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Sample records for situ molten metal

  1. From Oxygen Generation to Metals Production: In Situ Resource Utilization by Molten Oxide Electrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khetpal, Deepak; Ducret, Andrew C.; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2003-01-01

    For the exploration of other bodies in the solar system, electrochemical processing is arguably the most versatile technology for conversion of local resources into usable commodities: by electrolysis one can, in principle, produce (1) breathable oxygen, (2) silicon for the fabrication of solar cells, (3) various reactive metals for use as electrodes in advanced storage batteries, and (4) structural metals such as steel and aluminum. Even so, to date there has been no sustained effort to develop such processes, in part due to the inadequacy of the database. The objective here is to identify chemistries capable of sustaining molten oxide electrolysis in the cited applications and to examine the behavior of laboratory-scale cells designed to generate oxygen and to produce metal. The basic research includes the study of the underlying high-temperature physical chemistry of oxide melts representative of lunar regolith and of Martian soil. To move beyond empirical approaches to process development, the thermodynamic and transport properties of oxide melts are being studied to help set the limits of composition and temperature for the processing trials conducted in laboratory-scale electrolysis cells. The goal of this investigation is to deliver a working prototype cell that can use lunar regolith and Martian soil to produce breathable oxygen along with metal by-product. Additionally, the process can be generalized to permit adaptation to accommodate different feedstock chemistries, such as those that will be encountered on other bodies in the solar system. The expected results of this research include: (1) the identification of appropriate electrolyte chemistries; (2) the selection of candidate anode and cathode materials compatible with electrolytes named above; and (3) performance data from a laboratory-scale cell producing oxygen and metal. On the strength of these results it should be possible to assess the technical viability of molten oxide electrolysis for in

  2. Laser-produced plasma sensor-probe system for in situ molten metal analysis. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.W.

    1997-01-28

    The radically new methodology of in-situ laser-produced plasma (LPP) analysis of molten metals, as developed at Lehigh University, has been implemented into an LPP sensor-probe system, ready for deployment at steelmaking facilities. The system consists of an LPP sensor-probe head, which is immersed into the molten metal bath for the short duration of measurement, a control console, an umbilical cord connecting the above two units, and a support console providing coolants and pneumatic supports to the control console. The Department of Energy funding has supported Phase III-A and -B of the project in a joint sponsorship with AISI, CTU 5-2 Consortium, and Lehigh University. The objectives have been to: (1) implement the molten metal calibration protocol for the LPP analysis methodology; (2) implement the methodology in the form of a second-generation LPP sensor-probe system, which facilitates real-time process control by in-situ determination of elemental composition of molten steel alloys; (3) deploy such developmental systems in steelmaking facilities; (4) upgrade the systems to a third-generation design; and (5) effect technology transfer by selecting a manufacturer of commercial LPP sensor-probe systems. Four of the five objectives have been fully met. The deployment objective has been partially realized at present. The full LPP sensor-probe system has been put through trial immersion runs at a foundry, but its deployment at steelmaking facilities has progressed to a stage where various issues of financial and legal nature are being codified into a formal agreement between a host site and Lehigh University.

  3. Molten metal reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M

    2013-11-05

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  4. Supported molten-metal catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Datta, Ravindra; Singh, Ajeet; Halasz, Istvan; Serban, Manuela

    2001-01-01

    An entirely new class of catalysts called supported molten-metal catalysts, SMMC, which can replace some of the existing precious metal catalysts used in the production of fuels, commodity chemicals, and fine chemicals, as well as in combating pollution. SMMC are based on supporting ultra-thin films or micro-droplets of the relatively low-melting (<600.degree. C.), inexpensive, and abundant metals and semimetals from groups 1, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16, of the periodic table, or their alloys and intermetallic compounds, on porous refractory supports, much like supported microcrystallites of the traditional solid metal catalysts. It thus provides orders of magnitude higher surface area than is obtainable in conventional reactors containing molten metals in pool form and also avoids corrosion. These have so far been the chief stumbling blocks in the application of molten metal catalysts.

  5. Molten metal injector system and method

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, Thomas N.; Kinosz, Michael J.; Bigler, Nicolas; Arnaud, Guy

    2003-04-01

    Disclosed is a molten metal injector system including a holder furnace, a casting mold supported above the holder furnace, and a molten metal injector supported from a bottom side of the mold. The holder furnace contains a supply of molten metal having a metal oxide film surface. The bottom side of the mold faces the holder furnace. The mold defines a mold cavity for receiving the molten metal from the holder furnace. The injector projects into the holder furnace and is in fluid communication with the mold cavity. The injector includes a piston positioned within a piston cavity defined by a cylinder for pumping the molten metal upward from the holder furnace and injecting the molten metal into the mold cavity under pressure. The piston and cylinder are at least partially submerged in the molten metal when the holder furnace contains the molten metal. The cylinder further includes a molten metal intake for receiving the molten metal into the piston cavity. The molten metal intake is located below the metal oxide film surface of the molten metal when the holder furnace contains the molten metal. A method of injecting molten metal into a mold cavity of a casting mold is also disclosed.

  6. Recirculating Molten Metal Supply System And Method

    DOEpatents

    Kinosz, Michael J.; Meyer, Thomas N.

    2003-07-01

    The melter furnace includes a heating chamber (16), a pump chamber (18), a degassing chamber (20), and a filter chamber (22). The pump chamber (18) is located adjacent the heating chamber (16) and houses a molten metal pump (30). The degassing chamber (20) is located adjacent and in fluid communication with the pump chamber (18), and houses a degassing mechanism (36). The filter chamber (22) is located adjacent and in fluid communication with the degassing chamber (20). The filter chamber (22) includes a molten metal filter (38). The melter furnace (12) is used to supply molten metal to an externally located holder furnace (14), which then recirculates molten metal back to the melter furnace (12).

  7. Method and apparatus for atomization and spraying of molten metals

    DOEpatents

    Hobson, David O.; Alexeff, Igor; Sikka, Vinod K.

    1990-01-01

    A method and device for dispersing molten metal into fine particulate spray, the method comprises applying an electric current through the molten metal and simultaneously applying a magnetic field to the molten metal in a plane perpendicular to the electric current, whereby the molten metal is caused to form into droplets at an angle perpendicular to both the electric current and the magnetic field. The device comprises a structure for providing a molten metal, appropriately arranged electrodes for applying an electric current through the molten metal, and a magnet for providing a magnetic field in a plane perpendicular to the electric current.

  8. Method and apparatus for atomization and spraying of molten metals

    DOEpatents

    Hobson, D.O.; Alexeff, I.; Sikka, V.K.

    1988-07-19

    A method and device for dispersing molten metal into fine particulate spray, the method comprises applying an electric current through the molten metal and simultaneously applying a magnetic field to the molten metal in a plane perpendicular to the electric current, whereby the molten metal is caused to form into droplets at an angle perpendicular to both the electric current and the magnetic field. The device comprises a structure for providing a molten metal, appropriately arranged electrodes for applying an electric current through the molten metal, and a magnet for providing a magnetic field in a plane perpendicular to the electric current. 11 figs.

  9. A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M., Donaldson, A.D.

    1990-12-12

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figs.

  10. Method for recovering hydrocarbons from molten metal halides

    DOEpatents

    Pell, Melvyn B.

    1979-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy carbonaceous materials by contacting such carbonaceous materials with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst to produce hydrocarbons having lower molecular weights and thereafter recovering the hydrocarbons so produced from the molten metal halide, an improvement comprising injecting into the spent molten metal halide, a liquid low-boiling hydrocarbon stream is disclosed.

  11. Process for recovering tritium from molten lithium metal

    DOEpatents

    Maroni, Victor A.

    1976-01-01

    Lithium tritide (LiT) is extracted from molten lithium metal that has been exposed to neutron irradiation for breeding tritium within a thermonuclear or fission reactor. The extraction is performed by intimately contacting the molten lithium metal with a molten lithium salt, for instance, lithium chloride - potassium chloride eutectic to distribute LiT between the salt and metal phases. The extracted tritium is recovered in gaseous form from the molten salt phase by a subsequent electrolytic or oxidation step.

  12. Metals processing control by counting molten metal droplets

    DOEpatents

    Schlienger, Eric; Robertson, Joanna M.; Melgaard, David; Shelmidine, Gregory J.; Van Den Avyle, James A.

    2000-01-01

    Apparatus and method for controlling metals processing (e.g., ESR) by melting a metal ingot and counting molten metal droplets during melting. An approximate amount of metal in each droplet is determined, and a melt rate is computed therefrom. Impedance of the melting circuit is monitored, such as by calculating by root mean square a voltage and current of the circuit and dividing the calculated current into the calculated voltage. Analysis of the impedance signal is performed to look for a trace characteristic of formation of a molten metal droplet, such as by examining skew rate, curvature, or a higher moment.

  13. Supported Molten Metal Membranes for Hydrogen Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Ravindra; Ma, Yi Hua; Yen, Pei-Shan; Deveau, Nicholas; Fishtik, Ilie; Mardilovich, Ivan

    2013-09-30

    We describe here our results on the feasibility of a novel dense metal membrane for hydrogen separation: Supported Molten Metal Membrane, or SMMM.1 The goal in this work was to develop these new membranes based on supporting thin films of low-melting, non- precious group metals, e.g., tin (Sn), indium (In), gallium (Ga), or their alloys, to provide a flux and selectivity of hydrogen that rivals the conventional but substantially more expensive palladium (Pd) or Pd alloy membranes, which are susceptible to poisoning by the many species in the coal-derived syngas, and further possess inadequate stability and limited operating temperature range. The novelty of the technology presented numerous challenges during the course of this project, however, mainly in the selection of appropriate supports, and in the fabrication of a stable membrane. While the wetting instability of the SMMM remains an issue, we did develop an adequate understanding of the interaction between molten metal films with porous supports that we were able to find appropriate supports. Thus, our preliminary results indicate that the Ga/SiC SMMM at 550 ºC has a permeance that is an order of magnitude higher than that of Pd, and exceeds the 2015 DOE target. To make practical SMM membranes, however, further improving the stability of the molten metal membrane is the next goal. For this, it is important to better understand the change in molten metal surface tension and contact angle as a function of temperature and gas-phase composition. A thermodynamic theory was, thus, developed, that is not only able to explain this change in the liquid-gas surface tension, but also the change in the solid-liquid surface tension as well as the contact angle. This fundamental understanding has allowed us to determine design characteristics to maintain stability in the face of changing gas composition. These designs are being developed. For further progress, it is also important to understand the nature of solution and

  14. Molten metal holder furnace and casting system incorporating the molten metal holder furnace

    DOEpatents

    Kinosz, Michael J.; Meyer, Thomas N.

    2003-02-11

    A bottom heated holder furnace (12) for containing a supply of molten metal includes a storage vessel (30) having sidewalls (32) and a bottom wall (34) defining a molten metal receiving chamber (36). A furnace insulating layer (42) lines the molten metal receiving chamber (36). A thermally conductive heat exchanger block (54) is located at the bottom of the molten metal receiving chamber (36) for heating the supply of molten metal. The heat exchanger block (54) includes a bottom face (65), side faces (66), and a top face (67). The heat exchanger block (54) includes a plurality of electrical heaters (70) extending therein and projecting outward from at least one of the faces of the heat exchanger block (54), and further extending through the furnace insulating layer (42) and one of the sidewalls (32) of the storage vessel (30) for connection to a source of electrical power. A sealing layer (50) covers the bottom face (65) and side faces (66) of the heat exchanger block (54) such that the heat exchanger block (54) is substantially separated from contact with the furnace insulating layer (42).

  15. Applications of molten salts in reactive metals processing

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, B.; Olson, D.L.; Averill, W.A.

    1993-12-31

    Pyrochemical processes using molten salts provide a unique opportunity for the extraction and refining of many reactive and valuable metals either directly from the beneficiated ore or from other process effluent that contain reactive metal compounds. This research program is aimed at developing a process for the production and recovery of reactive and valuable metals, such as zinc, tin, lead, bismuth and silver, in a hybrid reactor combining electrolytic production of the calcium reductant and in-situ utilization of this reductant for pyrochemical reduction of the metal compounds, such as halide or oxides. The process is equally suitable for producing other low melting metals, such as cadmium and antimony. The cell is typically operated below 1000C temperature. Attempts have been made to produce silver, lead, bismuth, tin and cerium by calciothermic reduction in a molten salt media. In a separate effort, calcium has been produced by an electrolytic dissociation of lime in a calcium chloride medium. The most important characteristic of the hybrid technology is its ability to produce metals under ``zero-waste`` conditions.

  16. Electrochemical cell utilizing molten alkali metal electrode-reactant

    DOEpatents

    Virkar, Anil V.; Miller, Gerald R.

    1983-11-04

    An improved electrochemical cell comprising an additive-modified molten alkali metal electrode-reactant and/or electrolyte is disclosed. Various electrochemical cells employing a molten alkali metal, e.g., sodium, electrode in contact with a cationically conductive ceramic membrane experience a lower resistance and a lower temperature coefficient of resistance whenever small amounts of selenium are present at the interface of the electrolyte and the molten alkali metal. Further, cells having small amounts of selenium present at the electrolyte-molten metal interface exhibit less degradation of the electrolyte under long term cycling conditions.

  17. Micro encapsulation in situ with super permeating molten wax

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, E.

    2007-07-01

    A new class of grout material based on molten wax offers a dramatic improvement in permeation grouting performance. This new material makes a perfect in situ containment of buried radioactive waste both feasible and cost effective. This paper describes various ways the material can be used to isolate buried waste in situ. Potential applications described in the paper include buried radioactive waste in deep trenches, deep shafts, Infiltration trenches, and large buried objects. Use of molten wax for retrieval of waste is also discussed. Wax can also be used for retrieval of air sensitive materials or drummed waste. This paper provides an analysis of the methods of application and the expected performance and cost of several potential projects. (authors)

  18. Application of molten salts in pyrochemical processing of reactive metals

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, B.; Olson, D.L. . Kroll Inst. for Extractive Metallurgy); Averill, W.A. . Rocky Flats Plant)

    1992-01-01

    Various mixes of chloride and fluoride salts are used as the media for conducting pyrochemical processes in the production and purification of reactive metals. These processes generate a significant amount of contaminated waste that has to be treated for recycling or disposal. Molten calcium chloride based salt systems have been used in this work to electrolytically regenerate calcium metal from calcium oxide for the in situ reduction of reactive metal oxides. The recovery of calcium is characterized by the process efficiency to overcome back reactions in the electrowinning cell. A thermodynamic analysis, based on fundamental rate theory, has been performed to understand the process parameters controlling the metal deposition, rate, behavior of the ceramic anode-sheath and influence of the back-reactions. It has been observed that the deposition of calcium is dependent on the ionic diffusion through the sheath. It has also been evidenced that the recovered calcium is completely lost through the back-reactions in the absence of a sheath. A practical scenario has also been presented where the electrowon metal can be used in situ as a reductant to reduce another reactive metal oxide.

  19. Pump for molten metal or other fluid

    DOEpatents

    Horton, James A.; Brown, Donald L.

    1994-01-01

    A pump having no moving parts which can be used to pump high temperature molten metal or other fluids in a vacuum or low pressure environment, and a method for pumping such fluids. The pump combines elements of a bubble pump with a trap which isolates the vacuum or low pressure region from the gas used to create the bubbles. When used in a vacuum the trap prevents the pumping gas from escaping into the isolated region and thereby reducing the quality of the vacuum. The pump includes a channel in which a pumping gas is forced under pressure into a cavity where bubbles are formed. The cavity is in contact with a reservoir which contains the molten metal or other fluid which is to be pumped. The bubbles rise up into a column (or pump tube) carrying the fluid with them. At the top of the column is located a deflector which causes the bubbles to burst and the drops of pumped fluid to fall into a trap. The fluid accumulates in the trap, eventually forcing its way to an outlet. A roughing pump can be used to withdraw the pumping gas from the top of the column and assist with maintaining the vacuum or low pressure environment.

  20. Pendant-Drop Surface-Tension Measurement On Molten Metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Man, Kin Fung; Thiessen, David

    1996-01-01

    Method of measuring surface tension of molten metal based on pendant-drop method implemented in quasi-containerless manner and augmented with digital processing of image data. Electrons bombard lower end of sample rod in vacuum, generating hanging drop of molten metal. Surface tension of drop computed from its shape. Technique minimizes effects of contamination.

  1. Molten metal burn of the foot: a preventable injury.

    PubMed

    Himel, H J; Syptak, J M; Jones, K C; Towler, M A; Edlich, R F

    1992-01-01

    Molten metal burns of the feet remain a common injury to foundry workers. A case is reported of a foundry worker who sustained circumferential molten metal burns of the distal foot and toes necessitating amputation of four toes. This severe injury could easily have been prevented by the use of protective footwear and spats. PMID:1351490

  2. Pressurized tundish for controlling a continuous flow of molten metal

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, T.W.; Hamill, P.E. Jr.; Ozgu, M.R.; Padfield, R.C.; Rego, D.N.; Brita, G.P.

    1990-07-24

    A pressurized tundish for controlling a continuous flow of molten metal is characterized by having a pair of principal compartments, one being essentially unpressurized and receiving molten metal introduced thereto, and the other being adapted for maintaining a controlled gaseous pressure over the surface of the fluid metal therein, whereby, by controlling the pressure within the pressurized chamber, metal exiting from the tundish is made to flow continually and at a controlled rate. 1 fig.

  3. Pressurized tundish for controlling a continuous flow of molten metal

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Thomas W.; Hamill, Jr., Paul E.; Ozgu, Mustafa R.; Padfield, Ralph C.; Rego, Donovan N.; Brita, Guido P.

    1990-01-01

    A pressurized tundish for controlling a continous flow of molten metal characterized by having a pair of principal compartments, one being essentially unpressurized and receiving molten metal introduced thereto, and the other being adapted for maintaining a controlled gaseous pressure over the surface of the fluid metal therein, whereby, by controlling the pressure within the pressurized chamber, metal exiting from the tundish is made to flow continually and at a controlled rate.

  4. Casting Apparatus Including A Gas Driven Molten Metal Injector And Method

    DOEpatents

    Trudel, David R.; Meyer, Thomas N.; Kinosz, Michael J.; Arnaud, Guy; Bigler, Nicolas

    2003-06-17

    The filtering molten metal injector system includes a holder furnace, a casting mold supported above the holder furnace, and at least one molten metal injector supported from a bottom side of the casting mold. The holder furnace contains a supply of molten metal. The mold defines a mold cavity for receiving the molten metal from the holder furnace. The molten metal injector projects into the holder furnace. The molten metal injector includes a cylinder defining a piston cavity housing a reciprocating piston for pumping the molten metal upward from the holder furnace to the mold cavity. The cylinder and piston are at least partially submerged in the molten metal when the holder furnace contains the molten metal. The cylinder or the piston includes a molten metal intake for receiving the molten metal into the piston cavity when the holder furnace contains molten metal. A conduit connects the piston cavity to the mold cavity. A molten metal filter is located in the conduit for filtering the molten metal passing through the conduit during the reciprocating movement of the piston. The molten metal intake may be a valve connected to the cylinder, a gap formed between the piston and an open end of the cylinder, an aperture defined in the sidewall of the cylinder, or a ball check valve incorporated into the piston. A second molten metal filter preferably covers the molten metal intake to the injector.

  5. WORKER REMOVING SLAG FROM THE MOLTEN METAL BATH IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WORKER REMOVING SLAG FROM THE MOLTEN METAL BATH IN THE ELECTRIC FURNACE AFTER ADDING A CHEMICAL COAGULANT TO FORCE IT TO THE SURFACE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Melting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  6. Physicochemical processes on the solid metal-molten metal interface

    SciTech Connect

    Eremenko, V.N.; Dybkov, V.I.; Natanzon, Y.V.

    1985-05-01

    The authors present a method of dissolution by which bimetalspecimens of St3 and 45 steels, 12Kh18N1OT stainless steel with A995 aluminum, ADl and silumin were obtained. Tests showed high mechanical strength of the bimetals and good resistance under thermal shock conditions. The authors further conclude that the method of creation of permanent joints of metals by holding the solid, more refractory metal with a liquid low-melting one is most suitable for the production of cylindrical bimetal blanks since in this case it is easy to agitate the molten metal by rotation of the original blank of the solid metal in it. By simple machining from such a bimetal, it is possible to obtain tubes, butt joints or concentric two- and three-layer sleeves.

  7. Measurement of emittance of metal interface in molten salt

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, N.; Makino, A.; Nakamura, Y.

    1995-11-01

    A new technique for measuring the total normal emittance of a metal in a semi-transparent liquid has been proposed and this technique has been applied to measure the emittance of stainless steel (SUS304), nickel, and gold in molten potassium nitrate KNO{sub 3}. These emittance data are indispensable to analyzing the radiative heat transfer between a metal and a semitransparent liquid, such as a molten salt.

  8. Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2012-11-13

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  9. 30 CFR 57.16013 - Working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Working with molten metal. 57.16013 Section 57.16013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  10. 30 CFR 56.16013 - Working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Working with molten metal. 56.16013 Section 56.16013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Materials...

  11. 30 CFR 56.16013 - Working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Working with molten metal. 56.16013 Section 56.16013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Materials...

  12. 30 CFR 57.16013 - Working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Working with molten metal. 57.16013 Section 57.16013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  13. 30 CFR 56.16013 - Working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Working with molten metal. 56.16013 Section 56.16013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Materials...

  14. 30 CFR 56.16013 - Working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Working with molten metal. 56.16013 Section 56.16013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Materials...

  15. 30 CFR 57.16013 - Working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Working with molten metal. 57.16013 Section 57.16013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  16. 30 CFR 57.16013 - Working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Working with molten metal. 57.16013 Section 57.16013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  17. 30 CFR 56.16013 - Working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Working with molten metal. 56.16013 Section 56.16013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Materials...

  18. 30 CFR 57.16013 - Working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Working with molten metal. 57.16013 Section 57.16013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  19. Liquid-metal embrittlement of refractory metals by molten plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.R.; Bergin, J.B.; McInturff, S.A.; Kuhn, B.A.

    1980-07-01

    Embrittlement by molten plutonium of the refractory metals and alloys W-25 wt % Re, tantalum, molybdenum, and Ta-10 wt % W was studied. At 900/sup 0/C and a strain rate of 10/sup -4/ s/sup -1/, the materials tested may be ranked in order of decreasing susceptibility to liquid-plutonium embrittlement as follows: molybdenum, W-25 wt % Re, Ta-10 wt % W, and tantalum. These materials exhibited a wide range in susceptibility. Embrittlement was found to exhibit a high degree of temperature and strain-rate dependence, and we present arguments that strongly support a stress-assisted, intergranular, liquid-metal corrosion mechanism. We also believe microstructure plays a key role in the extent of embrittlement. In the case of W-25 wt % Re, we have determined that a dealloying corrosion takes place in which rhenium is selectively withdrawn from the alloy.

  20. Supported Molten Metal Catalysis. A New Class of Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindra Datta; Ajeet Singh; Manuela Serban; Istvan Halasz

    2006-06-02

    We describe a new class of heterogeneous catalysts called supported molten metal catalysis (SMMC), in which molten metal catalysts are dispersed as nanodroplets on the surface of porous supports, allowing much larger active surface area than is possible in conventional contacting techniques for catalytic metals that are molten under reaction conditions, thus greatly enhancing their activity and potential utility. Specific examples of different types of reactions are provided to demonstrate the broad applicability of the technique in designing active, selective, and stable new catalysts. It is shown that dispersing the molten metal on a support in the suggested manner can enhance the rate of a reaction by three to four orders of magnitude as a result of the concomitant increase in the active surface area. New reaction examples include {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported molten Te (melting point 450 C) and Ga (MP 30 C) catalysts for bifunctional methylcyclohexane dehydrogenation. These catalysts provide activity similar to conventional Pt-based catalysts for this with better resistance to coking. In addition, results are described for a controlled pore glass supported molten In (MP 157 C) catalyst for the selective catalytic reduction of NO with ethanol in the presence of water, demonstrating activities superior to conventional catalysts for this reaction. A discussion is also provided on the characterization of the active surface area and dispersion of these novel supported catalysts. It is clear based on the results described that the development of new active and selective supported molten metal catalysts for practical applications is entirely plausible.

  1. Advances in Molten Oxide Electrolysis for the Production of Oxygen and Metals from Lunar Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadoway, Donald R.; Sirk, Aislinn; Sibille, Laurent; Melendez, Orlando; Lueck, Dale; Curreri, Peter; Dominquez, Jesus; Whitlow, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    As part of an In-Situ Resource Utilization infrastructure to sustain long term-human presence on the lunar surface, the production of oxygen and metals by electrolysis of lunar regolith has been the subject of major scrutiny. There is a reasonably large body of literature characterizing the candidate solvent electrolytes, including ionic liquids, molten salts, fluxed oxides, and pure molten regolith itself. In the light of this information and in consideration of available electrolytic technologies, the authors have determined that direct molten oxide electrolysis at temperatures of approx 1600 C is the most promising avenue for further development. Results from ongoing studies as well as those of previous workers will be presented. Topics include materials selection and testing, electrode stability, gas capture and analysis, and cell operation during feeding and tapping.

  2. Molten metal feed system controlled with a traveling magnetic field

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1991-01-01

    A continuous metal casting system in which the feed of molten metal is controlled by means of a linear induction motor capable of producing a magnetic traveling wave in a duct that connects a reservoir of molten metal to a caster. The linear induction motor produces a traveling magnetic wave in the duct in opposition to the pressure exerted by the head of molten metal in the reservoir so that p.sub.c =p.sub.g -p.sub.m where p.sub.c is the desired pressure in the caster, p.sub.g is the gravitational pressure in the duct exerted by the force of the head of molten metal in the reservoir, and p.sub.m is the electromagnetic pressure exerted by the force of the magnetic field traveling wave produced by the linear induction motor. The invention also includes feedback loops to the linear induction motor to control the casting pressure in response to measured characteristics of the metal being cast.

  3. Electrochemical devices utilizing molten alkali metal electrode-reactant

    DOEpatents

    Hitchcock, D.C.; Mailhe, C.C.; De Jonghe, L.C.

    1985-07-10

    Electrochemical cells are provided with a reactive metal to reduce the oxide of the alkali metal electrode-reactant. Cells employing a molten alkali metal electrode, e.g., sodium, in contact with a ceramic electrolyte, which is a conductor of the ions of the alkali metal forming the electrode, exhibit a lower resistance when a reactive metal, e.g., vanadium, is allowed to react with and reduce the alkali metal oxide. Such cells exhibit less degradation of the electrolyte and of the glass seals often used to joining the electrolyte to the other components of the cell under cycling conditions.

  4. Electrochemical devices utilizing molten alkali metal electrode-reactant

    DOEpatents

    Hitchcock, David C.; Mailhe, Catherine C.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    1986-01-01

    Electrochemical cells are provided with a reactive metal to reduce the oxide of the alkali metal electrode-reactant. Cells employing a molten alkali metal electrode, e.g., sodium, in contact with a ceramic electrolyte, which is a conductor of the ions of the alkali metal forming the electrode, exhibit a lower resistance when a reactive metal, e.g., vanadium, is allowed to react with and reduce the alkali metal oxide. Such cells exhibit less degradation of the electrolyte and of the glass seals often used to joining the electrolyte to the other components of the cell under cycling conditions.

  5. Silicide coating on refractory metals in molten salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatemoto, K.; Ono, Y.; Suzuki, R. O.

    2005-02-01

    For better oxidation resistance of refractory metals in air, the electroless coating of silicide in the molten salt was developed in open air at 973 1173 K. The molten salt consists of NaCl, KCl, Na2SiF6 and Si powder, where the proportional reaction between Si and Si4+ ions forms Si2+ ions. Si2+ deposits on the metal substrate and forms the metal silicide. The deposited silicide layers were classified into two categories depending on the metal substrates: (1) Nb, Mo and Cr mainly formed silicon-rich disilicide (MSi2) layer. (2) Fe, Ni and Co formed silicon-poor silicide layer (MSin, n<2), such as Fe3Si. This difference was described by the diffusivity of Si through the silicide layer into the metal.

  6. Molten metal containment vessel with rare earth oxysulfide protective coating thereon and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Krikorian, Oscar H.; Curtis, Paul G.

    1992-01-01

    An improved molten metal containment vessel is disclosed in which wetting of the vessel's inner wall surfaces by molten metal is inhibited by coating at least the inner surfaces of the containment vessel with one or more rare earth oxysulfide or rare earth sulfide compounds to inhibit wetting and or adherence by the molten metal to the surfaces of the containment vessel.

  7. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, CUPOLA AREA WITH MOLTEN METAL BEING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, CUPOLA AREA WITH MOLTEN METAL BEING POURED OUT OF THE CUPOLA INTO THE POURING LADLE. FROM THE POURING LADLE, THE IRON IS LATER POURED INTO A TRANSFER LADLE FOR TRANSPORT TO THE CASTING MACHINES. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  8. MOLTEN METAL FROM ELECTRIC MELTING FURNACE IS TRANSFERRED THROUGH RUNNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MOLTEN METAL FROM ELECTRIC MELTING FURNACE IS TRANSFERRED THROUGH RUNNER BOX TO HOLDING FURNACE PRIOR TO POURING. VIEW FROM BEHIND "NORTH STATION" IN CAST SHOP. THE RUNNER BOX MUST BE HEATED PRIOR TO THE TRANSFER. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  9. Molten-Metal Electrodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jayakumar, A.; Vohs, J. M.; Gorte, R. J.

    2010-11-03

    Molten In, Pb, and Sb were examined as anodes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) that operate between 973 and 1173 K. The results for these metals were compared with those reported previously for molten Sn electrodes. Cells were operated under “battery” conditions, with dry He or N2 flow in the anode compartment, to characterize the electrochemical oxidation of the metals at the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)-electrolyte interface. In most cases, the open-circuit voltages (OCVs) were close to that based on equilibrium between the metals and their oxides. With Sn and In, the cell impedances increased dramatically at all temperatures after drawing current due to formation of insulating, oxide barriers at the electrolyte interface. Similar results were observed for Pb at 973 and 1073 K, but the impedance remained low even after PbO formation at 1173 K because this is above the melting temperature of PbO. Similarly, the impedances of molten Sb electrodes at 973 K were low and unaffected by current flow because of the low melting temperature of Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The potential of using molten-metal electrodes for direct-carbon fuel cells and for energy-storage systems is discussed.

  10. Experimental investigation of molten metal freezing on to a structure

    SciTech Connect

    Mizanur Rahman, M.; Hino, Tomohiko; Morita, Koji; Matsumoto, Tatsuya; Nakagawa, Kiyoshi; Fukuda, Kenji; Maschek, Werner

    2007-10-15

    During core disruptive accidents (CDAs) of Liquid Metal Reactors (LMRs), it is important to understand the freezing phenomena of molten metal, which may prevent fuel dispersal and subsequent shutdown. The present paper describes the freezing behavior of molten metal during interaction with a structure with a view to the safety of LMRs. In this study, Wood's metal (melting point 78.8 C) was used as a simulant melt, while stainless steel and copper were used as freezing structures. A series of simulation experiments was conducted to study the freezing behavior of Wood's metal during pouring on to the freezing structures immersed in a coolant. In the experiments, simulant melt was poured into a stainless steel tube and finally ejected into a coolant through a nozzle so as to observe the freezing behavior of the molten metal. The penetration length and width were measured in the air cooled experiments, whereas penetration length and the proportion of adhering frozen metal were measured in water coolant experiment. The melt flow and distribution were observed in both types of experiment using a high-speed video camera. Distinct freezing modes were observed in the water coolant experiments, whereas only one freezing mode with a longer melt penetration was found in air coolant experiments. The present result will be utilized to create a relevant database for the verification of reactor safety analysis codes. (author)

  11. Electromagnetic confinement for vertical casting or containing molten metal

    DOEpatents

    Lari, Robert J.; Praeg, Walter F.; Turner, Larry R.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus and method adapted to confine a molten metal to a region by means of an alternating electromagnetic field. As adapted for use in the present invention, the alternating electromagnetic field given by B.sub.y =(2.mu..sub.o .rho.gy).sup.1/2 (where B.sub.y is the vertical component of the magnetic field generated by the magnet at the boundary of the region; y is the distance measured downward form the top of the region, .rho. is the metal density, g is the acceleration of gravity and .mu..sub.o is the permeability of free space) induces eddy currents in the molten metal which interact with the magnetic field to retain the molten metal with a vertical boudnary. As applied to an apparatus for the continuous casting of metal sheets or rods, metal in liquid form can be continuously introduced into the region defined by the magnetic field, solidified and conveyed away from the magnetic field in solid form in a continuous process.

  12. Casting Apparatus Including A Gas Driven Molten Metal Injector And Method

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, Thomas N.

    2004-06-01

    The casting apparatus (50) includes a holding vessel (10) for containing a supply of molten metal (12) and a casting mold (52) located above the holding vessel (10) and having a casting cavity (54). A molten metal injector (14) extends into the holding vessel (10) and is at least partially immersed in the molten metal (12) in the holding vessel (10). The molten metal injector (14) is in fluid communication with the casting cavity (54). The molten metal injector (14) has an injector body (16) defining an inlet opening (24) for receiving molten metal into the injector body (16). A gas pressurization source (38) is in fluid communication with the injector body (16) for cyclically pressurizing the injector body (16) and inducing molten metal to flow from the injector body (16) to the casting cavity (54). An inlet valve (42) is located in the inlet opening (24) in the injector body (16) for filling molten metal into the injector body (16). The inlet valve (42) is configured to prevent outflow of molten metal from the injector body (16) during pressurization and permit inflow of molten metal into the injector body (16) after pressurization. The inlet valve (42) has an inlet valve actuator (44) located above the surface of the supply of molten metal (12) and is operatively connected to the inlet valve (42) for operating the inlet valve (42) between open and closed positions.

  13. MAG-GATE System for Molten metal Flow Control

    SciTech Connect

    Richard D. Nathenson, P.E.

    2004-05-15

    The need for improved active flow control has been recognized as part of the Steel Industry Technology Roadmap. Under TRP 9808 for the American Iron and Steel Institute and the Department of Energy, Concept Engineering Group Inc. has developed MAG-GATE{trademark}, an electromagnetic system for active molten metal flow control. Two hot steel tests were successfully conducted in 2003 at the Whemco Foundry Division, Midland, PA. Approximately 110,000 pounds of 0.2% carbon steel were poured through the device subject to electromagnetic flow control. Excellent agreement between predicted and actual flow control was found. A survey of the molten metal flow control practices at 100 continuous casters in North America was also conducted in 2003. This report summarizes the results of the development program to date. Preliminary designs are described for the next step of a beta test at an operating billet/bloom or slab caster.

  14. In situ observation and analysis of ultrasonic capillary effect in molten aluminium.

    PubMed

    Tzanakis, I; Xu, W W; Eskin, D G; Lee, P D; Kotsovinos, N

    2015-11-01

    An in situ synchrotron radiographic study of a molten Al-10 wt% Cu alloy under the influence of an external ultrasonic field was carried out using the Diamond-Manchester Branchline pink X-ray imaging at the Diamond Light Source in UK. A bespoke test rig was used, consisting of an acoustic transducer with a titanium sonotrode coupled with a PID-controlled resistance furnace. An ultrasonic frequency of 30 kHz, with a peak to peak amplitude at 140 microns, was used, producing a pressure output of 16.9 MPa at the radiation surface of the 1-mm diameter sonotrode. This allowed quantification of not only the cavitation bubble formation and collapse, but there was also evidence of the previously hypothesised ultrasonic capillary effect (UCE), providing the first direct observations of this phenomenon in a molten metallic alloy. This was achieved by quantifying the re-filling of a pre-existing groove in the shape of a tube (which acted as a micro-capillary channel) formed by the oxide envelope of the liquid sample. Analytical solutions of the flow suggest that the filling process, which took place in very small timescales, was related to micro-jetting from the collapsing cavitation bubbles. In addition, a secondary mechanism of liquid penetration through the groove, which is related with the density distribution of the oxides inside the groove, and practically to the filtration of aluminium melt from oxides, was revealed. The observation of the almost instantaneous re-filling of a micro-capillary channel with the metallic melt supports the hypothesised sono-capillary effect in technologically important liquids other than water, like metallic alloys with substantially higher surface tension and density. PMID:26186822

  15. URANIUM BISMUTHIDE DISPERSION IN MOLTEN METAL

    DOEpatents

    Teitel, R.J.

    1959-10-27

    The formation of intermetallic bismuth compounds of thorium or uranium dispersed in a liquid media containing bismuth and lead is described. A bismuthide of uranium dispersed in a liquid metal medium is formed by dissolving uranium in composition of lead and bismuth containing less than 80% lead and lowering the temperature of the composition to a temperature below the point at which the solubility of uranium is exceeded and above the melting point of the composition.

  16. Electrolytic production of neodymium metal from a molten chloride electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, M.F.; Murphy, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted experiments on electrowinning of neodymium metal by using a molten-metal cathode at 650{degrees} C and an electrolyte of 50 mol pet NdCl, (neodymium chloride) and 50 mol pet KCl (potassium chloride). The molten-metal cathodes were alloys of magnesium and zinc or magnesium and cadmium. Current efficiencies were 90 pct with a Mg-Zn cathode and 80 pct with a Mg-Cd cathode. The Mg-Cd cathode was easily separated from the electrolyte. In contrast, the Mg-Zn cathode tended to mix with the electrolyte, making separation difficult. The cathode metals were separated from the neodymium by distillation at 1,100{degrees} C under a vacuum of 10{sup {minus}4} torr. Neodymium metal of 99.9 + purity was recovered from the Mg-Cd alloy cathode after 30 min distillation time. The neodymium recovered from the Mg-Zn system contained almost 2 pct Zn after vacuum distillation. Continuous operation using the Mg-Cd alloy cathode was demonstrated.

  17. Laser Acoustic Molten Metal Depth Sensing in Titanium

    SciTech Connect

    J. B. Walter; K. L. Telschow; R. E. Haun

    1999-09-22

    A noncontacting ultrasonic method has been investigated for probing the solidification front in molten titanium for the purposes of profiling the channel depth in a plasma hearth re-melter. The method, known as Laser Ultrasonics, utilized a pulsed laser for generation of ultrasonic waves at the surface of a molten metal pool. The ultrasonic waves propagated into the liquid titanium reflected from the solidification front and the boundaries of the solid plug. A Fabry-Perot interferometer, driven by a second laser, demodulated the small displacements caused by the ultrasonic wave motion at the liquid surface. The method and results of measurements taken within a small research plasma melting furnace will be described. Successful results were obtained even directly beneath the plasma arc using this all-optical approach.

  18. Laser Acoustic Molten Metal Depth Sensing in Titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, John Bradley; Telschow, Kenneth Louis; Haun, R.E.

    1999-08-01

    A noncontacting ultrasonic method has been investigated for probing the solidification front in molten titanium for the purposes of profiling the channel depth in plasma hearth re-melter. The method, known as Laser Ultrasonics, utilized a pulsed laser for generation of ultrasonic waves at the surface of a molten metal pool. The ultrasonic waves propagated into the liquid titanium reflected from the solidification front and the boundaries of the solid plug. A Fabry-Perot interferometer, driven by a second laser, demodulated the small displacements caused by the ultrasonic wave motion at the liquid surface. The method and results of measurements taken within a small research plasma melting furnace will be described. Successful results were obtained even directly beneath the plasma arc using this all optical approach.

  19. Burning molten metallic spheres: One class of ball lightning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Karl D.; Massey, Nathan

    2008-08-01

    Abrahamson and Dinniss [2000. Ball lightning caused by oxidation of nanoparticle networks from normal lightning strikes on soil. Nature 403, 519-521] proposed a theory of ball lighting in which silicon nanoparticles undergo slow oxidation and emit light. Paiva et al. [2007. Production of ball-lightning-like luminous balls by electrical discharges in silicon. Physical Review Letters 98, 048501] reported that an electric arc to silicon produced long-lasting luminous white spheres showing many characteristics of ball lightning. We show experimentally that these consist of burning molten silicon spheres with diameters in the 0.1-1 mm range. The evidence of our experiments leads us to propose that a subset of ball lightning events may consist of macro-scale molten spheres of burning metallic materials likely to be ejected from a conventional lightning strike to earth.

  20. Thermal Interaction Between Molten Metal and Sodium: Examination of the Fragmentation Mechanism of Molten Jet

    SciTech Connect

    Satoshi Nishimura; Izumi Kinshita; Nobuyuki Ueda; Ken-ichiro Sugiyama; Ryohei Okada

    2002-07-01

    In order to clarify the mechanism of thermal fragmentation of a molten jet dropped into a sodium pool at instantaneous contact interface temperatures below its freezing point, a basic experiment was carried out using molten copper and sodium. Copper was melted in a crucible with an electrical heater and was dropped through a short nozzle into a sodium pool, in the form of a jet column. Thermal fragmentation originating inside the molten copper jet with a solid crust was clearly observed in all runs. It is verified that a small quantity of sodium, which is locally entrained inside the molten jet due to the organized motion between the molten jet and sodium, is vaporized by the sensible heat and the latent heat of molten copper, and the high internal pressure causes the molten jet with a solid crust to fragment. It is also concluded that the thermal fragmentation is more dominant than the hydrodynamic fragmentation, in the present range of Weber number and superheating of molten jet. Furthermore, it can be explained that the thermal fragmentation caused by the molten copper jet - sodium interaction is severer than that caused by the molten uranium alloy jet - sodium interaction, which was reported by Gabor et al., because the latent heat and the thermal diffusivity of molten copper, which are the physical properties that dominate the degree of fragmentation, are much higher than those of molten uranium alloy jets. (authors)

  1. Systems to Control Molten Metal Transfer in Arc Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filonov, A. V.; Kryukov, A. V.; Gusarov, D. E.

    2015-09-01

    The paper analyzes the systems used for controlling molten wire metal droplets during the arc welding process in shielding gases. The variations for implementing the relevant systems are given, with the positive and negative aspects of such implementation taken into account. Electrical systems are currently investigated to the fullest extent possible and implemented in different power sources for pulsed welding arc. Mechanical systems are represented by different types of feeders that provide the pulsed wire feeding process. The feed mechanisms driven by electric motors and electromagnets are analyzed. In addition to the mechanical and electrical systems, the examples of combined control systems are given.

  2. Solid oxide membrane-assisted controllable electrolytic fabrication of metal carbides in molten salt.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xingli; Zheng, Kai; Lu, Xionggang; Xu, Qian; Zhou, Zhongfu

    2016-08-15

    Silicon carbide (SiC), titanium carbide (TiC), zirconium carbide (ZrC), and tantalum carbide (TaC) have been electrochemically produced directly from their corresponding stoichiometric metal oxides/carbon (MOx/C) precursors by electrodeoxidation in molten calcium chloride (CaCl2). An assembled yttria stabilized zirconia solid oxide membrane (SOM)-based anode was employed to control the electrodeoxidation process. The SOM-assisted controllable electrochemical process was carried out in molten CaCl2 at 1000 °C with a potential of 3.5 to 4.0 V. The reaction mechanism of the electrochemical production process and the characteristics of these produced metal carbides (MCs) were systematically investigated. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy analyses clearly identify that SiC, TiC, ZrC, and TaC carbides can be facilely fabricated. SiC carbide can be controlled to form a homogeneous nanowire structure, while the morphologies of TiC, ZrC, and TaC carbides exhibit porous nodular structures with micro/nanoscale particles. The complex chemical/electrochemical reaction processes including the compounding, electrodeoxidation, dissolution-electrodeposition, and in situ carbonization processes in molten CaCl2 are also discussed. The present results preliminarily demonstrate that the molten salt-based SOM-assisted electrodeoxidation process has the potential to be used for the facile and controllable electrodeoxidation of MOx/C precursors to micro/nanostructured MCs, which can potentially be used for various applications. PMID:27195950

  3. Chronopotentiometry of refractory metals, actinides and oxyanions in molten salts: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1992-01-01

    The applications of chronopotentiometry to the study of electrochemical behavior of three technologically important areas of refractory metals, actinides, and oxyanions in molten salts are critically reviewed. Chronopotentiometry is a very versatile diagnostic tool to understand the reaction mechanism of the electrode processes for the electrochemical reduction/oxidation of these electroactive species in molten salt solutions. Well adherent, compact, and uniformly thick coatings of refractory metals may be electrodeposited from their solutions in molten salts.

  4. Molten metal electrodes in solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javadekar, Ashay Dileep

    Molten metal electrodes in solid oxide fuel cells are electrochemically characterized for their possible use in direct carbon oxidation and energy storage. The cells were operated in the battery mode at 973 K, without added fuel, in order to understand the oxidation characteristics of Sb alloys as anodes at electrolyte interfaces. The cells using 50-mol% In-Sb and Sn-Sb mixtures exhibited open-circuit voltages (OCV) of 1.0 and 0.93 V, values similar to those of cells with pure In and Sn anodes respectively, and insulating In2O3 and SnO2 layers formed at the electrolyte interface. The 50-mol% Sb-Bi cell had an OCV of 0.73 V initially, close to that with pure Sb anode. The OCV remained constant until all of the Sb had been oxidized, after which it dropped to 0.43 V, similar to the value for pure Bi. SEM analysis of the spent cell showed two distinct phases, with metallic Bi at the bottom and Sb2O3 at the top. The cell with 50-mol% Sb-Pb anode exhibited an OCV that changed continuously with conversion, from 0.73 V initially to 0.67 V following the addition of charge equivalent to oxidation of 120% the Sb. The total cell impedance remained low for this entire period. EDS measurements on the sectioned Sb-Pb cell suggested formation of a mixed oxide of Pb and Sb. An energy-storage concept using molten Sb as the fuel in a reversible solid-oxide electrochemical cell was tested using a button cell with a Sc-stabilized zirconia electrolyte at 973 K, by measuring the impedances under fuel-cell and electrolyzer conditions for a range of stirred Sb-Sb2O 3 compositions. The Sb-Sb2O3 electrode impedances were found to be on the order of 0.15 ohm.cm2 for both fuel-cell and electrolyzer conditions, for compositions up to 30% Sb and 70% Sb2O3. The OCVs were 0.75 V, independent of conversion. The use of molten neat Ag and alloyed Ag-Sb for direct-carbon anodes in SOFCs has been examined at 1273 K. For Ag, an OCV typical of that expected for carbon oxidation, 1.12 V, was observed when

  5. Simulations of rapid pressure-induced solidification in molten metals

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, M V; Streitz, F H

    2003-10-14

    The process of interest in this study is the solidification of a molten metal subjected to rapid pressurization. Most details about solidification occurring when the liquid-solid coexistence line is suddenly transversed along the pressure axis remain unknown. We present preliminary results from an ongoing study of this process for both simple models of metals (Cu) and more sophisticated material models (MGPT potentials for Ta). Atomistic (molecular dynamics) simulations are used to extract details such as the time and length scales that govern these processes. Starting with relatively simple potential models, we demonstrate how molecular dynamics can be used to study solidification. Local and global order parameters that aid in characterizing the phase have been identified, and the dependence of the solidification time on the phase space distance between the final (P,T) state and the coexistence line has been characterized.

  6. Mechanical properties of 4d transition metals in molten state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Deobrat; Sonvane, Yogesh; Thakor, P. B.

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical properties of 4d transition metals in molten state have been studied in the present study. We have calculated mechanical properties such as isothermal bulk modulus (B), modulus of rigidity (G), Young's modulus (Y) and Hardness have also been calculated from the elastic part of the Phonon dispersion curve (PDC). To describe the structural information, we have used different structure factor S(q) using Percus-Yevick hard sphere (PYHS) reference systems along with our newly constructed parameter free model potential.To see the influence of exchange and correlation effect on the above said properties of 3d liquid transition metals, we have used Sarkar et al (S)local field correction functions. Present results have been found good in agreement with available experimental data.

  7. Direct Electrolysis of Molten Lunar Regolith for the Production of Oxygen and Metals on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirk, Aislinn H. C.; Sadoway, Donald R.; Sibille, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    When considering the construction of a lunar base, the high cost ($ 100,000 a kilogram) of transporting materials to the surface of the moon is a significant barrier. Therefore in-situ resource utilization will be a key component of any lunar mission. Oxygen gas is a key resource, abundant on earth and absent on the moon. If oxygen could be produced on the moon, this provides a dual benefit. Not only does it no longer need to be transported to the surface for breathing purposes; it can also be used as a fuel oxidizer to support transportation of crew and other materials more cheaply between the surface of the moon, and lower earth orbit (approximately $20,000/kg). To this end a stable, robust (lightly manned) system is required to produce oxygen from lunar resources. Herein, we investigate the feasibility of producing oxygen, which makes up almost half of the weight of the moon by direct electrolysis of the molten lunar regolith thus achieving the generation of usable oxygen gas while producing primarily iron and silicon at the cathode from the tightly bound oxides. The silicate mixture (with compositions and mechanical properties corresponding to that of lunar regolith) is melted at temperatures near 1600 C. With an inert anode and suitable cathode, direct electrolysis (no supporting electrolyte) of the molten silicate is carried out, resulting in production of molten metallic products at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode. The effect of anode material, sweep rate, and electrolyte composition on the electrochemical behavior was investigated and implications for scale-up are considered. The activity and stability of the candidate anode materials as well as the effect of the electrolyte composition were determined. Additionally, ex-situ capture and analysis of the anode gas to calculate the current efficiency under different voltages, currents and melt chemistries was carried out.

  8. ESR hollows molten metal/slag interface detection

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, B.; Klein, H.J.

    1984-02-21

    An improved system for detecting the location of a molten metal/slag interface during the casting of electroslag remelted hollows is provided. The system includes a gamma ray radiation source (30) and a scintillation counter (40). The source (30) and counter (40) reside outside the casting crucible (1) and are held in fixed spatial relationships with respect to one another and with respect to the mandrel (10). The radiation from the source (30) is directed through the crucible (1) and through the annular casting zone (9) defined between the sidewalls of the upwardly driven mandrel (10) and the crucible (1). The counter (40) provides an electrical signal responsive to the rate of radiation events detected thereby.

  9. Method of removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Eddie C.

    1995-01-01

    An electrochemical method of separating heavy metal values from a radioactive molten salt including Li halide at temperatures of about 500.degree. C. The method comprises positioning a solid Li--Cd alloy anode in the molten salt containing the heavy metal values, positioning a Cd-containing cathode or a solid cathode positioned above a catch crucible in the molten salt to recover the heavy metal values, establishing a voltage drop between the anode and the cathode to deposit material at the cathode to reduce the concentration of heavy metals in the salt, and controlling the deposition rate at the cathode by controlling the current between the anode and cathode.

  10. Method for producing hydrocarbon fuels from heavy polynuclear hydrocarbons by use of molten metal halide catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Gorin, Everett

    1979-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce lighter hydrocarbon fuels by contacting the heavy feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst, thereafter separating at least a substantial portion of the carbonaceous material associated with the reaction mixture from the spent molten metal halide and thereafter regenerating the metal halide catalyst, an improvement comprising contacting the spent molten metal halide catalyst after removal of a major portion of the carbonaceous material therefrom with an additional quantity of hydrogen is disclosed.

  11. Method of removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, E.C.

    1993-12-23

    An electrochemical method of separating heavy metal values from a radioactive molten salt including Li halide at temperatures of about 500{degree}C. The method comprises positioning a solid Li-Cd alloy anode in the molten salt containing the heavy metal values, positioning a Cd-containing cathode or a solid cathode positioned above a catch crucible in the molten salt to recover the heavy metal values, establishing a voltage drop between the anode and the cathode to deposit material at the cathode to reduce the concentration of heavy metals in the salt, and controlling the deposition rate at the cathode by controlling the current between the anode and cathode.

  12. Wetting and spreading behavior of molten brazing filler metallic alloys on metallic substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogi, Satoshi; Kajiura, Tetsurou; Hanada, Yukiakira; Miyazawa, Yasuyuki

    2014-08-01

    Wetting and spreading of molten brazing filler material are important factors that influence the brazing ability of a joint to be brazed. Several investigations into the wetting ability of a brazing filler alloy and its surface tension in molten state, in addition to effects of brazing time and temperature on the contact angle, have been carried out. In general, dissimilar-metals brazing technology and high-performance brazed joint are necessities for the manufacturing field in the near future. Therefore, to address this requirement, more such studies on wetting and spreading of filler material are required for a deeper understanding. Generally, surface roughness and surface conditions affect spreading of molten brazing filler material during brazing. Wetting by and interfacial reactions of the molten brazing filler material with the metallic substrate, especially, affect strongly the spreading of the filler material. In this study, the effects of surface roughness and surface conditions on the spreading of molten brazing filler metallic alloys were investigated. Ag-(40-x)Cu-xIn and Ag- (40-x)Cu-xSn (x=5, 10, 15, 20, 25) alloys were used as brazing filler materials. A mild-steel square plate (S45C (JIS); side: 30 mm; thickness: 3mm) was employed as the substrate. A few surfaces with varying roughness were prepared using emery paper. Brazing filler material and metallic base plate were first washed with acetone, and then a flux was applied to them. The filler, 50 mg, was placed on the center of the metallic base with the flux. A spreading test was performed under Ar gas using an electrically heated furnace, after which, the original spreading area, defined as the sessile drop area, and the apparent spreading area, produced by the capillary grooves, were both evaluated. It was observed that the spreading area decreased with increasing In and Sn content.

  13. Apparatus and method for increasing the diameter of metal alloy wires within a molten metal pool

    DOEpatents

    Hartman, Alan D.; Argetsinger, Edward R.; Hansen, Jeffrey S.; Paige, Jack I.; King, Paul E.; Turner, Paul C.

    2002-01-29

    In a dip forming process the core material to be coated is introduced directly into a source block of coating material eliminating the need for a bushing entrance component. The process containment vessel or crucible is heated so that only a portion of the coating material becomes molten, leaving a solid portion of material as the entrance port of, and seal around, the core material. The crucible can contain molten and solid metals and is especially useful when coating core material with reactive metals. The source block of coating material has been machined to include a close tolerance hole of a size and shape to closely fit the core material. The core material moves first through the solid portion of the source block of coating material where the close tolerance hole has been machined, then through a solid/molten interface, and finally through the molten phase where the diameter of the core material is increased. The crucible may or may not require water-cooling depending upon the type of material used in crucible construction. The system may operate under vacuum, partial vacuum, atmospheric pressure, or positive pressure depending upon the type of source material being used.

  14. Apparatus and Method for Increasing the Diameter of Metal Alloy Wires Within a Molten Metal Pool

    DOEpatents

    Hartman, Alan D.; Argetsinger, Edward R.; Hansen, Jeffrey S.; Paige, Jack I.; King, Paul E.; Turner, Paul C.

    2002-01-29

    In a dip forming process the core material to be coated is introduced directly into a source block of coating material eliminating the need for a bushing entrance component. The process containment vessel or crucible is heated so that only a portion of the coating material becomes molten, leaving a solid portion of material as the entrance port of, and seal around, the core material. The crucible can contain molten and solid metals and is especially useful when coating core material with reactive metals. The source block of coating material has been machined to include a close tolerance hole of a size and shape to closely fit the core material. The core material moves first through the solid portion of the source block of coating material where the close tolerance hole has been machined, then through a solid/molten interface, and finally through the molten phase where the diameter of the core material is increased. The crucible may or may not require water-cooling depending upon the type of material used in crucible construction. The system may operate under vacuum, partial vacuum, atmospheric pressure, or positive pressure depending upon the type of source material being used.

  15. Method for producing hydrocarbon fuels and fuel gas from heavy polynuclear hydrocarbons by the use of molten metal halide catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Gorin, Everett

    1979-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce lighter hydrocarbon fuels by contacting the heavy feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst in a hydrocracking zone, thereafter separating at least a major portion of the lighter hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten metal halide and thereafter regenerating the spent molten metal halide by incinerating the spent molten metal halide by combustion of carbon and sulfur compounds in the spent molten metal halide in an incineration zone, the improvement comprising: (a) contacting the heavy feedstocks and hydrogen in the presence of the molten metal halide in the hydrocracking zone at reaction conditions effective to convert from about 60 to about 90 weight percent of the feedstock to lighter hydrocarbon fuels; (b) separating at least a major portion of the lighter hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten metal halide; (c) contacting the spent molten metal halide with oxygen in a liquid phase gasification zone at a temperature and pressure sufficient to vaporize from about 25 to about 75 weight percent of the spent metal halide, the oxygen being introduced in an amount sufficient to remove from about 60 to about 90 weight percent of the carbon contained in the spent molten metal halide to produce a fuel gas and regenerated metal halide; and (d) incinerating the spent molten metal halide by combusting carbon and sulfur compounds contained therein.

  16. Rotating Molten Metallic Drops and Their Applications for Surface Tension Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, W. K.; Ishikawa, T.

    1998-01-01

    Shapes and stability of rotating molten metal drops carrying net surface electric charges are experimentally investigated, and the feasibility of measureing surface tension based on drop rotation is examined.

  17. In situ purification, alloying and casting methodology for metallic plutonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lashley, Jason C.; Blau, Michael S.; Staudhammer, Karl P.; Pereyra, Ramiro A.

    Plutonium metal that has been double ER (electrorefined/electrorefining) was further purified via zone refining, using a floating molten zone to minimize the introduction of impurities. The temperature of the molten zone was 750°C, and the atmosphere was 10 -5 Pa. A total of ten zone refining passes were made at a travel rate of 1.5 cm/h. There were 19 elements reduced to quantities below the minimum detectable limits (MDL) by zone refining, while P, K, and W were significantly reduced. The zone-refined metal was then used in an in situ distillation, alloying, and casting step to prepare tapered specimens for single-crystal growth experiments. Specifically, 241Am was distilled from Pu metal by levitating Pu metal with 1 wt% Ga in the melt in a Crystallox vertical electromagnetic levitation crucible at 10 -5 Pa. The Pu is alloyed with Ga to stabilize the δ phase (fcc symmetry) upon solidification. The Pu was chill-cast directly from the electromagnetic levitation field into 1- cm tapered specimens. A water-cooled ceramic mold was used, and the Pu metal was cooled at a rate of 100°C/min. A microstructure examination of the specimen showed 10 × 25 μm acicular grains with a density of 15.938 g/cm 3 (±0.002 g/cm 3).

  18. Magnetic Gate System for Molten Metal Flow Control

    SciTech Connect

    2001-02-01

    Electromagnetics Offer Many Advantages For Better Control Of The Molten Steel. Over 80 percent of all of the world's yearly steel production or approximately 650 million tons, is produced by the continuous casting process.

  19. Molten Metal Treatment by Salt Fluxing with Low Environmental Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Yogeshwar Sahai

    2007-07-31

    Abstract: Chlorine gas is traditionally used for fluxing of aluminum melt for removal of alkali and alkaline earth elements. However this results in undesirable emissions of particulate matter and gases such as HCl and chlorine, which are often at unacceptable levels. Additionally, chlorine gas is highly toxic and its handling, storage, and use pose risks to employees and the local community. Holding of even minimal amounts of chlorine necessitates extensive training for all plant employees. Fugitive emissions from chlorine usage within the plant cause accelerated corrosion of plant equipment. The Secondary Aluminum Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) under the Clean Air Act, finalized in March 2000 has set very tough new limits on particulate matter (PM) and total hydrogen chloride emissions from aluminum melting and holding furnaces. These limits are 0.4 and 0.1 lbs per ton of aluminum for hydrogen chloride and particulate emissions, respectively. Assuming new technologies for meeting these limits can be found, additional requirements under the Clean Air Act (Prevention of Significant Deterioration and New Source Review) trigger Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for new sources with annual emissions (net emissions not expressed per ton of production) over specified amounts. BACT currently is lime coated bag-houses for control of particulate and HCl emissions. These controls are expensive, difficult to operate and maintain, and result in reduced American competitiveness in the global economy. Solid salt fluxing is emerging as a viable option for the replacement of chlorine gas fluxing, provided emissions can be consistently maintained below the required levels. This project was a cooperative effort between the Ohio State University and Alcoa to investigate and optimize the effects of solid chloride flux addition in molten metal for alkali impurity and non-metallic inclusion removal minimizing dust and toxic emissions and maximizing energy

  20. Numerical Simulation of Molten Metal Flow Produced by Induction MHD Pump Using Rotating Twisted Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Tsutomu; Ueno, Kazuyuki; Sawada, Keisuke

    Numerical simulation at the same condition as an experiment is carried out under the magnetic Stokes approximation for small shielding parameter. Results of the simulation compensate for the information of molten metal flow that we could not directly obtain in the experiment. In this paper, we study the molten metal flow at a starting condition and quasi-steady state. Besides, the energy conversion in the MHD pump is discussed. The simulation result shows that the proposed MHD pump causes the spiral induced current in a molten gallium and produces an axial flow with swirl. At quasi-steady state, it is confirmed that the centrifugal force by the excessive swirl flow produces high pressure at a duct wall and low pressure around the central axis. Since the excessive swirl flow results in large viscous dissipation, the mechanical power output of the pump uses only about 1% of the mechanical energy production in the molten gallium.

