Sample records for skeletal muscle amino

  1. Amino-acid-based peritoneal dialysis solution improves amino-acid transport into skeletal muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Asola; K Virtanen; K Någren; S Helin; M Taittonen; H Kastarinen; B Anderstam; J Knuuti; K Metsärinne; P Nuutila

    2008-01-01

    Abnormalities of amino-acid (AA) and protein metabolism are known to occur in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Protein malnutrition may contribute to impaired prognosis of dialysis patients. A crucial step in protein metabolism is AA transport into the cells. We compared the effects of an AA-containing peritoneal dialysis (PD) solution to glucose-based solutions on skeletal muscle AA uptake. Thirteen nondiabetic PD

  2. Induction of amino acid transporters expression by endurance exercise in rat skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Taro, E-mail: tamuraka@sgk.ac.jp; Yoshinaga, Mariko

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •Regulation of amino acid transporter expression in working muscle remains unclear. •Expression of amino acid transporters for leucine were induced by a bout of exercise. •Requirement of leucine in muscle cells might regulate expression of its transporters. •This information is beneficial for understanding the muscle remodeling by exercise. -- Abstract: We here investigated whether an acute bout of endurance exercise would induce the expression of amino acid transporters that regulate leucine transport across plasma and lysosomal membranes in rat skeletal muscle. Rats ran on a motor-driven treadmill at a speed of 28 m/min for 90 min. Immediately after the exercise, we observed that expression of mRNAs encoding L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) and CD98 was induced in the gastrocnemius, soleus, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) mRNA was also induced by the exercise in those three muscles. Expression of proton-assisted amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1) mRNA was slightly but not significantly induced by a single bout of exercise in soleus and EDL muscles. Exercise-induced mRNA expression of these amino acid transporters appeared to be attenuated by repeated bouts of the exercise. These results suggested that the expression of amino acid transporters for leucine may be induced in response to an increase in the requirement for this amino acid in the cells of working skeletal muscles.

  3. Skeletal muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  4. Regulation of protein degradation pathways by amino acids and insulin in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rapid gain in lean mass in neonates requires greater rates of protein synthesis than degradation. We previously delineated the molecular mechanisms by which insulin and amino acids, especially leucine, modulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis and how this changes with development. In the curre...

  5. Stimulation of skeletal muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs by long-term infusion of leucine is amino acid dependent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infusing leucine for 1 hr increases skeletal muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs, but this is not sustained for 2 h unless the leucine-induced fall in amino acids is prevented. We aimed to determine whether continuous leucine infusion can stimulate protein synthesis for a prolonged period whe...

  6. Does Branched-Chain Amino Acids Supplementation Modulate Skeletal Muscle Remodeling through Inflammation Modulation? Possible Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Nicastro, Humberto; da Luz, Claudia Ribeiro; Chaves, Daniela Fojo Seixas; Bechara, Luiz Roberto Grassmann; Voltarelli, Vanessa Azevedo; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; Lancha, Antonio Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle protein turnover is modulated by intracellular signaling pathways involved in protein synthesis, degradation, and inflammation. The proinflammatory status of muscle cells, observed in pathological conditions such as cancer, aging, and sepsis, can directly modulate protein translation initiation and muscle proteolysis, contributing to negative protein turnover. In this context, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), especially leucine, have been described as a strong nutritional stimulus able to enhance protein translation initiation and attenuate proteolysis. Furthermore, under inflammatory conditions, BCAA can be transaminated to glutamate in order to increase glutamine synthesis, which is a substrate highly consumed by inflammatory cells such as macrophages. The present paper describes the role of inflammation on muscle remodeling and the possible metabolic and cellular effects of BCAA supplementation in the modulation of inflammatory status of skeletal muscle and the consequences on protein synthesis and degradation. PMID:22536489

  7. Regulation of cardiac and skeletal muscle protein synthesis by individual branched-chain amino acids in neonatal pigs.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Jeffery; Frank, Jason W; Suryawan, Agus; Nguyen, Hanh V; Kimball, Scot R; Jefferson, Leonard S; Davis, Teresa A

    2006-04-01

    Skeletal muscle grows at a very rapid rate in the neonatal pig, due in part to an enhanced sensitivity of protein synthesis to the postprandial rise in amino acids. An increase in leucine alone stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of the neonatal pig; however, the effect of isoleucine and valine has not been investigated in this experimental model. The left ventricular wall of the heart grows faster than the right ventricular wall during the first 10 days of postnatal life in the pig. Therefore, the effects of individual BCAA on protein synthesis in individual skeletal muscles and in the left and right ventricular walls were examined. Fasted pigs were infused with 0 or 400 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1) leucine, isoleucine, or valine to raise individual BCAA to fed levels. Fractional rates of protein synthesis and indexes of translation initiation were measured after 60 min. Infusion of leucine increased (P < 0.05) phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)4E-binding protein-1 and increased (P < 0.05) the amount and phosphorylation of eIF4G associated with eIF4E in longissimus dorsi and masseter muscles and in both ventricular walls. Leucine increased (P < 0.05) the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein (rp)S6 kinase and rpS6 in longissimus dorsi and masseter but not in either ventricular wall. Leucine stimulated (P < 0.05) protein synthesis in longissimus dorsi, masseter, and the left ventricular wall. Isoleucine and valine did not increase translation initiation factor activation or protein synthesis rates in skeletal or cardiac muscles. The results suggest that the postprandial rise in leucine, but not isoleucine or valine, acts as a nutrient signal to stimulate protein synthesis in cardiac and skeletal muscles of neonates by increasing eIF4E availability for eIF4F complex assembly. PMID:16278252

  8. Effects of voluntary wheel running and amino acid supplementation on skeletal muscle of mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Antonietta Pellegrino; Lorenza Brocca; Francesco Saverio Dioguardi; Roberto Bottinelli; Giuseppe D’Antona

    2005-01-01

    The aims of the present study were as follows: (1) to examine the adaptational changes to chronic endurance voluntary exercise and (2) to investigate the effects of amino acid supplementation on the adaptational changes induced by endurance training in hindlimb (gastrocnemius, tibialis, soleus) and respiratory (diaphragm) muscles of mice. Male C57Bl6 mice were divided in four groups: control sedentary, sedentary

  9. Modeling Skeletal Muscle Contraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suresh R. Devasahayam

    \\u000a Skeletal muscles in amphibians and mammals have been subjected to extensive investigation due to their relatively easy access\\u000a and simple structure compared to other physiological systems. Consequently fairly detailed models exist for skeletal muscle\\u000a behavior. Several competing models have been proposed that succeed to varying extents in explaining skeletal muscle behavior.\\u000a Although abundant experimental data exists, no existing model is

  10. Physiologic hyperinsulinemia stimulates protein synthesis and enhances transport of selected amino acids in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Biolo, G; Declan Fleming, R Y; Wolfe, R R

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the mechanisms of the anabolic effect of insulin on muscle protein metabolism in healthy volunteers, using stable isotopic tracers of amino acids. Calculations of muscle protein synthesis, breakdown, and amino acid transport were based on data obtained with the leg arteriovenous catheterization and muscle biopsy. Insulin was infused (0.15 mU/min per 100 ml leg) into the femoral artery to increase femoral venous insulin concentration (from 10 +/- 2 to 77 +/- 9 microU/ml) with minimal systemic perturbations. Tissue concentrations of free essential amino acids decreased (P < 0.05) after insulin. The fractional synthesis rate of muscle protein (precursor-product approach) increased (P < 0.01) after insulin from 0.0401 +/- 0.0072 to 0.0677 +/- 0.0101%/h. Consistent with this observation, rates of utilization for protein synthesis of intracellular phenylalanine and lysine (arteriovenous balance approach) also increased from 40 +/- 8 to 59 +/- 8 (P < 0.05) and from 219 +/- 21 to 298 +/- 37 (P < 0.08) nmol/min per 100 ml leg, respectively. Release from protein breakdown of phenylalanine, leucine, and lysine was not significantly modified by insulin. Local hyperinsulinemia increased (P < 0.05) the rates of inward transport of leucine, lysine, and alanine, from 164 +/- 22 to 200 +/- 25, from 126 +/- 11 to 221 +/- 30, and from 403 +/- 64 to 595 +/- 106 nmol/min per 100 ml leg, respectively. Transport of phenylalanine did not change significantly. We conclude that insulin promoted muscle anabolism, primarily by stimulating protein synthesis independently of any effect on transmembrane transport. Images PMID:7860765

  11. Muscle free amino acid profiles are related to differences in skeletal muscle growth between single and twin ovine fetuses near term.

    PubMed

    Sales, Francisco; Pacheco, David; Blair, Hugh; Kenyon, Paul; McCoard, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Twin sheep fetuses have reduced skeletal muscle weight near birth relative to singles as a result of restricted muscle hypertrophy. Intracellular free amino acids (FAA) are reported to regulate metabolic pathways which control muscle protein accretion, whereby reduced intracellular content of specific FAA may reduce their activation and therefore, muscle hypertrophy. The aim of this study was to determine whether differences in muscle weight between singleton and twin fetuses, under different maternal conditions is associated with reduced concentration of specific FAA. The FAA content in the semitendinosus muscle (ST) in singleton and twin fetuses (rank) at 140 days of gestation from heavy (H) or light (L) ewes fed ad libitum (A) or maintenance (M) level of nutrition was measured. Muscle weight was reduced in twin fetuses compared to singletons in all groups. Reduced concentrations of leucine, threonine and valine, but higher concentrations of methionine, ornithine, lysine and serine were found in twin fetuses compared to singletons. Maternal size and nutrition interaction with rank resulted in reduced glutamine in twins from HM-ewes (H-ewes under M nutrition) compared to their singleton counterparts. Maternal weight interaction with pregnancy rank reduced the concentration of arginine in twins, with a larger effect on H-ewes compared with L-ewes. Maternal size interaction with pregnancy rank resulted in twins from M-ewes to have lower alanine, while twins from A-ewes had lower aspartic acid concentration compared to singletons. The ST muscle weight was positively correlated only with arginine concentration after taking into account rank, size and nutrition. The present results indicate that reduced concentrations of specific intracellular FAA, such as arginine, leucine, valine, glutamine, which are known to play a role in muscle growth, could be acting as limiting factors for muscle hypertrophy in twin fetuses during late gestation. Ewe size and nutrition can influence the concentration of specific FAA in muscle and should be considered in any intervention plan to improve twin fetal muscle growth. PMID:24133643

  12. Microcirculation in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hudlicka, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Summary The role of microcirculation in skeletal muscle is to provide the supply of oxygen and various nutrients and to remove waste products of muscle metabolism. As skeletal muscles are composed of different fibre types, this review tries to elucidate the question of capillary supply and flow with respect to these. It reviews the current knowledge of structure of microcirculation and its nervous, hormonal, and local (myogenic, metabolic and endothelial) control. It also discuss factors involved in the increase in blood flow and changes in microcirculation occurring during muscle contractions, exercise training, muscle hypertrophy and atrophy, hypoxia, ageing, hypertension, diabetes and limited blood supply. PMID:23738238

  13. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid, protein and amino acids on protein synthesis and degradation in skeletal muscle of cachectic mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H J Smith; N A Greenberg; M J Tisdale

    2004-01-01

    Atrophy of skeletal muscle reduces both the quality and quantity of life of patients with cancer cachexia. Loss of muscle mass is thought to arise from a reduction in protein synthesis combined with an enhanced rate of protein degradation, and few treatments are available to counteract this process. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has been shown to attenuate the enhanced protein degradation,

  14. Expression of Heat Shock Protein (Hsp90) Paralogues Is Regulated by Amino Acids in Skeletal Muscle of Atlantic Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Garcia de la serrana, Daniel; Johnston, Ian A.

    2013-01-01

    Heat shock proteins 90 (Hsp90) have an essential role in sarcomere formation and differentiation in skeletal muscle and also act as molecular chaperones during protein folding impacting a wide range of physiological processes. We characterised and provided a phylogenetically consistent nomenclature for the complete repertoire of six Hsp90 paralogues present in duplicated salmonid fish genomes (Hsp90?1a, Hsp90?1b, Hsp90?2a, Hsp90?2b, Hsp90ß1a and Hsp90ß1b). The expression of paralogues in fast skeletal muscle was investigated using in vivo fasting-feeding experiments and primary myogenic cultures. Fasted juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) showed a transient 2 to 8-fold increase in the expression of all 4 Hsp90? paralogues within 24h of satiation feeding. Hsp90?1a and hsp90?1b also showed a pronounced secondary increase in expression after 10 days, concomitant with muscle differentiation and the expression of myogenin and sarcomeric proteins (mlc2, myhc). Hsp90ß1b was constitutively expressed whereas Hsp90ß1a expression was downregulated 10-fold between fasted and fed individuals. Hsp90?1a and Hsp90?1b were upregulated 10 to 15-fold concomitant with myotube formation and muscle differentiation in vitro whereas other Hsp90 paralogues showed no change in expression. In cells starved of amino acid (AA) and serum for 72h the addition of AA, but not insulin-like growth factor 1, increased phosphorylation of mTor and expression of all 4 hsp90? paralogues and associated co-chaperones including hsp30, tbcb, pdia4, pdia6, stga and fk504bp1, indicating a general activation of the protein folding response. In contrast, Hsp90ß1a expression in vitro was unresponsive to AA treatment indicating that some other as yet uncharacterised signal(s) regulate its expression in response to altered nutritional state. PMID:24040223

  15. Skeletal muscle channelopathies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Jurkat-Rott; Holger Lerche; Frank Lehmann-Horn

    2002-01-01

    .   Ion channelopathies have common clinical features, recurrent patterns of mutations, and almost predictable mechanisms of\\u000a pathogenesis. In skeletal muscle, disorders are associated with mutations in voltage-gated Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Cl? channels leading to hypoexcitability, causing periodic paralysis and to hyperexcitabilty, resulting in myotonia or susceptibility\\u000a to malignant hyperthermia.

  16. LEUCINE STIMULATION OF SKELETAL MUSCLE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS DURING PROLONGED LEUCINE INFUSION IS DEPENDENT ON AMINO ACID AVAILABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leucine stimulates protein synthesis in cultured cells, mature rats and neonatal pigs. We have reported that leucine infusion increases protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs during a 60-min infusion. When leucine infusion was prolonged for 120 min, however, protein synthesis was no...

  17. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation promotes survival and supports cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis in middle-aged mice.

    PubMed

    D'Antona, Giuseppe; Ragni, Maurizio; Cardile, Annalisa; Tedesco, Laura; Dossena, Marta; Bruttini, Flavia; Caliaro, Francesca; Corsetti, Giovanni; Bottinelli, Roberto; Carruba, Michele O; Valerio, Alessandra; Nisoli, Enzo

    2010-10-01

    Recent evidence points to a strong relationship between increased mitochondrial biogenesis and increased survival in eukaryotes. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have been shown to extend chronological life span in yeast. However, the role of these amino acids in mitochondrial biogenesis and longevity in mammals is unknown. Here, we show that a BCAA-enriched mixture (BCAAem) increased the average life span of mice. BCAAem supplementation increased mitochondrial biogenesis and sirtuin 1 expression in primary cardiac and skeletal myocytes and in cardiac and skeletal muscle, but not in adipose tissue and liver of middle-aged mice, and this was accompanied by enhanced physical endurance. Moreover, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) defense system genes were upregulated, and ROS production was reduced by BCAAem supplementation. All of the BCAAem-mediated effects were strongly attenuated in endothelial nitric oxide synthase null mutant mice. These data reveal an important antiaging role of BCAAs mediated by mitochondrial biogenesis in mammals. PMID:20889128

  18. Regulation of System A amino acid transport in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells by insulin, chemical and hyperthermic stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen E McDowell; Patrick A Eyers; Harinder S Hundal

    1998-01-01

    In this study we have investigated the effects of insulin, chemical and hyperthermic stresses upon the activity of the System A amino acid transporter in L6 rat muscle cells. Uptake of ?-methyl-aminoisobutyric acid (Me-AIB), a non-metabolisable System A substrate, was increased by between 50% and 80% when muscle cells were exposed to a maximally effective concentration of insulin (100 nM),

  19. Effect of parathyroid hormone on energy metabolism of skeletal muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryszard Baczynski; Shaul G Massry; Maria Magott; Sami El-Belbessi; Ricardo Kohan; Nachman Brautbar; G Massry

    1985-01-01

    Effect of parathyroid hormone on energy metabolism of skeletal muscle. Clinical states with primary or secondary hyperparathyroidism are associated with muscle dysfunction, suggesting that parathyroid hormone (PTH) may affect muscle metabolism. The present study examined the effect of 1–84 PTH and its amino-terminal fragment (1–34 PTH) on energy production, transfer, and utilization by skeletal muscle. Rats weighing 150 to 200

  20. Skeletal Muscle Alpha-Actin Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn N. North; Nigel G. Laing

    Skeletal muscle ?-actin is the principal protein component of the adult skeletal muscle thin filament. The interaction between\\u000a skeletal, muscle ?-actin and the various myosin heavy chain proteins in the different muscle fibre types generates the force\\u000a of muscle contraction. Skeletal muscle ?-alpha actin is thus of fundamental importance to normal muscle contraction. To date\\u000a over 140 different disease-causing mutations

  1. Activation by Insulin and Amino Acids of Signaling Components Leading to Translation Initiation in Skeletal Muscle of Neonatal Pigs Is Developmentally Regulated

    PubMed Central

    Suryawan, Agus; Orellana, Renan A.; Nguyen, Hanh V.; Jeyapalan, Asumthia S.; Fleming, Jillian R.; Davis, Teresa A.

    2009-01-01

    Insulin (INS) and amino acids (AA) act independently to stimulate protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs and the responses decrease with development. The purpose of this study was to compare the separate effects of fed levels of INS and AA on the activation of signaling components leading to translation initiation and how these responses change with development. Overnight fasted 6-day-old (n=4/group) and 26-day-old (n=6/group) pigs were studied during: 1) euinsulinemic-euglycemic-euaminoacidemic conditions (controls), 2) euinsulinemic-euglycemic-hyperaminoacidemic clamps (AA), and 3) hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-euaminoacidemic clamps (INS). INS, but not AA, increased the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB) and tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2). Both INS and AA increased protein synthesis and the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), ribosomal protein S6 kinase-1, and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and these responses were higher in 6-day-old compared to 26-day-old pigs. Both INS and AA decreased the binding of 4E-BP1 to eIF4E and increased eIF4E binding to eIF4G; these effects were greater in 6-day-old than in 26-day-old pigs. Neither INS nor AA altered the composition of mTORC1 (raptor, mTOR, and G?L) or mTORC2 (rictor, mTOR, and G?L) complexes. Furthermore, neither INS, AA, nor age had any effect on the abundance of Rheb and the phosphorylation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2). Our results suggest that the activation by insulin and amino acids of signaling components leading to translation initiation is developmentally regulated and parallels the developmental decline in protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs. PMID:17878222

  2. Engineering vascularized skeletal muscle tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeroen Rouwkema; Mara Macdonald; Evan S Garfein; Daniel S Kohane; Diane C Darland; Robert Marini; Clemens A van Blitterswijk; Richard C Mulligan; Patricia A D'Amore; Shulamit Levenberg; Robert Langer

    2005-01-01

    One of the major obstacles in engineering thick, complex tissues such as muscle is the need to vascularize the tissue in vitro. Vascularization in vitro could maintain cell viability during tissue growth, induce structural organization and promote vascularization upon implantation. Here we describe the induction of endothelial vessel networks in engineered skeletal muscle tissue constructs using a three-dimensional multiculture system

  3. Adult skeletal muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sambasivan, Ramkumar; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscles in vertebrates have a phenomenal regenerative capacity. A muscle that has been crushed can regenerate fully both structurally and functionally within a month. Remarkably, efficient regeneration continues to occur following repeated injuries. Thousands of muscle precursor cells are needed to accomplish regeneration following acute injury. The differentiated muscle cells, the multinucleated contractile myofibers, are terminally withdrawn from mitosis. The source of the regenerative precursors is the skeletal muscle stem cells-the mononucleated cells closely associated with myofibers, which are known as satellite cells. Satellite cells are mitotically quiescent or slow-cycling, committed to myogenesis, but undifferentiated. Disruption of the niche after muscle damage results in their exit from quiescence and progression towards commitment. They eventually arrest proliferation, differentiate, and fuse to damaged myofibers or make de novo myofibers. Satellite cells are one of the well-studied adult tissue-specific stem cells and have served as an excellent model for investigating adult stem cells. They have also emerged as an important standard in the field of ageing and stem cells. Several recent reviews have highlighted the importance of these cells as a model to understand stem cell biology. This chapter begins with the discovery of satellite cells as skeletal muscle stem cells and their developmental origin. We discuss transcription factors and signalling cues governing stem cell function of satellite cells and heterogeneity in the satellite cell pool. Apart from satellite cells, a number of other stem cells have been shown to make muscle and are being considered as candidate stem cells for amelioration of muscle degenerative diseases. We discuss these "offbeat" muscle stem cells and their status as adult skeletal muscle stem cells vis-a-vis satellite cells. The ageing context is highlighted in the concluding section. PMID:25344672

  4. Current Topics for Teaching Skeletal Muscle Physiology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Susan V. Brooks (University of Michigan)

    2003-12-01

    Contractions of skeletal muscles provide the stability and power for all body movements. Consequently, any impairment in skeletal muscle function results in some degree of instability or immobility. Factors that influence skeletal muscle structure and function are therefore of great interest both scientifically and clinically. Injury, disease, and old age are among the factors that commonly contribute to impairment in skeletal muscle function. The goal of this article is to update current concepts of skeletal muscle physiology. Particular emphasis is placed on mechanisms of injury, repair, and adaptation in skeletal muscle as well as mechanisms underlying the declining skeletal muscle structure and function associated with aging. For additional materials please refer to the "Skeletal Muscle Physiology" presentation located on the American Physiological Society Archive of Teaching Resources Web site (http://www.apsarchive.org).

  5. The Increased Skeletal Muscle Protein Turnover of the Streptozotozin Diabetic Rat Is Associated with High Concentrations of BranchedChain Amino Acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teresa Rodr??guez; Belén Alvarez; S??lvia Busquets; Neus Carbó; Francisco J. López-Soriano; Josep M. Argilés

    1997-01-01

    Experimental streptozotozin-induced diabetes resulted in important changes in body weight which were associated with abnormalities in water and food intake. In addition, diabetic rats showed a clear muscle atrophy involving a decrease in both skeletal muscle size and protein content. This was accompanied by a marked loss of total carcass nitrogen. These changes were related to important alterations in protein

  6. Skeletal muscle and whole body protein turnover in cardiac cachexia: influence of branched-chain amino acid administration.

    PubMed

    Morrison, W L; Gibson, J N; Rennie, M J

    1988-12-01

    Muscle protein wasting commonly accompanies severe heart failure. The mechanism of this so-called cardiac cachexia has been investigated in eight patients with an average body weight decrement of 19%, whose results have been compared with those from 11 healthy control subjects. Exchanges of tyrosine and 3-methylhistidine across leg tissue were used as specific indicators of net protein balance and myofibrillar protein breakdown, respectively. Whole body protein turnover was measured using a stable isotope labelling technique with L-[1-13C]leucine as tracer. In patients with cardiac cachexia there were greater values, relative to those values in normal control subjects, of leg efflux of tyrosine (-8.1 +/- 0.6 nmol 100 ml leg tissue-1 min-1 vs. -4.2 +/- 0.3 nmol 100 ml-1 min-1 (P less than 0.01) and of 3-methylhistidine (-0.8 +/- 0.1 nmol 100 ml leg tissue-1 min-1 vs. -0.1 +/- 0.02 nmol 100 ml-1 min-1 (P less than 0.005), mean +/- SEM). The results suggest that in patients with cardiac cachexia the state of net negative protein balance across leg tissue is associated with an increased rate of myofibrillar protein breakdown. In cardiac cachexia, neither efflux of tyrosine (-8.4 +/- 0.7 nmol 100 ml leg tissue-1 min-1) nor of 3-methylhistidine (-1.0 +/- 0.2 nmol 100 ml leg tissue-1 min-1) were significantly altered by branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) infusion to plasma concentrations of 1300 +/- 14 mumol ml-1, i.e., four times normal plasma values (282 +/- 11 mumol ml-1).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3147192

  7. Tropomyosins in Skeletal Muscle Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony J. Kee; Edna C. Hardeman

    A number of congenital muscle diseases and disorders are caused by mutations in genes that encode the proteins present in\\u000a or associated with the thin filaments of the muscle sarcomere.1 These genes include ?-skeletal actin (ACTA1), ?-tropomyosin (TPM2), ?-tropomyosin slow (TPM3), nebulin (NEB), troponin I fast (TNNI2), troponin T slow (TNNT1), troponin T fast (TNNT3) and cofilin (CFL2). Mutations in

  8. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy and atrophy signaling pathways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Glass

    2005-01-01

    Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is defined as an increase in muscle mass, which in the adult animal comes as a result of an increase in the size, as opposed to the number, of pre-existing skeletal muscle fibers. The protein growth factor insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has been demonstrated to be sufficient to induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Over the past few

  9. Embryonic skeletal muscle micro-explant culture and isolation of skeletal muscle stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet Smith; Deborah Merrick

    Cultured embryonic and adult skeletal muscle cells have a number of different uses. The micro-dissected explant technique described in this chapter is a robust and reliable method of isolating relatively large numbers of proliferative skeletal muscle cells from juvenile, adult or embryonic muscles as a source of skeletal muscle stem cells. The authors have used micro-dissected explant cultures to analyse

  10. Skeletal Muscle VEGF Gradients in PAD Skeletal Muscle VEGF Gradients in Peripheral Arterial Disease: Simulations

    E-print Network

    Popel, Aleksander S.

    Skeletal Muscle VEGF Gradients in PAD 1 Skeletal Muscle VEGF Gradients in Peripheral Arterial.2007 Copyright © 2007 by the American Physiological Society. #12;Skeletal Muscle VEGF Gradients in PAD 2 ABSTRACT Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key promoter of angiogenesis and a major target of pro

  11. Linkage between postabsorptive amino acid release and glutamate uptake in skeletal muscle tissue of healthy young subjects, cancer patients, and the elderly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eggert Holm; Volker Hack; Mehmet Tokus; Raoul Breitkreutz; Alexander Babylon; Wulf Dröge

    1997-01-01

    Several diseases of varying etiology that are commonly associated with the loss of skeletal muscle mass were found to be\\u000a associated with a decrease in muscular glutamate and glutathione levels and in glutamate uptake in the postabsorptive state.\\u000a In view of the Na+ dependency and insulin responsiveness of glutamate transport we studied the postabsorptive glutamate exchange in more detail. Our

  12. Motor Force Homeostasis in Skeletal Muscle Contraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin Chen; Huajian Gao

    2011-01-01

    In active biological contractile processes such as skeletal muscle contraction, cellular mitosis, and neuronal growth, an interesting common observation is that multiple motors can perform coordinated and synchronous actions, whereas individual myosin motors appear to randomly attach to and detach from actin filaments. Recent experiment has demonstrated that, during skeletal muscle shortening at a wide range of velocities, individual myosin

  13. STRUCTURE OF SKELETAL MUSCLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 Structure of an Individual Muscle Fiber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    E-print Network

    Cooper, Robin L.

    STRUCTURE OF SKELETAL MUSCLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 Structure of an Individual Muscle Fiber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 The Connective Tissue System within the Muscle Belly

  14. Insulin fails to enhance mTOR phosphorylation, mitochondrial protein synthesis, and ATP production in human skeletal muscle without amino acid replacement

    PubMed Central

    Barazzoni, Rocco; Short, Kevin R.; Asmann, Yan; Coenen-Schimke, Jill M.; Robinson, Matthew M.

