Science.gov

Sample records for situ ground-water monitoring

  1. In Situ Tritium Probe for Ground Water Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, C.

    2001-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has requested a probe system that can provide daily measurements of tritium in ground waters, fit into 5 cm diameter ground water monitor wells, and survive extended periods (months to years) at hydrostatic pressures of 12,000 kPa (1800 psi) and water temperatures to 60oC. The analytical Minimum Detectable Limit Allowable (MDA) requested for tritium in solution is <1,000 picoCuries per liter (pCi L-1) and preferably <300 pCi L-1 (11 Bq L-1). The In Situ Tritium probe system (ITP) must produce analytical results without drawing a ground water sample to the surface while operating unattended and automatically download data from remote well sites without external power or communication lines. An ITP has been developed that satisfies most of these requirements. A prototype system that demonstrated proof-of-principal was deployed successfully in shallow monitor wells. Ground water samples were processed and analyzed onboard the prototype ITP and data automatically transmitted to the wellhead. A third generation tritium detection and measurement cell that quantitatively measures dissolved tritium at activities <2,000 pCi L-1 has been tested under laboratory conditions. This, or a more sensitive, detection cell will be integrated into the ITP platform and deployed for extensive tests in deep monitor wells at the USDOE/NNSA Nevada Test Site within the next two years. Ultimate goals for the ITP system are low detection limits for dissolved tritium (<300 pCi L-1) plus additional analytical capabilities for nuclear and chemical parameters such as in situ gamma and neutron fluxes, pH, EH, EC, concentrations of specific aqueous components, etc.

  2. Evaluation of chemical sensors for in situ ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, E.M.; Hostetler, D.D.

    1989-03-01

    This report documents a preliminary review and evaluation of instrument systems and sensors that may be used to detect ground-water contaminants in situ at the Hanford Site. Three topics are covered in this report: (1) identification of a group of priority contaminants at Hanford that could be monitored in situ, (2) a review of current instrument systems and sensors for environmental monitoring, and (3) an evaluation of instrument systems that could be used to monitor Hanford contaminants. Thirteen priority contaminants were identified in Hanford ground water, including carbon tetrachloride and six related chlorinated hydrocarbons, cyanide, methyl ethyl ketone, chromium (VI), fluoride, nitrate, and uranium. Based on transduction principles, chemical sensors were divided into four classes, ten specific types of instrument systems were considered: fluorescence spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), spark excitation-fiber optic spectrochemical emission sensor (FOSES), chemical optrodes, stripping voltammetry, catalytic surface-modified ion electrode immunoassay sensors, resistance/capacitance, quartz piezobalance and surface acoustic wave devices. Because the flow of heat is difficult to control, there are currently no environmental chemical sensors based on thermal transduction. The ability of these ten instrument systems to detect the thirteen priority contaminants at the Hanford Site at the required sensitivity was evaluated. In addition, all ten instrument systems were qualitatively evaluated for general selectivity, response time, reliability, and field operability. 45 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. PERFORMANCE MONITORING OF ENHANCED IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF MTBE IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of the Biostimulation Technology Evaluation was to determine if enhanced biodegradation was occurring in a ground-water test plot to a sufficient degree to reduce intrinsic methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to the State of California's treatability criteria...

  4. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options.

  5. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  6. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  7. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  8. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  9. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  10. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of...

  11. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number...

  12. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number...

  13. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of...

  14. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of...

  15. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number...

  16. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number...

  17. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of...

  18. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground-water monitoring systems. 257.22... Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number of...

  19. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground-water monitoring systems. 258.51... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of...

  20. Fiber optic NIR evanescent wave absorption sensor systems for in-situ monitoring of hydrocarbon compounds in waste and ground water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buerck, Jochen; Denter, P.; Mensch, M.; Kraemer, K.; Scholz, Michael

    1999-02-01

    In situ measurements with the prototype of a portable fiber- optic sensor system for the monitoring of nonpolar hydrocarbons (HC) in ground water or industrial waste water are presented. This sensor system can be used for quantitative in situ analysis of pollutants such as aromatic solvents, fuels, mineral oils or chlorinated HCs in a broad concentration range from around 200 (mu) g(DOT) L-1 up to a few 100 mg(DOT) L-1. The sensing principle is based on solid phase extraction of analyte molecules into a hydrophobic silicone cladding of a quartz glass optical fiber and the direct absorptiometric measurement of the extracted species in the polymer through the evanescent wave. The sensor can be connected via all-silica fibers with a length of up to 100 m to a filter photometer developed at the IFIA, thus allowing even remote analysis in monitoring wells. This instrument provides a sum concentration signal of the extracted organic compounds by measuring the integral absorption at the C-H overtone bands in the near-infrared spectral range. In situ measurements with the sensor system were performed in a ground water circulation well at the VEGAS research facility (Universitat Stuttgart). Here, the sensor proved to trace the HC sum concentration of xylene isomers in process water pumped from the well to a stripper column. In further experiments the sensor was combined with an oil sampling device and was tested with simulated waste waters of a commercial vehicle plant contaminated with different types of mineral oil. In this case the sensor system was able to detect the presence of mineral oil films floating on water or oil-in-water emulsions with concentrations greater than 20 ppm (v/v) within a few minutes.

  1. In-Situ Use of Ground Water By Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A replicated column lysimeter study was conducted over a 4 year period to determine the effect of groundwater salinity and depth to ground water on the in-situ use of groundwater by a salt tolerant alfalfa crop. The treatments included a control with no groundwater, and ground water with electrical ...

  2. IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory (RSKERL) has developed a number of Issue Papers and Briefing Documents which are designed to exchange up-to-date information related to the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water at hazardous waste sites. n an attemp...

  3. A ground-water-quality monitoring program for Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowlin, Jon O.

    1986-01-01

    A program was designed for the systematic monitoring of ground-water quality in Nevada. Basic hydrologic and water-quality principles are discussed in the formulation of a rational approach to developing a statewide monitoring program. A review of ground-water monitoring efforts in Nevada through 1977 indicates that few requirements for an effective statewide program are being met. A suggested program has been developed that consists of five major elements: (1) A Background-Quality Network to assess the existing water quality in Nevada aquifers, (2) a Contamination Source Inventory of known or potential threats to ground-water quality, (3) Surveillance Networks to monitor ground-water quality in selected hydrographic areas, (4) Intensive Surveys of individual instances of known or potential ground-water contamination, and (5) Ground-Water Data File to manage data generated by the other monitoring elements. Two indices have been developed to help assign rational priorities for monitoring ground water in the 255 hydrographic areas of Nevada: (1) A Hydrographic-Area Priority Index for surveillance monitoring, and (2) A Development-Potential Index for background monitoring of areas with little or no current development. Requirements for efficient management of data from ground-water monitoring are discussed and the three major systems containing Nevada ground-water data are reviewed. More than 11,000 chemical analyses of ground water have been acquired from existing systems and incorporated into a prototype data base.

  4. Technology Transfer Opportunities: Automated Ground-Water Monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction A new automated ground-water monitoring system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measures and records values of selected water-quality properties and constituents using protocols approved for manual sampling. Prototypes using the automated process have demonstrated the ability to increase the quantity and quality of data collected and have shown the potential for reducing labor and material costs for ground-water quality data collection. Automation of water-quality monitoring systems in the field, in laboratories, and in industry have increased data density and utility while reducing operating costs. Uses for an automated ground-water monitoring system include, (but are not limited to) monitoring ground-water quality for research, monitoring known or potential contaminant sites, such as near landfills, underground storage tanks, or other facilities where potential contaminants are stored, and as an early warning system monitoring groundwater quality near public water-supply wells.

  5. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

  6. Identification of technical guidance related to ground water monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Vogelsberger, R.R.; Smith, E.D.; Broz, M.; Wright, J.C. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    Monitoring of ground water quality is a key element of ground water protection and is mandated by several federal and state laws concerned with water quality or waste management. Numerous regulatory guidance documents and technical reports discuss various aspects of ground water monitoring, but at present there is no single source of guidance on procedures and practices for ground water monitoring. This report is intended to assist US Department of Energy (DOE) officials and facility operating personnel in identifying sources of guidance for developing and implementing ground water monitoring programs that are technically sound and that comply with applicable regulations. Federal statutes and associated regulations were reviewed to identify requirements related to ground water monitoring, and over 160 documents on topics related to ground water monitoring were evaluated for their technical merit, their utility as guidance for regulatory compliance, and their relevance to DOE's needs. For each of 15 technical topics involved in ground water monitoring, the report presents (1) a review of federal regulatory requirements and representative state requirements, (2) brief descriptions of the contents and merits of available guidance documents and technical references, and (3) recommendations of the guidance documents or other technical resources that appear to be most appropriate for use in DOE's monitoring activities. The contents of the report are applicable to monitoring activities involving both radioactive and nonradioactive substances. The main sources of regulatory requirements considered in the report are the Atomic Energy Act (including the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, Toxic Substances Control Act, and Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

  7. Monitored Natural Attenuation For Radionuclides In Ground Water - Technical Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of ground water contaminated with radionuclides may be achieved using attenuation-based technologies. These technologies may rely on engineered processes (e.g., bioremediation) or natural processes (e.g., monitored natural attentuation) within the subsurface. In gen...

  8. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.

    1992-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality across the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Monitoring activities were conducted to determine the distribution of mobile radionuclides and identify chemicals present in ground water as a result of Site operations and whenever possible, relate the distribution of these constituents to Site operations. To comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, additional monitoring was conducted at individual waste sites by the Site Operating Contractor, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), to assess the impact that specific facilities have had on ground-water quality. Six hundred and twenty-nine wells were sampled during 1990 by all Hanford ground-water monitoring activities.

  9. Modeling in situ iron removal from ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Appelo, C.A.J.; Drijver, B.; Hekkenberg, R.; Jonge, M. de

    1999-12-01

    In situ iron removal is conducted routinely in a number of European countries. A volume of oxygenated water is injected, and subsequently a larger volume of ground water can be pumped with a lower iron concentration than is found in native ground water. The underlying reaction mechanism has not been well described so far, and the process has not been modeled quantitatively. The essential problem is how the electron transfer takes place between the dissolved oxygen in injection water and the dissolved iron in ground water. An intermediate reaction step, involving cation exchange of ferrous iron and subsequent oxidation by oxygen of injection water, explains the efficiency increase during the initial cycles and the absence of clogging by precipitated iron-oxyhydroxide. A hydrogeochemical transport model has been used to model column experiments with good results. The quantification of the reaction mechanism allows the assessment of operational conditions. For example, it can be shown that increasing the oxidant concentration in the injected water has an insignificant effect when exchangeable ferrous iron is low.

  10. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

  11. A proposed ground-water quality monitoring network for Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehead, R.L.; Parliman, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    A ground water quality monitoring network is proposed for Idaho. The network comprises 565 sites, 8 of which will require construction of new wells. Frequencies of sampling at the different sites are assigned at quarterly, semiannual, annual, and 5 years. Selected characteristics of the water will be monitored by both laboratory- and field-analysis methods. The network is designed to: (1) Enable water managers to keep abreast of the general quality of the State 's ground water, and (2) serve as a warning system for undesirable changes in ground-water quality. Data were compiled for hydrogeologic conditions, ground-water quality, cultural elements, and pollution sources. A ' hydrologic unit priority index ' is used to rank 84 hydrologic units (river basins or segments of river basins) of the State for monitoring according to pollution potential. Emphasis for selection of monitoring sites is placed on the 15 highest ranked units. The potential for pollution is greatest in areas of privately owned agricultural land. Other areas of pollution potential are residential development, mining and related processes, and hazardous waste disposal. Data are given for laboratory and field analyses, number of site visits, manpower, subsistence, and mileage, from which costs for implementing the network can be estimated. Suggestions are made for data storage and retrieval and for reporting changes in water quality. (Kosco-USGS)

  12. Montana's Coalbed Methane Ground-Water Monitoring Program: Year One

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheaton, J. R.; Smith, M.; Donato, T. A.; Bobst, A. L.

    2003-12-01

    Tertiary coal seams in the Powder River Basin in southeastern Montana provide three very important resources: ground water, coal, and natural gas. Ground water from springs and wells is essential for the local agricultural economy. Because coal seams in the Fort Union Formation have higher hydraulic conductivity values and are more continuous than the sandstone units, they are the primary aquifers in this region. Coalbed methane (CBM) production is beginning in the Powder River Basin, and requires removal and management of large quantities of water from the coal-seam aquifers. The extensive pumping required to produce the methane is expected to create broad areas of severe potentiometric decline. The Montana CBM ground-water monitoring program, now in place, is based on scientific concepts developed during more than 30 years of coal-mine hydrogeology research. The program includes inventories of ground-water resources and regular monitoring at dedicated wells and selected springs. The program is now providing baseline potentiometric and water-quality data, and will continue to be active through the duration of CBM production and post-production ground-water recovery. An extensive inventory of ground-water resources in the Montana portion of the Powder River Basin has located 300 springs and 21 wells on private land, and 460 springs and 21 wells on U. S. Forest Service and U. S. Bureau of Land Management land, all producing ground water from the methane bearing strata. In southeastern Montana, 134 monitoring wells are currently included in the CBM monitoring program. They are completed either in coal seams, adjacent sandstone units, or alluvium. During the coal boom of the 1970's and 1980's many monitoring wells were drilled, but most have been since unused. Thirty-six of these existing wells have now been returned to service to decrease start-up costs for the CBM program. This network of existing wells has been augmented at key sites with 26 new wells drilled

  13. IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is one in a series of Ground Water Issue papers which have been prepared in response to needs expressed by the Ground Water Forum. It is based on findings from the research community in concert with experience gained at sites undergoing remediation. the intent of th...

  14. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Newcomer, D.R.; Evans, J.C.; Webber, W.D.; Spane, F.A. Jr.; Raymond, R.G.; Opitz, B.E.

    1993-06-01

    Monitoring activities were conducted to determine the distribution of radionuclides and hazardous chemicals present in ground water as a result of Hanford Site operations and, whenever possible, relate the distribution of these constituents to Site operations. A total of 720 wells were sampled during 1992 by all Hanford ground-water monitoring activities. The Ground-Water Surveillance Project prepared water-table maps of DOE`s Hanford Site for June 1992 from water-level elevations measured in 287 wells across the Hanford Site and outlying areas. These maps are used to infer ground-water flow directions and gradients for the interpretation of contaminant transport. Water levels beneath the 200 Areas decreased as much as 0.75 m (2.5 ft) between December 1991 and December 1992. Water levels in the Cold Creek Valley decreased approximately 0.5 m in that same period. The water table adjacent to the Columbia River along the Hanford Reach continues to respond significantly to fluctuations in river stage. These responses were observed in the 100 and 300 areas. The elevation of the ground-water mound beneath B Pond did not change significantly between December 1991 and December 1992. However, water levels from one well located at the center of the mound indicate a water-level rise of approximately 0.3 m (1 ft) during the last quarter of 1992. Water levels measured from unconfined aquifer wells north and east of the Columbia River in 1992 indicate that the primary source of recharge is from irrigation practices.

  15. GROUND WATER--MINERALOGY RELATIONSHIP FOR 'IN SITU' OIL SHALE RETORTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Potential ground water problems associated with Modified In Situ (MIS) oil shale retorting need to be examined in order to minimize or mitigate possible invasion of spent shale leachates into ground water systems in actively mined or mined and abandoned sites. This background rep...

  16. Inorganic ground-water chemistry at an experimental New Albany Shale (Devonian-Mississippian) in situ gasification site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Branam, T.D.; Comer, J.B.; Shaffer, N.R.; Ennis, M.V.; Carpenter, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental in situ gasification of New Albany Shale (Devonian-Mississippian) has been conducted in Clark County. Analyses of ground water sampled from a production well and nine nearby monitoring wells 3 months after a brief in situ gasification period revealed changes in water chemistry associated with the gasification procedure. Dissolved iron, calcium and sulphate in ground water from the production well and wells as much as 2 m away were significantly higher than in ground water from wells over 9 m away. Dissolved components in the more distant wells are in the range of those in regional ground water. Thermal decomposition of pyrite during the gasification process generated the elevated levels of iron and sulphate in solution. High concentrations of calcium indicate buffering by dissolution of carbonate minerals. While iron quickly precipitates, calcium and sulphate remain in the ground water. Trends in the concentration of sulphate show that altered ground water migrated mostly in a south-westerly direction from the production well along natural joints in the New Albany Shale. ?? 1991.

  17. Ground water and soil remediation: In situ air stripping using horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.; Eddy, C.A.; Hazen, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    An innovative environmental restoration technology, in situ air stripping, has been demonstrated at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. This process, using horizontal wells, is designed to concurrently remediate unsaturated-zone soils and ground water containing Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC). In situ technologies have the potential to substantially reduce costs and time required for remediation as well as improve effectiveness of remediation. Horizontal wells were selected to deliver and extract fluids from the subsurface because their geometry can maximize the efficiency of a remediation system and they have great potential for remediating contaminant sources under existing facilities. The first demonstration of this new technology was conducted for a period of twenty weeks. A vacuum was first drawn on the vadose zone well until a steady-state removal of VOCs was obtained. Air was then injected at three different rates and at two different temperatures. An extensive characterization program was conducted at the site and an extensive monitoring network was installed prior to initiation of the test. Significant quantities of VOCs have been removed from the subsurface (equivalent to an eleven-well, 500-gpm, pump-and-treat system at the same site). Concentrations of VOCs in the ground water have been significantly reduced in a number of the monitoring wells.

  18. Ground water and soil remediation: In situ air stripping using horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.; Eddy, C.A.; Hazen, T.C.

    1990-12-31

    An innovative environmental restoration technology, in situ air stripping, has been demonstrated at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. This process, using horizontal wells, is designed to concurrently remediate unsaturated-zone soils and ground water containing Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC). In situ technologies have the potential to substantially reduce costs and time required for remediation as well as improve effectiveness of remediation. Horizontal wells were selected to deliver and extract fluids from the subsurface because their geometry can maximize the efficiency of a remediation system and they have great potential for remediating contaminant sources under existing facilities. The first demonstration of this new technology was conducted for a period of twenty weeks. A vacuum was first drawn on the vadose zone well until a steady-state removal of VOCs was obtained. Air was then injected at three different rates and at two different temperatures. An extensive characterization program was conducted at the site and an extensive monitoring network was installed prior to initiation of the test. Significant quantities of VOCs have been removed from the subsurface (equivalent to an eleven-well, 500-gpm, pump-and-treat system at the same site). Concentrations of VOCs in the ground water have been significantly reduced in a number of the monitoring wells.

  19. SURFACE APPLICATION SYSTEM FOR IN SITU GROUND-WATER BIOREMEDIATION: SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface application offers an inexpensive, noninvasive alternative to injection wells and infiltration galleries for in situ ground-water bioreniediation applications. The technology employs artificial recharge to create favorable hydraulic conditions for mixing and vertical tran...

  20. ENHANCED IN SITU ANAEROBIC BIOREMEDIATION OF FUEL-CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have demonstrated the application of an enhanced in situ anaerobic bioremediation technology to clean up ground water contaminated with fuel hydrocarbons, particularly benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). The technology is based on introduction of electron acce...

  1. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General ground-water monitoring... FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.97 General ground-water monitoring requirements. The owner or operator must comply with the following requirements for any ground-water...

  2. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General ground-water monitoring... FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.97 General ground-water monitoring requirements. The owner or operator must comply with the following requirements for any ground-water...

  3. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General ground-water monitoring... FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.97 General ground-water monitoring requirements. The owner or operator must comply with the following requirements for any ground-water...

  4. GEOTHERMAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT: GROUND WATER MONITORING GUIDELINES FOR GEOTHERMAL DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses potential ground water pollution from geothermal resource development, conversion, and waste disposal, and proposes guidelines for developing a ground water monitoring plan for any such development. Geothermal processes, borehole logging, and injection well ...

  5. Monitoring for pesticides in ground water in Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Patricia A.; Moses, Charles W.; Bevans, Hugh E.

    1997-01-01

    Many pesticides designed to control weed encroachment, plant disease, and insect predation are used in agricultural and urban areas in the United States. Contamination of ground water by pesticides has increased over the last 20 years (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1992). In 1985, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) estimated the detection of at least 17 agricultural pesticides in the ground water of 23 states. By 1988, pesticides identified in ground water had increased to 46 in 26 states. To protect ground water from pesticide contamination, USEPA, through the Federal Fungicide Insecticide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), requires all states to institute a ground-water protection program.

  6. Application of an Integrated Ground Water Monitoring Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, V.; Hodges, R.; Heffner, D.; Nicholson, T. J.; Temples, T.

    2006-05-01

    The ground-water monitoring strategy developed through a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission-sponsored research project was tested using monitoring data from the C-Area at the Savannah River Site. This strategy employs a systematic approach to integrate site characterization, conceptual model development, identification and evaluation of ground-water system performance indicators, site performance assessment, and monitor network design. The strategy provides guidance for monitoring across a wide range of geologic settings, waste compositions, and site designs to support performance assessment analysis. The goal is to provide decision-makers with the necessary information to implement an effective monitoring program at any specific site. The Savannah River Site is situated on multi-layer, interbedded, discontinuous Coastal Plain sediments that regionally dip gently to the south-southeast. The sediments are predominantly sands and clays deposited in fluvial to near-shore marine, environments. The hydrology at C-Area is a classic sequence of unconfined, semi-confined, and confined aquifers with the semi-confined aquifer becoming unconfined as it nears Four Mile Branch. High permeability pathways that affect transport can be present due to channels, gravel layers, and fractures. There are two major contaminant plumes at C Area. The first is a trichloroethene (TCE) plume which migrates to the west from the C-Area burning rubble pit to Four Mile Branch. This plume is delineated by an extensive monitoring network of over 150 wells, though none reach the confined aquifer beneath the plume extent (to avoid downward transport during and after well installation). Transport modeling (using the RT3D code) was performed to simulate the TCE distribution and to determine if TCE could affect the confined aquifer. Modeling results suggest the confined aquifer could be monitored with wells placed west of Four Mile Branch across from the plume. The second is a tritium plume which

  7. 40 CFR 141.402 - Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods. 141.402 Section 141.402 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141.402 Ground water source...

  8. 40 CFR 141.402 - Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods. 141.402 Section 141.402 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141.402 Ground water source...

  9. In-situ Use of Ground Water by Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One proposal for drainage water disposal is to reuse drainage water for irrigation of salt tolerant crops until the volume has been reduced sufficiently to enable final disposal by evaporation. Part of this concept of serial biological concentration requires in-situ crop water reuse from shallow gr...

  10. In-situ alteration of minerals by acidic ground water resulting from mining activities: Preliminary evaluation of method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lind, Carol J.; Creasey, C.L.; Angeroth, C.

    1999-01-01

    The chemical composition of the Cu-mining-related acidic ground water (pH ~ 3.5 to near neutral) in Pinal Creek Basin, Arizona has been monitored since 1980. In-situ experiments are planned using alluvial sediments placed in the ground-water flow path to measure changes in mineral and chemical composition and changes in dissolution rates of subsurface alluvial sediments. The test results should help refine developed models of predicted chemical changes in ground-water composition and models of streamflow. For the preliminary test, sediment from the depth of the well screen of a newly drilled well was installed in three wells, the source well (pH 4.96) and two up-gradient wells (pHs 4.27 and 4.00). The sediment was placed in woven macrofilters, fastened in series to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes, and hung at the screened level of each well. After interacting with the slowly moving ground water for 48 days, the test sediments were removed for analysis. There was no evidence that any of the materials used were biologically or chemically degraded or that the porosity of the filters was diminished by ferric hydroxide precipitation. These materials included 21-??m-pore (21PEMF) and 67-??m-pore polyester and the 174-??m-pore fluorocarbon Spectra/mesh macrofilters containing the in-situ sediment, the polypropylene (PP) macrofilter support structures, and the Nylon (NY) monofilament line used to attach the samples to the PVC pipe. Based on chemical and mineral composition and on particle-size distribution of the sediment before and after ground-water exposure, the 21PEMF macrofilter was chosen as the most suitable macrofilter for the long-term in-situ experiment. Tests also showed that the PP support structures and the NY monofilament line were sufficiently durable for this experiment.The chemical composition of the Cu-mining-related acidic ground water (pH approx. 3.5 to near neutral) in Pinal Creek Basin, Arizona has been monitored since 1980. In-situ experiments are

  11. Technology Transfer Opportunities: Automated Ground-Water Monitoring, A Proven Technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed and tested an automated ground-water monitoring system that measures and records values of selected water-quality properties and constituents using protocols approved for manual sampling. Prototypes using the automated process have demonstrated the ability to increase the quantity and quality of data collected and have shown the potential for reducing labor and material costs for ground-water quality data collection. Automated ground-water monitoring systems can be used to monitor known or potential contaminant sites, such as near landfills, underground storage tanks, or other facilities where potential contaminants are stored, to serve as early warning systems monitoring ground-water quality near public water-supply wells, and for ground-water quality research.

  12. PERFORMANCE MONITORING OF MNA REMEDIES FOR VOCS IN GROUND WATER: A FRAMEWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective monitoring of natural attenuation processes requires a clear understanding of hydrogeologic controls on ground-water flow, a three-dimensional approach to monitoring network design, and clearly defined performance criteria based on site-specific remedial action objectiv...

  13. A ground-water-quality monitoring network for the Lower Mojave River Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woolfenden, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    A ground-water-quality monitoring network was developed for the Lower Mojave River valley to define the ground-water quality of the valley. Basin geohydrology, geology, land use and water-level and water-quality data were factors considered in developing objectives for an ideal network. These objectives were used in selecting well locations for the conceptual ground-water-quality monitoring network. The conceptual network was used as a guide in the design of the ground-water-quality monitoring network. Active monitoring sites are wells that are currently being monitored by some agency and were selected whenever possible because of budgetary constraints. In areas where no wells are currently being monitored, new well locations were selected and are considered proposed monitoring sites. A sampling regimen is also included. (USGS)

  14. In situ push-pull method to determine ground water denitrification in riparian zones.

    PubMed

    Addy, Kelly; Kellogg, D Q; Gold, Arthur J; Groffman, Peter M; Ferendo, Gina; Sawyer, Carl

    2002-01-01

    To quantify ground water denitrification in discrete locations of riparian aquifers, we modified and evaluated an in situ method based on conservative tracers and 15N-enriched nitrate. Ground water was "pushed" (i.e., injected) into a mini-piezometer and then "pulled" (i.e., extracted) from the same mini-piezometer after an incubation period. This push-pull method was applied in replicate mini-piezometers at two Rhode Island riparian sites, one fresh water and one brackish water. Conservative tracer pretests were conducted to determine incubation periods, ranging from 5 to 120 h, to optimize recovery of introduced plumes. For nitrate push-pull tests, we used two conservative tracers, sulfur hexafluoride and bromide, to provide insight into plume recovery. The two conservative tracers behaved similarly. The dosing solutions were amended with 15N-enriched nitrate that enabled us to quantify the mass of denitrification gases generated during the incubation period. The in situ push-pull method detected substantial denitrification rates at a site where we had previously observed high denitrification rates. At our brackish site, we found high rates of ground water denitrification in marsh locations and minimal denitrification in soils fringing the marsh. The push-pull method can provide useful insights into spatial and temporal patterns of denitrification in riparian zones. The method is robust and results are not seriously affected by dilution or degassing from ground water to soil air. In conjunction with measurements of ground water flow-paths, this method holds promise for evaluating the influence of site and management factors on the ground water nitrate removal capacity of riparian zones. PMID:12026069

  15. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Represent the quality of ground water passing the point of compliance. (3) Allow for the detection of... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General ground-water monitoring... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND...

  16. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Represent the quality of ground water passing the point of compliance. (3) Allow for the detection of... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General ground-water monitoring... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND...

  17. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for July through December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Dennison, D.I.; Bryce, R.W.; Mitchell, P.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Krupka, K.M.; Hinman, N.W.; Jacobson, E.A.; Freshley, M.D.

    1988-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Work undertaken between July and December 1987 included monitoring ground-water elevations across the Site, monitoring hazardous chemicals and radionuclides in ground water, geochemical evaluations of unconfined ground-water data, and calibration of ground-water flow and transport models. Water levels continued to rise in areas receiving increased recharge (e.g., beneath B Pond) and decline in areas where the release of water to disposal facilities has been terminated (e.g., U Pond). The major areas of ground-water contamination defined by monitoring activities are (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and 200-West Areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100-B, 100-D, 100-F, 100-H, 100-K, and 200-West Areas; (4) chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Central Landfill and 300 Area; (5) uranium in the 100-F, 100-H, 200-West, and 300 Areas; and (6) tritium and nitrate across the Site. The MINTEQ geochemical code was used to identify chemical reactions that may be affecting the concentrations of dissolved hazardous chemicals in the unconfined ground water. Results indicate that many cations are present mainly as dissolved carbonate complexes and that a majority of the ground-water samples are in near equilibrium with carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite, dolomite, otavite).

  18. Elements needed in design of a ground-water-quality monitoring network in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takasaki, Kiyoshi J.

    1977-01-01

    The elements needed in the design of a ground-water-quality monitoring network in the Hawaiian Islands are described and summarized. The elements are given by geohydrologie units which represent areas where there are similarities in the occurrence of ground water or in the geology pertinent to the occurrence of ground water. The goal is to establish a network of observation points to inventory and maintain surveillance of existing and potential sources of pollution of ground water. Of principal concern to Hawaii's environment is pollution of the potable ground-water supplies and of the near-shore recreational waters, the latter by the discharge of polluted ground water. Existing monitoring efforts, although intensive in many areas, are not adequate because they are geared more toward (1) the detection and surveillance of pollutants in the conveyances of ground water instead of in the sources of ground water and (2) the monitoring of extensive nonpoint sources of pollution instead of from discrete point sources.

  19. Work plan for ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation at Gunnison, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-18

    The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water monitor wells and ground water elevation data recorders (data loggers) at the Gunnison, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. The monitor wells and data loggers will be used to gather required time-dependent data to investigate the interaction between ground water and surface water in the area. Data collection objectives (DCO) identify reasons for collecting data. The following are DCOs for the Gunnison ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation project: long-term continuous ground water level data and periodic ground water samples will be collected to better understand the relationship between surface and ground water at the site; water level and water quality data will eventually be used in future ground water modeling to more firmly establish boundary conditions in the vicinity of the Gunnison processing site; and modeling results will be used to demonstrate and document the potential remedial alternative of natural flushing.

  20. Monitored Natural Attenuation For Inorganic Contaminants In Ground Water - Technical Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of ground water contaminated with radionuclides may be achieved using attenuation-based technologies. These technologies may rely on engineered processes (e.g., bioremediation) or natural processes (e.g., monitored natural attenuation) within the subsurface. In gene...

  1. Ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Fruland, R.M.

    1986-10-01

    Washington state regulations required that solid waste landfill facilities have ground-water monitoring programs in place by May 27, 1987. This document describes the well locations, installation, characterization studies and sampling and analysis plan to be followed in implementing the ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). It is based on Washington Administrative Code WAC 173-304-490. 11 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Work plan for ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well injection at Grand Junction, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-18

    The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water monitor wells and ground water elevation data recorders (data loggers) at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. The monitor wells and data loggers will be used to gather required time-dependent data to investigate the interaction between the shallow aquifer and the Colorado River. Data collection objectives (DCO) identify reasons for collecting data. The following are DCOs for the Grand Junction ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation project: long-term continuous ground water level data and periodic ground water samples will be collected to better understand the relationship between surface and ground water at the site; water level and water quality data will eventually be used in future ground water modeling to more firmly establish boundary conditions in the vicinity of the Grand Junction processing site; modeling results will be used to demonstrate and document the potential remedial alternative of natural flushing.

  3. Emerging Technologies for Enhanced In Situ Biodenitrification of Nitrate Contaminated Ground Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faris, B.; Faris, B.

    2001-05-01

    One of the most pervasive ground water contaminants in the U.S. is nitrate. Traditional technologies for the remediation of nitrate-contaminated ground water are generally costly, lengthy, and often only partly effective. Enhanced in situ biodenitrification (EISBD) is a developing technology for remediating nitrate contaminated ground water and protecting public and domestic supply wells through in situ reduction. Natural denitrification processes have been well understood for some time. However, managing these processes to effectively remediated contaminated ground water in a timely fashion is innovative. EISBD is a remediation technology through which a carbon source (electron donor) is introduced to a nitrate-contaminated aquifer. Since many aquifers are aerobic, indigenous aerobic bacteria utilize the introduced carbon as a food source and oxygen serves as an electron acceptor. Oxygen in the aquifer becomes depleted, forming an anaerobic aquifer. When this occurs and an abundant carbon source is present, indigenous denitrifying bacteria proliferate and reduce nitrate to nitrogen gas through anaerobic respiration. EISBD technology deployments are currently underway for either remediation of sizable nitrate plumes in ground water systems or the reduction of nitrate contaminated ground water around public and/or domestic well fields dedicated to the production of drinking water. Regulatory enforcement of nitrate plumes has been limited. Pollution prevention programs are in place to limit further nitrate contamination, however, once a site becomes contaminated with nitrates above standards, the deployment of remediation technologies is lacking. With the development and further deployment of EISBD technologies, a cost-effective short-term tool is available for nitrate remediation. A multi-disciplinary team of the Interstate Technology Regulatory Cooperation published a Technology Overview guidance document on the emerging technology of EISBD. ITRC is a state

  4. PERFORMANCE MONITORING FOR NATURAL ATTENUATION REMEDIES IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental monitoring is the major component of any remedy that relies on natural attenuation processes. The objective of this document is to identify data needs and evaluation methods useful for designing monitoring networks and determining remedy effectiveness. Effective mon...

  5. Automated ground-water monitoring with Robowell: case studies and potential applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granato, Gregory E.; Smith, Kirk P.

    2002-02-01

    Robowell is an automated system and method for monitoring ground-water quality. Robowell meets accepted manual- sampling protocols without high labor and laboratory costs. Robowell periodically monitors and records water-quality properties and constituents in ground water by pumping a well or multilevel sampler until one or more purge criteria have been met. A record of frequent water-quality measurements from a monitoring site can indicate changes in ground-water quality and can provide a context for the interpretation of laboratory data from discrete samples. Robowell also can communicate data and system performance through a remote communication link. Remote access to ground-water data enables the user to monitor conditions and optimize manual sampling efforts. Six Robowell prototypes have successfully monitored ground-water quality during all four seasons of the year under different hydrogeologic conditions, well designs, and geochemical environments. The U.S. Geological Survey is seeking partners for research with robust and economical water-quality monitoring instruments designed to measure contaminants of concern in conjunction with the application and commercialization of the Robowell technology. Project publications and information about technology transfer opportunities are available on the Internet at URL http://ma.water.usgs.gov/automon/

  6. Automated ground-water monitoring with robowell-Case studies and potential applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, G.E.; Smith, K.P.

    2001-01-01

    Robowell is an automated system and method for monitoring ground-water quality. Robowell meets accepted manual-sampling protocols without high labor and laboratory costs. Robowell periodically monitors and records water-quality properties and constituents in ground water by pumping a well or multilevel sampler until one or more purge criteria have been met. A record of frequent water-quality measurements from a monitoring site can indicate changes in ground-water quality and can provide a context for the interpretation of laboratory data from discrete samples. Robowell also can communicate data and system performance through a remote communication link. Remote access to ground-water data enables the user to monitor conditions and optimize manual sampling efforts. Six Robowell prototypes have successfully monitored ground-water quality during all four seasons of the year under different hydrogeologic conditions, well designs, and geochemical environments. The U.S. Geological Survey is seeking partners for research with robust and economical water-quality monitoring instruments designed to measure contaminants of concern in conjunction with the application and commercialization of the Robowell technology. Project publications and information about technology transfer opportunities are available on the Internet at URL http://ma.water.usgs.gov/automon/.

  7. Ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site, January-December 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, C.S.; Rieger, J.T.; Raymond, J.R.

    1985-09-01

    This program is designed to evaluate existing and potential pathways of exposure to radioactivity and hazardous chemicals from site operations. This document contains an evaluation of data collected during CY 1984. During 1984, 339 monitoring wells were sampled at various times for radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. Two of these constituents, specifically, tritium and nitrate, have been selected for detailed discussion in this report. Tritium and nitrate in the primary plumes originating from the 200 Areas continue to move generally eastward toward the Columbia River in the direction of ground-water flow. The movement within these plumes is indicated by changes in trends within the analytical data from the monitoring wells. No discernible impact on ground water has yet been observed from the start-up of the PUREX plant in December 1983. The shape of the present tritium plume is similar to those described in previous ground-water monitoring reports, although slight changes on the outer edges have been noted. Radiological impacts from two potential pathways for radionuclide transport in ground water to the environment are discussed in this report. The pathways are: (1) human consumption of ground water from onsite wells, and (2) seepage of ground water into the Columbia River. Concentrations of tritium in spring samples that were collected and analyzed in 1983, and in wells sampled adjacent to the Columbia River in 1984 confirmed that constituents in the ground water are entering the river via springs and subsurface flow. The primary areas where radionuclides enter the Columbia River via ground-water flow are the 100-N and 300 Areas and the shoreline adjacent to the Hanford Townsite. 44 refs., 25 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. GROUND WATER SAMPLING ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining representative ground water samples is important for site assessment and
    remedial performance monitoring objectives. Issues which must be considered prior to initiating a ground-water monitoring program include defining monitoring goals and objectives, sampling point...

  9. A prototype computer interactive ground water monitoring methodology for surface water impoundments

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, L.G.; Rasmussen, W.O.

    1982-01-01

    An account is given for the Tempo computerised monitoring method (developed by a US consulting firm under an EPA contract) which covers identification, quantification and ranking for monitoring ground water degradation sources within coal strip-mining areas. The program is described in detail.

  10. 40 CFR 265 interim-status ground-water monitoring plan for the 2101-M pond

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, M.A.; Luttrell, S.P.; Dudziak, S.

    1989-03-01

    This report outlines a ground-water monitoring plan for the 2101-M pond, located in the southwestern part of the 200-East Area on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. It has been determined that hazardous materials may have been discharged to the pond. Installation of an interim-status ground-water monitoring system is required under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act to determine if hazardous chemicals are moving out of the pond. This plan describes the location of new wells for the monitoring system, how the wells are to be completed, the data to be collected, and how those data can be used to determine the source and extent of any ground-water contamination from the 2101-M pond. Four new wells are planned, one upgradient and three downgradient. 35 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for April through June 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Mitchell, P.J.; Dennison, D.I.

    1988-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site. Results for monitoring by PNL and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) during April-June 1987 show that certain regulated hazardous materials and radionuclides exist in Hanford Site ground waters. The presence of regulated constituents in the ground water derives both from site operations and from natural sources. The major contamination problems defined by recent monitoring activities are carbon tetrachloride in the 200 West Area; cyanide in and north of the 200 East Area; hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100B, 100D, 100K, and 100H areas; chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Central Landfill; uranium at the 216-U-1 and 216-U-2 cribs in the 200 West Area; tritium across the site; and nitrate across the site. The distribution of hazardous materials related to site operations is more limited than the distribution of tritium and nitrate. 8 refs., 22 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Development of a Ground Water Data Portal for Interoperable Data Exchange within the U.S. National Ground Water Monitoring Network and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, N. L.; Brodaric, B.; Lucido, J. M.; Kuo, I.; Boisvert, E.; Cunningham, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    The need for a national groundwater monitoring network within the United States is profound and has been recognized by organizations outside government as a major data gap for managing ground-water resources. Our country's communities, industries, agriculture, energy production and critical ecosystems rely on water being available in adequate quantity and suitable quality. To meet this need the Subcommittee on Ground Water, established by the Federal Advisory Committee on Water Information, created a National Ground Water Monitoring Network (NGWMN) envisioned as a voluntary, integrated system of data collection, management and reporting that will provide the data needed to address present and future ground-water management questions raised by Congress, Federal, State and Tribal agencies and the public. The NGWMN Data Portal is the means by which policy makers, academics and the public will be able to access ground water data through one seamless web-based application from disparate data sources. Data systems in the United States exist at many organizational and geographic levels and differing vocabulary and data structures have prevented data sharing and reuse. The data portal will facilitate the retrieval of and access to groundwater data on an as-needed basis from multiple, dispersed data repositories allowing the data to continue to be housed and managed by the data provider while being accessible for the purposes of the national monitoring network. This work leverages Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) data exchange standards and information models. To advance these standards for supporting the exchange of ground water information, an OGC Interoperability Experiment was organized among international participants from government, academia and the private sector. The experiment focused on ground water data exchange across the U.S. / Canadian border. WaterML2.0, an evolving international standard for water observations, encodes ground water levels and is exchanged

  13. Role of Modeling and Monitoring in Remediating Radionuclide Contamination in Ground Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, T. J.; Cady, R. E.; Fuhrmann, M.

    2008-12-01

    NRC is sponsoring research that couples monitoring and modeling of radionuclide transport in ground water with remediation. Insights and information from this program will be useful in decision making by NRC staff, licensees and stakeholders in their assessment of ground-water investigations involving remediation. One of the research objectives is to develop the technical bases for evaluating exposures and uptakes to receptors related to the ground-water pathway. If the exposures are estimated to be significant, the research then focuses on identifying and evaluating remediation technologies. An important component in these evaluations is the development and testing of conceptual site models. These models are used to formulate site-specific analytical models and ground-water monitoring strategies using performance indicators. These performance indicators are selected to be both simulated model outcomes and corresponding monitored conditions which are used to predict the efficacy of various remediation methods. Development of the site- specific model balances the need for realistic representation of site-specific features, events and processes with model abstraction techniques to identify significant processes and conditions affecting radionuclide transport prior to and during remediation. Ultimately, the site-specific ground-water model communicates understanding of remediation performance to the public, and facilitates technical interactions by the regulator, licensee and stakeholders.

  14. The status of streamflow and ground-water-level monitoring networks in Maryland, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerhart, James M.; Cleaves, Emery T.

    2005-01-01

    The monitoring of streamflow and ground-water levels in Maryland is vitally important to the effective management and protection of the State?s water resources. Streamflow and ground-water-level monitoring networks have been operated for many years in Maryland, and in recent years, these networks have been redesigned to improve their efficiency. Unfortunately, these networks are increasingly at risk due to reduced and fluctuating funding from Federal, State, and local agencies. Stable, long-term funding is necessary to ensure that these networks will continue to provide valuable water data for use by State and local water-resources managers.

  15. Design of a ground-water-quality monitoring network for the Salinas River basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Showalter, P.K.; Akers, J.P.; Swain, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    A regional ground-water quality monitoring network for the entire Salinas River drainage basin was designed to meet the needs of the California State Water Resources Control Board. The project included phase 1--identifying monitoring networks that exist in the region; phase 2--collecting information about the wells in each network; and phase 3--studying the factors--such as geology, land use, hydrology, and geohydrology--that influence the ground-water quality, and designing a regional network. This report is the major product of phase 3. Based on the authors ' understanding of the ground-water-quality monitoring system and input from local offices, an ideal network was designed. The proposed network includes 317 wells and 8 stream-gaging stations. Because limited funds are available to implement the monitoring network, the proposed network is designed to correspond to the ideal network insofar as practicable, and is composed mainly of 214 wells that are already being monitored by a local agency. In areas where network wells are not available, arrangements will be made to add wells to local networks. The data collected by this network will be used to assess the ground-water quality of the entire Salinas River drainage basin. After 2 years of data are collected, the network will be evaluated to test whether it is meeting the network objectives. Subsequent network evaluations will be done very 5 years. (USGS)

  16. Clinoptilolite as an in-situ permeable barrier to strontium migration in ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, K.J.; Martin, P.F.; Szecsody, J.E.

    1994-12-31

    Batch adsorption experiments were conducted with three zeolites (clinoptilolite, chabazite, and A-51) to determine their potential applicability as in-situ permeable barriers to ground water strontium migration in the 100-N Area of the Hanford Site. Each of the zeolites was an effective adsorbent for strontium, even in competition with calcium at concentrations typical of Hanford ground water, and the authors determined that clinoptilolite would be the most cost-effective. The strontium adsorption data for calcium-saturated clinoptilolite were fitted to a Langmuir isotherm, which is linear at solution concentrations of less than 10{sup {minus}5} mol/L. In this region, the adsorption coefficient (K{sub d}) was 956 L/kg. Because strontium concentrations in hanford ground water are typically 3 x 10{sup {minus}6} mol/L, assuming linear adsorption (K{sub d} = 956 L/kg) for modeling purposes is appropriate. These data were used to design an effective barrier and were incorporated into a transport model to assess its performance. Calculations indicated that a barrier 1.3 m thick would prevent strontium-90 migration to the Columbia river at 100-N Area for over 50 yr. Because of radioactive decay and adsorption, the maximum breakthrough of strontium-90, approximately 5% of the initial input, would occur at 100 yr. Preliminary experimental work was conducted to determine the adsorption kinetics of strontium on clinoptilolite. A comparison of the adsorption rate of strontium with its residence time (within the barrier) indicates that adsorption kinetics are sufficiently fast that the barrier performance will not be significantly affected.

  17. WORKSHOP ON MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION OF INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Office of Research and Development (ORD) has developed a one-day seminar to present an overview of site characterization approaches to support evaluation of the potential for Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) as a remedy for inorganic contaminants in ground water. These sem...

  18. ECONOMICS OF SAMPLE COMPOSITING AS A SCREENING TOOL IN GROUND WATER QUALITY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent advances in high throughput/automated compositing with robotics/field-screening methods offer seldom-tapped opportunities for achieving cost-reduction in ground water quality monitoring programs. n economic framework is presented in this paper for the evaluation of sample ...

  19. GROUND WATER MONITORING AND SAMPLING: MULTI-LEVEL VERSUS TRADITIONAL METHODS WHATS WHAT?

    EPA Science Inventory

    After years of research and many publications, the question still remains: What is the best method to collect representative ground water samples from monitoring wells? Numerous systems and devices are currently available for obtaining both multi-level samples as well as traditi...

  20. DISCRETE-LEVEL GROUND-WATER MONITORING SYSTEM FOR CONTAINMENT AND REMEDIAL PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A passive discrete-level multilayer ground-water sampler was evaluated to determine its capability to obtain representative discrete-interval samples within the screen intervals of traditional monitoring wells without purging. Results indicate that the device is able to provide ...

  1. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for January through June 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Sherwood, D.R.

