singlestep processes or high-concentration, single- or multistep processes. Numerous chemical decontamination methods are detailed. Mechanical decontamination methods are usually restricted to the removal of a contaminated surface layer, whlch limits their versatility; several mechanical decontamination methods are described. Electrochemical decontamination. is both fast and easily controlled, and numerous processes that have been used in industry for many years are discussed. Information obtained from this work is tabulated in Appendix A for easy access, and a bibliography and a glossary have been provided.

Nelson, J. L.; Divine, J. R.

1981-05-01

393

Pre-test simulations of laboratory-scale heater experiments in tuff. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory-scale heater experiments are Proposed to observe thermohydrologic Processes in tuffaceous rock using existing equipment and x-ray imaging techniques. The purpose of the experiments is to gain understanding of the near-field behavior and thermodynamic environment surrounding a heat source. As a prelude to these experiments, numerical simulations are performed to determine design-related parameters such as optimal heating power and heating duration. In addition, the simulations aid in identifying and understanding thermal processes and mechanisms that may occur under a variety of experimental conditions. Results of the simulations show that convection may play an important role in the heat transfer and thermodynamic environment of the heater if the Rayleigh-Darcy number exceeds a critical value (= 10 for the laboratory experiments) depending on the type of backfill material within the annulus (or drift).

Ho, Clifford K.

1995-09-01

394

CT and MR Imaging after Placement of the GliaSite Radiation Therapy System to Treat Brain Tumor: Initial Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The GliaSite system delivers local, high radiation after brain tumor resection. We describe the imaging appearance of the device and the changes it causes. METHODS: Eight patients with brain tumors were treated with this system. After surgery, all underwent MR imaging, and one underwent CT. Five were examined 1 month after radioactive unloading and every 2 months

Maria G. Matheus; Mauricio Castillo; Matthew Ewend; Jeffrey K. Smith; Lester Knock; Sharon Cush; David E. Morris

2004-01-01

395

Pilot plant experiences using physical and biological treatment steps for the remediation of groundwater from a former MGP site.  

PubMed

The production of manufactured gas at a site in Vienna, Austria led to the contamination of soil and groundwater with various pollutants including PAHs, hydrocarbons, phenols, BTEX, and cyanide. The site needs to be remediated to alleviate potential impacts to the environment. The chosen remediation concept includes the excavation of the core contaminated site and the setup of a hydraulic barrier to protect the surrounding aquifer. The extracted groundwater will be treated on-site. To design the foreseen pump-and-treat system, a pilot-scale plant was built and operated for 6 months. The scope of the present study was to test the effectiveness of different process steps, which included an aerated sedimentation basin, a submerged fixed film reactor (SFFR), a multi-media filter, and an activated carbon filter. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 7.0 h during normal flow conditions and 3.5h during high flow conditions. The treatment system was effective in reducing the various organic and inorganic pollutants in the pumped groundwater. However, it was also demonstrated that appropriate pre-treatment was essential to overcome problems with clogging due to precipitation of tar and sulfur compounds. The reduction of the typical contaminants, PAHs and BTEX, was more than 99.8%. All water quality parameters after treatment were below the Austrian legal requirements for discharge into public water bodies. PMID:18657361

Wirthensohn, T; Schoeberl, P; Ghosh, U; Fuchs, W

2009-04-15

396

Acoustic Emissions as a Tool for Hydraulic Fracture Location: Experience at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microearthquakes with magnitudes between -6 and -2 have been observed in three successive massive injections of water at the hot dry rock geothermal energy development project's demonstration site at Fenton Hill, NM. The injections were part of a program to increase the heat transfer area of hydraulic fractures and to decrease the flow-through impedance between wells in the energy extraction

James Albright; Christopher Pearson

1982-01-01

397

Siting provisions of the U. S. Nuclear Waste Policy Act vs related experience in other countries. Volume II  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past few years a series of surveys has been conducted by International Energy Associates Limited (IEAL) for the U.S. Department of Energy, documenting the approaches and progress in other countries (all the European nuclear democracies, plus Japan, Mexico, Canada) in dealing with the problems of obtaining siting approvals for nuclear waste facilities. Many of these countries are further

