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Sample records for site decontamination experience

  1. Decontamination and decommissioning experience at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Monson, R.W.

    1994-07-01

    A continuing concern within the DOE complex is how to address the retirement contains special of a facility which nuclear material (SNM). When the life expectancy of a facility has been reached, decisions must be made pertaining to (1) rial from the facility, removing the mate (2) accounting for the material and (3) final disposition of the material. This paper will discuss such a decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) process which we are presently dealing with at the Savannah River Site. The process must follow DOE Order 5633.3A as well as internal Company procedures regarding MC&A. In some D&D cases the material can be exempt from the DOE Order when all of the following criteria are met: (1) the material has been declared waste, (2) the material has been written off the MC&A books, and (3) the material is under the control of a waste management organization.

  2. Gross decontamination experiment report

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  3. Lessons Learned from Decontamination Experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, JH

    2000-11-16

    This interim report describes a DOE project currently underway to establish what is known about decontamination of buildings and people and the procedures and protocols used to determine when and how people or buildings are considered ''clean'' following decontamination. To fulfill this objective, the study systematically examined reported decontamination experiences to determine what procedures and protocols are currently employed for decontamination, the timeframe involved to initiate and complete the decontamination process, how the contaminants were identified, the problems encountered during the decontamination process, how response efforts of agencies were coordinated, and the perceived social psychological effects on people who were decontaminated or who participated in the decontamination process. Findings and recommendations from the study are intended to aid decision-making and to improve the basis for determining appropriate decontamination protocols for recovery planners and policy makers for responding to chemical and biological events.

  4. Gnome site decontamination and decommissioning project

    SciTech Connect

    Orcutt, J.A.; Sorom, E.R.

    1982-08-01

    In July 1977, DOE/Headquarters directed DOE/NV to design a decontamination and decommissioning plan for the Gnome site, 48 kilometers southeast of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The plan incorporated three distinct phases. During Phase I, both aerial and ground radiological surveys were conducted on the site. Radiological decontamination criteria were established, and a decontamination plan was developed based on the radiological survey results. During Phase II, site preparatory and rehabilitation work was completed. The actual land area decontamination was accomplished during Phase III with conventional earthmoving equipment. A gravity water injection system deposited 36,700 metric tons of contaminated soil and salt in the Gnome cavity. After completion of the decontamination and decommissioning operations, the Gnome site was returned to the Bureau of Land Management for unrestricted surface use.

  5. Public experiences of mass casualty decontamination.

    PubMed

    Carter, Holly; Drury, John; Rubin, G James; Williams, Richard; Amlôt, Richard

    2012-09-01

    In this article, we analyze feedback from simulated casualties who took part in field exercises involving mass decontamination, to gain an understanding of how responder communication can affect people's experiences of and compliance with decontamination. We analyzed questionnaire data gathered from 402 volunteers using the framework approach, to provide an insight into the public's experiences of decontamination and how these experiences are shaped by the actions of emergency responders. Factors that affected casualties' experiences of the decontamination process included the need for greater practical information and better communication from responders, and the need for privacy. Results support previous findings from small-scale incidents that involved decontamination in showing that participants wanted better communication from responders during the process of decontamination, including more practical information, and that the failure of responders to communicate effectively with members of the public led to anxiety about the decontamination process. The similarity between the findings from the exercises described in this article and previous research into real incidents involving decontamination suggests that field exercises provide a useful way to examine the effect of responder communication strategies on the public's experiences of decontamination. Future exercises should examine in more detail the effect of various communication strategies on the public's experiences of decontamination. This will facilitate the development of evidence-based communication strategies intended to reduce anxiety about decontamination and increase compliance among members of the public during real-life incidents that involve mass decontamination. PMID:22823588

  6. Soil Washing Experiment for Decontamination of Contaminated NPP Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Son, J.K.; Kang, K.D.; Kim, K.D.; Ha, J.H.; Song, M.J.

    2006-07-01

    The preliminary experiment was performed to obtain the operating conditions of soil washing decontamination process such as decontamination agent, decontamination temperature, decontamination time and ratio of soil and decontamination agent. To estimate decontamination efficiency, particle size of soil was classified into three categories; {>=} 2.0 mm, 2.0 {approx} 0.21 mm and {<=} 0.21 mm. Major target of this experiment was decontamination of Cs-137. The difference of decontamination efficiency using water and neutral salts as decontamination agent is not high. It is concluded that the best temperature of decontamination agent is normal temperature and the best decontamination time was about 60 minutes. And the best ratio of soil and decontamination agent is 1:10. In case of Cs decontamination for fine soils, the decontamination results using neutral salts such as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} shows some limits while using strong acid such as sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid shows high decontamination efficiency ({>=}90%). But we conclude that decontamination using strong acid is also inappropriate because of the insufficiency of decontamination efficiency for highly radioactive fine soils and the difficulty for treatment of secondary liquid waste. It is estimated that the best decontamination process is to use water as decontamination agent for particles which can be decontaminated to clearance level, after particle size separation. (authors)

  7. Urban Decontamination Experience at Pripyat Ukraine - 13526

    SciTech Connect

    Paskevych, Sergiy; Voropay, Dmitry; Schmieman, Eric

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the efficiency of radioactive decontamination activities of the urban landscape in the town of Pripyat, Ukraine. Different methods of treatment for various urban infrastructure and different radioactive contaminants are assessed. Long term changes in the radiation condition of decontaminated urban landscapes are evaluated: 1. Decontamination of the urban system requires the simultaneous application of multiple methods including mechanical, chemical, and biological. 2. If a large area has been contaminated, decontamination of local areas of a temporary nature. Over time, there is a repeated contamination of these sites due to wind transport from neighboring areas. 3. Involvement of earth-moving equipment and removal of top soil by industrial method achieves 20-fold reduction in the level of contamination by radioactive substances, but it leads to large amounts of waste (up to 1500 tons per hectare), and leads to the re-contamination of treated areas due to scatter when loading, transport pollutants on the wheels of vehicles, etc.. (authors)

  8. Decontamination analysis of the NUWAX-83 accident site using DECON

    SciTech Connect

    Tawil, J.J.

    1983-11-01

    This report presents an analysis of the site restoration options for the NUWAX-83 site, at which an exercise was conducted involving a simulated nuclear weapons accident. This analysis was performed using a computer program deveoped by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The computer program, called DECON, was designed to assist personnel engaged in the planning of decontamination activities. The many features of DECON that are used in this report demonstrate its potential usefulness as a site restoration planning tool. Strategies that are analyzed with DECON include: (1) employing a Quick-Vac option, under which selected surfaces are vacuumed before they can be rained on; (2) protecting surfaces against precipitation; (3) prohibiting specific operations on selected surfaces; (4) requiring specific methods to be used on selected surfaces; (5) evaluating the trade-off between cleanup standards and decontamination costs; and (6) varying of the cleanup standards according to expected exposure to surface.

  9. Decontamination.

    PubMed

    Houston, Marc; Hendrickson, Robert G

    2005-10-01

    Decontamination is the removal or reduction of chemical, biologic, or radiologic agents from the patient's skin, mucosa, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract. Decontamination is an important step in decreasing the clinical effects of the agent on the patient, as well as protecting coworkers from exposure. For most agents and the vast majority of scenarios, the removal of clothing and a simple 5- to 6-minute shower with soap and water is sufficient to eliminate the risks to the patient and hospital staff. In rare circumstances, additional steps in decontamination including gastric lavage, broncho-alveolar lavage, surgical removal of wound foreign bodies, and administration of activated charcoal, polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution, and radioisotope binding agents, may be necessary. PMID:16168307

  10. Accelerated Decontamination and Decommissioning at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, M.C.; Douglas, L.M.; Marske, S.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Hanford Site has over 100 facilities that have been declared surplus and are scheduled to be decommissioned. In addition to these surplus facilities, there is a significant number of facilities that are currently being shut down, deactivated, and transferred to the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) program. In the last year, Westinghouse Hanford Company and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, have developed and implemented an initiative to accelerate the D&D work at the Hanford Site. The strategy associated with accelerated D&D is to reduce the number of surplus facilities, eliminate potential safety hazards, demonstrate meaningful cleanup progress, and recycle materials for other uses. This initiative has been extremely successful and has resulted in the safe demolition of 13 facilities in fiscal year (FY) 1993. In addition, four facilities have been completed in FY 1994 and demolition of several other facilities is currently underway.

  11. Long term decontamination at the Hanford Site: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Geuther, W.J.; Hansen, G.E.

    1995-02-01

    This paper describes an engineering study that evaluates decontamination requirements at Hanford and the potential reutilization of the first plutonium processing production facility as a decontamination facility. The logic used to develop the study, the options available for a long-term decontamination mission, and the resultant strategy recommended in the study are presented. The paper provides a starting point for other similar study efforts. The process flowsheets, regulatory restrictions, and preconceptual designs developed in this study are common throughout the nuclear waste industry.

  12. Dismantlement and decontamination of a plutonium-238 facility at the Savannah river site

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.H.; Hootman, H.E.

    1994-01-01

    Very little documented decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) experience exists on which to project cleanup costs and schedules for plutonium facilities at DOE sites. A plutonium-238 processing facility at Savannah River Site (SRS) has been undergoing D&D intermittently since 1984. Although this cleanup effort was not originally intended to quantify results, some key data have been accumulated, and the project has demonstrated effective methods of performing D&D work under conditions of high contamination. Some data is presented here; however, more specific tests and data may be obtained during the remainder of this project. This project has been recommended as a candidate test facility for a DOE planned {open_quotes}Integrated D&D Demonstration{close_quotes} managed by EM-50 to develop and demonstrate technology for D&D and surplus facilities deactivation.

  13. Off-site consequences of radiological accidents: methods, costs and schedules for decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Tawil, J.J.; Bold, F.C.; Harrer, B.J.; Currie, J.W.

    1985-08-01

    This report documents a data base and a computer program for conducting a decontamination analysis of a large, radiologically contaminated area. The data base, which was compiled largely through interviews with knowledgeable persons both in the public and private sectors, consists of the costs, physical inputs, rates and contaminant removal efficiencies of a large number of decontamination procedures. The computer program utilizes this data base along with information specific to the contaminated site to provide detailed information that includes the least costly method for effectively decontaminating each surface at the site, various types of property losses associated with the contamination, the time at which each subarea within the site should be decontaminated to minimize these property losses, the quantity of various types of labor and equipment necessary to complete the decontamination, dose to radiation workers, the costs for surveying and monitoring activities, and the disposal costs associated with radiological waste generated during cleanup. The program and data base are demonstrated with a decontamination analysis of a hypothetical site. 39 refs., 24 figs., 155 tabs.

  14. DECONTAMINATION OF STRUCTURES AND DEBRIS AT SUPERFUND SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two building decontamination technologies were demonstrated and evaluated: a method for in situ degradation of PCB's requiring application of an alkali metal/polyethylene glycolate mixture directly on concrete surfaces; and a shotblasting technique using steel shot to cut away co...

  15. Monitoring the decontamination of a site polluted by DNAPLs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audí-Miró, C.; Espinola, R.; Torrentó, C.; Otero, N.; Rossi, A.; Palau, J.; Soler, A.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study is to monitor the decontamination of a site polluted by DNAPLs coming from an automotive industry. The contamination was caused by the poor management of the waste generated by the industrial activity, which was discharged into a seepage pit. As a result, soil contamination was produced in the seepage pit area and a plume of DNAPLs-contaminated groundwater was generated. To recover the original environmental quality, a dual action was proposed: in the first place, the removal of the source of contamination and in the second one, the treatment of the DNAPLs plume. The elimination of the source of contamination consisted on a selective excavation of the seepage pit and an offsite management of the contaminated land. To restore the groundwater quality, a passive treatment system using a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) of zero valent iron (ZVI) was implemented. In order to determine the efficiency of the remediation actions, a chemical, isotopic and hydrogeological control of the main solvents detected in groundwater (perchloroethylene -PCE-, trichloroethene -TCE- and cis-dichloroethylene -cis-DCE-) has been established. Results show a decrease in PCE concentration that has been attributed to the removal of the source more than to a degradation process. However, the presence of PCE by-products, TCE and cis-DCE, might indicate a possible PCE biotic degradation. δ13CPCE values analyzed upstream and downstream of the barrier don't show isotopic changes associated to the PRB (values are around -20‰ in all the sampling points). TCE might have experienced a natural advanced degradation process according to the high concentration of cis-DCE found prior the installation of the PRB and the isotopic enrichment in δ13CTCE in some specific areas of the plume (-19.9‰ in the source and -16‰ before the barrier). Slight isotopic changes have been observed in the water flow in a far distance after the barrier (-15.4‰). δ13Ccis-DCE experienced an

  16. Decontamination and decommissioning of the Organic Moderated Reactor Experiment facility (OMRE)

    SciTech Connect

    Hine, R.E.

    1980-09-01

    This report describes the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Organic Moderated Reactor Experiment (OMRE) facility performed from October 1977 through September 1979. This D and D project included removal of all the facilities and as much contaminated soil and rock as practical. Removal of the reactor pressure vessel was an unusually difficult problem, and an extraordinary, unexpected amount of activated rock and soil was removed. After removal of all significantly contaminated material, the site consisted of a 20-ft deep excavation surrounded by backfill material. Before this excavation was backfilled, it and the backfill material were radiologically surveyed and detailed records made of these surveys. After the excavation was backfilled and graded, the site surface was surveyed again and found to be essentially uncontaminated.

  17. Decontamination and decommissioning of building 889 at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Dorr, K.A.; Hickman, M.E.; Henderson, B.J.; Sexton, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    At the Rocky Flats site, the building 889 decommissioning project was the first large-scale decommissioning project of a radiologically contaminated facility at Rocky Flats. The scope consisted of removal of all equipment and utility systems from the interior of the building, decontamination of interior building surfaces, and the demolition of the facility to ground level. Details of the project management plan, including schedule, engineering, cost, characterization methodologies, decontamination techniques, radiological control requirements, and demolition methods, are provided in this article. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  18. Transportation cask decontamination and maintenance at the potential Yucca Mountain repository; Yucca Mountain Site characterization project

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, D.J.; Miller, D.D.; Hill, R.R.

    1992-04-01

    This study investigates spent fuel cask handling experience at existing nuclear facilities to determine appropriate cask decontamination and maintenance operations at the potential Yucca Mountain repository. These operations are categorized as either routine or nonroutine. Routine cask decontamination and maintenance tasks are performed in the cask preparation area at the repository. Casks are taken offline to a separate cask maintenance area for major nonroutine tasks. The study develops conceptual designs of the cask preparation area and cask maintenance area. The functions, layouts, and major features of these areas are also described.

  19. Conversion of transuranic waste to low level waste by decontamination: a site specific update

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.P.; Hazelton, R.F.

    1985-09-01

    As a followup to an FY-1984 cost/benefit study, a program was conducted in FY-1985 to transfer to the relevant DOE sites the information and technology for the direct conversion of transuranic (TRU) waste to low-level waste (LLW) by decontamination. As part of this work, the economic evaluation of the various TRUW volume reduction and conversion options was updated and expanded to include site-specific factors. The results show, for the assumptions used, that size reduction, size reduction followed by decontamination, or in situ decontamination are cost effective compared with the no-processing option. The technology transfer activities included site presentations and discussions with operations and waste management personnel to identify application opportunities and site-specific considerations and constraints that could affect the implementation of TRU waste conversion principles. These discussions disclosed definite potential for the beneficial application of these principles at most of the sites, but also confirmed the existence of site-specific factors ranging from space limitations to LLW disposal restrictions that could preclude particular applications or diminish expected benefits. 8 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Audit of the deactivation, decontamination, and disposal of surplus facilities at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-23

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company (Westinghouse) is responsible for managing the Department of Energy`s (Department) surplus facilities at the Savannah River Site (Site). In Fiscal Year (FY) 1996, the Site had 162 surplus facilities and anticipated that 118 more would become surplus within the next 5 years. The objective of this audit was to determine whether the Savannah River Operations Office (Operations Office) and Westinghouse had economically and promptly deactivated, decontaminated, and disposed of surplus facilities at the Site. Departmental regulations require that surplus facilities be deactivated, decontaminated, and disposed of economically and promptly. However, Westinghouse only disposed of one facility and did not completely deactivate or decontaminate any of the 162 facilities identified as surplus at the Site in FY 1996. This occurred because the Operations Office did not compile a Site-wide list, establish priorities, or provide sufficient funding for the deactivation, decontamination, and disposal of surplus facilities. As a result, the Department incurred unnecessary costs for the surveillance and maintenance of surplus facilities. For example, the Department could have avoided annual costs of about $1.3 million in surveillance and maintenance costs by spending $1.2 million to perform a deactivation project on the P-Reactor process-water storage tanks. The Operations Office could have funded the project out of its unobligated FY 1996 operating funds. However, it returned the unobligated funds to the Department`s Headquarters at the end of the fiscal year. The Operations Office concurred with the finding and recommendations and initiated corrective action.

  1. Technical evaluation report for the demonstration of radio frequency soil decontamination at Site S-1

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, C.R.; Blanchard, C.F.; Whitt, L.H.

    1995-04-01

    The Air Force`s Armstrong Laboratory at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, has supported the research and development of Radio Frequency Soil Decontamination. Radio frequency soil decontamination is essentially a heat-assisted soil vapor extraction process. Site S-1 at Kelly Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas, was selected for the demonstration of two patented techniques. The site is a former sump that collected spills and surface run-off from a waste petroleum, oils, and lubricants and solvent storage and transfer area. In 1993, a technique developed by the IIT Research Institute using an array of electrodes placed in the soil was demonstrated. In 1994, a technique developed by KAI Technologies, Inc. using a single applicator placed in a vertical borehole was demonstrated. Approximately 120 tons of soil were heated during each demonstration to a temperature of about 150 degrees Celsius.

  2. Development of major process improvements for decontamination of large, complex, highly radioactive mixed waste items at the Hanford Site T Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.L.; Veilleux, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the decontamination/treatment mission at the Hanford Site, Westinghouse Hanford Company, under contract to the US Department of Energy, conducts decontamination activities at the T Plant complex. Currently, the 221-T canyon High-Level Waste Decontamination Facility and the 2706-T Low-Level Waste Decontamination Facility capabilities are limited because upgrades are needed. Major process improvements must be developed to decontaminate large, complex, highly radioactive mixed-waste items. At the T Plant complex, an engineering team process was used to project possible solid mixed-waste feed streams and develop a preconceptual system to decontaminate and treat the waste. Treatment objectives and benefits were identified. Selected technologies were reviewed and improvements required to implement a preconceptual system at T Plant were considered. Decontamination facility alternatives were discussed in conjunction with ongoing and future decontamination activities at the Hanford Site, including efforts to enhance overall decontamination operations and capabilities.

  3. Nevada Test Site Decontamination and Decommissioning Program History, Regulatory Framework, and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Michael R. Kruzic, Bechtel Nevada; Patrick S. Morris, Bechtel Nevada; Jerel G. Nelson, Polestar Applied Technology, Inc.

    2005-08-07

    Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) of radiologically and/or chemically contaminated facilities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are the responsibility of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project. Facilities identified for D&D are listed in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) and closed under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act process. This paper discusses the NTS D&D program, including facilities history, D&D regulatory framework, and valuable lessons learned.

  4. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    G. N. Doyle

    2002-02-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The site is located within the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (R-MAD) compound and consists of Building 3126, two outdoor decontamination pads, and surrounding areas within an existing fenced area measuring approximately 50 x 37 meters (160 x 120 feet). The site was used from the early 1960s to the early 1970s as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station program to decontaminate test-car hardware and tooling. The site was reactivated in the early 1980s to decontaminate a radiologically contaminated military tank. This Closure Report (CR) describes the closure activities performed to allow un-restricted release of the R-MAD Decontamination Facility.

  5. Decontamination and Decommissioning Experience at a Sellafield Uranium Purification Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Prosser, J.L.

    2006-07-01

    Built in the 1950's, this plant was originally designed to purify depleted uranyl nitrate solution arising from reprocessing operations at the Primary Separation and Head End Plant (Fig. 1). The facility was used for various purposes throughout its life cycle such as research, development and trial based processes. Test rigs were operated in the building from the 1970's until 1984 to support development of the process and equipment now used at Sellafield's Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP). The extensive decommissioning program for this facility began over 15 years ago. Many challenges have been overcome throughout this program such as decommissioning the four main process cells, which were very highly alpha contaminated. The cells contained vessels and pipeline systems that were contaminated to such levels that workers had to use pressurized suits to enter the cells. Since decommissioning at Sellafield was in its infancy, this project has trialed various decontamination/decommissioning methods and techniques in order to progress the project, and this has provided valuable learning for other decommissioning projects. The project has included characterization, decontamination, dismantling, waste handling, and is now ready for demolition during late 2005, early 2006. This will be the first major facility within the historic Separation Area at Sellafield to be demolished down to base slab level. The lessons learnt from this project will directly benefit numerous decommissioning projects as the cleanup at Sellafield continues. (authors)

  6. Interim Status of the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment Integrated Decontamination and Decommissioning Project

    SciTech Connect

    A. M Smith; G. E. Matthern; R. H. Meservey

    1998-11-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), and Argonne National Laboratory - East (ANL-E) teamed to establish the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) Integrated Decontamination and Decommissioning (ID&D) project to increase the use of improved technologies in D&D operations. The project is making the technologies more readily available, providing training, putting the technologies to use, and spreading information about improved performance. The improved technologies are expected to reduce cost, schedule, radiation exposure, or waste volume over currently used baseline methods. They include some of the most successful technologies proven in the large-scale demonstrations and in private industry. The selected technologies are the Pipe Explorer, the GammaCam, the Decontamination Decommissioning and Remediation Optimal Planning System (DDROPS), the BROKK Demolition Robot, the Personal Ice Cooling System (PICS), the Oxy-Gasoline Torch, the Track-Mounted Shear, and the Hand-Held Shear.

  7. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    C. M. Obi

    2000-12-01

    The Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Decontamination Facility is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254. CAU 254 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site and consists of a single Corrective Action Site CAS 25-23-06. CAU 254 will be closed, in accordance with the FFACO of 1996. CAU 254 was used primarily to perform radiological decontamination and consists of Building 3126, two outdoor decontamination pads, and surrounding soil within an existing perimeter fence. The site was used to decontaminate nuclear rocket test-car hardware and tooling from the early 1960s through the early 1970s, and to decontaminate a military tank in the early 1980s. The site characterization results indicate that, in places, the surficial soil and building materials exceed clean-up criteria for organic compounds, metals, and radionuclides. Closure activities are expected to generate waste streams consisting of nonhazardous construction waste. petroleum hydrocarbon waste, hazardous waste, low-level radioactive waste, and mixed waste. Some of the wastes exceed land disposal restriction limits and will require off-site treatment before disposal. The recommended corrective action was revised to Alternative 3- ''Unrestricted Release Decontamination, Verification Survey, and Dismantle Building 3126,'' in an addendum to the Correction Action Decision Document.

  8. Fiscal years 1993 and 1994 decontamination and decommissioning activities photobriefing book for the Argonne National Laboratory-East Site, Technology Development Division, Decontamination and Decommissioning Projects Department

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This photobriefing book describes the ongoing decontamination and decommissioning projects at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)-East Site near Lemont, Illinois. The book is broken down into three sections: introduction, project descriptions, and summary. The introduction elates the history and mission of the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Projects Department at ANL-East. The second section describes the active ANL-East D and D projects, giving a project history and detailing fiscal year (FY) 1993 and FY 1994 accomplishments and FY 1995 goals. The final section summarizes the goals of the D and D Projects Department and the current program status. The D/D projects include the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor, Chicago Pile-5 Reactor, that cells, and plutonium gloveboxes. 73 figs.

  9. On-Site Decontamination System for Liquid Low Level Radioactive Waste - 13010

    SciTech Connect

    OSMANLIOGLU, Ahmet Erdal

    2013-07-01

    This study is based on an evaluation of purification methods for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) by using natural zeolite. Generally the volume of liquid low-level waste is relatively large and the specific activity is rather low when compared to other radioactive waste types. In this study, a pilot scale column was used with natural zeolite as an ion exchanger media. Decontamination and minimization of LLLW especially at the generation site decrease operational cost in waste management operations. Portable pilot scale column was constructed for decontamination of LLW on site. Effect of temperature on the radionuclide adsorption of the zeolite was determined to optimize the waste solution temperature for the plant scale operations. In addition, effect of pH on the radionuclide uptake of the zeolite column was determined to optimize the waste solution pH for the plant scale operations. The advantages of this method used for the processing of LLLW are discussed in this paper. (authors)

  10. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration, site characterization plan: Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility at the Nevada Test Site which will be conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Environmental Restoration Division. The objectives of the planned activities are to: obtain sufficient, sample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies may be developed for the site; obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste. The scope of the characterization may include surface radiation survey(s), surface soil sampling, subsurface soil boring (i.e., drilling), and sampling of soil in and around the pond; in situ sampling of the soil within subsurface soil borings; and sample analysis for both site characterization and waste management purposes.

  11. Decontamination and decommissioning assessment for the Waste Incineration Facility (Building 232-Z) Hanford Site, [Hanford], WA

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, L.N.

    1994-02-01

    Building 232-Z is an element of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. From 1961 until 1972, plutonium-bearing combustible materials were incinerated in the building. Between 1972 and 1983, following shutdown of the incinerator, the facility was used for waste segregation activities. The facility was placed in retired inactive status in 1984 and classified as a Limited Control Facility pursuant to DOE Order 5480.5, Safety of Nuclear Facilities, and 6430.1A, General Design Criteria. The current plutonium inventory within the building is estimated to be approximately 848 grams, the majority of which is retained within the process hood ventilation system. As a contaminated retired facility, Building 232-Z is included in the DOE Surplus Facility Management Program. The objective of this Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) assessment is to remove Building 232-Z, thereby elmininating the radiological and environmental hazards associated with the plutonium inventory within the structure. The steps to accomplish the plan objectives are: (1) identifying the locations of the most significant amounts of plutonium, (2) removing residual plutonium, (3) removing and decontaminating remaining building equipment, (4) dismantling the remaining structure, and (5) closing out the project.

  12. Summary of the Hanford Site decontamination, decommissioning, and cleanup, FY 1974--FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlen, R.K.

    1991-08-01

    At the end of World War II, the demand for more production along with process and military surveillance changes at the Hanford Site caused a continuing cycle of building and obsolescence. This trend continued until 1964, when the cutback in plutonium production began. The cutback caused the shutdown of excess production facilities. The last of eight reactors was shut down in 1971. Since that time, N Reactor has been the only production reactor that has operated. In addition, changes in the method of separating plutonium caused a number of excess facilities in the 200 Areas. Before 1973, no structured program existed for the disposal of unusable facilities or for general cleanup. Following a plant-wide safety and housekeeping inspection in 1973, a program was developed for the disposal of all surplus facilities. Since the start of FY 1974, a total of 46 radioactively contaminated sites have been demolished and disposed of. In addition, 28 buildings have been decontaminated for in situ disposal or for reuse, 21 contaminated sites have been stabilized, 131 clean structures have been removed, and 93 clean sites have received special remedial action to eliminate potential safety and/or environmental hazards. This report summarizes these activities. 3 refs, 1 fig., 18 tabs.

  13. Post-decontamination and dismantlement (D&D) characterization report for CFA-669 site

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents results of post-decontamination and dismantling (D&D) characterization surveys performed by EG&G Idaho, Inc. (EG&G Idaho), at Central Facilities Area (CFA)-669, which was the Hot Laundry Facility. The site was characterized to determine and document the radiological and chemical conditions of the site following D&D and to determine if the site satisfies the release criteria. Constructed in 1950, CFA-669 served as the ``hot`` and ``cold`` laundry for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory site contractors until the boiler exploded in 1981. The building was shut down at that time. Before D&D activities began in 1992, the facility was characterized and the results documented. D&D activities were completed in July 1994. The post-D&D radiological characterization consisted of radiation measurements and analyses of soil samples to identify man-made radionuclides and determine the specific activity of each sample. The chemical characterization consisted of toxicity characterization leaching procedure (TCLP) analysis for metals and for volatile and semivolatile organic contamination.

  14. Gnome site decontamination and decommissioning project radiation contamination clearance report, March 28, 1979-September 23, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, H.A.

    1981-08-01

    This report describes the operations and radiological activities conducted during Phase II and Phase III of the Gnome site decontamination and decommissioning (D/D) project in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The onsite radiological monitoring and documentation activities were performed for the Department of Energy, Nevada Operations (DOE/NV) by Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Co., Inc. (REECo) and EG and G, Inc., from March 28, 1979 to September 23, 1979. The monitoring program included soil sampling and analyses, portable instrument area surveys, thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) measurements and a post-operational aerial survey to document the final site status and to insure public and occupational health and safety. Although the analysis of data gathered during the final stages of the D/D project will provide the information necessary for DOE to return the Gnome site to the Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) for unrestricted use of the land surface, there are permanent restrictions on excavation and/or drilling on the site at any depth between the surface and 1500 feet.

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 254 is comprised of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-06, Decontamination Facility. A corrective action investigation for this CAS as conducted in January 2000 as set forth in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Samples were collected from various media throughout the CAS and sent to an off-site laboratory for analysis. The laboratory results indicated the following: radiation dose rates inside the Decontamination Facility, Building 3126, and in the storage yard exceeded the average general dose rate; scanning and static total surface contamination surveys indicated that portions of the locker and shower room floor, decontamination bay floor, loft floor, east and west decon pads, north and south decontamination bay interior walls, exterior west and south walls, and loft walls were above preliminary action levels (PALs). The investigation-derived contaminants of concern (COCs) included: polychlorinated biphenyls, radionuclides (strontium-90, niobium-94, cesium-137, uranium-234 and -235), total volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Metals). During the investigation, two corrective action objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate human exposure to COCs. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the Nevada Test Site, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Unrestricted Release Decontamination and Verification Survey; and Alternative 3 - Unrestricted

  16. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Site Environmental Restoration Site Characterization Plan, Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-12

    This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility (DPF) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which will be conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations OffIce (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration Division (ERD). The objectives of the planned activities are to: o Obtain sufficient, ample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies maybe developed for the site. o Obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste. All references to regulations contained in this plan are to the versions of the regulations that are current at the time of publication of this plan. The scope of the characterization may include surface radiation survey(s), surface soil sampling, subsurface soil boring (i.e., drilling), and sampling of soil in and Mound the pond; in situ sampling of the soil within subsurface soil borings; and sample analysis for both site . . characterization and waste management purposes.

  17. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets; Part A, Characterization, decontamination, dismantlement

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, R.L.

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates environmental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. Volume 2 contains logic diagrams. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use. This report is part A of Volume 3 concerning characterization, decontamination, and dismantlement.

  18. DECONTAMINATION TECHNIQUES FOR MOBILE RESPONSE EQUIPMENT USED AT WASTE SITES (STATE-OF-THE-ART SURVEY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A state-of-the-art review of facility and equipment decontamination, contamination assessment, and contamination avoidance has been conducted. The review, based on an intensive literature search and a survey of various equipment manufacturers, provides preliminary background mate...

  19. Automated nuclear material recovery and decontamination of large steel dynamic experiment containers

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, D.K.; Gallant, D.A.; Nelson, D.C.; Stovall, L.A.; Wedman, D.E.

    1999-03-01

    A key mission of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is to reduce the global nuclear danger through stockpile stewardship efforts that ensure the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons. In support of this mission LANL performs dynamic experiments on special nuclear materials (SNM) within large steel containers. Once these experiments are complete, these containers must be processed to recover residual SNM and to decontaminate the containers to below low level waste (LLW) disposal limits which are much less restrictive for disposal purposes than transuranic (TRU) waste limits. The purpose of this paper is to describe automation efforts being developed by LANL for improving the efficiency, increasing worker safety, and reducing worker exposure during the material cleanout and recovery activities performed on these containers.

  20. Site Characterization Plan for decontamination and decommissioning of Buildings 3506 and 3515 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Buildings 3506, the Waste Evaporator Facility, and 3515, the Fission Product Pilot Plant, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), are scheduled for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). This Site Characterization Plan (SCP) presents the strategy and techniques to be used to characterize Buildings 3506/3515 for the purpose of planning D&D activities. The elements of the site characterization for Buildings 3506/3515 are planning and preparation, field investigation, and characterization reporting. Other level of effort activities will include management and oversight, project controls, meetings, and progress reporting. The objective of the site characterization is to determine the nature and extent of radioactive and hazardous materials and other industrial hazards in and around the buildings. This information will be used in subsequent planning to develop a detailed approach for final decommissioning of the facilities: (1) to evaluate decommissioning alternatives and design the most cost-effective D&D approach; (2) to determine the level and type of protection necessary for D&D workers; and (3) to estimate the types and volumes of wastes generated during D&D activities. The current D&D characterization scope includes the entire building, including the foundation and equipment or materials within the building. To estimate potential worker exposure from the soil during D&D, some subfoundation soil sample collection is planned. Buildings 3506/3515 are located in the ORNL main plant area, to the west and east, respectively, of the South Tank Farm. Building 3506 was built in 1949 to house a liquid waste evaporator and was subsequently used for an incinerator experiment. Partial D&D was done prior to abandonment, and most equipment has been removed. Building 3515 was built in 1948 to house fission product separation equipment. In about 1960, all entrances were sealed with concrete block and mortar. Building 3515 is expected to be highly contaminated.

  1. Clinical aspects of percutaneous poisoning by the chemical warfare agent VX: effects of application site and decontamination.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Murray G; Hill, Ira; Conley, John; Sawyer, Thomas W; Caneva, Duane C; Lundy, Paul M

    2004-11-01

    O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate (VX) is an extremely toxic organophosphate nerve agent that has been weaponized and stockpiled in a number of different countries, and it has been used in recent terrorist events. It differs from other well-known organophosphate nerve agents in that its primary use is as a contact poison rather than as an inhalation hazard. For this reason, we examined the effects of application site and skin decontamination on VX toxicity in anesthetized domestic swine after topical application. VX applied to the surface of the ear rapidly resulted in signs of toxicity consistent with the development of cholinergic crisis, including apnea and death. VX on the epigastrium resulted in a marked delayed development of toxic signs, reduced toxicity, and reduction in the rate of cholinesterase depression compared with animals exposed on the ear. Skin decontamination (15 minutes post-VX on the ear) arrested the development of clinical signs and prevented further cholinesterase inhibition and death. These results confirm earlier work that demonstrates the importance of exposure site on the resultant toxicity of this agent and they also show that decontamination postexposure has the potential to be an integral and extremely important component of medical countermeasures against this agent. PMID:15605929

  2. Environmental decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, G.A.; Jernigan, H.C.

    1981-02-01

    The record of the proceedings of the workshop on environmental decontamination contains twenty-seven presentations. Emphasis is placed upon soil and surface decontamination, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and assessments of instrumentation and equipment used in decontamination. (DLS)

  3. DEMONSTRATION AND EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Weger, Hans, Ph.D.; Kodanda, Raja Tilek Meruva; Mazumdar, Anindra; Srivastava, Rajiv Ph.D.; Ebadian, M.A. Ph.D.

    2003-02-27

    Four hand-held tools were tested for failed high-level waste melter decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). The forces felt by the tools during operation were measured using a tri-axial accelerometer since they will be operated by a remote manipulator. The efficiency of the tools was also recorded. Melter D&D consists of three parts: (1) glass fracturing: removing from the furnace the melted glass that can not be poured out through normal means, (2) glass cleaning: removing the thin layer of glass that has formed over the surface of the refractory material, and (3) K-3 refractory breakup: removing the K-3 refractory material. Surrogate glass, from a formula provided by the Savannah River Site, was melted in a furnace and poured into steel containers. K-3 refractory material, the same material used in the Defense Waste Processing Facility, was utilized for the demonstrations. Four K-3 blocks were heated at 1150 C for two weeks with a glass layer on top to simulate the hardened glass layer on the refractory surface in the melter. Tools chosen for the demonstrations were commonly used D&D tools, which have not been tested specifically for the different aspects of melter D&D. A jackhammer and a needle gun were tested for glass fracturing; a needle gun and a rotary grinder with a diamond face wheel (diamond grinder) were tested for glass cleaning; and a jackhammer, diamond grinder, and a circular saw with a diamond blade were tested for refractory breakup. The needle gun was not capable of removing or fracturing the surrogate glass. The diamond grinder only had a removal rate of 3.0 x 10-4 kg/s for K-3 refractory breakup and needed to be held firmly against the material. However, the diamond grinder was effective for glass cleaning, with a removal rate of 3.9 cm2/s. The jackhammer was successful in fracturing glass and breaking up the K-3 refractory block. The jackhammer had a glass-fracturing rate of 0.40 kg/s. The jackhammer split the K-3 refractory block into two

  4. Stellar Interferometer Technology Experiment (SITE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawley, Edward F.; Miller, David; Laskin, Robert; Shao, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The MIT Space Engineering Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory stand ready to advance science sensor technology for discrete-aperture astronomical instruments such as space-based optical interferometers. The objective of the Stellar Interferometer Technology Experiment (SITE) is to demonstrate system-level functionality of a space-based stellar interferometer through the use of enabling and enhancing Controlled-Structures Technologies (CST). SITE mounts to the Mission Peculiar Experiment Support System inside the Shuttle payload bay. Starlight, entering through two apertures, is steered to a combining plate where it is interferred. Interference requires 27 nanometer pathlength (phasing) and 0.29 archsecond wavefront-tilt (pointing) control. The resulting 15 milli-archsecond angular resolution exceeds that of current earth-orbiting telescopes while maintaining low cost by exploiting active optics and structural control technologies. With these technologies, unforeseen and time-varying disturbances can be rejected while relaxing reliance on ground alignment and calibration. SITE will reduce the risk and cost of advanced optical space systems by validating critical technologies in their operational environment. Moreover, these technologies are directly applicable to commercially driven applications such as precision matching, optical scanning, and vibration and noise control systems for the aerospace, medical, and automotive sectors. The SITE team consists of experienced university, government, and industry researchers, scientists, and engineers with extensive expertise in optical interferometry, nano-precision opto-mechanical control and spaceflight experimentation. The experience exists and the technology is mature. SITE will validate these technologies on a functioning interferometer science sensor in order to confirm definitely their readiness to be baselined for future science missions.

  5. Effective Responder Communication Improves Efficiency and Psychological Outcomes in a Mass Decontamination Field Experiment: Implications for Public Behaviour in the Event of a Chemical Incident

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Holly; Drury, John; Amlôt, Richard; Rubin, G. James; Williams, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The risk of incidents involving mass decontamination in response to a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear release has increased in recent years, due to technological advances, and the willingness of terrorists to use unconventional weapons. Planning for such incidents has focused on the technical issues involved, rather than on psychosocial concerns. This paper presents a novel experimental study, examining the effect of three different responder communication strategies on public experiences and behaviour during a mass decontamination field experiment. Specifically, the research examined the impact of social identity processes on the relationship between effective responder communication, and relevant outcome variables (e.g. public compliance, public anxiety, and co-operative public behaviour). All participants (n = 111) were asked to visualise that they had been involved in an incident involving mass decontamination, before undergoing the decontamination process, and receiving one of three different communication strategies: 1) ‘Theory-based communication’: Health-focused explanations about decontamination, and sufficient practical information; 2) ‘Standard practice communication’: No health-focused explanations about decontamination, sufficient practical information; 3) ‘Brief communication’: No health-focused explanations about decontamination, insufficient practical information. Four types of data were collected: timings of the decontamination process; observational data; and quantitative and qualitative self-report data. The communication strategy which resulted in the most efficient progression of participants through the decontamination process, as well as the fewest observations of non-compliance and confusion, was that which included both health-focused explanations about decontamination and sufficient practical information. Further, this strategy resulted in increased perceptions of responder legitimacy and increased

  6. Effective responder communication improves efficiency and psychological outcomes in a mass decontamination field experiment: implications for public behaviour in the event of a chemical incident.

    PubMed

    Carter, Holly; Drury, John; Amlôt, Richard; Rubin, G James; Williams, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The risk of incidents involving mass decontamination in response to a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear release has increased in recent years, due to technological advances, and the willingness of terrorists to use unconventional weapons. Planning for such incidents has focused on the technical issues involved, rather than on psychosocial concerns. This paper presents a novel experimental study, examining the effect of three different responder communication strategies on public experiences and behaviour during a mass decontamination field experiment. Specifically, the research examined the impact of social identity processes on the relationship between effective responder communication, and relevant outcome variables (e.g. public compliance, public anxiety, and co-operative public behaviour). All participants (n = 111) were asked to visualise that they had been involved in an incident involving mass decontamination, before undergoing the decontamination process, and receiving one of three different communication strategies: 1) 'Theory-based communication': Health-focused explanations about decontamination, and sufficient practical information; 2) 'Standard practice communication': No health-focused explanations about decontamination, sufficient practical information; 3) 'Brief communication': No health-focused explanations about decontamination, insufficient practical information. Four types of data were collected: timings of the decontamination process; observational data; and quantitative and qualitative self-report data. The communication strategy which resulted in the most efficient progression of participants through the decontamination process, as well as the fewest observations of non-compliance and confusion, was that which included both health-focused explanations about decontamination and sufficient practical information. Further, this strategy resulted in increased perceptions of responder legitimacy and increased identification with

  7. Electro-Mechanical Manipulator for Use in the Remote Equipment Decontamination Cell at the Defense Waste Processing Facility, Savannah River Site - 12454

    SciTech Connect

    Lambrecht, Bill; Dixon, Joe; Neuville, John R.

    2012-07-01

    One of the legacies of the cold war is millions of liters of radioactive waste. One of the locations where this waste is stored is at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. A major effort to clean up this waste is on-going at the defense waste processing facility (DWPF) at SRS. A piece of this effort is decontamination of the equipment used in the DWPF to process the waste. The remote equipment decontamination cell (REDC) in the DWPF uses electro-mechanical manipulators (EMM) arms manufactured and supplied by PaR Systems to decontaminate DWPF process equipment. The decontamination fluid creates a highly corrosive environment. After 25 years of operational use the original EMM arms are aging and need replacement. To support continued operation of the DWPF, two direct replacement EMM arms were delivered to the REDC in the summer of 2011. (authors)

  8. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 252: Area 25 Engine Test Stand 1 Decontamination Pad, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-08-20

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 252 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 252 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-07-02, Engine Test Stand-1 (ETS-1) Decontamination Pad. Located in Area 25 at the intersection of Road H and Road K at the Nevada Test Site, ETS-1 was designed for use as a mobile radiation checkpoint and for vehicle decontamination. The CAS consists of a concrete decontamination pad with a drain, a gravel-filled sump, two concrete trailer pads, and utility boxes. Constructed in 1966, the ETS-1 facility was part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS) complex and used to test nuclear rockets. The ETS-1 Decontamination Pad and mobile radiation check point was built in 1968. The NRDS complex ceased primary operations in 1973. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to determine if any primary contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) (including radionuclides, total volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls) are present at this site. Vertical extent of migration of suspected vehicle decontamination effluent COPCs is expected to be less than 12 feet below ground surface. Lateral extent of migration of COPCs is expected to be limited to the sump area or near the northeast corner of the decontamination pad. Using a biased sampling approach, near-surface and subsurface sampling will be conducted at the suspected worst-case areas including the sump and soil near the northeast corner of the decontamination pad. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible e valuation

  9. DECONTAMINATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SUBSTANCES FROM SPILLS AND UNCONTROLLED WASTE SITES BY RADIO FREQUENCY IN SITU HEATING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The radio frequency (RF) heating process can be used to volumetrically heat and thus decontaminate uncontrolled landfills and hazardous substances from spills. After the landfills are heated, decontamination of the hazardous substances occurs due to thermal decomposition, vaporiz...

  10. PRACTICAL EXPERIENCES WITH TECHNOLOGIES FOR DECONTAMINATION OF B. ANTHRACIS IN LARGE BUILDINGS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Fall of 2001 a number of buildings were contaminated with B. anthracis (B.A.) from letters processed through United States Postal Service and other mail handling facilities. All of the buildings have now been decontaminated using a variety of technologies. In a number of...

  11. Demonstration experience with an abrasive blasting technique for decontaminating concrete pads

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, J.S. ); Land, R.R. ); Doane, R.W. )

    1990-01-01

    A demonstration was performed for decontaminating a radioactivity contaminated concrete pad with a portable abrasive blasting system. The system utilizes a rotating blast wheel that scours the concrete surface with metal abrasive. The metal abrasive, pulverized concrete dust, and contaminants rebound into a separator chamber. The reusable metal abrasive is recycled, and the pulverized media are removed to an integral dust collection system. The exhaust is HEPA filtered to minimize release of airborne contaminants. However, the technique had limited success in reducing contamination around the cracks and seams in the concrete where the higher activity levels of contamination were detected during the radiological survey before the cleanup. The technique can be successful and cost-effective in decontaminating large areas of low contamination; however, careful characterization and planning are necessary. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tabs.

  12. Evaluation of gas-phase technetium decontamination and safety related experiments during FY 1994. A report of work in progress

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, D.W.; Munday, E.B.

    1995-05-01

    Laboratory activities for FY94 included: evaluation of decontamination of Tc by gas-phase techniques, evaluation of diluted ClF{sub 3} for removing U deposits, evaluation of potential hazard of wet air inlekage into a vessel containing ClF{sub 3}, planning and preparation for experiments to assess hazard of rapid reaction of ClF{sub 3} and hydrated UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} or powdered Al, and preliminary evaluation of compatibility of Tenic valve seat material.

  13. Decontamination of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor components for reuse; The French experience

    SciTech Connect

    Michaille, P. ); Moroni, J.C. ); Lambert, I. )

    1991-02-01

    Decontamination of stainless steel liquid-metal fast breeder reactor components for reuse in France began with the decontamination of Rapsodie components. At that time, dilute phosphoric acid was used. To cope with additional irradiated components after Phenix came into operation, an extensive study was performed, which led to the selection of a procedure involving two baths. The first bath, alkaline permanganate (AP), is applied for 3 h; the second bath, sulfo-phosphoric acid (SP), is applied for 6 h, both at 60{degrees}C. Up to three cycles are repeated until the residual dose rate is sufficiently low. Eight intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) and two primary pumps from Phenix were decontaminated using this method. This paper reports that because SP can pickle only a limited depth ({approximately} 3{mu}m), due to the passivation effect of phosphoric acid, and because of the waste treatment problems associated with phosphates, new solutions were explored. One possibility involves improvement of the AP-SP procedure: In the SPm procedure, the AP bath is omitted and the phosphoric concentration is reduced by a factor of 4. A second approach is the use of a new formula, called SECA, a mixture of maleic and citric acid used in reducing conditions (imposed by hydrazine). Since the Phenix and Superphenix waste treatment facilities are not designed to reprocess maleic-citric acid, only the SPm procedure has been used on reactor components. A low-contaminated IHX from Rapsodie served as a test benchmark, not only for the decontamination procedure, but also for the requalification criteria, before the SPm procedure was applied to a highly contaminated IHX from Phenix. Recent results are presented.

  14. Facility decontamination technology workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    Purpose of the meeting was to provide a record of experience at nuclear facilities, other than TMI-2, of events and incidents which have required decontamination and dose reduction activities, and to furnish GPU and others involved in the TMI-2 cleanup with the results of that decontamination and dose reduction technology. Separate abstracts were prepared for 24 of the 25 papers; the remaining paper had been previously abstracted. (DLC)

  15. Closure report for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) category, Corrective Action Unit 95, EPA Farm Laboratory Building 15-06, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The EPA Farm Laboratory Building 15-06 was located in Area 15 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The facility is identified as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 95, Corrective Action Site 15-41-01, in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order and was assigned to Functional Category 41 (Decontamination and Decommissioning [D and D] Facility.) In August 1997, the Department of Energy/Nevada (DOE/NV) accelerated the corrective actions for CAU 95. A final Corrective Action Decision Document and a draft Corrective Action Plan were submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and notification was made to the NDEP that work would proceed at the site while the documents were reviewed. The NDEP approved the decontamination and demolition of the Laboratory Building as the corrective action alternative most suitable for the closure of CAU 95. Closure activities were initiated on September 2, 1997 and completed October 23, 1997. The decontamination of Building 15-06 was accomplished in conference with the D and D Subproject Characterization Work Plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan.

  16. Site participation in the small community experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holbeck, H. J.; Fellows, M.

    1981-01-01

    The Small Community Solar Thermal Experiment, planned to test a small, developmental solar thermal power plant in a small community application, is assessed. The baseline plan is to install a field of parabolic dishes with distributed generation to provide 1 MWe of experimental power. Participation by the site proposer is an integral element of the experiment; the proposer will provide a ten-acre site, a connection to the electrical distributional system serving the small community, and various services. In addition to the primary participant, site study efforts may be pursued at as many as five alternative sites.

  17. Site specific health and safety plan, 233-S decontamination and decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. Fasso

    1997-12-31

    The deactivated 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility, located in the 200 Area at the Hanford Site, is the subject of this Health and Safety Plan.The 233-S Facility operated from January 1952 until July 1967 at which time the building entered the U.S. Department of Energy`s Surplus Facility Management Program as a retired facility. The facility has since undergone severe degradation due to exposure to extreme weather conditions. Additionally, the weather caused existing cracks in concrete structures of the building to lengthen, thereby increasing the potential for failed confinement of the radioactive material in the building. Differential settlement has also occurred causing portions of the facility to separate from the main building structure, increasing the potential for release of radioactive material to the environment. An expedited response is proposed to remove this threat and ensure protection of human health and the environment. On this premise it is intended that the 233-S Facility removal action be performed as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 Time-Critical Project being conducted under the Pilot Hanford Environmental Restoration (ER) Initiative

  18. THE DEACTIVATION DECONTAMINATION & DECOMMISSIONING OF THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) A FORMER PLUTONIUM PROCESSING FACILITY AT DOE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    CHARBONEAU, S.L.

    2006-02-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) was constructed as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. The Manhattan Project was developed to usher in the use of nuclear weapons to end the war. The primary mission of the PFP was to provide plutonium used as special nuclear material (SNM) for fabrication of nuclear devices for the war effort. Subsequent to the end of World War II, the PFP's mission expanded to support the Cold War effort through plutonium production during the nuclear arms race and later the processing of fuel grade mixed plutonium-uranium oxide to support DOE's breeder reactor program. In October 1990, at the close of the production mission for PFP, a shutdown order was prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in Washington, DC and issued to the Richland DOE field office. Subsequent to the shutdown order, a team from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) analyzed the hazards at PFP associated with the continued storage of certain forms of plutonium solutions and solids. The assessment identified many discrete actions that were required to stabilize the different plutonium forms into stable form and repackage the material in high integrity containers. These actions were technically complicated and completed as part of the PFP nuclear material stabilization project between 1995 and early 2005. The completion of the stabilization project was a necessary first step in deactivating PFP. During stabilization, DOE entered into negotiations with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the State of Washington and established milestones for the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) of the PFP. The DOE and its contractor, Fluor Hanford (Fluor), have made great progress in deactivating, decontaminating and decommissioning the PFP at the Hanford Site as detailed in this paper. Background information covering the PFP D&D effort includes descriptions of negotiations with the State of Washington concerning consent-order milestones

  19. EXPERIENCES IN DECONTAMINATION & DEMOLITION OF A FORMER PLUTONIUM CONCENTRATION FACILITY HANFORD RESERVATION

    SciTech Connect

    BISHOP, G.E.

    2002-06-01

    The 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility received plutonium nitrate paste from the nearby Reduction-Oxidation (REDOX) Facility and concentrated the plutonium for shipment to Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant. Operations ceased in 1967 and the Facility languished in a state of minimal maintenance until the mid-1990's when a decision was made to decontaminate and demolish (D&D) it. This work is being performed as a pilot project that integrates DOE nuclear safety analysis and worker safety requirements with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements under CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 1980). The pilot project is a CERCLA non-time critical removal action. Difficulties were encountered during D&D. These included conflict between the development of the safety basis as an EPA pilot project and DOE requirements for safety analysis reports, updating the safety analysis to keep it current with field conditions, and major difficulties with nondestructive assays (NDA) of the contaminated waste. No demonstrable benefit has been obtained by integrating the EPA and DOE safety methodologies.

  20. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 252: Area 25 Engine Test Stand 1 Decontamination Pad, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2000-10-11

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 252: Area 25 Engine Test Stand-1 Decontamination Pad, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Located at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 252 consists of only one Corrective Action Site (25-07-04, Decontamination Pad). This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary at CAU 252. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report have been combined into one report because the potential contaminants of concern were either not detected during the corrective action investigation or were only present at naturally occurring concentrations. Based on the field results, neither corrective action or a corrective action plan is required at this site. A Notice of Completion to DOE/NV is being requested from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for closure of CAU 252, as well as a request that this site be moved from Appendix III to Appendix IV of the FFACO. Further, no use restrictions are required to be placed on this CAU.

  1. Foam and gel decontamination techniques

    SciTech Connect

    McGlynn, J.F.; Rankin, W.N.

    1989-01-01

    The Savannah River Site is investigating decontamination technology to improve current decontamination techniques, and thereby reduce radiation exposure to plant personnel, reduce uptake of radioactive material, and improve safety during decontamination and decommissioning activities. When decontamination chemicals are applied as foam and gels, the contact time and cleaning ability of the chemical increases. Foam and gel applicators apply foam or gel that adheres to the surface being decontaminated for periods ranging from fifteen minutes (foam) to infinite contact (gel). This equipment was started up in a cold environment. The desired foam and gel consistency was achieved, operators were trained in its proper maintenance and operation, and the foam and gel were applied to walls, ceilings, and hard to reach surfaces. 17 figs.

  2. Proceedings of the concrete decontamination workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Halter, J.M.; Sullivan, R.G.; Currier, A.J.

    1980-05-28

    Fourteen papers were presented. These papers describe concrete surface removal methods and equipment, as well as experiences in decontaminating and removing both power and experimental nuclear reactors.

  3. Decontamination and Management of Human Remains Following Incidents of Hazardous Chemical Release

    SciTech Connect

    Hauschild, Veronique; Watson, Annetta Paule; Bock, Robert Eldon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide specific procedural guidance and resources for identification, assessment, control, and mitigation of compounds that may contaminate human remains resulting from chemical attack or release. Design: A detailed technical, policy, and regulatory review is summarized. Setting: Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present. Settings would include sites of transportation accidents, natural disasters, terrorist or military operations, mortuary affairs or medical examiner processing and decontamination points, and similar. Patients, Participants: While recommended procedures have not been validated with actual human remains, guidance has been developed from data characterizing controlled experiments with fabrics, materiel, and laboratory animals. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presentation of logic and specific procedures for remains management, protection and decontamination of mortuary affairs personnel, as well as decision criteria for determining when remains are sufficiently decontaminated so as to pose no chemical health hazard. Results: Established procedures and existing equipment/materiel available for decontamination and verification provide appropriate and reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from remains. Extensive characterization of issues related to remains decontamination indicates that supra-lethal concentrations of liquid chemical warfare agent VX may prove difficult to decontaminate and verify in a timely fashion. Specialized personnel can and should be called upon to assist with monitoring necessary to clear decontaminated remains for transport and processing. Conclusions: Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for remains processing and transport to the decedent s family and the continental United States can be followed.

  4. Gas phase decontamination of gaseous diffusion process equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Bundy, R.D.; Munday, E.B.; Simmons, D.W.; Neiswander, D.W.

    1994-03-01

    D&D of the process facilities at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) will be an enormous task. The EBASCO estimate places the cost of D&D of the GDP at the K-25 Site at approximately $7.5 billion. Of this sum, nearly $4 billion is associated with the construction and operation of decontamination facilities and the dismantlement and transport of contaminated process equipment to these facilities. In situ long-term low-temperature (LTLT) gas phase decontamination is being developed and demonstrated at the K-25 site as a technology that has the potential to substantially lower these costs while reducing criticality and safeguards concerns and worker exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials. The objective of gas phase decontamination is to employ a gaseous reagent to fluorinate nonvolatile uranium deposits to form volatile LJF6, which can be recovered by chemical trapping or freezing. The LTLT process permits the decontamination of the inside of gas-tight GDP process equipment at room temperature by substituting a long exposure to subatmospheric C1F for higher reaction rates at higher temperatures. This paper outlines the concept for applying LTLT gas phase decontamination, reports encouraging laboratory experiments, and presents the status of the design of a prototype mobile system. Plans for demonstrating the LTLT process on full-size gaseous diffusion equipment are also outlined briefly.

  5. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor decontamination and decommissioning project and the Tokamak Physics Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1994-05-27

    If the US is to meet the energy needs of the future, it is essential that new technologies emerge to compensate for dwindling supplies of fossil fuels and the eventual depletion of fissionable uranium used in present-day nuclear reactors. Fusion energy has the potential to become a major source of energy for the future. Power from fusion energy would provide a substantially reduced environmental impact as compared with other forms of energy generation. Since fusion utilizes no fossil fuels, there would be no release of chemical combustion products to the atmosphere. Additionally, there are no fission products formed to present handling and disposal problems, and runaway fuel reactions are impossible due to the small amounts of deuterium and tritium present. The purpose of the TPX Project is to support the development of the physics and technology to extend tokamak operation into the continuously operating (steady-state) regime, and to demonstrate advances in fundamental tokamak performance. The purpose of TFTR D&D is to ensure compliance with DOE Order 5820.2A ``Radioactive Waste Management`` and to remove environmental and health hazards posed by the TFTR in a non-operational mode. There are two proposed actions evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA). The actions are related because one must take place before the other can proceed. The proposed actions assessed in this EA are: the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR); to be followed by the construction and operation of the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Both of these proposed actions would take place primarily within the TFTR Test Cell Complex at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The TFTR is located on ``D-site`` at the James Forrestal Campus of Princeton University in Plainsboro Township, Middlesex County, New Jersey, and is operated by PPPL under contract with the United States Department of Energy (DOE).