    1989-05-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Work undertaken between January and June 1988 included monitoring ground-water elevations across the Site, and monitoring hazardous chemicals and radionuclides in ground water. Water levels continued to rise in areas receiving increased recharge (e.g., beneath B Pond) and decline in areas where the release of water to disposal facilities has been terminated (e.g., U Pond). The major areas of ground-water contamination defined by monitoring activities are (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and 200-West Areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100-B, 100-D, 100-F, 100-H, 100-K, and 200-West Areas; (4) chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Solid Waste Landfill and 300 Area; (5) uranium in the 100-F, 100-H, 200-West, and 300 Areas; and (6) tritium and nitrate across the Site. In addition, several new analytical initiatives were undertaken during this period. These include cyanide speciation in the BY Cribs plume, inductively coupled argon plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) measurements on a broad selection of samples from the 100, 200, 300, and 600 Areas, and high sensitivity gas chromatography measurements performed at the Solid Waste Landfill-Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill. 23 figs., 25 tabs.

  2. Estimating an appropriate sampling frequency for monitoring ground water well contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Tuckfield, R.C.

    1994-09-01

    Nearly 1,500 ground water wells at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are sampled quarterly to monitor contamination by radionuclides and other hazardous constituents from nearby waste sites. Some 10,000 water samples were collected in 1993 at a laboratory analysis cost of $10,000,000. No widely accepted statistical method has been developed, to date, for estimating a technically defensible ground water sampling frequency consistent and compliant with federal regulations. Such a method is presented here based on the concept of statistical independence among successively measured contaminant concentrations in time.

  3. Work plan for ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation at Gunnison, Colorado. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water monitor wells and ground water elevation data recorders (data loggers) at the Gunnison, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. The monitor wells and data loggers will be used to gather required time-dependent data to investigate the interaction between ground water and surface water in the area.

  4. Design of monitor wells, hydrogeology, and ground-water quality beneath Country Pond, Kingston, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    Ten monitoring well were installed in May 1993 to collect data on the hydrogeology and ground-water quality beneath Country Pond, in Kingston, New Hampshire. Monitoring wells were installed 4 to 48 feet beneath the pond surface in stratified drift that was up to 40 feet thick. The stratified drift is overlain by up to 35 feet of fine-grained, predominantly organic, lake-bottom sediment. The potentiometric head in the aquifer was at or above the pond surface and up to 0.8 foot above the pond surface at one location. Water-quality analyses detected numerous volatile organic compounds including chloroethane, benzene, dichlorobenzenes, and 1,1-dichloroethane at maximum concentrations of 110, 43, 54, and 92 mg/L, respectively. The maximum concentration of total volatile organic compounds detected in ground water from a monitoring well was 550 mg/L in November 1993. Ground-water samples with high concentrations of volatile organic compounds also had elevated specific conductances indicating the presence of other non-organic contaminants. Water-quality analyses indicate that a plume of contaminated ground water extends at least 300 feet in a northeast direction beneath the pond.

  5. Interim site characterization report and ground-water monitoring program for the Hanford site solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Fruland, R.M.; Hagan, R.A.; Cline, C.S.; Bates, D.J.; Evans, J.C.; Aaberg, R.L.

    1989-07-01

    Federal and state regulations governing the operation of landfills require utilization of ground-water monitoring systems to determine whether or not landfill operations impact ground water at the point of compliance (ground water beneath the perimeter of the facility). A detection-level ground-water monitoring system was designed, installed, and initiated at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). Chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected at the beginning of the ground-water monitoring program and continue to be detected more than 1 year later. The most probable source of the chlorinated hydrocarbons is washwater discharged to the SWL between 1985 and 1987. This is an interim report and includes data from the characterization work that was performed during well installation in 1987, such as field observations, sediment studies, and geophysical logging results, and data from analyses of ground-water samples collected in 1987 and 1988, such as field parameter measurements and chemical analyses. 38 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. A prototype computer interactive ground water monitoring methodology for surface water impoundments

    SciTech Connect

    Evertt, L.G.; Rasmussen, W.O.

    1982-08-01

    An approach to developing a ground water monitoring program for coal strip mine operations has been developed by Tempo. The Tempo methodology for ground water monitoring has evolved over the last few years. Described herein is a computer program which automates components of that methodology. This interactive computer program is designed to be operated by persons with little, if any previous exposure to computers. The Tempo methodology is comprised of several steps. Associated with each step are several objectives that are to be met. Finally, there are numerous alternative monitoring methods available for meeting each of these objectives. For a given step and objective, the user is presented with a description of the principle involved with each of the alternative methods, the advantages and disadvantages of each method, along with the associated cost. The user is then queried, by the program, as to which method he is now using and which methods he wishes to use in the future for his specific mine sites. The alternative methods he chooses to depict his ongoing monitoring and that which he wishes to use in the future are entered into a monitoring design file which is being held specifically for his mine site. The totality of those alternative methods is the tailor made overall ground water monitoring design he has assembled for his mine site.

  7. Robowell: An automated process for monitoring ground water quality using established sampling protocols

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, G.E.; Smith, K.P.

    1999-01-01

    Robowell is an automated process for monitoring selected ground water quality properties and constituents by pumping a well or multilevel sampler. Robowell was developed and tested to provide a cost-effective monitoring system that meets protocols expected for manual sampling. The process uses commercially available electronics, instrumentation, and hardware, so it can be configured to monitor ground water quality using the equipment, purge protocol, and monitoring well design most appropriate for the monitoring site and the contaminants of interest. A Robowell prototype was installed on a sewage treatment plant infiltration bed that overlies a well-studied unconfined sand and gravel aquifer at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, during a time when two distinct plumes of constituents were released. The prototype was operated from May 10 to November 13, 1996, and quality-assurance/quality-control measurements demonstrated that the data obtained by the automated method was equivalent to data obtained by manual sampling methods using the same sampling protocols. Water level, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved ammonium were monitored by the prototype as the wells were purged according to U.S Geological Survey (USGS) ground water sampling protocols. Remote access to the data record, via phone modem communications, indicated the arrival of each plume over a few days and the subsequent geochemical reactions over the following weeks. Real-time availability of the monitoring record provided the information needed to initiate manual sampling efforts in response to changes in measured ground water quality, which proved the method and characterized the screened portion of the plume in detail through time. The methods and the case study described are presented to document the process for future use.

  8. Revised ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 300 area process trenches

    SciTech Connect

    Schalla, R.; Aaberg, R.L.; Bates, D.J.; Carlile, J.V.M.; Freshley, M.D.; Liikala, T.L.; Mitchell, P.J.; Olsen, K.B.; Rieger, J.T.

    1988-09-01

    This document contains ground-water monitoring plans for process-water disposal trenches located on the Hanford Site. These trenches, designated the 300 Area Process Trenches, have been used since 1973 for disposal of water that contains small quantities of both chemicals and radionuclides. The ground-water monitoring plans contained herein represent revision and expansion of an effort initiated in June 1985. At that time, a facility-specific monitoring program was implemented at the 300 Area Process Trenches as part of a regulatory compliance effort for hazardous chemicals being conducted on the Hanford Site. This monitoring program was based on the ground-water monitoring requirements for interim-status facilities, which are those facilities that do not yet have final permits, but are authorized to continue interim operations while engaged in the permitting process. The applicable monitoring requirements are described in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 265.90 of the federal regulations, and in WAC 173-303-400 of Washington State's regulations (Washington State Department of Ecology 1986). The program implemented for the process trenches was designed to be an alternate program, which is required instead of the standard detection program when a facility is known or suspected to have contaminated the ground water in the uppermost aquifer. The plans for the program, contained in a document prepared by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) in 1985, called for monthly sampling of 14 of the 37 existing monitoring wells at the 300 Area plus the installation and sampling of 2 new wells. 27 refs., 25 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. U.S. EPA'S STRATEGY FOR GROUND WATER QUALITY MONITORING AT HAZARDOUS WASTE LAND DISPOSAL FACILITIES LOCATED IN KARST TERRANES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground water monitoring of hazardous waste land disposal units by a network of wells is ineffective when located in karstic terranes. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently proposing to modify its current ground water quality monitoring requirement of one upg...

  10. The use of invertebrates in ground water monitoring: A rising research field

    SciTech Connect

    Malard, F.; Plenet, S.; Gibert, J.

    1996-08-01

    The use of invertebrates as biomonitors of ground water quality is a relatively new approach that has come of age with the development of ground water ecology. The benefits of such an approach are illustrated by four examples of field biomonitoring from several sites in various hydrogeological settings. Contamination of the interstitial zone by heavy metals in some sectors of the Rhone River (France) was shown by the scarcity of insect species; sewage pollution in the saturated zone of a karstic aquifer was indicated by the low relative abundances of stygobites as compared with those of stygophiles and stygoxenes; and enrichment with organic matter of an underflow was clearly demonstrated by the extremely high density of ground water invertebrates such as oligochaetes, ostracods, and isopods. Examination of the spatial changes in the composition and abundance of invertebrate assemblages was also useful in determining the direction and intensity of water fluxes between a river and its underflow, a/s well as in delineating the reduced or oxidized zones in a manganese-polluted aquifer. Finally, the selected case studies emphasized the variety of methodological approaches that could be developed in ground water contamination biomonitoring, as well as the complementary and sometimes new information provided by this innovative method in comparison with that obtained by conventional pollution monitoring techniques.

  11. AN IN-SITU PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER FOR THE TREATMENT OF ARSENIC IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contamination of ground-water resources by arsenic is a widespread environmental problem; consequently, there is an escalating need for developments and improvements of remedial technologies to effectively manage arsenic contamination in ground water and soils. In June 2005, a 7...

  12. AN IN-SITU PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER FOR THE TREATMENT OF ARSENIC IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contamination of ground-water resources by arsenic is a widespread environmental problem; consequently, there is an escalating need for developments and improvements of remedial technologies to effectively manage arsenic contamination in ground water and soils. In June 2005, a 7 ...

  13. The relative merits of monitoring and domestic wells for ground water quality investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, J.L.; Roberts, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    The results of two studies of the effect of agricultural land use on shallow ground water quality indicate that monitoring wells may be a better choice than domestic wells for studies of pesticide occurrence or transport, or for use as early-warning indicators of potential drinking water contamination. Because domestic wells represent the used resource, and because domestic well water may be affected by historical rather than current pesticide and land- use practices, domestic wells would be the best choice for an investigation of drinking water quality. The key difference between the domestic and monitoring wells appears to be that the monitoring wells in this study were installed exclusively to sample the shallowest possible ground water. For these studies, 48 shallow domestic wells and 41 monitoring wells were located randomly within two land-use settings (row crops and orchards) in an irrigated agricultural region of eastern Washington and sampled for 145 pesticides (including nine pesticide degradates) and common water quality indicators. Constructing and sampling monitoring wells required approximately four times the resources (including manpower and materials) as locating and sampling domestic wells. Sample collection and quality assurance procedures and analytical techniques were identical except that a portable submersible pump was required for monitoring wells. In both land-use settings, no significant difference in nitrate concentration was found between well types; however, the average number of pesticides detected per well was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the monitoring wells. A greater variety of pesticides was detected in monitoring wells; many were detected only in monitoring wells. More than 60% of detections of pesticides that were found only in domestic wells were of compounds that are no longer in use. These differences in ground water quality found in this study relate to the depth of the well and are apparently related to the age of ground

  14. Real-time ground-water-level monitoring in New Jersey, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Walter D.; Navoy, Anthony S.; Pope, Daryll A.

    2003-01-01

    This network was created to provide data to indicate water-level trends in shallow ground-water systems within the State of New Jersey and to make the data available in the shortest time possible. The wells in this network are located throughout New Jersey (fig. 1) and were chosen because they are completed in shallow aquifers (table 1). The monitoring of shallow aquifers is important because these aquifers are relied on for water supply and irrigation. Additionally, the natural discharge from shallow aquifers provides base flow to streams. Water levels in these aquifers respond relatively quickly to precipitation and dry periods, so the rapid reporting of water-level data is necessary to follow trends. This network, for example, provides data that allow observation of the onset of drought conditions in ground water. Also, the data from this network can be used to estimate the most recent water-level trend in surficial-aquifer wells not outfitted with satellite telemetry.

  15. Work plan for ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation at Gunnison, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water monitor wells and ground water elevation data recorders (data loggers) at the Gunnison, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. The monitor wells and data loggers will be used to gather required time-dependent data to investigate the interaction between ground water and surface water in the area. Data collection objectives (DCO) identify reasons for collecting data. The following are DCOs for the Gunnison ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation project: long-term continuous ground water level data and periodic ground water samples will be collected to better understand the relationship between surface and ground water at the site; water level and water quality data will eventually be used in future ground water modeling to more firmly establish numerical model boundary conditions in the vicinity of the Gunnison processing site; and modeling results will be used to demonstrate and document the potential remedial alternative of natural flushing.

  16. Monitoring-well network and sampling design for ground-water quality, Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, Jon P.; Sebree, Sonja K.; Quinn, Thomas L.

    2005-01-01

    The Wind River Indian Reservation, located in parts of Fremont and Hot Springs Counties, Wyoming, has a total land area of more than 3,500 square miles. Ground water on the Wind River Indian Reservation is a valuable resource for Shoshone and Northern Arapahoe tribal members and others who live on the Reservation. There are many types of land uses on the Reservation that have the potential to affect the quality of ground-water resources. Urban areas, rural housing developments, agricultural lands, landfills, oil and natural gas fields, mining, and pipeline utility corridors all have the potential to affect ground-water quality. A cooperative study was developed between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Wind River Environmental Quality Commission to identify areas of the Reservation that have the highest potential for ground-water contamination and develop a comprehensive plan to monitor these areas. An arithmetic overlay model for the Wind River Indian Reservation was created using seven geographic information system data layers representing factors with varying potential to affect ground-water quality. The data layers used were: the National Land Cover Dataset, water well density, aquifer sensitivity, oil and natural gas fields and petroleum pipelines, sites with potential contaminant sources, sites that are known to have ground-water contamination, and National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System sites. A prioritization map for monitoring ground-water quality on the Reservation was created using the model. The prioritization map ranks the priority for monitoring ground-water quality in different areas of the Reservation as low, medium, or high. To help minimize bias in selecting sites for a monitoring well network, an automated stratified random site-selection approach was used to select 30 sites for ground-water quality monitoring within the high priority areas. In addition, the study also provided a sampling design for constituents to be monitored, sampling

  17. SUBSURFACE CHARACTERIZATION AND MONITORING TECHNIQUES: A DESK REFERENCE GUIDE - VOLUME I: SOLIDS AND GROUND WATER - APPENDICES A AND B

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many EPA programs, including those under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), require subsurface characterization and monitoring to detect ground-water contamination and provide data to devel...

  18. Work plan for ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation at Grand Junction, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water monitor wells and ground water elevation data recorders (data loggers) at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. The monitor wells and data loggers will be used to gather required time-dependent data to investigate the interaction between the shallow aquifer and the Colorado River.

  19. Work plan for ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation at the New Rifle Site, Rifle, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-18

    The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water monitor wells and ground water elevation data recorders (data loggers) at the New Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, Rifle, Colorado. The monitor wells and data loggers will be used to gather required time-dependent data to investigate the interaction between the shallow aquifer and the Colorado River.

  20. Enhancements of nonpoint source monitoring of volatile organic compounds in ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lapham, W.W.; Moran, M.J.; Zogorski, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has compiled a national retrospective data set of analyses of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ground water of the United States. The data are from Federal, State, and local nonpoint-source monitoring programs, collected between 1985–95. This data set is being used to augment data collected by the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program to ascertain the occurrence of VOCs in ground water nationwide. Eleven attributes of the retrospective data set were evaluated to determine the suitability of the data to augment NAWQA data in answering occurrence questions of varying complexity. These 11 attributes are the VOC analyte list and the associated reporting levels for each VOC, well type, well-casing material, type of openings in the interval (screened interval or open hole), well depth, depth to the top and bottom of the open interval(s), depth to water level in the well, aquifer type (confined or unconfined), and aquifer lithology. VOCs frequently analyzed included solvents, industrial reagents, and refrigerants, but other VOCs of current interest were not frequently analyzed. About 70 percent of the sampled wells have the type of well documented in the data set, and about 74 percent have well depth documented. However, the data set generally lacks documentation of other characteristics, such as well-casing material, information about the screened or open interval(s), depth to water level in the well, and aquifer type and lithology. For example, only about 20 percent of the wells include information on depth to water level in the well and only about 14 percent of the wells include information about aquifer type. The three most important enhancements to VOC data collected in nonpoint-source monitoring programs for use in a national assessment of VOC occurrence in ground water would be an expanded VOC analyte list, recording the reporting level for each analyte for every analysis, and recording key ancillary

  1. FIELD EVALUATION OF IN-SITU REDOX MANIPULATION FOR REMEDIATING CHROMIUM CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER AND SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historical data from the electroplating shop at the U.S Coast Guard Air Support Center site, Elizabeth City, North Carolina, suggested that the elevated Cr(VI) in the capillary fringe area had contaminated the ground water. Most of the mobile Cr(VI) is present in the capillary z...

  2. In situ X-ray absorption study of copper films in ground water solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvashnina, K. O.; Butorin, S. M.; Modin, A.; Soroka, I.; Marcellini, M.; Nordgren, J.; Guo, J.-H.; Werme, L.

    2007-10-01

    This study illustrates how the damage from copper corrosion can be reduced by modifying the chemistry of the copper surface environment. The surface modification of oxidized copper films induced by chemical reaction with Cl - and HCO3- in aqueous solutions was monitored by in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The results show that corrosion of copper can be significantly reduced by adding even a small amount of sodium bicarbonate. The studied copper films corroded quickly in chloride solutions, whereas the same solution containing 1.1 mM HCO3- prevented or slowed down the corrosion processes.

  3. In Situ Chemical Oxidation of Contaminated Ground Water: Permanganate Reactive Barrier Systems for the Long-Term Treatment of Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X. David; Schwartz, Frank W.

    2004-03-31

    Oxidation of chlorinated solvents by permanganate has proven to be effective in destroying these compounds in the aqueous phase. A semi-passive, well-based permanganate reactive barrier system (PRBS) was designed in order for the long-term treatment of dissolved contaminant in the ground water. Results from laboratory experiments indicate the PRBS could deliver permanganate at a stable, constant and controllable rate. In this paper, different field designs of the PRBS are discussed. Numerical simulation was conducted to elucidate the parameters that will influence the field implementation of a PRBS. We investigated issues such as permanganate consumption by aquifer materials, variable density flow effect, as well as lateral spreading under different geological settings. Results from this study continue to point to the promise of an in situ chemical oxidation scheme. PRBS provides a potential treatment of the contaminated ground water at relatively low management cost as compared with other alternatives.

  4. Use of Passive Diffusion Samplers for Monitoring Volatile Organic Compounds in Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, Philip T.; Brayton, Michael J.; Ives, Wayne

    2000-01-01

    Passive diffusion samplers have been tested at a number of sites where volatile organic compounds (VOC's) are the principal contaminants in ground water. Test results generally show good agreement between concentrations of VOC's in samples collected with diffusion samplers and concentrations in samples collected by purging the water from a well. Diffusion samplers offer several advantages over conventional and low-flow ground-water sampling procedures: * Elimination of the need to purge a well before collecting a sample and to dispose of contaminated water. * Elimination of cross-contamination of samples associated with sampling with non-dedicated pumps or sample delivery tubes. * Reduction in sampling time by as much as 80 percent of that required for 'purge type' sampling methods. * An increase in the frequency and spatial coverage of monitoring at a site because of the associated savings in time and money. The successful use of diffusion samplers depends on the following three primary factors: (1) understanding site conditions and contaminants of interest (defining sample objectives), (2) validating of results of diffusion samplers against more widely acknowledged sampling methods, and (3) applying diffusion samplers in the field.

  5. State-of-the-art in Methodologies for Long-term Ground-water Monitoring Design and Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loaiciga, H. A.

    2002-05-01

    Optimal long-term ground-water monitoring design can be accomplished using a variety of different approaches. The relative merits and pertinence of the general approaches and techniques depend on several factors, among which one can cite: (1) the scale of the monitoring program (local, intermediate, or regional scale), (2) the objective of the monitoring program (ambient monitoring, detection monitoring, compliance monitoring, definitive-action monitoring, or remedial monitoring), (3) the type of available data (such as subsurface stratigraphy, water levels, and ground-water chemistry), (4) the nature of the contaminant process (consider, for example, transport and fate of chemicals in the vadose and saturated zones); (5) the steady-state vs. transient nature of ground-water quality properties; and (6) the changing goals of a long-term monitoring program. Institutional, legal, and other site-specific considerations may also bear on long-term monitoring requirements. We have identified four major approaches to design new and to refine existing ground-water monitoring networks: rule-based methods, statistically-based methods, probabilistic methods, and mathematical optimization methods. We provide a guided tour through these methods, citing areas in which they have been particularly helpful in practical and theoretical contexts.

  6. 40 CFR 265 interim status indicator-evaluation ground-water monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, B.N.; Dudziak, S.

    1989-03-01

    This document outlines a ground-water monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench located in the northeast corner of the 200-East Area on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. It has been determined that hazardous materials (corrosives) were disposed of to the trench during past operations. Installation of an interim-status ground-water monitoring system is required to determine whether hazardous chemicals are leaching to the ground water from beneath the trench. This document summarizes the existing data that are available from near the 216-B-63 trench and presents a plan to determine the extent of ground-water contamination, if any, derived from the trench. The plan calls for the installation of four new monitoring wells located near the west end of the trench. These wells will be used to monitor ground-water levels and water quality immediately adjacent to the trench. Two existing RCRA monitoring wells, which are located near the trench and hydraulically upgradient of it, will be used as background wells. 46 refs., 15 figs., 12 tabs.

  7. Design and evaluation of an in-situ ground water treatment wall composed of zero-valent iron

    SciTech Connect

    Gallinatti, J.D.; Warner, S.D.; Yamane, C.L.; Szerdy, F.S.; Hankins, D.A.; Major, D.W.

    1995-09-01

    An in-situ permeable treatment wall using zero-valent iron for the remediation of ground water affected by chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was recently constructed in Sunnyvale, California. Because this site was the first full-scale application of this technology as a final remedy of VOC-affected ground water, it provides a framework for assessing the factors that must be considered when moving from laboratory studies of this treatment technology to design and construction of a full-scale treatment system. Experience from this case study is valuable for both practical design considerations and as incentives for future research. The patented treatment process, licensed by Environmental Technologies Inc., utilizes granular zero-valent iron as a porous medium to enhance the degradation of VOCs dissolved in ground water. The dissolved VOCs, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethylene (TCE), that pass through the granular iron matrix are transformed through the oxidation of the iron and reductive dechlorination of the organic compound to a final end product consisting chiefly of chloride and ethylene. The degradation process appears to be abiotic and half-lifes of the transformations are several orders of magnitude faster in the presence of zero-valent granular iron than observed in the ambient environment.

  8. Characterization and Monitoring of Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water: A Systems Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutshall, N. H.; Gilmore, T.; Looney, B. B.; Vangelas, K. M.; Adams, K. M.; Sink, C. H.

    2006-05-01

    Like many US industries and businesses, the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for remediation and restoration of soils and ground water contaminated with chlorinated ethenes. Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is an attractive remediation approach and is probably the universal end-stage technology for removing such contamination. Since 2003 we have carried out a multifaceted program at the Savannah River Site designed to advance the state of the art for MNA of chlorinated ethenes in soils and groundwater. Three lines of effort were originally planned: 1) Improving the fundamental science for MNA, 2) Promoting better characterization and monitoring (CM) techniques, and 3) Advancing the regulatory aspects of MNA management. A fourth line, developing enhanced attenuation methods based on sustainable natural processes, was added in order to deal with sites where the initial natural attenuation capacity cannot offset contaminant loading rates. These four lines have been pursued in an integrated and mutually supportive fashion. Many DOE site-cleanup program managers view CM as major expenses, especially for natural attenuation where measuring attenuation is complex and the most critical attenuation mechanisms cannot be determined directly. We have reviewed new and developing approaches to CM for potential application in support of natural attenuation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in ground water at DOE sites (Gilmore, Tyler, et al., 2006 WSRC-TR- 2005-00199). Although our project is focused on chlorinated ethenes, many of the concepts and strategies are also applicable to a wider range of contaminants including radionuclides and metals. The greatest savings in CM are likely to come from new management approaches. New approaches can be based, for example, on conceptual models of attenuation capacity, the ability of a formation to reduce risks caused by contaminants. Using the mass balance concept as a guide, the integrated mass flux of contaminant is compared to

  9. Ground-water monitoring at Santa Barbara, California; Phase 2, Effects of pumping on water levels and on water quality in the Santa Barbara ground-water basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Peter

    1984-01-01

    From July 1978 to January 1980, water levels in the southern part of the Santa Barbara ground-water basin declined more than 100 feet. These water-level declines resulted from increases in municipal pumping since July 1978. The increase in municipal pumping was part of a basin-testing program designed to determine the usable quantity of ground water in storage. The pumping, centered in the city less than 1 mile from the coast, has caused water-level declines to altitudes below sea level in the main water-bearing zones. As a result, the ground-water basin would be subject to saltwater intrusion if the study-period pumpage were maintained or increased. Data indicate that saltwater intrusion has degraded the quality of the water yielded from six coastal wells. During the study period, the six coastal wells all yielded water with chloride concentrations in excess of 250 milligrams per liter, and four of the wells yielded water with chloride concentrations in excess of 1,000 milligrams per liter. Previous investigators believed that saltwater intrusion was limited to the shallow part of the aquifer, directly adjacent to the coast. The possibility of saltwater intrusion into the deeper water-bearing deposits in the aquifer was thought to be remote because an offshore fault truncates these deeper deposits so that they lie against consolidated rocks on the seaward side of the fault. Results of this study indicate, however, that ocean water has intruded the deeper water-bearing deposits, and to a much greater extent than in the shallow part of the aquifer. Apparently the offshore fault is not an effective barrier to saltwater intrusion. No physical barriers are known to exist between the coast and the municipal well field. Therefore, if the pumping rate maintained during the basin-testing program were continued, the degraded water along the coast could move inland and contaminate the municipal supply wells. The time required for the degraded water to move from the coast to

  10. Ground water elevation monitoring at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Salt Lake City, Utah, Vitro processing site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    In February 1994, a ground water level monitoring program was begun at the Vitro processing site. The purpose of the program was to evaluate how irrigating the new golf driving range affected ground water elevations in the unconfined aquifer. The program also evaluated potential impacts of a 9-hole golf course planned as an expansion of the driving range. The planned golf course expansion would increase the area to be irrigated and, thus, the water that could infiltrate the processing site soil to recharge the unconfined aquifer. Increased water levels in the aquifer could alter the ground water flow regime; contaminants in ground water could migrate off the site or could discharge to bodies of surface water in the area. The potential effects of expanding the golf course have been evaluated, and a report is being prepared. Water level data obtained during this monitoring program indicate that minor seasonal mounding may be occurring in response to irrigation of the driving range. However, the effects of irrigation appear small in comparison to the effects of precipitation. There are no monitor wells in the area that irrigation would affect most; that data limitation makes interpretations of water levels and the possibility of ground water mounding uncertain. Limitations of available data are discussed in the conclusion.

  11. MONITORING OXIDATION-REDUCTION PROCESS DURING GROUND WATER-SURFACE WATER INTERACTIONS AT THE CHICKASAW NRA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mineralized ground waters at the Chickasaw National Recreational Area contain hydrogen sulfide, i.e., sulfur in the -2 valence state. As these mineralized ground waters discharge at the surface and mix with oxygen-rich waters a series of abiotic and biotic reactions occur that c...

  12. Report of ground water monitoring for expansion of the golf course, Salt Lake City, Utah, Vitro Processing Site. Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Ground water elevations of the shallow unconfined aquifer have been monitored at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, Vitro Processing site, Salt Lake City, Utah, for the purposes of characterizing ground water flow conditions and evaluating the effects of irrigation of the golf driving range. Data collected, to date, show that the water table reached its highest level for the year during March and April 1995. From May through July 1995, the water table elevations decreased in most monitor wells due to less precipitation and higher evapotranspiration. Review and evaluation of collected data suggest that irrigation of the golf driving range will have negligible effects on water levels and ground water flow patterns if rates of irrigation do not significantly exceed future rates of evapotranspiration.

  13. GROUND-WATER MONITORING PROGRAM AT LOVE CANAL. VOLUME 1. FINAL REPORT. VOLUME 2. WELL LOGS AND DIAGRAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the ground-water monitoring program implemented at the Love Canal disposal site in Niagara Falls, New York. This study, which was part of a much larger investigation of the site, was aimed at describing the area's geology and hydrogeology, and identifying po...

  14. New Tools and New Approaches to Improve the Assessment and Evaluation of Monitored Natural Attenuation of Organic Compoundsin Ground Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the years since publication of the U.S. Air Force and U.S. EPA technical protocols for evaluating Monitored Natural Attenuation, MNA had found widespread application to organic contaminants in ground water. These documents were issued more than a decade ago; the science has m...

  15. Evaluation of a New Passive Diffusion Sampler for Monitoring for Soil Gas and Ground Water at Two UST Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historically, conventional practice to estimate intrusion of fuel vapors from soil and ground water to buildings measures the concentration of BTEX beneath the building using vapor probes or monitoring wells screened across the water table. Standard practice assumes that the co...

  16. SITE CHARACTERIZATION TO SUPPORT DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPTUAL SITE MODELS AND TRANSPORT MODELS FOR MONITORING CONTAMINANTS IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of conceptual and predictive models is an important tool to guide site characterization in support of monitoring contaminants in ground water. The accuracy of predictive models is limited by the adequacy of the input data and the assumptions made to constrain mod...

  17. RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Annual Progress Report for 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.M.; Gorst, W.R.

    1990-03-01

    This report describes the progress during 1989 of 16 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects covering 25 hazardous waste facilities and 1 nonhazardous waste facility. Each of the projects is being conducted according to federal regulations based on the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and the State of Washington Administrative Code. 40 refs., 75 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Resource conservation and recovery act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress report, January 1--March 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-06-01

    This document describes the progress of 13 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period January 1 to March 31, 1989. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the sampled aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality. 32 refs., 30 figs., 103 tabs.

  19. MONITORING OXIDATION-REDUCTION PROCESSES IN GROUND WATERS, SEDIMENTS, AND SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall goal of this project is to develop recommendations and technical guidelines for evaluating redox processes in contaminated ground water, sediment, and soil systems. One specific goal is to evaluate existing methodologies for determining Dissolved Oxygen (DO) concentra...

  20. WORKSHOP ON MONITORING OXIDATION-REDUCTION PROCESSES FOR GROUND-WATER RESTORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Redox conditions are among the most important parameters for controlling contaminant transport and fate in ground-water systems. Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions mediate the chemical behavior of both inorganic and organic chemical constituents by affecting solubility, rea...

  1. MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION FOR INORGANIC CONTAMINANT REMEDIATION IN GROUND WATER: MNA MECHANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation discusses the various mechanisms that are recognized to result in the attenuation of inorganic contaminants in ground water. The presentation will provide details on the contaminant sequestration processes that occur at the mineral-water interface.

  2. Advanced Technology Used to Monitor Ground Water in a Restricted Access Area of Fort Riley, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breedlove, J.D.; Finnegan, P.J.; Myers, N.C.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this fact sheet is to describe how advanced communication technology is being used to overcome difficulties in collecting reliable ground-water data in areas with restricted access, such as at Fort Riley in northeast Kansas.

  3. In Situ Production of Chlorine-36 in the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, Idaho: Implications for Describing Ground-Water Contamination Near a Nuclear Facility

    SciTech Connect

    L. D. Cecil; L. L. Knobel; J. R. Green; S. K. Frape

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the calculated contribution to ground water of natural, in situ produced 36Cl in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and to compare these concentrations in ground water with measured concentrations near a nuclear facility in southeastern Idaho. The scope focused on isotopic and chemical analyses and associated 36Cl in situ production calculations on 25 whole-rock samples from 6 major water-bearing rock types present in the eastern Snake River Plain. The rock types investigated were basalt, rhyolite, limestone, dolomite, shale, and quartzite. Determining the contribution of in situ production to 36Cl inventories in ground water facilitated the identification of the source for this radionuclide in environmental samples. On the basis of calculations reported here, in situ production of 36Cl was determined to be insignificant compared to concentrations measured in ground water near buried and injected nuclear waste at the INEEL. Maximum estimated 36Cl concentrations in ground water from in situ production are on the same order of magnitude as natural concentrations in meteoric water.

  4. IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF GROUND WATER AND GEOLOGICAL MATERIAL: A REVIEW OF TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In situ bioremediation of subsurface environments involve the use of microorganisms to convert contaminants to less harmful products and sometimes offers significant potential advantages over other remediation technologies. n order for these biodegradative processes to occur, icr...

  5. Desalination of brackish ground waters and produced waters using in-situ precipitation.

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Pless, Jason; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Voigt, James A.; Phillips, Mark L. F.; Axness, Marlene; Moore, Diana Lynn; Sattler, Allan Richard

    2004-08-01

    The need for fresh water has increased exponentially during the last several decades due to the continuous growth of human population and industrial and agricultural activities. Yet existing resources are limited often because of their high salinity. This unfavorable situation requires the development of new, long-term strategies and alternative technologies for desalination of saline waters presently not being used to supply the population growth occurring in arid regions. We have developed a novel environmentally friendly method for desalinating inland brackish waters. This process can be applied to either brackish ground water or produced waters (i.e., coal-bed methane or oil and gas produced waters). Using a set of ion exchange and sorption materials, our process effectively removes anions and cations in separate steps. The ion exchange materials were chosen because of their specific selectivity for ions of interest, and for their ability to work in the temperature and pH regions necessary for cost and energy effectiveness. For anion exchange, we have focused on hydrotalcite (HTC), a layered hydroxide similar to clay in structure. For cation exchange, we have developed an amorphous silica material that has enhanced cation (in particular Na{sup +}) selectivity. In the case of produced waters with high concentrations of Ca{sup 2+}, a lime softening step is included.

  6. In situ remediation of ground water contaminated with chromate and chlorinated solvents using zero-valent iron: A field study

    SciTech Connect

    Puls, R.W.; Paul, C.J.; Powell, R.W.

    1995-12-01

    A small-scale field test was recently initiated to evaluate the in situ remediation of ground water contaminated with chromate and chlorinated organics using a permeable reactive barrier. The barrier was composed of an iron metal-coarse sand-native aquifer solid mixture, and was installed using a staggered {open_quotes}fence{close_quotes} design through large hollow-stem augers. The objectives of the project were to evaluate the ability of the cylinders or {open_quotes}fence posts{close_quotes} to remove contaminants from solution immediately downgradient and adjacent to the iron cylinders, evaluate the resultant changes in aqueous geochemistry induced by the presence of the zero-valent iron, and identify chemical, physical and biological processes which may affect long-term performance of such remedial technologies.

  7. Comparison of two methods for delineating land use near monitoring wells used for assessing quality of shallow ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenz, D.L.; Goldstein, R.M.; Cowdery, T.K.; Stoner, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    Two methods were compared for delineating land use near shallow monitoring wells. These wells were used to assess the effects of agricultural cropland on the quality of recently recharged ground water in two sand and gravel aquifers located near land surface. The two methods for delineating land use near wells were (1) the sector method, which used potentiometric-surface maps to estimate average flow direction and a ground-water-flow model to estimate maximum length of contributing area to the monitoring well within an upgradient sector; and (2) the circle method, which used a 500- meter radius circle around the well based on a national empirical analysis. Land uses were compiled for 29 wells in each of two surficial aquifers in the Red River of the North Basin within the area defined by each method. Land use near each well was interpreted from orthorectified photographs and site inspection for both delineation methods. Land use near individual wells characterized by each method varied greatly, which can affect the results of statistical correlations between land use and water quality. Land use determined by the circle method related more closely to the land use for each entire study area. Land use determined by the sector method (within 200 meters from the wells) compared more favorably to ground-water quality based on nitrate concentrations. The maximum length of contributing areas to wells estimated in this study may be of value for other studies of unconsolidated sand and gravel aquifers with similar hydrogeological characteristics of permeability, water-table slopes, recharge, and depth to water. The additional effort required for estimating the model delineation of land use and land cover for the sector method must be weighed against the improved confidence in statistical correlation between land use and the quality of shallow ground water. Improved scientific confidence and understanding of relations between land use and quality of ground water may encourage

  8. Groundwater monitoring: Guidelines and methodology for developing and implementing a ground-water quality monitoring program

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    The handbook attempts to structure a cost-effective, generic groundwater pollution monitoring methodology that can be applied either on a regional basis or to site-specific, alternative approaches to monitoring the quality of groundwater at a considerable saving of time and money. Extensive detail is given to the relation of groundwater quality to the geohydrologic framework, constituents in the polluted groundwater, sources and causes of pollution, and use of water. Information is also given about groundwater monitoring techniques used in top soil, the vadose zone, ad the saturated zone. The costs of these techniques are described in figures and tables. Groundwater databases and their applicability to water resources information systems are also covered. Comprehensive site-specific examples are given of how to use the material in the handbook to monitoring major sources of groundwater pollution. Included are in-depth models of hazardous waste disposal, brine disposal, landfill leachate control, oxidation ponds and percolation ponds, septic fields, and agricultural return flow, as well as descriptions of cases of multiple-source municipal and agricultural pollution.

  9. SURFACE WATER AND GROUND WATER QUALITY MONITORING FOR RESTORATION OF URBAN LAKES IN GREATER HYDERABAD, INDIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, A. K.

    2009-12-01

    SURFACE WATER AND GROUND WATER QUALITY MONITORING FOR RESTORATION OF URBAN LAKES IN GREATER HYDERABAD, INDIA A.K. Mohanty, K. Mahesh Kumar, B. A. Prakash and V.V.S. Gurunadha Rao Ecology and Environment Group National Geophysical Research Institute, (CSIR) Hyderabad - 500 606, India E-mail:atulyakumarmohanty@yahoo.com Abstract: Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority has taken up restoration of urban lakes around Hyderabad city under Green Hyderabad Environment Program. Restoration of Mir Alam Tank, Durgamcheruvu, Patel cheruvu, Pedda Cheruvu and Nallacheruvu lakes have been taken up under the second phase. There are of six lakes viz., RKPuramcheruvu, Nadimicheruvu (Safilguda), Bandacheruvu Patelcheruvu, Peddacheruvu, Nallacheruvu, in North East Musi Basin covering 38 sq km. Bimonthly monitoring of lake water quality for BOD, COD, Total Nitrogen, Total phosphorous has been carried out for two hydrological cycles during October 2002- October 2004 in all the five lakes at inlet channels and outlets. The sediments in the lake have been also assessed for nutrient status. The nutrient parameters have been used to assess eutrophic condition through computation of Trophic Status Index, which has indicated that all the above lakes under study are under hyper-eutrophic condition. The hydrogeological, geophysical, water quality and groundwater data base collected in two watersheds covering 4 lakes has been used to construct groundwater flow and mass transport models. The interaction of lake-water with groundwater has been computed for assessing the lake water budget combining with inflow and outflow measurements on streams entering and leaving the lakes. Individual lake water budget has been used for design of appropriate capacity of Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) on the inlet channels of the lakes for maintaining Full Tank Level (FTL) in each lake. STPs are designed for tertiary treatment i.e. removal of nutrient load viz., Phosphates and Nitrates. Phosphates are

  10. Monitored Natural Attenuation of Inorganic Contaminants in Ground Water Volume 1 – Technical Basis for Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document represents the first volume of a set of three volumes that address the technical basis and requirements for assessing the potential applicability of MNA as part of a ground-water remedy for plumes with non-radionuclide and/or radionuclide inorganic contaminants. Vo...

  11. RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Annual progress report for 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Fruland, R.M.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-04-01

    This report describes the progress during 1988 of 14 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects covering 16 hazardous waste facilities and 1 nonhazardous waste facility (the Solid Waste Landfill). Each of the projects is being conducted according to federal regulations based on the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and the State of Washington Administrative Code. 21 refs., 23 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Monitoring the removal of phosphate from ground water discharging through a pond-bottom permeable reactive barrier

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCobb, T.D.; LeBlanc, D.R.; Massey, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Installation of a permeable reactive barrier to intercept a phosphate (PO4) plume where it discharges to a pond provided an opportunity to develop and test methods for monitoring the barrier's performance in the shallow pond-bottom sediments. The barrier is composed of zero-valent-iron mixed with the native sediments to a 0.6-m depth over a 1100-m2 area. Permanent suction, diffusion, and seepage samplers were installed to monitor PO 4 and other chemical species along vertical transects through the barrier and horizontal transects below and near the top of the barrier. Analysis of pore water sampled at about 3-cm vertical intervals by using multilevel diffusion and suction samplers indicated steep decreases in PO4 concentrations in ground water flowing upward through the barrier. Samples from vertically aligned pairs of horizontal multiport suction samplers also indicated substantial decreases in PO4 concentrations and lateral shifts in the plume's discharge area as a result of varying pond stage. Measurements from Lee-style seepage meters indicated substantially decreased PO4 concentrations in discharging ground water in the treated area; temporal trends in water flux were related to pond stage. The advantages and limitations of each sampling device are described. Preliminary analysis of the first 2 years of data indicates that the barrier reduced PO4 flux by as much as 95%. ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  13. Natural radionuclides in ground waters and cores

    SciTech Connect

    Laul, J.C.; Smith, M.R.; Maiti, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Investigations of natural radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series in site-specific ground waters and cores (water/rock interaction) can provide information on the expected migration behavior of their radioactive waste and analog radionuclides in the unlikely event of radioactive releases from a repository. These data in ground waters can provide in situ retardation and sorption/desorption parameters for transport models and their associated kinetics (residence time). These data in cores can also provide information on migration or leaching up to a period of about one million years. Finally, the natural radionuclide data can provide baseline information for future monitoring of possible radioactive waste releases. The natural radionuclides of interest are {sup 238}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Bi, {sup 210}Po, {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, and {sup 224}Ra. The half-lives of the daughter radionuclides range from 3 days to 2.5 x 10{sup 5} yr. The data discussed are for low ionic strength ground waters from the Hanford (basalt) site and briny ground waters (high ionic strength) and cores from the Deaf Smith salt site. Similar applications of the natural radionuclide data can be extended to the Nevada Tuff repository site and subseabed disposal site. The concentrations of uranium, thorium, radium, lead, and polonium radionuclides are generally very low in ground waters. However, significant differences in disequilibrium exist between basalt and briny ground waters.

  14. ADVANCES IN GROUND WATER SAMPLING PROCEDURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining representative ground water samples is important for site assessment and remedial performance monitoring objectives. Issues which must be considered prior to initiating a ground-water monitoring program include defining monitoring goals and objectives, sampling point...

  15. In situ study of the effect of ground source heat pump on shallow ground-water quality in the late Pleistocene terrace area of Tokyo, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemura, T.; Uemura, K.; Akiba, Y.; Ota, M.

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems has rapidly increased around the world, since they reduce carbon dioxide emissions and save electric energy. The GSHP system transfer heat into the geosphere zone when air conditioners are used to cool rooms or buildings. However, the effects of temperature increase on the quality of underground water has yet to be fully investigated. In order to reduce the risks of ground-water pollution by the installed GSHPs, it is important to evaluate the effect of temperature change on the ground-water quality. In this study, we installed a closed loop GSHP system on a heat exchange well along with a monitoring well drilled to measure ground-water quality and temperature. The monitoring well was drilled at 0.1cm away from the heat exchange well. We observed that changes of temperature in the heat exchange well affected the water quality, especially turbidity, in gravelly layer.

  16. Ground-water monitoring at Santa Barbara, California; Phase 2, effects of pumping on water levels and water quality in the Santa Barbara ground-water basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Peter

    1982-01-01

    From July 1978 to January 1980, water levels declined more than 100 feet in the coastal area of the Santa Barbara ground-water basin in southern California. The water-level declines are the result of increases in municipal pumping since July 1978. The pumping, centered in the city less than 1 mile from the coast, has caused water-level declines in the main water-bearing zones to altitudes below sea level. Consequently, the ground-water basin is threatened with salt-water intrusion if the present pumpage is maintained or increased. Water-quality data suggest that salt-water intrusion has already degraded the water yielded from six coastal wells. Chloride concentrations in the six wells ranged from about 400 to 4,000 milligrams per liter. Municipal supply wells near the coast currently yield water of suitable quality for domestic use. There is, however, no known physical barrier to the continued inland advance salt water. Management alternatives to control salt-water intrusion in the Santa Barbara area include (1) decreasing municipal pumping, (2) increasing the quantity of water available for recharge by releasing surplus water to Mission Creek, (3) artificially recharing the basin using injection wells, and (4) locating municipal supply wells farther from the coast and farther apart to minimize drawdown. (USGS)

  17. Work plan for ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation at the New Rifle Site, Rifle, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water monitor wells and ground water elevation data recorders (data loggers) at the New Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, Rifle, Colorado. The monitor wells and data loggers will be used to gather required time-dependent data to investigate the interaction between the shallow aquifer and the Colorado River.

  18. Design of a Real-Time Ground-Water Level Monitoring Network and Portrayal of Hydrologic Data in Southern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prinos, Scott T.; Lietz, A.C.; Irvin, R.B.