  1. Numerical and experimental investigation of molten metal droplet deposition applied to rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, SuLi; Wei, ZhengYing; Du, Jun; Zhao, Guangxi; Wang, Xin; Lu, BingHeng

    2016-08-01

    Rapid prototyping based on molten metal droplets deposition is an additive process in which parts are produced from molten materials in a single operation without the use of any mold or other tooling. Near-net shaped parts are fabricated by sequentially depositing molten droplets layer by layer. This paper presents a systematic numerical and experimental investigation of the transient transport phenomenon during the droplets impinging onto a substrate surface. The 3D models based on a volume of fluid (VOF) method were developed to investigate the deposition of molten metal droplets on a horizontally aluminum substrate surface. Based on the above research, a semiquantitative relationship between external morphology and internal microstructure was proposed, which was further certified by investigating the piled vertical columns and the three-dimensional parts. The works should be helpful for the process optimization and non-destructive detection of drop-based rapid prototyping techniques.

  2. Apparatus for efficient sidewall containment of molten metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields utilizing low reluctance rims

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for casting sheets of metal from molten metal. The apparatus includes a containment structure having an open side, a horizontal alternating magnetic field generating structure and rollers including low reluctance rim structures. The magnetic field and the rollers help contain the molten metal from leaking out of the containment structure.

  3. Apparatus for efficient sidewall containment of molten metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields utilizing a ferromagnetic dam

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus for casting sheets of metal from molten metal. The apparatus includes a containment structure having an open side, a horizontal alternating magnetic field generating structure and a ferromagnetic dam. The magnetic field and the ferromagnetic dam contain the molten metal from leaking out side portions of the open side of the containment structure.

  4. Apparatus for efficient sidewall containment of molten metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields utilizing a ferromagnetic dam

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, W.F.

    1997-02-11

    An apparatus is disclosed for casting sheets of metal from molten metal. The apparatus includes a containment structure having an open side, a horizontal alternating magnetic field generating structure and a ferromagnetic dam. The magnetic field and the ferromagnetic dam contain the molten metal from leaking out side portions of the open side of the containment structure. 25 figs.

  5. Method of removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing

    DOEpatents

    Gay, E.C.

    1995-10-03

    An electrochemical method is described for separating heavy metal values from a radioactive molten salt including Li halide at temperatures of about 500 C. The method comprises positioning a solid Li--Cd alloy anode in the molten salt containing the heavy metal values, positioning a Cd-containing cathode or a solid cathode positioned above a catch crucible in the molten salt to recover the heavy metal values, establishing a voltage drop between the anode and the cathode to deposit material at the cathode to reduce the concentration of heavy metals in the salt, and controlling the deposition rate at the cathode by controlling the current between the anode and cathode. 3 figs.

  6. Molten metal-related ocular thermal burn: report on two cases.

    PubMed

    Arici, Ceyhun; Iskeleli, Guzin; Atalay, Eray; Mangan, Mehmet Serhat; Kilic, Belgin

    2015-01-01

    We report two cases of severe thermal burns on the ocular surface and its adnexal appendages that developed secondary to exposure to molten heavy metal with a melting temperature of near-thousand degree Celsius. Despite aggressive intervention and strict monitoring, the profound inflammation caused significant damage to the ocular surface, ending up in an intractable infection with an unfavorable outcome. The heat of the molten metal at impact, the heat-retaining capacity of the heavy metal, the total area of the ocular surface exposed to the molten metal, and the duration of exposure determined the severity of the injury. The unfavorable outcome, despite an intensive treatment, in terms of visual acuity and cosmetic appearance, should be explicitly explained to the patient, and a psychiatrist consultation should be considered if necessary. PMID:26677043

  7. Solidification front shape of the molten metal in a thermally thin cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsun, I. M.

    2013-02-01

    Reported data are reviewed briefly. When a molten metal is extruded to produce a wire directly from the melt, a capillary stream 0.2-3 mm in diameter is directed into a cooling medium so that external heat exchange ensures faster solidification of the metal as compared to capillary disintegration of the stream into drops. The following two assumptions regarding the shape of the solidification front exist: a planar solidification front normal to the axis and a curved axisymmetric front surface. Both assumptions are considered. The assumption of a curved axisymmetric solidification front surface of the molten metal in a cylinder is shown to be more realistic.

  8. Method for determining molten metal pool level in twin-belt continuous casting machines

    DOEpatents

    Kaiser, Timothy D.; Daniel, Sabah S.; Dykes, Charles D.

    1989-03-21

    A method for determining level of molten metal in the input of a continuous metal casting machine having at least one endless, flexible, revolving casting belt with a surface which engages the molten metal to be cast and a reverse, cooled surface along which is directed high velocity liquid coolant includes the steps of predetermining the desired range of positions of the molten metal pool and positioning at least seven heat-sensing transducers in bearing contact with the moving reverse belt surface and spaced in upstream-downstream relationship relative to belt travel spanning the desired pool levels. A predetermined temperature threshold is set, somewhat above coolant temperature and the output signals of the transducer sensors are scanned regarding their output signals indicative of temperatures of the moving reverse belt surface. Position of the molten pool is determined using temperature interpolation between any successive pair of upstream-downstream spaced sensors, which follows confirmation that two succeeding downstream sensors are at temperature levels exceeding threshold temperature. The method accordingly provides high resolution for determining pool position, and verifies the determined position by utilizing full-strength signals from two succeeding downstream sensors. In addition, dual sensors are used at each position spanning the desired range of molten metal pool levels to provide redundancy, wherein only the higher temperature of each pair of sensors at a station is utilized.

  9. A Quasi-Containerless Pendant Drop Method for Surface Tension Measurements of Molten Metals and Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiessen, David B.; Man, Kin F.

    1994-01-01

    A quasi-containerless pendant drop method for measuring the surface tension of molten metals and alloys is being developed. The technique involves melting the end of a high-purity metal rod by bombardment with an electron beam to form a pendant drop under ultra-high vacuum conditions to minimize surface contamination.

  10. An Assessment of Molten Metal Detachment Hazards During Electron Beam Welding in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fragomeni, James M.; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The safety issue has been raised with regards to potential molten metal detachments from the weld pool and cold filler wire during electron beam welding in space. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate if molten metal could detach and come in contact with astronauts and burn through the fabric of the astronauts' Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) during electron beam welding in space. Molten metal detachments from either the weld/cut substrate or weld wire could present harm to a astronaut if the detachment was to burn through the fabric of the EMU. Theoretical models were developed to predict the possibility and size of the molten metal detachment hazards during the electron beam welding exercises at Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The primary molten metal detachment concerns were those cases of molten metal separation from the metal surface due to metal cutting, weld pool splashing, entrainment and release of molten metal due to filler wire snap-out from the weld puddle, and molten metal accumulation and release from the end of the weld wire. Some possible ways of obtaining molten metal drop detachments would include an impulse force, or bump, to the weld sample, cut surface, or filler wire. Theoretical models were developed for these detachment concerns from principles of impact and kinetic energies, surface tension, drop geometry, surface energies, and particle dynamics. The surface tension represents the force opposing the liquid metal drop from detaching whereas the weight of the liquid metal droplet represents a force that is tending to detach the molten metal drop. Theoretical calculations have indicated that only a small amount of energy is required to detach a liquid metal drop; however, much of the energy of an impact is absorbed in the sample or weld plate before it reaches the metal drop on the cut edge or surface. The tendency for detachment is directly proportional to the weld pool radius and metal density and inversely proportional to the surface

  11. In-Situ Real Time Measurements of Molten Glass Properties, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Robert De Saro; Joe Craparo

    2007-12-16

    Energy Research Company (ERCo) of Staten Island, NY has developed a sensor capable of measuring in situ and in real time, both the elemental composition and the temperature of molten glass. A prototype sensor has been designed, constructed and tested in ERCo's laboratory. The sensor was used to collect atomic emission spectra from molten fiberglass via Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). From these spectra, we were able to readily identify all elements of interest (B, Si, Ca, Fe, Mg, Na, Sr, Al). The high signal-to-background signals achieved suggest that data from the sensor can be used to determine elemental concentrations, either through calibration curves or using ERCo's calibrationless method. ERCo's technology fits in well with DOE's Glass Industry Technology Roadmap which emphasizes the need for accurate process and feedstock sensors. Listed first under technological barriers to increased production efficiency is the 'Inability to accurately measure and control the production process'. A large-scale glass melting furnace, developed by SenCer Inc. of Penn Yan, NY was installed in ERCo's laboratory to ensure that a large enough quantity of glass could be melted and held at temperature in the presence of the water-cooled laser sensor without solidifying the glass.

  12. Induction furnace testing of the durability of prototype crucibles in a molten metal environment

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonski, Paul D.

    2005-09-01

    Engineered ceramic crucibles are commonly used to contain molten metal. Besides high temperature stability, other desired crucible characteristics include thermal shock resistance, minimal reaction with the molten metal and resistance to attack from the base metal oxide formed during melting. When used in an induction furnace, they can be employed as a “semi-permanent” crucible incorporating a dry ram backup and a ceramic cap. This report covers several 250-lb single melt crucible tests in an air melt induction furnace. These tests consisted of melting a charge of 17-4PH stainless steel, holding the charge molten for two hours before pouring off the heat and then subsequently sectioning the crucible to review the extent of erosion, penetration and other physical characteristics. Selected temperature readings were made throughout each melt. Chemistry samples were also taken from each heat periodically throughout the hold. The manganese level was observed to affect the rate of chromium loss in a non-linear fashion.

  13. Heavy metal: Can molten metal technology turn toxic dross into gold? A study in alchemy, controversy, and green tech

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, S.

    1995-12-31

    In a Massachusetts industrial park, inside a renovated helicopter factory, stands a giant, Rube Goldbergesque machine of metal boxes and pipes. Technicians in blue uniforms, hard hats, and safety glasses attend this contraption, watching over the fire at its heart: a cauldron of molten metal, usually iron, heated to some 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Hazardous wastes are injected into this molten bath. There, according to its inventor, the metal acts as a catalyst for a chemical reaction that instantly reduces compound molecules to their elemental components. A considerable portion for the wastes thus digested are spit out again in the form of industrial-grade materials, ready for reuse or resale. This article describes both the processing of hazardous wastes by using molten metal to drive reactions that would recover useful materials from hazardous waste and the future possibilities for its use.

  14. 30 CFR 57.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective equipment or clothing for welding... equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal. Protective clothing or equipment and face shields or goggles shall be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal....

  15. 30 CFR 57.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protective equipment or clothing for welding... equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal. Protective clothing or equipment and face shields or goggles shall be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal....

  16. 30 CFR 57.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protective equipment or clothing for welding... equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal. Protective clothing or equipment and face shields or goggles shall be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal....

  17. 30 CFR 57.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protective equipment or clothing for welding... equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal. Protective clothing or equipment and face shields or goggles shall be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal....

  18. 30 CFR 57.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protective equipment or clothing for welding... equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal. Protective clothing or equipment and face shields or goggles shall be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal....

  19. Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles

    DOEpatents

    Cassano, A.A.

    1985-07-02

    A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs. 3 figs.

  20. Crucible cast from beryllium oxide and refractory cement is impervious to flux and molten metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jastrzebski, Z. D.

    1966-01-01

    Crucible from a mixture of a beryllium oxide aggregate and hydraulic refractory cement, and coated with an impervious refractory oxide will not deteriorate in the presence of fused salt- molten metal mixtures such as uranium- magnesium-zinc-halide salt systems. Vessels cast by this process are used in the flux reduction of oxides of thorium and uranium.

  1. Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles

    DOEpatents

    Cassano, Anthony A.

    1985-01-01

    A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs.

  2. Laser-produced plasma measurement of thermal diffusivity of molten metals

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yong W.; Park, C.S.

    1995-12-01

    We have shown that a laser-produced plasma plume which is representative in composition of the condensed phase target can be reproducibly generated if the movement of the surface due to evaporation is kept in pace with the thermal diffusion front propagating into the bulk. The resulting mass loss is then strongly controlled by the thermal diffusivity of the target matter, and this relationship has been exploited to measure the thermal diffusivity of metallic alloys. We have developed a novel RF levitator-heater as a contamination-free molten metal source to be used as a target for LPP plume generation. In order to determine the mass loss due to LPP excitation, a new high sensitivity transducer has been constructed for measurement of the resulting impulse imparted on the specimen. The impulse transducer is built onto the specimen holder within the levitation-assisted molten metal source. The LPP method has been fully excercised for measurement of the thermal diffusivity of a molten specimen relative to the value for its room temperature solid. The results for SS304 and SS316 are presented together with a critique of the results. A numerical modeling of specimen heating in the molten metal source and the physical basis of the new hod are also presented.

  3. Laser-produced plasma measurement of thermal diffusivity of molten metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. W.; Park, C. S.

    1996-09-01

    We have shown that a laser-produced plasma plume which is representative in elemental composition of the condensed phase target can be reproducibly generated if the movement of the surface due to evaporation is kept in pace with the thermal diffusion front propagating into the bulk. The resulting mass loss is then strongly controlled by the thermal diffusivity of the target matter, and this relationship has been exploited to measure the thermal diffusivity of metallic alloys. We have developed a novel RF Ievitator-heater as a contamination-free molten metal source to be used as a target for LPP plume generation. In order to determine the mass loss due to LPP excitation, a new high-sensitivity transducer has been constructed for measurement of the resulting impulse imparted on the specimen. The impulse transducer is built onto the specimen holder within the levitation-assisted molten metal source. The LPP method has been fully exercised for measurement of the thermal diffusivity of a molten specimen relative to the value for its room temperature solid. The results for SS304 and SS316 are presented, together with a critique of the results. A numerical modeling of the specimen heating in the molten metal source and the physical basis of the new method are also presented.

  4. Conjugate heat transfer analysis of an ultrasonic molten metal treatment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Youli; Bian, Feilong; Wang, Yanli; Zhao, Qian

    2014-09-01

    In piezoceramic ultrasonic devices, the piezoceramic stacks may fail permanently or function improperly if their working temperatures overstep the Curie temperature of the piezoceramic material. While the end of the horn usually serves near the melting point of the molten metal and is enclosed in an airtight chamber, so that it is difficult to experimentally measure the temperature of the transducer and its variation with time, which bring heavy difficulty to the design of the ultrasonic molten metal treatment system. To find a way out, conjugate heat transfer analysis of an ultrasonic molten metal treatment system is performed with coupled fluid and heat transfer finite element method. In modeling of the system, the RNG model and the SIMPLE algorithm are adopted for turbulence and nonlinear coupling between the momentum equation and the energy equation. Forced air cooling as well as natural air cooling is analyzed to compare the difference of temperature evolution. Numerical results show that, after about 350 s of working time, temperatures in the surface of the ceramic stacks in forced air cooling drop about 7 K compared with that in natural cooling. At 240 s, The molten metal surface emits heat radiation with a maximum rate of about 19 036 W/m2, while the heat insulation disc absorbs heat radiation at a maximum rate of about 7922 W/m2, which indicates the effectiveness of heat insulation of the asbestos pad. Transient heat transfer film coefficient and its distribution, which are difficult to be measured experimentally are also obtained through numerical simulation. At 240 s, the heat transfer film coefficient in the surface of the transducer ranges from -17.86 to 20.17 W/(m2 · K). Compared with the trial and error method based on the test, the proposed research provides a more effective way in the design and analysis of the temperature control of the molten metal treatment system.

  5. INVESTIGATION OF THE THERMODYNAMICS GOVERNING METAL HYDRIDE SYNTHESIS IN THE MOLTEN STATE PROCESS.

    SciTech Connect

    Stowe, A; Polly Berseth, P; Ragaiy Zidan, R; Donald Anton, D

    2007-08-23

    Complex metal hydrides have been synthesized for hydrogen storage through a new synthetic technique utilizing high hydrogen overpressure at elevated temperatures (molten state processing). This synthesis technique holds the potential of fusing different complex hydrides at elevated temperatures and pressures to form new species with enhanced hydrogen storage properties. Formation of these compounds is driven by thermodynamic and kinetic considerations. We report on investigations of the thermodynamics. Novel synthetic complexes were formed, structurally characterized, and their hydrogen desorption properties investigated. The effectiveness of the molten state process is compared with mechanicosynthetic ball milling.

  6. Measurement of Solubility of Metallic Lithium Dissolved in Molten LiCl-Li2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burak, Adam J.; Simpson, Michael F.

    2016-07-01

    The solubility of lithium metal in molten LiCl-Li2O mixtures has been measured at various concentrations of Li2O ranging from 0 wt.% to 2.7 wt.% at a temperature of approximately 670-680°C. After contacting molten lithium with molten LiCl-Li2O for several hours to achieve equilibrium saturation, samples were taken by freezing the salt onto a room-temperature steel rod and dissolving in water for analysis. Both volume of hydrogen gas generated and volume of titrated HCl were measured to investigate two different approaches to calculating the lithium concentration. There appeared to be no effect of Li2O concentration on the Li solubility in the salt. But the results vary between different methods of deducing the amount of dissolved Li. The H2 collection method is recommended, but care must be taken to ensure all of the H2 has been included.

  7. High temperature corrosion of metallic materials in molten carbonate fuel cells environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, G.; Vegni, S.; Capobianco, P.; Golgovici, F.

    Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) are electrochemical devices that convert energy of a chemical reaction into electricity without any kind of combustion. So, MCFCs are promising for their high efficiency and their low environmental pollution. A limiting aspect for reaching the goal of 40,000 h of life-time is the corrosion of metallic parts of MCFC, especially for current collectors and separator plates. Generally, this corrosion leads to metal loss and to an important increase of the electrical resistance due to the formation of resistive oxides. One of the most critic components in a MCFC is the anodic side metallic components. More used choice for these components is actually a sheet of AISI310S cladded at both sides by a Ni layer. The analysis of the behaviour of this material after different steps of corrosion in a typical molten carbonate fuel cell environment could be important to understand some phenomena that cause the damage of the anodic current collector.

  8. Chemical Reduction of SIM MOX in Molten Lithium Chloride Using Lithium Metal Reductant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Tetsuya; Usami, Tsuyoshi; Kurata, Masaki; Inoue, Tadashi; Sims, Howard E.; Jenkins, Jan A.

    2007-09-01

    A simulated spent oxide fuel in a sintered pellet form, which contained the twelve elements U, Pu, Am, Np, Cm, Ce, Nd, Sm, Ba, Zr,Mo, and Pd, was reduced with Li metal in a molten LiCl bath at 923 K. More than 90% of U and Pu were reduced to metal to form a porous alloy without significant change in the Pu/U ratio. Small fractions of Pu were also combined with Pd to form stable alloys. In the gap of the porous U-Pu alloy, the aggregation of the rare-earth (RE) oxide was observed. Some amount of the RE elements and the actinoides leached from the pellet. The leaching ratio of Am to the initially loaded amount was only several percent, which was far from about 80% obtained in the previous ones on simple MOX including U, Pu, and Am. The difference suggests that a large part of Am existed in the RE oxide rather than in the U-Pu alloy. The detection of the RE elements and actinoides in the molten LiCl bath seemed to indicate that they dissolved into the molten LiCl bath containing the oxide ion, which is the by-product of the reduction, as solubility of RE elements was measured in the molten LiCl-Li2O previously.

  9. Electromagnetic confinement and movement of thin sheets of molten metal

    SciTech Connect

    Lari, R.J.; Praeg, W.F.; Turner, L.R.

    1990-03-06

    This patent describes an apparatus capable of producing a combination of magnetic fields that can retain a metal in liquid form in a region having a smooth vertical boundary including a levitation magnet that produces low frequency magnetic field traveling waves to retain the metal and a stabilization magnet that produces a high frequency magnetic field to produce a smooth vertical boundary. As particularly adapted to the casting of solid metal sheets, a metal in liquid form can be continuously fed into one end of the confinement region produced by the levitation and stabilization magnets and removed in solid form from the other end of confinement region. An additional magnet may be included for support at the edges of the confinement region where eddy currents loop.

  10. Electromagnetic confinement and movement of thin sheets of molten metal

    SciTech Connect

    Lari, R.J.; Praeg, W.F.; Turner, L.R.

    1988-10-18

    An apparatus capable of producing a combination of magnetic fields that can retain a metal in liquid form in a region having a smooth vertical boundary including a levitation magnet that produces low frequency magnetic field traveling waves to retain the metal and a stabilization magnet that produces a high frequency magnetic field to produce a smooth vertical boundary. As particularly adapted to the casting of solid metal sheets, a metal in liquid form can be continuously fed into one end of the confinement region produced by the levitation and stabilization magnets and removed in solid form from the other end of confinement region. An additional magnet may be included for support at the edges of the confinement region where eddy currents loop.

  11. Electromagnetic confinement and movement of thin sheets of molten metal

    DOEpatents

    Lari, Robert J.; Praeg, Walter F.; Turner, Larry R.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus capable of producing a combination of magnetic fields that can retain a metal in liquid form in a region having a smooth vertical boundary including a levitation magnet that produces low frequency magnetic field traveling waves to retain the metal and a stabilization magnet that produces a high frequency magnetic field to produce a smooth vertical boundary. As particularly adapted to the casting of solid metal sheets, a metal in liquid form can be continuously fed into one end of the confinement region produced by the levitation and stabilization magnets and removed in solid form from the other end of confinement region. An additional magnet may be included for support at the edges of the confinement region where eddy currents loop.

  12. Joule-Heated Molten Regolith Electrolysis Reactor Concepts for Oxygen and Metals Production on the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibille, Laurent; Dominguez, Jesus A.

    2012-01-01

    The technology of direct electrolysis of molten lunar regolith to produce oxygen and molten metal alloys has progressed greatly in the last few years. The development of long-lasting inert anodes and cathode designs as well as techniques for the removal of molten products from the reactor has been demonstrated. The containment of chemically aggressive oxide and metal melts is very difficult at the operating temperatures ca. 1600 C. Containing the molten oxides in a regolith shell can solve this technical issue and can be achieved by designing a Joule-heated (sometimes called 'self-heating') reactor in which the electrolytic currents generate enough Joule heat to create a molten bath. Solutions obtained by multiphysics modeling allow the identification of the critical dimensions of concept reactors.

  13. Production of Oxygen from Lunar Regolith using Molten Oxide Electrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibille, Laurent; Sadoway, Donald R.; Sirk, Aislinn; Tripathy, Prabhat; Melendez, Orlando; Standish, Evan; Dominquez, Jesus A.; Stefanescu, Doru M.; Curreri, Peter A.; Poizeau, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the possible use of molten oxide electrolysis to extract oxygen from the Lunar Regolith. The presentation asserts that molten regolith electrolysis has advanced to be a useful method for production of oxygen and metals in situ on the Moon. The work has demonstrated an 8 hour batch of electrolysis at 5 amps using Iridium inert anodes.

  14. The use of molten salts as physical models for the study of solidification in metals and semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koziol, Jurek K.; Sadoway, Donald R.

    1987-01-01

    It is presently noted that molten salts possess attributes rendering them attractive as physical models of cast metals in solidification studies. Molten alkali halides have an approximately correct Prandtl number for this modeling of metallic melts, and are transparent to visible light. Attention is given to solidification in the LiCl-KCl system, in order to determine whether such phenomena as solute rejection can be observed and characterized through the application of laser schlieren imaging.

  15. Convection in molten pool created by a concentrated energy flux on a solid metal target

    SciTech Connect

    Dikshit, B.; Zende, G. R.; Bhatia, M. S.; Suri, B. M.

    2009-08-15

    During surface evaporation of metals by use of a concentrated energy flux such as electron beam or lasers, a liquid metal pool having a very high temperature gradient is formed around the hot zone created by the beam. Due to temperature dependence of surface tension, density, and depression of the evaporating surface caused by back pressure of the emitted vapor in this molten pool, a strong convective current sets in the molten pool. A proposition is made that this convection may pass through three different stages during increase in the electron beam power depending upon dominance of the various driving forces. To confirm this, convective heat transfer is quantified in terms of dimensionless Nusselt number and its evolution with power is studied in an experiment using aluminum, copper, and zirconium as targets. These experimentally determined values are also compared to the theoretical values predicted by earlier researchers to test the validity of their assumptions and to know about the type of flow in the melt pool. Thus, conclusion about the physical characteristics of flow in the molten pool of metals could be drawn by considering the roles of surface tension and curvature of the evaporating surface on the evolution of convective heat transfer.

  16. Method for hydrocracking a heavy polynuclear hydrocarbonaceous feedstock in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Gorin, Everett

    1981-01-01

    A method for hydrocracking a heavy polynuclear hydrocarbonaceous feedstock to produce lighter hydrocarbon fuels by contacting the feedstock with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst, the method comprising: mixing the feedstock with a heavy naphtha fraction which has an initial boiling point from about 100.degree. to about 160.degree. C. with a boiling point difference between the initial boiling point and the final boiling point of no more than about 50.degree. C. to produce a mixture; thereafter contacting the mixture with partially spent molten metal halide and hydrogen under temperature and pressure conditions so that the temperature is near the critical temperature of the heavy naphtha fraction; separating at least a portion of the heavy naphtha fraction and lighter hydrocarbon fuels from the partially spent molten metal halide, unreacted feedstock and reaction products; thereafter contacting the partially spent molten metal halide, unreacted feedstock and reaction products with hydrogen and fresh molten metal halide in a hydrocracking zone to produce additional lighter hydrocarbon fuels and separating at least a major portion of the lighter hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten metal halide.

  17. Method for hydrocracking a heavy polynuclear hydrocarbonaceous feedstock in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Gorin, E.

    1981-01-27

    A method is described for hydrocracking a heavy polynuclear hydrocarbonaceous feedstock to produce lighter hydrocarbon fuels by contacting the feedstock with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst. The method consists of mixing the feedstock with a heavy naphtha fraction which has an initial boiling point from about 100/sup 0/ to about 160/sup 0/C, with a boiling point difference between the initial boiling point and the final boiling point of no more than about 50/sup 0/C to produce a mixture. Thereafter the mixture is contacted with partially spent molten metal halide and hydrogen under temperature and pressure conditions so that the temperature is near the critical temperature of the heavy naphtha fraction. At least a portion of the heavy naphtha fraction and lighter hydrocarbon fuels is separated from the partially spent molten metal halide, unreacted feedstock and reaction products. The partially spent molten metal halide, unreacted feedstock and reaction products are then contacted with hydrogen and fresh molten metal halide in a hydrocracking zone to produce additional lighter hydrocarbon fuels and at least a major portion of the lighter hydrocarbon fuels are separated from the spent molten metal halide.

  18. Performance Testing of Molten Regolith Electrolysis with Transfer of Molten Material for the Production of Oxygen and Metals on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibille, Laurent; Sadoway, Donald; Tripathy, Prabhat; Standish, Evan; Sirk, Aislinn; Melendez, Orlando; Stefanescu, Doru

    2010-01-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated the production of oxygen by electrolysis of molten regolith simulants at temperatures near 1600 C. Using an inert anode and suitable cathode, direct electrolysis (no supporting electrolyte) of the molten silicate is carried out, resulting in the production of molten metallic products at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode. Initial direct measurements of current efficiency have confirmed that the process offer potential advantages of high oxygen production rates in a smaller footprint facility landed on the moon, with a minimum of consumables brought from Earth. We now report the results of a scale-up effort toward the goal of achieving production rates equivalent to 1 metric ton O2/year, a benchmark established for the support of a lunar base. We previously reported on the electrochemical behavior of the molten electrolyte as dependent on anode material, sweep rate and electrolyte composition in batches of 20-200g and at currents of less than 0.5 A. In this paper, we present the results of experiments performed at currents up to 10 Amperes) and in larger volumes of regolith simulant (500 g - 1 kg) for longer durations of electrolysis. The technical development of critical design components is described, including: inert anodes capable of passing continuous currents of several Amperes, container materials selection, direct gas analysis capability to determine the gas components co-evolving with oxygen. To allow a continuous process, a system has been designed and tested to enable the withdrawal of cathodically-reduced molten metals and spent molten oxide electrolyte. The performance of the withdrawal system is presented and critiqued. The design of the electrolytic cell and the configuration of the furnace were supported by modeling the thermal environment of the system in an effort to realize a balance between external heating and internal joule heating. We will discuss the impact these simulations and experimental findings have

  19. Polarization and mass transfer during the electrolysis of molten salts with liquid metallic electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhalev, Yu. G.

    2014-08-01

    Calculations are used to show that the fraction of the overvoltage of the stage of discharge-ionization can be significant in the total overvoltage during the polarization of liquid metallic electrodes in molten chlorides depleted of electrochemically active particles (depending on the type of the dissipative structures that appear near the electrode/electrolyte interface). This finding is taken into account to obtain criterion equations to describe the mass-transfer rate as a function of the physicochemical properties of the electrolyte and the metal electrode.

  20. Multifunctional Metallic and Refractory Materials for Energy Efficient Handling of Molten Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Xingbo Liu; Ever Barbero; Bruce Kang; Bhaskaran Gopalakrishnan; James Headrick; Carl Irwin

    2009-02-06

    The goal of the project was to extend the lifetime of hardware submerged in molten metal by an order of magnitude and to improve energy efficiency of molten metal handling process. Assuming broad implementation of project results, energy savings in 2020 were projected to be 10 trillion BTU/year, with cost savings of approximately $100 million/year. The project team was comprised of materials research groups from West Virginia University and the Missouri University of Science and Technology formerly University of Missouri – Rolla, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, International Lead and Zinc Research Organization, Secat and Energy Industries of Ohio. Industry partners included six suppliers to the hot dip galvanizing industry, four end-user steel companies with hot-dip Galvanize and/or Galvalume lines, eight refractory suppliers, and seven refractory end-user companies. The results of the project included the development of: (1) New families of materials more resistant to degradation in hot-dip galvanizing bath conditions were developed; (2) Alloy 2020 weld overlay material and process were developed and applied to GI rolls; (3) New Alloys and dross-cleaning procedures were developed for Galvalume processes; (4) Two new refractory compositions, including new anti-wetting agents, were identified for use with liquid aluminum alloys; (5) A new thermal conductivity measurement technique was developed and validated at ORNL; (6) The Galvanizing Energy Profiler Decision Support System (GEPDSS)at WVU; Newly Developed CCW Laser Cladding Shows Better Resistance to Dross Buildup than 316L Stainless Steel; and (7) A novel method of measuring the corrosion behavior of bath hardware materials. Project in-line trials were conducted at Southwire Kentucky Rod and Cable Mill, Nucor-Crawfordsville, Nucor-Arkansas, Nucor-South Carolina, Wheeling Nisshin, California Steel, Energy Industries of Ohio, and Pennex Aluminum. Cost, energy, and environmental benefits resulting from the project

  1. Roles of Cationic and Elemental Calcium in the Electro-Reduction of Solid Metal Oxides in Molten Calcium Chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Guohong; Jiang, Kai; Ma, Meng; Wang, Dihua; Jin, Xianbo; Chen, George Z.

    2007-06-01

    Previous work, mainly from this research group, is re-visited on electrochemical reduction of solid metal oxides, in the form of compacted powder, in molten CaCl2, aiming at further understanding of the roles of cationic and elemental calcium. The discussion focuses on six aspects: 1.) debate on two mechanisms proposed in the literature, i. e. electro-metallothermic reduction and electro-reduction (or electro-deoxidation), for the electrolytic removal of oxygen from solid metals or metal oxides in molten CaCl2; 2.) novel metallic cavity working electrodes for electrochemical investigations of compacted metal oxide powders in high temperature molten salts assisted by a quartz sealed Ag/AgCl reference electrode (650 ºC- 950 ºC); 3.) influence of elemental calcium on the background current observed during electrolysis of solid metal oxides in molten CaCl2; 4.) electrochemical insertion/ inclusion of cationic calcium into solid metal oxides; 5.) typical features of cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry (potentiostatic electrolysis) of metal oxide powders in molten CaCl2; and 6.) some kinetic considerations on the electrolytic removal of oxygen.

  2. Electrolytic production of neodymium metal from a molten chloride electrolyte. Rept. of Investigations/1991

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, M.F.; Murphy, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Electrowinning of neodymium metal was accomplished by using a molten-metal cathode at 650 C and an electrolyte of 50 mol pct neodymium chloride-50 mol pct potassium chloride. The molten-metal cathodes were alloys of magnesium and zinc or magnesium and cadmium. Current efficiencies were 90 pct with a Mg/Zn cathode and 80 pct with a Mg-Cd cathode. The Mg-Cd cathode was easily separated from the electrolyte. In contrast, the Mg-Zn cathode tended to mix with the electrolyte, making separation difficult. The cathode metals were separated from the neodymium by distillation at 1,100 C under a vacuum of 10 to the -3rd power torr. Neodymium metal of 99.9+ purity was recovered from the Mg-Cd alloy cathode after 30 min distillation time. The neodymium recovered from the Mg-Zn system contained almost 2 pct Zn after vacuum distillation. Continuous operation using the Mg-Cd alloy cathode was demonstrated.

  3. Corrosion behavior of silicon nitride, magnesium oxide, and several metals in molten calcium chloride with chlorine

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, D. . Research and Development Center); Sesions, C.E.; Marra, J.E. )

    1992-08-01

    In this paper corrosion studies are described in a molten calcium chloride environment sparged with chlorine gas at 850{degrees}C, both in the melt and in the gas phase above the salt, in support of efforts at Westinghouse Savannah River Company to develop more resistant materials of construction for molten salt processing of plutonium. Corrosion rates and electron microscope analyses are reported for Inconel alloys 601 and 617, tantalum, tungsten, magnesium oxide, and silicon nitride. Silicon nitride exhibited the greatest resistance, showing {lt}0.1 mg/cm{sup 2} {center dot} h loss in both melt and vapor None of the metallic coupons withstood the chlorine vapor environment, although Inconel indicated resistance immersed in the melt if protected from chlorine gas.

  4. Method and apparatus for removal of gaseous, liquid and particulate contaminants from molten metals

    DOEpatents

    Hobson, David O.; Alexeff, Igor; Sikka, Vinod K.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus for removal of nonelectrically-conducting gaseous, liquid, and particulate contaminants from molten metal compositions by applying a force thereto. The force (commonly referred to as the Lorentz Force) exerted by simultaneous application of an electric field and a magnetic field on a molten conductor causes an increase, in the same direction as the force, in the apparent specific gravity thereof, but does not affect the nonconducting materials. This difference in apparent densities cause the nonconducting materials to "float" in the opposite direction from the Lorentz Force at a rapid rate. Means are further provided for removal of the contaminants and prevention of stirring due to rotational forces generated by the applied fields.

  5. Method and apparatus for removal of gaseous, liquid and particulate contaminants from molten metals

    DOEpatents

    Hobson, D.O.; Alexeff, I.; Sikka, V.K.

    1987-08-10

    Method and apparatus for removal of nonelectrically-conducting gaseous, liquid, and particulate contaminants from molten metal compositions by applying a force thereto. The force (commonly referred to as the Lorentz Force) exerted by simultaneous application of an electric field and a magnetic field on a molten conductor causes an increase, in the same direction as the force, in the apparent specific gravity thereof, but does not affect the nonconducting materials. This difference in apparent densities cause the nonconducting materials to ''float'' in the opposite direction from the Lorentz Force at a rapid rate. Means are further provided for removal of the contaminants and prevention of stirring due to rotational forces generated by the applied fields. 6 figs.

  6. Molten salt technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lovering, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    In this volume, the historical background, scope, problems, economics, and future applications of molten salt technologies are discussed. Topics presented include molten salts in primary production of aluminum, general principles and handling and safety of the alkali metals, first-row transition metals, group VIII metals and B-group elements, solution electrochemistry, transport phenomena, corrosion in different molten salts, cells with molten salt electrolytes and reactants, fuel cell design, hydrocracking and liquefaction, heat storage in phase change materials, and nuclear technologies.

  7. Synthesis of cerium rich intermetallics using molten metal eutectics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Patricia Christine

    Metal eutectic fluxes are useful for exploratory synthesis of new intermetallic phases. In this work the use of cerium/transition metal eutectics such as: Ce/Co, Ce/Ni, and Ce/Fe have yielded many new synthetically and magnetically complex phases. Structural units that were previously observed in phases grown in La/Ni eutectic reactions have also been observed in new structures and analogs grown from cerium/transition metal eutectics. These structural units include a main group element coordinated by 9 rare-earth atoms (such as the Al Ce9 clusters seen in Ce31.0(2)Fe11.8(5)Al6.5(6) B13C4), trigonal planar FeC3 units (also seen in Ce31.0(2)Fe11.8(5)Al6.5(6)B 13C4), iron clusters capped by light elements (Fe4C 6 frustrated tetrahedral in Ce21Fe8M7C 14, and larger Fe clusters in Ce33Fe14B25 C34). Variants of these building blocks were observed in Ce10Co2B7C16 with square Co units and chains of B and C connected to them, Fe2C8 units observed in Ce7Fe2C9, and FeC4 observed in Ce4FeGa0.85Al0.15C4 and Ce4FeAlC4. Two new phases were grown from Ce/Fe eutectic, Ce33Fe 14B25C34 and Ce33Fe13B 18C34 which exhibits very similar structures, but significantly different magnetic behavior. Structurally these two phases are similar. Both crystallize in the Im-3m space group, but differ by the centering of the Fe clusters. Ce33Fe14B25C34 contains Fe clusters centered by B atoms and Al doped on the Fe2 site. In Ce33Fe13B18C34, the Fe cluster is a perfect cuboctahedron. Ce33Fe14B25 C34 exhibits mixed valent behavior of cerium at 75K and no magnetic moment on iron, where-as Ce33Fe13B18C 34 exhibits tetravalent cerium and its iron clusters undergo a ferromagnetic transition at 180K. Another borocarbide, Ce10Co2B7C 16 was synthesized from Ce/Co eutectic flux. This structure features squares of Co surrounded by chains of C and B and a sea of cerium atoms. Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements at 1 Tesla were fit to a modified Curie-Weiss law and a moment per Ce was

  8. Multiphysics Modeling for Dimensional Analysis of a Self-Heated Molten Regolith Electrolysis Reactor for Oxygen and Metals Production on the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominguez, Jesus; Sibille, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    The technology of direct electrolysis of molten lunar regolith to produce oxygen and molten metal alloys has progressed greatly in the last few years. The development of long-lasting inert anodes and cathode designs as well as techniques for the removal of molten products from the reactor has been demonstrated. The containment of chemically aggressive oxide and metal melts is very difficult at the operating temperatures ca. 1600 C. Containing the molten oxides in a regolith shell can solve this technical issue and can be achieved by designing a self-heating reactor in which the electrolytic currents generate enough Joule heat to create a molten bath.

  9. [Flow of molten metal in denture base in horizontal centrifugal casting procedure. (Part 2) Flow, inflow volume and casting time of molten metal passing through several sprues into model denture plate mold (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Okamura, H

    1978-10-01

    Two types of spruing methods were used in the casting of the denture type model pattern (thickness, 0.43 mm). Flow of molten metal in the mold was filmed by the improved system of Part 1. When three sprues were attached to the pattern vertically, molten metal passed through each sprue gate flowed being affected by the direction of gravity and revolution of casting machine, and gathered at the lower part of the mold. Next molten metal filled the mold from the lower part to the upper part. In this spruing type, molten metal turned its direction of flow several times. At the middle stage of casting, the inflow volume per unit time (inflow rate), v (mm3/10-2)s)was evaluated as v = 12.36 + 5.16A-0.16 A2 (A: total cross-sectional areas of sprues). The inflow rate increased with increase of the area of the sprues, but it saturated. When the main sprue and the subsprues were attached at the posterior border, the molten metal filled the mold from the lower part to the upper part quietly. In this spruing type, the casting mold was set facing its sprue gates downwards. The inflow rate at the middle stage of casting was evaluated as v = 21.05 + 1.79 C (C: the cross-sectional area of the main sprue). The inflow rate increased linearly with increase of the area of the main sprue. PMID:392022

  10. An Assessment of Molten Metal Detachment Hazards for Electron Beam Welding in the Space Environment: Analysis and Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.; Russell, C.; Bhat, B.; Fragomeni, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    Conditions under which molten metal detachments might occur in a space welding environment are analyzed. A weld pool detachment parameter specifying conditions for pool detachment by impact is derived and corroborated by experimental evidence. Impact detachment for the pool is unlikely. Impact detachment for a drop of metal on the end of the weld wire may be possible under extreme conditions. Other potential causes of molten metal detachment considered, vaporization pressure forces and wire flickout from the pool, did not appear to present significant detachment threats.

  11. Monochromatic imaging studies of sustained metal vapor arcs burning on 150 mm diameter molten iron electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, R.L.; Schlienger, M.E.

    1996-07-01

    Monochromatic imaging was used to investigate the excited-state density distributions of Fe and Fe{sup +} in the inter-electrode gap region of a 3,100 A dc metal vapor arc burning between molten iron surfaces in a vacuum arc furnace. Multiple images were acquired at four wavelengths. The images were corrected and Abel inverted to yield the absolute radial intensity distributions for Fe and Fe{sup +} in the inter-electrode gap region. The results show a structured, axisymmetric plasma consisting of a high density `core` of Fe{sup +} emitters centered between the electrode surfaces situated against a relatively broad, flat excited-state Fe distribution.

  12. In-Situ Measurement of Metal Drop Temperature in GMA Short-Circuiting Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Yoshinori; Onda, Masahiko; Nagaki, Hayato; Ohji, Takayoshi

    Temperatures of metal drop in GMA short-circuiting welding process were in-situ measured using newly developed instrument designed on the basis of two-color pyrometry, which consisted of optical lenses, interference filters for two colors and two sets of high sensitive CCD cameras with fast shutter. In order to avoid radiation from arc plasma, temperature measurement was carried out immediately after molten drop at electrode wire tip was contacted with weld pool and arc was extinguished. Welding current in arcing period was adjusted from 50 A to 250 A using experimental power source in Ar + 20%CO2 mixture gas shielded GMA welding with mild steel wire of 1.2 mm in diameter. It is shown through in-situ measurement that average temperature of metal drop ranges from 2200 K to 2700 K, depending on level and period of arc current governing electrode wire melting.

  13. 30 CFR 56.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protective equipment or clothing for welding... METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection § 56.15007 Protective equipment or clothing for welding... be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal....

  14. 30 CFR 56.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protective equipment or clothing for welding... METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection § 56.15007 Protective equipment or clothing for welding... be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal....

  15. 30 CFR 56.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protective equipment or clothing for welding... METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection § 56.15007 Protective equipment or clothing for welding... be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal....

  16. 30 CFR 56.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective equipment or clothing for welding... METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection § 56.15007 Protective equipment or clothing for welding... be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal....

  17. 30 CFR 56.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protective equipment or clothing for welding... METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection § 56.15007 Protective equipment or clothing for welding... be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal....

  18. Variation and correlation of content and leachability of hazardous metals in MSW molten slag.

    PubMed

    Sekito, T; Onoue, K; Dote, Y; Sakanakura, H; Nakamura, K

    2015-01-01

    To increase the amount of accessible municipal solid waste molten slag (MSWS) for its use in aggregates such as sand, MSWS must be deemed environmentally safe. Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a heterogeneous waste source used in MSWS and varies in chemical composition. Due to its nature, there is great concern about hazardous metal contamination among users of MSWS. In this study, MSWS samples were obtained weekly for 1 year from a typical incineration ash melting facility for municipal solid waste in Japan. Variation in heavy metal contents and the leachability of MSWS were investigated using two content analysis methods and two leaching tests, respectively. There is a weak correlation between metal content and concentration, and the leachability of metals in slag could not be reduced by decreasing its metal content. No measured values of hazardous metal concentration and metal content exceed the regulation levels stipulated in Japanese Industrial Standards A5031 and A5032, respectively, thereby demonstrating that the slag can be safely utilized as road and concrete aggregates. However, metal concentrations varied widely and differed by greater than 1 order of magnitude and Pb concentrations of several MSWS samples approach the regulation level. Therefore, frequent monitoring of lead leachability of MSWS and storing MSWS for several weeks to obtain a high quality that is more homogeneous in chemical composition are demanded. This study provides fundamental information for controlling the quality of MSWS and the contributing factors for achieving a safe slag recycling system. PMID:25504189

  19. Investigation of Dissolution Behavior of Metallic Substrates and Intermetallic Compound in Molten Lead-free Solders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Yee-Wen; Chou, Weng-Ting; Tseng, Yu; Lee, Chiapyng; Hsu, Chun-Lei

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the dissolution behavior of the metallic substrates Cu and Ag and the intermetallic compound (IMC)-Ag3Sn in molten Sn, Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu, Sn-58Bi and Sn-9Zn (in wt.%) at 300, 270 and 240°C. The dissolution rates of both Cu and Ag in molten solder follow the order Sn > Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu >Sn-58Bi > Sn-9Zn. Planar Cu3Sn and scalloped Cu6Sn5 phases in Cu/solders and the scalloped Ag3Sn phase in Ag/solders are observed at the metallic substrate/solder interface. The dissolution mechanism is controlled by grain boundary diffusion. The planar Cu5Zn8 layer formed in the Sn-9Zn/Cu systems. AgZn3, Ag5Zn8 and AgZn phases are found in the Sn-9Zn/Ag system and the dissolution mechanism is controlled by lattice diffusion. Massive Ag3Sn phases dissolved into the solders and formed during solidification processes in the Ag3Sn/Sn or Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu systems. AgZn3 and Ag5Zn8 phases are formed at the Sn-9Zn/Ag3Sn interface. Zn atoms diffuse through Ag-Zn IMCs to form (Ag, Zn)Sn4 and Sn-rich regions between Ag5Zn8 and Ag3Sn.

  20. Experimental investigation of interfacial heat transfer for molten metal solidification on a substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.X.; Matthys, E.F.

    1995-12-31

    Thermal contact at the melt/substrate interface is an important issue in many material processes such as mold casting, strip and slab casting, splat cooling, melt-spinning, spray deposition, etc. In all these processes, the molten metal is brought in contact with a colder substrate, and the heat is transferred from the melt into this substrate. Here, experiments have been conducted to quantify the interfacial heat transfer between molten copper and a cold metallic substrate, and in particular to investigate the heat transfer variation as the initial liquid/solid contact becomes a solid/solid contact after nucleation. A high heat transfer coefficient (ranging from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5} W/m{sup 2}K) during the earlier liquid cooling phase and a lower heat transfer coefficient (from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} W/m{sup 2}K) during the subsequent solid splat cooling phase were estimated through matching of model calculations and measured temperature history of the sample. The dynamic variations in the interfacial heat transfer resulting from the solidification process were quantified for splat cooling and were found to be affected by the melt superheat, the substrate material, and the substrate surface finish.

  1. Creep resistant, metal-coated LiFeO.sub.2 anodes for molten carbonated fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Khandkar, Ashok C.

    1994-01-01

    A porous, creep-resistant, metal-coated, LiFeO.sub.2 ceramic electrode for fuel cells is disclosed. The electrode is particularly useful for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) although it may have utilities in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) as well.

  2. Creep resistant, metal-coated LiFeO[sub 2] anodes for molten carbonated fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Khandkar, A.C.

    1994-08-23

    A porous, creep-resistant, metal-coated, LiFeO[sub 2] ceramic electrode for fuel cells is disclosed. The electrode is particularly useful for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) although it may have utilities in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) as well. 11 figs.

  3. Metallotropic liquid crystals formed by surfactant templating of molten metal halides.

    PubMed

    Martin, James D; Keary, Cristin L; Thornton, Todd A; Novotnak, Mark P; Knutson, Jeremey W; Folmer, Jacob C W

    2006-04-01

    Liquid crystals consist of anisotropic molecular units, and most are organic molecules. Materials incorporating metals into anisotropic molecules, described as metallomesogens, have been prepared. Anisotropic structures such as one-dimensional chains and two-dimensional layers are frequently observed in solid-state inorganic materials, however, little is understood about structural organization in melts of such materials. Achieving liquid-crystalline behaviour in inorganic fluids should be possible if the anisotropic structure can be retained or designed into the molten phase. We demonstrated the ability to engineer zeolite-type structures into metal halide glasses and liquids. In this work we have engineered lamellar, cubic and hexagonal liquid-crystalline structure in metal-halide melts by controlling the volume fraction and nature of the inorganic block (up to 80 mol%) with respect to alkylammonium surfactants. The high metal content of these liquid-crystalline systems significantly advances the field of metallomesogens, which seeks to combine magnetic, electronic, optical, redox and catalytic properties common to inorganic materials with the fluid properties of liquid crystals. PMID:16547520

  4. Molten salt extraction process for the recovery of valued transition metals from land-based and deep-sea minerals

    DOEpatents

    Maroni, Victor A.; von Winbush, Samuel

    1988-01-01

    A process for extracting transition metals and particularly cobalt and manganese together with iron, copper and nickel from low grade ores (including ocean-floor nodules) by converting the metal oxides or other compositions to chlorides in a molten salt, and subsequently using a combination of selective distillation at temperatures below about 500.degree. C., electrolysis at a voltage not more negative than about -1.5 volt versus Ag/AgCl, and precipitation to separate the desired manganese and cobalt salts from other metals and provide cobalt and manganese in metallic forms or compositions from which these metals may be more easily recovered.

  5. Molten salt extraction process for the recovery of valued transition metals from land-based and deep-sea minerals

    DOEpatents

    Maroni, V.A.; von Winbush, S.

    1987-05-01

    A process for extracting transition metals and particularly cobalt and manganese together with iron, copper and nickel from low grade ores (including ocean-floor nodules) by converting the metal oxides or other compositions to chlorides in a molten salt, and subsequently using a combination of selective distillation at temperatures below about 500/degree/C, electrolysis at a voltage not more negative that about /minus/1.5 volt versus Ag/AgCl, and precipitation to separate the desired manganese and cobalt salts from other metals and provide cobalt and manganese in metallic forms or compositions from which these metals may be more easily recovered.

  6. Structure of the ambient temperature alkali metal molten salt AlCl3/LiSCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yi-Chia; Price, David L.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Ratner, Mark A.; Shriver, Duward F.

    2001-03-01

    The structure of the ambient temperature alkali metal molten salt system LiSCN/AlCl3 1:1 adduct was investigated by neutron diffraction, which demonstrates that the aluminum atom is surrounded by three chlorine atoms and one nitrogen atom, indicating the existence of the AlCl3NCS- anion, in which the NCS- coordinates to the Al center through nitrogen. Molecular orbital calculations using ab initio methods are also performed to study the optimized structures of the AlCl3NCS- and its isomer, AlCl3SCN-. The results are consistent with the neutron diffraction data and indicate that AlCl3NCS- is the major anionic complex in the 1:1 LiSCN/AlCl3 adduct.

  7. Time-dependent calculations of molten pool formation and thermal plasma with metal vapour in gas tungsten arc welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, M.; Yamamoto, K.; Tashiro, S.; Nakata, K.; Yamamoto, E.; Yamazaki, K.; Suzuki, K.; Murphy, A. B.; Lowke, J. J.

    2010-11-01

    A gas tungsten arc (GTA) was modelled taking into account the contamination of the plasma by metal vapour from the molten anode. The whole region of GTA atmosphere including the tungsten cathode, the arc plasma and the anode was treated using a unified numerical model. A viscosity approximation was used to express the diffusion coefficient in terms of viscosity of the shielding gas and metal vapour. The transient two-dimensional distributions of temperature, velocity of plasma flow and iron vapour concentration were predicted, together with the molten pool as a function of time for a 150 A arc current at atmospheric pressure, both for helium and argon gases. It was shown that the thermal plasma in the GTA was influenced by iron vapour from the molten pool surface and that the concentration of iron vapour in the plasma was dependent on the temperature of the molten pool. GTA on high sulfur stainless steel was calculated to discuss the differences between a low sulfur and a high sulfur stainless steel anode. Helium was selected as the shielding gas because a helium GTA produces more metal vapour than an argon GTA. In the GTA on a high sulfur stainless steel anode, iron vapour and current path were constricted. Radiative emission density in the GTA on high sulfur stainless steel was also concentrated in the centre area of the arc plasma together with the iron vapour although the temperature distributions were almost the same as that in the case of a low sulfur stainless steel anode.

  8. Control of molten salt corrosion of fusion structural materials by metallic beryllium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderoni, P.; Sharpe, P.; Nishimura, H.; Terai, T.

    2009-04-01

    A series of tests have been performed between 2001 and 2006 at the Safety and Tritium Applied Research facility of the Idaho National Laboratory to demonstrate chemical compatibility between the molten salt flibe (2LiF + BeF 2 in moles) and fusion structural materials once suitable fluoride potential control methods are established. The tests adopted metallic beryllium contact as main fluoride potential control, and the results have been published in recent years. A further step was to expose two specimens of low activation ferritic/martensitic steel 9Cr-2W to static corrosion tests that include an active corrosion agent (hydrofluoric gas) in controlled conditions at 530 °C, and the results of the tests are presented in this paper. The results confirmed the expected correlation of the HF recovery with the concentration of metallic impurities dissolved in the salt because of specimen corrosion. The metals concentration dropped to levels close to the detectable limit when the beryllium rod was inserted and increased once the content of excess beryllium in the system had been consumed by HF reduction and specimen corrosion progressed. Metallographic analysis of the samples after 500 h exposure in reactive conditions showed evidence of the formation of unstable chromium oxide layers on the specimen's surface.

  9. Experimental technique for studying high-temperature phase equilibria in reactive molten metal based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermoline, Alexandre

    The general objective of this work is to develop an experimental technique for studying the high-temperature phase compositions and phase equilibria in molten metal-based binary and ternary systems, such as Zr-O-N, B-N-O, Al-O, and others. A specific material system of Zr-O-N was selected for studying and testing this technique. The information about the high-temperature phase equilibria in reactive metal-based systems is scarce and their studying is difficult because of chemical reactions occurring between samples and essentially any container materials, and causing contamination of the system. Containerless microgravity experiments for studying equilibria in molten metal-gas systems were designed to be conducted onboard of a NASA KC-135 aircraft flying parabolic trajectories. A uniaxial apparatus suitable for acoustic levitation, laser heating, and splat quenching of small samples was developed and equipped with computer-based controller and optical diagnostics. Normal-gravity tests were conducted to determine the most suitable operating parameters of the levitator by direct observations of the levitated samples, as opposed to more traditional pressure mapping of the acoustic field. The size range of samples that could be reliably heated and quenched in this setup was determined to be on the order of 1--3 mm. In microgravity experiments, small spherical specimens (1--2 mm diameter), prepared as pressed, premixed solid components, ZrO2, ZrN, and Zr powders, were acoustically levitated inside an argon-filled chamber at one atmosphere and heated by a CO2 laser. The levitating samples could be continuously laser heated for about 1 sec, resulting in local sample melting. The sample stability in the vertical direction was undisturbed by simultaneous laser heating. Oscillations of the levitating sample in the horizontal direction increased while it was heated, which eventually resulted in the movement of the sample away from its stable levitation position and the laser

  10. Room temperature inorganic ``quasi-molten salts`` as alkali-metal electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, K.; Zhang, S.; Angell, C.A.

    1996-11-01

    Room temperature inorganic liquids of high ionic conductivity have been prepared by reacting Lewis acid AlCl with sulfonyl chlorides. The mechanism is not clear at this time since a crystal structure study of the 1:1 complex with CH{sub 3}SO{sub 2}Cl (T{sub m} = 30 C) is not consistent with a simple chloride transfer to create AlClO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} anions. The liquid is in a state somewhere between ionic and molecular. A new term quasi-molten salt is adopted to describe this state. A comparably conducting liquid can be made using BCL{sub 3} in place of AlCl{sub 3}. Unlike their organic counterparts based on ammonium cations (e.g., pyridinium or imidazolium) which reduce in the presence of alkali metals, this inorganic class of cation shows great stability against electrochemical reduction (ca. {minus}1.0 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li), with the useful consequence that reversible lithium and sodium metal deposition/stripping can be supported. The electrochemical window for these quasi-salts with AlCl{sub 3} ranges up to 5.0 V, and their room temperature conductivities exceed 10{sup {minus}4} S/cm. They dissolve lithium and sodium tetrachloroaluminates up to mole fraction {approximately} 0.6 at 100 C and intermediate compositions are permanently stable at ambient. The resultant lithium or sodium salt solutions exhibit electrochemical windows of 4.5--5.0 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li or Na{sup +}/Na and show room temperature conductivities of 10{sup {minus}3.0}--10{sup {minus}2.5} S/cm. In preliminary charge/discharge tests, the cell Li/``quasi-ionic liquid electrolyte``/Li{sub 1+x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} showed a discharge capacity of ca. 110 mAh/(g of cathode) and sustained 80% of the initial capacity after 60 cycles, indicating that these quasi-molten salt-based electrolytes are promising candidates for alkali-metal batteries.

  11. Utilization of Heavy Metal Molten Salts in the ARIES-RS Fusion Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Übeyli, Mustafa; Yapıcı, Hüseyin

    2008-09-01

    ARIES-RS is one of the major magnetic fusion energy reactor designs that uses a blanket having vanadium alloy structure cooled by lithium [1, 2]. It is a deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion driven reactor, having a fusion power of 2170 MW [1, 2]. This study presents the neutronic analysis of the ARIES-RS fusion reactor using heavy metal molten salts in which Li2BeF4 as the main constituent was mixed with increased mole fractions of heavy metal salt (ThF4 or UF4) starting by 2 mol.% up to 12 mol.%. Neutron transport calculations were carried out with the help of the SCALE 4.3 system by solving the Boltzmann transport equation with the XSDRNPM code in 238 neutron groups and a S 8- P 3 approximation. According to the numerical results, tritium self-sufficiency was attained for the coolants, Flibe with 2% UF4 or ThF4 and 4% UF4. In addition, higher energy multiplication values were found for the salt with UF4 compared to that with ThF4. Furthermore, significant amount of high quality nuclear fuel was produced to be used in external reactors.

  12. In situ NMR spectroscopy: inulin biomass conversion in ZnCl₂ molten salt hydrate medium-SnCl₄ addition controls product distribution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingxiong; Pedersen, Christian Marcus; Qiao, Yan; Deng, Tiansheng; Shi, Jing; Hou, Xianglin

    2015-01-22

    The dehydration of inulin biomass to the platform chemicals, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and levulinic acid (LA), in ZnCl2 molten salt hydrate medium was investigated. The influence of the Lewis acid catalyst, SnCl4, on the product distribution was examined. An in situ(1)H NMR technique was employed to follow the reaction at the molecular level. The experimental results revealed that only 5-HMF was obtained from degradation of inulin biomass in ZnCl2 molten salt hydrate medium, while the LA was gradually becoming the main product when the reaction temperature was increased in the presence of the Lewis acid catalyst SnCl4. In situ NMR spectroscopy could monitor the reaction and give valuable insight. PMID:25439916

  13. A furnace and environmental cell for the in situ investigation of molten salt electrolysis using high-energy X-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Styles, Mark J; Rowles, Matthew R; Madsen, Ian C; McGregor, Katherine; Urban, Andrew J; Snook, Graeme A; Scarlett, Nicola V Y; Riley, Daniel P

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the design, construction and implementation of a relatively large controlled-atmosphere cell and furnace arrangement. The purpose of this equipment is to facilitate the in situ characterization of materials used in molten salt electrowinning cells, using high-energy X-ray scattering techniques such as synchrotron-based energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction. The applicability of this equipment is demonstrated by quantitative measurements of the phase composition of a model inert anode material, which were taken during an in situ study of an operational Fray-Farthing-Chen Cambridge electrowinning cell, featuring molten CaCl(2) as the electrolyte. The feasibility of adapting the cell design to investigate materials in other high-temperature environments is also discussed. PMID:22186642

  14. Aerodynamic levitator for in situ x-ray structure measurements on high temperature and molten nuclear fuel materials.