  6. Repainting decontaminated canyon cranes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-23

    The paint on the H-area hot canyon crane is expected to be at least partially removed during the planned decontamination with high pressure Freon/reg sign/ blasting. Tests to evaluate two candidate finishes, DuPont Imron/reg sign/ polyurethane enamel and DuPont Colar/reg sign/ epoxy were carried out at Quadrex Co., Oak Ridge, TN, March 1984. Three types of 304L stainless steel surface finishes were included in the test (ASTM No. 1, bead blasted ASTM No. 1, and ASTM No. 2B). Two types of contamination were used (diluted dissolver solution, the type of contamination encountered in existing canyons; and raw sludge plus volatiles, the type of contamination expected in DWPF). Some specimens were coated with the type of grease (Mystic JT-6) used on cranes in SRP separations areas. The results of the test indicate that smoother surfaces are easier to decontaminate than rougher surfaces. Statistical analysis of the data from this experiment by R.L. Postles leads to the following conclusions: There is no statistical difference between the decontamination properties of DuPont Imron/reg sign/ polyurethane enamel and DuPont Colar/reg sign/ epoxy; DuPont Imron/reg sign/ polyurethane enamel and perhaps Type 304L stainless steel with an ASTM No. 2B surface finish are easier to decontaminate than Type 304L stainless steel with an ASTM No. 1 surface finish; dilute dissolver solution is harder to remove than raw sludge plus volatiles; specimens with grease are easier to decontaminate than specimens with no grease; and, Freon/reg sign/ blasting pressure has no statistically significant effect. 2 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  7. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (includes ROTC No. 1, date 01/25/1999)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1999-07-29

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 254 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-06, Decontamination Facility. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), CAU 254 was used between 1963 through 1973 for the decontamination of test-car hardware and tooling used in the Nuclear Rocket Development Station program. The CAS is composed of a fenced area measuring approximately 119 feet by 158 feet that includes Building 3126, an associated aboveground storage tank, a potential underground storage area, two concrete decontamination pads, a generator, two sumps, and a storage yard. Based on site history, the scope of this plan is to resolve the problem statement identified during the Data Quality Objectives process that decontamination activities at this CAU site may have resulted in the release of contaminants of concern (COCs) onto building surfaces, down building drains to associated leachfields, and to soils associated with two concrete decontamination pads located outside the building. Therefore, the scope of the corrective action field investigation will involve soil sampling at biased and random locations in the yard using a direct-push method, scanning and static radiological surveys, and laboratory analyses of all soil/building samples. Historical information provided by former NTS employees indicates that solvents and degreasers may have been used in the decontamination processes; therefore, potential COCs include volatile/semivolatile organic compounds, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, asbestos, gamma-emitting radionuclides, plutonium, uranium, and strontium-90. The results of this

  8. Characterization of the Source Physics Experiment Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, A. J.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Broome, S. T.; Townsend, M.; Abbott, R. E.; Snelson, C. M.; Cogbill, A. H.; Conklin, G.; Mitra, G.; Sabbeth, L.

    2012-12-01

    Designed to improve long-range treaty monitoring capabilities, the Source Physics Experiments, conducted at the Nevada National Security Site, also provide an opportunity to advance near-field monitoring and field-based investigations of suspected underground test locations. In particular, features associated with underground testing can be evaluated using Source Physics Experiment activities as analogs, linking on-site inspections with remote sensing technologies. Following a calibration shot (SPE 1), SPE 2 (10/2011) and SPE 3 (07/2012) were performed in the same emplacement hole with 1.0 ton of explosives at 150 ft depth. Because one of the goals of the Source Physics Experiments is to determine damage effects on seismic wave propagation and improve modeling capabilities, a key component in the predictive component and ultimate validation of the models is a full understanding of the intervening geology between the source and instrumented bore holes. Ground-based LIDAR and fracture mapping, mechanical properties determined via laboratory testing of rock core, discontinuity analysis and optical microscopy of the core rocks were performed prior to and following each experiment. In addition, gravity and magnetic data were collected between SPE 2 and 3. The source region of the explosions was also characterized using cross-borehole seismic tomography and vertical seismic profiling utilizing two sets of two boreholes within 40 meters of ground zero. The two sets of boreholes are co-linear with the explosives hole in two directions. Results of the LIDAR collects from both SPE 2 and 3 indicate a permanent ground displacement of up to several centimeters aligning along the projected surface traces of two faults observed in the core and fractures mapped at the surface. Laboratory testing and optical work show a difference in the characteristics of the rocks below and above 40 feet and within the fault zones.The estimated near-surface densities from the gravity survey show

  9. Decontamination of protective clothing against radioactive contamination.

    PubMed

    Vošahlíková, I; Otáhal, P

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the experimental results of external surface mechanical decontamination of the studied materials forming selected suits. Seven types of personal protective suits declaring protection against radioactive aerosol contamination in different price ranges were selected for decontamination experiments. The outcome of this study is to compare the efficiency of a double-step decontamination process on various personal protective suits against radioactive contamination. A comparison of the decontamination effectiveness for the same type of suit, but for the different chemical mixtures ((140)La in a water-soluble or in a water-insoluble compound), was performed. PMID:25084793

  10. Decontamination pays off for nuke owners

    SciTech Connect

    Smock, R.

    1984-11-01

    As radiation levels build up in aging reactors, decontamination is rapidly becoming a routine maintenance procedure. The industry is coping with the problem with improved technology and with the support by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Decontamination of subsystems does not require public hearings or special licenses. Dilute chemical solvents remove radioactive deposits while lessening the problems of corrosion and waste disposal. Utility representatives shared experiences at a conference with decontamination of both light water and pressurized water reactors. They agreed that the next step should be full primary coolant system decontamination to improve savings even more. 1 figure, 2 tables.

  11. Properties and solidification of decontamination wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.S.; Piciulo, P.L.; Bowerman, B.S.; Adams, J.W.; Milian, L.

    1983-01-01

    LWRs will require one or more chemical decontaminations to achieve their designed lifetimes. Primary system decontamination is designed to lower radiation fields in areas where plant maintenance personnel must work. Chemical decontamination methods are either hard (concentrated chemicals, approximately 5 to 25 weight percent) or soft (dilute chemicals less than 1 percent by weight). These methods may have different chemical reagents, some tailor-made to the crud composition and many methods are and will be proprietary. One factor common to most commercially available processes is the presence of organic acids and chelates. These types of organic reagents are known to enhance the migration of radionuclides after disposal in a shallow land burial site. The NRC sponsors two programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory that are concerned with the management of decontamination wastes which will be generated by the full system decontamination of LWRs. These two programs focus on potential methods for degrading or converting decontamination wastes to more acceptable forms prior to disposal and the impact of disposing of solidified decontamination wastes. The results of the solidification of simulated decontamination resin wastes will be presented. Recent results on combustion of simulated decontamintion wastes will be described and procedures for evaluating the release of decontamination reagents from solidified wastes will be summarized.

  12. On-Site Disposition of Concrete During Decommissioning and Decontamination: A Data Quality Objective-Based Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Salpas, P.A.; Skinner, K.M.; Stephens, G.M.; Dunning, D.E.

    2008-07-01

    On-site disposition of concrete derived during decommissioning and demolition (D and D) of buildings at industrial sites is a cost-effective, waste minimization alternative to off-site disposal. Because the concrete is to be left on-site it becomes part of the solid matrix of the site and is subject to the compositional constraints governing site soils. In addition, the concrete and its contained-in materials may be subject to physical constraints such as size and shape which do not apply to soils. When considering on-site disposition of concrete, the data quality objective (DQO) process should be used to determine the compositional and physical constraints on the concrete and for developing the characterization approach to determine whether those constraints have been met. The information inputs to the compositional and physical constraints on the concrete constitute the concrete acceptance criteria (CAC) which become the basis for developing decision rules - the yes/no statements that unequivocally state the compositional and physical conditions under which concrete may be left on site. An important DQO boundary concept is concrete classification. The cost of concrete characterization can be minimized with a thorough data gap assessment by focusing resources on the concrete most in need of characterization. Concrete for which a yes/no decision can be made with reasonable certainty based on a comparison of existing data to the CAC receives a lesser amount of characterization scrutiny than does concrete for which existing data is non-existent or ambiguous relative to the CAC. In conclusion: Developing acceptance criteria for the on-site disposition of concrete through the DQO process provides a systematic methodology for determining and documenting what decisions will be made and what information is necessary to support those decisions. At each step in the process, input from all individuals or organizations that have a role in making the ultimate decision must be

  13. Corrective Action Plan for CAU No. 95: Area 15 EPA Farm Laboratory Building, Decontamination and Demolition Closure Activities - Nevada Test Site. Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, A.L.; Nacht, S.J.

    1997-11-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm Laboratory Building 15-06 located in Area 15 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The facility is part of the Environmental Restoration Project managed by the U.S. Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) under the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Subproject which serves to manage and dispose of surplus facilities at the NTS in a manner that will protect personnel, the public, and the environment. It is identified as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 95 in Appendix III of the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). In July 1997, the DOE/NV verbally requested approval from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for the closure schedule to be accelerated. Currently, field activities are anticipated to be completed by September 30, 1997. In order to meet this new schedule NDEP has agreed to review this document as expeditiously as possible. Comments will be addressed in the Closure Report after field activities have been completed, unless significant issues require resolution during closure activities.

  14. [Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents].

    PubMed

    Seto, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister agents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, proteinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and biological terrorism, speedy decontamination of victims, facilities and equipment is required for the minimization of the damage. In the present situation, washing victims and contaminated materials with large volumes of water is the basic way, and additionally hypochlorite salt solution is used for decomposition of CWA's. However, it still remains unsolved how to dispose large volumes of waste water, and the decontamination reagents have serious limitation of high toxicity, despoiling nature against the environments, long finishing time and non-durability in effective decontamination. Namely, the existing decontamination system is not effective, nonspecifically affecting the surrounding non-target materials. Therefore, it is the urgent matter to build up the usable decontamination system surpassing the present technologies. The symposiast presents the on-going joint project of research and development of the novel decontamination system against CBWA's, in the purpose of realizing nontoxic, fast, specific, effective and economical terrorism on-site decontamination. The projects consists of (1) establishment of the decontamination evaluation methods and verification of the existing technologies and adaptation of bacterial organophosphorus hydrolase, (2) development of adsorptive elimination technologies using molecular recognition tools, and (4) development of deactivation technologies using photocatalysis. PMID:19122437

  15. History of critical experiments at Pajarito Site

    SciTech Connect

    Paxton, H.C.

    1983-03-01

    This account describes critical and subcritical assemblies operated remotely at the Pajarito Canyon Site at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Earliest assemblies, directed exclusively toward the nuclear weapons program, were for safety tests. Other weapon-related assemblies provided neutronic information to check detailed weapon calculations. Topsy, the first of these critical assemblies, was followed by Lady Godiva, Jezebel, Flattop, and ultimately Big Ten. As reactor programs came to Los Alamos, design studies and mockups were tested at Pajarito Site. For example, nearly all 16 Rover reactors intended for Nevada tests were preceded by zero-power mockups and proof tests at Pajarito Site. Expanded interest and capability led to fast-pulse assemblies, culminating in Godiva IV and Skua, and to the Kinglet and Sheba solution assemblies.

  16. Site plan safety submission for sampling, monitoring, decontamination of GB agent - north plant Rocky Mountain Arsenal. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    The scope of this site plan safety submission (SPSS), includes: sampling plan to determine if GB is a contaminant in equipment and piping used in the production and demil processes; monitoring plan for personnel involved in the sampling effort; decon plan for personnel, equipment, and piping should contamination be identified. Additional sections and appendices include: historical use of bldg 1501, 1503, 1504, 1506, 1601, 1602, 1603, 1606; chemical information on GB; safety requirements; medical requirements and first aid procedures; piping drawings; rma sop's for sampling, monitoring, and decon.

  17. Site plan safety submission for sampling, monitoring and decontamination of mustard agent, South Plant, Rocky Mountain Arsenal. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    The scope of this site plan safety submission (SPSS) includes: (1) Sampling plan to determine if H is a contaminant in Equipment and piping used in the 1970's for the H DEMIL program; (2) Monitoring plan for personnel involved in the sampling effort; and (3) Decon plan for personnel, equipment, and piping should contamination be identified. Additional sections and appendices include: (1) Historical use of Bld 637 and Bld 538; (2) Chemical information on H, HD, and HT; (3) Safety requirements; (4) Medical requirements and first aid procedures; (5) Piping drawings; and (6) RMA SOP's for sampling, monitoring, and decon.

  18. Reactive decontamination formulation

    DOEpatents

    Giletto, Anthony; White, William; Cisar, Alan J.; Hitchens, G. Duncan; Fyffe, James

    2003-05-27

    The present invention provides a universal decontamination formulation and method for detoxifying chemical warfare agents (CWA's) and biological warfare agents (BWA's) without producing any toxic by-products, as well as, decontaminating surfaces that have come into contact with these agents. The formulation includes a sorbent material or gel, a peroxide source, a peroxide activator, and a compound containing a mixture of KHSO.sub.5, KHSO.sub.4 and K.sub.2 SO.sub.4. The formulation is self-decontaminating and once dried can easily be wiped from the surface being decontaminated. A method for decontaminating a surface exposed to chemical or biological agents is also disclosed.

  19. Selection of promising sites for magma energy experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    The Long Valley and Coso Hot Springs areas of California have been identified as the most promising sites for conducting a magma energy extraction experiment. These two locations were selected from among the potential sites on the basis of several factors that are critical to the success of the proposed long-term energy extraction experiment. These factors include the likelihood of the existence of shallow magma targets as well as several other drilling, energy extraction and programmatic considerations. As the magma energy extraction program continues, these sites will be analyzed in detail so that one can be selected as the site for the planned magma experiment.

  20. Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning Project Summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, David Shane; Webber, Frank Laverne

    2001-07-01

    This report is a compilation of summary descriptions of Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, and Surveillance and Maintenance projects planned for inactive facilities and sites at the INEEL from FY-2002 through FY-2010. Deactivations of contaminated facilities will produce safe and stable facilities requiring minimal surveillance and maintenance pending further decontamination and decommissioning. Decontamination and decommissioning actions remove contaminated facilities, thus eliminating long-term surveillance and maintenance. The projects are prioritized based on risk to DOE-ID, the public, and the environment, and the reduction of DOE-ID mortgage costs and liability at the INEEL.

  1. NPOx Decontamination System

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, K.; Demmer, R.; Argyle, M.; Ancho, M.; Hai-Pao, J.

    2002-02-25

    The nitric acid/potassium permanganate/oxalic acid (NPOx) Phase II system is being prepared for remote operation at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Several tests have been conducted to prepare the system for remote operation. This system performs very well with high decontamination efficiencies and very low quantities of waste generated during decontamination.

  2. Equipment decontamination: A brief survey of the DOE complex

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, C.; Chamberlain, D.B; Chen, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1995-03-01

    Deactivation at DOE facilities has left a tremendous amount of contaminated equipment behind. In-situ methods are needed to decontaminate the interiors of the equipment sufficiently to allow either free release or land disposal. A brief survey was completed of the DOE complex on their needs for equipment decontamination with in-situ technology to determine (1) the types of contamination problems within the DOE complex, (2) decontamination processes that are being used or are being developed within the DOE, and (3) the methods that are available to dispose of spent decontamination solutions. In addition, potential sites for testing decontamination methods were located. Based on the information obtained from these surveys, the Rocky Flats Plant and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory appear to be best suited to complete the initial testing of the decontamination processes.

  3. Electrolytic decontamination of conductive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, T.O.; Campbell, G.M.; Parker, J.L.; Getty, R.H.; Hergert, T.R.; Lindahl, K.A.; Peppers, L.G.

    1993-10-01

    Using the electrolytic method, the authors have demonstrated removal of Pu from contaminated conductive material. At EG&G Rocky Flats, they electrolytically decontaminated stainless steel. Results from this work show removal of fixed contamination, including the following geometries: planar, large radius, bolt holes, glove ports, and protruding studs. More specifically, fixed contamination was reduced from levels ranging > 1,000,000 counts per minute (cpm) down to levels ranging from 1,500 to < 250 cpm with the electrolytic method. More recently, the electrolytic work has continued at LANL as a joint project with EG&G. Impressively, electrolytic decontamination experiments on removal of Pu from oralloy coupons have shown decreases in swipable contamination that initially ranged from 500,000 to 1,500,000 disintegrations per minute (dpm) down to 0--2 dpm.

  4. Decontamination Study for Mixed Waste Storage Tanks RCRA Closure

    SciTech Connect

    Leaphart, D.M.; Reed, S.R.; Rankin, W.N.

    1995-03-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) plans to close six underground tanks storing mixed waste under RCRA regulations. In support of this closure effort, a study was performed to determine the optimal method of decontaminating these tanks to meet the closure requirements. Items consaidered in the evaluation of the decontamination methods included effectiveness, compatibility with existing waste residues, possible cleaning solution disposal methods, and cost.

  5. US food and drug administration Indian site inspections: An experience.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Pooja; D'Souza, Natasha; Bhatt, Arun; Halbe, Vipul; Sharma, Richa; Narayanswamy, Shweta; Bughediwala, Murtuza

    2012-04-01

    Since 2005, USFDA has begun inspections of Indian clinical trial investigator sites. This paper reports experience of an FDA inspection performed at two Indian centers. The inspection started with an in-depth discussion with the investigator and his team about the conduct of the clinical trial at the site and was followed by a tour of the important locations - registration, outpatient department, specialty clinic, medical record section, and special procedure department. The inspector reviewed the critical processes - protocol compliance, ethics committee approval, informed consent process, case record form and source documents completion, investigational product accountability, serious adverse events documentation and reporting. The inspector reviewed all documents from the investigator site file and conducted audit of all subjects enrolled at both the sites. As the Indian sites are not exposed to regulatory inspections, it is vital for the sponsor to conduct preinspection audit, provide training and support to face the FDA inspection. PMID:22701824

  6. Dashboard applications to monitor experiment activities at sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Julia; Belforte, Stefano; Boehm, Max; Casajus, Adrian; Flix, Josep; Gaidioz, Benjamin; Grigoras, Costin; Kokoszkiewicz, Lukasz; Lanciotti, Elisa; Rocha, Ricardo; Saiz, Pablo; Santinelli, Roberto; Sidorova, Irina; Sciabà, Andrea; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei

    2010-04-01

    In the framework of a distributed computing environment, such as WLCG, monitoring has a key role in order to keep under control activities going on in sites located in different countries and involving people based in many different sites. To be able to cope with such a large scale heterogeneous infrastructure, it is necessary to have monitoring tools providing a complete and reliable view of the overall performance of the sites. Moreover, the structure of a monitoring system critically depends on the object to monitor and on the users it is addressed to. In this article we will describe two different monitoring systems both aimed to monitor activities and services provided in the WLCG framework, but designed in order to meet the requirements of different users: Site Status Board has an overall view of the services available in all the sites supporting an experiment, whereas Siteview provides a complete view of all the activities going on at a site, for all the experiments supported by the site.

  7. Long lasting decontamination foam

    DOEpatents

    Demmer, Ricky L.; Peterman, Dean R.; Tripp, Julia L.; Cooper, David C.; Wright, Karen E.

    2010-12-07

    Compositions and methods for decontaminating surfaces are disclosed. More specifically, compositions and methods for decontamination using a composition capable of generating a long lasting foam are disclosed. Compositions may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6. Such compositions may further include affinity-shifting chemicals. Methods may include decontaminating a contaminated surface with a composition or a foam that may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6.

  8. EXPERIENCE IN INCINERATION APPLICABLE TO SUPERFUND SITE REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document can be used as a reference tool for hazardous waste site remediation where incineration is used as a treatment alternative. It provides the user with information garnered from the experiences of others who use incineration. The document presents useful lessons in ev...

  9. Concrete decontamination scoping tests

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    This report details the research efforts and scoping tests performed at the Idaho Chemical Process Plant using scabbling, chemical, and electro-osmotic decontamination techniques on radiologically contaminated concrete.

  10. Food decontamination using nanomaterials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The research indicates that nanomaterials including nanoemulsions are promising decontamination media for the reduction of food contaminating pathogens. The inhibitory effect of nanoparticles for pathogens could be due to deactivate cellular enzymes and DNA; disrupting of membrane permeability; and/...

  11. EXPERIENCE FROM TWO SMALL QUANTITY RH-TRU WASTE SITES IN NAVIGATING THROUGH AN EVOLVING REGULATORY LANDSCAPE

    SciTech Connect

    Biedscheid, Jennifer; Devarakonda, Murthy; Eide, Jim; Kneff, Dennis

    2003-02-27

    Two small quantity transuranic (TRU) waste generator sites have gained considerable experience in navigating through a changing regulatory landscape in their efforts to remove the TRU waste from their sites and proceed with site remediation. The Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project (BCLDP) has the objectives of decontaminating nuclear research buildings and associated grounds and remediating to a level of residual contamination allowing future use without radiological restrictions. As directed by Congress, BCLDP must complete decontamination and decommissioning activities by the end of Fiscal Year (FY) 2006. This schedule requires the containerization of all TRU waste in 2002. BCLDP will generate a total of approximately 27 cubic meters (m3) of remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. Similarly, the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) is scheduled to close in 2006 pursuant to an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Boeing Canoga Park, the management and operating contractor for ETEC. ETEC had 11.0 m3 of RH-TRU and contact-handled (CH) TRU waste in storage, with the requirement to remove this waste in 2002 in order to meet their site closure schedule. The individual milestones for BCLDP and ETEC necessitated the establishment of site-specific programs to direct packaging and characterization of RH-TRU waste before the regulatory framework for the WIPP disposal of RH-TRU waste is finalized. The lack of large infrastructure for characterization activities, as well as the expedited schedules needed to meet regulatory milestones, provided both challenges and opportunities that are unique to small quantity sites. Both sites have developed unique programs for waste characterization based on the same premise, which directs comprehensive waste data collection efforts such that additional characterization will not be required following the finalization of the WIPP RH-TRU waste program requirements. This paper details the BCLDP program

  12. Radio-decontamination efficacy and safety studies on optimized decontamination lotion formulation.

    PubMed

    Rana, S; Bhatt, S; Dutta, M; Khan, A W; Ali, J; Sultana, S; Kotta, S; Ansari, S H; Sharma, R K

    2012-09-15

    Objective of the present study was to optimize decontamination lotion and to evaluate its relative decontamination efficacy using three radio-isotopes (Technetium-99m, Iodine-131 and Thallium-201) as contaminants with varying length of contaminant exposure (0-1h). Experiments were performed on Sprague Dawley rat's intact skin and human tissue equivalent models. Rat's hair was removed by using depilator after trimming with scissors. Relative decontamination efficacy of the optimized lotion was investigated and compared with water as control. Static counts were recorded before and after decontamination using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Measured decontamination efficacy (DE) values were analyzed using one way ANOVA and Student's t-test (p value<0.05) and were found statistically significant. Decontamination efficacy of the lotion was observed to be 90 ± 5%, 80 ± 2% and 85 ± 2%, for the (131)I, (201)Tl and (99m)Tc radio-contaminants respectively on skin. Reduced contaminant removal was recorded for the skin which was cleaned by depilator (50-60%). Skin decontamination was found more efficacious for rat skin decontamination than the human tissue equivalent model. Decontamination efficacy of the lotion against (99m)Tc was recorded 70 ± 15% at 0-1h on the tissue equivalent model. In vitro chelation efficacy of the lotion was also established by using the instant thin layer chromatography-slica gel (ITLC-SG) and >95% of (99m)Tc was recorded. Neither erythema nor edema was scored in the primary skin irritancy test visually observed for two weeks. PMID:22609966

  13. Adverse experiences with nitric acid at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Durant, W.S.; Craig, D.K.; Vitacco, M.J.; McCormick, J.A.

    1991-06-01

    Nitric acid is used routinely at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in many processes. However, the site has experienced a number of adverse situations in handling nitric acid. These have ranged from minor injuries to personnel to significant explosions. This document compiles many of these events and includes discussions of process upsets, fires, injuries, and toxic effects of nitric acid and its decomposition products. The purpose of the publication is to apprise those using the acid that it is a potentially dangerous material and can react in many ways as demonstrated by SRS experience. 10 refs.

  14. Fate of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX) on soil following accelerant-based fire and liquid decontamination.

    PubMed

    Gravett, M R; Hopkins, F B; Self, A J; Webb, A J; Timperley, C M; Riches, J R

    2014-08-01

    In the event of alleged use of organophosphorus nerve agents, all kinds of environmental samples can be received for analysis. These might include decontaminated and charred matter collected from the site of a suspected chemical attack. In other scenarios, such matter might be sampled to confirm the site of a chemical weapon test or clandestine laboratory decontaminated and burned to prevent discovery. To provide an analytical capability for these contingencies, we present a preliminary investigation of the effect of accelerant-based fire and liquid decontamination on soil contaminated with the nerve agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX). The objectives were (a) to determine if VX or its degradation products were detectable in soil after an accelerant-based fire promoted by aviation fuel, including following decontamination with Decontamination Solution 2 (DS2) or aqueous sodium hypochlorite, (b) to develop analytical methods to support forensic analysis of accelerant-soaked, decontaminated and charred soil and (c) to inform the design of future experiments of this type to improve analytical fidelity. Our results show for the first time that modern analytical techniques can be used to identify residual VX and its degradation products in contaminated soil after an accelerant-based fire and after chemical decontamination and then fire. Comparison of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) profiles of VX and its impurities/degradation products from contaminated burnt soil, and burnt soil spiked with VX, indicated that the fire resulted in the production of diethyl methylphosphonate and O,S-diethyl methylphosphonothiolate (by an unknown mechanism). Other products identified were indicative of chemical decontamination, and some of these provided evidence of the decontaminant used, for example, ethyl 2-methoxyethyl methylphosphonate and bis(2-methoxyethyl) methylphosphonate following decontamination with DS2. Sample preparation

  15. Long-term decontamination engineering study. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Geuther, W.J.

    1995-04-03

    This report was prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) with technical and cost estimating support from Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) and Parsons Environmental Services, Inc. (Parsons). This engineering study evaluates the requirements and alternatives for decontamination/treatment of contaminated equipment at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to determine the decontamination/treatment strategy that best supports the Hanford Site environmental restoration mission. It describes the potential waste streams requiring treatment or decontamination, develops the alternatives under consideration establishes the criteria for comparison, evaluates the alternatives, and draws conclusions (i.e., the optimum strategy for decontamination). Although two primary alternatives are discussed, this study does identify other alternatives that may warrant additional study. hanford Site solid waste management program activities include storage, special processing, decontamination/treatment, and disposal facilities. This study focuses on the decontamination/treatment processes (e.g., waste decontamination, size reduction, immobilization, and packaging) that support the environmental restoration mission at the Hanford Site.

  16. Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation and Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Talmage, Sylvia Smith; Watson, Annetta Paule; Hauschild, Veronique; Munro, Nancy B; King, J.

    2007-02-01

    The decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) from structures, environmental media, and even personnel has become an area of particular interest in recent years due to increased homeland security concerns. In addition to terrorist attacks, scenarios such as accidental releases of CWA from U.S. stockpile sites or from historic, buried munitions are also subjects for response planning. To facilitate rapid identification of practical and effective decontamination approaches, this paper reviews pathways of CWA degradation by natural means as well as those resulting from deliberately applied solutions and technologies; these pathways and technologies are compared and contrasted. We then review various technologies, both traditional and recent, with some emphasis on decontamination materials used for surfaces that are difficult to clean. Discussion is limited to the major threat CWA, namely sulfur mustard (HD, bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), VX (O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate), and the G-series nerve agents. The principal G-agents are GA (tabun, ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate), GB (sarin, isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate), and GD (soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate). The chemical decontamination pathways of each agent are outlined, with some discussion of intermediate and final degradation product toxicity. In all cases, and regardless of the CWA degradation pathway chosen for decontamination, it will be necessary to collect and analyze pertinent environmental samples during the treatment phase to confirm attainment of clearance levels.

  17. Parabolic dish test site: History and operating experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    The parabolic dish test site (PDTS) was established for testing point-focusing solar concentrator systems operating at temperatures approaching 1650 C. Among tests run were evaluation and performance characterization of parabolic dish concentrators, receivers, power conversion units, and solar/fossil-fuel hybrid systems. The PDTS was fully operational until its closure in June, 1984. The evolution of the test program, a chronological listing of the experiments run, and data summaries for most of the tests conducted are presented.

  18. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    DOEpatents

    Gentile, Charles A. , Guttadora, Gregory L. , Parker, John J.

    2006-02-07

    The Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System, OTDS, provides a method and apparatus for reduction of tritium surface contamination on various items. The OTDS employs ozone gas as oxidizing agent to convert elemental tritium to tritium oxide. Tritium oxide vapor and excess ozone gas is purged from the OTDS, for discharge to atmosphere or transport to further process. An effluent stream is subjected to a catalytic process for the decomposition of excess ozone to diatomic oxygen. One of two configurations of the OTDS is employed: dynamic apparatus equipped with agitation mechanism and large volumetric capacity for decontamination of light items, or static apparatus equipped with pressurization and evacuation capability for decontamination of heavier, delicate, and/or valuable items.

  19. Decontamination: back to basics.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Susan J; Sjorgen, Geoff

    2008-07-01

    My invitation from this Journal's Editor, Felicia Cox, to provide a paper for this themed issue, included the sentence 'I was wondering if you or a colleague would like to contribute a back to basics article on the relevant standards and guidelines for decontamination, including what is compliance?'. The reason it is so interesting to me is that the term 'back to basics' implies reverting to a simpler time in life - when by just sticking to the rules, life became easier. However, with decontamination this is not actually true. PMID:18710126

  20. Electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Lomasney, H.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has assigned a priority to the advancement of technology for decontaminating concrete surfaces which have become contaminated with radionuclides, heavy metals, and toxic organics. This agency is responsible for decontamination and decommissioning of thousands of buildings. Electrokinetic extraction is one of the several innovative technologies which emerged in response to this initiative. This technique utilizes an electropotential gradient and the subsequent electrical transport mechanism to cause the controlled movement of ionics species, whereby the contaminants exit the recesses deep within the concrete. This report discusses the technology and use at the Oak Ridge k-25 plant.

  1. Results of chemical decontamination of DOE`s uranium-enrichment scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Levesque, R.G.

    1997-02-01

    The CORPEX{reg_sign} Nuclear Decontamination Processes were used to decontaminate representative scrap metal specimens obtained from the existing scrap metal piles located at the Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. In September 1995, under contract to Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, MELE Associates, Inc. performed the on-site decontamination demonstration. The decontamination demonstration proved that significant amounts of the existing DOE scrap metal can be decontaminated to levels where the scrap metal could be economically released by DOE for beneficial reuse. This simple and environmentally friendly process can be used as an alternative, or in addition to, smelting radiologically contaminated scrap metal.

  2. Decontamination of radiological agents from drinking water infrastructure: a literature review and summary.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Jeff; Minamyer, Scott

    2014-11-01

    This report summarizes the current state of knowledge on the persistence of radiological agents on drinking water infrastructure (such as pipes) along with information on decontamination should persistence occur. Decontamination options for drinking water infrastructure have been explored for some important radiological agents (cesium, strontium and cobalt), but important data gaps remain. Although some targeted experiments have been published on cesium, strontium and cobalt persistence on drinking water infrastructure, most of the data comes from nuclear clean-up sites. Furthermore, the studies focused on drinking water systems use non-radioactive surrogates. Non-radioactive cobalt was shown to be persistent on iron due to oxidation with free chlorine in drinking water and precipitation on the iron surface. Decontamination with acidification was an effective removal method. Strontium persistence on iron was transient in tap water, but adherence to cement-mortar has been demonstrated and should be further explored. Cesium persistence on iron water infrastructure was observed when flow was stagnant, but not with water flow present. Future research suggestions focus on expanding the available cesium, strontium and cobalt persistence data to other common infrastructure materials, specifically cement-mortar. Further exploration chelating agents and low pH treatment is recommended for future decontamination studies. PMID:24529629

  3. OSI Passive Seismic Experiment at the Former Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J J; Harben, P

    2010-11-11

    its effectiveness for OSI purposes has yet to be determined. For this experiment, we took a broad approach to the definition of ''resonance seismometry''; stretching it to include any means that employs passive seismic methods to infer the character of underground materials. In recent years there have been a number of advances in the use of correlation and noise analysis methods in seismology to obtain information about the subsurface. Our objective in this experiment was to use noise analysis and correlation analysis to evaluate these techniques for detecting and characterizing the underground damage zone from a nuclear explosion. The site that was chosen for the experiment was the Mackerel test in Area 4 of the former Nevada Test Site (now named the Nevada National Security Site, or NNSS). Mackerel was an underground nuclear test of less than 20 kT conducted in February of 1964 (DOENV-209-REV 15). The reason we chose this site is because there was a known apical cavity occurring at about 50 m depth above a rubble zone, and that the site had been investigated by the US Geological Survey with active seismic methods in 1965 (Watkins et al., 1967). Note that the time delay between detonation of the explosion (1964) and the time of the present survey (2010) is nearly 46 years - this would not be typical of an expected OSI under the CTBT.

  4. Decontaminating metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Childs, Everett L.

    1984-11-06

    Radioactively contaminated surfaces can be electrolytically decontaminated with greatly increased efficiencies by using electrolytes containing higher than heretofore conventional amounts of nitrate, e.g.,>600 g/l of NaNO.sub.3, or by using nitrate-containing electrolytes which are acidic, e.g., of a pH<6.

  5. Decontaminating metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Childs, E.L.

    1984-01-23

    Radioactively contaminated surfaces can be electrolytically decontaminated with greatly increased efficiencies by using electrolytes containing higher than heretofore conventional amounts of nitrate, e.g., >600 g/1 of NaNO/sub 3/, or by using nitrate-containing electrolytes which are acidic, e.g., of a pH < 6.

  6. Decontamination: a microbiologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Graham, G S

    1988-01-01

    The primary objective of decontamination is to protect healthcare workers who handle medical devices from infectious diseases that may be present on those devices. Ideally, the decontamination process should provide both cleaning and biocidal activity. A wide range of equipment, from automatic washer/sterilizers to semi-automated washer/sanitizers are commercially available to satisfy this need. The primary difference between these pieces of equipment, from a microbiology perspective, is in the level of safety they provide. A summary comparison of the decontamination methods is shown in Table 1. Without a doubt, steam sterilization as a method of decontamination provides a greater safety level than may be required. However, the question is, "Do disinfection and sanitization provide an adequate safety level?" Although items do not necessarily need to be sterile to be safe to handle, sterilization processes provide the greatest margin of safety because of the significant microbial lethality and the ability to effectively monitor the process via biological indicators. Sterilization effectively eliminates the concern regarding the nearly unanswerable question of bioburden. Unfortunately, not all items are capable of being processed through a washer/sterilizer. Therefore, consideration must be given to the process compatibility of each device. Disinfection processes provide the next level of safety. Unfortunately, there is no recognized or accepted method for quantitatively describing or monitoring a thermal disinfection process. As is the case with sterilization consideration must be given to the process compatibility of each device. Sanitization provides the lowest level of safety for the decontamination process.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10285793

  7. Decision Analysis System for Selection of Appropriate Decontamination Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadian, M.A.; Boudreaux, J.F.; Chinta, S.; Zanakis, S.H.

    1998-01-01

    The principal objective for designing Decision Analysis System for Decontamination (DASD) is to support DOE-EM's endeavor to employ the most efficient and effective technologies for treating radiologically contaminated surfaces while minimizing personnel and environmental risks. DASD will provide a tool for environmental decision makers to improve the quality, consistency, and efficacy of their technology selection decisions. The system will facilitate methodical comparisons between innovative and baseline decontamination technologies and aid in identifying the most suitable technologies for performing surface decontamination at DOE environmental restoration sites.

  8. [Advances in peroxide-based decontaminating technologies].

    PubMed

    Xi, Hai-ling; Zhao, San-ping; Zhou, Wen

    2013-05-01

    With the boosting demand for eco-friendly decontaminants, great achievements in peroxide-based decontaminating technologies have been made in recent years. These technologies have been applied in countering chemical/biological terrorist attacks, dealing with chemical/biological disasters and destructing environmental pollutants. Recent research advances in alpha-nucleophilic/oxidative reaction mechanisms of peroxide-based decontamination against chemical warfare agents were reviewed, and some classical peroxide-based decontaminants such as aqueous decontaminating solution, decontaminating foam, decontaminating emulsions, decontaminating gels, decontaminating vapors, and some newly developed decontaminating media (e.g., peroxide-based self-decontaminating materials and heterogeneous nano-catalytic decontamination systems) were introduced. However, currently available peroxide-based decontaminants still have some deficiencies. For example, their decontamination efficiencies are not as high as those of chlorine-containing decontaminants, and some peroxide-based decontaminants show relatively poor effect against certain agents. More study on the mechanisms of peroxide-based decontaminants and the interfacial interactions in heterogeneous decontamination media is suggested. New catalysts, multifunctional surfactants, self-decontaminating materials and corrosion preventing technologies should be developed before peroxide-based decontaminants really become true "green" decontaminants. PMID:23914512

  9. The Cold Land Process Experiment's (CLPX) Local Scale Observation Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, J. P.; Cline, D.; Elder, K.; Davis, R. E.; Pomeroy, J.; Koh, Y.; Armstrong, R.; Koike, T.; McDonald, K.

    2002-12-01

    The Local Scale Observation Site (LSOS) is the smallest study site of the Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) and is located within the Fraser Meso-cell Study Area (MSA), near the Fraser Experimental Forest Headquarters Facility, in Fraser, Colorado USA. The 100- x 100-m site consists of a small, open field, a managed dense canopy, and an open, mixed age canopy. Unlike the other components of the experiment, which focus on spatial distributions at relatively brief "snapshots" in time, measurements at the local-scale site focused on the temporal domain. Measurements made at the LSOS were designed to produce a comprehensive assessment of the snow, soil, and vegetation characteristics viewed by the ground-based remote sensing instruments. The objective of ground-based microwave remote sensing was to collect time series of active and passive microwave spectral signatures over snow, soil, and forest, coincident with intensive physical characterization of these features. Ground-based remote sensing instruments included Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radars operating over multiple microwave bandwidths, the Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer (GBMR-7) (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) Simulator; channels 18.7, 23.8, 36.5, and 89.0-GHz), and in 2003, an L/C/X/Ku-band scatterometer radar system. Snow and soil measurements included standard snow physical properties, snow surface roughness, snow depth transects, and soil moisture. The stem and canopy temperature, and xylem flux of several trees within the area, were monitored continuously. Two micrometeorological towers, one located in the open snow area and the other in the forested area, monitored ambient conditions and provided forcing data sets for 1-D snow/soil models. Arrays of radiometers (0.3-3 μm) and a scanning thermal radiometer (8-12 μm) characterized the variability of radiative receipt in the forests. These measurements, together with the ground-based remote sensing, provide the

  10. INTEGRATED VERTICAL AND OVERHEAD DECONTAMINATION (IVOD) SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    The deactivation and decommissioning of 1200 buildings within the U.S. Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management complex will require the disposition of a large quantity of contaminated concrete and metal surfaces. It has been estimated that 23 million cubic meters of concrete and over 600,000 tons of metal will need disposition. The disposition of such large quantities of material presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The final disposition of this large amount of material will take time and money as well as risk to the D&D work force. A single automated system that would decontaminate and characterize surfaces in one step would not only reduce the schedule and decrease cost during D&D operations but would also protect the D&D workers from unnecessary exposures to contaminated surfaces. This report summarizes the activities performed during FY00 and describes the planned activities for FY01. Accomplishments for FY00 include the following: Development and field-testing of characterization system; Completion of Title III design of deployment platform and decontamination unit; In-house testing of deployment platform and decontamination unit; Completion of system integration design; Identification of deployment site; and Completion of test plan document for deployment of IVOD at Rancho Seco nuclear power facility.

  11. Evaluation of Five Decontamination Methods for Filtering Facepiece Respirators

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Michael S.; Eimer, Benjamin C.; Shaffer, Ronald E.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the availability of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-certified N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) during an influenza pandemic. One possible strategy to mitigate a respirator shortage is to reuse FFRs following a biological decontamination process to render infectious material on the FFR inactive. However, little data exist on the effects of decontamination methods on respirator integrity and performance. This study evaluated five decontamination methods [ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), ethylene oxide, vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP), microwave oven irradiation, and bleach] using nine models of NIOSH-certified respirators (three models each of N95 FFRs, surgical N95 respirators, and P100 FFRs) to determine which methods should be considered for future research studies. Following treatment by each decontamination method, the FFRs were evaluated for changes in physical appearance, odor, and laboratory performance (filter aerosol penetration and filter airflow resistance). Additional experiments (dry heat laboratory oven exposures, off-gassing, and FFR hydrophobicity) were subsequently conducted to better understand material properties and possible health risks to the respirator user following decontamination. However, this study did not assess the efficiency of the decontamination methods to inactivate viable microorganisms. Microwave oven irradiation melted samples from two FFR models. The remainder of the FFR samples that had been decontaminated had expected levels of filter aerosol penetration and filter airflow resistance. The scent of bleach remained noticeable following overnight drying and low levels of chlorine gas were found to off-gas from bleach-decontaminated FFRs when rehydrated with deionized water. UVGI, ethylene oxide (EtO), and VHP were found to be the most promising decontamination methods; however, concerns remain about the throughput capabilities for EtO and VHP

  12. Test site experiments with a reconfigurable stepped frequency GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persico, Raffaele; Matera, Loredana; Piro, Salvatore; Rizzo, Enzo; Capozzoli, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    the fact that the integration time of the harmonic components of the signal can be prolonged in a programmable way, so that (in particular) there is the possibility to reject undesired narrow band interferences without filtering the signal, namely without loosing part of the information contained in the signal. The third property is that the power can be modulated frequency by frequency. Indeed, we don't know if this third property is a real advantage, but the first two have been already exploited showing some encouraging results. At the conference, we will show the results achieved from two measurement campaign performed in two controlled site, namely the the test site of Hydrogeosite Laboratory, in Marsico Nuovo (Southern Italy), belonging to the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis of the Italian National Research Council [3] and the test site of Montelibretti, in central Italy, belonging to the Institute of Technologies Applied to Cultural Heritage of the National Research Council [4]. In both test sites, among other things, anomalies resembling features of archaeological or near surface interest have been predisposed, as a tomb, a paved road, an amphora, a statue, a buried chamber, a cylinder, a structure in opus coementicium. The test site of Montelibretti is outdoor, in an area of archaeological interest were the ancient population of the Sabini has left relevant testimonies. The test site of Hydrogeosite Laboratory is indoor, in a hat were a large pool (240m3) has been filled up with sand after burying the test targets. This test site is equipped also for hydrogeophysical experiments by means of a controlled hydraulic system for the progressive immission of water in the sand. Depth slices will be shown for both sites, as well as some tests for the mitigation of intereferences by means of the modulation of the integration time of the harmonic components of the signal. Some of the interferences have been artificially introduced by means of a

  13. Unique Construction and Social Experiences in Residential Remediation Sites - 13423

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Paul; Scarborough, Rebecca

    2013-07-01

    Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc., (Sevenson) has performed several radiological remediation projects located in residential urban areas. Over the course of these projects, there has been a wide variety of experiences encountered from construction related issues to unique social situations. Some of the construction related issues included the remediation of interior basements where contaminated material was located under the footers of the structure or was used in the mortar between cinder block or field stone foundations. Other issues included site security, maintaining furnaces or other utilities, underpinning, backfilling and restoration. In addition to the radiological hazards associated with this work there were occupational safety and industrial hygiene issues that had to be addressed to ensure the safety and health of neighboring properties and residents. The unique social situations at these job sites have included arson, theft/stolen property, assault/battery, prostitution, execution of arrest warrants for residents, discovery of drugs and paraphernalia, blood borne pathogens, and unexploded ordnance. Some of these situations have become a sort of comical urban legend throughout the organization. One situation had historical significance, involving the demolition of a house to save a tree older than the Declaration of Independence. All of these projects typically involve the excavation of early 20. century items such as advertisement signs, various old bottles (milk, Listerine, perfume, whisky) and other miscellaneous common trash items. (authors)

  14. Decontamination of radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Gadea, Luis; Cerezo, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Contaminations with radioactive material may occur in several situations related to medicine, industry or research. Seriousness of the incident depends mainly on the radioactive element involved; usually there are no major acute health effects, but in the long term can cause malignancies, leukemia, genetic defects and teratogenic anomalies. The most common is superficial contamination, but the radioactive material can get into the body and be retained by the cells of target organs, injuring directly and permanently sensitive elements of the body. Rapid intervention is very important to remove the radioactive material without spreading it. Work must be performed in a specially prepared area and personnel involved should wear special protective clothing. For external decontamination general cleaning techniques are used, usually do not require chemical techniques. For internal decontamination is necessary to use specific agents, according to the causative element, as well physiological interventions to enhance elimination and excretion. PMID:24376972

  15. Decontamination of radioisotopes

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Gadea, Luis; Cerezo, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Contaminations with radioactive material may occur in several situations related to medicine, industry or research. Seriousness of the incident depends mainly on the radioactive element involved; usually there are no major acute health effects, but in the long term can cause malignancies, leukemia, genetic defects and teratogenic anomalies. The most common is superficial contamination, but the radioactive material can get into the body and be retained by the cells of target organs, injuring directly and permanently sensitive elements of the body. Rapid intervention is very important to remove the radioactive material without spreading it. Work must be performed in a specially prepared area and personnel involved should wear special protective clothing. For external decontamination general cleaning techniques are used, usually do not require chemical techniques. For internal decontamination is necessary to use specific agents, according to the causative element, as well physiological interventions to enhance elimination and excretion. PMID:24376972

  16. Preconceptual design of the gas-phase decontamination demonstration cart

    SciTech Connect

    Munday, E.B.

    1993-12-01

    Removal of uranium deposits from the interior surfaces of gaseous diffusion equipment will be a major portion of the overall multibillion dollar effort to decontaminate and decommission the gaseous diffusion plants. Long-term low-temperature (LTLT) gas-phase decontamination is being developed at the K-25 Site as an in situ decontamination process that is expected to significantly lower the decontamination costs, reduce worker exposure to radioactive materials, and reduce safeguard concerns. This report documents the preconceptual design of the process equipment that is necessary to conduct a full-scale demonstration of the LTLT method in accordance with the process steps listed above. The process equipment and method proposed in this report are not intended to represent a full-scale production campaign design and operation, since the gas evacuation, gas charging, and off-gas handling systems that would be cost effective in a production campaign are not cost effective for a first-time demonstration. However, the design presented here is expected to be applicable to special decontamination projects beyond the demonstration, which could include the Deposit Recovery Program. The equipment will therefore be sized to a 200 ft size 1 converter (plus a substantial conservative design margin), which is the largest item of interest for gas phase decontamination in the Deposit Recovery Program. The decontamination equipment will allow recovery of the UF{sub 6}, which is generated from the reaction of ClF{sub 3} with the uranium deposits, by use of NaF traps.

  17. Feasibility of gas-phase decontamination of gaseous diffusion equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Munday, E.B.; Simmons, D.W.

    1993-02-01

    The five buildings at the K-25 Site formerly involved in the gaseous diffusion process contain 5000 gaseous diffusion stages as well as support facilities that are internally contaminated with uranium deposits. The gaseous diffusion facilities located at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant also contain similar equipment and will eventually close. The decontamination of these facilities will require the most cost-effective technology consistent with the criticality, health physics, industrial hygiene, and environmental concerns; the technology must keep exposures to hazardous substances to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). This report documents recent laboratory experiments that were conducted to determine the feasibility of gas-phase decontamination of the internal surfaces of the gaseous diffusion equipment that is contaminated with uranium deposits. A gaseous fluorinating agent is used to fluorinate the solid uranium deposits to gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}), which can be recovered by chemical trapping or freezing. The lab results regarding the feasibility of the gas-phase process are encouraging. These results especially showed promise for a novel decontamination approach called the long-term, low-temperature (LTLT) process. In the LTLT process: The equipment is rendered leak tight, evacuated, leak tested, and pretreated, charged with chlorine trifluoride (ClF{sub 3}) to subatmospheric pressure, left for an extended period, possibly > 4 months, while processing other items. Then the UF{sub 6} and other gases are evacuated. The UF{sub 6} is recovered by chemical trapping. The lab results demonstrated that ClF{sub 3} gas at subatmospheric pressure and at {approx} 75{degree}F is capable of volatilizing heavy deposits of uranyl fluoride from copper metal surfaces sufficiently that the remaining radioactive emissions are below limits.

  18. Electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Lomasney, H.

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy has assigned a priority to the advancement of technology for decontaminating concrete surfaces which have become contaminated with radionuclides, heavy metals, and toxic organics. This agency is responsible for decontamination and decommissioning of thousands of buildings. Electrokinetic extraction is one of the several innovative technologies which emerged in response to this initiative. This technique utilizes an electropotential gradient and the subsequent electrical transport mechanism to cause the controlled movement of ionics species, whereby the contaminants exit the recesses deep within the concrete. The primary objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach as a means to achieve ``release levels`` which could be consistent with unrestricted use of a decontaminated building. The secondary objectives were: To establish process parameters; to quantify the economics; to ascertain the ALARA considerations; and to evaluate wasteform and waste volume. The work carried out to this point has achieved promising results to the extent that ISOTRON{reg_sign} has been authorized to expand the planned activity to include the fabrication of a prototype version of a commercial device.

  19. [Selective bowel decontamination].

    PubMed

    Szántó, Zoltán; Pulay, István; Kotsis, Lajos; Dinka, Tibor

    2006-04-01

    Infective complications play major role in mortality of high risk patients demanding intensive care. Selective Bowel Decontamination prevents endogenous infections by reducing the number of potentially pathogen microbes (aerobic bacteria, fungi) in the oropharynx and gastrointestinal tract, saving anaerobic bacteria. It had been used 20 years ago for the first time. Authors survey it's literature ever since. Selective Bowel Decontamination is performed by the mixture of antibiotics and antimycotic drug, administered orally in hydrogel, and suspension form in nasojejunal tube. The number of Gram negative optional aerobic bacteria and fungi decrease significantly in the gut, and the microbial translocation is following this tendency. Foreign authors achieved good results in acute necrotizing pancreatitis, after liver transplant, in polytrauma, in serious burn and in haematological malignancies. According to the literature Selective Bowel Decontamination shows advantages in selected groups of high risk surgical patients. In some studies the administration took few months, but the minimum time was one week. There was no report of increasing MRSA appearance. Regular bacteriological sampling is highly recommended in order to recognize any new antibiotic resistance in time. PMID:16711371

  20. Test site experiments with a reconfigurable stepped frequency GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persico, Raffaele; Matera, Loredana; Piro, Salvatore; Rizzo, Enzo; Capozzoli, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    the fact that the integration time of the harmonic components of the signal can be prolonged in a programmable way, so that (in particular) there is the possibility to reject undesired narrow band interferences without filtering the signal, namely without loosing part of the information contained in the signal. The third property is that the power can be modulated frequency by frequency. Indeed, we don't know if this third property is a real advantage, but the first two have been already exploited showing some encouraging results. At the conference, we will show the results achieved from two measurement campaign performed in two controlled site, namely the the test site of Hydrogeosite Laboratory, in Marsico Nuovo (Southern Italy), belonging to the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis of the Italian National Research Council [3] and the test site of Montelibretti, in central Italy, belonging to the Institute of Technologies Applied to Cultural Heritage of the National Research Council [4]. In both test sites, among other things, anomalies resembling features of archaeological or near surface interest have been predisposed, as a tomb, a paved road, an amphora, a statue, a buried chamber, a cylinder, a structure in opus coementicium. The test site of Montelibretti is outdoor, in an area of archaeological interest were the ancient population of the Sabini has left relevant testimonies. The test site of Hydrogeosite Laboratory is indoor, in a hat were a large pool (240m3) has been filled up with sand after burying the test targets. This test site is equipped also for hydrogeophysical experiments by means of a controlled hydraulic system for the progressive immission of water in the sand. Depth slices will be shown for both sites, as well as some tests for the mitigation of intereferences by means of the modulation of the integration time of the harmonic components of the signal. Some of the interferences have been artificially introduced by means of a

  1. Dismantlement and decontamination of a plutonium-238 facility at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.H. Jr.; Hootman, H.E.

    1994-01-01

    There has been very little, documented decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) experience on which to project cleanup costs and schedules for plutonium facilities at SRS and other DOE sites. A portion of the HB-Line, a plutonium-238 processing facility at SRS, has been undergoing D&D intermittently since 1984. Although this cleanup effort was not originally intended to quantify results, some key data have been project has demonstrated effective methods of accumulated, and the performing D&D work, and has demonstrated cleanup equipment and techniques under conditions of high contamination. Plutonium facilities where D&D is already underway provide an opportunity for` timely field testing of characterization, size reduction, and decontamination techniques. Some data are presented here; however, more specific tests and data may be obtained during the remainder of this project. This project has been recommended as a candidate test facility for a DOE planned ``Integrated D&D Demonstration`` managed by EM-50 to develop and demonstrate technology for D&D and surplus facilities deactivation. Both the remainder of this project and the Integrated D&D Demonstration Program can benefit from a joint effort, and the, overall costs should be reduced.

  2. Benefits of automated surface decontamination of a radioiodine ward.

    PubMed

    Westcott, Eliza; Broadhurst, Alicia; Crossley, Steven; Lee, Lloyd; Phan, Xuyen; Scharli, Rainer; Xu, Yan

    2012-02-01

    A floor-washing robot has been acquired to assist physicists with decontamination of radioiodine therapy ward rooms after discharge of the patient at Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital. The effectiveness of the robot in decontaminating the ward has been evaluated. A controlled experiment was performed by deliberately contaminating a polyvinyl chloride flooring offcut with 131I followed by automated decontamination with the robot. The extent of fixed and removable contamination was assessed before and after decontamination by two methods: (1) direct Geiger-Mueller counting and (2) beta-counting wipe tests. Surface contamination was also assessed in situ on the ward by Geiger-Mueller counting and wipe testing. Contamination maps confirmed that contamination was removed rather than spread around by the robot. Wipe testing revealed that the robot was successful in clearing approximately 60-80% of removable contamination. The robotic floor-washing device was considered suitable to provide effective automated decontamination of the radioiodine ward. In addition, the robot affords other benefits: the time spent by the physicists decontaminating the room is greatly reduced offering financial and occupational safety and health benefits. The robot has also found utility in other decontamination applications in the healthcare environment. PMID:22249471

  3. Simulated rainfall experiments on water repellent post mine sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunth, Franziska; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Reclaimed lignite mine areas are heavily endangered by erosion by water. This leads to heavy soil losses, especially on hydrophobic and non-vegetated soil surfaces. Beyond that, erosion-induced discharge of detached dump particles in abandoned open pits leads to acidification of surface waters. Therefore land management in former mining regions requires long-term and safe structuring of recultivation areas. The objective of this ongoing study is the development of a methodology to determine erosion risks on slopes in recultivation areas with the help of the event-based physical erosion model EROSION 2D/3D (Schmidt, 1991, 1992; v. Werner, 1995). The widely used model is able to predict runoff as well as detachment, transport and deposition of sediments. Lignite dump materials show strong water repellency due to hydrophobic substances that coat soil particles. As affecting infiltration processes the effect of water repellency had to be implemented into EROSION 2D/3D. To obtain necessary input data for erosion modelling (hydraulic roughness, infiltration rates, calibration factors, etc.) a number of rainfall experiments on non-vegetated as well as recultivated reclaimed mine sites in the Lusatia lignite mining region (southeast of Berlin, Germany) were conducted. Very low infiltration rates were measured on non-vegetated water repellent sites. These processes could be described by EROSION 2D infiltration modelling. Changes of surface runoff and particle detachment and dynamic effects on infiltration are considered with the experimentally determined parameters "skin-factor", "resistance to erosion" and "hydraulic roughness". Current analysis show that a newly developed water repellency-factor helps to depict infiltration and erosion processes on water repellent dump soils.

  4. Decontamination Technologies, Task 3, Urban Remediation and Response Project

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser,J.; Sullivan, T.

    2009-06-30

    In the aftermath of a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD, also known as a dirty bomb) it will be necessary to remediate the site including building exteriors and interiors, equipment, pavement, vehicles, personal items etc. Remediation will remove or reduce radioactive contamination from the area using a combination of removing and disposing of many assets (including possible demolition of buildings), decontaminating and returning to service other assets, and fixing in place or leaving in place contamination that is deemed 'acceptable'. The later will require setting acceptable dose standards, which will require negotiation with all involved parties and a balance of risk and cost to benefit. To accomplish the first two, disposal or decontamination, a combination of technologies will be deployed that can be loosely classified as: Decontamination; Equipment removal and size reduction; and Demolition. This report will deal only with the decontamination technologies that will be used to return assets to service or to reduce waste disposal. It will not discuss demolition, size reduction or removal technologies or equipment (e.g., backhoe mounted rams, rock splitter, paving breakers and chipping hammers, etc.). As defined by the DOE (1994), decontamination is removal of radiological contamination from the surfaces of facilities and equipment. Expertise in this field comes primarily from the operation and decommissioning of DOE and commercial nuclear facilities as well as a small amount of ongoing research and development closely related to RDD decontamination. Information related to decontamination of fields, buildings, and public spaces resulting from the Goiania and Chernobyl incidents were also reviewed and provide some meaningful insight into decontamination at major urban areas. In order to proceed with decontamination, the item being processed needs to have an intrinsic value that exceeds the cost of the cleaning and justifies the exposure of any workers during the

  5. Decontamination solution development studies

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.P.; Fetrow, L.K.; Kjarmo, H.E.; Pool, K.H.

    1993-09-01

    This study was conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of the Hanford Grout Technology Program (HGTP). The objective of this study was to identify decontamination solutions capable of removing radioactive contaminants and grout from the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) process equipment and to determine the impact of these solutions on equipment components and disposal options. The reference grout used in this study was prepared with simulated double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) and a dry blend consisting of 40 wt % limestone flour, 28 wt % blast furnace slag, 28 wt % fly ash, and 4 wt % type I/II Portland cement.

  6. Decontaminating pesticide protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Laughlin, J

    1993-01-01

    The review of recent work on the mechanisms of soil removal from textiles assists in understanding decontamination of pesticide protective clothing. The current work provides explanatory conclusions about residue retention as a basis of making recommendations for the most effective decontamination procedures. A caution about generalizations: Some pesticides produce very idiosyncratic responses to decontamination. An example is the paraquat/salt response. Other pesticides exhibit noticeable and unique responses to a highly alkaline medium (carbaryl), or to bleach (chlorpyrifos), or are quickly volatilized (methyl parathion). Responses such as these do not apply to other pesticides undergoing decontamination. Given this caution, there are soil, substrate, and solvent responses that do maximize residue removal. Residue removal is less complete as the concentration of pesticide increases. The concentration of pesticide in fabric builds with successive exposures, and the more concentrated the pesticide, the more difficult the removal. Use a prewash product and/or presoak. The surfactant and/or solvent in a prewash product is a booster in residue removal. Residues transfer from contaminated clothing to other clothing during the washing cycle. Use a full washer of water for a limited number of garments to increase residue removal. The hotter the washing temperature, the better. Generally, this means a water temperature of at least 49 degrees C, and preferably 60 degrees C. Select the detergent shown to be more effective for the formulation: heavy-duty liquid detergents for emulsifiable concentrate formulations and powdered phosphate detergents for wettable powder formulations. If the fabric has a soil-repellent finish, use 1.25 times the amount recommended on the detergent label. For water hardness above 300 ppm, an additional amount of powdered phosphate detergent is needed to obtain the same level of residue removal as obtained with the heavy-duty liquid detergent when

  7. Decontamination of the Shaft no.1 and cleaning container of 2. block NPP Paks

    SciTech Connect

    Bolcha, Jan; Mala, Zuzana; Tilky, Peter

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Meanwhile cleaning fuel assemblies on Paks NPP Unit 2. in 2003 year, the fuel assemblies were damaged, followed by contamination of cleaning container and operating shaft No. 1., in which was the container. As a part of the task - to restore operation NPP Paks, Unit 2, VUJE and.. realized decontamination of the wall of shaft prior to withdrawal of the defected fuel, decontamination of cleaning tank and in consequence decontamination of full shaft No. 1. Solution rest at finished conceptual decontamination proposal, fabrication of special purpose furnished, necessary documentation according to national legislative exigency. Real facilities on decontamination were examined on the stand and on shaft No. 1 in real conditions. This paper describes access method decontaminating procedure, applied facilities assigned on decontamination and present achievement results from decontamination shaft No. 1 realized in August 2006 and February 2007, respectively. Decontamination procedures were chosen on the base of experiments realized in laboratories VUJE and in Paks NPP. Laboratory experiments were realized on the sample of tube used for measurement of neutron flow, from NPP Paks, located in the shaft No.1 in time of event (INES-3). In NPP Paks were realized experiments on cover of cleaning container, which was in time of event situated on cleaning container. To compare decontaminated factors, the chemical and electrochemical procedures for decontamination were tested, and most effective practices were selected. Equipment ROS-740 can be used for the top part of the shaft decontamination. It allows high-pressure admission, rinse and chemical decontamination. Manipulator MAOS-170 is assigned for high-pressure admission of central part of the shaft. (authors)

  8. Radiological decontamination, survey, and statistical release method for vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwill, M.E.; Lively, J.W.; Morris, R.L.