    2002-01-01

    Ground-water resources in southern Florida are under increasing stress caused by a rapid growth in population. As a result of increased demands on aquifers, water managers need more timely and accurate assessments of ground-water conditions in order to avoid or reduce adverse effects such as saltwater intrusion, loss of pumpage in residential water-supply wells, land-surface subsidence, and aquifer compaction. Hydrologic data were analyzed from three aquifer systems in southern Florida: the surficial aquifer system, which includes the Biscayne aquifer; the intermediate aquifer system, which includes the sandstone and mid-Hawthorn aquifers; and the Florida aquifer system represented by the lower Hawthorn producing zone. Long-term water-level trends were analyzed using the Seasonal Kendall trend test in 83 monitoring wells with a daily-value record spanning 26 years (1974-99). The majority of the wells with data for this period were in the Biscayne aquifer in southeastern Florida. Only 14 wells in southwestern Florida aquifers and 9 in the surficial aquifer system of Martin and Palm Beach Counties had data for the full period. Because many monitoring wells did not have data for this full period, several shorter periods were evaluated as well. The trend tests revealed small but statistically significant upward trends in most aquifers, but large and localized downward trends in the sandstone and mid-Hawthorn aquifers. Monthly means of maximum daily water levels from 246 wells were compared to monthly rainfall totals from rainfall stations in southwestern and southeastern Florida in order to determine which monitoring wells most clearly indicated decreases in water levels that corresponded to prolonged rainfall shortages. Of this total, 104 wells had periods of record over 20 years (after considering missing record) and could be compared against several drought periods. After factors such as lag, seasonal cyclicity, and cumulative functions were considered, the timing

  19. Well-construction, water-level, and water-quality data for ground-water monitoring wells for the J4 hydrogeologic study, Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haugh, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Between December 1993 and March 1994, 27 wells were installed at 12 sites near the J4 test cell at Arnold Engineering Development Center in Coffee County, Tennessee. The wells ranged from 28 to 289 feet deep and were installed to provide information on subsurface lithology, aquifer characteristics, ground-water levels, and ground-water quality. This information will be used to help understand the effects of dewatering operations at the J4 test cell on the local ground-water-flow system. The J4 test cell, extending approximately 250 feet below land surface, is used in the testing of rocket motors. Ground water must be pumped continuously from around the test cell to keep it structurally intact. The amount of water discharged from the J4 test cell was monitored to estimate the average rate of ground-water withdrawal at the J4 test cell. Ground- water levels were monitored continuously at 14 wells for 12 months. Water-quality samples were collected from 26 of the new wells, 9 existing wells, and the ground-water discharge from the J4 test cell. All samples were analyzed for common inorganic ions, trace metals, and volatile organic compounds.

  20. Treatability of contaminated ground water and aquifer solids at town gas sites, using photolytic ozonation and chemical in-situ reclamation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Peyton, G.R.; LeFaivre, M.H.; Smith, M.A.

    1990-08-01

    The feasbility of cleaning up contaminated ground water and aquifer solids from so-called town gas sites using photolytic ozonation and chemical in situ aquifer reclamation (CISR) techniques was investigated in the laboratory. At the actual site, coal was thermally oxidized to produce methane for municipal distribution. The degradation left a coal tar which, if released into the ground, could contaminate ground water and aquifer solids with a number of organic substances, including aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX), and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at environmentally significant concentrations. A chemical in situ treatment method using persulfate as a source of free radicals destroyed organic contaminants that were adsorbed to the aquifer solids. PAHs were reduced by 34 percent after 12 days of treatment and by 52 percent after 40 days.

  1. PERFORMANCE MONITORING OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS TO REMEDIATE CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRB's) are an emerging, alternative in-situ approach for remediating groundwater contamination that combine subsurface fluid flow management with a passive chemical treatment zone. Removal of contaminants from the groundwater plume is achieved by alt...

  2. Raft River monitor well potentiometric head responses and water quality as related to the conceptual ground-water flow system

    SciTech Connect

    Allman, D.W.; Tullis, J.A.; Dolenc, M.R.; Thurow, T.L.; Skiba, P.A.

    1982-09-01

    Ground-water monitoring near the Raft River site was initiated in 1974 by the IDWR. This effort consisted of semiannual chemical sampling of 22 irrigation wells near the Raft River geothermal development area. This program yielded useful baseline chemical data; however, several problems were inherent. For example, access to water pumped from the wells is limited to the irrigation season (April through September). All the wells are not continuously pumped; thus, some wells that are sampled one season cannot be sampled the next. In addition, information on well construction, completion, and production is often unreliable or not available. These data are to be supplemented by establishing a series of monitor wells in the proposed geothermal withdrawal and injection area. These wells were to be located and designed to provide data necessary for evaluating and predicting the impact of geothermal development on the Shallow Aquifer system.

  3. Ground water contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Ground water contamination and basic concepts of water law; Federal law governing water contamination and remediation; Ground water flow and contaminant migration; Ground water cleanup under CERCLA; Technical methods of remediation and prevention of contamination; Liability for ground water contamination; State constraints on contamination of ground water; Water quantity versus water quality; Prevention of use of contaminated ground water as an alternative to remediation; Economic considerations in liability for ground water contamination; and Contamination, extraction, and injection issues.

  4. ENVIROGEN PROPANE BIOSTIMULATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE IN-SITU TREATMENT OF MTBE-CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of the Biostimulation Technology Evaluation was to determine if biodegradation was occurring in a ground-water Test Plot to a sufficient degree to reduce intrinsic MTBE to the State of California's treatability criteria of 5 mg/L or below. The evaluation wa...

  5. Proposed expansion of the City of Albuquerque/U.S. Geological Survey ground-water-level monitoring network for the middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bexfield, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Middle Rio Grande Basin in central New Mexico, extending from Cochiti Lake on the north to San Acacia on the south, covers an area of about 3,060 square miles. Ground-water withdrawals in the basin are concentrated in and around the city of Albuquerque. Because of rapid increases in population and associated ground-water pumpage, a network of wells was established cooperatively by the City of and the U.S. Geological Survey between April 1982 and September 1983 to monitor changes in ground-water levels throughout the basin. Expansion of this network has been identified as an essential element in plans to study the relation between surface water and ground water in the basin. An inventory of existing wells in the Albuquerque metropolitan area has brought together information on about 400 wells that either are being monitored for water levels or would be good candidates for monitoring. About 115 wells or well sites are proposed as additions to the current 128-well ground-water-level monitoring network for the Middle Rio Grande Basin. Despite the extensive network that would be created by the addition of the proposed existing wells, however, certain parts of the Albuquerque metropolitan area would remain without adequate coverage areally and/or with depth in the Santa Fe Group aquifer until the installation of the proposed new monitoring wells.

  6. PASSIVE SAMPLING OF GROUND WATER MONITORING WELLS WITHOUT PURGING MULTILEVEL WELL CHEMISTRY AND TRACER DISAPPEARANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is essential that the sampling techniques utilized in groundwater monitoring provide data that accurately depicts the water quality of the sampled aquifer in the vicinity of the well. Due to the large amount of monitoring activity currently underway in the U.S.A. it is also im...

  7. A conceptual ground-water-quality monitoring network for San Fernando Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Setmire, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    A conceptual groundwater-quality monitoring network was developed for San Fernando Valley to provide the California State Water Resources Control Board with an integrated, basinwide control system to monitor the quality of groundwater. The geology, occurrence and movement of groundwater, land use, background water quality, and potential sources of pollution were described and then considered in designing the conceptual monitoring network. The network was designed to monitor major known and potential point and nonpoint sources of groundwater contamination over time. The network is composed of 291 sites where wells are needed to define the groundwater quality. The ideal network includes four specific-purpose networks to monitor (1) ambient water quality, (2) nonpoint sources of pollution, (3) point sources of pollution, and (4) line sources of pollution. (USGS)

  8. GROUND WATER MONITORING AND SAMPLING: MULTI-LEVEL VERSUS TRADITIONAL METHODS – WHAT’S WHAT?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have been conducted to evaluate different sampling techniques for determining VOC concentrations in groundwater. Samples were obtained using multi-level and traditional sampling techniques in three monitoring wells at the Raymark Superfund site in Stratford, CT. Ve...

  9. A detection-level hazardous waste ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 200 areas low-level burial grounds and retrievable storage units

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    This plan defines the actions needed to achieve detection-level monitoring compliance at the Hanford Site 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Compliance will be achieved through characterization of the hydrogeology and monitoring of the ground water beneath the LLBG located in the Hanford Site 200 Areas. 13 refs., 20 figs.

  10. Framework for Site Characterization for Monitored Natural Attenuation of Volatile Organic Compounds in Ground Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is unique among remedial technologies in relying entirely on natural processes to achieve site-specific objectives. Site characterization is essential to provide site-specific data and interpretations for the decision-making process (i.e., to ...

  11. Quality assurance project plan for ground water monitoring activities managed by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, M.

    1995-11-01

    This quality assurance project plan (QAPP) applies specifically to the field activities and laboratory analysis performed for all RCRA groundwater projects conducted by Hanford Technical Services. This QAPP is generic in approach and shall be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of individual groundwater monitoring plans.

  12. MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION OF TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL (TBA) IN GROUND WATER AT GASOLINE SPILL SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The state agencies that implement the Underground Storage Tank program rely heavily on Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) to clean up contaminants such as benzene and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) at gasoline spill sites. This is possible because the contaminants are biolo...

  13. MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION FOR INORGANIC CONTAMINANT REMEDIATION IN GROUND WATER: SITE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two site studies are presented from Superfund Fund Sites in the US where monitored natural attenuation is a component of overall site restoration efforts. The presentation emphasizes the development of site-specific transport and fate models for contaminants at these hazardous w...

  14. MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION AND RISK MANAGEMENT OF MTBE IN GROUND WATER (MONTEREY, CA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored natural attenuation (as U.S. EPA defines the term) is a remedy, where natural processes bring the concentration of MTBE to an acceptable level in a reasonable period of time. The longevity of the plume is its critical property. The rate of attenuation is typically con...

  15. MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION AND RISK MANAGEMENT OF MTBE IN GROUND WATER (LOS ANGELES, CA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored natural attenuation (as U.S. EPA defines the term) is a remedy, where natural processes bring the concentration of MTBE to an acceptable level in a reasonable period of time. The longevity of the plume is its critical property. The rate of attenuation is typically con...

  16. MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION AND RISK MANAGEMENT OF MTBE IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored natural attenuation (as U.S. EPA defines the term) is a remedy, where natural processes bring the concentration of MTBE to an acceptable level in a reasonable period of time. The longevity of the plume is its critical property. The rate of attenuation is typically con...

  17. MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION AND RISK MANAGEMENT OF MTBE AND TBA IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored natural attenuation (as U.S. EPA defines the term) is a remedy, where natural processes bring the concentration of MTBE or TBA to an acceptable level in a reasonable period of time. The longevity of the plume is its critical property. The rate of attenuation is typica...

  18. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site facilities: Volume 1, The report and Appendix A, Progress report for the period October 1 to December 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    This report documents recent progress on ground-water monitoring projects for four Hanford Site facilities: the 300 Area Process Trenches, the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins, the 200 Area Low-Level Burial Grounds, and the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste (NRDW) Landfill. The existing ground-water monitoring projects for the first two facilities named in the paragraph above are currently being expanded by adding new wells to the networks. During the reporting period, sampling of the existing wells continued on a monthly basis, and the analytical results for samples collected from September through November 1986 are included and discussed in this document. 8 refs., 41 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. CONSTRUCTION AND INSTALLATION OF A NEW PASSIVE DIFFUSION SAMPLER CAPABLE OF MONITORING BENZENE IN EITHER SOIL GAS OR GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conventional practice to estimate intrusion of fuel vapors from ground water to buildings measures the concentration of BTEX in ground water beneath the building using a conventional well screened across the water table. This practice assumes that the concentration of contaminant...

  20. RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976) ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress report, October 1--December 31, 1988: Volume 1, Text

    SciTech Connect

    Fruland, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-04-01

    This report describes the progress of 13 Hanford ground-water monitoring projects for the period October 1 to December 31, 1988. There are 16 individual hazardous waste facilities covered by the 13 ground-water monitoring projects. The Grout Treatment Facility is included in this series of quarterly reports for the first time. The 13 projects discussed in this report were designed according to applicable interim-status ground-water monitoring requirements specified in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). During this quarter, field activities primarily consisted of sampling and analyses, and water-level monitoring. The 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds section includes sediment analyses in addition to ground-water monitoring results. Twelve new wells were installed during the previous quarter: two at the 216-A-29 Ditch, six at the 216-A-10 Crib, and four at the 216-B-3 Pond. Preliminary characterization data for these new wells include drillers' logs and other drilling and site characterization data, and are provided in Volume 2 or on microfiche in the back of Volume 1. 26 refs., 28 figs., 74 tabs.

  1. CAPSTONE REPORT ON THE APPLICATION, MONITORING, AND PERFORMANCE OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS FOR GROUND-WATER REMEDIATION: VOL. 1 PERFORMANCE EVALUATIONS AT TWO SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this document is to provide detailed performance monitoring data on full-scale Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRBs) installed to treat contaminated ground water at two different sites. This report will fill a need for a readily available source of information for si...

  2. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress report for the period October 1 to December 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1990-03-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume document that describes the progress of 15 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period October 1 to December 31, 1989. This volume discusses the projects. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the samples aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality. 51 refs., 35 figs., 86 tabs.

  3. Ground water and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  4. Areas of long-lasting anthropopression: Assessment and monitoring of pollution potential to soil and ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Twardowska, I.

    1995-12-31

    Correct identification and assessment of the prevailing source, scope and extent of pollution potential is essential for providing efficient preventive remedial actions and management of already occurring contamination on the least-cost basis. In this paper, the identification/assessment procedure for the areas with several sources of long-lasting nonpoint contamination is illustrated by example of the Wroclaw waterworks area in Poland impacted by emission from ferro-chrome smelter and power plant, as well as by various sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Investigations and studies comprised (1) analysis of physicochemical composition of emitted particulates and deposited wastes their time-dependant transformations and leachability of contaminants as a function of time (2) direct multilevel sampling of dump and vadose zone profiles and examination of pore solutions and matrices; (3) ground-water survey in saturation zone; (4) investigation on infiltration and contaminant migration for radioisotope data; (5) survey of surface water quality; (6) numerical simulation and direct measurements of particulate emission from various sources; (7) analysis and comparison of data on point and nonpoint emission/imission of contaminants with the extent and scope of contamination. In another example, current investigations on the vadose zone screening and monitoring in the area of a high environmental risk in the vicinity of Sendzimir Steelworks near Cracow, Poland, are presented.

  5. PERFORMANCE OF A NEW PASSIVE DIFFUSION SAMPLER FOR MONITORING BENZENE IN EITHER SOIL GAS OR GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding transport of volatile contaminants in soil gas and ground water, particularly those associated with underground storage tanks, requires a detailed knowledge about the depth-dependent distribution of chemical species in the subsurface. A risk assessment of the moveme...

  6. MICROBIAL RESPONSES TO IN SITU CHEMICAL OXIDATION, SIX-PHASE HEATING, AND STEAM INJECTION REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The evaluation of microbial responses to three in situ source removal remedial technologies including permanganate-based in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), six-phase heating (SPH), and steam injection (SI) was performed at Cape Canaveral Air Station in Florida. The investigatio...

  7. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress report for the period July 1 to September 30, 1988: Volume 1, Text

    SciTech Connect

    Fruland, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-02-01

    This report describes the progress of 12 Hanford ground-water monitoring projects for the period July 1 to September 30, 1988. During this quarter, field activities at the 300 Area process trenches, the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill, the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins, the 1324-N/NA Surface Impoundment and Percolation Ponds, the 1301-N and 1325-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facilities, and the 216-A-36B Crib consisted of ground-water sampling and analyses, and water-level monitoring. The 200 Area Low-Level Burial Grounds section includes well development data, sediment analysis, and water-level measurements. Ground-water sampling was begun at this site, and results will be included in next quarter's report. Twelve new wells were installed during the quarter, two at the 216-A-29 Ditch, size at the 216-A-10 Crib, and four at the 216-B-3 Pond. Preliminary characterization data for these new wells are included in this report. Driller's logs and other drilling and site characterization data will be provided in the next quarterly report. At the 2101-M Pond, construction was completed on four wells, and initial ground-water samples were taken. The drilling logs, geophysical logging data, and as-built diagrams are included in this report in Volume 2. 19 refs., 24 figs., 39 tabs.

  8. CAPSTONE REPORT ON THE APPLICATION, MONITORING, AND PERFORMANCE OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS FOR GROUND-WATER REMEDIATION: VOL. 2 LONG-TERM MONITORING OF PRBS: SOIL AND GROUND WATER SAMPLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses soil and ground-water sampling methods and procedures used to evaluate the long-term performance of permeable reactive barriers (PRBS) at two sites, Elizabeth City, NC, and the Denver Federal Center near Lakewood, CO. Both PRBs were installed in 1996 and hav...

  9. Ground Water Remediation Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) conducts research and provides technical assistance to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground water, surface water, and ecosystems impacted by man-made and natural...

  10. Report of ground water monitoring for expansion of the golf course, Salt Lake City, Utah, vitro processing site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    To determine the potential impacts of the proposed golf course expansion on the south side of the Vitro site, ground water data from the UMTRA Vitro processing site were evaluated in response to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office request. Golf in the Round, Inc., has proposed an expansion of the present driving range to include a 9-hole golf course on the UMTRA Vitro processing site, which is owned by the Central Valley Water Reclamation Facility (CVWRF). An expanded golf course would increase irrigation and increase the amount of water that could infiltrate the soil, recharging the unconfined aquifer. Increased water levels in the aquifer could alter the ground water flow regime; contaminants in the shallow ground water could then migrate off the site or discharge to surface water in the area. Dewatering of the unconfined aquifer on CVWRF property could also impact site contaminant migration; a significant amount of ground water extraction at CVWRF could reduce the amount of contaminant migration off the site. Since 1978, data have been collected at the site to determine the distribution of tailings materials (removed from the site from 1985 to 1987) and to characterize the presence and migration of contaminants in sediments, soils, surface water, and ground water at the former Vitro processing site. Available data suggest that irrigating an expanded golf course may cause contamination to spread more rapidly within the unconfined aquifer. The public is not at risk from current Vitro processing site activities, nor is risk expected due to golf course expansion. However, ecological risk could increase with increased surface water contamination and the development of ground water seeps.

  11. Ground water: a review.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bredehoeft, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    There is growing documentation that a significant portion of the Nation's fresh ground water in the densely populated areas of the USA is contaminated. Because of the slow rates of ground-water movement, ground water once contaminated will remain so for decades, often longer. Cleanup of contaminated ground water is almost always expensive and often technically unfeasible; the expense is often prohibitive. -from Author

  12. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site facilities: Progress Report for the Period July 1 to September 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    This report documents the progress of four Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period from July 1 to September 310, 1987. The four disposal facilities are the 300 Area Process Trenches, 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins, 200 Area Low-Level Burial Grounds, and Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste (NRDW) Landfill. This report is the fifth in a series of periodic status reports. During this reporting period, field activities consisted of completing repairs on five monitoring wells originally present around the 183-H Basins and completing construction of 25 monitoring wells around the 200 Area Burial Grounds. The 14 wells in the 200 East Area were completed by Kaiser Engineers Hanford (KEH) and the 11 wells in the 200 West Area were compelted by ONWEGO Well Drilling. The NRDW Landfill interim characterization report was submitted to the WDOE and the USEPA in August 1987. Analytical results for the 300 Area, 183-H, and the NRDW Landfill indicate no deviations from previously established trends. Results from the NRDW Land-fill indiate that the facility has no effect on the ground-water quality beneath the facility, except for the detection of coliform bacteria. A possible source of this contamination is the solid-waste lanfill (SWL) adjacent to the NRDW Landfill. Ground-water monitoring data for the NRDW and SWL will be evaluated together in the future. Aquifer testing was completed in the 25 new wells surrounding the 200 Area buiral grounds. 13 refs., 19 refs., 13 tabs.

  13. Ground-water availability in part of the Borough of Carroll Valley, Adams County, Pennsylvania, and the establishment of a drought-monitor well

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Low, Dennis J.; Conger, Randall W.

    2002-01-01

    Continued population growth in the Borough of Carroll Valley (Borough) coupled with the drought of 2001 have increased the demand for ground water in the Borough. This demand has led Borough officials to undertake an effort to evaluate the capability of the crystalline-bedrock aquifers to meet future, projected growth and to establish a drought-monitor well within and for the use of the Borough. As part of this effort, this report summarizes ground-water data available from selected sections within the Borough and provides geohydrologic information needed to evaluate ground-water availability and recharge sources within part of the Borough. The availability of ground water in the Borough is limited by the physical characteristics of the underlying bedrock, and its upland topographic setting. The crystalline rocks (metabasalt, metarhyolite, greenstone schist) that underlie most of the study area are among the lowest yielding aquifers in the Commonwealth. More than 25 percent of the wells drilled in the metabasalt, the largest bedrock aquifer in the study area, have driller reported yields less than 1.25 gallons per minute. Driller reports indicate also that water-producing zones are shallow and few in number. In general, 50 percent of the water-producing zones reported by drillers are penetrated at depths of 200 feet or less and 90 percent at depths of 370 feet or less. Borehole geophysical data indicate that most of the water-producing zones are at lithologic contacts, but such contacts are penetrated infrequently and commonly do not intersect areas of ground-water recharge. Single-well aquifer tests and slug tests indicate that the bedrock aquifers also do not readily transmit large amounts of water. The median hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity of the bedrock aquifers are 0.01 foot per dayand 2.75 feet squared per day, respectively. The crystalline and siliciclastic (Weverton and Loudoun Formations) bedrock aquifers are moderately to highly resistant to

  14. ENHANCED IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION DEMONSTRATED IN FRACTURED BEDROCK IN: GROUND WATER CURRENTS NEWSLETTER, ISSUE 38, P. 2-3, 2000

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's SITE Program conducted a demonstration of the Enhanced In Situ Bioremediation Process at the ITT Industries Night Vision Facility in Roanoke, VA. The biostimulation process, developed by the USEOE and licensed to Earth Tech, Inc., involves injecting a mixture of air, ...

  15. Ground-water levels and water-quality data from monitoring wells in Windham, Maine, water years 1997-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caldwell, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Ongoing data collection in an established well network in Windham, Maine, serves as an indicator of the hydrologic and water-quality conditions in the aquifer. This report presents data collected from 1997 through 2001, including ground-water levels, measurements of water-quality field parameters, and concentrations of nutrients and arsenic.

  16. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site Facilities: Progress report for the period April 1--June 30, 1988: Volume 1, Text

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume set of documents that describes the progress of 10 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period April 1 to June 30, 1988. This volume discusses the projects; Volume 2 provides as-built diagrams, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled during this period in the 100-N Area and near the 216-A-36B Crib.

  17. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford Facilities: Progress report for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989 - Volume 1 - Text

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-12-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume document that describes the progress of 14 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989. This volume discusses the projects; Volume 2 provides as-built diagrams, completion/inspection reports, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled, completed, or logged during this period. Volume 2 can be found on microfiche in the back pocket of Volume 1. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the sampled aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality.

  18. US Environmental rotection Agency's strategy for ground-water-quality monitoring at hazardous-waste land-disposal facilities located in karst terranes

    SciTech Connect

    Field, M.S.

    1988-11-01

    Ground-water monitoring of hazardous-waste land-disposal units by a network of wells is ineffective when located in karstic terranes. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently proposing to modify its current ground-water-quality monitoring requirement of one upgradient well and three downgradient wells for disposal units located in karstic terranes. The convergent nature of subsurface flow to cave streams in karstic terranes requires that effective monitoring wells intercept the cave streams. Wells located around a hazardous-waste disposal unit, but not in the specific cave stream draining the site, are only providing irrelevant data and a false sense of security because the water samples from such wells are not necessarily from the hazardous-waste disposal unit. A case study is provided in this paper. EPA is drafting a guidance document that will allow monitoring by wells, only if the up- and down-gradient wells can be demonstrated to be hydraulically connected by means of dye-trace studies. If not, then the monitoring of springs shown to be hydraulically connected to the facility by dye-tracing studies would be required. Monitoring for sinkhole development will also be required to provide advance warning of sinkhole collapse. The investigation and determination of the probability of sinkhole collapse is given special treatment.

  19. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  20. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site facilities: Progress report for the period April 1 to June 30, 1988: Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    This is Volume 2 of a two-volume set of documents that describes the progress of 10 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period April 1 to June 30, 1988. This volume discusses as-built diagrams, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled during this period in the 100-N Area (Appendix A) and near the 216-A-36B Crib (Appendix B). Volume 1 discusses the 10 projects. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy under Contract AC06-76RL01830.

  1. Resource conservation and recovery act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress report for the period July 1 to September 30, 1988: Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Fruland, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-02-01

    This is Volume 2 of a two-volume set of documents that describes the progress of 12 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period July 1 to September 30, 1988. This volume provides those drilling logs and well inspection/completion reports inadvertently left out of last quarter's report for the 216-A-36B Crib (Appendix A) and as-built diagrams, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled this quarter near the 2101-M Pond. Volume 1 discusses the 12 projects.

  2. EPA GROUND WATER ISSUE: Ground Water Sample Preservation at ISCO Sites – Recommended Guidelines

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) involves the introduction of a chemical oxidant into the subsurface for the purpose of transforming ground water contaminants into harmless byproducts. Due to oxidant persistence, ground water samples collected at hazardous waste sites may contai...

  3. Ground Water in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Oki, Delwyn S.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water is one of Hawaii's most important natural resources. It is used for drinking water, irrigation, and domestic, commercial, and industrial needs. Ground water provides about 99 percent of Hawaii's domestic water and about 50 percent of all freshwater used in the State. Total ground water pumped in Hawaii was about 500 million gallons per day during 1995, which is less than 3 percent of the average total rainfall (about 21 billion gallons per day) in Hawaii. From this perspective, the ground-water resource appears ample; however, much of the rainfall runs off to the ocean in streams or returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration. Furthermore, ground-water resources can be limited because of water-quality, environmental, or economic concerns. Water beneath the ground surface occurs in two principal zones: the unsaturated zone and the saturated zone. In the unsaturated zone, the pore spaces in rocks contain both air and water, whereas in the saturated zone, the pore spaces are filled with water. The upper surface of the saturated zone is referred to as the water table. Water below the water table is referred to as ground water. Ground-water salinity can range from freshwater to that of seawater. Freshwater is commonly considered to be water with a chloride concentration less than 250 mg/L, and this concentration represents about 1.3 percent of the chloride concentration of seawater (19,500 mg/L). Brackish water has a chloride concentration between that of freshwater (250 mg/L) and saltwater (19,500 mg/L).

  4. Comparison of Pumped and Diffusion Sampling Methods to Monitor Concentrations of Perchlorate and Explosive Compounds in Ground Water, Camp Edwards, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeBlanc, Denis R.; Vroblesky, Don A.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory and field tests were conducted at Camp Edwards on the Massachusetts Military Reservation on Cape Cod to examine the utility of passive diffusion sampling for long-term monitoring of concentrations of perchlorate and explosive compounds in ground water. The diffusion samplers were constructed of 1-inch-diameter rigid, porous polyethylene tubing. The results of laboratory tests in which diffusion samplers were submerged in containers filled with ground water containing perchlorate, RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine), and HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) indicate that concentrations inside the diffusion samplers equilibrated with concentrations in the containers within the 19-day-long test period. Field tests of the diffusion samplers were conducted in 15 wells constructed of 2- or 2.5-inch-diameter polyvinyl chloride pipe with 10-foot-long slotted screens. Concentrations of perchlorate, RDX, and HMX in the diffusion samplers placed in the wells for 42 to 52 days were compared to concentrations in samples collected by low-flow pumped sampling from 53 days before to 109 days after retrieval of the diffusion samples. The results of the field tests indicate generally good agreement between the pumped and diffusion samples for concentrations of perchlorate, RDX, and HMX. The concentration differences indicate no systematic bias related to contaminant type or concentration levels.

  5. DEVELOPING A FRAMEWORK FOR PERFORMANCE MONITORING TO ASSESS THE USE OF MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION FOR REMEDIATION OF INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA is leading an effort to develop technical documentation that provides the policy, scientific and technical framework for assessing the viability of MNA for inorganic contaminants in ground water (hereafter referred to as the Framework Document). Initial guidance on the...

  6. Developing a Framework for Performance Monitoring to Assess the use of Monitored Natural Attenuation for Remediation of Inorganic Contaminants in Ground Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, R.; Wilkin, R.; Puls, R.; Wilhelm, R.; Lovelace, K.

    2005-05-01

    The USEPA is leading an effort to develop technical documentation that provides the policy, scientific and technical framework for assessing the viability of MNA for inorganic contaminants in ground water (hereafter referred to as the Inorganics Framework Document). Development of the Inorganics Framework Document is being carried out in conjunction with site-specific assessments of the viability of MNA at sites with ground water contamination. For one of these field sites, researchers at the National Risk Management Research Laboratory are assessing the potential for natural attenuation of arsenic within a contaminated ground-water aquifer. Based on the current state of knowledge, arsenic is considered to be a contaminant for which application of MNA may be of marginal success. The mobility of arsenic in ground water is strongly dependent on partitioning to immobile aquifer solids. However, arsenic is susceptible to changes in chemical speciation due to shifts in redox chemistry resulting from abiotic and biotic processes. These potential changes in chemical speciation require that detailed information for assessing the stability of immobilized arsenic be collected in space and time. This observation has been confirmed as part of the field study, where it has been established that partitioning to sediments results in significant removal of arsenic from the aqueous phase. However, the partitioning process is readily reversible under reducing conditions, indicating that MNA cannot be used as a sole remedy for site cleanup. Notice: This is an abstract of a proposed presentation and does not necessarily reflect EPA policy.

  7. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress Report for the Period April 1 to June 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-09-01

    This report describes the progress of 13 Hanford ground-water monitoring projects for the period April 1 to June 30, 1989. These projects are for the 300 area process trenches (300 area), 183-H solar evaporation basins (100-H area), 200 areas low-level burial grounds, nonradioactive dangerous waste landfill (southeast of the 200 areas), 1301-N liquid waste disposal facility (100-N area), 1324-N surface impoundment and 1324-NA percolation pond (100-N area), 1325-N liquid waste disposal facility (100-N area), 216-A-10 crib (200-east area), 216-A-29 ditch (200-east area), 216-A-36B crib (200-east area), 216-B-36B crib (200-east area), 216-B-3 pond (east of the 200-east area), 2101-M pond (200-east area), grout treatment facility (200-east area).

  8. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities.

  9. GROUND WATER ISSUE - CALCULATION AND USE OF FIRST-ORDER RATE CONSTANTS FOR MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This issue paper explains when and how to apply first-order attenuation rate constant calculations in monitored natural attenuation (MNA) studies. First-order attenuation rate constant calculations can be an important tool for evaluating natural attenuation processes at ground-wa...

  10. Geohydrology of the Antelope Valley Area, California and design for a ground-water-quality monitoring network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duell, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    A basinwide ideal network and an actual network were designed to identify ambient groundwater quality, trends in groundwater quality, and degree of threat from potential pollution sources in Antelope Valley, California. In general, throughout the valley groundwater quality has remained unchanged, and no specific trends are apparent. The main source of groundwater for the valley is generally suitable for domestic, irrigation, and most industrial uses. Water quality data for selected constituents of some network wells and surface-water sites are presented. The ideal network of 77 sites was selected on the basis of site-specific criteria, geohydrology, and current land use (agricultural, residential, and industrial). These sites were used as a guide in the design of the actual network consisting of 44 existing wells. Wells are currently being monitored and were selected whenever possible because of budgetary constraints. Of the remaining ideal sites, 20 have existing wells not part of a current water quality network, and 13 are locations where no wells exist. The methodology used for the selection of sites, constituents monitored, and frequency of analysis will enable network users to make appropriate future changes to the monitoring network. (USGS)

  11. Monitoring the effect of poplar trees on petroleum-hydrocarbon and chlorinated-solvent contaminated ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    At contaminated groundwater sites, poplar trees can be used to affect groundwater levels, flow directions, and ultimately total groundwater and contaminant flux to areas downgradient of the trees. The magnitude of the hydrologic changes can be monitored using fundamental concepts of groundwater hydrology, in addition to plant physiology-based approaches, and can be viewed as being almost independent of the contaminant released. The affect of poplar trees on the fate of groundwater contaminants, however, is contaminant dependent. Some petroleum hydrocarbons or chlorinated solvents may be mineralized or transformed to innocuous compounds by rhizospheric bacteria associated with the tree roots, mineralized or transformed by plant tissues in the transpiration stream or leaves after uptake, or passively volatilized and rapidly dispersed or oxidized in the atmosphere. These processes also can be monitored using a combination of physiological- or geochemical-based field or laboratory approaches. When combined, such hydrologic and contaminant monitoring approaches can result in a more accurate assessment of the use of poplar trees to meet regulatory goals at contaminated groundwater sites, verify that these goals continue to be met in the future, and ultimately lead to a consensus on how the performance of plant-based remedial strategies (phytoremediation) is to be assessed.

  12. A temporal and spatial analysis of ground-water levels for effective monitoring in Huron County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holtschlag, David J.; Sweat, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    Quarterly water-level measurements were analyzed to assess the effectiveness of a monitoring network of 26 wells in Huron County, Michigan. Trends were identified as constant levels and autoregressive components were computed at all wells on the basis of data from 1993 to 1997 using structural time series analysis. Fixed seasonal components were identified at 22 wells and outliers were identified at 23 wells. The 95-percent confidence intervals were forecast for water-levels during the first and second quarters of 1998. Intervals in the first quarter were consistent with 92.3 percent of the measured values. In the second quarter, measured values were with the forecast intervals only 65.4 percent of the time. Unusually low precipitation during the second quarter is thought to have contributed to the reduced reliability of the second-quarter forecasts. Spatial interrelations among wells were investigated on the basis of the autoregressive components, which were filtered to create a set of innovation sequences that were temporally uncorrelated. The empirical covariance among the innovation sequences indicated both positive and negative spatial interrelations. The negative covariance components are considered to be physically implausible and to have resulted from random sampling error. Graphical modeling, a form of multivariate analysis, was used to model the covariance structure. Results indicate that only 29 of the 325 possible partial correlations among the water-level innovations were statistically significant. The model covariance matrix, corresponding to the model partial correlation structure, contained only positive elements. This model covariance was sequentially partitioned to compute a set of partial covariance matrices that were used to rank the effectiveness of the 26 monitoring wells from greatest to least. Results, for example, indicate that about 50 percent of the uncertainty of the water-level innovations currently monitored by the 26-well network

  13. Program for monitoring the chemical quality of ground water in Utah - Summary of data collected through 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.; Arnow, T.

    1986-01-01

    The US Geological Survey formally started a program for monitoring groundwater quality in Utah during 1957 in cooperation with the Utah Geological Survey. The monitoring program was initiated to detect any changes in chemical quality that might be associated with the withdrawal of water from wells. Dissolved-solids concentrations in water samples collected from the observation wells through 1984 ranged from 92 to 19,000 mg/L. An observation well in the Uinta Basin yielded the sample with the smallest dissolved solids concentration, and another well in the Uinta Basin yielded the sample with the largest dissolved solids concentration. There was a progressive increase in salinity of water produced by several of the observation wells in Pahvant Valley and in the Milford and Beryl-Enterprise areas. Water quality changes related either to groundwater withdrawals or groundwater recharge also were detected in several other areas. Water produced from wells in Goshen Valley and the upper Fremont River valley had short term increases in chloride, sulfate, and dissolved solids concentrations, indicating possible local contamination of the groundwater. Also, since the late 1950's, dissolved solids concentrations have increased in water produced by a well completed in the principal aquifer in Salt Lake Valley downgradient from areas where extensive use has been made of road salt. 40 refs., 38 figs., 38 tabs.

  14. Implementation of passive samplers for monitoring volatile organic compounds in ground water at the Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, F.G.; Korte, N.E.; Wilson-Nichols, M.J.; Baker, J.L.; Ramm, S.G.

    1998-06-01

    Passive sampling for monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been suggested as a possible replacement to the traditional bailer method used at the Department of Energy Kansas City Plant (KCP) for routine groundwater monitoring. To compare methods, groundwater samples were collected from 19 KCP wells with VOC concentrations ranging from non-detectable to > 100,000 {micro}g/L. Analysis of the data was conducted using means and medians of multiple measurements of TCE, 1,2-DCE, 1,1-DCE and VC. All 95% confidence intervals of these VOCs overlap, providing evidence that the two methods are similar. The study also suggests that elimination of purging and decontamination of sampling equipment reduces the labor required to sample by approximately 32%. Also, because the passive method generates no waste water, there are no associated disposal costs. The results suggest evidence to continue studies and efforts to replace traditional bailer methods with passive sampling at KCP based on cost and the similarity of the methods.

  15. Hanford Site environmental data for calendar year 1990 -- Ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Bates, D.J.; Merz, J.K.

    1993-03-01

    This report tabulates ground-water radiological and chemical data for calendar year 1990 by the Ground-Water Surveillance Project, reported Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Monitoring, and Operational Monitoring. The Ground-Water Surveillance Project is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the RCRA and Operational Monitoring Projects are conducted by the Westinghouse Hanford Company. This document supplements the reports Hanford Site Ground-Water Monitoring for 1990 (Evans et al. 1992) and mental Report for Calendar Year 1990 (Woodruff and Hanf 1991). The data listings provided here were generated from the Hanford Environmental Information System database.

  16. 40 CFR 257.23 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis...-Hazardous Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.23 Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program must include consistent...

  17. 40 CFR 258.53 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis... WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.53 Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program...

  18. 40 CFR 258.53 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis... WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.53 Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program...

  19. 40 CFR 258.53 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground-water sampling and analysis... WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.53 Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program...

  20. 40 CFR 257.23 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground-water sampling and analysis...-Hazardous Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.23 Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program must include consistent...

  1. 40 CFR 257.23 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis...-Hazardous Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.23 Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program must include consistent...

  2. Ground water protection management program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 requires the establishment of a ground water protection management program to ensure compliance with DOE requirements and applicable federal, state, and local laws and regulations. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office was prepared this Ground Water Protection Management Program Plan (ground water protection plan) whose scope and detail reflect the program`s significance and address the seven activities required in DOE Order 5400.1, Chapter III, for special program planning. This ground water protection plan highlights the methods designed to preserve, protect, and monitor ground water resources at UMTRA Project processing and disposal sites. The plan includes an overview of the remedial action status at the 24 designated processing sites and identifies technical guidance documents and site-specific documents for the UMTRA Project ground water protection management program. In addition, the plan addresses the general information required to develop a water resources protection strategy at the permanent disposal sites. Finally, the plan describes ongoing activities that are in various stages of development at UMTRA Project sites.

  3. CONNECTICUT GROUND WATER QUALITY CLASSIFICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of Ground Water Quality Classifications in Connecticut. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes polygons for GA, GAA, GAAs, GB, GC and other related ground water quality classes. Each polygon is assigned a ground water quality class, which is s...

  4. Comparison of diffusion- and pumped-sampling methods to monitor volatile organic compounds in ground water, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, July 1999-December 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archfield, Stacey A.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate diffusion sampling as an alternative method to monitor volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in ground water, concentrations in samples collected by traditional pumped-sampling methods were compared to concentrations in samples collected by diffusion-sampling methods for 89 monitoring wells at or near the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod. Samples were analyzed for 36 VOCs. There was no substantial difference between the utility of diffusion and pumped samples to detect the presence or absence of a VOC. In wells where VOCs were detected, diffusion-sample concentrations of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) were significantly lower than pumped-sample concentrations. Because PCE and TCE concentrations detected in the wells dominated the calculation of many of the total VOC concentrations, when VOC concentrations were summed and compared by sampling method, visual inspection also showed a downward concentration bias in the diffusion-sample concentration. The degree to which pumped- and diffusion-sample concentrations agreed was not a result of variability inherent within the sampling methods or the diffusion process itself. A comparison of the degree of agreement in the results from the two methods to 13 quantifiable characteristics external to the sampling methods offered only well-screen length as being related to the degree of agreement between the methods; however, there is also evidence to indicate that the flushing rate of water through the well screen affected the agreement between the sampling methods. Despite poor agreement between the concentrations obtained by the two methods at some wells, the degree to which the concentrations agree at a given well is repeatable. A one-time, well-bywell comparison between diffusion- and pumped-sampling methods could determine which wells are good candidates for the use of diffusion samplers. For wells with good method agreement, the diffusion-sampling method is a time

  5. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site facilities: Progress report for the period January 1--March 31, 1988: Volume 1, Text

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the progress of eight Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period January 1 to March 31, 1988. The facilities represented by the eight projects are the 300 Area Process trenches, 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins, 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds, Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill, 216-A-36B Crib, 1301-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facility, 1325-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facility, and 1324-N/NA Surface Impoundment and Percolation Ponds. The latter four projects are included in this series of quarterly reports for the first time. This report is the seventh in a series of periodic status reports; the first six cover the period from May 1, 1986, through December 31, 1987 (PNL 1986; 1987a, b, c, d; 1988a). This report satisfies the requirements of Section 17B(3) of the Consent Agreement and Compliance Order issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology (1986a) to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office. 13 refs., 19 figs., 24 tabs.

  6. Ground water and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    In view of complex environmental/energy decisions, the Environmental Impacts Division of the Office of Technology Impacts develops analytical methods for conducting policy analyses supporting decision making. The methods development process often begins with a workshop of leading experts and specialists in the relevant disciplines and issue areas; workshop findings are subsequently utilized by OTI to form a more solid foundation for viable policies. The National Workshop on Ground Water and Energy Production was envisioned as a tool through which OTI could obtain insights, information, and methods (on environmental, economical, physical, political, legal, and social issues) to use in its analyses, models, and assessments. To accomplish this, the Workshop comprised both plenary sessions and individual working groups. The former provided opportunities for all participants to explore issues from a broad perspective, whereas the latter enabled participants to focus on the three following areas: ground water supply; conflicts and barriers to its use; and alternatives or solutions to the various issues. This report summarizes information and insights gained by the Office of Technology Impacts during the course of the Workshop. The Key Findings section summarizes the most important facts discovered during the Workshop. The three general topics that follow (Supply, Conflicts and Barriers, and Alternatives) are those described in the Core Issues statements. The statements are reflective of the recommendations and analyses prepared by the several working groups.

  7. Preventing ground water contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R.

    1985-07-12

    A recent Office of Technology Assessment report to Congress indicates that the associated health risks from ground water contamination are likely to increase because federal and state laws provide inadequate protection. Road de-icing salts, pesticide runoff, septic tanks, and seepage from livestock manure and fertilizers are all major causes that are difficult to control. A primary source that can be corrected is improper or unsafe disposal of hazardous wastes that are dumped into landfills or surface ponds or injected into deep wells. Congress has tried to deal with the problem by strengthening existing and introducing new legislation. Because getting rid of hazardous waste is increasingly expensive and difficult, companies are beginning to look for ways to prevent pollution at the source by using new technologies that are economically sound. 17 references, 4 figures.

  8. Long-term ground-water monitoring program and performance-evaluation plan for the extraction system at the former Nike Missile Battery Site, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senus, Michael P.; Tenbus, Frederick J.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents lithologic and ground-water-quality data collected during April and May 2000 in the remote areas of the tidal wetland of West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Contamination of the Canal Creek aquifer with volatile organic compounds has been documented in previous investigations of the area. This study was conducted to investigate areas that were previously inaccessible because of deep mud and shallow water, and to support ongoing investigations of the fate and transport of volatile organic compounds in the Canal Creek aquifer. A unique vibracore drill rig mounted on a hovercraft was used for drilling and ground-water sampling. Continuous cores of the wetland sediment and of the Canal Creek aquifer were collected at five sites. Attempts to sample ground water were made by use of a continuous profiler at 12 sites, without well installation, at a total of 81 depths within the aquifer. Of those 81 attempts, only 34 sampling depths produced enough water to collect samples. Ground-water samples from two sites had the highest concentrations of volatile organic compounds?with total volatile organic compound concentrations in the upper part of the aquifer ranging from about 15,000 to 50,000 micrograms per liter. Ground-water samples from five sites had much lower total volatile organic compound concentrations (95 to 2,100 micrograms per liter), whereas two sites were essentially not contaminated, with total volatile organic compound concentrations less than or equal to 5 micrograms per liter.

  9. SUPERFUND GROUND WATER ISSUE: GROUND WATER SAMPLING FOR METALS ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Filtration of ground-water samples for metals analysis is an issue identified by the Forum as a concern of Superfund decision-makers. Inconsistency in EPA Syperfund cleanup pracices occurs where one EPA Region implements a remedial action based on unfiltered ground-water samples,...

  10. HANDBOOK: GROUND WATER VOLUME I: GROUND WATER AND CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook is an extensively revised version of the Ground Water Handbook, originally published in 1987 as EPA/625/6-87/016. It has been published in two volumes: Volume I: Ground Water and Contamination, EPA/625/6-90/016a, and Volume II: Methodology, EPA/625/6-90/016b. Volume...

  11. GROUND WATER SAMPLING USING LOW-FLOW TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining representative ground water samples is important for site assessment and remedial performance monitoring objectives. The sampling device or method used to collect samples from monitoring or compliance well can significantly impact data quality and reliability. Low-flo...

  12. Site Characterization for MNA of Radionuclides in Ground Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored natural attenuation is often evaluated as a component of the remedy for ground water contaminated with radionuclides. When properly employed, monitored natural attenuation (MNA) may provide an effective knowledge-based remedy where a thorough engineering analysis inform...

  13. Monitored Attenuation of Inorganic Contaminants in Ground Water Volume 2 – Assessment for Non-Radionuclides Including Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Lead, Nickel, Nitrate, Perchlorate, and Selenium

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document represents the second volume of a set of three volumes that address the technical basis and requirements for assessing the potential applicability of MNA as part of a ground-water remedy for plumes with non-radionuclide and/or radionuclide inorganic contaminants. V...

  14. Ground water and climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the world’s largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food secu¬rity will probably intensify under climate chan...

  15. Procedures for ground-water investigations. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  16. Evaluating data worth for ground-water management under uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models-a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programing sampling network design model-to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring network design model identifies, prior to data collection, the sampling strategy that will minimize model uncertainty; (3) the optimal ground-water management strategy is recalculated on the basis of the projected model uncertainty after sampling; and (4) the worth of the monitoring strategy is assessed by comparing the value of the sample information-i.e., the projected reduction in management costs-with the cost of data collection. Steps 2-4 are repeated for a series of data collection budgets, producing a suite of management/monitoring alternatives, from which the best alternative can be selected. A hypothetical example demonstrates the methodology's ability to identify the ground-water sampling strategy with greatest net economic benefit for ground-water management.A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models - a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programming sampling network design model - to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring

  17. Pesticides in Ground Water - Campbell County, Wyoming, 2004-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Remley, Kendra J.

    2006-01-01

    In 1991, members of local, State, and Federal governments, as well as industry and interest groups, formed the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee to prepare the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. Part of this management plan is to sample and analyze Wyoming's ground water for pesticides. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee, began statewide implementation of the sampling component of the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. During 2004-2005, baseline monitoring was conducted in Campbell County. This fact sheet describes and summarizes results of the baseline monitoring in Campbell County.

  18. Pesticides in Ground Water - Carbon County, Wyoming, 2004-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Remley, Kendra J.