    2012-01-01

    Systemic insulin administration causes hypoaminoacidemia by inhibiting protein degradation, which may in turn inhibit muscle protein synthesis (PS). Insulin enhances muscle mitochondrial PS and ATP production when hypoaminoacidemia is prevented by exogenous amino acid (AA) replacement. We determined whether insulin would stimulate mitochondrial PS and ATP production in the absence of AA replacement. Using l-[1,2-13C]leucine as a tracer, we measured the fractional synthetic rate of mitochondrial as well as sarcoplasmic and mixed muscle proteins in 18 participants during sustained (7-h) insulin or saline infusion (n = 9 each). We also measured muscle ATP production, mitochondrial enzyme activities, mRNA levels of mitochondrial genes, and phosphorylation of signaling proteins regulating protein synthesis. The concentration of circulating essential AA decreased during insulin infusion. Mitochondrial, sarcoplasmic, and mixed muscle PS rates were also lower during insulin (2–7 h) than during saline infusions despite increased mRNA levels of selected mitochondrial genes. Under these conditions, insulin did not alter mitochondrial enzyme activities and ATP production. These effects were associated with enhanced phosphorylation of Akt but not of protein synthesis activators mTOR, p70S6K, and 4EBP1. In conclusion, sustained physiological hyperinsulinemia without AA replacement did not stimulate PS of mixed muscle or protein subfractions and did not alter muscle mitochondrial ATP production in healthy humans. These results support that insulin and AA act in conjunction to stimulate muscle mitochondrial function and mitochondrial protein synthesis. PMID:22967500

  15. Channelopathies of skeletal muscle excitability.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Stephen C

    2015-04-01

    Familial disorders of skeletal muscle excitability were initially described early in the last century and are now known to be caused by mutations of voltage-gated ion channels. The clinical manifestations are often striking, with an inability to relax after voluntary contraction (myotonia) or transient attacks of severe weakness (periodic paralysis). An essential feature of these disorders is fluctuation of symptoms that are strongly impacted by environmental triggers such as exercise, temperature, or serum K(+) levels. These phenomena have intrigued physiologists for decades, and in the past 25 years the molecular lesions underlying these disorders have been identified and mechanistic studies are providing insights for therapeutic strategies of disease modification. These familial disorders of muscle fiber excitability are "channelopathies" caused by mutations of a chloride channel (ClC-1), sodium channel (NaV1.4), calcium channel (CaV1.1), and several potassium channels (Kir2.1, Kir2.6, and Kir3.4). This review provides a synthesis of the mechanistic connections between functional defects of mutant ion channels, their impact on muscle excitability, how these changes cause clinical phenotypes, and approaches toward therapeutics. PMID:25880512

  16. Skeletal muscles and fatigue Inexpensive equipment and classroom materials

    E-print Network

    Cooper, Robin L.

    materials to probe fundamental physiological questions. When one initiates contraction of skeletal muscleSkeletal muscles and fatigue Inexpensive equipment and classroom materials Skeletal muscle body parts and respond to various types of stimuli for survival. Skeletal muscle grows and shrinks

  17. Skeletal Muscle Immortalized pathological human myoblasts

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    those associated with muscle aging, and for developing innovative gene-based, cell-dependent kinase 4-expressing vectors, we were able to generate a battery of immortalized human muscle stem-cellSkeletal Muscle Immortalized pathological human myoblasts: towards a universal tool for the study

  18. Regulation of skeletal muscle perfusion during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delp, M. D.; Laughlin, M. H.

    1998-01-01

    For exercise to be sustained, it is essential that adequate blood flow be provided to skeletal muscle. The local vascular control mechanisms involved in regulating muscle perfusion during exercise include metabolic control, endothelium-mediated control, propagated responses, myogenic control, and the muscle pump. The primary determinant of muscle perfusion during sustained exercise is the metabolic rate of the muscle. Metabolites from contracting muscle diffuse to resistance arterioles and act directly to induce vasodilation, or indirectly to inhibit noradrenaline release from sympathetic nerve endings and oppose alpha-adrenoreceptor-mediated vasoconstriction. The vascular endothelium also releases vasodilator substances (e.g., prostacyclin and nitric oxide) that are prominent in establishing basal vascular tone, but these substances do not appear to contribute to the exercise hyperemia in muscle. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells may also be involved in propagating vasodilator signals along arterioles to parent and daughter vessels. Myogenic autoregulation does not appear to be involved in the exercise hyperemia in muscle, but the rhythmic propulsion of blood from skeletal muscle veins facilitates venous return to the heart and muscle perfusion. It appears that the primary determinants of sustained exercise hyperemia in skeletal muscle are metabolic vasodilation and increased vascular conductance via the muscle pump. Additionally, sympathetic neural control is important in regulating muscle blood flow during exercise.

  19. Triadin Deletion Induces Impaired Skeletal Muscle Function*

    PubMed Central

    Oddoux, Sarah; Brocard, Julie; Schweitzer, Annie; Szentesi, Peter; Giannesini, Benoit; Brocard, Jacques; Fauré, Julien; Pernet-Gallay, Karine; Bendahan, David; Lunardi, Joël; Csernoch, Laszlo; Marty, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    Triadin is a multiple proteins family, some isoforms being involved in muscle excitation-contraction coupling, and some having still unknown functions. To obtain clues on triadin functions, we engineered a triadin knock-out mouse line and characterized the physiological effect of triadin ablation on skeletal muscle function. These mice presented a reduced muscle strength, which seemed not to alter their survival and has been characterized in the present work. We first checked in these mice the expression level of the different proteins involved in calcium homeostasis and observed in fast muscles an increase in expression of dihydropyridine receptor, with a large reduction in calsequestrin expression. Electron microscopy analysis of KO muscles morphology demonstrated the presence of triads in abnormal orientation and a reduction in the sarcoplasmic reticulum terminal cisternae volume. Using calcium imaging on cultured myotubes, we observed a reduction in the total amount of calcium stored in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Physiological studies have been performed to evaluate the influence of triadin deletion on skeletal muscle function. Muscle strength has been measured both on the whole animal model, using hang test or electrical stimulation combined with NMR analysis and strength measurement, or on isolated muscle using electrical stimulation. All the results obtained demonstrate an important reduction in muscle strength, indicating that triadin plays an essential role in skeletal muscle function and in skeletal muscle structure. These results indicate that triadin alteration leads to the development of a myopathy, which could be studied using this new animal model. PMID:19843516

  20. Triadin deletion induces impaired skeletal muscle function.

    PubMed

    Oddoux, Sarah; Brocard, Julie; Schweitzer, Annie; Szentesi, Peter; Giannesini, Benoit; Brocard, Jacques; Fauré, Julien; Pernet-Gallay, Karine; Bendahan, David; Lunardi, Joël; Csernoch, Laszlo; Marty, Isabelle

    2009-12-11

    Triadin is a multiple proteins family, some isoforms being involved in muscle excitation-contraction coupling, and some having still unknown functions. To obtain clues on triadin functions, we engineered a triadin knock-out mouse line and characterized the physiological effect of triadin ablation on skeletal muscle function. These mice presented a reduced muscle strength, which seemed not to alter their survival and has been characterized in the present work. We first checked in these mice the expression level of the different proteins involved in calcium homeostasis and observed in fast muscles an increase in expression of dihydropyridine receptor, with a large reduction in calsequestrin expression. Electron microscopy analysis of KO muscles morphology demonstrated the presence of triads in abnormal orientation and a reduction in the sarcoplasmic reticulum terminal cisternae volume. Using calcium imaging on cultured myotubes, we observed a reduction in the total amount of calcium stored in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Physiological studies have been performed to evaluate the influence of triadin deletion on skeletal muscle function. Muscle strength has been measured both on the whole animal model, using hang test or electrical stimulation combined with NMR analysis and strength measurement, or on isolated muscle using electrical stimulation. All the results obtained demonstrate an important reduction in muscle strength, indicating that triadin plays an essential role in skeletal muscle function and in skeletal muscle structure. These results indicate that triadin alteration leads to the development of a myopathy, which could be studied using this new animal model. PMID:19843516

  1. Space travel directly induces skeletal muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Vandenburgh, H; Chromiak, J; Shansky, J; Del Tatto, M; Lemaire, J

    1999-06-01

    Space travel causes rapid and pronounced skeletal muscle wasting in humans that reduces their long-term flight capabilities. To develop effective countermeasures, the basis of this atrophy needs to be better understood. Space travel may cause muscle atrophy indirectly by altering circulating levels of factors such as growth hormone, glucocorticoids, and anabolic steroids and/or by a direct effect on the muscle fibers themselves. To determine whether skeletal muscle cells are directly affected by space travel, tissue-cultured avian skeletal muscle cells were tissue engineered into bioartificial muscles and flown in perfusion bioreactors for 9 to 10 days aboard the Space Transportation System (STS, i.e., Space Shuttle). Significant muscle fiber atrophy occurred due to a decrease in protein synthesis rates without alterations in protein degradation. Return of the muscle cells to Earth stimulated protein synthesis rates of both muscle-specific and extracellular matrix proteins relative to ground controls. These results show for the first time that skeletal muscle fibers are directly responsive to space travel and should be a target for countermeasure development. PMID:10336885

  2. RESEARCH Open Access Dystrophin deficiency exacerbates skeletal muscle

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Kevin P.

    RESEARCH Open Access Dystrophin deficiency exacerbates skeletal muscle pathology in dysferlin globular domains. The absence of dystrophin disrupts this link, leading to compromised muscle sarcolemmal of damaged sarcolemma in skeletal muscle. Because dysferlin and dystrophin play different roles

  3. Influence of fat supplementation in diets for bull-calves on growth rate and skeletal muscle metabolism

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    kg of weight gain than the control calves. Incorporation of radiolabeled amino acid into total muscleInfluence of fat supplementation in diets for bull-calves on growth rate and skeletal muscle energetical value of fats and their regulatory influence on protein and lipid synthesis in skeletal muscles

  4. Adult and Embryonic Skeletal Muscle Microexplant Culture and Isolation of Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Merrick, Deborah; Chen, Hung-Chih; Larner, Dean; Smith, Janet

    2010-01-01

    Cultured embryonic and adult skeletal muscle cells have a number of different uses. The micro-dissected explants technique described in this chapter is a robust and reliable method for isolating relatively large numbers of proliferative skeletal muscle cells from juvenile, adult or embryonic muscles as a source of skeletal muscle stem cells. The authors have used micro-dissected explant cultures to analyse the growth characteristics of skeletal muscle cells in wild-type and dystrophic muscles. Each of the components of tissue growth, namely cell survival, proliferation, senescence and differentiation can be analysed separately using the methods described here. The net effect of all components of growth can be established by means of measuring explant outgrowth rates. The micro-explant method can be used to establish primary cultures from a wide range of different muscle types and ages and, as described here, has been adapted by the authors to enable the isolation of embryonic skeletal muscle precursors. Uniquely, micro-explant cultures have been used to derive clonal (single cell origin) skeletal muscle stem cell (SMSc) lines which can be expanded and used for in vivo transplantation. In vivo transplanted SMSc behave as functional, tissue-specific, satellite cells which contribute to skeletal muscle fibre regeneration but which are also retained (in the satellite cell niche) as a small pool of undifferentiated stem cells which can be re-isolated into culture using the micro-explant method. PMID:20972391

  5. Inactivity amplifies the catabolic response of skeletal muscle to cortisol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrando, A. A.; Stuart, C. A.; Sheffield-Moore, M.; Wolfe, R. R.

    1999-01-01

    Severe injury or trauma is accompanied by both hypercortisolemia and prolonged inactivity or bed rest (BR). Trauma and BR alone each result in a loss of muscle nitrogen, albeit through different metabolic alterations. Although BR alone can result in a 2-3% loss of lean body mass, the effects of severe trauma can be 2- to 3-fold greater. We investigated the combined effects of hypercortisolemia and prolonged inactivity on muscle protein metabolism in healthy volunteers. Six males were studied before and after 14 days of strict BR using a model based on arteriovenous sampling and muscle biopsy. Fractional synthesis and breakdown rates of skeletal muscle protein were also directly calculated. Each assessment of protein metabolism was conducted during a 12-h infusion of hydrocortisone sodium succinate (120 microg/kg x h), resulting in blood cortisol concentrations that mimic severe injury (approximately 31 microg/dL). After 14 days of strict BR, hypercortisolemia increased phenylalanine efflux from muscle by 3-fold (P < 0.05). The augmented negative amino acid balance was the result of an increased muscle protein breakdown (P < 0.05) without a concomitant change in muscle protein synthesis. Muscle efflux of glutamine and alanine increased significantly after bed rest due to a significant increase in de novo synthesis (P < 0.05). Thus, inactivity sensitizes skeletal muscle to the catabolic effects of hypercortisolemia. Furthermore, these effects on healthy volunteers are analogous to those seen after severe injury.

  6. Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle Contractile Activation: Tropomyosin \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Gordon; M. Regnier; E. Homsher

    n encountering a saber-tooth tiger, the caveman was faced with two choices: to escape or to defend himself. Either strategy required rapid activation of skeletal muscles and adjustment of the performance of cardiac muscle to increase blood flow to support an increased muscular effort. Although saber-toothed tigers no longer exist, our physiological require- ments are no less demanding for performing

  7. Space travel directly induces skeletal muscle atrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HERMAN VANDENBURGH; JOSEPH CHROMIAK; JANET SHANSKY; MICHAEL DEL TATTO; JULIE LEMAIRE

    Space travel causes rapid and pro- nounced skeletal muscle wasting in humans that reduces their long-term flight capabilities. To de- velop effective countermeasures, the basis of this atrophy needs to be better understood. Space travel may cause muscle atrophy indirectly by altering circulating levels of factors such as growth hormone, glucocorticoids, and anabolic steroids and\\/or by a direct effect on

  8. Structural and functional roles of nebulin in skeletal muscle

    E-print Network

    Gokhin, David Samuel

    2009-01-01

    skeletal muscle would exhibit: inferior basal isometric stress production, heightened vulnerability to eccentric contraction-Skeletal muscle lacking the extreme C-terminal SH3 domain of nebulin exhibits heightened vulnerability to eccentric contraction-skeletal muscle, with nebulin-deficient muscles exhibiting progressively inferior isometric stress generation and reduced functional integrity during cyclic contractions.

  9. Identification of amino acids associated with skeletal muscle growth in late gestation and at weaning in lambs of well-nourished sheep.

    PubMed

    Sales, F A; Pacheco, D; Blair, H T; Kenyon, P R; Nicholas, G; Senna Salerno, M; McCoard, S A

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association between intracellular free AA (FAA) profiles in skeletal muscle with muscle growth in twin and singleton fetuses in late pregnancy and at weaning, under an ad libitum feeding regime of the dam. Plasma from singleton- (n = 9) and twin-bearing (n = 10) ewes at d 140 of pregnancy and FAA in the semitendinosus muscle (STM) from the corresponding fetuses were studied. At weaning, intracellular STM FAA concentrations were compared between twins at the same age as singletons (Twin(age); n = 17) and at the same weight as singletons (Twin(wt); n = 17) to that of singletons (n = 20). Twin fetuses were 15% lighter (P = 0.03) with a 20% lighter STM (P = 0.02) compared to singletons. Maternal plasma FAA were similar (P ? 0.17) between singleton- and twin-bearing ewes. Twin fetuses had greater (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of glutamine, histidine, and methionine and lower (P < 0.05) concentrations of aspartate, citrulline, glutamate, and ornithine compared with singletons. In fetal STM, twins had lower (P < 0.05) concentrations of aspartate and valine and greater (P < 0.01) concentration of methionine. Correlations were found between fetal STM weight and intracellular concentrations of arginine (r = 0.66, P < 0.01) and glutamine (r = 0.49, P < 0.01). Compared to singletons at weaning, Twin(age) were 16% lighter (P < 0.01) and the STM weight was proportionately 16% lighter (P < 0.01). For Twin(wt), the magnitude of the difference for STM weight was reduced to 8% lighter (P = 0.02). Compared to singletons, Twin(age) lambs had greater (P < 0.05) intracellular concentrations of glutamine, histidine, threonine, asparagine, alanine, serine, and glutamate but reduced taurine. The differences in FAA concentrations were less between Twin(wt) and singletons than between Twin(age) and singletons. Positive correlations were found between leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, threonine, and tyrosine muscle concentration and STM weight at weaning. Males differed from females in intracellular FAA both in late pregnancy and at weaning. Twins had reduced RNA content during pregnancy and at weaning, suggesting a lower capacity for protein accretion. These data suggest that specific FAA concentrations are associated with differences in muscle growth during late pregnancy, notably arginine and glutamine, and reduced protein synthesis capacity. However, the relevance of specific FAA varies according to stage of development and sex of the lamb. PMID:25349352

  10. Adult Stem Cells and Skeletal Muscle Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Costamagna, Domiziana; Berardi, Emanuele; Ceccarelli, Gabriele; Sampaolesi, Maurilio

    2015-01-01

    Satellite cells are unipotent stem cells involved in muscle regeneration. However, the skeletal muscle microenvironment exerts a dominant influence over stem cell function. The cell intrinsic complexity of the skeletal muscle niche located within the connective tissue between fibers includes motor neurons, tendons, blood vessels, immune response mediators and interstitial cells. All these cell types modulate the trafficking of stimuli responsible of muscle fiber regeneration. In addition, several stem cell types have been discovered in skeletal muscle tissue, mainly located in the interstitium. The majority of these stem cells appears to directly contribute to myogenic differentiation, although some of them are mainly implicated in paracrine effects. This review focuses on adult stem cells, which have been used for therapeutic purposes, mainly in animal models of chronic muscle degeneration. Emerging literature identifies other myogenic progenitors generated from pluripotent stem cells as potential candidates for the treatment of skeletal muscle degeneration. However, adult stem cells still represent the gold standard for future comparative studies. PMID:26122100

  11. Skeletal muscle pathology in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Zielonka, Daniel; Piotrowska, Izabela; Marcinkowski, Jerzy T; Mielcarek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine stretch within the huntingtin protein (HTT). The neurological symptoms, that involve motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances, are caused by neurodegeneration that is particularly widespread in the basal ganglia and cereberal cortex. HTT is ubiquitously expressed and in recent years it has become apparent that HD patients experience a wide array of peripheral organ dysfunction including severe metabolic phenotype, weight loss, HD-related cardiomyopathy and skeletal muscle wasting. Although skeletal muscles pathology became a hallmark of HD, the mechanisms underlying muscular atrophy in this disorder are unknown. Skeletal muscles account for approximately 40% of body mass and are highly adaptive to physiological and pathological conditions that may result in muscle hypertrophy (due to increased mechanical load) or atrophy (inactivity, chronic disease states). The atrophy is caused by degeneration of myofibers and their replacement by fibrotic tissue is the major pathological feature in many genetic muscle disorders. Under normal physiological conditions the muscle function is orchestrated by a network of intrinsic hypertrophic and atrophic signals linked to the functional properties of the motor units that are likely to be imbalanced in HD. In this article, we highlight the emerging field of research with particular focus on the recent studies of the skeletal muscle pathology and the identification of new disease-modifying treatments. PMID:25339908

  12. Skeletal muscle pathology in Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Zielonka, Daniel; Piotrowska, Izabela; Marcinkowski, Jerzy T.; Mielcarek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine stretch within the huntingtin protein (HTT). The neurological symptoms, that involve motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances, are caused by neurodegeneration that is particularly widespread in the basal ganglia and cereberal cortex. HTT is ubiquitously expressed and in recent years it has become apparent that HD patients experience a wide array of peripheral organ dysfunction including severe metabolic phenotype, weight loss, HD-related cardiomyopathy and skeletal muscle wasting. Although skeletal muscles pathology became a hallmark of HD, the mechanisms underlying muscular atrophy in this disorder are unknown. Skeletal muscles account for approximately 40% of body mass and are highly adaptive to physiological and pathological conditions that may result in muscle hypertrophy (due to increased mechanical load) or atrophy (inactivity, chronic disease states). The atrophy is caused by degeneration of myofibers and their replacement by fibrotic tissue is the major pathological feature in many genetic muscle disorders. Under normal physiological conditions the muscle function is orchestrated by a network of intrinsic hypertrophic and atrophic signals linked to the functional properties of the motor units that are likely to be imbalanced in HD. In this article, we highlight the emerging field of research with particular focus on the recent studies of the skeletal muscle pathology and the identification of new disease-modifying treatments. PMID:25339908

  13. Skeletal muscle loss: cachexia, sarcopenia, and inactivity.

    PubMed

    Evans, William J

    2010-04-01

    Loss of skeletal muscle mass occurs during aging (sarcopenia), disease (cachexia), or inactivity (atrophy). This article contrasts and compares the metabolic causes of loss of muscle resulting from these conditions. An understanding of the underlying causes of muscle loss is critical for the development of strategies and therapies to preserve muscle mass and function. Loss of skeletal muscle protein results from an imbalance between the rate of muscle protein synthesis and degradation. Cachexia, sarcopenia, and atrophy due to inactivity are characterized by a loss of muscle mass. Each of these conditions results in a metabolic adaptation of increased protein degradation (cachexia), decreased rate of muscle protein synthesis (inactivity), or an alteration in both (sarcopenia). The clinical consequences of bedrest may mimic those of cachexia, including rapid loss of muscle, insulin resistance, and weakness. Prophylaxis against bedrest-induced atrophy includes nutrition support with an emphasis on high-quality protein. Nutritional supplementation alone may not prevent muscle loss secondary to cachexia, but, in combination with the use of an anabolic agent, it may slow or prevent muscle loss. PMID:20164314

  14. Skeletal Muscle Metastases from Urothelial Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Doo, Seung Whan; Kim, Woong Bin; Kim, Bong Ki; Yang, Won Jae; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Choi, In Ho

    2012-01-01

    Hematogenous metastasis to skeletal muscle from urothelial carcinoma is extremely rare and metastatic disease to skeletal muscle tends to be found in people with advanced-stage neoplasm. We report in this paper a case of left sartorius muscle metastasis from urothelial cell carcinoma. A left nephroureterectomy with bladder cuff excision was performed and revealed a high-grade papillary transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the pelvis. And 6 month later, recurrent bladder cancer was found regular cystoscopy and then treated with transurethral resection of the bladder. After 6 times resection of bladder, an invasion into the bladder muscle layer was found. We recommended additional radical cystectomy to prevent the disease from advancing. However, the patient refused additional surgery. 6 month later, the patient complained of left thigh pain, so ultrasonography-guided biopsy of the nodular mass lesion in the left sartorius muscle was performed. The pathological analysis of the biopsy specimen revealed poorly differentiated metastatic urothelial carcinoma. PMID:22323978

  15. Ultrastructural Localization of Calsequestrin in Rat Skeletal Muscle by

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Kevin P.

    Ultrastructural Localization of Calsequestrin in Rat Skeletal Muscle by Immunoferritin Labeling. ABSTRACT The ultrastructural localization of calsequestrin in rat skeletal muscle (gracilis) was determined. The sarcoplasmic reticulum is the intracellular membrane system that, together with the transverse tubular system

  16. Insulin binding to individual rat skeletal muscles

    SciTech Connect

    Koerker, D.J.; Sweet, I.R.; Baskin, D.G. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Studies of insulin binding to skeletal muscle, performed using sarcolemmal membrane preparations or whole muscle incubations of mixed muscle or typical red (soleus, psoas) or white (extensor digitorum longus (EDL), gastrocnemius) muscle, have suggested that red muscle binds more insulin than white muscle. We have evaluated this hypothesis using cryostat sections of unfixed tissue to measure insulin binding in a broad range of skeletal muscles; many were of similar fiber-type profiles. Insulin binding per square millimeter of skeletal muscle slice was measured by autoradiography and computer-assisted densitometry. We found a 4.5-fold range in specific insulin tracer binding, with heart and predominantly slow-twitch oxidative muscles (SO) at the high end and the predominantly fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) muscles at the low end of the range. This pattern reflects insulin sensitivity. Evaluation of displacement curves for insulin binding yielded linear Scatchard plots. The dissociation constants varied over a ninefold range (0.26-2.06 nM). Binding capacity varied from 12.2 to 82.7 fmol/mm2. Neither binding parameter was correlated with fiber type or insulin sensitivity; e.g., among three muscles of similar fiber-type profile, the EDL had high numbers of low-affinity binding sites, whereas the quadriceps had low numbers of high-affinity sites. In summary, considerable heterogeneity in insulin binding was found among hindlimb muscles of the rat, which can be attributed to heterogeneity in binding affinities and the numbers of binding sites. It can be concluded that a given fiber type is not uniquely associated with a set of insulin binding parameters that result in high or low binding.

  17. AMINO ACIDS AUGMENT MUSCLE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN NEONATAL PIGS DURING ENDOTOXEMIA BY MODULATING TRANSLATION INITIATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In adults, sepsis reduces protein synthesis in skeletal muscle by restraining translation. The effect of sepsis on amino acid-stimulated muscle protein synthesis has not been determined in neonates, a population who is highly anabolic and whose muscle protein synthesis rates are uniquely sensitive ...

  18. Overexpression of SMPX in Adult Skeletal Muscle Does not Change Skeletal Muscle Fiber Type or Size

    PubMed Central

    Eftestøl, Einar; Alver, Tine Norman; Gundersen, Kristian; Bruusgaard, Jo C.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical factors such as stretch are thought to be important in the regulation of muscle phenotype. Small muscle protein X-linked (SMPX) is upregulated by stretch in skeletal muscle and has been suggested to serve both as a transcription factor and a mechanosensor, possibly giving rise to changes in both fiber size and fiber type. We have used in vivo confocal imaging to study the subcellular localization of SMPX in skeletal muscle fibers of adult rats using a SMPX-EGFP fusion protein. The fusion protein was localized predominantly in repetitive double stripes flanking the Z-disc, and was excluded from all nuclei. This localization would be consistent with SMPX being a mechanoreceptor, but not with SMPX playing a role as a transcription factor. In vivo overexpression of ectopic SMPX in skeletal muscle of adult mice gave no significant changes in fiber type distribution or cross sectional area, thus a role of SMPX in regulating muscle phenotype remains unclear. PMID:24936977

  19. Overexpression of SMPX in adult skeletal muscle does not change skeletal muscle fiber type or size.

    PubMed

    Eftestøl, Einar; Alver, Tine Norman; Gundersen, Kristian; Bruusgaard, Jo C

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical factors such as stretch are thought to be important in the regulation of muscle phenotype. Small muscle protein X-linked (SMPX) is upregulated by stretch in skeletal muscle and has been suggested to serve both as a transcription factor and a mechanosensor, possibly giving rise to changes in both fiber size and fiber type. We have used in vivo confocal imaging to study the subcellular localization of SMPX in skeletal muscle fibers of adult rats using a SMPX-EGFP fusion protein. The fusion protein was localized predominantly in repetitive double stripes flanking the Z-disc, and was excluded from all nuclei. This localization would be consistent with SMPX being a mechanoreceptor, but not with SMPX playing a role as a transcription factor. In vivo overexpression of ectopic SMPX in skeletal muscle of adult mice gave no significant changes in fiber type distribution or cross sectional area, thus a role of SMPX in regulating muscle phenotype remains unclear. PMID:24936977

  20. Telethonin, a novel sarcomeric protein of heart and skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Valle, G; Faulkner, G; De Antoni, A; Pacchioni, B; Pallavicini, A; Pandolfo, D; Tiso, N; Toppo, S; Trevisan, S; Lanfranchi, G

    1997-09-29

    In this paper we describe a novel 19 kDa sarcomeric protein named telethonin. The cDNA sequence discloses an open reading frame of 167 amino acids that does not resemble any known protein. Antibodies against a recombinant telethonin fragment were used for Western blot analysis, confirming the presence of this 19 kDa protein in heart and skeletal muscle and revealing an immunofluorescence pattern typical of sarcomeric proteins, overlapping myosin. The frequency of specific cDNA clones in different libraries indicates that the telethonin transcript is amongst the most abundant in skeletal muscle. In human, telethonin maps at 17q12, adjacent to the phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene. PMID:9350988

  1. ESTROGEN RECEPTOR IN BOVINE SKELETAL MUSCLE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. H. D. Meyer; M. Rapp

    Summary In connection with investigations of the ana- bolic action of estrogens, we examined skeletal muscle of veal calves for estradiol receptors. The high speed supernatant of muscle homo- genate was incubated with .5 nM 3H-estradiol and for the determination of nonspecific bind- ing with .5 nM 3H-estradiol plus 13 nM estra- diol at 0 C overnight. After treatment with

  2. Regulation of Limulus skeletal muscle contraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Ritter; Hannelore Haase; Ingo Morano

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal muscle contraction of Limulus polyphemus, the horseshoe crab, seemed to be regulated in a dual manner, namely Ca2+ binding to the troponin complex as well phosphorylation of the myosin light chains (MLC) by a Ca2+\\/calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase. We investigated muscle contraction in Limulus skinned fibers in the presence of Ca2+ and of Ca2+\\/calmodulin to find out which

  3. Wave biomechanics of the skeletal muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. V. Rudenko; A. P. Sarvazyan

    2006-01-01

    Results of acoustic measurements in skeletal muscle are generalized. It is shown that assessment of the pathologies and functional\\u000a condition of the muscular system is possible with the use of shear waves. The velocity of these waves in muscles is much smaller\\u000a than the velocity of sound; therefore, a higher symmetry type is formed for them. In the presence of

  4. Primary structure of the receptor for calcium channel blockers from skeletal muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsutomu Tanabe; Hiroshi Takeshima; Atsushi Mikami; Veit Flockerzi; Hideo Takahashi; Kenji Kangawa; Masayasu Kojima; Hisayuki Matsuo; Tadaaki Hirose; Shosaku Numa

    1987-01-01

    The complete amino-acid sequence of the receptor for dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers from rabbit skeletal muscle is predicted by cloning and sequence analysis of DNA complementary to its messenger RNA. Structural and sequence similarities to the voltage-dependent sodium channel suggest that in the transverse tubule membrane of skeletal muscle the dihydropyridine receptor may act both as voltage sensor in excitation-contraction

  5. Oxidative proteome alterations during skeletal muscle ageing

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço dos Santos, Sofia; Baraibar, Martin A.; Lundberg, Staffan; Eeg-Olofsson, Orvar; Larsson, Lars; Friguet, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia corresponds to the degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality, and strength associated with ageing and leads to a progressive impairment of mobility and quality of life. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in this process are not completely understood. A hallmark of cellular and tissular ageing is the accumulation of oxidatively modified (carbonylated) proteins, leading to a decreased quality of the cellular proteome that could directly impact on normal cellular functions. Although increased oxidative stress has been reported during skeletal muscle ageing, the oxidized protein targets, also referred as to the ‘oxi-proteome’ or ‘carbonylome’, have not been characterized yet. To better understand the mechanisms by which these damaged proteins build up and potentially affect muscle function, proteins targeted by these modifications have been identified in human rectus abdominis muscle obtained from young and old healthy donors using a bi-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach coupled with immunodetection of carbonylated proteins. Among evidenced protein spots, 17 were found as increased carbonylated in biopsies from old donors comparing to young counterparts. These proteins are involved in key cellular functions such as cellular morphology and transport, muscle contraction and energy metabolism. Importantly, impairment of these pathways has been described in skeletal muscle during ageing. Functional decline of these proteins due to irreversible oxidation may therefore impact directly on the above-mentioned pathways, hence contributing to the generation of the sarcopenic phenotype. PMID:26073261

  6. Skeletal muscle metabolism in hypokinetic rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    Muscle growth, protein metabolism, and amino acid metabolism were studied in various groups of rats. Certain groups were adrenaliectomized; some rats were suspended while others (the controls) were weight bearing. Results show that: (1) metabolic changes in the extensor digitorum longus muscle of suspended rats are due primarily to increased circulating glucocorticoids; (2) metabolic changes in the soleus muscle due to higher steroid levels are probably potentiated by greater numbers of steroid receptors; and (3) not all metabolic responses of the soleus muscle to unloading are due to the elevated levels of glucocorticoids or the increased sensitivity of this muscle to these hormones.