1984-01-01

398

Siting provisions of the U. S. Nuclear Waste Policy Act vs related experience in other countries. Volume I  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past few years a series of surveys has been conducted by International Energy Associates Limited (IEAL) for the U.S. Department of Energy, documenting the approaches and progress in other democracies in dealing with the problems of obtaining siting approvals for nuclear waste facilities. Many of these countries are further along in this process than is the U.S., and

1984-01-01

399

EVALUATION OF ISOTOPIC DIAGNOSTICS FOR SUBSURFACE CHARACTERIZATION AND MONITORING: FIELD EXPERIMENTS AT THE TAN AND RWMC (SDA) SITES, INEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The research will explore and refine the use of isotopic ratio measurements on aquifer roundwaters and vadose zone gas for improving remediation strategies and increasing the efficiency of ongoing remediation activities at the TAN and RWMC (SDA) sites at Idaho National Engineerin...

400

Energy balance comparison of the Hartheim forest and an adjacent grassland site during the HartX experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy balance components over a grassland surface were compared to those obtained above an adjacent, uniform Scots pine plantation during a five-day period of fine, sunny, spring weather. Soils were judged to contain ample water. Shortwave and total radiation flux densities were measured at both sites with pyranometers and total pyrradiometers. Soil heat flux densities were measured with heat flux

W. Wicke; Ch. Bernhofer

1996-01-01

401

Role of algae and higher aquatic plants in decontamination of cyanide-containing waters  

SciTech Connect

Cyanide compounds and especially free cyanides stand out among components of wastewaters of hydrometallurgy, electroforming, and other such enterprises with respect to toxicity and danger for man and fauna of water bodies. In this article data on a study of the regularities of decontamination of cyanide-containing wastewaters by hydrophytes are given, the mechanisms of this process are examined, and the results of testing the hydrobotanical method of treating wastewaters of a goldrecovery plant are examined. The experiments were carried out with hydrophytes from the Angara River, Lake Baikal, and small lakes and ponds in the vicinity of Irkutsk and Tashkent. The series of experiments established that algae and higher aquatic plants are resistant to cyanides. A table shows the kinetic parameters of the removal of cyanide by algae and higher aquatic plants collected in Baikal. Of the multitude of species investigated for detoxifying ability, the most resistant were detected in the experimental basins and the most suitable were charophytes.

Timofeeva, S.S.; Kraeva, V.Z.; Men'shikova, O.A.

1986-09-01

402

Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program. Quarterly report, October--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the work conducted for the period of October--December 1993 by the West Virginia University for the US DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Research under the program focuses on pertinent technology for hazardous waste clean-up. This report reflects the progress performed on sixteen technical projects encompassed by this program: Systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies; Site remediation technologies: (a) Drain-enhanced soil flushing and (b) In situ bio-remediation of organic contaminants; Excavation systems for hazardous waste sites: Dust control methods for in-situ nuclear waste handling; Chemical destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls; Development of organic sensors: Monolayer and multilayer self-assembled films for chemical sensors; Winfield lock and dam remediation; Assessment of technologies for hazardous waste site remediation: Non-treatment technologies and pilot scale test facility implementation; Remediation of hazardous sites with steam reforming; Microbial enrichment for enhancing biodegradation of hazardous organic wastes in soil; Soil decontamination with a packed flotation column; Treatment of volatile organic compounds using biofilters; Use of granular activated carbon columns for the simultaneous removal of organic, heavy metals, and radionuclides; Compact mercuric iodide detector technology development; Evaluation of IR and mass spectrometric techniques for on-site monitoring of volatile organic compounds; and Improved socio-economic assessment of alternative environmental restoration techniques.