    1996-06-01

    Earth-moving vehicles (e.g., dump trucks, belly dumps) commonly haul radiologically contaminated materials from a site being remediated to a disposal site. Traditionally, each vehicle must be surveyed before being released. The logistical difficulties of implementing the traditional approach on a large scale demand that an alternative be devised. A statistical method for assessing product quality from a continuous process was adapted to the vehicle decontamination process. This method produced a sampling scheme that automatically compensates and accommodates fluctuating batch sizes and changing conditions without the need to modify or rectify the sampling scheme in the field. Vehicles are randomly selected (sampled) upon completion of the decontamination process to be surveyed for residual radioactive surface contamination. The frequency of sampling is based on the expected number of vehicles passing through the decontamination process in a given period and the confidence level desired. This process has been successfully used for 1 year at the former uranium millsite in Monticello, Utah (a cleanup site regulated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act). The method forces improvement in the quality of the decontamination process and results in a lower likelihood that vehicles exceeding the surface contamination standards are offered for survey. Implementation of this statistical sampling method on Monticello projects has resulted in more efficient processing of vehicles through decontamination and radiological release, saved hundreds of hours of processing time, provided a high level of confidence that release limits are met, and improved the radiological cleanliness of vehicles leaving the controlled site.

  9. Integrated decontamination process for metals

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Thomas S.; Whitlow, Graham A.

    1991-01-01

    An integrated process for decontamination of metals, particularly metals that are used in the nuclear energy industry contaminated with radioactive material. The process combines the processes of electrorefining and melt refining to purify metals that can be decontaminated using either electrorefining or melt refining processes.

  10. A Community Seismic Experiment in the ENAM Primary Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Avendonk, H. J.

    2012-12-01

    Eastern North America (ENAM) was chosen as a GeoPRISMS Rift Initiation and Evolution primary site because it represents a mature continental margin with onshore and offshore rift basins in which the record of extension and continental break-up is preserved. The degree to which syn-rift magmatism and preexisting lithospheric weaknesses controlled the evolution of the margin can be further investigated if we image its 3-D structure at small and large length scales with active-source and earthquake seismic imaging. In the Summer of 2012 we submitted a proposal to the US National Science Foundation for an ambitious plan for data acquisition on a 400 km wide section of the mid-Atlantic East Coast margin around Cape Hatteras, from unextended continental lithosphere onshore to mature oceanic lithosphere offshore. This area includes an important along-strike transition in the morphology of the margin from the Carolina Trough to the Baltimore Canyon Trough, and two major fracture zones that are associated with significant offsets at the modern Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The study area also covers several features representing the post-rift modification of the margin by slope instability and fluid flow. As the Earthscope Transportable Array reaches the East Coast of the US in 2013 and 2014, we will have an unprecedented opportunity to image the detailed structure of the rifted margin. To make effective use of the research infrastructure, including the seismic vessel R/V Marcus Langseth, the Earthscope seismic instrumentation, and US OBS Instrument Pool, we propose to collect a suite of seismic data at the mid-Atlantic margin in the context of a community-driven experiment with completely open data access. This multi-faceted seismic experiment offers an immense opportunity for education of young scientists. We propose an integrated education effort during and after acquisition. The science and field parties for data acquisition will largely consist of young scientists, who will be

  11. Anthrax Sampling and Decontamination: Technology Trade-Offs

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Phillip N.; Hamachi, Kristina; McWilliams, Jennifer; Sohn, Michael D.

    2008-09-12

    The goal of this project was to answer the following questions concerning response to a future anthrax release (or suspected release) in a building: 1. Based on past experience, what rules of thumb can be determined concerning: (a) the amount of sampling that may be needed to determine the extent of contamination within a given building; (b) what portions of a building should be sampled; (c) the cost per square foot to decontaminate a given type of building using a given method; (d) the time required to prepare for, and perform, decontamination; (e) the effectiveness of a given decontamination method in a given type of building? 2. Based on past experience, what resources will be spent on evaluating the extent of contamination, performing decontamination, and assessing the effectiveness of the decontamination in abuilding of a given type and size? 3. What are the trade-offs between cost, time, and effectiveness for the various sampling plans, sampling methods, and decontamination methods that have been used in the past?

  12. INNOVATIVE SOIL AND GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION: THE SITE PROGRAM EXPERIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SITE program of the USEPA has been bringing together the private sector, EPA, and other federal and state agencies to succedssfully address complex hazardous waste problems. For more than 15 years, the SITE Program has successfully promoted the development, commercialization ...

  13. Uncertainty Analysis with Site Specific Groundwater Models: Experiences and Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, K.

    2003-07-15

    Groundwater flow and transport predictions are a major component of remedial action evaluations for contaminated groundwater at the Savannah River Site. Because all groundwater modeling results are subject to uncertainty from various causes; quantification of the level of uncertainty in the modeling predictions is beneficial to project decision makers. Complex site-specific models present formidable challenges for implementing an uncertainty analysis.

  14. Innovative Laser Ablation Technology for Surface Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Winston C. H.

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a novel laser ablation in liquid for surface decontamination. It aims to achieve more efficient surface decontamination without secondary contamination. Another aim is to make this surface decontamination technology becomes economically feasible for large scale decontamination.

  15. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    SciTech Connect

    Charles A. Gentile; John J. Parker; Gregory L. Guttadora; Lloyd P. Ciebiera

    2002-02-11

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Tritium Systems Group has developed and fabricated an Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System (OTDS), which is designed to reduce tritium surface contamination on various components and items. The system is configured to introduce gaseous ozone into a reaction chamber containing tritiated items that require a reduction in tritium surface contamination. Tritium surface contamination (on components and items in the reaction chamber) is removed by chemically reacting elemental tritium to tritium oxide via oxidation, while purging the reaction chamber effluent to a gas holding tank or negative pressure HVAC system. Implementing specific concentrations of ozone along with catalytic parameters, the system is able to significantly reduce surface tritium contamination on an assortment of expendable and non-expendable items. This paper will present the results of various experimentation involving employment of this system.

  16. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  17. Glovebox decontamination technology comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Quintana, D.M.; Rodriguez, J.B.; Cournoyer, M.E.

    1999-09-26

    Reconfiguration of the CMR Building and TA-55 Plutonium Facility for mission requirements will require the disposal or recycle of 200--300 gloveboxes or open front hoods. These gloveboxes and open front hoods must be decontaminated to meet discharge limits for Low Level Waste. Gloveboxes and open front hoods at CMR have been painted. One of the deliverables on this project is to identify the best method for stripping the paint from large numbers of gloveboxes. Four methods being considered are the following: conventional paint stripping, dry ice pellets, strippable coatings, and high pressure water technology. The advantages of each technology will be discussed. Last, cost comparisons between the technologies will be presented.

  18. Granulated decontamination formulations

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D.

    2007-10-02

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a sorbent additive, and water. A highly adsorbent sorbent additive (e.g., amorphous silica, sorbitol, mannitol, etc.) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  19. Skin decontamination: principles and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heidi P; Zhai, Hongbo; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I

    2013-11-01

    Skin decontamination is the primary intervention needed in chemical, biological and radiological exposures, involving immediate removal of the contaminant from the skin performed in the most efficient way. The most readily available decontamination system on a practical basis is washing with soap and water or water only. Timely use of flushing with copious amounts of water may physically remove the contaminant. However, this traditional method may not be completely effective, and contaminants left on the skin after traditional washing procedures can have toxic consequences. This article focuses on the principles and practices of skin decontamination. PMID:22851522

  20. Investigation of electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli, D.W.; Harris, M.T.; Morgan, I.L.; Ally, M.R.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments have been conducted to investigate the capabilities of electrokinetic decontamination of concrete. Batch equilibration studies have determined that the loading of cesium and strontium on concrete may be decreased using electrolyte solutions containing competing cations, while solubilization of uranium and cobalt, that precipitate at high pH, will require lixiviants containing complexing agents. Dynamic electrokinetic experiments showed greater mobility of cesium than strontium, while some positive results were obtained for the transport of cobalt through concrete using EDTA and for uranium using carbonate.

  1. Laryngoscope decontamination techniques: A survey

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Rajiv; Gupta, Akhilesh; Gupta, Anshu; Kumar, Mritunjay

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: India is a vast country with variable, nonuniform healthcare practices. A laryngoscope is an important tool during general anesthesia and resuscitation. The study aimed to determine the current practices of laryngoscope decontamination in India. Material and Methods: An online survey was conducted amongst 100 anesthesiologists to determine the common methods of laryngoscope decontamination adopted in their settings. The survey was done over 6 months after validating the questionnaire. Results: A total of 73 responses were received out of 100. The result of the survey revealed that there is no uniform technique of laryngoscope decontamination. There is marked variability in techniques followed not only among different institutions, but also within the same institution. Conclusion: There are no fixed protocols adopted for laryngoscope decontamination. Thus, there is a need to develop definitive guidelines on this subject, which can be implemented in India. PMID:27006551

  2. Off-Site Faculty: Perspectives on Online Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Barbara L.; Goodson, Carole; Miertschin, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents a cross case analysis involving faculty teaching online from off-site international and interstate locations. The study yielded enabling factors, benefits, communication systems, and challenges in the areas of administration, curriculum, communications, and faculty characteristics. The benefits included the opportunity to be…

  3. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system.

  4. Lasers for the radioactive decontamination of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, N.S.; Flesher, D.J.

    1993-10-01

    The use of lasers for removing radioactive contamination from concrete surfaces is being investigated at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. A major advantage of a laser decontamination process is that no additional waste is generated. Test results using 50- and 600-W YAG (yttrium-aluminum-garnet) lasers have been extrapolated to more powerful commercially available units. The minimum removal rate for concrete in air is estimated at 420 cm{sup 2}/h (0.45 ft{sup 2}/h) to a depth of 0.64 cm (0.25 in.); underwater rates would be considerably reduced.

  5. Analysis of Potential Concerete Floor Decontamination Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    M. A. Ebadian

    1997-08-06

    During the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities to be conducted at the Femald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), contaminated concrete waste will be generated from the D&D of approximately 200 buildings and other structures [1]. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owns the Fernald site. The site is a contractor-operated federal facility that produced high-purity uranium metal products for the DOE and its predecessor agency, the Atomic Energy Commission, from 1952 to 1989. Thorium being ores were also processed at FEMP, but on a smaller scale. Production activities ceased in 1989, and the production mission of the facility ended formally in 1991. FEMP was included on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List in 1989. The current mission of the site is environmental restoration according to the requirements specified by CERCLA [1]. Decontamination and decommissioning activities require the treatment of concrete floors to segregate technetium-99 contaminated concrete from the remainder of the concrete. Many proven commercial stiace removal technologies are available. These processes vary in aggressiveness, stiety requirements, waste generation, capital requirements, and operating and maintenance costs.

  6. Decontamination of the populated areas contaminated as a result of nuclear accident

    SciTech Connect

    Voronik, N.I.; Shatilo, N.N.; Davydov, Y.P.

    1996-12-31

    Decontamination tests on urban surfaces contaminated by the Chernobyl accident have shown that Chernobyl fallout behaves differently from fallout from nuclear weapons tests and contamination on surfaces in nuclear power plant. The effectiveness of various decontamination compositions for removing Chernobyl fallout from urban surfaces and machinery was determined in a series of laboratory experiments and field trials.

  7. Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE): Reports from the NASA resident representative in India. [ATS 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, H. L., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Reports submitted by the NASA project representative for the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) at Ahmedabad, India are presented. These reports deal with the coordination of all SITE related matters between the ATS 6 Project at Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA Headquarters, and the SITE Program in India.

  8. EREBUS: An experiment to REveal the BUrster sites

    SciTech Connect

    Meegan, Charles A.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Harmon, B. Alan; Horack, John M.; Wilson, Robert B.; Brainerd, Jerome J.; Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Hakkila, Jon

    1996-08-01

    There have been several suggestions that GRBs, if galactic, might be detected from M31. With the current crisis in determining the burster distance scale, this experiment has become crucial. EREBUS has been designed to detect a significant burst signal from M31 for any reasonable galactic model that is consistent with the BATSE isotropy and inhomogeneity constraints. The experiment uses 16 broadly collimated 2000 cm{sup 2} NaI detectors, obtaining a factor of {approx}10 improvement in peak sensitivity over BATSE. The similarity to the BATSE detectors eliminates spectral and temporal free parameters in model fits.

  9. Electroosmotic decontamination of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, W.D.; Bush, S.A.; Marsh, G.C.; Henson, H.M.; Box, W.D.; Morgan, I.L.

    1993-03-01

    A method is described for the electroosmotic decontamination of concrete surfaces, in which an electrical field is used to induce migration of ionic contaminants from porous concrete into an electrolyte solution that may be disposed of as a low-level liquid radioactive waste (LLRW); alternately, the contaminants from the solution can be sorbed onto anion exchange media in order to prevent contaminant buildup in the solution and to minimize the amount of LLRW generated. We have confirmed the removal of uranium (and infer the removal of {sup 99}Tc) from previously contaminated concrete surfaces. In a typical experimental configuration, a stainless steel mesh is placed in an electrolyte solution contained within a diked cell to serve as the negative electrode (cathode) and contaminant collection medium, respectively, and an existing metal penetration (e.g., piping, conduit, or rebar reinforcement within the concrete surface) serves as the positive electrode (anode) to complete the cell. Typically we have achieved 70 to >90% reductions in surface activity by applying <400 V and <1 A for 1--3 h (energy consumption of 0.4--12 kWh/ft{sup 2}).

  10. Decontamination and Recycling of Radioactive Material from Retired Components

    SciTech Connect

    Bushart, S.P.; Wood, C.J.; Bradbury, D.; Elder, G.

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes the development of the EPRI DFDX (Decontamination For Decommissioning, electrochemical ion exchange) process for the chemical decontamination of reactor coolant systems and components. A US patent has been awarded and a plant, conforming to exacting nuclear industry standards, has been constructed to demonstrate the process at a number of sites. The plant has completed successful demonstration tests at Studsvik in Sweden and Dounreay in Scotland. The R and D phase for this technology is now complete, and the plant is now in commercial operation in the United Kingdom. (authors)

  11. Progress of electro-hydraulic scabbling technology for concrete decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Goldfarb, V.; Gannon, R.

    1997-05-01

    Concrete decontamination from organics, metals, and radionuclides requires removal of up to one inch of the surface layer. The Electro- Hydraulic Scabbling (EHS) technique has been developed within a 3- phase program. A prototype 8 kW EHS unit was designed and assembled in Phase II. This system was tested initially by scabbling noncontaminated concrete, and later at the DOE Fernald site where a concrete floor containing uranium was decontaminated. In the latter test, the unit operated without problems and reduced the counts per minute by more than 90%. Currently in Phase III, a larger 30 kW unit has been assembled and prepared for testing/demonstration.

  12. Practical choices for infobutton customization: experience from four sites.

    PubMed

    Cimino, James J; Overby, Casey L; Devine, Emily B; Hulse, Nathan C; Jing, Xia; Maviglia, Saverio M; Del Fiol, Guilherme

    2013-01-01

    Context-aware links between electronic health records (EHRs) and online knowledge resources, commonly called "infobuttons" are being used increasingly as part of EHR "meaningful use" requirements. While an HL7 standard exists for specifying how the links should be constructed, there is no guidance on what links to construct. Collectively, the authors manage four infobutton systems that serve 16 institutions. The purpose of this paper is to publish our experience with linking various resources and specifying particular criteria that can be used by infobutton managers to select resources that are most relevant for a given situation. This experience can be used directly by those wishing to customize their own EHRs, for example by using the OpenInfobutton infobutton manager and its configuration tool, the Librarian Infobutton Tailoring Environment. PMID:24551334

  13. Geology of the Source Physics Experiment Site, Climax Stock, Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, M., Prothro, L. B., Obi, C.

    2012-03-15

    A test bed for a series of chemical explosives tests known as Source Physics Experiments (SPE) was constructed in granitic rock of the Climax stock, in northern Yucca Flat at the Nevada National Security Site in 2010-2011. These tests are sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration's National Center for Nuclear Security. The test series is designed to study the generation and propagation of seismic waves, and will provide data that will improve the predictive capability of calculational models for detecting and characterizing underground explosions. Abundant geologic data are available for the area, primarily as a result of studies performed in conjunction with the three underground nuclear tests conducted in the Climax granite in the 1960s and a few later studies of various types. The SPE test bed was constructed at an elevation of approximately 1,524 meters (m), and consists of a 91.4-centimeter (cm) diameter source hole at its center, surrounded by two rings of three 20.3-cm diameter instrument holes. The inner ring of holes is positioned 10 m away from the source hole, and the outer ring of holes is positioned 20 m from the source hole. An initial 160-m deep core hole was drilled at the location of the source hole that provided information on the geology of the site and rock samples for later laboratory testing. A suite of geophysical logs was run in the core hole and all six instruments holes to obtain matrix and fracture properties. Detailed information on the character and density of fractures encountered was obtained from the borehole image logs run in the holes. A total of 2,488 fractures were identified in the seven boreholes, and these were ranked into six categories (0 through 5) on the basis of their degree of openness and continuity. The analysis presented here considered only the higher-ranked fractures (ranks 2 through 5), of which there were 1,215 (approximately 49 percent of all fractures identified from

  14. MERCURY CONTAMINATED MATERIAL DECONTAMINATION METHODS: INVESTIGATION AND ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    Over the years mercury has been recognized as having serious impacts on human health and the environment. This recognition has led to numerous studies that deal with the properties of various mercury forms, the development of methods to quantify and speciate the forms, fate and transport, toxicology studies, and the development of site remediation and decontamination technologies. This report reviews several critical areas that will be used in developing technologies for cleaning mercury from mercury-contaminated surfaces of metals and porous materials found in many DOE facilities. The technologies used for decontamination of water and mixed wastes (solid) are specifically discussed. Many technologies that have recently appeared in the literature are included in the report. Current surface decontamination processes have been reviewed, and the limitations of these technologies for mercury decontamination are discussed. Based on the currently available technologies and the processes published recently in the literature, several processes, including strippable coatings, chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, chemisorbing surface wipes with forager sponge and grafted cotton, and surface/pore fixation through amalgamation or stabilization, have been identified as potential techniques for decontamination of mercury-contaminated metal and porous surfaces. Their potential merits and applicability are discussed. Finally, two processes, strippable coatings and chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, were experimentally investigated in Phase II of this project.

  15. DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR FACILITY REUSE

    SciTech Connect

    Bossart, Steven J.; Blair, Danielle M.

    2003-02-27

    As nuclear research and production facilities across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex are slated for deactivation and decommissioning (D&D), there is a need to decontaminate some facilities for reuse for another mission or continued use for the same mission. Improved technologies available in the commercial sector and tested by the DOE can help solve the DOE's decontamination problems. Decontamination technologies include mechanical methods, such as shaving, scabbling, and blasting; application of chemicals; biological methods; and electrochemical techniques. Materials to be decontaminated are primarily concrete or metal. Concrete materials include walls, floors, ceilings, bio-shields, and fuel pools. Metallic materials include structural steel, valves, pipes, gloveboxes, reactors, and other equipment. Porous materials such as concrete can be contaminated throughout their structure, although contamination in concrete normally resides in the top quarter-inch below the surface. Metals are normally only contaminated on the surface. Contamination includes a variety of alpha, beta, and gamma-emitting radionuclides and can sometimes include heavy metals and organic contamination regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This paper describes several advanced mechanical, chemical, and other methods to decontaminate structures, equipment, and materials.

  16. Preliminary Experience with ''In-Site'' Baking of Niobium Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    P. Kneisel

    2000-01-01

    In a series of experiments several single cell and multi-cell niobium cavities made from reactor grade and high RRR niobium (frequencies were 700 MHz, 1300 MHz and 1497 MHz) have been baked--after initial testing--in-situ around 145 C for up to 90 hours prior to being recooled. Surprisingly, all cavities showed significant improvements in Q-values between 4.2 and 1.6K. The BCS surface resistance was lowered by nearly a factor of two. This cannot be explained by solely a reduction of dielectric losses caused by adsorbates at the surface or by a decrease of the mean free path due to possibly diffusion of oxygen into the surface layer. In several experiments also the high field behavior of the cavity improved after the in-situ baking procedure. The observed effect opens the possibility for the CEBAF upgrade cavities, which in turn will permit to run the cavities at higher gradients if field emission loading can be prevented. Utilizing this effect can possibly translate into sizeable cost savings since fewer modules are needed for the upgrade program.

  17. Coherent launch-site atmospheric wind sounder: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Hawley, J G; Targ, R; Henderson, S W; Hale, C P; Kavaya, M J; Moerder, D

    1993-08-20

    The coherent launch-site atmospheric wind sounder (CLAWS) is a lidar atmospheric wind sensor designed to measure the winds above space launch facilities to an altitude of 20 km. In our development studies, lidar sensor requirements are defined, a system to meet those requirements is defined and built, and the concept is evaluated, with recommendations for the most feasible and cost-effective lidar system for use as an input to a guidance and control system for missile or spacecraft launches. The ability of CLAWS to meet NASA goals for increased safety and launch/mission flexibility is evaluated in a field test program at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in which we investigate maximum detection range, refractive turbulence, and aerosol backscattering efficiency. The Nd:YAG coherent lidar operating at 1.06 µm with 1-J energy per pulse is able to make real-time measurements of the three-dimensional wind field at KSC to an altitude of 26 km, in good agreement with our performance simulations. It also shows the height and thickness of the volcanic layer caused by the volcanic eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines. PMID:20830118

  18. ITP Filter Particulate Decontamination Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Dworjanyn, L.O.

    1993-05-21

    A new test method was developed which showed the installed In- Tank Precipitation Filter Unit {number_sign}3 provided at least 40, 000 x decontamination of the precipitated potassium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) during the cold chemical runs.This filter is expected to meet the needed 40,000 x hot cesium decontamination requirements, assuming that the cesium precipitate, CsTPB, behaves the same as KTPB. The new method permits cold chemicals field testing of installed filters to quantify particulate decontamination and verify filter integrity before going hot. The method involves a 1000 x concentration of fine particulate KTPB in the filtrate to allow direct analysis by counting for naturally radioactive isotope K-40 using the underground SRTC gamma spectroscopy facility. The particulate concentration was accomplished by ultra filtration at Rhone-Poulenc, NJ, using a small cross-flow bench facility, followed by collection of all suspended solids on a small filter disc for K analysis.

  19. Electrolytic decontamination of conductive materials for hazardous waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Wedman, D.E.; Martinez, H.E.; Nelson, T.O.

    1996-12-31

    Electrolytic removal of plutonium and americium from stainless steel and uranium surfaces has been demonstrated. Preliminary experiments were performed on the electrochemically based decontamination of type 304L stainless steel in sodium nitrate solutions to better understand the metal removal effects of varying cur-rent density, pH, and nitrate concentration parameters. Material removal rates and changes in surface morphology under these varying conditions are reported. Experimental results indicate that an electropolishing step before contamination removes surface roughness, thereby simplifying later electrolytic decontamination. Sodium nitrate based electrolytic decontamination produced the most uniform stripping of material at low to intermediate pH and at sodium nitrate concentrations of 200 g L{sup -1} and higher. Stirring was also observed to increase the uniformity of the stripping process.

  20. Decontamination of biological warfare agents by a microwave plasma torch

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Wilson; Lai, Henry; Kuo, Spencer P.; Tarasenko, Olga; Levon, Kalle

    2005-02-01

    A portable arc-seeded microwave plasma torch running stably with airflow is described and applied for the decontamination of biological warfare agents. Emission spectroscopy of the plasma torch indicated that this torch produced an abundance of reactive atomic oxygen that could effectively oxidize biological agents. Bacillus cereus was chosen as a simulant of Bacillus anthracis spores for biological agent in the decontamination experiments. Decontamination was performed with the airflow rate of 0.393 l/s, corresponding to a maximum concentration of atomic oxygen produced by the torch. The experimental results showed that all spores were killed in less than 8 s at 3 cm distance, 12 s at 4 cm distance, and 16 s at 5 cm distance away from the nozzle of the torch.

  1. [Thermodynamic forecasting of reagents composition for soils decontamination].

    PubMed

    Nikolaev, V P; Nikolaevskiĭ, V B; Chirkina, I V; Shcheglov, M Iu

    2009-01-01

    Based on thermodynamic studies, the authors conducted laboratory experiments on searching optimal composition of leaching reagents solution for soils decontamination, when contaminated with Cs-137, of activity coefficient for caesium sulfate microquantities in macrocomponents solutions. The method could be used for modelling the radionuclides phase equillibrium and relocations in soils. PMID:19441704

  2. 40 CFR 170.150 - Decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decontamination. 170.150 Section 170... PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.150 Decontamination. (a)(1) Requirement. The agricultural employer must provide decontamination supplies for workers in accordance with this section whenever:...

  3. 40 CFR 170.250 - Decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decontamination. 170.250 Section 170... PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Pesticide Handlers § 170.250 Decontamination. (a) Requirement. During any..., decontamination supplies for washing off pesticides and pesticide residues. (b) General conditions. (1)...

  4. 40 CFR 170.150 - Decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Decontamination. 170.150 Section 170... PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.150 Decontamination. (a)(1) Requirement. The agricultural employer must provide decontamination supplies for workers in accordance with this section whenever:...

  5. 40 CFR 170.150 - Decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decontamination. 170.150 Section 170... PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.150 Decontamination. (a)(1) Requirement. The agricultural employer must provide decontamination supplies for workers in accordance with this section whenever:...

  6. 40 CFR 170.150 - Decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decontamination. 170.150 Section 170... PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.150 Decontamination. (a)(1) Requirement. The agricultural employer must provide decontamination supplies for workers in accordance with this section whenever:...

  7. 40 CFR 170.150 - Decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decontamination. 170.150 Section 170... PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.150 Decontamination. (a)(1) Requirement. The agricultural employer must provide decontamination supplies for workers in accordance with this section whenever:...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1410 - Decontamination shower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Decontamination shower. 154.1410 Section 154.1410... Equipment § 154.1410 Decontamination shower. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have a decontamination shower and an eye wash that: (a) Are on the weatherdeck; and...

  9. 46 CFR 154.1410 - Decontamination shower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Decontamination shower. 154.1410 Section 154.1410... Equipment § 154.1410 Decontamination shower. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have a decontamination shower and an eye wash that: (a) Are on the weatherdeck; and...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1410 - Decontamination shower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Decontamination shower. 154.1410 Section 154.1410... Equipment § 154.1410 Decontamination shower. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have a decontamination shower and an eye wash that: (a) Are on the weatherdeck; and...

  11. 46 CFR 154.1410 - Decontamination shower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Decontamination shower. 154.1410 Section 154.1410... Equipment § 154.1410 Decontamination shower. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have a decontamination shower and an eye wash that: (a) Are on the weatherdeck; and...

  12. 46 CFR 154.1410 - Decontamination shower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Decontamination shower. 154.1410 Section 154.1410... Equipment § 154.1410 Decontamination shower. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have a decontamination shower and an eye wash that: (a) Are on the weatherdeck; and...

  13. NOVEL LASER ABLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SURFACE DECONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project is to develop a novel Laser Ablation Decontamination in Liquid (LADIL) technology for surface decontamination and safe removal of radioactive and/or toxic contaminants. It aims to achieve more efficient surface decontamination without secondary conta...

  14. Resurvey of site stability quadrilaterals, Otay Mountain and Quincy, California. [San Andreas fault experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, C. H.

    1977-01-01

    Trilateration quadrilaterals established across two faults near the San Andreas Fault Experiment laser/satellite ranging sites were resurveyed after four years. No evidence of significant tectonic motion was found.

  15. Satellite Instructional Television Experiment: Television Comes to Village. An Evaluation of SITE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrawal, Binod C.

    This evaluation of India's Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) investigated the process of existing rural communication, the role of television as a new medium of communication in SITE instructional areas, and the process of change brought about by television in the rural structure at the micro-level. The report includes…

  16. Understanding the Experience of CACREP On-Site Visiting Review Team Chairpersons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minor, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the experience of CACREP on-site review team members provides insight into the phenomenon of four counselor educators who have each served as a CACREP on-site visiting review team chairperson a minimum of three times. In total, the participants had been within the counselor education field for approximately 95 years and active within…

  17. Sharing Designer and User Perspectives of Web Site Evaluation: A Cross-Campus Collaborative Learning Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collings, Penny; Pearce, Jon

    2002-01-01

    Presents an online collaborative process that facilitates usability evaluation of Web sites. Describes how the system was designed and used by students and staff at two Australian universities and shows that the process provides feedback on Web site usability and the experience of usability evaluation from the perspectives of a user and a…

  18. Evaluation of six decontamination processes on actinide and fission product contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, C.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Chen, L.

    1995-12-31

    In-situ decontamination technologies were evaluated for their ability to: (1) reduce equipment contamination levels to allow either free release of the equipment or land disposal, (2) minimize residues generated by decontamination, and (3) generate residues that are compatible with existing disposal technologies. Six decontamination processes were selected. tested and compared to 4M nitric acid, a traditional decontamination agent: fluoroboric acid (HBF{sub 4}), nitric plus hydrofluoric acid, alkaline persulfate followed by citric acid plus oxalic acid, silver(II) plus sodium persulfate plus nitric acid, oxalic acid plus hydrogen peroxide plus hydrofluoric acid, and electropolishing using nitric acid electrolyte. The effectiveness of these solutions was tested using prepared 304 stainless steel couponds contaminated with uranium, plutonium, americium, or fission products. The decontamination factor for each of the solutions and tests conditions were determined; the results of these experiments are presented.

  19. Radiation decontamination unit for the community hospital.

    PubMed

    Waldron, R L; Danielson, R A; Shultz, H E; Eckert, D E; Hendricks, K O

    1981-05-01

    "Freestanding" radiation decontamination units including surgical capability can be developed and made operational in small/medium sized community hospitals at relatively small cost and with minimal plant reconstruction. Because of the development of nuclear power plants in relatively remote areas and widespread transportation of radioactive materials it is important for hospitals and physicians to be prepared to handle radiation accident victims. The Radiological Assistance Program of the United States Department of Energy and the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center Training Site of Oak Ridge Associated Universities are ready to support individual hospitals and physicians in this endeavor. Adequate planning rather than luck, should be used in dealing with potential radiation accident victims. The radiation emergency team is headed by a physician on duty in the hospital. It is important that the team leader be knowledgeable in radiation accident management and have personnel trained in radiation accident management as members of this team. The senior administrative person on duty is responsible for intramural and extramural communications. Rapid mobilization of the radiation decontamination unit is important. Periodic drills are necessary for this mobilization and the smooth operation of the unit. PMID:6784538

  20. ORNL decontamination and decommissioning program

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    A program has been initiated at ORNL to decontaminate and decommission surplus or abandoned nuclear facilities. Program planning and technical studies have been performed by UCC-ND Engineering. A feasibility study for decommissioning the Metal Recovery Facility, a fuel reprocessing pilot plant, has been completed.

  1. Assessment of Environmental Contamination and Environmental Decontamination Practices within an Ebola Holding Unit, Freetown, Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Youkee, Daniel; Brown, Colin S.; Lilburn, Paul; Shetty, Nandini; Brooks, Tim; Simpson, Andrew; Bentley, Neil; Lado, Marta; Kamara, Thaim B.; Walker, Naomi F.; Johnson, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Evidence to inform decontamination practices at Ebola holding units (EHUs) and treatment centres is lacking. We conducted an audit of decontamination procedures inside Connaught Hospital EHU in Freetown, Sierra Leone, by assessing environmental swab specimens for evidence of contamination with Ebola virus by RT-PCR. Swabs were collected following discharge of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) patients before and after routine decontamination. Prior to decontamination, Ebola virus RNA was detected within a limited area at all bedside sites tested, but not at any sites distant to the bedside. Following decontamination, few areas contained detectable Ebola virus RNA. In areas beneath the bed there was evidence of transfer of Ebola virus material during cleaning. Retraining of cleaning staff reduced evidence of environmental contamination after decontamination. Current decontamination procedures appear to be effective in eradicating persistence of viral RNA. This study supports the use of viral swabs to assess Ebola viral contamination within the clinical setting. We recommend that regular refresher training of cleaning staff and audit of environmental contamination become standard practice at all Ebola care facilities during EVD outbreaks. PMID:26692018

  2. How Clean is Safe? Improving the Effectiveness of Decontamination of Structures and People Following Chemical and Biological Incidents

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt , B.M.

    2003-04-03

    This report describes a U.S. Department of Energy, (DOE) Chemical and Biological National Security Program project that sought to establish what is known about decontamination of structures, objects, and people following an exposure to chemical or biological materials. Specifically we sought to identify the procedures and protocols used to determine when and how people or buildings are considered ''clean'' following decontamination. To fulfill this objective, the study systematically examined reported decontamination experiences to determine what procedures and protocols are currently employed for decontamination, the timeframe involved to initiate and complete the decontamination process, how the contaminants were identified, the factors determining when people were (or were not) decontaminated, the problems encountered during the decontamination process, how response efforts of agencies were coordinated, and the perceived social psychological effects on people who were decontaminated or who participated in the decontamination process. Findings and recommendations from the study are intended to aid decision-making and to improve the basis for determining appropriate decontamination protocols for recovery planners and policy makers for responding to chemical and biological events.

  3. Sites for Student Field Experiences in Refugee Mental Health. Task VI--Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoshino, George; And Others

    This report on sites for student field experiences in refugee mental health has been prepared by the University of Minnesota's Mental Health Technical Assistance Center for the state refugee assistance programs. After a brief introduction describing the mission of the Technical Assistance Center, the characteristics of field experience in mental…

  4. Decontamination processes for waste glass canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, W.N.

    1981-06-01

    The process which will be used to decontaminate waste glass canisters at the Savannah River Plant consists of: decontamination (slurry blasting); rinse (high-pressure water); and spot decontamination (high-pressure water plus slurry). No additional waste will be produced by this process because glass frit used in decontamination will be mixed with the radioactive waste and fed into the glass melter. Decontamination of waste glass canisters with chemical and abrasive blasting techniques was investigated. The ability of a chemical technique with HNO/sub 3/-HF and H/sub 2/C/sub 2/O/sub 4/ to remove baked-on contamination was demonstrated. A correlation between oxide removal and decontamination was observed. Oxide removal and, thus, decontamination by abrasive blasting techniques with glass frit as the abrasive was proposed and demonstrated.

  5. Lactic acid as a decontaminant in slaughter and processing procedures.

    PubMed

    Snijders, J M; van Logtestijn, J G; Mossel, D A; Smulders, F J

    1985-10-01

    An attempt was made to interrelate the data obtained in experiments conducted by our Department along beef, veal and pig slaughter lines, using lactic acid (LA) for the decontamination of carcasses, cold and hot boned primal cuts, slaughter byproducts, and butcher's knives. First and foremost it was observed, that provided Good Manufacturing Practices are strictly followed, the microbial load of carcass surfaces will be substantially reduced. LA-decontamination may result in an additional reduction. Since in the early post-mortem period bacteria are not yet attached to the meat surface, LA-decontamination should preferably be applied to the hot carcass. It was demonstrated that, dependent on mode and duration of application, LA sprays not exceeding 1% v/v (beef), 1.25% v/v (veal) and 1.5% v/v (pork) resulted in acceptable carcass colour scores. Blood spots, which are particularly prone to discolouration by lactic acid application, should be removed at an early post-mortem stage e.g. by strong showering. The difference in surface pH between LA-treated and control carcasses disappeared within 72 hours post-mortem. Veal longissimus chops treated with LA solutions up to 2% v/v were not identified by a consumer taste panel as significantly different from controls. The 'immediate' bactericidal effect of LA-decontamination for beef, veal and pig carcasses, as well as for pig liver and veal brain, amounted to approximately 1.5 log cycles for the aerobic colony counts, strongly dependent on substrate and conditions of decontamination. In addition, a 'delayed' bacteriostatic effect was observed during storage, which is probably the result of a prolonged lag phase of acid-injured micro-organisms surviving lactic acid decontamination.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4071948

  6. Downward shortwave surface irradiance from 17 sites for the FIRE/SRB Wisconsin experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, Charles H.; Hay, John E.; Robinson, David A.; Cox, Stephen K.; Wardle, David I.; Lecroy, Stuart R.

    1990-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted in Wisconsin during Oct. to Nov. 1986 for purposes of both intensive cirrus cloud measurments and SRB algorithm validation activities. The cirrus cloud measurements were part of the FIRE. Tables are presented which show data from 17 sites in the First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment/Surface Radiation Budget (FIRE/SRB) Wisconsin experiment region. A discussion of intercomparison results and calibration inconsistencies is also included.

  7. Challenges in Obtaining Property Access: The FUSRAP Maywood Site Experience - 13433

    SciTech Connect

    Kollar, William

    2013-07-01

    The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) is the US government program started in 1974 to identify, investigate and clean up or control sites that became contaminated as a result of the nation's early atomic programs. Many of these sites are not owned by the federal government and therefore require owner permission to enter. The experience in pursuing such access at the FUSRAP Maywood Superfund Site (the Maywood Site or the Site) in Bergen County, New Jersey, is extensive. Since the US Army Corps of Engineers (the Corps) assumed responsibility for the Maywood Site from the US Department of Energy in 1997, at least 186 separate property access agreements (known in FUSRAP as a Real Estate Right-of- Entry or ROE) have been executed between the Corps and approximately 55 different land owners and tenant occupants at the Maywood Site (agreement renewals with the same owners over time account for the difference). Maywood's experience during the Corps' tenure, reflected here in three case studies of representative property access efforts, offers some lessons and best practices that may apply to other remedial programs. While the Site Community Relations Manager (the author of this paper) managed the property access task, multi-disciplinary support from across the project was also critical to success in this endeavor. (authors)

  8. Surface decontamination using a teleoperated vehicle and Kelly spray/vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, W.T.; Dyches, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    A commercial teleoperated wheeled vehicle was fitted with a modified commercial spray/vacuum decontamination system to allow floor and wall decontamination of an existing process room in one of the chemical separations areas at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Custom end-of-arm tooling was designed to provide sufficient compliance for routine cleaning operations. An operator console was designed to allow complete control of the vehicle base and are movements as well as viewing operations via multiple television monitors. 3 refs.

  9. Surface decontamination using a teleoperated vehicle and Kelly spray/vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, W.T.; Dyches, G.M.

    1990-12-31

    A commercial teleoperated wheeled vehicle was fitted with a modified commercial spray/vacuum decontamination system to allow floor and wall decontamination of an existing process room in one of the chemical separations areas at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Custom end-of-arm tooling was designed to provide sufficient compliance for routine cleaning operations. An operator console was designed to allow complete control of the vehicle base and are movements as well as viewing operations via multiple television monitors. 3 refs.

  10. Non-destructive decontamination of building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holecek, Josef; Otahal, Petr

    2015-11-01

    For nondestructive radiation decontamination of surfaces it is necessary to use varnishes, such as ARGONNE, DG1101, DG1108, etc. This text evaluates the use of manufactured strippable coatings for radiation decontamination. To evaluate decontamination capability of such coatings the following varnishes were selected and subsequently used: AZ 1-700 and AXAL 1807S. The varnishes were tested on different building materials surfaces contaminated by short-term radioisotopes of Na-24 or La-140, in water soluble or water insoluble forms. Decontamination quality was assessed by the decontamination efficiency value, defined as the proportion of removed activity to the applied activity. It was found that decontamination efficiency of both used varnishes depends not only on the form of contaminant, but in the case of application of AXAL 1807S varnish it also depends on the method of its application on the contaminated surface. The values of the decontamination efficiency for AZ1-700 varnish range from 46% for decontamination of a soluble form of the radioisotope from concrete surface to 98% for the decontamination of a soluble form of the radioisotope from ceramic tile surface. The decontamination efficiency values determined for AXAL 1807S varnish range from 48% for decontamination of a soluble form of the radioisotope from concrete surface to 96% for decontamination of an insoluble form of the radioisotope from ceramic tile surface. Comparing these values to the values given for the decontaminating varnishes we can conclude that AXAL 1807S varnish is possible to use on all materials, except highly porous materials, such as plasterboard or breeze blocks, or plastic materials. AZ 1-700 varnish can be used for all dry materials except plasterboard.

  11. Aversive Peer Experiences on Social Networking Sites: Development of the Social Networking-Peer Experiences Questionnaire (SN-PEQ)

    PubMed Central

    Landoll, Ryan R.; La Greca, Annette M.; Lai, Betty S.

    2012-01-01

    Cyber victimization is an important research area; yet, little is known about aversive peer experiences on social networking sites (SNSs), which are used extensively by youth and host complex social exchanges. Across samples of adolescents (n=216) and young adults (n=214), we developed the Social Networking-Peer Experiences Questionnaire (SN-PEQ), and examined its psychometric properties, distinctiveness from traditional peer victimization, and associations with internalized distress. The SN-PEQ demonstrated strong factorial invariance and a single factor structure that was distinct from other forms of peer victimization. Negative SNS experiences were associated with youths’ symptoms of social anxiety and depression, even when controlling for traditional peer victimization. Findings highlight the importance of examining the effects of aversive peer experiences that occur via social media. PMID:24288449

  12. Aversive Peer Experiences on Social Networking Sites: Development of the Social Networking-Peer Experiences Questionnaire (SN-PEQ).

    PubMed

    Landoll, Ryan R; La Greca, Annette M; Lai, Betty S

    2013-12-01

    Cyber victimization is an important research area; yet, little is known about aversive peer experiences on social networking sites (SNSs), which are used extensively by youth and host complex social exchanges. Across samples of adolescents (n=216) and young adults (n=214), we developed the Social Networking-Peer Experiences Questionnaire (SN-PEQ), and examined its psychometric properties, distinctiveness from traditional peer victimization, and associations with internalized distress. The SN-PEQ demonstrated strong factorial invariance and a single factor structure that was distinct from other forms of peer victimization. Negative SNS experiences were associated with youths' symptoms of social anxiety and depression, even when controlling for traditional peer victimization. Findings highlight the importance of examining the effects of aversive peer experiences that occur via social media. PMID:24288449

  13. Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    E. Perry; J. Chrzanowski; K. Rule; M. Viola; M. Williams; R. Strykowsky

    1999-11-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is a one-of-a-kind, tritium-fueled fusion research reactor that ceased operation in April 1997. The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) of the TFTR is scheduled to occur over a period of three years beginning in October 1999. This is not a typical Department of Energy D and D Project where a facility is isolated and cleaned up by ''bulldozing'' all facility and hardware systems to a greenfield condition. The mission of TFTR D and D is to: (a) surgically remove items which can be re-used within the DOE complex, (b) remove tritium contaminated and activated systems for disposal, (c) clear the test cell of hardware for future reuse, (d) reclassify the D-site complex as a non-nuclear facility as defined in DOE Order 420.1 (Facility Safety) and (e) provide data on the D and D of a large magnetic fusion facility. The 100 cubic meter volume of the donut-shaped reactor makes it the second largest fusion reactor in the world. The record-breaking deuterium-tritium experiments performed on TFTR resulted in contaminating the vacuum vessel with tritium and activating the materials with 14 Mev neutrons. The total tritium content within the vessel is in excess of 7,000 Curies while dose rates approach 75 mRem/hr. These radiological hazards along with the size and shape of the Tokamak present a unique and challenging task for dismantling.

  14. Filming in decontamination by mopping

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, W.N.; Toole, P.A.

    1993-09-28

    Technical assistance was provided High Level Waste Engineering in the investigation and prevention of filming during decontamination by mopping. After mopping operations in a Tank Farm application, a film of the cleaning agent sometimes remained on the surface being cleaned which interfered with monitoring to detect the presence of radioactive material. Scoping tests were conducted to investigate filming characteristics of two cleaning materials. In addition, rinsing test were conducted to demonstrate how filming can be prevented.

  15. Bacterial infections: antibiotics and decontamination.

    PubMed

    Gould, Dinah

    Infectious disease is caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa and micro-organisms including the mycoplasmas, rickettsiae and chlamydiae. Most of the infections commonly encountered in the UK are caused either by bacteria or viruses. This article describes bacterial structure and function to explain how antibiotics work and the processes of decontamination such as cleaning, disinfection and sterilisation, which are important in infection control. PMID:15224613

  16. New Waste Calcining Facility Non-Radioactive Process Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, Michael C.

    2001-09-30

    This report documents the results of a test of the New Calcining Facility (NWCF) process decontamination system. The decontamination system test occurred in December 1981, during non-radioactive testing of the NWCF. The purpose of the decontamination system test was to identify equipment whose design prevented effective calcine removal and decontamination. Effective equipment decontamination was essential to reduce radiation fields for in-cell work after radioactive processing began. The decontamination system test began with a pre-decontamination inspection of the equipment. The pre- decontamination inspection documented the initial condition and cleanliness of the equipment. It provided a basis for judging the effectiveness of the decontamination. The decontamination consisted of a series of equipment flushes using nitric acid and water. A post-decontamination equipment inspection determined the effectiveness of the decontamination. The pre-decontamination and post-decontamination equipment inspections were documented with photographs. The decontamination system was effective in removing calcine from most of the NWCF equipment as evidenced by little visible calcine residue in the equipment after decontamination. The decontamination test identified four areas where the decontamination system required improvement. These included the Calciner off-gas line, Cyclone off-gas line, fluidizing air line, and the Calciner baffle plates. Physical modifications to enhance decontamination were made to those areas, resulting in an effective NWCF decontamination system.

  17. New Waste Calcining Facility Non-radioactive Process Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, Michael Clair

    2001-09-01

    This report documents the results of a test of the New Calcining Facility (NWCF) process decontamination system. The decontamination system test occurred in December 1981, during non-radioactive testing of the NWCF. The purpose of the decontamination system test was to identify equipment whose design prevented effective calcine removal and decontamination. Effective equipment decontamination was essential to reduce radiation fields for in-cell work after radioactive processing began. The decontamination system test began with a pre-decontamination inspection of the equipment. The pre-decontamination inspection documented the initial condition and cleanliness of the equipment. It provided a basis for judging the effectiveness of the decontamination. The decontamination consisted of a series of equipment flushes using nitric acid and water. A post-decontamination equipment inspection determined the effectiveness of the decontamination. The pre-decontamination and post-decontamination equipment inspections were documented with hotographs. The decontamination system was effective in removing calcine from most of the NWCF equipment as evidenced by little visible calcine residue in the equipment after decontamination. The decontamination test identified four areas where the decontamination system required improvement. These included the Calciner off-gas line, Cyclone off-gas line, fluidizing air line, and the Calciner baffle plates. Physical modifications to enhance decontamination were made to those areas, resulting in an effective NWCF decontamination system.

  18. Managing for Desired Experiences and Site Preferences: The Case of Fee-Fishing Anglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuett, Michael A.; Pierskalla, Chad D.

    2007-02-01

    Fee-fishing involves paying a fee for the privilege of fishing a body of water where fish populations are enhanced by stocking fish. Past literature on this activity has focused more on the operation of the enterprise and management of the fish than the people and site characteristics. The objectives of the study were to profile anglers and describe their site/management preferences. This study utilized an on-site interview and mail-back questionnaire at fee-fishing establishments in West Virginia ( n = 212). Factor analysis of desired recreation experiences yielded five factors: Experience nature & adventure, Stress release & relaxation, Trophy fishing, Escape, and Family time. Cluster analysis showed that these anglers can be segmented into two distinct clusters, differing by sociodemographic characteristics, fishing behavior, and site/management preferences. The findings from this study provide baseline data to aid public resource managers and fee-fishing business owners in determining how to provide satisfying outdoor experiences and deliver desired services on-site. Future research will be needed from additional fee-fishing sites to obtain more detail about this outdoor recreation cohort and be able to generalize to a larger population of participants.

  19. Pickering emulsions for skin decontamination.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Alicia; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Rolland, Pauline; Chevalier, Yves; Josse, Denis; Briançon, Stéphanie

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed at developing innovative systems for skin decontamination. Pickering emulsions, i.e. solid-stabilized emulsions, containing silica (S-PE) or Fuller's earth (FE-PE) were formulated. Their efficiency for skin decontamination was evaluated, in vitro, 45min after an exposure to VX, one of the most highly toxic chemical warfare agents. Pickering emulsions were compared to FE (FE-W) and silica (S-W) aqueous suspensions. PE containing an oil with a similar hydrophobicity to VX should promote its extraction. All the formulations reduced significantly the amount of VX quantified on and into the skin compared to the control. Wiping the skin surface with a pad already allowed removing more than half of VX. FE-W was the less efficient (85% of VX removed). The other formulations (FE-PE, S-PE and S-W) resulted in more than 90% of the quantity of VX removed. The charge of particles was the most influential factor. The low pH of formulations containing silica favored electrostatic interactions of VX with particles explaining the better elimination from the skin surface. Formulations containing FE had basic pH, and weak interactions with VX did not improve the skin decontamination. However, these low interactions between VX and FE promote the transfer of VX into the oil droplets in the FE-PE. PMID:27021875

  20. Contaminated sites from the past: experience of the US Environmental Protection Agency.

    PubMed

    Boyd, M A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the experience of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in cleaning up radioactively contaminated sites. In the USA, EPA regulates the radiological clean-up of uranium mill tailings sites, some Department of Energy legacy sites within the US nuclear weapons complex, and Superfund National Priorities List sites. The approach to site remediation decisions, including the determination of clean-up levels, varies according to the enabling legislation granting EPA these authorities. Past practices that gave rise to many of the existing exposure situations at legacy sites were permissible before the advent of environmental clean-up legislation. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 authorised EPA to set applicable radioactivity concentration standards for soil clean-up at inactive uranium mill sites and vicinity properties. For the other categories of sites mentioned above, remediation goals are typically based on not exceeding a target excess cancer risk range established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (also known as 'Superfund'). EPA's regulations for cleaning up various contaminated sites in existing exposure situations often result in residual doses that are typical of optimised doses in planned exposure situations. Although the clean-up levels selected may differ from those adopted in other countries, recommendations from the International Commission on Radiological Protection are reflected in the exposure assessment methodologies used in their establishment. PMID:27012843

  1. Robotic Single-Site Surgery for Female-to-Male Transsexuals: Preliminary Experience

    PubMed Central

    Bogliolo, Stefano; Cassani, Chiara; Babilonti, Luciana; Gardella, Barbara; Zanellini, Francesca; Santamaria, Valentina; Nappi, Rossella Elena; Spinillo, Arsenio

    2014-01-01

    Hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is a part of gender reassignment surgery for the treatment of female-to-male transsexualism. Over the last years many efforts were made in order to reduce invasiveness of laparoscopic and robotic surgery such as the introduction of single-site approach. We report our preliminary experience on single-site robotic hysterectomy for cross-sex reassignment surgery. Our data suggest that single-site robotic hysterectomy is feasible and safe in female-to-male transsexualism with some benefits in terms of postoperative pain and aesthetic results. PMID:24982976

  2. Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    MacNair, V.; Muth, T.; Shasteen, K.; Liby, A.; Hradil, G.; Mishra, B.

    1996-12-31

    In October 1993, Manufacturing Sciences Corporation was awarded DOE contract DE-AC21-93MC30170 to develop and test recycling of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) to high value and intermediate and final product forms. This work was conducted to help solve the problems associated with decontamination and reuse of the diffusion plant barrier nickel and other radioactively contaminated scrap metals present in the diffusion plants. Options available for disposition of the nickel include decontamination and subsequent release or recycled product manufacture for restricted end use. Both of these options are evaluated during the course of this research effort. work during phase I of this project successfully demonstrated the ability to make stainless steel from barrier nickel feed. This paved the way for restricted end use products made from stainless steel. Also, after repeated trials and studies, the inducto-slag nickel decontamination process was eliminated as a suitable alternative. Electro-refining appeared to be a promising technology for decontamination of the diffusion plant barrier material. Goals for phase II included conducting experiments to facilitate the development of an electro-refining process to separate technetium from nickel. In parallel with those activities, phase II efforts were to include the development of the necessary processes to make useful products from radioactive scrap metal. Nickel from the diffusion plants as well as stainless steel and carbon steel could be used as feed material for these products.

  3. High-affinity dextromethorphan binding sites in guinea pig brain. II. Competition experiments.

    PubMed

    Craviso, G L; Musacchio, J M

    1983-05-01

    Binding of dextromethorphan (DM) to guinea pig brain is stereoselective, since levomethorphan is 20 times weaker than DM in competing for DM sites. In general, opiate agonists and antagonists as well as their corresponding dextrorotatory isomers are weak competitors for tritiated dextromethorphan ([3H]DM) binding sites and display IC50 values in the micromolar range. In contrast, several non-narcotic, centrally acting antitussives are inhibitory in the nanomolar range (IC50 values for caramiphen, carbetapentane, dimethoxanate, and pipazethate are 25 nM, 9 nM, 41 nM, and 190 nM, respectively). Other antitussives, such as levopropoxyphene, chlophedianol, and fominoben, have poor affinity for DM sites whereas the antitussive noscapine enhances DM binding by increasing the affinity of DM for its central binding sites. Additional competition studies indicate that there is no correlation of DM binding with any of the known or putative neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. DM binding is also not related to tricyclic antidepressant binding sites or biogenic amine uptake sites. However, certain phenothiazine neuroleptics and typical and atypical antidepressants inhibit binding with IC50 values in the nanomolar range. Moreover, the anticonvulsant drug diphenylhydantoin enhances DM binding in a manner similar to that of noscapine. Preliminary experiments utilizing acid extracts of brain have not demonstrated the presence of an endogenous ligand for DM sites. The binding characteristics of DM sites studied in rat and mouse brain indicate that the relative potencies of several antitussives to inhibit specific DM binding vary according to species. High-affinity, saturable, and stereoselective [3H]DM binding sites are present in liver homogenates, but several differences have been found for these peripheral binding sites and those described for brain. Although the nature of central DM binding sites is not known, the potent interaction of several classes of centrally

  4. Vibratory finishing as a decontamination process

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, M.W.; Arrowsmith, H.W.; Allen, R.P.

    1980-10-01

    The major objective of this research is to develop vibratory finishing into a large-scale decontamination technique that can economicaly remove transuranic and other surface contamination from large volumes of waste produced by the operation and decommissioning of retired nuclear facilities. The successful development and widespread application of this decontamination technique would substantially reduce the volume of waste requiring expensive geologic disposal. Other benefits include exposure reduction for decontamination personnel and reduced risk of environmental contamination. Laboratory-scale studies showed that vibratory finishing can rapidly reduce the contamination level of transuranic-contaminated stainless steel and Plexiglas to well below the 10-nCi/g limit. The capability of vibratory finishing as a decontamination process was demonstrated on a large scale. The first decontamination demonstration was conducted at the Hanford N-Reactor, where a vibratory finisher was installed to reduce personnel exposure during the summer outage. Items decontaminated included fuel spacers, process-tube end caps, process-tube inserts, pump parts, ball-channel inspection tools and miscellaneous hand tools. A second demonstration is currently being conducted in the decontamination facility at the Hanford 231-Z Building. During this demonstration, transuranic-contaminated material from decommissioned plutonium facilities is being decontaminated to <10 nCi/g to minimize the volume of material that will require geologic disposal. Items that are being decontaminated include entire glove boxes, process-hood structural material and panels, process tanks, process-tank shields, pumps, valves and hand tools used during the decommissioning work.

  5. MINERAL WEATHERING RATES FROM SMALL-PLOT EXPERIMENTS, WMP SITE, BEAR BROOKS, MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pH-dependence of silicate mineral weathering rates was measured in small-plot experiments at the Bear Brooks Watershed Manipulation Project site in Maine, U.S.A. ix 2 m2 plots were acidified with solutions of HCL in deionized water at pH values of 2, 2.5, and 3. Acid applicat...

  6. School Counselor Training: Differentiated Site Supervision Based on Prior Work Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loving, Rachel S.

    2012-01-01

    Over a decade after the regulation change in Virginia allowing individuals without teaching experience to pursue school counseling careers, no known study had focused exclusively on differences site supervisors observe when training school counselors from different professional backgrounds and the extent to which those counselors employ a tailored…

  7. Primary Schoolchildren's Experiences of Participatory Theatre in a Heritage Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tzibazi, Vasiliki

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for articulation of the theoretical framework underpinning performance as a learning medium in heritage sites and for an in-depth insight into the children's experiences therein. The aim of this paper is to explore some of the themes that emerged from researching participatory theatre in a historic house as experienced…

  8. Skylab program earth resources experiment package: Ground truth data for test sites (SL-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Field measurements were performed at selected ground sites in order to provide comparative calibration measurements of sensors for the Earth Resources Experiment Package. Specifically, the solar radiation (400 to 1300 namometers) and thermal radiation (8-14 micrometers) were measured. Sites employed for the thermal measurements consisted of warm and cold water lakes. The thermal brightness temperature of the lake water, the temperature and humidity profile above the lake, and near surface meteorology (wind speed, pressure, etc.) were measured near the time of overpass. Sites employed for the solar radiation measurements were two desert type sites. Ground measurements consisted of: (1) direct solar radiation - optical depth; (2) diffuse solar radiation; (3) total solar radiation, (4) target directional (normal) reflectance; (5) target hemispherical reflectance; and (6) near surface meteorology.

  9. Lessons Learned from Bacterial Transport Experiments at the South Oyster Site

    SciTech Connect

    Scheibe, Timothy D; Hubbard, Susan S; Onstott, Tullis C; Deflaun, Mary F

    2011-09-27

    This paper provides a high-level review of bacterial transport experiments conducted by a multi-investigator, multi-institution, multi-disciplinary team of researchers under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy. The experiments considered were conducted during the time period 1999-2001 at a field site near the town of Oyster, Virginia known as the South Oyster Site, and included four major experimental campaigns aimed at understanding and quantifying bacterial transport in the subsurface environment. Several key elements of the research are discussed here: 1) Quantification of bacterial transport in physically and biogeochemically heterogeneous aquifers, 2) evaluation of the efficacy of conventional colloid filtration theory, 3) scale effects in bacterial transport, 4) development of new methods for microbial enumeration and screening for low adhesion strains, 5) application of novel hydrogeophysical techniques for aquifer characterization, and 6) experiences regarding management of a large field research effort.