    2006-01-01

    In 1991, members of local, State, and Federal governments, as well as industry and interest groups, formed the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee to prepare the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. Part of this management plan is to sample and analyze Wyoming's ground water for pesticides. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee, began statewide implementation of the sampling component of the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. During 2004-2005, baseline monitoring was conducted in Carbon County. This fact sheet describes and summarizes results of the baseline monitoring in Carbon County.

  19. Pesticides in Ground Water - Sublette County, Wyoming, 2004-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Remley, Kendra J.

    2006-01-01

    In 1991, members of local, State, and Federal governments, as well as industry and interest groups, formed the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee to prepare the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. Part of this management plan is to sample and analyze Wyoming's ground water for pesticides. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee, began statewide implementation of the sampling component of the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. During 2004-2005, baseline monitoring was conducted in Sublette County. This fact sheet describes and summarizes results of the baseline monitoring in Sublette County.

  20. Ground water recharge from Lake Chad

    SciTech Connect

    Isiorho, S.; Matisoff, G.; McCall, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    Lake Chad is a shallow, closed basin lake located in Sub-Sharan Africa. It has the largest drainage basin of any lake in the world, and is also very old, being formed by tectonic processes during the Cretaceous. These features should combine to form a saline lake, but the open waters of Lake Chad are reasonably fresh, having a total dissolved solids concentration of about 320 mg/1. This apparent discrepancy can be explained by noting that recharge of the unconfined aquifer to the SW in Nigeria by ground water infiltration through the lakebed can remove significant quantities of water and dissolved solutes from the lake. The authors have measured and calculated ground water infiltration and velocities by several techniques. Direct, volumetric measurements of ground water recharge seepage give velocities on the order of .28-8.8 x 10/sup -3/ m/day. Tracer monitoring in a borehole dilution test yielded ground water velocities of 3.6 m/day to the SW (away from the lake). Hydraulic conductivities approx. .004-.6 m/day were determined by falling head measurements. Finally, using static water levels, the potentiometric surface within approx. 80 km of the southwest portion of Lake Chad yields water table gradients of 1.0-1.7 x 10/sup -4/ away from the lake. These results confirm that surface water and solute inflow to Lake Chad is removed by recharge to the unconfined aquifer in Nigeria.

  1. ASSESSING THE ROLE OF NATURAL ATTENUATION FOR INORGANIC CONTAMINANT REMEDIATION IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) has been applied as a knowledge-based remediation technology for organic contaminants in ground water. The application of this technology is being considered for remediation of inorganic contaminants in ground water at hazardous waste sites. ...

  2. Ground water and climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Döll, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F.P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  3. Ground Water and Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J. -F; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2013-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  4. Well-construction, water-level, geophysical, and water-quality data for ground-water monitoring wells for Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, C.J.; Mahoney, E.N.; Robinson, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Sixty-five wells were installed at 39 sites in the Arnold Air Force Base area in Coffee and Franklin Counties, Tennessee. The wells were installed to provide information on subsurface lithology, aquifer characteristics, ground-water levels, and ground-water quality. Well depths ranged from 11 to 384 feet. Water-quality samples were collected from 60 wells and analyzed for common inorganic ions, trace metals, and volatile organic compounds. The median dissolved-solids concentrations were 60 milligrams per liter in the shallow aquifer, 48 million gallons per liter in the Manchester aquifer, 1,235 milligrams per liter in the Fort Payne aquifer, and 1,712 milligrams per liter in the upper Central Basin aquifer. Caliper, temperature, natural gamma, electric, neutron porosity, gamma-gamma density, and acoustic velocity borehole-geophysical logs were obtained for the six deep wells completed below the Chattanooga Shale. Petrographic and modal analysis were performed on rock samples from each deep well. These six deep wells provide the first information in the study area on hydraulic head and water quality from below the Chattanooga Shale.

  5. Surface- and Ground-Water Monitoring and Mapping of Selected Features at the Blue Ridge Parkway Mt. Pisgah Campground, Haywood County, North Carolina, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Douglas G.

    2004-01-01

    During 2002, a baseline study of hydrologic conditions was conducted, and selected features were mapped within the Mt. Pisgah campground on the Blue Ridge Parkway in Haywood County, North Carolina. Field surveys were performed by using global positioning system equipment one time (January 2002) during the study to locate hydrologic and other types of features in the study area. Water-level and streamflow data and seasonal water-quality samples were collected from a stream that receives all surface-water drainage from the campground area. During 2002, water levels (stage) in the stream ranged from 1.09 to 1.89 feet above gage datum (4,838.06 to 4,838.86 feet above mean sea level). Flow in the stream ranged from 0.05 to 9.7 cubic feet per second. Annual daily mean flow for calendar year 2002 was approximately 0.35 cubic foot per second (about 226,000 gallons per day). Samples collected from the stream had low concentrations of all constituents measured. Four compounds associated with human activity (camphor, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (the insect repellent DEET), tributylphosphate, and methylsalicylate) were detected in the stream samples; however, concentrations were less than detection levels. Stream samples collected in April and September and analyzed for fecal coliform bacteria had densities of 76 and 110 colonies per 100 milliliters of water, respectively. No violations of water-quality standards were noted for any constituent measured in the stream samples. Seven shallow ground-water wells were installed near a natural area in the center of the campground. Ground-water levels measured periodically in these wells and in two existing shallow piezometers generally were highest in the spring and lowest in the fall. Water temperature, pH, and specific conductance were measured in samples collected from the shallow wells in April and September 2002. Measured pH values were consistently lowest in samples from two wells on the west side of the natural area and highest

  6. In situ health monitoring of piezoelectric sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Scott L. (Inventor); Drouant, George J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An in situ health monitoring apparatus may include an exciter circuit that applies a pulse to a piezoelectric transducer and a data processing system that determines the piezoelectric transducer's dynamic response to the first pulse. The dynamic response can be used to evaluate the operating range, health, and as-mounted resonance frequency of the transducer, as well as the strength of a coupling between the transducer and a structure and the health of the structure.

  7. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ground-water pathway,'' which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

  8. Ground water. [Water pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Costle, D.M.

    1980-09-01

    There is growing evidence that the Nation's ground water is contaminated by a variety of sources. These include unprotected industrial, municipal, and radioactive disposal sites, petroleum exploration and mining activities, agricultural operations such as insecticide spraying, high de-icing salts and others. As of March 1980, more than 8000 chemical tests have been performed on well water, with chlorinated organic solvents found most frequently. Because 100 million Americans may be threatened by unfit drinking water, EPA has developed a new ground water strategy. It will enlist the help of State and local governments who already have programs under way and it will involve broad public debate and participation.

  9. 40 CFR 258.53 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... mean levels for each constituent. (2) An analysis of variance (ANOVA) based on ranks followed by... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis....53 Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program...

  10. 40 CFR 258.53 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mean levels for each constituent. (2) An analysis of variance (ANOVA) based on ranks followed by... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis....53 Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program...

  11. Reading Ground Water Levels with a Smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Overloop, Peter-Jules

    2015-04-01

    Most ground water levels in the world are measured manually. It requires employees of water management organizations to visit sites in the field and execute a measurement procedure that requires special tools and training. Once the measurement is done, the value is jotted down in a notebook and later, at the office, entered in a computer system. This procedure is slow and prone to human errors. A new development is the introduction of modern Information and Communication Technology to support this task and make it more efficient. Two innovations are introduced to measure and immediately store ground water levels. The first method is a measuring tape that gives a sound and light when it just touches the water in combination with an app on a smartphone with which a picture needs to be taken from the measuring tape. Using dedicated pattern recognition algorithms, the depth is read on the tape and it is verified if the light is on. The second method estimates the depth using a sound from the smartphone that is sent into the borehole and records the reflecting waves in the pipe. Both methods use gps-localization of the smartphone to store the depths in the right location in the central database, making the monitoring of ground water levels a real-time process that eliminates human errors.

  12. GROUND WATER TECHNICAL SUPPORT CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Office of Research and Development operates a Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC). The Center provides support on issues regarding subsurface contamination, contaminant fluxes to other media (e.g., surface water or air), and ecosystem restoration. The GWTSC creat...

  13. COMPILATION OF GROUND WATER MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The full report presents an overview of currently available computer-based simulation models for ground-water flow, solute and heat transport, and hydrogeochemistry in both porous media and fractured rock. Separate sections address multiphase flow and related chemical species tra...

  14. GROUND WATER SAMPLING FOR VOCS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling protocol should be dictated by the sampling objective(s). It is important to obtain representative ground water samples, regardless of the sampling objective(s). Low-flow (minimum draw-down) purging and sampling techniques are best in most instances, particularly for VOC...

  15. High resolution in situ ultrasonic corrosion monitor

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, R.J.

    1984-01-10

    An ultrasonic corrosion monitor is provided which produces an in situ measurement of the amount of corrosion of a monitoring zone or zones of an elongate probe placed in the corrosive environment. A monitoring zone is preferably formed between the end of the probe and the junction of the zone with a lead-in portion of the probe. Ultrasonic pulses are applied to the probe and a determination made of the time interval between pulses reflected from the end of the probe and the junction referred to, both when the probe is uncorroded and while it is corroding. Corresponding electrical signals are produced and a value for the normalized transit time delay derived from these time interval measurements is used to calculate the amount of corrosion.

  16. High resolution in situ ultrasonic corrosion monitor

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    An ultrasonic corrosion monitor is provided which produces an in situ measurement of the amount of corrosion of a monitoring zone or zones of an elongate probe placed in the corrosive environment. A monitoring zone is preferably formed between the end of the probe and the junction of the zone with a lead-in portion of the probe. Ultrasonic pulses are applied to the probe and a determination made of the time interval between pulses reflected from the end of the probe and the junction referred to, both when the probe is uncorroded and while it is corroding. Corresponding electrical signals are produced and a value for the normalized transit time delay derived from these time interval measurements is used to calculate the amount of corrosion.

  17. Comparison of passive diffusion bag samplers and submersible pump sampling methods for monitoring volatile organic compounds in ground water at Area 6, Naval Air Station, Whidbey Island, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huffman, Raegan L.

    2002-01-01

    Ground-water samples were collected in April 1999 at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, Washington, with passive diffusion samplers and a submersible pump to compare concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water samples collected using the two sampling methods. Single diffusion samplers were installed in wells with 10-foot screened intervals, and multiple diffusion samplers were installed in wells with 20- to 40-foot screened intervals. The diffusion samplers were recovered after 20 days and the wells were then sampled using a submersible pump. VOC concentrations in the 10-foot screened wells in water samples collected with diffusion samplers closely matched concentrations in samples collected with the submersible pump. Analysis of VOC concentrations in samples collected from the 20- to 40-foot screened wells with multiple diffusion samplers indicated vertical concentration variation within the screened interval, whereas the analysis of VOC concentrations in samples collected with the submersible pump indicated mixing during pumping. The results obtained using the two sampling methods indicate that the samples collected with the diffusion samplers were comparable with and can be considerably less expensive than samples collected using a submersible pump.

  18. Assessing background ground water chemistry beneath a new unsewered subdivision

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, J.D.; Bradbury, K.R.; Thomas, C.L.; Bahr, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Previous site-specific studies designed to assess the impacts of unsewered subdivisions on ground water quality have relied on upgradient monitoring wells or very limited background data to characterize conditions prior to development. In this study, an extensive monitoring program was designed to document ground water conditions prior to construction of a rural subdivision in south-central Wisconsin. Previous agricultural land use has impacted ground water quality; concentrations of chloride, nitrate-nitrogen, and atrazine ranged from below the level of detection to 296 mg/L, 36 mg/L, and 0.8 ??g/L, respectively, and were highly variable from well to well and through time. Seasonal variations in recharge, surface topography, aquifer heterogeneities, surficial loading patterns, and well casing depth explain observed variations in ground water chemistry. This variability would not have been detected if background conditions were determined from only a few monitoring wells or inferred from wells located upgradient of the subdivision site. This project demonstrates the importance of characterizing both ground water quality and chemical variability prior to land-use change to detect any changes once homes are constructed. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  19. Ground-water monitoring plan, water quality, and variability of agricultural chemicals in the Missouri River alluvial aquifer near the City of Independence, Missouri, well field, 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, Brian P.

    2002-01-01

    A detailed ground-water sampling plan was developed and executed for 64 monitoring wells in the city of Independence well field to characterize ground-water quality in the 10-year zone of contribution. Samples were collected from monitoring wells, combined Independence well field pumpage, and the Missouri River at St. Joseph, Missouri, from 1998 through 2000. In 328 ground-water samples from the 64 monitoring wells and combined well field pumpage samples, specific conductance values ranged from 511 to 1,690 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius, pH values ranged from 6.4 to 7.7, water temperature ranged from 11.3 to 23.6 degrees Celsius, and dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 0 to 3.3 milligrams per liter. In 12 samples from the combined well field pumpage samples, specific conductance values ranged from 558 to 856 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius, pH values ranged from 6.9 to 7.7, water temperature ranged from 5.8 to 22.9 degrees Celsius, and dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 0 to 2.4 milligrams per liter. In 45 Missouri River samples, specific conductance values ranged from 531 to 830 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius, pH ranged from 7.2 to 8.7, water temperature ranged from 0 to 30 degrees Celsius, and dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 5.0 to 17.6 milligrams per liter. The secondary maximum contaminant level for sulfate in drinking water was exceeded once in samples from two monitoring wells, the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for antimony was exceeded once in a sample from one monitoring well, and the MCL for barium was exceeded once in a sample from one monitoring well. The MCL for iron was exceeded in samples from all monitoring wells except two. The MCL for manganese was exceeded in all samples from monitoring wells and combined well field pumpage. Enzyme linked immunoassay methods indicate total benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene (BTEX) was detected in samples from five

  20. Task 1. Monitoring real time materials degradation. NRC extended In-situ and real-time Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Bakhtiari, Sasan

    2012-03-01

    The overall objective of this project was to perform a scoping study to identify, in concert with the nuclear industry, those sensors and techniques that have the most promising commercial viability and fill a critical inspection or monitoring need. Candidates to be considered include sensors to monitor real-time material degradation, characterize residual stress, monitor and inspect component fabrication, assess radionuclide and associated chemical species concentrations in ground water and soil, characterize fuel properties, and monitor severe accident conditions. Under Task 1—Monitoring Real-Time Materials Degradation—scoping studies were conducted to assess the feasibility of potential inspection and monitoring technologies (i.e., a combination of sensors, advanced signal processing techniques, and data analysis methods) that could be utilized in LWR and/or advanced reactor applications for continuous monitoring of degradation in-situ. The goal was to identify those techniques that appear to be the most promising, i.e., those that are closest to being both technically and commercially viable and that the nuclear industry is most likely to pursue. Current limitations and associated issues that must be overcome before commercial application of certain techniques have also been addressed.

  1. MANUAL: GROUND-WATER AND LEACHATE TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual was developed for remedial design engineers and regulatory personnel who oversee the ex situ ground water or leachate treatment efforts of the regulated community. The manual can be used as a treatment technology screening tool in conjunction with other references. Mo...

  2. Environmental isotopes as indicators for ground water recharge to fractured granite.

    PubMed

    Ofterdinger, U S; Balderer, W; Loew, S; Renard, P

    2004-01-01

    To assess the contribution of accumulated winter precipitation and glacial meltwater to the recharge of deep ground water flow systems in fracture crystalline rocks, measurements of environmental isotope ratios, hydrochemical composition, and in situ parameters of ground water were performed in a deep tunnel. The measurements demonstrate the significance of these ground water recharge components for deep ground water flow systems in fractured granites of a high alpine catchment in the Central Alps, Switzerland. Hydrochemical and in situ parameters, as well as delta(18)O in ground water samples collected in the tunnel, show only small temporal variations. The precipitation record of delta(18)O shows seasonal variations of approximately 14% and a decrease of 0.23% +/- 0.03% per 100 m elevation gain. delta(2)H and delta(18)O in precipitation are well correlated and plot close to the meteoric water line, as well as delta(2)H and delta(18)O in ground water samples, reflecting the meteoric origin of the latter. The depletion of 18O in ground water compared to 18O content in precipitation during the ground water recharge period indicates significant contributions from accumulated depleted winter precipitation to ground water recharge. The hydrochemical composition of the encountered ground water, Na-Ca-HCO3-SO4(-F), reflects an evolution of the ground water along the flowpath through the granite body. Observed tritium concentrations in ground water range from 2.6 to 16.6 TU, with the lowest values associated with a local negative temperature anomaly and anomalous depleted 18O in ground water. This demonstrates the effect of local ground water recharge from meltwater of submodern glacial ice. Such localized recharge from glaciated areas occurs along preferential flowpaths within the granite body that are mainly controlled by observed hydraulic active shear fractures and cataclastic faults. PMID:15584300

  3. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford operations

    SciTech Connect

    Freshley, M. D.; Thorne, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEOR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides originating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: 1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; 2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; 3) through wells that draw some or all of their water from the Columbia River (riparian wells); and 4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in the contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring. These four pathways make up the "ground-water pathway ," which is the subject of this study. The objective of the study was to assess the extent to which the groundwater pathway contributed to radiation doses that populations or individuals may have received from past operations at Hanford. The assessment presented in this report was performed by 1) reviewing the extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and 2) performing simple calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations in ground water and the Columbia River resulting from ground-water discharge. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to this ground water and surface water were calculated. The study conclusion is that the ground-water pathways did not contribute significantly to dose. Compared with background radiation in the TriCities {300 mrem/yr), estimated doses are small: 0.02 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from discharge of contaminated ground water to the Columbia River; 1 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from Hanford Site wells; 11 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from riparian wells; and 1 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from the watershed. Because the estimated doses are so small, the recommendation is that further work

  4. Sewage in ground water in the Florida Keys

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, E.A.

    1995-12-31

    More than 24,000 septic tanks, 5,000 cesspools, and greater than 600 shallow disposal wells introduce sewage effluents into porous and permeable limestone underlying the Florida Keys. To porous and permeable limestone underlying the Florida Keys. To assess the fate of sewage nutrients, 21 2- to 20-m-deep wells were core drilled and completed as water-monitoring wells. The wells were sampled quarterly and analyzed for 17 parameters. including nutrients and bacteria. Nutrients (mainly NH4, - which is 30 to 40 times higher than in surface sea water) were detected in ground water beneath the Keys and offshore coral reefs. Highest levels were beneath reefs 5 to 8 km offshore. Ground waters were generally hypersaline and fecal bacteria (fecal coliform and streptococci) were detected in ground water beneath living coral reefs. Higher sea level on the Florida Bay side of the Keys is proposed as the mechanism for forcing ground water toward offshore coral reefs. Tidal pumping, which is more pronounced near the Keys, causes leakage of ground water where the sediment is thin. Areas lacking sediment cover consist of bare limestone bedrock or permeable coral reefs. These are the areas where coral diseases and algal growth have increased in recent years. Pollutants entering the ground water beneath the Florida Keys are likely to be transported seaward beneath impermeable Holocene sediments and may be upwelling through coral reefs and other hardbottom communities.

  5. GROUND WATER REMEDIATION POWERED WITH RENEWABLE ENERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Technical challenge: Resource conservation has become a critical concept in the remediation of contaminated ground water supplies. Ground water remedies which include surface discharge of treated ground water are often viewed as wasteful and non-sustainable....

  6. In-situ continuous water monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Cyril V.; Wise, Marcus B.

    1998-01-01

    An in-situ continuous liquid monitoring system for continuously analyzing volatile components contained in a water source comprises: a carrier gas supply, an extraction container and a mass spectrometer. The carrier gas supply continuously supplies the carrier gas to the extraction container and is mixed with a water sample that is continuously drawn into the extraction container by the flow of carrier gas into the liquid directing device. The carrier gas continuously extracts the volatile components out of the water sample. The water sample is returned to the water source after the volatile components are extracted from it. The extracted volatile components and the carrier gas are delivered continuously to the mass spectrometer and the volatile components are continuously analyzed by the mass spectrometer.

  7. In-situ continuous water monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, C.V.; Wise, M.B.

    1998-03-31

    An in-situ continuous liquid monitoring system for continuously analyzing volatile components contained in a water source comprises: a carrier gas supply, an extraction container and a mass spectrometer. The carrier gas supply continuously supplies the carrier gas to the extraction container and is mixed with a water sample that is continuously drawn into the extraction container by the flow of carrier gas into the liquid directing device. The carrier gas continuously extracts the volatile components out of the water sample. The water sample is returned to the water source after the volatile components are extracted from it. The extracted volatile components and the carrier gas are delivered continuously to the mass spectrometer and the volatile components are continuously analyzed by the mass spectrometer. 2 figs.

  8. Impact of Oxidant Residuals on Ground Water Samples at ISCO Sites: Recommended Guidelines for Sample Preservation

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) involves the introduction of a chemical oxidant into the subsurface for the purpose of transforming ground water contaminants into less toxic or harmless byproducts. Due to oxidant persistence, ground water samples collected at hazardous waste si...

  9. Ground Water Sampling at ISCO Sites - Residual Oxidant Impact on Sample Quality and Sample Preservation Guideline

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) involves the delivery of a chemical oxidant into the subsurface where oxidative reactions transform ground water contaminants into less toxic or harmless byproducts. Due to oxidant persistence, ground water samples collected at hazardous waste si...

  10. Sustainability of ground-water resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, William M.; Reilly, Thomas E.; Franke, O. Lehn

    1999-01-01

    The pumpage of fresh ground water in the United States in 1995 was estimated to be approximately 77 billion gallons per day (Solley and others, 1998), which is about 8 percent of the estimated 1 trillion gallons per day of natural recharge to the Nation's ground-water systems (Nace, 1960). From an overall national perspective, the ground-water resource appears ample. Locally, however, the availability of ground water varies widely. Moreover, only a part of the ground water stored in the subsurface can be recovered by wells in an economic manner and without adverse consequences.

  11. ERTS imagery for ground-water investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Gerald K.; Deutsch, Morris

    1975-01-01

    ERTS imagery offers the first opportunity to apply moderately high-resolution satellite data to the nationwide study of water resources. This imagery is both a tool and a form of basic data. Like other tools and basic data, it should be considered for use in ground-water investigations. The main advantage of its use will be to reduce the need for field work. In addition, however, broad regional features may be seen easily on ERTS imagery, whereas they would be difficult or impossible to see on the ground or on low-altitude aerial photographs. Some present and potential uses of ERTS imagery are to locate new aquifers, to study aquifer recharge and discharge, to estimate ground-water pumpage for irrigation, to predict the location and type of aquifer management problems, and to locate and monitor strip mines which commonly are sources for acid mine drainage. In many cases, boundaries which are gradational on the ground appear to be sharp on ERTS imagery. Initial results indicate that the accuracy of maps produced from ERTS imagery is completely adequate for some purposes.

  12. Determination of organic acids in ground water by liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.; Barcelona, M.J.

    1999-05-01

    Current methods of determining organic acids in ground water are labor-intensive, time-consuming and require a large volume of sample (100 milliliter to 1.0 liter). This paper reports a new method developed to determine aliphatic, alicyclic, and aromatic acids in ground water using liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry (LC/APCI/MS). This method was shown to be fast (less than 1 hour), effective, and reproducible, requiring only 1.0 mL of ground-water sample. Ground water was pH-adjusted, filtered through 0.45 {micro}m filters and directly injected into the LC. A binary solvent system consisting of 40 mM of aqueous ammonium acetate and methanol and a C18 column were used for chromatographical separation. The APCI was operated under negative ionization mode. Selected ion monitoring (SIM) was used for detection and quantitation of the analytes. This method was applied to the analysis of organic acids in ground-water samples collected from an aquifer contaminated with JP-4 fuel hydrocarbons at Wurtsmith Air Force Base in Oscoda, Michigan. Aromatic acids identified in the contaminated ground water include o-, m-toluic acids (2- and 3-methylbenzoic acids), 2,6-dimethylbenzoic acid, 2,3,5-and 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoic acids and two additional trimethylbenzoic acids with unknown location of methylation. The detection of aromatic acids in groundwater from the KC-135 site provided evidence for in situ microbial degradation of hydrocarbons occurring in the aquifer.

  13. Nitrates in Wisconsin ground water.

    PubMed

    Schuknecht, B; Lawton, G W; Steinka, P; Delfino, J J

    1975-01-01

    Nitrate analyses were performed on ground water well samples originating from sources throughout Wisconsin. The data ranged from below the analytical detection limit up to 140 mg NO3-N/1. Over nine percent of all wells sampled has nitrate concentrations in excess of 10 mg NO3-N/1. Six individual counties had more than 10 mg NO3-N/1 in at least twenty percent of the wells covered in this survey. However, data reported for over eight thousand new wells driven in 1971-1972 showed only slightly more than two percent with nitrate levels above 10 mg NO3-N/1. This reflected the trend toward drilling deeper wells which are influenced less by nitrate seepage as well as adherence to new and stricter well construction codes. PMID:1183417

  14. Annual report of 1991 groundwater monitoring data for the Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin at the Y-12 Plant: Ground water surface elevations

    SciTech Connect

    Shevenell, L.; Switek, J.

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a summary and interpretation of hydraulic head measurements obtained from wells surrounding the Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin sites at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Periodic water level observations are presented using hydrographs and water table contour maps based on data obtained from quarterly sampling during calendar year 1991. Generalized, preliminary interpretation of results are presented. The two sites covered by this report have interim status under the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). A subset of the wells at each rate are used for groundwater monitoring purposes under the requirements of RCRA. A discussion of the up-gradient and down-gradient directions for each of the sites is included.

  15. Human interactions with ground-water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaporozec, A.

    1983-01-01

    Ground-Water could be considered as an immense reservoir, from which only a certain amount of water can be withdrawn without affecting the quantity and quality of water. This amount is determined by the characteristics of the environment in which ground-water occurs and by the interactions of ground-water with precipitation, surface water, and people. It should be recognized that quantity and quality of ground-water are intimately related and should be considered accordingly. Quantity refers to usable water and water is usable for any specific purpose only so long as its quality has not deteriorated beyond acceptable limits. Thus an overall quantitative and qualitative management of ground water is inevitable, and its should also involve the uses of ground-water reservoirs for purposes other than water supply. The main objective of ground-water management is to ensure that ground-water resources will be available in appropriate time and in appropriate quantity and quality to meet the most important demands of our society. Traditional, and obvious uses of ground-water are the extraction of water for water supplies (domestic, municipal, agricultural, and industrial) and the natural discharge feeding lakes and maintaining base flow of streams. Not so obvious are the uses of ground-water reservoirs, the very framework within which ground-water occurs and moves, and in which other fluids or materials can be stored. In the last two decades, ground-water reservoirs have been intensively considered for many other purposes than water supplies. Diversified and very often conflicting uses need to be evaluated and dealt with in the most efficient way in order to determine the importance of each possible use, and to assign priorities of these uses. With rising competition for the use of ground-water reservoirs, we will also need to increase the potential for effective planning of ground-water development and protection. Man's development and use of ground-water necessarily

  16. Sorption of PFOA and PFOS to Ground Water Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    During its years of operation, the Washington County Sanitary Landfill near St. Paul, Minnesota accepted both municipal and industrial solid waste. Several years of ground water monitoring performed by the MPCA indicates that, some of the waste disposed of at this landfill contai...

  17. TBA IN GROUND WATER FROM THE NATURAL BIODEGRADATION OF MTBE

    EPA Science Inventory

    At many UST spills, the concentrations of TBA in ground water are much higher than would be expected from the presence of TBA in the gasoline originally spilled. The ratio of concentrations of TBA to concentrations of MTBE in monitoring wells at gasoline spill sites was compared ...

  18. DETERMINING HOW VAPOR PHASE MTBE REACHES GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Region 2 and ORD have funded a RARE project for FY 2005/2006 to evaluate the prospects that MTBE (and other fuel components) in vapors that escape from an underground storage tank (UST) can find its way to ground water produced by monitoring wells at a gasoline filling statio...

  19. Environmental assessment of ground-water compliance activities at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Spook, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This report assesses the environmental impacts of the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Spook, Wyoming on ground water. DOE previously characterized the site and monitoring data were collected during the surface remediation. The ground water compliance strategy is to perform no further remediation at the site since the ground water in the aquifer is neither a current nor potential source of drinking water. Under the no-action alternative, certain regulatory requirements would not be met.

  20. Ground-water quality and geochemistry of Las Vegas Valley, Clark County, Nevada, 1981-83; implementation of a monitoring network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dettinger, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    As a result of rapid urban growth in Las Vegas Valley, rates of water use and wastewater disposal have grown rapidly during the last 25 years. Concern has developed over the potential water quality effects of this growth. The deep percolation of wastewater and irrigation return flow (much of which originates as imported water from Lake Mead), along with severe overdraft conditions in the principal aquifers of the valley, could combine to pose a long-term threat to groundwater quality. The quantitative investigations of groundwater quality and geochemical conditions in the valley necessary to address these concerns would include the establishment of data collection networks on a valley-wide scale that differ substantially from existing networks. The valley-wide networks would have a uniform areal distribution of sampling sites, would sample from all major depth zones, and would entail repeated sampling from each site. With these criteria in mind, 40 wells were chosen for inclusion in a demonstration monitoring network. Groundwater in the northern half of the valley generally contains 200 to 400 mg/L of dissolved solids, and is dominated by calcium, magnesium , and bicarbonate ions, reflecting a chemical equilibrium between the groundwater and the dominantly carbonate rocks in the aquifers of this area. The intermediate to deep groundwater in the southern half of the valley is of poorer quality (containing 700 to 1,500 mg/L of dissolved solids) and is dominated by calcium, magnesium, sulfate, and bicarbonate ions, reflecting the occurrence of other rock types including evaporite minerals among the still-dominant carbonate rocks in the aquifers of this part of the valley. The poorest quality groundwater in the valley is generally in the lowland parts of the valley in the first few feet beneath the water table, where dissolved solids concentrations range from 2,000 to > 7,000 mg/L , and probably reflects the effects of evaporite dissolution, secondary recharge, and

  1. Hydrologic significance of carbon monoxide concentrations in ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Dissolved carbon monoxide (CO) is present in ground water produced from a variety of aquifer systems at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 20 nanomoles per liter (0.0056 to 0.56 ??g/L). In two shallow aquifers, one an unconsolidated coastal plain aquifer in Kings Bay, Georgia, and the other a fractured-bedrock aquifer in West Trenton, New Jersey, long-term monitoring showed that CO concentrations varied over time by as much as a factor of 10. Field and laboratory evidence suggests that the delivery of dissolved oxygen to the soil zone and underlying aquifers by periodic recharge events stimulates oxic metabolism and produces transiently high CO concentrations. In between recharge events, the aquifers become anoxic and more substrate limited, CO is consumed as a carbon source, and CO concentrations decrease. According to this model, CO concentrations provide a transient record of oxic metabolism affecting ground water systems after dissolved oxygen has been fully consumed. Because the delivery of oxygen affects the fate and transport of natural and anthropogenic contaminants in ground water, CO concentration changes may be useful for identifying predominantly anoxic ground water systems subject to periodic oxic or microaerophilic conditions. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  2. Ground-water levels in Wyoming, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ballance, W.C.; Freudenthal, Pamela B.

    1976-01-01

    Ground-water levels are measured periodically in a network of about 260 observation wells in Wyoming to record changes in ground-water storage. The areas of water-level observation are mostly where ground water is used in large quantities for irrigation or municipal purposes. This report contains maps showing location of observation wells and water-level changes from 1975 to 1976. Well history, highest and lowest water levels , and hydrographs for most wells also are included. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Arsenic in Illinois ground water : community and private supplies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, Kelly L.; Martin, Angel; Arnold, Terri L.

    2003-01-01

    Assessing the distribution of arsenic in ground water from community-water supplies, private supplies, or monitoring wells is part of the process of determining the risk of arsenic contamination of drinking water in Illinois. Lifestyle, genetic, and environmental factors make certain members of the population more susceptible to adverse health effects from repeated exposure to drinking water with high arsenic concentrations (Ryker, 2001). In addition, such factors may have geographic distribution patterns that complicate the analysis of the relation between arsenic in drinking water and health effects. For example, arsenic may not be the only constituent affecting the quality of drinking water in a region (Ryker, 2001); however, determining the extent and distribution of arsenic in ground water is a starting place to assess the potential risk for persons drinking from a community or private supply. Understanding the potential sources and pathways that mobilize arsenic in ground water is a necessary step in protecting the drinking-water supply in Illinois.

  4. Alternatives for Ground Water Cleanup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudak, P. F.

    Aquifer remediation is one of our most difficult environmental challenges; technological limitations and problems arising from the physical and chemical complexities of contaminated subsurface environments thwart our best efforts. A 19-member committee of leaders in environmental engineering, hydrogeology, epidemiology, environmental economics, and environmental policy has written an ambitious book that broadly addresses the groundwater remediation problem. Topics include site characterization, capabilities and limitations of pump-and-treat and alternative technologies, alternative goals for ground water cleanup, and policy implications.One of the book's strengths is its information base, which includes various public and private groups, data from 80 pump-and-treat sites, and an extensive literature review. The text is clearly written and well organized. Specific conclusions are stated at the end of each major chapter, and sound policy recommendations are offered at the end of the final chapter. An appendix summarizes pump-andtreat systems reviewed during the study. Several case studies, diagrams, and photographs effectively illustrate concepts and ideas conveyed in the text.

  5. Guide to Louisiana's ground-water resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, C.G.; Knochenmus, D.D.; McGee, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Ground water is one of the most valuable and abundant natural resources of Louisiana. Of the 4-.4 million people who live in the State, 61 percent use ground water as a source for drinking water. Most industrial and rural users and half of the irrigation users in the State rely on ground water. Quantity, however, is not the only aspect that makes ground water so valuable; quality also is important for its use. In most areas, little or no water treatment is required for drinking water and industrial purposes. Knowledge of Louisiana's ground-water resources is needed to ensure proper development and protection of this valuable resource. This report is designed to inform citizens about the availability and quality of ground water in Louisiana. It is not intended as a technical reference; rather, it is a guide to ground water and the significant role this resource plays in the state. Most of the ground water that is used in the State is withdrawn from 13 aquifers and aquifer systems: the Cockfield, Sparta, and Carrizo-Wilcox aquifersin northern Louisiana; Chicot aquifer system, Evangeline aquifer, Jasper aquifer system, and Catahoula aquifer in central and southwestern Louisiana; the Chicot equivalent, Evangeline equivalent, and Jasper equivalent aquifer systems in southeastern Louisiana; and the MississippiRiver alluvial, Red River alluvial, and upland terrace aquifers that are statewide. Ground water is affected by man's activities on the land surface, and the major ground-water concerns in Louisiana are: (1) contamination from surface disposal of hazardous waste, agricultural chemicals, and petroleum products; (2) contamination from surface wastes and saltwater through abandoned wells; (3) saltwater encroachment; and (4) local overdevelopment. Information about ground water in Louisiana is extensive and available to the public. Several State and Federal agencies provide published and unpublished material upon request.

  6. CONNECTICUT GROUND WATER QUALITY CLASSIFICATIONS - WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of Ground Water Quality Classifications for public supply wells in Connecticut. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes GAA areas for public water supply wells. Each polygon is assigned a GAA ground water quality class, which is stored in the d...

  7. INTRODUCTION TO ARTIFICIAL GROUND-WATER RECHARGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Artificial ground-water recharge has been practiced for scores of years throughout the world. The purpose of artificial recharge is to increase the rate at which water infiltrates the land surface in order to supplement the quantity of ground water in storage. A variety of rechar...

  8. COMPILATION OF GROUND-WATER MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground-water modeling is a computer-based methodology for mathematical analysis of the mechanisms and controls of ground-water systems for the evaluation of policies, action, and designs that may affect such systems. n addition to satisfying scientific interest in the workings of...

  9. Ground water near Newton, Jasper County, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchmiller, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    The water quality in the South Skunk River and the alluvial aquifer was similar, except most ground-water samples contained low dissolved oxygen concentrations. The low dissolved-oxygen concentrations in ground water resulted in high concentrations of iron and manganese in some locations and reduced forms of nitrogen.

  10. Mississippi Embayment Regional Ground Water Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased water usage in the southeastern United States in the tri-state area of Tennessee, Mississippi and Arkansas poses a dilemma to ensuring long-term sustainability of the quantity and quality of ground-water resources that underlie the region. Demand for ground water by ag...

  11. HANDBOOK: GROUND WATER VOLUME II: METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook is an extensively revised version of the Ground Water Handbook, originally published in 1987 as EPA/625/6-87/016. It has been published in two volumes: Volume I: Ground Water and Contamination, EPA/625/6-90/016a, and Volume II: Methodology, EPA/625/6-90/016b. Volume...

  12. GROUND-WATER FLOW MODELING STUDY OF THE LOVE CANAL AREA, NEW YORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the overall Love Canal monitoring effort an assessment of the ground water hydrology of the Love Canal area, New York was performed. As part of this assessment, ground-water flow models were used to aid in well siting, data analysis and reduction, and prediction of gro...

  13. 40 CFR 141.401 - Sanitary surveys for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: (1) Source, (2) Treatment, (3) Distribution system, (4) Finished water storage, (5) Pumps, pump... Sanitary surveys for ground water systems. (a) Ground water systems must provide the State, at the State's..., maintenance, and monitoring compliance of a public water system to evaluate the adequacy of the system,...

  14. ORD GROUND WATER RESEARCH PLAN: STRATEGY FOR FY 1991 AND BEYOND

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document describes a ground water research plan for EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD). The ground water research program is carried out by ORD's Office of Environmental Processes and Effects Research (OEPER), the Office of Modeling, Monitoring Systems, and Quali...

  15. 40 CFR 257.23 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mean and the background mean levels for each constituent. (2) An analysis of variance (ANOVA) based on... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis... and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program must include consistent...

  16. 40 CFR 257.23 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... mean and the background mean levels for each constituent. (2) An analysis of variance (ANOVA) based on... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis... and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program must include consistent...

  17. Ground-water conditions and studies in Georgia, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leeth, David C.; Clarke, John S.; Craigg, Steven D.; Wipperfurth, Caryl J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collects ground-water data and conducts studies to monitor hydrologic conditions, to better define ground-water resources, and address problems related to water supply and water quality. Data collected as part of ground-water studies include geologic, geophysical, hydraulic property, water level, and water quality. A ground-water-level network has been established throughout most of the State of Georgia, and ground-water-quality networks have been established in the cities of Albany, Savannah, and Brunswick and in Camden County, Georgia. Ground-water levels are monitored continuously in a network of wells completed in major aquifers of the State. This network includes 17 wells in the surficial aquifer, 12 wells in the upper and lower Brunswick aquifers, 73 wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer, 10 wells in the Lower Floridan aquifer and underlying units, 12 wells in the Claiborne aquifer, 1 well in the Gordon aquifer, 11 wells in the Clayton aquifer, 11 wells in the Cretaceous aquifer system, 2 wells in Paleozoic-rock aquifers, and 7 wells in crystalline-rock aquifers. In this report, data from these 156 wells were evaluated to determine whether mean-annual ground-water levels were within, below, or above the normal range during 2001, based on summary statistics for the period of record. Information from these summaries indicates that water levels during 2001 were below normal in almost all aquifers monitored, largely reflecting climatic effects from drought and pumping. In addition, water-level hydrographs for selected wells indicate that water levels have declined during the past 5 years (since 1997) in almost all aquifers monitored, with water levels in some wells falling below historical lows. In addition to continuous water-level data, periodic measurements taken in 52 wells in the Camden County-Charlton County area, and 65 wells in the city of Albany-Dougherty County area were used to construct potentiometric-surface maps for

  18. Ground Water in the Anchorage Area, Alaska--Meeting the Challenges of Ground-Water Sustainability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, Edward H.; Galloway, Devin L.

    2006-01-01

    Ground water is an important component of Anchorage's water supply. During the 1970s and early 80s when ground water extracted from aquifers near Ship Creek was the principal source of supply, area-wide declines in ground-water levels resulted in near record low streamflows in Ship Creek. Since the importation of Eklutna Lake water in the late 1980s, ground-water use has been reduced and ground water has contributed 14-30 percent of the annual supply. As Anchorage grows, given the current constraints on the Eklutna Lake water availability, the increasing demand for water could place an increasing reliance on local ground-water resources. The sustainability of Anchorage's ground-water resources challenges stakeholders to develop a comprehensive water-resources management strategy.

  19. Chemical reactions of uranium in ground water at a mill tailings site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelouas, A.; Lutze, W.; Nuttall, E.

    1998-11-01

    We studied soil and ground water samples from the tailings disposal site near Tuba City, AZ, located on Navajo sandstone, in terms of uranium adsorption and precipitation. The uranium concentration is up to 1 mg/l, 20 times the maximum concentration for ground water protection in the United States. The concentration of bicarbonate (HCO 3-) in the ground water increased from ≤7×10 -4 M, the background concentration, to 7×10 -3 M. Negatively charged uranium carbonate complexes prevail at high carbonate concentrations and uranium is not adsorbed on the negatively charged mineral surfaces. Leaching experiments using contaminated and uncontaminated sandstone and 1 N HCl show that adsorption of uranium from the ground water is negligible. Batch adsorption experiments with the sandstone and ground water at 16°C, the in situ ground water temperature, show that uranium is not adsorbed, in agreement with the results of the leaching experiments. Adsorption of uranium at 16°C is observed when the contaminated ground water is diluted with carbonate-free water. The observed increase in pH from 6.7 to 7.3 after dilution is too small to affect adsorption of uranium on the sandstone. Storage of undiluted ground water to 24°C, the temperature in the laboratory, causes coprecipitation of uranium with aragonite and calcite. Our study provides knowledge of the on-site uranium chemistry that can be used to select the optimum ground water remediation strategy. We discuss our results in terms of ground water remediation strategies such as pump and treat, in situ bioremediation, steam injection, and natural flushing.

  20. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination from past activities at the former uranium processing site in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. The US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has placed contaminated material from this site in an on-site disposal cell. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the UMTRA Ground Water Project. Currently, no domestic or drinking water well tap into contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the unconsolidated materials and the bedrock. Because there is no access, no current health or environmental risks are associated with the direct use of the contaminated ground water. However, humans and ecological organisms could be exposed to contaminated ground water if a domestic well were to be installed in the unconsolidated materials in that part of the site being considered for public use (Area C). The first step is evaluating ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. For the Canonsburg site, this evaluation showed the contaminants in ground water exceeding background in the unconsolidated materials in Area C are ammonia, boron, calcium, manganese, molybdenum, potassium, strontium, and uranium.

  1. Methods and Indicators for Assessment of Regional Ground-Water Conditions in the Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillman, Fred D; Leake, Stanley A.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Schonauer, Kurt T.; Dickinson, Jesse E.

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring the status and trends in the availability of the Nation's ground-water supplies is important to scientists, planners, water managers, and the general public. This is especially true in the semiarid to arid southwestern United States where rapid population growth and limited surface-water resources have led to increased use of ground-water supplies and water-level declines of several hundred feet in many aquifers. Individual well observations may only represent aquifer conditions in a limited area, and wells may be screened over single or multiple aquifers, further complicating single-well interpretations. Additionally, changes in ground-water conditions may involve time scales ranging from days to many decades, depending on the timing of recharge, soil and aquifer properties, and depth to the water table. The lack of an easily identifiable ground-water property indicative of current conditions, combined with differing time scales of water-level changes, makes the presentation of ground-water conditions a difficult task, particularly on a regional basis. One approach is to spatially present several indicators of ground-water conditions that address different time scales and attributes of the aquifer systems. This report describes several methods and indicators for presenting differing aspects of ground-water conditions using water-level observations in existing data-sets. The indicators of ground-water conditions developed in this study include areas experiencing water-level decline and water-level rise, recent trends in ground-water levels, and current depth to ground water. The computer programs written to create these indicators of ground-water conditions and display them in an interactive geographic information systems (GIS) format are explained and results illustrated through analyses of ground-water conditions for selected alluvial basins in the Lower Colorado River Basin in Arizona.

  2. Ground-water levels in Wyoming, 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ballance, W.C.; Freudenthal, Pamela B.

    1977-01-01

    Ground-water levels are measured periodically in a network of about 280 observation wells in Wyoming to record changes in ground-water storage. The areas of water-level observation are mostly where ground water is used in large quantities for irrigation or municipal purposes. This report contains maps showing location of observation wells and water-level changes from 1976 to 1977. Well history, highest and lowest water levels , and hydrographs for most wells also are included. The program of groundwater observation is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wyoming State Engineer and the city of Cheyenne. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Research to More Effectively Manage Critical Ground-Water Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nickles, James

    2008-01-01

    As the regional management agency for two of the most heavily used ground-water basins in California, the Water Replenishment District of Southern California (WRD) plays a vital role in sheparding the water resources of southern Los Angeles County. WRD is using the results of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies to help more effectively manage the Central and West Coast basins in the most efficient, cost-effective way. In partnership with WRD, the USGS is using the latest research tools to study the geohydrology and geochemistry of the two basins. USGS scientists are: *Drilling and collecting detailed data from over 40 multiple-well monitoring sites, *Conducting regional geohydrologic and geochemical analyses, *Developing and applying a computer simulation model of regional ground-water flow. USGS science is providing a more detailed understanding of ground-water flow and quality. This research has enabled WRD to more effectively manage the basins. It has helped the District improve the efficiency of its spreading ponds and barrier injection wells, which replenish the aquifers and control seawater intrusion into the ground-water system.

  4. Appraisal of ground-water quality near wastewater-treatment facilities, Glacier National Park, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moreland, Joe A.; Wood, Wayne A.