  7. Nutritional regulation of mTOR signaling in skeletal muscle of neonates in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The post-prandial rise in both amino acids and insulin independently stimulate protein synthesis in the rapidly growing skeletal muscle of the neonate. Leucine, in particular, is important in mediating the response to amino acids. We have shown that a physiological rise in leucine, but not isoleuc...

  8. Development of Sensory Receptors in Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeSantis, Mark

    2000-01-01

    The two major goals for this project is to (1) examine the hindlimb walking pattern of offspring from the Flight dams as compared with offspring of the ground control groups from initiation of walking up to two months thereafter; and (2) examine skeletal muscle.

  9. Human skeletal muscle biochemical diversity

    PubMed Central

    Tirrell, Timothy F.; Cook, Mark S.; Carr, J. Austin; Lin, Evie; Ward, Samuel R.; Lieber, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The molecular components largely responsible for muscle attributes such as passive tension development (titin and collagen), active tension development (myosin heavy chain, MHC) and mechanosensitive signaling (titin) have been well studied in animals but less is known about their roles in humans. The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive analysis of titin, collagen and MHC isoform distributions in a large number of human muscles, to search for common themes and trends in the muscular organization of the human body. In this study, 599 biopsies were obtained from six human cadaveric donors (mean age 83 years). Three assays were performed on each biopsy – titin molecular mass determination, hydroxyproline content (a surrogate for collagen content) and MHC isoform distribution. Titin molecular mass was increased in more distal muscles of the upper and lower limbs. This trend was also observed for collagen. Percentage MHC-1 data followed a pattern similar to collagen in muscles of the upper extremity but this trend was reversed in the lower extremity. Titin molecular mass was the best predictor of anatomical region and muscle functional group. On average, human muscles had more slow myosin than other mammals. Also, larger titins were generally associated with faster muscles. These trends suggest that distal muscles should have higher passive tension than proximal ones, and that titin size variability may potentially act to ‘tune’ the protein's mechanotransduction capability. PMID:22786631

  10. Insulin Increases Ceramide Synthesis in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, M. E.; Tippetts, T. S.; Anderson, M. C.; Holub, Z. E.; Moulton, E. R.; Swensen, A. C.; Prince, J. T.; Bikman, B. T.

    2014-01-01

    Aims. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of insulin on ceramide metabolism in skeletal muscle. Methods. Skeletal muscle cells were treated with insulin with or without palmitate for various time periods. Lipids (ceramides and TAG) were isolated and gene expression of multiple biosynthetic enzymes were quantified. Additionally, adult male mice received daily insulin injections for 14 days, followed by muscle ceramide analysis. Results. In muscle cells, insulin elicited an increase in ceramides comparable to palmitate alone. This is likely partly due to an insulin-induced increase in expression of multiple enzymes, particularly SPT2, which, when knocked down, prevented the increase in ceramides. In mice, 14 days of insulin injection resulted in increased soleus ceramides, but not TAG. However, insulin injections did significantly increase hepatic TAG compared with vehicle-injected animals. Conclusions. This study suggests that insulin elicits an anabolic effect on sphingolipid metabolism in skeletal muscle, resulting in increased ceramide accumulation. These findings reveal a potential mechanism of the deleterious consequences of the hyperinsulinemia that accompanies insulin resistance and suggest a possible novel therapeutic target to mitigate its effects. PMID:24949486

  11. Cellular players in skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ceafalan, Laura Cristina; Popescu, Bogdan Ovidiu; Hinescu, Mihail Eugen

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle, a tissue endowed with remarkable endogenous regeneration potential, is still under focused experimental investigation mainly due to treatment potential for muscle trauma and muscular dystrophies. Resident satellite cells with stem cell features were enthusiastically described quite a long time ago, but activation of these cells is not yet controlled by any medical interventions. However, after thorough reports of their existence, survival, activation, and differentiation there are still many questions to be answered regarding the intimate mechanism of tissue regeneration. This review delivers an up-to-date inventory of the main known key players in skeletal muscle repair, revealed by various models of tissue injuries in mechanical trauma, toxic lesions, and muscular dystrophy. A better understanding of the spatial and temporal relationships between various cell populations, with different physical or paracrine interactions and phenotype changes induced by local or systemic signalling, might lead to a more efficient approach for future therapies. PMID:24779022

  12. The mechanics of mouse skeletal muscle when shortening during relaxation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Barclay; G. A. Lichtwark

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic properties of relaxing skeletal muscle have not been well characterised but are important for understanding muscle function during terrestrial locomotion, during which a considerable fraction of muscle work output can be produced during relaxation. The purpose of this study was to characterise the force–velocity properties of mouse skeletal muscle during relaxation. Experiments were performed in vitro (21°C) using

  13. Three-dimensionally printed biological machines powered by skeletal muscle

    E-print Network

    Bashir, Rashid

    Three-dimensionally printed biological machines powered by skeletal muscle Caroline Cvetkovica,b,1 and exhibit controlled movement merit the use of skeletal muscle, the primary generator of actuation muscle was characterized. Electrical stimulation triggered contraction of cells in the muscle strip

  14. Pannexin 1 channels in skeletal muscles

    PubMed Central

    Cea, Luis A.; Riquelme, Manuel A.; Vargas, Anibal A.; Urrutia, Carolina; Sáez, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Normal myotubes and adult innervated skeletal myofibers express the glycoprotein pannexin1 (Panx1). Six of them form a “gap junction hemichannel-like” structure that connects the cytoplasm with the extracellular space; here they will be called Panx1 channels. These are poorly selective channels permeable to ions, small metabolic substrate, and signaling molecules. So far little is known about the role of Panx1 channels in muscles but skeletal muscles of Panx1?/? mice do not show an evident phenotype. Innervated adult fast and slow skeletal myofibers show Panx1 reactivity in close proximity to dihydropyridine receptors in the sarcolemma of T-tubules. These Panx1 channels are activated by electrical stimulation and extracellular ATP. Panx1 channels play a relevant role in potentiation of muscle contraction because they allow release of ATP and uptake of glucose, two molecules required for this response. In support of this notion, the absence of Panx1 abrogates the potentiation of muscle contraction elicited by repetitive electrical stimulation, which is reversed by exogenously applied ATP. Phosphorylation of Panx1 Thr and Ser residues might be involved in Panx1 channel activation since it is enhanced during potentiation of muscle contraction. Under denervation, Panx1 levels are upregulated and this partially explains the reduction in electrochemical gradient, however its absence does not prevent denervation-induced atrophy but prevents the higher oxidative state. Panx1 also forms functional channels at the cell surface of myotubes and their functional state has been associated with intracellular Ca2+ signals and regulation of myotube plasticity evoked by electrical stimulation. We proposed that Panx1 channels participate as ATP channels and help to keep a normal oxidative state in skeletal muscles. PMID:24782784

  15. Halothane modulation of skeletal muscle ryanodine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Sylvester, Paula L.; Porta, Maura; Copello, Julio A.

    2008-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) susceptibility is a genetic disorder of skeletal muscle associated with mutations in the ryanodine receptor isoform 1 (RyR1) of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). In MH-susceptible skeletal fibers, RyR1-mediated Ca2+ release is highly sensitive to activation by the volatile anesthetic halothane. Indeed, studies with isolated RyR1 channels (using simple Cs+ solutions) found that halothane selectively affects mutated but not wild-type RyR1 function. However, studies in skeletal fibers indicate that halothane can also activate wild type RyR1-mediated Ca2+ release. We hypothesized that endogenous RyR1 agonists (ATP, lumenal Ca2+) may increase RyR1 sensitivity to halothane. Consequently, we studied how these agonists affect halothane action on rabbit skeletal RyR1 reconstituted into planar lipid bilayers. We found that cytosolic ATP is required for halothane-induced activation of the skeletal RyR1. Unlike RyR1, cardiac RyR2 (much less sensitive to ATP) responded to halothane even in the absence of this agonist. ATP-dependent halothane activation of RyR1 was enhanced by cytosolic Ca2+ (channel agonist) and counteracted by Mg2+ (channel inhibitor). Dantrolene, a muscle relaxant used to treat MH episodes, did not affect RyR1 or RyR2 basal activity and did not interfere with halothane-induced activation. Studies with skeletal SR microsomes confirmed that halothane-induced RyR1-mediated SR Ca2+ release is enhanced by high ATP/low Mg2+ in the cytosol and by increased SR Ca2+ load. Thus, physiological or pathological processes that induce changes in cellular levels of these modulators could affect RyR1 sensitivity to halothane in skeletal fibers, including the outcome of halothane-induced contracture tests used to diagnose MH susceptibility. PMID:18305228

  16. PPAR[delta] activation enhances skeletal muscle regeneration

    E-print Network

    Embler, Emi Kanakubo

    2012-01-01

    by its synthetic agonist, GW501516, in muscle regeneration.muscle regeneration after acute injury Abstract Commercially available syntheticsynthetic ligand, GW501516, has been demonstrated to enhance fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscles

  17. Wave biomechanics of the skeletal muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, O. V.; Sarvazyan, A. P.

    2006-12-01

    Results of acoustic measurements in skeletal muscle are generalized. It is shown that assessment of the pathologies and functional condition of the muscular system is possible with the use of shear waves. The velocity of these waves in muscles is much smaller than the velocity of sound; therefore, a higher symmetry type is formed for them. In the presence of a preferential direction (along muscle fibers), it is characterized by only two rather than five (as in usual media with the same anisotropy) moduli of elasticity. A covariant form of the corresponding wave equation is presented. It is shown that dissipation properties of skeletal muscles can be controlled by contracting them isometrically. Pulsed loads (shocks) and vibrations are damped differently, depending on their frequency spectrum. Characteristic frequencies on the order of tens and hundreds of hertz are attenuated due to actin-myosin bridges association/dissociation dynamics in the contracted muscle. At higher (kilohertz) frequencies, when the muscle is tensed, viscosity of the tissue increases by a factor of several tens because of the increase in friction experienced by fibrillar structures as they move relative to the surrounding liquid; the tension of the fibers changes the hydrodynamic conditions of the flow around them. Finally, at higher frequencies, the attenuation is associated with the rheological properties of biological molecules, in particular, with their conformational dynamics in the wave field. Models that describe the controlled shock dissipation mechanisms are proposed. Corresponding solutions are found, including those that allow for nonlinear effects.

  18. Vitamin D and Human Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, B

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is an increasingly described phenomenon worldwide, with well-known impacts on calcium metabolism and bone health. Vitamin D has also been associated with chronic health problems such as bowel and colonic cancer, arthritis, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In recent decades, there has been increased awareness of the impact of vitamin D on muscle morphology and function, but this is not well recognized in the Sports Medicine literature. In the early 20th century, athletes and coaches felt that ultraviolet rays had a positive impact on athletic performance, and increasingly, evidence is accumulating to support this view. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies allude to a functional role for vitamin D in muscle and more recently the discovery of the vitamin D receptor in muscle tissue provides a mechanistic understanding of the function of vitamin D within muscle. The identification of broad genomic and non-genomic roles for vitamin D within skeletal muscle has highlighted the potential impact vitamin D deficiency may have on both underperformance and the risk of injury in athletes. This review describes the current understanding of the role vitamin D plays within skeletal muscle tissue. PMID:19807897

  19. HSP25 protects skeletal muscle cells against oxidative stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel Escobedo; Augustina M. Pucci; Timothy J. Koh

    2004-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) may cause skeletal muscle degeneration in a number of pathological conditions. Small heat shock proteins (HSPs) have been found to confer resistance against ROS in different cell types; however, the importance of their antioxidant function in skeletal muscle cells remains to be determined. In the present study, differentiation of skeletal myoblasts resulted in protection against hydrogen

  20. Structural alterations of skeletal muscle in copd

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Sunita; Brooks, Dina; Carvalho, Celso R. F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory disease associated with a systemic inflammatory response. Peripheral muscle dysfunction has been well characterized in individuals with COPD and results from a complex interaction between systemic and local factors. Objective: In this narrative review, we will describe muscle wasting in people with COPD, the associated structural changes, muscle regenerative capacity and possible mechanisms for muscle wasting. We will also discuss how structural changes relate to impaired muscle function and mobility in people with COPD. Key Observations: Approximately 30–40% of individuals with COPD experience muscle mass depletion. Furthermore, muscle atrophy is a predictor of physical function and mortality in this population. Associated structural changes include a decreased proportion and size of type-I fibers, reduced oxidative capacity and mitochondrial density mainly in the quadriceps. Observations related to impaired muscle regenerative capacity in individuals with COPD include a lower proportion of central nuclei in the presence or absence of muscle atrophy and decreased maximal telomere length, which has been correlated with reduced muscle cross-sectional area. Potential mechanisms for muscle wasting in COPD may include excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), altered amino acid metabolism and lower expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-gamma-coactivator 1-alpha mRNA. Despite a moderate relationship between muscle atrophy and function, impairments in oxidative metabolism only seems weakly related to muscle function. Conclusion: This review article demonstrates the cellular modifications in the peripheral muscle of people with COPD and describes the evidence of its relationship to muscle function. Future research will focus on rehabilitation strategies to improve muscle wasting and maximize function. PMID:24678302

  1. Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Energetic Efficiency and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive loss of maximal cell functionality, and mitochondria are considered a key factor in aging process, since they determine the ATP availability in the cells. Mitochondrial performance during aging in skeletal muscle is reported to be either decreased or unchanged. This heterogeneity of results could partly be due to the method used to assess mitochondrial performance. In addition, in skeletal muscle the mitochondrial population is heterogeneous, composed of subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondria. Therefore, the purpose of the present review is to summarize the results obtained on the functionality of the above mitochondrial populations during aging, taking into account that the mitochondrial performance depends on organelle number, organelle activity, and energetic efficiency of the mitochondrial machinery in synthesizing ATP from the oxidation of fuels. PMID:25970752

  2. Tissue Engineered Strategies for Skeletal Muscle Injury

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Loppini, Mattia; Berton, Alessandra; Spiezia, Filippo; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle injuries are common in athletes, occurring with direct and indirect mechanisms and marked residual effects, such as severe long-term pain and physical disability. Current therapy consists of conservative management including RICE protocol (rest, ice, compression and elevation), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and intramuscular corticosteroids. However, current management of muscle injuries often does not provide optimal restoration to preinjury status. New biological therapies, such as injection of platelet-rich plasma and stem-cell-based therapy, are appealing. Although some studies support PRP application in muscle-injury management, reasons for concern persist, and further research is required for a standardized and safe use of PRP in clinical practice. The role of stem cells needs to be confirmed, as studies are still limited and inconsistent. Further research is needed to identify mechanisms involved in muscle regeneration and in survival, proliferation, and differentiation of stem cells. PMID:25098362

  3. PGC-1? regulates angiogenesis in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Glenn C.; Jang, Cholsoon; Patten, Ian S.

    2011-01-01

    Aerobic metabolism requires oxygen and carbon sources brought to tissues via the vasculature. Metabolically active tissues such as skeletal muscle can regulate blood vessel density to match metabolic needs; however, the molecular cues that coordinate these processes remain poorly understood. Here we report that the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?), a potent regulator of mitochondrial biology, induces angiogenesis in skeletal muscle. PGC-1? induces the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cell culture and in vivo. The induction of VEGF by PGC-1? requires coactivation of the orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor-? (ERR?) and is independent of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway. In coculture experiments, overexpression of PGC-1? in skeletal myotubes increases the migration of adjacent endothelial cells, and this depends on VEGF signaling. Transgenic expression of PGC-1? in skeletal myocytes dramatically increases muscular vessel density. Taken together, these data indicate that PGC-1? is a potent regulator of angiogenesis, thus providing a novel link between the regulations of oxidative metabolism and vascular density. PMID:21364124

  4. Effect of limb immobilization on skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, F. W.

    1982-01-01

    Current knowledge and questions remaining concerning the effects of limb immobilization on skeletal muscle is reviewed. The most dramatic of these effects is muscle atrophy, which has been noted in cases of muscles fixed at or below their resting length. Immobilization is also accompanied by a substantial decrease in motoneuronal discharges, which results in the conversion of slow-twitch muscle to muscle with fast-twitch characteristics. Sarcolemma effects include no change or a decrease in resting membrane potential, the appearance of extrajunctional acetylcholine receptors, and no change in acetylcholinesterase activity. Evidence of changes in motoneuron after hyperpolarization characteristics suggests that the muscle inactivity is responsible for neuronal changes, rather than vice versa. The rate of protein loss from atrophying muscles is determined solely by the first-order rate constant for degradation. Various other biochemical and functional changes have been noted, including decreased insulin responsiveness and protein synthesis. The model of limb immobilization may also be useful for related studies of muscle adaptation.

  5. Development of Sensory Receptors in Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeSantis, Mark

    2000-01-01

    There were two major goals for my project. One was to examine the hindlimb walking pattern of offspring from the Flight dams as compared with offspring of the ground control groups from initiation of walking up to two months thereafter. This initial goal was subsequently modified so that additional developmental measures were taken (e.g. body weight, eye opening) as the progeny developed, and the study period was lengthened to eighty days. Also videotapes taken shortly after the pregnant Flight dams returned to Earth were scored for locomotor activity and compared to those for the Synchronous control dams at the same stage of pregnancy. The second goal was to examine skeletal muscle. Selected hindlimb skeletal muscles were to be identified, weighed, and examined for the presence and integrity of muscle receptors, (both muscle spindles and tendon organs), at the level of the light and electron microscope. Muscles were examined from rats that were at fetal (G20), newborn (postnatal day 1 or P1, where P1 = day of birth), and young adult (approx. P100) stages. At the present time data from only the last group of rats (i.e. P100) has been completely examined.

  6. Crystalline 3-phosphoglycerate kinase from skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Scopes, R. K.

    1969-01-01

    1. A procedure for preparing crystalline 3-phosphoglycerate kinase from rabbit or pig skeletal muscle is presented. 2. The preparation phosphorylates up to 975?moles of 3-phosphoglycerate/min./mg. at 30° and is not contaminated with myokinase. 3. The enzyme has an estimated molecular weight of 36500±1000, and contains three residues each of tyrosine and tryptophan. 4. The preparation is suitable for use in the enzymic procedures for determining ATP, phosphocreatine and 3-phosphoglycerate. PMID:5807214

  7. Injury and adaptive mechanisms in skeletal muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert G. Cutlip; Brent A. Baker; Melinda Hollander; James Ensey

    2009-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are a major concern in the United States. Overexertion and repetitive motion injuries dominate reporting of lost-time MSD incidents. Over the past three decades, there has been much study on contraction-induced skeletal muscle injury. The effect of the biomechanical loading signature that includes velocity, range of motion, the number of repetitions, force, work-rest cycle, and exposure

  8. Repeated Denervation and Reinnervation of Skeletal Muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. G. Bradley; T. A. Papapetropoulos

    1972-01-01

    THE skeletal muscle in human muscular dystrophy shows marked degenerative changes while the central and peripheral nervous systems usually show no abnormality, apart from cerebral malformation underlying co-existing mental deficiency1-3. In the late stages, there may be some loss of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord4. On the basis of these pathological findings, muscular dystrophy has always been considered

  9. Role of skeletal muscle in palate development.

    PubMed

    Rot, I; Kablar, B

    2013-01-01

    The involvement of skeletal muscle in the process of palatal development in mammals is an example of Waddingtonian epigenetics. Our earlier study showed that the cleft palate develops in the complete absence of skeletal musculature during embryonic development in mice. This contrasts with previous beliefs that tongue obstruction prevents the elevation and fusion of the palatal shelves. We argue that the complete absence of mechanical stimuli from the adjacent muscle, i.e., the lack of both static and dynamic loading, results in disordered palatogenesis. We further suggest that proper fusion of the palatal shelves depends not only on mechanical but also on paracrine contributions from the muscle. The muscle's paracrine role in the process of palatal fusion is achieved through its being a source of certain secreted and/or circulatory proteins. A cDNA microarray analysis revealed differentially expressed genes in the cleft palate of amyogenic mouse fetuses and suggested candidate molecules with a novel function in palatogenesis (e.g., Tgfbr2, Bmp7, Trim71, E2f5, Ddx5, Gfap, Sema3f). In particular, we report on Gdf11 mutant mouse that has cleft palate, and on several genes whose distribution is normally restricted to the muscle (completely absent in our amyogenic mouse model), but which are found down-regulated in amyogenic mouse cleft palate. These molecules probably present a subset of paracrine cues that influence palatogenesis from the adjacent muscle. Future studies will elucidate the role of these genes in muscle-palate crosstalk, connecting the cues produced by the muscle with the cartilage and bone tissue's responses to these cues, through various degrees of cell proliferation, death, differentiation and tissue fusion. PMID:23233055

  10. MMP-14 in skeletal muscle repair.

    PubMed

    Snyman, C; Niesler, C U

    2015-06-01

    MMP-14 (also known as MT1-MMP) is a membrane-bound collagenase and member of the Matrix Metalloprotease (MMP) family known to target a broad range of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Remodelling of the ECM is of particular importance following skeletal muscle injury involving myofiber necrosis, when satellite cells are activated to facilitate myogenesis and regeneration. Myogenesis (broadly encompassed by the processes of satellite cell activation, proliferation, migration, differentiation and fusion) requires the myoblast to move either on or through a changing milieu of ECM components. The ECM composition, and especially the degree of fibrosis, influences ability of satellite cells to mediate a successful regenerative program. As a result, MMP activity is central to this regeneration; its activity increases following skeletal muscle injury, while inhibition of MMP reduces regeneration in this tissue. Besides its direct effect on matrix invasion, MMP-14 itself can affect this regeneration via activation of other MMPs (MMP-2, -9 and -13) as well as cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. Indeed recent research suggests that MMP-14 is necessary for the migration of human myoblasts into a collagen I matrix. Here we provide a current review on MMP-14 in the context of its role as a critical mediator of skeletal muscle regeneration. PMID:26025393

  11. Extrarenal potassium adaptation: role of skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Blachley, J.D.; Crider, B.P.; Johnson, J.H.

    1986-08-01

    Following the ingestion of a high-potassium-content diet for only a few days, the plasma potassium of rats rises only modestly in response to a previously lethal dose of potassium salts. This acquired tolerance, termed potassium adaptation, is principally the result of increased capacity to excrete potassium into the urine. However, a substantial portion of the acute potassium dose is not immediately excreted and is apparently translocated into cells. Previous studies have failed to show an increase in the content of potassium of a variety of tissues from such animals. Using /sup 86/Rb as a potassium analogue, we have shown that the skeletal muscle of potassium-adapted rats takes up significantly greater amounts of potassium in vivo in response to an acute challenge than does that of control animals. Furthermore, the same animals exhibit greater efflux of /sup 86/Rb following the termination of the acute infusion. We have also shown that the Na+-K+-ATPase activity and ouabain-binding capacity of skeletal muscle microsomes are increased by the process of potassium adaptation. We conclude that skeletal muscle is an important participant in potassium adaptation and acts to temporarily buffer acute increases in the extracellular concentration of potassium.

  12. Eccentric Exercise Facilitates Mesenchymal Stem Cell Appearance in Skeletal Muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Carmen Valero; Heather D. Huntsman; Jianming Liu; Kai Zou; Marni D. Boppart

    2012-01-01

    Eccentric, or lengthening, contractions result in injury and subsequently stimulate the activation and proliferation of satellite stem cells which are important for skeletal muscle regeneration. The discovery of alternative myogenic progenitors in skeletal muscle raises the question as to whether stem cells other than satellite cells accumulate in muscle in response to exercise and contribute to post-exercise repair and\\/or growth.

  13. Skeletal Muscle Deregulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Skeletal Muscle Deregulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system is the predominant molecular pathology in OPMD animal models and patients Anvar et al. Anvar et al. Skeletal Muscle 2011, 1:15 http-onset progressive muscle disorder caused by a poly-alanine expansion mutation in the Poly(A) Binding Protein Nuclear

  14. Skeletal Muscle Basement Membrane-Sarcolemma-Cytoskeleton Interaction Minireview Series*

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Kevin P.

    Skeletal Muscle Basement Membrane-Sarcolemma-Cytoskeleton Interaction Minireview Series* Published Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 The sarcolemma (muscle plasma membrane) plays a central role in skeletal muscle structure and function (1). In addition to the housekeeping functions of a cell plasma membrane

  15. Working around the clock: circadian rhythms and skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiping; Dube, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    The study of the circadian molecular clock in skeletal muscle is in the very early stages. Initial research has demonstrated the presence of the molecular clock in skeletal muscle and that skeletal muscle of a clock-compromised mouse, Clock mutant, exhibits significant disruption in normal expression of many genes required for adult muscle structure and metabolism. In light of the growing association between the molecular clock, metabolism, and metabolic disease, it will also be important to understand the contribution of circadian factors to normal metabolism, metabolic responses to muscle training, and contribution of the molecular clock in muscle-to-muscle disease (e.g., insulin resistance). Consistent with the potential for the skeletal muscle molecular clock modulating skeletal muscle physiology, there are findings in the literature that there is significant time-of-day effects for strength and metabolism. Additionally, there is some recent evidence that temporal specificity is important for optimizing training for muscular performance. While these studies do not prove that the molecular clock in skeletal muscle is important, they are suggestive of a circadian contribution to skeletal muscle function. The application of well-established models of skeletal muscle research in function and metabolism with available genetic models of molecular clock disruption will allow for more mechanistic understanding of potential relationships. PMID:19696362

  16. Trichinella spiralis: Subversion of differentiated mammalian skeletal muscle cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. P. Jasmer

    1995-01-01

    Infection by Trichinella spiralis initiates changes in terminally differentiated mammalian skeletal muscle cells that lead to host cell cycle re-entry, cell cycle arrest in apparent G2\\/M phase, the repression of differentiated skeletal muscle characteristics and the expression of a phenotype unlike other stages in the muscle lineage. Although the parasite must be involved in initiating these changes, its precise role

  17. Engineering of aligned skeletal muscle by micropatterning

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ngan F; Lee, Randall J; Li, Song

    2010-01-01

    Tissue engineered skeletal muscle has tremendous potential for the treatment of muscular injury or muscular dysfunction. However, in vitro methods to generate skeletal muscle with physiologically aligned myofiber structure remains limited. To develop a robust in vitro model that resembles the physiologically aligned structure of muscle fibers, we fabricated micropatterned polymer membranes of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) with parallel microgrooves, and then examined the effect of micropatterning on myoblast cellular organization and the cell fusion process. In comparison to the myoblasts on non-patterned PDMS films, myoblasts on micropatterned PDMS films had well-organized F-actin assembly in close proximity to the direction of microgrooves, along with enhanced levels of myotube formation at early time points. The increase of cell cycle regulator p21WAF/Cip1 and the organized interactions of N-cadherin in myoblasts on micropatterned surfaces may contribute to the enhanced formation of myotubes. Similar results of cellular alignment was observed when myoblasts were cultured on microfluidically patterned poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) microgrooves, and the micropatterns were found to detach from the Petri dish over time. To apply this technology for generating aligned tissue-like muscle constructs, we developed a methodology to transfer the aligned myotubes to biodegradable collagen gels. Histological analysis revealed the persistence of aligned cellular organization in the collagen gels. Together, these results demonstrate that micropatterned PDMS or pHEMA can promote cell alignment and fusion along the direction of the microgrooves, and this platform can be utilized to transfer aligned myotubes on biodegradable hydrogels. This study highlights the importance of spatial cues in creating aligned skeletal muscle for tissue engineering and muscular regeneration applications. PMID:20182581

  18. Satellite Cells and Skeletal Muscle Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Nicolas A; Bentzinger, C Florian; Sincennes, Marie-Claude; Rudnicki, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    Skeletal muscles are essential for vital functions such as movement, postural support, breathing, and thermogenesis. Muscle tissue is largely composed of long, postmitotic multinucleated fibers. The life-long maintenance of muscle tissue is mediated by satellite cells, lying in close proximity to the muscle fibers. Muscle satellite cells are a heterogeneous population with a small subset of muscle stem cells, termed satellite stem cells. Under homeostatic conditions all satellite cells are poised for activation by stimuli such as physical trauma or growth signals. After activation, satellite stem cells undergo symmetric divisions to expand their number or asymmetric divisions to give rise to cohorts of committed satellite cells and thus progenitors. Myogenic progenitors proliferate, and eventually differentiate through fusion with each other or to damaged fibers to reconstitute fiber integrity and function. In the recent years, research has begun to unravel the intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms controlling satellite cell behavior. Nonetheless, an understanding of the complex cellular and molecular interactions of satellite cells with their dynamic microenvironment remains a major challenge, especially in pathological conditions. The goal of this review is to comprehensively summarize the current knowledge on satellite cell characteristics, functions, and behavior in muscle regeneration and in pathological conditions. © 2015 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 5:1027-1059, 2015. PMID:26140708

  19. Phosphorylation of human skeletal muscle myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, M.E.; Lingley, M.D.; Stuart, D.S.; Hoffman-Goetz, L.