Not Available

1994-02-01

403

Tritium Decontamination of TFTR D-T Graphite Tiles Employing Ultra Violet Light and a Nd:YAG Laser  

SciTech Connect

The use of an ultra violet (UV) light source (wavelength = 172 nm) and a Nd:YAG Laser for the decontamination of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) deuterium-tritium (D-T) tiles will be investigated at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The development of this form of tritium decontamination may be useful for future D-T burning fusion devices which employ carbon plasma-facing components on the first wall. Carbon tiles retain hydrogen isotopes, and the in-situ tritium decontamination of carbon can be extremely important in maintaining resident in-vessel tritium inventory to a minimum. A test chamber has been designed and fabricated at PPPL. The chamber has the ability to be maintained under vacuum, be baked to 200 *C, and provides sample ports for gas analyses. Tiles from TFTR that have been exposed to D-T plasmas will be placed within the chamber and exposed to either an UV light source or the ND:YAG Laser. The experiment will determine the effectiveness of these two techniques for the removal of tritium. In addition, exposure rates and scan times for the UV light source and/or Nd:YAG Laser will be determined for tritium removal optimization from D-T tiles.

C.A. Gentile; C.H. Skinner; K.M. Young; L. Ciebiera; et al

1999-10-01

404

Modeling of Snow Packs at Urban and Suburban Sites, based on the EPiCC Montreal Field Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NEW-RPN model, a coupled system including a multi-layer snow model (SNTHERM) and the sea ice model used in the Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC) operational forecasting system, was evaluated in a one-dimensional mode using meteorological observations collected during 1997-98 from SHEBA's Pittsburgh site in the Arctic Ocean. Results show that NEW-RPN better agrees with observations for the timing of

Y. Chung; S. Belair; J. Mailhot; S. Leroyer

2009-01-01

405

Site-Specific Management of Meloidogyne chitwoodi in Idaho Potatoes Using 1,3-Dichloropropene; Approach, Experiences, and Economics  

PubMed Central

Fumigation for nematode management in irrigated potato production systems of Idaho is widely practiced. Soil injection is the only labeled application method for 1,3-dichloropropene that is conventionally applied on a whole-field basis. Plant-parasitic nematode species exhibit spatially variable population densities that provide an opportunity to practice site-specific fumigation to reduce chemical usage and production costs. During 2002 to 2008, 62 fields intended for commercial potato production in eastern Idaho were sampled using a geo-referenced grid sampling system for plant-parasitic nematode population densities. In total, 4,030 grid samples were collected representing nearly 3,200 ha of commercial potato production. Collectively, 73% of the grid samples had Columbia root knot (CRN) (Meloidogyne chitwoodi) population densities below detectable levels. Site-specific fumigation is the practice of varying application rate of a fumigant based on nematode population density. In 2007, 640 ha of potato production were site-specific fumigated for CRN nematode control in eastern Idaho. On average, this practice resulted in a 30% reduction in chemical usage and production cost savings of $209/ha when 1,3-dichloropropene was used as the sole source of nematode suppression. Reductions in usage of 1,3-dichloropropene can exceed 50% if used in combination with a nonfumigant nematicide such as oxamyl. This combination approach can have production cost savings exceeding $200/ha. Based on farm-gate receipts and USDA inspections provided by potato producers from 2001 to 2011, potato tuber yield and quality have not been adversely affected using site-specific fumigation. PMID:24115785

King, Bradley A.; Taberna, John P.

2013-01-01

406

Bioturbation and Holocene sediment accumulation fluxes in the north-east Atlantic Ocean (Benthic Boundary Layer experiment sites)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioturbation and Holocene sediment accumulation are quantified in the three experimental areas of the Benthic Boundary Layer (BENBO) programme by means of the natural radionuclides 14C and 210Pb and the artificial radionuclides 137Cs and 241Am. The Holocene accumulation rates, determined by the radiocarbon method, are 4.4 and 6.5cmkyr?1 at sites B (Rockall Plateau, 1100m water depth) and C (Feni Drift,

J. Thomson; L. Brown; S. Nixon; G. T. Cook; A. B. MacKenzie

2000-01-01

407

Decontamination of Anthrax spores in critical infrastructure and critical assets.  