    1982-01-01

    Water-level and water-quality data were collected from monitoring wells at wastewater-treatment facilities in Glacier National Park. Five additional shallow observation wells were installed at the Glacier Park Headquarters facility to monitor water quality in the shallow ground-water system. Water-level, water-quality, and geologic information indicate that some of the initial monitoring wells are not ideally located to sample ground water most likely to be affected by waste disposal at the sites. Small differences in chemical characteristics between samples from monitor wells indicate that effluent may be affecting ground-water quality but that impacts are not significant. Future monitoring of ground-water quality could be limited to selected wells most likely to be impacted by percolating effluent. Laboratory analyses for common ions could detect future impacts. (USGS)

  5. Implications of ground water chemistry and flow patterns for earthquake studies.

    PubMed

    Guangcai, Wang; Zuochen, Zhang; Min, Wang; Cravotta, Charles A; Chenglong, Liu

    2005-01-01

    Ground water can facilitate earthquake development and respond physically and chemically to tectonism. Thus, an understanding of ground water circulation in seismically active regions is important for earthquake prediction. To investigate the roles of ground water in the development and prediction of earthquakes, geological and hydrogeological monitoring was conducted in a seismogenic area in the Yanhuai Basin, China. This study used isotopic and hydrogeochemical methods to characterize ground water samples from six hot springs and two cold springs. The hydrochemical data and associated geological and geophysical data were used to identify possible relations between ground water circulation and seismically active structural features. The data for delta18O, deltaD, tritium, and 14C indicate ground water from hot springs is of meteoric origin with subsurface residence times of 50 to 30,320 years. The reservoir temperature and circulation depths of the hot ground water are 57 degrees C to 160 degrees C and 1600 to 5000 m, respectively, as estimated by quartz and chalcedony geothermometers and the geothermal gradient. Various possible origins of noble gases dissolved in the ground water also were evaluated, indicating mantle and deep crust sources consistent with tectonically active segments. A hard intercalated stratum, where small to moderate earthquakes frequently originate, is present between a deep (10 to 20 km), high-electrical conductivity layer and the zone of active ground water circulation. The ground water anomalies are closely related to the structural peculiarity of each monitoring point. These results could have implications for ground water and seismic studies in other seismogenic areas. PMID:16029173

  6. GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION POTENTIAL FROM STORMWATER INFILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior to urbanization, ground water recharge resulted from infiltration of precipitation through pervious surfaces, including grasslands and woods. This infiltration water was relatively uncontaminated. With urbanization, the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by...

  7. Pollution of ground water in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, S.; Key, A.

    1956-01-01

    This paper discusses pollution of ground water in 20 countries of the European region, giving for each an account of the geology and hydrogeology, water supplies, the extent and nature of ground water pollution, and the legal, administrative, and technical means of controlling that pollution. For the countries not considered in the preceding article on surface water pollution, an account is also given of the superficial physical features, rainfall, population, and industries. A general discussion follows of such questions as the ways in which ground water pollution may occur, the factors mitigating or aggravating pollution, and ways of protection against pollution. The authors consider that the problem of ground water pollution in Europe may well be more serious than it would appear to be on the evidence so far obtained. PMID:13374533

  8. Evaluation of Ground Water Near Sidney, Western Nebraska, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, G.V.; Sibray, S.S.; Quandt, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    During times of drought, ground water in the Lodgepole Creek area around Sidney, western Nebraska, may be insufficient to yield adequate supplies to private and municipal wells. Alternate sources of water exist in the Cheyenne Tablelands north of the city, but these sources are limited in extent. In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey and the South Platte Natural Resources District began a cooperative study to evaluate the ground water near Sidney. The 122-square-mile study area lies in the south-central part of Cheyenne County, with Lodgepole Creek and Sidney Draw occupying the southern and western parts of the study area and the Cheyenne Tablelands occupying most of the northern part of the study area. Twenty-nine monitoring wells were installed and then sampled in 2004 and 2005 for physical characteristics, nutrients, major ions, and stable isotopes. Some of the 29 sites also were sampled for ground-water age dating. Ground water is limited in extent in the tableland areas. Spring 2005 depths to ground water in the tableland areas ranged from 95 to 188 feet. Ground-water flow in the tableland areas primarily is northeasterly. South of a ground-water divide, ground-water flows southeasterly toward Lodgepole Creek Valley. Water samples from monitoring wells in the Ogallala Group were predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type, and those from monitoring wells in the Brule Formation were a sodium bicarbonate type. Water samples from monitoring wells open to the Brule sand were primarily a calcium bicarbonate type at shallow depths and a sodium bicarbonate type at deeper depths. Ground water in Lodgepole Creek Valley had a strong sodium signature, which likely results from most of the wells being open to the Brule. Concentrations of sodium and nitrate in ground-water samples from the Ogallala were significantly different than in water samples from the Brule and Brule sand. In addition, significant differences were seen in concentrations of calcium between water samples

  9. International borders, ground water flow, and hydroschizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Todd; Giordano, Mark; Puri, Shammy; Matsumoto, Kyoko; Wolf, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    A substantial body of research has been conducted on transboundary water, transboundary water law, and the mitigation of transboundary water conflict. However, most of this work has focused primarily on surface water supplies. While it is well understood that aquifers cross international boundaries and that the base flow of international river systems is often derived in part from ground water, transboundary ground water and surface water systems are usually managed under different regimes, resulting in what has been described as "hydroschizophrenia." Adding to the problem, the hydrologic relationships between surface and ground water supplies are only known at a reconnaissance level in even the most studied international basins, and thus even basic questions regarding the territorial sovereignty of ground water resources often remain unaddressed or even unasked. Despite the tensions inherent in the international setting, riparian nations have shown tremendous creativity in approaching regional development, often through preventive diplomacy, and the creation of "baskets of benefits," which allow for positive-sum, integrative allocations of joint gains. In contrast to the notion of imminent water wars, the history of hydropolitical relations worldwide has been overwhelmingly cooperative. Limited ground water management in the international arena, coupled with the fact that few states or countries regulate the use of ground water, begs the question: will international borders serve as boundaries for increased "flows" of hydrologic information and communication to maintain strategic aquifers, or will increased competition for shared ground water resources lead to the potential loss of strategic aquifers and "no flows" for both ground water users? PMID:16149973

  10. Estimating ground water discharge by hydrograph separation.

    PubMed

    Hannula, Steven R; Esposito, Kenneth J; Chermak, John A; Runnells, Donald D; Keith, David C; Hall, Larry E

    2003-01-01

    Iron Mountain is located in the West Shasta Mining District in California. An investigation of the generation of acid rock drainage and metals loading to Boulder Creek at Iron Mountain was conducted. As part of that investigation, a hydrograph separation technique was used to determine the contribution of ground water to total flow in Boulder Creek. During high-flow storm events in the winter months, peak flow in Boulder Creek can exceed 22.7 m3/sec, and comprises surface runoff, interflow, and ground water discharge. A hydrograph separation technique was used to estimate ground water discharge into Boulder Creek during high-flow conditions. Total ground water discharge to the creek approaches 0.31 m3/sec during the high-flow season. The hydrograph separation technique combined with an extensive field data set provided reasonable estimates of ground water discharge. These estimates are useful for other investigations, such as determining a corresponding metals load from the metal-rich ground water found at Iron Mountain and thus contributing to remedial alternatives. PMID:12772830

  11. Monitored Natural Attenuation of Inorganic Contaminants in Ground Water Volume 3 Assessment for Radionuclides IncludingTritium, Radon, Strontium, Technetium, Uranium, Iodine, Radium, Thorium, Cesium, and Plutonium-Americium

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current document represents the third volume of a set of three volumes that address the technical basis and requirements for assessing the potential applicability of MNA as part of a ground-water remedy for plumes with nonradionuclide and/or radionuclide inorganic contamina...

  12. Hydrogeology, ground-water use, and ground-water levels in the Mill Creek Valley near Evendale, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schalk, Charles; Schumann, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Withdrawals of ground water in the central Mill Creek Valley near Evendale, Ohio, caused water-level declines of more than 100 feet by the 1950s. Since the 1950s, management practices have changed to reduce the withdrawals of ground water, and recovery of water levels in long-term monitoring wells in the valley has been documented. Changing conditions such as these prompted a survey of water use, streamflow conditions, and water levels in several aquifers in the central Mill Creek Valley, Hamilton and Butler Counties, Ohio. Geohydrologic information, water use, and water levels were compiled from historical records and collected during the regional survey. Data collected during the survey are presented in terms of updated geohydrologic information, water use in the study area, water levels in the aquifers, and interactions between ground water and surface water. Some of the data are concentrated at former Air Force Plant 36 (AFP36), which is collocated with the General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE) plant, and these data are used to describe geohydrology and water levels on a more local scale at and near the plant. A comparison of past and current ground-water use and levels indicates that the demand for ground water is decreasing and water levels are rising. Before 1955, most of the major industrial ground-water users had their own wells, ground water was mined from a confined surficial (lower) aquifer, and water levels were more than 100 feet below their predevelopment level. Since 1955, however, these users have been purchasing their water from the city of Cincinnati or a private water purveyor. The cities of Reading and Lockland, both producers of municipal ground-water supplies in the area, shut down their well fields within their city limits. Because the demand for ground-water supplies in the valley has lessened greatly since the 1950s, withdrawals have decreased, and, consequently, water levels in the lower aquifer are 65 to 105 feet higher than they were

  13. MICROBIOLOGICAL FIELD SAMPLING AND INSTRUMENTATION IN THE ASSESSMENT OF SOIL AND GROUND-WATER POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter emphasizes the importance of microbiological sampling of soil and ground water with respect to human heath risks, laws and regulations dealing with safe drinking water, and more prevalent subsurface monitoring activities associated with chlorinated organic compounds,...

  14. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

  15. VELOCITY PLOTS AND CAPTURE ZONES OF PUMPING CENTERS FOR GROUND-WATER INVESTIGATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonpumping monitoring wells are commonly installed and sampled to delineate the extent of a contaminant plume and its chemical character. Samples from municipal and private pumping wells are frequently collected during ground-water contamination investigations as well. Pumping we...

  16. Investigation of ground-water pollution at Air Force Plant Number 4, Fort Worth Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    Beginning in December 1982, an extensive investigation was conducted to determine the presence and extent of industrial chemical pollution at Air Force Plant No. 4. A major portion of this work was devoted to the testing of ground water flowing within the overburden. In addition, 16 wells were drilled to monitor for polluted ground water in the upper and middle zones of the Paluxy Formation. Paluxy ground water was monitored; trichloroethylene, 1,2-trans-dichloroethylene, and lesser amounts of other chlorinated hydrocarbons, and the existence of abnormally high water levels in the upper zone of the Paluxy Formation in well P-8(U) were discovered.

  17. Remediation of chromate-contaminated ground water using zero-valent iron: Field test at USCG Support Center, Elizabeth City, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Puls, R.W.; Paul, C.J.; Powell, R.M.

    1996-12-31

    A field test was conducted near an old hard-chrome plating facility on the USCG Support Center near Elizabeth City, North Carolina, to evaluate the in situ remediation of ground water contaminated by hexavalent chromium using a passive permeable reactive barrier composed of a zero-valent iron-sand-aquifer material mixture. The remedial effectiveness of this innovative in situ technology was monitored over a one-year period. The success of this small-scale test has prompted a full-scale implementation of the technology at the site for late Spring 1996.

  18. Occurrence of microbial indicators in various ground water sources

    SciTech Connect

    Shadix, L.C.; Newport, B.S.; Crout, S.R.; Lieberman, R.J.

    1996-11-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AWWARF) have been collaborating in an ongoing study to research the application of molecular biology techniques versus conventional techniques for monitoring and consequently to obtain ground water microbial occurrence data. The bacterial assays described below were performed during the course of the USEPA/AWWARF study in addition to enteric virus, bacteriophage and Legionella assays to provide occurrence information and also to investigate the potential use of fecal indicator organisms as surrogates for enteric viruses. This paper presents occurrence data obtained for total coliform, Escherichia coli (E. coli), fecal enterococci and Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) bacteria from samples collected at thirty public ground water supplies.

  19. Volcano Monitor: Autonomous Triggering of In-Situ Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Davies, Ashley; Tran, Daniel Q.; Boudreau, Kate; Cecava, Johanna

    2009-01-01

    In-situ sensors near volcanoes would be alerted by the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) craft to take more frequent data readings. This project involves developing a sulfur-dioxide-sensing volcano monitor that will be able to transmit its readings through an Iridium modem.

  20. TECHNIQUE FOR IN SITU CALIBRATION OF PARTICULATE MASS MONITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two types of aerosol generators, the Riker Laboratories metered spray can and the Mistogen EN145 ultrasonic nebulizer, were evaluated by laboratory measurements for application to the in situ calibration of particulate mass monitors for stationary sources. The metered spray can d...

  1. 30 CFR 828.12 - In situ processing: Monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In situ processing: Monitoring. 828.12 Section 828.12 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... storage characteristics, in a manner approved by the regulatory authority under 30 CFR 817.41, to...

  2. Ground-water applications of remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Gerald K.

    1982-01-01

    Remote sensing can be used as a tool to inventory springs and seeps and to interpret lithology, structure, and ground-water occurrence and quality. Thermograms are the best images for inventory of seeps and springs. The steps in aquifer mapping are image analysis and interpretation and ground-water interpretation. A ground-water interpretation is derived from a conceptual geologic model by inferring aquifer characteristics and water salinity. The image selection process is very important for obtaining maximum geologic and hydrologic information from remotely sensed data. Remote sensing can contribute an image base map or geologic and hydrologic parameters, derived from the image, to the multiple data sets in a hydrologic information system. Various merging and integration techniques may then be used to obtain information from these data sets.

  3. HANFORD SITE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA FOR CALENDAR YEAR 1989 - GROUND WATER

    SciTech Connect

    Bryce, R. W.; Gorst, W. R.

    1990-12-01

    In a continuing effort for the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. This document contains the data listing of monitoring results obtained by PNL and Westinghouse Hanford Company during the period January through December 1989. Samples taken during 1989 were analyzed and reported by United States Testing Company, Inc., Richland, Washington. The data listing contains all chemical results (above contractual reporting limits) and radiochemical results (for which the result is larger than two times the total error).

  4. RISK-BASED PROCEDURES USED TO SUPPORT REMEDIATION OF A GROUND WATER- SURFACE WATER TRANSITION ZONE CONTAMINATED WITH CHLOROBENZENES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk-Based Procedures Used to Support Remediation of a Ground Water - Surface Water Transition Zone Contaminated with Chlorobenzenes (Eastland Woolen Mill Superfund Site, Corinna, ME) In-situ and laboratory toxicity, sediment-toxicity identification evaluation (SIE), benthic macr...

  5. Monitoring enzymatic reactions with in situ sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Ian T.; Iordanov, V.; Kroon, Arthur; Dietrich, Heidi R. C.; Moerman, R.; van den Doel, L. R.; van Dedem, G. W. K.; Bossche, Andre; Gray, Bonnie L.; Sarro, Lina; Verbeek, Piet W.; van Vliet, Lucas J.

    2003-07-01

    In previous publications and presentations we have described our construction of a laboratory-on-a-chip based on nanoliter capacity wells etched in silicon. We have described methods for dispensing reagents as well as samples, for preventing evaporation, for embedding electronics in each well to measure fluid volume per well in real-time, and for monitoring the production or consumption of NADH in enzyme-catalyzed reactions such as those found in the glycolytic pathway of yeast. In this paper we describe the use of light sensors (photodiodes) in each well to measure both fluorescence (such as that evidenced in NADH) as well as bioluminescence (such as evidenced in ATP assays). We show that our detection limit for NADH fluorescence in 100 μM and for ATP/luciferase bioluminescence is 2.4 μM.

  6. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ``ground-water pathway,`` which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

  7. Self-potential and Complex Conductivity Monitoring of In Situ Hydrocarbon Remediation in Microbial Fuel Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Revil, A.; Ren, Z.; Karaoulis, M.; Mendonca, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of soil and groundwater in both non-aqueous phase liquid and dissolved forms generated from spills and leaks is a wide spread environmental issue. Traditional cleanup of hydrocarbon contamination in soils and ground water using physical, chemical, and biological remedial techniques is often expensive and ineffective. Recent studies show that the microbial fuel cell (MFC) can simultaneously enhance biodegradation of hydrocarbons in soil and groundwater and yield electricity. Non-invasive geophysical techniques such as self-potential (SP) and complex conductivity (induced polarization) have shown the potential to detect and characterize the nature of electron transport mechanism of in situ bioremediation of organic contamination plumes. In this study, we deployed both SP and complex conductivity in lab scale MFCs to monitor time-laps geophysical response of degradation of hydrocarbons by MFC. Two different sizes of MFC reactors were used in this study (DI=15 cm cylinder reactor and 94.5cm x 43.5 cm rectangle reactor), and the initial hydrocarbon concentration is 15 g diesel/kg soil. SP and complex conductivity measurements were measured using non-polarizing Ag/AgCl electrodes. Sensitivity study was also performed using COMSOL Multiphysics to test different electrode configurations. The SP measurements showed stronger anomalies adjacent to the MFC than locations afar, and both real and imaginary parts of complex conductivity are greater in areas close to MFC than areas further away and control samples without MFC. The joint use of SP and complex conductivity could in situ evaluate the dynamic changes of electrochemical parameters during this bioremediation process at spatiotemporal scales unachievable with traditional sampling methods. The joint inversion of these two methods to evaluate the efficiency of MFC enhanced hydrocarbon remediation in the subsurface.

  8. Agricultural chemicals in Iowa's ground water, 1982-95: What are the trends?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koplin, Dana W.; Hallberg, George; Sneck-Fahrer, D. A.; Libra, Robert

    1997-01-01

    The Iowa Department of Natural Resources. Geological Survey Bureau: the University of Iowa Hygienic Laboratory; and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have been working together to address this question. As part of the Iowa Ground-Water Monitoring Program (IGWM). water samples have been collected from selected Iowa municipal wells since 1982. An examination of this data identified two trends: (1) concentrations of atrazine in Iowa's ground water generally were decreasing over time, and (2) concentrations of metolachlor generally were increasing. Continuing ground-water sampling can determine if these trends represent long-term changes in chemical concentrations.

  9. Use of Microgravity to Assess the Effects of El Nino on Ground-Water Storage in Southern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, John T.C.; Pool, Donald R.

    1998-01-01

    The availability of ground water is of extreme importance in areas, such as southern Arizona, where it is the main supply for agricultural, industrial, or domestic purposes. Where ground-water use exceeds recharge, monitoring is critical for managing water supplies. Typically, monitoring has been done by measuring water levels in wells; however, this technique only partially describes ground-water conditions in a basin. A new application of geophysical technology is enabling U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists to measure changes in the amount of water in an aquifer using a network of microgravity stations. This technique enables a direct measurement of ground-water depletion and recharge. In Tucson, Arizona, residents have relied solely upon ground water for most of their needs since the 19th century. Water levels in some wells in the Tucson area have declined more than 200 ft in the past 50 years. Similar drops in water levels have occurred elsewhere in Arizona. In response to the overdrafting of ground water, the State of Arizona passed legislation designed to attain 'safe yield,' which is defined as a balance between ground-water withdrawals and annual recharge of aquifers. To monitor progress in complying with the legislation, ground-water withdrawals are measured and estimated, and annual recharge is estimated. The Tucson Basin and Avra Valley are two ground-water basins that form the Tucson Active Management Area (TAMA), which by State statute must attain 'safe yield' by the year 2025.

  10. Ground Water Level Measurements in Selected Boreholes Near the Site of the Proposed Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Page, H. Scott

    2007-11-29

    The Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies (HRC) at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) acquired quarterly and continuous data on water levels from approximately 26 boreholes that comprise a periodic monitoring network (Table 1) between October 2003 and September 2007. During this period we continued to observe and analyze short and long-term ground water level trends in periodically monitored boreholes. In this report we summarize and discuss four key findings derived from analysis of water level data acquired during this period: 1. Rapid ground water level rise after storm events in Forty Mile Canyon; 2. Seismically-induced ground water level fluctuations; 3. A sample of synoptic observations and barometric influences on short term fluctuations; and 4. Long term ground water level trends observed from mid-2001 through late-2005.

  11. Ground water work breakdown structure dictionary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the activities that are necessary to assess in ground water remediation as specified in the UMTRA Project. These activities include the following: site characterization; remedial action compliance and design documentation; environment, health, and safety program; technology assessment; property access and acquisition activities; site remedial actions; long term surveillance and licensing; and technical and management support.

  12. PRIORITIZATION OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINANTS AND SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to identify chemical, physical, bacteriological, and viral contaminants, and their sources, which present the greatest health threat in public ground water supplies in the USA; and to classify (prioritize) such contaminants and relative to their...

  13. Magnificent Ground Water Connection. [Sample Activities].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Water conservation and usage is an important concept in science. This document, geared specifically to New England, provides many activities for protecting and discussing ground water situations. Sample activities for grades K-6 include: (1) All the Water in the World; (2) The Case of the Disappearing Water; (3) Deep Subjects--Wells and Ground…

  14. GROUND-WATER DATA MANAGEMENT WITH STORET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual has been designed to address both ground-water quality data and the related well site characteristics. For non-USGS wells, appropriate fields have been added to include the information on site characteristics. Much of the information has been adopted from the site char...

  15. Ground Water Flow No Longer A Mystery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehr, Jay H.; Pettyjohn, Wayne A.

    1976-01-01

    Examined are the physical characteristics of ground water movement. Some potential pollution problems are identified. Models are used to explain mathematical and hydraulic principles of flow toward a pumping well and an effluent stream, flow around and through lenticular beds, and effects of pumping on the water table. (Author/MR)

  16. Selenium in Oklahoma ground water and soil

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.; Vir Maggon, D.

    1991-03-30

    Selenium with a consumption of 2 liters per day (5). The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the concentrations of Se in Oklahoma ground water and soil samples. (2) to map the geographical distribution of Se species in Oklahoma. (3) to relate groundwater depth, pH and geology with concentration of Se.

  17. Research opportunities in interdisciplinary ground-water science in the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, W.E.; Caine, J.S.; Wilcox, D.A.; McWreath, H.C.; Nicholas, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    This report is written for the scientifically literate reader but is not limited to those who are involved in ground-water science. The report is intended to encourage U.S. Geological Survey scientists to develop a sense of excitement about ground-water science in the agency, to inform scientists about existing and potential ground-water science opportunities, and to engage scientists and managers in interdisciplinary discussions and collaboration. The report is intended for use by U.S. Geological Survey and Department of the Interior management to formulate long-term ground-water science programs and to continue sustained support of ground-water monitoring and research, some of which may not have an immediate impact. Finally, the report can be used to communicate the U.S. Geological Survey's vision of ground-water science to Congress, partners, other agencies, and the research community at large with the goals of enhancing collaborative opportunities, sharing information, and maintaining dialogue regarding the directions of U.S. Geological Survey ground-water science.

  18. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain Region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 22

    SciTech Connect

    La Camera, R.J.; Westenburg, C.L.

    1994-08-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site-Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 36 sites, ground-water discharge at 6 sites, ground-water quality at 19 sites, and ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented. Data on ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals collected by other agencies (or as part of other programs) are included to further indicate variations through time at selected monitoring locations. Data are included in this report from 1910 through 1992.

  19. Precipitation; ground-water age; ground-water nitrate concentrations, 1995-2002; and ground-water levels, 2002-03 in Eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchard, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    wells during 1995, 1997, and (or) 1998. Nitrate concentrations in two wells were larger than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water regulation of 10 milligrams per liter in 1998 and in 2001. Ground-water levels were measured during June and July 2002 and during June, July, and August 2003 in 18 monitoring wells. The median change in water level for all 18 wells was a decline of 2.03 feet.

  20. MTBE and gasoline hydrocarbons in ground water of the United States.

    PubMed

    Moran, Michael J; Zogorski, John S; Squillace, Paul J

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and gasoline hydrocarbons was examined in three types of studies of ground water conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey: major aquifer surveys, urban land-use studies, and agricultural land-use studies. The detection frequency of MTBE was dependent on the study type, with the highest detection frequency in urban land-use studies. Only 13 ground water samples from all study types, or 0.3%, had concentrations of MTBE that exceeded the lower limit of the U.S. EPA's Drinking-Water Advisory. The detection frequency of MTBE was highest in monitoring wells located in urban areas and in public supply wells. The detection frequency of any gasoline hydrocarbon also was dependent on study type and generally was less than the detection frequency of MTBE. The probability of detecting MTBE in ground water was strongly associated with population density, use of MTBE in gasoline, and recharge. Ground water in areas with high population density, in areas where MTBE is used as a gasoline oxygenate, and in areas with high recharge rates had a greater probability of MTBE occurrence. Also, ground water from public supply wells and shallow ground water underlying urban land-use areas had a greater probability of MTBE occurrence compared to ground water from domestic wells and ground water underlying rural land-use areas. The probability of detecting MTBE in ground water was weakly associated with the density of leaking underground storage tanks, soil permeability, and aquifer consolidation, and only concentrations of MTBE >0.5 microg/L were associated with dissolved oxygen. PMID:16029187

  1. Ground-water data for Georgia, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, J.S.; Peck, M.F.; Longsworth, S.A.; McFadden, K.W.

    1984-01-01

    Continuous water-level records from 134 wells and more than 700 water-level measurements made in Georgia during 1983 provide the basic data for this report. Selected wells illustrate the effects that changes in recharge and pumping have had on the various ground-water resources in the State. Daily mean water levels are shown in hydrographs for 1983. Monthly means are shown for the 10-year period 1974-83. Mean annual water levels ranged from 9 feet higher to 6 feet lower in 1983 than in 1982. Water-quality samples are collected periodically throughout Georgia and analyzed as part of areal and regional ground-water studies. Along the coast, chloride concentrations in the upper and lower water-bearing zones of the Floridan aquifer system generally remained steady in the Brunswick and Hilton Head Island areas. (USGS)

  2. Ground-water data for Georgia, 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, J.S.; Longsworth, S.A.; McFadden, K.W.; Peck, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    Continuous water-level records from 155 wells and more than 800 water-level measurements made in Georgia during 1984 provide the basic data for this report. Selected wells illustrate the effects that changes in recharge and pumping have had on the various ground-water resources in the State. Daily mean water levels are shown in hydrographs for 1984. Monthly means are shown for the 10-year period 1975-84. Mean annual water levels ranged from 7 feet lower to 7 feet higher in 1984 than in 1983. Water-quality samples are collected periodically throughout Georgia and analyzed as part of a real and regional ground-water studies. Along the coast, chloride concentrations in the Floridan aquifer system generally remained steady. (USGS)

  3. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water investigations are carried out to fulfill the requirements for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to meet the requirements of DOE Orders. Investigations are also performed for various clients to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). National standards including procedures published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the US Geological Survey were utilized in developing the procedures contained in this manual.

  4. Ground water maps of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, G.L.; Harris, S.F.; Hartman, M.J.

    1990-12-01

    This report presents the results of the June 1990, ground water level measurement program at the 100 Areas and 200 Areas of the Hanford Site (Figure 1). The water levels beneath these areas are measured regularly on a semiannual basis and the data received are used to produce the following set of maps for public release. For clarity, the locating prefixes have been omitted from all well numbers shown on the maps. Wells in the 100 Areas have the prefix 199; wells in the 200 Areas have the prefix 299, and the wells outside these areas have the prefix 699. Ground Water Maps of the Hanford Site is prepared by the Geosciences Group, Environmental Division, Westinghouse Hanford Company, for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. 1 ref., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Ground-water provinces of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert

    1962-01-01

    As part of a study of the status of investigations and development of ground water in Brazil, made under the auspices of the United States International Cooperation Administration and with the cooperation of the Government of Brazil, the country was divided into seven ground-water provinces. The identification and delineation of the provinces were based on the regional distribution of the dominant geologic units which are known or inferred to have distinctive water-bearing characteristics. Three of the provinces, covering most of the country, are underlain by Precambrian crystalline rocks. Three others coincide in part with four extensive sedimentary basins--the Parnaiba or Maranhfio basin and the contiguous Sao Francisco basin in the northeast and east, the Amazon basin in the north and northwest, and the Paranfi basin in the south and southwest. In addition, the narrow, discontinuous coastal plain is considered as a province. the occurrence of ground water is discussed briefly, and pertinent data are given on the more important aquifers, together with information on some existing wells. Because of the widespread distribution of crystalline rocks of low permeability, it is difficult in many areas to develop large or even adequate ground-water supplies. In general, satisfactory supplies of water are available in most of the rest of the country. Some problems include the relative deficiency of rainfall in the northeast together with the occurrence, in parts of this region, of mineralized water in the crystalline rocks. Also, there is a potential problem of excessive lowering of water levels and interference among wells in the intensively developed area of the city of Sao Paulo.

  6. Ground water and the rural homeowner

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, Roger M.

    1988-01-01

    As the salesmen sang in the musical The Music Man, "You gotta know the territory." This saying is also true when planning to buy or build a house. Learn as much as possible about the land, the water supply, and the septic system of the house before buying or building. Do not just look at the construction aspects or the beauty of the home and surroundings. Be sure to consider the environmental conditions around and beneath the site as well. Try to visit the site under adverse conditions, such as during heavy rain or meltwater runoff, to observe the drainage characteristics, particularly the condition of the basement. Many of the conditions discussed in this book, such as lowered well-water levels, flooded basements, and contamination from septic systems, are so common that rural families often have to deal with one or more of them. The purpose of this book is to awaken an interest in ground water and an awareness of where it is available, how it moves, how people can adjust to its patterns to avoid problems, and how it can be protected and used wisely. This booklet provides both present and prospective rural homeowners, particularly those in the glaciated northern parts of the United States, with a basic but comprehensive description of ground water. It also presents problems one may expect to encounter with ground water and some solutions or suggestions for help with these problems.

  7. Ground water and the rural homeowner

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, Roger M.

    1994-01-01

    As the salesmen sang in the musical The Music Man, "You gotta know the territory." This saying is also true when planning to buy or build a house. Learn as much as possible about the land, the water supply, and the septic system of the house before buying or building. Do not just look at the construction aspects or the beauty of the home and surroundings. Be sure to consider the environmental conditions around and beneath the site as well. Try to visit the site under adverse conditions, such as during heavy rain or meltwater runoff, to observe the drainage characteristics, particularly the condition of the basement. Many of the conditions discussed in this book, such as lowered well-water levels, flooded basements, and contamination from septic systems, are so common that rural families often have to deal with one or more of them. The purpose of this book is to awaken an interest in ground water and an awareness of where it is available, how it moves, how people can adjust to its patterns to avoid problems, and how it can be protected and used wisely. This booklet provides both present and prospective rural homeowners, particularly those in the glaciated northern parts of the United States, with a basic but comprehensive description of ground water. It also presents problems one may expect to encounter with ground water and some solutions or suggestions for help with these problems.

  8. Radiological status of the ground water beneath the Hanford Site, January-December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, P.A.; Cline, C.S.; Prater, L.S.

    1982-04-01

    During 1981, 299 monitoring wells were sampled at various times for radionuclide chemical contaminants. This report is one of a series prepared annually to document and evaluate the status of ground water at the Hanford Site. Two substances, tritium and nonradioactive nitrate, are easily transported in ground water; therefore, these substances are used as primary tracers to monitor the movement of contaminated ground water. Data collected during 1981 describe the movement of tritium and the nonradioactive nitrate plumes as well as their response to the influences of ground-water flow, ionic dispersion, and radioactive decay. The gross beta (/sup 106/Ru) levels have become so low that it will no longer be considered a major radionuclide contaminant. The tritium plume continues to show increasing concentrations near the Columbia River. While it is mapped as having reached the Columbia River, its contribution to the river has not been distinguished from other sources at this time. This plume shows much the same configuration as in 1977, 1978, 1979, and 1980. The size of the nitrate plume appears stable. Concentrations of nitrate in the vicinity of the 100-H Area continue to be high as a result of past leaks from the evaporation facility. The overall quality of the ground water at the Hanford Site is generally comparable to that of other ground waters in eastern Washington. Any exceptions to this statement will be noted in this report.

  9. Technical approach for the management of UMTRA ground water investigation-derived wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    During characterization, remediation, or monitoring activities of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, ground water samples are collected to assess the extent and amount of waterborne contamination that might have come from the mill tailings. This sampling sometimes occurs in contaminated areas where ground water quality has been degraded. Ground water sampling activities may result in field-generated wastes that must be disposed of in a manner protective of human health and the environment. During ground water sampling, appropriate measures must be taken to dispose of presampling purge water and well development water that is pumped to flush out any newly constructed wells. Additionally, pumping tests may produce thousands of gallons of potentially contaminated ground water that must be properly managed. In addition to the liquid wastes, there is the potential for bringing contaminated soils to the ground surface during the drilling and installation of water wells in areas where the subsurface soils may be contaminated. These soils must be properly managed as well. This paper addresses the general technical approach that the UMTRA Project will follow in managing field-generated wastes from well drilling, development, sampling, and testing. It will provide guidance for the preparation of Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for the management and disposal of field-generated wastes from ground water monitoring and remediation activities.

  10. Physico-chemical changes of the ground waters related to the 2011 El Hierro magmatic reactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionis, S.; Melián, G.; Padrón, E.; Padilla, G.; Nolasco, D.; Rodríguez, F.; Hernández, I.; Peraza, D.; Barrancos, J.; Hernández, P.; Calvo, D.; Pérez, N.

    2012-04-01

    The island of El Hierro (278 Km2), is the smallest, the southwesternmost and the youngest island (˜1.12 My) of the Canarian archipelago. The main geological characteristics of El Hierro consist on the presence of three convergent ridges of volcanic cones on a truncated trihedron shape and giant landslides between the three rift zones, being the most recent El Golfo on the northwest flank of the island. On July 2011 an anomalous seismic activity at Hierro Island started and suggested the initial stage of a volcanic unrest in the volcanic system. On October 10, after the occurrence of more than 10,000 earthquakes, a submarine eruption started. Evidences of this submarine volcanic eruption were visible on the sea surface to the south of La Restinga village, at the south of the island, in the form of large light-green coloured area, turbulent gas emission and the appearance of steamy volcanic fragments three days later. As part of its volcanic surveillance activities, the Instituto Volcanologico de Canarias (INVOLCAN) started a hydrogeochemical monitoring program on August 2011 in order to evaluate the temporal evolution of several physico-chemical parameters of the ground water system of El Hierro. Four observation sites were selected: three wells on the north of the island, where the seismic activity was located at the beginning of the volcano-seismic unrest (SIMO, FRON and PADO) and one horizontal well (gallery) in the south (TACO). Ground water sampling is being regularly collected, three times per week, at each observation site, and in-situ measurements of pH, conductivity and temperature measurements are performed. After 6 month of monitoring, no significant changes have been observed on pH and temperature measurements from all the observation sites. However, clear sharp decrease of conductivity was observed at SIMO on October 10 when the seismic tremor started. In addition, the strongest conductivity decrease pattern was observed later on at SIMO and PADO on

  11. Simulation of ground-water flow and areas contributing ground water to production wells, Cadillac, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoard, Christopher J.; Westjohn, David B.

    2005-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water for domestic, municipal, and industrial use within the northwest section of Michigan's Lower Peninsula. Because of the importance of this resource, numerous communities including the city of Cadillac in Wexford County, Michigan, have begun local wellhead protection programs. In these programs, communities protect their ground-water resources by identifying the areas that contribute water to production wells, identifying potential sources of contamination, and developing methods to cooperatively manage and minimize threats to the water supply. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Cadillac, simulated regional ground-water flow and estimated areas contributing recharge and zones of transport to the production well field. Ground-water flow models for the Clam River watershed, in Wexford and Missaukee Counties, were developed using the U.S. Geological Survey modular three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model (MODFLOW 2000). Ground-water flow models were calibrated using the observation, sensitivity, and parameter estimation packages of MODFLOW 2000. Ground-water-head solutions from calibrated flow models were used in conjunction with MODPATH, a particle-tracking program, to simulate regional ground-water flow and estimate areas contributing recharge and zones of transport to the Cadillac production-well field for a 10-year period. Model simulations match the conceptual model in that regional ground-water flow in the deep ground-water system is from southeast to northwest across the watershed. Areas contributing water were determined for the optimized parameter set and an alternate parameter set that included increased recharge and hydraulic conductivity values. Although substantially different hydrologic parameters (assumed to represent end-member ranges of realistic hydrologic parameters) were used in alternate numerical simulations, simulation results differ little in predictions of

  12. In situ sensor techniques in modern bioprocess monitoring.

    PubMed

    Beutel, Sascha; Henkel, Steffen

    2011-09-01

    New reactor concepts as multi-parallel screening systems or disposable bioreactor systems for decentralized and reproducible production increase the need for new and easy applicable sensor technologies to access data for process control. These sophisticated reactor systems require sensors to work with the lowest sampling volumes or, even better, to measure directly in situ, but in situ sensors are directly incorporated into a reactor or fermenter within the sterility barrier and have therefore to stand the sterilization procedures. Consequently, these in situ sensor technologies should enable the measurement of multi-analytes simultaneously online and in real-time at a low price for the robust sensing element. Current research therefore focuses on the implementation of noninvasive spectroscopic and optical technologies, and tries to employ them through fiber optics attached to disposable sensing connectors. Spectroscopic methods reach from ultraviolet to infrared and further comprising fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy. Also, optic techniques like microscopy are adapted for the direct use in bioreactor systems (Ulber et al. in Anal Bioanal Chem 376:342-348, 2003) as well as various electrochemical methods (Joo and Brown in Chem Rev 108:638-651, 2008). This review shows the variety of modern in situ sensing principles in bioprocess monitoring with emphasis on spectroscopic and optical techniques and the progress in the adaption to latest reactor concepts. PMID:21785932

  13. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota, evaluates the potential impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site. This contamination is a result of the uraniferous lignite ashing process, when coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified only for constituents introduced by the processing activities and not for the constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Background ground water, separate from any site-related contamination, imposes a percentage of the overall risk from ground water ingestion in the Bowman site vicinity. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to address soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project involves the determination of the extent of soil contamination and design of an engineered disposal cell for long-term storage of contaminated materials. The UMTRA Ground Water Project evaluates ground water contamination. Based on results from future site monitoring activities as defined in the site observational work plan and results from this risk assessment, the DOE will propose an approach for managing contaminated ground water at the Bowman site.

  14. Nutrient Enrichment in Estuaries from Discharge of Shallow Ground Water, Mt. Desert Island, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Culbertson, Charles W.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Caldwell, James M.

    2007-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment from atmospheric deposition, agricultural activities, wildlife, and domestic sources is a concern at Acadia National Park because of the potential problem of water-quality degradation and eutrophication in its estuaries. Water-quality degradation has been observed at the Park?s Bass Harbor Marsh estuary but not in Northeast Creek estuary. Previous studies at Acadia National Park have estimated nutrient inputs to estuaries from atmospheric deposition and surface-water runoff, but the importance of shallow ground water that may contain nutrients derived from domestic or other sources is unknown. Northeast Creek and Bass Harbor Marsh estuaries were studied to (1) identify shallow ground-water seeps, (2) assess the chemistry of the water discharged from selected seeps, and (3) assess the chemistry of ground water in shallow ground-water hyporheic zones. The hyporheic zone is defined here as the region beneath and lateral to a stream bed, where there is mixing of shallow ground water and surface water. This study also provides baseline chemical data for ground water in selected bedrock monitoring wells and domestic wells on Mt. Desert Island. Water samples were analyzed for concentrations of nutrients, wastewater compounds, dissolved organic carbon, pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature and specific conductance. Samples from bedrock monitoring wells also were analyzed for alkalinity, major cations and anions, and trace metals. Shallow ground-water seeps to Northeast Creek and Bass Harbor Marsh estuaries at Acadia National Park were identified and georeferenced using aerial infrared digital imagery. Monitoring included the deployment of continuously recording temperature and specific conductance sensors in the seep discharge zone to access marine or freshwater signatures related to tidal flooding, gradient-driven shallow ground-water flow, or shallow subsurface flow related to precipitation events. Many potential shallow ground-water discharge zones were

  15. EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF GROUND WATER EXTRACTION SYSTEMS (JOURNAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most common process for remediating contaminated ground water is extraction and treatment. Data from 19 ongoing and completed ground water extraction systems were collected and analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of this process in achieving cleanup concentration goals for...

  16. Remediation of dichloromethane (DCM)-contaminated ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Flathman, P.E.; Jerger, D.E.; Woodhull, P.M. )

    1992-08-01

    This case history describes the physical and biological treatment of dichloromethane (DCM)-contaminated ground water following the rupture of an underground pipeline which contaminated an estimated 11,000 m[sup 3] (14,000 yd[sup 3]) of soil and ground water in the early fall of 1983. Air stripping DCM from recovered ground water was initiated and provided an estimated 97% reduction in the ground water concentration of DCM. When it became evident that physical treatment alone would no longer be effective in removing residual DCM from the ground water environment, the practice of air stripping DCM from recovered ground water was terminated. Biological treatment was initiated and provided greater than a 500,000-fold reduction in the ground water concentration of DCM. Biological treatment had far exceeded the ability of physical treatment along to remediate a ground water environment contaminated with a biodegradable contaminant. 14 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. In situ monitoring with Tradescantia around nuclear power plants.

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, S

    1981-01-01

    Highly sensitive mutational responses of the stamen-hair system of some Tradescantia clones heterozygous for flower color (blue/pink, the blue being dominant) to low-level radiation and chemical mutagens, as demonstrated in the last decade, seem to endorse this system to be the most promising biological tester for detecting the genetic effects of mutagens at low levels. Two triploid (thus sterile) clones, KU 7 and KU 9, have been established as those suitable for in situ monitoring of environmental mutagens. In situ monitoring with such Tradescantia clones was first tried in 1974 around a nuclear power plant in Japan, then has been repeated until 1979 around more nuclear plants. About 260,000 to 1,570,000 stamen hairs were observed per year per nuclear plant (about 12-million hairs in total), and the data of pink mutation frequency were analyzed statistically. Significantly increased mutation frequencies were observed and were correlated to the operation periods of the nuclear facilities and to predominant wind direction, but not to other environmental factors. Considering physical monitoring data of radiation dose in the air, internal exposure due to incorporation and concentration of man-made radioactive nuclides seems to be of a greater importance in increasing mutation incidence. PMID:7460878

  18. Direct ground water flow direction and velocity measurements using the colloidal borescope

    SciTech Connect

    Ferry, R.A.; Rueth, L.R.; Landgraf, R.K.

    1995-07-01

    The colloidal borescope is an in situ instrument capable of directly observing suspended colloidal size particles (1 to 10 {mu}m) and determining ground water flow direction and velocity in an open borehole or monitor well in real time. In addition, the borescope can be used to investigate colloid mobilization during well sampling and the influence of pumping, tides, and subsurface drains. The fixed-focus colloidal borescope was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Grand Junction (ORNL-GJ) in Colorado, and has been used to characterize ground water flow at several DOE facilities including Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Kansas City, Fernald, Savannah River, Hanford, Portsmouth, and Paducah. The borescope consists of a video camera, compass, optical 14OX magnification lens, and illumination source, all encased in a stainless steel, waterproof housing. The colloidal borescope is lowered to the desired depth in the well and video images of colloids are tracked by a Video Image Analysis System (VIAS) which uses a PC computer with a video frame-grabber board to digitize up to 256 colloids every 4 seconds. The VIAS analyses the digitized video images and calculates the number, size, flow direction, and flow rate of the colloids. These data are recorded on the PC hard drive and plotted. Two borescopes have been used at the LLNL facilities: the original fixed-focus borescope instrument with software designed by the ORNL-GJ, and the remote-focus, variable-illumination borescope with particle image processing LabView software designed by LLNL. Both instruments function similarly, however, the remote-focus borescope provides a 500-mm focal range, variable illumination for better particle tracking, a flux-gate compass, an alpha-numeric image encoder, and LabView processing software that provides several real-time image processing options and digital sampling frequencies. A typical borescope log is shown.

  19. Regional Analysis of Ground-Water Recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.

    2007-01-01

    A modeling analysis of runoff and ground-water recharge for the arid and semiarid southwestern United States was performed to investigate the interactions of climate and other controlling factors and to place the eight study-site investigations into a regional context. A distributed-parameter water-balance model (the Basin Characterization Model, or BCM) was used in the analysis. Data requirements of the BCM included digital representations of topography, soils, geology, and vegetation, together with monthly time-series of precipitation and air-temperature data. Time-series of potential evapotranspiration were generated by using a submodel for solar radiation, taking into account topographic shading, cloudiness, and vegetation density. Snowpack accumulation and melting were modeled using precipitation and air-temperature data. Amounts of water available for runoff and ground-water recharge were calculated on the basis of water-budget considerations by using measured- and generated-meteorologic time series together with estimates of soil-water storage and saturated hydraulic conductivity of subsoil geologic units. Calculations were made on a computational grid with a horizontal resolution of about 270 meters for the entire 1,033,840 square-kilometer study area. The modeling analysis was composed of 194 basins, including the eight basins containing ground-water recharge-site investigations. For each grid cell, the BCM computed monthly values of potential evapotranspiration, soil-water storage, in-place ground-water recharge, and runoff (potential stream flow). A fixed percentage of runoff was assumed to become recharge beneath channels operating at a finer resolution than the computational grid of the BCM. Monthly precipitation and temperature data from 1941 to 2004 were used to explore climatic variability in runoff and ground-water recharge. The selected approach provided a framework for classifying study-site basins with respect to climate and dominant recharge

  20. Ground water exfiltration in a river oxbow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suck, M.; Nützmann, G.; Lewandowski, J.

    2009-04-01

    This paper deals with the quantification of the exchange between ground water and surface water in a river oxbow. Implementation and evaluation of the study site are based upon a conceptual model, in which exfiltration into the oxbow and mainly into the adjacent river Spree are supposed as major transport processes. A clogging mud layer in the oxbow with its low hydraulic conductivity controls exfiltration and is the highest hydraulic resistance in the considered aquatic system. The measurement of temperature depth profiles within that layer was one of the methods applied to measure groundwater exfiltration. Because of the different groundwater and surface water temperatures there are temperature differences between the upper and lower boundary of the mud layer. Depending on the extent of ground water exfiltration that depth profile is more or less curved. By adaptation of an analytical solution to the plotted temperature depth profiles the flux rates were calculated. A supplementary method to measure exfiltration, the seepage meter, is used for direct measurements of the flux rates. With that method the ground water flux which passes a defined cross section of the sediment-water boundary is collected. The evaluation of the results yields higher exfiltration rates for the temperature depth profiles than for the seepage meters. For the seepage meters the results show only a part of the actual flux rates because of several error sources. Despite those errors the comparison of the results from both methods shows a similar flux pattern with strong small-scale heterogeneities. At scales of few meters the measured flux rates fluctuate more than an order of magnitude. The flux rates near the bank are frequently higher than in the middle of the oxbow. However, the flux rates are controlled by the thickness of the clogging mud layer, its hydraulic conductivity, its heterogeneity and the water table differences between surface water and adjacent aquifer.

  1. Characterization of Climax granite ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Isherwood, D.; Harrar, J.; Raber, E.