    PubMed

    Weber, J K R; Tamalonis, A; Benmore, C J; Alderman, O L G; Sendelbach, S; Hebden, A; Williamson, M A

    2016-07-01

    An aerodynamic levitator with carbon dioxide laser beam heating was integrated with a hermetically sealed controlled atmosphere chamber and sample handling mechanism. The system enabled containment of radioactive samples and control of the process atmosphere chemistry. The chamber was typically operated at a pressure of approximately 0.9 bars to ensure containment of the materials being processed. Samples 2.5-3 mm in diameter were levitated in flowing gas to achieve containerless conditions. Levitated samples were heated to temperatures of up to 3500 °C with a partially focused carbon dioxide laser beam. Sample temperature was measured using an optical pyrometer. The sample environment was integrated with a high energy (100 keV) x-ray synchrotron beamline to enable in situ structure measurements to be made on levitated samples as they were heated, melted, and supercooled. The system was controlled from outside the x-ray beamline hutch by using a LabVIEW program. Measurements have been made on hot solid and molten uranium dioxide and binary uranium dioxide-zirconium dioxide compositions. PMID:27475566

  15. Investigation of potential for occurrence of molten soil displacement events during in situ vitrification of combustible wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.S.; Strachan, C.W.; Luey, J.

    1993-02-01

    Computer simulations are used to investigate the application of in situ vitrification (ISV) for processing contaminated soil containing high loadings of solid, compressible waste material, typical of landfills and solid waste trenches. Specifically, these simulations predict whether significant displacement of molten soil, due to large, 1 to 2 m diameter, gas bubbles rising up through the ISV melt, are likely to occur during processing of combustible waste-loaded sites. These bubbles are believed to originate from high-pressure regions below the melt caused by vaporization of water and gases generated by the combustion, volatilization, or pyrolyzation of combustible materials in the waste. Simulations were run using the TOUGH2 computer code to predict pressures underneath the ISV melt TOUGH2 is an unsaturated groundwater modeling code capable of treating non-isothermal problems. These simulations include moving melt front and simple pyrolysis models and investigate how the gas pressure in the soil below the melt is affected by melt progression rate, soil permeability, combustible and impermeable material loading. The following, conclusions have been drawn based on the TOUGH2 simulations.

  16. Aerodynamic levitator for in situ x-ray structure measurements on high temperature and molten nuclear fuel materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, J. K. R.; Tamalonis, A.; Benmore, C. J.; Alderman, O. L. G.; Sendelbach, S.; Hebden, A.; Williamson, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    An aerodynamic levitator with carbon dioxide laser beam heating was integrated with a hermetically sealed controlled atmosphere chamber and sample handling mechanism. The system enabled containment of radioactive samples and control of the process atmosphere chemistry. The chamber was typically operated at a pressure of approximately 0.9 bars to ensure containment of the materials being processed. Samples 2.5-3 mm in diameter were levitated in flowing gas to achieve containerless conditions. Levitated samples were heated to temperatures of up to 3500 °C with a partially focused carbon dioxide laser beam. Sample temperature was measured using an optical pyrometer. The sample environment was integrated with a high energy (100 keV) x-ray synchrotron beamline to enable in situ structure measurements to be made on levitated samples as they were heated, melted, and supercooled. The system was controlled from outside the x-ray beamline hutch by using a LabVIEW program. Measurements have been made on hot solid and molten uranium dioxide and binary uranium dioxide-zirconium dioxide compositions.

  17. Meniscus behavior of metals and oxides in molten carbonate under oxidant and reducing atmospheres. 1: Contact angle and electrolyte displacement

    SciTech Connect

    Mugikura, Y.; Selman, J.R.

    1996-08-01

    The wetting of metals and oxides by molten carbonate is an important factor affecting the performance of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). The distribution of the electrolyte among electrodes and matrix in the MCFC is dominated by the pore characteristics and wetting properties of these components. However, data on wetting, especially under load (current passage), are limited. In this study, the behavior of the meniscus at a metal is used to obtain information on wetting and electrochemical reactions. Meniscus height and current were measured under various atmospheres. The contact angle was calculated from the meniscus height. The electrolyte distribution in the MCFC was estimated using contact angles thus obtained in oxidant and reducing atmospheres. The results suggest that upon application of load the electrolyte moves from the anode to the cathode and that capillary effects can worsen the performance of a cell, especially if it is in an unbalanced state of electrolyte filling.

  18. Molten metal burns: further evidence of industrial foundries' failure to comply with Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, B C; Drake, D B; Gear, A J; Watkins, F H; Edlich, R F

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe another case of a molten metal burn to the foot of a foundry worker. The foundry in which he worked failed to comply with Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations with regard to protective apparel. This injury could have been prevented with annual, unscheduled inspections by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and with enforcement of additional regulations regarding protective apparel. PMID:9348058

  19. Fundamental studies on ultrasonic cavitation-assisted molten metal processing of A356-nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoda

    The usage of lightweight high-performance components is expected to increase significantly as automotive, military and aerospace industries are required to improve the energy efficiency and the performance of their products. A356, which is much lighter than steel, is an attractive replacement material. Therefore, it is of great interest to enhance its properties. There is strong evidence that the microstructure and mechanical properties can be considerably improved if nanoparticles are used as reinforcement to form metal-matrix-nano-composite (MMNC). Several recent studies revealed that ultrasonic vibration is highly efficient in dispersing nanoparticles into the melt and producing MMNC. In this thesis, a detailed analysis of the microstructure and mechanical properties is provided for an A356 alloy enhanced with Al2O 3 and SiC nanoparticles via ultrasonic processing. Each type of the nanoparticles was inserted into the A356 molten metal and dispersed by ultrasonic cavitation and acoustic streaming technology (UST) to avoid agglomeration or coalescence. The results showed that microstructures were greatly refined and with the addition of nanoparticles, tensile strength, yield strength and elongation increased significantly. SEM and EDS analyses were also performed to analyze the dispersion of nanoparticles in the A356 matrix. Since the ultrasonic energy is concentrated in a small region under the ultrasonic probe, it is difficult to ensure proper cavitation and acoustic streaming for efficient dispersion of the nanoparticles (especially in larger UST systems) without to determine the suitable ultrasonic parameters via modeling and simulation. Accordingly, another goal of this thesis was to develop well-controlled UST experiments that can be used in the development and validation of a recently developed UST modeling and simulation tool.

  20. Liquid Metal Corrosion of 316L Stainless Steel, 410 Stainless Steel, and 1015 Carbon Steel in a Molten Zinc Bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Bright, Mark A.; Liu, Xingbo; Barbero, Ever

    2007-11-01

    Corrosion tests of 1015 low-carbon steel and two stainless steels (410 and 316L) were conducted in a pure zinc bath (99.98 wt pct Zn) in order to better understand the reaction mechanisms that occur during the degradation of submerged hardware at industrial general (batch) galvanizing operations. Through this testing, it was found that, in general, 316L stainless steel showed the best dissolution resistance among these three alloys, while 1015 carbon steel provided a lower solubility than 410 stainless steel. Investigating the failure mechanisms, both metallurgical composition and lattice structure played important roles in the molten metal corrosion behaviors of these alloys. High contents of nickel combined with the influence of chromium improved the resistance to molten zinc corrosion. Moreover, a face-centered-cubic (fcc) structure was more corrosion resistant than body-centered-cubic (bcc) possibly due to the compactness of the atomic structure. Analogously, the body-centered-tetragonal (bct) martensite lattice structure possessed enhanced susceptibility to zinc corrosion as a result of the greater atomic spacing and high strain energy. Finally, an increased bath temperature played an important role in molten metal corrosion by accelerating the dissolution process and changing the nature of intermetallic layers.

  1. Joule-Heated Molten Regolith Electrolysis Reactor Concepts for Oxygen and Metals Production on the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibille, Laurent; Dominques, Jesus A.

    2012-01-01

    The maturation of Molten Regolith Electrolysis (MRE) as a viable technology for oxygen and metals production on explored planets relies on the realization of the self-heating mode for the reactor. Joule heat generated during regolith electrolysis creates thermal energy that should be able to maintain the molten phase (similar to electrolytic Hall-Heroult process for aluminum production). Self-heating via Joule heating offers many advantages: (1) The regolith itself is the crucible material, it protects the vessel walls (2) Simplifies the engineering of the reactor (3) Reduces power consumption (no external heating) (4) Extends the longevity of the reactor. Predictive modeling is a tool chosen to perform dimensional analysis of a self-heating reactor: (1) Multiphysics modeling (COMSOL) was selected for Joule heat generation and heat transfer (2) Objective is to identify critical dimensions for first reactor prototype.

  2. The electrochemistry of metals in room-temperature chloroaluminate molten salts

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xiao-Hong.

    1992-01-01

    The room-temperature chloroaluminate molten salt, aluminum chloride-1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride has proven to be useful electrolyte for the electrodeposition and electrodissolution of metals. The electrodeposition of lead, tin, silver, gold, and mercury was studied in this melt. Evidence for the underpotential deposition of lead and silver in acidic (66.7-33.3 mol%) melt and tin in acidic and basic (44.4-55.6 mol%) melt was found at polycrystalline gold. Nucleation overpotentials were observed for the deposition of mercury on gold in basic melt. The deposition of lead and silver from acidic melt and the deposition of gold from basic melt on glassy carbon involves progressive 3-D nucleation on a large number of active sites with hemispherical diffusion-controlled growth of the nuclei. The deposition of tin and and mercury from acidic melt exhibits progressive 3-D nucleation on a finite number of active sites. The deposition of tin and mercury from basic melt on glassy carbon involves instantaneous 3-D nucleation. The electrode-position of lead and silver from acidic melt on tungsten involves instantaneous 3-D nucleation, whereas the electrodeposition of gold and mercury from basic melt exhibits 3-D progressive nucleation. The deposition of lead and silver from acidic melt and the deposition of tin from both acidic and basic melt on platinum does not exhibit obvious evidence for either UPD or nucleation. The electrodeposition of gold and mercury on platinum from basic melt involves progressive 3-D nucleation. The voltammetric oxidation of Sn(II) to Sn(IV) is hindered by the weak adsorption of Sn(II). Sn(IV) is complexed as [SnCl[sub 6

  3. NOVEL IN-SITU METAL AND MINERAL EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn O'Gorman; Hans von Michaelis; Gregory J. Olson

    2004-09-22

    This white paper summarizes the state of art of in-situ leaching of metals and minerals, and describes a new technology concept employing improved fragmentation of ores underground in order to prepare the ore for more efficient in-situ leaching, combined with technology to continuously improve solution flow patterns through the ore during the leaching process. The process parameters and economic benefits of combining the new concept with chemical and biological leaching are described. A summary is provided of the next steps required to demonstrate the technology with the goal of enabling more widespread use of in-situ leaching.

  4. Extraction of 3d transition metals from molten cesium-sodium-potassium/acetate eutectic into dodecane using organophosphorous ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Maroni, V.A.; Philbin, C.E.; Yonco, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the transfer of the transition metal cations Cr/sup 3 +/, Fe/sup 2 +/, Co/sup 2 +/, Ni/sup 2 +/ from molten cesium acetate-sodium acetate-potassium acetate eutectic (50-25-25 mol%, mp approx. 90/sup 0/C) into dodecane solutions containing selected acidic and neutral organophosphorous extracting ligands. The ordering of the transition metals according to their relative extents of extraction into the dodecane phase when the ligand bis(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphinic acid, H(DEPH), is employed (and the conditions of extraction are the same for each cation) is Co/sup 2 +/ > Fe/sup 2 +/ > Cr/sup 3 +/ > Ni/sup 2 +/. Comparisons of results obtained using the acidic ligand H(DEPH) and the neutral ligand tri-n-octylphosphine oxide, TOPO, indicate that the extractible TM complex does not contain acetate as a charge neutralizing ligand, but rather requires complete displacement of inner sphere acetate ions by protonated and/or deprotonated alkylphosphinate groups. The mechanism controlling the transfer kinetics has not been elucidated, but the rates of extraction from the acetate eutectic appear to be somewhat slower than has been observed for the extraction of transition metals from molten alkali metal thiocyanate and nitrate media at comparable temperatures, i.e., 140 ..-->.. 180/sup 0/C. 13 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Extraction of 3d transition metals from molten cesium-sodium-potassium/acetate eutectic into dodecane using organophosphorous ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Maroni, V.A.; Philbin, C.E.; Yonco, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental results are reported for the transfer of the transition metal (TM) cations Cr/sup 3 +/, Fe/sup 2 +/, Co/sup 2 +/, Ni/sup 2 +/ from molten cesium acetate-sodium acetate-potassium acetate eutectic (50-25-25 mol%, mp approx. 90/sup 0/C) into dodecane solutions containing selected acidic and neutral organophosphorous extracting ligands. The ordering of the transition metals according to their relative extents of extraction into the dodecane phase when the ligand bis(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphinic acid, H(DEPH), is employed (and the conditions of extraction are the same for each cation) is Co/sup 2 +/ > Fe/sup 2 +/ > Cr/sup 3 +/ > Ni/sup 2 +/. Comparisons of results obtained using the acidic ligand H(DEPH) and the neutral ligand tri-n-octylphosphine oxide, TOPO, indicate that the extractible TM complex does not contain acetate as a charge neutralizing ligand, but rather requires complete displacement of inner sphere acetate ions by protonated and/or deprotonated alkylphosphinate groups. The mechanism controlling the transfer kinetics has not been elucidated, but the rates of extraction from the acetate eutectic appear to be somewhat slower than has been observed for the extraction of transition metals from molten alkali metal thiocyanate and nitrate media at comparable temperatures, i.e., 140 ..-->.. 180/sup 0/C. 13 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  6. Conductivity measurements of molten metal oxide electrolytes and their evaluation in a direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarlagadda, Venkata Raviteja

    2011-12-01

    Since Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC) technology is in a beginning stage, emphasis should be laid on addressing the fundamental aspects. A molten electrolyte is required to facilitate ionic contact between solid carbon fuel and electrolyte in a DCFC Three different metal oxide electrolytes (Bi2O3 , V2O5, and TeO2) have been chosen based on their ability to form stable liquids in air at higher temperatures. Conductivity data beyond their melting points was not readily available for most of the metal oxides. Conductivity studies concerning the above mentioned molten metal oxides have been thoroughly investigated in this study. A four probe measurement method using an AC milliohm-meter at 1 KHz validated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) was used to acquire the conductivity data because of its accuracy when compared to two probe measurement widely used in literature. Also, a DC ohmmeter was used to check whether these metal oxides exhibit electronic conductivity. Experimental results corresponding to the accuracy of DC ohmmeter showed that, it accurately detected the electronic component of the electrolyte. These conductivity studies revealed that the molten oxide electrolytes exhibit high ionic conductivity, in particular, beyond their melting points. Of all the three metal oxides, Bi2O 3 demonstrated high ionic conductivity but with minor stability issues under CO2 environment. Under CO2 environment Bi 2O3 showed a slight decrease in the conductivity. EDX analysis revealed an increase in carbon content by 50 percent per one mole of bismuth which can be attributed to possible carbonate formation. V2O 5 exhibited lower ionic conductivity when compared to Bi2O 3 but had the advantage of lower cost and higher abundance. Also, the higher volumetric expansion of V2O5 upon cooling from its melting point i.e. 690°C caused the alumina crucible containing the metal oxide to break leading to leakage problems. Investigating further, quartz was found to be the best

  7. Nickel-plating for active metal dissolution resistance in molten fluoride salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Luke; Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark; Allen, Todd

    2011-04-01

    Ni electroplating of Incoloy-800H was investigated with the goal of mitigating Cr dissolution from this alloy into molten 46.5%LiF-11.5%NaF-42%KF eutectic salt, commonly referred to as FLiNaK. Tests were conducted in graphite crucibles at a molten salt temperature of 850 °C. The crucible material graphite accelerates the corrosion process due to the large activity difference between the graphite and the alloy. For the purposes of providing a baseline for this study, un-plated Incoloy-800H and a nearly pure Ni-alloy, Ni-201 were also tested. Results indicate that Ni-plating has the potential to significantly improve the corrosion resistance of Incoloy-800H in molten fluoride salts. Diffusion of Cr from the alloy through the Ni-plating does occur and if the Ni-plating is thin enough this Cr eventually dissolves into the molten salt. The post-corrosion test microstructure of the Ni-plating, particularly void formation was also observed to depend on the plating thickness. Diffusion anneals in a helium environment of Ni-plated Incoloy-800H and an Fe-Ni-Cr model alloy were also investigated to understand Cr diffusion through the Ni-plating. Further enhancements in the efficacy of the Ni-plating as a protective barrier against Cr dissolution from the alloy into molten fluoride salts can be achieved by thermally forming a Cr 2O 3 barrier film on the surface of the alloy prior to Ni electroplating.

  8. Numerical Simulation of the Interaction Between Supersonic Oxygen Jets and Molten Slag-Metal Bath in Steelmaking BOF Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Li, Mingming; Kuang, Shibo; Zou, Zongshu

    2015-02-01

    The impinging of multiple jets onto the molten bath in the BOF steelmaking process plays a crucial role in reactor performance but is not clearly understood. This paper presents a numerical study of the interaction between the multiple jets and slag-metal bath in a BOF by means of the three-phase volume of fluid model. The validity of the model is first examined by comparing the numerical results with experimental measurement of time-averaged cavity dimensions through a scaled-down water model. The calculated results are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental data. The mathematical model is then used to investigate the primary transport phenomena of the jets-bath interaction inside a 150-ton commercial BOF under steelmaking conditions. The numerical results show that the cavity profile and interface of slag/metal/gas remain unstable as a result of the propagation of surface waves, which, likely as a major factor, governs the generation of metal droplets and their initial spatiotemporal distribution. The total momentum transferred from the jets into the bath is consumed about a half to drive the movement of slag, rather than fully converted as the stirring power for the metal bath. Finally, the effects of operational conditions and fluid properties are quantified. It is shown that compared to viscosity and surface tension of the melts, operating pressure and lance height have a much more significant impact on the slag-metal interface behavior and cavity shape as well as the fluid dynamics in the molten bath.

  9. Presence of Li clusters in molten LiCl-Li

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Merwin, Augustus; Phillips, William C.; Williamson, Mark A.; Willit, James L.; Motsegood, Perry N.; Chidambaram, Dev

    2016-05-05

    Molten mixtures of lithium chloride and metallic lithium are of significant interest in various metal oxide reduction processes. These solutions have been reported to exhibit seemingly anomalous physical characteristics that lack a comprehensive explanation. ln the current work, the physical chemistry of molten solutions of lithium chloride and metallic lithium, with and without lithium oxide, was investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra obtained from these solutions were in agreement with the previously reported spectrum of the lithium cluster, Li8. Furthermore, this observation is indicative of a nanofluid type colloidal suspension of Li8, in a molten salt matrix.more » It is suggested that the formation and suspension of lithium clusters in lithium chloride is the cause of various phenomena exhibited by these solutions that were previously unexplainable.« less

  10. Presence of Li Clusters in Molten LiCl-Li

    PubMed Central

    Merwin, Augustus; Phillips, William C.; Williamson, Mark A.; Willit, James L.; Motsegood, Perry N.; Chidambaram, Dev

    2016-01-01

    Molten mixtures of lithium chloride and metallic lithium are of significant interest in various metal oxide reduction processes. These solutions have been reported to exhibit seemingly anomalous physical characteristics that lack a comprehensive explanation. In the current work, the physical chemistry of molten solutions of lithium chloride and metallic lithium, with and without lithium oxide, was investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra obtained from these solutions were in agreement with the previously reported spectrum of the lithium cluster, Li8. This observation is indicative of a nanofluid type colloidal suspension of Li8 in a molten salt matrix. It is suggested that the formation and suspension of lithium clusters in lithium chloride is the cause of various phenomena exhibited by these solutions that were previously unexplainable. PMID:27145895

  11. Presence of Li Clusters in Molten LiCl-Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merwin, Augustus; Phillips, William C.; Williamson, Mark A.; Willit, James L.; Motsegood, Perry N.; Chidambaram, Dev

    2016-05-01

    Molten mixtures of lithium chloride and metallic lithium are of significant interest in various metal oxide reduction processes. These solutions have been reported to exhibit seemingly anomalous physical characteristics that lack a comprehensive explanation. In the current work, the physical chemistry of molten solutions of lithium chloride and metallic lithium, with and without lithium oxide, was investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra obtained from these solutions were in agreement with the previously reported spectrum of the lithium cluster, Li8. This observation is indicative of a nanofluid type colloidal suspension of Li8 in a molten salt matrix. It is suggested that the formation and suspension of lithium clusters in lithium chloride is the cause of various phenomena exhibited by these solutions that were previously unexplainable.

  12. Presence of Li Clusters in Molten LiCl-Li.

    PubMed

    Merwin, Augustus; Phillips, William C; Williamson, Mark A; Willit, James L; Motsegood, Perry N; Chidambaram, Dev

    2016-01-01

    Molten mixtures of lithium chloride and metallic lithium are of significant interest in various metal oxide reduction processes. These solutions have been reported to exhibit seemingly anomalous physical characteristics that lack a comprehensive explanation. In the current work, the physical chemistry of molten solutions of lithium chloride and metallic lithium, with and without lithium oxide, was investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra obtained from these solutions were in agreement with the previously reported spectrum of the lithium cluster, Li8. This observation is indicative of a nanofluid type colloidal suspension of Li8 in a molten salt matrix. It is suggested that the formation and suspension of lithium clusters in lithium chloride is the cause of various phenomena exhibited by these solutions that were previously unexplainable. PMID:27145895

  13. Partition of actinides and fission products between metal and molten salt phases: Theory, measurement, and application to IFR pyroprocess development

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1993-10-01

    The chemical basis of Integral Fast Reactor fuel reprocessing (pyroprocessing) is partition of fuel, cladding, and fission product elements between molten LiCl-KCl and either a solid metal phase or a liquid cadmium phase. The partition reactions are described herein, and the thermodynamic basis for predicting distributions of actinides and fission products in the pyroprocess is discussed. The critical role of metal-phase activity coefficients, especially those of rare earth and the transuranic elements, is described. Measured separation factors, which are analogous to equilibrium constants but which involve concentrations rather than activities, are presented. The uses of thermodynamic calculations in process development are described, as are computer codes developed for calculating material flows and phase compositions in pyroprocessing.

  14. Investigation of molten metal droplet deposition and solidification for 3D printing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chien-Hsun; Tsai, Ho-Lin; Wu, Yu-Che; Hwang, Weng-Sing

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the transient transport phenomenon during the pile up of molten lead-free solder via the inkjet printing method. With regard to the droplet impact velocity, the distance from nozzle to substrate can be controlled by using the pulse voltage and distance control apparatus. A high-speed digital camera was used to record the solder impact and examine the accuracy of the pile up. These impact conditions correspond to We  =  2.1–15.1 and Oh  =  5.4  ×  10‑3–3.8  ×  10‑3. The effects of impact velocity and relative distance between two types of molten droplets on the shape of the impact mode are examined. The results show that the optimal parameters of the distance from nozzle to substrate and the spreading factor in this experiment are 0.5 mm and 1.33. The diameter, volume and velocity of the inkjet solder droplet are around 37–65 μm, 25–144 picoliters, and 2.0–3.7 m s‑1, respectively. The vertical and inclined column structures of molten lead-free solder can be fabricated using piezoelectric ink-jet printing systems. The end-shapes of the 3D micro structure have been found to be dependent upon the distance from nozzle to substrate and the impact velocity of the molten lead-free solder droplet.

  15. Rotating Molten Metallic Drops and Related Phenomena: A New Approach to the Surface Tension Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu; Ishikawa, Takehiko

    2000-01-01

    Molten aluminum and tin drops were levitated in a high vacuum by controlled electric fields, and they were systematically rotated by applying by a rotating magnetic field. When the evolution of the drop shape was measured as a function of rotation frequency, it agreed quantitatively well with the Brown and Scriven's theoretical prediction. The normalized rotation frequencies at the bifurcation point agreed with the predicted value 0.559, within 2%. An anomalous phenomenon which totally deviated from the prediction was observed in rotating molten tin drops when they were kept in a high rotation rate for several hours. No anomaly was observed in aluminum drops when they underwent similar condition. It was speculated that under the strong centrifugal force in the drop the tin isotopes must be separating. Since Al-27 is essentially the only naturally abundant isotope in the aluminum drops, the same anomaly is not expected. Based on the shape deformation of a rotating drop, an alternate approach to the surface tension measurement was verified. This new surface tension measurement technique was applied to a glassforming alloy, Zr(41.2)Ti(13.8)Cu(12.5)Ni(10.0)Be(22.5) in its highly viscous states. Also demonstrated in the paper was a use of a molten aluminum drop to verify the Busse's prediction of the influence of the drop rotation on the drop oscillation frequency.

  16. Thermal Analysis of Surrogate Simulated Molten Salts with Metal Chloride Impurities for Electrorefining Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson; Vivek Utgikar

    2012-04-01

    This project is a fundamental study to measure thermal properties (liquidus, solidus, phase transformation, and enthalpy) of molten salt systems of interest to electrorefining operations, which are used in both the fuel cycle research & development mission and the spent fuel treatment mission of the Department of Energy. During electrorefining operations the electrolyte accumulates elements more active than uranium (transuranics, fission products and bond sodium). The accumulation needs to be closely monitored because the thermal properties of the electrolyte will change as the concentration of the impurities increases. During electrorefining (processing techniques used at the Idaho National Laboratory to separate uranium from spent nuclear fuel) it is important for the electrolyte to remain in a homogeneous liquid phase for operational safeguard and criticality reasons. The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely affected by the buildup of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are: (i) build up of fissile elements in the salt approaching the criticality limits specified for the vessel (ii) freezing of the salts due to change in the liquidus temperature and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution) of elements. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This work describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, consisting of chlorides of strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium (as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium), used in the processing of used nuclear fuels. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to analyze numerous salt samples providing results on the thermal properties. The property of most interest to pyroprocessing is the liquidus temperature. It was

  17. Extraction of 3d transition metals from molten cesium-sodium-potassium/acetate eutectic into dodecane using organophosphorous ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Maroni, V.A.; Philbin, C.E.; Yonco, R.M.

    1983-04-01

    Measurements have been made of the transfer of the transition metal cations Cr/sup 3 +/, Fe/sup 2 +/, Co/sup 2 +/, Ni/sup 2 +/ from molten cesium acetate-sodium acetate-potassium acetate eutectic (50-25-25 mol%, mp approx. 90/sup 0/C) into dodecane solutions containing selected acidic and neutral organophosphorous extracting ligands. The ordering of the relative rates and extents of extraction when the ligand bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphinic acid, H(DEPH), is employed (and the conditions of extraction are the same for each cation) is Co/sup 2 +/ > Fe/sup 2 +/ > Cr/sup 3 +/ > Ni/sup 2 +/. Comparisons of results obtained using the acidic ligand H(DEPH) and the neutralligand Tri-n-octylphosphien oxide, TOPO, indicate that the extractible TM complex does not contain acetate as a charge neutralizing ligand, but rather requires complete displacement of inner sphere acetate ions by both protonated and deprotonated alkylphosphinate groups. In the case of Co/sup 2 +/, the extraction reaction involves the transformation of the cation from an octahedral ligand field in the acetate eutectic to a tetrahedral ligand field in the H(DEPH)/dodecane phase. The mechanism(s) controlling the transfer kinetics has not been elucidated, but it is noted that the rates of extraction from the acetate eutectic seem to be much slower than has been observed for extractions of transition metals from molten alkali metal thiocyanate and nitrate media over comparable temperature ranges (140 to 180/sup 0/C). 1 figure, 2 tables.

  18. A rechargeable lithium metal battery operating at intermediate temperatures using molten alkali bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide mixture as an electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watarai, Atsushi; Kubota, Keigo; Yamagata, Masaki; Goto, Takuya; Nohira, Toshiyuki; Hagiwara, Rika; Ui, Koichi; Kumagai, Naoaki

    The physicochemical properties of molten alkali bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide, MTFSI (M = Li, K, Cs), mixture (x LiTFSI = 0.20, x KTFSI = 0.10, x CsTFSI = 0.70) were studied to develop a new rechargeable lithium battery operating at intermediate temperature (100-180 °C). The viscosity and ionic conductivity of this melt at 150 °C are 87.2 cP and 14.2 mS cm -1, respectively. The cyclic voltammetry revealed that the electrochemical window at 150 °C is as wide as 5.0 V, and that the electrochemical deposition/dissolution of lithium metal occurs at the cathode limit. A Li/MTFSI (M = Li, K, Cs)/LiFePO 4 cell showed an excellent cycle performance at a constant current rate of C/10 at 150 °C; 95% of the initial discharge capacity was maintained after 50 cycles. Except for the initial few cycles, the coulombic efficiencies were approximately 100% for all the cycles, indicating the stabilities of the molten MTFSI mixture and all the electrode materials.

  19. Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, Donald C.

    1985-06-04

    A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power.

  20. Metallicity and kinematics of the bar in situ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babusiaux, C.; Katz, D.; Hill, V.; Royer, F.; Gómez, A.; Arenou, F.; Combes, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Gilmore, G.; Haywood, M.; Robin, A. C.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, N.; Sartoretti, P.; Schultheis, M.

    2014-03-01

    Context. Constraints on the Galactic bulge and bar structures and on their formation history from stellar kinematics and metallicities mainly come from relatively high-latitude fields (|b| > 4°) where a complex mix of stellar population is seen. Aims: We aim here to constrain the formation history of the Galactic bar by studying the radial velocity and metallicity distributions of stars in situ (|b| ≤ 1°). Methods: We observed red clump stars in four fields along the bar's major axis (l = 10°, -6°, 6° and b = 0° plus a field at l = 0°, b = 1°) with low-resolution spectroscopy from FLAMES/GIRAFFE at the VLT, observing around the Ca ii triplet. We developed robust methods for extracting radial velocity and metallicity estimates from these low signal-to-noise spectra. We derived distance probability distributions using Bayesian methods rigorously handling the extinction law. Results: We present radial velocities and metallicity distributions, as well as radial velocity trends with distance. We observe an increase in the radial velocity dispersion near the Galactic plane. We detect the streaming motion of the stars induced by the bar in fields at l = ±6°, the highest velocity components of this bar stream being metal-rich ([Fe/H] ~ 0.2 dex). Our data is consistent with a bar that is inclined at 26 ± 3° from the Sun-Galactic centre line. We observe a significant fraction of metal-poor stars, in particular in the field at l = 0°, b = 1°. We confirm the flattening of the metallicity gradient along the minor axis when getting closer to the plane, with a hint that it could actually be inverted. Conclusions: Our stellar kinematics corresponds to the expected behaviour of a bar issued from the secular evolution of the Galactic disc. The mix of several populations, seen further away from the plane, is also seen in the bar in situ since our metallicity distributions highlight a different spatial distribution between metal-poor and metal-rich stars, the more

  1. In situ remediation process using divalent metal cations

    DOEpatents

    Brady, Patrick V.; Khandaker, Nadim R.; Krumhansl, James L.; Teter, David M.

    2004-12-14

    An in situ process for treating ambient solid materials (e.g., soils, aquifer solids, sludges) by adding one or more divalent metal cations to the ambient solid material. The added divalent metal cations, such as Cu.sup.2+ or Zn.sup.2+, combine with metal oxide/hydroxides (e.g., ferric oxide/hydroxide or aluminum oxide/hydroxide) already present in the ambient solid material to form an effective sorbent material having a large number of positively-charged surface complexes that binds and immobilizes anionic contaminant species (e.g., arsenic or chromate). Divalent metal cations can be added, for example, by injecting an aqueous solution of CuSO.sub.4 into an aquifer contaminated with arsenic or chromate. Also, sludges can be stabilized against leaching of anionic contaminants through the addition of divalent metal cations. Also, an inexpensive sorbent material can be easily formed by mixing divalent metal cations with soil that has been removed from the ground.

  2. Process Demonstration For Lunar In Situ Resource Utilization-Molten Oxide Electrolysis (MSFC Independent Research and Development Project No. 5-81)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, P. A.; Ethridge, E. C.; Hudson, S. B.; Miller, T. Y.; Grugel, R. N.; Sen, S.; Sadoway, D. R.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this Focus Area Independent Research and Development project was to conduct, at Marshall Space Flight Center, an experimental demonstration of the processing of simulated lunar resources by the molten oxide electrolysis process to produce oxygen and metal. In essence, the vision was to develop two key technologies, the first to produce materials (oxygen, metals, and silicon) from lunar resources and the second to produce energy by photocell production on the Moon using these materials. Together, these two technologies have the potential to greatly reduce the costs and risks of NASA s human exploration program. Further, it is believed that these technologies are the key first step toward harvesting abundant materials and energy independent of Earth s resources.

  3. Effects of shielding gas composition on arc profile and molten pool dynamics in gas metal arc welding of steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. L.; Lu, F. G.; Wang, H. P.; Murphy, A. B.; Tang, X. H.

    2014-11-01

    In gas metal arc welding, gases of different compositions are used to produce an arc plasma, which heats and melts the workpiece. They also protect the workpiece from the influence of the air during the welding process. This paper models gas metal arc welding (GMAW) processes using an in-house simulation code. It investigates the effects of the gas composition on the temperature distribution in the arc and on the molten pool dynamics in gas metal arc welding of steels. Pure argon, pure CO2 and different mixtures of argon and CO2 are considered in the study. The model is validated by comparing the calculated weld profiles with physical weld measurements. The numerical calculations reveal that gas composition greatly affects the arc temperature profile, heat transfer to the workpiece, and consequently the weld dimension. As the CO2 content in the shielding gas increases, a more constricted arc plasma with higher energy density is generated as a result of the increased current density in the arc centre and increased Lorentz force. The calculation also shows that the heat transferred from the arc to the workpiece increases with increasing CO2 content, resulting in a wider and deeper weld pool and decreased reinforcement height.

  4. Electrolysis of metal oxides in MgCl2 based molten salts with an inert graphite anode.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yating; Li, Wei; Chen, Hualin; Wang, Zhiyong; Jin, Xianbo; Chen, George Z

    2016-08-15

    Electrolysis of solid metal oxides has been demonstrated in MgCl2-NaCl-KCl melt at 700 °C taking the electrolysis of Ta2O5 as an example. Both the cathodic and anodic processes have been investigated using cyclic voltammetry, and potentiostatic and constant voltage electrolysis, with the cathodic products analysed by XRD and SEM and the anodic products by GC. Fast electrolysis of Ta2O5 against a graphite anode has been realized at a cell voltage of 2 V, or a total overpotential of about 400 mV. The energy consumption was about 1 kW h kgTa(-1) with a nearly 100% Ta recovery. The cathodic product was nanometer Ta powder with sizes of about 50 nm. The main anodic product was Cl2 gas, together with about 1 mol% O2 gas and trace amounts of CO. The graphite anode was found to be an excellent inert anode. These results promise an environmentally-friendly and energy efficient method for metal extraction by electrolysis of metal oxides in MgCl2 based molten salts. PMID:27203663

  5. Solubility of metal oxides in molten equimolar KBr-NaBr mixture at 973 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherginets, V. L.; Rebrova, T. P.; Naumenko, V. A.

    2014-09-01

    Solubility products (p K s,MO, molality) are measured by potentiometric titration with a Pt(O2)|ZrO2(Y2O3) oxygen electrode in the molten KBr-NaBr equimolar mixture at 973 K for the following oxides: CaO (5.00 ± 0.3), MnO (7.85 ± 0.3), NiO (9.72 ± 0.04), PbO (5.20 ± 0.3), and SrO (3.81 ± 0.3). The correlation between p K s,MeO and the polarization of the corresponding cations by Goldschmidt is obtained.

  6. Selective Reduction of Active Metal Chlorides from Molten LiCl-KCl using Lithium Drawdown

    SciTech Connect

    Michael F. Simpson; Daniel LaBrier; Michael Lineberry; Tae-Sic Yoo

    2012-10-01

    In support of optimizing electrorefining technology for treating spent nuclear fuel, lithium drawdown has been investigated for separating actinides from molten salt electrolyte. Drawdown reaction selectivity is a major issue that needs to be investigated, since the goal is to remove actinides while leaving the fission products in the salt. A series of lithium drawdown tests with surrogate fission product chlorides was run to obtain selectivity data with non-radioactive salts, develop a predictive model, and draw conclusions about the viability of using this process with actinide-loadd salt. Results of tests with CsCl, LaCl3, CeCl3, and NdCl3 are reported here. An equilibrium model has been formulated and fit to the experimental data. Excellent fits to the data were achieved. Based on analysis and results obtained to date, it is concluded that clean separation between minor actinides and lanthanides will be difficult to achieve using lithium drawdown.

  7. Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, D.C.

    1985-06-04

    A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power. 1 fig.

  8. Situ formation of apatite for sequestering radionuclides and heavy metals

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Robert C.

    2003-07-15

    Methods for in situ formation in soil of a permeable reactive barrier or zone comprising a phosphate precipitate, such as apatite or hydroxyapatite, which is capable of selectively trapping and removing radionuclides and heavy metal contaminants from the soil, while allowing water or other compounds to pass through. A preparation of a phosphate reagent and a chelated calcium reagent is mixed aboveground and injected into the soil. Subsequently, the chelated calcium reagent biodegrades and slowly releases free calcium. The free calcium reacts with the phosphate reagent to form a phosphate precipitate. Under the proper chemical conditions, apatite or hydroxyapatite can form. Radionuclide and heavy metal contaminants, including lead, strontium, lanthanides, and uranium are then selectively sequestered by sorbing them onto the phosphate precipitate. A reducing agent can be added for reduction and selective sequestration of technetium or selenium contaminants.

  9. Development of metal-coated ceramic anodes for molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Khandkar, A.C.; Elangovan, S.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1990-03-01

    This report documents the developmental efforts on metal coating of various ceramic substrates (LiAlO{sub 2}, SrTiO{sub 3}, and LiFeO{sub 2}) and the critical issues associated with fabricating anodes using metal-coated LiAlO{sub 2} substrates. Electroless Ni and Cu coating technology was developed to achieve complete metal coverage on LiAlO{sub 2} powder substrates. Metal coated SrTiO{sub 3} powders were fabricated into anodes by a process identical to that reported in the GE literature. Microstructural examination revealed that the grains of the ceramic had fused together, with the metal having dewetted from the surface of the ceramic. Alternate substrates that might allow for better wetting of the metal on the ceramic such as LiFeO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} were identified. Cu/Ni-coated (50:50 mol ratio, 50 w/o metal loading) LiFeO{sub 2} anodes were optimized to meet the MCFC anode specifications. Metal-coated gamma-LiAlO{sub 2} substrates were also developed. By using suitable chemical surface modification methods, the gamma-UAlO{sub 2} substrate surface may be modified to allow a stable metal coated anode to be fabricated. Creep testing of the metal coated ceramic anodes were conducted at IGT. It was determined that the predominant creep mechanism is due to particle rearrangement. The anode porosity, and mean pore size had significant effect on the creep of the anode. Lower porosity and pore size consistent with performance criteria are desired to reduce creep. Lower metal loading with uniformity of coverage will result in lower creep behavior of the anode. Of the two substrates evaluated, LiFeO{sub 2} in general exhibited lower creep which was attributed to superior metal adhesion.

  10. Development of metal-coated ceramic anodes for molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Khandkar, A.C.; Elangovan, S.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1990-03-01

    This report documents the developmental efforts on metal coating of various ceramic substrates (LiAlO{sub 2}, SrTiO{sub 3}, and LiFeO{sub 2}) and the critical issues associated with fabricating anodes using metal-coated LiAlO{sub 2} substrates. Electroless Ni and Cu coating technology was developed to achieve complete metal coverage on LiAlO{sub 2} powder substrates. Metal coated SrTiO{sub 3} powders were fabricated into anodes by a process identical to that reported in the GE literature. Microstructural examination revealed that the grains of the ceramic had fused together, with the metal having dewetted from the surface of the ceramic. Alternate substrates that might allow for better wetting of the metal on the ceramic such as LiFeO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} were identified. Cu/Ni-coated (50:50 mol ratio, 50 w/o metal loading) LiFeO{sub 2} anodes were optimized to meet the MCFC anode specifications. Metal-coated gamma-LiAlO{sub 2} substrates were also developed. By using suitable chemical surface modification methods, the gamma-UAlO{sub 2} substrate surface may be modified to allow a stable metal coated anode to be fabricated. Creep testing of the metal coated ceramic anodes were conducted at IGT. It was determined that the predominant creep mechanism is due to particle rearrangement. The anode porosity, and mean pore size had significant effect on the creep of the anode. Lower porosity and pore size consistent with performance criteria are desired to reduce creep. Lower metal loading with uniformity of coverage will result in lower creep behavior of the anode. Of the two substrates evaluated, LiFeO{sub 2} in general exhibited lower creep which was attributed to superior metal adhesion.

  11. Molten salt applications in materials processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Brajendra; Olson, David L.

    2005-02-01

    The science of molten salt electrochemistry for electrowinning of reactive metals, such as calcium, and its in situ application in pyro-reduction has been described. Calcium electrowinning has been performed in a 5 10 wt% calcium oxide calcium chloride molten salt by the electrolytic dissociation of calcium oxide. This electrolysis requires the use of a porous ceramic sheath around the anode to keep the cathodically deposited calcium and the anodic gases separate. Stainless steel cathode and graphite anode have been used in the temperature range of 850 950 °C. This salt mixture is produced as a result of the direct oxide reduction (DOR) of reactive metal oxides by calcium in a calcium chloride bath. The primary purpose of this process is to recover the expensive calcium reductant and to recycle calcium chloride. Experimental data have been included to justify the suitability as well as limitations of the electrowinning process. Transport of oxygen ions through the sheath is found to be the rate controlling step. Under the constraints of the reactor design, a calcium recovery rate of approx. 150 g/h was achieved. Feasibility of a process to produce metals by pyrometallurgical reduction, using the calcium reductant produced electrolytically within the same reactor, has been shown in a hybrid process. Several processes are currently under investigation to use this electrowon calcium for in situ reduction of metal oxides.

  12. Dispersion and thermal interactions of molten metal fuel settling on a horizontal steel plate through a sodium pool

    SciTech Connect

    Gabor, J.D.; Purviance, R.T.; Aeschlimann, R.W.; Spencer, B.W.

    1989-01-01

    Although the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) possesses inherent safety features, an assessment of the consequences of melting of the metal fuel is necessary for risk analysis. As part of this effort an experimental study was conducted to determine the depths of sodium at 600 C required for pour streams of various molten uranium alloys (U, U-5 wt % Zr, U-10 wt % Zr, and U-10 wt % Fe) to break up and solidify. The quenched particulate material, which was in the shape of filaments and sheets, formed coolable beds because of the high voidage ({approximately}0.9) and large particle size ({approximately}10 mm). In a test with a 0.15-m sodium depth, the fragments from a pure uranium pour stream did not completely solidify but formed an agglomerated mass which did not fuse to the base plate. However, the agglomerated fragments of U-10 wt % Fe eutectic fused to the stainless steel base plate. An analysis of the temperature response of a 25-mm thick base plate was made by volume averaging the properties of the sodium and metal particle phases and assuming two semi-infinite solids coming into contact. Good agreement was obtained with the data during the initial 5 to 10 s of the contact period. 16 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Near-Net-Shape Production of Hollow Titanium Alloy Components via Electrochemical Reduction of Metal Oxide Precursors in Molten Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Di; Xiao, Wei; Chen, George Z.

    2013-04-01

    Metal oxide precursors (ca. 90 wt pct Ti, 6 wt pct Al, and 4 wt pct V) were prepared with a hollow structure in various shapes such as a sphere, miniature golf club head, and cup using a one-step solid slip-casting process. The precursors were then electro-deoxidized in molten calcium chloride [3.2 V, 1173 K (900 °C)] against a graphite anode. After 24 hours of electrolysis, the near-net-shape Ti-6Al-4V product maintained its original shape with controlled shrinkage. Oxygen contents in the Ti-6Al-4V components were typically below 2000 ppm. The maximum compressive stress and modulus of electrolytic products obtained in this work were approximately 243 MPa and 14 GPa, respectively, matching with the requirement for medical implants. Further research directions are discussed for mechanical improvement of the products via densification during or after electrolysis. This simple, fast, and energy-efficient near-net-shape manufacturing method could allow titanium alloy components with desired geometries to be prepared directly from a mixture of metal oxides, promising an innovative technology for the low-cost production of titanium alloy components.

  14. Vapor Explosion of Coolant Jet When Penetrating a Hot Molten Metal

    SciTech Connect

    Perets, Y.; Harari, R.; Sher, E.

    2005-06-15

    The vapor explosion phenomenon is investigated experimentally for a geometrical arrangement in which a cold liquid (water) jet is injected into a hot liquid surface (tin). Medium-scale experiments using 1 kg of molten tin were performed in an open geometry experiment system. In the first phase of the research, the influence of the injection mass flow rate on the likelihood of vapor explosion was investigated in order to map the various relevant regimes. In the second phase, the influence of some selected parameters on the interaction was studied to characterize the relevant parameters of the vapor explosion phenomenon.The range of the initial tin and water temperatures that leads to vapor explosion has been determined in order to define the thermal interaction zone. It is noticed that vapor explosion can occur at high water temperatures even near the saturation point. The delay time for the explosion to occur and the degree of the interaction violence were correlated with the initial tin and water temperatures. We also clarified the triggering point and noted a correlation between the quench temperature and the likelihood of the vapor explosion occurrence.

  15. In situ combustion with metallic additives SUPRI TR 87

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, R.J.

    1992-07-01

    In-situ combustion is the most energy efficient of the thermal oil recovery methods. In this process, a portion of a reservoir's oil is burned in-situ as fuel to drive the recovery process. In light oil reservoirs, too little fuel may be deposited, making sustained combustion difficult. In heavy oil reservoirs, too much fuel may be deposited leading to high air injection requirements and unfavorable economics. This study has been designed to attack these problems. Water soluble metallic additives are investigated as agents to modify fuel deposition and combustion performance. This report describes seven combustion tube runs using two cradle oils and two metallic additives. The oils are 12{degrees} and 34{degrees} API, both from Cymric (California). The metallic additives tested are ionic nitrate (Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}9H{sub 2}O) and zinc nitrate (Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}6H{sub 2}O). Iron and tin additives improved the combustion efficiency in all cases. Fluctuations in the produced gas compositions were observed in all control runs, but nearly disappeared with the iron and tin additives. The combustion front velocities were also increased by iron and tin. Changes were also observed in the apparent hydrogen to carbon (H/C) ratio of the fuel, heat of combustion, air requirements, and amount of fuel deposited. Iron and tin caused increases in fuel concentration while causing a decrease in air requirement. The increase in fuel concentration varied between the oils, however, tin and iron were consistently more effective than zinc. A particularly interesting result occurred with the Cymric light oil. In the control runs, a sustained combustion front was not achieved, while in the iron additive runs, stable, sustained combustion was achieved. Iron and tin salts are suitable additives to increase fuel deposition when that is needed. Additives suitable for use as a fuel reducing agent have not yet been found. 26 refs., 23 figs, 6 tabs.

  16. In situ combustion with metallic additives SUPRI TR 87

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, R.J.

    1992-07-01

    In-situ combustion is the most energy efficient of the thermal oil recovery methods. In this process, a portion of a reservoir`s oil is burned in-situ as fuel to drive the recovery process. In light oil reservoirs, too little fuel may be deposited, making sustained combustion difficult. In heavy oil reservoirs, too much fuel may be deposited leading to high air injection requirements and unfavorable economics. This study has been designed to attack these problems. Water soluble metallic additives are investigated as agents to modify fuel deposition and combustion performance. This report describes seven combustion tube runs using two cradle oils and two metallic additives. The oils are 12{degrees} and 34{degrees} API, both from Cymric (California). The metallic additives tested are ionic nitrate (Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}9H{sub 2}O) and zinc nitrate (Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}6H{sub 2}O). Iron and tin additives improved the combustion efficiency in all cases. Fluctuations in the produced gas compositions were observed in all control runs, but nearly disappeared with the iron and tin additives. The combustion front velocities were also increased by iron and tin. Changes were also observed in the apparent hydrogen to carbon (H/C) ratio of the fuel, heat of combustion, air requirements, and amount of fuel deposited. Iron and tin caused increases in fuel concentration while causing a decrease in air requirement. The increase in fuel concentration varied between the oils, however, tin and iron were consistently more effective than zinc. A particularly interesting result occurred with the Cymric light oil. In the control runs, a sustained combustion front was not achieved, while in the iron additive runs, stable, sustained combustion was achieved. Iron and tin salts are suitable additives to increase fuel deposition when that is needed. Additives suitable for use as a fuel reducing agent have not yet been found. 26 refs., 23 figs, 6 tabs.

  17. Evaluating the Long-Term Stability of Metals Precipitated In-Situ

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because metals (including metals and metalloids) cannot be destroyed, unlike organic contaminants, in-situ approaches for their removal from groundwater necessarily involves fixation/immobilization in the solid aquifer matrix. Consequently, the success of precipitation based in...

  18. Design and evaluation of a Laval-type supersonic atomizer for low-pressure gas atomization of molten metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Chao-run; Zhang, Xian-jie; Wang, Jun-biao; Li, Yu-jun

    2014-06-01

    A Laval-type supersonic gas atomizer was designed for low-pressure gas atomization of molten metals. The principal design objectives were to produce small-particle uniform powders at lower operating pressures by improving the gas inlet and outlet structures and optimizing structural parameters. A computational fluid flow model was developed to study the flow field characteristics of the designed atomizer. Simulation results show that the maximum gas velocity in the atomization zone can reach 440 m·s-1; this value is independent of the atomization gas pressure P 0 when P 0 > 0.7 MPa. When P 0 = 1.1 MPa, the aspiration pressure at the tip of the delivery tube reaches a minimum, indicating that the atomizer can attain the best atomization efficiency at a relatively low atomization pressure. In addition, atomization experiments with pure tin at P 0 = 1.0 MPa and with 7055Al alloy at P 0 = 0.8 and 0.4 MPa were conducted to evaluate the atomization capability of the designed atomizer. Nearly spherical powders were obtained with the mass median diameters of 28.6, 43.4, and 63.5 μm, respectively. Compared with commonly used atomizers, the designed Laval-type atomizer has a better low-pressure gas atomization capability.

  19. An Assessment of Molten Metal Detachment Hazards During Electron Beam Welding in the Space Shuttle Bay at LEO for the International Space Welding Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fragomeni, James M.

    1996-01-01

    In 1997, the United States [NASA] and the Paton Electric Welding Institute are scheduled to cooperate in a flight demonstration on the U.S. Space Shuttle to demonstrate the feasibility of welding in space for a possible repair option for the International Space Station Alpha. This endeavor, known as the International Space Welding Experiment (ISWE), will involve astronauts performing various welding exercises such as brazing, cutting, welding, and coating using an electron beam space welding system that was developed by the E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute (PWI), Kiev Ukraine. This electron beam welding system known as the "Universal Weld System" consists of hand tools capable of brazing, cutting, autogeneous welding, and coating using an 8 kV (8000 volts) electron beam. The electron beam hand tools have also been developed by the Paton Welding Institute with greater capabilities than the original hand tool, including filler wire feeding, to be used with the Universal Weld System on the U.S. Space Shuttle Bay as part of ISWE. The hand tool(s) known as the Ukrainian Universal Hand [Electron Beam Welding] Tool (UHT) will be utilized for the ISWE Space Shuttle flight welding exercises to perform welding on various metal alloy samples. A total of 61 metal alloy samples, which include 304 stainless steel, Ti-6AI-4V, 2219 aluminum, and 5456 aluminum alloys, have been provided by NASA for the ISWE electron beam welding exercises using the UHT. These samples were chosen to replicate both the U.S. and Russian module materials. The ISWE requires extravehicular activity (EVA) of two astronauts to perform the space shuttle electron beam welding operations of the 61 alloy samples. This study was undertaken to determine if a hazard could exist with ISWE during the electron beam welding exercises in the Space Shuttle Bay using the Ukrainian Universal Weld System with the UHT. The safety issue has been raised with regard to molten metal detachments as a result of several

  20. Magnetic levitation and confinement of molten metals. Ph.D Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, S.S.

    1993-12-31

    Electromagnetic forces generated within the bulk of a liquid metal, due to imposed alternating magnetic field, can alter the shape of the free surface of the liquid metal. Most of the research in this area has been focused on theoretical development of electromagnetic processes and there is a lack of well defined experimental results with which to verify the theoretical models. In this thesis, the interaction of electromagnetic field structure with liquid metals was studies both from theoretical and experimental viewpoints. Levitation and shaping experiments were successfully carried out with liquid sodium in mineral oil in a cone-shaped coil. Small droplets ranging from 1.2 to 2.1 gm of liquid sodium were levitated. The modeling of a levitated droplet in an electromagnetic field was carried out using the Free Movement method. This is a surface coupled model where the skin depth is assumed to be zero. There was a good match between the experimental and predicted results. The shaping experiments were also carried out using liquid sodium in a cylindrical coil. Liquid sodium was repelled from the wall of the container and the meniscus profile was measured. The experimental results were compared with the results predicted by the mathematical model. The comparison was good away from the inductor but the model did not predict the shape near the inductor due to fluid flow during shaping. The mathematical model is used to predict the meniscus shapes of liquid steel under an imposed electromagnetic field. This technique is used to investigate the effect of applied magnetic fields on the static meniscus shapes of a liquid steel column and on the equilibrium meniscus shape of liquid steel in the mold of a continuous caster when there is not relative movement between the model and the strand. The heating rate of liquid steel due to induced eddy currents within the bulk of the metal is also studied.

  1. Investigation of atypical molten pool dynamics in tungsten carbide-cobalt during laser deposition using in-situ thermal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong Yuhong; Schoenung, Julie M.; Hofmeister, William H.; Smugeresky, John E.; Delplanque, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-16

    An atypical ''swirling'' phenomenon observed during the laser deposition of tungsten carbide-cobalt cermets by laser engineered net shaping (LENS) was studied using in-situ high-speed thermal imaging. To provide fundamental insight into this phenomenon, the thermal behavior of pure cobalt during LENS was also investigated for comparison. Several factors were considered as the possible source of the observed differences. Of those, phase difference, material emissivity, momentum transfer, and free surface disruption from the powder jets, and, to a lesser extent, Marangoni convection were identified as the relevant mechanisms.

  2. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: IN SITU VITRIFICATION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In situ vitrification (ISV) uses electrical power to heat and melt soil, sludge, mine tailings, buried wastes, and sediments contaminated with organic, inorganic, and metal-bearing hazardous wastes. The molten material cools to form a hard, monolithic, chemically inert, stable...

  3. Possibility of preparation of TiC single crystals from molten metallic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wokulski, Z.; Wokulska, Krystyna; Suski, S.

    1995-10-01

    Studies were carried out on the crystallization of TiCx for various values of x equals C/Ti from high temperature solutions of melted Ni and Al. Growth processes took place in Al2O3 crucibles in the temperature range 1500 - 1700 degrees Celsius. It was ascertained that during slow cooling of the melted solutions, TiCx crystallized as primary crystals and on reaching the eutectic temperature for the quasi-binary system Ni-TiCx, crystallization of eutectic Ni-TiCx took place. Obtained crystals were of cubic or octahedral form, for Ni and Al solvents, respectively. They had metallic silver color and a maximum size of 1 mm.

  4. Refractory metals in molten salts: Theory and simulation of geometry, electronic structure, and electron transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koslowski, Thorsten

    2000-12-01

    In this work, we present a theoretical and numerical study of the microscopic and electronic structure of solutions of refractory metal halides in alkali halide melts, [NbCl5]x[KCl]1-x and [TaCl5]x[KCl]1-x with 0⩽x⩽0.5. The geometry of the melts is described by ensembles of charged hard spheres, the electronic structure is modeled by a tight-binding Hamiltonian, which is extended by a reaction field to describe the diabatic energy profile of the electronic self-exchange in many-orbital mixed-valence systems. Despite its simplicity, the model leads to the formation of distorted octahedral [NbCl6]- and [TaCl6]- clusters, as evident both from the inspection of the simulation geometries and from the analysis of the partial pair distribution functions. Even in the presence of the strong potential energy fluctuations characteristic of ionic liquids, the octahedral structure is manifest in the density of states in a t2g-eg splitting of the conduction band. The Hamiltonian that describes mixed-valence systems is solved self-consistently. Using an attractive Hubbard parameter of 1.5 eV, we show that the numerical results can be interpreted by Marcus' theory of outer-sphere electron transfer reactions with a reorganization energy of 2.2 eV, an electronic coupling parameter of 0.12 eV, and an activation energy of 0.42 eV. Both anion-d metal cation and intervalence charge transfer excitations contribute to the optical absorption spectrum, the latter leads to a pronounced polaron absorption peak. These findings are compared to recent experimental results.

  5. Characterization of the flow in the molten metal sump during direct chill aluminum casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, Jason M.

    1997-06-01

    A recent analytical model for the liquid aluminum flow in a direct chill (DC) casting sump has been investigated and the scaling coefficients evaluated. The magnitudes of flow-field features, such as the depth of the temperature stratification in the sump and the velocity of the metal in the thermal boundary layer close to the solidification front, have been calculated. The results broadly agree with recent full numerical calculations of the flow in the sump. The variation of these essential flow features has been investigated across a range of typical ingot sizes, casting speeds, and superheats, and critical macro-casting-parameter combinations have been identified. The limitations of the model are discussed and the possible effects the identified structure has on macrosegregation are briefly explored. Finally, the influence on the flow field of the method of feeding the ingot is investigated, and it is concluded that the model and these results are not invalidated if the feeding is nonuniform over the top surface of the sump.