SciTech Connect

Decontamination of anthrax spores in critical infrastructure (e.g., subway systems, major airports) and critical assets (e.g., the interior of aircraft) can be challenging because effective decontaminants can damage materials. Current decontamination methods require the use of highly toxic and/or highly corrosive chemical solutions because bacterial spores are very difficult to kill. Bacterial spores such as Bacillus anthracis, the infectious agent of anthrax, are one of the most resistant forms of life and are several orders of magnitude more difficult to kill than their associated vegetative cells. Remediation of facilities and other spaces (e.g., subways, airports, and the interior of aircraft) contaminated with anthrax spores currently requires highly toxic and corrosive chemicals such as chlorine dioxide gas, vapor- phase hydrogen peroxide, or high-strength bleach, typically requiring complex deployment methods. We have developed a non-toxic, non-corrosive decontamination method to kill highly resistant bacterial spores in critical infrastructure and critical assets. A chemical solution that triggers the germination process in bacterial spores and causes those spores to rapidly and completely change to much less-resistant vegetative cells that can be easily killed. Vegetative cells are then exposed to mild chemicals (e.g., low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, quaternary ammonium compounds, alcohols, aldehydes, etc.) or natural elements (e.g., heat, humidity, ultraviolet light, etc.) for complete and rapid kill. Our process employs a novel germination solution consisting of low-cost, non-toxic and non-corrosive chemicals. We are testing both direct surface application and aerosol delivery of the solutions. A key Homeland Security need is to develop the capability to rapidly recover from an attack utilizing biological warfare agents. This project will provide the capability to rapidly and safely decontaminate critical facilities and assets to return them to normal operations as quickly as possible, sparing significant economic damage by re-opening critical facilities more rapidly and safely. Facilities and assets contaminated with Bacillus anthracis (i.e., anthrax) spores can be decontaminated with mild chemicals as compared to the harsh chemicals currently needed. Both the 'germination' solution and the 'kill' solution are constructed of 'off-the-shelf,' inexpensive chemicals. The method can be utilized by directly spraying the solutions onto exposed surfaces or by application of the solutions as aerosols (i.e., small droplets), which can also reach hidden surfaces.

Boucher, Raymond M.; Crown, Kevin K.; Tucker, Mark David; Hankins, Matthew Granholm

2010-05-01

408

Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the ORNL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program FY 1993--2002  

SciTech Connect

The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration D&D program. The purpose and objectivesof this program include: (1) surveillance and maintenance (S&M) of facilities awaiting decommissioning; (2) planning for the orderly decommissioning of these facilities; and (3) implementation of a program to accomplish facility disposition in a safe, cost-effective, and timely manner. Participating D&D contractors are required to prepare formal plans that document the S&M programs established for each site. This report has been prepared to provide this documentation for those facilities included in the ORNL D&D Program.

Ford, M.K.; Holder, L. Jr.

1992-07-01

409

Decontamination and dismantlement of the JANUS Reactor at Argonne National Laboratory-East. Project final report  

SciTech Connect

The decontamination and dismantlement of the JANUS Reactor at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) was completed in October 1997. Descriptions and evaluations of the activities performed and analyses of the results obtained during the JANUS D and D Project are provided in this Final Report. The following information is included: objective of the JANUS D and D Project; history of the JANUS Reactor facility; description of the ANL-E site and the JANUS Reactor facility; overview of the D and D activities performed; description of the project planning and engineering; description of the D and D operations; summary of the final status of the JANUS Reactor facility based upon the final survey results; description of the health and safety aspects of the project, including personnel exposure and OSHA reporting; summary of the waste minimization techniques utilized and total waste generated by the project; and summary of the final cost and schedule for the JANUS D and D Project.