    1982-08-01

    The Climax ground water fails to match the commonly held views regarding the nature of deep granitic ground waters. It is neither dilute nor in equilibrium with the granite. Ground-water samples were taken for chemical analysis from five sites in the fractured Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site. The waters are high in total dissolved solids (1200 to 2160 mg/L) and rich in sodium (56 to 250 mg/L), calcium (114 to 283 mg/L) and sulfate (325 to 1060 mg/L). Two of the samples contained relatively high amounts of uranium (1.8 and 18.5 mg/L), whereas the other three contained uranium below the level of detection (< 0.1 mg/L). The pH is in the neutral range (7.3 to 8.2). The differences in composition between samples (as seen in the wide range of values for the major constituents and total dissolved solids) suggest the samples came from different, independent fracture systems. However, the apparent trend of increasing sodium with depth at the expense of calcium and magnesium suggests a common evolutionary chemical process, if not an interconnected system. The waters appear to be less oxidizing with depth (+ 410 mV at 420 m below the surface vs + 86 mV at 565 m). However, with Eh measurements on only two samples, this correlation is questionable. Isotopic analyses show that the waters are of meteoric origin and that the source of the sulfate is probably the pyrite in the fracture-fill material. Analysis of the measured water characteristics using the chemical equilibrium computer program EQ3 indicates that the waters are not in equilibrium with the local mineral assemblage. The solutions appear to be supersaturated with respect to the mineral calcite, quartz, kaolinite, muscovite, k-feldspar, and many others.

  2. Elements in cottonwood trees as an indicator of ground water contaminated by landfill leachate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erdman, James A.; Christenson, Scott

    2000-01-01

    Ground water at the Norman Landfill Research Site is contaminated by a leachate plume emanating from a closed, unlined landfill formerly operated by the city of Norman, Oklahoma, Ground water contaminated by the leachate plume is known to be elevated in the concentration of many, organic and inorganic constituents. Specific conductance, alkalinity, chloride, dissolved organic carbon, boron, sodium, strontium, and deuterium in ground water are considered to be indicators of the leachate plume at this site. Leaf samples of broad-leafed cottonwood, Populus deltoides, were collected from 57 sites around the closed landfill. Cottonwood, a phreatophyte or “well plant,” functions as a & surrogate well and serves as a ground water quality sampler. The leaf samples were combusted to ash and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation for 35 elements and by prompt-gamma instrumental neutron activation, for boron. A monitoring well was located within a few meters of a sampled cottonwood tree at 15 of the 57 sites, and ground water samples were collected from these monitoring wells simultaneously with a leaf sample. The chemical analyses of the ground water and leaf samples from these 15 sites indicated that boron, bromine, sodium, and strontium concentrations in leaves were significantly correlated with leachate indicator constituents in ground water. A point-plot map of selected percentiles indicated high concentrations of boron, bromine, and sodium in leaf ash from sites downgradient of the most recent landfill and from older landfills nearby. Data from leaf analysis greatly extended the known areal extent of the leachate plume previously determined from a network of monitoring wells and geophysical surveys. This phytosgeochemical study provided a cost-effective method for assessing the extent of a leachate plume from an old landfill. Such a method may be useful as a preliminary sampling tool to guide the design of hydrogeochemical and geophysical studies.

  3. Denitrification: a Clean-Up Mechanism for High Nitrate Ground Water Near an Active Swine Facility?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, M. A.

    2001-05-01

    An active swine facility in south central Kansas appears to be cleaning up nitrate in regional ground water in an area with shallow ground water (<10 m), sandy soils, and irrigated and dry land row crop farming. This study used nitrogen stable isotopes and standard water chemistry to determine the impact of a bentonite lined hog lagoon on shallow ground-water chemistry. Regional ground water surrounding the facility had nitrate-nitrogen values routinely measured above 10 ppm. Chloride concentrations in the area ranged from 3 to 25 ppm and bicarbonate values ranged from 45 to 200 ppm. Two periods of sampling in the area showed nitrogen isotope values in the fertilizer range (<+2 to +8) and nitrate-N values above 10 ppm for all wells within a mile of a swine facility except for the monitoring well downgradient of the facility. This well had nitrate-N values of 4 to 5 ppm and nitrogen isotope values in the animal waste range (+13 to +20) which is similar to the value measured for the waste lagoon (+18). Chloride and bicarbonate values at all of the monitoring wells, except the well downgradient from the lagoon, were similar to the regional ground water. The lagoon water had >500 ppm chloride and >1400 ppm ammonium-N. The downgradient monitoring well had chloride values > 100 ppm and bicarbonate values above 400 ppm for the two sampling periods. Use of chloride ratios showed that approximately 30% of the water contributing to the downgradient well sample was from lagoon leakage. Preliminary calculations of the amount of bicarbonate resulting from denitrification processes, chloride ratios, and nitrogen isotope values suggest that the sampled water is a mixture of denitrified regional ground water plus lagoon water. Although the nitrate values near the swine facility appear to be decreasing, the long-term impact of increased salt load on the regional ground water is unknown at this time.

  4. Ground water in Myrtle Creek - Glendale area, Douglas County, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, F.J.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe briefly the occurence of ground water and to present ground-water information that will help water users, public officials, and planners to determine the probability of obtaining adequate quanitities of good-quality ground water in the Myrtle Creek-Glendale area.

  5. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  6. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  7. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  8. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  9. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  10. MICROSENSORS FOR IN-SITU CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL, AND RADIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MIXED WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A widespread need exists for portable, real-time, in-situ chemical, physical, and radiological sensors for the characterization and monitoring of mixed waste, ground water, contaminated soil and process streams. The applications range from monitoring plume containment and the res...

  11. Long-term effects of nitrogen fertilizer use on ground water nitrate in two small watersheds.

    PubMed

    Tomer, M D; Burkart, M R

    2003-01-01

    Changes in agricultural management can minimize NO3-N leaching, but then the time needed to improve ground water quality is uncertain. A study was conducted in two first-order watersheds (30 and 34 ha) in Iowa's Loess Hills. Both were managed in continuous corn (Zea mays L.) from 1964 through 1995 with similar N fertilizer applications (average 178 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)), except one received applications averaging 446 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) between 1969 and 1974. This study determined if NO3-N from these large applications could persist in ground water and baseflow, and affect comparison between new crop rotations implemented in 1996. Piezometer nests were installed and deep cores collected in 1996, then ground water levels and NO3-N concentrations were monitored. Tritium and stable isotopes (2H, 18O) were determined on 33 water samples in 2001. Baseflow from the heavily N-fertilized watershed had larger average NO3-N concentrations, by 8 mg L(-1). Time-of-travel calculations and tritium data showed ground water resides in these watersheds for decades. "Bomb-peak" precipitation (1963-1980) most influenced tritium concentrations near lower slope positions, while deep ground water was dominantly pre-1953 precipitation. Near the stream, greater recharge and mixed-age ground water was suggested by stable isotope and tritium data, respectively. Using sediment-core data collected from the deep unsaturated zone between 1972 and 1996, the increasing depth of a NO3-N pulse was related to cumulative baseflow (r2 = 0.98), suggesting slow downward movement of NO3-N since the first experiment. Management changes implemented in 1996 will take years to fully influence ground water NO3-N. Determining ground water quality responses to new agricultural practices may take decades in some watersheds. PMID:14674538

  12. Science to Help Understand and Manage Important Ground-Water Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nickles, James

    2008-01-01

    Throughout California, as pressure on water resources continues to grow, water-supply agencies are looking to the state?s biggest ?reservoir? ? its ground-water basins ? for supply and storage. To better utilize that resource, the Sweetwater Authority and other local partners, including the city of San Diego and Otay Water Districts, are working with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to develop the first comprehensive study of the coastal ground-water resources of southern San Diego County. USGS research is providing the integrated geologic and hydrologic knowledge necessary to help effectively utilize this resource on a coordinated, regional basis. USGS scientists are building a real-time well-monitoring network and gathering information about how the aquifers respond to different pumping and recharge-management strategies. Real-time ground-water levels are recorded every hour and are viewable on a project web site (http://ca.water.usgs.gov/sandiego/index.html). Data from the wells are helping to define the geology and hydrogeology of the area, define ground-water quality, and assess ground-water levels. The wells also are strategi-cally placed and designed to be usable by the local agencies for decades to come to help manage surface-water and ground-water operations. Additionally, the knowledge gained from the USGS study will help local, state, and federal agencies; water purveyors; and USGS scientists to understand the effects of urbanization on the local surface-water, ground-water, and biological resources, and to better critique ideas and opportuni-ties for additional ground-water development in the San Diego area.

  13. Wireless device for monitoring the temperature - moisture regime in situ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, Ján; Štofanik, Vladimír; Vretenár, Viliam; Kubičár, Ľudovít

    2014-05-01

    This contribution presents the wireless device for monitoring the temperature - moisture regime in situ. For the monitoring so called moisture sensor is used. Principle of moisture sensor is based on measuring the thermal conductivity. Moisture sensor has cylindrical shape with about 20 mm diameter and 20 mm length. It is made of porous material identical to the monitored object. The thermal conductivity is measured by hot-ball method. Hot-ball method is patented invention of the Institute of Physic SAS. It utilizes a small ball, diameter up to 2 mm, in which sensing elements are incorporated. The ball produces heat spreading into surrounding material, in our case into body of the moisture sensor. Temperature of the ball is measured simultaneously. Then change of the temperature, in steady state, is inversely proportional to the thermal conductivity. Such moisture sensor is inserted into monitored wall. Thermophysical properties of porous material are function of moisture. Moisture sensors are calibrated for dry and water saturated state. Whole the system is primarily intended to do long-term monitoring. Design of a new electronic device was needed for this innovative method. It covers all needed operations for measurement. For example energizing hot-ball sensor, measuring its response, storing the measured data and wireless data transmission. The unit is able to set parameters of measurement via wireless access as well. This contribution also includes the description of construction and another features of the wireless measurement system dedicated for this task. Possibilities and functionality of the system is demonstrated by actual monitoring of the tower of St. Martin's Cathedral in Bratislava. Correlations with surrounding meteorological conditions are presented. Some of them can be also measured by our system, right in the monitoring place.

  14. In situ ammonia analyzer for process control and environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Monlux, G.; Brand, J.A.; Zmarzly, P.

    1996-12-31

    An ammonia monitor designed for in situ smoke stack or exhaust duct applications is discussed here. A probe composed of a diffusion cell with a protected multipass optical measurement cavity provides the optical interaction with the sample. Other components of the system include signal processing electronics and an embedded PC104 computer platform. This instrument is useful in a wide variety of ammonia monitoring and process control applications, particularly ammonia-based NO{sub x} control technologies, such as selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR). The in situ design eliminates sample handling problems, associated with extractive analysis of ammonia, such as sample line adsorption and heated sample trains and cells. The sensor technology exploited in this instrument is second harmonic spectroscopy using a near infrared diode laser. Data collected during field trials involving both SCR and SNCR applications demonstrate the feasibility and robust operation of this instrument in traditionally problematic operating environments. The instrument can measure other gases by changing the wavelength, either by changing the diode operational set point or by changing the diode. In addition, with straightforward modification the instrument can measure multiple species.

  15. Water monitoring by optofluidic Raman spectroscopy for in situ applications.

    PubMed

    Persichetti, Gianluca; Bernini, Romeo

    2016-08-01

    The feasibility of water monitoring by Raman spectroscopy with a portable optofluidic system for in-situ applications has been successfully demonstrated. In the proposed approach, the sample under analysis is injected into a capillary nozzle in order to produce a liquid jet that acts as an optical waveguide. This jet waveguide provides an effective strategy to excite and collect the Raman signals arising from water contaminants due to the high refractive index difference between air and water. The proposed approach avoids any necessity of liquid container or flow cell and removes any background signal coming from the sample container commonly affects Raman measurements. Furthermore, this absence is a significant advantage for in situ measurements where fouling problems can be relevant and cleaning procedures are troublesome. The extreme simplicity and efficiency of the optical scheme adopted in our approach result in highly sensitive and rapid measurements that have been performed on different representative water pollutants. The experimental results demonstrate the high potentiality of our device in water quality monitoring and analysis. In particular, nitrate and sulfate are detected below the maximum contamination level allowed for drinking water, whereas a limit of detection of 40mg/l has been found for benzene. PMID:27216667

  16. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND... identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? (a) You...

  17. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND... identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? (a) You...

  18. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND... identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? (a) You...

  19. Guidelines for Evaluating Ground-Water Flow Models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Harbaugh, Arlen W.

    2004-01-01

    Ground-water flow modeling is an important tool frequently used in studies of ground-water systems. Reviewers and users of these studies have a need to evaluate the accuracy or reasonableness of the ground-water flow model. This report provides some guidelines and discussion on how to evaluate complex ground-water flow models used in the investigation of ground-water systems. A consistent thread throughout these guidelines is that the objectives of the study must be specified to allow the adequacy of the model to be evaluated.

  20. Potential effects of the Hawaii geothermal project on ground-water resources on the Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Sorey, M.L.; Colvard, E.M.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides data and information on the quantity and quality of ground-water resources in and adjacent to proposed geothermal development areas on the Island of Hawaii Geothermal project for the development of as much as 500 MW of electric power from the geothermal system in the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano. Data presented for about 31 wells and 8 springs describe the chemical, thermal, and hydraulic properties of the ground-water system in and adjacent to the East Rift Zone. On the basis of this information, potential effects of this geothermal development on drawdown of ground-water levels and contamination of ground-water resources are discussed. Significant differences in ground-water levels and in the salinity and temperature of ground water within the study area appear to be related to mixing of waters from different sources and varying degrees of ground-water impoundment by volcanic dikes. Near Pahoa and to the east, the ground-water system within the rift is highly transmissive and receives abundant recharge from precipitation; therefore, the relatively modest requirements for fresh water to support geothermal development in that part of the east rift zone would result in minimal effects on ground-water levels in and adjacent to the rift. To the southwest of Pahoa, dike impoundment reduces the transmissivity of the ground-water system to such an extent that wells might not be capable of supplying fresh water at rates sufficient to support geothermal operations. Water would have to be transported to such developments from supply systems located outside the rift or farther downrift. Contaminant migration resulting from well accidents could be rapid because of relatively high ground-water velocities in parts of the region. Hydrologic monitoring of observation wells needs to be continued throughout development of geothermal resources for the Hawaii Geothermal Project to enable the early detection of leakage and migration of geothermal fluids.

  1. Ground-Water Temperature, Noble Gas, and Carbon Isotope Data from the Espanola Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, Andrew H.

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water samples were collected from 56 locations throughout the Espanola Basin and analyzed for general chemistry (major ions and trace elements), carbon isotopes (delta 13C and 14C activity) in dissolved inorganic carbon, noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, and 3He/4He ratio), and tritium. Temperature profiles were measured at six locations in the southeastern part of the basin. Temperature profiles suggest that ground water generally becomes warmer with distance from the mountains and that most ground-water flow occurs at depths 50 years old, consistent with the 14C ages. Terrigenic He (Heterr) concentrations in ground water are high (log Delta Heterr of 2 to 5) throughout much of the basin. High Heterr concentrations are probably caused by in situ production in the Tesuque Formation from locally high concentrations of U-bearing minerals (Northeast zone only), or by upward diffusive/advective transport of crustal- and mantle-sourced He possibly enhanced by basement piercing faults, or by both. The 3He/4He ratio of Heterr (Rterr) is commonly high (Rterr/Ra of 0.3-2.0, where Ra is the 3He/4He ratio in air) suggesting that Espanola Basin ground water commonly contains mantle-sourced He. The 3He/4He ratio of Heterr is generally the highest in the western and southern parts of the basin, closest to the western border fault system and the Quaternary to Miocene volcanics of the Jemez Mountains and Cerros del Rio.

  2. Denitrification in the shallow ground water of a tile-drained, agricultural watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehnert, E.; Hwang, H.-H.; Johnson, T.M.; Sanford, R.A.; Beaumont, W.C.; Holm, T.R.

    2007-01-01

    Nonpoint-source pollution of surface water by N is considered a major cause of hypoxia. Because Corn Belt watersheds have been identified as major sources of N in the Mississippi River basin, the fate and transport of N from midwestern agricultural watersheds have received considerable interest. The fate and transport of N in the shallow ground water of these watersheds still needs additional research. Our purpose was to estimate denitrification in the shallow ground water of a tile-drained, Corn Belt watershed with fine-grained soils. Over a 3-yr period, N was monitored in the surface and ground water of an agricultural watershed in central Illinois. A significant amount of N was transported past the tile drains and into shallow ground water. The ground water nitrate was isotopically heavier than tile drain nitrate, which can be explained by denitrification in the subsurface. Denitrifying bacteria were found at depths to 10 m throughout the watershed. Laboratory and push-pull tests showed that a significant fraction of nitrate could be denitrified rapidly. We estimated that the N denitrified in shallow ground water was equivalent to 0.3 to 6.4% of the applied N or 9 to 27% of N exported via surface water. These estimates varied by water year and peaked in a year of normal precipitation after 2 yr of below average precipitation. Three years of monitoring data indicate that shallow ground water in watersheds with fine-grained soils may be a significant N sink compared with N exported via surface water. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  3. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain Region, Southern Nevada and Eastern California, Calendar year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, G.S.; Westenburg, C.L.

    1995-07-01

    Data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 34 sites, ground-water discharge at 6 sites, and groundwater withdrawals within Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and Amargosa Desert are presented for calendar year 1993. Data on ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals collected by other agencies (or as part of other programs) are included to further indicate variations through time at selected monitoring locations. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median or mean water-level altitudes, and the average or standard deviation of the water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar years 1992 and 1993.

  4. Perchlorate and nitrate in situ bioremediation of ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Strietelmeier, E. A.; Nuttall, H. Eric; Hatzinger, Paul; Goltz, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Nitrate and perchlorate are growing worldwide problems as mobile anionic groundwater contaminants. Biological rduction of nitrate and perchlorate in groundwater is under development as a technology to address these problems.

  5. Ground-water surveillance at the Hanford Site for CY 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Prater, L.S.; Rieger, J.T.; Cline, C.S.; Jensen, E.J.; Liikala, T.L.; Oster, K.R.

    1984-07-01

    Operations at the Hanford Site have resulted in the discharge of large volumes of process cooling water and other waste waters to the ground. These effluents contain low level of radioactive and chemical substances. During 1983, 328 monitoring wells were sampled at various times for radioactive and chemical constituents. Three of these constituents, specifically tritium, nitrate, and gross beta activity, were selected for detailed discussion in this report because they are more readily transported in the ground water than some of the other constituents. Transport of these constituents in the ground water has resulted in the formation of plumes that can be mapped by contouring the analytical data obtained from the monitoring wells. This report describes recent changes in the configuration of the tritium, nitrate and gross beta plumes. Changes or trends in contaminant levels in wells located within both the main plumes (originating from the 200 Areas) and the smaller plumes are discussed in this report. Two potential pathways for radionuclide transport from the ground water to the environmental are discussed in this report, and the radiological impacts are examined. In addition to describing the present status of the ground water beneath the Hanford Site, this report contains the results of studies conducted in support of the ground-water surveillance effort during CY 1983. 21 references, 26 figures, 5 tables.

  6. In-situ corrosivity monitoring of military hardware environments

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwala, V.S.

    1996-10-01

    A method to monitor corrosive conditions (environments) for military equipment was developed. The concept is based on the electrochemical principles of galvanic corrosion. It consisted of a novel thin film device (interdigitized bimetallic strips on a kapton polymer) which was galvanically coupled or short circuited through a zero resistance ammeter (ZRA) and interfaced to a custom design data acquisition system called Corrosion Monitoring System (CMS). The sensor`s unique design allowed the use of any metal as the active element or anode to form the galvanic couple, which enhanced sensor`s versatility and usefulness in almost any application. In most applications Cd-Au sensor was used. For in-situ corrosivity monitoring sensors were installed in the interior of the aircraft, hidden structures, avionics bays, and embedded under coatings and sealants. The test sites included: military bases, aircraft carrier flight decks, marine atmosphere and operational aircraft and weapons storage areas. The results show a significant correlation between the output of the sensors and the corrosive conditions present, and may become a basis for condition based maintenance of military hardware in the future.

  7. Two-Dimensional Ground Water Transport

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-03-05

    FRACFLO computes the two-dimensional, space, time dependent, convective dispersive transport of a single radionuclide in an unbounded single or multiple parallel fracture system with constant aperture. It calculates the one-dimensional diffusive transport into the rock matrix as well as the mass flux and cumulative mass flux at any point in the fracture. Steady-state isothermal ground water flow and parallel streamlines are assumed in the fracture, and the rock matrix is considered to be fully saturatedmore » with immobile water. The model can treat a single or multiple finite patch source or a Gaussian distributed source subject to a step or band release mode.« less

  8. An Online Interactive Map Service for Displaying Ground-Water Conditions in Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillman, Fred D; Leake, Stanley A.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Schonauer, Kurt T.

    2007-01-01

    Monitoring the availability of the nation's ground-water supplies is of critical importance to planners and water managers. The general public also has an interest in understanding the status of ground-water conditions, especially in the semi-arid Southwestern United States where much of the water used by municipalities and agriculture comes from the subsurface. Unlike surface-water indicators such as stage or discharge, ground-water conditions may be more difficult to assess and present. Individual well observations may only represent conditions in a limited area surrounding the well and wells may be screened over single or multiple aquifers, further complicating single-well measurement interpretations. Additionally, changes in ground-water conditions may involve time scales ranging from days to many years, depending on recharge, soil properties and depth to the water table. This lack of an easily identifiable ground-water property indicative of current conditions combined with differing time scales of water-level changes makes the presentation of ground-water conditions a difficult task, particularly on a regional basis. One approach is to spatially present several indicators of ground-water conditions that address different time scales and attributes of the aquifer systems. In this report, we describe a publicly-available online interactive map service that presents several different layers of ground-water-conditions information for the alluvial basins in the Lower Colorado River Basin in Arizona (http://montezuma.wr.usgs.gov/website/azgwconditions/). These data layers include wells experiencing water-level decline, wells experiencing water-level rise, recent trends in ground-water levels, change in water level since predevelopment and change in storage since predevelopment. Recent pumpage totals and projected population numbers are also provided for ground-water basins and counties in the region of the Lower Colorado River in Arizona along with a bibliography

  9. Toward In Situ Monitoring of Water Contamination by Nitroenergetic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Brandy J.; Leska, Iwona A.; Medina, Alejandro; Dyson, Norris F.; Nasir, Mansoor; Melde, Brian J.; Taft, Jenna R.; Charles, Paul T.

    2012-01-01

    We have previously described the application of novel porous organosilicate materials to the preconcentration of nitroenergetic targets from aqueous solution prior to HPLC analysis. The performance of the sorbents and the advantages of these types of materials over commercially available solid phase extraction sorbents have been demonstrated. Here, the development of systems for application of those sorbents to in situ monitoring is described. Considerations such as column pressure, particulate filtration, and component durability are discussed. The diameter of selected column housings, the sorbent bed depth, and the frits utilized significantly impact the utility of the sorbent columns in the prototype system. The impact of and necessity for improvements in the morphological characteristics of the sorbents as they relate to reduction in column pressure are detailed. The results of experiments utilizing a prototype system are presented. Data demonstrating feasibility for use of the sorbents in preconcentration prior to ion mobility spectrometry is also presented. PMID:23202195

  10. Status of ground water in the 1100 Area

    SciTech Connect

    Law, A.G.

    1990-12-01

    This document contains the results of monthly sampling of 1100 Area Wells and ground water monitoring. Included is a table that presents all of the results of monthly sampling and analyses between April 1989 and May 1990, for four constituents selected to be most indicative of the potential for contamination from US Department of Energy facilities. The samples were collected from the three wells near the city of Richland well field. Also included is a table that presents a listing of the analytical results from sampling and analyses of five wells between April 1989, and May 1990 in the 1100 Area. The detection limit and drinking water standards or maximum contaminant level are also listed in the tables for each constituent.

  11. Nitrate reduction during ground-water recharge, Southern High Plains, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryar, Alan E.; Macko, Stephen A.; Mullican, William F., III; Romanak, Katherine D.; Bennett, Philip C.

    2000-01-01

    In arid and semi-arid environments, artificial recharge or reuse of wastewater may be desirable for water conservation, but NO 3- contamination of underlying aquifers can result. On the semi-arid Southern High Plains (USA), industrial wastewater, sewage, and feedlot runoff have been retained in dozens of playas, depressions that focus recharge to the regionally important High Plains (Ogallala) aquifer. Analyses of ground water, playa-basin core extracts, and soil gas in an 860-km 2 area of Texas suggest that reduction during recharge limits NO 3- loading to ground water. Tritium and Cl - concentrations in ground water corroborate prior findings of focused recharge through playas and ditches. Typical δ15N values in ground water (>12.5‰) and correlations between δ15N and ln CNO -3-N suggest denitrification, but O 2 concentrations ≥3.24 mg l -1 indicate that NO 3- reduction in ground water is unlikely. The presence of denitrifying and NO 3--respiring bacteria in cores, typical soil-gas δ15N values <0‰, and decreases in NO 3--N/Cl - and SO 42-/Cl - ratios with depth in cores suggest that reduction occurs in the upper vadose zone beneath playas. Reduction may occur beneath flooded playas or within anaerobic microsites beneath dry playas. However, NO 3--N concentrations in ground water can still exceed drinking-water standards, as observed in the vicinity of one playa that received wastewater. Therefore, continued ground-water monitoring in the vicinity of other such basins is warranted.

  12. LOWER PAYETTE RIVER, IDAHO AGRICULTURE IRRIGATION WATER RETURN STUDY AND GROUND WATER EVALUATION, 1992-1993

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report covers the final 17 miles of the Payette River (17050112) and 32,000 acres of irrigated cropland referred to as the Lower Payette State Agricultural Water Quality Project. An in-depth surface and ground water monitoring effort was initiated in June 1992 and completed...

  13. APPROXIMATION OF BIODEGRADATION RATE CONSTANTS FOR MONOAROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (BTEX) IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two methods were used to approximate site-specific biodegradation rates of monoaromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes [BTEX]) dissolved in ground water. Both use data from monitoring wells and the hydrologic properties of the quifer to estimate a biode...

  14. SITE CHARACTERIZATION TO SUPPORT MODEL DEVELOPMENT FOR CONTAMINANTS IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of conceptual and predictive models is an important tool to guide site characterization in support of monitoring contaminants in ground water. The accuracy of predictive models is limited by the adequacy of the input data and the assumptions made to constrain mod...

  15. Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents and Fuel Components (BTEX and MTBE) in Ground Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored Natural Attenuation is widely used in the USA to deal with ground water contamination from fuel components such as the BTEX compounds or MTBE or TBA and from chlorinated solvents such as PCE, TCE, and TCA. This presentation reviews the theory and practice of MNA in the...

  16. Ground water quality assessment using multi-rectangular diagrams.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Niaz; Sen, Zekai; Ahmad, Manzoor

    2003-01-01

    A new graphical technique is proposed here for classifying chemical analyses of ground water. In this technique, a diagram is constructed using rectangular coordinates. The new diagram, called a multi-rectangular diagram (MRD), uses adjacent multi-rectangles in which each rectangle represents a specific ground water type. This new diagram has the capability to accommodate a large number of data sets. MRDs have been used to classify chemical analyses of ground water in the Chaj Doab area of Pakistan to illustrate this new approach. Using this graphical method, the differentiated ground water types are calcium bicarbonate, magnesium bicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate, and sodium sulfate. Sodium bicarbonate emerges as the most abundant ground water type. MRDs also offer a visual display of the Chebotarev sequence of ground water quality evolution. PMID:14649865

  17. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    An environmental investigation of ground water conditions has been undertaken at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Ohio to obtain data to assist in the evaluation of a potential removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, migration of the contaminated ground water across Base boundaries. Field investigations were limited to the central section of the southwestern boundary of Area C and the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B. Further, the study was limited to a maximum depth of 150 feet below grade. Three primary activities of the field investigation were: (1) installation of 22 monitoring wells, (2) collection and analysis of ground water from 71 locations, (3) measurement of ground water elevations at 69 locations. Volatile organic compounds including trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and/or vinyl chloride were detected in concentrations exceeding Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) at three locations within the Area C investigation area. Ground water at the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B occurs in two primary units, separated by a thicker-than-expected clay layers. One well within Area B was determined to exceed the MCL for trichloroethylene.

  18. HYDERAULIC/CHEMICAL CHANGES DURING GROUND-WATER RECHARGE BY INJECTION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, Scott N.

    1987-01-01

    Ground-water recharge by injection of reclaimed water is a feasible method of improving ground-water quality in the shallow aquifer system in the Palo Alto Baylands along the San Franciso Bay. Ground water was initially more saline than sea water. Reclaimed water was injected at a rate of 10 gallons per minute from June 5, 1980, to July 1, 1980. At the completion of injection, water from an observation well 31 feet from the injection well was 98 percent injected water - in essence, fresh water. An abrupt rise in the water level in the injection well of about 1. 5 feet during the initial injection test was the result of a 3. 5 percent density difference between injected fresh water and saline ground water. The arrival of injected water at observation wells showed the same effect, allowing monitoring of chemical and hydraulic changes entirely through water-level data. Prior to injection the saline ground water was super-saturated withn calcite. Dilution, as injection proceeded, eventually produced an undersaturation of calcite. An increase in well specific capacity indicates that calcite dissolved from the aquifer matrix, improving hydraulic conductivity.

  19. Evaluation of ground-water flow by particle tracking, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, W.L.; Sheets, R.A.; Schalk, C.W.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) began a Basewide Monitoring Program (BMP) in 1992. The purpose of the BMP was to establish a long-term ground-water and surface- water sampling network in order to (1) characterize current ground-water and surface-water quality; (2) describe water-quality changes as water enters, flows across, and exits Base boundaries; (3) conduct statistical analyses of water quality; and (4) estimate the effect of WPAFB on regional water quality. As part of the BMP, the USGS conducted ground-water particle-tracking analyses based on a ground-water-flow model produced during a previous USGS study. This report briefly describes the previous USGS study, the inherent assumptions of particle-tracking analyses, and information on the regional ground-water-flow field as inferred from particle pathlines. Pathlines for particles placed at the Base boundary and particles placed within identified Installation Restoration Program sites are described.

  20. Comparison of Heat and Bromide as Ground Water Tracers Near Streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantz, J.; Cox, M.H.; Su, G.W.

    2003-01-01

    Heat and bromide were compared as tracers for examining stream/ground water exchanges along the middle reaches of the Santa Clara River, California, during a 10-hour surface water sodium bromide injection test. Three cross sections that comprise six shallow (<1 m) piezometers were installed at the upper, middle, and lower sections of a 17 km long study reach, to monitor temperatures and bromide concentrations in the shallow ground water beneath the stream. A heat and ground water transport simulation model and a closely related solute and ground water transport simulation model were matched up for comparison of simulated and observed temperatures and bromide concentrations in the streambed. Vertical, one-dimensional simulations of sediment temperature were fitted to observed temperature results, to yield apparent streambed hydraulic conductivities in each cross section. The temperature-based hydraulic conductivities were assigned to a solute and ground water transport model to predict sediment bromide concentrations, during the sodium bromide injection test. Vertical, one-dimensional simulations of bromide concentrations in the sediments yielded a good match to the observed bromide concentrations, without adjustment of any model parameters except solute dispersivities. This indicates that, for the spatial and temporal scales examined on the Santa Clara River, the use of heat and bromide as tracers provide comparable information with respect to apparent hydraulic conductivities and fluxes for sediments near streams. In other settings, caution should be used due to differences in the nature of conservative (bromide) versus nonconservative (heat) tracers, particularly when preferential flowpaths are present.

  1. Ground-water resources of Cambodia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, William Charles; Bradford, Gary M.

    1977-01-01

    available information is on the central lowlands and contiguous low plateaus, as the mountainous areas on the west and the high plateaus on the east are relatively unexplored with respect to their ground-water availability. No persistent artesian aquifer has been identified nor have any large potential ground-water sources been found .although much of the country yet remains to be explored by test drilling. Well irrigation for garden produce is feasible on a modest scale in many localities throughout Cambodia. It does not seem likely, however, that large-scale irrigation from wells will come about in the future. Ground water may be regarded as a widely available supplemental source to surface water for domestic, small-scale industrial, and irrigation use.

  2. Ground-water quality in selected areas of Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hindall, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of 2,071 ground-water samples from 970 wells throughout Wisconsin indicate large variations in ground-water quality. Ground water in Wisconsin is generally suitable for most uses, but in some areas concentrations of chemical constituents exceed recommended drinking-water standards. Iron, manganese, and nitrate commonly exceed recommended drinking-water standards and dissolved solids, sulfate, heavy metals, and phenolic materials may present local problems. (USGS)

  3. Calibration of the DRASTIC ground water vulnerability mapping method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    Ground water vulnerability maps developed using the DRASTIC method have been produced in many parts of the world. Comparisons of those maps with actual ground water quality data have shown that the DRASTIC method is typically a poor predictor of ground water contamination. This study significantly improved the effectiveness of a modified DRASTIC ground water vulnerability map by calibrating the point rating schemes to actual ground water quality data by using nonparametric statistical techniques and a geographic information system. Calibration was performed by comparing data on nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (NO2 + NO3-N) concentrations in ground water to land-use, soils, and depth to first-encountered ground water data. These comparisons showed clear statistical differences between NO2 + NO3-N concentrations and the various categories. Ground water probability point ratings for NO2 + NO3-N contamination were developed from the results of these comparisons, and a probability map was produced. This ground water probability map was then correlated with an independent set of NO2 + NO3-N data to demonstrate its effectiveness in predicting elevated NO2 + NO3-N concentrations in ground water. This correlation demonstrated that the probability map was effective, but a vulnerability map produced with the uncalibrated DRASTIC method in the same area and using the same data layers was not effective. Considerable time and expense have been outlaid to develop ground water vulnerability maps with the DRASTIC method. This study demonstrates a cost-effective method to improve and verify the effectiveness of ground water vulnerability maps.

  4. Ground-water effects of the UCG experiments at the Hoe Creek site in northeastern Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, S.W.; Wang, F.T.; Stuermer, D.H.

    1981-06-01

    Ground-water changes and subsidence effects associated with three underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments have been monitored at the Hoe Creek site in northeastern Wyoming. Ground-water quality measurements have extended over a period of four years and have been supplemented by laboratory studies of contaminant sorption by coal. It was found that a broad range of residual gasification products are introduced into the ground-water system. These contaminants may be of environmental significance if they find their way, in sufficient concentrations, into surface waters, or into aquifers from which water is extracted for drinking or agricultural purposes. Fortunately, the concentrations of these contaminants are substantially reduced by sorption on the surrounding coal. However, recent field measurements indicate that there may be significant limitations on this natural cleansing process. The contaminants of potential concern, and the mechanisms that affect their deposition and persistence have been identified.

  5. Feasibility of penaeid culture in geothermal brackish ground water in southwestern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    McNelis, B.

    1986-11-11

    The primary objectives of this research was to determine growth, survival, and feed conversion ratios of Penaeus vannamei grown inland in geothermally warmed brackish ground water. P. vannamei is an important species of marine shrimp (Family: Penaeidae) which is cultured commercially in South America, Central America, and Hawaii. The single source of ground water used for shrimp growout was assayed for mineral content, and its composition was compared to that of other Arizona sources of geothermal ground water and seawater. The culture water was monitored regularly for temperature, oxygen, and ammonia concentrations, and pH. The results of two independent shrimp-growth trials beginning at PL-5 (five-day old post larvae) were used to determine the feasibility of this novel method of cultivating a tropical marine species in an inland temperate location.

  6. Effects on ground-water quality from irrigating pasture with sewage effluent near Lakeland, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichenbaugh, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    Since 1969 an average of 25,000 gpd of domestic secondary-treated effluent has been used to supplement irrigation of 30 acres of grazed pasture north of Lakeland, Florida. Monitor wells were contructed near the effluent-irrigated pasture. The water table in the surficial aquifer under the pasture varied from 1.0 to 3.3 feet below land surface. Total nitrogen was less than 20 percent of the effluent content after percolating 8 feet; no increase in nitrogen was detected 20 feet below the surface, or in down-gradient ground water. There was no evidence of phosphorus or carbon contamination of ground water. Low numbers of bacteria (generally coliform) were noted in some samples from nine wells. Four wells sampled contained bacteria of probable fecal origin. Low-rate application of the effluent to the pasture apparently has had little effect on the soil and ground water. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Ground-Water Availability in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; Alley, William M.; Cunningham, William L.

    2008-01-01

    Ground water is among the Nation's most important natural resources. It provides half our drinking water and is essential to the vitality of agriculture and industry, as well as to the health of rivers, wetlands, and estuaries throughout the country. Large-scale development of ground-water resources with accompanying declines in ground-water levels and other effects of pumping has led to concerns about the future availability of ground water to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, and environmental needs. The challenges in determining ground-water availability are many. This report examines what is known about the Nation's ground-water availability and outlines a program of study by the U.S. Geological Survey Ground-Water Resources Program to improve our understanding of ground-water availability in major aquifers across the Nation. The approach is designed to provide useful regional information for State and local agencies who manage ground-water resources, while providing the building blocks for a national assessment. The report is written for a wide audience interested or involved in the management, protection, and sustainable use of the Nation's water resources.

  8. Protecting ground water: pesticides and agricultural practices. Technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    The booklet presents the results of a project conducted by EPA's Office of Ground-Water Protection to evaluate the potential impacts of various agronomic, irrigation, and pesticide application practices on ground water. The report provides State and local water quality and agricultural officials with technical information to help in the development of programs to protect ground water from pesticide contamination. The report explains the principles involved in reducing the risk of pesticide contamination and describes what is known about the impact of various agricultural practices on pesticide leaching. It is hoped that the information will be helpful to water-quality officials in developing and implementing ground-water protection programs.

  9. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Grand Junction, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Grand Junction, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial activities at the site were conducted from 1989 to 1993. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated ground water that flows beneath the processing site toward the Colorado River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentrations of most contaminants are used to assess risk. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to determine what remedial action may be needed for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the EPA. the first step is to evaluate ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the contaminants of potential concern in the ground water are arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, fluoride, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, sulfate, uranium, vanadium, zinc, and radium-226. The next step in the risk assessment is to estimate how much of these contaminants people would be exposed to if they drank from a well installed in the contaminated ground water at the former processing site.

  10. Development of a three-dimensional ground-water model of the Hanford Site unconfined aquifer system: FY 1995 status report

    SciTech Connect

    Wurstner, S.K.; Thorne, P.D.; Chamness, M.A.; Freshley, M.D.; Williams, M.D.

    1995-12-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model of ground-water flow was developed for the uppermost unconfined aquifer at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. Development of the model is supported by the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project, managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, which is responsible for monitoring the sitewide movement of contaminants in ground water beneath the Hanford Site. Two objectives of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project are to (1) identify and quantify existing, emerging, or potential ground-water quality problems, and (2) assess the potential for contaminants to migrate from the Hanford Site through the ground-water pathway. Numerical models of the ground-water flow system are important tools for estimating future aquifer conditions and predicting the movement of contaminants through ground water. The Ground-Water Surveillance Project has supported development and maintenance of a two-dimensional model of the unconfined aquifer. This report describes upgrade of the two-dimensional model to a three-dimensional model. The numerical model is based on a three-dimensional conceptual model that will be continually refined and updated as additional information becomes available. This report presents a description of the three-dimensional conceptual model of ground-water flow in the unconfined aquifer system and then discusses the cur-rent state of the three-dimensional numerical model.

  11. Hydrogeologic Setting, Ground-Water Flow, and Ground-Water Quality at the Langtree Peninsula Research Station, Iredell County, North Carolina, 2000-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pippin, Charles G.; Chapman, Melinda J.; Huffman, Brad A.; Heller, Matthew J.; Schelgel, Melissa E.

    2008-01-01

    A 6-year intensive field study (2000-2005) of a complex, regolith-fractured bedrock ground-water system was conducted at the Langtree Peninsula research station on the Davidson College Lake Campus in Iredell County, North Carolina. This research station was constructed as part of the Piedmont and Mountains Resource Evaluation Program, a cooperative study being conducted by the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey. Results of the study characterize the distinction and interaction of a two-component ground-water system in a quartz diorite rock type. The Langtree Peninsula research station includes 17 monitoring wells and 12 piezometers, including 2 well transects along high to low topographic settings, drilled into separate parts of the ground-water-flow system. The location of the research station is representative of a metaigneous intermediate (composition) regional hydrogeologic unit. The primary rock type is mafic quartz diorite that has steeply dipping foliation. Primary and secondary foliations are present in the quartz diorite at the site, and both have an average strike of about N. 12 degree E. and dip about 60 degree in opposite directions to the southeast (primary) and the northwest (secondary). This rock is cut by granitic dikes (intrusions) ranging in thickness from 2 to 50 feet and having an average strike of N. 20 degree W. and an average dip of 66 degree to the southwest. Depth to consolidated bedrock is considered moderate to deep, ranging from about 24 to 76 feet below land surface. The transition zone was delineated and described in each corehole near the well clusters but had a highly variable thickness ranging from about 1 to 20 feet. Thickness of the regolith (23 to 68 feet) and the transition zone do not appear to be related to topographic setting. Delineated bedrock fractures are dominantly low angle (possibly stress relief), which were observed to be open to partially open at depths of

  12. A new breed of innovative ground water modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Gelinas, R.J.; Doss, S.K.; Ziagos, J.; McKereghan, P.; Vogele, T.; Nelson, R.G.

    1995-07-01

    Sparse data is a critical obstacle in every ground water remediation project. Lack of data necessitates non-unique interpolations that can distort modeled distributions of contaminants and essential physical properties (e.g., permeability, porosity). These properties largely determine the rates and paths that contaminants may take in migrating from sources to receptor locations. We apply both forward and inverse model estimates to resolve this problem because coupled modeling provides the only way to obtain constitutive property distributions that simultaneously simulate the flow and transport behavior observed in borehole measurements. Innovations in multidimensional modeling are a key to achieving more effective subsurface characterizations, remedial designs, risk assessments, and compliance monitoring in efforts to accelerate cleanup and reduce costs in national environmental remediations. Fundamentally new modeling concepts and novel software have emerged recently from two decades of research on self-adaptive solvers of partial differential equations (PDEs). We have tested a revolutionary software product, PDEase, applying it to coupled forward and inverse flow problems. In the Superfund cleanup effort at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) Livermore Site, the new modeling paradigm of PDEase enables ground water professionals to simply provide the flow equations, site geometry, sources, sinks, constitutive parameters, and boundary conditions. Its symbolic processors then construct the actual numerical solution code and solve it automatically. Powerful grid refinements that conform adaptively to evolving flow features are executed dynamically with iterative finite-element solutions that minimize numerical errors to user-specified limits. Numerical solution accuracy can be tested easily with the diagnostic information and interactive graphical displays that appear as the solutions are generated.

  13. Correlation of low level ground water contamination and soil gas survey results at a manufacturing site in Connecticut

    SciTech Connect

    Bartley, R.; Viellenave, J.H.; Bedard, P.C.

    1995-06-01

    A large manufacturing facility (14 acre property with 5 acre building) in Connecticut, used for manufacturing and large scale printing since World War II, was investigated to determine the sources and extent of ground water contamination by organics using a combination of soil gas surveying and traditional monitoring well sampling and analysis. The soil gas survey, the PETREX Technology, was used to limit and guide the installation of monitoring wells and allow interpolation between wells. A total of only eleven wells was used to fully define the magnitude and extent of ground water contamination across the entire site, resulting in substantial savings for the investigation of the facility. Linear regression analysis was performed on the soil gas ion responses and ground water concentrations of PCE, TCE, and TCA from the eleven monitoring wells. The ground water concentrations were near the drinking water levels and ranged from Not Detected to 17 ppb for PCE, Not Detected to 18 ppb for TCE, and Not Detected to 124 ppb for TCA. The regression calculations indicate coefficients of correlation (R) between ground water organic contaminant concentrations and soil gas ion responses of +0.93 for PCE, +0.85 for TCE, and +0.82 for TCA. We conclude that, if not influenced by soil contamination, the PETREX soil gas results can be a good predictor of the presence and the general level of an organic contaminant in ground water, and can therefore be a very useful and cost effective guide to drilling and sampling programs.

  14. Ground-Water Hydrology of the Upper Deschutes Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannett, Marshall W.; Lite, Kenneth E., Jr.; Morgan, David S.; Collins, Charles A.

    2001-01-01

    The upper Deschutes Basin is among the fastest growing regions in Oregon. The rapid population growth has been accompanied by increased demand for water. Surface streams, however, have been administratively closed to additional appropriation for many years, and surface water is not generally available to support new development. Consequently, ground water is being relied upon to satisfy the growth in water demand. Oregon water law requires that the potential effects of ground-water development on streamflow be evaluated when considering applications for new ground-water rights. Prior to this study, hydrologic understanding has been insufficient to quantitatively evaluate the connection between ground water and streamflow, and the behavior of the regional ground-water flow system in general. This report describes the results of a hydrologic investigation undertaken to provide that understanding. The investigation encompasses about 4,500 square miles of the upper Deschutes River drainage basin.A large proportion of the precipitation in the upper Deschutes Basin falls in the Cascade Range, making it the principal ground-water recharge area for the basin. Water-balance calculations indicate that the average annual rate of ground- water recharge from precipitation is about 3,500 ft3/s (cubic feet per second). Water-budget calculations indicate that in addition to recharge from precipitation, water enters the ground-water system through interbasin flow. Approximately 800 ft3/s flows into the Metolius River drainage from the west and about 50 ft3/s flows into the southeastern part of the study area from the Fort Rock Basin. East of the Cascade Range, there is little or no ground-water recharge from precipitation, but leaking irrigation canals are a significant source of artificial recharge north of Bend. The average annual rate of canal leakage during 1994 was estimated to be about 490 ft3/s. Ground water flows from the Cascade Range through permeable volcanic rocks

  15. The hydrogeologic framework and a reconnaissance of ground-water quality in the Piedmont Province of North Carolina, with a design for future study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harned, Douglas

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is investigating the relation of ground- water quality and land use in the regolith and fractured rock ground-water system of the North Carolina Piedmont. The initial phase of this study provides a description of the ground-water flow system and a review of available ground-water data and formulates hypotheses that guide the design of a water-quality monitoring network for study of selected areas. In the Piedmont, the solid igneous and metamorphic bedrock grades upward into unweathered fractured rock that is covered by a transition zone of highly-fractured, partially weathered rock, clay-rich saprolite, and the soil. The fractured bedrock, transition zone, saprolite, and soil make up a complex flow system. A review of available ground-water quality data shows a lack of information about organic compounds and trace metals and changes in ground- water quality with depth. Land use, soils, and geology significantly influence ground-water quality. The hypotheses that need to be tested in the next study phase are: (1) that ground-water contamination can be related to land use, and (2) that the transition zone between bedrock and regolith serves as a primary transmitter of contaminants. Monitoring of basins containing industrial, urban, residential, and agricultural land uses in future studies will help define the relation of ground-water quality to land use. Water quality at different depths in the flow system and in streams during base flow needs to be identified.