  6. A Molten Salt Lithium-Oxygen Battery.

    PubMed

    Giordani, Vincent; Tozier, Dylan; Tan, Hongjin; Burke, Colin M; Gallant, Betar M; Uddin, Jasim; Greer, Julia R; McCloskey, Bryan D; Chase, Gregory V; Addison, Dan

    2016-03-01

    Despite the promise of extremely high theoretical capacity (2Li + O2 ↔ Li2O2, 1675 mAh per gram of oxygen), many challenges currently impede development of Li/O2 battery technology. Finding suitable electrode and electrolyte materials remains the most elusive challenge to date. A radical new approach is to replace volatile, unstable and air-intolerant organic electrolytes common to prior research in the field with alkali metal nitrate molten salt electrolytes and operate the battery above the liquidus temperature (>80 °C). Here we demonstrate an intermediate temperature Li/O2 battery using a lithium anode, a molten nitrate-based electrolyte (e.g., LiNO3-KNO3 eutectic) and a porous carbon O2 cathode with high energy efficiency (∼95%) and improved rate capability because the discharge product, lithium peroxide, is stable and moderately soluble in the molten salt electrolyte. The results, supported by essential state-of-the-art electrochemical and analytical techniques such as in situ pressure and gas analyses, scanning electron microscopy, rotating disk electrode voltammetry, demonstrate that Li2O2 electrochemically forms and decomposes upon cycling with discharge/charge overpotentials as low as 50 mV. We show that the cycle life of such batteries is limited only by carbon reactivity and by the uncontrolled precipitation of Li2O2, which eventually becomes electrically disconnected from the O2 electrode. PMID:26871485

  7. In situ characterization of metal matrix composites processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munger, Gareth Torrey

    1999-11-01

    The high temperatures and pressures used for the processing of fiber reinforced metal matrix composites (MMC's) can result in the bending and fracture of fibers, and the development of residual stresses in both the fibers and surrounding metal matrix. These phenomena adversely affect the properties of MMC's. Methods for their nondestructive measurement are therefore needed both to better understand the process induced damage mechanisms and to ensure that composites are not placed into service with unacceptable fiber damage and/or residual stresses. A fiber optic luminescence approach based upon the frequency shift of the R lines emission of doped sapphire fibers was used to determine the residual stresses in both Ti/Al2O3 and Ti/SiC composites. To investigate the significance of the creep relaxation effects, residual stresses were measured for sapphire fibers embedded in Ti-6Al-4V plates that had been cooled at different rates. The compressive stresses in the fiber are consistent with the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of sapphire being less than Ti-6Al-4V. A multiple concentric cylinder model was used to predict the residual stress state. The model results confirmed that the creep relaxation was induced responsible for the lower stress in the slowly cooled samples and suggest that cooling rate is important to control during processing. To test the notion of the use of a sapphire fiber as a 'witness to' the stress state in an MMC, a sapphire fiber was inserted into a Ti-6Al-4V coated SIGMA (SiC) fiber bundle prior to its consolidation. A generalized method of cells (GMC) model was used to develop a relationship between the stress state within the sapphire witness fiber and that of the surrounding Ti-6Al-4V matrix and the SIGMA fibers. Fiber fracture during the hot isostatic processing (HIP) consolidation of titanium matrix composite was measured using an in-situ acoustic emission approach. For process cycles in which pressure was applied prior to

  8. Electrokinetic In Situ Treatment of Metal-Contaminated Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Clausen, Christian A., III; Geiger, Cherie; Reinhart, Debra

    2004-01-01

    An electrokinetic technique has been developed as a means of in situ remediation of soils, sludges, and sediments that are contaminated with heavy metals. Examples of common metal contaminants that can be removed by this technique include cadmium, chromium, zinc, lead, mercury, and radionuclides. Some organic contaminants can also be removed by this technique. In the electrokinetic technique, a low-intensity direct current is applied between electrodes that have been implanted in the ground on each side of a contaminated soil mass. The electric current causes electro-osmosis and migration of ions, thereby moving aqueous-phase subsurface contaminants from one electrode to the other. The half reaction at the anode yields H+, thereby generating an acid front that travels from the anode toward the cathode. As this acid front passes through a given location, the local increase in acidity increases the solubility of cations that were previously adsorbed on soil particles. Ions are transported towards one electrode or the other which one depending on their respective electric charges. Upon arrival at the electrodes, the ionic contaminants can be allowed to become deposited on the electrodes or can be extracted to a recovery system. Surfactants and other reagents can be introduced at the electrodes to enhance rates of removal of contaminants. Placements of electrodes and concentrations and rates of pumping of reagents can be adjusted to maximize efficiency. The basic concept of electrokinetic treatment of soil is not new. What is new here are some of the details of application and the utilization of this technique as an alternative to other techniques (e.g., flushing or bioremediation) that are not suitable for treating soils of low hydraulic conductivity. Another novel aspect is the use of this technique as a less expensive alternative to excavation: The cost advantage over excavation is especially large in settings in which contaminated soil lies near and/or under

  9. In Situ Analysis of Refractory Metal Nugget Crystallography Providing Clues to Early Solar System Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, L.; Bland, P. A.; Forman, L. V.; Trimby, P. W.; Moody, S.; Yang, L.; Liu, H. W.; Ringer, S. P.; Saunders, M.

    2015-07-01

    In situ analysis of refractory metal nuggets has revealed several textural features that have not previously been reported, such as twinning and crystallographic relationships with associated minerals; as well as the discovery of a new mineral phase.

  10. Ancient Uses of Meteoritic Metals as Precedent for Modern In-Situ Asteroid Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardon, Austin A.; Fawcett, Brett; Krispin, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Given the strain on earth's supply of metal and the meteoritic content of meteorites, a prudent course would be to pursue in-situ asteroid mining of meteors for metal. There is a precedent for this going back to ancient Egypt; humans have always used the meteoritic content of meteorites to fashion everything from weapons to cosmetics.

  11. An Assessment of Molten Metal Detachment Hazards During Electron Beam Welding in the Space Shuttle Bay at LEO for the International Space Welding Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fragomeni, James M.

    1996-01-01

    In 1997, the United States [NASA] and the Paton Electric Welding Institute are scheduled to cooperate in a flight demonstration on the U.S. Space Shuttle to demonstrate the feasibility of welding in space for a possible repair option for the International Space Station Alpha. This endeavor, known as the International Space Welding Experiment (ISWE), will involve astronauts performing various welding exercises such as brazing, cutting, welding, and coating using an electron beam space welding system that was developed by the E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute (PWI), Kiev Ukraine. This electron beam welding system known as the "Universal Weld System" consists of hand tools capable of brazing, cutting, autogeneous welding, and coating using an 8 kV (8000 volts) electron beam. The electron beam hand tools have also been developed by the Paton Welding Institute with greater capabilities than the original hand tool, including filler wire feeding, to be used with the Universal Weld System on the U.S. Space Shuttle Bay as part of ISWE. The hand tool(s) known as the Ukrainian Universal Hand [Electron Beam Welding] Tool (UHT) will be utilized for the ISWE Space Shuttle flight welding exercises to perform welding on various metal alloy samples. A total of 61 metal alloy samples, which include 304 stainless steel, Ti-6AI-4V, 2219 aluminum, and 5456 aluminum alloys, have been provided by NASA for the ISWE electron beam welding exercises using the UHT. These samples were chosen to replicate both the U.S. and Russian module materials. The ISWE requires extravehicular activity (EVA) of two astronauts to perform the space shuttle electron beam welding operations of the 61 alloy samples. This study was undertaken to determine if a hazard could exist with ISWE during the electron beam welding exercises in the Space Shuttle Bay using the Ukrainian Universal Weld System with the UHT. The safety issue has been raised with regard to molten metal detachments as a result of several

  12. Multiphysics Modeling for Dimensional Analysis of a Self-Heated Molten Regolith Electrolysis Reactor for Oxygen and Metals Production on the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominguez, Jesus A.; Sibille, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    The technology of direct electrolysis of molten lunar regolith to produce oxygen and molten metal alloys has progressed greatly in the last few years. The development of long-lasting inert anodes and cathode designs as well as techniques for the removal of molten products from the reactor has been demonstrated. The containment of chemically aggressive oxide and metal melts is very difficult at the operating temperatures ca 1600 C. Containing the molten oxides in a regolith shell can solve this technical issue and can be achieved by designing a self-heating reactor in which the electrolytic currents generate enough Joule heat to create a molten bath. In a first phase, a thermal analysis model was built to study the formation of a melt of lunar basaltic regolith irradiated by a focused solar beam This mode of heating was selected because it relies on radiative heat transfer, which is the dominant mode of transfer of energy in melts at 1600 C. Knowing and setting the Gaussian-type heat flux from the concentrated solar beam and the phase and temperature dependent thermal properties, the model predicts the dimensions and temperature profile of the melt. A validation of the model is presented in this paper through the experimental formation of a spherical cap melt realized by others. The Orbitec/PSI experimental setup uses an 3.6-cm diameter concentrated solar beam to create a hemispheric melt in a bed of lunar regolith simulant contained in a large pot. Upon cooling, the dimensions of the vitrified melt are measured to validate the thermal model. In a second phase, the model is augmented by multiphysics components to compute the passage of electrical currents between electrodes inserted in the molten regolith. The current through the melt generates Joule heating due to the high resistivity of the medium and this energy is transferred into the melt by conduction, convection and primarily by radiation. The model faces challenges in two major areas, the change of phase as

  13. Potential for EMU Fabric Damage by Electron Beam and Molten Metal During Space Welding for the International Space Welding Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fragomeni, James M.

    1998-01-01

    As a consequence of preparations concerning the International Space Welding Experiment (ISWE), studies were performed to better understand the effect of molten metal contact and electron beam impingement with various fabrics for space suit applications. The question arose as to what would occur if the electron beam from the Ukrainian Universal Hand Tool (UHT) designed for welding in space were to impinge upon a piece of Nextel AF-62 ceramic cloth designed to withstand temperatures up to 1427 C. The expectation was that the electron beam would lay down a static charge pattern with no damage to the ceramic fabric. The electron beam is capable of spraying the fabric with enough negative charge to repel further electrons from the fabric before significant heating occurs. The static charge pattern would deflect any further charge accumulation except for a small initial amount of leakage to the grounded surface of the welder. However, when studies were made of the effect of the electron beam on the insulating ceramic fabric it was surprisingly found that the electron beam did indeed burn through the ceramic fabric. It was also found that the shorter electron beam standoff distances had longer burnthrough times than did some greater electron beam standoff distances. A possible explanation for the longer burnthrough times for the small electron beam standoff distance would be outgassing of the fabric which caused the electron beam hand-tool to cycle on and off to provide some protection for the cathodes. The electron beam hand tool was observed to cycle off at the short standoff distance of two inches likely due to vapors being outgassed. During the electron beam welding process there is an electron leakage, or current leakage, flow from the fabric. A static charge pattern is initially laid down by the electron beam current flow. The static charge makes up the current leakage flow which initially slightly heats up the fabric. The initially laid down surface charge leaks a

  14. "In situ" phytostabilisation of heavy metal polluted soils using Lupinus luteus inoculated with metal resistant plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria.

    PubMed

    Dary, M; Chamber-Pérez, M A; Palomares, A J; Pajuelo, E

    2010-05-15

    The aim of this work is the evaluation of metal phytostabilisation potential of Lupinus luteus inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp. 750 and heavy metal resistant PGPRs (plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria), for in situ reclamation of multi-metal contaminated soil after a mine spill. Yellow lupines accumulated heavy metals mainly in roots (Cu, Cd and especially Pb were poorly translocated to shoots). This indicates a potential use of this plant in metal phytostabilisation. Furthermore, As accumulation was undetectable. On the other hand, zinc accumulation was 10-100 times higher than all other metals, both in roots and in shoots. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. 750 increased both biomass and nitrogen content, indicating that nitrogen fixation was effective in soils with moderate levels of contamination. Co-inoculation of lupines with a consortium of metal resistant PGPR (including Bradyrhizobium sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Ochrobactrum cytisi) produced an additional improvement of plant biomass. At the same time, a decrease in metal accumulation was observed, both in shoots and roots, which could be due to a protective effect exerted on plant rhizosphere. Our results indicate the usefulness of L. luteus inoculated with a bacterial consortium of metal resistant PGPRs as a method for in situ reclamation of metal polluted soils. PMID:20056325

  15. Materials discovery by crystal growth: Lanthanide metal containing oxides of the platinum group metals (Ru, Os, Ir, Rh, Pd, Pt) from molten alkali metal hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Mugavero, Samuel J.; Gemmill, William R.; Roof, Irina P.; Loye, Hans-Conrad zur

    2009-07-15

    This review addresses the process of materials discovery via crystal growth, specifically of lanthanide metal containing oxides of the platinum group metals (Ru, Os, Ir, Rh, Pd, Pt). It provides a detailed overview of the use of hydroxide fluxes for crystal growth. The melt chemistry of hydroxide fluxes, specifically, the extensive acid base chemistry, the metal cation solubility, and the ability of hydroxide melts to oxidize metals are described. Furthermore, a general methodology for the successful crystal growth of oxides is provided, including a discussion of experimental considerations, suitable reaction vessels, reaction profiles and temperature ranges. Finally, a compilation of complex platinum group metal oxides recently synthesized using hydroxide melts, focusing on their crystal growth and crystal structures, is included. - Graphical abstract: A review that addresses the process of materials discovery via crystal growth using hydroxide fluxes. It provides a detailed overview of the use of hydroxide fluxes for crystal growth and describes the melt chemistry of hydroxide fluxes, specifically, the extensive acid base chemistry, the metal cation solubility, and the ability of hydroxide melts to oxidize metals. In addition, a compilation of complex platinum group metal oxides recently synthesized using hydroxide melts is included.

  16. Photocatalytic Properties of Layered Metal Oxides Substituted with Silver by a Molten AgNO3 Treatment.

    PubMed

    Horie, Hirotaka; Iwase, Akihide; Kudo, Akihiko

    2015-07-15

    K4Nb6O17 (BG: 3.67 eV) and Na2W4O13 (BG: 3.12 eV) layered oxide photocatalysts with wide band gaps were treated with a molten AgNO3 to substitute K+ and Na+ with Ag+, resulting in red-shifts of absorption edges in diffuse reflectance spectra. A part of Na+ ions in the interlayer of Na2W4O13 was substituted with Ag+ ions by the molten AgNO3 treatment with keeping the layered structure. Both Ag(I)-substituted K4Nb6O17 and Na2W4O13 showed photocatalytic activities for O2 evolution from aqueous solutions containing a sacrificial reagent utilizing the absorption bands newly formed by the Ag(I)-substitution. Notably, the Ag(I)-substituted Na2W4O13 produced O2 under visible light irradiation. When ball-milled Na2W4O13 was treated with a molten AgNO3, the Ag(I)-substitution rate increased. The Ag(I)-substituted Na2W4O13 with ball-milling showed higher photocatalytic activity for O2 evolution than that without ball-milling. Z-schematic water splitting proceeded under visible light irradiation by combining the Ag(I)-substituted Na2W4O13 of an O2-evolving photocatalyst with Ru-loaded SrTiO3 doped with Rh of a H2-evolving photocatalyst. PMID:26099451

  17. Controlled in-situ dissolution of an alkali metal

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jeffrey Donald; Dooley, Kirk John; Tolman, David Donald

    2012-09-11

    A method for the controllable dissolution of one or more alkali metals from a vessel containing a one or more alkali metals and/or one or more partially passivated alkali metals. The vessel preferably comprising a sodium, NaK or other alkali metal-cooled nuclear reactor that has been used. The alkali metal, preferably sodium, potassium or a combination thereof, in the vessel is exposed to a treatment liquid, preferably an acidic liquid, more preferably citric acid. Preferably, the treatment liquid is maintained in continuous motion relative to any surface of unreacted alkali metal with which the treatment liquid is in contact. The treatment liquid is preferably pumped into the vessel containing the one or more alkali metals and the resulting fluid is extracted and optionally further processed. Preferably, the resulting off-gases are processed by an off-gas treatment system and the resulting liquids are processed by a liquid disposal system. In one preferred embodiment, an inert gas is pumped into the vessel along with the treatment liquid.

  18. Feet sunk in molten aluminium: The burn and its prevention.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Peña, David; Arnáiz-García, María Elena; Valero-Gasalla, Javier Luis; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; Campillo-Campaña, Ramón; Alonso-Peña, Javier; González-Santos, Jose María; Fernández-Díaz, Alaska Leonor; Arnáiz, Javier

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, despite improvements in safety rules and inspections in the metal industry, foundry workers are not free from burn accidents. Injuries caused by molten metals include burns secondary to molten iron, aluminium, zinc, copper, brass, bronze, manganese, lead and steel. Molten aluminium is one of the most common causative agents of burns (60%); however, only a few publications exist concerning injuries from molten aluminium. The main mechanisms of lesion from molten aluminium include direct contact of the molten metal with the skin or through safety apparel, or when the metal splash burns through the pants and rolls downward along the leg. Herein, we report three cases of deep dermal burns after 'soaking' the foot in liquid aluminium and its evolutive features. This paper aims to show our experience in the management of burns due to molten aluminium. We describe the current management principles and the key features of injury prevention. PMID:25687835

  19. Impact of Zr metal and coking reactions on the fission product aerosol release during MCCI (Molten Core Concrete Interactions)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.; Davis, R.E.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.

    1987-01-01

    During a core meltdown accident in a light water reactor, molten core materials (corium) could leave the reactor vessel and interact with concrete. In this paper, the impact of the zirconium content of the corium pool and the coking reaction on the release of fission products during Molten Core Concrete Interactions (MCCI) are quantified using CORCON/MOD2 and VANESA computer codes. Detailed calculations show that the total aerosol generation is proportional to the zirconium content of the corium pool. Among the twelve fission product groups treated by the VANESA code, CsI, CsO/sub 2/ and Nb/sub 2/O/sub 5/ are completely released over the course of the core/concrete interaction, while an insignificant quantity of Mo, Ru and ZrO/sub 2/ are predicted to be released. The release of BaO, SrO and CeO/sub 2/ increase with increased Zr content, while the releases of Te and La/sub 2/O/sub 3/ are relatively unaffected by the Zr content of the corium pool. The impact of the coking reaction on the radiological releases is estimated to be significant; while the impact of the coking reaction on the aerosol production is insignificant.

  20. High Temperature In Situ Compression of Thermoplastically Formed Nano-scale Metallic Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mridha, Sanghita; Arora, Harpreet Singh; Lefebvre, Joseph; Bhowmick, Sanjit; Mukherjee, Sundeep

    2016-05-01

    The mechanical behavior of nano-scale metallic glasses was investigated by in situ compression tests in a scanning electron microscope. Platinum-based metallic glass nano-pillars were fabricated by thermoplastic forming. The nano-pillars and corresponding bulk substrate were tested in compression over the range of room temperature to glass transition. Stress-strain curves of the nano-pillars were obtained along with in situ observation of their deformation behavior. The bulk substrate as well as nano-pillars showed an increase in elastic modulus with temperature which is explained by diffusive rearrangement of atomic-scale viscoelastic units.

  1. Metal-filled carbon nanotube based optical nanoantennas: bubbling, reshaping, and in situ characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zheng; Tao, Xinyong; Cui, Xudong; Fan, Xudong; Zhang, Xiaobin; Dong, Lixin

    2012-08-01

    Controlled fabrication of metal nanospheres on nanotube tips for optical antennas is investigated experimentally. Resembling soap bubble blowing using a straw, the fabrication process is based on nanofluidic mass delivery at the attogram scale using metal-filled carbon nanotubes (m@CNTs). Two methods have been investigated including electron-beam-induced bubbling (EBIB) and electromigration-based bubbling (EMBB). EBIB involves the bombardment of an m@CNT with a high energy electron beam of a transmission electron microscope (TEM), with which the encapsulated metal is melted and flowed out from the nanotube, generating a metallic particle on a nanotube tip. In the case where the encapsulated materials inside the CNT have a higher melting point than what the beam energy can reach, EMBB is an optional process to apply. Experiments show that, under a low bias (2.0-2.5 V), nanoparticles can be formed on the nanotube tips. The final shape and crystallinity of the nanoparticles are determined by the cooling rate. Instant cooling occurs with a relatively large heat sink and causes the instant shaping of the solid deposit, which is typically similar to the shape of the molten state. With a smaller heat sink as a probe, it is possible to keep the deposit in a molten state. Instant cooling by separating the deposit from the probe can result in a perfect sphere. Surface and volume plasmons characterized with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) prove that resonance occurs between a pair of as-fabricated spheres on the tip structures. Such spheres on pillars can serve as nano-optical antennas and will enable devices such as scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) probes, scanning anodes for field emitters, and single molecule detectors, which can find applications in bio-sensing, molecular detection, and high-resolution optical microscopy.

  2. Metal-filled carbon nanotube based optical nanoantennas: bubbling, reshaping, and in situ characterization.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zheng; Tao, Xinyong; Cui, Xudong; Fan, Xudong; Zhang, Xiaobin; Dong, Lixin

    2012-09-21

    Controlled fabrication of metal nanospheres on nanotube tips for optical antennas is investigated experimentally. Resembling soap bubble blowing using a straw, the fabrication process is based on nanofluidic mass delivery at the attogram scale using metal-filled carbon nanotubes (m@CNTs). Two methods have been investigated including electron-beam-induced bubbling (EBIB) and electromigration-based bubbling (EMBB). EBIB involves the bombardment of an m@CNT with a high energy electron beam of a transmission electron microscope (TEM), with which the encapsulated metal is melted and flowed out from the nanotube, generating a metallic particle on a nanotube tip. In the case where the encapsulated materials inside the CNT have a higher melting point than what the beam energy can reach, EMBB is an optional process to apply. Experiments show that, under a low bias (2.0-2.5 V), nanoparticles can be formed on the nanotube tips. The final shape and crystallinity of the nanoparticles are determined by the cooling rate. Instant cooling occurs with a relatively large heat sink and causes the instant shaping of the solid deposit, which is typically similar to the shape of the molten state. With a smaller heat sink as a probe, it is possible to keep the deposit in a molten state. Instant cooling by separating the deposit from the probe can result in a perfect sphere. Surface and volume plasmons characterized with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) prove that resonance occurs between a pair of as-fabricated spheres on the tip structures. Such spheres on pillars can serve as nano-optical antennas and will enable devices such as scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) probes, scanning anodes for field emitters, and single molecule detectors, which can find applications in bio-sensing, molecular detection, and high-resolution optical microscopy. PMID:22875447

  3. Kinetic stability of Li8 - 2 x M x ZrO6 ( M = Mg, Sr) and Li8 - x Zr1 - x V x O6 solid electrolytes in molten metallic lithium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchelkanova, M. S.; Pantyukhina, M. I.; Shevelin, P. Yu.; Suslov, E. A.

    2015-02-01

    The contact interaction of solid electrolytes based on Li8ZrO6 and Li8 - 2 x M x ZrO6 ( M = Mg, Sr) and Li8 - x Zr1 - x V x O6 solid solutions with molten metallic lithium is experimentally studied for the first time. The Li8 - 2 x M x ZrO6 ( M = Mg, Sr) and Li8 - x Zr1 - x V x O6 solid solutions are recommended for application as a solid electrolyte in high- and medium-temperature (573 K) lithium chemical current sources from the results of studying the kinetic stability to molten lithium.

  4. Controlling the work function of molybdenum disulfide by in situ metal deposition.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Song, Xiongfei; Yan, Xiao; Liu, Chunsen; Chen, Lin; Sun, Qingqing; Zhang, David Wei

    2016-08-26

    Control of the work function of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) under ultrathin metal was investigated using in situ metal deposition and direct ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurement in an ultra-high vacuum system. When the metal thickness turned from two dimensional into bulk, the work function was also raised up at the nickel-MoS2 interface, barely changed at the titanium-MoS2 interface and lowered at the hafnium-MoS2 interface. Meanwhile, the mechanisms of charge transfer and band alignment with metal deposition were also discussed. The Schottky barrier at metal-MoS2 interfaces could be tailored by both types and thicknesses of deposited metal. The low work function metal was a good indicator for MoS2 contact electrodes. It paved the way towards future high performance MoS2 device applications. PMID:27419644

  5. In situ studies of grain growth in thin metal films

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, C.S.; Mansuri, C.M. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Townsend, S.J. . Dept. of Physics); Smith, D.A. . T.J. Watson Research Center)

    1993-06-01

    Grain growth in thin films of aluminum has been studied using in situ transmission electron microscopy and a heating stage. Videotapes taken during grain growth were analyzed with the intent of searching for the predominant local rearrangement processes responsible for growth. Evolution of a soap froth can be decomposed into only two elementary local topology rearranging events. The authors have found numerous exceptions to prevailing theories that compare grain growth in thin films to the evolution of such froths. These observations suggest that a more complete picture of grain growth is necessary and that such a theory must include more complex local rearrangement processes.

  6. In-situ generation of oxygen-releasing metal peroxides

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.

    2007-01-09

    A method for remediation of contaminants in soil and groundwater is disclosed. The method generates oxygen releasing solids in groundwater or soil by injecting an aqueous energetic oxidant solution containing free radicals, oxidative conditions can be created within or ahead of a contaminant plume. Some contaminants may be remediated directly by reaction with the free radicals. Additionally and more importantly, the free radicals create an oxidative condition whereby native or injected materials, especially metals, are converted to peroxides. These peroxides provide a long-term oxygen reservoir, releasing oxygen relatively slowly over time. The oxygen can enhance microbial metabolism to remediate contaminants, can react with contaminant metals either to form immobile precipitants or to mobilize other metals to permit remediation through leaching techniques. Various injection strategies for injecting the energetic oxidant solution are also disclosed.

  7. Intelligent potentiostat for identification of heavy metals in situ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christidis, K.; Gow, K.; Robertson, P.; Pollard, P.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a low-cost portable electrochemical instrument capable of on-site identification of heavy metals. The instrument acquires metal-specific voltage and current signals by the application of differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. This technique enhances the analytical current and rejects the background current, resulting in a higher signal-to-noise ratio for a better detection limit. The identification of heavy metals is based on an intelligent machine-based method using a multilayer perceptron neural network consisting of three layers of neurons. The neural network is implemented using a 16 bit microcontroller. The system is developed for use in the field in order to avoid expensive and time-consuming procedures and can be used in a variety of situations to help environmental assessment and control.

  8. Electrolysis of a molten semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huayi; Chung, Brice; Sadoway, Donald R

    2016-01-01

    Metals cannot be extracted by electrolysis of transition-metal sulfides because as liquids they are semiconductors, which exhibit high levels of electronic conduction and metal dissolution. Herein by introduction of a distinct secondary electrolyte, we reveal a high-throughput electro-desulfurization process that directly converts semiconducting molten stibnite (Sb2S3) into pure (99.9%) liquid antimony and sulfur vapour. At the bottom of the cell liquid antimony pools beneath cathodically polarized molten stibnite. At the top of the cell sulfur issues from a carbon anode immersed in an immiscible secondary molten salt electrolyte disposed above molten stibnite, thereby blocking electronic shorting across the cell. As opposed to conventional extraction practices, direct sulfide electrolysis completely avoids generation of problematic fugitive emissions (CO2, CO and SO2), significantly reduces energy consumption, increases productivity in a single-step process (lower capital and operating costs) and is broadly applicable to a host of electronically conductive transition-metal chalcogenides. PMID:27553525

  9. Electrolysis of a molten semiconductor

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Huayi; Chung, Brice; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2016-01-01

    Metals cannot be extracted by electrolysis of transition-metal sulfides because as liquids they are semiconductors, which exhibit high levels of electronic conduction and metal dissolution. Herein by introduction of a distinct secondary electrolyte, we reveal a high-throughput electro-desulfurization process that directly converts semiconducting molten stibnite (Sb2S3) into pure (99.9%) liquid antimony and sulfur vapour. At the bottom of the cell liquid antimony pools beneath cathodically polarized molten stibnite. At the top of the cell sulfur issues from a carbon anode immersed in an immiscible secondary molten salt electrolyte disposed above molten stibnite, thereby blocking electronic shorting across the cell. As opposed to conventional extraction practices, direct sulfide electrolysis completely avoids generation of problematic fugitive emissions (CO2, CO and SO2), significantly reduces energy consumption, increases productivity in a single-step process (lower capital and operating costs) and is broadly applicable to a host of electronically conductive transition-metal chalcogenides. PMID:27553525

  10. Optimization of a Molten Salt Electrolytic Bath Geometry for Rare Earth Metal Recovery using a Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numata, Hiroo; Akatsuka, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Haruaki

    2013-02-01

    For a recycling procedure for rare earths from spent hydrogen absorbing alloys by rare earths electrodeposition in a molten salt, the electrolytic bath and the cathode accessories have been optimized by evaluating the appropriate secondary current distribution using finite element method (FEM) computer simulation. The desirable cathode dish as an accessory was designed to prevent drops of less adherent electrodeposits, which improved the current density distribution compared with an a priori determined one. In the bath optimization, a reciprocal proportionality of the difference between the maximum and minimum current densities vs. the ratio of volume to surface area (or electrolyte volume) was found. It was found by FEM that if a resistive floating mass is assumed on the electrolyte surface, the observed necking in the electrodeposit near the electrolyte surface can be analyzed.

  11. IS REMOVAL THE ONLY OPTION: IN SITU REMEDIATION OF METAL CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The In-place Inactivation and Natural Ecological Restoration Technologies (IINERT) Soil-Metals Action Team was established in 11/95 as one of several Action Teams under the USEPA Remediation Technologies Development Forum (RTDF). Its primary goal was to examine in situ remediatio...

  12. Controlling the work function of molybdenum disulfide by in situ metal deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Peng; Song, Xiongfei; Yan, Xiao; Liu, Chunsen; Chen, Lin; Sun, Qingqing; Zhang, David Wei

    2016-08-01

    Control of the work function of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) under ultrathin metal was investigated using in situ metal deposition and direct ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurement in an ultra-high vacuum system. When the metal thickness turned from two dimensional into bulk, the work function was also raised up at the nickel‑MoS2 interface, barely changed at the titanium‑MoS2 interface and lowered at the hafnium‑MoS2 interface. Meanwhile, the mechanisms of charge transfer and band alignment with metal deposition were also discussed. The Schottky barrier at metal‑MoS2 interfaces could be tailored by both types and thicknesses of deposited metal. The low work function metal was a good indicator for MoS2 contact electrodes. It paved the way towards future high performance MoS2 device applications.

  13. Kinetic Analyses of the Growth and Dissolution Phenomena of Primary Si and α-Al in Partially Molten Al-Si (-Cu-Mg) Alloy Particles Using In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eswara Moorthy, Santhana K.; Howe, James M.

    2011-06-01

    The growth and dissolution behavior of primary Si and α-Al in partially molten hypereutectic Al-Si-based alloy particles was investigated using in situ TEM to reveal the dynamic and instantaneous processes occurring during these phenomena. Direct evidence for the preferential growth of Si {113} facets compared with {111} facets resulting in prominent {111} facets bounding the Si crystals was obtained. The nucleation of primary Si was found to occur heterogeneously on the encapsulating alumina shell, whereas the α-Al phase nucleated homogeneously from the liquid Al-Si phase. The morphology of primary Si during growth was found to be highly faceted during growth but smoothly curved during dissolution, revealing fundamental mechanistic differences during these processes. We provide a ledge-based interpretation to explain the difference in growth and dissolution behavior. The α-Al phase displayed smoothly curved growth and dissolution morphologies, which are characteristic of an isotropic interfacial energy and a continuous growth mechanism.

  14. Ceramics for Molten Materials Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standish, Evan; Stefanescu, Doru M.; Curreri, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper reviews the main issues associated with molten materials transfer and handling on the lunar surface during the operation of a hig h temperature electrowinning cell used to produce oxygen, with molten iron and silicon as byproducts. A combination of existing technolog ies and purposely designed technologies show promise for lunar exploi tation. An important limitation that requires extensive investigation is the performance of refractory currently used for the purpose of m olten metal containment and transfer in the lunar environment associa ted with electrolytic cells. The principles of a laboratory scale uni t at a scale equivalent to the production of 1 metric ton of oxygen p er year are introduced. This implies a mass of molten materials to be transferred consistent with the equivalent of 1kg regolithlhr proces sed.

  15. Contribution of trace metals in structuring in situ macroinvertebrate community composition along a salinity gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Gardeniers, J.J.P.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2000-04-01

    Macroinvertebrates were studied along a salinity gradient in the North Sea Canal, The Netherlands, to quantify the effect of trace metals (cadmium, copper, lead, zinc) on community composition. In addition, two methods for assessing metal bioavailability (normalizing metal concentrations on organic carbon and on the smallest sediment fraction) were compared. Factor analyses showed that normalizing trace metals resulted in an improved separation of trace metals from ecological factors (depth, organic carbon, granulometry, and chloride). The variation in the macroinvertebrate data was partitioned into four sources using partial canonical correspondence analysis, with the partitions being purely ecological factors, purely trace metals, mutual ecological factors and trace metals, and unexplained. Partial canonical correspondence analysis applied to total and normalized trace metal concentrations gave similar results in terms of unexplained variances. However, normalization on organic carbon resulted in the highest percentage of variation explained by purely ecological factors and purely trace metals. Accounting for bioavailability thus improves the identification of factors affecting the in situ community structure. Ecological factors explained 45.4% and trace metals 8.6% of the variation in the macroinvertebrate community composition in the ecosystem of the North Sea Canal. These contributions were significant, and it is concluded that trace metals significantly affected the community composition in an environment with multiple stressors. Variance partitioning is recommended for incorporation in further risk assessment studies.

  16. [In situ immobilization remediation of heavy metals-contaminated soils: a review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Qun; Luo, Lei; Ma, Yi-Bing; Wei, Dong-Pu; Hua, Luo

    2009-05-01

    In situ immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soils by adding extraneous active amendments has been considered as a cost-effective measure for contaminated soil remediation. Application of immobilization amendments can decrease the available fractions of heavy metals or change their redox states, and thus, effectively decrease the mobility, bioavailability, and toxicity of the heavy metals in soils. This paper summarized the present researches about the in situ immobilization of heavy metals in soils, including kinds of immobilization amendments, research methods, immobilization indexes, immobilization mechanisms, and relevant environmental risk assessment. The mostly applied amendments include clay minerals, phosphates, organic composts, and microbes. Due to the complexity of soil matrix and the limitations of current analytical techniques, the exact immobilization mechanisms have not been clarified, which could include precipitation, chemical adsorption and ion exchange, surface precipitation, formation of stable complexes with organic ligands, and redox reaction. The prospects and limitations of in situ immobilization of heavy metals in soils were discussed. Future work should focus on the elucidation of immobilization mechanisms at molecular scale, with specific attention be paid to the potential risks of applying immobilization amendments and its long-term effects on field soils. PMID:19803184

  17. Functional Application of Noble Metal Nanoparticles In Situ Synthesized on Ramie Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Bin; Yao, Ya; Li, Jingliang; Qin, Si; Zhu, Haijin; Kaur, Jasjeet; Chen, Wu; Sun, Lu; Wang, Xungai

    2015-09-01

    Different functions were imparted to ramie fibers through treatment with noble metal nanoparticles including silver and gold nanoparticles. The in situ synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles was achieved by heating in the presence of ramie fibers in the corresponding solutions of precursors. The unique optical property of synthesized noble metal nanoparticles, i.e., localized surface plasmon resonance, endowed ramie fibers with bright colors. Color strength (K/S) of fibers increased with heating temperature. Silver nanoparticles were obtained in alkaline solution, while acidic condition was conducive to gold nanoparticles. The optical properties of treated ramie fibers were investigated using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to observe the morphologies of silver and gold nanoparticles in situ synthesized on fibers. The ramie fibers treated with noble metal nanoparticles showed remarkable catalytic activity for reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) by sodium borohydride. Moreover, the silver nanoparticle treatment showed significant antibacterial property on ramie fibers.

  18. Anti wetting additives for aluminosilicate refractories in molten aluminum contact applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Devdutt Pramod

    Aluminosilicate based refractories are widely used in furnace installations for melting aluminum because they are inexpensive, readily available and generally exhibit the properties desired from a refractory material. However, they face severe corrosion and degradation issues due to the extremely reducing nature of molten aluminum alloys. Isothermal static cup testing is widely used as a tool to evaluate the performance of refractories against penetration by molten aluminum alloys. Various testing methods were reviewed and an upgraded static cup test was recommended. Commercially available aluminosilicate refractories were tested using this method and their results were studied in order to understand the corrosion process. Barium sulfate, which is widely used as an anti-wetting additive to improve refractory performance by limiting physical contact between molten metal and the refractory, has proved ineffective at temperatures above 1000°C. A literature review suggested that barium sulfate formed barium celsian at high temperatures and that the celsian was responsible for the non-wetting effect. Wetting angle measurements of molten AL 5083 on synthetic celsian discs revealed that barium celsian and strontium celsian were both not wetted by molten aluminum. Static cup tests were performed on aluminosilicate refractories containing barium carbonate and strontium carbonate. These additives led to the in-situ formation of celsian phases within the refractory matrix that led to improved corrosion resistance at 1300°C. Phase analysis revealed that celsian formation suppressed the formation of mullite within refractories, thereby reducing penetration.

  19. Corrosion testing of zirconia, beryllia and magnesia ceramics in molten alkali metal carbonates at 900 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Valery; Bendikov, Tatyana; Feldman, Yishay; Gartsman, Konstantin; Wachtel, Ellen; Lubomirsky, Igor

    2016-01-01

    An electrochemical cell containing molten Li2CO3-Li2O at 900 °C has been proposed for the conversion of the greenhouse gas CO2 to CO for chemical energy storage. In the current work, we have examined the corrosion resistance of zirconia, beryllia and magnesia ceramics at 900 °C in the Li2CO3-Li2O and Li-Na-K carbonate eutectic mixtures to identify suitable electrically insulating materials. Conclusions regarding material stability were based on elemental analysis of the melt, primarily via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, a particularly sensitive technique. It was found that magnesia is completely stable for at least 33 h in a Li2CO3-Li2O melt, while a combined lithium titanate/lithium zirconate layer forms on the zirconia ceramic as detected by XRD. Under the same melt conditions, beryllia shows considerable leaching into solution. In a Li-Na-K carbonate eutectic mixture containing 10.2 mol% oxide at 900 °C under standard atmospheric conditions, magnesia showed no signs of degradation. Stabilization of the zirconia content of the eutectic mixture at 0.01-0.02 at% after 2 h is explained by the formation of a lithium zirconate coating on the ceramic. On the basis of these results, we conclude that only magnesia can be satisfactorily used as an insulating material in electrolysis cells containing Li2CO3-Li2O melts.

  20. Elucidation of transport mechanism and enhanced alkali ion transference numbers in mixed alkali metal-organic ionic molten salts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fangfang; Forsyth, Maria

    2016-07-28

    Mixed salts of Ionic Liquids (ILs) and alkali metal salts, developed as electrolytes for lithium and sodium batteries, have shown a remarkable ability to facilitate high rate capability for lithium and sodium electrochemical cycling. It has been suggested that this may be due to a high alkali metal ion transference number at concentrations approaching 50 mol% Li(+) or Na(+), relative to lower concentrations. Computational investigations for two IL systems illustrate the formation of extended alkali-anion aggregates as the alkali metal ion concentration increases. This tends to favor the diffusion of alkali metal ions compared with other ionic species in electrolyte solutions; behavior that has recently been reported for Li(+) in a phosphonium ionic liquid, thus an increasing alkali transference number. The mechanism of alkali metal ion diffusion via this extended coordination environment present at high concentrations is explained and compared to the dynamics at lower concentrations. Heterogeneous alkali metal ion dynamics are also evident and, somewhat counter-intuitively, it appears that the faster ions are those that are generally found clustered with the anions. Furthermore these fast alkali metal ions appear to correlate with fastest ionic liquid solvent ions. PMID:27375042

  1. Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Dawless, Robert K.; LaCamera, Alfred F.; Troup, R. Lee; Ray, Siba P.; Hosler, Robert B.

    1999-01-01

    An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride.

  2. Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Dawless, R.K.; LaCamera, A.F.; Troup, R.L.; Ray, S.P.; Hosler, R.B.

    1999-08-17

    An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride. 4 figs.

  3. In Situ, High-Resolution Profiles of Labile Metals in Sediments of Lake Taihu.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Gong, Mengdan; Li, Yangyang; Xu, Lv; Wang, Yan; Jing, Rui; Ding, Shiming; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing labile metal distribution and biogeochemical behavior in sediments is crucial for understanding their contamination characteristics in lakes, for which in situ, high-resolution data is scare. The diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technique was used in-situ at five sites across Lake Taihu in the Yangtze River delta in China to characterize the distribution and mobility of eight labile metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu, Pb, Co and Cd) in sediments at a 3 mm spatial resolution. The results showed a great spatial heterogeneity in the distributions of redox-sensitive labile Fe, Mn and Co in sediments, while other metals had much less marked structure, except for downward decreases of labile Pb, Ni, Zn and Cu in the surface sediment layers. Similar distributions were found between labile Mn and Co and among labile Ni, Cu and Zn, reflecting a close link between their geochemical behaviors. The relative mobility, defined as the ratio of metals accumulated by DGT to the total contents in a volume of sediments with a thickness of 10 mm close to the surface of DGT probe, was the greatest for Mn and Cd, followed by Zn, Ni, Cu and Co, while Pb and Fe had the lowest mobility; this order generally agreed with that defined by the modified BCR approach. Further analyses showed that the downward increases of pH values in surface sediment layer may decrease the lability of Pb, Ni, Zn and Cu as detected by DGT, while the remobilization of redox-insensitive metals in deep sediment layer may relate to Mn cycling through sulphide coprecipitation, reflected by several corresponding minima between these metals and Mn. These in situ data provided the possibility for a deep insight into the mechanisms involved in the remobilization of metals in freshwater sediments. PMID:27608033

  4. An in situ oxidation route to fabricate graphene nanoplate-metal oxide composites

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Sheng; Zhu Junwu; Wang Xin

    2011-06-15

    We report our studies on an improved soft chemical route to directly fabricate graphene nanoplate-metal oxide (Ag{sub 2}O, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Cu{sub 2}O and ZnO) composites from the in situ oxidation of graphene nanoplates. By virtue of H{sup +} from hydrolysis of the metal nitrate aqueous solution and NO{sub 3}{sup -}, only a small amount of functional groups were introduced, acting as anchor sites and consequently forming the graphene nanoplate-metal oxide composites. The main advantages of this approach are that it does not require cumbersome oxidation of graphite in advance and no need to reduce the composites due to the lower oxidation degree. The microstructures of as-obtained metal oxides on graphene nanoplates can be dramatically controlled by changing the reaction parameters, opening up the possibility for processing the optical and electrochemical properties of the graphene-based nanocomposites. - graphical abstract: An improved soft chemical route to directly fabricate graphene nanoplate-metal oxide composites is reported from the in situ oxidation of graphene nanoplates. Highlights: > An improved soft chemical route to directly fabricate graphene nanoplate-metal oxide composites. > The microstructures can be controlled by changing the reaction parameters. > It does not require oxidation of graphite in advance and no need to reduce the composites due to the lower oxidation degree.

  5. Field Deployment for In-situ Metal and Radionuclide Stabilization by Microbial Metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Turick, C. E.; Knox, A. S.; Dixon, K. L.; Roseberry, R. J.; Kritzas, Y. G

    2005-09-26

    A novel biotechnology is reported here that was demonstrated at SRS that facilitates metal and actinide immobilization by incorporating the physiology and ecology of indigenous bacteria. This technology is based on our previous work with pyomelanin-producing bacteria isolated from SRS soils. Through tyrosine supplementation, overproduction of pyomelanin was achieved, which lead ultimately to metal and actinide immobilization, both in-vitro and in-situ. Pyomelanin is a recalcitrant microbial pigment and a humic type compound in the class of melanin pigments. Pyomelanin has electron shuttling and metal chelation capabilities and thus accelerates the bacterial reduction and/or immobilization of metals. Pyomelanin is produced outside the cell and either diffuses away or attaches to the cell surface. In either case, the reduced pyomelanin is capable of transferring electrons to metals as well as chelating metals. Because of its recalcitrance and redox cycling properties, pyomelanin molecules can be used over and over again for metal transformation. When produced in excess, pyomelanin produced by one bacterial species can be used by other species for metal reduction, thereby extending the utility of pyomelanin and further accelerating metal immobilization rates. Soils contaminated with Ni and U were the focus of this study in order to develop in-situ, metal bioimmobilization technologies. We have demonstrated pyomelanin production in soil from the Tims Branch area of SRS as a result of tyrosine amendments. These results were documented in laboratory soil column studies and field deployment studies. The amended soils demonstrated increased redox behavior and sequestration capacity of U and transition metals following pyomelanin production. Treatments incorporating tyrosine and lactate demonstrated the highest levels of pyomelanin production. In order to determine the potential use of this technology at other areas of SRS, pyomelanin producing bacteria were also quantified

  6. Evolution of In-Situ Generated Reinforcement Precipitates in Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, S.; Kar, S. K.; Catalina, A. V.; Stefanescu, D. M.; Dhindaw, B. K.

    2004-01-01

    Due to certain inherent advantages, in-situ production of Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) have received considerable attention in the recent past. ln-situ techniques typically involve a chemical reaction that results in precipitation of a ceramic reinforcement phase. The size and spatial distribution of these precipitates ultimately determine the mechanical properties of these MMCs. In this paper we will investigate the validity of using classical growth laws and analytical expressions to describe the interaction between a precipitate and a solid-liquid interface (SLI) to predict the size and spatial evolution of the in-situ generated precipitates. Measurements made on size and distribution of Tic precipitates in a Ni&I matrix will be presented to test the validity of such an approach.

  7. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    A molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication.

  8. In situ Raman spectroscopy study of metal-enhanced hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of VO2.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Fu, Qiang; Bao, Xinhe

    2016-11-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) has a phase transition from insulator to metal at 340 K, and this transition can be strongly modified by hydrogenation. In this work, two dimensional (2D) VO2 sheets have been grown on Si(1 1 1) surfaces through chemical vapor deposition, and metal (Au, Pt) thin films were deposited on VO2 surfaces by sputtering. The hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of VO2 and metal-decorated VO2 structures in H2 and in air were in situ studied by Raman. We found that hydrogenation and dehydrogenation temperatures have been significantly decreased with the VO2 surface decorated by Au and Pt. The enhanced hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions can be attributed to catalytic dissociation of H2 and O2 molecules on metal surfaces and subsequent spillover of dissociated H and O atoms to the oxide surfaces. PMID:27603090

  9. Direct electrochemical reduction of solid vanadium oxide to metal vanadium at low temperature in molten CaCl2-NaCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zhuo-fei; Zhang, Zhi-mei; Guo, Zhan-cheng; Tang, Hui-qing

    2012-06-01

    V2O5 sintered pellets and graphite rods were employed as the cathode and the anode, respectively; a molten CaCl2-NaCl salt was used as the electrolyte. Then, V2O5 was directly reduced to metal vanadium by the Fray-Farthing-Chen (FFC) method at 873 K to realize low-temperature electrolysis. Two typical experimental conditions, electrolysis time and voltage, were taken into account to investigate the current efficiency and remaining oxygen content in electrolyzed products. The composition and microstructure of the products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM observations show that a higher voltage (1.8-3.4 V) and a longer electrolysis time (2-5 h) can improve the product quality separately, that is, a lower remaining oxygen content and a more uniform microstructure. The products with an oxygen content of 0.205wt% are successfully obtained below 3.4 V for 10 h. However, the current efficiency is low, and further work is required.

  10. Surface-Mediated in Situ Metalation of Porphyrins at the Solid-Vacuum Interface.

    PubMed

    Marbach, Hubertus

    2015-09-15

    The investigation of porphyrin derivatives at the solid-vacuum interface has become a vivid research field with the prospect to tailor functional molecular architectures and as prototype examples to study the fundamental properties of porphyrin derivatives in regard to their vital role in many natural processes. The functional properties of the porphyrin derivatives are mainly determined by the central metal atom. Thus, the recent exploration of the surface-confined in situ metalation of porphyrins is an important step toward the realization of molecule-based functional devices. The corresponding metalation reaction of free base porphyrin derivatives can be conveniently realized in situ in ultrahigh vacuum by post- or predeposition of metal atoms or directly with substrate atoms in the so-called self-metalation. Moderate heating above room temperature (RT) might be necessary either to realize the transport of the metal to the porphyrin via diffusion or to overcome an activation barrier determined by the redox reaction itself. Surface science techniques like scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) are powerful tools to scrutinize the reaction and give valuable insights into the metalation process. For example, the completed metalation can be reflected in an enhanced apparent height of the corresponding porphyrin in STM or can be evidenced by characteristic changes in the N 1s region in XPS. These signatures allow monitoring of the progress of the metalation, and it was found that the reaction generally proceeds with very high yield. Surface diffusion of the coadsorbed metal atoms mediates the reaction and is crucial for the high yields of the corresponding reactions with pre- and postadsorbed metals. It was also demonstrated that the completed metalation can indeed significantly alter the adsorption behavior and the electronic properties and thus the functionality of the porphyrin

  11. METAL PRODUCTION AND CASTING

    DOEpatents

    Magel, T.T.

    1958-03-01

    This patent covers a method and apparatus for collecting the molten metal produced by high temperature metal salt reduction. It consists essentially of subjecting the reaction vessel to centrifugal force in order to force the liberatcd molten metal into a coherent molten mass, and allowing it to solidify there. The apparatus is particularly suitable for use with small quantities of rare metals.

  12. Self-standing, metal nanoparticle embedded transparent films from multi-armed cardanol conjugates through in situ synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jyothish, Kuthanapillil; Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Jadhav, Swapnil R; Francesconi, Lynn C; John, George

    2009-09-28

    We report multi-armed/dendritic molecules having unsaturated side chains for generating scratch-free, self-standing cross-linked transparent films with embedded metal nanoparticles via autoxidation induced in situ synthesis. PMID:19724787

  13. In situ study of the initiation of hydrogen bubbles at the aluminium metal/oxide interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, De-Gang; Wang, Zhang-Jie; Sun, Jun; Li, Ju; Ma, Evan; Shan, Zhi-Wei

    2015-09-01

    The presence of excess hydrogen at the interface between a metal substrate and a protective oxide can cause blistering and spallation of the scale. However, it remains unclear how nanoscale bubbles manage to reach the critical size in the first place. Here, we perform in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy experiments of the aluminium metal/oxide interface under hydrogen exposure. It is found that once the interface is weakened by hydrogen segregation, surface diffusion of Al atoms initiates the formation of faceted cavities on the metal side, driven by Wulff reconstruction. The morphology and growth rate of these cavities are highly sensitive to the crystallographic orientation of the aluminium substrate. Once the cavities grow to a critical size, the internal gas pressure can become great enough to blister the oxide layer. Our findings have implications for understanding hydrogen damage of interfaces.

  14. In Situ Nanoindentation Studies on Detwinning and Work Hardening in Nanotwinned Monolithic Metals

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Y.; Li, N.; Bufford, D.; Lee, J. H.; Wang, J.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X.

    2015-07-14

    Certain nanotwinned (nt) metals have rare combinations of high mechanical strength and ductility. Here, we review recent in situ nanoindentation studies (using transmission electron microscopes) on the deformation mechanisms of nt face-centered cubic metals including Cu, Ni, and Al with a wide range of stacking fault energy (SFE). Moreover, in nt Cu with low-to-intermediate SFE, detwinning (accompanied by rapid twin boundary migration) occurs at ultralow stress. In Ni with relatively high SFE, coherent {111} twin boundaries lead to substantial work hardening. Twinned Al has abundant {112} incoherent twin boundaries, which induce significant work-hardening capability and plasticity in Al. Finally, twinmore » boundaries in Al also migrate but at very high stresses. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations reveal the influence of SFE on deformation mechanisms in twinned metals.« less

  15. In Situ Nanoindentation Studies on Detwinning and Work Hardening in Nanotwinned Monolithic Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Li, N.; Bufford, D.; Lee, J. H.; Wang, J.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X.

    2016-01-01

    Certain nanotwinned (nt) metals have rare combinations of high mechanical strength and ductility. In this article, we review recent in situ nanoindentation studies (using transmission electron microscopes) on the deformation mechanisms of nt face-centered cubic metals including Cu, Ni, and Al with a wide range of stacking fault energy (SFE). In nt Cu with low-to-intermediate SFE, detwinning (accompanied by rapid twin boundary migration) occurs at ultralow stress. In Ni with relatively high SFE, coherent {111} twin boundaries lead to substantial work hardening. Twinned Al has abundant {112} incoherent twin boundaries, which induce significant work-hardening capability and plasticity in Al. Twin boundaries in Al also migrate but at very high stresses. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations reveal the influence of SFE on deformation mechanisms in twinned metals.

  16. In Situ Nanoindentation Studies on Detwinning and Work Hardening in Nanotwinned Monolithic Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Li, N.; Bufford, D.; Lee, J. H.; Wang, J.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X.

    2015-07-14

    Certain nanotwinned (nt) metals have rare combinations of high mechanical strength and ductility. Here, we review recent in situ nanoindentation studies (using transmission electron microscopes) on the deformation mechanisms of nt face-centered cubic metals including Cu, Ni, and Al with a wide range of stacking fault energy (SFE). Moreover, in nt Cu with low-to-intermediate SFE, detwinning (accompanied by rapid twin boundary migration) occurs at ultralow stress. In Ni with relatively high SFE, coherent {111} twin boundaries lead to substantial work hardening. Twinned Al has abundant {112} incoherent twin boundaries, which induce significant work-hardening capability and plasticity in Al. Finally, twin boundaries in Al also migrate but at very high stresses. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations reveal the influence of SFE on deformation mechanisms in twinned metals.

  17. In situ study of the initiation of hydrogen bubbles at the aluminium metal/oxide interface.

    PubMed

    Xie, De-Gang; Wang, Zhang-Jie; Sun, Jun; Li, Ju; Ma, Evan; Shan, Zhi-Wei

    2015-09-01

    The presence of excess hydrogen at the interface between a metal substrate and a protective oxide can cause blistering and spallation of the scale. However, it remains unclear how nanoscale bubbles manage to reach the critical size in the first place. Here, we perform in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy experiments of the aluminium metal/oxide interface under hydrogen exposure. It is found that once the interface is weakened by hydrogen segregation, surface diffusion of Al atoms initiates the formation of faceted cavities on the metal side, driven by Wulff reconstruction. The morphology and growth rate of these cavities are highly sensitive to the crystallographic orientation of the aluminium substrate. Once the cavities grow to a critical size, the internal gas pressure can become great enough to blister the oxide layer. Our findings have implications for understanding hydrogen damage of interfaces. PMID:26121306

  18. Low-Temperature in Situ Growth of Graphene on Metallic Substrates and Its Application in Anticorrosion.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Minmin; Du, Zehui; Yin, Zongyou; Zhou, Wenwen; Liu, Zhengdong; Tsang, Siu Hon; Teo, Edwin Hang Tong

    2016-01-13

    Metal or alloy corrosion brings about huge economic cost annually, which is becoming one area of growing concern in various industries, being in bulk state or nanoscale range. Here, single layer or few layers of graphene are deposited on various metallic substrates directly at a low temperature down to 400 °C. These substrates can be varied from hundreds-micrometer bulk metallic or alloy foils to tens of nanometer nanofibers (NFs). Corrosion analysis reveals that both graphene-grown steel sheets and NFs have reduced the corrosion rate of up to ten times lower than that of their bare corresponding counterparts. Moreover, such low-temperature in situ growth of graphene demonstrates stable and long-lasting anticorrosion after long-term immersion. This new class of graphene coated nanomaterials shows high potentials in anticorrosion applications for submarines, oil tankers/pipelines, and ruggedized electronics. PMID:26683895

  19. In-situ ductile metal/bulk metallic glass matrix composites formed by chemical partitioning

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Choong Paul; Hays, Charles C.; Johnson, William L.

    2004-03-23

    A composite metal object comprises ductile crystalline metal particles in an amorphous metal matrix. An alloy is heated above its liquidus temperature. Upon cooling from the high temperature melt, the alloy chemically partitions, forming dendrites in the melt. Upon cooling the remaining liquid below the glass transition temperature it freezes to the amorphous state, producing a two-phase microstructure containing crystalline particles in an amorphous metal matrix. The ductile metal particles have a size in the range of from 0.1 to 15 micrometers and spacing in the range of from 0.1 to 20 micrometers. Preferably, the particle size is in the range of from 0.5 to 8 micrometers and spacing is in the range of from 1 to 10 micrometers. The volume proportion of particles is in the range of from 5 to 50% and preferably 15 to 35%. Differential cooling can produce oriented dendrites of ductile metal phase in an amorphous matrix. Examples are given in the Zr--Ti--Cu--Ni--Be alloy bulk glass forming system with added niobium.

  20. In-situ ductile metal/bulk metallic glass matrix composites formed by chemical partitioning

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Choong Paul; Hays, Charles C.; Johnson, William L.

    2007-07-17

    A composite metal object comprises ductile crystalline metal particles in an amorphous metal matrix. An alloy is heated above its liquidus temperature. Upon cooling from the high temperature melt, the alloy chemically partitions, forming dendrites in the melt. Upon cooling the remaining liquid below the glass transition temperature it freezes to the amorphous state, producing a two-phase microstructure containing crystalline particles in an amorphous metal matrix. The ductile metal particles have a size in the range of from 0.1 to 15 micrometers and spacing in the range of from 0.1 to 20 micrometers. Preferably, the particle size is in the range of from 0.5 to 8 micrometers and spacing is in the range of from 1 to 10 micrometers. The volume proportion of particles is in the range of from 5 to 50% and preferably 15 to 35%. Differential cooling can produce oriented dendrites of ductile metal phase in an amorphous matrix. Examples are given in the Zr--Ti--Cu--Ni--Be alloy bulk glass forming system with added niobium.

  1. In situ fixation of metals in soils using bauxite residue: biological effects.

    PubMed

    Lombi, Enzo; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Wieshammer, Gerlinde; Zhang, Gangya; McGrath, Steve P

    2002-01-01

    Soils polluted with heavy metals can cause phytotoxicity and exhibit impared microbial activities. In this paper we evaluate the responses of different biological endpoints to in situ remediation processes. Three soil amendments (red mud, beringite and lime) were applied to two soils polluted by heavy metals. Oilseed rape, wheat, pea and lettuce were grown successively in pots on the untreated and amended soils and their yield and metal uptake were determined. A suite of microbial tests (lux-marked biosensors, Biolog and soil microbial biomass) were performed to determine the effect of the soil amendments on the functionality and size of the soil microbial community. In both soils all three amendments reduced phytotoxicity of heavy metals, enhanced plant yields and decreased the metal concentrations in plants. The red mud treatment also increased soil microbial biomass significantly. The microbial biosensors responded positively to the remediation treatments in the industrially-contaminated soil used in the experiment. Red mud applied at 2% of soil weight was as effective as beringite applied at 5%. The results also showed that since the biological systems tested respond differently to the alleviation of metal toxicity, a suite of biological assays should be used to assess soil remediation processes. PMID:12009143

  2. Induced metal redistribution and bioavailability enhancement in contaminated river sediment during in situ biogeochemical remediation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tongzhou; Zhang, Zhen; Mao, Yanqing; Yan, Dickson Y S

    2016-04-01

    In situ sediment remediation using Ca(NO3)2 or CaO2 for odor mitigation and acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and organic pollutant (such as TPH and PAHs) removal was reported in many studies and fieldwork. Yet, the associated effects on metal mobilization and potential distortion in bioavailability were not well documented. In this study, contaminated river sediment was treated by Ca(NO3)2 and CaO2 in bench studies. Through the investigation of AVS removal, organic matter removal, the changes in sediment oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), microbial activity, and other indigenous parameters, the effects on metal bioavailability, bioaccessibility, and fraction redistribution in sediment were evaluated. The major mechanisms for sediment treated by Ca(NO3)2 and CaO2 are biostimulation with indigenous denitrifying bacteria and chemical oxidation, respectively. After applying Ca(NO3)2 and CaO2, the decreases of metal concentrations in the treated sediment were insignificant within a 35-day incubation period. However, the [SEMtot-AVS]/f OC increased near to the effective boundary of toxicity (100 μmol g(-1) organic carbon (OC)), indicating that both bioavailability and bioaccessibility of metals (Cu, Zn, and Ni) to benthic organisms are enhanced after remediation. Metals were found redistributed from relatively stable fractions (oxidizable and residual fractions) to weakly bound fractions (exchangeable and reducible fractions), and the results are in line with the enhanced metal bioavailability. Compared with Ca(NO3)2, CaO2 led to higher enhancement in metal bioavailability and bioaccessibility, and more significant metal redistribution, probably due to its stronger chemical reactive capacity to AVS and sediment organic matter. The reactions in CaO2-treated sediment would probably shift from physicochemical to biochemical heterotrophic oxidation for sediment organic matter degradation. Therefore, further investigation on the long-term metal redistribution and associated

  3. Low temperature oxidation using support molten salt catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Weimer, Alan W.; Czerpak, Peter J.; Hilbert, Patrick M.

    2003-05-20

    Molten salt reactions are performed by supporting the molten salt on a particulate support and forming a fluidized bed of the supported salt particles. The method is particularly suitable for combusting hydrocarbon fuels at reduced temperatures, so that the formation NO.sub.x species is reduced. When certain preferred salts are used, such as alkali metal carbonates, sulfur and halide species can be captured by the molten salt, thereby reducing SO.sub.x and HCl emissions.

  4. Inherent predominance of high chiral angle metallic carbon nanotubes in continuous fibers grown from a molten catalyst.