Fellhauer, C.R.; Clark, F.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Technology Development Div.; Garlock, G.A. [MOTA Corp., Cayce, SC (United States)

1997-10-01

410

Decontamination and decommissioning plan for processing contaminated NaK at the INEL  

SciTech Connect

This decontamination and decommissioning (D D) plan describes the work elements and project management plan for processing four containers of contaminated sodium/potassium (NaK) and returning the Army Reentry Vehicle Facility Site (ARVFS) to a reusable condition. The document reflects the management plan for this project before finalizing the conceptual design and preliminary prototype tests of the reaction kinetics. As a result, the safety, environmental, and accident analyses are addressed as preliminary assessments before completion at a later date. ARVFS contains an earth-covered bunker, a cylindrical test pit and metal shed, and a cable trench connecting the two items. The bunker currently stores the four containers of NaK from the meltdown of the EBR-1 Mark II core. The D D project addressed in this plan involves processing the contaminated NaK and returning the ARVFS to potential reuse after cleanup.

LaRue, D.M.; Dolenc, M.R.

1986-09-01

411

Decontamination and decommissioning plan for processing contaminated NaK at the INEL  

SciTech Connect

This decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) plan describes the work elements and project management plan for processing four containers of contaminated sodium/potassium (NaK) and returning the Army Reentry Vehicle Facility Site (ARVFS) to a reusable condition. The document reflects the management plan for this project before finalizing the conceptual design and preliminary prototype tests of the reaction kinetics. As a result, the safety, environmental, and accident analyses are addressed as preliminary assessments before completion at a later date. ARVFS contains an earth-covered bunker, a cylindrical test pit and metal shed, and a cable trench connecting the two items. The bunker currently stores the four containers of NaK from the meltdown of the EBR-1 Mark II core. The D&D project addressed in this plan involves processing the contaminated NaK and returning the ARVFS to potential reuse after cleanup.

LaRue, D.M.; Dolenc, M.R.

1986-09-01

412

WVU cooperative agreement, decontamination systems information and research program, deployment support leading to implementation  

SciTech Connect

This program at West Virginia University is a Cooperative Agreement that focuses on R&D associated with hazardous waste remediation problems existing at DOE, Corps of Engineers, and private sector sites. The Agreement builds on a unique combination of resources coupling university researchers with DOE sponsored small businesses, leading toward field tests and large scale technology demonstrations of environmental technologies. Most of the Agreement`s projects are categorized in the Technology Maturity Levels under Gates 3-Advanced Development, Gate 4-Engineering Development, and Gate 5-Demonstration. The program includes a diversity of projects: subsurface contaminants; mixed wastes; mixed wastes/efficient separations; mixed wastes/characterization, monitoring, and sensor technologies; and decontamination and decommissioning/efficient separations.

Cook, E.E.

1996-12-31

413

Optimization of Thermochemical, Kinetic, and Electrochemical Factors Governing Partitioning of Radionuclides during Melt Decontamination of Radioactively Contaminated Stainless Steel  

SciTech Connect

Metal waste generated from domestic nuclear operations for defense and commercial applications has led to a growing stockpile of radioactively contaminated scrap metal, much of which is stainless steel. This steel contains large quantities of strategic elements such as nickel and chromium and constitutes a valuable domestic resource [1]. A significant fraction of this material cannot be efficiently surface decontaminated, and burial of this material would be wasteful and expensive, since long term monitoring would be necessary in order to minimize environmental risk. Melt decontamination of this material would maintain the chemical pedigree of the stainless steel, allowing its controlled reuse within the nuclear community. This research addresses the melt decontamination of radioactively contaminated stainless steel by electroslag remelting (ESR). ESR is industrially used for the production of specialty steels and superalloys to remove a variety of contaminates and to improve metal chemistry. Correctly applied, it could maintain the specified chemistry and mechanical properties of the original material while capturing the radioactive transuranic elements in a stable slag phase. The ESR process also produces a high quality metal ingot free of porosity that can be directly forged or rolled into final shapes. The goal of this project was to optimize a melt decontamination process through a basic understanding of the factors which govern the partitioning of various radionuclides between the metal, slag, and gas phases. Radionuclides which are captured by a slag phase may be stabilized by promoting the formation of synthetic minerals within a leach resistant matrix. This research program included three segments. At Boston University, Prof. Uday Pal and his group conducted research to develop a fundamental understanding of thermochemical and electrochemical behaviors of slag/metal/radionuclide surrogate systems. This work combined experimental characterization and thermochemical modeling of these high temperature systems. The second segment utilized Sandia expertise and ongoing work in fundamental separation science and liquid metal processing technology to investigate and optimize ESR decontamination using representative surrogate compounds to represent contaminate radionuclides. This work evaluated partitioning of the surrogates between the slag and metal ingot in ESR experiments. Furnace operating parameters were systematically varied to determine the optimum slag processing conditions. The third effort in Russia conducted ESR melting experiments using contaminated stainless steel pipe electrodes doped with plutonium. This work provided separation data for the radioactive compounds.