  16. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to sewage sludge that is not used or disposed through a practice regulated in 40 CFR part 503 may... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an...

  17. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to sewage sludge that is not used or disposed through a practice regulated in 40 CFR part 503 may... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an...

  18. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to sewage sludge that is not used or disposed through a practice regulated in 40 CFR part 503 may... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an...

  19. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to sewage sludge that is not used or disposed through a practice regulated in 40 CFR part 503 may... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an...

  20. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to sewage sludge that is not used or disposed through a practice regulated in 40 CFR part 503 may... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an...

  1. Ground-water levels in Arkansas, spring 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edds, Joe

    1983-01-01

    About 640 ground-water level measurements were made in observation wells in Arkansas in the spring of 1981. In addition , the report contains potentiometric-surface maps and well hydrographs relating to the alluvial aquifer and the Sparta Sand , the most important aquifers with respect to ground-water availability and use in Arkansas. (USGS)

  2. EPA Research Evaluating CAFO Impacts on Ground Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    An overview of several projects will be presented on a research program currently underway at ORD’s Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) to evaluate CAFO impacts on ground water quality. The overall research objectives are to characterize the potential for gro...

  3. Ground water hydrology report: Revision 1, Attachment 3. Final

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This report presents ground water hydrogeologic activities for the Maybell, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site. The Department of Energy has characterized the hydrogeology, water quality, and water resources at the site and determined that the proposed remedial action would comply with the requirements of the EPA ground water protection standards.

  4. Ground-water conditions in Whisky Flat, Mineral County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eakin, T.E.; Robinson, T.W.

    1950-01-01

    As a part of the State-wide cooperative program between the Office of the State Engineer of Nevada and the U.S. Geological Survey, the Ground Water Branch of the Geological Survey made a reconnaissance study of ground-water conditions in Whisky Flat, Mineral County, Nevada.

  5. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR REGRESSION MODELING OF GROUND-WATER FLOW.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Richard L.

    1985-01-01

    The author examines the uses of ground-water flow models and which classes of use require treatment of stochastic components. He then compares traditional and stochastic procedures for modeling actual (as distinguished from hypothetical) systems. Finally, he examines the conceptual basis and characteristics of the regression approach to modeling ground-water flow.

  6. Ground Water Quality Protection. State and Local Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources.

    Using regional case studies, this document examines representative programs for dealing with ground water contamination. Section one describes the ground water protection strategy of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); (2) discusses the limited data available for determining the extent of contamination; (3) provides a listing of the…

  7. Review of ground water modeling needs for the US Army

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The report was prepared to assist the U.S. Army in remediation of ground water contamination from hazardous, toxic, and radioactive wastes at Army installations. The Waterways Experiment Station of the Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Water Science and Technology Board evaluate the state of the art in mathematical models of ground water flow and contaminant transport, and then advise the Corps of Engineers on how it might support and use such models to meet Army's ground water remediation needs over the next ten years. The study recommends that the Army develop in-house expertise in ground water modeling, expand partnership programs between the Army and academic researchers, and develop a ground water modeling support center to help focus research, technology transfer and training activities.

  8. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated ground water: The perspectives of history and hydrology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, F.H.

    1999-01-01

    Bioremediation, the use of microbial degradation processes to detoxify environmental contamination, was first applied to petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated ground water systems in the early 1970s. Since that time, these technologies have evolved in some ways that were clearly anticipated early investigators, and in other ways that were not foreseen. The expectation that adding oxidants and nutrients to contaminated aquifers would enhance biodegradation, for example, has been born out subsequent experience. Many of the technologies now in common use such as air sparging, hydrogen peroxide addition, nitrate addition, and bioslurping, are conceptually similar to the first bioremediation systems put into operation. More unexpected, however, were the considerable technical problems associated with delivering oxidants and nutrients to heterogeneous ground water systems. Experience has shown that the success of engineered bioremediation systems depends largely on how effectively directions and rates of ground water flow can be controlled, and thus how efficiently oxidants and nutrients can be delivered to contaminated aquifer sediments. The early expectation that injecting laboratory-selected or genetically engineered cultures of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria into aquifers would be a useful bioremediation technology has not been born out subsequent experience. Rather, it appears that petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are ubiquitous in ground water systems and that bacterial addition is usually unnecessary. Perhaps the technology that was least anticipated early investigators was the development of intrinsic bioremediation. Experience has shown that natural attenuation mechanisms - biodegradation, dilution, and sorption - limit the migration of contaminants to some degree in all ground water systems. Intrinsic bioremediation is the deliberate use of natural attenuation processes to treat contaminated ground water to specified concentration levels at predetermined

  9. Microbial H2 cycling does not affect δ2H values of ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    Stable hydrogen-isotope values of ground water (δ2H) and dissolved hydrogen concentrations (H(2(aq)) were quantified in a petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated aquifer to determine whether the production/consumption of H2 by subsurface microorganisms affects ground water &delta2H values. The range of &delta2H observed in monitoring wells sampled (-27.8 ‰c to -15.5 ‰c) was best explained, however, by seasonal differences in recharge temperature as indicated using ground water δ18O values, rather than isotopic exchange reactions involving the microbial cycling of H2 during anaerobic petroleum-hydrocarbon biodegradation. The absence of a measurable hydrogen-isotope exchange between microbially cycled H2 and ground water reflects the fact that the amount of H2 available from the anaerobic decomposition of petroleum hydrocarbons is small relative to the amount of hydrogen present in water, even though milligram per liter concentrations of readily biodegradable contaminants are present at the study site. Additionally, isotopic fractionation calculations indicate that in order for H2 cycling processes to affect δ2H values of ground water, relatively high concentrations of H2 (>0.080 M) would have to be maintained, considerably higher than the 0.2 to 26 nM present at this site and characteristic of anaerobic conditions in general. These observations suggest that the conventional approach of using δ2H and δ18O values to determine recharge history is appropriate even for those ground water systems characterized by anaerobic conditions and extensive microbial H2 cycling.

  10. Environmental Assessment of Ground Water Compliance at the Naturita, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site

    SciTech Connect

    2003-04-23

    This Environmental Assessment addresses the environmental effects of a proposed action and the no action alternative to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards at the Naturita, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) completed surface cleanup at the site and encapsulated the tailings in a disposal cell 15 miles northwest near the former town of Uravan, Colorado. Ground water contaminants of potential concern at the Naturita site are uranium and vanadium. Uranium concentrations exceed the maximum concentration limit (MCL) of 0.044 milligram per liter (mg/L). Vanadium has no MCL; however, vanadium concentrations exceed the EPA Region III residential risk-based concentration of 0.33 mg/L (EPA 2002). The proposed compliance strategy for uranium and vanadium at the Naturita site is no further remediation in conjunction with the application of alternate concentration limits. Institutional controls with ground water and surface water monitoring will be implemented for these constituents as part of the compliance strategy. This compliance strategy will be protective of human health and the environment. The proposed monitoring program will begin upon regulatory concurrence with the Ground Water Compliance Action Plan (DOE 2002a). Monitoring will consist of verifying that institutional controls remain in place, collecting ground water samples to verify that concentrations of uranium and vanadium are decreasing, and collecting surface water samples to verify that contaminant concentrations do not exceed a regulatory limit or risk-based concentration. If these criteria are not met, DOE would reevaluate the proposed action and determine the need for further National Environmental Policy Act documentation. No comments were received from the public during the public comment period. Two public meetings were held during this period. Minutes of these meetings are included as

  11. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Requirements...

  12. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Requirements...

  13. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Grand Junction, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial activities at the site were conducted from 1989 to 1993. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated ground water that flows beneath the processing site toward the Colorado River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentrations of most contaminants are used to assess risk. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to determine what remedial action may be needed for contaminated ground water at the site.

  14. A strategy for collecting ground-water data and developing a ground-water model of the Missouri River alluvial aquifer, Woodbury and Monona Counties, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchmiller, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    A ground-water-flow model and plan for obtaining supporting data are proposed for a part of the Missouri River alluvial aquifer in Woodbury and Monona Counties, Iowa. The proposed model and the use of the principle of superposition will aid in the interpretation of the relation between ground water and surface water in the study area, particularly the effect of lowered river stages on water levels in the alluvial aquifer. Information on the geometry, hydraulic characteristics, and water levels in the alluvial aquifer needs to be collected for use in the model and for model calibration. A plan to obtain hydrologic and geologic information by use of exploratory test-well drilling is proposed. Also proposed is a monitoring network to obtain information on the spatial and temporal variability of water levels within the study area.

  15. Evaluation of geohydrologic framework, recharge estimates and ground-water flow of the Joshua Tree area, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nishikawa, Tracy; Izbicki, John A.; Hevesi, Joseph A.; Stamos, Christina L.; Martin, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Joshua Tree ground-water subbasin and 5 in the Copper Mountain ground-water subbasin) between 1980 and 2002 and analyzing the samples for major ions, nutrients, and selected trace elements. Selected samples also were analyzed for oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium, and carbon-14. The water-quality data indicated that dissolved solids and nitrate concentrations were below regulatory limits for potable water; however, fluoride concentrations in the lower aquifer exceeded regulatory limits. Arsenic concentrations and chromium concentrations were generally below regulatory limits; however, arsenic concentrations measured in water from wells perforated in the lower aquifer exceeded regulatory limits. The carbon-14 activities ranged from 2 to 72 percent modern carbon and are consistent with uncorrected ground-water ages (time since recharge) of about 32,300 to 2,700 years before present. The oxygen-18 and deuterium composition of water sampled from the upper aquifer is similar to the volume-weighted composition of present-day winter precipitation indicating that winter precipitation was the predominant source of ground-water recharge. Field studies, conducted during water years 2001 through 2003 to determine the distribution and quantity of recharge, included installation of instrumented boreholes in selected washes and at a nearby control site. Core material and cuttings from the boreholes were analyzed for physical, chemical, and hydraulic properties. Instruments installed in the boreholes were monitored to measure changes in matric potential and temperature. Borehole data were supplemented with temperature data collected from access tubes installed at additional sites along study washes. Streambed hydraulic properties and the response of instruments to infiltration were measured using infiltrometers. Physical and geochemical data collected away from the stream channels show that direct infiltration of precipitation to depths below the root zone and subsequent gro

  16. Biosolids, Crop, and Ground-Water Data for a Biosolids-Application Area Near Deer Trail, Colorado, 2004 Through 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Tracy J.B.; Smith, David B.; Crock, James G.

    2009-01-01

    From 2004 through 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey monitored the chemical composition of biosolids, crops, dust, and ground water related to biosolids applications near Deer Trail, Colorado, in cooperation with the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District. This monitoring effort was a continuation of the monitoring program begun in 1999 in cooperation with the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District and the North Kiowa Bijou Groundwater Management District. The monitoring program addresses concerns from the public about the chemical effects from applications of biosolids to farmland in the Deer Trail, Colorado, area. This report presents chemical data from 2004 through 2006 for biosolids, crops, and alluvial and bedrock ground water. The chemical data include the constituents of highest concern to the public (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, zinc, and plutonium) in addition to many other constituents. The ground-water section also includes climate and water-level data.

  17. Use of a ground-water flow model with particle tracking to evaluate ground-water vulnerability, Clark County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.; Wilkinson, James M.; Orzol, Leonard L.

    1998-01-01

    A ground-water flow model was used in conjunction with a particle-tracking program to demonstrate a method of evaluating ground-water vulnerability. The study area encompassed the part of the Portland Basin located in Clark County, Washington. A new computer program was developed that interfaces the particle-tracking program with a geographic information system (GIS). The GIS was used to display and analyze the particle-tracking results and to evaluate ground-water vulnerability by identifying recharge areas and their characteristics, determining the downgradient impact of land use at recharge areas, and estimating the age of ground water. The report presents a description of the methods used and the results of the evaluation of ground-water vulnerability.

  18. Model-estimated ground-water recharge and hydrograph of ground-water discharge to a stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutledge, A.T.

    1997-01-01

    The computer model PULSE, described in this report, can be used to construct a hydrograph of ground-water discharge to a stream. The model is applicable to a ground-water flow system that is driven by areally uniform recharge to the water table, and in which ground water discharges to a gaining stream. One of the two formulations used by the model allows for an instantaneous recharge pulse and subsequent ground-water discharge to the stream. The other formulation, which allows for a gradual hydrologic gain or loss term in addition to the instantaneous pulse, can be used to simulate the effects of gradual recharge to the water table, ground-water evapotranspiration, or downward leakage to a deeper aquifer.

  19. Geophysical Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferre, Ty P.A.; Binley, Andrew M.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Callegary, James B.; Crawford, Steven M.; Fink, James B.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Hoffmann, John P.; Izbicki, John A.; Levitt, Marc T.; Pool, Donald R.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2007-01-01

    While numerical modeling has revolutionized our understanding of basin-scale hydrologic processes, such models rely almost exclusively on traditional measurements?rainfall, streamflow, and water-table elevations?for calibration and testing. Model calibration provides initial estimates of ground-water recharge. Calibrated models are important yet crude tools for addressing questions about the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge. An inverse approach to recharge estimation is taken of necessity, due to inherent difficulties in making direct measurements of flow across the water table. Difficulties arise because recharging fluxes are typically small, even in humid regions, and because the location of the water table changes with time. Deep water tables in arid and semiarid regions make recharge monitoring especially difficult. Nevertheless, recharge monitoring must advance in order to improve assessments of ground-water recharge. Improved characterization of basin-scale recharge is critical for informed water-resources management. Difficulties in directly measuring recharge have prompted many efforts to develop indirect methods. The mass-balance approach of estimating recharge as the residual of generally much larger terms has persisted despite the use of increasing complex and finely gridded large-scale hydrologic models. Geophysical data pertaining to recharge rates, timing, and patterns have the potential to substantially improve modeling efforts by providing information on boundary conditions, by constraining model inputs, by testing simplifying assumptions, and by identifying the spatial and temporal resolutions needed to predict recharge to a specified tolerance in space and in time. Moreover, under certain conditions, geophysical measurements can yield direct estimates of recharge rates or changes in water storage, largely eliminating the need for indirect measures of recharge. This appendix presents an overview of physically based, geophysical methods

  20. Relation of Chlorofluorocarbon Ground-Water Age Dates to Water Quality in Aquifers of West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy; Kurt, J.; Kozar, Mark D.

    2007-01-01

    The average apparent age of ground water in fractured-bedrock aquifers in West Virginia was determined using chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) dating methods. Since the introduction of CFC gases as refrigerants in the late 1930s, atmospheric concentrations have increased until production ceased in the mid-1990s. CFC dating methods are based on production records that date to the early 1940s, and the preservation of atmospheric CFC concentrations in ground water at the time of recharge. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) and Ambient Ground-Water Monitoring Network (AGN) programs in West Virginia from 1997 to 2005, 80 samples from the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province, 27 samples from the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province, and 5 samples from the Ohio River alluvial aquifers were collected to estimate ground-water ages in aquifers of West Virginia. Apparent CFC ages of water samples from West Virginia aquifers ranged from 5.8 to 56 years. In the Appalachian Plateaus, topographically driven ground-water flow is evident from apparent ages of water samples from hilltop, hillside, and valley settings (median apparent ages of 12, 14, and 25 years, respectively). Topographic setting was the only factor that was found to be related to apparent ground-water age in the Plateaus at the scale of this study. Similar relations were not found in Valley and Ridge aquifers, indicating that other factors such as bedding or geologic structure may serve larger roles in controlling ground-water flow in that physiographic province. Degradation of CFCs was common in samples collected from methanogenic/anoxic aquifers in the Appalachian Plateaus and suboxic to anoxic aquifers in the Valley and Ridge. CFC contamination was most common in Ohio River alluvial aquifers and carbonate units of the Valley and Ridge, indicating that these highly transmissive surficial aquifers are the most vulnerable to water-quality degradation and may

  1. Characterization of Surface-Water/Ground-Water Interaction Along the Spokane River, Idaho and Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, R. R.; Bowers, C. L.; Hein, K. L.

    2002-12-01

    Historical mining in the Coeur d'Alene River basin of northern Idaho has resulted in elevated concentrations of some trace metals (particularly Cd, Pb, and Zn) in water and sediments of Coeur d'Alene Lake and downstream in the Spokane River. On average during 1999 and 2000, about 20,000 kg/yr of whole-water lead (particulate plus dissolved), 2,100 kg/yr of whole-water cadmium, and 450,000 kg/yr of whole-water zinc flowed out of Coeur d'Alene Lake into the Spokane River. These elevated trace-metal concentrations in the Spokane River have raised concerns about potential contamination of ground water in the underlying Spokane Valley/Rathdrum Prairie aquifer, the primary source of drinking water for the city of Spokane and surrounding areas. A study conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program examined the interaction of the river and aquifer using hydrologic and chemical data along a losing reach of the Spokane River. The river and ground water were extensively monitored over a range of hydrologic conditions at 3 stream gages and 25 monitoring wells (including 18 wells installed for this study) ranging from 8 to 1,000 m from the river. River stage, ground-water level, water temperature, and specific conductance were measured hourly to biweekly, and water samples were collected 8 times. Additional regional ground-water data were collected from more than 190 wells within 5 km of the study reach. Hydrologic and chemical data indicate that the Spokane River recharges the Spokane Valley/Rathdrum Prairie aquifer along a 35-km reach between Coeur d'Alene Lake and Spokane. Ground-water levels in near-river (<125 m from the river) wells responded rapidly to variations in river stage and indicated the presence of an unsaturated zone beneath the river and a ground-water flow gradient away from the river. Chemical data indicated that river recharge may influence ground-water chemistry as far as 900 m from the river. The chemistry and

  2. Latin hypercube approach to estimate uncertainty in ground water vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Gurdak, Jason J; McCray, John E; Thyne, Geoffrey; Qi, Sharon L

    2007-01-01

    A methodology is proposed to quantify prediction uncertainty associated with ground water vulnerability models that were developed through an approach that coupled multivariate logistic regression with a geographic information system (GIS). This method uses Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) to illustrate the propagation of input error and estimate uncertainty associated with the logistic regression predictions of ground water vulnerability. Central to the proposed method is the assumption that prediction uncertainty in ground water vulnerability models is a function of input error propagation from uncertainty in the estimated logistic regression model coefficients (model error) and the values of explanatory variables represented in the GIS (data error). Input probability distributions that represent both model and data error sources of uncertainty were simultaneously sampled using a Latin hypercube approach with logistic regression calculations of probability of elevated nonpoint source contaminants in ground water. The resulting probability distribution represents the prediction intervals and associated uncertainty of the ground water vulnerability predictions. The method is illustrated through a ground water vulnerability assessment of the High Plains regional aquifer. Results of the LHS simulations reveal significant prediction uncertainties that vary spatially across the regional aquifer. Additionally, the proposed method enables a spatial deconstruction of the prediction uncertainty that can lead to improved prediction of ground water vulnerability. PMID:17470124

  3. Ground Water in the Southern Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, Scot K.; Gingerich, Stephen B.

    1998-01-01

    A multi-phased study of ground-water resources, including well drilling, aquifer tests, analysis of ground-water discharge, and numerical ground-water modeling, indicates that the rocks of the southern Lihue Basin, Kauai, have permeabilities that are much lower than in most other areas of ground-water development in the Hawaiian islands. The regional hydraulic conductivity of the Koloa Volcanics, which dominates fresh ground-water flow in the basin, is about 0.275 foot per day. The Waimea Canyon Basalt which surrounds the basin and underlies the Koloa Volcanics within the basin is intruded by dikes that reduce the bulk hydraulic conductivity of the rocks to about 1.11 feet per day. The low permeabilities result in steeper head gradients compared with other areas in the Hawaiian islands, and a higher proportion of ground-water discharging to streams than to the ocean. Water levels rise from near sea level at the coast to several hundreds of feet above sea level at the center of the basin a few miles inland. The high inland water levels are part of a completely saturated ground-water system. Because of the low regional hydraulic conductivity and high influx of water from recharge in the southern Lihue Basin, the rocks become saturated nearly to the surface and a variably saturated/unsaturated (perched) condition is not likely to exist. Streams incising the upper part of the aquifer drain ground water and keep the water levels just below the surface in most places. Streams thus play an important role in shaping the water table in the southern Lihue Basin. At least 62 percent of the ground water discharging from the aquifer in the southern Lihue Basin seeps to streams; the remainder seeps directly to the ocean or is withdrawn by wells.

  4. Ground water in the Thousand Oaks area, Ventura County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, James J.

    1980-01-01

    The ground-water basin beneath the city of Thousand Oaks, Calif. , corresponds closely in area with the surface-water drainage basin of Conejo Valley. Before World War II there was little ground-water development. After World War II, urban development put a stress on the ground-water basin; many wells were drilled and water levels in wells were drawn down as much as 300 feet in places. Beginning in 1963, imported water replaced domestic and municipal ground-water systems, and water levels rapidly recovered to predevelopment levels or nearly so. Most of the ground water in the Thousand Oaks area is stored in fractured basalt of the middle Miocene Conejo Volcanics. Depending on the degree of occurrence of open fractures and cavities in the basalt, recoverable ground water in the upper 300 to 500 feet of aquifer is estimated to be between 400,000 and 600,000 acre-feet. The yield of water from wells in the area ranges from 17 to 1,080 gallons per minute. Most of the ground-water in the eastern part of the valley is high insulfate and has a dissolved-solids concentration greater than 1,000 milligrams per liter. In the western part of the valley the ground-water is mostly of a bicarbonate type, and the dissolved-solids concentration is less than 800 milligrams per liter. In most areas of Conejo Valley, ground-water is a viable resource for irrigation of public lands and recreation areas. (USGS)

  5. Ground water in the Piedmont upland of central Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, Claire A.

    1982-01-01

    This report, describing ground-water occurrence in a 130-square-mile area of the central Maryland Piedmont, was originally designed for use by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in replying to a request for designation of the aquifers to be the sole or principal source of ground water. However, the information contained in the report is pertinent to other crystalline-rock areas as well. The study area is underlain chiefly by crystalline rocks and partly by unaltered sandstones and siltstones. The ground water is derived from local precipitation and generally occurs under water-table conditions. Its movement is restricted by the lack of interconnected openings, and most ground water occurs within 300 feet of the land surface. Hydrographs indicate no long-term change in ground-water storage. A few wells yield more than 100 gallons per minute, but about 70 percent of 286 inventoried wells yield 10 gallons per minute or less; most specific capacities are less than 1.0 gallon per minute per foot. The ground-water quality is generally satisfactory without treatment, and there are no known widespread pollution problems. Estimated daily figures on ground-water use are as follows: 780,000 gallons for domestic purposes; 55,000, for commercial purposes; and 160,000, for public supply. Although part of the area is served by an existing surface-water supply and could be served by possible extension of it and of other public-supply water mains, much of the rural population is dependent on the ground water available from private wells tapping the single aquifer that underlies any given location. Neither the ground-water conditions nor this dependence on individual wells is unique to the study area, but, rather, applies to the entire Piedmont province.

  6. Selected hydrologic data for the Mesilla ground-water basin, 1987 through 1992 water years, Dona Ana County, New Mexico, and El Paso County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nickerson, Edward L.

    1995-01-01

    The Mesilla ground-water basin monitoring program was established in 1987 to document hydrologic conditions and establish a long-term, continuous data base to permit future quantitative evaluation of the ground-water flow system and stream/aquifer relations. Data collection is divided into three program elements. These are the (1) Mesilla ground- water basin observation-well program; (2) Mesilla Valley hydrologic sections; and (3) Rio Grande seepage investigations. This report is a compilation of hydrologic data collected for the Mesilla ground- water basin monitoring program during the 1987 through 1992 water years. Hydrologic data presented in the report include well records and water levels for 181 wells; mean daily river stage and ground- water levels at 37 sites; seepage investigations of the Rio Grande from Radium Springs, New Mexico, to El Paso, Texas; and chemical analyses of 29 water samples collected from the Rio Grande.

  7. An application of thermometry to the study of ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert

    1962-01-01

    The precise measurement of fluctuations in ground-water temperature, based on monthly readings in shallow glacial-outwash aquifers (up to about 70 feet deep), is useful in the study of ground-water movement and recharge. In addition to the study of natural phenomena in the hydrologic cycle, thermometry may be used as a tool in making detailed studies of (1) the effects of inducing the infiltration of surface water, (2) artificial recharge, (3) the effects of injecting petroleum products or radioactive or other wastes into the ground, and (4) ground-water movement in mines.

  8. Field examination of ground water quality as an indicator of microbiological activity at gasoline contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Norkus, R G; Maurer, J; Schultz, N A; Stuart, J D; Robbins, G A; Bristol, R D

    1996-08-01

    Various portable electrodes and an on-line colorimetric test kit were used in the field to examine ground water quality as an indicator of natural bioremediation across two sites in Connecticut having subsurface gasoline contamination. The parameters examined included dissolved oxygen, dissolved carbon dioxide, direct redox potential (Eh), nitrate, ammonia and pH. These parameters permitted delineating regions of aerobic and anaerobic microbiological activity. Variations in these parameters over an eighteen month period along with gas chromatographic analyses of certain gasoline components in the ground water indicated that in-situ bioremediation was effective at containing the petroleum contamination at both sites. It was found that a new on-line colorimetric test kit for the determination of oxygen was more accurate than a commonly used dissolved oxygen electrode. PMID:8680831

  9. Effects of nutrient management on nitrate levels in ground water near Ephrata Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Effects of the implementation of nutrient management practices on ground-water quality were studied at a 55-acre farm in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, from 1985-90. After nutrient management practices were implemented at the site in October 1986, statistically significant decreases (Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test) in median nitrate concentrations in ground-water samples occurred at four of the five wells monitored. The largest decreases in nitrate concentration occurred in samples collected at the wells that had the largest nitrate concentrations prior to nutrient management. The decreases in median nitrate concentrations in ground-water samples ranged from 8 to 32 percent of the median concentrations prior to nutrient management and corresponded to nitrogen application decreases of 39 to 67 percent in contributing areas that were defined upgradient of these wells. Changes in nitrogen applications to the contributing areas of five water wells were correlated (Spearman rank-sum test) with nitrate concentrations of the well water. Changes in ground-water nitrate concentrations lagged behind the changes in applied-nitrogen fertilizers (primarily manure) by approximately 4 to 19 months.

  10. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This Removal Action System Design has been prepared as a Phase I Volume for the implementation of the Phase II removal action at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) near Dayton, Ohio. The objective of the removal action is to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground water contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCS) across the southwest boundary of Area C. The Phase 1, Volume 9 Removal Action System Design compiles the design documents prepared for the Phase II Removal Action. These documents, which are presented in Appendices to Volume 9, include: Process Design, which presents the 30 percent design for the ground water treatment system (GWTS); Design Packages 1 and 2 for Earthwork and Road Construction, and the Discharge Pipeline, respectively; no drawings are included in the appendix; Design Package 3 for installation of the Ground Water Extraction Well(s); Design Package 4 for installation of the Monitoring Well Instrumentation; and Design Package 5 for installation of the Ground Water Treatment System; this Design Package is incorporated by reference because of its size.

  11. A Low-Cost, In Situ Resistivity and Temperature Monitoring System

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present a low-cost, reliable method for long-term in situ autonomous monitoring of subsurface resistivity and temperature in a shallow, moderately heterogeneous subsurface. Probes, to be left in situ, were constructed at relatively low cost with close electrode spacing. Once i...

  12. Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California -- hydrogeologic framework and transient ground-water flow model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    : Belcher, Wayne R., (Edited By)

    2004-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the ground-water flow system and previous less extensive ground-water flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect ground-water flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the ground-water flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural ground-water discharge occurring through evapotranspiration and spring flow; the history of ground-water pumping from 1913 through 1998; ground-water recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were

  13. The development of sensors and techniques for in situ water quality monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. C.

    1976-01-01

    Enzyme electrodes and chloride ion electrodes were investigated for in situ monitoring of water quality. Preliminary results show that miniature chloride ion electrodes and a phenol sensor are most promising in determining trace contaminants in water.

  14. Gas-driven pump for ground-water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Signor, Donald C.

    1978-01-01

    Observation wells installed for artificial-recharge research and other wells used in different ground-water programs are frequently cased with small-diameter steel pipe. To obtain samples from these small-diameter wells in order to monitor water quality, and to calibrate solute-transport models, a small-diameter pump with unique operating characteristics is required that causes a minimum alternation of samples during field sampling. A small-diameter gas-driven pump was designed and built to obtain water samples from wells of two-inch diameter or larger. The pump is a double-piston type with the following characteristics: (1) The water sample is isolated from the operating gas, (2) no source of electricity is ncessary, (3) operation is continuous, (4) use of compressed gas is efficient, and (5) operation is reliable over extended periods of time. Principles of operation, actual operation techniques, gas-use analyses and operating experience are described. Complete working drawings and a component list are included. Recent modifications and pump construction for high-pressure applications also are described. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. ANALYSIS OF SWINE LAGOONS AND GROUND WATER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethinyl estradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl de...

  16. REMEDIATION AND PROTECTION OF GROUND WATER FROM CONTAMINATION BY ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Successful prevention of public exposure to arsenic in ground-water resources impacted by natural sources or contaminated sites is dependent on scientifically-based strategies for site remediation and water resource management. Research within the National Risk Management Resear...

  17. CONTAMINATION OF PUBLIC GROUND WATER SUPPLIES BY SUPERFUND SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple sources of contamination can affect ground water supplies, including municipal landfills, industrial operations, leaking underground storage tanks, septic tank systems, and prioritized uncontrolled hazardous waste sites known as “Superfund” sites. A review of Superfund R...

  18. Ground Watering of the Death Valley Region, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    USGS

    2006-10-12

    Water is a precious commodity, especially in the arid southwest region of the US, where there is a limited supply of both surface water and ground water. Ground water has a variety of uses (such as agricultural, commercial, and domestic) in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) of southern Nevada and eastern California. The DVRFS, an area of about 100,000 square kilometers, contains very complex geology and hydrology. Using a computer model to represent this complex system the US Geological Survey (USGS) simulated ground-water flow in the Death Valley region for use with US Department of Energy (DOE) projects in southern Nevada. The model was created to help address contaminant cleanup activities associated with the underground nuclear testing conducted from 1951 to 1992 at the Nevada Test Site and to support the licensing process for the Nation's proposed geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  19. ACQUISITION OF REPRESENTATIVE GROUND WATER QUALITY SAMPLES FOR METALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    R.S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory (RSKERL) personnel have evaluated sampling procedures for the collection of representative, accurate, and reproducible ground water quality samples for metals for the past four years. Intensive sampling research at three different field...

  20. Ground-water in the Austin area, Lander County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phoenix, David A.

    1949-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the State Engineer of Nevada, made a preliminary survey of ground-water conditions in the Austin area, Nev., during the period July 25 to 28, 1949. The purpose was to evaluate ground-water conditions with special reference to the quantity of ground water that might be available in the area--an adequate water supply has been a constant problem throughout the history of the Austin area. The investigation was made by the writer under the supervision of Thomas W. Robinson, district engineer, Ground Water Branch, U.S. Geological Survey. Material assistance was given in the field by local residents. Frank Bertrand, water commissioner, Thomas Peacock, county assessor, and George McGinnis, county commissioner, guided the writer to springs new utilized by the town of Austin and rendered other valuable field assistance.

  1. Ground-water resources of the Lexington, Kentucky, area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faust, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Ground water in the Lexington, Kentucky, area occurs in Ordovician Limestones in which cavity development is generally limited to about 100 feet below land surface. Some wells produce about 300 gallons per minute in some of the large stream valleys , about 50 gallons per minute in the rolling upland and small stream valleys, and about 5 gallons per minute on hilltops and steep slopes. Many wells throughout the area do not furnish adequate water for domestic supplies because no significant water-bearing openings are penetrated during drilling. Ground-water use is limited mostly to domestic and stock supplies and a few small public supplies. Ground water is generally a calcium bicarbonate type and in places contains sodium chloride and (or) hydrogen sulfide. Bacterial pollution of ground water is widespread because of direct recharge of polluted runoff and streamflow to cavernous limestones. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. CONTAMINATION OF PUBLIC GROUND WATER SUPPLIES BY SUPERFUNDSITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple sources of contamination can affect ground water supplies, including municipal landfills, industrial operations, leaking underground storage tanks, septic tank systems, and prioritized uncontrolled hazardous waste sites known as "Superfund" sites. eview of Superfund Reco...

  3. ANALYSIS OF SWINE LAGOONS AND GROUND WATER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethynylestradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl der...

  4. EFFECT OF GROUND-WATER REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES ON INDIGENOUS MICROFLORA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), working with the Interagency DNAPL Consortium, completed an independent evaluation of microbial responses to ground-water remediation technology demonstrations at Launch Pad 34 at Cape Canaveral Air Station in Brevard Count...

  5. Base flow and ground water in upper Sweetwater Valley, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evaldi, R.D.; Lewis, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    Base flow measurements showed interbasin transfer of water among sub-basins of upper Sweetwater Valley. In general, topographically higher sub-basins have deficient surface outflow unless significant spring flow occurs in the basin. Topographically lower areas adjacent to the main channel of Sweetwater Creek generally have surplus flow. Major flow surpluses were associated with areas in which the majority of flow originated at a spring. Unusual outflow was related to geology to hypothesize a ground-water flow network. Areas of ground-water flow up-gradient of large springs were hypothesized as likely areas for significant ground-water reservoirs. A water budget study indicated that during dry years approximately three-fourths of the annual flow to Sweetwater Creek may be derived from ground-water sources. Streamflow records were analyzed to estimate the frequency of low-flow of Sweetwater Creek. (USGS)

  6. Ground-water flow and ground- and surface-water interaction at the Weldon Spring quarry, St. Charles County, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Imes, J.L.; Kleeschulte, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    Ground-water-level measurements to support remedial actions were made in 37 piezometers and 19 monitoring wells during a 19-month period to assess the potential for ground-water flow from an abandoned quarry to the nearby St. Charles County well field, which withdraws water from the base of the alluvial aquifer. From 1957 to 1966, low-level radioactive waste products from the Weldon Spring chemical plant were placed in the quarry a few hundred feet north of the Missouri River alluvial plain. Uranium-based contaminants subsequently were detected in alluvial ground water south of the quarry. During all but flood conditions, lateral ground-water flow in the bedrock from the quarry, as interpreted from water-table maps, generally is southwest toward Little Femme Osage Creek or south into the alluvial aquifer. After entering the alluvial aquifer, the ground water flows southeast to east toward a ground-water depression presumably produced by pumping at the St. Charles County well field. The depression position varies depending on the Missouri River stage and probably the number and location of active wells in the St. Charles County well field.

  7. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Falls City, Texas: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination of the uranium mill tailings site near Falls City, Texas, evaluates potential impact to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former Susquehanna Western, Inc. (SWI), uranium mill processing site. This document fulfills the following objectives: determine if the site presents immediate or potential future health risks, determine the need for interim institutional controls, serve as a key input to project planning and prioritization, and recommend future data collection efforts to more fully characterize risk. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has begun its evaluation of ground water contamination at the Falls City site. This risk assessment is one of the first documents specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. The first step is to evaluate ground water data collected from monitor wells at or near the site. Evaluation of these data show the main contaminants in the Dilworth ground water are cadmium, cobalt, fluoride, iron, nickel, sulfate, and uranium. The data also show high levels of arsenic and manganese occur naturally in some areas.

  8. Assessment of nitrification potential in ground water using short term, single-well injection experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, R.L.; Baumgartner, L.K.; Miller, D.N.; Repert, D.A.; Böhlke, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrification was measured within a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, using a series of single-well injection tests. The aquifer contained a wastewater-derived contaminant plume, the core of which was anoxic and contained ammonium. The study was conducted near the downgradient end of the ammonium zone, which was characterized by inversely trending vertical gradients of oxygen (270 to 0 ??M) and ammonium (19 to 625 ??M) and appeared to be a potentially active zone for nitrification. The tests were conducted by injecting a tracer solution (ambient ground water + added constituents) into selected locations within the gradients using multilevel samplers. After injection, the tracers moved by natural ground water flow and were sampled with time from the injection port. Rates of nitrification were determined from changes in nitrate and nitrite concentration relative to bromide. Initial tests were conducted with 15N-enriched ammonium; subsequent tests examined the effect of adding ammonium, nitrite, or oxygen above background concentrations and of adding difluoromethane, a nitrification inhibitor. In situ net nitrate production exceeded net nitrite production by 3- to 6- fold and production rates of both decreased in the presence of difluoromethane. Nitrification rates were 0.02-0.28 ??mol (L aquifer)-1 h-1 with in situ oxygen concentrations and up to 0.81 ??mol (L aquifer)-1 h-1 with non-limiting substrate concentrations. Geochemical considerations indicate that the rates derived from single-well injection tests yielded overestimates of in situ rates, possibly because the injections promoted small-scale mixing within a transport-limited reaction zone. Nonetheless, these tests were useful for characterizing ground water nitrification in situ and for comparing potential rates of activity when the tracer cloud included non-limiting ammonium and oxygen concentrations. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005.

  9. Expedited characterization of ground water contamination at a large industrial site through field sampling and on-site analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fusillo, T.V.; Potts, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    Ground water contamination by chlorinated solvents was detected at a former manufacturing facility in central New Jersey. The site, which occupies approximately 30 acres and is located in the Coastal Plain of New Jersey, is underlain by a thin layer of fine sand that extends to approximately 4 to 15 feet below ground surface (bgs) and a dense clay to silty clay that underlies the sand to a depth of at least 30 feet bgs, with ground water at a depth of 4 to 10 feet bgs. To expedite the ground water investigation, ENVIRON utilized a Geoprobe{reg_sign} sampling system together with an onsite mobile laboratory to perform site-wide ground water delineation sampling. Ground water samples were collected from the upper 5 feet of the water table using disposable tubing for on-site analysis of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using a Photovac 10S Plus GC/PID. Sampling and analysis were conducted by On-Site Services of Newark, Delaware. Duplicate samples were also collected from all locations for analysis of VOCs by US EPA method 8240 at a commercial laboratory. Sampling began in the vicinity of the most highly contaminated monitoring well and proceeded in all directions until low or nondetectable concentrations were measured using the on-site GC or until the property boundaries were reached. Over the three-day sampling period, 33 ground water samples were collected. The sampling results provided a detailed picture of ground water quality across the large site, and contaminant distribution patterns confirmed the likely variability in ground water flow directions.

  10. Selected Ground-Water Data for Yucca Mountain Region, Southern Nevada and Eastern California, January-December 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    La Camera, Richard J.; Locke, Glenn L.; Habte, Aron M.; Darnell, Jon G.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Repository Development, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region of southern Nevada and eastern California. These data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during activities to determine the potential suitability or development of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 35 boreholes and 1 fissure (Devils Hole), ground-water discharge at 5 springs, both ground-water levels and discharge at 1 flowing borehole, and total reported ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are tabulated from January through December 2004. Also tabulated are ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals collected by other agencies (or collected as part of other programs) and data revised from those previously published at monitoring sites. Historical data on water levels, discharges, and withdrawals are presented graphically to indicate variations through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven boreholes in Jackass Flats is presented for the period 1992-2004 to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals associated with U.S. Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the annual number of measurements, maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and average deviation of measured water-level altitudes compared to the 1992-93 baseline period. At six boreholes in Jackass Flats, median water levels for 2004 were slightly higher (0.3-2.7 feet) than their median water levels for 1992-93. At one borehole in Jackass Flats, median water level for 2004 equaled the median water level for 1992-93.

  11. Radon-222 in the ground water of Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.

    1998-01-01

    Radon-222 concentrations in ground water in 31 geologic units in Chester County, Pa., were measured in 665 samples collected from 534 wells from 1986 to 1997. Chester County is underlain by schists, gneisses, quartzites, carbonates, sandstones, shales, and other rocks of the Piedmont Physiographic Province. On average, radon concentration was measured in water from one well per 1.4 square miles, throughout the 759 square-mile county, although the distribution of wells was not even areally or among geologic units. The median concentration of radon-222 in ground water from the 534 wells was 1,400 pCi/L (picocuries per liter). About 89 percent of the wells sampled contained radon-222 at concentrations greater than 300 pCi/L, and about 11 percent of the wells sampled contained radon-222 at concentrations greater than 5,000 pCi/L. The highest concentration measured was 53,000 pCi/L. Of the geologic units sampled, the median radon-222 concentration in ground water was greatest (4,400 pCi/L) in the Peters Creek Schist, the second most areally extensive formation in the county. Signifi- cant differences in the radon-222 concentrations in ground water among geologic units were observed. Generally, concentrations in ground water in schists, quartzites, and gneisses were greater than in ground water in anorthosite, carbonates, and ultramafic rocks. The distribution of radon-222 in ground water is related to the distribution of uranium in aquifer materials of the various rock types. Temporal variability in radon-222 concentrations in ground water does not appear to be greater than about a factor of two for most (75 percent) of wells sampled more than once but was observed to range up to almost a factor of three in water from one well. In water samples from this well, seasonal variations were observed; the maximum concentrations were measured in the fall and the minimum in the spring.

  12. Proceedings of the second international conference on ground water ecology

    SciTech Connect

    Stanford, J.A.; Valett, H.M.

    1994-12-31

    This conference was held March 27--30, 1994 in Atlanta, Georgia. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for state-of-the-art information on groundwater ecosystems. Attention is focused on the following topics: Biogeochemistry; ecology of metazoans; ground water management; microbial ecology; modeling; pollution, restoration and bioremediation; problems in karst systems; and surface and ground water interaction zones. Individual papers are processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  13. Tectonic influences on ground water quality: insight from complementary methods.

    PubMed

    Earman, Sam; McPherson, Brian J O L; Phillips, Fred M; Ralser, Steve; Herrin, James M; Broska, James

    2008-01-01

    A study using multiple techniques provided insight into tectonic influences on ground water systems; the results can help to understand ground water systems in the tectonically active western United States and other parts of the world. Ground water in the San Bernardino Valley (Arizona, United States and Sonora, Mexico) is the main source of water for domestic use, cattle ranching (the primary industry), and the preservation of threatened and endangered species. To improve the understanding of ground water occurrence, movement, and sustainability, an investigation was conducted using a number of complementary methods, including major ion geochemistry, isotope hydrology, analysis of gases dissolved in ground water, aquifer testing, geophysics, and an examination of surface and subsurface geology. By combining information from multiple lines of investigation, a more complete picture of the basin hydrogeology was assembled than would have been possible using fewer methods. The results show that the hydrogeology of the San Bernardino Valley is markedly different than that of its four neighboring basins in the United States. The differences include water quality, chemical evolution, storage, and residence time. The differences result from the locally unique geology of the San Bernardino Valley, which is due to the presence of a magmatically active accommodation zone (a zone separating two regions of normal faults with opposite dips). The geological differences and the resultant hydrological differences between the San Bernardino Valley and its neighboring basins may serve as a model for the distinctive nature of chemical evolution of ground water in other basins with locally distinct tectonic histories. PMID:18194326

  14. Correlation of low level ground water contamination and soil gas survey results at a manufacturing site in Connecticut

    SciTech Connect

    Bartley, R.; Viellenave, J.H.; Bedard, P.C.

    1994-12-31

    A large manufacturing facility (14 acre property with 5 acre building) in Connecticut, used for manufacturing and large scale printing since World War II, was investigated to determine the sources and extent of groundwater contamination by organics using a combination of soil gas surveying and traditional monitoring well sampling and analysis. The soil gas survey, the PETREX Technology, was used to limit and guide the installation of monitoring wells and allow interpolation between wells. A total of only eleven wells was used to fully define the magnitude and extent of ground water contamination across the entire site, resulting in substantial savings for the investigation of the facility. Linear regression analysis was performed on the soil and gas ion response and ground water concentrations of PCE, TCE, and TCA from the eleven monitoring wells. The ground water concentrations were near the drinking water levels and ranged from Not Detected to 17 ppb for PCE, Not Detected to 18 ppb for TCE, and Not Detected to 124 ppb for TCA. The regression calculations indicate coefficients of correlation (R) between ground water organic contaminant concentrations and soils gas ion responses of +0.93 for PCE, +0.85 for TCE, and +0.82 for TCA. The authors conclude that, if not influenced by soil contamination, the PETREX soil gas results can be a good predictor of the presence and the general level of an organic contaminant in ground water, and can therefore be a very useful and cost effective guide to drilling and sampling programs.