    PubMed

    Alemán, B; Bernal, M Mar; Mas, B; Pérez, Emilio M; Reguero, V; Xu, G; Cui, Y; Vilatela, Juan J

    2016-02-21

    We present evidence that high temperature CVD growth of SWNTs under conditions of continuous spinning of macroscopic fibers leads to an inherent predominance of high chiral angle CNTs, peaking at the armchair end. Raman, UV-vis-NIR absorption, and photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements show the prevalence of metallic SWNTs. The complete chiral angle distribution is obtained by electron diffraction of over 390 CNTs. It is biased towards high chiral angles and peaks at the armchair end (30°), in good agreement with the established atomistic models for SWNT growth from a liquid catalyst. Based on the Fe-C-S constituent binary and ternary phase diagrams, thermodynamic calculations of phase compositions from fast cooling and experimental evidence of a post-synthesis catalyst, the proposed thermodynamic path of the catalyst is to form a solid FCC Fe core and a liquid Fe-S shell. S in the outer liquid shell first stabilizes the edge of the nascent CNT, but once a graphitic wall forms it is rejected due to the high interfacial energy of the Fe-C-S alloy. PMID:26837936

  5. Production of lead metal by molten-salt electrolysis with energy-efficient electrodes. Rept. of investigations/1991

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.E.; Chambers, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines investigated electrode designs for electrowinning lead metal from a LiCl-KCl-PbCl2 electrolyte at 450 C. The major objective of the investigation was to decrease the energy requirement for lead electrowinning. Electrolysis was performed in a bench-scale cell using several graphite electrode assemblies. Parameters, such as electrode spacing, current density, and chlorine gas removal from the anode, were investigated in the bench-scale tests. An optimum electrode assembly, termed the sawtooth design, was scaled up and operated at 3,000 and 4,000 A. The sawtooth electrodes operating at 3,000 A produced lead for 0.66 kW times h/kg. The electrodes were constructed by cutting large triangular grooves in the electrode surfaces. The electrodes were placed together such that the triangular peaks of one electrode projected into the triangular valleys of the other electrode. Chlorine did not build up on the anode with the sawtooth electrodes.

  6. In situ metalation of free base phthalocyanine covalently bonded to silicon surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Lupo, Fabio; Tudisco, Cristina; Bertani, Federico; Dalcanale, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Summary Free 4-undecenoxyphthalocyanine molecules were covalently bonded to Si(100) and porous silicon through thermic hydrosilylation of the terminal double bonds of the undecenyl chains. The success of the anchoring strategy on both surfaces was demonstrated by the combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with control experiments performed adopting the commercially available 2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octakis(octyloxy)-29H,31H-phthalocyanine, which is not suited for silicon anchoring. Moreover, the study of the shape of the XPS N 1s band gave relevant information on the interactions occurring between the anchored molecules and the substrates. The spectra suggest that the phthalocyanine ring interacts significantly with the flat Si surface, whilst ring–surface interactions are less relevant on porous Si. The surface-bonded molecules were then metalated in situ with Co by using wet chemistry. The efficiency of the metalation process was evaluated by XPS measurements and, in particular, on porous silicon, the complexation of cobalt was confirmed by the disappearance in the FTIR spectra of the band at 3290 cm−1 due to –NH stretches. Finally, XPS results revealed that the different surface–phthalocyanine interactions observed for flat and porous substrates affect the efficiency of the in situ metalation process. PMID:25551050

  7. Metal matrix composite micromechanics: In-situ behavior influence on composite properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, P. L. N.; Hopkins, D. A.; Chamis, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    Recent efforts in computational mechanics methods for simulating the nonlinear behavior of metal matrix composites have culminated in the implementation of the Metal Matrix Composite Analyzer (METCAN) computer code. In METCAN material nonlinearity is treated at the constituent (fiber, matrix, and interphase) level where the current material model describes a time-temperature-stress dependency of the constituent properties in a material behavior space. The composite properties are synthesized from the constituent instantaneous properties by virtue of composite micromechanics and macromechanics models. The behavior of metal matrix composites depends on fabrication process variables, in situ fiber and matrix properties, bonding between the fiber and matrix, and/or the properties of an interphase between the fiber and matrix. Specifically, the influence of in situ matrix strength and the interphase degradation on the unidirectional composite stress-strain behavior is examined. These types of studies provide insight into micromechanical behavior that may be helpful in resolving discrepancies between experimentally observed composite behavior and predicted response.

  8. In situ remediation of soils contaminated with toxic metal ions using microwave energy.

    PubMed

    Abramovitch, Rudolph A; ChangQing, Lu; Hicks, Evan; Sinard, Joseph

    2003-12-01

    Following onto our work on the in situ remediation of soils contaminated with PAH's, PCB's and other polychlorinated organic compounds using microwave energy, we now report a preliminary investigation on the in situ remediation of soils contaminated with toxic metal ions: Cd(II), Mn(II), Th(IV), Cr(III) and mainly Cr(VI). The soil is partially vitrified in the process, and extraction with hot (70 degrees C) 35% nitric acid for 4.5 h leads to the recovery of very small amounts of the metals which had been spiked into the clean soil: Cd, Mn, and Cr(III) are completely immobilized (unextractable), Th is mostly unextractable, and Cr(VI) partially extractable at very high levels of spiking, but almost completely unextractable using the US EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. This suggests that contaminated soils which are not going to be used for agricultural purposes can be remediated safely to preset depths without fear of the toxic metal ions leaching out for a long time. PMID:14512111

  9. Novel in situ mechanical testers to enable integrated metal surface micro-machines.

    SciTech Connect

    Follstaedt, David Martin; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Hearne, Sean Joseph; Foiles, Stephen Martin; Buchheit, Thomas Edward; Dyck, Christopher William

    2005-10-01

    The ability to integrate metal and semiconductor micro-systems to perform highly complex functions, such as RF-MEMS, will depend on developing freestanding metal structures that offer improved conductivity, reflectivity, and mechanical properties. Three issues have prevented the proliferation of these systems: (1) warpage of active components due to through-thickness stress gradients, (2) limited component lifetimes due to fatigue, and (3) low yield strength. To address these issues, we focus on developing and implementing techniques to enable the direct study of the stress and microstructural evolution during electrodeposition and mechanical loading. The study of stress during electrodeposition of metal thin films is being accomplished by integrating a multi-beam optical stress sensor into an electrodeposition chamber. By coupling the in-situ stress information with ex-situ microstructural analysis, a scientific understanding of the sources of stress during electrodeposition will be obtained. These results are providing a foundation upon which to develop a stress-gradient-free thin film directly applicable to the production of freestanding metal structures. The issues of fatigue and yield strength are being addressed by developing novel surface micromachined tensile and bend testers, by interferometry, and by TEM analysis. The MEMS tensile tester has a ''Bosch'' etched hole to allow for direct viewing of the microstructure in a TEM before, during, and after loading. This approach allows for the quantitative measurements of stress-strain relations while imaging dislocation motion, and determination of fracture nucleation in samples with well-known fatigue/strain histories. This technique facilitates the determination of the limits for classical deformation mechanisms and helps to formulate a new understanding of the mechanical response as the grain sizes are refined to a nanometer scale. Together, these studies will result in a science-based infrastructure to

  10. Inherent predominance of high chiral angle metallic carbon nanotubes in continuous fibers grown from a molten catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemán, B.; Bernal, M. Mar; Mas, B.; Pérez, Emilio M.; Reguero, V.; Xu, G.; Cui, Y.; Vilatela, Juan J.

    2016-02-01

    We present evidence that high temperature CVD growth of SWNTs under conditions of continuous spinning of macroscopic fibers leads to an inherent predominance of high chiral angle CNTs, peaking at the armchair end. Raman, UV-vis-NIR absorption, and photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements show the prevalence of metallic SWNTs. The complete chiral angle distribution is obtained by electron diffraction of over 390 CNTs. It is biased towards high chiral angles and peaks at the armchair end (30°), in good agreement with the established atomistic models for SWNT growth from a liquid catalyst. Based on the Fe-C-S constituent binary and ternary phase diagrams, thermodynamic calculations of phase compositions from fast cooling and experimental evidence of a post-synthesis catalyst, the proposed thermodynamic path of the catalyst is to form a solid FCC Fe core and a liquid Fe-S shell. S in the outer liquid shell first stabilizes the edge of the nascent CNT, but once a graphitic wall forms it is rejected due to the high interfacial energy of the Fe-C-S alloy.We present evidence that high temperature CVD growth of SWNTs under conditions of continuous spinning of macroscopic fibers leads to an inherent predominance of high chiral angle CNTs, peaking at the armchair end. Raman, UV-vis-NIR absorption, and photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements show the prevalence of metallic SWNTs. The complete chiral angle distribution is obtained by electron diffraction of over 390 CNTs. It is biased towards high chiral angles and peaks at the armchair end (30°), in good agreement with the established atomistic models for SWNT growth from a liquid catalyst. Based on the Fe-C-S constituent binary and ternary phase diagrams, thermodynamic calculations of phase compositions from fast cooling and experimental evidence of a post-synthesis catalyst, the proposed thermodynamic path of the catalyst is to form a solid FCC Fe core and a liquid Fe-S shell. S in the outer liquid shell first

  11. Uncovering the Role of Metal Catalysis in Tetrazole Formation by an In Situ Cycloaddition Reaction: An Experimental Approach.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Di-Chang; Wen, Ya-Qiong; Deng, Ji-Hua; Luo, Xu-Zhong; Gong, Yun-Nan; Lu, Tong-Bu

    2015-09-28

    Using an experimental approach, the role of metal catalysis has been investigated in the in situ cycloaddition reaction of nitrile with azide to form tetrazoles. It has been shown that metal catalysis serves to activate the cyano group in the nitrile reagent by a coordinative interaction. PMID:26293313

  12. In-situ hydrogen in metal determination using a minimum neutron source strength and exposure time.

    PubMed

    Hatem, M; Agamy, S; Khalil, M Y

    2013-08-01

    Water is frequently present in the environment and is a source of hydrogen that can interact with many materials. Because of its small atomic size, a hydrogen atom can easily diffuse into a host metal, and though the metal may appear unchanged for a time, the metal will eventually abruptly lose its strength and ductility. Thus, measuring the hydrogen content in metals is important in many fields, such as in the nuclear industry, in automotive and aircraft fabrication, and particularly, in offshore oil and gas fields. It has been demonstrated that the use of nuclear methods to measure the hydrogen content in metals can achieve sensitivity levels on the order of parts per million. However, the use of nuclear methods in the field has not been conducted for two reasons. The first reason is due to exposure limitations. The second reason is due to the hi-tech instruments required for better accuracy. In this work, a new method using a low-strength portable neutron source is explored in conjunction with detectors based on plastic nuclear detection films. The following are the in-situ requirements: simplicity in setup, high reliability, minimal exposure dose, and acceptable accuracy at an acceptable cost. A computer model of the experimental setup is used to reproduce the results of a proof-of-concept experiment and to predict the sensitivity levels under optimised experimental conditions. PMID:23708832

  13. Coated metal articles and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Boller, Ernest R.; Eubank, Lowell D.

    2004-07-06

    The method of protectively coating metallic uranium which comprises dipping the metallic uranium in a molten alloy comprising about 20-75% of copper and about 80-25% of tin, dipping the coated uranium promptly into molten tin, withdrawing it from the molten tin and removing excess molten metal, thereupon dipping it into a molten metal bath comprising aluminum until it is coated with this metal, then promptly withdrawing it from the bath.

  14. Coated Metal Articles and Method of Making

    DOEpatents

    Boller, Ernest R.; Eubank, Lowell D.

    2004-07-06

    The method of protectively coating metallic uranium which comprises dipping the metallic uranium in a molten alloy comprising about 20-75% of copper and about 80-25% of tin, dipping the coated uranium promptly into molten tin, withdrawing it from the molten tin and removing excess molten metal, thereupon dipping it into a molten metal bath comprising aluminum until it is coated with this metal, then promptly withdrawing it from the bath.

  15. Ionothermal synthesis of chiral metal phosphite open frameworks with in situ generated organic templates.

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Ming; Cheng, Kai; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Jian

    2013-05-20

    Two novel three-dimensional chiral metal phosphite open frameworks with 4-connected quartz topology, [Me2-DABCO][M2(HPO3)3] [M = Co (1), Zn (2); Me2-DABCO = N,N'-dimethyl-1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane], have been ionothermally synthesized in deep eutectic solvents (choline chloride/1,3-dimethylurea). It is interesting that the organic template, Me2-DABCO, is in situ generated from the alkylation reaction of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane and dimethyl phosphites. PMID:23621695

  16. In-situ TEM imaging of the anisotropic etching of graphene by metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiake; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Hao; Tian, Xuezeng; Yang, Shize; Wang, Lifen; Wang, Wenlong; Bai, Xuedong

    2014-11-21

    Few-layer graphene was successfully tailored with smooth edges along crystallographic directions by Joule heating-driven tungsten nanoparticles inside a transmission electron microscope. The dynamic process was monitored in real time at the atomic resolution level. These high-resolution in-situ observations show that the neighboring graphene layers joined together to form closed edges, which is in contrast to the supposed open edges formed with hydrogen passivation. The tungsten nanoparticles transformed to W₂C in the intermediate stage of etching and to WC after etching, suggesting that carbon dissolution helped the continuous action of the metal nanoparticles in the catalytic anisotropic etching reaction. PMID:25361213

  17. Voltage oxide removal for plating: A new method of electroplating oxide coated metals in situ

    SciTech Connect

    Gutfeld, R. J. von; West, A. C.

    2007-03-15

    A novel in situ method for electroplating oxide coated metals is described. Termed VORP, for voltage oxide removal for plating, the process utilizes a voltage pulse {approx}20-200 V, {approx}2 ms in duration, applied between working and counterelectrodes while both are immersed in a copper electrolyte. The pulse is almost immediately followed by galvanostatic plate-up. Adherent copper deposits up to {approx}4 {mu}m in height on stainless steel 316 coupons have been obtained. Temperature testing up to 260 deg. C in air does not affect the copper adhesion. A preliminary model for oxide removal is proposed utilizing concepts of dielectric breakdown.

  18. Molten-Metal Droplet Deposition on a Moving Substrate in Microgravity: Aiding the Development of Novel Technologies for Microelectronic Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Megaridis, C. M.; Bayer, I. S.; Poulikakos, D.; Nayagam, V.

    2002-01-01

    Driven by advancements in microelectronics manufacturing, this research investigates the oblique (non-axisymmetric) impact of liquid-metal droplets on flat substrates. The problem of interest is relevant to the development of the novel technology of on-demand dispension (printing) of microscopic solder deposits for the surface mounting of microelectronic devices. The technology, known as solder jetting, features on-demand deposition of miniature solder droplets (30 to 120 microns in diameter) in very fine, very accurate patterns using techniques analogous to those developed for the ink-jet printing industry. Despite its promise, severe limitations exist currently with regards to the throughput rates of the technology; some of these limitations are largely due to the lack of the capability for reliable prediction of solder bump positioning and shapes, especially under ballistic deposition conditions where the droplet impact phenomena are inherently three-dimensional. The study consists of a theoretical and an experimental component. The theoretical work uses a finite element formulation to simulate numerically the non-axisymmetric (3-D) fluid mechanics and heat transfer phenomena of a liquid solder droplet impacting at an angle alpha on a flat substrate. The work focuses on the pre-solidification regime. The modeling of the most challenging fluid mechanics part of the process has been completed successfully. It is based upon the full laminar Navier-Stokes equations employing a Lagrangian frame of reference. Due to the large droplet deformation, the surface (skin) as well as the volumetric mesh have to be regenerated during the calculations in order to maintain the high accuracy of the numerical scheme. The pressure and velocity fields are then interpolated on the newly created mesh. The numerical predictions are being tested against experiments, for cases where wetting phenomena are not important. For the impact parameters used in the example shown (We = 2.38, Fr

  19. In situ observation of deformation processes in nanocrystalline face-centered cubic metals

    PubMed Central

    Kobler, Aaron; Brandl, Christian; Hahn, Horst

    2016-01-01

    Summary The atomistic mechanisms active during plastic deformation of nanocrystalline metals are still a subject of controversy. The recently developed approach of combining automated crystal orientation mapping (ACOM) and in situ straining inside a transmission electron microscope was applied to study the deformation of nanocrystalline PdxAu1− x thin films. This combination enables direct imaging of simultaneously occurring plastic deformation processes in one experiment, such as grain boundary motion, twin activity and grain rotation. Large-angle grain rotations with ≈39° and ≈60° occur and can be related to twin formation, twin migration and twin–twin interaction as a result of partial dislocation activity. Furthermore, plastic deformation in nanocrystalline thin films was found to be partially reversible upon rupture of the film. In conclusion, conventional deformation mechanisms are still active in nanocrystalline metals but with different weighting as compared with conventional materials with coarser grains. PMID:27335747

  20. In situ observation of deformation processes in nanocrystalline face-centered cubic metals.

    PubMed

    Kobler, Aaron; Brandl, Christian; Hahn, Horst; Kübel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The atomistic mechanisms active during plastic deformation of nanocrystalline metals are still a subject of controversy. The recently developed approach of combining automated crystal orientation mapping (ACOM) and in situ straining inside a transmission electron microscope was applied to study the deformation of nanocrystalline Pd x Au1- x thin films. This combination enables direct imaging of simultaneously occurring plastic deformation processes in one experiment, such as grain boundary motion, twin activity and grain rotation. Large-angle grain rotations with ≈39° and ≈60° occur and can be related to twin formation, twin migration and twin-twin interaction as a result of partial dislocation activity. Furthermore, plastic deformation in nanocrystalline thin films was found to be partially reversible upon rupture of the film. In conclusion, conventional deformation mechanisms are still active in nanocrystalline metals but with different weighting as compared with conventional materials with coarser grains. PMID:27335747

  1. In situ electron microscopy four-point electromechanical characterization of freestanding metallic and semiconducting nanowires.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Rodrigo A; Filleter, Tobin; Connell, Justin G; Sohn, Kwonnam; Huang, Jiaxing; Lauhon, Lincoln J; Espinosa, Horacio D

    2014-02-26

    Electromechanical coupling is a topic of current interest in nanostructures, such as metallic and semiconducting nanowires, for a variety of electronic and energy applications. As a result, the determination of structure-property relations that dictate the electromechanical coupling requires the development of experimental tools to perform accurate metrology. Here, a novel micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) that allows integrated four-point, uniaxial, electromechanical measurements of freestanding nanostructures in-situ electron microscopy, is reported. Coupled mechanical and electrical measurements are carried out for penta-twinned silver nanowires, their resistance is identified as a function of strain, and it is shown that resistance variations are the result of nanowire dimensional changes. Furthermore, in situ SEM piezoresistive measurements on n-type, [111]-oriented silicon nanowires up to unprecedented levels of ∼7% strain are demonstrated. The piezoresistance coefficients are found to be similar to bulk values. For both metallic and semiconducting nanowires, variations of the contact resistance as strain is applied are observed. These variations must be considered in the interpretation of future two-point electromechanical measurements. PMID:24115555

  2. Hydrazine reduction of transition metal oxides - In situ characterization using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littrell, D. M.; Tatarchuk, B. J.

    1986-01-01

    The transition metal oxides (TMOs) V2O5, FeO3, Co3O4, NiO, CuO, and ZnO were exposed to hydrazine at various pressures. The metallic surfaces were surveyed by in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the irrelative rate of reduction by hydrazine. The most easily reducible oxide, CuO, could be reduced to the metallic state at room temperature and 10 to the -6th torr. The reaction is first order with respect to CuO, with an activation energy of about 35 kJ/mol. Two types of adsorption were seen to occur at 295 K: (1) a reversible component in which the measured N:Cu ratio increased to 0.60 at hydrazine pressures up to 0.5 torr, and (2) an irreversible component, with a N:Cu ratio of 0.28, which could not be removed by extended vacuum pumping. The results of this study are useful for the identification of TMO's that can be used as solid neatallizers of hydrazine spills, and for the preparation of metal surfaces for electroplating and evaporative thin-film coating.

  3. Metallic monoclinic phase in VO2 induced by electrochemical gating: In situ Raman study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath Gupta, Satyendra; Pal, Anand; Muthu, D. V. S.; Kumar, P. S. Anil; Sood, A. K.

    2016-07-01

    We report in situ Raman scattering studies of electrochemically top gated VO2 thin film to address metal-insulator transition (MIT) under gating. The room temperature monoclinic insulating phase goes to metallic state at a gate voltage of 2.6 V. However, the number of Raman modes do not change with electrolyte gating showing that the metallic phase is still monoclinic. The high-frequency Raman mode A g (7) near 616 cm‑1 ascribed to V-O vibration of bond length 2.06 Å in VO6 octahedra hardens with increasing gate voltage and the B g (3) mode near 654 cm‑1 softens. This shows that the distortion of the VO6 octahedra in the monoclinic phase decreases with gating. The time-dependent Raman data at fixed gate voltages of 1 V (for 50 minutes, showing enhancement of conductivity by a factor of 50) and 2 V (for 130 minutes, showing further increase in conductivity by a factor of 5) show similar changes in high-frequency Raman modes A g (7) and B g (3) as observed in gating. This slow change in conductance together with Raman frequency changes show that the governing mechanism for metalization is more likely due to the diffusion-controlled oxygen vacancy formation due to the applied electric field.

  4. Initial interaction of sulfur dioxide with water covered metal surfaces: An in situ IRAS study

    SciTech Connect

    Persson, D.; Leygraf, C.

    1995-05-01

    Sulfur dioxide is considered to be one of the most important stimulators of atmospheric corrosion in outdoor environments and numerous investigations have been made to understand its role. Despite clear evidence of the corrosion accelerating effect of SO{sub 2} there is still a lack in detailed knowledge on a molecular level of how SO{sub 2} interacts with metal surfaces during conditions of atmospheric corrosion. In situ infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) has been used to study the initial interaction of sulfur dioxide with water adlayer covered copper, nickel, and zinc surfaces. Each metal was exposed to 0.21 ppm SO{sub 2} in flowing air at 80% relative humidity and the formation of sulfite was followed from submonolayer thickness to layers of corrosion products of a few manometers thickness. From the positions of sulfite bonds in the experimentally obtained IRAS spectra and from considerations of optically induced band shifts in calculated IRAS spectra, it is suggested that the sulfite ions are coordinated with sulfur or sulfur and oxygen to the copper surface and with oxygen to the nickel and zinc surfaces. A fast initial growth rate was observed for the sulfite layer, which was followed by a slower growth rate after a few hours of exposure. A reaction sequence is suggested where bisulfite ions, formed by hydrolysis of sulfur dioxide in the water adlayer, generate surface metal-sulfite complexes at the oxide covered metal surface which subsequently detach from the surface and precipitate as thin layers of corrosion products.

  5. WIPP/SRL in-situ tests: MIIT program--The effects of metal package components

    SciTech Connect

    Covington, J.A.; Wicks, G.G.; Molecke, M.A.

    1991-12-31

    The Materials Interface Interactions Tests or MIIT is the largest in-situ testing program in progress, involving burial of many simulated nuclear waste systems and accompanying package components. In MIIT, waste glass samples were fabricated into the shape of `pineapple slices`, polished on one side. Proposed package components were also made into a similar configuration and the various glasses, metals, and geologic samples were than stacked onto heater elements within Teflon assemblies. This produced interactions of interest by creating glass/glass, glass/salt, and glass/metal interfaces. Since the outer diameter of the metal was smaller than the outer diameter of the glass, a lip was created which was also produced a glass/liquid interface, which was also studied. Overall, a total of 50 stacks or assemblies of pineapple slices were created in seven different stacking arrangements. Each individual assembly was then installed in an instrumented borehole at WIPP. Brine was then added to most of boreholes and the assemblies heated and maintained at 90{degrees}C. This was achieved by energizing the central heating and rod that traversed through the middle opening of each of the pineapple slices in each assembly. Due to the design of these units, glass, metal and geologic samples could be removed at time intervals of 6 mos., 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years. Currently, all but the 5 year samples have been removed from test and are being evaluated in laboratories of MIIT participants.

  6. WIPP/SRL in-situ tests: MIIT program--The effects of metal package components

    SciTech Connect

    Covington, J.A. ); Wicks, G.G. ); Molecke, M.A. )

    1991-01-01

    The Materials Interface Interactions Tests or MIIT is the largest in-situ testing program in progress, involving burial of many simulated nuclear waste systems and accompanying package components. In MIIT, waste glass samples were fabricated into the shape of pineapple slices', polished on one side. Proposed package components were also made into a similar configuration and the various glasses, metals, and geologic samples were than stacked onto heater elements within Teflon assemblies. This produced interactions of interest by creating glass/glass, glass/salt, and glass/metal interfaces. Since the outer diameter of the metal was smaller than the outer diameter of the glass, a lip was created which was also produced a glass/liquid interface, which was also studied. Overall, a total of 50 stacks or assemblies of pineapple slices were created in seven different stacking arrangements. Each individual assembly was then installed in an instrumented borehole at WIPP. Brine was then added to most of boreholes and the assemblies heated and maintained at 90{degrees}C. This was achieved by energizing the central heating and rod that traversed through the middle opening of each of the pineapple slices in each assembly. Due to the design of these units, glass, metal and geologic samples could be removed at time intervals of 6 mos., 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years. Currently, all but the 5 year samples have been removed from test and are being evaluated in laboratories of MIIT participants.

  7. Molten Materials Transfer and Handling on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, Doru M.; Curreri, Peter A.; Sen, Subhayu

    2008-01-01

    Electrolytic reduction processes as a means to provide pure elements for lunar resource utilization have many advantages. Such processes have. the potential of removing all the oxygen from the lunar soil for use in life support and for propellant. Electrochemical reduction also provides a direct path for the. production of pure metals and silicon which can be utilized for in situ manufacturing and power production. Some of the challenges encountered in the electrolytic reduction processes include the feeding of the electrolytic cell (the transfer of electrolyte containing lunar soil), the withdrawal of reactants and refined products such as the liquidironsiliconalloy with a number of impurities, and the spent regolith slag, produced in the hot electrolytic cell for the reduction of lunar regolith. The paper will discuss some of the possible solutions to the challenges of handling molten materials on the lunar surface, as well as the path toward the construction and testing of a proof-of-concept facility.

  8. Degassing of molten alloys with the assistance of ultrasonic vibration

    DOEpatents

    Han, Qingyou; Xu, Hanbing; Meek, Thomas T.

    2010-03-23

    An apparatus and method are disclosed in which ultrasonic vibration is used to assist the degassing of molten metals or metal alloys thereby reducing gas content in the molten metals or alloys. High-intensity ultrasonic vibration is applied to a radiator that creates cavitation bubbles, induces acoustic streaming in the melt, and breaks up purge gas (e.g., argon or nitrogen) which is intentionally introduced in a small amount into the melt in order to collect the cavitation bubbles and to make the cavitation bubbles survive in the melt. The molten metal or alloy in one version of the invention is an aluminum alloy. The ultrasonic vibrations create cavitation bubbles and break up the large purge gas bubbles into small bubbles and disperse the bubbles in the molten metal or alloy more uniformly, resulting in a fast and clean degassing.

  9. Electrodeposition of molten silicon

    DOEpatents

    De Mattei, Robert C.; Elwell, Dennis; Feigelson, Robert S.

    1981-01-01

    Silicon dioxide is dissolved in a molten electrolytic bath, preferably comprising barium oxide and barium fluoride. A direct current is passed between an anode and a cathode in the bath to reduce the dissolved silicon dioxide to non-alloyed silicon in molten form, which is removed from the bath.

  10. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1996-07-09

    The patent describes a molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication. 5 figs.

  11. Metal mobility during in situ chemical oxidation of TCE by KMnO4.

    PubMed

    Al, Tom A; Banks, Vernon; Loomer, Diana; Parker, Beth L; Ulrich Mayer, K

    2006-11-20

    The potential for trace-metal contamination of aquifers as a side effect of In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) of chlorinated solvent contamination by KMnO(4) is investigated with column experiments. The experiments investigate metal mobility during in situ chemical oxidation of TCE by KMnO(4) under conditions where pH, flow rate, KMnO(4), TCE, and trace-metal concentrations were controlled. During ISCO, the injection of MnO(4) creates oxidizing conditions, and acidity released by the reactions causes a tendency toward low pH in aquifers. In order to evaluate the role of pH buffering on metal mobility, duplicate columns were constructed, one packed with pure silica sand, and one with a mixture of silica sand and calcite. Aqueous solutions of TCE and KMnO(4) (with 1 mg/L Cu, Pb, Zn, Mo, Ni, and Cr(VI)) were allowed to mix at the inlet to the columns. After the completion of the experiments, samples of Mn oxide were removed from the columns and analyzed by analytical scanning and transmission electron microscopy. In order to relate the results of the laboratory experiments to field settings, the analyses of Mn-oxide samples from the lab experiments were compared to samples of Mn oxide collected from a field-scale chemical-oxidation experiment that were also analyzed by analytical electron microscopy as well as time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectroscopy. The pH ranged from 2.40 in the silica sand column to 6.25 in the calcite-containing column. The data indicate that aqueous Mo, Pb, Cu and Ni concentrations are attenuated almost completely within the columns. In contrast, Zn concentrations are not significantly attenuated and Cr(VI) is transported conservatively. The results indicate that within the range 2.40 to 6.25, metal mobility is not affected by pH. Comparison of analyses of Mn-oxide from the lab and field demonstrate that a variety of metals are sequestered from solution by Mn oxide. PMID:16876907

  12. Molecular Analysis of Rates of Metal Reduction andMetabolic State of Geobacter Species During in situ Uranium Bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Lovley, Derek R.

    2005-06-01

    This report summarizes progress from June 2004 through April 2005. Research focused on monitoring the in situ rates of metabolism and the metabolic state of Geobacteraceae during in situ bioremediation of uranium at the field study site in Rifle, Colorado. As detailed below, it was demonstrated for the first time that it is possible to quantify in situ levels of transcripts for key metabolic genes and from this information infer not only rates of electron transfer to metals, but also nutrient limitations which might be limiting this process.

  13. In situ insights to Se (S) partitioning between silicate and metallic melts at extreme conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borchert, M.; Petitgirard, S.; Appel, K.; Watenphul, A.; Morgenroth, W.

    2012-12-01

    The Earth's core mainly consists of a metallic Fe-Ni mixture. However, seismic observations show that the density is about 5-10% lower than expected for an Fe-Ni alloy under similar pressure and temperature conditions (e.g., [1,2]). This discovery initiated numerous studies to identify and quantify light elements in the Earth0s core. Among others, sulphur has been suggested to be a promisingly candidate to alloy with the metallic core because of its depletion in the crust and the mantle relative to other volatile elements by several orders of magnitude (e.g., [3-5]). In the last decades, several experimental studies have aimed to quantify the sulphur content in the Earth's core and to determine its influence on the physical properties (e.g., [6]). However, experimental data on sulphur partitioning between silicate and metallic liquids at pressures and temperatures relevant for core-mantle boundary conditions are missing. This lack is due to pressure and temperature limitations of conventional experimental approaches (up to 25 GPa and 2200 K). New developments, like laser-heated diamond-anvil cells (LDAC), allow studies at core-mantle boundary conditions, but in-situ chemical analysis of sulphur in LDACs is impossible due to the high absorption of S fluorescence in the diamonds. Instead of sulphur, selenium can be used to model sulphur partitioning between silicate and metallic melts at elevated PT conditions. This is based on the fact that sulphur and selenium can be considered as geochemical twins ([7,8]). The main advantage of this approach is the much higher excitation energy of selenium compared to sulphur, which enables in-situ XRF analysis in LDACs. Here, we present preliminary data on Se partitioning between silicate and metallic melt at extreme conditions. The experiments have been performed in double-sided laser-heated LDACs at the high pressure beamlines P02.2 (DESY, Germany) and ID27 (ESRF, France) as described in [9]. Micro-XRF mappings are used to

  14. Molten salts and energy related materials.

    PubMed

    Fray, Derek

    2016-08-15

    Molten salts have been known for centuries and have been used for the extraction of aluminium for over one hundred years and as high temperature fluxes in metal processing. This and other molten salt routes have gradually become more energy efficient and less polluting, but there have been few major breakthroughs. This paper will explore some recent innovations that could lead to substantial reductions in the energy consumed in metal production and in carbon dioxide production. Another way that molten salts can contribute to an energy efficient world is by creating better high temperature fuel cells and novel high temperature batteries, or by acting as the medium that can create novel materials that can find applications in high energy batteries and other energy saving devices, such as capacitors. Carbonate melts can be used to absorb carbon dioxide, which can be converted into C, CO and carbon nanoparticles. Molten salts can also be used to create black silicon that can absorb more sunlight over a wider range of wavelengths. Overall, there are many opportunities to explore for molten salts to play in an efficient, low carbon world. PMID:27276650

  15. In-Situ Cleaning of Metal Cathodes using a Hydrogen Ion Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, D.H.; King, F.K.; Kirby, R.E.; Schmerge, J.F.; /SLAC

    2006-03-29

    Metal photocathodes are commonly used in high-field RF guns because they are robust, straightforward to implement and tolerate relatively poor vacuum compared to semi-conductor cathodes. However these cathodes have low quantum efficiency (QE) even at UV wavelengths, and still require some form of cleaning after installation in the gun. A commonly used process for improving the QE is laser cleaning. In this technique the UV drive laser is focused to a small diameter close to the metal's damage threshold and then moved across the surface to remove contaminants. This method does improve the QE, but can produce non-uniform emission and potentially damage the cathode. Ideally an alternative process which produces an atomically clean, but unaltered surface is needed. In this paper we explore using a hydrogen ion (H-ion) beam to clean a copper cathode. We describe QE measurements over the wavelength range of interest as a function of integrated exposure to an H-ion beam. We also describe the data analysis to obtain the work function and derive a formula of the QE for metal cathodes. Our measured work function for the cleaned sample is in good agreement with published values, and the theoretical QE as a function of photon wavelength is in excellent agreement with the cleaned copper experimental results. Finally, we propose an in-situ installation of an H-ion gun compatible with existing s-band RF guns.

  16. Beryllium Interactions in Molten Salts

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Smolik; M. F. Simpson; P. J. Pinhero; M. Hara; Y. Hatano; R. A. Anderl; J. P. Sharpe; T. Terai; S. Tanaka; D. A. Petti; D.-K. Sze

    2006-01-01

    Molten flibe (2LiF·BeF2) is a candidate as a cooling and tritium breeding media for future fusion power plants. Neutron interactions with the salt will produce tritium and release excess free fluorine ions. Beryllium metal has been demonstrated as an effective redox control agent to prevent free fluorine, or HF species, from reacting with structural metal components. The extent and rate of beryllium solubility in a pot design experiments to suppress continuously supplied hydrogen fluoride gas has been measured and modeled[ ]. This paper presents evidence of beryllium loss from specimens, a dependence of the loss upon bi-metal coupling, i.e., galvanic effect, and the partitioning of the beryllium to the salt and container materials. Various posttest investigative methods, viz., scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to explore this behavior.

  17. Method for preparing metal powder, device for preparing metal powder, method for processing spent nuclear fuel

    DOEpatents

    Park, Jong-Hee

    2011-11-29

    A method for producing metal powder is provided the comprising supplying a molten bath containing a reducing agent, contacting a metal oxide with the molten bath for a time and at a temperature sufficient to reduce the metal in the metal oxide to elemental metal and produce free oxygen; and isolating the elemental metal from the molten bath.

  18. Al/Cl2 molten salt battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giner, J.

    1972-01-01

    Molten salt battery has been developed with theoretical energy density of 5.2 j/kg (650 W-h/lb). Battery, which operates at 150 C, can be used in primary mode or as rechargeable battery. Battery has aluminum anode and chlorine cathode. Electrolyte is mixture of AlCl3, NaCl, and some alkali metal halide such as KCl.

  19. A dynamic inert metal anode.

    SciTech Connect

    Hryn, J. N.

    1998-11-09

    A new concept for a stable anode for aluminum electrowinning is described. The anode consists of a cup-shaped metal alloy container filled with a molten salt that contains dissolved aluminum. The metal alloy can be any of a number of alloys, but it must contain aluminum as a secondary alloying metal. A possible alloy composition is copper with 5 to 15 weight percent aluminum. In the presence of oxygen, aluminum on the metal anode's exterior surface forms a continuous alumina film that is thick enough to protect the anode from chemical attack by cryolite during electrolysis and thin enough to maintain electrical conductivity. However, the alumina film is soluble in cryolite, so it must be regenerated in situ. Film regeneration is achieved by the transport of aluminum metal from the anode's molten salt interior through the metal wall to the anode's exterior surface, where the transported aluminum oxidizes to alumina in the presence of evolving oxygen to maintain the protective alumina film. Periodic addition of aluminum metal to the anode's interior keeps the aluminum activity in the molten salt at the desired level. This concept for an inert anode is viable as long as the amount of aluminum produced at the cathode greatly exceeds the amount of aluminum required to maintain the anode's protective film.

  20. In situ testing of metallic iron nanoparticle mobility and reactivity in a shallow granular aquifer.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Peter; He, Feng; Zhao, Dongye; Aiken, Brian; Feldman, Lester

    2010-07-30

    This paper describes the results of a series of single well push-pull tests conducted to evaluate the in situ transport of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) stabilized nanoscale zero-valent iron (ZVI) particles in saturated sediments and their reactivity toward chlorinated ethenes. CMC-stabilized nanoscale ZVI particles were synthesized on site by reducing ferrous ions with borohydride in water in the presence of CMC. Nanoscale ZVI and bimetallic ZVI-Pd nanoparticle suspensions were prepared and injected into depth-discrete aquifer zones during three push-pull tests. The injected nanoparticle suspensions contained a conservative tracer (Br(-)) and were allowed to reside in the aquifer pore space for various time periods prior to recovery by groundwater extraction. The comparison between Br(-) and Fe concentrations in extracted groundwater samples indicated that the CMC-stabilized nanoscale ZVI particles were mobile in the aquifer but appeared to lose mobility with time, likely due to the interactions between particles and aquifer sediments. After 13 h in the aquifer, the nanoscale ZVI particles became essentially immobilized. During the push-pull test with injection of Fe-Pd nanoparticles, ethane concentrations increased from non-detectable to 65 microg/L in extracted groundwater within less than 2 h of reaction time, indicating the rapid abiotic degradation of chlorinated ethenes. The amount of total chlorinated ethene mass destroyed was low presumably because the injected solutions "pushed" the dissolved chlorinated ethenes away from the injection well, without substantial mixing, and because stationary (sorbed) chlorinated ethene mass on the aquifer sediments was low. In situ remediation programs using highly reactive metallic nanoparticles should incorporate delivery methods that maintain high groundwater pore velocities during injection to increase advective transport distances (e.g. groundwater circulation wells). Also, source zones with abundant stationary

  1. In situ fabrication of inorganic nanowire arrays grown from and aligned on metal substrates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weixin; Yang, Shihe

    2009-10-20

    The full potential of nanotechnology can be unleashed only when one is able not only to synthesize a rich variety of nanoscale building blocks but also assemble them into various patterns at the supramolecular and supracluster levels. In particular, the application of nanoparticle and nanowire materials often requires their assembly in the form of thin films, preferably on conductive surfaces for electrical addressing, control, and detection. Although a dazzling array of nanostructures has been fabricated by bottom-up approaches, one of the contemporary challenges is to assemble these nanostructures so that they introduce and realize functionalities. An alluring avenue is to simultaneously accomplish both the nanostructure synthesis and assembly on a useful substrate in a parallel fashion, affording the advantages of simplicity, low cost, and high throughput. In this Account, we review our recent work on growing inorganic nanowires (for example, metal sulfides, metal oxides, and so forth) directly from and on metal substrates in arrays without using templates and catalysts. This method of engineering nanowire arrays on metal substrates integrates the nanowire synthesis and assembly into a parallel process, both in time and in space, by exploiting in situ chemistry on the metal substrates. Both gas-phase and solution-phase approaches have been developed to synthesize the aligned nanowires; here, full advantage is taken of interfacial kinetics of restricted diffusion and surface-specific reactions, often accompanied by new interfacial growth mechanisms. The setting of nanowire arrays on metal substrates has allowed exploration of their application potentials in areas such as field electron emission and chemical sensing. The approaches described here are general, and we predict that they will be extended to more inorganic materials, such as metal halides. Moreover, as more control is achieved with synthetic methods, inorganic nanowire arrays should provide unusual

  2. EVALUATION OF NATURAL AND IN-SITU REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR A COAL-RELATED METALS PLUME

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Jeffrey A.; Bayer, Cassandra L.; Socha, Ronald P.; Sochor,Cynthia S.; Fliermans, Carl B.; McKinsey, Pamela C.; Millings, Margaret R.; Phifer, Mark A.; Powell, Kimberly R.; Serkiz, Steven M.; Sappington, Frank C.; Turick, Charles E.

    2003-02-27

    Metals contamination exceeding drinking water standards (MCLs) is associated with acidic leachate generated from a coal pile runoff basin at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. The metals plume extends over 100 acres with its' distal boundary about onehalf mile from the Savannah River. Based on the large plume extent and high dissolved iron and aluminum concentrations, conventional treatment technologies are likely to be ineffective and cost prohibitive. In-situ bioremediation using existing groundwater microbes is being evaluated as a promising alternative technology for effective treatment, along with consideration of natural attenuation of the lower concentration portions of the plume to meet remedial goals. Treatment of the high concentration portion of the groundwater plume by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is being evaluated through laboratory microcosm testing and a field-scale demonstration. Organic substrates are added to promote SRB growth. These bacteria use dissolved sulfate as an electron acceptor and ultimately precipitate dissolved metals as metal sulfides. Laboratory microcosm testing indicate SRB are present in groundwater despite low pH conditions, and that their growth can be stimulated by soybean oil and sodium lactate. The field demonstration consists of substrate injection into a 30-foot deep by 240-foot long permeable trench. Microbial activity is demonstrated by an increase in pH from 3 to 6 within the trench. Downgradient monitoring will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of SRB in reducing metal concentrations. Natural attenuation (NA) is being evaluated for the low concentration portion of the plume. A decrease in metal mobility can occur through a variety of abiotically and/or biotically mediated mechanisms. Quantification of these mechanisms is necessary to more accurately predict contaminant attenuation using groundwater transport models that have historically relied on simplified conservative assumptions

  3. In situ sputter cleaning of thin film metal substrates for UHV-TEM corrosion studies.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinemann, K.; Poppa, H.

    1973-01-01

    A prerequisite for conducting valid corrosion experiments by in situ electron microscopy techniques is not only the achievement of UHV background pressure conditions at the site of the specimen but also the ability to clean the surface of the thin metal substrate specimen before initiation of the corrosive interaction. A miniaturized simple ion gun has been constructed for this purpose. The gun is small enough to be incorporated into an UHV electron microscope specimen chamber with hot stage in such a way as to permit bombardment of the substrate specimen while observing it by transmission electron microscopy TEM. It is shown that the ion beam generated is confined well enough to cause a sputtering removal of substrate material at a rate of approximately 5-10 A/min and to prevent the sputter deposition of contaminating material from the specimen holder.

  4. Electron scattering characteristics of polycrystalline metal transition films by in-situ electrical resistance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trindade, I. G.; Leitão, D.; Fermento, R.; Pogorelev, Y.; Sousa, J. B.

    2009-08-01

    In-situ electrical resistance measurements were performed to obtain the scattering characteristics of very thin polycrystalline metal transition magnetic alloys grown by ion beam deposition (IBD) on specific underlayers. The experimental curves show size effects at small film thicknesses and important differences between Co 85Fe 15 and Ni 81Fe 19 thin layers grown on identical underlayers of Ta70 Å/Ru13 Å. The largest difference was observed in Ni 81Fe 19 films grown on underlayers of amorphous Ta70 Å. The experimental curves of electrical resistivity/conductivity variation with layer thickness were well fit within the Mayadas and Shatzkes (M-S) model, assuming specific formulations for grain growth with layer thickness.

  5. In situ observations of weld pool solidification using transparent metal-analog systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, R.; David, S. A.; Eshelman, M. A.; Vitek, J. M.; Babu, S. S.; Hong, T.; DebRoy, T.

    2003-04-01

    The dynamics of weld solidification were observed in situ using a laser welding process on transparent organic materials systems. Succinonitrile was used to simulate a pure metal system and succinonitrile with 1.2 wt. % acetone was used to simulate an alloy system. Observed weld pool shapes in succinonitrile were in good agreement with theoretical heat transfer calculations. The dynamics of weld pool shape in the succinonitrile-acetone system were related to complex interactions between grain orientation, grain selection, and dendrite orientations, which depend strongly on welding speed. An increase in welding speed leads to a transition from a steady-state to a nonsteady-state weld pool shape. Several other phenomena, including epitaxial growth, grain selection process, grain boundary melting, and porosity formation, were also observed.

  6. The structure and in situ synthesis investigation of isomorphic mononuclear molecular metal phenylphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Manuel; Buzanich, Ana Guilherme; Reinholz, Uwe; Rademann, Klaus; Emmerling, Franziska

    2016-06-21

    We describe a fast and effective synthesis for molecular metal phosphonates. Isomorphic compounds [M(ii)(HO3PPh)2(H2O3PPh)2(H2O)2] (M = Mn (1), Co (2), Ni (3); Ph = C6H5) were obtained by grinding. The complexes are mononuclear compounds containing neutral and monodeprotonated phenylphosphonic acid and water as ligands. The crystal structures were determined using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) data and validated by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data. Combined synchrotron XRD measurements and Raman spectroscopy were conducted for investigating the reactions in situ. Based on these data, the intermediates were characterized and the formation mechanism was derived. PMID:27188480

  7. "Metallic burn paper" used for in situ characterization of laser beam properties.

    PubMed

    Bass, Isaac L; Negres, Raluca A; Stanion, Ken; Guss, Gabe; Bude, Jeff

    2016-04-20

    In situ ablation of thin metal films on fused silica substrates by picosecond class lasers was investigated as a method of characterizing the beam at the sample plane. The technique involved plotting the areas enclosed by constant fluence contours identified in optical microscope images of the ablation sites versus the logs of the pulse energies. Inconel films on commercially available neutral density filters as well as magnetron sputtered gold films were used. It was also shown that this technique could be used to calibrate real-time beam profile diagnostics against the beam at the sample plane. The contours were shown to correspond to the boundary where part or all of the film was ablated. PMID:27140078

  8. Techniques for assessing the performance of in situ bioreduction and immobilization of metals and radionuclides in contaminated subsurface environments

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, P.M.; Watson, D.B.; Blake, D.A.; Beard, L.P.; Brooks, S.C.; Carley, J.M.; Criddle, C.S.; Doll, W.E.; Fields, M.W.; Fendorf, S.E.; Geesey, G.G.; Ginder-Vogel, M.; Hubbard, S.S.; Istok, J.D.; Kelly, S.; Kemner, K.M.; Peacock, A.D.; Spalding, B.P.; White, D.C.; Wolf, A.; Wu, W.; Zhou, J.

    2004-11-14

    Department of Energy (DOE) facilities within the weapons complex face a daunting challenge of remediating huge below inventories of legacy radioactive and toxic metal waste. More often than not, the scope of the problem is massive, particularly in the high recharge, humid regions east of the Mississippi river, where the off-site migration of contaminants continues to plague soil water, groundwater, and surface water sources. As of 2002, contaminated sites are closing rapidly and many remediation strategies have chosen to leave contaminants in-place. In situ barriers, surface caps, and bioremediation are often the remedial strategies of chose. By choosing to leave contaminants in-place, we must accept the fact that the contaminants will continue to interact with subsurface and surface media. Contaminant interactions with the geosphere are complex and investigating long term changes and interactive processes is imperative to verifying risks. We must be able to understand the consequences of our action or inaction. The focus of this manuscript is to describe recent technical developments for assessing the performance of in situ bioremediation and immobilization of subsurface metals and radionuclides. Research within DOE's NABIR and EMSP programs has been investigating the possibility of using subsurface microorganisms to convert redox sensitive toxic metals and radionuclides (e.g. Cr, U, Tc, Co) into a less soluble, less mobile forms. Much of the research is motivated by the likelihood that subsurface metal-reducing bacteria can be stimulated to effectively alter the redox state of metals and radionuclides so that they are immobilized in situ for long time periods. The approach is difficult, however, since subsurface media and waste constituents are complex with competing electron acceptors and hydrogeological conditions making biostimulation a challenge. Performance assessment of in situ biostimulation strategies is also difficult and typically requires detailed

  9. Techniques for Assessing the Performance of In Situ Bioreduction and Immobilization of Metals and Radionuclides in Contaminated Subsurface Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, D. B.; Jardine, P. M.

    2005-05-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) facilities within the weapons complex face a daunting challenge of remediating huge below inventories of legacy radioactive and toxic metal waste. More often than not, the scope of the problem is massive, particularly in the high recharge, humid regions east of the Mississippi river, where the off-site migration of contaminants continues to plague soil water, groundwater, and surface water sources. As of 2002, contaminated sites are closing rapidly and many remediation strategies have chosen to leave contaminants in-place. In situ barriers, surface caps, and bioremediation are often the remedial strategies of chose. By choosing to leave contaminants in-place, we must accept the fact that the contaminants will continue to interact with subsurface and surface media. Contaminant interactions with the geosphere are complex and investigating long term changes and interactive processes is imperative to verifying risks. We must be able to understand the consequences of our action or inaction. The focus of this presentation is to describe recent technical developments for assessing the performance of in situ bioremediation and immobilization of subsurface metals and radionuclides. Research within DOE's NABIR and EMSP programs has been investigating the possibility of using subsurface microorganisms to convert redox sensitive toxic metals and radionuclides (e.g. Cr, U, Tc, Co) into a less soluble, less mobile forms. Much of the research is motivated by the likelihood that subsurface metal-reducing bacteria can be stimulated to effectively alter the redox state of metals and radionuclides so that they are immobilized in situ for long time periods. The approach is difficult, however, since subsurface media and waste constituents are complex with competing electron acceptors and hydrogeological conditions making biostimulation a challenge. Performance assessment of in situ biostimulation strategies is also difficult and typically requires detailed

  10. A Tensile Deformation Model for In-situ Dendrite/Metallic Glass Matrix Composites

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, J. W.; Zhang, T.; Yang, F. Q.; Liaw, P. K.; Pauly, S.; Xu, B. S.

    2013-01-01

    In-situ dendrite/metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) with a composition of Ti46Zr20V12Cu5Be17 exhibit ultimate tensile strength of 1510 MPa and fracture strain of about 7.6%. A tensile deformation model is established, based on the five-stage classification: (1) elastic-elastic, (2) elastic-plastic, (3) plastic-plastic (yield platform), (4) plastic-plastic (work hardening), and (5) plastic-plastic (softening) stages, analogous to the tensile behavior of common carbon steels. The constitutive relations strongly elucidate the tensile deformation mechanism. In parallel, the simulation results by a finite-element method (FEM) are in good agreement with the experimental findings and theoretical calculations. The present study gives a mathematical model to clarify the work-hardening behavior of dendrites and softening of the amorphous matrix. Furthermore, the model can be employed to simulate the tensile behavior of in-situ dendrite/MGMCs. PMID:24085187

  11. In-situ deposition of Pd nanoparticles on tubular halloysite template for initiation of metallization.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yubin; Zhang, Lide; Zheng, Jiyong

    2005-04-01

    Halloysite template has a tubular microstructure; its wall has a multi-layer aluminosilicate structure. A new catalytic method is adopted here, through the in-situ reduction of Pd ions on the surface of tubular halloysite by methanol to initiate electroless plating; the detailed deposition features of Pd nanoparticles are investigated for the first time. The results indicate that an in-situ reduction and deposition of Pd occurs at room temperature, in which the halloysite template plays an important role. Impurities in halloysite (such as ferric oxide) influence the formation and distribution of the Pd nanoparticles. The Pd nanoparticles are of a non-spherical shape in most cases, which would be caused by the irregular appearance of halloysite. No intercalation of the nanoparticles occurs between the aluminosilicate layers in the halloysite. The diameter of Pd nanoparticles increases with time; the average diameter ranges from 1 nm to 4 nm. Pd nanoparticles on a halloysite template can catalyze electroless deposition of Ni to prepare a novel nano-sized cermet at low cost. This practicable catalytic method could also be used on other clay substrates for the initiation of metallization. PMID:16004119

  12. Method and apparatus for spraying molten materials

    DOEpatents

    Glovan, R.J.; Tierney, J.C.; McLean, L.L.; Johnson, L.L.; Nelson, G.L.; Lee, Y.M.

    1996-06-25

    A metal spray apparatus is provided with a supersonic nozzle. Molten metal is injected into a gas stream flowing through the nozzle under pressure. By varying the pressure of the injected metal, the droplet can be made in various selected sizes with each selected size having a high degree of size uniformity. A unique one piece graphite heater provides easily controlled uniformity of temperature in the nozzle and an attached tundish which holds the pressurized molten metal. A unique U-shaped gas heater provides extremely hot inlet gas temperatures to the nozzle. A particularly useful application of the spray apparatus is coating of threads of a fastener with a shape memory alloy. This permits a fastener to be easily inserted and removed but provides for a secure locking of the fastener in high temperature environments. 12 figs.

  13. Method and apparatus for spraying molten materials

    DOEpatents

    Glovan, Ronald J.; Tierney, John C.; McLean, Leroy L.; Johnson, Lawrence L.; Nelson, Gordon L.; Lee, Ying-Ming

    1996-01-01

    A metal spray apparatus is provided with a supersonic nozzle. Molten metal is injected into a gas stream flowing through the nozzle under pressure. By varying the pressure of the injected metal, the droplet can be made in various selected sizes with each selected size having a high degree of size uniformity. A unique one piece graphite heater provides easily controlled uniformity of temperature in the nozzle and an attached tundish which holds the pressurized molten metal. A unique U-shaped gas heater provides extremely hot inlet gas temperatures to the nozzle. A particularly useful application of the spray apparatus is coating of threads of a fastener with a shape memory alloy. This permits a fastener to be easily inserted and removed but provides for a secure locking of the fastener in high temperature environments.

  14. Method for the regeneration of spent molten zinc chloride

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.; Rosenhoover, William A.

    1981-01-01

    In a process for regenerating spent molten zinc chloride which has been used in the hydrocracking of coal or ash-containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous materials derived therefrom and which contains zinc chloride, zinc oxide, zinc oxide complexes and ash-containing carbonaceous residue, by incinerating the spent molten zinc chloride to vaporize the zinc chloride for subsequent condensation to produce a purified molten zinc chloride: an improvement comprising the use of clay in the incineration zone to suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc. Optionally water is used in conjunction with the clay to further suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc.

  15. Molten aluminum: Recent advances in weighing and transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Stefansson, P.; Vee, O.I.

    1996-10-01

    Logistics of molten metal is an important aspect of the efficiency of any aluminum smelter operation. The paper discusses a tapping method developed by Hydro Aluminum which has proven superior to the conventional crane or forklift tapping of potroom metal. The overall manning can be halved by the extensive rationalization of this method. The remote computer operated control of molten metal transfer by electronic scales mounted on the tapping vehicle is explained. As the metal needs no skimming, the dross/skim generation and sodium content of metal is shown with collected data. The impact and advantages of this novel engineering on the casthouse is finally explained and discussed in detail.

  16. Electron Beam Induced Artifacts During in situ TEM Deformation of Nanostructured Metals.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Rohit; Rentenberger, Christian; Rajagopalan, Jagannathan

    2015-01-01

    A critical assumption underlying in situ transmission electron microscopy studies is that the electron beam (e-beam) exposure does not fundamentally alter the intrinsic deformation behavior of the materials being probed. Here, we show that e-beam exposure causes increased dislocation activation and marked stress relaxation in aluminum and gold films spanning a range of thicknesses (80-400 nanometers) and grain sizes (50-220 nanometers). Furthermore, the e-beam induces anomalous sample necking, which unusually depends more on the e-beam diameter than intensity. Notably, the stress relaxation in both aluminum and gold occurs at beam energies well below their damage thresholds. More remarkably, the stress relaxation and/or sample necking is significantly more pronounced at lower accelerating voltages (120 kV versus 200 kV) in both the metals. These observations in aluminum and gold, two metals with highly dissimilar atomic weights and properties, indicate that e-beam exposure can cause anomalous behavior in a broad spectrum of nanostructured materials, and simultaneously suggest a strategy to minimize such artifacts. PMID:26552934

  17. Electron Beam Induced Artifacts During in situ TEM Deformation of Nanostructured Metals

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Rohit; Rentenberger, Christian; Rajagopalan, Jagannathan

    2015-01-01

    A critical assumption underlying in situ transmission electron microscopy studies is that the electron beam (e-beam) exposure does not fundamentally alter the intrinsic deformation behavior of the materials being probed. Here, we show that e-beam exposure causes increased dislocation activation and marked stress relaxation in aluminum and gold films spanning a range of thicknesses (80–400 nanometers) and grain sizes (50–220 nanometers). Furthermore, the e-beam induces anomalous sample necking, which unusually depends more on the e-beam diameter than intensity. Notably, the stress relaxation in both aluminum and gold occurs at beam energies well below their damage thresholds. More remarkably, the stress relaxation and/or sample necking is significantly more pronounced at lower accelerating voltages (120 kV versus 200 kV) in both the metals. These observations in aluminum and gold, two metals with highly dissimilar atomic weights and properties, indicate that e-beam exposure can cause anomalous behavior in a broad spectrum of nanostructured materials, and simultaneously suggest a strategy to minimize such artifacts. PMID:26552934

  18. In situ gas phase measurements during metal alkylamide atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Maslar, J E; Kimes, W A; Sperling, B A

    2011-09-01

    Metal alkylamide compounds, such as tetrakis(ethylmethylamido) hafnium (TEMAH), represent a technologically important class of metalorganic precursors for the deposition of metal oxides and metal nitrides via atomic layer deposition (ALD) or chemical vapor deposition. The development of in situ diagnostics for processes involving these compounds could be beneficial in, e.g., developing deposition recipes and validating equipment-scale simulations. This report describes the performance of the combination of two techniques for the simultaneous, rapid measurement of the three major gas phase species during hafnium oxide thermal ALD using TEMAH and water: TEMAH, water, and methylethyl amine (MEA), the only major reaction by-product. For measurement of TEMAH and MEA, direct absorption methods based on a broadband infrared source with different mid-IR bandpass filters and utilizing amplitude modulation and synchronous detection were developed. For the measurement of water, wavelength modulation spectroscopy utilizing a near-IR distributed feedback diode laser was used. Despite the relatively simple reactor geometry employed here (a flow tube), differences were easily observed in the time-dependent species distributions in 300 mL/min of a helium carrier gas and in 1000 mL/min of a nitrogen carrier gas. The degree of TEMAH entrainment was lower in 300 mL/min of helium compared to that in 1000 mL/min of nitrogen. The capability to obtain detailed time-dependent species concentrations during ALD could potentially allow for the selection of carrier gas composition and flow rates that would minimize parasitic wall reactions. However, when nitrogen was employed at the higher flow rates, various flow effects were observed that, if detrimental to a deposition process, would effectively limit the upper range of useful flow rates. PMID:22097559

  19. Fluorescent metal-organic polymers of zinc and cadmium from hydrothermal in situ acylation reaction.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Yang; Ye, Ling; Zhang, Xiao; Cui, Xiao-Bing; Zhang, Jian-Po; Xu, Ji-Qing; Hou, Qin; Wang, Tie-Gang

    2010-11-28

    A series of metal-organic complexes based on d(10) metals and the ligand H(4)bbh (H(4)bbh = benzene-1, 2, 4, 5-biformhydrazide), formed through hydrothermal in situ acylate reaction of H(4)bta (H(4)bta = benzene-1, 2, 4, 5-tetracarboxylic acid) with hydrazine hydrate (N(2)H(4)·H(2)O), have been prepared and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds [Zn(μ(2)-H(2)bbh)(phen)(H(2)O)](2) (1) (phen = 1, 10-phenanthroline) and [Zn(μ(2)-H(2)bbh)(2, 2'-bpy)](2) (2) (2, 2'-bpy = 2, 2'-bipyridine) are both dinuclear complexes in which bridging ligands H(2)bbh(2-) display different μ(2)- coordination modes. [Zn(μ(2)-H(2)bbh)(1/2)(μ(2)-H(2)bbh)(1/2)(H(2)O)](n) (3) exhibits a two-dimensional (2-D) layer structure containing simultaneously two kinds of different coordination modes of H(2)bbh(2-): μ(2)-bidentate and μ(4)-tetradentate. [Cd(μ(3)-H(2)bbh)(phen)](n) (4) consists of one-dimensional (1-D) double-metal chains. The crystal structures of these compounds are stabilized by hydrogen bonds and π···π interactions, forming three-dimensional supramolecular networks. All of the compounds were characterized by IR, UV-vis spectra and elemental analysis and they show good fluorescence properties in the solid state at room temperature. In order to understand the emission mechanism, we carried out TDDFT calculations on the excited electronic states of compound 2. PMID:20886135

  20. On-site solid-phase extraction and application to in situ preconcentration of heavy metals in surface water.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Fang; Gao, Hong-Wen

    2013-01-01

    An on-site solid-phase extraction, consisting of the sorption, the separation and the elution function units, was designed for in situ preconcentration of heavy metals ions. The D401 resin powder was employed as sorbent to capture Pb(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Co(2+), and Ni(2+), and then they desorbed with 2 mol/L nitric acid as eluent. Under the optimized conditions, these heavy metals ions in West Lake, Taihu Lake, and Yangtze River of China were captured and then determined by ICP-OES with the recovery of 92.5% to 111.5%. The on-site solid-phase extraction achieved a quick preconcentration of heavy metals to avoid the transport and storage of a large volume water sample. It is suitable for in situ monitoring of water quality in mountains, tablelands or other remote areas. PMID:22286838

  1. Mathematical Modeling on the Growth and Removal of Non-metallic Inclusions in the Molten Steel in a Two-Strand Continuous Casting Tundish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Haitao; Zhang, Lifeng; Li, Hong

    2016-07-01

    In the current study, mathematical models were developed to predict the transient concentration and size distribution of inclusions in a two-strand continuous casting tundish. The collision and growth of inclusions were considered. The contribution of turbulent collision and Stokes collision was evaluated. The removal of inclusions from the top surface was modeled by considering the properties of inclusions and the molten steel, such as the wettability, density, size, and interfacial tension. The effect of composition of inclusions on the collision of inclusions was included through the Hamaker constant. Meanwhile, the effect of the turbulent fluctuation velocity on the removal of inclusions at the top surface was also studied. Inclusions in steel samples were detected using automatic SEM Scanning so that the amount, morphology, size, and composition of inclusions were achieved. In the simulation, the size distribution of inclusions at the end steel refining was used as the initial size distribution of inclusions at tundish inlet. The equilibrium time when the collision and coalescence of inclusions reached the steady state was equal to 3.9 times of the mean residence time. When Stokes collision, turbulent collision, and removal by floating were included, the removal fraction of inclusions was 16.4 pct. Finally, the removal of solid and liquid inclusions, such as Al2O3, SiO2, and 12CaO·7Al2O3, at the interface between the molten steel and slag was studied. Compared with 12CaO·7Al2O3 inclusions, the silica and alumina inclusions were much easier to be removed from the molten steel and their removal fractions were 36.5 and 39.2 pct, respectively.