  10. Unbiased isotope equilibrium factors from partial isotope exchange experiments in 3-exchange site systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrinier, Pierre; Javoy, Marc

    2016-09-01

    Two methods are available in order to evaluate the equilibrium isotope fractionation factors between exchange sites or phases from partial isotope exchange experiments. The first one developed by Northrop and Clayton (1966) is designed for isotope exchanges between two exchange sites (hereafter, the N&C method), the second one from Zheng et al. (1994) is a refinement of the first one to account for a third isotope exchanging site (hereafter, the Z method). In this paper, we use a simple model of isotope kinetic exchange for a 3-exchange site system (such as hydroxysilicates where oxygen occurs as OH and non-OH groups like in muscovite, chlorite, serpentine, or water or calcite) to explore the behavior of the N&C and Z methods. We show that these two methods lead to significant biases that cannot be detected with the usual graphical tests proposed by the authors. Our model shows that biases originate because isotopes are fractionated between all these exchanging sites. Actually, we point out that the variable mobility (or exchangeability) of isotopes in and between the exchange sites only controls the amplitude of the bias, but is not essential to the production of this bias as previously suggested. Setting a priori two of the three exchange sites at isotopic equilibrium remove the bias and thus is required for future partial exchange experiments to produce accurate and unbiased extrapolated equilibrium fractionation factors. Our modeling applied to published partial oxygen isotope exchange experiments for 3-exchange site systems (the muscovite-calcite (Chacko et al., 1996), the chlorite-water (Cole and Ripley, 1998) and the serpentine-water (Saccocia et al., 2009)) shows that the extrapolated equilibrium fractionation factors (reported as 1000 ln(α)) using either the N&C or the Z methods lead to bias that may reach several δ per mil in a few cases. These problematic cases, may be because experiments were conducted at low temperature and did not reach high

  11. Impact of three biological decontamination methods on filtering facepiece respirator fit, odor, comfort, and donning ease.

    PubMed

    Viscusi, Dennis J; Bergman, Michael S; Novak, Debra A; Faulkner, Kimberly A; Palmiero, Andrew; Powell, Jeffrey; Shaffer, Ronald E

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), moist heat incubation (MHI), or microwave-generated steam (MGS) decontamination affects the fitting characteristics, odor, comfort, or donning ease of six N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) models. For each model, 10 experienced test subjects qualified for the study by passing a standard OSHA quantitative fit test. Once qualified, each subject performed a series of fit tests to assess respirator fit and completed surveys to evaluate odor, comfort, and donning ease with FFRs that were not decontaminated (controls) and with FFRs of the same model that had been decontaminated. Respirator fit was quantitatively measured using a multidonning protocol with the TSI PORTACOUNT Plus and the N95 Companion accessory (designed to count only particles resulting from face to face-seal leakage). Participants' subjective appraisals of the respirator's odor, comfort, and donning ease were captured using a visual analog scale survey. Wilcoxon signed rank tests compared median values for fit, odor, comfort, and donning ease for each FFR and decontamination method against their respective controls for a given model. Two of the six FFRs demonstrated a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.05) in fit after MHI decontamination. However, for these two FFR models, post-decontamination mean fit factors were still ≥ 100. One of the other FFRs demonstrated a relatively small though statistically significant increase (p < 0.05) in median odor response after MHI decontamination. These data suggest that FFR users with characteristics similar to those in this study population would be unlikely to experience a clinically meaningful reduction in fit, increase in odor, increase in discomfort, or increased difficulty in donning with the six FFRs included in this study after UVGI, MHI, or MGS decontamination. Further research is needed before decontamination of N95 FFRs for purposes of reuse can be

  12. Creating Virtual Fieldwork Experiences of Geoheritage Sites as Educator Professional Development (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggan-Haas, D.

    2013-12-01

    Geoheritage sites are identified as such because they include excellent examples of geologic features or processes, or they have played an important role in the development of geologic understandings. These characteristics also make them excellent sites for teaching in the field, for teaching educators about the nature of fieldwork, and for making Virtual Fieldwork Experiences (VFEs, multimedia representations of field sites). Through the NSF-funded Regional and Local Earth (ReaL) Earth Inquiry Project, we have engaged educators in these practices. The nature of geoheritage sites is anomalous -- if this were not the case, the sites would not gain recognition. Anomalous features or processes can be powerful learning tools when placed into comparison with the more mundane, and the Earth system science of sites local to schools is likely to be mundane. By comparing the mundane and the extraordinary, it is hoped we can learn more about both. The professional development (PD) in ReaL Earth Inquiry begins with a face-to-face workshop within the teachers' region at a site that is interesting from an Earth system science perspective. Though we recognize and emphasize that all sites are interesting from an ESS perspective if you know how to look, the sites typically have features worthy of geoheritage designation. PD does not end with the end of the workshop but continues with online study groups where teachers work together to complete the workshop site VFE, and transition to work on VFEs of sites local to their schools. Throughout the program, participants engage in: - mentored fieldwork that pays attention to the skills and knowledge needed to lead fieldwork; - instruction in and use of a wide range of technologies for making VFEs; - study of a coherent conceptual framework connected to the project's driving question: Why does this place look the way it does? - and, use of resources for supporting all of the above The resources include templates for making VFEs and a

  13. Assessing the biological efficacy and rate of recontamination following hydrogen peroxide vapour decontamination.

    PubMed

    Otter, J A; Cummins, M; Ahmad, F; van Tonder, C; Drabu, Y J

    2007-10-01

    The inanimate hospital environment can become contaminated with nosocomial pathogens. Hydrogen peroxide vapour (HPV) decontamination has proven effective for the eradication of persistent environmental contamination. We investigated the extent of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and gentamicin-resistant Gram-negative rod (GNR) contamination in a ward side-room occupied by a patient with a history of MRSA, VRE and GNR infection and colonisation and investigated the impact of HPV decontamination. Fifteen standardised sites in the room were sampled using a selective broth enrichment protocol to culture MRSA, VRE and GNR. Sampling was performed before cleaning, after cleaning, after HPV decontamination and at intervals over the subsequent 19 days on two separate occasions. Environmental contamination was identified before cleaning on 60, 30 and 6.7% of sites for MRSA, GNR and VRE, respectively, and 40, 10 and 6.7% of sites after cleaning. Only one site (3.3%) was contaminated with MRSA after HPV decontamination. No recontamination with VRE was identified and no recontamination with MRSA and GNR was identified during the two days following HPV decontamination. Substantial recontamination was identified approximately one week after HPV decontamination towards post-cleaning levels for GNR and towards pre-cleaning levels for MRSA. HPV is more effective than standard terminal cleaning for the eradication of nosocomial pathogens. Recontamination was not immediate for MRSA and GNR but contamination returned within a week in a room occupied by a patient colonised with MRSA and GNR. This finding has important implications for the optimal deployment of HPV decontamination in hospitals. PMID:17884250

  14. Decontamination and Decommissioning activities photobriefing book FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Program at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) is dedicated to the safe and cost effective D{ampersand}D of surplus nuclear facilities. There is currently a backlog of more than 7,000 contaminated US Department of Energy facilities nationwide. Added to this are 110 licensed commercial nuclear power reactors operated by utilities learning to cope with deregulation and an aging infrastructure that supports the commercial nuclear power industry, as well as medical and other uses of radioactive materials. With this volume it becomes easy to understand the importance of addressing the unique issues and objectives associated with the D{ampersand}D of surplus nuclear facilities. This photobriefing book summarizes the decontamination and decommissioning projects and activities either completed or continuing at the ANL-E site during the year.

  15. Decontamination of the Plum Brook Reactor Facility Hot Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Peecook, K.M.

    2008-07-01

    The NASA Plum Brook Reactor Facility decommissioning project recently completed a major milestone with the successful decontamination of seven hot cells. The cells included thick concrete walls and leaded glass windows, manipulator arms, inter cell dividing walls, and roof slabs. There was also a significant amount of embedded conduit and piping that had to be cleaned and surveyed. Prior to work starting evaluation studies were performed to determine whether it was more cost effective to do this work using a full up removal approach (rip and ship) or to decontaminate the cells to below required clean up levels, leaving the bulk of the material in place. This paper looks at that decision process, how it was implemented, and the results of that effort including the huge volume of material that can now be used as fill during site restoration rather than being disposed of as LLRW. (authors)

  16. Phase 2 microwave concrete decontamination results

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.L.; Foster, D. Jr.; Wilson, C.T.; Schaich, C.R.

    1995-04-01

    The authors report on the results of the second phase of a four-phase program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop a system to decontaminate concrete using microwave energy. The microwave energy is directed at the concrete surface through the use of an optimized wave guide antenna, or applicator, and this energy rapidly heats the free water present in the interstitial spaces of the concrete matrix. The resulting steam pressure causes the surface to burst in much the same way popcorn pops in a home microwave oven. Each steam explosion removes several square centimeters of concrete surface that are collected by a highly integrated wave guide and vacuum system. The authors call this process the microwave concrete decontamination, or MCD, process. In the first phase of the program the principle of microwaves concrete removal concrete surfaces was demonstrated. In these experiments, concrete slabs were placed on a translator and moved beneath a stationary microwave system. The second phase demonstrated the ability to mobilize the technology to remove the surfaces from concrete floors. Area and volume concrete removal rates of 10.4 cm{sup 2}/s and 4.9 cm{sup 3}/S, respectively, at 18 GHz were demonstrated. These rates are more than double those obtained in Phase 1 of the program. Deeper contamination can be removed by using a longer residence time under the applicator to create multiple explosions in the same area or by taking multiple passes over previously removed areas. Both techniques have been successfully demonstrated. Small test sections of painted and oil-soaked concrete have also been removed in a single pass. Concrete with embedded metal anchors on the surface has also been removed, although with some increased variability of removal depth. Microwave leakage should not pose any operational hazard to personnel, since the observed leakage was much less than the regulatory standard.

  17. DISPOSAL OF RESIDUES FROM BUILDING DECONTAMINATION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    After a building has gone through decontamination activities from a chemical attack there will be a significant amount of building decontamination residue that will need to undergo disposal. This project consists of a fundamental study to investigate the desorption of simulated c...

  18. INTEGRATED VERTICAL AND OVERHEAD DECONTAMINATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities performed during FY98 and describes the planned activities for FY99. Accomplishments for FY98 include identifying and selecting decontamination, the screening of potential characterization technologies, development of minimum performance factors for the decontamination technology, and development and identification of Applicable, Relevant and Appropriate Regulations (ARARs).

  19. Electrochemical decontamination system for actinide processing gloveboxes

    SciTech Connect

    Wedman, D.E.; Lugo, J.L.; Ford, D.K.; Nelson, T.O.; Trujillo, V.L.; Martinez, H.E.

    1998-03-01

    An electrolytic decontamination technology has been developed and successfully demonstrated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for the decontamination of actinide processing gloveboxes. The technique decontaminates the interior surfaces of stainless steel gloveboxes utilizing a process similar to electropolishing. The decontamination device is compact and transportable allowing it to be placed entirely within the glovebox line. In this way, decontamination does not require the operator to wear any additional personal protective equipment and there is no need for additional air handling or containment systems. Decontamination prior to glovebox decommissioning reduces the potential for worker exposure and environmental releases during the decommissioning, transport, and size reduction procedures which follow. The goal of this effort is to reduce contamination levels of alpha emitting nuclides for a resultant reduction in waste level category from High Level Transuranic (TRU) to low Specific Activity (LSA, less than or equal 100 nCi/g). This reduction in category results in a 95% reduction in disposal and disposition costs for the decontaminated gloveboxes. The resulting contamination levels following decontamination by this method are generally five orders of magnitude below the LSA specification. Additionally, the sodium sulfate based electrolyte utilized in the process is fully recyclable which results in the minimum of secondary waste. The process bas been implemented on seven gloveboxes within LANL`s Plutonium Facility at Technical Area 55. Of these gloveboxes, two have been discarded as low level waste items and the remaining five have been reused.

  20. DECONTAMINATION/DESTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR ORGANICS IN TRANSURANIC WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Jones; Javier Del Campo; Patrick Nevins; Stuart Legg

    2002-08-01

    The United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site has approximately 5000 55-gallon drums of {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste in interim storage. These may not be shipped to WIPP in TRUPACT-II containers due to the high rate of hydrogen production resulting from the radiolysis of the organic content of the drums. In order to circumvent this problem, the {sup 238}Pu needs to be separated from the organics--either by mineralization of the latter or by decontamination by a chemical separation. We have conducted ''cold'' optimization trials and surrogate tests in which a combination of a mediated electrochemical oxidation process (SILVER II{trademark}) and ultrasonic mixing have been used to decontaminate the surrogate waste materials. The surrogate wastes were impregnated with copper oxalate for plutonium dioxide. Our process combines both mineralization of reactive components (such cellulose, rubber, and oil) and surface decontamination of less reactive materials such as polyethylene, polystyrene and polyvinylchloride. By using this combination of SILVER II and ultrasonic mixing, we have achieved 100% current efficiency for the destruction of the reactive components. We have demonstrated that: The degree of decontamination achieved would be adequate to meet both WIPP waste acceptance criteria and TRUPACT II packaging and shipping requirements; The system can maintain near absolute containment of the surrogate radionuclides; Only minimal pre-treatment (coarse shredding) and minimal waste sorting are required; The system requires minimal off gas control processes and monitoring instrumentation; The laboratory trials have developed information that can be used for scale-up purposes; The process does not produce dioxins and furans; Disposal routes for secondary process arisings have already been demonstrated in other programs. Based on the results from Phase 1, the recommendation is to proceed to Phase 2 and use the equipment at Savannah River Site to demonstrate

  1. Improved Technologies for Decontamination of Crated Large Metal Objects

    SciTech Connect

    McFee, J.; Barbour, K.; Stallings, E.

    2003-02-25

    The Los Alamos Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project (LSDDP) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) has been identifying and demonstrating technologies to reduce the cost and risk of management of transuranic element contaminated large metal objects, i.e. gloveboxes. DOE must dispose of hundreds of gloveboxes from Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and other DOE sites. This paper reports on the results of four technology demonstrations on decontamination of plutonium contaminated gloveboxes with each technology compared to a common baseline technology, wipedown with nitric acid.

  2. Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Muth, T.R.; Shasteen, K.E.; Liby, A.L.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) accumulated large quantities of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) through historic maintenance activities. The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) of major sites formerly engaged in production of nuclear materials and manufacture of nuclear weapons will generate additional quantities of RSM, as much as 3 million tons of such metal according to a recent study. The recycling of RSM is quickly becoming appreciated as a key strategy in DOE`s cleanup of contaminated sites and facilities. The work described here has focused on recycle of the concentrated and high-value contaminated scrap metal resource that will arise from cleanup of DOE`s gaseous diffusion plants.

  3. Electrochemical decontamination of actinide processing gloveboxes

    SciTech Connect

    Lugo, J.L.; Wedman, D.E.; Nelson, T.O.

    1997-12-31

    Electrochemical technology for the decontamination of metallic surfaces has been successfully demonstrated. Highly enriched uranium and stainless steel surfaces are readily decontaminated to Low Level Waste (LLW) criteria using this process. This process is similar to electropolishing and utilizes the anodic dissolution of the substrate material to generate a clean surface. The surface contaminants are thus removed and collected along with the stripped substrate material as a compact precipitate. This separation allows the electrolyte to be recycled indefinitely. Using an alkaline Sodium Sulfate electrolyte solution, we are able to decontaminate to low levels of alpha activity, gloveboxes previously used in Actinide processing. Surfaces with contamination levels > 1,000,000 cpm alpha activity have been decontaminated to levels as low as 7,000. The process is rapid with decontamination occurring at a rate of over 3 square cm/sec.

  4. Snow Cover Depletion and Soil Moisture Recharge at Three Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) Meteorological Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holcombe, J. D.; Elder, K.; Davis, R. E.

    2003-12-01

    With increasing concern regarding water supply in arid and semiarid regions, knowledge of water resources in the Earth's cold regions is critical. Snow-cover depletion and soil moisture recharge are elements used in hydrologic modeling and climate modeling, as well as remote sensing applications. Modeled snow-cover depletion and soil moisture recharge are important parameters in hydrologic forecasting. We evaluate the ability of a one-dimensional mass and energy balance model (SNTHERM.89) to predict snow-cover depletion and to test the accuracy of Fast All season Soil STrength (FASST) in modeling the evolution of soil moisture recharge based on data from three NASA Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) sites. The objective is to evaluate the model's ability to predict observations at three CLPX sites: Buffalo Pass (near Steamboat Springs, CO); St. Louis Creek (in the Fraser Experimental Forest, CO); and Illinois River (located in North Park, CO). The three sites were chosen for their diverse climatic and physiographic differences. The Buffalo Pass site has a deep snowpack with discontinuous forest cover dominated by Englemann spruce (Picea englemannii) and alpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa). The St. Louis site has a moderate snowpack depth and forest cover dominated by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). The Illinois River site is irrigated grassland with no forest cover.

  5. Psychosocial considerations for mass decontamination.

    PubMed

    Lemyre, Louise; Johnson, Colleen; Corneil, Wayne

    2010-11-01

    Mass exposure to explosions, infectious agents, foodborne illnesses, chemicals or radiological materials may require mass decontamination that have critical psychosocial implications for the public and for both traditional and non-traditional responders in terms of impact and of response. Five main issues are common to mass decontamination events: (i) perception, (ii) somatisation, (iii) media role and communication, (iv) information sharing, (v) behavioural guidance and (vi) organisational issues. Empirical evidence is drawn from a number of cases, including Chernobyl; Goiania, Brazil; the sarin gas attack in Tokyo; the anthrax attacks in the USA; Three Mile Island; and by features of the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome pandemic. In this paper, a common platform for mass casualty management is explored and suggestions for mass interventions are proposed across the complete event timeline, from pre-event threat and warning stages through to the impact and reconstruction phases. Implication for responders, healthcare and emergency infrastructure, public behaviour, screening processes, risk communication and media management are described. PMID:20924122

  6. An Analysis of NSF Geosciences 2009 Research Experience for Undergraduate Site Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, S. C.; Patino, L. C.; Rom, E. L.; Weiler, S. C.

    2009-12-01

    The Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) Program at the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) provides undergraduate students the opportunity to conduct research at different institutions and in areas that may not be available in their home campuses. The Geosciences REU Sites foster research opportunities in areas closely aligned with undergraduate majors and facilitates discovery of the multidisciplinary nature of the Geosciences. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the Geosciences REU Site programs run in 2009. A survey requesting information on recruitment methods, student demographics, enrichment activities, and fields of research was sent to the Principal Investigators of each of the 50 active REU Sites; over 70% of the surveys were returned with the requested information. The internet is the most widely used mechanism to recruit participants, but the survey did not distinguish among different tools like websites, emails, social networks, etc. The admissions rate for REU Sites in Geosciences varies from less than 10% to 50%, with the majority of participants being rising seniors and juniors. A few Sites include rising sophomores. At least 40% of the participants come from non-PhD granting institutions. Among the participants, gender distribution is balanced, with a slightly larger number of female participants. Regarding ethnic diversity, the REU Sites reflect the difficulty of attracting diverse students into Geosciences as a discipline; more than 75% of the participants are Caucasian and Asian students. Furthermore, participants from minority-serving institutions constitute a small percentage of those taking part in these research experiences. The enrichment activities are very similar across the REU Sites, and mimic well activities common to the scientific community, including intellectual exchange of ideas (lab meetings, seminars, and professional meetings), networking and social activities. There are some clear similarities among

  7. Recent Experience Using Active Love Wave Techniques to Characterize Seismographic Station Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. J.; Yong, A.; Salomone, L.

    2014-12-01

    Active-source Love waves recorded by the multi-channel analysis of surface wave (MASLW) technique were recently analyzed in two site characterization projects. Between 2010 and 2011, the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funded GEOVision to conduct geophysical investigations at 189 seismographic stations—185 in California and 4 in the Central Eastern U.S. (CEUS). The original project plan was to utilize active and passive Rayleigh wave-based techniques to obtain shear-wave velocity (VS) profiles to a minimum depth of 30 m and the time-averaged VS of the upper 30 meters (VS30). Early in the investigation it became evident that Rayleigh wave techniques, such as multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASRW), were not effective at characterizing all sites. Shear-wave seismic refraction and MASLW techniques were therefore applied. The MASLW technique was deployed at a total of 38 sites, in addition to other methods, and used as the primary technique to characterize 22 sites, 5 of which were also characterized using Rayleigh wave techniques. In 2012, the Electric Power Research Institute funded characterization of 33 CEUS station sites. Based on experience from the ARRA investigation, both MASRW and MASLW data were acquired by GEOVision at 24 CEUS sites—the remaining 9 sites and 2 overlapping sites were characterized by University of Texas, Austin. Of the 24 sites characterized by GEOVision, 16 were characterized using MASLW data, 4 using both MASLW and MASRW data and 4 using MASRW data. Love wave techniques were often found to perform better, or at least yield phase velocity data that could be more readily modeled using the fundamental mode assumption, at shallow rock sites, sites with steep velocity gradients, and, sites with a thin, low velocity, surficial soil layer overlying stiffer sediments. These types of velocity structure often excite dominant higher modes in Rayleigh wave data, but not in Love wave data. At such sites, it may be possible

  8. Thiol-based, site-specific and covalent immobilization of biomolecules for single-molecule experiments.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Julia L; Nicolaus, Thomas; Neuert, Gregor; Blank, Kerstin

    2010-06-01

    The success of single-molecule (SM) experiments critically depends on the functional immobilization of the biomolecule(s) to be studied. With the continuing trend of combining SM fluorescence with SM force experiments, methods are required that are suitable for both types of measurements. We describe a general protocol for the site-specific and covalent coupling of any type of biomolecule that can be prepared with a free thiol group. The protocol uses a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) spacer, which carries an N-hydroxy succinimide (NHS) group on one end and a maleimide group on the other. After reacting the NHS group with an amino-functionalized surface, the relatively stable but highly reactive maleimide group allows the coupling of the biomolecule. This protocol provides surfaces with low fluorescence background, low nonspecific binding and a large number of reactive sites. Surfaces containing immobilized biomolecules can be obtained within 6 h. PMID:20448543

  9. Across North America Tracer Experiment (ANATEX). Volume 3. Sampling at tower and remote sites. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Heffter, J.L.; Draxler, R.R.

    1989-10-01

    The Across North America Tracer Experiment (ANATEX) was designed to provide a comprehensive data base for assessing the performance of long-range transport and diffusion models. Three distinct perfluorocarbon tracers (PMCH, oPDCH, and PTCH) were released simultaneously for a 3-h duration every 2 1/2 days from 2 sites; PTCH from Glasgow, Montana, and oPDCH and PMCH (every fifth day) from St. Cloud, Minnesota for the 84-day period January 5, 1987 through March 29, 1987. The report describes the experimental design of the sampling programs at the tower and remote sites, discusses the measured data and how they were analyzed and quality assured, summarizes data characteristics, discusses data use, and presents complete data tables for both tower and remote sites. The report also describes the characteristics, format, and accessibility of data sets created from the data analysis.

  10. Fighting Ebola with novel spore decontamination technologies for the military

    SciTech Connect

    Doona, Christopher J.; Feeherry, Florence E.; Kustin, Kenneth; Olinger, Gene G.; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J.; Leighton, Terrance

    2015-08-12

    Recently, global public health organizations such as Doctors without Borders (MSF), the World Health Organization (WHO), Public Health Canada, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the U.S. government developed and deployed Field Decontamination Kits (FDKs), a novel, lightweight, compact, reusable decontamination technology to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical devices at remote clinical sites lacking infra-structure in crisis-stricken regions of West Africa (medical waste materials are placed in bags and burned). The basis for effectuating sterilization with FDKs is chlorine dioxide (ClO2) produced from a patented invention developed by researchers at the US Army Natick Soldier RD&E Center (NSRDEC) and commercialized as a dry mixed-chemical for bacterial spore decontamination. In fact, the NSRDEC research scientists developed an ensemble of ClO2 technologies designed for different applications in decontaminating fresh produce; food contact and handling surfaces; personal protective equipment; textiles used in clothing, uniforms, tents, and shelters; graywater recycling; airplanes; surgical instruments; and hard surfaces in latrines, laundries, and deployable medical facilities. These examples demonstrate the far-reaching impact, adaptability, and versatility of these innovative technologies. Here, we present the unique attributes of NSRDEC’s novel decontamination technologies and a Case Study of the development of FDKs that were deployed in West Africa by international public health organizations to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical equipment. FDKs use bacterial spores as indicators of sterility. We review the properties and structures of spores and the mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by ClO2. We also review mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by novel, emerging, and established non-thermal technologies for food preservation, such as high pressure processing, irradiation, cold plasma, and chemical

  11. Fighting Ebola with novel spore decontamination technologies for the military

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Doona, Christopher J.; Feeherry, Florence E.; Kustin, Kenneth; Olinger, Gene G.; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J.; Leighton, Terrance

    2015-08-12

    Recently, global public health organizations such as Doctors without Borders (MSF), the World Health Organization (WHO), Public Health Canada, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the U.S. government developed and deployed Field Decontamination Kits (FDKs), a novel, lightweight, compact, reusable decontamination technology to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical devices at remote clinical sites lacking infra-structure in crisis-stricken regions of West Africa (medical waste materials are placed in bags and burned). The basis for effectuating sterilization with FDKs is chlorine dioxide (ClO2) produced from a patented invention developed by researchers at the US Army Natick Soldier RD&E Center (NSRDEC) and commercialized as amore » dry mixed-chemical for bacterial spore decontamination. In fact, the NSRDEC research scientists developed an ensemble of ClO2 technologies designed for different applications in decontaminating fresh produce; food contact and handling surfaces; personal protective equipment; textiles used in clothing, uniforms, tents, and shelters; graywater recycling; airplanes; surgical instruments; and hard surfaces in latrines, laundries, and deployable medical facilities. These examples demonstrate the far-reaching impact, adaptability, and versatility of these innovative technologies. Here, we present the unique attributes of NSRDEC’s novel decontamination technologies and a Case Study of the development of FDKs that were deployed in West Africa by international public health organizations to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical equipment. FDKs use bacterial spores as indicators of sterility. We review the properties and structures of spores and the mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by ClO2. We also review mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by novel, emerging, and established non-thermal technologies for food preservation, such as high pressure processing, irradiation, cold plasma, and chemical sanitizers, using an array of

  12. Fighting Ebola with novel spore decontamination technologies for the military.

    PubMed

    Doona, Christopher J; Feeherry, Florence E; Kustin, Kenneth; Olinger, Gene G; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J; Leighton, Terrance

    2015-01-01

    Recently, global public health organizations such as Doctors without Borders (MSF), the World Health Organization (WHO), Public Health Canada, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the U.S. government developed and deployed Field Decontamination Kits (FDKs), a novel, lightweight, compact, reusable decontamination technology to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical devices at remote clinical sites lacking infra-structure in crisis-stricken regions of West Africa (medical waste materials are placed in bags and burned). The basis for effectuating sterilization with FDKs is chlorine dioxide (ClO2) produced from a patented invention developed by researchers at the US Army Natick Soldier RD&E Center (NSRDEC) and commercialized as a dry mixed-chemical for bacterial spore decontamination. In fact, the NSRDEC research scientists developed an ensemble of ClO2 technologies designed for different applications in decontaminating fresh produce; food contact and handling surfaces; personal protective equipment; textiles used in clothing, uniforms, tents, and shelters; graywater recycling; airplanes; surgical instruments; and hard surfaces in latrines, laundries, and deployable medical facilities. These examples demonstrate the far-reaching impact, adaptability, and versatility of these innovative technologies. We present herein the unique attributes of NSRDEC's novel decontamination technologies and a Case Study of the development of FDKs that were deployed in West Africa by international public health organizations to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical equipment. FDKs use bacterial spores as indicators of sterility. We review the properties and structures of spores and the mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by ClO2. We also review mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by novel, emerging, and established non-thermal technologies for food preservation, such as high pressure processing, irradiation, cold plasma, and chemical sanitizers, using an array of Bacillus

  13. Fighting Ebola with novel spore decontamination technologies for the military

    PubMed Central

    Doona, Christopher J.; Feeherry, Florence E.; Kustin, Kenneth; Olinger, Gene G.; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J.; Leighton, Terrance

    2015-01-01

    Recently, global public health organizations such as Doctors without Borders (MSF), the World Health Organization (WHO), Public Health Canada, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the U.S. government developed and deployed Field Decontamination Kits (FDKs), a novel, lightweight, compact, reusable decontamination technology to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical devices at remote clinical sites lacking infra-structure in crisis-stricken regions of West Africa (medical waste materials are placed in bags and burned). The basis for effectuating sterilization with FDKs is chlorine dioxide (ClO2) produced from a patented invention developed by researchers at the US Army Natick Soldier RD&E Center (NSRDEC) and commercialized as a dry mixed-chemical for bacterial spore decontamination. In fact, the NSRDEC research scientists developed an ensemble of ClO2 technologies designed for different applications in decontaminating fresh produce; food contact and handling surfaces; personal protective equipment; textiles used in clothing, uniforms, tents, and shelters; graywater recycling; airplanes; surgical instruments; and hard surfaces in latrines, laundries, and deployable medical facilities. These examples demonstrate the far-reaching impact, adaptability, and versatility of these innovative technologies. We present herein the unique attributes of NSRDEC’s novel decontamination technologies and a Case Study of the development of FDKs that were deployed in West Africa by international public health organizations to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical equipment. FDKs use bacterial spores as indicators of sterility. We review the properties and structures of spores and the mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by ClO2. We also review mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by novel, emerging, and established non-thermal technologies for food preservation, such as high pressure processing, irradiation, cold plasma, and chemical sanitizers, using an array of Bacillus

  14. Hairy skin exposure to VX in vitro: effectiveness of delayed decontamination.

    PubMed

    Rolland, P; Bolzinger, M-A; Cruz, C; Josse, D; Briançon, S

    2013-02-01

    The chemical warfare agents such as VX represent a threat for both military and civilians, which involves an immediate need of effective decontamination systems. Since human scalp is usually unprotected compared to other body regions covered with clothes, it could be a preferential site of exposure in case of terrorist acts. The purpose of this study was to determine if skin decontamination could be efficient when performed more than 1h after exposure. In addition, the impact of hairs in skin contamination was investigated. By using in vitro skin models, we demonstrated that about 75% of the applied quantity of VX was recovered on the skin surface 2h after skin exposition, which means that it is worth decontaminating even if contamination occurred 2h before. The stratum corneum reservoir for VX was quickly established and persistent. In addition, the presence of hairs modified the percutaneous penetration of the nerve agent by binding of VX to hairs. Hair shaft has thus to be taken into account in the decontamination process. Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) and Fuller's Earth (FE) were active in the skin decontamination 45min post-exposure, but RSDL was more efficient in reducing the amount of VX either in the skin or in the hair. PMID:22926045

  15. Microearthquakes induced during hydraulic fracturing at the Fenton Hill HDR site: the 1982 experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Keppler, H.; Pearson, C.F.; Potter, R.M.; Albright, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    The on-site real-time processing of microearthquake signals that occur during massive hydraulic fracturing provides a notion of the location and growth of the fracture system being created. This enables quick decisions to be made in regard to the ongoing operations. The analytical results and impact of the hypocenter mapping during the 1982 fracturing experiments in the Fenton Hill Phase II Hot Dry Rock geothermal reservoir are reported.

  16. Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgeries: A Single-Center Experience of 171 Consecutive Cases

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyung Hwa; Ham, Won Sik; Rha, Koon Ho; Lee, Jae Won; Jeon, Hwang Gyun; Arkoncel, Francis Raymond P.; Yang, Seung Choul

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We report our experience to date with 171 patients who underwent laparoendoscopic single-site surgery for diverse urologic diseases in a single institution. Materials and Methods Between December 2008 and August 2010, we performed 171 consecutive laparoendoscopic single-site surgeries. These included simple nephrectomy (n=18; robotic surgeries, n=1), radical nephrectomy (n=26; robotic surgeries, n=2), partial nephrectomy (n=59; robotic surgeries, n=56), nephroureterectomy (n=20; robotic surgeries, n=12), pyeloplasty (n=4), renal cyst decortications (n=22), adrenalectomy (n=4; robotic surgeries, n=2), ureterolithotomy (n=10), partial cystectomy (n=3), ureterectomy (n=1), urachal mass excision (n=1), orchiectomy (n=1), seminal vesiculectomy (n=1), and retroperitoneal mass excision (n=1). All procedures were performed by use of a homemade single-port device with a wound retractor and surgical gloves. A prospective study was performed to evaluate outcomes in 171 cases. Results Of the 171 patients, 98 underwent conventional laparoendoscopic single-site surgery and 73 underwent robotic laparoendoscopic single-site surgery. Mean patient age was 53 years, mean operative time was 190.8 minutes, and mean estimated blood loss was 204 ml. Intraoperative complications occurred in seven cases (4.1%), and postoperative complications in nine cases (5.3%). There were no complications classified as Grade IIIb or higher (Clavien-Dindo classification for surgical complications). Conversion to mini-incision open surgery occurred in seven (4.1%) cases. Regarding oncologic outcomes, no cancer-related events occurred during follow-up other than one aggressive progression of Ewing sarcoma. Conclusions Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery is technically feasible and safe for various urologic diseases; however, surgical experience and long-term follow-up are needed to test the superiority of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery. PMID:21344028

  17. Screening of raw coffee for thiol binding site precursors using "in bean" model roasting experiments.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christoph; Hofmann, Thomas

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of the following study was to investigate the influence of coffee roasting on the thiol-binding activity of coffee beverages, and to investigate the potential of various green bean compounds as precursors of thiol-binding sites by using promising "in bean" model roast experiments. Headspace gas chromatographic analysis on coffee brews incubated in the presence of the roasty-sulfury smelling 2-furfurylthiol for 20 min at 30 degrees C in septum-closed vessels revealed that the amounts of "free" thiol decreased drastically with increasing the roasting degree of the beans used for preparation of the brews. A half-maximal binding capacity (BC(50)) of 183 mg of 2-furfurylthiol per liter of standard coffee beverage was determined for a roasted coffee (CTN value of 67), thus demonstrating that enormous amounts of the odor-active thiol are "bound" by the coffee. Furthermore, biomimetic "in bean" precursor experiments have been performed in order to elucidate the precursor for the thiol-binding sites in the raw coffee bean. These experiments opened the possibility of studying coffee model reactions under quasi-natural roasting conditions and undoubtedly identified chlorogenic acids as well as thermal degradation products caffeic acid and quinic acid as important precursors for low-molecular-weight thiol-binding sites. In particular, when roasted in the presence of transition metal ions, chlorogenic acids and even more caffeic acid showed thiol-binding activity which was comparable to the activity measured for the authentic coffee brew. PMID:15796603

  18. Surveillance and maintenance report on decontamination and decommissioning and remedial action activities at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Fiscal year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    King, H.L.; Sollenberger, M.L.; Sparkman, D.E.; Reynolds, R.M.; Wayland, G.S.

    1996-12-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) and Remedial Action (RA) programs are part of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Division and are funded by the Office of Environmental Management (EM-40). Building 9201-4 (known as Alpha-4), three sites located within Building 9201-3 (the Oil Storage Tank, the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Fuel Handling Facility, and the Coolant Salt Technology Facility), and Building 9419-1 (the Decontamination Facility) are currently the facilities at the Y-12 Plant included in the D&D program. The RA program provides surveillance and maintenance (S&M) and program management of ER sites at the Y-12 Plant, including selected sites listed in Appendix C of the Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA), sites listed in the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendment (HSWA) permit Solid Waste Management Unit (SWM-U) list, and sites currently closed or undergoing post-closure activities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) or the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). This report communicates the status of the program plans and specific S&M activities for the D&D and RA programs.

  19. An Analysis of NSF Geosciences Research Experience for Undergraduate Site Programs from 2009 through 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rom, E. L.; Patino, L. C.; Weiler, S.; Sanchez, S. C.; Colon, Y.; Antell, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) Program at the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) provides U.S. undergraduate students from any college or university the opportunity to conduct research at a different institution and gain a better understanding of research career pathways. The Geosciences REU Sites foster research opportunities in areas closely aligned with geoscience programs, particularly those related to earth, atmospheric and ocean sciences. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the Geosciences REU Site programs run in 2009 through 2011. A survey requesting information on recruitment methods, student demographics, enrichment activities, and fields of research was sent to the Principal Investigators of each of the active REU Sites. Over 70% of the surveys were returned with the requested information from about 50 to 60 sites each year. The internet is the most widely used mechanism to recruit participants, with personal communication as the second most important recruiting tool. The admissions rate for REU Sites in Geosciences varies from less than 10% to 50%, with the majority of participants being rising seniors and juniors. Many of the participants come from non-PhD granting institutions. Among the participants, gender distribution varies by discipline, with ocean sciences having a large majority of women and earth sciences having a majority of men. Regarding ethnic diversity, the REU Sites reflect the difficulty of attracting diverse students into Geosciences as a discipline; a large majority of participants are Caucasian and Asian students. Furthermore, participants from minority-serving institutions and community colleges constitute a small percentage of those taking part in these research experiences. The enrichment activities are very similar across the REU Sites, and mimic activities common to the scientific community, including intellectual exchange of ideas (lab meetings, seminars, and professional meetings

  20. An Analysis of NSF Geosciences Research Experience for Undergraduate Site Programs from 2009 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rom, E. L.; Patino, L. C.; Gonzales, J.; Weiler, C. S.; Antell, L.; Colon, Y.; Sanchez, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) Program at the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) provides undergraduate students from across the nation the opportunity to conduct research at a different institution and in an area that may not be available at their home campus. REU Sites funded by the Directorate of Geosciences provide student research opportunities in earth, ocean, atmospheric and geospace research. This paper provides an overview of the Geosciences REU Site programs run from 2009 to 2012. Information was gathered from over 45 REU sites each year on recruitment methods, student demographics, enrichment activities, and fields of research. The internet is the most widely used mechanism to recruit participants. The admissions rate for REU Sites in Geosciences varies by discipline but averages between 6% to 18% each year, with the majority of participants being rising seniors and juniors. A few Sites include rising sophomores and freshmen. Most students attend PhD granting institutions. Among the participants, gender distribution depends on discipline, with atmospheric and geospace sciences having more male than female participants, but ocean and earth sciences having a majority of female participants. Regarding ethnic diversity, the REU Sites reflect the difficulty of attracting diverse students into Geosciences as a discipline; a large majority of the participants are Caucasian or Asian students. Furthermore, participants from minority-serving institutions or community colleges constitute a small percentage of those taking part in these research experiences. The enrichment activities are very similar across the REU Sites, and mimic well activities common to the scientific community, including intellectual exchange of ideas (lab meetings, seminars, and professional meetings), networking and social activities. Results from this study will be used to examine strengths in the REU Sites in the Geosciences and opportunities for improvement in the

  1. Radiation decontamination of poultry viscera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamdar, S. N.; Harikumar, P.

    2008-04-01

    Application of gamma radiation for decontamination of poultry viscera was examined. Exposure to a dose of 20 kGy rendered the viscera sterile (<1 CFU/10 g tissue), while 5 and 10 kGy reduced the total bacterial count by 4 and 6 log 10 cycles, respectively, eliminating the coliforms to <1 CFU/g of tissue. Analysis of organoleptic and biochemical parameters [proximate composition, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN), lipid peroxidation (TBARS value), and levels of TCA soluble peptides and proteolytic enzyme] showed that gamma irradiation (20 kGy) followed by storage at 4 °C for 62 days induced no significant change (except lipid peroxidation) in the acceptability of poultry viscera. However, storage at ambient temperature (26 °C) produced enhanced levels of TVBN and TCA soluble products accompanied by higher drip loss. Activities of proteolytic enzymes, except acid protease, did not show any significant change during post-irradiation storage at either temperature.

  2. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  3. Experience in Grid Site Testing for ATLAS, CMS and LHCb with HammerCloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmsheuser, Johannes; Medrano Llamas, Ramón; Legger, Federica; Sciabà, Andrea; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Úbeda García, Mario; van der Ster, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Frequent validation and stress testing of the network, storage and CPU resources of a grid site is essential to achieve high performance and reliability. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling VO- and site-administrators to run such tests in an automated or on-demand manner. The ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments have all developed VO plugins for the service and have successfully integrated it into their grid operations infrastructures. This work will present the experience in running HammerCloud at full scale for more than 3 years and present solutions to the scalability issues faced by the service. First, we will show the particular challenges faced when integrating with CMS and LHCb offline computing, including customized dashboards to show site validation reports for the VOs and a new API to tightly integrate with the LHCbDIRAC Resource Status System. Next, a study of the automatic site exclusion component used by ATLAS will be presented along with results for tuning the exclusion policies. A study of the historical test results for ATLAS, CMS and LHCb will be presented, including comparisons between the experiments’ grid availabilities and a search for site-based or temporal failure correlations. Finally, we will look to future plans that will allow users to gain new insights into the test results; these include developments to allow increased testing concurrency, increased scale in the number of metrics recorded per test job (up to hundreds), and increased scale in the historical job information (up to many millions of jobs per VO).

  4. Radioactive decontamination apparatus and process

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, O.L.

    1983-08-30

    Apparatus for removing radioactive contamination from metal objects is disclosed, consisting of three of three separate pieces. The first is an electro- polishing tank, pump and filter assembly, ventilation duct and filter assembly, and DC power supply. The second is a rinse tank and a pump and filter assembly therefor. The third is a divot crane. The electro-polishing tank assembly and the rinse tank assembly are each separately mounted on pallets to facilitate moving. The filter systems of the electro-polishing tank and the rinse tank are designed to remove the radioactive contamination from the fluids in those tanks. Heavy items or highly contaminated items are handled with the divot crane constructed of stainless steel. The electro- polishing tank and the rinse tank are also made of stainless steel. The ventilation system on the electro- polishing tank exhausts acid fumes resulting from the tank heaters and the electro-polishing process. Inside the electro-polishing tank are two swinging arms that carry two stainless steel probes that hang down in the electrolyte fluid. These negative DC probes and are electrically isolated from the tank and the rest of the system. Across the top center of the tank is a copper pipe, which is also electrically isolated from the tank. This is the positive side of the DC system. To decontaminate a metal object, it is suspended from the positive copper pipe, with good electrical contact, into the electrolyte fluid. The negative probes are then moved on their swinging arms to a close proximity to the object being decontaminated, without making contact.

  5. Decontamination of large horizontal concrete surfaces outdoors

    SciTech Connect

    Barbier, M.M.; Chester, C.V.

    1980-01-01

    A study is being conducted of the resources and planning that would be required to clean up an extensive contamination of the outdoor environment. As part of this study, an assessment of the fleet of machines needed for decontaminating large outdoor surfaces of horizontal concrete will be attempted. The operations required are described. The performance of applicable existing equipment is analyzed in terms of area cleaned per unit time, and the comprehensive cost of decontamination per unit area is derived. Shielded equipment for measuring directional radiation and continuously monitoring decontamination work are described. Shielding of drivers' cabs and remote control vehicles is addressed.

  6. Foam process for application of decontamination agents

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.M.; Miller, J.R.; Frazier, R.S.; Walter, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents the results and observations of a study performed by the authors to parametrically evaluate the performance characteristics of a foam process for application of decontamination agents. The initial tests were established to assess foam quality. Subsequent tests determined the ability of the foam as a carrier of chemical systems, and established system operating parameters. The technique was then applied in an actual decontamination task to verify effectiveness of these established parameters and to determine decontamination reduction factors. 4 figures, 5 tables.

  7. Decontamination and decommissioning surveillance and maintenance report for FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, David B.; Burwinkle, T. W.; Cannon, T. R.; Ford, M. K.; Holder, Jr., L.; Clotfelter, O. K.; Faulkner, R. L.; Smith, D. L.; Wooten, H. O.

    1991-12-01

    The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D D) Program has three distinct phases: (1) surveillance and maintenance (S M); (2) decontamination and removal of hazardous materials and equipment (which DOE Headquarters in Washington, D.C., calls Phase I of remediation); and (3) decommissioning and ultimate disposal, regulatory compliance monitoring, and property transfer (which DOE Headquarters calls Phase II of remediation). A large part of D D is devoted to S M at each of the sites. Our S M activities, which are performed on facilities awaiting decommissioning, are designed to minimize potential hazards to human health and the environment by: ensuring adequate containment of residual radioactive and hazardous materials; and, providing physical safety and security controls to minimize potential hazards to on-site personnel and the general public. Typically, we classify maintenance activities as either routine or special (major repairs). Routine maintenance includes such activities as painting, cleaning, vegetation control, minor structural repairs, filter changes, and building system(s) checks. Special maintenance includes Occupational Safety and Health Act facility upgrades, roof repairs, and equipment overhaul. Surveillance activities include inspections, radiological measurements, reporting, records maintenance, and security (as required) for controlling and monitoring access to facilities. This report summarizes out FY 1991 S M activities for the Tennessee plant sites, which include the K-25 Site, the Gas Centrifuge facilities, ORNL, and the Y-12 Plant.

  8. Test-sites for earthquake prediction experiments within the Colli Albani region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattrocchi, F.; Calcara, M.

    In this paper we discuss some geochemical data gathered by discrete and continuous monitoring during the 1995-1996 period, carried out for earthquake prediction test-experiments throughout the Colli Albani quiescent volcano, seat of seismicity, selecting some gas discharge sites with peri-volcanic composition. In particular we stressed the results obtained at the continuous geochemical monitoring station (GMS I, BAR site), designed by ING for geochemical surveillance of seismic events. The 12/6/1995 (M=3.6-3.8) Roma earthquake together with the 3/11/1995 (M=3.1) Tivoli earthquake was the most energetic events within the Colli Albani - Roma area, after the beginning of the continuous monitoring (1991) up today: strict correlation between these seismic events and fluid geochemical anomalies in groundwater has been discovered (temperature, Eh, 222Rn, CO 2, NH 3). Separation at depth of a vapour phase, rich in reducing-acidic gases (CO 2, H 2S, etc...), from a hyper-saline brine, within the deep geothermal reservoir is hypothesised to explain the geochemical anomalies: probably the transtensional episodes accompanying the seismic sequences caused an increasing and/or triggering of the phase-separation process and fluid migration, on the regional scale of the Western sector of the Colli Albani, beyond the seismogenic depth (2-4 Km) up to surface. We draw the state of art of GMS II monitoring prototype and the selection criteria of test-sites for earthquake prediction experiments in the Colli Albani region.

  9. Decontamination and decommissioning of Shippingport commercial reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, J.

    1989-11-01

    To a certain degree, the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Shippingport reactor was a joint venture with Duquesne Light Company. The structures that were to be decommissioned were to be removed to at least three feet below grade. Since the land had been leased from Duquesne Light, there was an agreement with them to return the land to them in a radiologically safe condition. The total enclosure volume for the steam and nuclear containment systems was about 1.3 million cubic feet, more than 80% of which was below ground. Engineering plans for the project were started in July of 1980 and the final environmental impact statement (EIS) was published in May of 1982. The plant itself was shut down in October of 1982 for end-of-life testing and defueling. The engineering services portion of the decommissioning plans was completed in September of 1983. DOE moved onto the site and took over from the Navy in September of 1984. Actual physical decommissioning began after about a year of preparation and was completed about 44 months later in July of 1989. This paper describes the main parts of D and D.

  10. ASTM standards in radiological decontamination and decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Meservey, R.H.

    1994-12-31

    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Subcommittee E10.03 was formed following a steering committee meeting held in April 1980. The meeting was initiated as a result of labor union concern for the safety of workers on decommissioning projects. Of particular concern at that time was the need for proper training of the workers and a means of tracking worker radiation-exposure records as they traveled to various decommissioning job sites. The steering committee concluded not only that worker protection standards were necessary for decommissioning activities but also that all phases of a decommissioning project could benefit from the appropriate guides or standards. These would provide worker protection, technical guidance, and consistency for decommissioning work. It recommended that Subcommittee E10.03 be formed and dedicated to the preparation of guides and standards that would support all phases of nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning. Subcommittee E10.03 has met regularly on a semiannual basis since that time.

  11. Siting of USArray Seismic Stations in North Carolina and southern Virginia: Experience of NC-1 Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, P.; Howard, J.; Horne, T.

    2012-12-01

    The USArray component of the EarthScope, a transportable array of 400 seismometers installed in a grid about 70 km apart, is in the next two years entering its final stage with station deployment along the Atlantic coast of the United States. Here, we present the experience of the student-faculty team from North Carolina Central University (NCCU) in finding and documenting the suitable sites for the twenty five USArray stations in North Carolina and southern Virginia. The ideal sites are easily accessible yet far from traffic and other sources of noise, with good cell phone coverage, sun exposure and out of flood-prone areas. Although the initial selection of potential locations was done using geospatial mapping and analysis software provided by EarthScope, finding and finalizing the sites involved driving more then 1,000 miles each week for over two months inspecting possible site locations. Aside from driving, the majority of time was spent talking about the EarthScope project and hosting of USArray stations to mostly reluctant landowners. In addition to facing various challenges in finding appropriate sites due to land use issues, such as suburban sprawl of central North Carolina, or topography factors, such as low lying flood prone coastal areas, by far the major challenge was finding the landowners willing to host the seismic station for the necessary three years. In addition to involving students from an HBCU in seismology related project and increasing the visibility of NCCU geophysics program in the University and local community through publicity releases in local media and on university web site, the project had an important outreach component. As North Carolina is located along the seismically quiet, passive Atlantic margin, most residents are not familiar with earthquakes and seismology and the siting experience provided students an opportunity to practice explaining the earthquake research to the general public. The dialog also highlighted science

  12. DECONTAMINATION OF ZIRCALOY CLADDING HULLS FROM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.

    2010-09-29

    The feasibility of decontaminating spent fuel cladding hulls using hydrofluoric acid (HF) was investigated as part of the Global Energy Nuclear Partnership (GNEP) Separations Campaign. The concentrations of the fission product and transuranic (TRU) isotopes in the decontaminated hulls were compared to the limits for determining the low level waste (LLW) classification in the United States (US). The {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs concentrations met the disposal criteria for a Class C LLW; although, in a number of experiments the criteria for disposal as a Class B LLW were met. The TRU concentration in the hulls generally exceeded the Class C LLW limit by at least an order of magnitude. The concentration decreased sharply as the initial 30-40 {micro}m of the cladding hull surface were removed. At depths beyond this point, the TRU activity remained relatively constant, well above the Class C limit. Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel generates a cladding waste which would likely require disposal as a Greater than Class C LLW in the US. If the cladding hulls could be treated to remove a majority of the actinide and fission product contamination, the hulls could potentially meet acceptance criteria for disposal as a LLW or allow recycle of the Zr metal. Discard of the hulls as a LLW would result in significant cost savings compared to disposal as a Greater than Class C waste which currently has no disposition path. During fuel irradiation and reprocessing, radioactive materials are produced and deposited in the Zircaloy cladding. Due to short depths of penetration, the majority of the fission products and actinide elements are located in the ZrO{sub 2} layer which forms on the surface of the cladding during fuel irradiation. Therefore, if the oxide layer is removed, the majority of the contamination should also be removed. It is very difficult, if not impossible to remove all of the activity from spent fuel cladding since traces of U and Th in the unirradiated Zircaloy

  13. Aquifer recharge with reclaimed water in the Llobregat Delta. Laboratory batch experiments and field test site.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobella, J.

    2010-05-01

    Summary Spain, as most other Mediterranean countries, faces near future water shortages, generalized pollution and loss of water dependent ecosystems. Aquifer recharge represents a promising option to become a source for indirect potable reuse purposes but presence of pathogens as well as organic and inorganic pollutants should be avoided. To this end, understanding the processes of biogeochemical degradation occurring within the aquifer during infiltration is capital. A set of laboratory batch experiments has been assembled in order to assess the behaviour of selected pesticides, drugs, estrogens, surfactant degradation products, biocides and phthalates under different redox conditions. Data collected during laboratory experiments and monitoring activities at the Sant Vicenç dels Horts test site will be used to build and calibrate a numerical model (i) of the physical-chemical-biochemical processes occurring in the batches and (ii) of multicomponent reactive transport in the unsaturated/saturated zone at the test site. Keywords Aquifer recharge, batch experiments, emerging micropollutants, infiltration, numerical model, reclaimed water, redox conditions, Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT). 1. Introduction In Spain, the Llobregat River and aquifers, which supply water to Barcelona, have been overexploited for years and therefore, suffer from serious damages: the river dries up on summer, riparian vegetation has disappeared and seawater has intruded the aquifer. In a global context, solutions to water stress problems are urgently needed yet must be sustainable, economical and safe. Recent developments of analytical techniques detect the presence of the so-called "emerging" organic micropollutants in water and soils. Such compounds may affect living organisms when occurring in the environment at very low concentrations (microg/l or ng/l). In wastewater and drinking water treatment plants, a remarkable removal of these chemicals from water can be obtained only using

  14. An Analysis of NSF Research Experience for Undergraduate Site Programs from 2009 through 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, R.; Patino, L. C.; Rom, E. L.; Adams, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) Program at the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) supports U.S. institutions so that they can provide undergraduate students from any college or university the opportunity to conduct research at many different institutions. Participants also gain a better understanding of pathways for research careers. In 2013 a new system for annual report data collection was implemented by the National Science Foundation for all awards, including REU Sites. As a result, REU Site Directors must ask students to self-report data using the NSF Fastlane system. NSF has been collecting this data for several years and information is now available about the effectiveness of this new data collection system. Information on the GEO REU Site student demographics from 2014 will be presented and compared to data from previous years. Results show low participation rates by REU students in the data submission process. Many students who do participate skip questions or chose not to provide answers to the questions. Methods for increasing student participation in the data collection process will be discussed and suggestions for other ways to improve data collection as a community will be presented. Accurate information on student demographics for GEO REU Site programs are important because these students often go on to graduate programs and are the future role models for a diverse workforce.

  15. Large-N Seismic Deployment at the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T.; Snelson, C. M.; Mellors, R. J.; Pitarka, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is multi-institutional and multi-disciplinary project that consists of a series of chemical explosion experiments at the Nevada National Security Site. The goal of SPE is to understand the complicated effect of earth structures on source energy partitioning and seismic wave propagation, develop and validate physics-based monitoring, and ultimately better discriminate low-yield nuclear explosions from background seismicity. Deployment of a large number of seismic sensors is planned for SPE to image the full 3-D wavefield with about 500 three-component sensors and 500 vertical component sensors. This large-N seismic deployment will operate near the site of SPE-5 shot for about one month, recording the SPE-5 shot, ambient noise, and additional controlled-sources. This presentation focuses on the design of the large-N seismic deployment. We show how we optimized the sensor layout based on the geological structure and experiment goals with a limited number of sensors. In addition, we will also show some preliminary record sections from deployment. This work was conducted under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  16. Drilling and abandonment preparation of CO₂ storage wells – Experience from the Ketzin pilot site

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Prevedel, Bernhard; Martens, Sonja; Norden, Ben; Henninges, Jan; Freifeld, Barry M.

    2014-12-31

    At Ketzin, located west of Berlin, the GFZ German Centre for Geosciences is operating Europe's largest CO₂ research storage site. This pilot site has been developed since 2004 and is comprised of one combined injection/observation well and four monitoring wells. From June 2008 to August 2013, a total of 67 kilotons of CO₂ were safely injected into the sandstone units of the Upper Triassic Stuttgart Formation in a depth between 630 to 650 m. The paper discusses the well designs and lessons learned in drilling engineering and operations. The abandonment phase started in Ketzin with the first plug cementation ofmore » the observation well Ktzi 202 shortly after shut-in of CO₂ injection. The experience with the first CO₂ well killing operation will be reviewed.« less

  17. Drilling and abandonment preparation of CO₂ storage wells – Experience from the Ketzin pilot site

    SciTech Connect

    Prevedel, Bernhard; Martens, Sonja; Norden, Ben; Henninges, Jan; Freifeld, Barry M.

    2014-12-31

    At Ketzin, located west of Berlin, the GFZ German Centre for Geosciences is operating Europe's largest CO₂ research storage site. This pilot site has been developed since 2004 and is comprised of one combined injection/observation well and four monitoring wells. From June 2008 to August 2013, a total of 67 kilotons of CO₂ were safely injected into the sandstone units of the Upper Triassic Stuttgart Formation in a depth between 630 to 650 m. The paper discusses the well designs and lessons learned in drilling engineering and operations. The abandonment phase started in Ketzin with the first plug cementation of the observation well Ktzi 202 shortly after shut-in of CO₂ injection. The experience with the first CO₂ well killing operation will be reviewed.

  18. On-site experiment for towing procedure of pre-fabricated tendon of TLP

    SciTech Connect

    Morikawa, Masao; Ishikawa, Kuniteru; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Koichiro

    1994-12-31

    Research and development of the Tension Leg Platform (TLP) have been performed in the Offshore Oil and Gas Production Platform Project of Japan Ocean Industries Association (JOIA) promoted by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Japan (MITI). In this project, the tendons that are planned to be fabricated and assembled on the land in an overall length will be horizontally toward to the site. After that, they will be installed there. The towing procedure, however, has been established neither theoretically nor empirically. Therefore, the on-site experiment was performed to investigate whether it is possible to plan the towing procedure at the sea. The bending moment and the towing force of the tendon model during the towing procedure were measured.

  19. In vitro skin permeation and decontamination of the organophosphorus pesticide paraoxon under various physical conditions--evidence for a wash-in effect.

    PubMed

    Misik, Jan; Pavlikova, Ruzena; Josse, Denis; Cabal, Jiri; Kuca, Kamil

    2012-09-01

    Misuse of various chemicals, such as chemical warfare agents, industrial chemicals or pesticides during warfare or terrorists attacks requires adequate protection. Thus, development and evaluation of novel decontamination dispositives and techniques are needed. In this study, in vitro permeation and decontamination of a potentially hazardous compound paraoxon, an active metabolite of organophosphorus pesticide parathion, was investigated. Skin permeation and decontamination experiments were carried out in modified Franz diffusion cells. Pig skin was used as a human skin model. Commercially produced detergent-based washing solutions FloraFree(™) and ArgosTM were used as decontamination means. The experiments were done under "warm", "cold", "dry" and "wet" skin conditions in order to determine an effect of various physical conditions on skin permeation of paraoxon and on a subsequent decontamination process. There was no significant difference in skin permeation of paraoxon under warm, cold and dry conditions, whereas wet conditions provided significantly higher permeation rates. In the selected conditions, decontamination treatments performed 1 h after a skin exposure did not decrease the agent volume that permeated through the skin. An exception were wet skin conditions with non-significant decontamination efficacy 18 and 28% for the FloraFree(™) and Argos(™) treatment, respectively. In contrast, the skin permeation of paraoxon under warm, cold and dry conditions increased up to 60-290% following decontamination compared to non-decontaminated controls. This has previously been described as a skin wash-in effect. PMID:22519880

  20. 40 CFR 170.250 - Decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... is to be used for mixing pesticides, it shall not be used for decontamination or eye flushing, unless the tank is equipped with properly functioning valves or other mechanisms that prevent movement...