  15. Nitrate in ground water and spring water near four dairy farms in North Florida, 1990-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    Concentrations of nitrate and other selected water- quality characteristics were analyzed periodically for two years in water from 51 monitoring wells installed at four farms and in water discharging from three nearby springs along the Suwannee River in Lafayette and Suwannee Counties to examine the quality of ground water at these farms and the transport of nutrients in ground water to the nearby spring-fed Suwannee River: Ground water from shallow wells, which were completed in the top ten feet of the saturated zone in a surficial sandy aquifer and in the karstic Upper Floridan aquifer generally had the highest concentrations of nitrate, ranging from <.02 to 130 mg/L as nitrogen. Nitrate concentrations commonly exceeded the primary drinking water standard of 10 mg/L for nitrate as nitrogen in water from shallow wells, which tapped the top ten feet of the uppermost aquifers near waste-disposal areas such as wastewater lagoons and defoliated, intensive-use areas near milking barns. Upgradient from waste-disposal areas, concentrations of nitrate in ground water were commonly less than 1 mg/L as nitrogen. Water samples from deep wells (screened 20 feet deeper than shallow wells in these aquifers) generally had lower concentrations of nitrate (ranging from <0.02 to 84 mg/L) than water from shallow wells. Water samples from the three monitored springs (Blue, Telford, and Convict Springs) had nitrate concentrations ranging from 1.5 to 6.5 mg/L as nitrogen, which were higher than those typically occurring in water from upgradient wells at the monitored dairy farms or from back- ground wells sampled in the region. Analyses of nitrogen isotope ratios in nitrate indicated that leachate from animal wastes was the principal source of nitrate in ground water adjacent to waste-disposal areas at the monitored and unmonitored dairy farms. Leachate from a combi- nation of fertilizers, soils, and animal wastes appeared to be the source of nitrate in ground- water downgradient from

  16. A hydrogeologic approach to identify land uses that overlie ground-water flow paths, Broward County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonenshein, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    A hydrogeologic approach that integrates the use of hydrogeologic and spatial tools aids in the identification of land uses that overlie ground- water flow paths and permits a better understanding of ground-water flow systems. A mathematical model was used to simulate the ground-water flow system in Broward County, particle-tracking software was used to determine flow paths leading to the monitor wells in Broward County, and a Geographic Information System was used to identify which land uses overlie the flow paths. A procedure using a geographic information system to evaluate the output from a ground-water flow model has been documented. The ground-water flow model was used to represent steady-state conditions during selected wet- and dry-season months, and an advective flow particle- tracking program was used to simulate the direction of ground-water flow in the aquifer system. Digital spatial data layers were created from the particle pathlines that lead to the vicinity of the open interval of selected wells in the Broward County ground-water quality monitoring network. Buffer zone data layers were created, surrounding the particle pathlines to represent the area of contribution to the water sampled from the monitor wells. Spatial data layers, combined with a land-use data layer, were used to identify the land uses that overlie the ground-water flow paths leading to the monitor wells. The simulation analysis was performed on five Broward County wells with different hydraulic parameters to determine the source of ground-water stress, determine selected particle pathlines, and identify land use in buffer zones in the vicinity of the wells. The flow paths that lead to the grid cells containing wells G-2355, G-2373, and G-2373A did not vary between the wet- and dry-season conditions. Changes in the area of contribution for wells G-2345X and G-2369 were attributed to variations in rainfall patterns, well-field pumpage, and surface-water management practices

  17. Regional nitrate and pesticide trends in ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burow, K.R.; Shelton, James L.; Dubrovsky, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Protection of ground water for present and future use requires monitoring and understanding of the mechanisms controlling long-term quality of ground water. In this study, spatial and temporal trends in concentrations of nitrate and pesticides in ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California, were evaluated to determine the long-term effects of agricultural and urban development on regional ground-water quality. Trends in concentrations of nitrate, the nematocide 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, and the herbicide simazine during the last two decades are generally consistent with known nitrogen fertilizer and pesticide use and with the position of the well networks in the regional ground-water flow system. Concentrations of nitrate and pesticides are higher in the shallow part of the aquifer system where domestic wells are typically screened, whereas concentrations are lower in the deep part of the aquifer system where public-supply wells are typically screened. Attenuation processes do not seem to significantly affect concentrations. Historical data indicate that concentrations of nitrate have increased since the 1950s in the shallow and deep parts of the aquifer system. Concentrations of nitrate and detection of pesticides in the deep part of the aquifer system will likely increase as the proportion of highly affected water contributed to these wells increases with time. Because of the time of travel between the water table and the deep part of the aquifer system, current concentrations in public-supply wells likely reflect the effects of 40- to 50-yr-old management practices. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship between Dehalococcoides DNA in ground water and rates of reductive dechlorination at field scale.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoxia; Wilson, John T; Kampbell, Donald H

    2006-09-01

    Certain strains of Dehalococcoides bacteria can dechlorinate chlorinated ethylenes to harmless products. This study was conducted to determine if there is a valid association between the density of Dehalococcoides DNA in ground water and the observed rates of reductive dechlorination at field scale. Dehalococcoides DNA in water from monitoring wells was determined using the quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) with DNA primer set specific for Dehalococcoides organisms. Dechlorination rate constants were extracted from field data using the BIOCHLOR software. Of the six conventional plumes surveyed, "generally useful" rates of dechlorination (greater than or equal to 0.3 per year) of cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) along the flow path were observed at three sites where Dehalococcoides DNA was detected, and little attenuation of cis-DCE and VC occurred at two sites where Dehalococcoides DNA was not detected. At the two sites where there was no net direction of ground water flow, the relationship between the density of Dehalococcoides DNA in ground water and the trend in concentrations of chlorinated ethylenes over time in monitoring wells was not so consistent as that observed for the conventional plumes. A comparison of our study to a field study performed by Lendvay and his coworker indicated that monitoring wells did not efficiently sample the Dehalococcoides organisms in the aquifer. PMID:16889813

  19. An Integrated Modeling Approach for use in Regional Ground-Water-Quality Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stackelberg, P. E.; Kauffman, L. J.; Ayers, M. A.

    2001-05-01

    Multivariate regression models developed from shallow-ground-water-quality data and explanatory variables that characterize hydrogeology and contaminant loading within a specified distance of well sites can be coupled with a three-dimensional steady-state ground-water-flow model with a particle-tracking postprocessor to assess current and future distributions of contaminants in surficial aquifer systems. The regression models permit current contaminant-loading signatures in the shallow-ground-water system to be estimated on a regional scale from the distribution of explanatory variables. Flow-simulation and particle-tracking results quantify the rate and path of ground-water movement through the aquifer system under current and projected water-use alternatives. By estimating the time required for water to move along specified flow paths, particle tracking allows the rate of advective transport of contaminants throughout the aquifer system to be predicted. This integration of regression and simulation models provides information that is needed to address water-management issues critical to the sustainability of the resource. This integrated modeling approach was applied to a 400-square-mile study area near Glassboro, New Jersey, where a rapidly increasing population and restrictions on withdrawals from deeper, confined aquifers have caused residents to rely increasingly on the unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system for domestic and public supply. Nitrate-concentration data from 78 shallow monitoring wells were used to develop multivariate linear regression models that were used to predict the concentration of nitrate in aquifer recharge across the study area. The predictive regression models were coupled with a three-dimensional steady-state ground-water-flow model with a particle-tracking postprocessor. Results of the integrated modeling approach (1) delineate those areas in which concentrations of nitrate in aquifer recharge are expected to be greatest; (2

  20. In situ Raman spectroscopy for growth monitoring of vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes in plasma reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Labbaye, T.; Gaillard, M.; Lecas, T.; Kovacevic, E.; Boulmer-Leborgne, Ch.; Guimbretière, G.; Canizarès, A.; Raimboux, N.; Simon, P.; Ammar, M. R.; Strunskus, T.

    2014-11-24

    Portable and highly sensitive Raman setup was associated with a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition reactor enabling in situ growth monitoring of multi-wall carbon nanotubes despite the combination of huge working distance, high growth speed and process temperature and reactive plasma condition. Near Edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy was used for ex situ sample analysis as a complementary method to in situ Raman spectroscopy. The results confirmed the fact that the “alternating” method developed here can accurately be used for in situ Raman monitoring under reactive plasma condition. The original analytic tool can be of great importance to monitor the characteristics of these nanostructured materials and readily define the ultimate conditions for targeted results.

  1. 77 FR 62234 - Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... AGENCY Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, WY AGENCY... titled, ``Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming.'' The draft research... Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming.'' is available via the Internet on the EPA Region...

  2. 77 FR 19012 - Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... AGENCY Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, WY AGENCY... titled, ``Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming.'' The draft research... Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming'' is available via the Internet on the EPA Region...

  3. Drought-trigger ground-water levels and analysis of historical water-level trends in Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreffler, Curtis L.

    1996-01-01

    The Chester County observation-well network was established in 1973 through a cooperative agreement between the Chester County Water Resources Authority (CCWRA) and the U.S. Geological Survey. The network was established to monitor local ground-water levels, to determine drought conditions, and to monitor ground-water-level trends. Drought-warning and drought-emergency water-level triggers were determined for 20 of the 23 wells in the Chester County observation-well network. A statistical test to determine either rising or declining water-level trends was performed on data for all wells in the network. Water-level data from both of these wells showed a rising trend. A decrease in ground-water pumping in the area near these wells was probably the reason for the rise in water levels.

  4. Uranium isotopes in ground water as a prospecting technique

    SciTech Connect

    Cowart, J.B.; Osmond, J.K.

    1980-02-01

    The isotopic concentrations of dissolved uranium were determined for 300 ground water samples near eight known uranium accumulations to see if new approaches to prospecting could be developed. It is concluded that a plot of /sup 234/U//sup 238/U activity ratio (A.R.) versus uranium concentration (C) can be used to identify redox fronts, to locate uranium accumulations, and to determine whether such accumulations are being augmented or depleted by contemporary aquifer/ground water conditions. In aquifers exhibiting flow-through hydrologic systems, up-dip ground water samples are characterized by high uranium concentration values (> 1 to 4 ppB) and down-dip samples by low uranium concentration values (less than 1 ppB). The boundary between these two regimes can usually be identified as a redox front on the basis of regional water chemistry and known uranium accumulations. Close proximity to uranium accumulations is usually indicated either by very high uranium concentrations in the ground water or by a combination of high concentration and high activity ratio values. Ground waters down-dip from such accumulations often exhibit low uranium concentration values but retain their high A.R. values. This serves as a regional indicator of possible uranium accumulations where conditions favor the continued augmentation of the deposit by precipitation from ground water. Where the accumulation is being dispersed and depleted by the ground water system, low A.R. values are observed. Results from the Gulf Coast District of Texas and the Wyoming districts are presented.

  5. In Situ Monitoring of Malodors in a Swine Waste Lagoon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An apparatus for the in situ quantification of malodorous compounds from animal wastewater was developed that employed a submersible magnetic stir plate and stir bar sorbtive extraction using polydimethylsiloxane-coated stir bars. Prior to deployment of the apparatus in a hog waste lagoon, experime...

  6. Quantitative Eatimation of Ground Water Recharge Process in Vadose Zone Beneath a Rice Paddy Field Using Cross-Borehole Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, S.; Shiina, Y.; Okuyama, T.; Takeutch, M.

    2005-12-01

    Wet Rice Paddy field is one of most important components of land uses in monsoon Asia. It is known to have some other beneficial functions than food production, for example ground water recharge, purification of surface and subsurface water, and alleviation of flood. Though ground water recharge process of paddy field is essential for those functions, the actual conditions of ground water recharge process beneath paddy field has not been clarified besides in the zone of about 1m depth from soil surface. Recently cross borehole radar is recognized as one of usefull methods for measurement of soil water distribution and its change. We applied cross borehole radar for monitoring of soil water in vadose zone beneath a paddy field to clarify the ground water recharge process. Cross borehole radar monitoring clarified the infiltration process into the vadose zone and shallow ground water aquifer beneath the paddy field. We estimated the increment of soil volumetric water content from CRIME model, the descent velocity of wetting front, and infiltration rate from cross borehole radar data quantitatively. They were almost coincident with the directly measured results. Using these results,we tried to estimate permeability based on some hypothesis of infiltration process.

  7. Ground-water hydrology and water quality of Irwin Basin at Fort Irwin National Training Center, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, Jill N.; Londquist, Clark J.

    1997-01-01

    Geohydrologic data were collected from Irwin Basin at Fort Irwin National Training Center in the Mojave Desert of southern California by the U.S. Geological Survey during 199296 to deter mine the quantity and quality of ground water available in this basin. In addition to data collected from existing wells and test holes, 17 monitoring sites were constructed in Irwin Basin to provide data on subsurface geology, ground-water levels, and ground-water quality. Eleven of these sites were multiple-well monitoring sites that were constructed to provide depth-dependent geohydrologic data in the aquifer system. The aquifer system of Irwin Basin, defined on the basis of hydrologic data collected from wells in Irwin Basin, consists of an upper and a lower aquifer. A 1994 water-table contour map shows that a cone of depression beneath Irwin Basin well field has developed as a result of ground-water development. Water-quality samples collected from Irwin Basin wells to determine potential sources of ground-water degradation indicate that water in three areas in the basin contains high nitrate and dissolved-solids concentrations. The stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen indicate that present-day precipitation is not a major source of recharge in this basin. Tritium and carbon-14 data indicate that most of the basin was recharged before 1953 and that this water may be more than 14,000 years old.

  8. Shallow Alluvial Aquifer Ground Water System and Surface Water/Ground Water Interaction, Boulder Creek, Boulder, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babcock, K. P.; Ge, S.; Crifasi, R. R.

    2006-12-01

    Water chemistry in Boulder Creek, Colorado, shows significant variation as the Creek flows through the City of Boulder [Barber et al., 2006]. This variation is partially due to ground water inputs, which are not quantitatively understood. The purpose of this study is (1) to understand ground water movement in a shallow alluvial aquifer system and (2) to assess surface water/ground water interaction. The study area, encompassing an area of 1 mi2, is located at the Sawhill and Walden Ponds area in Boulder. This area was reclaimed by the City of Boulder and Boulder County after gravel mining operations ceased in the 1970's. Consequently, ground water has filled in the numerous gravel pits allowing riparian vegetation regrowth and replanting. An integrated approach is used to examine the shallow ground water and surface water of the study area through field measurements, water table mapping, graphical data analysis, and numerical modeling. Collected field data suggest that lateral heterogeneity exists throughout the unconsolidated sediment. Alluvial hydraulic conductivities range from 1 to 24 ft/day and flow rates range from 0.01 to 2 ft/day. Preliminary data analysis suggests that ground water movement parallels surface topography and does not noticeably vary with season. Recharge via infiltrating precipitation is dependent on evapotranspiration (ET) demands and is influenced by preferential flow paths. During the growing season when ET demand exceeds precipitation rates, there is little recharge; however recharge occurs during cooler months when ET demand is insignificant. Preliminary data suggest that the Boulder Creek is gaining ground water as it traverses the study area. Stream flow influences the water table for distances up to 400 feet. The influence of stream flow is reflected in the zones relatively low total dissolved solids concentration. A modeling study is being conducted to synthesize aquifer test data, ground water levels, and stream flow data. The

  9. Geochemistry of Surface and Ground Water in Cement Creek from Gladstone to Georgia Gulch and in Prospect Gulch, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Wirt, Laurie; Manning, Andrew H.; Leib, Kenneth J.; Fey, David L.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2007-01-01

    In San Juan County, Colo., the effects of historical mining continue to contribute metals to ground water and surface water. Previous research by the U.S. Geological Survey identified ground-water discharge as a significant pathway for the loading of metals to surface water in the upper Animas River watershed from both acid-mine drainage and acid-rock drainage. In support of this ground-water research effort, Prospect Gulch was selected for further study and the geochemistry of surface and ground water in the area was analyzed as part of four sampling plans: (1) ten streamflow and geochemistry measurements at five stream locations (four locations along Cement Creek plus the mouth of Prospect Gulch from July 2004 through August 2005), (2) detailed stream tracer dilution studies in Prospect Gulch and in Cement Creek from Gladstone to Georgia Gulch in early October 2004, (3) geochemistry of ground water through sampling of monitoring wells, piezometers, mine shafts, and springs, and (4) samples for noble gases and tritium/helium for recharge temperatures (recharge elevation) and ground-water age dating. This report summarizes all of the surface and ground-water data that was collected and includes: (1) all sample collection locations, (2) streamflow and geochemistry, (3) ground-water geochemistry, and (4) noble gas and tritium/helium data.

  10. How much numerical precision do we really need in ground-water modeling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, M. C.

    2001-12-01

    Systems of interest to ground-water hydrologists are often subject to substantial measurement errors, and it may be tempting to assume that errors in modeling are not likely to cause serious problems. Dr. George Pinder, however, has always emphasized the importance of numerically precise models, which I heartily support. The following three examples illustrate the effects of imprecision on analyses conducted using ground-water models. The first situation, investigated by Barth, Hill, Illagesakare, and Rajaram (in press, Water Resources Research), shows that when conducting controlled experiments to test applicability of laboratory-measured values of hydraulic conductivity to in situ values, even a few percent error in calculated flow is important. The second example, investigated by Mehl and Hill (2001, Ground Water), demonstrates that common levels of numerical dispersion in the simulation of transport can greatly influence best-fit values of hydraulic conductivity. The third situation, investigated by Hill and Osterby (in review), shows the benefits of a little imprecision and the disaster of too much imprecision when using parameter correlation coefficients or singular value decomposition to determine whether a given set of regression data is sufficient to uniquely estimate a set of model parameters. The overall message is that precise models are crucial to accurate analyses and that the effects of the inevitably present imprecision need to be understood, even when that imprecision seems small. Mehl, S.W. and Hill, M.C., 2001, A comparison of solute-transport solution techniques and their effect on sensitivity analysis and inverse modeling results: Ground Water, 39(2): 300-307. >http://wwwbrr.cr.usgs.gov/projects/GW_Subsurf

  11. Ground-Water Conditions and Studies in the Brunswick-Glynn County Area, Georgia, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cherry, Gregory S.; Clarke, John S.

    2008-01-01

    The Upper Floridan aquifer is contaminated with saltwater in a 2-square-mile area of downtown Brunswick, Georgia. This contamination has limited the development of the ground-water supply in the Glynn County area. Hydrologic, geologic, and water-quality data are needed to effectively manage water resources. Since 1959, the U.S. Geological Survey has conducted a cooperative water-resources program with the City of Brunswick to monitor and assess the effect of ground-water development on saltwater contamination of the Floridan aquifer system. The potential development of alternative sources of water in the Brunswick and surficial aquifer systems also is an important consideration in coastal areas. During calendar year 2007, the cooperative water-resources monitoring program included continuous water-level recording of 13 wells completed in the Floridan, Brunswick, and surficial aquifer systems; collecting water levels from 22 wells to map the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer during July and August 2007; and collecting and analyzing water samples from 76 wells to map chloride concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer during July and August 2007. In addition, work was initiated to refine an existing ground-water flow model for evaluation of water-management scenarios.

  12. Eolian transport of geogenic hexavalent chromium to ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, W.W.; Clark, D.; Imes, J.L.; Councell, T.B.

    2010-01-01

    A conceptual model of eolian transport is proposed to address the widely distributed, high concentrations of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) observed in ground water in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Concentrations (30 to more than 1000 μg/L Cr+6) extend over thousands of square kilometers of ground water systems. It is hypothesized that the Cr is derived from weathering of chromium-rich pyroxenes and olivines present in ophiolite sequence of the adjacent Oman (Hajar) Mountains. Cr+3 in the minerals is oxidized to Cr+6 by reduction of manganese and is subsequently sorbed on iron and manganese oxide coatings of particles. When the surfaces of these particles are abraded in this arid environment, they release fine, micrometer-sized, coated particles that are easily transported over large distances by wind and subsequently deposited on the surface. During ground water recharge events, the readily soluble Cr+6 is mobilized by rain water and transported by advective flow into the underlying aquifer. Chromium analyses of ground water, rain, dust, and surface (soil) deposits are consistent with this model, as are electron probe analyses of clasts derived from the eroding Oman ophiolite sequence. Ground water recharge flux is proposed to exercise some control over Cr+6 concentration in the aquifer.

  13. Natural recharge and localization of fresh ground water in Kuwait

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstrom, R.E.; Aten, R.E.

    1965-01-01

    Fresh ground water (200 parts per million total dissolved solids and upwards) occurs in portions of Pleistocene sandstone aquifers beneath basins and wadis in north Kuwait where the mean rainfall is about five inches per year. The fresh water is surrounded and underlain by brackish water (> 4000 ppm TDS). Drilling and testing show that fresh water saturation is restricted to wadis and basin areas; in Rawdatain basin it attains a maximum thickness of about 110 feet and a lateral extent of about seven miles. The fresh ground water represents recharge localized, during infrequent, torrential rain storms, in areas of concentrated runoff where sediments in the vadose zone are moderately permeable and depth to the water table is generally less than a hundred feet. Concentration of runoff appears to be the primary control in the localization of recharge. The fresh water percolates downward to the ground-water reservoir following rare storms, then flows in the direction of hydraulic gradient and gradually becomes brackish. Theoretical delineation of the recharge area and ground-water flow pattern in Rawdatain was confirmed by tritium and C14 dating of the water. Brackish ground-water conditions prevail from water table downward in areas where rainfall infiltrates essentially where it falls, permeability of sediments in the vadose zone is low, or the water table is several hundred feet below land surface. In these areas, rainfall is retained and lost within the soil zone or becomes mineralized during deep percolation. ?? 1964.

  14. Assessing ground water development potential using landsat imagery.

    PubMed

    Mutiti, Samuel; Levy, Jonathan; Mutiti, Christine; Gaturu, Ndung'u S

    2010-01-01

    Seven villages in southeastern Kenya surround Mt. Kasigau and depend on the mountain's cloud forest for their water supply. Five of these villages have regularly experienced water shortages, and all village water supplies were contaminated with Escherichia coli bacteria. There is a need to economically find new sources of fresh ground water. Remote sensing offers a relatively quick and cost-effective way of identifying areas with high potential for ground water development. This study used spectral properties of features on Landsat remote sensing imagery to map linear features, soil types, surface moisture, and vegetation. Linear features represented geologic or geomorphologic features indicating either shallow ground water or areas of increased subsurface hydraulic conductivity. Regarding soil type, black soils were identified as potential indicators of shallow aquifers based on their relatively lower elevation and association with river valleys. A vegetation map was created using unsupervised classification, and three of the resulting vegetation classes were observed to be commonly associated with wet areas and/or ground water discharge. A wetness map, created using tasseled cap analysis, was used to identify all areas of high ground moisture, including those that corresponded to vegetated areas. The linear features, soil type, vegetation, and wetness maps were overlaid to produce a composite that highlighted areas with the highest potential for ground water development. Electrical resistivity surveys confirmed that areas highlighted by the composite image had relatively shallow depths to the water table. Some figures in this paper are available in color in the online version of the paper. PMID:19210559

  15. Remediation of ground water containing volatile organic compounds and tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, S.N.; Folsom, E.N.

    1994-03-01

    The Trailer 5475 (T-5475) East Taxi Strip Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, California was used as a taxi strip by the US Navy to taxi airplanes to the runway from 1942 to 1947. Solvents were used in some unpaved areas adjacent to the East Taxi Strip for cleaning airplanes. From 1953 through 1976, the area was used to store and treat liquid waste. From 1962 to 1976 ponds were constructed and used for evaporation of liquid waste. As a result, the ground water in this area contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and tritium. The ground water in this area is also known to contain hexavalent chromium that is probably naturally occurring. Therefore, LLNL has proposed ``pump-and-treat`` technology above grade in a completely closed loop system. The facility will be designed to remove the VOCs and hexavalent chromium, if any, from the ground water, and the treated ground water containing tritium will be reinjected where it will decay naturally in the subsurface. Ground water containing tritium will be reinjected into areas with equal or higher tritium concentrations to comply with California regulations.

  16. Monitoring early zeolite formation via in situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Brabants, G; Lieben, S; Breynaert, E; Reichel, E K; Taulelle, F; Martens, J A; Jakoby, B; Kirschhock, C E A

    2016-04-01

    Hitherto zeolite formation has not been fully understood. Although electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has proven to be a versatile tool for characterizing ionic solutions, it was never used for monitoring zeolite growth. We show here that EIS can quantitatively monitor zeolite formation, especially during crucial early steps where other methods fall short. PMID:27020096

  17. UMTRA project technical assistance contractor quality assurance implementation plan for surface and ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Quality Assurance Implementation Plan (QAIP) outlines the primary requirements for integrating quality functions for TAC technical activities applied to the surface and ground water phases of the UMTRA Project. The QAIP is subordinate to the latest issue of the UMTRA Project TAC Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). The QAIP addresses technical aspects of the TAC UMTRA Project surface and ground water programs. The QAIP is authorized and approved by the TAC Project Manager and QA manager. The QA program is designed to use monitoring, audit, and surveillance functions as management tools to ensure that all Project organization activities are carried out in a manner that will protect public health and safety, promote the success of the UMTRA Project and meet or exceed contract requirements.

  18. Monitoring Cocrystal Formation via In Situ Solid-State NMR.

    PubMed

    Mandala, Venkata S; Loewus, Sarel J; Mehta, Manish A

    2014-10-01

    A detailed understanding of the mechanism of organic cocrystal formation remains elusive. Techniques that interrogate a reacting system in situ are preferred, though experimentally challenging. We report here the results of a solid-state in situ NMR study of the spontaneous formation of a cocrystal between a pharmaceutical mimic (caffeine) and a coformer (malonic acid). Using (13)C magic angle spinning NMR, we show that the formation of the cocrystal may be tracked in real time. We find no direct evidence for a short-lived, chemical shift-resolved amorphous solid intermediate. However, changes in the line width and line center of the malonic acid methylene resonance, in the course of the reaction, provide subtle clues to the mode of mass transfer that underlies cocrystal formation. PMID:26278442

  19. Raman spectroscopy for in-situ monitoring of electrode processes

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, R; Cook, G M; Yao, N P

    1982-04-01

    The theoretical and experimental applications of Raman spectroscopic techniques to the study of battery electrode processes are described. In particular, the potential of Raman spectroscopy as an in-situ analytical tool for the characterization of the structure and composition of electrode surface layers at electrode-electrolyte interfaces during electrolysis is examined. It is anticipated that this understanding of the battery electrode processes will be helpful in designing battery active material with improved performance. The applications of Raman spectroscopy to the in-situ study of electrode processes has been demonstrated in a few selected areas, including: (1) the anodic corrosion of lead in sulfuric acid and (2) the anodization and sulfation of tetrabasicleadsulfate in sulfuric acid. Preliminary results on the anodization of iron and on the electrochemical behavior of nickel positive-electrode active material in potassium hydroxide electrolytes are presented in the Appendix.

  20. Ground-water data for Georgia, 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, J.S.; Longsworth, S.A.; Joiner, C.N.; Peck, M.F.; McFadden, K.W.; Milby, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    Continuous water level records from 152 wells and water level measurements from an additional 750 wells in Georgia during 1986 provide the basic data for this report. Hydrographs for selected wells illustrate the effects that changes in recharge and discharge have had on the groundwater reservoirs in the State. Daily mean water levels are shown in hydrographs for 1986. Monthly mean water levels are shown for the 10-yr period 1977-86. During 1986, a prolonged drought resulted in water level declines throughout the State. Annual mean water levels were from 2.7 ft higher to 17.3 ft lower than in 1985, and record lows were measured in 33 wells in the summer and fall. The 1986 lows were from 0.02 ft to 29.2 ft lower than the previous record lows. The largest declines were measured in the Clayton aquifer in the southwestern part of the State. The declines can be attributed to reduced recharge and increased pumping that resulted from below-normal precipitation during the first half of the year. Water quality samples are collected periodically throughout Georgia and analyzed as part of areal and regional groundwater studies. Periodic monitoring of water quality in the Savannah and Brunswick areas indicates that the chloride concentration in the Upper Floridan aquifer there generally has remained stable. (USGS)

  1. Hydrogeology, water quality, and ground-water-development alternatives in the Upper Wood River Ground-Water Reservoir, Rhode Island. Water resources investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerman, D.C.; Bell, R.W.

    1993-12-31

    This report describes the hydrogeology, water quality, and ground-water-development alternatives in the upper Wood River ground-water reservoir, Rhode Island. The report includes discussion of (1) recharge to and hydraulic properties of the stratified-drift aquifer, (2) stream-aquifer interconnection, (3) assessment of the quality of ground water and surface water, (4) input to and calibration of a two-dimensional ground-water-flow model, and (5) results of simulations of the effect of alternative ground-water-development schemes on ground-water levels and streamflow.

  2. Simulation of ground-water flow and land subsidence in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leighton, David A.; Phillips, Steven P.

    2003-01-01

    Antelope Valley, California, is a topographically closed basin in the western part of the Mojave Desert, about 50 miles northeast of Los Angeles. The Antelope Valley ground-water basin is about 940 square miles and is separated from the northern part of Antelope Valley by faults and low-lying hills. Prior to 1972, ground water provided more than 90 percent of the total water supply in the valley; since 1972, it has provided between 50 and 90 percent. Most ground-water pumping in the valley occurs in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin, which includes the rapidly growing cities of Lancaster and Palmdale. Ground-water-level declines of more than 200 feet in some parts of the ground-water basin have resulted in an increase in pumping lifts, reduced well efficiency, and land subsidence of more than 6 feet in some areas. Future urban growth and limits on the supply of imported water may continue to increase reliance on ground water. To better understand the ground-water flow system and to develop a tool to aid in effectively managing the water resources, a numerical model of ground-water flow and land subsidence in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin was developed using old and new geohydrologic information. The ground-water flow system consists of three aquifers: the upper, middle, and lower aquifers. The aquifers, which were identified on the basis of the hydrologic properties, age, and depth of the unconsolidated deposits, consist of gravel, sand, silt, and clay alluvial deposits and clay and silty clay lacustrine deposits. Prior to ground-water development in the valley, recharge was primarily the infiltration of runoff from the surrounding mountains. Ground water flowed from the recharge areas to discharge areas around the playas where it discharged either from the aquifer system as evapotranspiration or from springs. Partial barriers to horizontal ground-water flow, such as faults, have been identified in the ground-water basin. Water-level declines owing to

  3. Ground water quality protection: the issue in perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    The importance of protecting ground water resources cannot be overstated, and many people throughout the world seem anxious to physically and financially support a rational program to this end. Public complacency regarding the quality of ground water was destroyed with headline-grabbing incidents of pollution such as Love Canal, Valley of the Drums, and Times Beach. Contrary to earlier popular belief, the soil mantle has been shown to be ineffective in cleansing certain pollutants from the water flowing through it. The legislative basis for developing and implementing broad ground water quality protection programs exists, although it is dispersed in a variety of pieces of legislation. Such programs presuppose the existence of the scientific knowledge necessary to produce viable and effective results from its implementation. This article addresses the research needed for accumulation of this information. 12 references.

  4. Ground water and surface water; a single resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, Thomas C.; Harvey, Judson W.; Franke, O. Lehn; Alley, William M.

    1998-01-01

    The importance of considering ground water and surface water as a single resource has become increasingly evident. Issues related to water supply, water quality, and degradation of aquatic environments are reported on frequently. The interaction of ground water and surface water has been shown to be a significant concern in many of these issues. Contaminated aquifers that discharge to streams can result in long-term contamination of surface water; conversely, streams can be a major source of contamination to aquifers. Surface water commonly is hydraulically connected to ground water, but the interactions are difficult to observe and measure. The purpose of this report is to present our current understanding of these processes and activities as well as limitations in our knowledge and ability to characterize them.

  5. Bibliography of publications relating to ground water in Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cushman, R.V.

    1950-01-01

    In 1939, when it became necessary to curtail the work being carried on by the Works Progress Administration, cooperation was arranged between the Federal Ecological Survey and the State Water Commission to continue investigations relative to the over-development of ground-water supplies in the New Haven area. From time to time additional funds have been made available to meet growing demands by the State for data on its ground-water supplied and the present cooperative program between the U.S. Geological Survey and the State Water Commission is a continuation of the original arrangement. It is estimated that about 14 per cont of the State has been covered by recent ground-water surveys and in addition some data are available for another 20 per cent of he State.

  6. Environmental assessment of ground water compliance activities at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Spook, Wyoming. Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This document is an environmental assessment of the Spook, Wyoming, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. It analyzes the impacts of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposed action for ground water compliance. The proposed action is to comply with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for the UMTRA Project sites (40 CFR Part 192) by meeting supplemental standards based on the limited use ground water at the Spook site. This proposed action would not require site activities, including ground water monitoring, characterization, or institutional controls. Ground water in the uppermost aquifer was contaminated by uranium processing activities at the Spook site, which is in Converse County, approximately 48 miles (mi) (77 kilometers [km]) northeast of Casper, Wyoming. Constituents from the site infiltrated and migrated into the uppermost aquifer, forming a plume that extends approximately 2500 feet (ft) (800 meters [m]) downgradient from the site. The principal site-related hazardous constituents in this plume are uranium, selenium, and nitrate. Background ground water in the uppermost aquifer at the site is considered limited use. It is neither a current nor a potential source of drinking water because of widespread, ambient contamination that cannot be cleaned up using treatment methods reasonably employed in public water supply systems (40 CFR {section} 192.11 (e)). Background ground water quality also is poor due to first, naturally occurring conditions (natural uranium mineralization associated with an alteration front), and second, the effects of widespread human activity not related to uranium milling operations (uranium exploration and mining activities). There are no known exposure pathways to humans, animals, or plants from the contaminated ground water in the uppermost aquifer because it does not discharge to lower aquifers, to the surface, or to surface water.

  7. Ground-Water Data and Flow Directions in the Vicinity of Swamp Road, Licking County, Ohio, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumouchelle, Denise H.

    2007-01-01

    The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) is proposing to build a dry dam on the South Fork Licking River to mitigate flood impacts. Concerns have been raised regarding the effects of impounded floodwaters on ground-water conditions in the Swamp Road neighborhood. To obtain a better understanding of existing ground-water conditions, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the NRCS, installed three monitoring wells and collected ground-water-quality samples on two occasions from these and four residential wells. In addition, transducers were placed in these seven wells to obtain hourly water-level measurements from August, 2006 to early March, 2007. Intermittent water levels also were measured in another seven residential wells in the area. Water-quality samples were collected in September 2006 and January 2007. Samples were analyzed for nutrients, inorganic elements, and fecal-indicator bacteria. In general, the ground-water quality was very hard with large iron concentrations of 1,700 ?g/L and above. Although the aquifer underlying the Swamp Road area is confined, the continuous water-level records indicate a rapid response to precipitation. Comparison of the well hydrographs with the stage hydrograph for the nearby South Fork Licking River indicates a hydraulic connection between the river and the aquifer. In the vicinity of Swamp Road, the ground-water-flow direction was southeast during the duration of the study. The ground-water-level elevations were above the planned maximum elevation for water impounded by the dam, thus the impounded floodwater should have minimal impact on ground-water conditions along Swamp Road.

  8. Hydrogeology, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumouchelle, D.H.; Schalk, C.W.; Rowe, G.L.; De Roche, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water in the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base area. The aquifer consists of glacial sands and gravels that fill a buried bedrock-valley system. Consolidated rocks in the area consist of poorly permeable Ordovician shale of the Richmondian stage, in the upland areas, the Brassfield Limestone of Silurian age. The valleys are filled with glacial sediments of Wisconsinan age consisting of clay-rich tills and coarse-grained outwash deposits. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity of the shales based on results of displacement/recovery tests range from 0.0016 to 12 feet per day; estimates for the glacial sediments range from less than 1 foot per day to more than 1,000 feet per day. Ground water flow from the uplands towards the valleys and the major rivers in the region, the Great Miami and the Mad Rivers. Hydraulic-head data indicate that ground water flows between the bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Data from a gain/loss study of the Mad River System and hydrographs from nearby wells reveal that the reach of the river next to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a ground-water discharge area. A steady-state, three-dimensional ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the region. The model contains three layers and encompasses about 100 square miles centered on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Ground water enters the modeled area primarily by river leakage and underflow at the model boundary. Ground water exits the modeled area primarily by flow through the valleys at the model boundaries and through production wells. A model sensitivity analysis involving systematic changes in values of hydrologic parameters in the model indicates that the model is most sensitive to decreases in riverbed conductance and vertical conductance between the upper two layers. The analysis also indicates that the contribution of water to the buried-valley aquifer from the bedrock that forms the valley walls is about 2 to 4

  9. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  10. Assessment of shallow ground-water quality in recently urbanized areas of Sacramento, California, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence for anthropogenic impact on shallow ground-water quality beneath recently developed urban areas of Sacramento, California, has been observed in the sampling results from 19 monitoring wells in 1998. Eight volatile organic compounds (VOCs), four pesticides, and one pesticide transformation product were detected in low concentrations, and nitrate, as nitrogen, was detected in elevated concentrations; all of these concentrations were below National and State primary and secondary maximum contaminant levels. VOC results from this study are more consistent with the results from urban areas nationwide than from agricultural areas in the Central Valley, indicating that shallow ground-water quality has been impacted by urbanization. VOCs detected may be attributed to either the chlorination of drinking water, such as trichloromethane (chloroform) detected in 16 samples, or to the use of gasoline additives, such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), detected in 2 samples. Pesticides detected may be attributed to use on household lawns and gardens and rights-of-way, such as atrazine detected in three samples, or to past agricultural practices, and potentially to ground-water/surface-water interactions, such as bentazon detected in one sample from a well adjacent to the Sacramento River and downstream from where bentazon historically was used on rice. Concentrations of nitrate may be attributed to natural sources, animal waste, old septic tanks, and fertilizers used on lawns and gardens or previously used on agricultural crops. Seven sample concentrations of nitrate, as nitrogen, exceeded 3.0 milligrams per liter, a level that may indicate impact from human activities. Ground-water recharge from rainfall or surface-water runoff also may contribute to the concentrations of VOCs and pesticides observed in ground water. Most VOCs and pesticides detected in ground-water samples also were detected in air and surface-water samples collected at sites within or adjacent to the

  11. Wastewater application by spray irrigation on a field southeast of Tallahassee, Florida; effects on ground-water quality and quantity, 1980-82

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elder, J.F.; Hunn, J.D.; Calhoun, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    A field southeast of Tallahassee, Florida, used for land application of wastewater by spray irrigation was the site of a ground-water monitoring study to determine effects of spray irrigation on water-table elevations and ground-water quality. The study was conducted during 1980-82 in cooperation with the City of Tallahassee. The wastewater has relatively high concentrations of chloride, nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon , coliform bacteria, sodium, and potassium. These substances are usually attenuated before they can impact the ground water. However, increases in chloride and nitrate-nitrogen were evident in ground water in some of the monitoring wells during the study. Chloride concentrations increased five-fold or more in some wells directly affected by spray irrigation, and nitrate-nitrogen concentrations increased eight-fold or more. Ground-water levels in the area of the spray field fluctuated over a range of several feet. These fluctuations were affected somewhat by spray irrigation, but the primary control on water levels was rainfall. As of December 1982, constituents introduced to the system by spray irrigation of effluent had not exceeded drinking water standard in the ground water. However, the system had not yet stabilized and more changes in ground-water quality could be expected. (USGS)

  12. Ground-water quality in Wisconsin through 1972

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skinner, E.L.; Holt, C. L. R., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Ground water, a plentiful and largely underdeveloped resource of Wisconsin, has good to excellent chemical quality in most places. This resource is readily available in most parts of the State for municipal, industrial, and rural uses. In 1970, about 0.5 billion gallons of ground water a day was pumped in Wisconsin for all uses (Murray and Reeves, 1972). In addition, underground reservoirs discharge an average of 16 billion gallons per day of water of relatively constant temperature and uniform quality, which maintains the base flow of streams and the level of lakes (Holt, 1964).

  13. Evidence for ground-water stratification near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Futa, K.; Marshall, B.D.; Peterman, Z.E.

    2006-01-01

    Major- and trace-element concentrations and strontium isotope ratios (strontium-87/strontium-86) in samples of ground water potentially can be useful in delineating flow paths in the complex ground-water system in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Water samples were collected from boreholes to characterize the lateral and vertical variability in the composition of water in the saturated zone. Discrete sampling of water-producing intervals in the saturated zone includes isolating borehole sections with packers and extracting pore water from core obtained by sonic drilling. Chemical and isotopic stratification was identified in the saturated zone beneath southern Fortymile Wash.

  14. Continued utilization of ground-water storage basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, H.E.

    1957-01-01

    Doubtless most of you are more familiar with surface reservoirs, their capabilities and limitations, than you are with ground-water reservoirs. I believe that this is true of people in general, even the experts. And because of our inadequate knowledge of ground-water reservoirs, our use of them creates problems that are rarely if ever encountered in the operation of surface reservoirs. Nevertheless there are many similarities between these two basic forms of water storage, and I should like to point out some of these similarities, was well as some important contrasts.

  15. Ground water applications of the heat capacity mapping mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heilman, J. L.; Moore, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    The paper discusses the ground water portion of a hydrologic investigation of eastern South Dakota using data from the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) satellite. The satellite carries a two-channel radiometer (0.5-1.1 and 10.5-12.5 microns) in a sun synchronous orbit and collects data at approximately 0230 and 1330 local standard time with repeat coverage of 5 to 16 days depending on latitude. It is shown that HCMM data acquired at appropriate periods of the diurnal and annual temperature cycle can provide useful information on shallow ground water.

  16. The Hydrolysis of Di-Isopropyl Methylphosphonate in Ground Water

    SciTech Connect

    Sega, G.A., Tomkins, B.A., Griest, W.H., Bayne, C.K.

    1997-12-31

    Di-isopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) is a byproduct from the manufacture of the nerve agent Sarin. The persistence of DIMP in the ground water is an important question in evaluating the potential environmental impacts of DIMP contamination. The half-life of DIMP in ground water at 10 deg C was estimated to be 500 years with a 95% confidence interval of 447 to 559 years from measurements of the hydrolysis rates at temperatures between 70 to 98 deg C.Extrapolation of the kinetics to 10 deg C used the Arrhenius equation, and calculation of the half-life assumed first-order kinetics. Inorganic phosphate was not detected.

  17. In situ monitoring hydrogen isotope retention in ITER first wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhin, E. E.; Andrew, P.; Anthoine, A. D.; Bazhenov, A. N.; Barnsley, R.; Bukreev, I. M.; Bukhovets, V. L.; Chernakov, A. P.; Gorodetsky, A. E.; Kochergin, M. M.; Koval, A. N.; Kukushkin, A. B.; Kukushkin, A. S.; Kurskiev, G. S.; Levashova, M. G.; Litvinov, A. E.; Litunovsky, V. N.; Markin, A. V.; Mazul, I. V.; Masyukevich, S. V.; Miroshnikov, I. V.; Nemov, A. S.; Novokhatsky, A. N.; Razdobarin, A. G.; Sherstnev, E. V.; Samsonov, D. S.; Semenov, V. V.; Smirnov, A. S.; De Temmerman, G.; Tolstyakov, S. Yu.; Zalavutdinov, R. Kh.; Walsh, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    Tritium retention inside the vacuum vessel is a potentially serious constraint in the operation of large-scale fusion machines like ITER. An in situ diagnostics for first wall H/D/T retention by laser induced desorption spectroscopy (LIDS) is proposed for use between plasma discharges. The technique is based on local baking of the first wall by laser irradiation and subsequent analysis of the in-vessel gas by optical emission spectroscopy of plasma radiation. The local heating implementation, kinetics of H/D/T thermal extraction and the accuracy of optical emission spectroscopy measurements are analysed. To resolve the H/D/T lines spectroscopically, their thermal broadening should be minimized to prevent overlapping of the line shapes. A comparative performance analysis of several types of plasma sources with relatively cold ions is made including the following types of discharges: Penning, RF multipactor, laser torch and ECR. All these radiation sources require rather low power and could be used for remote in situ measurements of relative densities of the thermally extracted hydrogen isotopes.

  18. Ground-water quality, water year 1995, and statistical analysis of ground-water-quality data, water years 1994-95, at the Chromic Acid Pit site, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Roybal, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    The Chromic Acid Pit site is an inactive waste disposal site that is regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. The 2.2-cubic-yard cement-lined pit was operated from 1980 to 1983 by a contractor to the U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss. The pit, located on the Fort Bliss military reservation in El Paso, Texas, was used for disposal and evaporation of chromic acid waste generated from chrome plating operations. The site was closed in 1989, and the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission issued permit number HW-50296 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency number TX4213720101), which approved and implemented post-closure care for the Chromic Acid Pit site. In accordance with an approved post-closure plan, the U.S. Geological Survey is cooperating with the U.S. Army in monitoring and evaluating ground-water quality at the site. One upgradient ground-water monitoring well (MW1) and two downgradient ground-water monitoring wells (MW2 and MW3), installed adjacent to the chromic acid pit, are monitored on a quarterly basis. Ground-water sampling of these wells by the U.S. Geological Survey began in December 1993. The ground-water level, measured in a production well located approximately 1,700 feet southeast of the Chromic Acid Pit site, has declined about 29.43 feet from 1982 to 1995. Depth to water at the Chromic Acid Pit site in September 1995 was 284.2 to 286.5 feet below land surface; ground-water flow at the water table is assumed to be toward the southeast. Ground-water samples collected from monitoring wells at the Chromic Acid Pit site during water year 1995 contained dissolved- solids concentrations of 481 to 516 milligrams per liter. Total chromium concentrations detected above the laboratory reporting limit ranged from 0.0061 to 0.030 milligram per liter; dissolved chromium concentrations ranged from 0.0040 to 0.010 milligram per liter. Nitrate as nitrogen concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 2.8 milligrams per

  19. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 5, Field Investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    An environmental investigation of ground water conditions has been undertaken at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Ohio to obtain data to assist in the evaluation of a potential removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, migration of the contaminated ground water across Base boundaries. Field investigations were limited to the central section of the southwestern boundary of Area C and the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B. Further, the study was limited to a maximum depth of 150 feet below grade. Three primary activities of the field investigation were: (1) installation of 22 monitoring wells, (2) collection and analysis of ground water from 71 locations, (3) measurement of ground water elevations at 69 locations. Volatile organic compounds including trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and/or vinyl chloride were detected in concentrations exceeding Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) at three locations within the Area C investigation area. Ground water at the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B occurs in two primary units, separated by a thicker-than-expected clay layers. One well within Area B was determined to exceed the MCL for trichloroethylene.

  20. Evaluation of the U.S. Geological Survey Ground-Water Data-Collection Program in Hawaii, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, Stephen S.

    1997-01-01

    In 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey ground-water data-collection program in the State of Hawaii consisted of 188 wells distributed among the islands of Oahu, Kauai, Maui, Molokai, and Hawaii. Water-level and water-quality (temperature, specific conductance, and chloride concentration) data were collected from observation wells, deep monitoring wells that penetrate the zone of transition between freshwater and saltwater, free-flowing wells, and pumped wells. The objective of the program was to collect sufficient spatial and temporal data to define seasonal and long-term changes in ground-water levels and chloride concentrations induced by natural and human-made stresses for different climatic and hydrogeologic settings. Wells needed to meet this objective can be divided into two types of networks: (1) a water-management network to determine the response of ground-water flow systems to human-induced stresses, such as pumpage, and (2) a baseline network to determine the response of ground-water flow systems to natural stresses for different climatic and hydrogeologic settings. Maps showing the distribution and magnitude of pumpage and the distribution of proposed pumped wells are presented to identify areas in need of water-management networks. Wells in the 1992 U.S. Geological Survey ground-water data-collection program were classified as either water-management or baseline network wells. In addition, locations where additional water-management network wells are needed for water-level and water-quality data were identified.