    1986-03-01

    Phosphorylation of the P-light chains (phosphorylatable light chains) in human skeletal muscle myosin was studied in vitro and in vivo under resting an d contracted conditions. biopsy samples from rested vastus lateralis muscle of male and female subjects were incubated in oxygenated physiological solution at 30/sup 0/C. Samples frozen following a quiescent period showed the presence of only unphosphorylated P-light chains designated LC2f (light chain two of fast myosin) CL2s and LC2s'(light chains two of slow myosin). Treatment with caffeine (10 mM) or direct electrical stimulation resulted in the appearance of three additional bands which were identified as the phosphorylated forms of the P-light chains i.e. LC2f-P, LC2s-P and LC2s'-P. The presence of phosphate was confirmed by prior incubation with (/sup 30/P) orthophosphate. Muscle samples rapidly frozen from resting vastus lateralis muscle revealed the presence of unphosphorylated and phosphorylated P-light chains in approximately equal ratios. Muscle samples rapidly frozen following a maximal 10 second isometric contraction showed virtually only phosphorylated fast and slow P-light chains. These results reveal that the P-light chains in human fast and slow myosin may be rapidly phosphorylated, but the basal level of phosphorylation in rested human muscle considerably exceeds that observed in animal muscles studied in vitro or in situ.

  20. Skeletal Muscle Abnormalities in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Breda, Ana Paula; Pereira de Albuquerque, Andre Luis; Jardim, Carlos; Morinaga, Luciana Kato; Suesada, Milena Mako; Fernandes, Caio Julio Cesar; Dias, Bruno; Lourenço, Rafael Burgomeister; Salge, Joao Marcos; Souza, Rogerio

    2014-01-01

    Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive disease that is characterized by dyspnea and exercise intolerance. Impairment in skeletal muscle has recently been described in PAH, although the degree to which this impairment is solely determined by the hemodynamic profile remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to verify the association of structural and functional skeletal muscle characteristics with maximum exercise in PAH. Methods The exercise capacity, body composition, CT area of limb muscle, quality of life, quadriceps biopsy and hemodynamics of 16 PAH patients were compared with those of 10 controls. Results PAH patients had a significantly poorer quality of life, reduced percentage of lean body mass, reduced respiratory muscle strength, reduced resistance and strength of quadriceps and increased functional limitation at 6MWT and CPET. VO2 max was correlated with muscular variables and cardiac output. Bivariate linear regression models showed that the association between muscular structural and functional variables remained significant even after correcting for cardiac output. Conclusion Our study showed the coexistence of ventilatory and quadriceps weakness in face of exercise intolerance in the same group of PAH patients. More interestingly, it is the first time that the independent association between muscular pattern and maximum exercise capacity is evidenced in PAH, independently of cardiac index highlighting the importance of considering rehabilitation in the treatment strategy for PAH. PMID:25460348

  1. The molecular basis for load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Marcotte, George R; West, Daniel W D; Baar, Keith

    2015-03-01

    In a mature (weight neutral) animal, an increase in muscle mass only occurs when the muscle is loaded sufficiently to cause an increase in myofibrillar protein balance. A tight relationship between muscle hypertrophy, acute increases in protein balance, and the activity of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) was demonstrated 15 years ago. Since then, our understanding of the signals that regulate load-induced hypertrophy has evolved considerably. For example, we now know that mechanical load activates mTORC1 in the same way as growth factors, by moving TSC2 (a primary inhibitor of mTORC1) away from its target (the mTORC activator) Rheb. However, the kinase that phosphorylates and moves TSC2 is different in the two processes. Similarly, we have learned that a distinct pathway exists whereby amino acids activate mTORC1 by moving it to Rheb. While mTORC1 remains at the forefront of load-induced hypertrophy, the importance of other pathways that regulate muscle mass are becoming clearer. Myostatin, is best known for its control of developmental muscle size. However, new mechanisms to explain how loading regulates this process are suggesting that it could play an important role in hypertrophic muscle growth as well. Last, new mechanisms are highlighted for how ?2 receptor agonists could be involved in load-induced muscle growth and why these agents are being developed as non-exercise-based therapies for muscle atrophy. Overall, the results highlight how studying the mechanism of load-induced skeletal muscle mass is leading the development of pharmaceutical interventions to promote muscle growth in those unwilling or unable to perform resistance exercise. PMID:25359125

  2. Effects of regular exercise training on skeletal muscle contractile function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal muscle function is critical to movement and one's ability to perform daily tasks, such as eating and walking. One objective of this article is to review the contractile properties of fast and slow skeletal muscle and single fibers, with particular emphasis on the cellular events that control or rate limit the important mechanical properties. Another important goal of this article is to present the current understanding of how the contractile properties of limb skeletal muscle adapt to programs of regular exercise.

  3. Contractile and nutritional modulation of human skeletal muscle protein synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas A Burd

    2011-01-01

    Resistance exercise and protein ingestion can act separately and synergistically to stimulate the rate of synthesis of new muscle proteins. The studies reported in this thesis investigated the effects of manipulating skeletal muscle contraction with and without protein ingestion on acute muscle protein synthetic responses. The muscle contraction protocols were aimed to induce muscle fatigue through manipulation of a variety

  4. Circadian rhythms, the molecular clock, and skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Harfmann, Brianna D; Schroder, Elizabeth A; Esser, Karyn A

    2015-04-01

    Circadian rhythms are the approximate 24-h biological cycles that function to prepare an organism for daily environmental changes. They are driven by the molecular clock, a transcriptional:translational feedback mechanism that in mammals involves the core clock genes Bmal1, Clock, Per1/2, and Cry1/2. The molecular clock is present in virtually all cells of an organism. The central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) has been well studied, but the clocks in the peripheral tissues, such as heart and skeletal muscle, have just begun to be investigated. Skeletal muscle is one of the largest organs in the body, comprising approximately 45% of total body mass. More than 2300 genes in skeletal muscle are expressed in a circadian pattern, and these genes participate in a wide range of functions, including myogenesis, transcription, and metabolism. The circadian rhythms of skeletal muscle can be entrained both indirectly through light input to the SCN and directly through time of feeding and activity. It is critical for the skeletal muscle molecular clock not only to be entrained to the environment but also to be in synchrony with rhythms of other tissues. When circadian rhythms are disrupted, the observed effects on skeletal muscle include fiber-type shifts, altered sarcomeric structure, reduced mitochondrial respiration, and impaired muscle function. Furthermore, there are detrimental effects on metabolic health, including impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, which skeletal muscle likely contributes to considering it is a key metabolic tissue. These data indicate a critical role for skeletal muscle circadian rhythms for both muscle and systems health. Future research is needed to determine the mechanisms of molecular clock function in skeletal muscle, identify the means by which skeletal muscle entrainment occurs, and provide a stringent comparison of circadian gene expression across the diverse tissue system of skeletal muscle. PMID:25512305

  5. Circadian Rhythms, the Molecular Clock, and Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Harfmann, Brianna D.; Schroder, Elizabeth A.; Esser, Karyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are the approximate 24-h biological cycles that function to prepare an organism for daily environmental changes. They are driven by the molecular clock, a transcriptional:translational feedback mechanism that in mammals involves the core clock genes Bmal1, Clock, Per1/2, and Cry1/2. The molecular clock is present in virtually all cells of an organism. The central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) has been well studied, but the clocks in the peripheral tissues, such as heart and skeletal muscle, have just begun to be investigated. Skeletal muscle is one of the largest organs in the body, comprising approximately 45% of total body mass. More than 2300 genes in skeletal muscle are expressed in a circadian pattern, and these genes participate in a wide range of functions, including myogenesis, transcription, and metabolism. The circadian rhythms of skeletal muscle can be entrained both indirectly through light input to the SCN and directly through time of feeding and activity. It is critical for the skeletal muscle molecular clock not only to be entrained to the environment but also to be in synchrony with rhythms of other tissues. When circadian rhythms are disrupted, the observed effects on skeletal muscle include fiber-type shifts, altered sarcomeric structure, reduced mitochondrial respiration, and impaired muscle function. Furthermore, there are detrimental effects on metabolic health, including impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, which skeletal muscle likely contributes to considering it is a key metabolic tissue. These data indicate a critical role for skeletal muscle circadian rhythms for both muscle and systems health. Future research is needed to determine the mechanisms of molecular clock function in skeletal muscle, identify the means by which skeletal muscle entrainment occurs, and provide a stringent comparison of circadian gene expression across the diverse tissue system of skeletal muscle. PMID:25512305

  6. REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES: IMPACT ON SKELETAL MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Scott K.; Ji, Li Li; Kavazis, Andreas N.; Jackson, Malcolm J.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that contracting muscles produce both reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Although the sources of oxidant production during exercise continue to be debated, growing evidence suggests that mitochondria are not the dominant source. Regardless of the sources of oxidants in contracting muscles, intense and prolonged exercise can result in oxidative damage to both proteins and lipids in the contracting myocytes. Further, oxidants regulate numerous cell signaling pathways and modulate the expression of many genes. This oxidant-mediated change in gene expression involves changes at transcriptional, mRNA stability, and signal transduction levels. Furthermore, numerous products associated with oxidant-modulated genes have been identified and include antioxidant enzymes, stress proteins, and mitochondrial electron transport proteins. Interestingly, low and physiological levels of reactive oxygen species are required for normal force production in skeletal muscle, but high levels of reactive oxygen species result in contractile dysfunction and fatigue. Ongoing research continues to explore the redox-sensitive targets in muscle that are responsible for both redox-regulation of muscle adaptation and oxidant-mediated muscle fatigue. PMID:23737208

  7. Skeletal muscle regeneration after damage by needle penetration and trauma.

    PubMed

    McGeachie, J K

    2000-10-01

    Skeletal muscles actually surround the dento-alveolar area. However, most dentists would be unaware that they damage skeletal muscle during routine procedures. Simple puncturing of buccinator muscle during an inferior alveolar block kills thousands of fibres. What happens to muscle fibres following such trauma? Pathology texts suggest that skeletal muscle does not regenerate and is replaced by fibrous scar tissue. However, for some decades it has been recognized that muscle fibres do in fact regenerate. In the early 1960s the "satellite" cell was discovered, lying between the muscle cell membrane and the external lamina. After 30 years of intensive research it has been clearly demonstrated that satellite cells are reserve mesenchyme cells which, once the adjacent muscle fibres are damaged, proliferate and provide a new population of young muscle cells, called "myoblasts". Myoblasts rapidly produce muscle specific proteins and fuse together in long chains, called "myotubes", which mature into typical muscle fibres. PMID:11709949

  8. Abundance of amino acid transporters involved in mTORC1 activation in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs is developmentally regulated

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously we demonstrated that the insulinand amino acid-induced activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is developmentally regulated in neonatal pigs. Recent studies have indicated that members of the System A transporter (SNAT2), the System N transporter (SNAT3), the Sy...

  9. Amino acids augment muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs during acute endotoxemia by stimulating mTOR-dependent translation initiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In skeletal muscle of adults, sepsis reduces protein synthesis by depressing translation initiation and induces resistance to branched-chain amino acid stimulation. Normal neonates maintain a high basal muscle protein synthesis rate that is sensitive to amino acid stimulation. In the present study...

  10. Quantitative assessment of skeletal muscle activation using muscle functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Kinugasa, Ryuta; Kawakami, Yasuo; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine whether muscle functional MRI (mfMRI) can be used to obtain three-dimensional (3-D) images useful for evaluating muscle activity, and if so, to measure the distribution of muscle activity within a medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle. Seven men performed 5 sets of 10 repetitions of a calf-raise exercise with additional 15% of body-weight load. Magnetic resonance images were obtained before and immediately after the exercise. To threshold images, only those pixels showing transverse relaxation time (T2) greater than the mean+1 S.D. of the entire regions of interest (ROIs) in the preexercise image and T2 lower than the mean+1 S.D. of the entire ROIs in the postexercise image were identified. The survived pixels showing T2 are defined as active muscle. Those thresholded images were 3-D reconstructed, and this was used to determine area of active muscle along transverse, longitudinal and vertical axes. At the exercise level used in the present study, the percentage volume of activated muscle in the MG was 62.8+/-4.5%. There was a significant correlation between percentage volume of activated muscle and integrated electromyography (r=.78, P<.05). Percentage areas of activated muscle were significantly larger in the medial than in the lateral region, in the anterior than in the posterior region and in the distal than in the proximal region (P<.05). These results suggest that mfMRI can be used to evaluate the muscle activity and to determine intramuscular variations of activity within skeletal muscle. PMID:16735187

  11. and indirect interactions Bidirectional signaling between calcium channels of skeletal muscle requires multiple direct

    E-print Network

    Betz, William J.

    The basis for excitation­contraction (EC) coupling in skeletal muscle is a direct functional interactionand indirect interactions Bidirectional signaling between calcium channels of skeletal muscle signaling between calcium channels of skeletal muscle requires multiple direct and indirect interactions

  12. Skeletal muscle bioenergetics in myotonic dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D J; Kemp, G J; Woods, C G; Edwards, J H; Radda, G K

    1993-06-01

    Skeletal muscle function of 15 patients with myotonic dystrophy (dystrophia myotonica, DM) was investigated using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy to evaluate bioenergetics and intracellular pH at rest and during exercise and recovery. Results from DM patients, normal controls and mitochondrial myopathy patients were compared in order to assess the possible contribution of abnormal mitochondrial metabolism to muscle dysfunction in DM. In resting DM muscle, intracellular pH (pHi) was normal, but there were significant elevations in the concentration ratios of Pi/ATP, phosphomonoesters/ATP and phosphodiesters/ATP. In patients with the most severe exercise intolerance the phosphocreatine/ATP ratio was also reduced. Resting muscle of 11 mitochondrial myopathy patients showed similar changes to those of the most exercise-intolerant DM patients. In exercising DM muscle, energy stores were rapidly depleted as in mitochondrial myopathy. Muscle acidified in all subjects, but in DM the decrease in pHi was less than in normal muscle. Recovery half-times for phosphocreatine, Pi and ADP were normal in DM but slow in mitochondrial myopathy. The initial rate of phosphocreatine repletion after exercise was rapid in DM, consistent with high [ADP], but slow in mitochondrial myopathy in spite of elevated [ADP]. Because recovery is an oxidative process, we conclude that there was no decrease in the oxidative capacity of the muscles in this group of DM patients. In the subjects in whom it could be measured, the rate of recovery of intracellular pH was greater in the 3 DM patients (0.14, 0.15 and 0.16 U/min) than in the 7 normal controls (0.08-0.12 U/min, mean 0.10). The results do not rule out a minor abnormality in glycogenolysis, but they suggest that the failure to acidify normally during exercise is probably due to rapid proton efflux. PMID:8336166

  13. Targeted Expression of IGF-1 Transgene to Skeletal Muscle Accelerates Muscle and Motor Neuron Regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric D. Rabinovsky; Ethem Gelir; Seda Gelir; Hui Lui; Maan Kattash; Francesco J. DeMayo; Saleh M. Shenaq; Robert J. Schwartz

    2003-01-01

    Currently, there is no known medical treatment that hastens the repair of damaged nerve and muscle. Using IGF-1 transgenic mice that specifically express human recombinant IGF-1 in skeletal muscle, we test the hypotheses that targeted gene expression of IGF-1 in skeletal muscle enhances motor nerve regeneration after a nerve crush injury. The IGF-1 transgene affects the initiation of the muscle

  14. Muscle spindles,Golgi tendon organs,and the neural control of skeletal muscle

    E-print Network

    Loeb, Gerald E.

    Muscle spindles,Golgi tendon organs,and the neural control of skeletal muscle JOHN N. HOWELL, Ph was then knowh about the physiology of theproprioceptiveorgans within skeletal muscle. Specifically, he by virtue of contraction of adjacent muscle fibers. Each tendon organ appears to provide insertion for fi

  15. Interactive Classroom Demonstration of Skeletal Muscle Contraction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Janice Meeking (Mount Royal College Department of Chemical, Biological)

    2002-12-01

    Students in a traditional lecture-style course often struggle to visualize the sequence of events in the molecular mechanism of skeletal muscle contraction as represented in anatomy and physiology textbooks (e.g., Ref. 1). The author of this article has successfully used the following interactive method with first-year nursing students. If the students are able to state the functions of calcium, troponin, tropomyosin, and cross-bridges, the demonstration requires only 15Â?20 minutes of class time. The size of the actin and myosin filaments can be varied according to the class size.

  16. Protein turnover in skeletal muscle of the diabetic rat: activation of ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, T; Busquets, S; Alvarez, B; Carb N; Agell, N; Lpez-Soriano, F J; Argil?, J M

    1998-06-01

    Induction of experimental insulin-deficiency by a single administration of streptozotocin to rats resulted in substantial changes in heart and skeletal muscle size and protein content. This was accompanied by a marked loss of total body (carcass) nitrogen and raised concentrations of circulating branched-chain amino acids. These changes were related to alterations in protein turnover in skeletal muscle. Thus, the diabetic animals showed changes in both the fractional protein rates of synthesis (decreased by 37%) and degradation (increased by 141%). The increased protein degradation observed in the muscle of the diabetic animals was associated only with an increase in the expression of the genes controlling ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. It may be suggested that the hormonal changes associated with the diabetic state play an important role in the regulation of the activity of the ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic system in skeletal muscle, highlighting the major role of this system in the diabetes-related cachexia. PMID:9852633

  17. Role of the Ryanodine Receptor of Skeletal Muscle in

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Kevin P.

    Role of the Ryanodine Receptor of Skeletal Muscle in Excitation-Contraction Coupling MICHAEL FILL In skeletal muscle, contraction is initiated by a depolarization of the transverse tubular membrane (t recording technique and by comparing ligand-dependent gating, ionic selectivity, and pharmacology

  18. Original Research Real-Time Imaging of Skeletal Muscle Velocity

    E-print Network

    Delp, Scott

    who cannot actively complete the repeated motions required for dy- namic MRI techniques, such as cineOriginal Research Real-Time Imaging of Skeletal Muscle Velocity Deanna S. Asakawa, PhD,1 Krishna S) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to track velocities (1­20 cm/second) of skeletal muscle motion. Materials

  19. Muscular dysgenesis: a model system for studying skeletal muscle development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEANNE A. POWELL

    Muscular dysgenesis, caused by an autosomal recessive lethal mutation (mdg) in mice, is characterized by an absence of contraction of skeletal muscle. A historical review of the investigation of this disorder is presented. The early studies of the morphological and physiologi- cal aspects of the disorder in vivo and in vitro pre- sented evidence for dysfunction in the skeletal muscle

  20. Skeletal muscle stem cells from animals I. Basic cell biology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Skeletal muscle stem cells from food-producing animals have been of interest to agricultural life scientists seeking to develop a better understanding of the molecular regulation of lean tissue (skeletal muscle protein hypertrophy) and intramuscular fat (marbling) development. Enhanced understanding...

  1. Thermodynamic and Mechanical Properties of Skeletal Muscle Contraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. I. Prylutskyy; A. M. Shut; M. S. Miroshnychenko; A. D. Suprun

    2005-01-01

    Thermodynamic parameters such as the change of entropy, internal energy, and enthalpy were calculated as a function of the relative skeletal muscle strain within the framework of a proposed thermodynamic model. A value for the Young’s modulus for the skeletal muscle was also estimated. The obtained theoretical values are in a good agreement with available experimental results for the frog

  2. Growth factor involvement in tension-induced skeletal muscle growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman W.

    1987-01-01

    New muscle tissue culture techniques were developed to grow embryonic skeletal myofibers which are able to differentiate into more adultlike myofibers. Studies on mechanical simulation of cultured muscle cell growth will now be more directly applicable to mechanically-induced growth in adult muscle, and lead to better models for understanding muscle tissue atrophy caused by disuse in the microgravity of space.

  3. Growth factor involvement in tension-induced skeletal muscle growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1987-01-01

    Muscle tissue culture techniques were developed to grow skeletal myofibers which differentiate into more adult-like myofibers. Mechanical simulation studies of these muscle cells in a newly developed mechanical cell simulator can now be performed to study growth processes in skeletal muscle. Conditions in the mechanical cell simulator were defined where mechanical activity can either prevent muscle wasting or stimulate muscle growth. The role of endogenous and exogenous growth factors in tension-induced muscle growth is being investigated under the defined conditions of tissue culture.

  4. Autophagic cellular responses to physical exercise in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Tam, Bjorn T; Siu, Parco M

    2014-05-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved biological process that functions to recycle protein aggregate and malfunctioned organelles. The activation of autophagy can be stimulated by a number of ways including infection, caloric restriction, and physical exercise. In addition to cellular metabolism and cell survival/death machinery, autophagy plays an important role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis in skeletal muscle especially during physical exercise in which energy demand can be extremely high. By degrading macromolecules and subcellular organelles through the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes, useful materials such as amino acids can be released and re-used to sustain normal metabolism in cells. Autophagy is suggested to be involved in glucose and lipid metabolism and is proposed to be a critical physiological process in the regulation of intracellular metabolism. The effects of physical exercise on autophagy have been investigated. Although physical exercise has been demonstrated to be an autophagic inducer, cellular autophagic responses to exercise in skeletal muscle appear to be varied in different exercise protocols and disease models. It is also not known whether the exercise-induced beneficial health consequences involve the favorable modulation of cellular autophagy. Furthermore, the cellular mechanisms of exercise-induced autophagy still remain largely unclear. In this review article, we discuss the general principle of autophagy, cellular signaling of autophagy, autophagic responses to acute and chronic aerobic exercise, and the potential cross-talks among autophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis, and ubiquitination. This article aims to stimulate further studies in exercise and autophagy. PMID:24549475

  5. The activation of insulin signaling components leading to mRNA translation in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs is developmentally regulated

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insulin and amino acids can act independently to stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the developmental regulation of the activation of signaling components leading to protein synthesis in skeletal muscle that is induced by insulin...

  6. Potassium initiates vasodilatation induced by a single skeletal muscle contraction in hamster cremaster muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marika L. Armstrong; Ashok K. Dua; Coral L. Murrant

    2007-01-01

    The rapid onset of vasodilatation within seconds of a single contraction suggests that the vasodilators involved may be products of skeletal muscle activation, such as potassium (K+). To test the hypothesis that K+ was in part responsible for the rapid dilatation produced by muscle contraction we stimulated four to five skeletal muscle fibres in the anaesthetized hamster cremaster preparation in

  7. Skeletal muscle metabolism in hypokinetic rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Marc E.

    1993-01-01

    This grant focused on the mechanisms of metabolic changes associated with unweighting atrophy and reduced growth of hind limb muscles of juvenile rats. Metabolic studies included a number of different areas. Amino acid metabolic studies placed particular emphasis on glutamine and branched-chain amino acid metabolism. These studies were an outgrowth of understanding stress effects and the role of glucocorticoids in these animals. Investigations on protein metabolism were largely concerned with selective loss of myofibrillar proteins and the role of muscle proteolysis. These investigations lead to finding important differences from denervation and atrophy and to define the roles of cytosolic versus lysosomal proteolysis in these atrophy models. A major outgrowth of these studies was demonstrating an ability to prevent atrophy of the unweighted muscle for at least 24 hours. A large amount of work concentrated on carbohydrate metabolism and its regulation by insulin and catecholamines. Measurements focused on glucose transport, glycogen metabolism, and glucose oxidation. The grant was used to develop an important new in situ approach for studying protein metabolism, glucose transport, and hormonal effects which involves intramuscular injection of various agents for up to 24 hours. Another important consequence of this project was the development and flight of Physiological-Anatomical Rodent Experiment-1 (PARE-1), which was launched aboard Space Shuttle Discovery in September 1991. Detailed descriptions of these studies can be found in the 30 peer-reviewed publications, 15 non-reviewed publications, 4 reviews and 33 abstracts (total 82 publications) which were or are scheduled to be published as a result of this project. A listing of these publications grouped by area (i.e. amino acid metabolism, protein metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and space flight studies) are included.

  8. Muscle contraction controls skeletal morphogenesis through regulation of chondrocyte convergent extension

    E-print Network

    Muscle contraction controls skeletal morphogenesis through regulation of chondrocyte convergent and genetically paralyzed embryos, demonstrating the importance of muscle contraction for zebrafish skeletal development. The shortening of skeletal elements was accompanied by prominent changes in cell morphology

  9. Skeletal Muscle Physiology: Plasticity and Responses to Exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. Kraemer; Barry A. Spiering

    2006-01-01

    Skeletal muscle displays an impressive capability to adapt to various stimuli. Exercise and physical activity, in their many forms, present specific stresses to muscle. Depending on the exact nature of the stress, muscle may adapt by increasing size, improving neuromuscular performance, or enhancing endurance capabilities. In this article, we provide an overview of the basics of neuromuscular physiology, principles of

  10. Lifting the Nebula: Novel Insights into Skeletal Muscle Contractility

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Coen AC Ottenheijm (University of Arizona)

    2010-10-01

    Nebulin is a giant protein and a constituent of the skeletal muscle sarcomere. The name of this protein refers to its unknown (i.e., nebulous) function. However, recent rapid advances reveal that nebulin plays important roles in the regulation of muscle contraction. When these functions of nebulin are compromised, muscle weakness ensues, as is the case in patients with nemaline myoptahy.

  11. Dynamic imaging of skeletal muscle contraction in three orthogonal directions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. P. Lopata; J. P. van Dijk; S. Pillen; M. M. Nillesen; H. Maas; J. M. Thijssen; D. F. Stegeman; C. L. de Korte

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a multidimensional strain estimation method using biplane ultrasound is presented to assess local relative deformation (i.e., local strain) in three orthogonal directions in skeletal muscles during induced and voluntary contractions. The method was tested in the musculus biceps brachii of five healthy subjects for three different types of muscle contraction: 1) excitation of the muscle with a

  12. Molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase and pseudocholinesterase in chicken skeletal muscles

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase and pseudocholinesterase in chicken skeletal muscles of Histo%gy and Embryo%gy Academy of Medicine, Warsaw, Poland. Summary. Chicken muscles offer several of molecular forms of chicken muscle acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and likewise of pseudocholinesterase (1/t

  13. Dysregulation of SIRT-1 in aging mice increases skeletal muscle fatigue by a PARP-1-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Junaith S.; Wilson, Joseph C.; Myers, Matthew J.; Sisson, Kayla J.; Alway, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skeletal muscles and the resulting decline in muscle performance are hallmarks of sarcopenia. However, the precise mechanism by which ROS results in a decline in muscle performance is unclear. We demonstrate that isometric-exercise concomitantly increases the activities of Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT-1) and Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase (PARP-1), and that activated SIRT-1 physically binds with and inhibits PARP-1 activity by a deacetylation dependent mechanism in skeletal muscle from young mice. In contrast, skeletal muscle from aged mice displays higher PARP-1 activity and lower SIRT-1 activity due to decreased intracellular NAD+ content, and as a result reduced muscle performance in response to exercise. Interestingly, injection of PJ34, a PARP-1 inhibitor, in aged mice increased SIRT-1 activity by preserving intracellular NAD+ content, which resulted in higher skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and performance. We found that the higher activity of PARP-1 in H2O2-treated myotubes or in exercised-skeletal muscles from aged mice is due to an elevated level of PARP-1 acetylation by the histone acetyltransferase General control of amino acid synthesis protein 5-like 2 (GCN-5). These results suggest that activation of SIRT-1 and/or inhibition of PARP-1 may ameliorate skeletal muscle performance in pathophysiological conditions such as sarcopenia and disuse-induced atrophy in aging. PMID:25361036

  14. Long-term leucine induced stimulation of muscle protein synthesis is amino acid dependent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infusing leucine for 1 h increases skeletal muscle protein synthesis in the neonate, but this is not sustained for 2 h unless the corresponding fall in amino acids is prevented. This study aimed to determine whether a continuous leucine infusion can stimulate protein synthesis for a prolonged period...