  1. Metal Surface Decontamination by the PFC Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Hui-Jun Won; Gye-Nam Kim; Wang-Kyu Choi; Chong-Hun Jung; Won-Zin Oh

    2006-07-01

    PFC (per-fluorocarbon) spray decontamination equipment was fabricated and its decontamination behavior was investigated. Europium oxide powder was mixed with the isotope solution which contains Co-60 and Cs-137. The different shape of metal specimens artificially contaminated with europium oxide powder was used as the surrogate contaminants. Before and after the application of the PFC spray decontamination method, the radioactivity of the metal specimens was measured by MCA. The decontamination factors were in the range from 9.6 to 62.4. The spent PFC solution was recycled by distillation. Before and after distillation, the turbidity of PFC solution was also measured. From the test results, it was found that more than 98% of the PFC solution could be recycled by a distillation. (authors)

  2. Decontamination of laryngoscopes in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bucx, M J; Dankert, J; Beenhakker, M M; Harrison, T E

    2001-01-01

    In this study the decontamination procedures of laryngoscopes in Dutch hospitals are described, based on a structured telephone questionnaire. There were substantial differences between decontamination procedures in Dutch hospitals and the standards of the APIC (Association of Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology), CDC (Centers of Disease Control) and ASA (American Society of Anesthesiology) were met in full in 19.4% of the hospitals. The standards of manual decontamination, used in 78% of the 139 hospitals, were particularly disappointing; manual cleaning was considered inadequate in 22.9% of these hospitals and manual disinfection did not meet the standards of the APIC, CDC or ASA in any of these hospitals. Decontamination by instrument cleaning machines as a standard procedure was used in 30 (22%) hospitals. In three of these hospitals the blades were subsequently sterilized. We suggest adherence to the infection control guidelines of the CDC, APIC and ASA, until the safety of less conservative infection control practices are demonstrated. PMID:11575419

  3. Testing and comparison of seventeen decontamination chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Demmer, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    This report details the testing and evaluation of seventeen decontamination chemicals. Tests were conducted with SIMCON (simulated contamination) coupons under controlled conditions to compare cleaning effectiveness, overall corrosion potential for plant equipment, interim waste generation and final waste generation.

  4. Decontaminating breast pump kits: new guidance.

    PubMed

    Oxtoby, Kathy

    Various methods can be used to decontaminate breast pump milk collection kits and items related to infant feeding but they have some drawbacks and risks. In 2015, the Joint Working Group of the Healthcare Infection Society and Infection Prevention Society published guidance to support the safe decontamination of this equipment at home and in hospital. This article summarises its recommendations for health professionals to use and communicate to other groups, such as parents and carers. PMID:27400623

  5. PROCESS OF DECONTAMINATING MATERIAL CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVITY

    DOEpatents

    Overholt, D.C.; Peterson, M.D.; Acken, M.F.

    1958-09-16

    A process is described for decontaminating metallic objects, such as stainless steel equipment, which consists in contacting such objects with nltric acid in a concentration of 35 to 60% to remove the major portion of the contamination; and thereafter contacting the partially decontaminated object with a second solution containing up to 20% of alkali metal hydroxide and up to 20% sodium tartrate to remove the remaining radioactive contaminats.

  6. Decontamination and disposal of PCB wastes.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, L E

    1985-01-01

    Decontamination and disposal processes for PCB wastes are reviewed. Processes are classed as incineration, chemical reaction or decontamination. Incineration technologies are not limited to the rigorous high temperature but include those where innovations in use of oxident, heat transfer and residue recycle are made. Chemical processes include the sodium processes, radiant energy processes and low temperature oxidations. Typical processing rates and associated costs are provided where possible. PMID:3928363

  7. Impacts of Humic Injection Experiments on the South Oyster Field Research Site

    SciTech Connect

    John F. McCarthy

    2004-04-27

    A closure plan for the South Oyster Focus Area (SOFA) is being implemented to assess the impacts of a series of experimental injections of microorganisms, tracers and chemical amendments on the chemical and physical properties of the aquifer. The proposed research addresses environmental monitoring of humic substances injected into the aquifer, as described in the Site Closure Plan for the South Oyster Field Research Site. The goal of the research is to demonstrate that the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the groundwater at and downgradient from the injection site has returned to a pre-injection �baseline� conditions with respect to either the concentration or chemical composition of the DOM. For clarity, the humic solution injected during the experiment will be referred to as �humic injectate.� The term �DOM� will refer to the organic material recovered in the groundwater, which includes the autochthonous groundwater DOM as well as any of the humic injectate remaining in the groundwater. Specific objectives include: � Estimate the amount of humic material remaining in the aquifer at the completion of the push-pull experiment and the potential for environmental impacts due to release of humics retained on the sediments. � Monitor the DOM concentrations in groundwater over time at the injection well and at sampling locations within the potential downgradient plume of the injected tracers. � Evaluate the chemical composition of the DOM to determine whether the injection experiment had an impact of the chemical properties of the aquifer. The product of this research will be a contribution to the Site Closure Report documenting the impact of the humic experiments on the aquifer. Return of the aquifer to a �baseline� conditions will be achieved if the DOM concentrations in the groundwater are determined over the course of the research to have decreased to the pre-injection level, or if the chemical properties of

  8. Nuclear facility licensing, documentaion, and reviews, and the SP-100 test site experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cornwell, B.C.; Deobald, T.L.; Bitten, E.J.

    1991-06-01

    The required approvals and permits to test a nuclear facility are extensive. Numerous regulatory requirements result in the preparation of documentation to support the approval process. The principal regulations for the SP-100 Ground Engineering System (GES) include the National Environmental Policy Act, Clean Air Act, and Atomic Energy Act. The documentation prepared for the SP-100 Nuclear Assembly Test (NAT) included an Environmental Assessment, state permit applications, and Safety Analysis Reports. This paper discusses the regulation documentation requirements and the SP-100 NAT Test Site experience. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Area 6 Decontamination Pond Corrective Action Unit 92 Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report for the Period January 2000-December 2000

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Traynor

    2001-03-01

    The Area 6 Decontamination Pond, Corrective Action Unit 92, was closed in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Operational Permit (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP, 1995]) and the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (NDEP, 1996) on May 11, 1999. Historically the Decontamination Pond was used for the disposal of partially treated liquid effluent discharged from the Decontamination Facility (Building 6-05) and the Industrial Laundry (Building 6-07) (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1996). The Decontamination Pond was constructed and became operational in 1979. Releases of RCRA-regulated hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents have not been discharged to the Decontamination Pond since 1988 (DOE/NV, 1996). The pipe connecting the Decontamination Pond and Decontamination Facility and Industrial Laundry were cut and sealed at the Decontamination Pad Oil/Water Separator in 1992. The Decontamination Pond was closed in place by installing a RCRA cover. Fencing was installed around the periphery to prevent accidental damage to the cover. Post-closure monitoring at the site consists of quarterly inspections of the RCRA cover and fencing, and a subsidence survey. Additional inspections are conducted if: Precipitation occurs in excess of 1.28 centimeters (cm) (0.50 inches [in]) in a 24-hour period, or An earthquake occurs with a magnitude exceeding 4.5 on the Richter scale within 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles [mi]) of the closure.

  10. Stress wave propagationin the site 12 hydraulic/explosive fracturing experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Boade, R. R.; Reed, R. P.

    1980-05-01

    The Site 12 experiment was a heavily instrumented field event performed to examine the hydraulic/explosive fracturing concept for preparing an underground oil shale bed for true in situ processing. One of the key phases of this fracturing concept is the blasting operation which involves the insertion and detonation of slurry explosive in a pre-formed system of hydrofractures. To obtain a sound understanding of the nature of the blasting operations, a rather extensive array of stress gages, accelerometers, and time-of-arrival gages was installed in the rock mass in the vacinity of the explosive to monitor the dynamic events initiated by the detonation. These gages provided considerable amounts of information which were useful in evaluating overall results of the experiment. Details of the gage array, of the data, of analysis methods, and of the results and conclusions are considered in the report.

  11. Aquifer recharge with reclaimed water in the Llobregat Delta. Laboratory batch experiments and field test site.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobella, J.

    2010-05-01

    Summary Spain, as most other Mediterranean countries, faces near future water shortages, generalized pollution and loss of water dependent ecosystems. Aquifer recharge represents a promising option to become a source for indirect potable reuse purposes but presence of pathogens as well as organic and inorganic pollutants should be avoided. To this end, understanding the processes of biogeochemical degradation occurring within the aquifer during infiltration is capital. A set of laboratory batch experiments has been assembled in order to assess the behaviour of selected pesticides, drugs, estrogens, surfactant degradation products, biocides and phthalates under different redox conditions. Data collected during laboratory experiments and monitoring activities at the Sant Vicenç dels Horts test site will be used to build and calibrate a numerical model (i) of the physical-chemical-biochemical processes occurring in the batches and (ii) of multicomponent reactive transport in the unsaturated/saturated zone at the test site. Keywords Aquifer recharge, batch experiments, emerging micropollutants, infiltration, numerical model, reclaimed water, redox conditions, Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT). 1. Introduction In Spain, the Llobregat River and aquifers, which supply water to Barcelona, have been overexploited for years and therefore, suffer from serious damages: the river dries up on summer, riparian vegetation has disappeared and seawater has intruded the aquifer. In a global context, solutions to water stress problems are urgently needed yet must be sustainable, economical and safe. Recent developments of analytical techniques detect the presence of the so-called "emerging" organic micropollutants in water and soils. Such compounds may affect living organisms when occurring in the environment at very low concentrations (microg/l or ng/l). In wastewater and drinking water treatment plants, a remarkable removal of these chemicals from water can be obtained only using

  12. Nuclear reactor cooling system decontamination reagent regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Anstine, Larry D.; James, Dean B.; Melaika, Edward A.; Peterson, Jr., John P.

    1985-01-01

    An improved method for decontaminating the coolant system of water-cooled nuclear power reactors and for regenerating the decontamination solution. A small amount of one or more weak-acid organic complexing agents is added to the reactor coolant, and the pH is adjusted to form a decontamination solution which is circulated throughout the coolant system to dissolve metal oxides from the interior surfaces and complex the resulting metal ions and radionuclide ions. The coolant containing the complexed metal ions and radionuclide ions is passed through a strong-base anion exchange resin bed which has been presaturated with a solution containing the complexing agents in the same ratio and having the same pH as the decontamination solution. As the decontamination solution passes through the resin bed, metal-complexed anions are exchanged for the metal-ion-free anions on the bed, while metal-ion-free anions in the solution pass through the bed, thus removing the metal ions and regenerating the decontamination solution.

  13. Hydrogeological characterization of a bank filtration experiment site at the Rio Grande, El Paso, Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, R.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Pillai, S.; Abdel-Fattah, A.; Widmer, K.

    2003-04-01

    An experiment site was constructed along an artificial channel of the Rio Grande in El Paso, Texas. The experiment was funded by the EPA and is designed to measure the effectiveness of bank filtration in an arid environment. Regionally, the experiment is important because of the hundreds of thousands of people drinking water from shallow wells drilled in close proximity to septic systems. A pumping well was drilled 17 meters from the stream bank and screened from 3.5 to 8 m depth. A cruciform array of observation wells with several multilevel completions allows detection of downstream and vertical movement of water as well as flow from the stream to the well. All of the wells were continuously cored during drilling. Analysis of the cores reveals that the site consists of two stacked channels filled with sand deposited from the meandering Rio Grande. A grid of ground-penetrating radar lines provided three-dimensional coverage between wells and showed bedding to 6.5 m depth. Constant head hydraulic conductivities show that the aquifer consists of two more permeable units separated by the less permeable upper fill of the lower channel complex, with vertical hydraulic conductivities of (1x10-6 to 2x10-6 m/s?). The intervals above and below this interval have the highest vertical conductivities (up to 3.5x10-5 m/s). A multiple pumping and tracer test was conducted using the cruciform array of the field site that consisted of a pumping well, 16 observation wells, and a stream sampling point. The average hydraulic conductivity of the geological media at the field site was about 2 x 10-3 m/s based on pumping test analysis. However, the type curve responses revealed significant heterogeneity of hydraulic conductivity throughout the field site. For the tracer test, bromide and microspheres were used as tracers. Microspheres were used to mimic the behavior of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. The tracers (bromide and microspheres of different sizes and colors) were injected in one

  14. Technology needs for decommissioning and decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Bundy, R.D.; Kennerly, J.M.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the current view of the most important decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) technology needs for the US Department of Energy facilities for which the D & D programs are the responsibility of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. The source of information used in this assessment was a survey of the D & D program managers at each facility. A summary of needs presented in earlier surveys of site needs in approximate priority order was supplied to each site as a starting point to stimulate thinking. This document reflects a brief initial assessment of ongoing needs; these needs will change as plans for D & D are finalized, some of the technical problems are solved through successful development programs, and new ideas for D and D technologies appear. Thus, this assessment should be updated and upgraded periodically, perhaps, annually. This assessment differs from others that have been made in that it directly and solely reflects the perceived need for new technology by key personnel in the D & D programs at the various facilities and does not attempt to consider the likelihood that these technologies can be successfully developed. Thus, this list of technology needs also does not consider the cost, time, and effort required to develop the desired technologies. An R & D program must include studies that have a reasonable chance for success as well as those for which there is a high need. Other studies that considered the cost and probability of successful development as well as the need for new technology are documented. However, the need for new technology may be diluted in such studies; this document focuses only on the need for new technology as currently perceived by those actually charged with accomplishing D & D.

  15. Flow and transport at the Las Cruces trench site: Experiment IIb

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, J.; Hills, R.G.; Wierenga, P.J.; Young, M.H.

    1997-07-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has been directed by Congress in the Low Level Waste Policy Act of 1980 to develop regulatory guidance and assist the individual states and compacts in siting and assessing future low level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. Three water flow and solute transport experiments were performed as part of a comprehensive field trench study near Las Cruces, New Mexico to test deterministic and stochastic models of vadose zone flow and transport. This report presents partial results from the third experiment (experiment IIb). Experiments IIa and b were conducted on the North side of the trench, on a plot 1.22 m wide by 12 m long, perpendicular to the trench. The area was drip irrigated during two time periods with water containing a variety of tracers. The advance of the water front during the two irrigation episodes was measured with tensiometers and neutron probes. Solute front positions were determined from soil solution sampling through suction samplers and from disturbed sampling. The results from experiment IIb show predominantly downward water movement through the layered unsaturated soil, as evidenced from neutron probe data and gravimetric sampling. Tritium plumes were only half as deep and half as wide as the water plumes at 310 days after the beginning of experiment IIb. Chromium, applied as Cr(VI), moved a readily as, and similar to tritium, but there was a loss of mass due to reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Chloride and nitrate, initially present at high concentrations in the soil solution, were displaced by the low concentration irrigation water, resulting in chloride and nitrate concentration distributions that looked like negative images of the tritium distributions. The extensive data presented should serve well as a data base for model testing.

  16. ‘This wound has spoilt everything’: emotional capital and the experience of surgical site infections

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Brian; Tanner, Judith; Padley, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In this article we explore the experience of suffering from a surgical site infection, a common complication of surgery affecting around 5 per cent of surgical patients, via an interview study of 17 patients in the Midlands in the UK. Despite their prevalence, the experience of surgical site infections has received little attention so far. In spite of the impairment resulting from these iatrogenic problems, participants expressed considerable stoicism and we interpret this via the notion of emotional capital. This idea derives from the work of Pierre Bourdieu, Helga Nowotny and Diane Reay and helps us conceptualise the emotional resources accumulated and expended in managing illness and in gaining the most from healthcare services. Participants were frequently at pains not to blame healthcare personnel or hospitals, often discounting the infection's severity, and attributing it to chance, to ‘germs’ or to their own failure to buy and apply wound care products. The participants' stoicism was thus partly afforded by their refusal to blame healthcare institutions or personnel. Where anger was described, this was either defused or expressed on behalf of another person. Emotional capital is associated with deflecting the possibility of complaint and sustaining a deferential and grateful position in relation to the healthcare system. PMID:25470322

  17. First Results from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Experiment at the Deep Site

    SciTech Connect

    Mandic, Vuk

    2004-06-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is designed to search for dark matter in the form of the Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). For this purpose, CDMS uses detectors based on crystals of Ge and Si, operated at the temperature of 20 mK, and providing a two-fold signature of an interaction: the ionization and the athermal phonon signals. The two signals, along with the passive and active shielding of the experimental setup, and with the underground experimental sites, allow very effective suppression and rejection of different types of backgrounds. This dissertation presents the commissioning and the results of the first WIMP-search run performed by the CDMS collaboration at the deep underground site at the Soudan mine in Minnesota. We develop different methods of suppressing the dominant background due to the electron-recoil events taking place at the detector surface and we apply these algorithms to the data set. These results place the world's most sensitive limits on the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent elastic-scattering cross-section. Finally, they examine the compatibility of the supersymmetric WIMP-models with the direct-detection experiments (such as CDMS) and discuss the implications of the new CDMS result on these models.

  18. PROPERTIES AND BEHAVIOR OF 238PU RELEVANT TO DECONTAMINATION OF BUILDING 235-F

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, A.; Kane, M.

    2009-11-24

    This report was prepared to document the physical, chemical and radiological properties of plutonium oxide materials that were processed in the Plutonium Fuel Form Facility (PuFF) in building 235-F at the Savannah River Plant (now known as the Savannah River Site) in the late 1970s and early 1980s. An understanding of these properties is needed to support current project planning for the safe and effective decontamination and deactivation (D&D) of PuFF. The PuFF mission was production of heat sources to power Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) used in space craft. The specification for the PuO{sub 2} used to fabricate the heat sources required that the isotopic content of the plutonium be 83 {+-} 1% Pu-238 due to its high decay heat of 0.57 W/g. The high specific activity of Pu-238 (17.1 Ci/g) due to alpha decay makes this material very difficult to manage. The production process produced micron-sized particles which proved difficult to contain during operations, creating personnel contamination concerns and resulting in the expenditure of significant resources to decontaminate spaces after loss of material containment. This report examines high {sup 238}Pu-content material properties relevant to the D&D of PuFF. These relevant properties are those that contribute to the mobility of the material. Physical properties which produce or maintain small particle size work to increase particle mobility. Early workers with {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} felt that, unlike most small particles, Pu-238 oxide particles would not naturally agglomerate to form larger, less mobile particles. It was thought that the heat generated by the particles would prevent water molecules from binding to the particle surface. Particles covered with bound water tend to agglomerate more easily. However, it is now understood that the self-heating effect is not sufficient to prevent adsorption of water on particle surfaces and thus would not prevent agglomeration of particles. Operational

  19. Decontamination Efficacy and Skin Toxicity of Two Decontaminants against Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Stratilo, Chad W.; Crichton, Melissa K. F.; Sawyer, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Decontamination of bacterial endospores such as Bacillus anthracis has traditionally required the use of harsh or caustic chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a chlorine dioxide decontaminant in killing Bacillus anthracis spores in solution and on a human skin simulant (porcine cadaver skin), compared to that of commonly used sodium hypochlorite or soapy water decontamination procedures. In addition, the relative toxicities of these decontaminants were compared in human skin keratinocyte primary cultures. The chlorine dioxide decontaminant was similarly effective to sodium hypochlorite in reducing spore numbers of Bacillus anthracis Ames in liquid suspension after a 10 minute exposure. After five minutes, the chlorine dioxide product was significantly more efficacious. Decontamination of isolated swine skin contaminated with Bacillus anthracis Sterne with the chlorine dioxide product resulted in no viable spores sampled. The toxicity of the chlorine dioxide decontaminant was up to two orders of magnitude less than that of sodium hypochlorite in human skin keratinocyte cultures. In summary, the chlorine dioxide based decontaminant efficiently killed Bacillus anthracis spores in liquid suspension, as well as on isolated swine skin, and was less toxic than sodium hypochlorite in cultures of human skin keratinocytes. PMID:26394165

  20. Decontamination Efficacy and Skin Toxicity of Two Decontaminants against Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Stratilo, Chad W; Crichton, Melissa K F; Sawyer, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Decontamination of bacterial endospores such as Bacillus anthracis has traditionally required the use of harsh or caustic chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a chlorine dioxide decontaminant in killing Bacillus anthracis spores in solution and on a human skin simulant (porcine cadaver skin), compared to that of commonly used sodium hypochlorite or soapy water decontamination procedures. In addition, the relative toxicities of these decontaminants were compared in human skin keratinocyte primary cultures. The chlorine dioxide decontaminant was similarly effective to sodium hypochlorite in reducing spore numbers of Bacillus anthracis Ames in liquid suspension after a 10 minute exposure. After five minutes, the chlorine dioxide product was significantly more efficacious. Decontamination of isolated swine skin contaminated with Bacillus anthracis Sterne with the chlorine dioxide product resulted in no viable spores sampled. The toxicity of the chlorine dioxide decontaminant was up to two orders of magnitude less than that of sodium hypochlorite in human skin keratinocyte cultures. In summary, the chlorine dioxide based decontaminant efficiently killed Bacillus anthracis spores in liquid suspension, as well as on isolated swine skin, and was less toxic than sodium hypochlorite in cultures of human skin keratinocytes. PMID:26394165

  1. Chemical System Decontamination at PWR Power Stations Biblis A and B by Advanced System Decontamination by Oxidizing Chemistry (ASDOC-D) Process Technology - 13081

    SciTech Connect

    Loeb, Andreas; Runge, Hartmut; Stanke, Dieter; Bertholdt, Horst-Otto; Adams, Andreas; Impertro, Michael; Roesch, Josef

    2013-07-01

    For chemical decontamination of PWR primary systems the so called ASDOC-D process has been developed and qualified at the German PWR power station Biblis. In comparison to other chemical decontamination processes ASDOC-D offers a number of advantages: - ASDOC-D does not require separate process equipment but is completely operated and controlled by the nuclear site installations. Feeding of chemical concentrates into the primary system is done by means of the site's dosing systems. Process control is performed by standard site instrumentation and analytics. - ASDOC-D safely prevents any formation and precipitation of insoluble constituents - Since ASDOC-D is operated without external equipment there is no need for installation of such equipment in high radioactive radiation surrounding. The radioactive exposure rate during process implementation and process performance may therefore be neglected in comparison to other chemical decontamination processes. - ASDOC-D does not require auxiliary hose connections which usually bear high leakage risk. The above mentioned technical advantages of ASDOC-D together with its cost-effectiveness gave rise to Biblis Power station to agree on testing ASDOC-D at the volume control system of PWR Biblis unit A. By involving the licensing authorities as well as expert examiners into this test ASDOC-D received the official qualification for primary system decontamination in German PWR. As a main outcome of the achieved results NIS received contracts for full primary system decontamination of both units Biblis A and B (each 1.200 MW) by end of 2012. (authors)

  2. Reactive decontamination of absorbing thin film polymer coatings: model development and parameter determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varady, Mark; Mantooth, Brent; Pearl, Thomas; Willis, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    A continuum model of reactive decontamination in absorbing polymeric thin film substrates exposed to the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (known as VX) was developed to assess the performance of various decontaminants. Experiments were performed in conjunction with an inverse analysis method to obtain the necessary model parameters. The experiments involved contaminating a substrate with a fixed VX exposure, applying a decontaminant, followed by a time-resolved, liquid phase extraction of the absorbing substrate to measure the residual contaminant by chromatography. Decontamination model parameters were uniquely determined using the Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear least squares fitting technique to best fit the experimental time evolution of extracted mass. The model was implemented numerically in both a 2D axisymmetric finite element program and a 1D finite difference code, and it was found that the more computationally efficient 1D implementation was sufficiently accurate. The resulting decontamination model provides an accurate quantification of contaminant concentration profile in the material, which is necessary to assess exposure hazards.

  3. Industrial Hygiene Concerns during the Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    M.E. Lumia; C.A. Gentile

    2002-01-18

    A significant industrial hygiene concern during the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was the oxidation of the lead bricks' surface, which were utilized for radiation shielding. This presented both airborne exposure and surface contamination issues for the workers in the field removing this material. This paper will detail the various protection and control methods tested and implemented to protect the workers, including those technologies deployed to decontaminate the work surfaces. In addition, those techniques employed to recycle the lead for additional use at the site will be discussed.

  4. Analysis of ground response data at Lotung large-scale soil- structure interaction experiment site

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.Y.; Mok, C.M.; Power, M.S. )

    1991-12-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in cooperation with the Taiwan Power Company (TPC), constructed two models (1/4-scale and 1/2-scale) of a nuclear plant containment structure at a site in Lotung (Tang, 1987), a seismically active region in northeast Taiwan. The models were constructed to gather data for the evaluation and validation of soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis methodologies. Extensive instrumentation was deployed to record both structural and ground responses at the site during earthquakes. The experiment is generally referred to as the Lotung Large-Scale Seismic Test (LSST). As part of the LSST, two downhole arrays were installed at the site to record ground motions at depths as well as at the ground surface. Structural response and ground response have been recorded for a number of earthquakes (i.e. a total of 18 earthquakes in the period of October 1985 through November 1986) at the LSST site since the completion of the installation of the downhole instruments in October 1985. These data include those from earthquakes having magnitudes ranging from M{sub L} 4.5 to M{sub L} 7.0 and epicentral distances range from 4.7 km to 77.7 km. Peak ground surface accelerations range from 0.03 g to 0.21 g for the horizontal component and from 0.01 g to 0.20 g for the vertical component. The objectives of the study were: (1) to obtain empirical data on variations of earthquake ground motion with depth; (2) to examine field evidence of nonlinear soil response due to earthquake shaking and to determine the degree of soil nonlinearity; (3) to assess the ability of ground response analysis techniques including techniques to approximate nonlinear soil response to estimate ground motions due to earthquake shaking; and (4) to analyze earth pressures recorded beneath the basemat and on the side wall of the 1/4 scale model structure during selected earthquakes.

  5. Universal Oxidation for CBW Decontamination: L-Gel System Development and Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Raber, E.; McGuire, R.; Hoffman, M.; Alcaraz, A.; Shepley, D.; Elliot, J.; Krauter, P.; Garcia, E.

    2000-12-16

    decontaminating reagent and the contaminant agent, we selected gelled reagents as the primary carrier material. Gels have the additional advantage of adhering to vertical and even the underside of horizontal surfaces such as ceilings and walls. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, over a period of twenty years from the late 1960's to the late 1980's, developed a series of extrudable high explosives based on the gelling of polar energetic liquids. While never going into production, this development served as an experience base for formulation, characterization and dispersal system design and fabrication. It was a logical step, therefore, to adapt this work to the gelling of aqueous oxidizers for candidate BW/CW decontaminants.

  6. Reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL) for the decontamination of chemical warfare agent (CWA) dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, M D; Hurst, C G; Kirk, M A; Reedy, S J D; Braue, E H

    2012-08-01

    Rapid decontamination of the skin is the single most important action to prevent dermal absorption of chemical contaminants in persons exposed to chemical warfare agents (CWA) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) as a result of accidental or intentional release. Chemicals on the skin may be removed by mechanical means through the use of dry sorbents or water. Recent interest in decontamination systems which both partition contaminants away from the skin and actively neutralize the chemical has led to the development of several reactive decontamination solutions. This article will review the recently FDA-approved Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) and will summarize the toxicity and efficacy studies conducted to date. Evidence of RSDL's superior performance against vesicant and organophosphorus chemical warfare agents compared to water, bleach, and dry sorbents, suggests that RSDL may have a role in mass human exposure chemical decontamination in both the military and civilian arenas. PMID:22352732

  7. Experiment Dashboard - a generic, scalable solution for monitoring of the LHC computing activities, distributed sites and services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, J.; Cinquilli, M.; Dieguez, D.; Dzhunov, I.; Karavakis, E.; Karhula, P.; Kenyon, M.; Kokoszkiewicz, L.; Nowotka, M.; Ro, G.; Saiz, P.; Sargsyan, L.; Schovancova, J.; Tuckett, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Experiment Dashboard system provides common solutions for monitoring job processing, data transfers and site/service usability. Over the last seven years, it proved to play a crucial role in the monitoring of the LHC computing activities, distributed sites and services. It has been one of the key elements during the commissioning of the distributed computing systems of the LHC experiments. The first years of data taking represented a serious test for Experiment Dashboard in terms of functionality, scalability and performance. And given that the usage of the Experiment Dashboard applications has been steadily increasing over time, it can be asserted that all the objectives were fully accomplished.

  8. Data acquisition system for steady-state experiments at multiple sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, H.; Ohsuna, M.; Kojima, M.; Imazu, S.; Nonomura, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Emoto, M.; Yoshida, M.; Iwata, C.; Shoji, M.; Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K.; Hasegawa, M.; Higashijima, A.; Nakamura, K.; Ono, Y.; Yoshikawa, M.; Urushidani, S.

    2011-11-01

    A high-performance data acquisition (DAQ) system has been developed for steady-state fusion experiments at the Large Helical Device (LHD). Its significant characteristics are 110 MB s-1 continuous DAQ capability and the performance scalability using an unlimited number of DAQ units. Incoming data streams are first transferred temporarily onto the shared random access memory, and then cut into definite time chunks to be stored. They are also thinned out to 1/N to be served for the real-time monitoring clients. In LHD steady-state experiment, the DAQ cluster has established the world record for acquiring 90 GB/shot. The established technology of this steady-state acquisition and store can contribute to the ITER experiments whose data amount is estimated in the range 100 or 1000 GB/shot. This system also acquires experimental data from multiple remote sites through the fusion-dedicated virtual private network in Japan. The speed lowering problem in long-distance TCP/IP data transfer has been improved by the packet pacing optimization. The demonstrated collaboration scheme will be analogous to that of ITER and the supporting machines.

  9. Rockwell International Hot Laboratory decontamination and dismantlement interim progress report 1987-1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-06

    OAK A271 Rockwell International Hot Laboratory decontamination and dismantlement interim progress report 1987-1996. The Rockwell International Hot Laboratory (RIHL) is one of a number of former nuclear facilities undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The RIHL facility is in the later stages of dismantlement, with the final objective of returning the site location to its original natural state. This report documents the decontamination and dismantlement activities performed at the facility over the time period 1988 through 1996. At this time, the support buildings, all equipment associated with the facility, and the entire above-ground structure of the primary facility building (Building 020) have been removed. The basement portion of this building and the outside yard areas (primarily asphalt and soil) are scheduled for D&D activities beginning in 1997.

  10. 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility decontamination, sampling, and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    Knaus, Z.C.

    1995-06-12

    This is the decontamination, sampling, and analysis plan for the closure activities at the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility at Hanford Reservation. This document supports the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility Closure Plan, DOE-RL-90-25. The 105-DR LSFF, which operated from about 1972 to 1986, was a research laboratory that occupied the former ventilation supply room on the southwest side of the 105-DR Reactor facility in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site. The LSFF was established to investigate fire fighting and safety associated with alkali metal fires in the liquid metal fast breeder reactor facilities. The decontamination, sampling, and analysis plan identifies the decontamination procedures, sampling locations, any special handling requirements, quality control samples, required chemical analysis, and data validation needed to meet the requirements of the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility Closure Plan in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  11. Laboratory Experiments to Evaluate Diffusion of 14C into Nevada Test Site Carbonate Aquifer Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Hershey; William Howcroft; Paul W. Reimus

    2003-03-01

    Determination of groundwater flow velocities at the Nevada Test Site is important since groundwater is the principal transport medium of underground radionuclides. However, 14C-based groundwater velocities in the carbonate aquifers of the Nevada Test Site are several orders of magnitude slower than velocities derived from the Underground Test Area regional numerical model. This discrepancy has been attributed to the loss or retardation of 14C from groundwater into the surrounding aquifer matrix making 14C-based groundwater ages appear much older. Laboratory experiments were used to investigate the retardation of 14C in the carbonate aquifers at the Nevada Test Site. Three sets of experiments were conducted evaluating the diffusion of 14C into the carbonate aquifer matrix, adsorption and/or isotopic exchange onto the pore surfaces of the carbonate matrix, and adsorption and/or isotopic exchange onto the fracture surfaces of the carbonate aquifer. Experimental results a nd published aquifer matrix and fracture porosities from the Lower Carbonate Aquifer were applied to a 14C retardation model. The model produced an extremely wide range of retardation factors because of the wide range of published aquifer matrix and fracture porosities (over three orders of magnitude). Large retardation factors suggest that groundwater with very little measured 14C activity may actually be very young if matrix porosity is large relative to the fracture porosity. Groundwater samples collected from highly fractured aquifers with large effective fracture porosities may have relatively small correction factors, while samples from aquifers with a few widely spaced fractures may have very large correction factors. These retardation factors were then used to calculate groundwater velocities from a proposed flow path at the Nevada Test Site. The upper end of the range of 14C correction factors estimated groundwater velocities that appear to be at least an order of magnitude too high compared

  12. Melting metal waste for volume reduction and decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, G.L.; Heshmatpour, B.; Heestand, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Melt-slagging was investigated as a technique for volume reduction and decontamination of radioactively contaminated scrap metals. Experiments were conducted using several metals and slags in which the partitioning of the contaminant U or Pu to the slag was measured. Concentrations of U or Pu in the metal product of about 1 ppM were achieved for many metals. A volume reduction of 30:1 was achieved for a typical batch of mixed metal scrap. Additionally, the production of granular products was demonstrated with metal shot and crushed slag.

  13. Decision Analysis Science Modeling for Application and Fielding Selection Applied to Concrete Decontamination Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadian, M.A. Ross, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    Concrete surfaces contaminated with radionuclides present a significant challenge during the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) process. As structures undergo D and D, coating layers and/or surface layers of the concrete containing the contaminants must be removed for disposal in such a way as to present little to no risk to human health or the environment. The selection of a concrete decontamination technology that is safe, efficient, and cost-effective is critical to the successful D and D of contaminated sites. To support U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management objectives and to assist DOE site managers in the selection of the best-suited concrete floor decontamination technology(s) for a given site, two innovative and three baseline technologies have been assessed under standard, non-nuclear conditions at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU). The innovative technologies assessed include the Pegasus Coating Removal System and Textron's Electro-Hydraulic Scabbling System. The three baseline technologies assessed include: the Wheelabrator Blastrac model 1-15D, the NELCO Porta Shot Blast{trademark} model GPx-1O-18 HO Rider, and the NELCO Porta Shot Blast{trademark} model EC-7-2. These decontamination technology assessments provide directly comparable performance data that have previously been available for only a limited number of technologies under restrictive site-specific constraints. Some of the performance data collected during these technology assessments include: removal capability, production rate, removal gap, primary and secondary waste volumes, and operation and maintenance requirements. The performance data generated by this project is intended to assist DOE site managers in the selection of the safest, most efficient, and cost-effective decontamination technologies to accomplish their remediation objectives.

  14. Site Selection in Experiments: A Follow-Up Evaluation of Site Recruitment in Two Scale-Up Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Elizabeth; Fellers, Lauren; Caverly, Sarah; Vaden-Kiernan, Michael; Borman, Geoffrey; Sullivan, Kate; Ruiz de Castillo, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Randomized experiments are commonly used to evaluate if particular interventions improve student achievement. While these experiments can establish that a treatment actually "causes" changes, typically the participants are not randomly selected from a well-defined population and therefore the results do not readily generalize. Three…

  15. Laboratory Demonstration of Radiological Decontamination Using Radpro

    SciTech Connect

    Lear, P.; Greene, R.; Isham, J.; Martin, R.; Norton, C.

    2007-07-01

    In the event of terrorist activity involving the explosive dispersion of radioactive materials (a 'dirty' bomb), a number of different types of surfaces and substrates, including concrete, granite, brick, cinder block, tile, asphalt, wood, glass, plastic, iron, and steel, may become radiologically contaminated. Incident cleanup is assumed to involve decontamination of these surfaces. Laboratory testing was conducted using samples of concrete, ferrous metal, steel, aluminum, lead, tin, glass, lexan, vinyl, asphalt shingle, wood, and rubber surfaces. The surfaces were sprayed with Cs-137 or Co-60 solutions to simulate contamination. The entire surface area of the samples was surveyed using a Ludlum Model 2360 scaler/ratemeter with Ludlum Model 43-93-2 100 cm{sup 2} open area alpha/beta scintillation probe. The surfaces were then decontaminated using RadPro{sup R} chemical decontamination technology that is currently field proven and ready to deploy. The entire surface area of the samples was re-surveyed following decontamination. The RadPro{sup R} chemical decontamination technology was able to remove virtually all of the removable contamination and over 90% of the fixed contamination from these surfaces during the laboratory testing. (authors)

  16. Novel Laser Ablation Technology for Surface Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Chung H.

    2004-06-01

    Laser ablation for surface cleaning has been pursued for the removal of paint on airplanes. It has also been pursued for the cleaning of semiconductor surfaces. However, all these approaches have been pursued by laser ablation in air. For highly contaminated surface, laser ablation in air can easily cause secondary contamination. Thus it is not suitable to apply to achieve surface decontamination for DOE facilities since many of these facilities have radioactive contaminants on the surface. Any secondary contamination will be a grave concern. The objective of this project is to develop a novel technology for laser ablation in liquid for surface decontamination. It aims to achieve more efficient surface decontamination without secondary contamination and to evaluate the economic feasibility for large scale surface decontamination with laser ablation in liquid. When laser ablation is pursued in the solution, all the desorbed contaminants will be confined in liquid. The contaminants can be precipitated and subsequently contained in a small volume for disposal. It can reduce the risk of the decontamination workers. It can also reduce the volume of contaminants dramatically.

  17. Bleaching process preferred to decontaminate odorants

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The problem of decontaminating and disposing of out-of-service gas odorizers has long faced both gas transmission and distribution companies since the early 1980s. Finding a methodology to safely and effectively decontaminate odorant-contaminated equipment has caused many companies to simply cap the equipment and put it in storage. The recommended process of decontamination by odorant manufacturers is currently a bleaching-type process. A sodium hypochlorite solution is added to water and either circulated or left standing in the contaminated equipment. The sodium hypochlorite effectively neutralizes the smell of the odorant and slightly corrodes the inside of the equipment to neutralize any odorant which has permeated the metal. The waste sodium hypochlorite and water is then shipped as hazardous waste (pH of 12.5) or non-hazardous waste after the pH has been adjusted. The bleaching process has proven cost-effective and less time-consuming than most other methods including bioremediation. To effectively use it, there are several problems to overcome--most importantly the removal of residual product and the release of vapors into the atmosphere. River Valley Technologies, a contractor located in Cincinnati, OH, specializing in odorant-equipment decontamination, has developed several methods and engineering controls to eliminate most of the problems associated with decontaminating odorant equipment. The paper describes these methods.

  18. Post-Shot Surface Damage Detected with LIDAR at the Source Physics Experiment Site (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Sussman, A. J.; Kelley, R. E.; Cooper, D. I.

    2013-12-01

    Designed to improve long-range treaty monitoring capabilities, the Source Physics Experiment series is being conducted at a location in Nevada and provides an opportunity to advance near-field monitoring and field-based investigations of suspected underground test locations. In particular, features associated with underground testing can be evaluated using Source Physics Experiment activities as analogs, linking on-site inspections with remote sensing technologies. Following a calibration shot (SPE 1), SPE 2 (10/2011) and SPE 3 (07/2012) were performed in the same emplacement hole with 1.0 ton of explosives at 150 ft depth. A fourth shot (SPE 4) is planned for August 2013 as a 220 lb (100 kg) TNT equivalent shot at a depth of 315 ft (96 m). Because one of the goals of the Source Physics Experiments is to determine damage effects on seismic wave propagation and improve modeling capabilities, a key component in the predictive component and ultimate validation of the models is a full understanding of the intervening geology between the source and instrumented bore holes. Ground-based LIDAR and fracture mapping, mechanical properties determined via laboratory testing of rock core, discontinuity analysis and optical microscopy of the core rocks were performed prior to and following each experiment. Results of the LIDAR collects from both SPE 2 and 3 indicate a permanent ground displacement of up to several centimeters aligning along the projected surface traces of two faults observed in the core and fractures mapped at the surface. Work by Los Alamos National Laboratory was sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration Award No. DE-AC52-06NA25946.

  19. Optimized detection of transcription factor-binding sites in ChIP-seq experiments

    PubMed Central

    Elo, Laura L.; Kallio, Aleksi; Laajala, Teemu D.; Hawkins, R. David; Korpelainen, Eija; Aittokallio, Tero

    2012-01-01

    We developed a computational procedure for optimizing the binding site detections in a given ChIP-seq experiment by maximizing their reproducibility under bootstrap sampling. We demonstrate how the procedure can improve the detection accuracies beyond those obtained with the default settings of popular peak calling software, or inform the user whether the peak detection results are compromised, circumventing the need for arbitrary re-iterative peak calling under varying parameter settings. The generic, open-source implementation is easily extendable to accommodate additional features and to promote its widespread application in future ChIP-seq studies. The peakROTS R-package and user guide are freely available at http://www.nic.funet.fi/pub/sci/molbio/peakROTS. PMID:22009681

  20. Walker Branch Throughfall Displacement Experiment Data Report: Site Characterization, System Performance, Weather, Species Composition, and Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, P.J.

    2001-09-04

    This numeric data package provides data sets, and accompanying documentation, on site characterization, system performance, weather, species composition, and growth for the Throughfall Displacement Experiment, which was established in the Walker Branch Watershed of East Tennessee to provide data on the responses of forests to altered precipitation regimes. The specific data sets include soil water content and potential, coarse fraction of the soil profile, litter layer temperature, soil temperature, monthly weather, daily weather, hourly weather, species composition of trees and saplings, mature tree and sapling annual growth, and relative leaf area index. Fortran and SAS{trademark} access codes are provided to read the ASCII data files. The data files and this documentation are available without charge on a variety of media and via the Internet from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC).

  1. The Lower Mississippi River Basin LTAR Site: Observatory and Common Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigby, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Lower Mississippi River Basin is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the United States for cotton, corn, soybeans, and rice. The majority of row crops in this region are also irrigation, primarily using declining groundwater resources. As a member of the USDA-ARS Long-term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) Network, the LMRB represents a major agricultural region for row crops such as corn, soybeans, rice, cotton and sugarcane and is the gateway linking the Upper Midwest and Great Plains regions with the Gulf of Mexico. This poster outlines progress in establishing the LMRB-LTAR observatory and common experiment sites, partnerships with stakeholders, and new initiatives addressing long-term sustainability in the region.

  2. Ground-water effects of the UCG experiments at the Hoe Creek site in northeastern Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, S.W.; Wang, F.T.; Stuermer, D.H.

    1981-06-01

    Ground-water changes and subsidence effects associated with three underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments have been monitored at the Hoe Creek site in northeastern Wyoming. Ground-water quality measurements have extended over a period of four years and have been supplemented by laboratory studies of contaminant sorption by coal. It was found that a broad range of residual gasification products are introduced into the ground-water system. These contaminants may be of environmental significance if they find their way, in sufficient concentrations, into surface waters, or into aquifers from which water is extracted for drinking or agricultural purposes. Fortunately, the concentrations of these contaminants are substantially reduced by sorption on the surrounding coal. However, recent field measurements indicate that there may be significant limitations on this natural cleansing process. The contaminants of potential concern, and the mechanisms that affect their deposition and persistence have been identified.

  3. Rock Springs Site 12 hydraulic/explosive true in situ oil shale fracturing experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, R.L.; Boade, R.R.; Stevens, A.L.; Long, A. Jr.; Turner, T.F.

    1980-06-01

    The experiment plan involved the creation and characterization of three horizontal hydraulic fractures, followed by the insertion and simultaneous detonation of slurry explosive in the two lower fractures. Core analyses, wellbore logging, and airflow and /sup 85/Kr tracer tests were used for site characterization and assessment of the hydraulic and explosive fracturing. Tiltmeters, wellhead pressure and flow gages, and in-formation pressure, flow and crack-opening sensors were used to monitor hydrofracture creation and explosive insertion. Explosive detonation diagnostic data were taken with stress and time-of-arrival gages and surface and in-formation accelerometers. The post-fracturing assessments indicated that: (1) hydrofracture creation and explosive insertion and detonation were accomplished essentially as planned; (2) induced fractures were randomly distributed through the shale with no extensively fractured regions or dislocation of shale; and (3) enhancement of permeability was limited to enlargement of the explosive-filled fractures.

  4. L-Band Radiometer Experiment in the SMOS Test Site Upper Danube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlenz, Florian; Gebhardt, Timo; Loew, Alexander; Marzahn, Philip; Mauser, Wolfram

    2010-12-01

    In the frame of calibration and validation activities for ESA's soil moisture and ocean salinity mission, SMOS, the University of Munich operates a ground based L-band radiometer (ELBARA II) at 1.4 GHz to test and validate the radiative transfer model L-MEB also used in the SMOS Level 2 processor. The radiometer is situated on a test site near Puch, about 30 km west of Munich in the Upper Danube watershed in southern Germany in a temperate agricultural area. It is mounted on a scaffolding that allows to rotate the antenna which enables it to look at 2 different fields with grass and winter rape as land use respectively. In addition to the radiometer, a variety of complementary sensors are installed measuring all important meteorological and hydrological parameters. First datasets of the radiometer experiment are presented.

  5. Site Characterization of the Source Physics Experiment Phase II Location Using Seismic Reflection Data

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, Emily; Snelson, Catherine M; Chipman, Veraun D; Emer, Dudley; White, Bob; Emmit, Ryan; Wright, Al; Drellack, Sigmund; Huckins-Gang, Heather; Mercadante, Jennifer; Floyd, Michael; McGowin, Chris; Cothrun, Chris; Bonal, Nedra

    2013-12-05

    An objective of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is to identify low-yield nuclear explosions from a regional distance. Low-yield nuclear explosions can often be difficult to discriminate among the clutter of natural and man-made explosive events (e.g., earthquakes and mine blasts). The SPE is broken into three phases. Phase I has provided the first of the physics-based data to test the empirical models that have been used to discriminate nuclear events. The Phase I series of tests were placed within a highly fractured granite body. The evolution of the project has led to development of Phase II, to be placed within the opposite end member of geology, an alluvium environment, thereby increasing the database of waveforms to build upon in the discrimination models. Both the granite and alluvium sites have hosted nearby nuclear tests, which provide comparisons for the chemical test data. Phase III of the SPE is yet to be determined.

  6. Tomogram-based comparison of geostatistical models: Application to the Macrodispersion Experiment (MADE) site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linde, Niklas; Lochbühler, Tobias; Dogan, Mine; Van Dam, Remke L.

    2015-12-01

    We propose a new framework to compare alternative geostatistical descriptions of a given site. Multiple realizations of each of the considered geostatistical models and their corresponding tomograms (based on inversion of noise-contaminated simulated data) are used as a multivariate training image. The training image is scanned with a direct sampling algorithm to obtain conditional realizations of hydraulic conductivity that are not only in agreement with the geostatistical model, but also honor the spatially varying resolution of the site-specific tomogram. Model comparison is based on the quality of the simulated geophysical data from the ensemble of conditional realizations. The tomogram in this study is obtained by inversion of cross-hole ground-penetrating radar (GPR) first-arrival travel time data acquired at the MAcro-Dispersion Experiment (MADE) site in Mississippi (USA). Various heterogeneity descriptions ranging from multi-Gaussian fields to fields with complex multiple-point statistics inferred from outcrops are considered. Under the assumption that the relationship between porosity and hydraulic conductivity inferred from local measurements is valid, we find that conditioned multi-Gaussian realizations and derivatives thereof can explain the crosshole geophysical data. A training image based on an aquifer analog from Germany was found to be in better agreement with the geophysical data than the one based on the local outcrop, which appears to under-represent high hydraulic conductivity zones. These findings are only based on the information content in a single resolution-limited tomogram and extending the analysis to tracer or higher resolution surface GPR data might lead to different conclusions (e.g., that discrete facies boundaries are necessary). Our framework makes it possible to identify inadequate geostatistical models and petrophysical relationships, effectively narrowing the space of possible heterogeneity representations.

  7. Processes that contribute to radiocesium decontamination of feta cheese

    SciTech Connect

    Pappas, C.P.; Assimakopoulos, P.A.; Ioannides, K.G.; Pakou, A.A.; Mantzios, A.S.

    1989-05-01

    In a series of experiments, the transfer of radiocesium from ovine milk to feta cheese was investigated through modifications of the standard cheese making procedure. All variations explored showed no significant change in the percentage of radiocesium transfer and the milk-to-cheese transfer coefficient was determined as f=.79 plus/minus .04 L.kg-1. It is concluded that cesium, like the rest of the alkali metals, remains in the water phase and thus follows very closely the distribution of moisture into the products of cheese making. The possibility of radiocesium decontamination of mature feta during the customary storage of the product in brine was also explored in a second series of experiments. The theoretical model employed in the analysis of cesium transport from feta to brine is presented in the Appendix to this paper. Predictions of the model were validated by experiments. A procedure is thus proposed for decontaminating mature feta during storage through successive replacements of the storage medium. Nomograms are presented for the determination of the optimum time interval between changes of the brine and the radiocesium concentration remaining in the feta. Changes in the properties of the product induced by the proposed treatment were also investigated with respect to composition, taste, and overall quality.

  8. The technical basis for air pathway assessment of resuspended radioactive aerosols: LLNL experiences at seven sites around the world

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.H.

    1993-09-01

    There is a large uncertainty in quantifying the inhalation pathway and the aerosol emission rate in human health assessments of radioactive-contamination sites. The need for site-specific assessments led to formation of our team of specialists at LLNL, who have participated in numerous field campaigns around the world. Our goal was to obtain all the information necessary for determining potential human exposures and to estimate source terms for turbulent transport of the emissions during both normal and disturbed soil conditions. That is, measurements were made of the key variables to quantify the suspended aerosols at the actual contamination sites, but different scenarios for habitation, site management, and site cleanup were included. The most notable locations of these site-investigations were the Marshall Islands (Bikini, Enewetak, and Rongelap), Nevada Test Site (GMX, Little Feller, Palanquin, and Plutonium Valley), Tonopah (Nevada--site of Roller Coaster), Savannah River Lab (South Carolina--H-Area site), Johnston Island (cleanup of rocket-impact site), Chernobyl (Ukraine--grass field end sandy beach sites near Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4), and Palomares (Spain--site of aircraft accident). This discussion will review the variables quantified, methods developed, general results, uncertainty of estimations, and recommendations for future research that are a result of our experience in these field studies.

  9. TREATABILITY STUDIES USED TO TEST FOR EXOTHERMIC REACTIONS OF PLUTONIUM DECONTAMINATION CHEMICALS

    SciTech Connect

    EWALT, J.R.

    2005-06-06

    Fluor Hanford is decommissioning the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) at the Hanford site in Eastern Washington. Aggressive chemicals are commonly used to remove transuranic contaminants from process equipment to allow disposal as low level waste. Chemicals being considered for decontamination of gloveboxes in PFP include cerium(IV) nitrate in a nitric acid solution, and proprietary commercial solutions that include acids, degreasers, and sequestering agents. Fluor's decontamination procedure involves application of chemical solutions as a spray on the contaminated surfaces, followed by a wipe-down with rags. This process effectively transfers the transuranic materials to the decontamination liquids, which are then absorbed by rags and packaged for disposal as TRU waste. Concerns regarding the safety of this procedure developed following a fire at Rocky Flats in 2003. The fire occurred in a glovebox that had been treated with cerium nitrate, which is one of the decontamination chemicals that Fluor Hanford has proposed to use. The investigation of the event was hampered by the copious use of chemicals and water to extinguish the fire, and was not conclusive regarding the cause. However, the reviewers noted that rags were found in the glovebox, suggesting that the combination of rags and chemicals may have contributed to the fire. With that uncertainty, Fluor began an investigation into the potential for fire when using the chemicals and materials in the decontamination process. The focus of this work has been to develop a disposal strategy that will provide a chemically stable waste form at expected Hanford waste storage temperatures. Treatability tests under CERCLA were used to assess the use of certain chemicals and wipes during the decontamination process. Chemicals being considered for decontamination of gloveboxes at PFP include cerium (IV) nitrate in a nitric acid solution, and proprietary commercial solutions as RadPro{trademark} that include acids, degreasers

  10. Instructor Experiences with a Social Networking Site in a Higher Education Setting: Expectations, Frustrations, Appropriation, and Compartmentalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veletsianos, George; Kimmons, Royce; French, Karen D.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners have suggested that the use of social networking sites in formal education may be a worthwhile endeavor. Toward this goal, emerging learning platforms have included social networking features. Nevertheless, empirical literature examining user experiences, and more specifically instructor experiences, with these tools…

  11. Applying Crowd Psychology to Develop Recommendations for the Management of Mass Decontamination

    PubMed Central

    Drury, John; Rubin, G. James; Williams, Richard; Amlôt, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mass decontamination is a public health intervention employed by emergency responders following a chemical, biological, or radiological release. It involves a crowd of people whose interactions with each other and with the emergency responders managing the incident are likely to affect the success of the decontamination process. The way in which members of the public collectively experience decontamination is likely to affect their behavior and hence is crucial to the success of the decontamination process. Consequently, responders and the responsible authorities need to understand crowd psychology during mass emergencies and disasters. Recently, the social identity approach to crowd psychology has been applied to explain public perceptions and behavior during mass emergencies. This approach emphasizes that crowd events are characteristically intergroup encounters, in which the behavior of one group can affect the perceptions and behavior of another. We summarize the results from a program of research in which the social identity approach was applied to develop and test recommendations for the management of mass decontamination. The findings from this program of research show that (1) responders' perceptions of crowd behavior matter; (2) participants value greater communication and this affects their compliance; and (3) social identity processes explain the relationship between effective responder communication and relevant outcome variables, such as public compliance, public cooperation, and public anxiety. Based on this program of research, we recommend 4 responder management strategies that focus on increasing public compliance, increasing orderly and cooperative behavior among members of the public, reducing public anxiety, and respecting public needs for privacy. PMID:25812428

  12. Applying crowd psychology to develop recommendations for the management of mass decontamination.

    PubMed

    Carter, Holly; Drury, John; Rubin, G James; Williams, Richard; Amlôt, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mass decontamination is a public health intervention employed by emergency responders following a chemical, biological, or radiological release. It involves a crowd of people whose interactions with each other and with the emergency responders managing the incident are likely to affect the success of the decontamination process. The way in which members of the public collectively experience decontamination is likely to affect their behavior and hence is crucial to the success of the decontamination process. Consequently, responders and the responsible authorities need to understand crowd psychology during mass emergencies and disasters. Recently, the social identity approach to crowd psychology has been applied to explain public perceptions and behavior during mass emergencies. This approach emphasizes that crowd events are characteristically intergroup encounters, in which the behavior of one group can affect the perceptions and behavior of another. We summarize the results from a program of research in which the social identity approach was applied to develop and test recommendations for the management of mass decontamination. The findings from this program of research show that (1) responders' perceptions of crowd behavior matter; (2) participants value greater communication and this affects their compliance; and (3) social identity processes explain the relationship between effective responder communication and relevant outcome variables, such as public compliance, public cooperation, and public anxiety. Based on this program of research, we recommend 4 responder management strategies that focus on increasing public compliance, increasing orderly and cooperative behavior among members of the public, reducing public anxiety, and respecting public needs for privacy. PMID:25812428

  13. Decontamination of chemical agents in Freon-113. Final report, February 1984-August 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.C.; Collins, K.R.; Ward, J.R.; Richmond, J.A.

    1993-06-01

    Freon solubilizes hydrophobic chemical warfare agents, such as soman, without damaging sensitive electronic equipment, such as night-vision goggles or communication equipment. Freon is used in this manner in the Nonaqueous Equipment Decontamination System (NAEDS) under development at CRDEC. The contaminated Freon is returned to a still, after which it is distilled through an aqueous layer containing bleach to decontaminate the residual agent. This report describes the results of experiments to measure how effectively agent is destroyed in the NAEDS. These results show that residual agent is still left in the redistilled Freon, and there is little difference whether the active decontaminant is removed from the aqueous layer. A mixture was prepared consisting of a 1:1:1 mixture of ethanol, 8 m sodium hydroxide, and Freon. It was demonstrated that the use of this mixture in the NAEDS would destroy all agent and that the redistilled Freon was free of soman. Freon-113, Bleach, Decontamination, Distillation, Non-Aqueous equipment decontamination system, Ethanol blend.

  14. Decontamination trade study for the Light Duty Utility Arm

    SciTech Connect

    Rieck, R.H.

    1994-09-29

    Various methods were evaluated for decontaminating the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). Physical capabilities of each method were compared with the constraints and requirements for the LDUA Decontamination System. Costs were compared and a referred alternative was chosen.

  15. Selective decontamination and antibiotic resistance in ICUs.

    PubMed

    Plantinga, Nienke L; Bonten, Marc J M

    2015-01-01

    Selective digestive decontamination (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) have been associated with reduced mortality and lower ICU-acquired bacteremia and ventilator-associated pneumonia rates in areas with low levels of antibiotic resistance. However, the effect of selective decontamination (SDD/SOD) in areas where multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are endemic is less clear. It will be important to determine whether SDD/SOD improves patient outcome in such settings and how these measures affect the epidemiology of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Here we review the current evidence on the effects of SDD/SOD on antibiotic resistance development in individual ICU patients as well as the effect on ICU ecology, the latter including both ICU-level antibiotic resistance and antibiotic resistance development during long-term use of SDD/SOD. PMID:26104045

  16. PYROCHEMICAL DECONTAMINATION METHOD FOR REACTOR FUEL

    DOEpatents

    Buyers, A.G.

    1959-06-30

    A pyro-chemical method is presented for decontaminating neutron irradiated uranium and separating plutonium therefrom by contact in the molten state with a metal chloride salt. Uranium trichloride and uranium tetrachloride either alone or in admixture with alkaline metal and alkaline eanth metal fluorides under specified temperature and specified phase ratio conditions extract substantially all of the uranium from the irradiated uranium fuel together with certain fission products. The phases are then separated leaving purified uranium metal. The uranium and plutonium in the salt phase can be reduced to forin a highly decontaminated uraniumplutonium alloy. The present method possesses advantages for economically decontaminating irradiated nuclear fuel elements since irradiated fuel may be proccessed immediately after withdrawal from the reactor and the uranium need not be dissolved and later reduced to the metallic form. Accordingly, the uranium may be economically refabricated and reinserted into the reactor.

  17. Radioactive scrap metal decontamination technology assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.; Schlienger, M.E.

    1996-04-01

    Within the DOE complex there exists a tremendous quantity of radioactive scrap metal. As an example, it is estimated that within the gaseous diffusion plants there exists in excess of 700,000 tons of contaminated stainless steel. At present, valuable material is being disposed of when it could be converted into a high quality product. Liquid metal processing represents a true recycling opportunity for this material. By applying the primary production processes towards the material`s decontamination and re-use, the value of the strategic resource is maintained while drastically reducing the volume of material in need of burial. Potential processes for the liquid metal decontamination of radioactively contaminated metal are discussed and contrasted. Opportunities and technology development issues are identified and discussed. The processes compared are: surface decontamination; size reduction, packaging and burial; melting technologies; electric arc melting; plasma arc centrifugal treatment; air induction melting; vacuum induction melting; and vacuum induction melting and electroslag remelting.