  2. Effect of tungsten metal particle sizes on the solubility of molten alloy melt: Experimental observation of Gibbs-Thomson effect in nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. H.; Das, J.; Sordelet, D. J.; Eckert, J.; Hurd, A. J.

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the effect of tungsten particle sizes on the thermal stability and reactivity of uniformly dispersed W particles in molten Hf-based alloy melt at elevated temperature (1673 K). The solubility of particles less than 100 nm in radius is significantly enhanced. In case of fine W particles with 20 nm diameter, their solubility increases remarkably around 700% compared to that of coarse micrometer-scale particles. The mechanisms and kinetics of this dynamic growth of particle are discussed as well as techniques developed to obtain frozen microstructure of particle-reinforced composites by rapid solidification.

  3. The Gellyfish: An In-Situ Equilibrium-Based Sampler for Determining Multiple Free Metal Ion Concentrations in Marine Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhao; Lewis, Christopher G.; Burgess, Robert M.; Shine, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Free metal ions are usually the most bioavailable and toxic metal species to aquatic organisms, but they are difficult to measure due to their extremely low concentrations in the marine environment. Many of the current methods for determining free metal ions are complicated, time-consuming, and can only measure one metal at a time. We developed a new version of the ‘Gellyfish’, an in-situ equilibrium-based sampler, with significantly reduced equilibration time and the capability of measuring multiple free metal ions simultaneously. By calibrating the Gellyfish to account for its uptake of cationic metal complexes and validating them in multi-metal competition experiments, we were able to determine free metal ion concentrations previously collected over ten months at five locations in Boston Harbor for Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cd. This work generated one of the largest free metal ion datasets and demonstrated the applicability of the Gellyfish as an easy-to-use and inexpensive tool for monitoring free ion concentrations of metal mixtures in marine ecosystems. PMID:25598362

  4. In situ study of e-beam Al and Hf metal deposition on native oxide InP (100)

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, H.; KC, Santosh; Azcatl, A.; Cabrera, W.; Qin, X.; Brennan, B.; Cho, K.; Wallace, R. M.; Zhernokletov, D.

    2013-11-28

    The interfacial chemistry of thin Al (∼3 nm) and Hf (∼2 nm) metal films deposited by electron beam (e-beam) evaporation on native oxide InP (100) samples at room temperature and after annealing has been studied by in situ angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy ion scattering spectroscopy. The In-oxides are completely scavenged forming In-In/In-(Al/Hf) bonding after Al and Hf metal deposition. The P-oxide concentration is significantly decreased, and the P-oxide chemical states have been changed to more P-rich oxides upon metal deposition. Indium diffusion through these metals before and after annealing at 250 °C has also been characterized. First principles calculation shows that In has lower surface formation energy compared with Al and Hf metals, which is consistent with the observed indium diffusion behavior.

  5. In situ spectroscopic investigation of hyperthermophilic metal-respiring archaea at high-temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ménez, B.; Bureau, H.; Gouget, B.; Avoscan, L.; Simionovici, A.; Somogyi, A.

    2003-04-01

    The main issue of this study is developing methodologies that can improve abilities to characterize life in extreme habitats. In particular, it aims at evaluating the possibility of monitoring microorganisms mediated reactions involving metals by using non destructive X-ray microprobe combined with high pressure and temperature micro-reactors. The first step was dedicated to the study of metal-respiring organisms that achieve growth with oxyanions of arsenate and selenate as their electron acceptors for the oxidation of organic substrates or H2, forming elemental selenium or arsenite, respectively, as the reduction products. We focused on a strictly anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaea, Pyrobaculum arsenaticum, recently isolated and well adapted to high levels of arsenate and selenate (Huber et al., 2000, System. Appl. Microbiol., 23, 305). We report here the first in situ X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopic characterization of the oxidation state of selenium following microbial respiration at high temperature. A Basset-modified Hydrothermal Diamond Anvil Cell (HDAC) acts as anaerobic micro-reactor to reproduce extreme temperature and pressure conditions for life and allows, together with the direct visual observation of the organisms, the microbeam characterization of the changes of metal concentration and speciation induced by microbial activity. The measurements were performed at the ESRF on undulator beamline ID22. P. arsenaticum together with its culture medium, doped with selenate (50 μM), were loaded under N_2 atmosphere in the HDAC. High-resolution X-ray fluorescence and selenium K-edge XANES spectra were collected alternatively and continuously at high temperature (up to 95^oC), allowing for the time-resolved monitoring of the chemical evolution of the culture medium. Data processing is still in progress. In the long-term, our aim is, on one hand, to shed light on the tolerance in terms of temperature, pressure and metal

  6. A method to investigate the electron scattering characteristics of ultrathin metallic films by in situ electrical resistance measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Trindade, I. G.; Sousa, J. B.; Fermento, R.; Leitao, D.

    2009-07-15

    In this article, a method to measure the electrical resistivity/conductivity of metallic thin films during layer growth on specific underlayers is described. The in situ monitoring of an underlayer electrical resistance, its change upon the incoming of new material atoms/molecules, and the growth of a new layer are presented. The method is easy to implement and allows obtaining in situ experimental curves of electrical resistivity dependence upon film thickness with a subatomic resolution, providing insight in film growth microstructure characteristics, specular/diffuse electron scattering surfaces, and optimum film thicknesses.

  7. Temporal variability in dynamic and colloidal metal fractions determined by high resolution in situ measurements in a UK estuary.

    PubMed

    Braungardt, Charlotte B; Howell, Kate A; Tappin, Alan D; Achterberg, Eric P

    2011-07-01

    In recent environmental legislation, such as the Water Framework Directive in the European Union (WFD, 2000/60/EC), the importance of metal speciation and biological availability is acknowledged, although analytical challenges remain. In this study, the Voltammetric In situ Profiler (VIP) was used for high temporal resolution in situ metal speciation measurements in estuarine waters. This instrument simultaneously determines Cd, Cu and Pb species within a size range (ca. <4 nm) that is highly relevant for uptake by organisms. The colloidal metal fraction can be quantified through a combination of VIP measurements and analyses of total dissolved metal concentrations. VIP systems were deployed over tidal cycles in a seasonal study of metal speciation in the Fal Estuary, southwest England. Total dissolved concentrations were 4.97-315 nM Cu, 0.13-8.53 nM Cd and 0.35-5.75 nM Pb. High proportions of Pb (77±17%) and Cu (60±25%) were present as colloids, which constituted a less important fraction for Cd (37±30%). The study elucidated variations in the potentially toxic metal fraction related to river flow, complexation by organic ligands and exchanges between dissolved and colloidal phases and the sediment. Based on published toxicity data, the bioavailable Cu concentrations (1.7-190 nM) in this estuary are likely to severely compromise the ecosystem structure and functioning with respect to species diversity and recruitment of juveniles. The study illustrates the importance of in situ speciation studies at high resolution in pursuit of a better understanding of metal (bio)geochemistry in dynamic coastal systems. PMID:21529891

  8. In situ droplet surface tension and viscosity measurements in gas metal arc welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, B.; Siewert, E.; Schein, J.

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we present an adaptation of a drop oscillation technique that enables in situ measurements of thermophysical properties of an industrial pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process. Surface tension, viscosity, density and temperature were derived expanding the portfolio of existing methods and previously published measurements of surface tension in pulsed GMAW. Natural oscillations of pure liquid iron droplets are recorded during the material transfer with a high-speed camera. Frame rates up to 30 000 fps were utilized to visualize iron droplet oscillations which were in the low kHz range. Image processing algorithms were employed for edge contour extraction of the droplets and to derive parameters such as oscillation frequencies and damping rates along different dimensions of the droplet. Accurate surface tension measurements were achieved incorporating the effect of temperature on density. These are compared with a second method that has been developed to accurately determine the mass of droplets produced during the GMAW process which enables precise surface tension measurements with accuracies up to 1% and permits the study of thermophysical properties also for metals whose density highly depends on temperature. Thermophysical properties of pure liquid iron droplets formed by a wire with 1.2 mm diameter were investigated in a pulsed GMAW process with a base current of 100 A and a pulse current of 600 A. Surface tension and viscosity of a sample droplet were 1.83 ± 0.02 N m-1 and 2.9 ± 0.3 mPa s, respectively. The corresponding droplet temperature and density are 2040 ± 50 K and 6830 ± 50 kg m-3, respectively.

  9. Shock Wave Response of Iron-based In Situ Metallic Glass Matrix Composites

    PubMed Central

    Khanolkar, Gauri R.; Rauls, Michael B.; Kelly, James P.; Graeve, Olivia A.; Hodge, Andrea M.; Eliasson, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    The response of amorphous steels to shock wave compression has been explored for the first time. Further, the effect of partial devitrification on the shock response of bulk metallic glasses is examined by conducting experiments on two iron-based in situ metallic glass matrix composites, containing varying amounts of crystalline precipitates, both with initial composition Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4. The samples, designated SAM2X5-600 and SAM2X5-630, are X-ray amorphous and partially crystalline, respectively, due to differences in sintering parameters during sample preparation. Shock response is determined by making velocity measurements using interferometry techniques at the rear free surface of the samples, which have been subjected to impact from a high-velocity projectile launched from a powder gun. Experiments have yielded results indicating a Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) to be 8.58 ± 0.53 GPa for SAM2X5-600 and 11.76 ± 1.26 GPa for SAM2X5-630. The latter HEL result is higher than elastic limits for any BMG reported in the literature thus far. SAM2X5-600 catastrophically loses post-yield strength whereas SAM2X5-630, while showing some strain-softening, retains strength beyond the HEL. The presence of crystallinity within the amorphous matrix is thus seen to significantly aid in strengthening the material as well as preserving material strength beyond yielding. PMID:26932846

  10. Shock Wave Response of Iron-based In Situ Metallic Glass Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanolkar, Gauri R.; Rauls, Michael B.; Kelly, James P.; Graeve, Olivia A.; Hodge, Andrea M.; Eliasson, Veronica

    2016-03-01

    The response of amorphous steels to shock wave compression has been explored for the first time. Further, the effect of partial devitrification on the shock response of bulk metallic glasses is examined by conducting experiments on two iron-based in situ metallic glass matrix composites, containing varying amounts of crystalline precipitates, both with initial composition Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4. The samples, designated SAM2X5-600 and SAM2X5-630, are X-ray amorphous and partially crystalline, respectively, due to differences in sintering parameters during sample preparation. Shock response is determined by making velocity measurements using interferometry techniques at the rear free surface of the samples, which have been subjected to impact from a high-velocity projectile launched from a powder gun. Experiments have yielded results indicating a Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) to be 8.58 ± 0.53 GPa for SAM2X5-600 and 11.76 ± 1.26 GPa for SAM2X5-630. The latter HEL result is higher than elastic limits for any BMG reported in the literature thus far. SAM2X5-600 catastrophically loses post-yield strength whereas SAM2X5-630, while showing some strain-softening, retains strength beyond the HEL. The presence of crystallinity within the amorphous matrix is thus seen to significantly aid in strengthening the material as well as preserving material strength beyond yielding.

  11. Shock Wave Response of Iron-based In Situ Metallic Glass Matrix Composites.

    PubMed

    Khanolkar, Gauri R; Rauls, Michael B; Kelly, James P; Graeve, Olivia A; Hodge, Andrea M; Eliasson, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    The response of amorphous steels to shock wave compression has been explored for the first time. Further, the effect of partial devitrification on the shock response of bulk metallic glasses is examined by conducting experiments on two iron-based in situ metallic glass matrix composites, containing varying amounts of crystalline precipitates, both with initial composition Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4. The samples, designated SAM2X5-600 and SAM2X5-630, are X-ray amorphous and partially crystalline, respectively, due to differences in sintering parameters during sample preparation. Shock response is determined by making velocity measurements using interferometry techniques at the rear free surface of the samples, which have been subjected to impact from a high-velocity projectile launched from a powder gun. Experiments have yielded results indicating a Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) to be 8.58 ± 0.53 GPa for SAM2X5-600 and 11.76 ± 1.26 GPa for SAM2X5-630. The latter HEL result is higher than elastic limits for any BMG reported in the literature thus far. SAM2X5-600 catastrophically loses post-yield strength whereas SAM2X5-630, while showing some strain-softening, retains strength beyond the HEL. The presence of crystallinity within the amorphous matrix is thus seen to significantly aid in strengthening the material as well as preserving material strength beyond yielding. PMID:26932846

  12. In situ synthesis of homochiral metal-organic framework in capillary column for capillary electrochromatography enantioseparation.

    PubMed

    Pan, Congjie; Wang, Weifeng; Zhang, Huige; Xu, Laifang; Chen, Xingguo

    2015-04-01

    Homochiral metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising as porous stationary phase for open-tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC) enantioseparation owing to their fine-tuned pore sizes and large surface areas. In this work, the homochiral MOF AlaZnCl was successfully coated on the inner wall of fused silica capillary by an in situ, layer-by-layer self-assembly approach at room temperature. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), streaming potential (SP) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) indicated that the homochiral MOF AlaZnCl was successfully coated on the capillary inner wall. To evaluate the performance of the homochiral MOF AlaZnCl coated capillary column, the enantioseparation was carried out by using six amine drugs and monoamine neurotransmitters as model analytes and excellent enantioseparation efficiency was achieved. Run-to-run, day-to-day, and column-to-column relative standard deviations (RSDs) were all less than 5%. Moreover, the separation efficiency of the homochiral MOF AlaZnCl coated capillary column did not decrease obviously over 100 runs. PMID:25725957

  13. In situ electrochemical digital holographic microscopy; a study of metal electrodeposition in deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Andrew P; Azam, Muhammad; Ryder, Karl S; Saleem, Saima

    2013-07-16

    This study has shown for the first time that digital holographic microscopy (DHM) can be used as a new analytical tool in analysis of kinetic mechanism and growth during electrolytic deposition processes. Unlike many alternative established electrochemical microscopy methods such as probe microscopy, DHM is both the noninvasive and noncontact, the unique holographic imaging allows the observations and measurement to be made remotely. DHM also provides interferometric resolution (nanometer vertical scale) with a very short acquisition time. It is a surface metrology technique that enables the retrieval of information about a 3D structure from the phase contrast of a single hologram acquired using a conventional digital camera. Here DHM has been applied to investigate directly the electro-crystallization of a metal on a substrate in real time (in situ) from two deep eutectic solvent (DES) systems based on mixture of choline chloride and either urea or ethylene glycol. We show, using electrochemical DHM that the nucleation and growth of silver deposits in these systems are quite distinct and influenced strongly by the hydrogen bond donor of the DES. PMID:23751128

  14. An improved tensile deformation model for in-situ dendrite/metallic glass matrix composites

    PubMed Central

    Sun, X. H.; Qiao, J. W.; Jiao, Z. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Yang, H. J.; Xu, B. S.

    2015-01-01

    With regard to previous tensile deformation models simulating the tensile behavior of in-situ dendrite-reinforced metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) [Qiao et al., Acta Mater. 59 (2011) 4126; Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2816], some parameters, such as yielding strength of the dendrites and glass matrix, and the strain-hardening exponent of the dendrites, are estimated based on literatures. Here, Ti48Zr18V12Cu5Be17 MGMCs are investigated in order to improve the tensile deformation model and reveal the tensile deformation mechanisms. The tensile behavior of dendrites is obtained experimentally combining nano-indentation measurements and finite-element-method analysis for the first time, and those of the glass matrix and composites are obtained by tension. Besides, the tensile behavior of the MGMCs is divided into four stages: (1) elastic-elastic, (2) elastic-plastic, (3) plastic-plastic (work-hardening), and (4) plastic-plastic (softening). The respective constitutive relationships at different deformation stages are quantified. The calculated results coincide well with the experimental results. Thus, the improved model can be applied to clarify and predict the tensile behavior of the MGMCs. PMID:26354724

  15. An improved tensile deformation model for in-situ dendrite/metallic glass matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, X. H.; Qiao, J. W.; Jiao, Z. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Yang, H. J.; Xu, B. S.

    2015-09-01

    With regard to previous tensile deformation models simulating the tensile behavior of in-situ dendrite-reinforced metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) [Qiao et al., Acta Mater. 59 (2011) 4126; Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2816], some parameters, such as yielding strength of the dendrites and glass matrix, and the strain-hardening exponent of the dendrites, are estimated based on literatures. Here, Ti48Zr18V12Cu5Be17 MGMCs are investigated in order to improve the tensile deformation model and reveal the tensile deformation mechanisms. The tensile behavior of dendrites is obtained experimentally combining nano-indentation measurements and finite-element-method analysis for the first time, and those of the glass matrix and composites are obtained by tension. Besides, the tensile behavior of the MGMCs is divided into four stages: (1) elastic-elastic, (2) elastic-plastic, (3) plastic-plastic (work-hardening), and (4) plastic-plastic (softening). The respective constitutive relationships at different deformation stages are quantified. The calculated results coincide well with the experimental results. Thus, the improved model can be applied to clarify and predict the tensile behavior of the MGMCs.

  16. In Situ Electrochemical Oxidation Tuning of Transition Metal Disulfides to Oxides for Enhanced Water Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Haotian; Li, Yuzhang; Liu, Yayuan; Sun, Jie; Lee, Sanghan; Lee, Jang-Soo; Cui, Yi

    2015-08-26

    The development of catalysts with earth-abundant elements for efficient oxygen evolution reactions is of paramount significance for clean and sustainable energy storage and conversion devices. Our group demonstrated recently that the electrochemical tuning of catalysts via lithium insertion and extraction has emerged as a powerful approach to improve catalytic activity. Here we report a novel in situ electrochemical oxidation tuning approach to develop a series of binary, ternary, and quaternary transition metal (e.g., Co, Ni, Fe) oxides from their corresponding sulfides as highly active catalysts for much enhanced water oxidation. The electrochemically tuned cobalt-nickel-iron oxides grown directly on the three-dimensional carbon fiber electrodes exhibit a low overpotential of 232 mV at current density of 10 mA cm(-2), small Tafel slope of 37.6 mV dec(-1), and exceptional long-term stability of electrolysis for over 100 h in 1 M KOH alkaline medium, superior to most non-noble oxygen evolution catalysts reported so far. The materials evolution associated with the electrochemical oxidation tuning is systematically investigated by various characterizations, manifesting that the improved activities are attributed to the significant grain size reduction and increase of surface area and electroactive sites. This work provides a promising strategy to develop electrocatalysts for large-scale water-splitting systems and many other applications. PMID:27162978

  17. In Situ Electrochemical Oxidation Tuning of Transition Metal Disulfides to Oxides for Enhanced Water Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The development of catalysts with earth-abundant elements for efficient oxygen evolution reactions is of paramount significance for clean and sustainable energy storage and conversion devices. Our group demonstrated recently that the electrochemical tuning of catalysts via lithium insertion and extraction has emerged as a powerful approach to improve catalytic activity. Here we report a novel in situ electrochemical oxidation tuning approach to develop a series of binary, ternary, and quaternary transition metal (e.g., Co, Ni, Fe) oxides from their corresponding sulfides as highly active catalysts for much enhanced water oxidation. The electrochemically tuned cobalt–nickel–iron oxides grown directly on the three-dimensional carbon fiber electrodes exhibit a low overpotential of 232 mV at current density of 10 mA cm–2, small Tafel slope of 37.6 mV dec–1, and exceptional long-term stability of electrolysis for over 100 h in 1 M KOH alkaline medium, superior to most non-noble oxygen evolution catalysts reported so far. The materials evolution associated with the electrochemical oxidation tuning is systematically investigated by various characterizations, manifesting that the improved activities are attributed to the significant grain size reduction and increase of surface area and electroactive sites. This work provides a promising strategy to develop electrocatalysts for large-scale water-splitting systems and many other applications. PMID:27162978

  18. Hybrid Al + Al3Ni metallic foams synthesized in situ via laser engineered net shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Baolong; Li, Ying; Smugeresky, John E.; Zhou, Yizhang; Baker, Dean; Lavernia, Enrique J.

    2011-09-01

    A hybrid, Al + Al3Ni metallic foam was synthesized in situ via laser engineered net shaping (LENS®) of Ni-coated 6061 Al powder in the absence of a foaming agent. During LENS® processing, the Ni coating reacted with the Al matrix, resulting in the simultaneous formation of a fine dispersion of Al3Ni, and a high volume fraction of porosity. As a reinforcement phase, the intermetallic compound formed particles with a size range of 1-5 µm and a volume fraction of 63%, with accompanying 35-300 µm pores with a 60% volume fraction. The microstructure of the as-deposited Al + Al3Ni composite foams was characterized using SEM, EDS, XRD and TEM/HRTEM techniques. The evolution of the microstructure was analyzed on the basis of the thermal field present during deposition, paying particular attention to the thermodynamics of the Al3Ni intermetallic compound formation as well as discussing the mechanisms that may be responsible for the observed porosity. The mechanical behavior of the as-deposited material was characterized using compression and microhardness testing, indicating that the yield strength and hardness are 190 MPa and 320 HV, respectively, which represents an increase of over three times higher than that of annealed Al6061, or similar to heat-treated Al6061 fully dense matrix, and much higher than those of traditional Al alloy foams, and with a low density of 1.64 g/m3.

  19. Use of x-ray fluorescence for in-situ detection of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elam, W. T. E.; Whitlock, Robert R.; Gilfrich, John V.

    1995-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is a well-established, non-destructive method of determining elemental concentrations at ppm levels in complex samples. It can operate in atmosphere with no sample preparation, and provides accuracies of 1% or better under optimum conditions. This report addresses two sets of issues concerning the use of x-ray fluorescence as a sensor technology for the cone penetrometer, for shipboard waste disposal, or for other in-situ, real- time environmental applications. The first issue concerns the applicability of XRF to these applications, and includes investigation of detection limits and matrix effects. We have evaluated the detection limits and quantitative accuracy of a sensor mock-up for metals in soils under conditions expected in the field. In addition, several novel ways of improving the lower limits of detection to reach the drinking water regulatory limits have been explored. The second issue is the engineering involved with constructing a spectrometer within the 1.75 inch diameter of the penetrometer pipe, which is the most rigorous physical constraint. Only small improvements over current state-of-the-art are required. Additional advantages of XRF are that no radioactive sources or hazardous materials are used in the sensor design, and no reagents or any possible sources of ignition are involved.

  20. Novel waste printed circuit board recycling process with molten salt

    PubMed Central

    Riedewald, Frank; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel waste PCBs recycling process which uses inert, stable molten salts as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this molten salt to separate the metal products in either liquid (solder, zinc, tin, lead, etc.) or solid (copper, gold, steel, palladium, etc.) form at the operating temperatures of 450–470 °C. The PCB recovery reactor is essentially a U-shaped reactor with the molten salt providing a continuous fluid, allowing molten salt access from different depths for metal recovery. A laboratory scale batch reactor was constructed using 316L as suitable construction material. For safety reasons, the inert, stable LiCl–KCl molten salts were used as direct heat transfer fluid. Recovered materials were washed with hot water to remove residual salt before metal recovery assessment. The impact of this work was to show metal separation using molten salts in one single unit, by using this novel reactor methodology. • The reactor is a U-shaped reactor filled with a continuous liquid with a sloped bottom representing a novel reactor concept. • This method uses large PCB pieces instead of shredded PCBs as the reactor volume is 2.2 L. • The treated PCBs can be removed via leg B while the process is on-going. PMID:26150977

  1. Novel waste printed circuit board recycling process with molten salt.

    PubMed

    Riedewald, Frank; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel waste PCBs recycling process which uses inert, stable molten salts as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this molten salt to separate the metal products in either liquid (solder, zinc, tin, lead, etc.) or solid (copper, gold, steel, palladium, etc.) form at the operating temperatures of 450-470 °C. The PCB recovery reactor is essentially a U-shaped reactor with the molten salt providing a continuous fluid, allowing molten salt access from different depths for metal recovery. A laboratory scale batch reactor was constructed using 316L as suitable construction material. For safety reasons, the inert, stable LiCl-KCl molten salts were used as direct heat transfer fluid. Recovered materials were washed with hot water to remove residual salt before metal recovery assessment. The impact of this work was to show metal separation using molten salts in one single unit, by using this novel reactor methodology. •The reactor is a U-shaped reactor filled with a continuous liquid with a sloped bottom representing a novel reactor concept.•This method uses large PCB pieces instead of shredded PCBs as the reactor volume is 2.2 L.•The treated PCBs can be removed via leg B while the process is on-going. PMID:26150977

  2. Thermodynamics of gas-metal-slag equilibria for applications in in situ and ex situ vitrification melts

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.; Reimann, G.A.

    1993-05-01

    An equilibrium thermodynamic model for melting mixed waste was evaluated using the STEPSOL computer code. STEPSOL uses free energy minimization techniques to predict equilibrium composition from input species and user selected species in the output. The model assumes equilibrium between gas, slag, and metallic phases. Input for the model was developed using compositional data from Pit 9 of the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Thermodynamic data were primarily from compilations published by the US Government. The results of model evaluation indicate that the amount of plutonium chloride or plutonium oxyhydroxide that would be evaporated into the vapor phase would be minor. Relatively more uranium chloride and uranium oxyhydroxide would be vaporized. However, a hazards analysis was not part of the present task. Minor amounts of plutonium and uranium would be reduced to the metallic state, but these amounts should alloy with the iron-chromium-nickel metallic phase. The vast majority of the plutonium and uranium are in the slag phase as oxides. Results of the calculations show that silica and silicates dominate the products and that the system is very reducing. The major gases are carbon monoxide and hydrogen, with lesser amounts of carbon dioxide and water. High vapor pressure metals are considered but were not analyzed using STEPSOL. STEPSOL does not make predictions of distribution of species between phases.

  3. In situ-generated metal oxide catalyst during CO oxidation reaction transformed from redox-active metal-organic framework-supported palladium nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The preparation of redox-active metal-organic framework (ra-MOF)-supported Pd nanoparticles (NPs) via the redox couple-driven method is reported, which can yield unprotected metallic NPs at room temperature within 10 min without the use of reducing agents. The Pd@ra-MOF has been exploited as a precursor of an active catalyst for CO oxidation. Under the CO oxidation reaction condition, Pd@ra-MOF is transformed into a PdOx-NiOy/C nanocomposite to generate catalytically active species in situ, and the resultant nanocatalyst shows sustainable activity through synergistic stabilization. PMID:22898143

  4. Trace Metals in Groundwater & the Vadose Zone Calcite: In Situ Containment & Stabilization of Strontium-90 & Other Divalent Metals & Radionuclides at Arid West DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Robert W.

    2004-12-01

    Radionuclide and metal contaminants such as strontium-90 are present beneath U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) lands in both the groundwater (e.g., 100-N area at Hanford, WA) and vadose zone (e.g., Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory). In situ containment and stabilization of these contaminants is a cost-effective treatment strategy. However, implementing in situ containment and stabilization approaches requires definition of the mechanisms that control contaminant sequestration. We are investigating the in situ immobilization of radionuclides or contaminant metals (e.g., strontium-90) by their facilitated co-precipitation with calcium carbonate in groundwater and vadose zone systems. Our facilitated approach, shown schematically in Figure 1, relies upon the hydrolysis of introduced urea to cause the acceleration of calcium carbonate precipitation (and trace metal co-precipitation) by increasing pH and alkalinity. Subsurface urea hydrolysis is catalyzed by the urease enzyme, which may be either introduced with the urea or produced in situ by ubiquitous subsurface urea hydrolyzing microorganisms. Because the precipitation process tends to be irreversible and many western aquifers are saturated with respect to calcite, the co-precipitated metals and radionuclides will be effectively removed from the aqueous phase over the long-term. Another advantage of the ureolysis approach is that the ammonium ions produced by the reaction can exchange with radionuclides sorbed to subsurface minerals, thereby enhancing the availability of the radionuclides for re-capture in a more stable solid phase (co-precipitation rather than adsorption).

  5. Trace Metals in Groundwater & Vadose Zone Calcite: In Situ Containment & Stabilization of 90Strontium & Other Divalent Metals & Radionuclides at Arid West DOE Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Robert W.; Fujita, Yoshiko; Ferris, F. Grant; Cosgrove, Donna M.; Colwell, Rick S.

    2004-06-01

    Radionuclide and metal contaminants such as 90Sr are present beneath U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) lands in both the groundwater (e.g., 100-N area at Hanford, WA) and vadose zone (e.g., Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory). In situ containment and stabilization of these contaminants is a cost-effective treatment strategy. However, implementing in situ containment and stabilization approaches requires definition of the mechanisms that control contaminant sequestration. We are investigating the in situ immobilization of radionuclides or contaminant metals (e.g., 90Sr) by their facilitated co-precipitation with calcium carbonate in groundwater and vadose zone systems. Our facilitated approach, shown schematically in Figure 1, relies upon the hydrolysis of introduced urea to cause the acceleration of calcium carbonate precipitation (and trace metal co-precipitation) by increasing pH and alkalinity. Subsurface urea hydrolysis is catalyzed by the urease enzyme, which may be either introduced with the urea or produced in situ by ubiquitous subsurface urea hydrolyzing microorganisms. Because the precipitation process tends to be irreversible and many western aquifers are saturated with respect to calcite, the co-precipitated metals and radionuclides will be effectively removed from the aqueous phase over the long-term. Another advantage of the ureolysis approach is that the ammonium ions produced by the reaction can exchange with radionuclides sorbed to subsurface minerals, thereby enhancing the availability of the radionuclides for re-capture in a more stable solid phase (co-precipitation rather than adsorption).

  6. Selective reduction of biomass by hydriodic acid and its in situ regeneration from iodine by metal/hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weiran; Grochowski, Matthew R; Sen, Ayusman

    2012-07-01

    HI returns: Hydroiodic acid is a highly selective reducing reagent for a wide variety of substrates. Its application is limited by the formation of iodine and the difficulty in reconverting that iodione back to HI in situ. We report the facile conversion of I(2) to HI by metal-catalyzed hydrogenation in the presence of water, and demonstrate the utility of this process in the conversion of fructose to 5-methyfurfural and glycerol to 2-iodopropane. PMID:22492614

  7. Quantitative In Situ TEM Studies of Small-Scale Plasticity in Irradiated and Unirradiated Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, Claire

    mechanical data, as the two defect conditions exhibit similar yield strengths, ultimate tensile strengths, and number and size of load-drops. This similarity implies that, even if materials contain dissimilar individual defects, the collective defect behavior can result in similar mechanical properties. Thus, the origin of mechanical properties can be ambiguous and caution should be taken when extrapolating to different size scales. Furthermore, such similarities highlight the importance of in-situ observation during deformation. These experiments provide a key test of theory, by providing a local test of behavior, which is much more stringent than testing behaviors averaged over many regions. Advanced electron microscopy imaging techniques and quantitative in-situ TEM tensile tests are performed with Au thin-film as a model FCC structural material. These investigations highlight the various hurdles experimental studies must overcome in order to probe defect behavior at a fundamental level. Two novelly-applied strain mapping techniques are performed to directly measure the matrix strain around helium bubbles in He1+ implanted Au thin-film. Dark-field inline holography (DFIH) is applied here for the first time to a metal, and nano-beam electron diffraction (NBED) transient strain mapping is shown to be experimentally feasible using the high frame rate Gatan K2 camera. The K2 camera reduces scan times from ˜18 minutes to 82 seconds for a 128x256 pixel scan at 400 fps. Both methods measure a peak strain around 10 nm bubbles of 0.7%, correlating to an internal pressure of 580 MPa, or a vacancy to helium ion ratio of 1V:2.4He. Previous studies have relied on determining the appropriate equation of state to relate measured or approximated helium density to internal bubble pressure and thus strain. Direct measurement of the surrounding matrix strain through DFIH and NBED methods effectively bypasses this step, allowing for easier defect interaction modeling as the bubble can be

  8. Application of Mythen detector: In-situ XRD study on the thermal expansion behavior of metal indium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Rong; Chen, ZhongJun; Cai, Quan; Fu, JianLong; Gong, Yu; Wu, ZhongHua

    2016-07-01

    A Mythen detector has been equipped at the beamline 4B9A of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF), which is expected to enable BSRF to perform time-resolved measurement of X-ray diffraction (XRD) full-profiles. In this paper, the thermal expansion behavior of metal indium has been studied by using the in-situ XRD technique with the Mythen detector. The indium was heated from 303 to 433 K with a heating rate of 2 K/min. The in-situ XRD full-profiles were collected with a rate of one profile per 10 seconds. Rietveld refinement was used to extract the structural parameters. The results demonstrate that these collected quasi-real-time XRD profiles can be well used for structural analysis. The metal indium was found to have a nonlinear thermal expansion behavior from room temperature to the melting point (429.65 K). The a-axis of the tetragonal unit cell expands with a biquadratic dependency on temperature, while the c-axis contracts with a cubic dependency on temperature. By the time-resolved XRD measurements, it was observed that the [200] preferred orientation can maintain to about 403.15 K. While (110) is the last and detectable crystal plane just before melting of the polycrystalline indium foil. This study is not only beneficial to the application of metal indium, but also exhibits the capacity of in-situ time-resolved XRD measurements at the X-ray diffraction station of BSRF.

  9. Ultrasonic techniques for imaging and measurements in molten aluminum.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yuu; Moisan, Jean-François; Jen, Cheng-Kuei

    2003-12-01

    In order to achieve net shape forming, processing of aluminum (Al) in the molten state is often necessary. However, few sensors and techniques have been reported in the literature due to difficulties associated with molten Al, such as high temperature, corrosiveness, and opaqueness. In this paper, development of ultrasonic techniques for imaging and measurements in molten Al using buffer rods operated at 10 MHz is presented. The probing end of the buffer rod, having a flat surface or an ultrasonic lens, was immersed into molten Al while the other end with an ultrasonic transducer was air-cooled to room temperature. An ultrasonic image of a character "N", engraved on a stainless steel plate immersed in molten Al, and its corrosion have been observed at 780 degrees C using the focused probe in ultrasonic pulse-echo mode. Because cleanliness of molten Al is crucial for part manufacturing and recycling in Al processing, inclusion detection experiments also were carried out using the nonfocused probe in pitch-catch and pulse-echo modes. Backscattered ultrasonic signals from manually added silicon carbide particles, with an average diameter of 50 microm, in molten Al have been successfully observed at 780 degrees C. For optimal image quality, the spatial resolution of the focused probe was crucial, and the high signal-to-noise ratio of the nonfocused probe was the prime factor responsible for the inclusion detection sensitivity using backscattered ultrasonic signals. In addition, it was found that ultrasound could provide an alternative method for evaluating the degree of wetting between a solid material and a molten metal. Our experimental results showed that there was no ultrasonic coupling at the interface between an alumina rod and molten Al up to 1000 degrees C; therefore, no wetting existed at this interface. Also because ultrasonic velocity in alumina is temperature dependent, this rod proved to be able to be used as an in-line temperature monitoring sensor under

  10. In situ characterization of metal fuel stored in the Hanford K Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Makenas, B.J.; Omberg, R.P.; Lawrence, L.A.

    1995-02-01

    The Hanford K Basins contain roughly 2,000 tons of uranium metal fuel previously irradiated in N Reactor. Current plans call for the fuel to be moved to a new storage location in the next few years. This paper describes near term activities to gather data on the mechanical condition and chemical state of the fuel and associated sludge. These on-going in-situ, nondestructive, examinations are intended to complement hot cell examinations which are planned for the near future. Characterization data will feed decisions on interim storage, long term storage and the environmental documentation process as the fuel is relocated. Several techniques have been, or are planned to be, employed during the conduct of examinations in the K Basins. (1) A video survey using underwater cameras has been made for the open top canisters which hold fuel in the K East Basin. These data have given early assessments of cladding degradation, canister corrosion, fuel swelling, and canister/fuel interactions; (2) Ultrasonic measurements of the water level in gas traps connected to sealed canisters have been used to provide indications of gas generation in or water leakage into the canisters; (3) Sampling of gas and water from closed canisters of fuel in the K West Basin will furnish indications of fuel corrosion, fission product release, and canister integrity and will guide choices of fuel to be retrieved for detailed hot cell examinations; (4) Depth measurements and qualitative properties assessments for the sludge on the floor of the basins and in the bottom of canisters have been made using underwater video techniques.

  11. Sulfur tolerant molten carbonate fuel cell anode and process

    DOEpatents

    Remick, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    Molten carbonate fuel cell anodes incorporating a sulfur tolerant carbon monoxide to hydrogen water-gas-shift catalyst provide in situ conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen for improved fuel cell operation using fuel gas mixtures of over about 10 volume percent carbon monoxide and up to about 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

  12. Trace Metals in Groundwater & Vadose Zone Calcite: In Situ Containment & Stabilization of Stronthium-90 & Other Divalent Metals & Radionuclides at Arid West DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Robert W

    2003-06-01

    Radionuclide and metal contaminants such as strontium-90 are present beneath U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) lands in both the groundwater (e.g., 100-N area at Hanford, WA) and vadose zone (e.g., Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory). In situ containment and stabilization of these contaminants is a cost-effective treatment strategy. However, implementing in situ containment and stabilization approaches requires definition of the mechanisms that control contaminant sequestration. We are investigating the in situ immobilization of radionuclides or contaminant metals (e.g., strontium-90) by their facilitated co-precipitation with calcium carbonate in groundwater and vadose zone systems. Our facilitated approach, shown schematically in Figure 1, relies upon the hydrolysis of introduced urea to cause the acceleration of calcium carbonate precipitation (and trace metal co-precipitation) by increasing pH and alkalinity. Subsurface urea hydrolysis is catalyzed by the urease enzyme, which may be either introduced with the urea or produced in situ by ubiquitous subsurface urea hydrolyzing microorganisms. Because the precipitation process tends to be irreversible and many western aquifers are saturated with respect to calcite, the co-precipitated metals and radionuclides will be effectively removed from the aqueous phase over the long-term. Another advantage of the ureolysis approach is that the ammonium ions produced by the reaction can exchange with radionuclides sorbed to subsurface minerals, thereby enhancing the availability of the radionuclides for recapture in a more stable solid phase (co-precipitation rather than adsorption). Our specific research objectives include: * Elucidation of the mechanisms and rates for the release of sorbed trace metals and their subsequent sequestration by co-precipitation in calcite induced by urea hydrolysis. * Evaluation at the field scale of the influence of

  13. Liquid surface skimmer apparatus for molten lithium and method

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, Samuel C.; Pollard, Roy E.; Thompson, William F.; Stark, Marshall W.; Currin, Jr., Robert T.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to an apparatus for separating two fluids having different specific gravities. The invention also relates to a method for using the separating apparatus of the present invention. This invention particularly relates to the skimming of molten lithium metal from the surface of a fused salt electrolyte in the electrolytic production of lithium metal from a mixed fused salt.

  14. Metal atomization spray nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Huxford, Theodore J.

    1993-01-01

    A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal.

  15. Metal atomization spray nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Huxford, T.J.

    1993-11-16

    A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal. 6 figures.

  16. Metal measurement in aquatic environments by passive sampling methods: Lessons learning from an in situ intercomparison exercise.

    PubMed

    Dabrin, A; Ghestem, J-P; Uher, E; Gonzalez, J-L; Allan, I J; Schintu, M; Montero, N; Balaam, J; Peinerud, E; Miège, C; Coquery, M

    2016-01-01

    Passive sampling devices (PS) are widely used for pollutant monitoring in water, but estimation of measurement uncertainties by PS has seldom been undertaken. The aim of this work was to identify key parameters governing PS measurements of metals and their dispersion. We report the results of an in situ intercomparison exercise on diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) in surface waters. Interlaboratory uncertainties of time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations were satisfactory (from 28% to 112%) given the number of participating laboratories (10) and ultra-trace metal concentrations involved. Data dispersion of TWA concentrations was mainly explained by uncertainties generated during DGT handling and analytical procedure steps. We highlight that DGT handling is critical for metals such as Cd, Cr and Zn, implying that DGT assembly/dismantling should be performed in very clean conditions. Using a unique dataset, we demonstrated that DGT markedly lowered the LOQ in comparison to spot sampling and stressed the need for accurate data calculation. PMID:26589099

  17. Alginate Hydrogel: A Shapeable and Versatile Platform for in Situ Preparation of Metal-Organic Framework-Polymer Composites.

    PubMed

    Zhu, He; Zhang, Qi; Zhu, Shiping

    2016-07-13

    This work reports a novel in situ growth approach for incorporating metal-organic framework (MOF) materials into an alginate substrate, which overcomes the challenges of processing MOF particles into specially shaped structures for real industrial applications. The MOF-alginate composites are prepared through the post-treatment of a metal ion cross-linked alginate hydrogel with a MOF ligand solution. MOF particles are well distributed and embedded in and on the surface of the composites. The macroscopic shape of the composite can be designed by controlling the shape of the corresponding hydrogel; thus MOF-alginate beads, fibers, and membranes are obtained. In addition, four different MOF-alginate composites, including HKUST-1-, ZIF-8-, MIL-100(Fe)-, and ZIF-67-alginate, were successfully prepared using different metal ion cross-linked alginate hydrogels. The mechanism of formation is revealed, and the composite is demonstrated to be an effective absorbent for water purification. PMID:27315047

  18. Polyimide/metal composite films via in situ decomposition of inorganic additives - Soluble polyimide versus polyimide precursor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rancourt, J. D.; Porta, G. M.; Moyer, E. S.; Madeleine, D. G.; Taylor, L. T.

    1988-01-01

    Polyimide-metal oxide (Co3O4 or CuO) composite films have been prepared via in situ thermal decomposition of cobalt (II) chloride or bis(trifluoroacetylacetonato)copper(II). A soluble polyimide (XU-218) and its corresponding prepolymer (polyamide acid) were individually employed as the reaction matrix. The resulting composites exhibited a greater metal oxide concentration at the air interface with polyamide acid as the reaction matrix. The water of imidization that is released during the concurrent polyamide acid cure and additive decomposition is believed to promote metal migration and oxide formation. In contrast, XU-218 doped with either HAuCl4.3H2O or AgNO3 yields surface gold or silver when thermolyzed (300 C).

  19. An Automated Electronic Tongue for In-Situ Quick Monitoring of Trace Heavy Metals in Water Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Wei; Li, Yi; Gao, Xiaoming; Guo, Hongsun; Zhao, Huixin; Wang, Ping

    2009-05-01

    An automated electronic tongue instrumentation has been developed for in-situ concentration determination of trace heavy metals in water environment. The electronic tongue contains two main parts. The sensor part consists of a silicon-based Hg-coated Au microelectrodes array (MEA) for the detection of Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) and a multiple light-addressable potentiometric sensor (MLAPS) for the detection of Fe(III) and Cr(VI). The control part employs pumps, valves and tubes to enable the pick-up and pretreatment of aqueous sample. The electronic tongue realized detection of the six metals mentioned above at part-per-billion (ppb) level without manual operation. This instrumentation will have wide application in quick monitoring and prediction the heavy metal pollution in lakes and oceans.

  20. Effects of metal contamination in situ on osmoregulation and oxygen consumption in the mudflat fiddler crab Uca rapax (Ocypodidae, Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Capparelli, Mariana V; Abessa, Denis M; McNamara, John C

    2016-01-01

    The contamination of estuaries by metals can impose additional stresses on estuarine species, which may exhibit a limited capability to adjust their regulatory processes and maintain physiological homeostasis. The mudflat fiddler crab Uca rapax is a typical estuarine crab, abundant in both pristine and contaminated areas along the Atlantic coast of Brazil. This study evaluates osmotic and ionic regulatory ability and gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in different salinities (<0.5, 25 and 60‰ S) and oxygen consumption rates at different temperatures (15, 25 and 35°C) in U. rapax collected from localities along the coast of São Paulo State showing different histories of metal contamination (most contaminated Ilha Diana, Santos>Rio Itapanhaú, Bertioga>Picinguaba, Ubatuba [pristine reference site]). Our findings show that the contamination of U. rapax by metals in situ leads to bioaccumulation and induces biochemical and physiological changes compared to crabs from the pristine locality. U. rapax from the contaminated sites exhibit stronger hyper- and hypo-osmotic regulatory abilities and show greater gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities than crabs from the pristine site, revealing that the underlying biochemical machinery can maintain systemic physiological processes functioning well. However, oxygen consumption, particularly at elevated temperatures, decreases in crabs showing high bioaccumulation titers but increases in crabs with low/moderate bioaccumulation levels. These data show that U. rapax chronically contaminated in situ exhibits compensatory biochemical and physiological adjustments, and reveal the importance of studies on organisms exposed to metals in situ, particularly estuarine invertebrates subject to frequent changes in natural environmental parameters like salinity and temperature. PMID:26992327

  1. Volmer-Weber growth stages of polycrystalline metal films probed by in situ and real-time optical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadias, G.; Simonot, L.; Colin, J. J.; Michel, A.; Camelio, S.; Babonneau, D.

    2015-11-01

    The Volmer-Weber growth of high-mobility metal films is associated with the development of a complex compressive-tensile-compressive stress behavior as the film deposition proceeds through nucleation of islands, coalescence, and formation of a continuous layer. The tensile force maximum has been attributed to the end of the islands coalescence stage, based on ex situ morphological observations. However, microstructural rearrangements are likely to occur in such films during post-deposition, somewhat biasing interpretations solely based on ex situ analysis. Here, by combining two simultaneous in situ and real-time optical sensing techniques, based on surface differential reflectance spectroscopy (SDRS) and change in wafer curvature probed by multibeam optical stress sensor (MOSS), we provide direct evidence that film continuity does coincide with tensile stress maximum during sputter deposition of a series of metal (Ag, Au, and Pd) films on amorphous SiOx. Stress relaxation after growth interruption was testified from MOSS, whose magnitude scaled with adatom mobility, while no change in SDRS signal could be revealed, ruling out possible changes of the surface roughness at the micron scale.

  2. Molten core retention assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1976-06-22

    Molten fuel produced in a core overheating accident is caught by a molten core retention assembly consisting of a horizontal baffle plate having a plurality of openings therein, heat exchange tubes having flow holes near the top thereof mounted in the openings, and a cylindrical, imperforate baffle attached to the plate and surrounding the tubes. The baffle assembly is supported from the core support plate of the reactor by a plurality of hanger rods which are welded to radial beams passing under the baffle plate and intermittently welded thereto. Preferably the upper end of the cylindrical baffle terminates in an outwardly facing lip to which are welded a plurality of bearings having slots therein adapted to accept the hanger rods.

  3. Oxidation of hydrogen halides to elemental halogens with catalytic molten salt mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Rohrmann, Charles A.

    1978-01-01

    A process for oxidizing hydrogen halides by means of a catalytically active molten salt is disclosed. The subject hydrogen halide is contacted with a molten salt containing an oxygen compound of vanadium and alkali metal sulfates and pyrosulfates to produce an effluent gas stream rich in the elemental halogen. The reduced vanadium which remains after this contacting is regenerated to the active higher valence state by contacting the spent molten salt with a stream of oxygen-bearing gas.

  4. Reprocessing of LiH in Molten Chlorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masset, Patrick J.; Gabriel, Armand; Poignet, Jean-Claude

    2008-06-01

    LiH was used as inactive material to stimulate the reprocessing of lithium tritiate in molten chlorides. The electrochemical properties (diffusion coefficients, apparent standard potentials) were measured by means of transient electrochemical techniques (cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry). At 425 ºC the diffusion coefficient and the apparent standard potential were 2.5 · 10-5 cm2 s-1 and -1.8 V vs. Ag/AgCl, respectively. For the process design the LiH solubility was measured by means of DTA to optimize the LiH concentration in the molten phase. In addition electrolysis tests were carried out at 460 ºC with current densities up to 1 A cm-2 over 24 h. These results show that LiH may be reprocessed in molten chlorides consisting in the production of hydrogen gas at the anode and molten metallic lithium at the cathode.

  5. In-situ deformation studies of an aluminum metal-matrix composite in a scanning electron microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manoharan, M.; Lewandowski, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    Tensile specimens made of a metal-matrix composite (cast and extruded aluminum alloy-based matrix reinforced with Al2O3 particulate) were tested in situ in a scanning electron microscope equipped with a deformation stage, to directly monitor the crack propagation phenomenon. The in situ SEM observations revealed the presence of microcracks both ahead of and near the crack-tip region. The microcracks were primarily associated with cracks in the alumina particles. The results suggest that a region of intense deformation exists ahead of the crack and corresponds to the region of microcracking. As the crack progresses, a region of plastically deformed material and associated microcracks remains in the wake of the crack.

  6. Corrosion Behavior of Ti-Based In Situ Dendrite-Reinforced Metallic Glass Matrix Composites in Various Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, F.; Tian, H. F.; Lan, A. D.; Zhou, H. F.; Wang, B. C.; Yang, H. J.; Qiao, J. W.

    2015-06-01

    The electrochemical corrosion behaviors of Ti40Zr24V12Cu5Be19 in situ dendrite-reinforced metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization experiments and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in acidic, salty, and alkaline solutions. Ti40Zr24V12Cu5Be19 in situ dendrite-reinforced MGMCs have an impressive corrosion resistance in strong acidic environment, while their performance was not so great in strong alkaline environment. Further immersion test in same solutions revealed similar chemical corrosion behaviors. XRD and SEM examinations were conducted to check the structure and surface modification of the material during the corrosion process. EDS test indicated that the amorphous matrices, which show excellent corrosion resistance, have a considerable composition variation from its crystalline dendrites counterpart.

  7. In situ X-ray diffraction monitoring of a mechanochemical reaction reveals a unique topology metal-organic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsenis, Athanassios D.; Puškarić, Andreas; Štrukil, Vjekoslav; Mottillo, Cristina; Julien, Patrick A.; Užarević, Krunoslav; Pham, Minh-Hao; Do, Trong-On; Kimber, Simon A. J.; Lazić, Predrag; Magdysyuk, Oxana; Dinnebier, Robert E.; Halasz, Ivan; Friščić, Tomislav

    2015-03-01

    Chemical and physical transformations by milling are attracting enormous interest for their ability to access new materials and clean reactivity, and are central to a number of core industries, from mineral processing to pharmaceutical manufacturing. While continuous mechanical stress during milling is thought to create an environment supporting nonconventional reactivity and exotic intermediates, such speculations have remained without proof. Here we use in situ, real-time powder X-ray diffraction monitoring to discover and capture a metastable, novel-topology intermediate of a mechanochemical transformation. Monitoring the mechanochemical synthesis of an archetypal metal-organic framework ZIF-8 by in situ powder X-ray diffraction reveals unexpected amorphization, and on further milling recrystallization into a non-porous material via a metastable intermediate based on a previously unreported topology, herein named katsenite (kat). The discovery of this phase and topology provides direct evidence that milling transformations can involve short-lived, structurally unusual phases not yet accessed by conventional chemistry.

  8. Using In-Situ Deposition of Metallic Thin Films on Mars to Monitor Atmospheric H20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, A. P.; Quinn, R. C.; Grunthaner, F. G.; Towner M.; Zanecki, J.; Ringrose, T.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the use of a novel sensor, designed to characterize the reactive nature of the Martian atmosphere, to also characterize the instantaneous abundance of atmospheric H,O. The sensor deposits, in situ, a thin silver film onto a sapphire substrate and monitors oxidation by measuring resistance of the Ag film during both deposition and subsequent oxidation [1,2]. . The evaporation source is placed in the center of a hollow, open-ended tube. On flash heating the source, evaporated metallic silver rapidly reacts with oxidizing gases in the tube, depositing on the tube walls as a resisitive Ag oxide film. Unoxidized silver deposits over the Ag oxides, once the oxidizing gases in the vicinity of the source have been consumed. Since the ends of the tube are open, atmospheric gases in the tube cause a time delay as the evaporated silver initially reacts with the available O2, and H2O; once oxidizing gases in the tube are significantly depleted, a silver film closes the chemiresistor circuit. In principle this operation mode provides a repeatable measure of the variable H2O abundance, since O2, levels are constant in the atmosphere. To explore the utility of the instrument as an H2O sensor, predict its behavior, and identify possible failure modes, we developed a numerical model of the instrument, and exercised it for Mars conditions. The model predicts the behavior of the electrical circuit, the temperature dependence of resistivity for each component, and the resultant Joule heating. The model balances Joule heating against radiation, sensible heat loss to ambient CO2, and, latent heat loss from sublimating Ag. The flux of Ag atoms from the source is tracked continuously. In the gas phase, the number density of Ag, O2, and H2O is calculated, along with their reaction rates on collision. The model suggests that Ag substantially depletes H2O only near the center of the tube. The model supports the hypothesis that the onset of high conductivity between the A u

  9. High temperature in-situ observations of multi-segmented metal nanowires encapsulated within carbon nanotubes by in-situ filling technique

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Multi-segmented one-dimensional metal nanowires were encapsulated within carbon nanotubes (CNTs) through in-situ filling technique during plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and environmental TEM were employed to characterize the as-prepared sample at room temperature and high temperature. The selected area electron diffractions revealed that the Pd4Si nanowire and face-centered-cubic Co nanowire on top of the Pd nanowire were encapsulated within the bottom and tip parts of the multiwall CNT, respectively. Although the strain-induced deformation of graphite walls was observed, the solid-state phases of Pd4Si and Co-Pd remain even at above their expected melting temperatures and up to 1,550 ± 50°C. Finally, the encapsulated metals were melted and flowed out from the tip of the CNT after 2 h at the same temperature due to the increase of internal pressure of the CNT. PMID:22873841

  10. Refractory-Slag-Metal-Inclusion Multiphase Reactions Modeling Using Computational Thermodynamics: Kinetic Model for Prediction of Inclusion Evolution in Molten Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuva, M. A. H.; Rhamdhani, M. A.; Brooks, G. A.; Masood, S.; Reuter, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    The distribution ratio of germanium (Ge), L_{{Ge}}^{s/m} during equilibrium reactions between magnesia-saturated FeOx-CaO-SiO2 (FCS) slag and molten copper has been measured under oxygen partial pressures from 10-10 to 10-7 atm and at temperatures 1473 to 1623 K (1200 to 1350 °C). It was observed that the Ge distribution ratio increases with increasing oxygen partial pressure, and with decreasing temperature. It was also observed that the distribution ratio is strongly dependent on slag basicity. The distribution ratio was observed to increase with increasing optical basicity. At fixed CaO concentration in the slag, the distribution ratio was found to increase with increasing Fe/SiO2 ratio, tending to a plateau at L_{{Ge}}^{s/m} = 0.8. This behavior is consistent with the assessment of ionic bond fraction carried out in this study, and suggested the acidic nature of germanium oxide (GeO2) in the slag system studied. The characterisation results of the quenched slag suggested that Ge is present in the FeOx-CaO-SiO2-MgO slag predominantly as GeO2. At 1573 K (1300 °C) and p_{{{{O}}2 }} = 10-8 atm, the activity coefficient of GeO2 in the slag was calculated to be in the range of 0.24 to 1.50. The results from the current study suggested that less-basic slag, high operating temperature, and low oxygen partial pressure promote a low Ge distribution ratio. These conditions are desired for maximizing Ge recovery, for example, during pyrometallurgical processing of Ge-containing e-waste through secondary copper smelting. Overall, the thermodynamics data generated from this study can be used for process modeling purposes for improving recovery of Ge in primary and secondary copper smelting processes.

  11. Refractory-Slag-Metal-Inclusion Multiphase Reactions Modeling Using Computational Thermodynamics: Kinetic Model for Prediction of Inclusion Evolution in Molten Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuva, M. A. H.; Rhamdhani, M. A.; Brooks, G. A.; Masood, S.; Reuter, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    The distribution ratio of germanium (Ge), L_{{Ge}}^{s/m} during equilibrium reactions between magnesia-saturated FeOx-CaO-SiO2 (FCS) slag and molten copper has been measured under oxygen partial pressures from 10-10 to 10-7 atm and at temperatures 1473 to 1623 K (1200 to 1350 °C). It was observed that the Ge distribution ratio increases with increasing oxygen partial pressure, and with decreasing temperature. It was also observed that the distribution ratio is strongly dependent on slag basicity. The distribution ratio was observed to increase with increasing optical basicity. At fixed CaO concentration in the slag, the distribution ratio was found to increase with increasing Fe/SiO2 ratio, tending to a plateau at L_{{Ge}}^{s/m} = 0.8. This behavior is consistent with the assessment of ionic bond fraction carried out in this study, and suggested the acidic nature of germanium oxide (GeO2) in the slag system studied. The characterisation results of the quenched slag suggested that Ge is present in the FeOx-CaO-SiO2-MgO slag predominantly as GeO2. At 1573 K (1300 °C) and p_{{{{O}}2 }} = 10-8 atm, the activity coefficient of GeO2 in the slag was calculated to be in the range of 0.24 to 1.50. The results from the current study suggested that less-basic slag, high operating temperature, and low oxygen partial pressure promote a low Ge distribution ratio. These conditions are desired for maximizing Ge recovery, for example, during pyrometallurgical processing of Ge-containing e-waste through secondary copper smelting. Overall, the thermodynamics data generated from this study can be used for process modeling purposes for improving recovery of Ge in primary and secondary copper smelting processes.

  12. Design of nanocoatings by in situ phosphatizing reagent catalyzed polysilsesquioxane for corrosion inhibition and adhesion promotion on metal alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Kimberly B.

    When a metal reacts with oxygen and water, a redox reaction happens, which will cause corrosion. Current surface pretreatment for inhibiting corrosion on metal alloys is a phosphate conversion bath. The phosphate conversion bath will generate a phosphate-chromate layer to adhere strongly to a metal substrate. However, it is toxic and unfriendly to the environment. Our group proposed an innovative coating that contains a phosphate component (ISPR-In-situ Phosphatizing Reagent) within a protective coating. The ISPR coating will form a bound phosphate layer on the metal surface acting as the corrosion barrier and enhancing adhesion into the metal surface; moreover, it is low in cost and non-toxic. Within this dissertation, there are four projects that investigate design of ISPR nanocoatings for the use of corrosion inhibition and adhesion promotion. Surface modification and adjusting concentrations of materials with the different formulations are explored. The first project focuses on the adhesion enhancement of a coating created by modifying the surface of an aluminum panel. Secondly, the next project will discuss and present the use of three rare earth element formulations as a replacement for phosphate conversion coatings on magnesium alloy, AZ61. The third project is the design of a nanocoating by using heat dissipating materials to fill in small vacant spaces in the ISPR network coating on various metal alloys. The last project, studies the strategic selection of incorporating metal components into ISPR network by the reduction potential values on several different alloys. Many methods of analysis are used; SEM, TEM, ASTM B117, ASTM D1308, ASTM D3359, EIS, and thickness probe. It was found that the addition of ISPR in the nanocoatings dramatically improves the vitality of metal alloys and these results will be presented during this dissertation.