  15. Single actomyosin motor interactions in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Földes-Papp, Zeno; Liao, Shih-Chu Jeff; Barbieri, Ben; Gryczynski, Karol; Luchowski, Rafal; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Borejdo, Julian; You, Tiefeng

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of intramuscular motion during contraction of skeletal muscle myofibrils. Myofibrillar actin was labeled with fluorescent dye so that the ratio of fluorescently labeled to unlabeled protein was 1:105. Such sparse labeling assured that there was on average only one actin-marker present in the focus at a given time. From the intensity signal in the two orthogonal detection channels, significant fluctuations, similar to fluorescent burst in diffusion-based single-molecule detection schemes, were identified via a threshold algorithm and analyzed with respect to their intensity and polarization. When only rigor complexes were formed, the fluctuations of polarized intensity were characterized by unimodal Gaussian photon distributions. During contraction, in contrast, bimodal Gaussian photon distributions were observed above the rigor background threshold. This suggests that the bimodal Gaussian photon distributions represent pre- and post-power stroke conformations. Clusters of polarized photons indicated an anisotropy decay of single actomyosin motors of ~ 9 s during muscle contraction. PMID:21315775

  16. Leucine-enriched essential amino acids attenuate muscle soreness and improve muscle protein synthesis after eccentric contractions in rats.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiromi; Mimura, Masako; Inoue, Yoshiko; Sugita, Mayu; Suzuki, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Hisamine

    2015-06-01

    Eccentric exercise results in prolonged muscle weakness and muscle soreness, which are typical symptoms of muscle damage. Recovery from muscle damage is related to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity. Leucine-enriched essential amino acids (LEAAs) stimulate muscle protein synthesis via activation of the mTOR pathway. Therefore, we investigated the effect of LEAAs on muscle protein synthesis and muscle soreness after eccentric contractions (EC). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (9-11 weeks old) were administered an LEAA solution (AminoL40; containing 40 % leucine and 60 % other essential amino acids) at 1 g/kg body weight or distilled water (control) 30 min before and 10 min after EC. Tibialis anterior (TA) muscle was exposed to 500 EC by electrical stimulation under anesthesia. The fractional synthesis rate (FSR; %/h) in the TA muscle was measured by incorporating L-[ring-(2)H5] phenylalanine into skeletal muscle protein. Muscle soreness was evaluated by the paw withdrawal threshold using the Randal-Selitto test with some modifications from 1 to 3 days after EC. The FSR in the EC-control group (0.147 ± 0.016 %/h) was significantly lower than in the sedentary group (0.188 ± 0.016 %/h, p < 0.05). AminoL40 administration significantly mitigated the EC-induced impairment of the FSR (0.172 ± 0.018 %/h). EC decreased the paw withdrawal threshold at 1 and 2 days after EC, which indicated that EC induced muscle soreness. Furthermore, AminoL40 administration alleviated the decreased paw withdrawal threshold. These findings suggest that LEAA supplementation improves the rate of muscle protein synthesis and ameliorates muscle soreness after eccentric exercise. PMID:25772815

  17. Acylated and unacylated ghrelin impair skeletal muscle atrophy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Porporato, Paolo E.; Filigheddu, Nicoletta; Reano, Simone; Ferrara, Michele; Angelino, Elia; Gnocchi, Viola F.; Prodam, Flavia; Ronchi, Giulia; Fagoonee, Sharmila; Fornaro, Michele; Chianale, Federica; Baldanzi, Gianluca; Surico, Nicola; Sinigaglia, Fabiola; Perroteau, Isabelle; Smith, Roy G.; Sun, Yuxiang; Geuna, Stefano; Graziani, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Cachexia is a wasting syndrome associated with cancer, AIDS, multiple sclerosis, and several other disease states. It is characterized by weight loss, fatigue, loss of appetite, and skeletal muscle atrophy and is associated with poor patient prognosis, making it an important treatment target. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth hormone (GH) release and positive energy balance through binding to the receptor GHSR-1a. Only acylated ghrelin (AG), but not the unacylated form (UnAG), can bind GHSR-1a; however, UnAG and AG share several GHSR-1a–independent biological activities. Here we investigated whether UnAG and AG could protect against skeletal muscle atrophy in a GHSR-1a–independent manner. We found that both AG and UnAG inhibited dexamethasone-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and atrogene expression through PI3K?-, mTORC2-, and p38-mediated pathways in myotubes. Upregulation of circulating UnAG in mice impaired skeletal muscle atrophy induced by either fasting or denervation without stimulating muscle hypertrophy and GHSR-1a–mediated activation of the GH/IGF-1 axis. In Ghsr-deficient mice, both AG and UnAG induced phosphorylation of Akt in skeletal muscle and impaired fasting-induced atrophy. These results demonstrate that AG and UnAG act on a common, unidentified receptor to block skeletal muscle atrophy in a GH-independent manner. PMID:23281394

  18. Dissemination of Walker 256 carcinoma cells to rat skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Ueoka, H.; Hayashi, K.; Namba, T.; Grob, D.

    1986-03-05

    After injection of 10/sup 6/ Walker 256 carcinoma cells labelled with /sup 125/I-5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine into the tail vein, peak concentration in skeletal muscle was 46 cells/g at 60 minutes, which was lower than 169202, 1665, 555, 198 and 133 cells/g, respectively, at 30 or 60 minutes in lung, liver, spleen, kidney and heart. Because skeletal muscle constitutes 37.4% of body weight, the total number of tumor cells was 2323 cells, which was much greater than in spleen, kidney and heart with 238, 271, and 85 cells, respectively, and only less than in lung and liver, at 222857 and 11700 cells, respectively. The total number in skeletal muscle became greater than in liver at 4 hours and than in lung at 24 hours. Ten minutes after injection of 7.5 x 10/sup 6/ Walker 256 carcinoma cells into the abdominal aorta of rats, a mean of 31 colony-forming cells were recovered from the gastrocnemius, while 106 cells were recovered from the lung after injection into the tail vein. These results indicate that a large number of viable tumor cells can be arrested in skeletal muscle through circulation. The rare remote metastasis of malignancies into skeletal muscle despite constantly circulating tumor cells does not appear to be due to poor dissemination of tumor cells into muscle but due to unhospitable environment of skeletal muscle.

  19. Heparan sulfate in skeletal muscle development

    SciTech Connect

    Noonan, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this study, chick breast skeletal muscle cells developing in vitro from myoblasts to myotubes were found to synthesize heparan sulfate (HS), chrondroitin-6-sulfate, chrondroitin-4-sulfate, dermatan sulfate, unsulfated chrondroitin and hyaluronic acid in both the substratum attached material (SAM) and the cellular fraction. SAM was found to contain predominantly chrondroitin-6-sulfate and relatively little HS whereas the cellular fraction contained relatively higher levels of HS and lower levels of chrondroitin-6-sulfate. Hyaluronic acid was also a major component in both fractions with the other glycosaminoglycan isomers present as minor components. Muscle derived fibroblast cultures had higher levels of dermatan sulfate in the cell layer and higher levels of HS in the SAM fraction than did muscle cultures. The structure of the proteoglycans were partially characterized in /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ radio-labeled cultures which indicated an apparent increase in the hydrodynamic size of the cell fraction heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HS PG). Myotubes incorporated /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ into HS PG at a rate 3 times higher than myoblasts. The turnover rate of HS in the cellular fraction was the same for myoblasts and myotubes, with a t/sub 1/2/ of approximately 5 hours. Fibroblasts in culture synthesized the smallest HS PG, and incorporated /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ into HS PG at a rate lower than that of myotubes. Studies in which fusion was reversibly inhibited with decreased medium (Ca/sup + +/) closely linked the increased synthesis of cell fraction, but not SAM fraction, HS with myotube formation. However, decreasing medium calcium appeared to cause significant alterations in the metabolism of inorganic sulfate.

  20. Angiopoietin-1 enhances skeletal muscle regeneration in mice.

    PubMed

    Mofarrahi, Mahroo; McClung, Joseph M; Kontos, Christopher D; Davis, Elaine C; Tappuni, Bassman; Moroz, Nicolay; Pickett, Amy E; Huck, Laurent; Harel, Sharon; Danialou, Gawiyou; Hussain, Sabah N A

    2015-04-01

    Activation of muscle progenitor cell myogenesis and endothelial cell angiogenesis is critical for the recovery of skeletal muscle from injury. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), a ligand of Tie-2 receptors, enhances angiogenesis and skeletal muscle satellite cell survival; however, its role in skeletal muscle regeneration after injury is unknown. We assessed the effects of Ang-1 on fiber regeneration, myogenesis, and angiogenesis in injured skeletal muscle (tibialis anterior, TA) in mice. We also assessed endogenous Ang-1 levels and localization in intact and injured TA muscles. TA fiber injury was triggered by cardiotoxin injection. Endogenous Ang-1 mRNA levels immediately decreased in response to cardiotoxin then increased during the 2 wk. Ang-1 protein was expressed in satellite cells, both in noninjured and recovering TA muscles. Positive Ang-1 staining was present in blood vessels but not in nerve fibers. Four days after the initiation of injury, injection of adenoviral Ang-1 into injured muscles resulted in significant increases in in situ TA muscle contractility, muscle fiber regeneration, and capillary density. In cultured human skeletal myoblasts, recombinant Ang-1 protein increased survival, proliferation, migration, and differentiation into myotubes. The latter effect was associated with significant upregulation of the expression of the myogenic regulatory factors MyoD and Myogenin and certain genes involved in cell cycle regulation. We conclude that Ang-1 strongly enhances skeletal muscle regeneration in response to fiber injury and that this effect is mediated through induction of the myogenesis program in muscle progenitor cells and the angiogenesis program in endothelial cells. PMID:25608750

  1. Skeletal Muscle Glucose Uptake During Exercise: How is it Regulated?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Adam J. Rose (University of Copenhagen Department of Human Physiology)

    2005-08-01

    The increase in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise results from a coordinated increase in rates of glucose delivery (higher capillary perfusion), surface membrane glucose transport, and intracellular substrate flux through glycolysis.

  2. Na+-K+ Pump Regulation and Skeletal Muscle Contractility

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    MD Torben Clausen (University of Aarhus Department of Physiology)

    2003-10-01

    The present review is written with the specific purpose of analyzing how regulation of the activity and the capacity of the Na+-K+ pumps influences excitability and contractile performance in skeletal muscle.

  3. Mitochondrial and Skeletal Muscle Health with Advancing Age

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Adam R.; Nair, K. Sreekumaran

    2013-01-01

    With increasing age there is a temporal relationship between the decline of mitochondrial and skeletal muscle volume, quality and function (i.e., health). Reduced mitochondrial mRNA expression, protein abundance, and protein synthesis rates appear to promote the decline of mitochondrial protein quality and function. Decreased mitochondrial function is suspected to impede energy demanding processes such as skeletal muscle protein turnover, which is critical for maintaining protein quality and thus skeletal muscle health with advancing age. The focus of this review was to discuss promising human physiological systems underpinning the decline of mitochondrial and skeletal muscle health with advancing age while highlighting therapeutic strategies such as aerobic exercise and caloric restriction for combating age-related functional impairments. PMID:23684888

  4. Effects of yessotoxin (YTX) on the skeletal muscle: an update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Tubaro; E. Bandi; S. Sosa; M. R. Soranzo; A. Giangaspero; V. De Ninis; T. Yasumoto; P. Lorenzon

    2008-01-01

    Yessotoxins (YTXs) are algal toxins originally included in the diarrheic toxins. After oral intake, YTXs induce only ultra-structural changes (packages of swollen mitochondria) in cardiac cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of YTX on the other contractile striated tissue, the skeletal muscle, in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, in skeletal mouse myotubes, YTX

  5. Atrophy and programmed cell death of skeletal muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L M Schwartz

    2008-01-01

    Striated skeletal is subject to nonlethal cycles of atrophy in response to a variety of physiological and pathological stimuli, including: starvation, disuse, denervation and inflammation. These cells can also undergo cell death in response to appropriate developmental signals or specific pathological insults. Most of the insights gained into the control of vertebrate skeletal muscle atrophy and death have resulted from

  6. The extracellular compartments of frog skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Neville, M C; Mathias, R T

    1979-01-01

    1. Detailed studies of solute efflux from frog sartorius muscle and single muscle fibres were carried out in order to characterize a 'special region' (Harris, 1963) in the extracellular space of muscle and determine whether this 'special region' is the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 2. The efflux of radioactive Na, Cl, glusose, 3-O-methylglucose, xylose, glycine, leucine, cycloleucine, Rb, K, inulin (mol. wt. 5000) and dextran (mol. wt. 17,000) from previously loaded muscles was studied. In all cases except dextran the curve had three components, a rapid (A) component which could be equated with efflux from the extracellular space proper, a slow (C) component representing cellular solute and an intermediate (B) component. The distribution space for the B component was 8% of muscle volume in summer frogs and 12% in winter frogs and appeared to be equal for all compounds studied. We tested the hypothesis that the B component originated from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 3. The C component was missing from the dextran curves. Both dextran and inulin entered the compartment of origin of the B component (compartment B) to the same extent as small molecules. 4. For all compounds studies, the efflux rate constant for the A component could be predicted from the diffusion coefficient. For the B component the efflux rate constant was 6--10 times slower than that for the A component but was still proportional to the diffusion coefficient for the solute in question. 5. When Na and sucrose efflux from single fibres was followed, a B component was usually observed. The average distribution space for this component was small, averaging 1.5% of fibre volume. There was no difference between the average efflux rate constants for Na and sucrose. 6. In an appendix, the constraints placed on the properties of a hypothetical channel between the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the T-system by the linear electrical parameters of frog skeletal muscle are derived. It is shown that the conductance of such a channel must be less than 0.06 x 10(-3) mohs/cm2 of fibre membrane. 7. The conductance between compartment B and the extracellular space can be calculated from the efflux rate constants for Na, K and Cl. The value obtained was 5 x 10(-3) mhos/cm2 of fibre membrane or 100 times the limiting value for the conductance of the T-SR junction. 8. The finding that there is a B component in the efflux curves for large molecular weight substances like inulin and dextran and the small size of the B component in efflux curves from single muscle fibres indicate that the 'speical region' of the extra-cellular space of frog muscle is not the sarcoplasmic reticulum. This conclusion is confirmed by a calculation of the conductance between the B compartment and the extracellular space. The value obtained is incompatible with predicted electrical properteis of the SR-T-tubule junction... PMID:313982

  7. ABNORMALITIES IN NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION STRUCTURE AND SKELETAL MUSCLE FUNCTION IN MICE LACKING

    E-print Network

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    ABNORMALITIES IN NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION STRUCTURE AND SKELETAL MUSCLE FUNCTION IN MICE LACKING). While ACh is the transmitter that mediates via nicotinic receptors muscle contraction in mature animals reappear after denerva- tion of chick skeletal muscle (Wells et al., 1995). Electrophysiology

  8. Skeletal muscle and bone: effect of sex steroids and aging

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Marybeth Brown (University of Missouri-Columbia Dept of Physical Therapy)

    2008-02-14

    Both estrogen and testosterone are present in males and females. Both hormones contribute to the well being of skeletal muscle and bone in men and women, and there is evidence that the loss of sex hormones is associated with the age-related decline in bone and skeletal muscle mass. Hormonal supplementation of older adults to restore estrogen and testosterone levels to those of young men and women is not without penalty.

  9. Inosine Attenuates Tourniquet-Induced Skeletal Muscle Reperfusion Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Wakai; Desmond C. Winter; Ronan G. O'Sullivan; Jiang H. Wang; H. Paul Redmond

    2001-01-01

    Background. Adenosine attenuates skeletal muscle reperfusion injury, but its short half-life in vivo limits potential therapeutic benefits. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether inosine, a stable adenosine metabolite, modulates skeletal muscle reperfusion injury.Materials and methods. C57BL\\/6 mice were randomized (8–10 per group) to six groups: time controls; inosine (100 mg\\/kg) before anesthesia; 2 h of bilateral tourniquet

  10. ACTIVATION OF CASPASE-3 IN THE SKELETAL MUSCLE DURING HEMODIALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Boivin, Michel A; Battah, Shadi I; Dominic, Elizabeth A; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Ferrando, Arny; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H; Dwivedi, Rama; Ma, Thomas A; Moseley, Pope; Raj, Dominic SC

    2010-01-01

    Background Muscle atrophy in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) may be due to the activation of apoptotic and proteolytic pathways. Objective We hypothesized that activation of caspase-3 in the skeletal muscle mediates apoptosis and proteolysis during hemodialysis (HD). Materials and Methods Eight ESRD patients were studied before (pre-HD) and during HD and the finding were compared with those from six healthy volunteers. Protein kinetics was determined by primed constant infusion of L-(ring 13C6) Phenylalanine. Results Caspase-3 activity in the skeletal muscle was higher in ESRD patients pre-HD than in controls (24966.0±4023.9 vs. 15293.3±2120.0 units, p<0.01) and increased further during HD (end-HD) (37666.6±4208.3 units) (p<0.001). 14 kDa actin fragments generated by caspase-3 mediated cleavage of actinomyosin was higher in the skeletal muscle pre-HD (68%) and during HD (164%) compared to controls. The abundance of ubiquitinized carboxy-terminal actin fragment was also significantly increased during HD. Skeletal muscle biopsies obtained at the end of HD exhibited augmented apoptosis, which was higher than that observed in pre-HD and control samples (p<0.001). IL-6 content in the soluble fraction of the muscle skeletal muscle was increased significantly during HD. Protein kinetic studies showed that catabolism was higher in ESRD patients during HD compared to pre-HD and control subjects. Muscle protein catabolism was positively associated with caspase-3 activity and skeletal muscle IL-6 content. Conclusion Muscle atrophy in ESRD may be due to IL-6 induced activation of caspase-3 resulting in apoptosis as well as muscle proteolysis during HD. PMID:20636378

  11. Bex1 knock out mice show altered skeletal muscle regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, Jae Hyung [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, School of Medicine, University of Maryland Baltimore, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)], E-mail: jkoo001@umaryland.edu; Smiley, Mark A. [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, School of Medicine, University of Maryland Baltimore, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Lovering, Richard M. [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Maryland Baltimore, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Margolis, Frank L. [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, School of Medicine, University of Maryland Baltimore, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2007-11-16

    Bex1 and Calmodulin (CaM) are upregulated during skeletal muscle regeneration. We confirm this finding and demonstrate the novel finding that they interact in a calcium-dependent manner. To study the role of Bex1 and its interaction with CaM in skeletal muscle regeneration, we generated Bex1 knock out (Bex1-KO) mice. These mice appeared to develop normally and are fertile, but displayed a functional deficit in exercise performance compared to wild type (WT) mice. After intramuscular injection of cardiotoxin, which causes extensive and reproducible myotrauma followed by recovery, regenerating muscles of Bex1-KO mice exhibited elevated and prolonged cell proliferation, as well as delayed cell differentiation, compared to WT mice. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that Bex1-KO mice show altered muscle regeneration, and allow us to propose that the interaction of Bex1 with Ca{sup 2+}/CaM may be involved in skeletal muscle regeneration.

  12. Relationship Between Skeletal Muscle-Specific Calpain and Tenderness of Conditioned Porcine Longissimus Muscle1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Parr; P. L. Sensky; G. P. Scothern; R. G. Bardsley; P. J. Buttery; J. D. Wood; C. Warkup

    Tenderization of skeletal muscle in meat animals has been closely linked to the postmor- tem activity of the calpain proteolytic enzyme system, which includes the specific inhibitor calpastatin. Increased understanding of the skeletal muscle- specific calpain isoform p94 has prompted suggestions as to whether it too could have a role in the tenderization process. In this study, two groups of

  13. The effect of muscle architecture on the biomechanical failure properties of skeletal muscle under passive extension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William E. Garrett; Pantelis K. Nikolaou; Beth M. Ribbeck; Richard R. Glisson; Anthony V. Seaber

    1988-01-01

    This study investigates the biomechanical failure prop erties of five architecturally different skeletal muscles and examines the role muscle structure plays in the passive extension characteristics of musculotendinous units. The muscles used in this study fall into four morphologic categories: fusiform, unipennate, bipen nate, and multipennate.Each muscle was pulled to failure at three different rates of strain (1, 10, and

  14. Influence of cell heterogeneity on skeletal muscle lactate kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Pagliassotti, M.J.; Donovan, C.M. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1990-04-01

    Lactate and (14C)lactate kinetics were studied in three rabbit skeletal muscle preparations with distinct fiber type profiles, glycolytic (99.1 +/- 0.2% type IIb fibers), oxidative (97.5 +/- 0.6% type I fibers), and mixed (type I, IIa, and IIb fibers). Single-pass perfusions were carried out for 2 h in the presence of lactate (1 mM), glucose (5 mM), (6-3H)glucose, and (U-14C)lactate. All preparations displayed net lactate release, (14C)lactate removal, and 14CO2 release. Net lactate release was greatest in the glycolytic preparation, 9.7 +/- 0.5 mumol.100 g-1.min-1, and least in the oxidative preparation, 3.7 +/- 0.2 mumol.100 g-1.min-1. (14C)lactate arteriovenous difference was greatest in the mixed preparation, 1,688 +/- 58 (disintegrations/min)/ml (dpm/ml), and least in the glycolytic preparation, 505 +/- 10.3 dpm/ml. Steady-state incorporation of (14C)lactate was observed in CO2, amino acids, and pyruvate. Tissue lactate specific activity (LSA) in all preparations was significantly lower than arterial LSA, but not significantly different from venous LSA. Estimates of lactate removal based on venous LSA were not significantly different from net glycolytic flux. In conclusion, (1) under basal, resting conditions net lactate release and (14C)lactate removal are properties of all fiber types, and (2) tracer estimates of lactate turnover in skeletal muscle reflect net glycolytic flux through pyruvate.

  15. Biomimetic model of skeletal muscle isometric contraction: II. A phenomenological model of the skeletal muscle excitation–contraction coupling process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. T. Neidhard-Doll; C. A. Phillips; D. W. Repperger; D. B. Reynolds

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a new macroscopic, phenomenological model of the skeletal muscle excitation–contraction coupling process, as represented by four principal and consecutive compartments (biophysical, biochemical, and biomechanical phases) characteristic of isometric excitation–contraction coupling in mammalian skeletal muscle, and coupled by a system of simultaneous, first-order linear ordinary differential equations. The model is based upon biological compartmental transport kinetics and irreversible

  16. Mitochondrial energetics is impaired in vivo in aged skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Gouspillou, Gilles; Bourdel-Marchasson, Isabelle; Rouland, Richard; Calmettes, Guillaume; Biran, Marc; Deschodt-Arsac, Véronique; Miraux, Sylvain; Thiaudiere, Eric; Pasdois, Philippe; Detaille, Dominique; Franconi, Jean-Michel; Babot, Marion; Trézéguet, Véronique; Arsac, Laurent; Diolez, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    With aging, most skeletal muscles undergo a progressive loss of mass and strength, a process termed sarcopenia. Aging-related defects in mitochondrial energetics have been proposed to be causally involved in sarcopenia. However, changes in muscle mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation with aging remain a highly controversial issue, creating a pressing need for integrative approaches to determine whether mitochondrial bioenergetics are impaired in aged skeletal muscle. To address this issue, mitochondrial bioenergetics was first investigated in vivo in the gastrocnemius muscle of adult (6 months) and aged (21 months) male Wistar rats by combining a modular control analysis approach with 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements of energetic metabolites. Using this innovative approach, we revealed that the in vivo responsiveness (‘elasticity’) of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to contraction-induced increase in ATP demand is significantly reduced in aged skeletal muscle, a reduction especially pronounced under low contractile activities. In line with this in vivo aging-related defect in mitochondrial energetics, we found that the mitochondrial affinity for ADP is significantly decreased in mitochondria isolated from aged skeletal muscle. Collectively, the results of this study demonstrate that mitochondrial bioenergetics are effectively altered in vivo in aged skeletal muscle and provide a novel cellular basis for this phenomenon. PMID:23919652

  17. Action of obestatin in skeletal muscle repair: stem cell expansion, muscle growth, and microenvironment remodeling.

    PubMed

    Gurriarán-Rodríguez, Uxía; Santos-Zas, Icía; González-Sánchez, Jessica; Beiroa, Daniel; Moresi, Viviana; Mosteiro, Carlos S; Lin, Wei; Viñuela, Juan E; Señarís, José; García-Caballero, Tomás; Casanueva, Felipe F; Nogueiras, Rubén; Gallego, Rosalía; Renaud, Jean-Marc; Adamo, Sergio; Pazos, Yolanda; Camiña, Jesús P

    2015-06-01

    The development of therapeutic strategies for skeletal muscle diseases, such as physical injuries and myopathies, depends on the knowledge of regulatory signals that control the myogenic process. The obestatin/GPR39 system operates as an autocrine signal in the regulation of skeletal myogenesis. Using a mouse model of skeletal muscle regeneration after injury and several cellular strategies, we explored the potential use of obestatin as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of trauma-induced muscle injuries. Our results evidenced that the overexpression of the preproghrelin, and thus obestatin, and GPR39 in skeletal muscle increased regeneration after muscle injury. More importantly, the intramuscular injection of obestatin significantly enhanced muscle regeneration by simulating satellite stem cell expansion as well as myofiber hypertrophy through a kinase hierarchy. Added to the myogenic action, the obestatin administration resulted in an increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and the consequent microvascularization, with no effect on collagen deposition in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, the potential inhibition of myostatin during obestatin treatment might contribute to its myogenic action improving muscle growth and regeneration. Overall, our data demonstrate successful improvement of muscle regeneration, indicating obestatin is a potential therapeutic agent for skeletal muscle injury and would benefit other myopathies related to muscle regeneration. PMID:25762009

  18. Naturally derived and synthetic scaffolds for skeletal muscle reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Matthew T; Dearth, Christopher L; Sonnenberg, Sonya B; Loboa, Elizabeth G; Badylak, Stephen F

    2015-04-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue has an inherent capacity for regeneration following injury. However, severe trauma, such as volumetric muscle loss, overwhelms these natural muscle repair mechanisms prompting the search for a tissue engineering/regenerative medicine approach to promote functional skeletal muscle restoration. A desirable approach involves a bioscaffold that simultaneously acts as an inductive microenvironment and as a cell/drug delivery vehicle to encourage muscle ingrowth. Both biologically active, naturally derived materials (such as extracellular matrix) and carefully engineered synthetic polymers have been developed to provide such a muscle regenerative environment. Next generation naturally derived/synthetic "hybrid materials" would combine the advantageous properties of these materials to create an optimal platform for cell/drug delivery and possess inherent bioactive properties. Advances in scaffolds using muscle tissue engineering are reviewed herein. PMID:25174309

  19. Ectopic endplates induce localized changes in skeletal muscle ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Derron L; Milton, Richard L

    2002-12-01

    To investigate the processes by which motoneurons control protein synthesis, and thus the ultrastructure of the muscle fibers they innervate, ectopic endplates were induced to form on adult mouse skeletal muscle fibers by transplantation of a foreign nerve onto the muscle. In the dually innervated muscle fibers thus created, we examined two ultrastructural parameters that correlate with the expression of distinct isoforms of the myofibrillar proteins alpha-actinin and titin, specifically, Z-line width and sarcomere length. It was found that Z-lines were significantly thinner (98 vs. 128 nm) and sarcomeres were significantly shorter (1.69 vs. 2.06 microm) near the ectopic than near the original endplates. Thus, ectopic endplate formation on adult skeletal muscle fibers induces a localized alteration in myofibrillar morphology. These results may help to elucidate the role played by motoneurons in the determination and maintenance of muscle fiber properties and the processes that occur following muscle reinnervation after nerve injury. PMID:12451603

  20. Macrophage Plasticity in Skeletal Muscle Repair

    PubMed Central

    Rigamonti, Elena; Sciorati, Clara; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are one of the first barriers of host defence against pathogens. Beyond their role in innate immunity, macrophages play increasingly defined roles in orchestrating the healing of various injured tissues. Perturbations of macrophage function and/or activation may result in impaired regeneration and fibrosis deposition as described in several chronic pathological diseases. Heterogeneity and plasticity have been demonstrated to be hallmarks of macrophages. In response to environmental cues they display a proinflammatory (M1) or an alternative anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotype. A lot of evidence demonstrated that after acute injury M1 macrophages infiltrate early to promote the clearance of necrotic debris, whereas M2 macrophages appear later to sustain tissue healing. Whether the sequential presence of two different macrophage populations results from a dynamic shift in macrophage polarization or from the recruitment of new circulating monocytes is a subject of ongoing debate. In this paper, we discuss the current available information about the role that different phenotypes of macrophages plays after injury and during the remodelling phase in different tissue types, with particular attention to the skeletal muscle. PMID:24860823

  1. Macrophage plasticity in skeletal muscle repair.

    PubMed

    Rigamonti, Elena; Zordan, Paola; Sciorati, Clara; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia; Brunelli, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are one of the first barriers of host defence against pathogens. Beyond their role in innate immunity, macrophages play increasingly defined roles in orchestrating the healing of various injured tissues. Perturbations of macrophage function and/or activation may result in impaired regeneration and fibrosis deposition as described in several chronic pathological diseases. Heterogeneity and plasticity have been demonstrated to be hallmarks of macrophages. In response to environmental cues they display a proinflammatory (M1) or an alternative anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotype. A lot of evidence demonstrated that after acute injury M1 macrophages infiltrate early to promote the clearance of necrotic debris, whereas M2 macrophages appear later to sustain tissue healing. Whether the sequential presence of two different macrophage populations results from a dynamic shift in macrophage polarization or from the recruitment of new circulating monocytes is a subject of ongoing debate. In this paper, we discuss the current available information about the role that different phenotypes of macrophages plays after injury and during the remodelling phase in different tissue types, with particular attention to the skeletal muscle. PMID:24860823

  2. Thin filament proteins mutations associated with skeletal myopathies: Defective regulation of muscle contraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julien Ochala

    2008-01-01

    In humans, more than 140 different mutations within seven genes (ACTA1, TPM2, TPM3, TNNI2, TNNT1, TNNT3, and NEB) that encode\\u000a thin filament proteins (skeletal ?-actin, ?-tropomyosin, ?-tropomyosin, fast skeletal muscle troponin I, slow skeletal muscle\\u000a troponin T, fast skeletal muscle troponin T, and nebulin, respectively) have been identified. These mutations have been linked\\u000a to muscle weakness and various congenital skeletal

  3. Is myocyte-derived VEGF in adult mice required for normal skeletal muscle structure and function?

    E-print Network

    Knapp, Amy Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Altered excitation-contraction coupling with skeletal musclefollowing contractions in isolated single skeletal muscleskeletal muscle of different species following electrically stimulated contractions (

  4. Implications of skeletal muscle creatine kinase to meat quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Daroit; A. Brandelli

    Creatine kinase (CK) is a key enzyme for the energetic metabolism of tissues with high and fl uctuating energy demands in vivo, as it is the case of the skeletal muscle tissue, which is the most important for the meat industry. This enzyme is generally utilized as an indicator of physical stress and\\/or muscle damage in animal production. However, CK

  5. Acylcarnitines: potential implications for skeletal muscle insulin resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insulin resistance is linked to increased acylcarnitine species in a number of tissues including skeletal muscle, due to incomplete fatty acid oxidation (FAO). It is not known if acylcarnitines participate in muscle insulin resistance or simply reflect dysregulated metabolism. The aim of this stud...