  18. Proceedings of the 2007 ANS Topical Meeting on Decommissioning, Decontamination, and Reutilization - DD and R 2007

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-15

    The American Nuclear Society (ANS) Topical Meeting on Decommissioning, Decontamination, and Reutilization (DD and R 2007), 'Capturing Decommissioning Lessons Learned', is sponsored by the ANS Decommissioning, Decontamination and Reutilization; Environmental Sciences; and Fuel Cycle and Waste Management Divisions. This meeting provides a forum for an international exchange of technical knowledge and project management experience gained from the ongoing process of decommissioning nuclear facilities. Of particular note is the number of projects that are approaching completion. This document gathers 113 presentations given at this meeting.

  19. Environmental decontamination following occupancy of a burns patient with multiple carbapenemase-producing organisms.

    PubMed

    Garvey, M I; Bradley, C W; Jumaa, P

    2016-06-01

    Over the last decade, carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPOs) have spread worldwide, becoming a major public health concern. This article reports the authors' experience in dealing with a burns patient infected with CPOs, and the decontamination methods employed to render a burns shock room safe for re-use. The shock room was cleaned after being vacated, but environmental sampling cultured multiple CPOs. A second decontamination was undertaken comprising a detergent, steam and hypochlorite clean followed by hydrogen peroxide misting, and no CPOs were cultured after subsequent environmental sampling. A burns patient harbouring CPOs contaminates the surroundings heavily, so standard cleaning is insufficient to reduce the environmental bioburden. PMID:26895617

  20. Effect of decontamination on aging processes and considerations for life extension

    SciTech Connect

    Diercks, D.R.

    1987-10-01

    The basis for a recently initiated program on the chemical decontamination of nuclear reactor components and the possible impact of decontamination on extended-life service is described. The incentives for extending plant life beyond the present 40-year limit are discussed, and the possible aging degradation processes that may be accentuated in extended-life service are described. Chemical decontamination processes for nuclear plant primary systems are summarized with respect to their corrosive effects on structural alloys, particularly those in the aged condition. Available experience with chemical cleaning processes for the secondary side of PWR steam generators is also briefly considered. Overall, no severe materials corrosion problems have been found that would preclude the use of these chemical processes, but concerns have been raised in several areas, particularly with respect to corrosion-related problems that may develop during extended service.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTRO-ACOUSTIC SOIL DECONTAMINATION (ESD) FOR IN-SITU APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The technical feasibility of electro-acoustic soil decontamination process through lab experiments demonstrated the removal/-concentration of heavy metals such as cadmium and zinc. Results of the decane contaminated soils were, however, inconclusive. The ESD process is based on t...

  2. Efficacy of Cankerguard® Sprays for Effective Decontamination of Citrus Canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is endemic in Florida. We used grapefruit leaf surfaces to explore the efficacy of the personnel decontaminant Cankerguard® to kill inoculum. In three experiments plants in flush (leaves 3/4 expanded) were sprayed with inoculum (2x104-9x105 CFU/ml)...

  3. Comparative modeling of an in situ diffusion experiment in granite at the Grimsel Test Site.

    PubMed

    Soler, Josep M; Landa, Jiri; Havlova, Vaclava; Tachi, Yukio; Ebina, Takanori; Sardini, Paul; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja; Eikenberg, Jost; Martin, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    An in situ diffusion experiment was performed at the Grimsel Test Site (Switzerland). Several tracers ((3)H as HTO, (22)Na(+), (134)Cs(+), (131)I(-) with stable I(-) as carrier) were continuously circulated through a packed-off borehole and the decrease in tracer concentrations in the liquid phase was monitored for a period of about 2years. Subsequently, the borehole section was overcored and the tracer profiles in the rock analyzed ((3)H, (22)Na(+), (134)Cs(+)). (3)H and (22)Na(+) showed a similar decrease in activity in the circulation system (slightly larger drop for (3)H). The drop in activity for (134)Cs(+) was much more pronounced. Transport distances in the rock were about 20cm for (3)H, 10cm for (22)Na(+), and 1cm for (134)Cs(+). The dataset (except for (131)I(-) because of complete decay at the end of the experiment) was analyzed with different diffusion-sorption models by different teams (IDAEA-CSIC, UJV-Rez, JAEA) using different codes, with the goal of obtaining effective diffusion coefficients (De) and porosity (ϕ) or rock capacity (α) values. From the activity measurements in the rock, it was observed that it was not possible to recover the full tracer activity in the rock (no activity balance when adding the activities in the rock and in the fluid circulation system). A Borehole Disturbed Zone (BDZ) had to be taken into account to fit the experimental observations. The extension of the BDZ (1-2mm) is about the same magnitude than the mean grain size of the quartz and feldspar grains. IDAEA-CSIC and UJV-Rez tried directly to match the results of the in situ experiment, without forcing any laboratory-based parameter values into the models. JAEA conducted a predictive modeling based on laboratory diffusion data and their scaling to in situ conditions. The results from the different codes have been compared, also with results from small-scale laboratory experiments. Outstanding issues to be resolved are the need for a very large capacity factor in the

  4. Green coffee decontamination by electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemtanu, Monica R.; Brasoveanu, Mirela; Grecu, Maria Nicoleta; Minea, R.

    2005-10-01

    Microbiological load of green coffee is a real problem considering that it is extremely sensitive to contamination. Irradiation is a decontamination method for a lot of foodstuffs, being a feasible, very effective and environment friendly one. Beans and ground green coffee were irradiated with electron beams up to 40 kGy. Microbial load, rheological behavior, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and visible spectroscopy were carried out. The results show that electron beam irradiation of green coffee could decontaminate it without severe changes in its properties.

  5. DECONTAMINATION OF NEUTRON-IRRADIATED REACTOR FUEL

    DOEpatents

    Buyers, A.G.; Rosen, F.D.; Motta, E.E.

    1959-12-22

    A pyrometallurgical method of decontaminating neutronirradiated reactor fuel is presented. In accordance with the invention, neutron-irradiated reactor fuel may be decontaminated by countercurrently contacting the fuel with a bed of alkali and alkaine fluorides under an inert gas atmosphere and inductively melting the fuel and tracking the resulting descending molten fuel with induction heating as it passes through the bed. By this method, a large, continually fresh surface of salt is exposed to the descending molten fuel which enhances the efficiency of the scrubbing operation.

  6. Decontamination of metals using chemical etching

    DOEpatents

    Lerch, Ronald E.; Partridge, Jerry A.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to chemical etching process for reclaiming contaminated equipment wherein a reduction-oxidation system is included in a solution of nitric acid to contact the metal to be decontaminated and effect reduction of the reduction-oxidation system, and includes disposing a pair of electrodes in the reduced solution to permit passage of an electrical current between said electrodes and effect oxidation of the reduction-oxidation system to thereby regenerate the solution and provide decontaminated equipment that is essentially radioactive contamination-free.

  7. Proceedings of the workshop on transite decontamination dismantlement and recycle/disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    On February 3--4, 1993, a workshop was conducted to examine issues associated with the decontamination, dismantlement, and recycle/disposal of transite located at the US Department of Energy Fernald site near Cincinnati, OH. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is a Superfund Site currently undergoing remediation. A major objective of the workshop was to assess the state-of-the-art of transite remediation, and generate concepts that could be useful to the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Co. (FERMCO) for remediation of transite. Transite is a building material consisting of asbestos fiber and cement and may be radioactively contaminated as a result of past uranium processing operations at the FEMP. Many of the 100 buildings within the former uranium production area were constructed of transite siding and roofing and consequently, over 180,000 m{sup 2} of transite must be disposed or recycled. Thirty-six participants representing industry, academia, and government institutions such as the EPA and DOE assembled at the workshop to present their experience with transite, describe work in progress, and address the issues involved in remediating transite.

  8. 41 CFR 101-45.001 - Demilitarization and decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... decontamination. 101-45.001 Section 101-45.001 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property..., ABANDONMENT, OR DESTRUCTION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY § 101-45.001 Demilitarization and decontamination. (a... characteristics, or otherwise making it unfit for further use. (b) Demilitarization or decontamination of...

  9. 41 CFR 101-45.001 - Demilitarization and decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... decontamination. 101-45.001 Section 101-45.001 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property..., ABANDONMENT, OR DESTRUCTION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY § 101-45.001 Demilitarization and decontamination. (a... characteristics, or otherwise making it unfit for further use. (b) Demilitarization or decontamination of...

  10. 41 CFR 101-45.001 - Demilitarization and decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... decontamination. 101-45.001 Section 101-45.001 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property..., ABANDONMENT, OR DESTRUCTION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY § 101-45.001 Demilitarization and decontamination. (a... characteristics, or otherwise making it unfit for further use. (b) Demilitarization or decontamination of...

  11. Universal Oxidation for CBW Decontamination: L-Gel System Development and Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Raber, E.; McGuire, R.; Hoffman, M.; Shepley, D.; Carlsen, T.; Krauter, P.; Alcaraz, A.

    2000-07-10

    The optimum goal of this study is to develop a single decontamination system for chemical and biological agents which is non-toxic, non-corrosive, and easily deployable. The specific objective of this work was to evaluate oxidizer systems as reagents for detoxification and/or degradation to non-toxic environmentally acceptable components rather than necessitate complete destruction. Detoxification requires less reagent material than total oxidation, thereby reducing the logistic burden for a decontamination team. One of the goals is to develop decontamination systems for use by first responders as well as more complete systems to be used by specialized decontamination teams. Therefore, the overall project goal is to develop better decontamination methods that can be quickly implemented by these organizations. This includes early demonstrations and field work with companies or other government agencies who can identify implementation concerns and needs. The approach taken in this work is somewhat different than the standard military approach to decontamination. In a battlefield scenario, it is critical to decontaminate to a useful level in a very short time so the soldiers can continue their mission. In a domestic, urban scenario, time is of less consequence but collateral damage and re-certification (public perception and stakeholder acceptance) are of much greater importance. Since we wanted to maximize the contact time between the decontaminating reagent and the contaminant agent, we selected gelled reagents as the primary carrier material. Gels have the additional advantage of adhering to vertical or horizontal surfaces such as walls and ceilings. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, over a period of twenty years from the late 1960s to the late 1980s, developed a series of extrudable high explosives based on the gelling of polar energetic liquids. While never going into production, this development served as an experience base for formulation

  12. Tritium contamination and decontamination of sealing oil for vacuum pump

    SciTech Connect

    Takeishi, T.; Kotoh, K.; Kawabata, Y.; Tanaka, J.I.; Kawamura, S.; Iwata, M.

    2015-03-15

    The existence of tritium-contaminated oils from vacuum pumps used in tritium facilities, is becoming an important issue since there is no disposal way for tritiated waste oils. On recovery of tritiated water vapor in gas streams, it is well-known that the isotope exchange reaction between the gas phase and the liquid phase occurs effectively at room temperature. We have carried out experiments using bubbles to examine the tritium contamination and decontamination of a volume of rotary-vacuum-pump oil. The contamination of the pump oil was made by bubbling tritiated water vapor and tritiated hydrogen gas into the oil. Subsequently the decontamination was processed by bubbling pure water vapor and dry argon gas into the tritiated oil. Results show that the water vapor bubbling was more effective than dry argon gas. The experiment also shows that the water vapor bubbling in an oil bottle can remove and transfer tritium efficiently from the tritiated oil into another water-bubbling bottle.

  13. Cost Savings through Innovation in Decontamination, Decommissioning, and Dismantlement

    SciTech Connect

    Neal A. Yancey

    2003-02-27

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost effective technologies for the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsored large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs) to help bring new technologies into the D&D programs. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) LSDDP generated a list of needs defining specific problems where improved technologies could be incorporated into ongoing D&D tasks. The needs fell into 5 major categories--characterization, dismantlement, safety, material dispositioning, and decontamination. Technologies were carefully selected that provide a large benefit for a small investment. The technologies must provide significant improvements in cost, safety, radiation exposure, waste volume reduction, or schedule savings and widely applicable throughout the DOE complex. The LSDDP project provided training for the new technologies and worked with technology suppliers to resolve any questions that arose. Since 1998, 26 technologies have been demonstrated or deployed through the LSDDP for the D&D program at the INEEL. Of the 26 demonstrated and deployed technologies, 14 were in characterization, 3 were in decontamination, 4 were in dismantlement, 3 were in safety, and 2 were in material dispositioning. To promote the use of these technologies at other sites within the DOE complex, the LSDDP team published fact sheets, videos, technology summary reports, articles in INEEL star newspaper, posters, and maintained an internet home page on the project. As a result, additional deployments have taken place at the Hanford, Mound, Fernald, Oak Ridge, Ashtabula, and West Valley. Eight of the 26 technologies evaluated were developed in foreign countries. The technologies demonstrated have been shown to be faster, less expensive, and/or safer. The

  14. Cutaneous absorption and decontamination of ( sup 3 H)T-2 toxin in the rat model

    SciTech Connect

    Bunner, B.L.; Wannemacher, R.W. Jr.; Dinterman, R.E.; Broski, F.H. )

    1989-01-01

    Cutaneous absorption and decontamination of ({sup 3}H)T-2 mycotoxin using various treatment modalities incorporating water, detergent, sprays, and scrubbing of application sites were examined in the rat model at 5, 30, 60, and 1440 min (24 h) postexposure. Rats were killed immediately after treatment and radiolabeled T-2 remaining in full-thickness skin samples was determined. Absorption and decontamination were followed over time, and decontaminating treatment modalities were evaluated for efficacy. Less than 1% of the applied dose was absorbed in 5 min, and 50% was absorbed in 24 h. At 5 min, 99.5 {plus minus} 0.05% of nonabsorbed (residual) ({sup 3}H)T-2 was removed, and 58 {plus minus} 5.2% of residual toxin was removed at 24 h with a 2.5% detergent/water spray. When treatment modalities were evaluated at 60 min, a 2.5% detergent/water scrub followed by a detergent/water spray produced optimal decontamination by removing 81 {plus minus} 2.2% of residual toxin. All treatment modalities using detergent and/or water removed significant amounts of toxin, a dry scrub was not efficacious. Treatment should be initiated as soon as possible after exposure for best results. However, the stratum corneum acts as a reservoir for the toxin, and decontamination should be carried out even if delayed several hours or days after exposure. Dermal absorption pharmacokinetics found in these studies are similar to those described for other low-molecular-weight compounds, and the decontamination results from T-2 toxin should be applicable to other, similar toxic substances.

  15. Russian Experience in the Regulatory Supervision of the Uranium Legacy Sites - 12441

    SciTech Connect

    Kiselev, M.F.; Romanov, V.V.; Shandala, N.K.; Titov, A.V.; Kiselev, S.M.; Seregin, V.A.; Metlyaev, E.G.; Novikova, N.; Khokhlova, E.A.

    2012-07-01

    uranium mining and milling' is to be introduced as the legal acts and regulatory documents. The recent ICRP recommendations provide the flexible approaches for solving of such tasks. The FMBA of Russia recognizes the problems of radiation safety assurance related to the legacy of the former USSR in the uranium mining industry. Some part of the regulatory problems assumes to be solved within the EurAsEC inter-state target program 'Reclamation of the territories of the EurAsEC member states affected by the uranium mining and milling facilities'. Using the example of the uranium legacy sites in Kyrgyz and Tajikistan which could result in the tran-boundary disasters and require urgent reclamation, the experience will be gained to be used in other states as well. Harmonization of the national legislations and regulative documents on radiation safety assurance is envisaged. (authors)

  16. Field experiment on CO2 back-production at the Ketzin pilot site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, Sonja; Möller, Fabian; Schmidt-Hattenberger, Cornelia; Streibel, Martin; Szizybalski, Alexandra; Liebscher, Axel

    2015-04-01

    The operational phase of the Ketzin pilot site for geological CO2 storage in Germany started in June 2008 and ended in August 2013. Over the period of approximately five years, a total amount of 67 kt of CO2 was successfully injected into a saline aquifer (Upper Triassic sandstone) at a depth of 630 m - 650 m. The CO2 used was mainly of food grade quality. In addition, 1.5 kt of CO2 from the pilot capture facility "Schwarze Pumpe" (lignite power plant CO2) was used in 2011. At the end of the injection period, 32 t N2 and 613 t CO2 were co-injected during a four-week field test in July and August 2013. In October 2014, a field experiment was carried out at Ketzin with the aim to back-produce parts of the injected CO2 during a two-week period. This experiment addressed two main questions: (i) How do reservoir and wellbore behave during back-production of CO2? and (ii) What is the composition of the CO2 and the co-produced formation fluid? The back-production was carried out through the former injection well. It was conducted continuously over the first week and with an alternating regime including production during day-time and shut-ins during night-time in the second week. During the test, a total amount of 240 t of CO2 and 57 m3 of brine were safely back-produced from the reservoir. Production rates up to 3,200 kg/h - which corresponds to the former highest injection rate - could be tested. Vital monitoring parameters included production rates of CO2 and brine, wellhead and bottomhole pressure and temperature at the production and observation wells and distributed temperature sensing (DTS) along the production well. A permanently installed geoelectrical array was used for crosshole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) monitoring of the reservoir. Formation fluid and gas samples were collected and analysed. The measured compositions allow studying the geochemical interactions between CO2, formation fluid and rocks under in-situ conditions The field experiment

  17. Site Characterization of the Source Physics Experiment Phase II Location Using Seismic Reflection Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sexton, E. A.; Snelson, C. M.; Chipman, V.; Emer, D. F.; White, R. L.; Emmitt, R.; Wright, A. A.; Drellack, S.; Huckins-Gang, H.; Mercadante, J.; Floyd, M.; McGowin, C.; Cothrun, C.; Bonal, N.

    2013-12-01

    An objective of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is to identify low-yield nuclear explosions from a regional distance. Low-yield nuclear explosions can often be difficult to discriminate among the clutter of natural and man-made explosive events (e.g., earthquakes and mine blasts). The SPE is broken into three phases. Phase I has provided the first of the physics-based data to test the empirical models that have been used to discriminate nuclear events. The Phase I series of tests were placed within a highly fractured granite body. The evolution of the project has led to development of Phase II, to be placed within the opposite end member of geology, an alluvium environment, thereby increasing the database of waveforms to build upon in the discrimination models. Both the granite and alluvium sites have hosted nearby nuclear tests, which provide comparisons for the chemical test data. Phase III of the SPE is yet to be determined. For Phase II of the experiment, characterization of the location is required to develop the geologic/geophysical models for the execution of the experiment. Criteria for the location are alluvium thickness of approximately 170 m and a water table below 170 m; minimal fracturing would be ideal. A P-wave mini-vibroseis survey was conducted at a potential site in alluvium to map out the subsurface geology. The seismic reflection profile consisted of 168 geophone stations, spaced 5 m apart. The mini-vibe was a 7,000-lb peak-force source, starting 57.5 m off the north end of the profile and ending 57.5 m past the southern-most geophone. The length of the profile was 835 m. The source points were placed every 5 m, equally spaced between geophones to reduce clipping. The vibroseis sweep was from 20 Hz down to 180 Hz over 8 seconds, and four sweeps were stacked at each shot location. The shot gathers show high signal-to-noise ratios with clear first arrivals across the entire spread and the suggestion of some shallow reflectors. The data were

  18. Laparoendoscopic single site surgery for extravesical repair of vesicovaginal fistula using conventional instruments: Our initial experience

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevappa, Nagabhushana; Gudage, Swathi; Senguttavan, Karthikeyan V.; Mallya, Ashwin; Dharwadkar, Sachin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) is a major complication with psychosocial ramifications. In literature, few VVF cases have been managed by laparoendoscopic single site surgery (LESS) and for the 1st time we report VVF repair by LESS using conventional laparoscopic instruments. We present our initial experience and to assess its feasibility, safety and outcome. Patients and Methods: From March 2012 to September 2015, LESS VVF repair was done for ten patients aged between 30 and 65 (45.6 ± 10.15) years, who presented with supratrigonal VVF. LESS was performed by modified O’Conor technique using regular trocars with conventional instruments. Data were collected regarding feasibility, intra- or post-operative pain, analgesic requirement, complication, and recovery. Results: All 10 cases were completed successfully, without conversion to a standard laparoscopic or open approach. The mean operative time was 182.5 ± 32.25 (150–250) min. The mean blood loss was 100 mL. The respective mean visual analog score for pain on day 1, 2, and 3 was 9.2 ± 1, 5 ± 1, and 1.4 ± 2.3. The analgesic requirement in the form of intravenous tramadol on days 1, 2, and 3 was 160 ± 51.6, 80 ± 63.2, and 30 ± 48.3, mgs respectively. No major intra- or post-operative complications were observed. The mean hospital stay was 2.6 ± 0.7 (2–4) days. Conclusion: In select patients, LESS extravesical repair of VVF using conventional laparoscopic instruments is safe, feasible with all the advantages of single port surgery at no added cost. Additional experience and comparative studies with conventional laparoscopy are warranted. PMID:27453652

  19. Testing and evaluation of light ablation decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Demmer, R.L.; Ferguson, R.L.

    1994-10-01

    This report details the testing and evaluation of light ablation decontamination. It details WINCO contracted research and application of light ablation efforts by Ames Laboratory. Tests were conducted with SIMCON (simulated contamination) coupons and REALCON (actual radioactive metal coupons) under controlled conditions to compare cleaning effectiveness, speed and application to plant process type equipment.

  20. Radiation decontamination of meat lyophylized products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migdał, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.

    2002-03-01

    There is an increasing demand for a powder soups and sauces composed with lyophylizated meat. Technology of lyophylization is not always accompanied by thermal treatment of raw materials. That is the reason the meat lyophylization process does not ensure as good microbiological quality as is required. Degree of microbiological decontamination and organoleptic properties of lyophilized meat were investigated after radiation treatment.

  1. HAZARDOUS WASTE DECONTAMINATION WITH PLASMA REACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of electrical energy in the form of plasma has been considered as a potentially efficient means of decontaminating hazardous waste, although to date only a few attempts have been made to do so. There are a number of relative advantages and some potential disadvantages to...

  2. Advances in Sterilization and Decontamination: a Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Recent technical advances made in the field of sterilization and decontamination and their applicability to private and commercial interests are discussed. Government-sponsored programs by NASA produced the bulk of material presented in this survey. The summary of past and current research discussed is detailed to enhance an effective transfer of technology from NASA to potential users.

  3. Biological Decontamination Using Pulsed Filamentary Microplasma Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pothiraja, Ramasamy; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Keil, Gernot; Bibinov, Nikita; Awakowicz, Peter

    Microplasma jet for the generation of pulsed filamentary discharge at atmospheric pressure has been devised for biological decontamination as well as for modification of surface properties. Long plasma-filament is generated inside a quartz tube and characterized using optical emission spectroscopy, current voltage measurements, numerical simulations and microphotography. Efficiency of our plasma source for the decontamination on inner surface of the tube as well as on objects placed in proximity of plasma effluent is studied. Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacteria) and spores of Bacillus atrophaeus (Gram-positive bacteria) are used for the decontamination studies. Decontamination of Bacillus atrophaeus endospores, which are layered on PET polymer material, and placed in the proximity of plasma effluent, shows the mean logarithmic bacterial reduction of 3.67 for the treatment time of 120 s. Inactivation of Escherichia coli coated on inner surface of the tube shows the mean logarithmic bacterial reduction of about 5 for the treatment time of 30 s. In addition to this, inhibition studies of bacteria coated on agar plate are also carried out. It shows plasma effluent generated in our plasma source is very effective for the inhibition of bacterial colonization.

  4. The Source Physics Experiments (SPE) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS): An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snelson, C. M.; Chipman, V.; White, R. L.; Emmitt, R.; Townsend, M.; Barker, D.; Lee, P.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the changes in seismic energy as it travels from the near field to the far field is the ultimate goal in monitoring for explosive events of interest. This requires a clear understanding of explosion phenomenology as it relates to seismic, infrasound, and acoustic signals. Although there has been much progress in modeling these phenomena, this has been primarily based in the empirical realm. As a result, the logical next step in advancing the seismic monitoring capability of the United States is to conduct field tests that can expand the predictive capability of the physics-based modeling currently under development. The Source Physics Experiment at the Nevada National Security Site (SPE) is the first step in this endeavor to link the empirically based with the physics-based modeling. This is a collaborative project between National Security Technologies (NSTec), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and the Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC). The test series require both the simple and complex cases to fully characterize the problem, which is to understand the transition of seismic energy from the near field to the far field; to understand the development of S-waves in explosives sources; and how anisotropy controls seismic energy transmission and partitioning. The current series is being conducted in a granite body called the Climax Stock. This location was chosen for several reasons, including the fairly homogenous granite; the location of previous nuclear tests in the same rock body; and generally the geology has been well characterized. The simple geology series is planned for 7 shots using conventional explosives in the same shot hole surrounded by Continuous Reflectometry for Radius vs. Time Experiment (CORRTEX), Time of Arrival (TOA), Velocity of Detonation (VOD), down-hole accelerometers, surface

  5. An Overview of the Source Physics Experiment at the Nevada National Security Site (SPE-N)

    SciTech Connect

    Snelson, C. M., Chipman, V. D., White, R. L., Emmitt, R. F., Townsend, M. J., Barker, D., Lee, P.

    2012-07-11

    Understanding the changes in seismic energy as it travels from the near field to the far field is the ultimate goal in monitoring for explosive events of interest. This requires a clear understanding of explosion phenomenology as it relates to seismic, infrasound, and acoustic signals. Although there has been much progress in modeling these phenomena, this has been primarily based in the empirical realm. As a result, the logical next step in advancing the seismic monitoring capability of the United States is to conduct field tests that can expand the predictive capability of the physics-based modeling currently under development. The Source Physics Experiment at the Nevada National Security Site (SPE-N) is the first step in this endeavor to link the empirically based with the physics-based modeling. This is a collaborative project between National Security Technologies (NSTec), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and the Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC). The test series require both the simple and complex cases to fully characterize the problem, which is to understand the transition of seismic energy from the near field to the far field; to understand the development of S-waves in explosives sources; and how anisotropy controls seismic energy transmission and partitioning. The current series is being conducted in a granite body called the Climax Stock. This location was chosen for several reasons, including the fairly homogenous granite; the location of previous nuclear tests in the same rock body; and generally the geology has been well characterized. The simple geology series is planned for 7 shots using conventional explosives in the same shot hole surrounded by Continuous Reflectometry for Radius vs. Time Experiment (CORRTEX), Time of Arrival (TOA), Velocity of Detonation (VOD), down-hole accelerometers, surface

  6. Potential Offsite Radiological Doses Estimated for the Proposed Divine Strake Experiment, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ron Warren

    2006-12-01

    An assessment of the potential radiation dose that residents offsite of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) might receive from the proposed Divine Strake experiment was made to determine compliance with Subpart H of Part 61 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities. The Divine Strake experiment, proposed by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, consists of a detonation of 700 tons of heavy ammonium nitrate fuel oil-emulsion above the U16b Tunnel complex in Area 16 of the NTS. Both natural radionuclides suspended, and historic fallout radionuclides resuspended from the detonation, have potential to be transported outside the NTS boundary by wind. They may, therefore, contribute radiological dose to the public. Subpart H states ''Emissions of radionuclides to the ambient air from Department of Energy facilities shall not exceed those amounts that would cause any member of the public to receive in any year an effective dose equivalent of 10 mrem/yr'' (Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 61.92) where mrem/yr is millirem per year. Furthermore, application for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approval of construction of a new source or modification of an existing source is required if the effective dose equivalent, caused by all emissions from the new construction or modification, is greater than or equal to 0.1 mrem/yr (40 CFR 61.96). In accordance with Section 61.93, a dose assessment was conducted with the computer model CAP88-PC, Version 3.0. In addition to this model, a dose assessment was also conducted by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This modeling was conducted to obtain dose estimates from a model designed for acute releases and which addresses terrain effects and uses meteorology from multiple locations. Potential radiation dose to a hypothetical maximally

  7. Electrolytic decontamination of the 3013 inner can

    SciTech Connect

    Wedman, D.E.; Nelson, T.O.; Rivera, Y.; Weisbrod, K.; Martinez, H.E.; Limback, S.

    1998-12-31

    Disposition of plutonium recovered from nuclear weapons or production residues must be stored in a manner that ensures safety. The criteria that has been established to assure the safety of stored materials for a minimum of 50 years is DOE-STD-3013. This standard specifies both the requirements for containment and furthermore specifies that the inner container be decontaminated to a level of {le}20 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} swipable and {le}500 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} direct alpha such that a failure of the outer containment barrier will have a lower probability of resulting in a spread of contamination. The package consists of an optional convenience (food pack) can, a welded type 304L stainless steel inner (primary) can, and a welded type 304L stainless steel outer (secondary) can. Following the welding process, the can is checked for leaks and then sent down the line for decontamination. Once decontaminated, the sealed primary can may be removed from the glove box line. Welding of the secondary container takes place outside the glove box line. The highly automated decontamination process that has been developed to support the packaging of Special Nuclear Materials is based on an electrolytic process similar to the wide spread industrial technique of electropolishing. The can is placed within a specially designed stainless steel fixture built within a partition of a glove box. The passage of current through this electrolytic cell results in a uniform anodic dissolution of the surface metal layers of the can. This process results in a rapid decontamination of the can. The electrolyte is fully recyclable, and the separation of the chromium from the actinides results in a compact, non RCRA secondary waste product.

  8. Electrolytic decontamination of the 3013 inner can

    SciTech Connect

    Wedman, D.E.; Nelson, T.O.; Rivera, Y.; Weisbrod, K.; Martinez, H.E.; Limback, S.

    1998-12-31

    Disposition of plutonium recovered from nuclear weapons or production residues must be stored in a manner that ensures safety. The criteria that has been established to assure the safety of stored materials for a minimum of 50 years is DOE-STD-3013. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has designed a containment package in accordance with the DOE standard. The package consists of an optional convenience (food pack) can, a welded type 304L stainless steel inner (primary) can, and a welded type 304L stainless steel outer (secondary) can. With or without the food pack can, the material is placed inside the primary can and welded shut under a helium atmosphere. This activity takes place totally within the confinement of the glove box line. Following the welding process, the can is checked for leaks and then sent down the line for decontamination. Once decontaminated, the sealed primary can may be removed from the glove box line. Welding of the secondary container takes place outside the glove box line. The highly automated decontamination process that has been developed to support the packaging of Special Nuclear Materials is based on an electrolytic process similar to the wide spread industrial technique of electropolishing. The can is placed within a specially designed stainless steel fixture built within a partition of a glove box. This fixture is then filled with a flowing electrolyte solution. A low DC electric current is made to flow between the can, acting as the anode, and the fixture, acting as the cathode. Following the decontamination, the system provides a flow of rinse water through the fixture to rinse the can of remaining salt residues. The system then carried out a drying cycle. Finally, the fixture is opened from the opposite side of the partition and the can surface monitored directly and through surface smears to assure that decontamination is adequate.

  9. An Overview of the Source Physics Experiments (SPE) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snelson, C. M.; Barker, D. L.; White, R. L.; Emmitt, R. F.; Townsend, M. J.; Graves, T. E.; Becker, S. A.; Teel, M. G.; Lee, P.; Antoun, T. H.; Rodgers, A.; Walter, W. R.; Mellors, R. J.; Brunish, W. M.; Bradley, C. R.; Patton, H. J.; Hawkins, W. L.; Corbell, B. H.; Abbott, R. E.; SPE Working Group

    2011-12-01

    Modeling of explosion phenomenology has been primarily empirically based when looking at the seismic, infrasound, and acoustic signals. In order to detect low-yield nuclear explosions under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), we must be able to understand and model the explosive source in settings beyond where we have empirical data. The Source Physics Experiments (SPE) at the Nevada National Security Site are the first step in this endeavor to link the empirically based with the physics-based modeling to develop this predictive capability. The current series of tests is being conducted in a granite body called the Climax Stock. This location was chosen for several reasons, including the site's expected "simple geology"-the granite is a fairly homogeneous body. In addition, data are available from underground nuclear tests that were conducted in the same rock body, and the nature of the geology has been well-documented. Among the project goals for the SPE is to provide fully coupled seismic energy to the seismic and acoustic seismic arrays so that the transition between the near and far-field data can be modeled and our scientists can begin to understand how non-linear effects and anisotropy control seismic energy transmission and partitioning. The first shot for the SPE was conducted in May 2011 as a calibration shot (SPE1) with 220 lb (100 kg) of chemical explosives set at a depth of 180 ft (55 m). An array of sensors and diagnostics recorded the shot data, including accelerometers, geophones, rotational sensors, short-period and broadband seismic sensors, Continuous Reflectometry for Radius vs. Time Experiment (CORRTEX), Time of Arrival (TOA), Velocity of Detonation (VOD) as well as infrasound sensors. The three-component accelerometer packages were set at depths of 180 ft (55 m), 150 ft (46 m), and 50 ft (15 m) in two rings around ground zero (GZ); the inner ring was at 10 m and the outer ring was 20 m from GZ. Six sets of surface accelerometers

  10. CO2 Field Laboratory at Svelvik Ridge: Site characterization after the first injection experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buddensiek, M. L.; Lindeberg, E.; Mørk, A.; Jones, D.; Girard, J. F.; Kuras, O.; Barrio, M.; Royse, K.; Gal, F.; Meldrum, P.; Pezard, P.; Levannier, A.; Desroches, J.; Neyens, D.; Paris, J.; Henry, G.; Bakk, A.; Wertz, F.; Aker, E.; Børresen, M.

    2012-04-01

    The safety and acceptance of CO2 storage will depend on the ability to detect and quantify CO2 within and outside the storage complex. To determine sensitivity of CO2 monitoring systems with respect to CO2 distribution and leakage detection, the CO2 Field Lab project comprises two controlled CO2 injection tests in the shallow (100-300 m) and very shallow (20 m) subsurface of the glacial deposit that forms Svelvik ridge, 50 km south of Oslo. The CO2 displacement in the subsurface and at the surface has and will be monitored with an exhaustive set of techniques. Iteratively, observations and flow modeling will provide frequent updates of the CO2 distribution. The results will be upscaled to assess monitoring systems and requirements with the ultimate objective to provide guidelines to regulators, operators and technology providers for monitoring systems. The formation that comprises the laboratory is a glaciofluvial-glaciomarine terminal deposit formed during the Ski stage of the Holocene deglaciation. Nearby outcrops show that the formation is channeled and variably laminated with a significant variation in grain size and structure. Prior to the injection experiments, the site was characterized including 2D seismic and electric surveys, the drilling, logging and sampling of a 330 m deep appraisal well, core and flow line sample analyses, ground penetrating radar (GPR), a hydrodynamic appraisal, and geochemical and soil gas baseline surveys. These data were used to populate a geomodel. Flow modeling of the plume development included some variability in permeability and anisotropy, and various injection scenarios. Accordingly, the 20 m injection experiment was conducted in fall 2011 with a monitoring plan designed to spatially and temporally monitor the expected plume development. The monitoring equipment was thus distributed around the 20 m deep injection point of an inclined well. It included seven 6 m deep monitoring wells equipped with resistivity, sonic and

  11. Decontamination of Terrorist-Dispersed Radionuclides from Surfaces in Urban Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Robert; Sutton, Mark; Gates-Anderson, Dianne; Gray, Jeremy; Hu, Qinhong; McNab, Walt; Viani, Brian

    2008-01-15

    Research is currently underway at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to advance the basic scientific knowledge of radionuclide-substrate interactions in the urban environment. Investigations have focused on more optimized decontamination agents for cesium (Cs) and americium (Am) specifically for use in mass transit infrastructure and urban environments. This project is designed to enhance the capability of the United States to effectively respond to a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) attack. The work addresses recognized data gaps by advancing the basic scientific knowledge of radionuclide-substrate interactions in the urban environment and provides a solution to a national need. The research is focused in four major areas: (1) a better understanding of urban surface conditions that influence the efficacy of decontamination processes, (2) development of prototype decontamination agents for Am and Cs optimized for use in urban environments, (3) the development of capabilities to realistically contaminate surfaces at both the real world and laboratory scale and (4) a validated model for radionuclide-surface interactions. The decontamination of urban surfaces following the detonation of an RDD presents a number of challenges. The following key points are found to be critical for the efficiency of decontamination agents in an urban environment: - Particle size and surface deposition of radionuclide particles on urban surface materials. - Interactions between radionuclides and urban materials. - The presence of grime and carbonation/alteration layers on the surface of urban surfaces. - Post-detonation penetration of radionuclides strongly affected by the dynamic wetting/drying processes. A laboratory scale contamination system has been developed allowing for samples to be contaminated and radionuclide interactions to be studied. In combination with laboratory scale experiments, a real scale outdoor test is scheduled for the spring of 2007. In conclusion

  12. Elemental analyses of hypervelocity microparticle impact sites on Interplanetary Dust Experiment sensor surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Charles G.; Hunter, J. L.; Griffis, D. P.; Misra, V.; Ricks, D. A.; Wortman, Jim J.; Brownlee, D. E.

    1993-01-01

    The Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) had over 450 electrically active ultra-high purity metal-oxide-silicon impact detectors located on the six primary sides of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Hypervelocity microparticles (approximately 0.2 to approximately 100 micron diameter) that struck the active sensors with enough energy to break down the 0.4 or 1.0 micron thick SIO2 insulator layer separating the silicon base (the negative electrode), and the 1000 A thick surface layer of aluminum (the positive electrode) caused electrical discharges that were recorded for the first year of orbit. The high purity Al-SiO2-Si substrates allowed detection of trace (ppm) amounts of hypervelocity impactor residues. After sputtering through a layer of surface contamination, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used to create two-dimensional elemental ion intensity maps of microparticle impact sites on the IDE sensors. The element intensities in the central craters of the impacts were corrected for relative ion yields and instrumental conditions and then normalized to silicon. The results were used to classify the particles' origins as 'manmade,' 'natural,' or 'indeterminate.' The last classification resulted from the presence of too little impactor residue, analytical interference from high background contamination, the lack of information on silicon and aluminum residues, or a combination of these circumstances. Several analytical 'blank' discharges were induced on flight sensors by pressing down on the sensor surface with a pure silicon shard. Analyses of these blank discharges showed that the discharge energy blasts away the layer of surface contamination. Only Si and Al were detected inside the discharge zones, including the central craters of these features. Thus far a total of 79 randomly selected microparticle impact sites from the six primary sides of the LDEF have been analyzed: 36 from tray C-9 (Leading (ram), or East, side), 18 from tray C-3

  13. Elemental Analyses of Hypervelocity Microparticle Impact Sites on Interplanetary Dust Experiment Sensor Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, C. G.; Hunter, J. L.; Griffis, D. P.; Misra, V.; Ricks, D. A.; Wortman, J. J.; Brownlee, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    The Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) had over 450 electrically active ultra-high purity metal-oxide-silicon impact detectors located on the six primary sides of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Hypervelocity microparticles (approximately 0.2 to approximately 100 micron diameter) that struck the active sensors with enough energy to breakdown the 0.4 or 1.0 micron thick SiO2 insulator layer separating the silicon base (the negative electrode), and the 1000 A thick surface layer of aluminum (the positive electrode) caused electrical discharges that were recorded for the first year of orbit. The high purity Al-SiO2-Si substrates allowed detection of trace (ppm) amounts of hypervelocity impactor residues. After sputtering through a layer of surface contamination, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used to create two-dimensional elemental ion intensity maps of microparticle sites on the IDE sensors. The element intensities in the central craters of the impacts were corrected for relative ion yields and instrumental conditions and then normalized to silicon. The results classification resulted from the particles' origins as 'manmade', 'natural', or 'indeterminate'. The last classification resulted from the presence of too little impactor residue, analytical interference from high background contamination, the lack of information on silicon and aluminum residues, or a combination of these circumstances. Several analytical 'blank' discharges were induced on flight sensors by pressing down on the sensor surface with a pure silicon shard. Analyses of these blank discharges showed that the discharge energy blasts away the layer of surface contamination. Only Si and Al were detected inside the discharge zones, including the central craters, of these features. Thus far, a total of 79 randomly selected microparticle impact sites from the six primary sides of the LDEF were analyzed: 36 from tray C-9 (Leading (ram), or east, side), 18 from tray C-3 (Trailing

  14. Seismic aftershock monitoring for on-site inspection purposes. Experience from Integrated Field Exercise 2008.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labak, P.; Arndt, R.; Villagran, M.

    2009-04-01

    One of the sub-goals of the Integrated Field Experiment in 2008 (IFE08) in Kazakhstan was testing the prototype elements of the Seismic aftershock monitoring system (SAMS) for on-site inspection purposes. The task of the SAMS is to collect the facts, which should help to clarify nature of the triggering event. Therefore the SAMS has to be capable to detect and identify events as small as magnitude -2 in the inspection area size up to 1000 km2. Equipment for 30 mini-arrays and 10 3-component stations represented the field equipment of the SAMS. Each mini-array consisted of a central 3-component seismometer and 3 vertical seismometers at the distance about 100 m from the central seismometer. The mini-arrays covered approximately 80% of surrogate inspection area (IA) on the territory of former Semipalatinsk test site. Most of the stations were installed during the first four days of field operations by the seismic sub-team, which consisted of 10 seismologists. SAMS data center comprised 2 IBM Blade centers and 8 working places for data archiving, detection list production and event analysis. A prototype of SAMS software was tested. Average daily amount of collected raw data was 15-30 GB and increased according to the amount of stations entering operation. Routine manual data screening and data analyses were performed by 2-6 subteam members. Automatic screening was used for selected time intervals. Screening was performed using the Sonoview program in frequency domain and using the Geotool and Hypolines programs for screening in time domain. The screening results were merged into the master event list. The master event list served as a basis of detailed analysis of unclear events and events identified to be potentially in the IA. Detailed analysis of events to be potentially in the IA was performed by the Hypoline and Geotool programs. In addition, the Hyposimplex and Hypocenter programs were also used for localization of events. The results of analysis were integrated

  15. Laser decontamination of epoxy painted concrete surfaces in nuclear plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthofer, A.; Lippmann, W.; Hurtado, A.

    2014-04-01

    Laser technology offers an efficient decontamination of surfaces contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) by precise application of highly focused laser beam power. In the context of nuclear decommissioning all walls and floors of a reactor building have to be cleaned from chemical-toxic substances. State of the art is a manual and mechanic ablation and a subsequent treatment in a hazardous waste incinerator. In this study, alternatively, a laser-based system exhibiting, decontamination rates of up to 6.4 m2/h has been operated using a 10 kW diode laser in continuous wave (CW) mode with a spot size of 45×10 mm2 and a wavelength of 980-1030 nm. The system allows a rapid heating of the surfaces up to temperatures of more than 1000 °C leading to ablation and thermal decomposition of PCB in one process step. Thermal quenching prevents formation of polychlorinated dioxines (PCDD) and polychlorinate furans (PCDF) in the flue gas. Additionally, an in situ measurement system based on laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is developed to monitor the thermal decomposition of PCB. For initial experiments samples covered with epoxy paint were used to evaluate the process and to carry out finite element based simulations. In this paper, experimental results of ablation tests by laser irradiation of epoxy painted concrete are presented and discussed.

  16. Preliminary analyses of the excavation investigation experiments proposed for the exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Costin, L.S.; Bauer, S.J.

    1988-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), is examining the feasibility of siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site. Three excavation experiments, Shaft Convergence, Demonstration Breakout Rooms, and Sequential Drift Mining, will provide some of the data required to (1) assess the mechanical behavior of repository-size openings and (2) validate numerical models that may be used in the repository design process. In this report, the results of preliminary analyses of the three excavation experiments are presented. The major objective of these analyses was to provide some guidance to the experiment planners regarding the expected displacements and stresses near the experimental drifts so that selection and placement of instrumentation could be optimized. Further, successful completion of these analyses demonstrates the ability to model the experiments, given the simplifying assumptions presented. Limitations of the analyses performed and the experiments as currently designed are also discussed. Finally, the results of these analyses provided some indication of how the variation of some key geometric and material parameters would affect the predicted results. Once the experiment design is finalized and site-specific material data are collected, pretest predictive analyses will be conducted using the mechanical and material models that require validation. 15 refs., 123 figs., 13 tabs.

  17. Initial Experience with Retroperitoneal Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery for Upper Urinary Tract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Chul-Ho; Baik, Seung

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To report our initial clinical experience and perioperative outcomes of retroperitoneal laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (RLESS) for upper urinary tract surgery. Materials and Methods Between June 2009 and October 2010, we performed RLESS in 23 patients for various indications including radical nephrectomy (n=4), nephroureterectomy (n=2), simple nephrectomy (n=10), and renal cyst ablation (n=7). RLESS was performed with a homemade single-port device with a conventional rigid laparoscopic instrument and laparoscope. The parameters analyzed were age, body mass index, operative time, estimated blood loss, transfusion, time of oral intake, visual analogue pain scale score (VAPS), length of hospital stay, and complications. Results One case of simple nephrectomy was converted to open nephrectomy because of severe adhesion and inadequate surgical exposure. RLESS was completed in 23 patients. Mean operative time was 168.7±29.2, 227.5±50.0, 230.0±56.5, and 70.5±8.9 minutes for simple nephrectomy, radical nephrectomy, nephroureterectomy, and renal cyst ablation, respectively. Estimated blood loss was 113.0±149.8, 170.0±156.8, 400.0±141.4, and 22.8±16.0 ml. The time to oral intake after surgery was 1.4±0.5, 1.2±0.5, 1.5±0.7, and 1.1±0.3 days. The mean VAPS score was 1.1±0.2, 2.1±0.5, 2.0±0.5, and 1.0±0.0 of 10 (range, 0.8 to 2.6). The hospital stay was 4.6±1.5, 3.7±0.5, 6.0±1.4, and 3.2±1.7 days. No major perioperative complications were observed. Conclusions The initial outcomes of our experience suggest that RLESS is a technically feasible and safe procedure for upper urinary tract surgery. Prospective comparative studies with conventional retroperitoneal laparoscopic surgery are needed to confirm the potential benefits of RLESS. PMID:22216397

  18. Elemental analyses of hypervelocity micro-particle impact sites on interplanetary dust experiment sensor surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Charles G.; Hunter, J. L.; Griffis, D. P.; Misra, V.; Ricks, D. R.; Wortman, Jim J.

    1992-01-01

    The Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) had over 450 electrically active ultra-high purity metal-oxide-silicon impact detectors located on the six primary sides of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Hypervelocity micro-particles that struck the active sensors with enough energy to breakdown the 0.4 to 1.0 micron thick SiO2 insulator layer separating the silicon base (the negative electrode), and the 1000 A thick surface layer of aluminum (the positive electrode) caused electrical discharges that were recorded for the first year of orbit. These discharge features, which include 50 micron diameter areas where the aluminum top layer has been vaporized, facilitate the location of the impacts. The high purity Al-SiO2-Si substrates allow detection of trace (ppm) amounts of hypervelocity impactor residues. After sputtering through a layer of surface contamination, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is used to create two-dimensional elemental ion intensity maps of micro-particle impact sites on the IDE sensors. The element intensities in the central craters of the impacts are corrected for relative ion yields and instrumental conditions and then normalized to silicon. The results are used to classify the particles' origins as 'manmade', 'natural' or 'indeterminate'. The last classification results from the presence of too little impactor residue (a frequent occurrence on leading edge impacts), analytical interference from high background contamination, the lack of information on silicon residue, the limited usefulness of data on aluminum in the central craters, or a combination of these circumstances. Several analytical 'blank' discharges were induced on flight sensors by pressing down on the sensor surface with a pure silicon shard. Analyses of these blank discharges showed that the discharge energy blasts away the layer of surface contamination. Only Si and Al were detected inside the discharge zones, including the central craters, of these features. A

  19. Transumbilical Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Ureterolithotomy for Large Impacted Ureteral Stones: Initial Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Heon; Jeong, Byong Chang; Seo, Seong Il; Jeon, Seong Soo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We presented our initial clinical experiences with transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) ureterolithotomy for large, impacted ureteral stones. Materials and Methods Between March 2009 and November 2009, seven LESS ureterolithotomies were performed at our institute. During the operation, we made a single 2 cm incision at the umbilicus and a homemade port by using a small wound retractor (Alexis®, Applied Medical, Rancho Santa Margarita, USA), a surgical glove, and conventional trocars. The operation was performed in the same manner as conventional laparoscopic surgery. The mean maximal stone diameter was 21.9 mm (range, 16.0-27.0 mm). There were six cases of upper ureteral stones and one case of a mid-ureteral stone. Perioperative and postoperative parameters were evaluated. Results The mean operative time was 197.1 min (range, 150-270 min). No transfusions were required. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 3.3 days (range, 2-6 days). The mean pain intensity on a visual analogue scale (VAS) on postoperative day 2 was 26 mm (range, 0-80 mm), and the mean cosmetic VAS at 6 weeks after the operation was 0 mm. The mean time for patients to return to their baseline activities was 4.0 days (range, 3-7 days). In six cases, all stones were completely removed on the basis of postoperative radiologic evaluation. There were no cases of major complications, including internal organ injury, urinary leakage, or urinary tract infection. Conclusions Transumbilical LESS ureterolithotomy can be considered as an alternative treatment option with minimal invasiveness and good effectiveness for large, impacted ureteral stones. PMID:20577607

  20. Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Kasevich, R.S.; Vaux, W.G.; Nocito, T.

    1995-10-01

    DOE sites contain a broad spectrum of asbestos materials (cloth, pipe lagging, sprayed insulation and other substances) which are contaminated with a combination of hazardous and radioactive wastes due to its use during the development of the U.S. nuclear weapons complex. These wastes consist of cutting oils, lubricants, solvents, PCB`s, heavy metals and radioactive contaminants. The radioactive contaminants are the activation, decay and fission products of DOE operations. The asbestos must be converted by removing and separating the hazardous and radioactive materials to prevent the formation of mixed wastes and to allow for both sanitary disposal and effective decontamination. Currently, no technology exists that can meet these sanitary and other objectives.

  1. Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Kasevich, R.S.; Vaux, W.G.; Nocito, T.

    1995-12-01

    DOE sites contain a broad spectrum of asbestos materials (cloth, pipe lagging, sprayed insulation and other substances) which are contaminated with a combination of hazardous and radioactive wastes due to its use during the development of the U.S. nuclear weapons complex. These wastes consist of cutting oils, lubricants, solvents, PCB`s, heavy metals and radioactive contaminants. The radioactive contaminants are the activation, decay and fission products of DOE operations. The asbestos must be converted by removing and separating the hazardous and radioactive materials to prevent the formation of mixed wastes and to allow for both sanitary disposal and effective decontamination. Currently, no technology exists that can meet these sanitary and other objectives.

  2. Decontaminating and Melt Recycling Tritium Contaminated Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.A.

    1995-04-03

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and several university and industrial partners are evaluating recycling radioactively contaminated stainless steel. The goal of this program is to recycle contaminated stainless steel scrap from US Department of Energy national defense facilities. There is a large quantity of stainless steel at the DOE Savannah River Site from retired heavy water moderated Nuclear material production reactors (for example heat exchangers and process water piping), that will be used in pilot studies of potential recycle processes. These parts are contaminated by fission products, activated species, and tritium generated by neutron irradiation of the primary reactor coolant, which is heavy (deuterated) water. This report reviews current understanding of tritium contamination of stainless steel and previous studies of decontaminating tritium exposed stainless steel. It also outlines stainless steel refining methods, and proposes recommendations based on this review.

  3. Characterization of materials for a reactive transport model validation experiment: Interim report on the caisson experiment. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, M.D.; Cheng, W.C.; Ward, D.B.; Bryan, C.R.

    1995-08-01

    Models used in performance assessment and site characterization activities related to nuclear waste disposal rely on simplified representations of solute/rock interactions, hydrologic flow field and the material properties of the rock layers surrounding the repository. A crucial element in the design of these models is the validity of these simplifying assumptions. An intermediate-scale experiment is being carried out at the Experimental Engineered Test Facility at Los Alamos Laboratory by the Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories to develop a strategy to validate key geochemical and hydrological assumptions in performance assessment models used by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project.

  4. SAS Code for Calculating Intraclass Correlation Coefficients and Effect Size Benchmarks for Site-Randomized Education Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, Paul R.; Harrison, George M.; Lawton, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    When evaluators plan site-randomized experiments, they must conduct the appropriate statistical power analyses. These analyses are most likely to be valid when they are based on data from the jurisdictions in which the studies are to be conducted. In this method note, we provide software code, in the form of a SAS macro, for producing statistical…

  5. Contaminated concrete: Occurrence and emerging technologies for DOE decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, K.S.; Wilson-Nichols, M.J.; Morris, M.I.

    1995-08-01

    The goals of the Facility Deactivation, Decommissioning, and Material Disposition Focus Area, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development, are to select, demonstrate, test, and evaluate an integrated set of technologies tailored to provide a complete solution to specific problems posed by deactivation, decontamination, and decommissioning, (D&D). In response to these goals, technical task plan (TTP) OR152002, entitled Accelerated Testing of Concrete Decontamination Methods, was submitted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report describes the results from the initial project tasks, which focused on the nature and extent of contaminated concrete, emerging candidate technologies, and matching of emerging technologies to concrete problems. Existing information was used to describe the nature and extent of contamination (technology logic diagrams, data bases, and the open literature). To supplement this information, personnel at various DOE sites were interviewed, providing a broad perspective of concrete contamination. Because characterization is in the initial stage at many sites, complete information is not available. Assimilation of available information into one location is helpful in identifying potential areas of concern in the future. The most frequently occurring radiological contaminants within the DOE complex are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}U (and it daughters), and {sup 60}Co, followed closely by {sup 90}Sr and tritium, which account for {minus}30% of the total occurrence. Twenty-four percent of the contaminants were listed as unknown, indicating a lack of characterization information, and 24% were listed as other contaminants (over 100 isotopes) with less than 1% occurrence per isotope.

  6. Studies on residue-free decontaminants for chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Wagner, George W

    2015-03-17

    Residue-free decontaminants based on hydrogen peroxide, which decomposes to water and oxygen in the environment, are examined as decontaminants for chemical warfare agents (CWA). For the apparent special case of CWA on concrete, H2O2 alone, without any additives, effectively decontaminates S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), pinacolyl methylphosphorofluoridate (GD), and bis(2-choroethyl) sulfide (HD) in a process thought to involve H2O2 activation by surface-bound carbonates/bicarbonates (known H2O2 activators for CWA decontamination). A plethora of products are formed during the H2O2 decontamination of HD on concrete, and these are characterized by comparison to synthesized authentic compounds. As a potential residue-free decontaminant for surfaces other than concrete (or those lacking adsorbed carbonate/bicarbonate) H2O2 activation for CWA decontamination is feasible using residue-free NH3 and CO2 as demonstrated by reaction studies for VX, GD, and HD in homogeneous solution. Although H2O2/NH3/CO2 ("HPAC") decontaminants are active for CWA decontamination in solution, they require testing on actual surfaces of interest to assess their true efficacy for surface decontamination. PMID:25710477

  7. Influence of radiocesium transfer and decontamination on ambient dose in Japanese forest environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of post-depositional migration of radiocesium and decontamination on ambient dose rate in Japanese forest environment following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. We measured cesium-137 deposition from canopy to forest floor in association with rainfall and litterfall in two coniferous stands (plantation of Japanese cedar) and a deciduous broad-leaved forest stand (oak with red pine). We also measured temporal evolution of ambient dose rate at different height in each forest site. Radiocesium inventory balance in each forest component (e.g., canopy, litter and mineral soil layer) were established to determine causes of the measured changes of ambient dose rate in three forest sites. Furthermore, we assessed influence of forest decontamination (removal of organic layer of forest floor) on spatial pattern of radiocesium at the forest floor and reduction of ambient dose rate.

  8. The representation of patient experience and satisfaction in physician rating sites. A criteria-based analysis of English- and German-language sites

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Information on patient experience and satisfaction with individual physicians could play an important role for performance measures, improved health care and health literacy. Physician rating sites (PRSs) bear the potential to be a widely available source for this kind of information. However, patient experience and satisfaction are complex constructs operationalized by multiple dimensions. The way in which PRSs allow users to express and rate patient experience and satisfaction could likely influence the image of doctors in society and the self-understanding of both doctors and patients. This study examines the extent to which PRSs currently represent the constructs of patient experience and satisfaction. Methods First, a systematic review of research instruments for measuring patient experience and satisfaction was conducted. The content of these instruments was analyzed qualitatively to create a comprehensive set of dimensions for patient experience and patient satisfaction. Second, PRSs were searched for systematically in English-language and German-language search engines of Google and Yahoo. Finally, we classified every structured question asked by the different PRS using the set of dimensions of patient experience and satisfaction. Results The qualitative content analysis of the measurement instruments produced 13 dimensions of patient experience and satisfaction. We identified a total of 21 PRSs. No PRSs represented all 13 dimensions of patient satisfaction and experience with its structured questions. The 3 most trafficked English-language PRS represent between 5 and 6 dimensions and the 3 most trafficked German language PRSs between 8 and 11 dimensions The dimensions for patient experience and satisfaction most frequently represented in PRSs included diversely operationalized ones such as professional competence and doctor-patient relationship/support. However, other less complex but nevertheless important dimensions such as communication

  9. Cross-site studies "by design:" Experiments and observations that provide new insights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cross-site comparisons presented in the previous chapters are all conducted after the individual studies are completed. The differences in experimental design in individual studies in a posteriori cross-site studies limit the scope of questions that can be addressed, and the powerfulness and co...

  10. Past On-Site Experience, Crowding Perceptions, and Use Displacement of Visitor Groups to a Peri-Urban National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnberger, Arne; Brandenburg, Christiane

    2007-07-01

    Past on-site experience was linked to the crowding perceptions and use displacement of 383 on-site visitors to the peri-urban Danube Floodplains National Park, Austria. Three visitor groups were determined according to their area experience: local residents from Vienna and rural communities, having the highest level of experience; regional visitors from the city and eastern Austria; and tourists from Austria and abroad with the lowest degree of experience. Crowding perceptions were significantly different across the user groups. More than 50% of local residents perceived the national park as crowded, whereas only 27% of regional visitors and 19% of tourists reported such an evaluation. Even among local residents and regional visitors, respondents with more on-site experience expressed a greater impression of a crowded park. Differences in crowding evaluations between local rural and urban residents and between regional rural and urban visitors were not found. For 27% of local residents and 15% of regional visitors, use levels were so unacceptable that they displaced temporally and spatially, whereas use displacement was relatively irrelevant for tourists. The use displacement strategies involved differ among the three user groups. Management implications were discussed, taking the specific situation of the small national park on the urban-rural fringe into consideration.

  11. Bacterial decontamination using ambient pressure nonthermal discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Birmingham, J.G.; Hammerstrom, D.J.