Van Den Avyle, James A.; Melgaard, David; Molecke, Martin; Shelmidine, Greg J.; Pal, Uday; Bychkov, Sergie I.

1999-12-31

414

Problems and experience of detecting particles on the beaches in the vicinity of the Dounreay nuclear site  

SciTech Connect

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: There are several instances where radioactive material has been released from nuclear sites and is now found in particulate form in the environment. Contamination in this form was identified on the beaches close to the Dounreay Nuclear site in the 1990's and since that time NUKEM Limited has provided a measurement service to the UKAEA to find and recover these particles. There are specific difficulties associated with detecting particles - as distinct from distributed activity - and this paper discusses some of the theoretical and practical problems that are encountered in monitoring for such particles. The viability and performance of several types and configurations of radiation detectors will be described, along with methods by which particles might be detected, given their response to buried particles. Practical solutions to these measurement problems are described. Three generations of vehicle mounted sensing systems are discussed - each including improvements to specific measurement problems. The reliability and failure mechanisms of the monitoring systems used will be discussed, together with remedial actions employed. Alongside the radiation technology has been the use of GPS and GIS technologies to provide area mapping at high spatial resolution. The other practical aspects of performing surveys are also discussed, including understanding health-and-safety requirements; constraints imposed by weather, tides and tidal speed; the logistics of making vehicles. The results of all the particle finds to date will be presented and compared to the anticipated detection limits, derived from computer modeling and experimental studies. (authors)

Adsley, Ian; Davies, Mike; McCulloch, George; Gerrard, Alan [NUKEM Ltd., Kelburn Court, Daten Park, Birchwood, Warrington, WA3 6TW (United Kingdom)

2007-07-01

415

Environmental Assessment for decontamination and dismantlement, Pinellas Plant  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1092) of the proposed decontamination and dismantlement of the Pinellas Plant in Largo, Florida. Under the Decontamination and Dismantlement EA, the DOE proposes to clean up facilities, structures, and utilities; dismantle specific structures; and mitigate or eliminate any environmental impacts associated with the cleanup, dismantlement, and related activities. Related activities include utilization of specific areas by new tenants prior to full-scale cleanup. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

NONE

1995-06-01

416

Decontamination and decommissioning of small-bore pipe  

SciTech Connect

The ability to aggressively decontaminate to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) free-release limits, verify the effectiveness, and prove releasability of contaminated piping systems are tasks that became a major concern for Westinghouse during the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) decommissioning project. The problem is especially acute for small-bore piping systems [2.5- to 7.6-cm (1- to 3-in.) diameter] with multiple elbows. Westinghouse, and its wholly owned subsidiary, Scientific Ecology Group, being one of the two primary contractors for decommissioning the FSV nuclear generating station [330-MW(electric) high-temperature gas-cooled reactor, operated from 1979 to 1989], encountered this problem and developed equipment and methodologies to successfully decontaminate, survey, and decommission this piping.

Hackmann, E.K. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Platteville, CO (United States)

1996-12-31