  6. INTRODUCTION Vertebrate skeletal muscle fibers can be subdivided into

    E-print Network

    Devoto, Stephen H.

    INTRODUCTION Vertebrate skeletal muscle fibers can be subdivided into multiple fiber types based on contraction speeds, innervation, metabolism, morphology and the expression of specific contractile proteins. Muscle cells become committed to specific fiber type identities very early in development (for reviews

  7. Skeletal Muscle Reflex in Heart Failure Patients Role of Hydrogen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam C. Scott; Roland Wensel; Constantinos H. Davos; Panagiota Georgiadou; Michael Kemp; James Hooper; Andrew J. S. Coats; Massimo F. Piepoli

    Background—An important role of the increased stimulation of skeletal muscle ergoreceptors (intramuscular afferents sensitive to products of muscle work) in the genesis of symptoms of exertion intolerance in chronic heart failure (CHF) has been proposed. With the use of selective infusions and dietary manipulation methods, we sought to identify the role of H ,K , lactate, and peripheral hemodynamics on

  8. Detection of fusion events in Mammalian skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Suhr, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Cell fusion events are essential for the maintenance of skeletal muscle tissue and during its repair processes after damage. However, these mechanisms have not come much into focus in the recent years. Different methods can be used to assess ongoing cell fusion events in adult skeletal muscle tissue. Among these methods, confocal microscopy, western blotting, and quantitative polymerase chain reactions are ideal, since they provide concerted information about cell fusion events going on in skeletal muscle tissue at both qualitative and quantitative levels. Confocal microscopy allows for the visualization of exact localizations of cell fusion events in adult skeletal muscle. Western blotting allows for a semiquantitative evaluation of protein levels involved and associated with cell fusions events. Finally, quantitative polymerase chain reaction is a valuable tool to precisely assess mRNA levels of genes involved and associated with cell fusions events. In addition to the investigation if cell fusion markers in skeletal muscle tissue, in vitro cell culture systems (e.g., C2C12 cells) can be used to study cell fusions events in a highly standardized system in order to obtain detailed information about genes and proteins involved in these processes. Here, confocal microscopy, western blotting, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction are described as methods to investigate cell fusion events and how a C2C12 cell culture system can be run to support the studies of adult muscle tissue. PMID:25947660

  9. Method for Decellularizing Skeletal Muscle Without Detergents or Proteolytic Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Gillies, Allison R.; Smith, Lucas R.; Lieber, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Decellularized skeletal muscle is a promising model that can be used to study cell–matrix interactions and changes that occur in muscle extracellular matrix (ECM) in myopathies and muscle wasting diseases. The goal of this study is to develop a novel method to decellularize skeletal muscle that maintains the native biochemical composition and structure of the ECM. This method consists of sequential incubation of mouse tibialis anterior muscles in latrunculin B, high ionic strength salt solution, and DNase I and avoids use of proteases or detergents that degrade the ECM. Characterization of the decellularized muscles using hematoxylin and eosin staining along with DNA quantification suggested complete removal of DNA, whereas biochemical analyses indicated no loss of collagens and only a slight reduction in glycosaminoglycans. Western blot analysis of decellularized tissues showed removal of the vast majority of the contractile proteins actin and myosin, and morphological analysis using scanning electron microscopy suggested removal of myofibers from decellularized muscle tissues. Passive mechanical testing of decellularized muscle bundles revealed the typical nonlinear behavior, similar to that of intact muscle. Together, these results suggest that the protocol developed successfully decellularizes skeletal muscle without altering its composition and mechanical function. PMID:20973753

  10. Increased Secretion and Expression of Myostatin in Skeletal Muscle From Extremely Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Hittel, Dustin S.; Berggren, Jason R.; Shearer, Jane; Boyle, Kristen; Houmard, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Obesity is associated with endocrine abnormalities that predict the progression of insulin resistance to type 2 diabetes. Because skeletal muscle has been shown to secrete proteins that could be used as biomarkers, we characterized the secreted protein profile of muscle cells derived from extremely obese (BMI 48.8 ± 14.8 kg/m2; homeostasis model assessment [HOMA] 3.6 ± 1.0) relative to lean healthy subjects (BMI 25.7 ± 3.2 kg/m2; HOMA 0.8 ± 0.2). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We hypothesized that skeletal muscle would secrete proteins that predict the severity of obesity. To test this hypothesis, we used a “bottom-up” experimental design using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in culture (SILAC) and liquid chromatography/mass spectometry/mass spectometry (LC-MS/MS) to both identify and quantify proteins secreted from cultured myotubes derived from extremely obese compared with healthy nonobese women. RESULTS—Using SILAC, we discovered a 2.9-fold increase in the secretion of myostatin from extremely obese human myotubes. The increased secretion and biological activity of myostatin were validated by immunoblot (3.16 ± 0.18, P < 0.01) and a myoblast proliferation assay using conditioned growth medium. Myostatin was subsequently shown to increase in skeletal muscle (23%, P < 0.05) and plasma (35%, P < 0.05) and to correlate (r2 = 0.6, P < 0.05) with the severity of insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS—Myostatin is a potent antianabolic regulator of muscle mass that may also play a role in energy metabolism. These findings show that increased expression of myostatin in skeletal muscle with obesity and insulin resistance results in elevated circulating myostatin. This may contribute to systemic metabolic deterioration of skeletal muscle with the progression of insulin resistance to type 2 diabetes. PMID:18835929

  11. Morphological studies of the skeletal muscles of rats during hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrov, Y.; Kovachev, G.; Cheresharov, L.

    1982-01-01

    The skeletal musculature of two groups of Wistar strain rats were studied. A group of 60 day old members were kept in individual cells for physiologic immobilization, while the control group was raised under normal conditions. All animals were killed for tests at 450 days. Skeletal muscles of rats kept 390 days immobilized had a lower weight, muscle fiber diameter of m. semitendinosus was smaller in immobilized rats while variability in muscle fiber thickness was greater in the test group. It is found that degenerative processes involved light and dark fibers.

  12. Plasticity of skeletal muscle fibres in space-flown primates.

    PubMed

    Shenkman, B S; Kozlovskaya, I B; Kuznetsov, S L; Nemirovskaya, T L; Desplanches, D

    1994-05-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy and fibre type transitions were observed as a rule in rats exposed to micro- and zero-gravity, flown on boards of biosatellites and space shuttle ships. Much less is known about the spaceflight-induced muscle events in primates. The latter are animals of special interest since pattern of their onground motor activities works in ways alike to the human one, though the opportunities of studies are much wider. One of the targets of the study was to investigate the influence of spaceflight conditions on tissue morphology in monkey skeletal muscles of different functional and structural organization. PMID:11538766

  13. Obesity, insulin resistance, and skeletal muscle nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Raymond M.; Houmard, Joseph A.; Kraus, William E.; Tanner, Charles J.; Pierce, Joseph R.; Choi, Myung Dong

    2012-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms responsible for impaired insulin action have yet to be fully identified. Rodent models demonstrate a strong relationship between insulin resistance and an elevation in skeletal muscle inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression; the purpose of this investigation was to explore this potential relationship in humans. Sedentary men and women were recruited to participate (means ± SE: nonobese, body mass index = 25.5 ± 0.3 kg/m2, n = 13; obese, body mass index = 36.6 ± 0.4 kg/m2, n = 14). Insulin sensitivity was measured using an intravenous glucose tolerance test with the subsequent modeling of an insulin sensitivity index (SI). Skeletal muscle was obtained from the vastus lateralis, and iNOS, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) content were determined by Western blot. SI was significantly lower in the obese compared with the nonobese group (?43%; P < 0.05), yet skeletal muscle iNOS protein expression was not different between nonobese and obese groups. Skeletal muscle eNOS protein was significantly higher in the nonobese than the obese group, and skeletal muscle nNOS protein tended to be higher (P = 0.054) in the obese compared with the nonobese group. Alternative analysis based on SI (high and low tertile) indicated that the most insulin-resistant group did not have significantly more skeletal muscle iNOS protein than the most insulin-sensitive group. In conclusion, human insulin resistance does not appear to be associated with an elevation in skeletal muscle iNOS protein in middle-aged individuals under fasting conditions. PMID:22797309

  14. Cardiac, skeletal muscle and serum irisin responses to with or without water exercise in young and old male rats: cardiac muscle produces more irisin than skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Suna; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Aydin, Suleyman; Eren, Mehmet Nesimi; Celik, Ahmet; Yilmaz, Musa; Kalayci, Mehmet; Sahin, ?brahim; Gungor, Orhan; Gurel, Ali; Ogeturk, Murat; Dabak, Ozlem

    2014-02-01

    Irisin converts white adipose tissue (WAT) into brown adipose tissue (BAT), as regulated by energy expenditure. The relationship between irisin concentrations after exercise in rats compared humans after exercise remains controversial. We therefore: (1) measured irisin expression in cardiac and skeletal muscle, liver, kidney, peripheral nerve sheath and skin tissues, as also serum irisin level in 10 week-old rats without exercise, and (2) measured tissue supernatant irisin levels in cardiac and skeletal muscle, and in response to exercise in young and old rats to establishing which tissues produced most irisin. Young (12 months) and old rats (24 months) with or without 10min exercise (water floating) and healthy 10 week-old Sprague-Dawley rats without exercise were used. Irisin was absent from sections of skeletal muscle of unexercised rats, the only part being stained being the perimysium. In contrast, cardiac muscle tissue, peripheral myelin sheath, liver, kidneys, and skin dermis and hypodermis were strongly immunoreactivity. No irisin was seen in skeletal muscle of unexercised young and old rats, but a slight amount was detected after exercise. Strong immunoreactivity occurred in cardiac muscle of young and old rats with or without exercise, notably in pericardial connective tissue. Serum irisin increased after exercise, being higher in younger than older rats. Irisin in tissue supernatants (cardiac and skeletal muscle) was high with or without exercise. High supernatant irisin could come from connective tissues around skeletal muscle, especially nerve sheaths located within it. Skeletal muscle is probably not a main irisin source. PMID:24345335

  15. Application of redox proteomics to skeletal muscle aging and exercise.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, Brian; Sakellariou, Giorgos K; Jackson, Malcolm J

    2014-08-01

    Skeletal muscle represents a physiologically relevant model for the application of redox proteomic techniques to dissect its response to exercise and aging. Contracting skeletal muscles generate ROS (reactive oxygen species) and RNS (reactive nitrogen species) necessary for the regulation of many proteins involved in excitation-contraction coupling. The magnitude and species of ROS/RNS generated by contracting muscles will have downstream effects on specific protein targets and cellular redox signalling. Redox modifications on specific proteins are essential for the adaptive response to exercise and skeletal muscle can develop a dysregulated redox response during aging. In the present article, we discuss how redox proteomics can be applied to identify and quantify the reversible modifications on susceptible cysteine residues within those redox-sensitive proteins, and the integration of oxidative and non-oxidative protein modifications in relation to the functional proteome. PMID:25109987

  16. Formation and optogenetic control of engineered 3D skeletal muscle bioactuators{

    E-print Network

    Chen, Christopher S.

    contraction of muscle cells causes the substrate to bend and form 3D conformations. Skeletal muscle hasFormation and optogenetic control of engineered 3D skeletal muscle bioactuators{ Mahmut Selman optical stimulation with high spatiotemporal resolution. Skeletal muscle myoblasts are genetically encoded

  17. TRIADIN DELETION INDUCES IMPAIRED SKELETAL MUSCLE Sarah Oddoux1,2

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    excitation-contraction coupling (E-C coupling) takes place at the skeletal muscle triad junction, where T1 TRIADIN DELETION INDUCES IMPAIRED SKELETAL MUSCLE FUNCTION Sarah Oddoux1,2 , Julie Brocard1 effect of triadin ablation on skeletal muscle function. These mice presented a reduced muscle strength

  18. Decellularized Human Skeletal Muscle as Biologic Scaffold for Reconstructive Surgery.

    PubMed

    Porzionato, Andrea; Sfriso, Maria Martina; Pontini, Alex; Macchi, Veronica; Petrelli, Lucia; Pavan, Piero G; Natali, Arturo N; Bassetto, Franco; Vindigni, Vincenzo; De Caro, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Engineered skeletal muscle tissues have been proposed as potential solutions for volumetric muscle losses, and biologic scaffolds have been obtained by decellularization of animal skeletal muscles. The aim of the present work was to analyse the characteristics of a biologic scaffold obtained by decellularization of human skeletal muscles (also through comparison with rats and rabbits) and to evaluate its integration capability in a rabbit model with an abdominal wall defect. Rat, rabbit and human muscle samples were alternatively decellularized with two protocols: n.1, involving sodium deoxycholate and DNase I; n.2, trypsin-EDTA and Triton X-NH4OH. Protocol 2 proved more effective, removing all cellular material and maintaining the three-dimensional networks of collagen and elastic fibers. Ultrastructural analyses with transmission and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the preservation of collagen, elastic fibres, glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans. Implantation of human scaffolds in rabbits gave good results in terms of integration, although recellularization by muscle cells was not completely achieved. In conclusion, human skeletal muscles may be effectively decellularized to obtain scaffolds preserving the architecture of the extracellular matrix and showing mechanical properties suitable for implantation/integration. Further analyses will be necessary to verify the suitability of these scaffolds for in vitro recolonization by autologous cells before in vivo implantation. PMID:26140375

  19. Amino acids augment muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs during acute endotoxemia by stimulating mTOR-dependent translation initiation.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Renán A; Jeyapalan, Asumthia; Escobar, Jeffery; Frank, Jason W; Nguyen, Hanh V; Suryawan, Agus; Davis, Teresa A

    2007-11-01

    In skeletal muscle of adults, sepsis reduces protein synthesis by depressing translation initiation and induces resistance to branched-chain amino acid stimulation. Normal neonates maintain a high basal muscle protein synthesis rate that is sensitive to amino acid stimulation. In the present study, we determined the effect of amino acids on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and other tissues in septic neonates. Overnight-fasted neonatal pigs were infused with endotoxin (LPS, 0 and 10 microg.kg(-1).h(-1)), whereas glucose and insulin were maintained at fasting levels; amino acids were clamped at fasting or fed levels. In the presence of fasting insulin and amino acids, LPS reduced protein synthesis in longissimus dorsi (LD) and gastrocnemius muscles and increased protein synthesis in the diaphragm, but had no effect in masseter and heart muscles. Increasing amino acids to fed levels accelerated muscle protein synthesis in LD, gastrocnemius, masseter, and diaphragm. LPS stimulated protein synthesis in liver, lung, spleen, pancreas, and kidney in fasted animals. Raising amino acids to fed levels increased protein synthesis in liver of controls, but not LPS-treated animals. The increase in muscle protein synthesis in response to amino acids was associated with increased mTOR, 4E-BP1, and S6K1 phosphorylation and eIF4G-eIF4E association in control and LPS-infused animals. These findings suggest that amino acids stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis during acute endotoxemia via mTOR-dependent ribosomal assembly despite reduced basal protein synthesis rates in neonatal pigs. However, provision of amino acids does not further enhance the LPS-induced increase in liver protein synthesis. PMID:17848637

  20. Hypoxia preconditioned mesenchymal stem cells improve vascular and skeletal muscle fiber regeneration after ischemia through a Wnt4 dependent pathway

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Hypoxia preconditioned mesenchymal stem cells improve vascular and skeletal muscle fiber cell mobilization and skeletal muscle fiber regeneration via a paracrine Wnt dependent mechanism. Transplantation of hypoxic preconditioned murine MSC (HypMSC) enhanced skeletal muscle regeneration at day 7

  1. Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Cells Improve Muscle Function in a Skeletal Muscle Re-Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Karla C.; Porto, Anderson; Peçanha, Ramon; Fortes, Fabio S. A.; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; Campos-de-Carvalho, Antonio C.; Goldenberg, Regina C. S.; Werneck-de-Castro, João Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle injury is the most common problem in orthopedic and sports medicine, and severe injury leads to fibrosis and muscle dysfunction. Conventional treatment for successive muscle injury is currently controversial, although new therapies, like cell therapy, seem to be promise. We developed a model of successive injuries in rat to evaluate the therapeutic potential of bone marrow mesenchymal cells (BMMC) injected directly into the injured muscle. Functional and histological assays were performed 14 and 28 days after the injury protocol by isometric tension recording and picrosirius/Hematoxilin & Eosin staining, respectively. We also evaluated the presence and the fate of BMMC on treated muscles; and muscle fiber regeneration. BMMC treatment increased maximal skeletal muscle contraction 14 and 28 days after muscle injury compared to non-treated group (4.5 ± 1.7 vs 2.5 ± 0.98 N/cm2, p<0.05 and 8.4 ± 2.3 vs. 5.7 ± 1.3 N/cm2, p<0.05 respectively). Furthermore, BMMC treatment increased muscle fiber cross-sectional area and the presence of mature muscle fiber 28 days after muscle injury. However, there was no difference in collagen deposition between groups. Immunoassays for cytoskeleton markers of skeletal and smooth muscle cells revealed an apparent integration of the BMMC within the muscle. These data suggest that BMMC transplantation accelerates and improves muscle function recovery in our extensive muscle re-injury model. PMID:26039243

  2. ?-Skeletal muscle actin nemaline myopathy mutants cause cell death in cultured muscle cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Drieke Vandamme; Ellen Lambert; Davy Waterschoot; Christian Cognard; Joël Vandekerckhove; Christophe Ampe; Bruno Constantin; Heidi Rommelaere

    2009-01-01

    Nemaline myopathy is a neuromuscular disorder, characterized by muscle weakness and hypotonia and is, in 20% of the cases, caused by mutations in the gene encoding ?-skeletal muscle actin, ACTA1. It is a heterogeneous disease with various clinical phenotypes and severities. In patients the ultrastructure of muscle cells is often disturbed by nemaline rods and it is thought this is

  3. Regulation of skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and muscle mass by SIRT3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously reported that the expression of mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 is high in the slow oxidative muscle and that the expression of muscle SIRT3 level is increased by dietary restriction or exercise training. To explore the function of SIRT3 in skeletal muscle, we report here the esta...

  4. Immunopathologic and morphologic studies of skeletal muscle in Chagas' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Laguens, R. P.; Cossio, P. M.; Diez, C.; Segal, A.; Vasquez, C.; Kreutzer, E.; Khoury, E.; Arana, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    Skeletal muscle biopsies from 21 individuals infected with Trypanosoma cruzi were studied my means of immunofluorescence, ultrastructural immunochemical, light and electron microscopic, and histochemical procedures. In 12 cases, definite morphologic alterations were found. These alterations were coincident with the presence of circulating antibodies against the plasma membrane of striated muscle fibers and endothelial cells (EVI antibodies). In almost all cases the lesions also presented autologous immunoglobulins bound to the plasma membrane of muscle fibers and endothelial cells. Interstitial inflammatory exudate was not observed in the diseased muscle. On the basis of these observations, it is suggested that the EVI antibody is related to some of the pathogenetic mechanism of skeletal muscle damage in Chagas' disease. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:125546

  5. Bone and skeletal muscle: neighbors with close ties.

    PubMed

    DiGirolamo, Douglas J; Kiel, Douglas P; Esser, Karyn A

    2013-07-01

    The musculoskeletal system evolved in mammals to perform diverse functions that include locomotion, facilitating breathing, protecting internal organs, and coordinating global energy expenditure. Bone and skeletal muscles involved with locomotion are both derived from somitic mesoderm and accumulate peak tissue mass synchronously, according to genetic information and environmental stimuli. Aging results in the progressive and parallel loss of bone (osteopenia) and skeletal muscle (sarcopenia) with profound consequences for quality of life. Age-associated sarcopenia results in reduced endurance, poor balance, and reduced mobility that predispose elderly individuals to falls, which more frequently result in fracture because of concomitant osteoporosis. Thus, a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the parallel development and involution of these tissues is critical to developing new and more effective means to combat osteoporosis and sarcopenia in our increasingly aged population. This perspective highlights recent advances in our understanding of mechanisms coupling bone and skeletal muscle mass, and identify critical areas where further work is needed. PMID:23630111

  6. On the Importance of Exchangeable NH Protons in Creatine for the Magnetic Coupling of Creatine Methyl Protons in Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruiskamp, M. J.; Nicolay, K.

    2001-03-01

    The methyl protons of creatine in skeletal muscle exhibit a strong off-resonance magnetization transfer effect. The mechanism of this process is unknown. We previously hypothesized that the exchangeable amide/amino protons of creatine might be involved. To test this the characteristics of the creatine magnetization transfer effect were investigated in excised rat hindleg skeletal muscle that was equilibrated in either H 2O or D 2O solutions containing creatine. The efficiency of off-resonance magnetization transfer to the protons of mobile creatine in excised muscle was similar to that previously reported in intact muscle in vivo. Equilibrating the isolated muscle in D 2O solution had no effect on the magnetic coupling to the immobile protons. It is concluded that exchangeable protons play a negligible role in the magnetic coupling of creatine methyl protons in muscle.

  7. Identification of and pattern of transitions of cardiac, adult slow and slow skeletal muscle-like embryonic isoforms of troponin T in developing rat and human skeletal muscles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Sabry; G. K. Dhoot

    1991-01-01

    Summary Using a monoclonal antibody (CDC4) that recognizes both the cardiac and slow skeletal isoforms of troponin T in an immunoblotting procedure, the composition of troponin T isoforms in adult and developing skeletal muscles of the rat and human were studied. Two major isoforms of slow troponin T (HS1 and HS2) were detected in all the adult human skeletal muscles

  8. Muscle-specific expression of IGF-1 blocks angiotensin II–induced skeletal muscle wasting

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yao-Hua; Li, Yangxin; Du, Jie; Mitch, William E.; Rosenthal, Nadia; Delafontaine, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Advanced congestive heart failure is associated with activation of the renin-angiotensin system and skeletal muscle wasting. We previously showed that angiotensin II infusion in rats produces cachexia secondarily to increased muscle proteolysis and also decreases levels of circulating and skeletal muscle IGF-1. Here we show that angiotensin II markedly downregulates phospho-Akt and activates caspase-3 in skeletal muscle, leading to actin cleavage, an important component of muscle proteolysis, and to increased apoptosis. These changes are blocked by muscle-specific expression of IGF-1, likely via the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway. We also demonstrate that mRNA levels of the ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and muscle ring finger–1 are upregulated in angiotensin II–infused WT, but not in IGF-1–transgenic, mice. These findings strongly suggest that angiotensin II downregulation of IGF-1 in skeletal muscle is causally related to angiotensin II–induced wasting. Because the renin-angiotensin system is activated in many catabolic conditions, our findings have broad implications for understanding mechanisms of skeletal muscle wasting and provide a rationale for new therapeutic approaches. PMID:15650772

  9. Systems-based discovery of tomatidine as a natural small molecule inhibitor of skeletal muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Dyle, Michael C; Ebert, Scott M; Cook, Daniel P; Kunkel, Steven D; Fox, Daniel K; Bongers, Kale S; Bullard, Steven A; Dierdorff, Jason M; Adams, Christopher M

    2014-05-23

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common and debilitating condition that lacks an effective therapy. To address this problem, we used a systems-based discovery strategy to search for a small molecule whose mRNA expression signature negatively correlates to mRNA expression signatures of human skeletal muscle atrophy. This strategy identified a natural small molecule from tomato plants, tomatidine. Using cultured skeletal myotubes from both humans and mice, we found that tomatidine stimulated mTORC1 signaling and anabolism, leading to accumulation of protein and mitochondria, and ultimately, cell growth. Furthermore, in mice, tomatidine increased skeletal muscle mTORC1 signaling, reduced skeletal muscle atrophy, enhanced recovery from skeletal muscle atrophy, stimulated skeletal muscle hypertrophy, and increased strength and exercise capacity. Collectively, these results identify tomatidine as a novel small molecule inhibitor of muscle atrophy. Tomatidine may have utility as a therapeutic agent or lead compound for skeletal muscle atrophy. PMID:24719321

  10. Systems-based Discovery of Tomatidine as a Natural Small Molecule Inhibitor of Skeletal Muscle Atrophy*

    PubMed Central

    Dyle, Michael C.; Ebert, Scott M.; Cook, Daniel P.; Kunkel, Steven D.; Fox, Daniel K.; Bongers, Kale S.; Bullard, Steven A.; Dierdorff, Jason M.; Adams, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common and debilitating condition that lacks an effective therapy. To address this problem, we used a systems-based discovery strategy to search for a small molecule whose mRNA expression signature negatively correlates to mRNA expression signatures of human skeletal muscle atrophy. This strategy identified a natural small molecule from tomato plants, tomatidine. Using cultured skeletal myotubes from both humans and mice, we found that tomatidine stimulated mTORC1 signaling and anabolism, leading to accumulation of protein and mitochondria, and ultimately, cell growth. Furthermore, in mice, tomatidine increased skeletal muscle mTORC1 signaling, reduced skeletal muscle atrophy, enhanced recovery from skeletal muscle atrophy, stimulated skeletal muscle hypertrophy, and increased strength and exercise capacity. Collectively, these results identify tomatidine as a novel small molecule inhibitor of muscle atrophy. Tomatidine may have utility as a therapeutic agent or lead compound for skeletal muscle atrophy. PMID:24719321

  11. Functional heterogeneity of side population cells in skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Uezumi, Akiyoshi [Department of Molecular Therapy, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, 4-1-1 Ogawa-higashi, Kodaira, Tokyo 187-8502 (Japan); Ojima, Koichi [Department of Molecular Therapy, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, 4-1-1 Ogawa-higashi, Kodaira, Tokyo 187-8502 (Japan); Fukada, So-ichiro [Department of Molecular Therapy, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, 4-1-1 Ogawa-higashi, Kodaira, Tokyo 187-8502 (Japan); Ikemoto, Madoka [Department of Molecular Therapy, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, 4-1-1 Ogawa-higashi, Kodaira, Tokyo 187-8502 (Japan); Masuda, Satoru [Department of Molecular Therapy, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, 4-1-1 Ogawa-higashi, Kodaira, Tokyo 187-8502 (Japan); Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko [Department of Molecular Therapy, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, 4-1-1 Ogawa-higashi, Kodaira, Tokyo 187-8502 (Japan); Takeda, Shin'ichi [Department of Molecular Therapy, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, 4-1-1 Ogawa-higashi, Kodaira, Tokyo 187-8502 (Japan)]. E-mail: takeda@ncnp.go.jp

    2006-03-17

    Skeletal muscle regeneration has been exclusively attributed to myogenic precursors, satellite cells. A stem cell-rich fraction referred to as side population (SP) cells also resides in skeletal muscle, but its roles in muscle regeneration remain unclear. We found that muscle SP cells could be subdivided into three sub-fractions using CD31 and CD45 markers. The majority of SP cells in normal non-regenerating muscle expressed CD31 and had endothelial characteristics. However, CD31{sup -}CD45{sup -} SP cells, which are a minor subpopulation in normal muscle, actively proliferated upon muscle injury and expressed not only several regulatory genes for muscle regeneration but also some mesenchymal lineage markers. CD31{sup -}CD45{sup -} SP cells showed the greatest myogenic potential among three SP sub-fractions, but indeed revealed mesenchymal potentials in vitro. These SP cells preferentially differentiated into myofibers after intramuscular transplantation in vivo. Our results revealed the heterogeneity of muscle SP cells and suggest that CD31{sup -}CD45{sup -} SP cells participate in muscle regeneration.