    2000-02-01

    Atmospheric pressure nonthermal plasmas can efficiently deactivate bacteria in gases, liquids, and on surfaces, as well as can decompose hazardous chemicals. This paper focuses on the changes to bacterial spores and toxic biochemical compounds, such as mycotoxins, after their treatment in ambient pressure discharges. The ability of nonthermal plasmas to decompose toxic chemicals and deactivate hazardous biological materials has been applied to sterilizing medical instruments, ozonating water, and purifying air. In addition, the fast lysis of bacterial spores and other cells has led us to include plasma devices within pathogen detection instruments, where nucleic acids must be accessed. Decontaminating chemical and biological warfare materials from large, high value targets such as building surfaces, after a terrorist attack, are especially challenging. A large area plasma decontamination technology is described.

  12. Evaluation of commercially available decontamination chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Shurte, E.A.; Rankin, W.N.

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of commercially available decontamination solutions was compared with the effectiveness of 10% oxalic acid in controlled laboratory tests. Type 304L stainless steel and Inconel 625 specimens were used. Contamination was sludge from Savannah River Plant (SRP) high level waste tanks. Measured amounts of contamination were placed on each specimen. They were then heated to bond the contamination to the surface and cleaned according to the manufacturer's directions. The effectiveness of the product was determined by monitoring specimens before and after cleaning. Four of the 16 solutions evaluated removed all the contamination from Type 304L stainless steel. Inconel 625 was more difficult to decontaminate. Further tests are planned with the chemicals that were most effective in this test. 4 refs., 6 tabs.

  13. Decontamination technology assessments - who assesses the assessments?

    PubMed

    Smith, A J

    2013-07-01

    The driver to improve surgical instrument decontamination has been the introduction of vCJD into the UK population over the last two decades, although concerns over transmission of other infectious agents remain valid. Though significant improvements have been made in primary care, this is usually in spite of limited access to technical advice on decontamination equipment. A technology assessment for key elements of equipment and processes used in this environment should be welcomed. However, two reports by the Scottish Health Technology Assessment Panel are flawed in estimating costs associated with wrapping instruments, omission of appropriate references and inaccurate data in the costing models. These assessments contribute little to health economics debates, confuse practitioners and frustrate technical experts. PMID:23887525

  14. APSIC Guidelines for environmental cleaning and decontamination.

    PubMed

    Ling, Moi Lin; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Thu, Le Thi Anh; Villanueva, Victoria; Pandjaitan, Costy; Yusof, Mohamad Yasim

    2015-01-01

    This document is an executive summary of APSIC Guidelines for Environmental Cleaning and Decontamination. It describes best practices in routine cleaning and decontamination in healthcare facilities as well as in specific settings e.g. management of patients with isolation precautions, food preparation areas, construction and renovation, and following a flood. It recommends the implementation of environmental hygiene program to keep the environment safe for patients, staff and visitors visiting a healthcare facility. Objective assessment of cleanliness and quality is an essential component of this program as a method for identifying quality improvement opportunities. Recommendations for safe handling of linen and bedding; as well as occupational health and safety issues are included in the guidelines. A training program is vital to ensure consistent adherence to best practices. PMID:26719796

  15. Microbiological decontamination of natural honey by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migdał, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.; K ȩdzia, B.; Hołderna-K ȩdzia, E.; Madajczyk, D.

    2000-03-01

    Degree of microbiological decontamination, organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of natural honeys were investigated after radiation treatment. Seven kinds of honeys were irradiated with the beams of 10 MeV electrons from a 10 kW linear accelerator "Elektronika 10-10" at the dose 10 kGy. It was shown, that after irradiation, the total count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and moulds decrease by 99%. The antibiotic value in investigated honeys increased in turn from 1.67 to 2.67 after irradiation. Such factors and parameters of investigated honeys as their consistency, content of water and saccharose, acidity, the diastase and 5-HMF values were not changed significantly after irradiation. Decontamination by irradiation is a process which allows us to obtain high microbiological purity of honeys. It is especially needed, when honeys are used in surgical treatment of injuries and in nutrition of babies with food deficiency.

  16. 78 FR 73518 - Notice Inviting Suggestions for New Experiments for the Experimental Sites Initiative; Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... Secretary seeks suggestions for creative experiments to test innovations that have the potential to increase... range of other areas. Through this effort, we expect to develop creative experiments that align with...

  17. DESCALING AND DECONTAMINATING METHOD FOR METALS

    DOEpatents

    Baybarz, R.D.

    1961-04-25

    Oxide scale is removed from the surface of stainless steels and similar metals by contacting the metal under an inert atmosphere with a dilute sulfuric acid solution containing chromous sulfate. The removed oxide scale is either dissolved or disintegrated into a slurry by the solution. Preferred reagent concentrations are 0.3 to 0.5 M chromous sulfate and 0.4 to 0.6 M sulfuric acid. This process is particularly applicable to decontamination of aqueous homogsneous nuclear reactor systems.

  18. Method for the decontamination of metallic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Purohit, Ankur; Kaminski, Michael D.; Nunez, Luis

    2003-01-01

    A method of decontaminating a radioactively contaminated oxide on a surface. The radioactively contaminated oxide is contacted with a diphosphonic acid solution for a time sufficient to dissolve the oxide and subsequently produce a precipitate containing most of the radioactive values. Thereafter, the diphosphonic solution is separated from the precipitate. HEDPA is the preferred diphosphonic acid and oxidizing and reducing agents are used to initiate precipitation. SFS is the preferred reducing agent.

  19. Advanced robotics for decontamination and dismantlement

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, W.R.; Haley, D.C.

    1994-06-01

    The decontamination and dismantlement (D&D) robotics technology application area of the US Department of Energy`s Robotics Technology Development Program is explained and described. D&D robotic systems show real promise for the reduction of human exposure to hazards, for improvement of productivity, and for the reduction of secondary waste generation. Current research and development pertaining to automated floor characterization, robotic equipment removal, and special inspection is summarized. Future research directions for these and emerging activities is given.

  20. Method for electrochemical decontamination of radioactive metal

    SciTech Connect

    Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    2008-06-10

    A decontamination method for stripping radionuclides from the surface of stainless steel or aluminum material comprising the steps of contacting the metal with a moderately acidic carbonate/bicarbonate electrolyte solution containing sodium or potassium ions and thereafter electrolytically removing the radionuclides from the surface of the metal whereby radionuclides are caused to be stripped off of the material without corrosion or etching of the material surface.

  1. Decontamination and Decommisioning Equipment Tracking System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-08-26

    DDETS is Relational Data Base Management System (RDBMS) which incorporates 1-D (code 39) and 2-D (PDF417) bar codes into its equipment tracking capabilities. DDETS is compatible with the Reportable Excess Automated Property System (REAPS), and has add, edit, delete and query capabilities for tracking equipment being decontaminated and decommissioned. In addition, bar code technology is utilized in the inventory tracking and shipping of equipment.

  2. The Pajarito Site operating procedures for the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1991-12-01

    Operating procedures consistent with DOE Order 5480.6, and the American National Standard Safety Guide for the Performance of Critical Experiments are defined for the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility (LACEF) of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. These operating procedures supersede and update those previously published in 1983 and apply to any criticality experiment performed at the facility. 11 refs.

  3. Social Networking Sites' Influence on Travelers' Authentic Experience a Case Study of Couch Surfing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    This study explored travelers' experiences in the era of network hospitality 2.0 using CouchSurfing.org as a case study. The following research questions guided this study: 1) what experience does CouchSurfing create for travelers before, during and after their travel? 2) how does couch surfers' experience relate to authenticity in context of…

  4. Decontamination of radionuclides from skin: an overview.

    PubMed

    Tazrart, Anissa; Bérard, Philippe; Leiterer, Alexandra; Ménétrier, Florence

    2013-08-01

    The accident in Fukushima has emphasized the need to increase the capacity of health protection for exposed workers, first responders, and the general public in a major accident situation with release of radioactivity. Skin contamination is one of the most probable risks following major nuclear or radiological incidents, but this risk also exists and incidents can happen in industry, research laboratories, or in nuclear medicine departments. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the products currently used after skin contamination in order to highlight the needs and ways to improve the medical management of victims. From this review, it can be observed that the current use of these radiological decontamination products is essentially based on empiricism. In addition, some of these products are harsh and irritating, even toxic, possibly damaging the skin barrier. In some emergency situations in which clean water is in short supply, most of the current products cannot be used. Research on the mechanisms of action of decontaminating products is needed to develop a decontamination strategy. PMID:23799505

  5. [Decontamination of chemical warfare agents by photocatalysis].

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Tsutomu; Mera, Nobuaki; Sano, Taizo; Negishi, Nobuaki; Takeuchi, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Photocatalysis has been widely applied to solar-energy conversion and environmental purification. Photocatalyst, typically titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), produces active oxygen species under irradiation of ultraviolet light, and can decompose not only conventional pollutants but also different types of hazardous substances at mild conditions. We have recently started the study of photocatalytic decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) under collaboration with the National Research Institute of Police Science. This article reviews environmental applications of semiconductor photocatalysis, decontamination methods for CWAs, and previous photocatalytic studies applied to CWA degradation, together with some of our results obtained with CWAs and their simulant compounds. The data indicate that photocatalysis, which may not always give a striking power, certainly helps detoxification of such hazardous compounds. Unfortunately, there are not enough data obtained with real CWAs due to the difficulty in handling. We will add more scientific data using CWAs in the near future to develop useful decontamination systems that can reduce the damage caused by possible terrorism. PMID:19122438

  6. Laser decontamination of the radioactive lightning rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potiens, A. J.; Dellamano, J. C.; Vicente, R.; Raele, M. P.; Wetter, N. U.; Landulfo, E.

    2014-02-01

    Between 1970 and 1980 Brazil experienced a significant market for radioactive lightning rods (RLR). The device consists of an air terminal with one or more sources of americium-241 attached to it. The sources were used to ionize the air around them and to increase the attraction of atmospheric discharges. Because of their ineffectiveness, the nuclear regulatory authority in Brazil suspended the license for manufacturing, commerce and installation of RLR in 1989, and determined that the replaced RLR were to be collected to a centralized radioactive waste management facility for treatment. The first step for RLR treatment is to remove the radioactive sources. Though they can be easily removed, some contaminations are found all over the remaining metal scrap that must decontaminated for release, otherwise it must be treated as radioactive waste. Decontamination using various chemicals has proven to be inefficient and generates large amounts of secondary wastes. This work shows the preliminary results of the decontamination of 241Am-contaminated metal scrap generated in the treatment of radioactive lightning rods applying laser ablation. A Nd:YAG nanoseconds laser was used with 300 mJ energy leaving only a small amount of secondary waste to be treated.

  7. Decontamination of high-level waste canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, J.F.; Slate, S.C.; Fetrow, L.K.

    1980-12-01

    This report presents evaluations of several methods for the in-process decontamination of metallic canisters containing any one of a number of solidified high-level waste (HLW) forms. The use of steam-water, steam, abrasive blasting, electropolishing, liquid honing, vibratory finishing and soaking have been tested or evaluated as potential techniques to decontaminate the outer surfaces of HLW canisters. Either these techniques have been tested or available literature has been examined to assess their applicability to the decontamination of HLW canisters. Electropolishing has been found to be the most thorough method to remove radionuclides and other foreign material that may be deposited on or in the outer surface of a canister during any of the HLW processes. Steam or steam-water spraying techniques may be adequate for some applications but fail to remove all contaminated forms that could be present in some of the HLW processes. Liquid honing and abrasive blasting remove contamination and foreign material very quickly and effectively from small areas and components although these blasting techniques tend to disperse the material removed from the cleaned surfaces. Vibratory finishing is very capable of removing the bulk of contamination and foreign matter from a variety of materials. However, special vibratory finishing equipment would have to be designed and adapted for a remote process. Soaking techniques take long periods of time and may not remove all of the smearable contamination. If soaking involves pickling baths that use corrosive agents, these agents may cause erosion of grain boundaries that results in rough surfaces.

  8. Flycatchers copy conspecifics in nest-site selection but neither personal experience nor frequency of tutors have an effect.

    PubMed

    Jaakkonen, Tuomo; Kari, Annemari; Forsman, Jukka T

    2013-01-01

    Using the behavior of others in guiding one's own behavior is a common strategy in animals. The prevailing theory predicts that young age and the inexperience of an individual are expected to increase the probability of adopting the behaviors of others. Also, the most common behavior in the population should be copied. Here, we tested the above predictions by examining social information use in the selection of nest-site features with a field experiment using a wild cavity nesting bird, the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis). We used an experimental design in which geometric symbols depict nest-site features. By manipulating the apparent symbol choices of early settled individuals and monitoring the choices of later arriving birds, we can study social information use without bias from learned or innate preferences. Flycatchers were found to use social information in the selection of nest-site features, with about 60% of the population preferring the manipulated conspecific choices. However, age and experience as explanatory factors suggested by the social information use theory did not explain the choices. The present result, in concert with earlier similar experiments, implies that flycatchers may in some situations rely more on interspecific information in the selection of nest-site characteristics. PMID:23544136

  9. A METHOD FOR REGENERATION OF SPENT ELECTROCHEMICAL DECONTAMINATION SOLUTION AND ITS TREATMENT FOR FINAL DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect

    Davydov, D.Yu.; Davydov, Yu.P.; Toropov, I.G.; John, J.; Rosikova, K.; Motl, A.; Hudson, M.J.; Prazska, M.

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes the method of regeneration of spent electrochemical decontamination solution. The proposed method allows separation of radionuclides and stable metals from spent decontamination solution in a form suitable for final disposal and repeated use of the remaining solution for electrochemical decontamination. Development of this method was based on the results of the speciation studies which showed that Fe(III) can be precipitated in the presence of organic complexing agents, in a form of iron hydroxide, and Ag-110m, Co-60, Mn-54 radionuclides can be coprecipitated on it. In order to verify the conclusions made as a result of the speciation studies, the experiments with electrochemically prepared simulant solution and real solution were carried out. The test results proved that the proposed method can be applied in practice. Treatment of the ultimately spent decontamination solutions can be also made applying iron precipitation, which allows for removal of the bulk amount of contaminants, as the first step. Then, if necessary the remaining radionuclides can be removed by sorption. A series of novel absorbers has been tested for their potential for the sorption removal of the remaining radionuclides from the supernate. The test results showed that most of them were more effective in neutral or alkaline range of pH, however, the high efficiency of the sorption removal can be achieved only after the removal of the oxalic and citric acids from solution.

  10. Remote methods for decontamination and decommissioning operations. [Fission Product Development Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    DeVore, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Three methods for the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities are described along with operational experience associated with each method. Each method described in some way reduces radiation exposure to the operating personnel involved. Electrochemical decontamination of process tanks is described using an in-situ method. Descriptions of two processes, electropolishing and cerium redox decontamination, are listed. A method of essentially smokeless cutting of process piping using a plasma-arc cutting torch is described. In one technique, piping is cut remotely from a distance using a specially modified torch holder. In another technique, cutting is done with master-slave manipulators inside a hot cell. Finally, a method for remote cutting and scarification of contaminated concrete is described. This system, which utilizes high-pressure water jets, is coupled to a cutting head or rotating scarification head. The system is suited for cutting contaminated concrete for removal or removing a thin layer in a controlled manner for decontamination. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Decontamination of Chemical/Biological Warfare (CBW) Agents Using an Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Hans W.

    1998-11-01

    The atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is a non-thermal, high pressure, uniform glow discharge that produces a high velocity effluent stream of highly reactive chemical species. The discharge operates on a feedstock gas (e.g. He/O_2/H_2O) which flows between an outer, grounded, cylindrical electrode and an inner, coaxial electrode powered at 13.56 MHz RF. While passing through the plasma, the feedgas becomes excited, dissociated or ionized by electron impact. Once the gas exits the discharge volume, ions and electrons are rapidly lost by recombination, but the fast-flowing effluent still contains metastables (e.g. O2*, He*) and radicals (e.g. O, OH). These reactive species have been shown to be effective neutralizers of surrogates for anthrax spores, mustard blister agent and VX nerve gas. Unlike conventional, wet decontamination methods, the plasma effluent does not cause corrosion of most surfaces and does not damage wiring, electronics, nor most plastics. This makes it highly suitable for decontamination of high value sensitive equipment such as is found in vehicle interiors (i.e. tanks, planes...) for which there is currently no good decontamination technique. Furthermore, the reactive species rapidly degrade into harmless products leaving no lingering residue or harmful byproducts. Physics of the APPJ will be discussed and results of surface decontamination experiments using simulant and actual CBW agents will be presented.

  12. Aquatic toxicity of the decontamination agent: Multipurpose (DAM) decontamination solution. Final report, May-December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, M.V.; Kurnas, C.W.; Chester, N.A.; Muse, W.T.

    1994-05-01

    A new formulation, Decontaminating Agent: Multipurpose (DAM) Decontamination Solution, is being considered as a replacement to the DS-2 decontaminating solution. The new formulation is composed of calcium hypochlorite and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone. Since this is a new formulation little environmental data exists. To estimate potential impact to an aquatic environment, Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum (a luminescent marine bacterium) were exposed to the DAM solution and to the individual components (Calcium hypochlorite and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone). The toxicity of the DAM solution to D. magna and P. phosphoreum was 5000 and 0.00053, respectively (highly toxic). The toxicity of calcium hypochlorite' and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone to daphnia was 0.04 mg/L (highly toxic) and 107 mg/L (moderately toxic), respectively.

  13. Decontamination system study for the Tank Waste Retrieval System

    SciTech Connect

    Reutzel, T.; Manhardt, J.

    1994-05-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s decontamination study in support of the Tank Waste Retrieval System (TWRS) development program. Problems associated with waste stored in existing single shell tanks are discussed as well as the justification for the TWRS program. The TWRS requires a decontamination system. The subsystems of the TWRS are discussed, and a list of assumptions pertinent to the TWRS decontamination system were developed. This information was used to develop the functional and operational requirements of the TWRS decontamination system. The requirements were combined with a comprehensive review of currently available decontamination techniques to produced a set of evaluation criteria. The cleaning technologies and techniques were evaluated, and the CO{sub 2} blasting decontamination technique was chosen as the best technology for the TWRS.

  14. Wide-area decontamination in an urban environment after radiological dispersion: A review and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Michael D; Lee, Sang Don; Magnuson, Matthew

    2016-03-15

    Nuclear or radiological terrorism in the form of uncontrolled radioactive contamination presents a unique challenge in the field of nuclear decontamination. Potential targets require an immediate decontamination response, or mitigation plan to limit the social and economic impact. To date, experience with urban decontamination of building materials - specifically hard, porous, external surfaces - is limited to nuclear weapon fallout and nuclear reactor accidents. Methods are lacking for performing wide-area decontamination in an urban environment so that in all release scenarios the area may be re-occupied without evaluation and/or restriction. Also lacking is experience in developing mitigation strategies, that is, methods of mitigating contamination and its resultant radiation dose in key areas during the immediate aftermath of an event and after lifesaving operations. To date, the tremendous strategy development effort primarily by the European community has focused on the recovery phase, which extends years beyond the release event. In this review, we summarize the methods and data collected over the past 70 years in the field of hard, external surface decontamination of radionuclide contaminations, with emphasis on methods suitable for response to radiological dispersal devices and their potentially unique physico-chemical characteristics. This review concludes that although a tremendous amount of work has been completed primarily by the European Community (EU) and the United Kingdom (UK), the few studies existing on each technique permit only very preliminary estimates of decontamination factors for various building materials and methods and extrapolation of those values for use in environments outside the EU and UK. This data shortage prevents us from developing an effective and detailed mitigation response plan and remediation effort. Perhaps most importantly, while the data available does include valuable information on the practical aspects of performing

  15. Decontamination of Surfaces Exposed to Carbonbased Nanotubes and Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Zahra

    Contamination of surfaces by nanomaterials can happen due to accidental spillage and release or gradual accumulation during processing or handling. Considering the increasingly wide use of nanomaterials in industry and research labs and also taking into account the diversity of physical and chemical properties of different nanomaterials (such as solubility, aggregation/agglomeration, and surface reactivity), there is a pressing need to define reliable nanomaterial-specific decontamination guidelines. In this project, we propose and investigate a potential method for surface decontamination of carbon-based nanomaterials using solvent cleaning and wipes. The results show that the surfactant-assisted removal efficiencies of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, single walled carbon nantubes and single walled carbon nano-horns from silicon wafers through wiping is greater than 95%, 90% and 78%, respectively. The need for further studies to understand the mechanisms of nanomaterial removal from surfaces and development of standard techniques for surface decontamination of nanomaterials is highlighted. Another phase of experiments were performed to examine the efficiency of surfactants to remove multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) from silicon substrates with nano and microscaled features. In the first set of experiments, nanoscale features were induced on silicon wafers using SF6 and O2 plasma. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to observe the surface topology and roughness. In the second set, well-defined microscale topological features were induced on silicon wafers using photo lithography and plasma etching. The etching time was varied to create semi-ellipsoidal pits with average diameter and height of ~ 7-9 microm, and ~ 1-3 microm, respectively. MWCNTs in the form of liquid solution were deposited on the surface of silicon wafers using the spin coating process. For the cleaning process, the contaminated surfaces were first sprayed with different types of surfactant

  16. The Supporting Role of Mesocosm-Scale Laboratory Experiments in Solving Critical Issues at Hydrogeological Research Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schincariol, R.; Nagare, R.; Quinton, W.; Hayashi, M.

    2008-12-01

    Hydrogeological research sites provide a unique opportunity to study parameters and processes at the field scale. However, the most successful long-term research sites have been coupled with laboratory-scale experiments and numerical modeling studies. Mesocosm-scale laboratory experiments allow the investigation of local-scale hydrogeological processes often with sensors that exceed the spatial, temporal, and accuracy of field based monitoring. After over two years of design and construction a unique mesocosm-scale hydrogeological climate chamber was emplaced at the University of Western Ontario Biotron facility in April 2008. What makes this chamber different from other ecohydrological chambers is the ability to reproduce the subarctic solar and atmospheric environment and house soil monoliths up to 1.5 m in diameter and 4 m in height. Of particular importance is the ability to subject soil monoliths, inclusive of vegetation, to climate forcing experiments (varying solar energy, air temperature, precipitation, wind, CO2) while continuously monitoring liquid, gas, and energy fluxes. At present, experiments on 60 cm diameter by 90 cm deep peat / permafrost cores from our central Mackenzie River basin long-term field site are being conducted to better elucidate moisture and carbon transport processes occurring in the active layer. These climate forcing laboratory based experiments will be closely integrated with on-going field studies in the basin. Through this research we will be able to develop a physically-based numerical model to estimate the volume and timing of runoff from wetland-dominated basins in discontinuous permafrost. The experiments will answer critical questions, not addressable by field data alone, on how subarctic ecosystems will respond to climate change. We would also like to foster collaborations to address other scientific questions utilizing the climate chamber. In particular, experiments in support of pilot scale remediation efforts in cold

  17. Microwave radiometer experiment of soil moisture sensing at BARC test site during summer 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J.; Jackson, T.; Engman, E. T.; Gould, W.; Fuchs, J.; Glazer, W.; Oneill, P.; Schmugge, T. J.; Mcmurtrey, J., III

    1984-01-01

    Soil moisture was measured by truck mounted microwave radiometers at the frequencies of 1.4 GHz, 5 GHz, and 10.7 GHz. The soil textures in the two test sites were different so that the soil type effect of microwave radiometric response could be studied. Several fields in each test site were prepared with different surface roughnesses and vegetation covers. Ground truth on the soil moisture, temperature, and the biomass of the vegetation was acquired in support of the microwave radiometric measurements. Soil bulk density for each of the fields in both test sites was sampled. The soils in both sites were measured mechanically and chemically. A tabulation of the measured data is presented and the sensors and operational problems associated with the measurements are discussed.

  18. Savannah River Site Experiences in In Situ Field Measurements of Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, F.S.

    1999-10-07

    This paper discusses some of the field gamma-ray measurements made at the Savannah River Site, the equipment used for the measurements, and lessons learned during in situ identification and characterization of radioactive materials.

  19. Final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of the exterior land areas at the Grand Junction Projects Office facility

    SciTech Connect

    Widdop, M.R.

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) facility occupies approximately 56.4 acres (22.8 hectares) along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. The site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium-refining activities conducted by the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot-milling experiments conducted for the US Atomic Energy Commission`s (AEC`s) domestic uranium procurement program. The GJPO facility was the collection and assay point for AEC uranium and vanadium oxide purchases until the early 1970s. The DOE Decontamination and Decommissioning Program sponsored the Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project (GJPORAP) to remediate the facility lands, site improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor, Rust Geotech, was the Remedial Action Contractor for GJPORAP. The exterior land areas of the facility assessed as contaminated have been remediated in accordance with identified standards and can be released for unrestricted use. Restoration of the aquifer will be accomplished through the natural flushing action of the aquifer during the next 50 to 80 years. The remediation of the DOE-GJPO facility buildings is ongoing and will be described in a separate report.

  20. Plasma Decontamination of Uranium From the Interior of Aluminum Objects

    SciTech Connect

    Veilleux, J.M.; Munson, C.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Chamberlin, E.P.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1997-04-21

    RF plasma glow discharges are being investigated for removing and recovering radioactive elements from contaminated objects, especially those contaminated with transuranic (TRU) materials. These plasmas, using nitrogen trifluoride as the working gas, have been successful at removing uranium and plutonium contaminants from test coupons of stainless steel and aluminum surfaces, including small cracks and crevices, and the interior surfaces of relatively hard to reach aluminum pipes. Contaminant removal exceeded 99.9% from simple surfaces and contaminant recovery using cryogenic traps has exceeded 50%. Work continues with the objective of demonstrating that transuranic contaminated waste can be transformed to low level waste (LLW) and to better understand the physics of the interaction between plasma and surface contaminants. This work summarizes the preliminary results from plasma decontamination from the interior of aluminum objects--the nooks and crannies experiments.

  1. QM/MM model of the mouse olfactory receptor MOR244-3 validated by site-directed mutagenesis experiments.

    PubMed

    Sekharan, Sivakumar; Ertem, Mehmed Z; Zhuang, Hanyi; Block, Eric; Matsunami, Hiroaki; Zhang, Ruina; Wei, Jennifer N; Pan, Yi; Batista, Victor S

    2014-09-01

    Understanding structure/function relationships of olfactory receptors is challenging due to the lack of x-ray structural models. Here, we introduce a QM/MM model of the mouse olfactory receptor MOR244-3, responsive to organosulfur odorants such as (methylthio)methanethiol. The binding site consists of a copper ion bound to the heteroatoms of amino-acid residues H105, C109, and N202. The model is consistent with site-directed mutagenesis experiments and biochemical measurements of the receptor activation, and thus provides a valuable framework for further studies of the sense of smell at the molecular level. PMID:25185561

  2. QM/MM Model of the Mouse Olfactory Receptor MOR244-3 Validated by Site-Directed Mutagenesis Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Sekharan, Sivakumar; Ertem, Mehmed Z.; Zhuang, Hanyi; Block, Eric; Matsunami, Hiroaki; Zhang, Ruina; Wei, Jennifer N.; Pan, Yi; Batista, Victor S.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding structure/function relationships of olfactory receptors is challenging due to the lack of x-ray structural models. Here, we introduce a QM/MM model of the mouse olfactory receptor MOR244-3, responsive to organosulfur odorants such as (methylthio)methanethiol. The binding site consists of a copper ion bound to the heteroatoms of amino-acid residues H105, C109, and N202. The model is consistent with site-directed mutagenesis experiments and biochemical measurements of the receptor activation, and thus provides a valuable framework for further studies of the sense of smell at the molecular level. PMID:25185561

  3. Slipcovering a superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Gascoyne, S.

    1993-09-01

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal is both a Superfund cleanup site (one of the most contaminated in the United States) and a recently named provisional wildlife refuge. In this article, the history of the Rocky Mountain arsenal is reviewed. The decontamination program for the arsenal and the probable effects of cleanup on the ecology of the site are described. Some of the diverse responses to the program are included in the discussion.

  4. Influence of site-specific geology on oil shale fragmentation experiments at the Colony Mine, Garfield County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, J.M.; Harper, M.D.; Craig, J.L.; Edwards, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory executed 19 intermediate scale cratering experiments in oil shale at the Colony Mine in Garfield County, Colorado. These experiments have led to a better understanding of fracture characteristics and fragmentation of in situ oil shale by use of a conventional high explosive. Geologic site characterization included detailed mapping, coring, and sample analyses. Site-specific geology was observed to be a major influence on the resulting crater geometry. The joint patterns at the experimental site frequently defined the final crater symmetry. Secondary influences included vugs, lithology changes, and grade fluctuations in the local stratigraphy. Most experiments, in both the rib and floor, were conducted to obtain data to investigate the fragmentation results within the craters. The rubble was screened for fragment-size distributions. Geologic features in proximity to the explosive charge had minimal effect on the rubble due to the overpowering effect of the detonation. However, these same features became more influential on the fracture and rubble characteristics with greater distances from the shothole. Postshot cores revealed a direct relationship between the grade of the oil shale and its susceptibility to fracturing. The Colony Mine experiments have demonstrated the significant role of geology in high explosive/oil shale interaction. It is probable that this role will have to be considered for larger applications to blast patterns and potential problems in retort stability in the future of oil shale development.

  5. Decontamination after a release of B. anthracis spores.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Chris G; Kirvel, Robert D; Love, Adam H; Bailey, Christopher G; Miles, Robin; Schweickert, Jerry; Sutton, Mark; Raber, Ellen

    2012-03-01

    Decontaminating civilian facilities or large urban areas following an attack with Bacillus anthracis poses daunting challenges because of the lack of resources and proven technologies. Nevertheless, lessons learned from the 2001 cleanups together with advances derived from recent research have improved our understanding of what is required for effective decontamination. This article reviews current decontamination technologies appropriate for use in outdoor environments, on material surfaces, within large enclosed spaces, in water, and on waste contaminated with aerosolized B. anthracis spores. PMID:22352747

  6. Decontamination demonstration facility (D. D. F) modularization/mobility study

    SciTech Connect

    FitzPatrick, V.F.; Butts, H.L.; Moles, R.G.; Lundgren, R.A.

    1980-11-01

    The component decontamination technology, developed under the DOE sponsored TRU Waste Decontamination Program, has potential benefits to nuclear utility owners in four strategic areas: (1) Meeting ALARA Criteria for Maintenance/Operations; (2) Management of wastes and waste forms; (3) Accident Response; (4) Decommissioning. The most significant step in transferring this technology directly to the nuclear industry is embodied in the TMI Decontamination Demonstration Facility (D.D.F.).

  7. Waste and decontamination services FY 94 Multi-Year Program Plan Phase II WBS No. 1.2.3

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, E.A.

    1994-05-01

    During the remediation of the Hanford Site large volumes of radioactive and mixed solid waste are expected to be produced, thus creating the need for subsequent decontamination, treatment, storage, and/or waste disposal. The program mission is to manage current and future contaminated solid waste streams in a safe, responsible, cost effective and legally compliant manner. This document presents the strategy and technical requirements, along with key objectives and deliverables for the waste and decontamination services program for fiscal year 1994. Time schedules, cost estimates, and justification for each proposed activity are given in tables and charts.

  8. Decontamination technologies for release from bioprocessing facilities. Part I. Introduction. Part II. Decontamination of wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Wickramanayake, G.B. )

    1990-01-01

    Genetically engineered microorganisms are widely used in biotechnology. Wastewater from bioprocessing facilities will require treatment to ensure that effluents discharged into surface water or other waste streams are not a source of viable organisms or transmittable genetic material. The application of treatment technologies used in other industries to decontaminate the releases from biotechnology processing facilities was evaluated. Since published literature on the inactivation of recombinant-DNA organisms is very limited, information for bacteria, viruses, fungi and subcellular components was obtained. The data indicated that ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, heat, ultraviolet light and ionizing radiation offer good performance potential for decontamination of rDNA processing wastewater. 180 refs., 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  9. Personal protective equipment and decontamination of adults and children.

    PubMed

    Holland, Michael G; Cawthon, David

    2015-02-01

    Accurate identification of the hazardous material is essential for proper care. Efficient hospital security and triage must prevent contaminated victims from entering the emergency department (ED) and causing secondary contamination. The decontamination area should be located outside the ambulance entrance. Decontamination priorities are protection of the health care worker, utilization of Level C personal protective equipment, and proper decontamination of the exposed patient. Decontamination proceeds in a head-to-toe sequence. Run-off water is a hazardous waste. Hospital and Community Management Planning for these emergencies is essential for proper preparation and effective response to the hazardous materials incident. PMID:25455662

  10. Decontamination of chemical warfare sulfur mustard agent simulant by ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Meysam; Yekta, Sina; Ghaedi, Hamed

    2016-07-01

    In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have been surveyed to decontaminate the chloroethyl phenyl sulfide as a sulfur mustard agent simulant. Prior to the reaction, ZnO NPs were successfully prepared through sol-gel method in the absence and presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). PVA was utilized as a capping agent to control the agglomeration of the nanoparticles. The formation, morphology, elemental component, and crystalline size of nanoscale ZnO were certified and characterized by SEM/EDX, XRD, and FT-IR techniques. The decontamination (adsorption and destruction) was tracked by the GC-FID analysis, in which the effects of polarity of the media, such as isopropanol, acetone and n-hexane, reaction time intervals from 1 up to 18 h, and different temperatures, including 25, 35, 45, and 55 °C, on the catalytic/decontaminative capability of the surface of ZnO NPs/PVA were investigated and discussed, respectively. Results demonstrated that maximum decontamination (100 %) occurred in n-hexane solvent at 55 °C after 1 h. On the other hand, the obtained results for the acetone and isopropanol solvents were lower than expected. GC-MS chromatograms confirmed the formation of hydroxyl ethyl phenyl sulfide and phenyl vinyl sulfide as the destruction reaction products. Furthermore, these chromatograms proved the role of hydrolysis and elimination mechanisms on the catalyst considering its surface Bronsted and Lewis acid sites. A non-polar solvent aids material transfer to the reactive surface acid sites without blocking these sites.

  11. Immobilization of Russian VX skin depots by localized cooling: implications for decontamination and medical countermeasures.

    PubMed

    Mikler, J; Tenn, C; Worek, F; Reiter, G; Thiermann, H; Garrett, M; Bohnert, S; Sawyer, T W

    2011-09-25

    The chemical weapon nerve agent known as Russian VX (VR) is a potent organophosphorus (OP) compound that is much less studied than its VX analogue with respect to toxicity, as well as to the effectiveness of several known countermeasures against it. An anaesthetized domestic swine model was utilized to assess several approaches in mitigating its toxicity, including the utility of cooling VR treated skin to increase the therapeutic window for treatment. The 6h LD₅₀ for VR topically applied on the ear was 100 μg/kg. Treatment of VR exposed animals (5 × LD₅₀) with pralidoxime (2PAM) very poorly regenerated inhibited blood cholinesterase activity, but was partially effective in preventing signs of OP poisoning and increasing survival. In contrast, treatment with the Hagedorn oxime HI-6 reactivated cholinesterase, eliminated all signs of poisoning and prevented death. Decontamination with the Reactive Skin Decontaminant Lotion (RSDL) 15 min after VR exposure was completely effective in preventing death. Cooling of the VR exposure sites for 2 or 6h prevented signs of OP poisoning and death during the cooling period. However, these animals died very quickly after the cessation of cooling, unless they were treated with oxime or decontaminated with RSDL. Blood analyses showed that cooling of agent exposure sites delayed the entry of VR into the bloodstream. Medical treatment with HI-6 and to a lesser extent 2PAM, or decontamination with RSDL are effective in protecting against the toxic effects of cutaneous exposure to VR. Immobilizing this agent (and related compounds) within the dermal reservoir by cooling the exposure sites, dramatically increases the therapeutic window in which these medical countermeasures are effective. PMID:21704135

  12. Office of Environmental Management Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund financial statements, September 30, 1995 and 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-21

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Act) requires the Department of Energy to retain ownership and responsibility for the costs of environmental cleanup resulting from the Government`s operation of the three gaseous diffusion facilities located at the K-25 site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. The Act transferred the uranium enrichment enterprise to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) as of July 1, 1993, and established the Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund (D&D Fund) to: Pay for the costs of decontamination and decommissioning at the diffusion facilities; pay the annual costs for remedial action at the diffusion facilities to the extent that the amount in the Fund is sufficient; and reimburse uranium/thorium licensees for the costs of decontamination, decommissioning, reclamation, and other remedial actions which are incident to sales to the Government.

  13. Crystallization In High Level Waste (HLW) Glass Melters: Operational Experience From The Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.

    2014-02-27

    Include noble metals in glass melt experiments because of their potential to act as nucleation site

  14. Experiences with unexploded ordnance discrimination using magnetometry at a live-site in Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billings, Stephen; Youmans, Clifton

    2007-03-01

    Advanced discrimination methods and careful optimization of operational procedures are critical for efficient remediation of unexploded ordnance (UXO) contaminated sites. In this paper, we report on our experiences with a 200 acre magnetic survey that was collected and processed under production survey conditions at Chevallier Ranch, Montana. All anomalies with fitted moments above 0.05 Am 2 were excavated. During the survey the magnetic remanence metric was predicted but not used to guide the discrimination. The retrospective analysis presented here reveals that discrimination using remanence would have significantly reduced the total number of anomalies (with good dipolar fits) that needed to be excavated, from 524 to 290 while still recovering all 69 UXO. The false alarm rate (FAR = number of non-UXOs excavated divided / number of UXO found) was reduced from 6.3 to 2.9. At a cut-off of 75% remanence, 77% of anomalies due to shrapnel and metallic debris and 64% of geological anomalies were rejected. Geological anomalies due to variations in magnetite concentration introduced a significant human-element into the interpretation process. Three different interpreters added a total of 305 additional anomalies that were not fit with a dipole model and which were later found to be non-UXO. Between 40 and 50% of anomalies picked by the two relatively inexperienced interpreters who analyzed the data turned out to be geology, as compared to 14% for an experienced interpreter. Critical analysis of results, operator training and feedback from the UXO technicians validating the anomaly are essential components towards improving the quality and consistency of the anomaly interpretations. This is consistent with the tenants of Total Quality Management (TQM). We compare the actual FAR that resulted during the survey when there was little feedback between UXO technician validation results, to a hypothetical result that could have been achieved had there been a constant feedback

  15. In-Situ Biological Decontamination of an Ice Melting Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digel, Ilya

    A major concern in space and even many terrestrial missions is the forward contamination of the alien environment with microbes and biological molecules, transported on spacecraft from Earth. Furthermore, organisms and molecules can be brought to the sampling place from the surface. All this can lead to serious misinterpretations of the obtained data and more impor-tantly, could irreversibly alter the pristine nature of the extraterrestrial environments. These issues were addressed and are constantly updated in COSPAR planetary protection policy (20 October 2002; Amended 24 March 2005; 20 July 2008). The objective of our study was to investigate the efficacy of different in-situ decontamination protocols in the conditions of thermo-mechanical ice-melting. We evaluated survival rate of microorganisms on the melting probe as a function of both time and penetration depth. Special focus was made on deter-mination of the optimal concentration of chemical decontaminants (hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite) the peculiarities of their antimicrobial action at low temperatures (-80 to 0C) combined with constant dilution with melted ice and mechanical abrasion. Common, non-pathogenic microbial strains belonging to different morphological and metabolic groups (Pseudomonas, Micrococcus, Escherichia, Bacillus and others) were chosen as test objects for this study. The working part of the melting probe was first controllably contaminated by in-cubation in suspension of microbial cells. After appropriate sedimentation of microbial cells had been reached, the drilling-melting process was started using specially prepared sterile ice blocks. Every 2 minutes the samples were taken and analyzed. In the control tests, 1 mL of distilled water was injected into the penetration site at the onset of drilling. In the other tests, 1 mL of hydrogen peroxide (30Collected data suggest high efficacy of both used compounds in respect of all tested microbial groups. Typically, 99.9

  16. Vibrations on the Roll - MANA, a Roll Along Array Experiment to map Local Site Effects Across a Fault System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohrnberger, M.; Scherbaum, F.; Hinzen, K. G.; Reamer, S. K.; Weber, B.

    2001-12-01

    The effects of surficial geology on seismic motion (site effects) are considered one of the major controlling factors to the damage distribution during earthquakes. Qualitative and quantitative estimates of local site amplifications provide important information for the identification of potential high risk areas. In this context, the analysis of ambient vibrations is an attractive tool for the mapping of site conditions. It is a low-cost alternative to expensive active seismic experiments or geophysical well-logging and especially well suited for the use within urban areas. Within the MANA experiment we conducted ambient vibration measurements at roughly 100 sites in the Lower Rhine Embayment (NW-Germany) to test various aspects of site effect determination, especially the feasibility of a roll along technique. A total of 13 three-component seismometers (5s corner period) have been used in a linear array configuration (station distance ~100 m). At all times during the roll-along experiment at least 8 stations (mostly 10) were operating simultaneously, meanwhilst the other stations were moved from the rear to the front of the line and re-installed. Thus, a total progress of almost 10 km could be obtained within two days. The line stretched across the NW-SE striking Erft fault system, one of the major faults in the eastern part of the Lower Rhine Embayment. The thickness of cenozoic soft-sediments overlying the basement of paleozoic age increases at the individual branches of the fault in abrupt steps of uncertain magnitude from around 200 m in the east to almost 1000 m in the west. The results of single station horizontal to vertical spectral ratios (HVSR) along the line are presented as well as the spatial evolution of local dispersion curves obtained from a slantstack analysis (SSA). The spatial variation of features along the line in both the HVSR and SSA are discussed in terms of sedimentary thickness and modifications of the wavefield properties of the ambient

  17. Radiative Closure Experiments at a Cloud-Free Desert Site, Nevada, as Part of MISR Algorithm Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conel, J. E.; Abdou, W. A.; Bruegge, C. J.; Gaitley, B. J.; Helmlinger, M. C.; Ledeboer, W. C.; Pilorz, S. H.; Martonchik, J. V.

    1997-01-01

    Radiative closure experiments involving a comparison between surface-measured spectral irradiance and the surface irradiance calculated according to a radiative transfer code at a desert site in Nevada under clear skies, yield the result that agreement between the two requires presence of an absorbing aerosol component with an imaginary refractive index equal to 0.03 and a 50:50 mix by optical depth of small and large particles with log-normal size distributions.

  18. Available decontamination and decommissioning capabilities at the Savannah River Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    Polizzi, L.M.; Norkus, J.K.; Paik, I.K.; Wooten, L.A.

    1992-08-19

    The Safety Analysis and Engineering Services Group has performed a survey of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) technical capabilities, skills, and experience in Decontamination and Decommissioning (D D) activities. The goal of this survey is to enhance the integration of the SRTC capabilities with the technical needs of the Environmental Restoration Department D D program and the DOE Office of Technology Development through the Integrated Demonstration Program. This survey has identified technical capabilities, skills, and experience in the following D D areas: Characterization, Decontamination, Dismantlement, Material Disposal, Remote Systems, and support on Safety Technology for D D. This review demonstrates the depth and wealth of technical capability resident in the SRTC in relation to these activities, and the unique qualifications of the SRTC to supply technical support in the area of DOE facility D D. Additional details on specific technologies and applications to D D will be made available on request.

  19. Available decontamination and decommissioning capabilities at the Savannah River Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    Polizzi, L.M.; Norkus, J.K.; Paik, I.K.; Wooten, L.A.

    1992-08-19

    The Safety Analysis and Engineering Services Group has performed a survey of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) technical capabilities, skills, and experience in Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) activities. The goal of this survey is to enhance the integration of the SRTC capabilities with the technical needs of the Environmental Restoration Department D&D program and the DOE Office of Technology Development through the Integrated Demonstration Program. This survey has identified technical capabilities, skills, and experience in the following D&D areas: Characterization, Decontamination, Dismantlement, Material Disposal, Remote Systems, and support on Safety Technology for D&D. This review demonstrates the depth and wealth of technical capability resident in the SRTC in relation to these activities, and the unique qualifications of the SRTC to supply technical support in the area of DOE facility D&D. Additional details on specific technologies and applications to D&D will be made available on request.

  20. DECONTAMINATION OF PLUTONIUM FOR FLUORIDE AND CHLORIDE DURING OXALATE PRECIPITATION, FILTRATION AND CALCINATION PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E.

    2012-07-25

    Due to analytical limitations for the determination of fluoride (F) and chloride (Cl) in a previous anion exchange study, an additional study of the decontamination of Pu from F and Cl by oxalate precipitation, filtration and calcination was performed. Anion product solution from the previous impurity study was precipitated as an oxalate, filtered, and calcined to produce an oxide for analysis by pyrohydrolysis for total Cl and F. Analysis of samples from this experiment achieved the purity specification for Cl and F for the proposed AFS-2 process. Decontamination factors (DF's) for the overall process (including anion exchange) achieved a DF of {approx}5000 for F and a DF of {approx}100 for Cl. Similar experiments where both HF and HCl were spiked into the anion product solution to a {approx}5000 {micro}g /g Pu concentration showed a DF of 5 for F and a DF of 35 for Cl across the combined precipitation-filtration-calcination process steps.

  1. Development and testing of a laser-based decontamination system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthofer, A.; Lippmann, W.; Hurtado, A.

    2013-06-01

    Decontamination of radioactive concrete surfaces may be necessary during operation or decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Usually only the upper layers of the concrete structure are contaminated and are removed using labor-intensive mechanical milling processes. Production of a large amount of dust, which can lead to secondary contamination, is inherent to these processes. Improvements in high-energy laser technology have now made it possible for laser radiation to be used in decontamination technologies for the removal of concrete layers. A decontamination unit comprising a diode laser with a beam power of 10 kW in continuous wave (CW) mode in combination with an autonomous manipulator was developed for use in nuclear plants. The laser beam melts the concrete surface to a depth of approximately 5 mm. Compressed air jets then detach the molten layer from the concrete surface and convey it to a suction system, with which it is transported to a collection container. Most of the radionuclides are trapped in the solidifying melt particles, which form an extremely stable effluent well suited to long-term storage. A relatively small amount of dust is generated in the process. Because there is no backlash during energy transfer, the laser device carrier can be designed to be lightweight and flexible. A specially developed manipulator that can move freely along walls and ceilings by means of suction plates is used for the carrier unit. This results in short setup times for preparing for use of the device and minimal personnel exposure to the radiation. Experiments were conducted on a concrete wall to demonstrate the functionality of the overall system in realistic conditions. An optimal ablation rate of 2.16 m²/h at an ablation depth of 1-5 mm was achieved. Today's commercially available diode lasers with powers higher than 50 kW enable ablation rates of >10 m²/h to be achieved and hence make these laser-based systems competitive alternatives to mechanical systems.

  2. Preliminary numerical modeling for the G-Tunnel welded tuff mining experiment; Yucca Mountain site characterization project

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.L.; Bauer, S.J.

    1991-09-01

    Yucca Mountain, located in Southern Nevada, is to be considered as a potential site for a nuclear waste repository. Located in Rainier Mesa on the Nevada Test Site, G-Tunnel has been the site of a series of experiments, part of whose purpose is to evaluate measurement techniques for rock mechanics before testing in the Exploratory Shaft. Rainier Mesa is composed of welded and nonwelded tuffs that have thermal and mechanical properties and stress states similar to those of tuffs expected to be encountered at Yucca Mountain. A series of finite element calculations were performed to aid in designing instrumentation for the experiments in G-Tunnel and later to correlate with measured data. In this report are presented the results of the preliminary finite element calculations performed in conjunction with experimental measurements of drift convergence, or closure, and rock mass relaxation zones made before, during, and after completing the welded tuff mining experiment in G-Tunnel. Tape extensometer measurements of drift convergences and measurements determined by multiple point borehole extensometers are compared with corresponding calculated values using linear elastic and jointed rock material models. 9 refs., 25 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Visiting the Site of Death: Experiences of the Bereaved after the 2004 Southeast Asian Tsunami

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristensen, Pal; Tonnessen, Arnfinn; Weisaeth, Lars; Heir, Trond

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined how many bereaved relatives of Norwegian tourists who perished in the 2004 Southeast Asian Tsunami had visited the site of death and the most important outcome from the visit. We conducted in-depth interviews (n = 110) and used self-report questionnaires (Impact of Event Scale--Revised, Inventory of Complicated Grief, and…

  4. Site-Based Management: An Experiment in Governance. Policy Briefs, Number 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlos, Lisa; Amsler, Mary

    Site-based management (SBM) is an increasingly popular approach to school restructuring. SBM aims to transfer authority from state agencies and school districts to committees based at schools. To garner a consensus supporting reform, these committees are to be representative of educational and community members. SBM plans are characterized by: (1)…

  5. Visiting the site of death: experiences of the bereaved after the 2004 Southeast Asian Tsunami.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Pål; Tønnessen, Arnfinn; Weisaeth, Lars; Heir, Trond

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined how many bereaved relatives of Norwegian tourists who perished in the 2004 Southeast Asian Tsunami had visited the site of death and the most important outcome from the visit. We conducted in-depth interviews (n = 110) and used self-report questionnaires (Impact of Event Scale-Revised, Inventory of Complicated Grief and General Health Questionnaire) in a total of 130 first-degree family members 2 years post-disaster. Results showed that the majority of participants (n = 113; 87%) had visited the site of death. The most important outcome was gaining an increased understanding of what occurred (61%) and a feeling of closeness to the deceased (27%). Those who had visited the site of death reported lower avoidance behavior and higher degree of acceptance of the loss than non-visitors. Although this could be a cause as well as a consequence of the visit, visiting the site of death may be an important part of the support offered to bereaved families after experiencing a disaster loss. PMID:24567999

  6. The Merging of Systems Analysis and Design Principles with Web Site Development: One University's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacs, Paul; Rowell, Dick

    2001-01-01

    Describes the development of a course at Indiana University of Pennsylvania on Web Site theory and design for undergraduate and graduate students. Highlights include the classroom configuration; software; hardware; teaching strategies; and the project-based approach for a course model, including student assessment, student projects, work groups,…

  7. ELECTROSTATICALLY CHARGED AEROSOL DECONTAMINATION SYSTEM FOR SMALL BUILDING DECONTAMINATION - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    Existing decontamination procedures are time-consuming, labor-intensive, and produce low-yielding results, and they have a high risk of personnel exposure and equipment damage. Foster-Miller, Inc., has teamed with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and other reagent suppl...

  8. Decontamination of concrete surfaces in Building 3019, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [After Nov. 20, 1959 incident

    SciTech Connect

    Parrott, Sr, J R

    1980-01-01

    This building was built in 1943 to serve as a pilot plant for separating isotopes from irradiated fuels. A chemical explosion leading to widespread Pu contamination occurred on Nov. 20, 1959, and the steps taken to treat the building afterwards are discussed, in particular the floor and the cells. The experience shows how hard it is to decontaminate concrete; smooth coatings should be utilized. (DLC)

  9. Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Echol E; Beatty, Tia Maria

    1998-07-01

    The following paragraphs comprise the research efforts during the second quarter of 1998 (April 1 - June 30.) These tasks have been granted a continuation until the end of August 1998. This report represents the last technical quarterly report deliverable for the WVU Cooperative Agreement - Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program. Final draft technical reports will be the next submission. During this period, work was completed on the Injection and Circulation of Potable Water Through PVDs on Task 1.6 - Pilot Scale Demonstration of TCE Flushing Through PVDs at the DOE/RMI Extrusion Plant. The data has been evaluated and representative graphs are presented. The plot of Cumulative Injected Volume vs. Cumulative Week Time show the ability to consistently inject through the two center PVDs at a rate of approximately ten (10) gallons per hour. This injection rate was achieved under a static head that varied from five (5) feet to three (3) feet. The plot of Extracted Flow Rate vs. Cumulative Week Time compares the extraction rate with and without the injection of water. The injection operation was continuous for eight hour periods while the extraction operation was executed over a pulsing schedule. Extraction rates as high as forty-five (45) gallons per hour were achieved in conjunction with injection (a 350% increase over no injection.) The retrieved TCE in the liquid phase varied to a considerable degree depending on the pulsing scheme, indicating a significant amount of stripping (volatilization) took place during the extraction process. A field experiment was conducted to confirm this. A liquid sample was obtained using the same vacuum system used in the pad operation and a second liquid sample was taken by a bailer. Analyzation of TCE concentration showed 99.5% volatilization when the vacuum system was used for extraction. This was also confirmed by data from the air monitoring program which indicated that 92%-99% of the retrieved TCE was being

  10. Cyclodextrines as functional agents for decontamination of the skin contaminated by nerve agents.

    PubMed

    Cabal, Jirí; Kuca, Kamil; Sevelová-Bartosová, Lucie; Dohnal, Vlastimil

    2004-01-01

    Three decontamination solutions of beta-cyclodextrines were prepared. Their abilities to decontamine rat skin contamined with nerve agent soman were tested. Decontamination efficacy of the tested cyclodextrine solutions was compared with the same decontamination means but without the cyclodextrines. The efficacy of tested decontaminants was evaluated by the assessment of the ID50 values. Two decontamination prescriptions with cyclodextrines (tetraborate buffer and tetraborate buffer with acetone) do not show significantly better decontamination efficacies in comparison with prescriptions without cyclodextrines. Only in case of aqueous solution of 2-aminoethanol the addition of beta-cyclodextrine resulted in significant increase (32%) in decontamination efficacy. PMID:15446361

  11. SAFETY STUDIES TO MEASURE EXOTHERMIC REACTIONS OF SPENT PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATION CHEMICALS USING WET AND DRY DECONTAMINATION METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Andrea M.; Jackson, George W.; Minette, Michael J.; Ewalt, John R.; Cooper, Thurman D.; Scott, Paul A.; Jones, Susan A.; Scheele, Randall D.; Charboneau, Stacy L.

    2005-10-12

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) at the Hanford site in Eastern Washington is currently being decommissioned by Fluor Hanford. Chemicals being considered for decontamination of gloveboxes in PFP include cerium (IV) nitrate in a nitric acid solution, and proprietary commercial solutions that include acids and sequestering agents. Aggressive chemicals are commonly used to remove transuranic contaminants from process equipment to allow disposal of the equipment as low level waste. Fluor's decontamination procedure involves application of chemical solutions as a spray on the contaminated surfaces, followed by a wipe-down with rags. Alternatively, a process of applying oxidizing Ce IV ions contained in a gel matrix and vacuuming a dry gel material is being evaluated. These processes effectively transfer the transuranic materials to rags or a gel matrix which is then packaged as TRU waste and disposed. Fluor is investigating plutonium decontamination chemicals as a result of concerns regarding the safety of chemical procedures following a fire at Rocky Flats in 2003. The fire at Rocky Flats occurred in a glovebox that had been treated with cerium nitrate, which is one of the decontamination chemicals that Fluor Hanford has proposed to use. Although the investigation of the fire was not conclusive as to cause, the reviewers noted that rags were found in the glovebox, suggesting that the combination of rags and chemicals may have contributed to the fire. Because of this underlying uncertainty, Fluor began an investigation into the potential for fire when using the chemicals and materials using wet disposition and dry disposition of the waste generated in the decontamination process and the storage conditions to which the waste drum would be exposed. The focus of this work has been to develop a disposal strategy that will provide a chemically stable waste form at expected Hanford waste storage temperatures. Hanford waste storage conditions are such that there is added

  12. Microwave-Based Water Decontamination System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Byerly, Diane (Inventor); Sognier, Marguerite (Inventor); Dusl, John (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A system for decontaminating a medium. The system can include a medium having one or more contaminants disposed therein. The contaminants can be or include bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses, and combinations thereof. A microwave energy radiation device can be positioned proximate the medium. The microwave energy radiation device can be adapted to generate a signal having a frequency from about 10 GHz to about 100 GHz. The signal can be adapted to kill one or more of the contaminants disposed within the medium while increasing a temperature of the medium by less than about 10 C.

  13. Process for Descaling and Decontaminating Metals

    DOEpatents

    Baybarz, R. D.

    1961-04-25

    The oxide scale on the surface of stainless steels and similar metals is removed by contacting the metal under an inert atmosphere with a dilute H/sub 2/ SO/sub 4/ solution containing CrSO/sub 4/. The removed oxide scale is either dissolved or disintegrated into a slurry by the solution. Preferred reagent concentrations are 0.3 to 0.5 M CrSO/sub 4/ and 0.5 to 0.6 M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The process is particularly applicable to decontamination of aqueous homogeneous nuclear reactor systems. (AEC)

  14. Decontamination formulations for disinfection and sterilization

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D.; Engler, Daniel E.

    2007-09-18

    Aqueous decontamination formulations that neutralize biological pathogens for disinfection and sterilization applications. Examples of suitable applications include disinfection of food processing equipment, disinfection of areas containing livestock, mold remediation, sterilization of medical instruments and direct disinfection of food surfaces, such as beef carcasses. The formulations include at least one reactive compound, bleaching activator, inorganic base, and water. The formulations can be packaged as a two-part kit system, and can have a pH value in the range of 7-8.

  15. Automated Single Cell Data Decontamination Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Tennessen, Kristin; Pati, Amrita

    2014-03-21

    Recent technological advancements in single-cell genomics have encouraged the classification and functional assessment of microorganisms from a wide span of the biospheres phylogeny.1,2 Environmental processes of interest to the DOE, such as bioremediation and carbon cycling, can be elucidated through the genomic lens of these unculturable microbes. However, contamination can occur at various stages of the single-cell sequencing process. Contaminated data can lead to wasted time and effort on meaningless analyses, inaccurate or erroneous conclusions, and pollution of public databases. A fully automated decontamination tool is necessary to prevent these instances and increase the throughput of the single-cell sequencing process

  16. Evaluation of cloths for decontamination by wiping

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, W.N.; Reiff, D.J.; Fink, S.D. ); Luckenbach, R.L. )

    1990-01-01

    Treated polyester cloth was evaluated in laboratory-scale and larger-scale tests as an alternative to atomic wipes and cotton cloth for use in decontamination by wiping. The advantages of the treated polyester are as follows: does not react with nitric acid to form unstable product, more fire resistant, less volume of radioactive waste generated (versus atomic wipes), and product can be recovered by soaking the polyester cloths in nitric acid. Results are that even though treated polyester wiping cloths are slightly less effective than atomic wipes and cotton cloth, its many other benefits greatly outweigh this slight disadvantage. 5 figs.

  17. Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2005-07-15

    The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Major interviews, articles and reports in this issue include: Increasing momentum, by Gary Taylor, Entergy Nuclear, Inc.; An acceptable investment, by Tom Chrisopher, Areva, Inc.; Fuel recycling for the U.S. and abroad, by Philippe Knoche, Areva, France; We're bullish on nuclear power, by Dan R. Keuter, Entergy Nuclear, Inc.; Ten key actions for decommissioning, by Lawrence E. Boing, Argonne National Laboratory; Safe, efficient and cost-effective decommissioning, by Dr. Claudio Pescatore and Torsten Eng, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), France; and, Plant profile: SONGS decommissioning.

  18. Large area cold plasma applicator for decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konesky, G. A.

    2008-04-01

    Cold plasma applicators have been used in the Medical community for several years for uses ranging from hemostasis ("stop bleeding") to tumor removal. An added benefit of this technology is enhanced wound healing by the destruction of infectious microbial agents without damaging healthy tissue. The beam is typically one millimeter to less than a centimeter in diameter. This technology has been adapted and expanded to large area applicators of potentially a square meter or more. Decontamination applications include both biological and chemical agents, and assisting in the removal of radiological agents, with minimal or no damage to the contaminated substrate material. Linear and planar multiemitter array plasma applicator design and operation is discussed.