  13. Ceramic-metal composite formation by reactive metal penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Loehman, R.E.; Ewsuk, K.G.; Fahrenholtz, W.G.; Lakshman, B.B.

    1996-11-01

    Ceramic-metal composites can be made to near-net-shape by reactive penetration of dense ceramic preforms by molten metals. Reactive metal penetration is driven by a strongly negative Gibbs energy for reaction. For Al, the general form of the reaction is (x+2) Al + (3/y) MO[sub y] yields Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] + M[sub 3/y]Al[sub x], where MO[sub y] is an oxide that is wet by molten Al. In low PO[sub 2] atmospheres and at temperatures above about 900 degrees C, molten Al reduces mullite to produce Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] and Si. The Al/mullite reaction has a delta G[sub r] degree(927 degrees C) of -338 per mole of mullite and, for fully dense mullite, the theoretical volume change on reaction is less than 1%. Experiments with commercial mullite containing a silicate grain boundary phase average less than 2% volume change on reaction. In the Al/mullite system, reactive metal penetration produces a fine-grained alumina skeleton with an interspersed metal phase. With > or =15 vol.% excess aluminum, mutually interpenetrating ceramic-metal composites are produced. Properties measurements show that ceramic-metal composites produced by reactive metal penetration of mullite by Al have a Young`s modulus and hardness similar to that of Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], with improved fracture toughness. Other compositions also are candidates for in- situ reaction synthesis, but they exhibit differences in reaction kinetics, most probably due to different wetting behavior.

  14. In situ spectroscopic detection of SMSI effect in a Ni/CeO2 system: hydrogen-induced burial and dig out of metallic nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Caballero, Alfonso; Holgado, Juan P.; Gonzalez-delaCruz, Victor M.; Habas, Susan e.; Herranz, Tirma; Salmeron, Miquel

    2010-06-29

    In situ APPES technique demonstrates that the strong metal support interaction effect (SMSI) in the Ni-ceria system is associated with the decoration and burial of metallic particles by the partially reduced support, a phenomenon reversible by evacuation at high temperature of the previously absorbed hydrogen.

  15. Molten salt spectroelectrochemistry: recent developments

    SciTech Connect

    Mamantov, G.; Chapman, D.M.; Harward, B.L.; Klatt, L.N.; Smith, G.P.

    1985-01-01

    Molten salt spectroelectrochemistry will be reviewed in this paper. UV-visible transmission, infrared reflectance, resonance and normal Raman, and electron spin resonance spectroelectrochemistry have been used for molten salt studies. Two recent applications of uv-visible transmission spectroelectrochemistry to studies of organic and inorganic solutes in molten SbCl/sub 3/-AlCl/sub 3/-N-(1-butyl)pyridinium chloride and AlCl/sub 3/-NaCl will be described.

  16. Marine lake as in situ laboratory for studies of organic matter influence on speciation and distribution of trace metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlakar, Marina; Fiket, Željka; Geček, Sunčana; Cukrov, Neven; Cuculić, Vlado

    2015-07-01

    Karst marine lakes are unique marine systems, also recognized as in situ "laboratories" in which geochemical processes on a different scale compared to the open sea, can be observed. In this study, organic matter cycle and its impact on distribution of trace metals in the marine lake Mir, located on Dugi Otok Island, in the central part of the eastern Adriatic Sea, was investigated for the first time. Studied marine lake is small, isolated, shallow basin, with limited communication with the open sea. Intense spatial and seasonal variations of organic matter, dissolved and particulate (DOC, POC), and dissolved trace metals concentrations in the water column of the Lake are governed predominantly by natural processes. Enhanced oxygen consumption in the Lake during summer season, high DOC and POC concentrations and low redox potential result in occasional occurrence of anoxic conditions in the bottom layers with appearance of sulfur species. Speciation modeling showed that dissolved trace metals Cu, Pb and Zn, are mostly bound to organic matter, while Cd, Co and Ni are present predominantly as free ions and inorganic complexes. Trace metals removal from the water column and their retention in the sediment was found to depend on the nature of the relationship between specific metal and organic or inorganic phases, sulfides, Fe-oxyhydroxydes or biogenic calcite. The above is reflected in the composition of the sediments, which are, in addition to influence of karstic background and bathymetry of the basin, significantly affected by accumulation of detritus at the bottom of the Lake.

  17. Use of in situ structural and functional variables of phytoplankton of the river Ganga for assessment of heavy metal toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, A.K.; Rai, L.C. )

    1990-12-01

    Toxicity of Cd and Zn on autotrophic index, pigment diversity. 14C uptake, and in situ nitrogenase activity of phytoplankton of the river Ganga has been studied for the first time in India using CEPEx enclosures. Maximum reduction in algal population was noted at 8.0 micrograms ml-1 Cd followed by 8.0 micrograms ml-1 Zn. Complete elimination of two and four species was observed respectively at 4.0 and 8.0 micrograms ml-1 Cd and Zn. The filamentous forms showed greater tolerance against Cd and Zn, whereas unicellular forms were more sensitive to test metals used. Bacillariophytes in general depicted greater sensitivity for both the metals. A concentration-dependent metal-specific increase in autotrophic index and pigment diversity of phytoplankton was noted for Cd and Zn. Inhibition of carbon and nitrogen fixation was, however, concentration dependent and metal specific. Looking at the sensitivity of 14CO2 uptake rather than other variables, we recommend the employment of this parameter for assessment of heavy metal toxicity in an aquatic ecosystem.

  18. Molten fluoride fuel salt chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, L.M.; Del Cul, G.D.; Dai, S.; Metcalf, D.H.

    1994-09-01

    The chemistry of molten fluorides is traced from their development as fuels in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment with important factors in their selection being discussed. Key chemical characteristics such as solubility, redox behavior, and chemical activity are explained as they relate to the behavior of molten fluoride fuel systems. Fission product behavior is described along with processing experience. Development requirements for fitting the current state of the chemistry to modern nuclear fuel system are described. It is concluded that while much is known about molten fluoride behavior, processing and recycle of the fuel components is a necessary factor if future systems are to be established.

  19. Diagnosis of sources of current inefficiency in industrial molten salt electrolysis cells by Raman spectroscopy: A topical report on chlorides: Topical report, June 1982-June 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Sadoway, D. R.

    1987-06-01

    Molten salt electrolysis, a very energy-intensive process, is used in the extraction of light metals. Aluminum production by the Hall process and magnesium production in the Dow and I.G. Farbenindustrie cells constitute the major commercial applications of metal electrowinning from molten-salt media at present. The energy input into the electrolysis cell is in the form of direct current, and the energy efficiencies in the magnesium or aluminum processes are only in the 30 to 40% range. Major energy reductions are achieved by reducing the cell voltage or by increasing the current efficiency. Goal of the research is to identify the sources of the current losses occurring in molten salt electrolysis. This research worked on the systems of I.G. Farben magnesium chloride and Alcoa smelting aluminum chloride processes. Raman spectra were measured and analyzed for each component or their mixtures of the electrolyte for magnesium and aluminum reduction in chloride melts. Raman measurements were also conducted on the melts of industrial composition for aluminum and magnesium electrolysis. In laboratory-scale cells which imitated industrial practice, Raman spectra were measured in situ during electrolysis in attempts to identify the streamers, coloration of electrolyte, and any subvalent species. They were known to occur only during electrolysis, and they have been reported to be possible current losses. Cyclic voltammetry was conducted to obtain information about the generation of subvalent species which were not detected by Raman measurement. These were thought to be kinetic entities present only during electrolysis. Results of Raman spectroscopy and electrochemistry of magnesium and aluminum reduction from molten chloride bath are presented. The results would be useful to establish the basis for the study of electrolysis of aluminum from molten fluoride media. 119 refs., 66 figs.

  20. In-situ study of crystallization kinetics in ternary bulk metallic glass alloys with different glass forming abilities

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Si; Wei, Xiaoya; Wu, Xuelian; Wang, Xun-Li; Zhou, Jie; Lu, Zhaoping; Feygenson, Mikhail; Neuefeind, Jörg

    2014-11-17

    In-situ transmission electron microcopy and time-resolved neutron diffraction were used to study crystallization kinetics of two ternary bulk metallic glasses during isothermal annealing in the supercooled liquid region. It is found that the crystallization of Zr{sub 56}Cu{sub 36}Al{sub 8}, an average glass former, follows continuous nucleation and growth, while that of Zr{sub 46}Cu{sub 46}Al{sub 8}, a better glass former, is characterized by site-saturated nucleation, followed by slow growth. Possible mechanisms for the observed differences and the relationship to the glass forming ability are discussed.

  1. In-situ study of crystallization kinetics in ternary bulk metallic glass alloys with different glass forming abilities

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lan, Si; Wei, Xiaoya; Zhou, Jie; Lu, Zhaoping; Wu, Xuelian; Feygenson, Mikhail; Neuefeind, Jorg C.; Wang, Xun-Li

    2014-11-18

    In-situ transmission electron microcopy and time-resolved neutron diffraction were used to study crystallization kinetics of two ternary bulk metallic glasses during isothermal annealing in the supercooled liquid region. It is found that the crystallization of Zr56Cu36Al8, an average glass former, follows continuous nucleation and growth, while that of Zr46Cu46Al8, a better glass former, is characterized by site-saturated nucleation, followed by slow growth. Possible mechanisms for the observed differences and the relationship to the glass forming ability are discussed.

  2. In-situ TEM observation of dynamic interaction between dislocation and cavity in BCC metals in tensile deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tougou, Kouichi; Shikata, Akihito; Kawase, Uchu; Onitsuka, Takashi; Fukumoto, Ken-ichi

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the effect of irradiation hardening of structural materials due to cavity formation in BCC metals for nuclear applications, an in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation in tensile test was performed for the helium ion-irradiated specimens of pure molybdenum and pure iron. The obstacle barrier strength, α was calculated from the bow-out dislocation based on line tension model, and the obstacle barrier strengths of cavity in pure molybdenum and pure iron were about 0.5-0.7. The fractions of cross-slip generation of dislocation of screw type due to interaction with the cavities were about 16-18 % for pure molybdenum.

  3. Laser self-mixing sensor to monitor in situ the penetration depth during short pulse laser drilling of metal targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzapesa, Francesco P.; Ancona, Antonio; Sibillano, Teresa; De Lucia, Francesco; Dabbicco, Maurizio; Lugarà, Pietro Mario; Scamarcio, Gaetano

    2011-05-01

    Direct real-time measurements of the penetration depth during laser micromachining has been demonstrated by developing a novel ablation sensor based on laser diode feedback interferometry. Percussion drilling experiments have been performed by focusing a 120-ps pulsed fiber laser onto metallic targets with different thermal conductivity. In-situ monitoring of the material removal rate was achieved by coaxially aligning the beam probe with the ablating laser. The displacement of the ablation front was revealed with sub-micrometric resolution by analyzing the sawtooth-like induced modulation of the interferometric signal out of the detector system.

  4. In Situ TEM Nanoindentation Studies on Stress-Induced Phase Transformations in Metallic Materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Y.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X.

    2015-11-30

    Though abundant phase transformations are in general thermally driven processes, there are many examples wherein stresses can induce phase transformations. We applied numerous in situ techniques, such as in situ x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction in order to reveal phase transformations. Recently, an in situ nanoindentation technique coupled with transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the capability to directly correlating stresses with phase transformations and microstructural evolutions at a submicron length scale. We briefly review in situ studies on stress-induced diffusional and diffusionless phase transformations in amorphous CuZrAl alloy and NiFeGa shape memory alloy. Moreover, in the amorphous CuZrAl, in situ nanoindentationmore » studies show that the nucleation of nanocrystals (a diffusional process) occurs at ultra-low stresses manifested by a prominent stress drop. In the NiFeGa shape memory alloy, two distinctive types of martensitic (diffusionless) phase transformations accompanied by stress plateaus are observed, including a reversible gradual phase transformation at low stress levels, and an irreversible abrupt phase transition at higher stress levels.« less

  5. In Situ TEM Nanoindentation Studies on Stress-Induced Phase Transformations in Metallic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X.

    2016-01-01

    Although abundant phase transformations are in general thermally driven processes, there are many examples wherein stresses can induce phase transformations. Numerous in situ techniques, such as in situ x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction, have been applied to reveal phase transformations. Recently, an in situ nanoindentation technique coupled with transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the capability to directly correlating stresses with phase transformations and microstructural evolutions at a submicron length scale. Here we briefly review in situ studies on stress-induced diffusional and diffusionless phase transformations in amorphous CuZrAl alloy and NiFeGa shape memory alloy. In the amorphous CuZrAl, in situ nanoindentation studies show that the nucleation of nanocrystals (a diffusional process) occurs at ultra-low stresses manifested by a prominent stress drop. In the NiFeGa shape memory alloy, two distinctive types of martensitic (diffusionless) phase transformations accompanied by stress plateaus are observed, including a reversible gradual phase transformation at low stress levels, and an irreversible abrupt phase transition at higher stress levels.

  6. In Situ TEM Nanoindentation Studies on Stress-Induced Phase Transformations in Metallic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X.

    2015-11-30

    Though abundant phase transformations are in general thermally driven processes, there are many examples wherein stresses can induce phase transformations. We applied numerous in situ techniques, such as in situ x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction in order to reveal phase transformations. Recently, an in situ nanoindentation technique coupled with transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the capability to directly correlating stresses with phase transformations and microstructural evolutions at a submicron length scale. We briefly review in situ studies on stress-induced diffusional and diffusionless phase transformations in amorphous CuZrAl alloy and NiFeGa shape memory alloy. Moreover, in the amorphous CuZrAl, in situ nanoindentation studies show that the nucleation of nanocrystals (a diffusional process) occurs at ultra-low stresses manifested by a prominent stress drop. In the NiFeGa shape memory alloy, two distinctive types of martensitic (diffusionless) phase transformations accompanied by stress plateaus are observed, including a reversible gradual phase transformation at low stress levels, and an irreversible abrupt phase transition at higher stress levels.

  7. In Situ Atom Scale Visualization of Domain Wall Dynamics in VO2 Insulator-Metal Phase Transition

    PubMed Central

    He, Xinfeng; Xu, Tao; Xu, Xiaofeng; Zeng, Yijie; Xu, Jing; Sun, Litao; Wang, Chunrui; Xing, Huaizhong; Wu, Binhe; Lu, Aijiang; Liu, Dingquan; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Chu, Junhao

    2014-01-01

    A domain wall, as a device, can bring about a revolution in developing manipulation of semiconductor heterostructures devices at the atom scale. However, it is a challenge for these new devices to control domain wall motion through insulator-metal transition of correlated-electron materials. To fully understand and harness this motion, it requires visualization of domain wall dynamics in real space. Here, domain wall dynamics in VO2 insulator-metal phase transition was observed directly by in situ TEM at atom scale. Experimental results depict atom scale evolution of domain morphologies and domain wall exact positions in (202) and (040) planes referring to rutile structure at 50°C. In addition, microscopic mechanism of domain wall dynamics and accurate lattice basis vector relationship of two domains were investigated with the assistance of X-ray diffraction, ab initio calculations and image simulations. This work offers a route to atom scale tunable heterostructure device application. PMID:25292447

  8. Scattering influences in quantitative fission neutron radiography for the in situ analysis of hydrogen distribution in metal hydrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börries, S.; Metz, O.; Pranzas, P. K.; Bücherl, T.; Söllradl, S.; Dornheim, M.; Klassen, T.; Schreyer, A.

    2015-10-01

    In situ neutron radiography allows for the time-resolved study of hydrogen distribution in metal hydrides. However, for a precise quantitative investigation of a time-dependent hydrogen content within a host material, an exact knowledge of the corresponding attenuation coefficient is necessary. Additionally, the effect of scattering has to be considered as it is known to violate Beer's law, which is used to determine the amount of hydrogen from a measured intensity distribution. Within this study, we used a metal hydride inside two different hydrogen storage tanks as host systems, consisting of steel and aluminum. The neutron beam attenuation by hydrogen was investigated in these two different setups during the hydrogen absorption process. A linear correlation to the amount of absorbed hydrogen was found, allowing for a readily quantitative investigation. Further, an analysis of scattering contributions on the measured intensity distributions was performed and is described in detail.

  9. Detection and removal of molten salts from molten aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    K. Butcher; D. Smith; C. L. Lin; L. Aubrey

    1999-08-02

    Molten salts are one source of inclusions and defects in aluminum ingots and cast shapes. A selective adsorption media was used to remove these inclusions and a device for detection of molten salts was tested. This set of experiments is described and the results are presented and analyzed.

  10. 13. VIEW OF THE MOLTEN SALT EXTRACTION LINE. THE MOLTEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF THE MOLTEN SALT EXTRACTION LINE. THE MOLTEN SALT EXTRACTION PROCESS WAS USED TO PURIFY PLUTONIUM BY REMOVING AMERICIUM, A DECAY BY-PRODUCT OF PLUTONIUM. (1/98) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  11. I-NERI ANNUAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT: 2006-002-K, Separation of Fission Products from Molten LiCl-KCl Salt Used for Electrorefining of Metal Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    S. Frank

    2009-09-01

    An attractive alternative to the once-through disposal of electrorefiner salt is to selectively remove the active fission products from the salt and recycle the salt back to the electrorefiner (ER). This would allow salt reuse for some number of cycles before ultimate disposal of the salt in a ceramic waste form. Reuse of ER salt would, thus, greatly reduce the volume of ceramic waste produced during the pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. This final portion of the joint I-NERI research project is to demonstrate the separation of fission products from molten ER salt by two methods previously selected during phase two (FY-08) of this project. The two methods selected were salt/zeolite contacting and rare-earth fission product precipitation by oxygen bubbling. The ER salt used in these tests came from the Mark-IV electrorefiner used to anodically dissolved driver fuel from the EBR-II reactor on the INL site. The tests were performed using the Hot Fuel Dissolution Apparatus (HFDA) located in the main cell of the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Materials and Fuels complex on the INL site. Results from these tests were evaluated during a joint meeting of KAERI and INL investigators to provide recommendations as to the future direction of fission product removal from electrorefiner salt that accumulate during spent fuel treatment. Additionally, work continued on kinetic measurements of surrogate quaternary salt systems to provide fundamental kinetics on the ion exchange system and to expand the equilibrium model system developed during the first two phases of this project. The specific objectives of the FY09 I-NERI research activities at the INL include the following: • Perform demonstration tests of the selected KAERI precipitation and INL salt/zeolite contacting processes for fission product removal using radioactive, fission product loaded ER salt • Continue kinetic studies of the quaternary Cs/Sr-LiCl-KCl system to determine the rate of ion

  12. In-situ Study of Dynamic Phenomena at Metal Nanosolder Interfaces Using Aberration Corrected Scanning Transmission Electron Microcopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ping

    2014-10-01

    Controlling metallic nanoparticle (NP) interactions plays a vital role in the development of new joining techniques (nanosolder) that bond at lower processing temperatures but remain viable at higher temperatures. The pr imary objective of this project is t o develop a fundamental understanding of the actual reaction processes, associated atomic mechanisms, and the resulting microstructure that occur during thermally - driven bond formation concerning metal - metal nano - scale (%3C50nm) interfaces. In this LDRD pr oject, we have studied metallic NPs interaction at the elevated temperatures by combining in - situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM ) using an aberration - corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (AC - STEM) and atomic - scale modeling such as m olecular dynamic (MD) simulations. Various metallic NPs such as Ag, Cu and Au are synthesized by chemical routines. Numerous in - situ e xperiments were carried out with focus of the research on study of Ag - Cu system. For the first time, using in - situ STEM he ating experiments , we directly observed t he formation of a 3 - dimensional (3 - D) epitaxial Cu - Ag core - shell nanoparticle during the thermal interaction of Cu and Ag NPs at elevated temperatures (150 - 300 o C). The reaction takes place at temperatures as low as 150 o C and was only observed when care was taken to circumvent the effects of electron beam irradiation during STEM imaging. Atomic - scale modeling verified that the Cu - Ag core - shell structure is energetically favored, and indicated that this phenomenon is a nano - scale effect related to the large surface - to - volume ratio of the NPs. The observation potentially can be used for developing new nanosolder technology that uses Ag shell as the "glue" that stic ks the particles of Cu together. The LDRD has led to several journal publications and numerous conference presentations, and a TA. In addition, we have developed new TEM characterization techniques and phase

  13. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-07-08

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell is disclosed with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas. The cell enclosures collectively provide an enclosure for the array and effectively avoid the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components. The fuel cell further includes an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  14. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Poris, Jaime; Huggins, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  15. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-18

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

  16. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Poris, Jaime; Huggins, Robert A.

    1982-02-09

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  17. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Smith, James L.

    1987-01-01

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas, the cell enclosures collectively providing an enclosure for the array and effectively avoiding the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components, the fuel cell further including an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  18. In situ generation of Ni nanoparticles from metal-organic framework precursors and their use for biomass hydrodeoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Čelič, Tadeja Birsa; Grilc, Miha; Likozar, Blaž; Tušar, Nataša Novak

    2015-05-22

    So far, in situ-generated Ni nanoparticles have been reported to be efficient catalysts for tar cracking during wood liquefaction by pyrolysis. Herein, their performance in further bio-oil conversion steps is evaluated. Nanoparticles were generated for the first time from a Ni-containing metal-organic framework, MIL-77, during the hydrotreatment of glycerol-solvolyzed lignocellulosic (LC) biomass. Reactions were conducted at 300 °C and the H2 pressure was 8 MPa in a slurry reactor. The catalytic activity and selectivity of the deoxygenation and hydrocracking reactions for real biomass-derived feedstock using in situ-generated nanoparticles was compared with Ni nanoparticles dispersed on a silica-alumina support (commercial Ni/SiO2 -Al2 O3 catalyst). The mass activity of the in situ-generated nanoparticles for hydrogenolysis was more than ten times higher in comparison to their commercial analogues, and their potential for the use in LC biorefinery is discussed. PMID:25755008

  19. Method and apparatus for performing in-situ vacuum-assisted metal to glass sealing

    DOEpatents

    Kramer, Daniel P.; Massey, Richard T.

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for assembling and fusing glass to metal in a glass-metal electrical component is disclosed. The component includes a metallic shell formed with upper and lower cylindrical recesses connected together by longitudinal passages, a pair of metal rings and plural metal pins assembled to define electrical feed-throughs. The component parts are assembled on a fixture having a sleeve-like projection and a central mounting projection establishing concentric nesting surfaces to which the metal rings are slip-fitted in concentric alignment with each other spaced from sidewalls of the lower recess. The pins are in electrical contact with the metal rings. A glass pre-form is seated within the upper recess. The assembled structure is heated to a temperature sufficient to melt the glass pre-form which flows under gravity through the passages into the lower recess to provide an insulative seal between the metal parts. The gravity flow of glass is assisted by applying vacuum to the lower recess, ensuring that all spaces between the metal parts are filled with sealing glass without formation of bubbles.

  20. Method and apparatus for performing in-situ vacuum-assisted metal to glass sealing

    DOEpatents

    Kramer, D.P.; Massey, R.T.

    1985-07-18

    A method and apparatus for assembling and fusing glass to metal in a glass-metal electrical component is disclosed. The component includes a metallic shell formed with upper and lower cylindrical recesses connected together by longitudinal passages, a pair of metal rings and plural metal pins assembled to define electrical feed-throughs. The component parts are assembled on a fixture having a sleeve-like projection and a central mounting projection establishing concentric nesting surfaces to which the metal rings are slip-fitted in concentric alignment with each other spaced from sidewalls of the lower recess. The pins are in electrical contact with the metal rings. A glass pre-form is seated within the upper recess. The assembled structure is heated to a temperature sufficient to melt the glass pre-form which flows under gravity through the passages into the lower recess to provide an insulative seal between the metal parts. The gravity flow of glass is assisted by applying vacuum to the lower recess, ensuring that all spaces between the metal parts are filled with sealing glass without formation of bubbles.

  1. Alkali metal nitrate purification

    DOEpatents

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Morgan, Michael J.

    1986-02-04

    A process is disclosed for removing contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises heating the impure alkali metal nitrates in solution form or molten form at a temperature and for a time sufficient to effect precipitation of solid impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified alkali metal nitrates in solution form may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrates suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of purified alkali metal nitrates.

  2. In situ hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy of barrier-height control at metal/PMN-PT interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröger, E.; Petraru, A.; Quer, A.; Soni, R.; Kalläne, M.; Pertsev, N. A.; Kohlstedt, H.; Rossnagel, K.

    2016-06-01

    Metal-ferroelectric interfaces form the basis of novel electronic devices. A key effect determining the device functionality is the bias-dependent change of the electronic energy-level alignment at the interface. Here, hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) is used to determine the energy-level alignment at two metal-ferroelectric interfaces—Au versus SrRuO3 on the relaxor ferroelectric Pb (Mg1 /3Nb2 /3 )0.72Ti0.28O3 (PMN-PT)—directly in situ as a function of electrical bias. The bias-dependent average shifts of the PMN-PT core levels are found to have two dominant contributions on the 0.1 -1-eV energy scale: one depending on the metal electrode and the remanent electric polarization and the other correlated with electric-field-induced strain. Element-specific deviations from the average shifts are smaller than 0.1 eV and appear to be related to predicted dynamical charge variations in PMN-PT. In addition, the efficiency of ferroelectric polarization switching is shown to be reduced near the coercive field under x-ray irradiation. The results establish HAXPES as a tool for the in operando investigation of metal-ferroelectric interfaces and suggest electric-field-induced modifications of the polarization distribution as a novel way to control the barrier height at such interfaces.

  3. Removing Dross From Molten Solder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Winston S.

    1990-01-01

    Automatic device helps to assure good solder connections. Machine wipes dross away from area on surface of molten solder in pot. Sweeps across surface of molten solder somewhat in manner of windshield wiper. Each cycle of operation triggered by pulse from external robot. Equipment used wherever precise, automated soldering must be done to military specifications.

  4. Cathode for molten salt batteries

    DOEpatents

    Mamantov, Gleb; Marassi, Roberto

    1977-01-01

    A molten salt electrochemical system for battery applications comprises tetravalent sulfur as the active cathode material with a molten chloroaluminate solvent comprising a mixture of AlCl.sub.3 and MCl having a molar ratio of AlCl.sub.3 /MCl from greater than 50.0/50.0 to 80/20.

  5. Process for removing technetium from iron and other metals

    DOEpatents

    Leitnaker, J.M.; Trowbridge, L.D.

    1999-03-23

    A process for removing technetium from iron and other metals comprises the steps of converting the molten, alloyed technetium to a sulfide dissolved in manganese sulfide, and removing the sulfide from the molten metal as a slag. 4 figs.

  6. Process for removing technetium from iron and other metals

    DOEpatents

    Leitnaker, James M.; Trowbridge, Lee D.

    1999-01-01

    A process for removing technetium from iron and other metals comprises the steps of converting the molten, alloyed technetium to a sulfide dissolved in manganese sulfide, and removing the sulfide from the molten metal as a slag.

  7. Electrochemical cell having an alkali-metal-nitrate electrode

    DOEpatents

    Roche, M.F.; Preto, S.K.

    1982-06-04

    A power-producing secondary electrochemical cell includes a molten alkali metal as the negative-electrode material and a molten-nitrate salt as the positive-electrode material. The molten material in the respective electrodes are separated by a solid barrier of alkali-metal-ion conducting material. A typical cell includes active materials of molten sodium separated from molten sodium nitrate and other nitrates in mixture by a layer of sodium ..beta..'' alumina.

  8. In situ redeposition of trace metals mobilized by CO2-charged brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wigley, M.; Kampman, N.; Chapman, H. J.; Dubacq, B.; Bickle, M. J.

    2013-05-01

    Mobilization of contaminants by CO2-charged brines is one concern relating to injection of CO2 as part of carbon capture and storage projects. This study monitors the mobility of trace metals in an exhumed CO2-charged aquifer near the town of Green River, Utah (USA), where CO2-charged brines have bleached red sandstones, and concentrated trace metals at the bleaching reaction front. Mass balance calculations on the trace metal enrichments are used to calculate time-integrated fluid fluxes and show that a significant fraction of the metals mobilized by the CO2-rich brines are redeposited locally. A sequential extraction procedure on metal-enriched samples shows that these metals are incorporated into secondary carbonate and oxide phases which have been shown to grow at the CO2-promoted bleaching reaction front. We argue that while CO2-charged brines are capable of mobilizing trace metals, local metal redeposition implies that the potential for contamination of overlying freshwater aquifers is low.

  9. Heat capacity of molten halides.

    PubMed

    Redkin, Alexander A; Zaikov, Yurii P; Korzun, Iraida V; Reznitskikh, Olga G; Yaroslavtseva, Tatiana V; Kumkov, Sergey I

    2015-01-15

    The heat capacities of molten salts are very important for their practical use. Experimental investigation of this property is challenging because of the high temperatures involved and the corrosive nature of these materials. It is preferable to combine experimental investigations with empirical relationships, which allows for the evaluation of the heat capacity of molten salt mixtures. The isobaric molar heat capacities of all molten alkali and alkaline-earth halides were found to be constant for each group of salts. The value depends on the number of atoms in the salt, and the molar heat capacity per atom is constant for all molten halide salts with the exception of the lithium halides. The molar heat capacities of molten halides do not change when the anions are changed. PMID:25530462

  10. Electrohydrodynamic ion emission from molten lithium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Panitz, J.A.; Pregenzer, A.L.; Gerber, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Positive ions have been generated at the surface of molten lithium nitrate by applying a high electrostatic field to a thin layer of the molten salt on the apex of a field emitter tip. The ion emission process is characteristic of electrohydrodynamic ion formation, usually observed when a high electric field is applied to the surface of a liquid metal or alloy. With molten lithium nitrate, a single emission site appears at threshold. The divergence of the ion beam is several degrees. At higher field strengths multiple emission sites are observed. An ion species at m/e = 76 amu dominates the mass spectrum at all field strengths. This species is identified as a cluster ion (LiNO/sub 3/ )Li/sup +/ . At low source temperatures, (LiNO/sub 3/ )/sub 2/ Li/sup +/ is also observed. Despite the low ionization potential of lithium (5.4 eV), Li/sup +/ accounts for <8% of the total ion current generated by the source under all operating conditions. Multiply charged lithium is not detected in the mass spectra, suggesting the electric field at the Taylor cone apex is not sufficient to field-ionize singly charged species by a postionization process.

  11. Closed cell metal foam method

    DOEpatents

    Patten, James W.

    1978-01-01

    Foamed metals and metal alloys which have a closed cellular structure are prepared by heating a metal body containing entrapped inert gas uniformly distributed throughout to a temperature above the melting point of the metal and maintaining the body at this temperature a period of time sufficient to permit the entrapped gas to expand, forming individual cells within the molten metal, thus expanding and foaming the molten metal. After cell formation has reached the desired amount, the foamed molten metal body is cooled to below the melting temperature of the metal. The void area or density of the foamed metal is controlled by predetermining the amount of inert gas entrapped in the metal body and by the period of time the metal body is maintained in the molten state. This method is useful for preparing foamed metals and metal alloys from any metal or other material of which a body containing entrapped inert gas can be prepared.

  12. A view of treatment process of melted nuclear fuel on a severe accident plant using a molten salt system

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, R.; Takahashi, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Mizuguchi, K.; Oomori, T.

    2013-07-01

    At severe accident such as Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident, the nuclear fuels in the reactor would melt and form debris which contains stable UO2-ZrO2 mixture corium and parts of vessel such as zircaloy and iron component. The requirements for solution of issues are below; -) the reasonable treatment process of the debris should be simple and in-situ in Fukushima Daiichi power plant, -) the desirable treatment process is to take out UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} or metallic U and TRU metal, and dispose other fission products as high level radioactive waste; and -) the candidate of treatment process should generate the smallest secondary waste. Pyro-process has advantages to treat the debris because of the high solubility of the debris and its total process feasibility. Toshiba proposes a new pyro-process in molten salts using electrolysing Zr before debris fuel being treated.

  13. Translocation of microbenthic algal assemblages used for In situ analysis of metal pollution in rivers

    PubMed

    Ivorra; Hettelaar; Tubbing; Kraak; Sabater; Admiraal

    1999-07-01

    Effects of metal pollution from a zinc factory on microbenthic algal communities were assessed in three neighboring streams on the Dutch-Belgian border. Diatom species composition was experimentally related to water quality by transferring racks with colonized glass discs from a polluted stream to a reference stream and vice versa. The succession of species and the changes in biomass and metal accumulation were measured during experiments in spring, autumn, and winter. Metal concentrations and dry weight in translocated biofilms tended to conform with those in local biofilms within an incubation time of 14 to 18 days. Bray-Curtis similarity values from the different communities indicated that diatom communities responded more completely to the metal-polluted conditions than to the reference water quality. Cymbella minuta, Diatoma vulgare var. ehrenbergii, Navicula sp., and Melosira varians had a lower percentage in assemblages placed in the metal-polluted streams. In contrast, Pinnularia sp. and Neidium ampliatum decreased in assemblages from the polluted streams that were transferred to the reference stream. Achnanthes minutissima and Navicula seminulum (N. atomus) proliferated on any translocation, possibly reflecting an opportunistic strategy and a high tolerance for Zn and Cd. The behavior of the species in relation to metal pollution generally accorded with observations in the literature. However, it seems that metal tolerance is not the only selective factor, and other ecological variables may also influence the composition of microphytobenthic communities.http://link.springer-ny. com/link/service/journals/00244/bibs/37n1p19.html PMID:10341038

  14. Advanced heat exchanger development for molten salts

    SciTech Connect

    Sabharwall, Piyush; Clark, Denis; Glazoff, Michael; Zheng, Guiqiu; Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark

    2014-12-01

    This study addresses present work concerned with advanced heat exchanger development for molten salt in nuclear and non nuclear thermal systems. The molten salt systems discussed herein use alloys, such as Hastelloy N and 242, which show corrosion resistance to molten salt at nominal operating temperatures up to 700°C. These alloys were diffusion welded, and the corresponding information is presented. Test specimens were prepared for exposing diffusion welds to molten salt environments. Hastelloy N and 242 were found to be weldable by diffusion welding, with ultimate tensile strengths about 90% of base metal values. Both diffusion welds and sheet material in Hastelloy N were corrosion tested in?58 mol% KF and 42 mol% ZrF4 at 650, 700, and 850°C for 200, 500, and 1,000 hours. Corrosion rates found were similar between welded and nonwelded materials, typically <10 mils per year. For materials of construction, nickel and alloys with dense nickel coatings are effectively inert to corrosion in fluorides, but not so in chlorides. Hence, additional testing of selected alloys for resistance to intergranular corrosion is needed, as is a determination of corrosion rate as a function of contaminant type and alloy composition with respect to chromium and carbon to better define the optimal chromium and carbon composition, independent of galvanic or differential solubility effects. Also presented is the division of the nuclear reactor and high temperature components per ASME standards, along with design requirements for a subcritical Rankine power cycle heat exchanger that has to overcome pressure difference of about 17 MPa.

  15. Advanced heat exchanger development for molten salts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sabharwall, Piyush; Clark, Denis; Glazoff, Michael; Zheng, Guiqiu; Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark

    2014-12-01

    This study addresses present work concerned with advanced heat exchanger development for molten salt in nuclear and non nuclear thermal systems. The molten salt systems discussed herein use alloys, such as Hastelloy N and 242, which show corrosion resistance to molten salt at nominal operating temperatures up to 700°C. These alloys were diffusion welded, and the corresponding information is presented. Test specimens were prepared for exposing diffusion welds to molten salt environments. Hastelloy N and 242 were found to be weldable by diffusion welding, with ultimate tensile strengths about 90% of base metal values. Both diffusion welds and sheet materialmore » in Hastelloy N were corrosion tested in?58 mol% KF and 42 mol% ZrF4 at 650, 700, and 850°C for 200, 500, and 1,000 hours. Corrosion rates found were similar between welded and nonwelded materials, typically <10 mils per year. For materials of construction, nickel and alloys with dense nickel coatings are effectively inert to corrosion in fluorides, but not so in chlorides. Hence, additional testing of selected alloys for resistance to intergranular corrosion is needed, as is a determination of corrosion rate as a function of contaminant type and alloy composition with respect to chromium and carbon to better define the optimal chromium and carbon composition, independent of galvanic or differential solubility effects. Also presented is the division of the nuclear reactor and high temperature components per ASME standards, along with design requirements for a subcritical Rankine power cycle heat exchanger that has to overcome pressure difference of about 17 MPa.« less

  16. Investigation of molten pool oscillation during GMAW-P process based on a 3D model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. L.; Lu, F. G.; Cui, H. C.; Tang, X. H.

    2014-11-01

    In order to better reveal the oscillation mechanism of the pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW-P) process due to an alternately varied welding current, arc plasma and molten pool oscillation were simulated through a self-consistent three-dimensional model. Based on an experimental analysis of the dynamic variation of the arc plasma and molten pool captured by a high-speed camera, the model was validated by comparison of the measured and predicted results. The calculated results showed that arc pressure was the key factor causing the molten pool to oscillate. The variation in arc size and temperature from peak time to base time resulted in a great difference in the heat input and arc pressure acting on the molten pool. The surface deformation of the molten pool due to the varying degrees of arc pressure induced alternate displacement and backflow in the molten metal. The periodic iteration of deeper and shallower surface deformation, drain and backflow of molten metal caused the molten pool to oscillate at a certain frequency. In this condition, the arc pressure at the peak time is more than six times higher than that at the base time, and the maximum surface depression is 1.4 mm and 0.6 mm, respectively, for peak time and base time.

  17. Electrically conductive containment vessel for molten aluminum

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.; Scott, D.G.

    1984-06-25

    The present invention is directed to a containment vessel which is particularly useful in melting aluminum. The vessel of the present invention is a multilayered vessel characterized by being electrically conductive, essentially nonwettable by and nonreactive with molten aluminum. The vessel is formed by coating a tantalum substrate of a suitable configuration with a mixture of yttria and particulate metal 10 borides. The yttria in the coating inhibits the wetting of the coating while the boride particulate material provides the electrical conductivity through the vessel. The vessel of the present invention is particularly suitable for use in melting aluminum by ion bombardment.

  18. Electrically conductive containment vessel for molten aluminum

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Scott, Donald G.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a containment vessel which is particularly useful in melting aluminum. The vessel of the present invention is a multilayered vessel characterized by being electrically conductive, essentially nonwettable by and nonreactive with molten aluminum. The vessel is formed by coating a tantalum substrate of a suitable configuration with a mixture of yttria and particulate metal borides. The yttria in the coating inhibits the wetting of the coating while the boride particulate material provides the electrical conductivity through the vessel. The vessel of the present invention is particularly suitable for use in melting aluminum by ion bombardment.

  19. METAL SURFACE TREATMENT

    DOEpatents

    Eubank, L.D.

    1958-08-12

    Improved flux baths are described for use in conjunction with hot dipped coatings for uranium. The flux bath consists of molten alkali metal, or alkaline earth metal halides. One preferred embodiment comprises a bath containing molten KCl, NaCl, and LiCl in proportions approximating the triple eutectic.

  20. In situ formation of coal gasification catalysts from low cost alkali metal salts

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Bernard J.; Brittain, Robert D.; Sancier, Kenneth M.

    1985-01-01

    A carbonaceous material, such as crushed coal, is admixed or impregnated with an inexpensive alkali metal compound, such as sodium chloride, and then pretreated with a stream containing steam at a temperature of 350.degree. to 650.degree. C. to enhance the catalytic activity of the mixture in a subsequent gasification of the mixture. The treatment may result in the transformation of the alkali metal compound into another, more catalytically active, form.

  1. In situ/operando studies for the production of hydrogen through the water-gas shift on metal oxide catalysts.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, José A; Hanson, Jonathan C; Stacchiola, Dario; Senanayake, Sanjaya D

    2013-08-01

    In this perspective article, we show how a series of in situ techniques {X-ray diffraction (XRD), pair-distribution-function analysis (PDF), X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS)} can be combined to perform detailed studies of the structural, electronic and chemical properties of metal oxide catalysts used for the production of hydrogen through the water-gas shift reaction (WGS, CO + H2O → H2 + CO2). Under reaction conditions most WGS catalysts undergo chemical transformations that drastically modify their composition with respect to that obtained during the synthesis process. Experiments of time-resolved in situ XRD, XAFS, and PDF indicate that the active phase of catalysts which combine Cu, Au or Pt with oxides such as ZnO, CeO2, TiO2, CeOx/TiO2 and Fe2O3 essentially involves nanoparticles of the reduced noble metals. The oxide support undergoes partial reduction and is not a simple spectator, facilitating the dissociation of water and in some cases modifying the chemical properties of the supported metal. Therefore, to optimize the performance of these catalysts one must take into consideration the properties of the metal and oxide phases. IR and AP-XPS have been used to study the reaction mechanism for the WGS on metal oxide catalysts. Data of IR spectroscopy indicate that formate species are not necessarily involved in the main reaction path for the water-gas shift on Cu-, Au- and Pt-based catalysts. Thus, a pure redox mechanism or associative mechanisms that involve either carbonate-like (CO3, HCO3) or carboxyl (HOCO) species should be considered. In the last two decades, there have been tremendous advances in our ability to study catalytic materials under reaction conditions and we are moving towards the major goal of fully understanding how the active sites for the production of hydrogen through the WGS actually

  2. 13. VIEW OF THE MOLTEN SALT BATHS USED TO UNIFORMLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF THE MOLTEN SALT BATHS USED TO UNIFORMLY AND QUICKLY HEAT METALS PRIOR TO WORKING (ROLLING). (9/16/85) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  3. Production of oxygen from lunar soil by molten salt electrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Rudolf

    1989-01-01

    A simple approach to utilizing lunar resources proposes to dissolve lunar soil, without or with little beneficiation, in a suitable molten salt and to electrolyze the oxides to oxygen and a metal byproduct. The envisioned process and the required technological advances are discussed. Promising electrolysis conditions have been identified in a recent experimental program to manufacture silicon and aluminum from anorthite.

  4. Platinum–nickel frame within metal-organic framework fabricated in situ for hydrogen enrichment and molecular sieving

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi; Yu, Rong; Huang, Jinglu; Shi, Yusheng; Zhang, Diyang; Zhong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dingsheng; Wu, Yuen; Li, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Developing catalysts that provide the effective activation of hydrogen and selective absorption of substrate on metal surface is crucial to simultaneously improve activity and selectivity of hydrogenation reaction. Here we present an unique in situ etching and coordination synthetic strategy for exploiting a functionalized metal-organic framework to incorporate the bimetallic platinum–nickel frames, thereby forming a frame within frame nanostructure. The as-grown metal-organic framework serves as a ‘breath shell' to enhance hydrogen enrichment and activation on platinum–nickel surface. More importantly, this framework structure with defined pores can provide the selective accessibility of molecules through its one-dimensional channels. In a mixture containing four olefins, the composite can selectively transport the substrates smaller than its pores to the platinum–nickel surface and catalyse their hydrogenation. This molecular sieve effect can be also applied to selectively produce imines, which are important intermediates in the reductive imination of nitroarene, by restraining further hydrogenation via cascade processes. PMID:26391605

  5. In situ dissolution or deposition of Ytterbium (Yb) metal in microhotplate wells for a miniaturized atomic clock.

    PubMed

    Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Anderson, John M; Burns, George R; Achyuthan, Komandoor E; Wheeler, David R; Schwindt, Peter D D

    2012-10-22

    Current atomic clocks are burdened by size, weight, power and portability limitations to satisfy a broad range of potential applications. One critical need in the fabrication of a miniaturized atomic clock is small, low-power metallic sources. Exploiting the relatively high vapor pressure of ytterbium (Yb) and its dissolution in anhydrous ammonia, we report two independent techniques for depositing Yb inside a well micromachined into a microhotplate. Subsequent in situ evaporation of Yb from the microhotplate well serves as a low-power metallic source suitable for atomic clocks. The deposition and evaporation of Yb were confirmed using a variety of physicochemical techniques including quartz crystal microbalance, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and laser fluorescence. We also describe the fabrication of the microhotplate device, an integral component of our Yb-based miniature atomic clock. The Yb deposition/evaporation on a microhotplate well is thus useful as a low power Yb source during the fabrication of a miniaturized atomic clock, and this technique could be used for other applications requiring a vapor of a metal that has a moderate vapor pressure. PMID:23187228

  6. An in situ self-assembly template strategy for the preparation of hierarchical-pore metal-organic frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hongliang; Li, Jian-Rong; Wang, Keke; Han, Tongtong; Tong, Minman; Li, Liangsha; Xie, Yabo; Yang, Qingyuan; Liu, Dahuan; Zhong, Chongli

    2015-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have recently emerged as a new type of nanoporous materials with tailorable structures and functions. Usually, MOFs have uniform pores smaller than 2 nm in size, limiting their practical applications in some cases. Although a few approaches have been adopted to prepare MOFs with larger pores, it is still challenging to synthesize hierarchical-pore MOFs (H-MOFs) with high structural controllability and good stability. Here we demonstrate a facile and versatile method, an in situ self-assembly template strategy for fabricating stable H-MOFs, in which multi-scale soluble and/or acid-sensitive metal-organic assembly (MOA) fragments form during the reactions between metal ions and organic ligands (to construct MOFs), and act as removable dynamic chemical templates. This general strategy was successfully used to prepare various H-MOFs that show rich porous properties and potential applications, such as in large molecule adsorption. Notably, the mesopore sizes of the H-MOFs can be tuned by varying the amount of templates. PMID:26548441

  7. Quantitative, In Situ Visualization of Metal-Ion Dissolution and Transport Using (1) H Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bray, Joshua M; Davenport, Alison J; Ryder, Karl S; Britton, Melanie M

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative mapping of metal ions freely diffusing in solution is important across a diverse range of disciplines and is particularly significant for dissolution processes in batteries, metal corrosion, and electroplating/polishing of manufactured components. However, most current techniques are invasive, requiring sample extraction, insertion of an electrode, application of an electric potential or the inclusion of a molecular sensor. Thus, there is a need for techniques to visualize the distribution of metal ions non-invasively, in situ, quantitatively, in three dimensions (3D) and in real time. Here we have used (1) H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to make quantitative 3D maps showing evolution of the distribution of Cu(2+) ions, not directly visible by MRI, during the electrodissolution of copper, with high sensitivity and spatial resolution. The images are sensitive to the speciation of copper, the depletion of dissolved O2 in the electrolyte and show the dissolution of Cu(2+) ions is not uniform across the anode. PMID:27329307

  8. In-situ Hydrogen Sorption 2D-ACAR Facility for the Study of Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legerstee, W. J.; de Roode, J.; Anastasopol, A.; Falub, C. V.; Eijt, S. W. H.

    We developed a dedicated hydrogen sorption setup coupled to a positron 2D-ACAR (two-dimensional Angular Correlation of Annihilation Radiation) setup employing a 22Na-source, which will enable to collect 2D-ACAR momentum distributions in-situ as a function of temperature, hydrogen pressure and hydrogen content. In parallel, a dedicated glovebox was constructed for handling air-sensitive metal and metal hydride samples, with a special entrance for the 2D-ACAR sample insert. The 2D-ACAR setup was tested in first measurements on a Pd0.75Ag0.25 foil and on a ball-milled MgH2 powder in both the hydrogen loaded and desorbed states. The hydrogen loaded Pd0.75Ag0.25Hx sample was kept under a 1 bar hydrogen pressure to prevent partial desorption during measurements at room temperature. The collected 2D-ACAR distributions of Pd0.75Ag0.25 and Pd0.75Ag0.25Hx showed similar features as observed in previous studies. The broadening of the ACAR distributions observed for the Mg to MgH2 metal-insulator transition was compared in a quantitative manner to ab-initio calculations reported in the literature.

  9. Platinum-nickel frame within metal-organic framework fabricated in situ for hydrogen enrichment and molecular sieving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi; Yu, Rong; Huang, Jinglu; Shi, Yusheng; Zhang, Diyang; Zhong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dingsheng; Wu, Yuen; Li, Yadong

    2015-09-01

    Developing catalysts that provide the effective activation of hydrogen and selective absorption of substrate on metal surface is crucial to simultaneously improve activity and selectivity of hydrogenation reaction. Here we present an unique in situ etching and coordination synthetic strategy for exploiting a functionalized metal-organic framework to incorporate the bimetallic platinum-nickel frames, thereby forming a frame within frame nanostructure. The as-grown metal-organic framework serves as a `breath shell' to enhance hydrogen enrichment and activation on platinum-nickel surface. More importantly, this framework structure with defined pores can provide the selective accessibility of molecules through its one-dimensional channels. In a mixture containing four olefins, the composite can selectively transport the substrates smaller than its pores to the platinum-nickel surface and catalyse their hydrogenation. This molecular sieve effect can be also applied to selectively produce imines, which are important intermediates in the reductive imination of nitroarene, by restraining further hydrogenation via cascade processes.

  10. An in situ self-assembly template strategy for the preparation of hierarchical-pore metal-organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hongliang; Li, Jian-Rong; Wang, Keke; Han, Tongtong; Tong, Minman; Li, Liangsha; Xie, Yabo; Yang, Qingyuan; Liu, Dahuan; Zhong, Chongli

    2015-11-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have recently emerged as a new type of nanoporous materials with tailorable structures and functions. Usually, MOFs have uniform pores smaller than 2 nm in size, limiting their practical applications in some cases. Although a few approaches have been adopted to prepare MOFs with larger pores, it is still challenging to synthesize hierarchical-pore MOFs (H-MOFs) with high structural controllability and good stability. Here we demonstrate a facile and versatile method, an in situ self-assembly template strategy for fabricating stable H-MOFs, in which multi-scale soluble and/or acid-sensitive metal-organic assembly (MOA) fragments form during the reactions between metal ions and organic ligands (to construct MOFs), and act as removable dynamic chemical templates. This general strategy was successfully used to prepare various H-MOFs that show rich porous properties and potential applications, such as in large molecule adsorption. Notably, the mesopore sizes of the H-MOFs can be tuned by varying the amount of templates.

  11. Method for converting UF5 to UF4 in a molten fluoride salt

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Melvin R.; Bamberger, Carlos E.; Kelmers, A. Donald

    1977-01-01

    The reduction of UF.sub.5 to UF.sub.4 in a molten fluoride salt by sparging with hydrogen is catalyzed by metallic platinum. The reaction is also catalyzed by platinum alloyed with gold reaction equipment.

  12. Effects of Cations on Corrosion of Inconel 625 in Molten Chloride Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ming; Ma, Hongfang; Wang, Mingjing; Wang, Zhihua; Sharif, Adel

    2016-04-01

    Hot corrosion of Inconel 625 in sodium chloride, potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride and their mixtures with different compositions is conducted at 900°C to investigate the effects of cations in chloride salts on corrosion behavior of the alloy. XRD, SEM/EDS were used to analyze the compositions, phases, and morphologies of the corrosion products. The results showed that Inconel 625 suffers more severe corrosion in alkaline earth metal chloride molten salts than alkaline metal chloride molten salts. For corrosion in mixture salts, the corrosion rate increased with increasing alkaline earth metal chloride salt content in the mixture. Cations in the chloride molten salts mainly affect the thermal and chemical properties of the salts such as vapor pressure and hydroscopicities, which can affect the basicity of the molten salt. Corrosion of Inconel 625 in alkaline earth metal chloride salts is accelerated with increasing basicity.

  13. Electrolytic purification of metals

    DOEpatents

    Bowman, Kenneth A.

    1980-01-01

    A method of electrolytically separating metal from impurities comprises providing the metal and impurities in a molten state in a container having a porous membrane therein, the membrane having a thickness in the range of about 0.01 to 0.1 inch, being capable of containing the molten metal in the container, and being permeable by a molten electrolyte. The metal is electrolytically transferred through the membrane to a cathode in the presence of the electrolyte for purposes of separating or removing impurities from the metal.

  14. In situ formation of micron-scale Li-metal anodes with high cyclability

    SciTech Connect

    Arruda, Thomas M; Lawton, Jamie S; Kumar, Amit; Unocic, Raymond R; Kravchenko, Ivan I; Zawodzinski, Thomas A; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V; Balke, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Scanning probe microscopy methods have been used to fabricate and cycle micron-scale Li anodes deposited electrochemically under nanofabricated Au current collectors. An average Li volume of 5 10^8 nm3 was deposited and cycled with 100 % coulombic efficiency for ~ 160 cycles. Integrated charge/discharge values agree with before/after topography, as well as in situ dilatometry, suggesting this is a reliable method to study solid-state electrochemical processes. In this work we illustrate the possibility to deposit highly cyclable nanometer thick Li electrodes by mature SPM and nanofab techniques which can pave the way for inexpensive nanoscale battery arrays.

  15. An in situ study of resin-assisted solvothermal metal-organic framework synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorhouse, Saul J.; Wu, Yue; O'Hare, Dermot

    2016-04-01

    A newly developed in situ monochromatic high-energy X-ray diffraction setup was used to investigate the synthesis of MOFs using cation-impregnated polymer resin beads as a ion source. The Co-NDC-DMF (NDC=2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylate; DMF=dimethylformamide) system was investigated, a system which is known to produce at least three distinct frameworks. It was found that the resin-assisted synthesis results in the preferential formation of a topology previously impossible to synthesise in bulk, while the comparable nitrate-salt synthesis appeared to form an alternative phases. It was also found that the resin-assisted synthesis is highly diffusion-controlled.

  16. Studies on synthesis of in-situ Al-TiC metal matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, R. N.; Saha, S. C.; Datta, G. L.; Chakraborty, M.

    2016-03-01

    In the present research work, synthesis and characterization of in-situ Al-TiC composites reinforced with ceramic phases was carried out. The formation of undesirable TiAl3 particles could be avoided justifying the correct procedural requirement adopted while preparing Al-TiC composites. It was observed that distributions of reinforced particles were uniform along the grain boundaries. It was also observed that the average size of the TiC particles was of 0.5 μm. It was also noted that the presence of TiC particles in the composite enhances the yield strength and hardness substantially.

  17. In situ X-ray nanotomography of metal surfaces during electropolishing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nave, Maryana I.; Allen, Jason P.; Karen Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen; Wang, Jun; Kalidindi, Surya R.; Kornev, Konstantin G.

    2015-10-15

    A low voltage electropolishing of metal wires is attractive for nanotechnology because it provides centimeter long and micrometer thick probes with the tip radius of tens of nanometers. Using X-ray nanotomography we studied morphological transformations of the surface of tungsten wires in a specially designed electrochemical cell where the wire is vertically submersed into the KOH electrolyte. We show that stability and uniformity of the probe span is supported by a porous shell growing at the surface of tungsten oxide and shielding the wire surface from flowing electrolyte. We discovered that the kinetics of shell growth at the triple line,more » where meniscus meets the wire, is very different from that of the bulk of electrolyte. Many metals follow similar electrochemical transformations hence the discovered morphological transformations of metal surfaces are expected to play significant role in many natural and technological applications.« less

  18. In situ X-ray nanotomography of metal surfaces during electropolishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nave, Maryana I.; Allen, Jason P.; Karen Chen-Wiegart, Yu-Chen; Wang, Jun; Kalidindi, Surya R.; Kornev, Konstantin G.

    2015-10-01

    A low voltage electropolishing of metal wires is attractive for nanotechnology because it provides centimeter long and micrometer thick probes with the tip radius of tens of nanometers. Using X-ray nanotomography we studied morphological transformations of the surface of tungsten wires in a specially designed electrochemical cell where the wire is vertically submersed into the KOH electrolyte. It is shown that stability and uniformity of the probe span is supported by a porous shell growing at the surface of tungsten oxide and shielding the wire surface from flowing electrolyte. It is discovered that the kinetics of shell growth at the triple line, where meniscus meets the wire, is very different from that of the bulk of electrolyte. Many metals follow similar electrochemical transformations hence the discovered morphological transformations of metal surfaces are expected to play significant role in many natural and technological applications.

  19. In situ X-ray nanotomography of metal surfaces during electropolishing

    SciTech Connect

    Nave, Maryana I.; Allen, Jason P.; Karen Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen; Wang, Jun; Kalidindi, Surya R.; Kornev, Konstantin G.

    2015-10-15

    A low voltage electropolishing of metal wires is attractive for nanotechnology because it provides centimeter long and micrometer thick probes with the tip radius of tens of nanometers. Using X-ray nanotomography we studied morphological transformations of the surface of tungsten wires in a specially designed electrochemical cell where the wire is vertically submersed into the KOH electrolyte. We show that stability and uniformity of the probe span is supported by a porous shell growing at the surface of tungsten oxide and shielding the wire surface from flowing electrolyte. We discovered that the kinetics of shell growth at the triple line, where meniscus meets the wire, is very different from that of the bulk of electrolyte. Many metals follow similar electrochemical transformations hence the discovered morphological transformations of metal surfaces are expected to play significant role in many natural and technological applications.

  20. In situ X-ray nanotomography of metal surfaces during electropolishing

    PubMed Central

    Nave, Maryana I.; Allen, Jason P.; Karen Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen; Wang, Jun; Kalidindi, Surya R.; Kornev, Konstantin G.

    2015-01-01

    A low voltage electropolishing of metal wires is attractive for nanotechnology because it provides centimeter long and micrometer thick probes with the tip radius of tens of nanometers. Using X-ray nanotomography we studied morphological transformations of the surface of tungsten wires in a specially designed electrochemical cell where the wire is vertically submersed into the KOH electrolyte. It is shown that stability and uniformity of the probe span is supported by a porous shell growing at the surface of tungsten oxide and shielding the wire surface from flowing electrolyte. It is discovered that the kinetics of shell growth at the triple line, where meniscus meets the wire, is very different from that of the bulk of electrolyte. Many metals follow similar electrochemical transformations hence the discovered morphological transformations of metal surfaces are expected to play significant role in many natural and technological applications. PMID:26469184

  1. Preparation of Aluminum Metal Matrix Composite with Novel In situ Ceramic Composite Particulates, Developed from Waste Colliery Shale Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkata Siva, S. B.; Sahoo, K. L.; Ganguly, R. I.; Dash, R. R.; Singh, S. K.; Satpathy, B. K.; Srinivasarao, G.

    2013-08-01

    A novel method is adapted to prepare an in situ ceramic composite from waste colliery shale (CS) material. Heat treatment of the shale material, in a plasma reactor and/or in a high temperature furnace at 1673 K (1400 °C) under high vacuum (10-6 Torr), has enabled in situ conversion of SiO2 to SiC in the vicinity of carbon and Al2O3 present in the shale material. The composite has the chemical constituents, SiC-Al2O3-C, as established by XRD/EDX analysis. Particle sizes of the composite range between 50 nm and 200 μm. The shape of the particles vary, presumably rod to spherical shape, distributed preferably in the region of grain boundaries. The CS composite so produced is added to aluminum melt to produce Al-CS composite (12 vol. pct). For comparison of properties, the aluminum metal matrix composite (AMCs) is made with Al2O3 particulates (15 vol. pct) with size <200 μm. The heat-treated Al-CS composite has shown better mechanical properties compared to the Al-Al2O3 composite. The ductility and toughness of the Al-CS composite are greater than that of the Al-Al2O3 composite. Fractographs revealed fine sheared dimples in the Al-CS composite, whereas the same of the Al-Al2O3 composite showed an appearance of cleavage-type facets. Abrasion and frictional behavior of both the composites have been compared. The findings lead to the conclusion that the in situ composite developed from the colliery shale waste material has a good future for its use in AMCs.