  12. PPAR? regulates satellite cell proliferation and skeletal muscle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a class of nuclear receptors that play important roles in development and energy metabolism. Whereas PPAR? has been shown to regulate mitochondrial biosynthesis and slow-muscle fiber types, its function in skeletal muscle progenitors (satellite cells) is unknown. Since constitutive mutation of Ppar? leads to embryonic lethality, we sought to address this question by conditional knockout (cKO) of Ppar? using Myf5-Cre/Ppar?flox/flox alleles to ablate PPAR? in myogenic progenitor cells. Although Ppar?-cKO mice were born normally and initially displayed no difference in body weight, muscle size or muscle composition, they later developed metabolic syndrome, which manifested as increased body weight and reduced response to glucose challenge at age nine months. Ppar?-cKO mice had 40% fewer satellite cells than their wild-type littermates, and these satellite cells exhibited reduced growth kinetics and proliferation in vitro. Furthermore, regeneration of Ppar?-cKO muscles was impaired after cardiotoxin-induced injury. Gene expression analysis showed reduced expression of the Forkhead box class O transcription factor 1 (FoxO1) gene in Ppar?-cKO muscles under both quiescent and regenerating conditions, suggesting that PPAR? acts through FoxO1 in regulating muscle progenitor cells. These results support a function of PPAR? in regulating skeletal muscle metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and they establish a novel role of PPAR? in muscle progenitor cells and postnatal muscle regeneration. PMID:22040534

  13. Compartmentalized acyl-CoA metabolism in skeletal muscle regulates systemic glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei O; Grevengoed, Trisha J; Paul, David S; Ilkayeva, Olga; Koves, Timothy R; Pascual, Florencia; Newgard, Christopher B; Muoio, Deborah M; Coleman, Rosalind A

    2015-01-01

    The impaired capacity of skeletal muscle to switch between the oxidation of fatty acid (FA) and glucose is linked to disordered metabolic homeostasis. To understand how muscle FA oxidation affects systemic glucose, we studied mice with a skeletal muscle-specific deficiency of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL)1. ACSL1 deficiency caused a 91% loss of ACSL-specific activity and a 60-85% decrease in muscle FA oxidation. Acsl1(M-/-) mice were more insulin sensitive, and, during an overnight fast, their respiratory exchange ratio was higher, indicating greater glucose use. During endurance exercise, Acsl1(M-/-) mice ran only 48% as far as controls. At the time that Acsl1(M-/-) mice were exhausted but control mice continued to run, liver and muscle glycogen and triacylglycerol stores were similar in both genotypes; however, plasma glucose concentrations in Acsl1(M-/-) mice were ?40 mg/dL, whereas glucose concentrations in controls were ?90 mg/dL. Excess use of glucose and the likely use of amino acids for fuel within muscle depleted glucose reserves and diminished substrate availability for hepatic gluconeogenesis. Surprisingly, the content of muscle acyl-CoA at exhaustion was markedly elevated, indicating that acyl-CoAs synthesized by other ACSL isoforms were not available for ?-oxidation. This compartmentalization of acyl-CoAs resulted in both an excessive glucose requirement and severely compromised systemic glucose homeostasis. PMID:25071025

  14. Adenosine A3 receptor stimulation induces protection of skeletal muscle from eccentric exercise-mediated injury

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Kevin P.

    of exercise. In the vehicle-treated WT animals, eccentric exercise in- creased serum creatine kinase (CK injury. -sarcoglycan; muscle force; creatine kinase; inflammation SKELETAL MUSCLE IS SUSCEPTIBLE

  15. Engineered Human Muscle Tissue from Skeletal Muscle Derived Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Cardiac Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tchao, Jason; Kim, Jong Jin; Lin, Bo; Salama, Guy; Lo, Cecilia W.; Yang, Lei; Tobita, Kimimasa

    2014-01-01

    During development, cardiac and skeletal muscle share major transcription factors and sarcomere proteins which were generally regarded as specific to either cardiac or skeletal muscle but not both in terminally differentiated adult cardiac or skeletal muscle. Here, we investigated whether artificial muscle constructed from human skeletal muscle derived stem cells (MDSCs) recapitulates developmental similarities between cardiac and skeletal muscle. We constructed 3-dimensional collagen-based engineered muscle tissue (EMT) using MDSCs (MDSC-EMT) and compared the biochemical and contractile properties with EMT using induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cardiac cells (iPS-EMT). Both MDSC-EMT and iPS-EMT expressed cardiac specific troponins, fast skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain, and connexin-43 mimicking developing cardiac or skeletal muscle. At the transcriptional level, MDSC-EMT and iPS-EMT upregulated both cardiac and skeletal muscle-specific genes and expressed Nkx2.5 and Myo-D proteins. MDSC-EMT displayed intracellular calcium ion transients and responses to isoproterenol. Contractile force measurements of MDSC-EMT demonstrated functional properties of immature cardiac and skeletal muscle in both tissues. Results suggest that the EMT from MDSCs mimics developing cardiac and skeletal muscle and can serve as a useful in vitro functioning striated muscle model for investigation of stem cell differentiation and therapeutic options of MDSCs for cardiac repair. PMID:24734224

  16. Exercise-Induced Skeletal Muscle Damage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, William J.

    1987-01-01

    Eccentric exercise, in which the muscles exert force by lengthening, is associated with delayed onset muscle soreness. How soreness occurs, how recovery proceeds, and what precautions athletes should take are described. (Author/MT)

  17. Differentially expressed fibroblast growth factors regulate skeletal muscle development through autocrine and paracrine mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Hannon; Arthur J. Kudla; Michael J. McAvoy; Kari L. Clase; Bradley B. Olwin

    1996-01-01

    Several FGF family members are expressed in skeletal muscle; however, the roles of these factors in skeletal muscle development are unclear. We examined the RNA expression, protein levels, and biological ac- tivities of the FGF family in the MM14 mouse skeletal muscle cell line. Proliferating skeletal muscle cells ex- press FGF-1, FGF-2, FGF-6, and FGF-7 mRNA. Dif- ferentiated myofibers express

  18. Suppression of muscle protein turnover and amino acid degradation by dietary protein deficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawa, N. E. Jr; Goldberg, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    To define the adaptations that conserve amino acids and muscle protein when dietary protein intake is inadequate, rats (60-70 g final wt) were fed a normal or protein-deficient (PD) diet (18 or 1% lactalbumin), and their muscles were studied in vitro. After 7 days on the PD diet, both protein degradation and synthesis fell 30-40% in skeletal muscles and atria. This fall in proteolysis did not result from reduced amino acid supply to the muscle and preceded any clear decrease in plasma amino acids. Oxidation of branched-chain amino acids, glutamine and alanine synthesis, and uptake of alpha-aminoisobutyrate also fell by 30-50% in muscles and adipose tissue of PD rats. After 1 day on the PD diet, muscle protein synthesis and amino acid uptake decreased by 25-40%, and after 3 days proteolysis and leucine oxidation fell 30-45%. Upon refeeding with the normal diet, protein synthesis also rose more rapidly (+30% by 1 day) than proteolysis, which increased significantly after 3 days (+60%). These different time courses suggest distinct endocrine signals for these responses. The high rate of protein synthesis and low rate of proteolysis during the first 3 days of refeeding a normal diet to PD rats contributes to the rapid weight gain ("catch-up growth") of such animals.

  19. Suppression of muscle protein turnover and amino acid degradation by dietary protein deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tawa, N E; Goldberg, A L

    1992-08-01

    To define the adaptations that conserve amino acids and muscle protein when dietary protein intake is inadequate, rats (60-70 g final wt) were fed a normal or protein-deficient (PD) diet (18 or 1% lactalbumin), and their muscles were studied in vitro. After 7 days on the PD diet, both protein degradation and synthesis fell 30-40% in skeletal muscles and atria. This fall in proteolysis did not result from reduced amino acid supply to the muscle and preceded any clear decrease in plasma amino acids. Oxidation of branched-chain amino acids, glutamine and alanine synthesis, and uptake of alpha-aminoisobutyrate also fell by 30-50% in muscles and adipose tissue of PD rats. After 1 day on the PD diet, muscle protein synthesis and amino acid uptake decreased by 25-40%, and after 3 days proteolysis and leucine oxidation fell 30-45%. Upon refeeding with the normal diet, protein synthesis also rose more rapidly (+30% by 1 day) than proteolysis, which increased significantly after 3 days (+60%). These different time courses suggest distinct endocrine signals for these responses. The high rate of protein synthesis and low rate of proteolysis during the first 3 days of refeeding a normal diet to PD rats contributes to the rapid weight gain ("catch-up growth") of such animals. PMID:1514613

  20. Therapeutic Approaches to Skeletal Muscle Repair and Healing

    PubMed Central

    Danna, Natalie R.; Beutel, Bryan G.; Campbell, Kirk A.; Bosco, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Skeletal muscle is comprised of a highly organized network of cells, neurovascular structures, and connective tissue. Muscle injury is typically followed by a well-orchestrated healing response that consists of the following phases: inflammation, regeneration, and fibrosis. This review presents the mechanisms of action and evidence supporting the effectiveness of various traditional and novel therapies at each phase of the skeletal muscle healing process. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant published articles were identified using MEDLINE (1978-2013). Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Results: To facilitate muscle healing, surgical techniques involving direct suture repair, as well as the implantation of innovative biologic scaffolds, have been developed. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may be potentially supplanted by nitric oxide and curcumin in modulating the inflammatory pathway. Studies in muscle regeneration have identified stem cells, myogenic factors, and ?-agonists capable of enhancing the regenerative capabilities of injured tissue. Furthermore, transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and, more recently, myostatin and the rennin-angiotensin system have been implicated in fibrous tissue formation; several antifibrotic agents have demonstrated the ability to disrupt these systems. Conclusion: Effective repair of skeletal muscle after severe injury is unlikely to be achieved with a single intervention. For full functional recovery of muscle there is a need to control inflammation, stimulate regeneration, and limit fibrosis. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): B PMID:24982709

  1. Exercise and sex steroid hormones in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Sato, Koji; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones are secreted mainly by the ovary and testis and regulate diverse physiological processes in target tissues. Recent studies have shown that sex steroidogenesis-related mRNA and protein expressions, such as for 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD), 3?-HSD, 5?-reductase and aromatase cytochrome P-450 (P450arom) enzymes, are detected in the skeletal muscle, while testosterone, estradiol, and 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) were locally synthesized in skeletal muscle from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Moreover, in animal and human studies, the sex steroidogenesis enzymes and sex steroid hormone levels in skeletal muscle are upregulated by acute and chronic exercise stimulation. The enhanced muscle sex steroidgenesis is associated with glycemic control via upregulation of muscle glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) signaling in obese and diabetic rats and with muscle mass and strength in older men. Thus, an exercise-induced increase of sex steroid hormone in muscle may positively impact age-related concerns such as life-related diseases and sarcopenia. PMID:24704257

  2. Human skeletal muscle responses to spaceflight and possible countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gollnick, Philip D.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Saltin, Bengt

    1990-01-01

    The current status of knowledge concerning the effects of unweighting skeletal muscle is summarized. The results of both ground-based and space-based animal studies are reviewed which show that there is rapid loss in muscle mass, primarily in slow-twitch muscle, of the rat during unweighting of muscle. There is also a shift in the myosin isoforms with muscles such that slow-twitch muscles take on many of the characteristics of fast-twitch muscles. Ground-based studies in human suggest that programs of electrical stimulation can be developed to simulate normal muscular contractions. Attempts to develop countermeasures to the adverse effects of space travel on muscular functions in humans have not been successful to date.

  3. Avoidance of skeletal muscle atrophy in spontaneous and facultative hibernators.

    PubMed

    Cotton, Clark J; Harlow, Henry J

    2010-01-01

    Smooth and skeletal muscle changes were compared from overwintering white-tailed prairie dogs, spontaneous hibernators that undergo regular, low-temperature torpor bouts, and black-tailed prairie dogs, facultative hibernators that use sporadic, moderate-temperature torpor bouts. The objectives were to assess the abilities of these two species with dramatically different torpor patterns (1) to conserve skeletal muscle morphology, protein, and strength and (2) to use labile protein in the small intestine and liver during the winter season of reduced activity and food intake. Mass and protein concentration of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL), soleus, liver, and small intestine, as well as skeletal muscle strength and fiber morphology for the EDL and soleus, were compared before and after hibernation in both species. Both species appeared to be similar to overwintering black bears and underwent very little strength and protein loss, as compared with euthermic models of immobility and long-term fasting. Although the two species used vastly different hibernation strategies, none of the changes in parameters related to muscle atrophy and labile-protein use during the hibernation season differed significantly between them. Therefore, it appears that regardless of the phenotypic expressions of hibernation, the outcome is the conservation of skeletal muscle. PMID:20337528

  4. Road to Exercise Mimetics: Targeting Nuclear Receptors in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Weiwei; Atkins, Annette R; Yu, Ruth T.; Downes, Michael; Evans, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle comprises the largest organ in the human body and is the major site for energy expenditure. It exhibits remarkable plasticity in response to physiological stimuli such as exercise. Physical exercise remodels skeletal muscle and enhances its capability to burn calories, which has been shown to be beneficial for many clinical conditions including metabolic syndrome and cancer. Nuclear receptors (NRs) comprise a class of transcription factors found only in metazoans that regulate major biological processes such as reproduction, development, and metabolism. Recent studies have demonstrated crucial roles for NRs and their co-regulators in regulating skeletal muscle energy metabolism and exercise-induced muscle remodeling. While nothing can fully replace exercise, development of exercise mimetics that enhance or even substitute for the beneficial effects of physical exercise would be of great benefit. The unique property of NRs that allows modulation by endogenous or synthetic ligands makes them bona fide therapeutic targets. In this review, we present an overview of the current understanding of NRs and their co-regulators in skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism and summarize recent progress in the development of exercise mimetics that target NRs and their co-regulators. PMID:24280961

  5. Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry (SOCE) Contributes to Normal Skeletal Muscle Contractility in young but not in aged skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Brotto, Leticia S.; Bougoin, Sylvain; Nosek, Thomas M.; Reid, Michael; Hardin, Brian; Pan, Zui; Ma, Jianjie; Parness, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    Muscle atrophy alone is insufficient to explain the significant decline in contractile force of skeletal muscle during normal aging. One contributing factor to decreased contractile force in aging skeletal muscle could be compromised excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling, without sufficient available Ca2+ to allow for repetitive muscle contractility, skeletal muscles naturally become weaker. Using biophysical approaches, we previously showed that store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is compromised in aged skeletal muscle but not in young ones. While important, a missing component from previous studies is whether or not SOCE function correlates with contractile function during aging. Here we test the contribution of extracellular Ca2+ to contractile function of skeletal muscle during aging. First, we demonstrate graded coupling between SR Ca2+ release channel-mediated Ca2+ release and activation of SOCE. Inhibition of SOCE produced significant reduction of contractile force in young skeletal muscle, particularly at high frequency stimulation, and such effects were completely absent in aged skeletal muscle. Our data indicate that SOCE contributes to the normal physiological contractile response of young healthy skeletal muscle and that defective extracellular Ca2+ entry through SOCE contributes to the reduced contractile force characteristic of aged skeletal muscle. PMID:21666285

  6. Excitability and contractility of skeletal muscle engineered from primary cultures and cell lines

    E-print Network

    Dennis, Robert G.

    Excitability and contractility of skeletal muscle engineered from primary cultures and cell lines of skeletal muscle engineered from primary cultures and cell lines. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 280: C288­C295-dimensional skeletal muscle constructs, termed myooids, engineered from C2C12 myoblast and 10T1/2 fibroblast cell lines

  7. Organization of Calcium Channel 1a Subunits in Triad Junctions in Skeletal Muscle*

    E-print Network

    Betz, William J.

    are located >10 nm from one another. Excitation-contraction (EC)2 coupling in skeletal muscle involvesOrganization of Calcium Channel 1a Subunits in Triad Junctions in Skeletal Muscle* Received-1617 and § Physiologie, Medizinische Hochschule, 30625 Hannover, Germany In skeletal muscle, dihydropyridine receptors

  8. Subcellular Distribution of the 1,4-Dihydropyridine Receptor in Rabbit Skeletal Muscle In Situ

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Kevin P.

    movement in the transverse tubular mem- brane and thus excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscleSubcellular Distribution of the 1,4-Dihydropyridine Receptor in Rabbit Skeletal Muscle In Situ of the 1,4- dihydropyridine receptor was determined in rabbit skeletal muscle in situ by immunofluorescence

  9. Metabolic Biotinylation as a Probe of Supramolecular Structure of the Triad Junction in Skeletal Muscle*

    E-print Network

    Betz, William J.

    , Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 Excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle to be occluded by the presence of RyR1. In skeletal muscle, two major proteins involved in excitation in- teraction occurs in skeletal muscle between the DHPR and RyR1. Depolarization of the plasma

  10. Dynamics of Myosin-Driven Skeletal Muscle Contraction: I. Steady-State Force Generation

    E-print Network

    Sun, Sean

    Dynamics of Myosin-Driven Skeletal Muscle Contraction: I. Steady-State Force Generation Ganhui Lan Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland ABSTRACT Skeletal muscle contraction is a canonical of skeletal muscle fiber contraction has been a topic of investigation since antiquity. The major force

  11. 1 Subunit Interactions within the Skeletal Muscle L-type Voltage-gated Calcium Channels*

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Kevin P.

    - contraction coupling in the skeletal muscle. Their mo- lecular composition, similar to neuronal channels, in1 Subunit Interactions within the Skeletal Muscle L-type Voltage-gated Calcium Channels* Received channels. The L-type voltage-gated calcium channels of the skeletal muscle serve both as a voltage

  12. Transcriptional regulation of decreased protein synthesis during skeletal muscle unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, G.; Steffen, J. M.; Geoghegan, T. E.

    1989-01-01

    The regulatory role of transcriptional alterations in unloaded skeletal muscles was investigated by determining levels of total muscle RNA and mRNA fractions in soleus, gastrocnemius, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of rats subjected to whole-body suspension for up to 7 days. After 7 days, total RNA and mRNA contents were lower in soleus and gastrocnemius, compared with controls, but the concentrations of both RNAs per g muscle were unaltered. Alpha-actin mRNA (assessed by dot hybridization) was significantly reduced in soleus after 1, 3, and 7 days of suspension and in gastrocnemius after 3 and 7 days, but was unchanged in EDL. Protein synthesis directed by RNA extracted from soleus and EDL indicated marked alteration in mRNAs coding for several small proteins. Results suggest that altered transcription and availability of specific mRNAs contribute significantly to the regulation of protein synthesis during skeletal muscle unloading.

  13. The antioxidant requirement for plasma membrane repair in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Labazi, Mohamed; McNeil, Anna K; Kurtz, Timothy; Lee, Taylor C; Pegg, Ronald B; Angeli, José Pedro Friedmann; Conrad, Marcus; McNeil, Paul L

    2015-07-01

    Vitamin E (VE) deficiency results in pronounced muscle weakness and atrophy but the cell biological mechanism of the pathology is unknown. We previously showed that VE supplementation promotes membrane repair in cultured cells and that oxidants potently inhibit repair. Here we provide three independent lines of evidence that VE is required for skeletal muscle myocyte plasma membrane repair in vivo. We also show that when another lipid-directed antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4), is genetically deleted in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, repair fails catastrophically, unless cells are supplemented with VE. We conclude that lipid-directed antioxidant activity provided by VE, and possibly also Gpx4, is an essential component of the membrane repair mechanism in skeletal muscle. This work explains why VE is essential to muscle health and identifies VE as a requisite component of the plasma membrane repair mechanism in vivo. PMID:25843658

  14. Disruption of Dag1 in Differentiated Skeletal Muscle Reveals a Role for Dystroglycan in Muscle Regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald D. Cohn; Michael D. Henry; Daniel E. Michele; Rita Barresi; Fumiaki Saito; Steven A. Moore; Jason D. Flanagan; Mark W. Skwarchuk; Michael E. Robbins; Jerry R. Mendell; Roger A. Williamson; Kevin P. Campbell

    2002-01-01

    Striated muscle-specific disruption of the dystroglycan (DAG1) gene results in loss of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex in differentiated muscle and a remarkably mild muscular dystrophy with hypertrophy and without tissue fibrosis. We find that satellite cells, expressing dystroglycan, support continued efficient regeneration of skeletal muscle along with transient expression of dystroglycan in regenerating muscle fibers. We demonstrate a similar phenomenon of

  15. Prion Protein Expression and Functional Importance in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jeffrey D.; Moylan, Jennifer S.; Hardin, Brian J.; Chambers, Melissa A.; Estus, Steven; Telling, Glenn C.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Skeletal muscle expresses prion protein (PrP) that buffers oxidant activity in neurons. Aims We hypothesize that PrP deficiency would increase oxidant activity in skeletal muscle and alter redox-sensitive functions, including contraction and glucose uptake. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis to measure PrP mRNA and protein in human diaphragm, five murine muscles, and muscle-derived C2C12 cells. Effects of PrP deficiency were tested by comparing PrP-deficient mice versus wild-type mice and morpholino-knockdown versus vehicle-treated myotubes. Oxidant activity (dichlorofluorescin oxidation) and specific force were measured in murine diaphragm fiber bundles. Results PrP content differs among mouse muscles (gastrocnemius>extensor digitorum longus, EDL>tibialis anterior, TA; soleus>diaphragm) as does glycosylation (di-, mono-, nonglycosylated; gastrocnemius, EDL, TA=60%, 30%, 10%; soleus, 30%, 40%, 30%; diaphragm, 30%, 30%, 40%). PrP is predominantly di-glycosylated in human diaphragm. PrP deficiency decreases body weight (15%) and EDL mass (9%); increases cytosolic oxidant activity (fiber bundles, 36%; C2C12 myotubes, 7%); and depresses specific force (12%) in adult (8–12?mos) but not adolescent (2?mos) mice. Innovation This study is the first to directly assess a role of prion protein in skeletal muscle function. Conclusions PrP content varies among murine skeletal muscles and is essential for maintaining normal redox homeostasis, muscle size, and contractile function in adult animals. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 2465—2475. PMID:21453198

  16. Expression and Functional Roles of Angiopoietin-2 in Skeletal Muscles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahroo Mofarrahi; Sabah N. A. Hussain

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundAngiopoietin-1 (ANGPT1) and angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2) are angiogenesis factors that modulate endothelial cell differentiation, survival and stability. Recent studies have suggested that skeletal muscle precursor cells constitutively express ANGPT1 and adhere to recombinant ANGPT1 and ANGPT2 proteins. It remains unclear whether or not they also express ANGPT2, or if ANGPT2 regulates the myogenesis program of muscle precursors. In this study, ANGPT2

  17. Insulin inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase in skeletal muscle cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bédard; B. Marcotte; A. Marette

    1998-01-01

    Summary   Recent studies have shown that cytokines and endotoxins impair insulin-stimulated glucose transport by activating the expression\\u000a of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) production in skeletal muscle cells. In this study, we investigated\\u000a whether iNOS induction is modulated by insulin in L6 myocytes. Long term exposure of muscle cells to tumour necrosis factor-?\\u000a (TNF-?), interferon-? (IFN-?)

  18. Biosynthesis of titin in cultured skeletal muscle cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. B. Isaacs; I. S. Kim; A. Struve; A. B. Fulton

    1989-01-01

    Although significant progress has been made regarding the structure and function of titin, little data exist on the biosynthesis of this large protein in developing muscle. Using pulse-labeling with (³⁵S)methionine and immunoprecipitation with an anti-titin mAb, we have examined the biosynthesis of titin in synchronized cultures of skeletal muscle cells derived from day 12 chicken embryos. We find that: (a)

  19. Carbohydrate metabolism of dog skeletal muscle during immobilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hiirl; H.-P. Bruch; R. Gold; H. Würtele; B. Gay

    1987-01-01

    Summary The effect of immobilization and the following mobilization on muscle carbohydrate metabolism was investigated in dogs. Total carbohydrate and glycogen content of skeletal muscle fell during immobilization. The glycogen-degrading enzyme phosphorylase was activated 1 week after immobilization (a\\/b ratio 40.6±7.6 vs. 27.1±6.5%). Thereafter, the enzyme activity decreased and remained significantly lowered even 2 weeks after the following mobilization. In

  20. Glucocorticoid-induced skeletal muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Schakman, O; Kalista, S; Barbé, C; Loumaye, A; Thissen, J P

    2013-10-01

    Many pathological states characterized by muscle atrophy (e.g., sepsis, cachexia, starvation, metabolic acidosis and severe insulinopenia) are associated with an increase in circulating glucocorticoids (GC) levels, suggesting that GC could trigger the muscle atrophy observed in these conditions. GC-induced muscle atrophy is characterized by fast-twitch, glycolytic muscles atrophy illustrated by decreased fiber cross-sectional area and reduced myofibrillar protein content. GC-induced muscle atrophy results from increased protein breakdown and decreased protein synthesis. Increased muscle proteolysis, in particular through the activation of the ubiquitin proteasome and the lysosomal systems, is considered to play a major role in the catabolic action of GC. The stimulation by GC of these two proteolytic systems is mediated through the increased expression of several Atrogenes ("genes involved in atrophy"), such as FOXO, Atrogin-1, and MuRF-1. The inhibitory effect of GC on muscle protein synthesis is thought to result mainly from the inhibition of the mTOR/S6 kinase 1 pathway. These changes in muscle protein turnover could be explained by changes in the muscle production of two growth factors, namely Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF)-I, a muscle anabolic growth factor and Myostatin, a muscle catabolic growth factor. This review will discuss the recent progress made in the understanding of the mechanisms involved in GC-induced muscle atrophy and consider the implications of these advancements in the development of new therapeutic approaches for treating GC-induced myopathy. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Molecular basis of muscle wasting. PMID:23806868

  1. Distribution of monocarboxylate transporters MCT1-MCT8 in rat tissues and human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Bonen, Arend; Heynen, Miriam; Hatta, Hideo

    2006-02-01

    In the past decade, a family of monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) have been identified that can potentially transport lactate, pyruvate, ketone bodies, and branched-chain ketoacids. Currently, 14 such MCTs are known. However, many orphan transporters exist that have transport capacities that remain to be determined. In addition, the tissue distribution of many of these MCTs is not well defined. Such a cataloging can, at times, begin to suggest the metabolic role of a particular MCT. Recently, a number of antibodies against selected MCTs (MCT1, -2, -4, and -5 to -8) have become commercially available. Therefore, we examined the protein expression of these MCTs in a large number of rat tissues (heart, skeletal muscle, skin, brain, testes, vas deferens, adipose tissue, liver, kidney, spleen, and pancreas), as well as in human skeletal muscle. Unexpectedly, many tissues coexpressed 4-5 MCTs. In particular, in rat skeletal muscle MCT1, MCT2, MCT4, MCT5, and MCT6 were observed. In human muscle, these same MCTs were present. We also observed a pronounced MCT7 signal in human muscle, whereas a very faint signal occurred for MCT8. In rat heart, which is an important metabolic sink for lactate, we confirmed that MCT1 and -2 were expressed. In addition, MCT6 and -8 were also prominently expressed in this tissue, although it is known that MCT8 does not transport aromatic amino acids or lactate. This catalog of MCTs in skeletal muscle and other tissues has revealed an unexpected complexity of coexpression, which makes it difficult to associate changes in monocarboxylate transport with the expression of a particular MCT. The differences in transport kinetics for lactate and pyruvate are only known for MCT1, -2 and -4. Transport kinetics remain to be established for many other MCTs. In conclusion, this study suggests that in skeletal muscle, as well as other tissues, lactate and pyruvate transport rates may not only involve MCT1 and -4, as other monocarboxylate transporters are also expressed in rat (MCT2, -5, -6) and human skeletal muscle (MCT2, -5, -6, -7). PMID:16604139

  2. Leucine supplementation of a low-protein meal increases skeletal muscle and visceral tissue protein synthesis in neonatal pigs by stimulating mTOR-dependent translation initiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein synthesis and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) activation are increased in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs parenterally infused with amino acids. Leucine appears to be the most effective single amino acid to trigger these effects. To examine the response to enteral leucine supplementation...

  3. p38? activity is required for maintenance of slow skeletal muscle size

    PubMed Central

    Foster, William H.; Tidball, James G.; Wang, Yibin

    2011-01-01

    Introduction p38? kinase is highly enriched in skeletal muscle and is implicated in myotube formation. However, the activation status of p38? in muscle is unclear. Methods p38? activity in slow and fast adult mouse skeletal muscle tissue was examined as well as the impact of p38? deficiency on muscle development and gene expression. Results p38? is preferentially activated in slow muscle, but it is inactive in fast muscle types. Furthermore, the loss of p38? in mice led to decreased muscle mass associated with a smaller myofiber diameter in slow muscle, but there was no impact on fast muscle in either mass or myofiber diameter. Finally, p38? deficient muscle showed selective changes in genes related to muscle growth in slow muscle fibers. Conclusion Our study provides evidence that p38? is selectively activated in slow skeletal muscle and is involved in normal growth and development of a subset of skeletal muscle. PMID:22246884

  4. The cardiac isoform of ?-actin in regenerating and atrophic skeletal muscle, myopathies and rhabdomyomatous tumors: an immunohistochemical study using monoclonal antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland Moll; Hans-Jürgen Holzhausen; Hans-Dieter Mennel; Caecilia Kuhn; Renate Baumann; Christiane Taege; Werner W. Franke

    2006-01-01

    The two sarcomeric isoforms of actins, cardiac and skeletal muscle ?-actin, are highly homologous so that their immunohistochemical distinction is extremely difficult. Taking advantage of monoclonal antibodies distinguishing the two conservative amino acid exchanges near the aminoterminus, we have performed an extended immunohistochemical analysis of the cardiac ?-actin (CAA) isoform in normal, regenerating, diseased and neoplastic human muscle tissues. Intense

  5. Calcium Sparks in Intact Skeletal Muscle Fibers of the Frog

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Hollingworth; J. Peet; W. K Chandler; S. M. Baylor

    2001-01-01

    Calcium sparks were studied in frog intact skeletal muscle fibers using a home-built confocal scanner whose point-spread function was estimated to be ? 0.21 ? m in x and y and ? 0.51 ? m in z. Observations were made at 17-20 ? C on fibers from Rana pipiens and Rana temporaria . Fibers were studied in two external solutions:

  6. Distant cis-regulatory elements in human skeletal muscle differentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel Patton McCord; Vicky W. Zhou; Tiffany Yuh; Martha L. Bulyk

    Identifying gene regulatory elements and their target genes in human cells remains a significant challenge. Despite increasing evidence of physical interactions between distant regulatory elements and gene promoters in mammalian cells, many studies consider only promoter-proximal regulatory regions. We identify putative cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) in human skeletal muscle differentiation by combining myogenic TF binding data before and after differentiation with

  7. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Skeletal muscle alterations and exercise

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Skeletal muscle alterations and exercise performance decrease: Erythropoietin (EPO) is known to improve exercise performance by increasing oxygen blood transport and thus on this tissue. Thus, the objectives of the present study were to confirm a decrease in exercise performance

  8. Skeletal muscle: Energy metabolism, fiber types, fatigue and adaptability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Håkan Westerblad; Joseph D. Bruton; Abram Katz

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal muscles cope with a large range of activities, from being able to support the body weight during long periods of upright standing to perform explosive movements in response to an unexpected threat. This requires systems for energy metabolism that can provide energy during long periods of moderately increased energy consumption as well as being able to rapidly increasing the

  9. Acylated and unacylated ghrelin impair skeletal muscle atrophy in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cachexia is a wasting syndrome associated with cancer, AIDS, multiple sclerosis, and several other disease states. It is characterized by weight loss, fatigue, loss of appetite, and skeletal muscle atrophy and is associated with poor patient prognosis, making it an important treatment target. Ghreli...