  19. DECISION ANALYSIS AND TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENTS FOR METAL AND MASONRY DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to conduct a comparative analysis of innovative technologies for the non-aggressive removal of coatings from metal and masonry surfaces and the aggressive removal of one-quarter to one-inch thickness of surface from structural masonry. The technologies tested should be capable of being used in nuclear facilities. Innovative decontamination technologies are being evaluated under standard, non-nuclear conditions at the FIU-HCET technology assessment site in Miami, Florida. This study is being performed to support the OST, the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) Focus Area, and the environmental restoration of DOE facilities throughout the DOE complex by providing objective evaluations of currently available decontamination technologies.

  20. An overview of plutonium-238 decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) projects at Mound

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, W.H.; Davis, W.P.; Draper, D.G.; Geichman, J.R.; Harris, J.C.; Jaeger, R.R.; Sohn, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Mound is currently decontaminating for restricted reuse and/or decommissioning for conditional release four major plutonium-238 contaminated facilities that contained 1700 linear feet of gloveboxes and associated equipment and services. Several thousand linear feet of external underground piping, associated tanks, and contaminated soil are being removed. Two of the facilities contain ongoing operations and will be reused for both radioactive and nonradioactive programs. Two others will be completely demolished and the land area will become available for future DOE building sites. An overview of the successful techniques and equipment used in the decontamination and decommissioning of individual pieces of equipment, gloveboxes, services, laboratories, sections of buildings, entire buildings, and external underground piping, tanks, and soil in a highly populated residential area is described and pictorially presented.

  1. A fit for purpose training programme for the decontamination of personnel.

    PubMed

    O'Mara, E; Cole, P; Wynn, A; Collison, R

    2015-06-01

    Contingency plans are a crucial part of operating any nuclear facility. The success of a contingency plan depends on the efficacy of the plan and the confidence and understanding of those who must enact it. This project focused on both of these aspects, clarifying technique and then designing and delivering a training programme for decontamination. The design of the training was based on the IAEA Systematic Approach to Training (SAT). The delivery focused on ways of increasing retention including use of practical examples and assessment, peer assessment and visual contingency plans. A quantitative survey of the trainees was conducted using a questionnaire before and after the training programme delivery. The results clearly demonstrate an improvement across all elements of skills and knowledge required to undertake decontamination. Effective training is fundamental to the development of a good safety culture and the methodology used in this work has led to a clear improvement in radiation protection culture at the Devonport site. PMID:25769116

  2. Plutonium Decontamination of Uranium using CO2 Cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, M

    2002-12-01

    A concern of the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) and Defense Programs (DP), and of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), is the disposition of thousands of legacy and recently generated plutonium (Pu)-contaminated, highly enriched uranium (HEU) parts. These parts take up needed vault space. This presents a serious problem for LLNL, as site limit could result in the stoppage of future weapons work. The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (NN-60) will also face a similar problem as thousands of HEU parts will be created with the disassembly of site-return pits for plutonium recovery when the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) becomes operational. To send HEU to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Y-12 Plant for disposition, the contamination for metal must be less than 20 disintegrations per minute (dpm) of swipable transuranic per 100 cm{sup 2} of surface area or the Pu bulk contamination for oxide must be less than 210 parts per billion (ppb). LANL has used the electrolytic process on Pu-contaminated HEU weapon parts with some success. However, this process requires that a different fixture be used for every configuration; each fixture cost approximately $10K. Moreover, electrolytic decontamination leaches the uranium metal substrate (no uranium or plutonium oxide) from the HEU part. The leaching rate at the uranium metal grain boundaries is higher than that of the grains and depends on the thickness of the uranium oxide layer. As the leaching liquid flows past the HEU part, it carries away plutonium oxide contamination and uranium oxide. The uneven uranium metal surface created by the leaching becomes a trap for plutonium oxide contamination. In addition, other DOE sites have used CO{sub 2} cleaning for Pu decontamination successfully. In the 1990's, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory investigated this technology and

  3. An exact solution for R2,eff in CPMG experiments in the case of two site chemical exchange

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill (CPMG) experiment is widely used to quantitatively analyse the effects of chemical exchange on NMR spectra. In a CPMG experiment, the effective transverse relaxation rate, R2,eff, is typically measured as a function of the pulse frequency, νCPMG. Here, an exact expression for how R2,eff varies with νCPMG is derived for the commonly encountered scenario of two-site chemical exchange of in-phase magnetisation. This result, summarised in Appendix A, generalises a frequently used equation derived by Carver and Richards, published in 1972. The expression enables more rapid analysis of CPMG data by both speeding up calculation of R2,eff over numerical methods by a factor of ca. 130, and yields exact derivatives for use in data analysis. Moreover, the derivation provides insight into the physical principles behind the experiment. PMID:24852115

  4. 40 CFR 761.79 - Decontamination standards and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... disassembled electrical equipment), concrete, and non-porous surfaces covered with a porous surface, such as... person decontaminating porous surfaces other than concrete under paragraph (b)(4) of this section and non..., concrete, or non-porous surfaces. (1) The decontamination standard for water containing PCBs is: (i)...

  5. WRDA SEDIMENT DECONTAMINATION PILOT-SCALE DATA REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermal and non-thermal decontamination technologies have been undergoing demonstrations at the bench through full/commercial-scale levels. The decontamination program is being conducted under the auspices of the Water Resources Development Acts (92, 96) working in conjunction wi...

  6. [Air decontamination and the fine filtration system "Potok 150MK"].

    PubMed

    Kapustina, E A; Volodina, E V

    2004-01-01

    Longevity of space stations is dependent on efficiency and robustness of the life support systems. The article describes the principle of operation of air decontamination system Potok 150MK intended for providing microbial safety of the orbital station environment. High quality of air disinfection and decontamination has been demonstrated aboard SS Mir and the International space station. PMID:15233040

  7. Early Regulatory Engagement for Successful Site Remediation: the UK Experience - 13173

    SciTech Connect

    Maitland, R.P.; Senior, D.

    2013-07-01

    The Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR) is an independent safety, security and transport regulator of the UK nuclear industry. ONR regulates all civil nuclear reactor power stations, fuel manufacture, enrichment, spent fuel reprocessing, most defence sites and installations that store and process legacy spent fuel and radioactive waste. The responsibility for funding and strategic direction of decommissioning and radioactive waste management of state owned legacy sites has rested solely with the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) since 2005. A key component of NDA's mandate was to encourage new strategic approaches and innovation to dealing with the UK's waste legacy and which deliver value-for-money to the UK taxpayer. ONR, as an agency of the Health and Safety Executive, is entirely independent of NDA and regulates all prescribed activities on NDA's sites. NDA's competition of site management and closure contracts has attracted significant international interest and the formation of consortia comprised of major British, US, French and Swedish organizations bidding for those contracts. The prominence of US organizations in each of those consortia reflects the scale and breadth of existing waste management and D and D projects in the US. This paper will articulate, in broad terms, the challenges faced by international organizations seeking to employ 'off-the-shelf' technology and D and D techniques, successfully employed elsewhere, into the UK regulatory context. The predominantly 'goal-setting' regulatory framework in the UK does not generally prescribe a minimum standard to which a licensee must adhere. The legal onus on licensees in the UK is to demonstrate, whatever technology is selected, that in its applications, risks are reduced 'So Far As Is Reasonably Practicable' or 'SFAIRP'. By the nature of its role, ONR adopts a conservative approach to regulation; however ONR also recognises that in the decommissioning (and ultimately the site closure) domain

  8. Assessing ecosystem impacts from simulant and decontaminant use. Contractor report, March-September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Kerster, H.W.; Schaeffer, D.J.; Reinbold, K.A.

    1988-05-01

    Chemicals for simulation and decontamination of chemical warfare agents may alter the ecosystems of training sites and their environs. Little information is available on the ecotoxicology of those chemicals. This report presents methods from the literature and proposes a newly devised approach to rank those chemicals for damage potential. Further data necessary to reduce ranking errors are identified, and chemical and ecological monitoring of training sites and their surroundings are recommended. The information in this report should be of special interest to U.S. Army personnel responsible for environmental protection of training areas.

  9. Blended Learning Environments: Using Social Networking Sites to Enhance the First Year Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    This study explores blending virtual and physical learning environments to enhance the experience of first year by immersing students into university culture through social and academic interaction between peers. It reports on the progress made from 2008 to 2009 using an existing academic platform, the first year design elective course "Imaging…

  10. The National Criticality Experiments Research Center at the Device Assembly Facility, Nevada National Security Site: Status and Capabilities, Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    S. Bragg-Sitton; J. Bess; J. Werner

    2011-09-01

    The National Criticality Experiments Research Center (NCERC) was officially opened on August 29, 2011. Located within the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), the NCERC has become a consolidation facility within the United States for critical configuration testing, particularly those involving highly enriched uranium (HEU). The DAF is a Department of Energy (DOE) owned facility that is operated by the National Nuclear Security Agency/Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). User laboratories include the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Personnel bring their home lab qualifications and procedures with them to the DAF, such that non-site specific training need not be repeated to conduct work at DAF. The NNSS Management and Operating contractor is National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) and the NNSS Safeguards and Security contractor is Wackenhut Services. The complete report provides an overview and status of the available laboratories and test bays at NCERC, available test materials and test support configurations, and test requirements and limitations for performing sub-critical and critical tests. The current summary provides a brief summary of the facility status and the method by which experiments may be introduced to NCERC.

  11. Final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of Building 34 at the Grand Junction Projects Office Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Widdop, M.R.

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) occupies a 61.7 acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot milling experiments conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor for the facility, Rust Geotech, was also the remedial action contractor. Building 34 was radiologically contaminated and the building was demolished in 1996. The soil area within the footprint of the building was analyzed and found to be not contaminated. The area can be released for unlimited exposure and unrestricted use. This document was prepared in response to a DOE request for an individual closeout report for each contaminated GJPO building.

  12. Final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of Building 18 at the Grand Junction Projects Office Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Widdop, M.R.

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) occupies a 61.7-acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot milling experiments conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the GJPO Remedial Action Project to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor for the facility, Rust Geotech, also is the remedial action contractor. The soil beneath Building 18 was found to be radiologically contaminated; the building was not contaminated. The soil was remediated in accordance with identified standards. Building 18 and the underlying soil can be released for unlimited exposure and unrestricted use. This document was prepared in response to a DOE request for an individual final report for each contaminated GJPO building.

  13. A remotely operated robot for decontamination tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Dudar, A.M.; Vandewalle, R.C.

    1994-02-01

    Engineers in the Robotics Development Group at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) have developed a robot which will be used to decontaminate a pipe gallery of a tank farm used for nuclear waste storage. Personnel access is required into this pipe gallery to inspect existing pipes and perform repairs to secondary containment walls around the tank farm. Presently, the pipe gallery is littered with debris of various sizes and its surface is contaminated with activity levels up to 2.5E6 DPM (disintegrations per minute) alpha and exposure levels as high as 20 Rad/hr. Cleaning up this pipe gallery win be the mission of an all-hydraulic robotic vehicle developed in-house at WSRC caged the ``Remote Decon`` robot. The Remote Decon is a tracked vehicle which utilizes skid steering and features a six-degree-of-freedom (DOF) manipulator arm, a five-DOF front end loader type bucket with a rotating brush for scrubbing and decontaminating surfaces, and a three-DOF pan/tilt mechanism with cameras and lights. The Remote Decon system is connected to a control console via a 200 foot tethered cable. The control console was designed with ergonomics and simplicity as the main design factors and features three joysticks, video monitors, LED panels, and audible alarms.

  14. Location Capability and Site Characterization Installing a Borehole VBB Seismometer: the OGS Experience in Ferrara (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, D.; Barnaba, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Centre) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 19 very sensitive broad band and 17 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS CRS data centre in Udine. The southwestern edge of the OGS seismic network stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. Following the ML=5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on May 20, 2012, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara and to the deployment of a temporary seismographic network consisting of eight portable seismological stations, to record the local earthquakes that occurred during the seismic sequence. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate seismic site responses in the area. We will introduce details of the Ferrara VBB borehole station and the OGS temporary seismographic network configuration and installation. We will then illustrate the location capability performances, and finally we will shortly describe seismic site characterization with surface/borehole comparisons in terms of seismic noise, site amplification and resonance frequencies.

  15. The Seveso II experience in the application of generic substance criteria to identify major hazard sites.

    PubMed

    Wood, Maureen Heraty

    2009-11-15

    Europe is currently in the process of finalising legislation to align its criteria for classifying and labelling dangerous substances with the new Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS), replacing the criteria that have been in place within the European Union since the establishment in 1967 of Directive 67/548/EC on the Classification and Labelling of Dangerous Substances. The Seveso II Directive is potentially the piece of EU legislation most affected by this re-classification because coverage of sites under the Directive is determined to a large extent on the basis of the presence of certain generic categories of substances on site as defined by 67/548/EC. The European Commission in concert with the Member States has launched an initiative to review the current Seveso generic classifications with the view to adjusting these provisions as appropriate in light of the pending GHS-EU harmonisation. In doing so, it must foresee and take into account the inevitable inequalities that may result when the general conditions of a generalised approach are altered. This paper gives an overview of the Seveso qualifying criteria and corrective measures that have been used in the past to address its limitations in relation to specific substances and categories of substances. Adaptation of the criteria to the GHS classification is not likely to alter these limitations, but could generate new cases where they are again in evidence. Therefore, this analysis offers insight on what types of potential unforeseen and unintended consequences that changes to the current generic criteria (i.e., certain sites are inappropriately covered or not covered, as the case may be) may entail, while also highlighting how well different structural and administrative elements may function to address these situations. PMID:19632041

  16. Applications of fiber optic couplers to diagnostic experiments at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Whitcomb, B.M.; Smiley, V.N.; Flurer, R.F.; Colburn, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    Fused biconical tapered (FBT) fiber optics star couplers have been used in a variety of applications at the Nevada Test Site to provide increased signal dynamic range for recording devices. Problems which were observed resulted primarily from the modal selection processes which occur in FBT couplers. This paper describes the results of work performed to characterize a new type of splitter for the same applications. The new splitters, obtained commercially, were manufactured using reflection techniques rather than the FBT approach. The splitters exhibit virtually none of the modal problems inherent in the FBT couplers.

  17. Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery in kidney surgery: clinical experience and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kallidonis, Panagiotis; Kontogiannis, Stavros; Kyriazis, Iason; Georgiopoulos, Ioannis; Al-Aown, Abdulrahman; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Liatsikos, Evangelos

    2013-10-01

    Laparoscopic surgery of the upper urinary tract has reduced the morbidity related to large abdominal incisions and has resulted in significant advantages over open surgery. Nevertheless, the pursuit for even more minimally invasive alternatives to laparoscopy has led to the concept of scarless surgery and the approach of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS). LESS is currently a feasible approach for the majority of kidney surgical procedures, and there is intense debate regarding its efficiency and advantages. In the present review of the literature, the current status of upper urinary LESS and its advantages and disadvantages, as well the technological and technical evolution, are presented. PMID:23740382

  18. Decontamination of nuclear systems at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station

    SciTech Connect

    Weed, R.D.; Baker, K.R.

    1996-12-31

    Early in 1994 Management at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station realized that a potential decontamination of several reactor systems was needed to maintain the commitments to the {open_quotes}As Low As Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) program. There was a substantial amount of planned outage work required to repair and replace some internals in loop isolation valves and there were inspections and other outage work that needed to be accomplished as it had been postponed from previous outages because of the radiation exposure levels in and around the system equipment. Management scheduled for the procurement specification to be revised to incorporate additional boundary areas which had not been previously considered. The schedule included the period for gathering bids, awarding a contract, and reviewing the contractor`s procedures and reports and granting approval for the decontamination to proceed during the upcoming outage. In addition to the reviews required by the engineering group for overall control of the process, the plant system engineers had to prepare procedures at the system level to provide for a smooth operation to be made during the decontamination of the systems. The system engineers were required to make certain that the decontamination fluids would be contained within the systems being decontaminated and that they would not cross contaminate any other system not being decontaminated. Since these nuclear stations do not have the provisions for decontaminating these systems with using additional equipment, the equipment required is furnished by the contractor as skid mounted packaged units which can be moved into the area, set up near the system being decontaminated, and after the decontamination is completed, the skid mounted packages are removed as part of the contract. Figure 1 shows a typical setup in block diagram required to perform a reactor system decontamination. 1 fig.

  19. Recent ORNL experience in site performance prediction: the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant and the Oak Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, F.G.

    1985-01-01

    The suitability of the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant Landfill and the Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Central Waste Disposal Facility for disposal of low-level radioactive waste was evaluated using pathways analyses. For these evaluations, a conservative approach was selected; that is, conservatism was built into the analyses when assumptions concerning future events had to be made or when uncertainties concerning site or waste characteristics existed. Data from comprehensive laboratory and field investigations were used in developing the conceptual and numerical models that served as the basis for the numerical simulations of the long-term transport of contamination to man. However, the analyses relied on conservative scenarios to describe the generation and migration of contamination and the potential human exposure to the waste. Maximum potential doses to man were calculated and compared to the appropriate standards. Even under this conservative framework, the sites were found to provide adequate buffer to persons outside the DOE reservations and conclusions concerning site capacity and site acceptability were drawn. Our experience through these studies has shown that in reaching conclusions in such studies, some consideration must be given to the uncertainties and conservatisms involved in the analyses. Analytical methods to quantitatively assess the probability of future events to occur and to quantitatively determine the sensitivity of the results to data uncertainty may prove useful in relaxing some of the conservatism built into the analyses. The applicability of such methods to pathways analyses is briefly discussed.

  20. Shear wave experiments at the US site at the Grimsel laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Majer, E.L.; Peterson, J.E. Jr. ); Bluemling, P.; Sattel, G. )

    1990-07-01

    As part of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) cooperative project with the National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste (Nagra) of Switzerland, there have been a series of studies carried out at the Nagra underground test facility at Grimsel. The Grimsel test facility is several 3.5 meter diameter tunnels excavated with a tunnel boring machine in the southern Swiss Alps. The rock type is granitic, although there is a large variation in the granitic fabric throughout the facility. The work described here was the first phase of a multiyear project to evaluate and develop seismic imaging techniques for fracture detection and characterization for the use in siting underground nuclear waste facilities. Data from a crosshole tomographic survey in the Underground Seismic (US) site at the Nagra Grimsel test facility in Switzerland and successfully reprocessed to enhance the S-wave arrivals. The results indicate that in a saturated granite Vp/Vs ratios approach 2.0 in the fractured rock. These results indicate that S-wave data would be very useful for fracture detection, especially in detecting thinner fractures.

  1. New Experiences With Steam Injection From The MÜhlacker Field Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theurer, T.; Koschitzky, H.-P.; Färber, A.

    A thermally enhanced remediation scheme employing steam injection has been used at a former hazardous waste disposal site near the City of Mühlacker, Germany, to remove chlorinated solvents. Finding SVE (soil vapour extraction) to be ineffective in the unsaturated soil zone, a pilot-scale project was initiated in 1999 to employ steam injection in the highly contaminated unsaturated low permeable zone 7-15 meters be- low ground surface, limited on top and bottom by very low permeable layers. After completion of the project in September 2001, approximately 2.8 tons of chlorinated hydrocarbons had been removed from the 2500 m3 target area. This project served as a pilot site in the State of Baden-Württemberg EPA (Landesanstalt für Umweltschutz, LfU) site cleanup program, which was funded through the State's "Kommunaler Alt- lastenfonds". Detailed evaluation of SVE technology had indicated that the low permeability in this soil served as a limiting factor for "cold" SVE. As a result, alternative technologies were considered and thermally enhanced SVE by steam injection was selected in 1998 to address the unsaturated zone contaminants. A 20-meter diameter, egg-shaped test- ing area was constructed at the site for pilot-scale demonstration of the steam injection process. The testing area comprised one central injection well surrounded by six ex- traction wells that could be used simultaneously for vapor and liquid extraction. Ten monitoring lances with a total of 100 temperature sensors measured subsurface tem- peratures through the soil horizon. Using a gas-fired 100 kW generator, steam was injected at a rate of up to 100 kg/hour and a pressure of up to 2.5 bars. After ten months of steam injection, nearly complete heating of the target zone had been achieved. of the 2800 kg of TCE removed, approximately 95% was extracted in the gaseous phase and the remaining part as solute in condensed water from the capillary barrier on bottom of the soil horizon. This condensed

  2. Simple economic evaluation and applications experiments for photovoltaic systems for remote sites

    SciTech Connect

    Rios, M. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A simple evaluation of the cost effectiveness of photovoltaic systems is presented. The evaluation is based on a calculation of breakeven costs of photovoltaics (PV) arrays with the levelized costs of two alternative energy sources (1) extension of the utility grid and (2) diesel generators. A selected number of PV applications experiments that are in progress in remote areas of the US are summarized. These applications experiments range from a 23 watt insect survey trap to a 100 kW PV system for a national park complex. It is concluded that PV systems for remote areas are now cost effective in remote small applications with commercially available technology and will be cost competitive for intermediate scale systems (approx. 10 kW) in the 1980s if the DOE 1986 Commercial Readiness Goals are achieved.

  3. Procedure development study: Low strain rate and creep experiments; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.J. III; Boyd, P.J.; Noel, J.S.; Price, R.H.

    1991-10-01

    Licensing of the potential nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission would require, among other things, demonstrations of the long term usability of the underground facilities. Such a demonstration involves analysis of the mechanical response of the rock to the presence of underground openings and heat-producing waste, which in turn requires data on the mechanical properties of the rock. This document describes the experimental results from a scoping study which led to the development of procedures for performing quality-affecting rock-mechanics experiments on intact rock. The future experiments performed with these procedures will produce information on the time-dependent deformation of welded tuff and represent one aspect of the overall effort to characterize the rheology of the rock mass. 3 refs., 42 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. G-Tunnel Welded Tuff Mining Experiment instrumentation evaluations; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.M.; Bellman, R.A. Jr.; Mann, K.L.; Thompson, T.W.

    1992-04-01

    Designers and analysts of radioactive waste repositories must be able to predict the mechanical behavior of the host rock. Sandia National Laboratory has conducted a mine-by experiment in welded tuff so that information could be obtained regarding the response of the rock to a drill and blast excavation process, where smooth-blasting techniques were used. This report describes the results of the evaluations of nine different instrument or measurement systems used in conjunction with these mining activities.

  5. MISTY ECHO tunnel dynamics experiment data report; Volume 2, Appendices: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.S.; Luke, B.A.; Long, J.W.; Lee, J.G.

    1992-04-01

    Tunnel damage resulting from seismic loading is an important issue for the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. The tunnel dynamics experiment was designed to obtain and document ground motions, permanent displacements, observable changes in fracture patterns, and visible damage at ground motion levels of interest to the Yucca Mountain Project. Even though the maximum free-field loading on this tunnel was 28 g, the damage observed was minor. Fielding details, data obtained, and supporting documentation are reported.

  6. MISTY ECHO Tunnel Dynamics Experiment--Data report: Volume 1; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.S.; Luke, B.A.; Long, J.W.; Lee, J.G.

    1992-04-01

    Tunnel damage resulting from seismic loading is an important issue for the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. The tunnel dynamics experiment was designed to obtain and document ground motions, permanent displacements, observable changes in fracture patterns, and visible damage at ground motion levels of interest to the Yucca Mountain Project. Even though the maximum free-field loading on this tunnel was 28 g, the damage observed was minor. Fielding details, data obtained, and supporting documentation are reported.

  7. THE USE OF A TREATABILITY STUDY TO INVESTIGATE THE POTENTIAL FOR SELF HEATING & EXOTHERMIC REACTIONS IN DECONTAMINATION MATERIALS AT PFP

    SciTech Connect

    HOPKINS, A.M.

    2005-02-23

    Cerium Nitrate has been proposed for use in the decontamination of plutonium contaminated equipment at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located on the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in eastern Washington. A Treatability Study was conducted to determine the validity of this decontamination technology in terms of meeting its performance goals and to understand the risks associated with the use of Cerium Nitrate under the conditions found at the PFP. Fluor Hanford is beginning the decommissioning of the PFP at the Hanford site. Aggressive chemicals are commonly used to remove transuranic contaminants from process equipment to allow disposal as low level waste. Chemicals being considered for decontamination of gloveboxes in PFP include cerium (IV) nitrate in a nitric acid solution, and proprietary commercial solutions that include acids, degreasers, and sequestering agents. Fluor's decontamination procedure involves application of the chemicals, followed by a wipe-down of the contaminated surfaces with rags. This process effectively transfers the decontamination liquids containing the transuranic materials to the rags, which can then be readily packaged for disposal as TRU waste. As part of a treatability study, Fluor Hanford and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have evaluated the potential for self-heating and exothermic reactions in the residual decontamination materials and the waste packages. Laboratory analyses and thermal-hydraulic modeling reveal a significant self-heating risk for cerium nitrate solutions when used with cotton rags. Exothermic reactions that release significant heat and off-gas have been discovered for cerium nitrate at higher temperatures. From these studies, limiting conditions have been defined to assure safe operations and waste packaging.

  8. Touchless Technologies for Decontamination in the Hospital: a Review of Hydrogen Peroxide and UV Devices.

    PubMed

    Doll, Michelle; Morgan, Daniel J; Anderson, Deverick; Bearman, Gonzalo

    2015-09-01

    Reduction of microbial contamination of the hospital environment is a challenge, yet has potential impacts on infection prevention efforts. Fumigation and UV light devices for environmental cleaning have expanded into the health care setting with the goal of decontamination of difficult to clean or overlooked surfaces. In an era of increased scrutiny of hospital-acquired infections, increasingly, health care centers are adopting these "touchless" cleaning techniques as adjuncts to traditional manual cleaning. The evidence for improved clinical outcomes is lacking; yet, the experience with these devices continues to accumulate in the literature. We review the recently published data related to the use of hydrogen peroxide and UV light-based decontamination systems for cleaning of hospital rooms. Touchless cleaning technologies may provide an incremental benefit to standard practices by limiting cross-transmission of pathogens via environmental surfaces, though evidence of prevention of infections remains limited. PMID:26252970

  9. Pilot-plant study of wastewater sludge decontamination using a ferrous sulfate bioleaching process.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Guy; Drogui, Patrick; Blais, Jean-François; Chartier, Myriam

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the performance of the ferrous sulfate bioleaching (FSBL) process in a pilot plant for decontamination and stabilization of wastewater sludge. Batch and continuous experiments, conducted with two 4-m3 bioreactors using indigenous iron-oxidizing bacteria (20% v/v of inoculum) with addition of 4.0 g ferrous sulfate heptahydrate per liter of sludge initially acidified to pH 4.0, were sufficient for effective heavy metal (cadmium, copper, manganese, zinc, and lead) removal yields. The average metal removal yields during the FSBL process were as follows: cadmium (69 to 75%), copper (68 to 70%), manganese (72 to 73%), zinc (65 to 66%), and lead (16%). The FSBL process was also found to be effective in removing both fecal and total coliforms (abatement > 5 to 6 log units). The nutrients content (nitrogen, phosphorus, and magnesium) were also preserved in decontaminated sludge. PMID:17059142

  10. Bio-Decontamination of Water and Surfaces by DC Discharges in Atmospheric Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machala, Zdenko; Tarabová, Barbora; Pelach, Michal; Šipoldová, Zuzana; Hensel, Karol; Janda, Mário; Šikurová, Libuša

    Two types of DC-driven atmospheric air discharges, including a streamer corona and a transient spark with short high current pulses of limited energy, were employed for bio-decontamination of water and various surfaces (agar plates, plastic foils, human teeth) contaminated by bacteria or spores (Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus). Both discharges generate cold non-equilibrium plasma. The discharges combined with the electro-spraying of the treated water through the needle electrode lead to fast and efficient bio-decontamination. Experiments comparing direct and indirect plasma effects, oxidation stress measurements in the cell membranes, and chemical changes induced in the treated water enable assessment of the plasma agents being responsible for microbial inactivation. Radicals and reactive oxygen species seem to be dominant biocidal agents, although deeper understanding of the plasma-induced water chemistry and of the temporal evolution of the bio-inactivation processes is needed.

  11. Head and Neck Schwannomas: 20-Year Experience of a Single Institution Excluding Cutaneous and Acoustic Sites.

    PubMed

    Butler, Randall T; Patel, Rajiv M; McHugh, Jonathan B

    2016-09-01

    While head and neck sites comprise the most common location of schwannomas, clinicopathologic data regarding those tumors occurring in non-acoustic and non-cutaneous locations are relatively sparse. In this study, therefore, we sought to examine retrospectively the clinical and pathologic features of head and neck schwannomas excised at our institution over a 20-year period. During this period, we identified a total cohort of 85 patients, which included 36 males (42.4 %) and 49 females with average age of 41.3 years, the majority of which presented asymptomatically with a mass. Localized symptoms were, however, associated with all of the schwannomas that arose in the oral cavity and larynx, while tumors within or adjacent to bone were often associated with neurologic complaints (7 of 15 such tumors [46.7 %]). Clinical follow-up data was available in 86.4 % of all cases and demonstrated no recurrences or mortality. Pathologically, the microscopic features were characteristic of those well-described for schwannomas in other sites, including alternating Antoni A and B areas and the presence of degenerative changes. Tumor encapsulation, however, was variable and was completely absent in schwannomas of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and larynx. Additionally, a significant minority of the tumors (28.2 %) exhibited foci that resembled neurofibroma. Non-acoustic, non-cutaneous schwannomas of the head and neck appear to have clinicopathologic features similar to their soft tissue counterparts with some subsite variation in presentation and/or microscopic features. PMID:26747460

  12. Establishing a health demographic surveillance site in Bhaktapur district, Nepal: initial experiences and findings

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A health demographic surveillance system (HDSS) provides longitudinal data regarding health and demography in countries with coverage error and poor quality data on vital registration systems due to lack of public awareness, inadequate legal basis and limited use of data in health planning. The health system in Nepal, a low-income country, does not focus primarily on health registration, and does not conduct regular health data collection. This study aimed to initiate and establish the first HDSS in Nepal. Results We conducted a baseline survey in Jhaukhel and Duwakot, two villages in Bhaktapur district. The study surveyed 2,712 households comprising a total population of 13,669. The sex ratio in the study area was 101 males per 100 females and the average household size was 5. The crude birth and death rates were 9.7 and 3.9/1,000 population/year, respectively. About 11% of births occurred at home, and we found no mortality in infants and children less than 5 years of age. Various health problems were found commonly and some of them include respiratory problems (41.9%); headache, vertigo and dizziness (16.7%); bone and joint pain (14.4%); gastrointestinal problems (13.9%); heart disease, including hypertension (8.8%); accidents and injuries (2.9%); and diabetes mellitus (2.6%). The prevalence of non-communicable disease (NCD) was 4.3% (95% CI: 3.83; 4.86) among individuals older than 30 years. Age-adjusted odds ratios showed that risk factors, such as sex, ethnic group, occupation and education, associated with NCD. Conclusion Our baseline survey demonstrated that it is possible to collect accurate and reliable data in a village setting in Nepal, and this study successfully established an HDSS site. We determined that both maternal and child health are better in the surveillance site compared to the entire country. Risk factors associated with NCDs dominated morbidity and mortality patterns. PMID:22950751

  13. Clinical and dosimetric experience with MammoSite-based brachytherapy under the RTOG 0413 protocol.

    PubMed

    Wojcicka, Jadwiga B; Lasher, Donette E; Malcom, Ronald; Fortier, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    MammoSite balloon brachytherapy is a relatively new technique for partial breast irradiation. The present paper focuses on the treatment planning, dosimetry, and quality assurance aspects of that treatment, based on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0413 randomized prospective trial (RTOG 0413) protocol. We investigate the usefulness of evaluating implants for treatment appropriateness according to the full set of RTOG criteria as compared with the manufacturer's guidelines. We describe our methods to improve MammoSite balloon implants that would otherwise not comply with the protocol. The initially acquired computed tomography (CT) images are evaluated for tissue conformance, balloon surface-to-skin distance, and balloon symmetry. If the implant fails to meet the foregoing criteria, corrective action such as delay in the CT scan, balloon manipulation, or fluid volume adjustment is taken, and the patient is re-scanned. If the corrective action appears to be successful, three dimensional treatment planning and dose-volume histogram analysis is performed to evaluate the geometric and dosimetric parameters with regard to the RTOG 0413 protocol. The evaluated parameters include, volume ratio of the lumpectomy cavity to the ipsilateral breast, target volume coverage, tissue-balloon conformance, balloon symmetry, minimal balloon surface-to-skin distance, maximum skin dose, and normal breast tissue dose-volume parameters V150 and V200. Among our implants, 21.7% did not initially meet the RTOG 0413 acceptance criteria. Asymmetry and poor conformance values reduce the target volume coverage, and so an implant with moderate conformance and asymmetry can be within the manufacturer's guidelines, but still not meet the RTOG criteria. Our intervention corrected all but one of the implants that failed to meet the criteria. Manipulating the cavity and adjusting the balloon volume may salvage an implant and meet the strict geometric and dosimetric criteria imposed by the RTOG

  14. Chemicals associated with site-specific neoplasia in 1394 long-term carcinogenesis experiments in laboratory rodents.

    PubMed Central

    Huff, J; Cirvello, J; Haseman, J; Bucher, J

    1991-01-01

    The carcinogenicity data base used for this paper originated in the late 1960s by the National Cancer Institute and since 1978 has been continued and made more comprehensive by the National Toxicology Program. The extensive files contain among other sets of information detailed pathology data on more than 400 long-term (most often 24 month) chemical carcinogenesis studies, comprised of nearly 1600 individual experiments having at least 10 million tissue sections that have been evaluated for toxicity and carcinogenicity. Using the current data set of 379 studies made up of 1394 experiments, we have compiled listings of chemicals having like carcinogenic target sites for each of the 34 organs or systems for which histopathology diagnoses have been recorded routinely. The most common tumor site is the liver (15% of all experiments), followed in rank order by: lung, hematopoietic system and kidneys, mammary glands, forestomach, thyroid glands, Zymbal glands, urinary bladder, skin and uterus/cervix, and circulatory system and adrenal glands. These compilations are most useful for maintaining a historic perspective when evaluating the carcinogenicity of contemporary experiments. Equally important, the chemical-tumor-organ connection permits an evaluation of how well chemically induced cancers in a particular organ in one sex or species will predict or correlate with the other sex or species. Using liver cancers as an example, the overall interspecies concordance is 80%. Likewise target site predictions can be made for chemicals selected for study that may be similar to those already evaluated; thereby experimental protocols could be adjusted to allow, for example, more extensive pathology on preselected target organs (i.e., serial sections of the kidney). Further from these observations, one could decide to use two strains of mice to evaluate a short-chain chlorinated aliphatic compound or to study a human carcinogen in a sex-species known to develop chemically induced

  15. Petrophysical characterization of first ever drilled core samples from an active CO2 storage site, the German Ketzin Pilot Site - Comparison with long term experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemke, Kornelia; Liebscher, Axel

    2014-05-01

    Petrophysical properties like porosity and permeability are key parameters for a safe long-term storage of CO2 but also for the injection operation itself. These parameters may change during and/or after the CO2 injection due to geochemical reactions in the reservoir system that are triggered by the injected CO2. Here we present petrophysical data of first ever drilled cores from a newly drilled well at the active CO2 storage site - the Ketzin pilot site in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. By comparison with pre-injection baseline data from core samples recovered prior to injection, the new samples provide the unique opportunity to evaluate the impact of CO2 on pore size related properties of reservoir and cap rocks at a real injection site under in-situ reservoir conditions. After injection of 61 000 tons CO2, an additional well was drilled and new rock cores were recovered. In total 100 core samples from the reservoir and the overlaying caprock were investigated by NMR relaxation. Permeability of 20 core samples was estimated by nitrogen and porosity by helium pycnometry. The determined data are comparable between pre-injection and post-injection core samples. The lower part of the reservoir sandstone is unaffected by the injected CO2. The upper part of the reservoir sandstone shows consistently slightly lower NMR porosity and permeability values in the post-injection samples when compared to the pre-injection data. This upper sandstone part is above the fluid level and CO2 present as a free gas phase and a possible residual gas saturation of the cores distorted the NMR results. The potash-containing drilling fluid can also influence these results: NMR investigation of twin samples from inner and outer parts of the cores show a reduced fraction of larger pores for the outer core samples together with lower porosities and T2 times. The drill mud penetration depth can be controlled by the added fluorescent tracer. Due to the heterogeneous character of the

  16. Estimation of relative site effect, coda Q and scattering strength from the records obtained by a large airgun experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Akira

    1991-05-01

    By using a large-capacity marine airgun, we carried out a seismic refraction experiment around the Bandai volcanic area, in the southern part of Tohoku, NE Japan. The analysis of the observed waveform data from the airgun shots shows that the coda wave amplitude is independent of hypocentral distance after a lapse time of about 9 s at any observation site with epicentral distance < 30 km. This fact indicates that most of the coda wave energy, after this lapse time, is distributed homogeneously in the medium beneath the observation sites. It is found that the coda wave amplitude correlates well with the amplitude of the direct P wave of a distant earthquake. The relative site amplification of coda wave amplitude is nearly the same as that of the direct P wave amplitude. Based on this observation, relative site amplification factors can be evaluated by using the coda wave amplitude at each observation site. The inverse coda Q values ( Qc-1) estimated from the time decays of coda wave amplitudes are about 4.6 × 10 -3, 2.1 × 10 -3 and 1.5 × 10 -3 at 5, 10 and 20 Hz, respectively. The frequency dependence of Qc-1 is expressed by a power of frequency in Hz ( Q c-1 ∝ ƒ n), where the power n is found to be about -0.8. In the earlier part of the lapse time, the coda wave energy concentrates around the seismic source, which indicates that the scattering effect is very strong in the study area. The shapes of waveform envelopes at 5, 10 and 20 Hz show that the forward scattering factor is stronger at higher frequency than that at lower frequency.

  17. Downwelled longwave surface irradiance data from five sites for the FIRE/SRB Wisconsin Experiment from October 12 through November 2, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, Charles H.; Cox, Stephen K.; Lecroy, Stuart R.

    1990-01-01

    Tables are presented which show data from five sites in the First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment (FIRE)/Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Wisconsin experiment regional from October 12 through November 2, 1986. A discussion of intercomparison results is also included. The field experiment was conducted for the purposes of both intensive cirrus-cloud measurements and SRB algorithm validation activities.

  18. Site Characterization Work Plan for Gnome-Coach Site, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2001-02-13

    Project Gnome was the first nuclear experiment conducted under the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Plowshare Program. Gnome was part of a joint government-industry experiment focused on developing nuclear devices exclusively for peaceful purposes. The intent of the Gnome experiment was to evaluate the effects of a nuclear detonation in a salt medium. Historically, Project Gnome consisted of a single detonation of a nuclear device on December 10, 1961. Since the Gnome detonation, the AEC/DOE has conducted surface restoration, site reconnaissance, and decontamination and decommissioning activities at the site. In addition, annual groundwater sampling is performed under a long-term hydrological monitoring program begun in 1980. Coach, an experiment to be located near the Gnome project, was initially scheduled for 1963. Although construction and rehabilitation were completed for Coach, the experiment was canceled and never executed. Known collectively as Project Gnome-Coach, the site is situated within the Salado Formation approximately 25 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, in Eddy County, and is comprised of nearly 680 acres, of which 60 acres are disturbed from the combined AEC/DOE operations. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the project. The subsurface at the Gnome-Coach site has two contaminant sources that are fundamentally different in terms of both their stratigraphic location and release mechanism. The goal of this characterization is to collect data of sufficient quantity and quality to establish current site conditions and to use the data to identify and evaluate if further action is required to protect human health and the environment and achieve permanent closure of the site. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent corrective

  19. Agile methods in biomedical software development: a multi-site experience report

    PubMed Central

    Kane, David W; Hohman, Moses M; Cerami, Ethan G; McCormick, Michael W; Kuhlmman, Karl F; Byrd, Jeff A

    2006-01-01

    Background Agile is an iterative approach to software development that relies on strong collaboration and automation to keep pace with dynamic environments. We have successfully used agile development approaches to create and maintain biomedical software, including software for bioinformatics. This paper reports on a qualitative study of our experiences using these methods. Results We have found that agile methods are well suited to the exploratory and iterative nature of scientific inquiry. They provide a robust framework for reproducing scientific results and for developing clinical support systems. The agile development approach also provides a model for collaboration between software engineers and researchers. We present our experience using agile methodologies in projects at six different biomedical software development organizations. The organizations include academic, commercial and government development teams, and included both bioinformatics and clinical support applications. We found that agile practices were a match for the needs of our biomedical projects and contributed to the success of our organizations. Conclusion We found that the agile development approach was a good fit for our organizations, and that these practices should be applicable and valuable to other biomedical software development efforts. Although we found differences in how agile methods were used, we were also able to identify a set of core practices that were common to all of the groups, and that could be a focus for others seeking to adopt these methods. PMID:16734914

  20. Data Release Report for Source Physics Experiment 1 (SPE-1), Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Margaret; Mercadente, Jennifer

    2014-04-28

    The first Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-1) was conducted in May 2011. The explosive source was a ~100-kilogram TNT-equivalent chemical set at a depth of 60 meters. It was recorded by an extensive set of instrumentation that includes sensors both at near-field (less than 100 meters) and far-field (more than 100 meters) distances. The near-field instruments consisted of three-component accelerometers deployed in boreholes around the shot and a set of singlecomponent vertical accelerometers on the surface. The far-field network comprised a variety of seismic and acoustic sensors, including short-period geophones, broadband seismometers, three-component accelerometers, and rotational seismometers at distances of 100 meters to 25 kilometers. This report coincides with the release of these data for analysts and organizations that are not participants in this program. This report describes the first Source Physics Experiment and the various types of near-field and far-field data that are available.

  1. Summary of Radionuclide Reactive Transport Experiments in Fractured Tuff and Carbonate Rocks from Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Zavarin, M; Roberts, S; Reimus, P; Johnson, M

    2006-10-11

    In the Yucca Flat basin of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), 747 shaft and tunnel nuclear detonations were conducted primarily within the tuff confining unit (TCU) or the overlying alluvium. The TCU in the Yucca Flat basin is hypothesized to inhibit radionuclide migration to the highly transmissive and regionally extensive lower carbonate aquifer (LCA) due to its wide-spread aerial extent, low permeability, and chemical reactivity. However, fast transport pathways through the TCU by way of fractures may provide a migration path for radionuclides to the LCA. Radionuclide transport in both TCU and the LCA fractures is likely to determine the location of the contaminant boundary for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit (CAU). Radionuclide transport through the TCU may involve both matrix and fracture flow. However, radionuclide migration over significant distances is likely to be dominated by fracture transport. Transport through the LCA will almost certainly be dominated by fracture flow, as the LCA has a very dense, low porosity matrix with very low permeability. Because of the complex nature of reactive transport in fractures, a stepwise approach to identifying mechanisms controlling radionuclide transport was used. The simplest LLNL experiments included radionuclide transport through synthetic parallel-plate fractured tuff and carbonate cores. These simplified fracture transport experiments isolated matrix diffusion and sorption effects from all other fracture transport processes (fracture lining mineral sorption, heterogeneous flow, etc.). Additional fracture transport complexity was added by performing induced fractured LCA flowthrough experiments (effect of aperture heterogeneity) or iron oxide coated parallel plate TCU flowthrough experiments (effect of fracture lining minerals). Finally naturally fractured tuff and carbonate cores were examined at LLNL and LANL. All tuff and carbonate core used in the experiments was obtained from the USGS Core Library

  2. Decontamination and decommissioning of the Kerr-McGee Cimarron Plutonium Fuel Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This final report is a summary of the events that completes the decontamination and decommissioning of the Cimarron Corporation`s Mixed Oxides Fuel Plant (formally Sequoyah Fuels Corporation and formerly Kerr-McGee Nuclear Corporation - all three wholly owned subsidiaries of the Kerr-McGee Corporation). Included are details dealing with tooling and procedures for performing the unique tasks of disassembly decontamination and/or disposal. That material which could not be economically decontaminated was volume reduced by disassembly and/or compacted for disposal. The contaminated waste cleaning solutions were processed through filtration and ion exchange for release or solidified with cement for L.S.A. waste disposal. The L.S.A. waste was compacted, and stabilized as required in drums for burial in an approved burial facility. T.R.U. waste packaging and shipping was completed by the end of July 1987. This material was shipped to the Hanford, Washington site for disposal. The personnel protection and monitoring measures and procedures are discussed along with the results of exposure data of operating personnel. The shipping containers for both T.R.U. and L.S.A. waste are described. The results of the decommissioning operations are reported in six reports. The personnel protection and monitoring measures and procedures are contained and discussed along with the results of exposure data of operating personnel in this final report.

  3. Planning guidance for nuclear-power-plant decontamination. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, L.F.; Divine, J.R.; Martin, J.B.

    1983-06-01

    Direct and indirect costs of decontamination are considered in the benefit-cost analysis. A generic form of the benefit-cost ratio is evaluated in monetary and nonmonetary terms, and values of dollar per man-rem are cited. Federal and state agencies that may have jurisiction over various aspects of decontamination and waste disposal activities are identified. Methods of decontamination, their general effectiveness, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are outlined. Dilute or concentrated chemical solutions are usually used in-situ to dissolve the contamination layer and a thin layer of the underlying substrate. Electrochemical techniques are generally limited to components but show high decontamination effectiveness with uniform corrosion. Mechanical agents are particularly appropriate for certain out-of-system surfaces and disassembled parts. These processes are catagorized and specific concerns are discussed. The treatment, storage, and disposal or discharge or discharge of liquid, gaseous, and solid wastes generated during the decontamination process are discussed. Radioactive and other hazardous chemical wastes are considered. The monitoring, treatment, and control of radioactive and nonradioactive effluents, from both routine operations and possible accidents, are discussed. Protecting the health and safety of personnel onsite during decontamination is of prime importance and should be considered in each facet of the decontamination process. The radiation protection philosophy of reducing exposure to levels as low as reasonably achievable should be stressed. These issues are discussed.

  4. 40 CFR 761.378 - Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decontamination, reuse, and disposal...-Porous Surfaces § 761.378 Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. (a) Decontamination. Decontaminate solvents and non-porous surfaces on equipment in accordance with the standards...

  5. 40 CFR 761.378 - Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decontamination, reuse, and disposal...-Porous Surfaces § 761.378 Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. (a) Decontamination. Decontaminate solvents and non-porous surfaces on equipment in accordance with the standards...

  6. 40 CFR 761.378 - Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decontamination, reuse, and disposal...-Porous Surfaces § 761.378 Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. (a) Decontamination. Decontaminate solvents and non-porous surfaces on equipment in accordance with the standards...

  7. 40 CFR 761.378 - Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decontamination, reuse, and disposal...-Porous Surfaces § 761.378 Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. (a) Decontamination. Decontaminate solvents and non-porous surfaces on equipment in accordance with the standards...

  8. 40 CFR 761.378 - Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Decontamination, reuse, and disposal...-Porous Surfaces § 761.378 Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. (a) Decontamination. Decontaminate solvents and non-porous surfaces on equipment in accordance with the standards...

  9. Designing an in-flight airborne calibration site using experience from vicarious radiometric satellite calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livens, Stefan; Debruyn, Walter; Sterckx, Sindy; Reusen, Ils

    2011-11-01

    Laboratory calibration of electro-optical sensors is preferably complemented by regular in-flight verification. This checks whether the lab calibration parameters remain valid or recalibration is necessary. In-flight verification can be achieved by vicarious calibration using in-flight measurements of calibration targets. We intend to identify and design a set of suitable radiometric calibration targets. For this, we borrow from expertise gained with the PROBA-V satellite calibration system, which uses multiple vicarious methods relying on diverse natural on-ground targets. Besides reflectance based calibration using ground measurements, the PROBA-V calibration methods are unproven for use in airborne calibration. The selected targets should be suitable for the calibration of both multispectral and hyperspectral imagers. We start from general requirements for radiometric targets and investigate their applicability to airborne calibration. From this we identify two possible sets of natural calibration sites in Belgium. One set, located in the Campine region, contains small water bodies and sandy lakesides. Another set is located in the Westhoek region near the Belgian coast. It offers better suitable water bodies, as well as sandy areas, grass fields and dark targets. Airborne calibration lends itself to the use of smaller artifical targets. We propose to complement the natural targets with a portable target consisting of agricultural nets with different densities. The definition of sets of calibration targets, both natural and artificial can facilitate the investigation of the usability of vicarious targets and method for inflight radiometric verification.

  10. Single-Port Surgery: Laboratory Experience with the daVinci Single-Site Platform

    PubMed Central

    Haber, Georges-Pascal; Kaouk, Jihad; Kroh, Matthew; Chalikonda, Sricharan; Falcone, Tommaso

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and validity of a dedicated da Vinci single-port platform in the porcine model in the performance of gynecologic surgery. Methods: This pilot study was conducted in 4 female pigs. All pigs had a general anesthetic and were placed in the supine and flank position. A 2-cm umbilical incision was made, through which a robotic single-port device was placed and pneumoperitoneum obtained. A data set was collected for each procedure and included port placement time, docking time, operative time, blood loss, and complications. Operative times were compared between cases and procedures by use of the Student t test. Results: A total of 28 surgical procedures (8 oophorectomies, 4 hysterectomies, 8 pelvic lymph node dissections, 4 aorto-caval nodal dissections, 2 bladder repairs, 1 uterine horn anastomosis, and 1 radical cystectomy) were performed. There was no statistically significant difference in operating times for symmetrical procedures among animals (P=0.3215). Conclusions: This animal study demonstrates that single-port robotic surgery using a dedicated single-site platform allows performing technically challenging procedures within acceptable operative times and without complications or insertion of additional trocars. PMID:21902962

  11. An Experiment to Locate the Site of TeV Flaring in M87

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.E.; Massaro, F.; Cheung, C.C.; Horns, D.; Raue, M.; Stawarz, L.; Wagner, S.; Colin, P.; Mazin, D.; Wagner, R.; Beilicke, M.; LeBohec, S.; Hui, M.; Mukherjee, R.; /Barnard Coll.

    2012-05-18

    We describe a Chandra X-ray target-of-opportunity project designed to isolate the site of TeV flaring in the radio galaxy M87. To date, we have triggered the Chandra observations only once (2010 April) and by the time of the first of our nine observations, the TeV flare had ended. However, we found that the X-ray intensity of the unresolved nucleus was at an elevated level for our first observation. Of the more than 60 Chandra observations we have made of the M87 jet covering nine years, the nucleus was measured at a comparably high level only three times. Two of these occasions can be associated with TeV flaring, and at the time of the third event, there were no TeV monitoring activities. From the rapidity of the intensity drop of the nucleus, we infer that the size of the emitting region is of order a few light days x the unknown beaming factor; comparable to the same sort of estimate for the TeV emitting region. We also find evidence of spectral evolution in the X-ray band which seems consistent with radiative losses affecting the non-thermal population of the emitting electrons within the unresolved nucleus.

  12. Retroperitoneal laparoendoscopic single-site surgery: preliminary experience in kidney and ureteral indications.

    PubMed

    Micali, Salvatore; Isgrò, Gianmarco; De Stefani, Stefano; Pini, Giovannalberto; Sighinolfi, Maria Chiara; Bianchi, Giampaolo

    2011-01-01

    The advantages of retroperitoneoscopic technique are well known. We decided to combine this access with the emerging laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) technique. We present our preliminary data on 11 renoureteral procedures and describe our retroperitoneoscopic LESS technique. As of March 2009, 10 patients were submitted to retroperitoneal LESS and divided into three groups: Group A, 3 patients underwent ureterolithotomy; Group B, 4 patients underwent renal cyst ablation; Group C, 4 patients underwent renal biopsy. Retroperitoneal access was obtained with an optical trocar. After retroperitoneal space blunt dissection, a multichannel port was placed. Standard and bent 5-mm instruments were used; we also used a 5-mm flexible laparoscope as a single procedure in group A. Ten of 11 procedures were completed without conversion; a single case in group A was converted to open surgery. Retroperitoneoscopic LESS is a safe and feasible procedure for renal biopsy and renal cyst ablation, with shorter convalescence time, less postoperative pain, and better cosmetic outcomes. LESS ureterolithotomy was more challenging for the lack of triangulation, resulting in a prolonged convalescence period. In addition, bent laparoscopic instruments are not suitable for retroperitoneal space; the multichannel port leaks carbon dioxide due to the flank position. Therefore LESS pelvic trainer practice is imperative in this case. PMID:20727667

  13. First Two Years of Observations NASA ACTS Propagation Experiment Central Oklahoma Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, Robert K.

    1996-01-01

    Continuous observations from December 1, 1993 through November 30, 1995 were made at the ACTS Propagation Terminal on the roof of the Sarkeys Energy Center at the University of Oklahoma in Norman, Oklahoma. Beacon and radiometer observations were combined to calibrate the beacon system for the estimation of total attenuation (attenuation relative to free space) and attenuation relative to clear sky (gaseous absorption component removed). Empirical cumulative distributions (edf's) were compiled for each month of observation and for each year. The annual edf's are displayed in the figures, the monthly and annual edf's are listed in the tables. The tables are organized by blocks and pages within a block. The blocks correspond to the headings in the edf files generated by the ACTS Preprocessing (actspp) software and contained in the fourth disk in the set of ACTS Propagation Experiment CD-ROMs generated by the University of Texas.

  14. Clinical use of selective decontamination: the concept.

    PubMed

    van der Waaij, D; Manson, W L; Arends, J P; de Vries-Hospers, H G

    1990-01-01

    Infections can be classified according to: (1) the type of offending microorganism (virus, bacteria, fungi, parasites), (2) according to the clearance by the defence system (T cell dependent/independent) and (3) in case bacteria are the causative agents in Gram-positive and Gram-negative infections. The latter classification in Gram-positive and Gram-negative infections has appeared to have a practical consequence. Gram-negative bacteria, often involved in major infections and yeasts, appear to play practically no role in the intestinal ecological system. Consequently, it is nowadays increasingly attempted to eliminate Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts selectively from the digestive tract with antimicrobial agents. Selective suppression of Gram-positive bacteria may severely affect the ecosystem of the digestive tract. This selective suppression of Gram-negatives must be continued as long as patients are immunocompromised (locally or systemically) and is called selective decontamination of the digestive tract. PMID:2289993

  15. Uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    One of the most challenging issues facing the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management is the cleanup of the three gaseous diffusion plants. In October 1992, Congress passed the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and established the Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund to accomplish this task. This mission is being undertaken in an environmentally and financially responsible way by: devising cost-effective technical solutions; producing realistic life-cycle cost estimates, based on practical assumptions and thorough analysis; generating coherent long-term plans which are based on risk assessments, land use, and input from stakeholders; and, showing near-term progress in the cleanup of the gaseous diffusion facilities at Oak Ridge.

  16. Decontaminating soil organic pollutants with manufactured nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Chen, Xijuan; Zhuang, Jie; Chen, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Organic pollutants in soils might threaten the environmental and human health. Manufactured nanoparticles are capable to reduce this risk efficiently due to their relatively large capacity of sorption and degradation of organic pollutants. Stability, mobility, and reactivity of nanoparticles are prerequisites for their efficacy in soil remediation. On the basis of a brief introduction of these issues, this review provides a comprehensive summary of the application and effectiveness of various types of manufactured nanoparticles for removing organic pollutants from soil. The main categories of nanoparticles include iron (oxides), titanium dioxide, carbonaceous, palladium, and amphiphilic polymeric nanoparticles. Their advantages (e.g., unique properties and high sorption capacity) and disadvantages (e.g., high cost and low recovery) for soil remediation are discussed with respect to the characteristics of organic pollutants. The factors that influence the decontamination effects, such as properties, surfactants, solution chemistry, and soil organic matter, are addressed. PMID:26906002

  17. Radioactive hot cell access hole decontamination machine

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, William E.

    1982-01-01

    Radioactive hot cell access hole decontamination machine. A mobile housing has an opening large enough to encircle the access hole and has a shielding door, with a door opening and closing mechanism, for uncovering and covering the opening. The housing contains a shaft which has an apparatus for rotating the shaft and a device for independently translating the shaft from the housing through the opening and access hole into the hot cell chamber. A properly sized cylindrical pig containing wire brushes and cloth or other disks, with an arrangement for releasably attaching it to the end of the shaft, circumferentially cleans the access hole wall of radioactive contamination and thereafter detaches from the shaft to fall into the hot cell chamber.

  18. The ROVCO2 surface decontamination system

    SciTech Connect

    Resnick, A.M.; Reed, M.; Lopez-Yanes, O.

    1996-12-31

    DOE needs to decontaminated over one million square feet of nuclear contaminated concrete surfaces. The 1000 lb ROVCO2 system, which automates blasting functions and eliminates secondary blasting waste, integrates a remotely operated vehicle and an enhanced commercial CO{sub 2} blasting system with an Oceaneering-developed work arm and control system. The remote operation protects the operation from contamination and supports functional automation of tedious tasks. The blasting system shoots pellets of dry ice propelled by pressurized gas at the surface to be cleaned. Impact of the pellets fractures and scales off a layer of the contaminated surface. At impact, the pellets return to a gaseous state which is vacuumed up with the debris. The CO{sub 2} gas and debris are passed through the vacuum filter, leaving only the removed material for waste disposal. Phase 2 testing achieved nearly all of the success criteria, with the exception of the commercial workhead`s performance.

  19. Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2008-07-15

    The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Articles and reports in this issue include: D and D technical paper summaries; The role of nuclear power in turbulent times, by Tom Chrisopher, AREVA, NP, Inc.; Enthusiastic about new technologies, by Jack Fuller, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; It's important to be good citizens, by Steve Rus, Black and Veatch Corporation; Creating Jobs in the U.S., by Guy E. Chardon, ALSTOM Power; and, and, An enviroment and a community champion, by Tyler Lamberts, Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. The Industry Innovations article is titled Best of the best TIP achievement 2008, by Edward Conaway, STP Nuclear Operating Company.

  20. Enhancement of electrokinetic decontamination with EDTA.

    PubMed

    Karim, M A; Khan, L I

    2012-01-01

    The effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) during electrokinetic decontamination (EKD) was investigated in this research. EDTA is a ligand that can form soluble complexes with precipitated heavy metals inside soil pores. Millpond sludge, primarily contaminated with lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn), was subjected to EKD with and without the presence of EDTA. Dilute EDTA solutions with strengths of 0.05 M and 0.125 M were injected into the millpond sludge by electroosmosis. Several beneficial effects of using EDTA were observed in this research. One was that the presence of EDTA substantially increased the electroosmotic (EO) flow in the millpond sludge indicating that it could significantly reduce the duration of EKD. Another advantage was that a significantly higher percentage of Pb and Zn removal was achieved from the solid phase due to the complexation of EDTA with these heavy metals. Also, EDTA was able to prevent the precipitation of metals at the cathode electrode, typically observed in EKD process. PMID:23393970