  2. Structural characterizaiton and gas reactions of small metal particles by high-resolution, in-situ TEM and TED

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The existing in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) facility was improved by adding a separately pumped mini-specimen chamber. The chamber contains wire-evaporation sources for three metals and a specimen heater for moderate substrate temperatures. A sample introduction device was constructed, installed, and tested, facilitating rapid introduction of a specimen into the mini-chamber while maintaining the background pressure in that chamber in the 10(-9) millibar range. Small particles and clusters of Pd, grown by deposition from the vapor phase in an in-situ TEM facility on amorphous and crystalline support films of alumina and on ultra-thin carbon films, were analyzed by conventional high-resolution TEM and image analysis in terms of detectability, number density, and size distribution. The smallest particles that could be detected and counted contained no more than 6 atoms; size determinations could be made for particles 1 nm in diameter. The influence of various oxygen plasma treatments, annealing treatments, and of increasing the substrate temperature during deposition was investigated. The TEM technique was employed to demonstrate that under otherwise identica l conditions the lattice parameter of Pd particles in the 1 to 2 nm size range and supported in random orientation on ex-situ prepared mica films is expanded by some 3% when compared to 5 nm size particles. It is believed that this expansion is neither a small-particle diffraction effect nor due to pseudomorphism, but that it is due to a annealing-induced transformation of the small as-deposited particles with predominantly composite crystal structures into larger particles with true f.c.c. structure and thus inherently smaller lattice parameter.

  3. Tensile deformation mechanisms of an in-situ Ti-based metallic glass matrix composite at cryogenic temperature.

    PubMed

    Bai, J; Li, J S; Qiao, J W; Wang, J; Feng, R; Kou, H C; Liaw, P K

    2016-01-01

    Remarkable tensile ductility was first obtained in an in-situ Ti-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) composite at cryogenic temperature (77 K). The novel cryogenic tensile plasticity is related to the effective accommodation of ductile body-centered cubic dendrites at 77 K, characteristic of the prevailing slip bands and dislocations, as well as lattice disorder, which can effectively hinder the propagation of critical shear bands. The greatly increased yield strength of dendrites contributes to the high yield strength of composite at 77 K. A trend of stronger softening is observed at low temperature, and a criterion is proposed to understand the softening behavior. The current research could also provide a guidance to the promising cryogenic application of these new advanced BMG composites. PMID:27576728

  4. In-situ study of crystallization kinetics in ternary bulk metallic glass alloys with different glass forming abilities

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Si; Wei, Xiaoya; Zhou, Jie; Lu, Zhaoping; Wu, Xuelian; Feygenson, Mikhail; Neuefeind, Jorg C.; Wang, Xun-Li

    2014-11-18

    In-situ transmission electron microcopy and time-resolved neutron diffraction were used to study crystallization kinetics of two ternary bulk metallic glasses during isothermal annealing in the supercooled liquid region. It is found that the crystallization of Zr56Cu36Al8, an average glass former, follows continuous nucleation and growth, while that of Zr46Cu46Al8, a better glass former, is characterized by site-saturated nucleation, followed by slow growth. Possible mechanisms for the observed differences and the relationship to the glass forming ability are discussed.

  5. Tensile deformation mechanisms of an in-situ Ti-based metallic glass matrix composite at cryogenic temperature

    PubMed Central

    Bai, J.; Li, J. S.; Qiao, J. W.; Wang, J.; Feng, R.; Kou, H. C.; Liaw, P. K.

    2016-01-01

    Remarkable tensile ductility was first obtained in an in-situ Ti-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) composite at cryogenic temperature (77 K). The novel cryogenic tensile plasticity is related to the effective accommodation of ductile body-centered cubic dendrites at 77 K, characteristic of the prevailing slip bands and dislocations, as well as lattice disorder, which can effectively hinder the propagation of critical shear bands. The greatly increased yield strength of dendrites contributes to the high yield strength of composite at 77 K. A trend of stronger softening is observed at low temperature, and a criterion is proposed to understand the softening behavior. The current research could also provide a guidance to the promising cryogenic application of these new advanced BMG composites. PMID:27576728

  6. In Situ Observation of Successive Crystallizations and Metastable Intermediates in the Formation of Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Hamish H-M; Wu, Yue; Henke, Sebastian; Cheetham, Anthony K; O'Hare, Dermot; Walton, Richard I

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the driving forces controlling crystallization is essential for the efficient synthesis and design of new materials, particularly metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), where mild solvothermal synthesis often allows access to various phases from the same reagents. Using high-energy in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, we monitor the crystallization of lithium tartrate MOFs, observing the successive crystallization and dissolution of three competing phases in one reaction. By determining rate constants and activation energies, we fully quantify the reaction energy landscape, gaining important predictive power for the choice of reaction conditions. Different reaction rates are explained by the structural relationships between the products and the reactants; larger changes in conformation result in higher activation energies. The methods we demonstrate can easily be applied to other materials, opening the door to a greater understanding of crystallization in general. PMID:26836335

  7. Effect of strain rates on deformation behaviors of an in situ Ti-based metallic glass matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Z. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Chu, M. Y.; Wang, Y. S.; Yang, H. J.; Qiao, J. W.

    2016-06-01

    Quasi-static and dynamic deformation behaviors of an in situ dendrite-reinforced metallic glass matrix composite: Ti56Zr18V10Cu4Be12 were investigated. Upon quasi-static compression, the composite exhibits distinguished work hardening, accompanied by the ultimate strength of 1290 MPa and the plasticity of 20 %. The improved plasticity is attributed to the multiplication of shear bands within the glass matrix and pileups of dislocations within the dendrites. Upon dynamic compression, the stable plastic flow prevails and the yielding stress increases with the strain rate. The macroscopic plasticity decreases considerably, since the shear bands cannot be effectively hindered by dendrites with deteriorated toughness. The dendrite-dominated mechanism results in the positive strain-rate sensitivity, and the Cowper-Symonds model is employed to depict the strain-rate dependency of yielding strength.

  8. Oxidation of metals and alloys in controlled atmospheres using in situ transmission electron microscopy and Auger spectrography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, D. B.; Heinemann, K.; Douglass, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    Single-crystalline thin films of copper were oxidized at an isothermal temperature of 425 C and at an oxygen partial pressure of .005 Torr in situ in a high-resolution electron microscope. The specimens were prepared by epitaxial vapor deposition onto polished 100 and 110 faces of rocksalt and mounted in a hot stage inside an ultra-high-vacuum specimen chamber of the microscope. Large amounts of sulfur, carbon, and oxygen were detected by Auger electron spectroscopy on the surface of the as-received films and were removed in situ by ion-sputter etching immediately prior to the oxidation. The nucleation and growth characteristics of Cu2O on Cu were studied. Results show that neither stacking faults nor dislocations are associated with the Cu2O nucleation sites. The growth of Cu2O nuclei is linear with time. The experimental findings, including results from oxygen dissolution experiments and from repetitive oxidation-reduction-oxidation sequences, fit well into the framework of an oxidation process involving (a) the formation of a surface-charge layer, (b) oxygen saturation in the metal and (c) nucleation, followed by surface diffusion of oxygen and bulk diffusion of copper for lateral and vertical oxide growth, respectively.

  9. In-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of water on metals and oxides at ambient conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Salmeron, Miquel; Yamamoto, S.; Bluhm, H.; Andersson, K.; Ketteler, G.; Ogasawara, H.; Salmeron, M.; Nilsson, A.

    2007-10-29

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a powerful tool for surface and interface analysis, providing the elemental composition of surfaces and the local chemical environment of adsorbed species. Conventional XPS experiments have been limited to ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions due to a short mean free path of electrons in a gas phase. The recent advances in instrumentation coupled with third-generation synchrotron radiation sources enables in-situ XPS measurements at pressures above 5 Torr. In this review, we describe the basic design of the ambient pressure XPS setup that combines differential pumping with an electrostatic focusing. We present examples of the application of in-situ XPS to studies of water adsorption on the surface of metals and oxides including Cu(110), Cu(111), TiO2(110) under environmental conditions of water vapor pressure. On all these surfaces we observe a general trend where hydroxyl groups form first, followed by molecular water adsorption. The importance of surface OH groups and their hydrogen bonding to water molecules in water adsorption on surfaces is discussed in detail.

  10. Observing Metal-Catalyzed Chemical Reactions in Situ Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy on Pd–Au Nanoshells

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Kimberly N.; Janesko, Benjamin G.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    2016-01-01

    Insight into the nature of transient reaction intermediates and mechanistic pathways involved in heterogeneously catalyzed chemical reactions is obtainable from a number of surface spectroscopic techniques. Carrying out these investigations under actual reaction conditions is preferred but remains challenging, especially for catalytic reactions that occur in water. Here, we report the direct spectroscopic study of the catalytic hydrodechlorination of 1,1-dichloroethene in H2O using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). With Pd islands grown on Au nanoshell films, this reaction can be followed in situ using SERS, exploiting the high enhancements and large active area of Au nanoshell SERS substrates, the transparency of Raman spectroscopy to aqueous solvents, and the catalytic activity enhancement of Pd by the underlying Au metal. The formation and subsequent transformation of several adsorbate species was observed. These results provide the first direct evidence of the room-temperature catalytic hydrodechlorination of a chlorinated solvent, a potentially important pathway for groundwater cleanup, as a sequence of dechlorination and hydrogenation steps. More broadly, the results highlight the exciting prospects of studying catalytic processes in water in situ, like those involved in biomass conversion and proton-exchange membrane fuel cells. PMID:19554693

  11. Ionic liquids: the link to high-temperature molten salts?

    PubMed

    El Abedin, Sherif Zein; Endres, Frank

    2007-11-01

    Due to their wide thermal windows, ionic liquids can be regarded as the missing link between aqueous/organic solutions and high-temperature molten salts. They can be employed efficiently for the coating of other metals with thin layers of tantalum, aluminum, and presumably many others at reasonable temperatures by electrochemical means. The development of ionic liquids, especially air and water stable ones, has opened the door for the electrodeposition of reactive elements such as, for example, Al, Ta, and Si, which in the past were only accessible using high-temperature molten salts or, in part, organic solvents. PMID:17521159

  12. Porous electrolyte retainer for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Raj N.; Dusek, Joseph T.

    1983-06-21

    A porous tile for retaining molten electrolyte within a fuel cell is prepared by sintering particles of lithium aluminate into a stable structure. The tile is assembled between two porous metal plates which serve as electrodes with fuels gases such as H.sub.2 and CO opposite to oxidant gases such as O.sub.2 and CO.sub.2. The tile is prepared with a porosity of 55-65% and a pore size distribution selected to permit release of sufficient molten electrolyte to wet but not to flood the adjacent electrodes.

  13. Porous electrolyte retainer for molten carbonate fuel cell. [lithium aluminate

    DOEpatents

    Singh, R.N.; Dusek, J.T.

    1979-12-27

    A porous tile for retaining molten electrolyte within a fuel cell is prepared by sintering particles of lithium aluminate into a stable structure. The tile is assembled between two porous metal plates which serve as electrodes with fuels gases such as H/sub 2/ and CO opposite to oxidant gases such as O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/. The tile is prepared with a porosity of 55 to 65% and a pore size distribution selected to permit release of sufficient molten electrolyte to wet but not to flood the adjacent electrodes.

  14. Efficient destruction of CF4 through in situ generation of alkali metals from heated alkali halide reducing mixtures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Churl; Choi, Wonyong

    2002-03-15

    Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are the most potent green house gases that are very recalcitrant at destruction. An effective way of converting PFCs using hot solid reagents into safe products has been recently introduced. By investigating the thermal reductive destruction of tetrafluoromethane (CF4) we provided new insight and more physicochemical consideration on this novel process. The complete destruction of CF4was successfully achieved by flowing the gas through a heated reagent bed (400-950 degrees C) that contained powder mixtures of alkali halides, CaO, and Si. The silicon acted as a reducing agent of alkali halides for the in-situ production of alkali metals, and the calcium oxide played the role of a halide ion acceptor. The absence of any single component in this ternary mixture drastically reduced the destruction efficiency of CF4. The CF4 destruction efficiencies with the solid reagent containing the alkali halide, MX, increased in the order of Li approximately Na < K < Cs for alkali cations and I < Br < Cl < F for halide anions. This trend agreed with the endothermicity of the alkali metal generation reaction: the higher the endothermicity, the lower the destruction efficiency. Alkali metal generation was indirectly detected by monitoring H2 production from its reaction with water. The production of alkali metals increased with NaF, KF, and CsF in this order. The CsF/CaO/Si system exhibited the complete destruction of CF4 at as low as 600 degrees C. The solid product analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the formation of CaF2 and the depletion of Si with black carbon particles formed in the solid reagent residue. No CO/CO2 and toxic HF and SiF4 formation were detected in the exhaust gas. PMID:11944694

  15. A bracket approach to improve the stability and gas sorption performance of a metal-organic framework via in situ incorporating the size-matching molecular building blocks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Di-Ming; Tian, Jia-Yue; Liu, Chun-Sen; Du, Miao

    2016-06-28

    Incorporating the in situ formed size-matching molecular building blocks (MBBs) into the open channels will remarkably improve the robustness and gas sorption performance of an evacuated metal-organic framework. As a result, such MBBs can transfer the open metal sites from the framework walls to the channel centers and separate the large channels into multiple smaller voids, leading to a molecular sieving effect and high-performance gas-separation of the modified material. PMID:27301546

  16. In situ capping for size control of monochalcogenides (ZnS, CdS, and SnS) nanocrystals produced by anaerobic metal-reducing bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Gyoung Gug; Jacobs, Christopher B.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Joshi, Pooran C.; Meyer, III, Harry M.; Kidder, Michelle; Armstrong, Beth L.; Datskos, Panos G.; Graham, David E.; Moon, Ji -Won

    2015-07-24

    Metal monochalcogenide quantum dot nanocrystals of ZnS, CdS and SnS were prepared by anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria using in situ capping by oleic acid or oleylamine. Furthermore, the capping agent preferentially adsorbs on the surface of the nanocrystal, suppressing the growth process in the early stages, thus leading to production of nanocrystals with a diameter of less than 5 nm.

  17. In situ capping for size control of monochalcogenide (ZnS, CdS and SnS) nanocrystals produced by anaerobic metal-reducing bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gug Jang, Gyoung; Jacobs, Christopher B.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Joshi, Pooran C.; Meyer, Harry M., III; Kidder, Michelle; Armstrong, Beth L.; Datskos, Panos G.; Graham, David E.; Moon, Ji-Won

    2015-08-01

    Metal monochalcogenide quantum dot nanocrystals of ZnS, CdS and SnS were prepared by anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria using in situ capping by oleic acid or oleylamine. The capping agent preferentially adsorbs on the surface of the nanocrystal, suppressing the growth process in the early stages, thus leading to production of nanocrystals with a diameter of less than 5 nm.

  18. In Situ NDA Conformation Measurements Performed at Auxiliary Charcoal Bed and Other Main Charcoal Beds After Uranium Removal from Molten Salt Reactor Experiment ACB at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Haghighi, M. H.; Kring, C. T.; McGehee, J. T.; Jugan, M. R.; Chapman, J.; Meyer, K. E.

    2002-02-26

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) site is located in Tennessee, on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The MSRE was run by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the desirable features of the molten-salt concept in a practical reactor that could be operated safely and reliably. It introduced the idea of a homogeneous reactor using fuel salt media and graphite moderation for power and breeder reactors. The MSRE reactor and associated components are located in cells beneath the floor in the high-bay area of Building 7503. The reactor was operated from June 1965 to December 1969. When the reactor was shut down, fuel salt was drained from the reactor circuit to two drain tanks. A ''clean'' salt was then circulated through the reactor as a decontamination measure and drained to a third drain tank. When operations ceased, the fuel and flush salts were allowed to cool and solidify in the drain tanks. At shutdown, the MSRE facility complex was placed in a surveillance and maintenance program. Beginning in 1987, it was discovered that gaseous uranium (U-233/U-232) hexafluoride (UF6) had moved throughout the MSRE process systems. The UF6 had been generated when radiolysis in the fluorine salts caused the individual constituents to dissociate to their component atoms, including free fluorine. Some of the free fluorine combined with uranium fluorides (UF4) in the salt to produce UF6. UF6 is gaseous at slightly above ambient temperatures; thus, periodic heating of the fuel salts (which was intended to remedy the radiolysis problems) and simple diffusion had allowed the UF6 to move out of the salt and into the process systems of MSRE. One of the systems that UF6 migrated into due to this process was the offgas system which is vented to the MSRE main charcoal beds and MSRE auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). Recently, the majority of the uranium laden-charcoal material residing within the ACB was safely and successfully removed using

  19. In Situ Determination of Siderophile Trace Elements in Metals and Sulfides in Enstatite Achondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanAcken, D.; Humayun, M.; Brandon, A. D.; Peslier, A.

    2010-01-01

    Enstatite meteorites are identified by their extremely reduced mineralogy (1) and similar oxygen isotope composition (2). The enstatite meteorite clan incorporates both EH and EL chondrites, as well as a wide variety of enstatite achondrites, such as aubrites or anomalous enstatite meteorites (e.g. Mt. Egerton, Shallowater, Zaklodzie, NWA 2526). The role of nebular versus planetary processes in the formation of enstatite meteorites is still under debate (e.g. 3-5). Past studies showed a significant influence of metal segregation in the formation of enstatite achondrites. Casanova et al. (6) suggested incomplete metal-silicate segregation during core formation and attributed the unfractionated siderophile element patterns in aubrites metals to a lack of fractional crystallization in a planetary core. Recent studies suggest a significant role of impact melting in the formation of primitive enstatite chondrites (7) and identified NWA 2526 as a partial melt residue of an enstatite chondrite (8). To understand the nature of siderophile element-bearing phases in enstatite achondrites, establish links between enstatite achondrites and enstatite chondrites (9), and constrain planetary differentiation on their respective parent bodies and their petrogenetic histories, we present laser ablation ICP-MS measurements of metal and sulfide phases in Shallowater, Mt. Egerton, and the aubrites Aubres, Cumberland Falls, and Mayo Belwa.

  20. In Situ Chemical Synthesis of Lithium Fluoride/Metal Nanocomposite for High Capacity Prelithiation of Cathodes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongming; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Zheng, Guangyuan; Seh, Zhi Wei; Sun, Jie; Li, Yanbin; Cui, Yi

    2016-02-10

    The initial lithium loss during the formation stage is a critical issue that significantly reduces the specific capacity and energy density of current rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). An effective strategy to solve this problem is using electrode prelithiation additives that can work as a secondary lithium source and compensate the initial lithium loss. Herein we show that nanocomposites of lithium fluoride and metal (e.g., LiF/Co and LiF/Fe) can be efficient cathode prelithiation materials. The thorough mixing of ultrafine lithium fluoride and metal particles (∼5 nm) allows lithium to be easily extracted from the nanocomposites via an inverse conversion reaction. The LiF/Co nanocomposite exhibits an open circuit voltage (OCV, 1.5 V) with good compatibility with that of existing cathode materials and delivers a high first-cycle "donor" lithium-ion capacity (516 mA h g(-1)). When used as an additive to a LiFePO4 cathode, the LiF/Co nanocomposite provides high lithium compensation efficiency. Importantly, the as-formed LiF/metal nanocomposites possess high stability and good compatibility with the regular solvent, binder, and existing battery processing conditions, in contrast with the anode prelithiation materials that usually suffer from issues of high chemical reactivity and instability. The facile synthesis route, high stability in ambient and battery processing conditions, and high "donor" lithium-ion capacity make the LiF/metal nanocomposites ideal cathode prelithiation materials for LIBs. PMID:26784146

  1. Batteries using molten salt electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Guidotti, Ronald A.

    2003-04-08

    An electrolyte system suitable for a molten salt electrolyte battery is described where the electrolyte system is a molten nitrate compound, an organic compound containing dissolved lithium salts, or a 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium salt with a melting temperature between approximately room temperature and approximately 250.degree. C. With a compatible anode and cathode, the electrolyte system is utilized in a battery as a power source suitable for oil/gas borehole applications and in heat sensors.

  2. Experimental Demonstration of the Molten Oxide Electrolysis Method for Oxygen and Iron Production from Simulated Lunar Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, P. A.; Ethridge, E.; Hudson, S.; Sen, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a Marshall Space Flight Center funded effort to conduct an experimental demonstration of the processing of simulated lunar resources by the molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) process to produce oxygen and metal from lunar resources to support human exploration of space. Oxygen extracted from lunar materials can be used for life support and propellant, and silicon and metallic elements produced can be used for in situ fabrication of thin-film solar cells for power production. The Moon is rich in mineral resources, but it is almost devoid of chemical reducing agents, therefore, molten oxide electrolysis, MOE, is chosen for extraction, since the electron is the most practical reducing agent. MOE was also chosen for following reasons. First, electrolytic processing offers uncommon versatility in its insensitivity to feedstock composition. Secondly, oxide melts boast the twin key attributes of highest solubilizing capacity for regolith and lowest volatility of any candidate electrolytes. The former is critical in ensuring high productivity since cell current is limited by reactant solubility, while the latter simplifies cell design by obviating the need for a gas-tight reactor to contain evaporation losses as would be the case with a gas or liquid phase fluoride reagent operating at such high temperatures. In the experiments reported here, melts containing iron oxide were electrolyzed in a low temperature supporting oxide electrolyte (developed by D. Sadoway, MIT).

  3. [Bio-oil production from biomass pyrolysis in molten salt].

    PubMed

    Ji, Dengxiang; Cai, Tengyue; Ai, Ning; Yu, Fengwen; Jiang, Hongtao; Ji, Jianbing

    2011-03-01

    In order to investigate the effects of pyrolysis conditions on bio-oil production from biomass in molten salt, experiments of biomass pyrolysis were carried out in a self-designed reactor in which the molten salt ZnCl2-KCl (with mole ratio 7/6) was selected as heat carrier, catalyst and dispersion agent. The effects of metal salt added into ZnCl2-KCl and biomass material on biomass pyrolysis were discussed, and the main compositions of bio-oil were determined by GC-MS. Metal salt added into molten salt could affect pyrolysis production yields remarkably. Lanthanon salt could enhance bio-oil yield and decrease water content in bio-oil, when mole fraction of 5.0% LaCl3 was added, bio-oil yield could reach up to 32.0%, and water content of bio-oil could reduce to 61.5%. The bio-oil and char yields were higher when rice straw was pyrolysed, while gas yield was higher when rice husk was used. Metal salts showed great selectivity on compositions of bio-oil. LiCl and FeCl2 promoted biomass to pyrolyse into smaller molecular weight compounds. CrCl3, CaCl2 and LaCl3 could restrain second pyrolysis of bio-oil. The research provided a scientific reference for production of bio-oil from biomass pyrolysis in molten salt. PMID:21650030

  4. High-pressure chemistry of hydrogen in metals: in situ study of iron hydride.

    PubMed

    Badding, J V; Hemley, R J; Mao, H K

    1991-07-26

    Optical observations and x-ray diffraction measurements of the reaction between iron and hydrogen at high pressure to form iron hydride are described. The reaction is associated with a sudden pressure-induced expansion at 3.5 gigapascals of iron samples immersed in fluid hydrogen. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements carried out to 62 gigapascals demonstrate that iron hydride has a double hexagonal close-packed structure, a cell volume up to 17% larger than pure iron, and a stoichiometry close to FeH. These results greatly extend the pressure range over which the technologically important iron-hydrogen phase diagram has been characterized and have implications for problems ranging from hydrogen degradation and embrittlement of ferrous metals to the presence of hydrogen in Earth's metallic core. PMID:17746396

  5. In situ7Li and 133Cs nuclear magnetic resonance investigations on the role of Cs+ additive in lithium-metal deposition process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Zhao, Zhenchao; Hu, Mary Y.; Feng, Ju; Deng, Xuchu; Chen, Xilin; Xu, Wu; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2016-02-01

    Cesium ion (Cs+) has been reported to be an effective electrolyte additive to suppress Li dendrite growth which prevents the application of lithium (Li) metal as an anode for rechargeable Li batteries. In this work, we investigated the effect of Cs+ additive on Li depositions using quantitative in situ7Li and 133Cs nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with planar symmetric Li cells. It's found that the addition of Cs+ can significantly enhance both the formation of well aligned Li nanorods and reversibility of the Li electrode. In situ133Cs NMR directly confirms that Cs+ migrates to Li electrode to form a positively charged electrostatic shield during the charging process. Much more electrochemical "active" Li was found in Li films deposited with Cs+ additive, while more electrochemical "dead" and thicker Li rods were identified in Li films deposited without Cs+. Combining the in situ and the previous ex-situ results, a Li deposition model has been proposed to explain these observations.

  6. Investigations of the structural stability of metal hydride composites by in-situ neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbrig, Kai; Pohlmann, Carsten; Gondek, Łukasz; Figiel, Henryk; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Hilger, André; Manke, Ingo; Banhart, John; Kieback, Bernd; Röntzsch, Lars

    2015-10-01

    Metal hydride composites (MHC) with expanded natural graphite (ENG) exhibiting enhanced thermal conductivity and reduced porosity compared to metal hydride powders can enable a reversible, compact and safe way for hydrogen storage. In this study, neutron imaging during cyclic hydrogenation was utilized to investigate the structural stability and the spatial-temporal hydrogen concentration of application-oriented MHC with 40 mm in diameter compared to a loose metal hydride powder. In particular, swelling and shrinking effects of a radially confined MHC which could freely expand upwards were studied. It was found that the loose powder bed was easily torn apart during dehydrogenation, which leads to increased thermal resistance within the hydride bed. In contrast, the thermal resistance between MHC and container wall was minimized since the initial gap closes during initial hydrogenation and does not reopen thereafter. Further cyclic hydrogenation caused MHC volume changes, i.e. an almost reversible swelling/shrinking (so-called "MHC breathing"). Moreover, neutron imaging allowed for the observation of reaction fronts within the MHC and the powder bed that are governed by the heat transfer.

  7. In-situ x-ray microscopy of phase and composition distributions in metal alloys during solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaukler, William F.; Curreri, Peter A.

    1999-07-01

    This research applies a state of the art x-ray transmission microscope, to image the solidification of metallic or semiconductor alloys in real-time. By employing a hard x-ray source with sub-micron dimensions, resolutions of up to 2 micrometers can be obtained with magnifications of over 800 X. Specimen growth conditions were optimized and the best imaging technologies applied to maintain x-ray image resolution, contrast and sensitivity. In addition, a special furnace design is required to permit controlled growth conditions and still offer maximum resolution and image contrast. We have successfully imaged in real-time: interfacial morphologies, phase growth, coalescence, incorporation of phases into the growing interface, and the solute boundary layer in the liquid at the solid-liquid interface. We have also measured true local growth rates and can evaluate segregation structures in the solid; a form of in situ metallography. Composition gradients within the specimen cause variations in absorption of the flux such that the final image represents a spatial integration of composition. During this study, the growth of secondary phase fibers and lamellae form eutectic and monotectic alloys have been imaged during solidification, in real-time, for the first time in bulk metal alloys.

  8. In-Situ X-Ray Microscopy of Phase and Composition Distributions in Metal Alloys During Solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, William F.; Curreri, Peter A.

    1999-01-01

    This research applies a state of the art X-ray Transmission Microscope, to image the solidification of metallic or semiconductor alloys in real-time. By employing a hard x-ray source with sub-micron dimensions, resolutions of up to 3 gm can be obtained with magnifications of over 800 X. Specimen growth conditions were optimized and the best imaging technologies applied to maintain x-ray image resolution, contrast and sensitivity. In addition, a special furnace design is required to permit controlled growth conditions and still offer maximum resolution and image contrast. We have successfully imaged in real-time: interfacial morphologies, phase growth, coalescence, incorporation of phases into the growing interface, and the solute boundary layer in the liquid at the solid-liquid inter-face. We have also measured true local growth rates and can evaluate segregation structures in the solid; a form of in-situ metallography. Composition gradients within the specimen cause vafiations in absorption of the flux such that the final image represents a spatial integral of composition (or thickness). During this study, the growth of secondary phase fibers and lameilae from eutectic and monotectic alloys have been imaged during solidification, in real-time, for the first time in bulk metal alloys. Keywords: x-ray, microscope, solidification, microfocus, real-time, microstructure

  9. Engineering-scale test 4: In situ vitrification of toxic metals and volatile organics buried in INEL soils

    SciTech Connect

    Shade, J.W.; Tixier, J.S. ); Farnsworth, R.K. ); Charboneau, B.L. )

    1991-06-01

    An engineering-scale in situ vitrification (ISV) test was conducted on soils containing a mixture of buried waste materials expected to be present at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) subsurface disposal area (SDA). The test was part of a Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) program to assist INEL in treatability studies of the potential application of ISV to mixed transuranic wastes at the INEL SDA. The purpose of this test was to determine the feasibility of using ISV to vitrify soils containing a mixture of buried hazardous heavy metals (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Se), with stainless and carbon steels, nonhazardous combustibles, and organics in the form of cemented sludge/grease mixtures. Specific objectives included determining the destruction and removal efficiency of hazardous volatile organics, determining the distribution of hazardous heavy metals between vitrified components, soils, and the ISV off-gas system, determining the leachability of the vitrified product, and evaluating electrode coatings. Actual site soil from INEL was used in the test and a basalt block was placed at a depth of 66 cm (26 in.) below the soil surface. The basalt was included to simulate basalt layers below the SDA and to evaluate bonding of the glass to basalt and possible contaminant transport into the basalt. 5 refs., 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. Porphyrins as Templates for Site-Selective Atomic Layer Deposition: Vapor Metalation and in Situ Monitoring of Island Growth.

    PubMed

    Avila, Jason R; Emery, Jonathan D; Pellin, Michael J; Martinson, Alex B F; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2016-08-10

    Examinations of enzymatic catalysts suggest one key to efficient catalytic activity is discrete size metallo clusters. Mimicking enzymatic cluster systems is synthetically challenging because conventional solution methods are prone to aggregation or require capping of the cluster, thereby limiting its catalytic activity. We introduce site-selective atomic layer deposition (ALD) on porphyrins as an alternative approach to grow isolated metal oxide islands that are spatially separated. Surface-bound tetra-acid free base porphyrins (H2TCPP) may be metalated with Mn using conventional ALD precursor exposure to induce homogeneous hydroxide synthetic handles which acts as a nucleation point for subsequent ALD MnO island growth. Analytical fitting of in situ QCM mass uptake reveals island growth to be hemispherical with a convergence radius of 1.74 nm. This growth mode is confirmed with synchrotron grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) measurements. Finally, we extend this approach to other ALD chemistries to demonstrate the generality of this route to discrete metallo island materials. PMID:27454741

  11. Amorphization and Directional Crystallization of Metals Confined in Carbon Nanotubes Investigated by in Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dai-Ming; Ren, Cui-Lan; Lv, Ruitao; Yu, Wan-Jing; Hou, Peng-Xiang; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Wei, Xianlong; Xu, Zhi; Kawamoto, Naoyuki; Bando, Yoshio; Mitome, Masanori; Liu, Chang; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Golberg, Dmitri

    2015-08-12

    The hollow core of a carbon nanotube (CNT) provides a unique opportunity to explore the physics, chemistry, biology, and metallurgy of different materials confined in such nanospace. Here, we investigate the nonequilibrium metallurgical processes taking place inside CNTs by in situ transmission electron microscopy using CNTs as nanoscale resistively heated crucibles having encapsulated metal nanowires/crystals in their channels. Because of nanometer size of the system and intimate contact between the CNTs and confined metals, an efficient heat transfer and high cooling rates (∼10(13) K/s) were achieved as a result of a flash bias pulse followed by system natural quenching, leading to the formation of disordered amorphous-like structures in iron, cobalt, and gold. An intermediate state between crystalline and amorphous phases was discovered, revealing a memory effect of local short-to-medium range order during these phase transitions. Furthermore, subsequent directional crystallization of an amorphous iron nanowire formed by this method was realized under controlled Joule heating. High-density crystalline defects were generated during crystallization due to a confinement effect from the CNT and severe plastic deformation involved. PMID:26114583

  12. Application of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Gourishankar, K. V.

    1998-11-11

    Metallothermic reductions have been extensively studied in the field of extractive metallurgy. At Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), we have developed a molten-salt based reduction process using lithium. This process was originally developed to reduce actinide oxides present in spent nuclear fuel. Preliminary thermodynamic considerations indicate that this process has the potential to be adapted for the extraction of other metals. The reduction is carried out at 650 C in a molten-salt (LiCl) medium. Lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O), produced during the reduction of the actinide oxides, dissolves in the molten salt. At the end of the reduction step, the lithium is regenerated from the salt by an electrowinning process. The lithium and the salt from the electrowinning are then reused for reduction of the next batch of oxide fuel. The process cycle has been successfully demonstrated on an engineering scale in a specially designed pyroprocessing facility. This paper discusses the applicability of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes with specific reference to our process. Results are presented from our work on actinide oxides to highlight the role of lithium and its effect on process variables in these molten-salt based reduction processes.

  13. The removal of iron from molten aluminium

    SciTech Connect

    Donk, H.M. van der; Nijhof, G.H.; Castelijns, C.A.M.

    1995-12-31

    In this work an overview is given about the techniques available for the removal of metallic impurities from molten aluminium. The overview is focused on the removal of iron. Also, some experimental results are given about the creation of iron-rich intermetallic compounds in an aluminium system, which are subsequently removed by gravity segregation and filtration techniques. This work is part of an ongoing research project of three major European aluminium companies who are co-operating on the subject of recycling of aluminium packaging materials recovered from household waste by means of Eddy-Current techniques. Using this technique the pick-up of some contaminating metals, particularly iron, is almost unavoidable.

  14. Engineered Natural Geosorbents for In Situ Immobilization of DNAPLs and Heavy Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Walter J. Weber; Gordon M. Fair; Earnest Boyce

    2006-12-01

    Extensive subsurface contamination by dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) organic solvents and heavy metals is common place at many DOE facilities. Poor performances and excessive costs have made traditional technologies and approaches less than satisfactory for remediation of such sites. It is increasingly apparent that marginal improvements in conventional methods and approaches will not suffice for clean up of many contaminated DOE sites. Innovative approaches using new and/or existing technologies in more efficient and cost-effective ways are thus urgently required.

  15. In situ observation of reaction between metal and Si surface by low energy RBS/channeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Masataka; Kobayashi, Naoto

    1997-02-01

    We have developed a low energy Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS)/ion channeling measurement system for the analysis of thin films and solid surfaces with the use of several tens keV hydrogen ions, and of a time-of-flight spectrometer which was originally developed by Mendenhall and Weller. The depth resolution of our system is better than that of conventional RBS system with MeV helium ions and silicon surface barrier detectors. This RBS/ion channeling system is small in size compared to the conventional RBS/ion channeling measurement system with the use of MeV He ions, because of the small ion accelerator for several tens keV ions. The analysis of crystalline thin films which utilizes ion channeling effect can be performed with this low energy RBS/ion channeling measurement system. The in situ observation of the thermal reaction between iron and silicon substrate with the use of this measurement system is demonstrated. The deposited Fe (3.3 ML) on Si(001) clean surface diffused into the substrate by 380 °C annealing, while on the hydrogen-terminated (dihydride) Si(001) the 480 °C annealing did not lead to the diffusion. Present results indicates that the hydrogen termination of Si(001) surface prevents the deposited Fe from diffusing into the substrate up to relatively high temperature compared to the clean surface.

  16. Hydrocracking of coal using molten salts as catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikkawa, S.; Nomura, M.; Sakashita, H.; Nishimura, M.; Miyake, M.

    1981-10-01

    Characteristics of the reactions during coal liquefaction and the hydrocracking of coal and coal-related materials using ZnCl2-transition metal chloride or ZnCl2-alkaline metal chloride are discussed. The studies involve development of a molten salt catalyst for hydrocracking heavy residual oils or coals, including hydrocarbons containing many heteroatoms. It was found that ZnCl2 shows higher activity for hydrocracking of anthracene and phenanthrene, and experiments with Yubari coal using the binary metal catalysts ZnCl2-MoCl5 and ZnCl2-CrCl3 are described. The use of molten salts in the desulphurization of heavy residual oils is also explored, specifically for the hydrocracking of benziophene, and the possibility that a coal-like polymer structure containing an oxygen surplus might depolymerize above ternary melts is suggested.

  17. In-Situ Cleaning of Metal Cathodes Using a Hydrogen Ion Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, D.H.; King, F.K.; Kirby, R.E.; Schmerge, J.F.; /SLAC

    2005-09-01

    Improving and maintaining the quantum efficiency (QE) of a metal photocathode in an s-band RF gun requires a process for cleaning the surface. In this type of gun, the cathode is typically installed and the system is vacuum baked to {approx}200 degrees C. If the QE is too low, the cathode is usually cleaned with the UV-drive laser. While laser cleaning does increase the cathode QE, it requires fluences close to the damage threshold and rastering the small diameter beam, both of which can produce nonuniform electron emission and potentially damage the cathode. This paper investigates the efficacy of a low energy hydrogen ion beam to produce high-QE metal cathodes. Measurements of the QE vs. wavelength, surface contaminants using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and surface roughness were performed on a copper sample, and the results showed a significant increase in QE after cleaning with a 1keV hydrogen ion beam. The H-ion beam cleaned an area approximately 1cm in diameter and had no effect on the surface roughness while significantly increasing the QE. These results and a comparison with theory as well as a scheme for installing an H-ion cleaner on an s-band gun are presented.

  18. Electrochemical in situ investigations of SEI and dendrite formation on the lithium metal anode.

    PubMed

    Bieker, Georg; Winter, Martin; Bieker, Peter

    2015-04-14

    This comparative work studies the self-enforcing heterogeneity of lithium deposition and dissolution as the cause for dendrite formation on the lithium metal anode in various liquid organic solvent based electrolytes. In addition, the ongoing lithium corrosion, its rate and thus the passivating quality of the SEI are investigated in self-discharge measurements. The behavior of the lithium anode is characterized in two carbonate-based standard electrolytes, 1 M LiPF6 in EC/DEC (3 : 7) and 1 M LiPF6 in EC/DMC (1 : 1), and in two alternative electrolytes 1 M LiPF6 in TEGDME and 1 M LiTFSI in DMSO, which have been proposed in the literature as promising electrolytes for lithium metal batteries, more specifically for lithium/air batteries. As a result, electrolyte decomposition, SEI and dendrite formation at the lithium electrode as well as their mutual influences are understood in the development of overpotentials, surface resistances and lithium electrode surface morphologies in subsequent lithium deposition and dissolution processes. A general model of different stages of these processes could be elaborated. PMID:25735488

  19. A comparison of in situ vs. ex situ filtration methods on the assessment of dissolved and particulate metals at hydrothermal vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotte, Laura; Waeles, Matthieu; Pernet-Coudrier, Benoît; Sarradin, Pierre-Marie; Cathalot, Cécile; Riso, Ricardo D.

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of the filtration method (in situ vs. ex situ) on the dissolved/particulate partitioning of 12 elements in hydrothermal samples collected from the Lucky Strike vent field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge; MAR). To do so, dissolved (<0.45 μm) and particulate Mg, Li, Mn, U, V, As, Ba, Fe, Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu were measured using different techniques (HR-ICP-MS, ICP-AES and CCSA). Using in situ filtration as a baseline, we showed that ex situ filtration (on-board and on shore after freezing) resulted in an underestimation of the dissolved pool, which was counterbalanced by an overestimation of the particulate pool for almost all the elements studied. We also showed that on-board filtration was acceptable for the assessment of dissolved and particulate Mn, Mg, Li and U for which the measurement bias for the dissolved fraction did not exceed 3%. However, in situ filtration appeared necessary for the accurate assessment of the dissolved and particulate concentrations of V, As, Fe, Zn, Ba, Cd, Pb and Cu. In the case of Fe, on-board filtration underestimated the dissolved pool by up to 96%. Laboratory filtration (after freezing) resulted in a large bias in the dissolved and particulate concentrations, unambiguously discounting this filtration method for deep-sea chemical speciation studies. We discuss our results in light of the precipitation processes that can potentially affect the accuracy of ex situ filtration methods.

  20. Structural change in molten basalt at deep mantle conditions.

    PubMed

    Sanloup, Chrystèle; Drewitt, James W E; Konôpková, Zuzana; Dalladay-Simpson, Philip; Morton, Donna M; Rai, Nachiketa; van Westrenen, Wim; Morgenroth, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    Silicate liquids play a key part at all stages of deep Earth evolution, ranging from core and crust formation billions of years ago to present-day volcanic activity. Quantitative models of these processes require knowledge of the structural changes and compression mechanisms that take place in liquid silicates at the high pressures and temperatures in the Earth's interior. However, obtaining such knowledge has long been impeded by the challenging nature of the experiments. In recent years, structural and density information for silica glass was obtained at record pressures of up to 100 GPa (ref. 1), a major step towards obtaining data on the molten state. Here we report the structure of molten basalt up to 60 GPa by means of in situ X-ray diffraction. The coordination of silicon increases from four under ambient conditions to six at 35 GPa, similar to what has been reported in silica glass. The compressibility of the melt after the completion of the coordination change is lower than at lower pressure, implying that only a high-order equation of state can accurately describe the density evolution of silicate melts over the pressure range of the whole mantle. The transition pressure coincides with a marked change in the pressure-evolution of nickel partitioning between molten iron and molten silicates, indicating that melt compressibility controls siderophile-element partitioning. PMID:24201283

  1. Direct in situ observation of metallic glass deformation by real-time nano-scale indentation

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Lin; Xu, Limei; Zhang, Qingsheng; Pan, Deng; Chen, Na; Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.; Yao, Ke-Fu; Wang, Weihua; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    A common understanding of plastic deformation of metallic glasses (MGs) at room temperature is that such deformation occurs via the formation of runaway shear bands that usually lead to catastrophic failure of MGs. Here we demonstrate that inhomogeneous plastic flow at nanoscale can evolve in a well-controlled manner without further developing of shear bands. It is suggested that the sample undergoes an elasto-plastic transition in terms of quasi steady-state localized shearing. During this transition, embryonic shear localization (ESL) propagates with a very slow velocity of order of ~1 nm/s without the formation of a hot matured shear band. This finding further advances our understanding of the microscopic deformation process associated with the elasto-plastic transition and may shed light on the theoretical development of shear deformation in MGs. PMID:25773051

  2. Low trap states in in situ SiN{sub x}/AlN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor structures grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xing; Ma, Jun; Jiang, Huaxing; Liu, Chao; Lau, Kei May

    2014-09-08

    We report the use of SiN{sub x} grown in situ by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition as the gate dielectric for AlN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures. Two kinds of trap states with different time constants were identified and characterized. In particular, the SiN{sub x}/AlN interface exhibits remarkably low trap state densities in the range of 10{sup 11}–10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2}eV{sup −1}. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses revealed that the in situ SiN{sub x} layer can provide excellent passivation without causing chemical degradation to the AlN surface. These results imply the great potential of in situ SiN{sub x} as an effective gate dielectric for AlN/GaN MIS devices.

  3. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J.; Heslop, M.; Wernly, K.

    1999-04-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible {sup 238}Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and NaAsO{sub 2} or Na{sub 3}AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the {sup 238}Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox.

  4. Kinetics of Carbon Dissolution of Coke in Molten Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Dongik; Kim, Yumkyum; Shin, Minsoo; Lee, Joonho

    2012-12-01

    The effect of temperature on the dissolution rate of carbon from coke in molten iron was investigated using a sampling technique in the temperature range of 1723 K to 1923 K (1450 °C to 1650 °C). The dissolution rate of carbon from coke in molten iron increased as the temperature increased. At 1923 K (1650 °C), the rate-determining step was the mass transfer of carbon in the boundary layer adjacent to the metal-carbon interface. At 1723 K (1450 °C), the rate-determining step changed from the mass transfer to the interfacial chemical reaction as the reaction proceeded. At 1823 K (1550 °C), both reaction steps affected the apparent reaction rates. Sulfur dissolution did not affect the carbon dissolution rates in molten iron, so it was considered that the sulfur adsorption at the metal/coke interface was not so significant. The apparent activation energy of the carbon dissolution of coke in molten iron was estimated to be 442 kJ/mol.

  5. Preliminary molten salt extraction experiments with dicesium hexachloroplutonate (Cs/sub 2/PuCl/sub 6/)

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.L.; Long, J.L.; Humiston, T.J.; Murray, A.M.

    1989-01-30

    Dicesium hexachloroplutonate was prepared on a 200-gram scale and used as an oxidant in the molten salt extraction process to remove americium from plutonium metal. Single-pass extraction efficiencies exceeding 90% were achieved in molten calcium chloride. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Development of an in-situ multi-component reinforced Al-based metal matrix composite by direct metal laser sintering technique — Optimization of process parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Subrata Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik; Saha, Partha

    2014-07-01

    In the present investigation, an in-situ multi-component reinforced aluminum based metal matrix composite was fabricated by the combination of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis and direct metal laser sintering process. The different mixtures of Al, TiO{sub 2} and B{sub 4}C powders were used to initiate and maintain the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis by laser during the sintering process. It was found from the X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy that the reinforcements like Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiC, and TiB{sub 2} were formed in the composite. The scanning electron microscopy revealed the distribution of the reinforcement phases in the composite and phase identities. The variable parameters such as powder layer thickness, laser power, scanning speed, hatching distance and composition of the powder mixture were optimized for higher density, lower porosity and higher microhardness using Taguchi method. Experimental investigation shows that the density of the specimen mainly depends upon the hatching distance, composition and layer thickness. On the other hand, hatching distance, layer thickness and laser power are the significant parameters which influence the porosity. The composition, laser power and layer thickness are the key influencing parameters for microhardness. - Highlights: • The reinforcements such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiC, and TiB{sub 2} were produced in Al-MMC through SHS. • The density is mainly influenced by the material composition and hatching distance. • Hatching distance is the major influencing parameter on porosity. • The material composition is the significant parameter to enhance the microhardness. • The SEM micrographs reveal the distribution of TiC, TiB{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the composite.

  7. Metal selectivity of in situ microcolonies in biofilms of the Elbe river.

    PubMed Central

    Lünsdorf, H; Brümmer, I; Timmis, K N; Wagner-Döbler, I

    1997-01-01

    The ultrastructure of natural complex biofilm communities of the Elbe river grown in situ on microscopic glass coverslips was studied by using transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis. Characteristic microcolonies which measured between 3.3 and 9.3 microm in diameter were frequently observed. They had an outer envelope and harbored 6 to 30 cells. The cells formed short rods measuring 1.09 +/- 0.28 microm (n = 10) in length and 0.55 + 0.07 microm (n = 21) in width. They were surrounded by a thick layer of electron-transparent, nonosmicated matter, 120 to 300 nm thick. Individual cells exhibited a unique ultrastructural trait, namely, a concentric membrane stack which completely surrounded the cytoplasm. It consisted of three membrane doublets, which showed an overall thickness of 57 to 66 nm. The center-to-center spacing between two membrane doublets was 22.2 +/- 1.0 nm (n = 12). The bacterial cell wall seemed to be of the gram-negative type. The fact that upon shrinkage hexagonal clefts appeared proved the cells to be tightly packed, and septum formation by binary fissions was observed. All of these morphological details indicate that the cells within these microcolonies were actively growing and did not represent spore-like states. EDX analysis showed that only the electron-dense surface deposit of the microcolonies contained Mn and Fe in significant amounts, while these two elements were absent from the intercellular space and the cytoplasm of the microorganisms. In contrast, aluminum ions were able to penetrate the outer envelope of the microcolonies and were detected in the intercellular space. They were, however, completely absent from the microbial cytoplasm, indicating a filter cascade with respect to aluminum. From the ultrastructural data together with the deposition of iron and manganese on the microcolony surface, it appears that these organisms may belong to the genus Siderocapsa or Nitrosomonas. They do not precisely

  8. Magnetic Shaping of Molten Metal Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shercliff, J. A.

    1981-04-01

    In continuous casting the vertically falling liquid column may be shaped by externally applied, horizontal, high-frequency magnetic fields. The free-boundary problem with allowance for surface tension is solved in a two-dimensional approximation by combined complex-variable and numerical methods in the cases where the far field is either uniform or of quadrupole form, or where the field is produced by four vertical conductors centred on the column. Stirring of the fluid is ignored.

  9. Cermets from molten metal infiltration processing

    DOEpatents

    Landingham, Richard Lee

    2012-09-18

    New cermets with improved properties and applications are provided. These new cermets have lower density and/or higher hardness than B4C cermet. By incorporating other new ceramics into B4C powders or as a substitute for B4C, lower densities and/or higher hardness cermets result. The ceramic powders have much finer particle size than those previously used which significantly reduces grain size of the cermet microstructure and improves the cermet properties.

  10. Cermets from molten metal infiltration processing

    DOEpatents

    Landingham, Richard L.

    2013-09-10

    New cermets with improved properties and applications are provided. These new cermets have lower density and/or higher hardness than B4C cermet. By incorporating other new ceramics into B4C powders or as a substitute for B4C, lower densities and/or higher hardness cermets result. The ceramic powders have much finer particle size than those previously used which significantly reduces grain size of the cermet microstructure and improves the cermet properties.

  11. Alternative cathodes for molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, I.; Lanagan, M.; Roche, M.F.; Krumpelt, M.

    1996-02-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing advanced cathodes for pressurized operation of the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). The present cathode, lithiated nickel oxide, tends to transport to the anode of the MCFC, where it is deposited as metallic nickel. The rate of transport increases with increasing CO{sub 2} pressure. This increase is due to an increased solubility of nickel oxide (NiO) in the molten carbonate electrolyte. An alternative cathode is lithium cobaltate (LiCoO{sub 2})-Solid solutions of LiCoO{sub 2} in LiFeO{sub 2} show promise for long-lived cathode materials. We have found that small additions of LiCoO{sub 2} to LiFeO{sub 2} markedly decrease the resistivity of the cathode material. Cells containing the LiCoO{sub 2}-LiFeO{sub 2} cathodes have stable performance for more than 2100 h of operation and display lower cobalt migration.

  12. Lithium metal protection through in-situ formed solid electrolyte interphase in lithium-sulfur batteries: The role of polysulfides on lithium anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Chong; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Zhao, Chen-Zi; Huang, Jia-Qi; Yang, Shu-Ting; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    The dissolution and diffusion of Li polysulfide (LiPS) intermediates are regarded as one of the most serious problems for capacity decay and cell failure of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Herein we proposed a failure mechanism of Li metal anode in Li-S cells based on the mechanistic investigation into the complex interactions between LiPSs and Li metal. The LiPSs participate the formation of inorganic layers in the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) in a LiPS-LiNO3 containing ether-based electrolyte. Li metal anode is well protected by the stable inorganic layer in-situ formed in an electrolyte containing 0.020 M Li2S5 (0.10 M sulfur) and 5.0 wt % LiNO3. The metal anode with LiF-Li2Sx riched SEI rendered a stable Coulombic efficiency of 95% after 233 cycles for Li-Cu half cells. A dendrite-free morphology of Li metal anode is observed under the harsh condition. When the LiPS is with a very high concentration of higher than 0.50 M sulfur in the organic electrolyte, the in-situ formed SEI cannot well maintain and the Li metal is gradually etched. Therefore, the polysulfide dissolution and diffusion should be delicately regulated to render a practical Li-S cell when the areal sulfur loading is high.

  13. In-situ waviness characterization of metal plates by a lateral shearing interferometric profilometer.

    PubMed

    Frade, María; Enguita, José María; Alvarez, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Characterizing waviness in sheet metal is a key process for quality control in many industries, such as automotive and home appliance manufacturing. However, there is still no known technique able to work in an automated in-floor inspection system. The literature describes many techniques developed in the last three decades, but most of them are either slow, only able to work in laboratory conditions, need very short (unsafe) working distances, or are only able to estimate certain waviness parameters. In this article we propose the use of a lateral shearing interferometric profilometer, which is able to obtain a 19 mm profile in a single acquisition, with sub-micron precision, in an uncontrolled environment, and from a working distance greater than 90 mm. This system allows direct measurement of all needed waviness parameters even with objects in movement. We describe a series of experiments over several samples of steel plates to validate the sensor and the processing method, and the results are in close agreement with those obtained with a contact stylus device. The sensor is an ideal candidate for on-line or in-machine fast automatic waviness assessment, reducing delays and costs in many metalworking processes. PMID:23584120

  14. New Opportunity for in Situ Exsolution of Metallic Nanoparticles on Perovskite Parent.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi-Fei; Zhang, Ya-Qian; Chen, Jian; Li, Jian-Hui; Zhu, Ying-Tao; Zeng, Yi-Min; Amirkhiz, Babak Shalchi; Li, Jian; Hua, Bin; Luo, Jing-Li

    2016-08-10

    One of the main challenges for advanced metallic nanoparticles (NPs) supported functional perovskite catalysts is the simultaneous achievement of a high population of NPs with uniform distribution as well as long-lasting high performance. These are also the essential requirements for optimal electrode catalysts used in solid oxide fuel cells and electrolysis cells (SOFCs and SOECs). Herein, we report a facile operando manufacture way that the crystal reconstruction of double perovskite under reducing atmosphere can spontaneously lead to the formation of ordered layered oxygen deficiency and yield segregation of massively and finely dispersed NPs. The real-time observation of this emergent process was performed via an environmental transmission electron microscope. Density functional theory calculations prove that the crystal reconstruction induces the loss of coordinated oxygen surrounding B-site cations, serving as the driving force for steering fast NP growth. The prepared material shows promising capability as an active and stable electrode for SOFCs in various fuels and SOECs for CO2 reduction. The conception exemplified here could conceivably be extended to fabricate a series of supported NPs perovskite catalysts with diverse functionalities. PMID:27455174

  15. IN-SITU CHEMICAL STABILIZATION OF METALS AND RADIONUCLIDES THROUGH ENHANCED ANAEROBIC REDUCTIVE PRECIPITATION

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher C. Lutes; Angela Frizzell, PG; Todd A. Thornton; James M. Harrington

    2003-08-01

    The objective of this NETL sponsored bench-scale study was to demonstrate the efficacy of enhanced anaerobic reductive precipitation (EARP) technology for precipitating uranium using samples from contaminated groundwater at the Fernald Closure Project (FCP) in Cincinnati, Ohio. EARP enhances the natural biological reactions in the groundwater through addition of food grade substrates (typically molasses) to drive the oxidative-reductive potential of the groundwater to a lower, more reduced state, thereby precipitating uranium from solution. In order for this in-situ technology to be successful in the long term, the precipitated uranium must not be re-dissolved at an unacceptable rate once groundwater geochemical conditions return to their pretreatment, aerobic state. The approach for this study is based on the premise that redissolution of precipitated uranium will be slowed by several mechanisms including the presence of iron sulfide precipitates and coatings, and sorption onto fresh iron oxides. A bench-scale study of the technology was performed using columns packed with site soil and subjected to a continuous flow of uranium-contaminated site groundwater (476 {micro}g/L). The ''treated'' column received a steady stream of dilute food grade molasses injected into the contaminated influent. Upon attainment of a consistently reducing environment and demonstrated removal of uranium, an iron sulfate amendment was added along with the molasses in the influent solution. After a month long period of iron addition, the treatments were halted, and uncontaminated, aerobic, unamended water was introduced to the treated column to assess rebound of uranium concentrations. In the first two months of treatment, the uranium concentration in the treated column decreased to the clean-up level (30 {micro}g/L) or below, and remained there for the remainder of the treatment period. A brief period of resolubilization of uranium was observed as the treated column returned to aerobic

  16. In situ rapid preparation of homochiral metal-organic framework coated column for open tubular capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Pan, Congjie; Wang, Weifeng; Chen, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    Fabricating metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with the use of nucleating agents in the microenvironment have attracted increasing attention recently. Herein, a simple and rapid synthesis method was developed to in situ fabricate homochiral MOF [Zn(s-nip)2]n in the capillary inner wall by using ZnO nanoparticles as efficient nucleating agents for open tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC) separation of monoamine neurotransmitters enantiomers of epinephrine, isoprenaline and synephrine, the diastereoisomers of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, the isomers of nitrophenols and analogues of bisphenols with good resolution. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for the analytes migration time of intra-day, inter-day and column-to-column were in the range of 0.8-2.1% (n=10), 0.3-3.2% (n=3) and 3.2-9.3% (n=3), respectively. Additionally, the homochiral MOF [Zn(s-nip)2]n coated capillary column could be successively used over 260 runs without observable change in the separation efficiency. PMID:26702592

  17. Efficient Sorption and Removal of Perfluoroalkyl Acids (PFAAs) from Aqueous Solution by Metal Hydroxides Generated in Situ by Electrocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Yujuan; Niu, Junfeng; Yue, Zhihan; Huang, Qingguo

    2015-09-01

    Removal of environmentally persistent perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), that is, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs, C4 ∼ C10) were investigated through sorption on four metal hydroxide flocs generated in situ by electrocoagulation in deionized water with 10 mM NaCl as supporting electrolyte. The results indicated that the zinc hydroxide flocs yielded the highest removal efficiency with a wide range concentration of PFOA/PFOS (1.5 μM ∼ 0.5 mM) at the zinc dosage <150 mg L(-1) with the energy consumption <0.18 Wh L(-1). The sorption kinetics indicated that the zinc hydroxide flocs had an equilibrium adsorbed amount (qe) up to 5.74/7.69 mmol g(-1) (Zn) for PFOA/PFOS at the initial concentration of 0.5 mM with an initial sorption rate (v0) of 1.01 × 10(3)/1.81 × 10(3) mmol g(-1) h(-1). The sorption of PFOA/PFOS reached equilibrium within <10 min. The sorption mechanisms of PFAAs on the zinc hydroxide flocs were proposed based on the investigation of various driving forces. The results indicated that the hydrophobic interaction was primarily responsible for the PFAAs sorption. The electrocoagulation process with zinc anode may have a great potential for removing PFAAs from industrial wastewater as well as contaminated environmental waterbody. PMID:26244813

  18. Electrically Robust Metal Nanowire Network Formation by In-Situ Interconnection with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jong Seok; Han, Joong Tark; Jung, Sunshin; Jang, Jeong In; Kim, Ho Young; Jeong, Hee Jin; Jeong, Seung Yol; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Lee, Geon-Woong

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of the junction resistance between metallic nanowires is a crucial factor for high performance of the network-structured conducting film. Here, we show that under current flow, silver nanowire (AgNW) network films can be stabilised by minimizing the Joule heating at the NW-NW junction assisted by in-situ interconnection with a small amount (less than 3 wt%) of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). This was achieved by direct deposition of AgNW suspension containing SWCNTs functionalised with quadruple hydrogen bonding moieties excluding dispersant molecules. The electrical stabilisation mechanism of AgNW networks involves the modulation of the electrical transportation pathway by the SWCNTs through the SWCNT-AgNW junctions, which results in a relatively lower junction resistance than the NW-NW junction in the network film. In addition, we propose that good contact and Fermi level matching between AgNWs and modified SWCNTs lead to the modulation of the current pathway. The SWCNT-induced stabilisation of the AgNW networks was also demonstrated by irradiating the film with microwaves. The development of the high-throughput fabrication technology provides a robust and scalable strategy for realizing high-performance flexible transparent conductor films. PMID:24763208

  19. Endoscopic fringe projection for in-situ inspection of a sheet-bulk metal forming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthias, Steffen; Kästner, Markus; Reithmeier, Eduard

    2015-05-01

    Sheet-bulk metal forming is a new production process capable of performing deep-drawing and massive forming steps in a single operation. However, due to the high forming forces of the forming process, continuous process control is required in order to detect wear on the forming tool before production quality is impacted. To be able to measure the geometry of the forming tool in the limited space of forming presses, a new inspection system is being developed within the SFB/TR 73 collaborative research center. In addition to the limited space, the process restricts the amount of time available for inspection. Existing areal optical measurement systems suffer from shadowing when measuring the tool's inner elements, as they cannot be placed in the limited space next to the tool, while tactile measurement systems cannot meet the time restrictions for measuring the areal geometries. The new inspection system uses the fringe projection optical measurement principle to capture areal geometry data from relevant parts of the forming tool in short time. Highresolution image fibers are used to connect the system's compact sensor head to a base unit containing both camera and projector of the fringe projection system, which can be positioned outside of the moving parts of the press. To enable short measurement times, a high intensity laser source is used in the projector in combination with a digital micro-mirror device. Gradient index lenses are featured in the sensor head to allow for a very compact design that can be used in the narrow space above the forming tool inside the press. The sensor head is attached to an extended arm, which also guides the image fibers to the base unit. A rotation stage offers the possibility to capture measurements of different functional elements on the circular forming tool by changing the orientation of the sensor head next to the forming tool. During operation of the press, the arm can be travelled out of the moving parts of the forming press

  20. Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals

    DOEpatents

    Royer, L.T.

    1987-03-20

    A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.