  10. MicroRNA Transcriptome Profiles During Swine Skeletal Muscle Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MicroRNA (miR) are a class of small RNAs that regulate gene expression by inhibiting translation of protein encoding transcripts. To evaluate the role of miR in skeletal muscle of swine, global microRNA abundance was measured at specific developmental stages including proliferating satellite cells,...

  11. Imaging Elementary Events of Calcium Release in Skeletal Muscle Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Tsugorka; Eduardo Rios; Lothar A. Blatter

    1995-01-01

    In skeletal muscle cells, calcium release to trigger contraction occurs at triads, specialized junctions where sarcoplasmic reticulum channels are opened by voltage sensors in the transverse tubule. Scanning confocal microscopy was used in cells under voltage clamp to measure the concentration of intracellular calcium, [Ca2+]_i, at individual triads and [Ca2+]_i gradients that were proportional to calcium release. In cells stimulated

  12. Physical injuries, contractures and rigidity of skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Korenyi-Both, A.L.; Korenyi-Both, I.

    1986-01-01

    The authors condensed their knowledge of physical injuries of skeletal muscle, particularly injuries caused by mechanical energy, atmospheric pressure, radiation, extremes of temperature and electricity. The possible perils, outcomes and consequences are discussed. Special attention is given to the military medical projections.

  13. Apoptotic adaptations from exercise training in skeletal and cardiac muscles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Parco M. Siu; Randall W. Bryner; Julie K. Martyn; Stephen E. Alway

    2004-01-01

    The effect of exercise on apoptosis in postmitotic tissues is not known. In this study, we investigated the effect of regular moderate physical activity (i.e., exercise training) on the extent of apoptosis in rat skeletal and cardiac muscles. Adult Sprague Dawley rats were trained (TR) 5 days weekly for 8 wk on treadmill. Sedentary rats served as controls (CON). An

  14. Differential global gene expression in red and white skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. G.; Gordon, S. E.; Carlson, C. J.; Pattison, J. S.; Hamilton, M. T.; Booth, F. W.

    2001-01-01

    The differences in gene expression among the fiber types of skeletal muscle have long fascinated scientists, but for the most part, previous experiments have only reported differences of one or two genes at a time. The evolving technology of global mRNA expression analysis was employed to determine the potential differential expression of approximately 3,000 mRNAs between the white quad (white muscle) and the red soleus muscle (mixed red muscle) of female ICR mice (30-35 g). Microarray analysis identified 49 mRNA sequences that were differentially expressed between white and mixed red skeletal muscle, including newly identified differential expressions between muscle types. For example, the current findings increase the number of known, differentially expressed mRNAs for transcription factors/coregulators by nine and signaling proteins by three. The expanding knowledge of the diversity of mRNA expression between white and mixed red muscle suggests that there could be quite a complex regulation of phenotype between muscles of different fiber types.

  15. Advancements in stem cells treatment of skeletal muscle wasting

    PubMed Central

    Meregalli, Mirella; Farini, Andrea; Sitzia, Clementina; Torrente, Yvan

    2014-01-01

    Muscular dystrophies (MDs) are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders, in which progressive muscle wasting and weakness is often associated with exhaustion of muscle regeneration potential. Although physiological properties of skeletal muscle tissue are now well known, no treatments are effective for these diseases. Muscle regeneration was attempted by means transplantation of myogenic cells (from myoblast to embryonic stem cells) and also by interfering with the malignant processes that originate in pathological tissues, such as uncontrolled fibrosis and inflammation. Taking into account the advances in the isolation of new subpopulation of stem cells and in the creation of artificial stem cell niches, we discuss how these emerging technologies offer great promises for therapeutic approaches to muscle diseases and muscle wasting associated with aging. PMID:24575052

  16. REDD1 deletion prevents dexamethasone-induced skeletal muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Britto, Florian A; Begue, Gwenaelle; Rossano, Bernadette; Docquier, Aurélie; Vernus, Barbara; Sar, Chamroeun; Ferry, Arnaud; Bonnieu, Anne; Ollendorff, Vincent; Favier, François B

    2014-12-01

    REDD1 (regulated in development and DNA damage response 1) has been proposed to inhibit the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) during in vitro hypoxia. REDD1 expression is low under basal conditions but is highly increased in response to several catabolic stresses, like hypoxia and glucocorticoids. However, REDD1 function seems to be tissue and stress dependent, and its role in skeletal muscle in vivo has been poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the effect of REDD1 deletion on skeletal muscle mass, protein synthesis, proteolysis, and mTORC1 signaling pathway under basal conditions and after glucocorticoid administration. Whereas skeletal muscle mass and typology were unchanged between wild-type (WT) and REDD1-null mice, oral gavage with dexamethasone (DEX) for 7 days reduced tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscle weights as well as tibialis anterior fiber size only in WT. Similarly, REDD1 deletion prevented the inhibition of protein synthesis and mTORC1 activity (assessed by S6, 4E-BP1, and ULK1 phosphorylation) observed in gastrocnemius muscle of WT mice following single DEX administration for 5 h. However, our results suggest that REDD1-mediated inhibition of mTORC1 in skeletal muscle is not related to the modulation of the binding between TSC2 and 14-3-3. In contrast, our data highlight a new mechanism involved in mTORC1 inhibition linking REDD1, Akt, and PRAS40. Altogether, these results demonstrated in vivo that REDD1 is required for glucocorticoid-induced inhibition of protein synthesis via mTORC1 downregulation. Inhibition of REDD1 may thus be a strategy to limit muscle loss in glucocorticoid-mediated atrophy. PMID:25315696

  17. Biomimetic model of skeletal muscle isometric contraction: I. an energetic–viscoelastic model for the skeletal muscle isometric force twitch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Phillips; D. W. Repperger; A. T. Neidhard-Doll; D. B. Reynolds

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a revision of the Hill-type muscle model so that it will describe the chemo-mechanical energy conversion process (energetic) and the internal-element stiffness variation (viscoelastic) during a skeletal muscle isometric force twitch contraction. The derivation of this energetic–viscoelastic model is described by a first-order linear ordinary differential equation with constant energetic and viscoelastic coefficients. The model has been

  18. Mitochondrial Involvement and Impact in Aging Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hepple, Russell T.

    2014-01-01

    Atrophy is a defining feature of aging skeletal muscle that contributes to progressive weakness and an increased risk of mobility impairment, falls, and physical frailty in very advanced age. Amongst the most frequently implicated mechanisms of aging muscle atrophy is mitochondrial dysfunction. Recent studies employing methods that are well-suited to interrogating intrinsic mitochondrial function find that mitochondrial respiration and reactive oxygen species emission changes are inconsistent between aging rat muscles undergoing atrophy and appear normal in human skeletal muscle from septuagenarian physically active subjects. On the other hand, a sensitization to permeability transition seems to be a general property of atrophying muscle with aging and this effect is even seen in atrophying muscle from physically active septuagenarian subjects. In addition to this intrinsic alteration in mitochondrial function, factors extrinsic to the mitochondria may also modulate mitochondrial function in aging muscle. In particular, recent evidence implicates oxidative stress in the aging milieu as a factor that depresses respiratory function in vivo (an effect that is not present ex vivo). Furthermore, in very advanced age, not only does muscle atrophy become more severe and clinically relevant in terms of its impact, but also there is evidence that this is driven by an accumulation of severely atrophied denervated myofibers. As denervation can itself modulate mitochondrial function and recruit mitochondrial-mediated atrophy pathways, future investigations need to address the degree to which skeletal muscle mitochondrial alterations in very advanced age are a consequence of denervation, rather than a primary organelle defect, to refine our understanding of the relevance of mitochondria as a therapeutic target at this more advanced age. PMID:25309422

  19. Tomographic elastography of contracting skeletal muscles from their natural vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabra, Karim G.; Archer, Akibi

    2009-11-01

    Conventional elastography techniques require an external mechanical or radiation excitation to measure noninvasively the viscoelastic properties of skeletal muscles and thus monitor human motor functions. We developed instead a passive elastography technique using only an array of skin-mounted accelerometers to record the low-frequency vibrations of the biceps brachii muscle naturally generated during voluntary contractions and to determine their two-dimensional directionality. Cross-correlating these recordings provided travel-times measurements of these muscle vibrations between multiple sensor pairs. Travel-time tomographic inversions yielded spatial variations of their propagation velocity during isometric elbow flexions which indicated a nonuniform longitudinal stiffening of the biceps.

  20. Passive in vivo elastography from skeletal muscle noise

    SciTech Connect

    Sabra, Karim G.; Conti, Stephane; Roux, Philippe; Kuperman, W. A. [Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California 92093-0238 (United States)

    2007-05-07

    Measuring the in vivo elastic properties of muscles (e.g., stiffness) provides a means for diagnosing and monitoring muscular activity. The authors demonstrated a passive in vivo elastography technique without an active external radiation source. This technique instead uses cross correlations of contracting skeletal muscle noise recorded with skin-mounted sensors. Each passive sensor becomes a virtual in vivo shear wave source. The results point to a low-cost, noninvasive technique for monitoring biomechanical in vivo muscle properties. The efficacy of the passive elastography technique originates from the high density of cross paths between all sensor pairs, potentially achieving the same sensitivity obtained from active elastography methods.

  1. Immunomodulatory effects of massage on nonperturbed skeletal muscle in rats

    PubMed Central

    Waters-Banker, Christine; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.

    2013-01-01

    Massage is an ancient manual therapy widely utilized by individuals seeking relief from various musculoskeletal maladies. Despite its popularity, the majority of evidence associated with massage benefits is anecdotal. Recent investigations have uncovered physiological evidence supporting its beneficial use following muscle injury; however, the effects of massage on healthy, unperturbed skeletal muscle are unknown. Utilizing a custom-fabricated massage mimetic device, the purpose of this investigation was to elucidate the effects of various loading magnitudes on healthy skeletal muscle with particular interest in the gene expression profile and modulation of key immune cells involved in the inflammatory response. Twenty-four male Wistar rats (200 g) were subjected to cyclic compressive loading (CCL) over the right tibialis anterior muscle for 30 min, once a day, for 4 consecutive days using four loading conditions: control (0N), low load (1.4N), moderate load (4.5N), and high load (11N). Microarray analysis showed that genes involved with the immune response were the most significantly affected by application of CCL. Load-dependent changes in cellular abundance were seen in the CCL limb for CD68+ cells, CD163+ cells, and CD43+cells. Surprisingly, load-independent changes were also discovered in the non-CCL contralateral limb, suggesting a systemic response. These results show that massage in the form of CCL exerts an immunomodulatory response to uninjured skeletal muscle, which is dependent upon the applied load. PMID:24201707

  2. Immunomodulatory effects of massage on nonperturbed skeletal muscle in rats.

    PubMed

    Waters-Banker, Christine; Butterfield, Timothy A; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E

    2014-01-15

    Massage is an ancient manual therapy widely utilized by individuals seeking relief from various musculoskeletal maladies. Despite its popularity, the majority of evidence associated with massage benefits is anecdotal. Recent investigations have uncovered physiological evidence supporting its beneficial use following muscle injury; however, the effects of massage on healthy, unperturbed skeletal muscle are unknown. Utilizing a custom-fabricated massage mimetic device, the purpose of this investigation was to elucidate the effects of various loading magnitudes on healthy skeletal muscle with particular interest in the gene expression profile and modulation of key immune cells involved in the inflammatory response. Twenty-four male Wistar rats (200 g) were subjected to cyclic compressive loading (CCL) over the right tibialis anterior muscle for 30 min, once a day, for 4 consecutive days using four loading conditions: control (0N), low load (1.4N), moderate load (4.5N), and high load (11N). Microarray analysis showed that genes involved with the immune response were the most significantly affected by application of CCL. Load-dependent changes in cellular abundance were seen in the CCL limb for CD68(+) cells, CD163(+) cells, and CD43(+)cells. Surprisingly, load-independent changes were also discovered in the non-CCL contralateral limb, suggesting a systemic response. These results show that massage in the form of CCL exerts an immunomodulatory response to uninjured skeletal muscle, which is dependent upon the applied load. PMID:24201707

  3. Collagen of slow twitch and fast twitch muscle fibres in different types of rat skeletal muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Kovanen; H. Suominen; E. Heikkinen

    1984-01-01

    Summary  The appearance of collagen around individual fast twitch (FT) and slow twitch (ST) muscle fibres was investigated in skeletal muscles with different contractile properties using endurance trained and untrained rats as experimental animals. The collagenous connective tissue was analyzed by measuring hydroxyproline biochemically and by staining collagenous material histochemically in M. soleus (MS), M. rectus femoris (MRF), and M. gastrocnemius

  4. Compartmentalization of NO signaling cascade in skeletal muscles

    SciTech Connect

    Buchwalow, Igor B. [Gerhard Domagk Institute of Pathology, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany)]. E-mail: buchwalo@uni-muenster.de; Minin, Evgeny A. [Gerhard Domagk Institute of Pathology, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Samoilova, Vera E. [Gerhard Domagk Institute of Pathology, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Boecker, Werner [Gerhard Domagk Institute of Pathology, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Wellner, Maren [Franz Volhard Clinic, Medical Faculty of the Charite, Humboldt University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Schmitz, Wilhelm [Institute for Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Neumann, Joachim [Institute for Pharmacology and Toxicology, Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle/Saale (Germany); Punkt, Karla [Institute of Anatomy, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany)

    2005-05-06

    Skeletal muscle functions regulated by NO are now firmly established. However, the literature on the compartmentalization of NO signaling in myocytes is highly controversial. To address this issue, we examined localization of enzymes engaged in L-arginine-NO-cGMP signaling in the rat quadriceps muscle. Employing immunocytochemical labeling complemented with tyramide signal amplification and electron microscopy, we found NO synthase expressed not only in the sarcolemma, but also along contractile fibers, in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. The expression pattern of NO synthase in myocytes showed striking parallels with the enzymes engaged in L-arginine-NO-cGMP signaling (arginase, phosphodiesterase, and soluble guanylyl cyclase). Our findings are indicative of an autocrine fashion of NO signaling in skeletal muscles at both cellular and subcellular levels, and challenge the notion that the NO generation is restricted to the sarcolemma.

  5. Modulation effects of cordycepin on the skeletal muscle contraction of toad gastrocnemius muscle.

    PubMed

    Yao, Li-Hua; Meng, Wei; Song, Rong-Feng; Xiong, Qiu-Ping; Sun, Wei; Luo, Zhi-Qiang; Yan, Wen-Wen; Li, Yu-Ping; Li, Xin-Ping; Li, Hai-Hang; Xiao, Peng

    2014-03-01

    Isolated toad gastrocnemius muscle is a typical skeletal muscle tissue that is frequently used to study the motor system because it is an important component of the motor system. This study investigates the effects of cordycepin on the skeletal muscle contractile function of isolated toad gastrocnemius muscles by electrical field stimulation. Results showed that cordycepin (20 mg/l to 100 mg/l) significantly decreased the contractile responses in a concentration-dependent manner. Cordycepin (50 mg/l) also produced a rightward shift of the contractile amplitude-stimulation intensity relationship, as indicated by the increases in the threshold stimulation intensity and the saturation stimulation intensity. However, the most notable result was that the maximum amplitude of the muscle contractile force was significantly increased under cordycepin application (122±3.4% of control). This result suggests that the skeletal muscle contractile function and muscle physical fitness to the external stimulation were improved by the decreased response sensitivity in the presence of cordycepin. Moreover, cordycepin also prevented the repetitive stimulation-induced decrease in muscle contractile force and increased the recovery amplitude and recovery ratio of muscle contraction. However, these anti-fatigue effects of cordycepin on muscle contraction during long-lasting muscle activity were absent in Ca2+-free medium or in the presence of all Ca2+ channels blocker (0.4 mM CdCl2). These results suggest that cordycepin can positively affect muscle performance and provide ergogenic and prophylactic benefits in decreasing skeletal muscle fatigue. The mechanisms involving excitation-coupled Ca2+ influxes are strongly recommended. PMID:24447979

  6. Myotube formation in skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed Central

    Ali, M A

    1979-01-01

    Muscle fibre regeneration in the latissimus dorsi of adult rats has been studied by light and electron microscopy. Both 'continuous' and 'discontinuous' modes of regeneration occur. In 'continuous' regeneration sarcoplasmic buds grow from the damaged muscle fibres, their nuclei apparently originating from the healthy portion of the muscle fibre. In 'discontinuous' regeneration mononucleated cells accumulate inside intact but vacated, sarcolemmal tubes. They differentiate into myofibril-containing myoblasts which later fuse. 'Continuous' regeneration occurs when the sarcolemmal sheaths are disrupted; 'discontinuous' regeneration when the sarcolemmal sheaths remain intact. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:468707

  7. Enhanced Myogenesis in adult skeletal muscle by transgenic expression of Myostatin Propeptide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Skeletal muscle growth and maintenance are essential for human health. One of the muscle regulatory genes, namely myostatin, a member of transforming growth factor-ß, plays a dominant role in the genetic control of muscle mass. Transgenic expression of myostatin propeptide in skeletal muscle showed ...

  8. The Skeletal Muscle Chloride Channel in Dominant and Recessive Human Myotonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuela C. Koch; Klaus Steinmeyer; Claudius Lorenz; Kenneth Ricker; Friedrich Wolf; Michael Otto; Barbara Zoll; Frank Lehmann-Horn; Karl-Heinz Grzeschik; Thomas J. Jentsch

    1992-01-01

    Autosomal recessive generalized myotonia (Becker's disease) (GM) and autosomal dominant myotonia congenita (Thomsen's disease) (MC) are characterized by skeletal muscle stiffness that is a result of muscle membrane hyperexcitability. For both diseases, alterations in muscle chloride or sodium currents or both have been observed. A complementary DNA for a human skeletal muscle chloride channel (CLC-1) was cloned, physically localized on

  9. Important role for AMPK1 in limiting skeletal muscle cell hypertrophy

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Important role for AMPK1 in limiting skeletal muscle cell hypertrophy Rémi Mounier1,2 , Louise catalytic subunit on muscle cell size control and adaptation to muscle hypertrophy. We found that AMPK1, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK. Running Title : AMPK and skeletal muscle

  10. Skeletal muscle progenitor cells and the role of Pax genes.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Satellite cells, which lie under the basal lamina of muscle fibres, are marked by the expression of Pax7, and in many muscles of Pax3 also. A pure population of satellite cells, isolated from a Pax3(GFP/+) mouse line by flow cytometry, contribute very efficiently to skeletal muscle regeneration and also self-renew, thus demonstrating their role as muscle stem cells. Pax3/7 regulates the entry of these cells into the myogenic programme via the activation of the myogenic determination gene, MyoD. Pax7 is also essential for the survival of satellite cells. This dual role underlines the importance of ensuring that a tissue stem cell that has lost its myogenic instruction should not be left to run amok, with the potential risk of tissue deregulation and cancer. A somite-derived population of Pax3/Pax7 positive cells is responsible for muscle growth during development and gives rise to the satellite cells of postnatal muscles. In the absence of both Pax3 and Pax7, these cells die or assume other cell fates. Pax3/7 lies genetically upstream of both MyoD and Myf5, which determine the skeletal muscle fate of these cells. To cite this article: M. Buckingham, C. R. Biologies 330 (2007). PMID:17631448

  11. Skeletal muscle metastasis from breast cancer: management and literature review.

    PubMed

    Salemis, Nikolaos S

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle metastasis from breast cancer is a very rare clinical entity. We describe an extremely rare case of breast cancer metastasis to the rectus abdominis muscle. Our patient, who had undergone a left modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer four years ago, presented with a painful abdominal mass. Computed tomography scans showed a rim-enhancing mass with central hypoatennuation within the sheath of the rectus abdominis muscle. A Fine needle aspiration biopsy was initially performed and the findings were suggestive of malignancy. The muscle lesion was then resected and the histopathological analysis showed metastasis of breast cancer. Through our review of the literature, we found that only two cases of rectus abdominis muscle metastasis from breast cancer have been reported so far. This case highlights the need to rule out muscle metastatic lesions in patients with history of breast cancer presenting with these clinical and imaging characteristics. Differentiation from primary sarcoma is of paramount importance. Skeletal muscle metastases usually indicate an advanced disease associated with poor prognosis. Treatment should be individualized depending on the patient's clinical condition. PMID:25159186

  12. Closed-loop control of movement of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Petrofsky, J S; Phillips, C A

    1985-01-01

    Closed-loop (feedback) control of skeletal muscle is critically reviewed. The introductory section examines the advantages and disadvantages of open-loop as compared to closed-loop control in general, defines the problem, and outlines our approach. In the biological systems section, muscle structure and function are defined at the level of the motor nerve, neuromuscular junction, and sarcomere. Time delays, power and efficiency, fatigue, and other effects are also discussed in relation to the development of closed-loop control. This section then proceeds to review biological sensors and finally integrates this information by reviewing the body's own closed-loop control system. The third section critically reviews various approaches to the mathematical modeling of muscle. The control problem (in general) is reviewed with particular emphasis on contemporary control systems engineering. Essential to closed-loop control of paralyzed skeletal muscle is sensor technology. Therefore, the fourth section reviews external mechanical sensors. Specifically, potentiometers and Hall effect sensors, capacitive force transducers, inductive displacement transducers (LVDTs), and various position resolvers are discussed. Finally, the fifth section reviews the application of closed-loop control of skeletal muscle to the human being. The focus of this section is the paralyzed individual: past progress and future directions. An extensive bibliography of cited references is then provided so that the interested reader may pursue his/her particular area of interest in more detail. The authors acknowledge that such an extensive review of so many relevant areas is necessarily not complete and often overly simplistic, but our goal is a "first approach" to a comprehensive understanding of the closed-loop (feedback) control problem for achieving movement in paralyzed skeletal muscle. PMID:3902360

  13. Characterization of KATP channels in intact mammalian skeletal muscle fibres

    PubMed Central

    Barrett-Jolley, Richard; McPherson, Grant A

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the KATP channel of intact rat skeletal muscle (rat flexor digitorum brevis muscle). Changes in membrane currents were recorded with two-electrode voltage-clamp of whole fibres.The KATP channel openers, levcromakalim and pinacidil (10–400??M), caused a concentration-dependent increase in whole-cell chord conductance (up to approximately 1.5?mScm?2). The activated current had a weak inwardly rectifying current-voltage relation, a reversal potential near EK and nanomolar sensitivity to glibenclamide – characteristic of a KATP channel current. Concentration-effect analysis revealed that levcromakalim and pinacidil were not particularly potent (EC50 ?186??M, ?30??M, respectively), but diazoxide was completely inactive.The ability of both classical KATP channel inhibitors (glibenclamide, tolbutamide, glipizide and 5-hydroxydecanoic acid) and a number of structurally related glibenclamide analogues to antagonize the levcromakalim-induced current was determined. Glibenclamide was the most potent compound with an IC50 of approximately 5?nM. However, the non-sulphonylurea (but cardioactive) compound 5-hydroxydecanoic acid was inactive in this preparation.Regression analysis showed that the glibenclamide analogues used have a similar rank order of potency to that observed previously in vascular smooth muscle and cerebral tissue. However, two compounds (glipizide and DK13) were found to have unexpectedly low potency in skeletal muscle.These experiments revealed KATP channels of skeletal muscle to be at least 10× more sensitive to glibenclamide than previously found; this may be because of the requirement for an intact intracellular environment for the full effect of sulphonylureas to be realised. Pharmacologically, KATP channels of mammalian skeletal muscle appear to resemble most closely KATP channels of cardiac myocytes. PMID:9559893

  14. Chronic AMPK stimulation attenuates adaptive signaling in dystrophic skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Ljubicic, Vladimir; Khogali, Shiemaa; Renaud, Jean-Marc; Jasmin, Bernard J

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated how a pharmacologically induced phenotype shift in dystrophic skeletal muscle would affect subsequent intracellular signaling in response to a complementary, adaptive physiological stimulus. mdx mice were treated with the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-?-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR; 500 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 30 days, and then one-half of the animals were subjected to a bout of treadmill running to induce acute AMPK and p38 MAPK signaling. The mRNA levels of phenotypic modifiers, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?), PPAR? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?), receptor interacting protein 140 (RIP 140), and silent information regulator two ortholog 1 (SIRT1) were assessed in skeletal muscle, as well as the expression of the protein arginine methyltransferase genes PRMT1 and CARM1. We found unique AMPK and p38 phosphorylation and expression signatures between dystrophic and healthy muscle. In dystrophic skeletal muscle, treadmill running induced PPAR?, PGC-1?, and SIRT1 mRNAs, three molecules that promote the slow, oxidative myogenic program. In the mdx animals that received the chronic AICAR treatment, running-elicited AMPK and p38 phosphorylation was attenuated compared with vehicle-treated mice. Similarly, acute stress-evoked expression of PPAR?, PGC-1?, and SIRT1 was also blunted by chronic pharmacological AMPK stimulation. Skeletal muscle PRMT1 and CARM1 protein contents were higher in mdx mice compared with wild-type littermates. The acute running-evoked induction of PRMT1 and CARM1 mRNAs was also attenuated by the AICAR treatment. Our data demonstrate that prior pharmacological conditioning is a salient determinant in how dystrophic muscle adapts to subsequent complementary, acute physiological stress stimuli. These results provide insight into possible therapeutic applications of synthetic agonists in neuromuscular diseases, such as during chronic administration to Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients. PMID:21940670

  15. Atomoxetine prevents dexamethasone-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in mice.

    PubMed

    Jesinkey, Sean R; Korrapati, Midhun C; Rasbach, Kyle A; Beeson, Craig C; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2014-12-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy remains a clinical problem in numerous pathologic conditions. ?2-Adrenergic receptor agonists, such as formoterol, can induce mitochondrial biogenesis (MB) to prevent such atrophy. Additionally, atomoxetine, an FDA-approved norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, was positive in a cellular assay for MB. We used a mouse model of dexamethasone-induced skeletal muscle atrophy to investigate the potential role of atomoxetine and formoterol to prevent muscle mass loss. Mice were administered dexamethasone once daily in the presence or absence of formoterol (0.3 mg/kg), atomoxetine (0.1 mg/kg), or sterile saline. Animals were euthanized at 8, 16, and 24 hours or 8 days later. Gastrocnemius muscle weights, changes in mRNA and protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1 ? (PGC-1?) isoforms, ATP synthase ?, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 ? subcomplex, 8, ND1, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), myostatin, muscle Ring-finger protein-1 (muscle atrophy), phosphorylated forkhead box protein O 3a (p-FoxO3a), Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and ribosomal protein S6 (rp-S6; muscle hypertrophy) in naive and muscle-atrophied mice were measured. Atomoxetine increased p-mTOR 24 hours after treatment in naïve mice, but did not change any other biomarkers. Formoterol robustly activated the PGC-1?-4-IGF1-Akt-mTOR-rp-S6 pathway and increased p-FoxO3a as early as 8 hours and repressed myostatin at 16 hours. In contrast to what was observed with acute treatment, chronic treatment (7 days) with atomoxetine increased p-Akt and p-FoxO3a, and sustained PGC-1? expression and skeletal muscle mass in dexamethasone-treated mice, in a manner comparable to formoterol. In conclusion, chronic treatment with a low dose of atomoxetine prevented dexamethasone-induced skeletal muscle wasting and supports a potential role in preventing muscle atrophy. PMID:25292181

  16. Influence of spaceflight on rat skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Thomas P.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Grindeland, Richard E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of a 7-day spaceflight (aboard NASA's SL-3) on the size and the metabolism of single fibers from several rat muscles was investigated along with the specificity of these responses as related to the muscle type and the size of fibers. It was found that the loss of mass after flight was varied from 36 percent in the soleus to 15 percent in the extensor digitorum longus. Results of histochemical analyses showed that the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity in muscles of flight-exposed rats was maintained at the control levels, whereas the alpha-glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) activity was either maintained or increased. The analyses of the metabolic profiles of ATPase, SDH, and GPD indicated that, in some muscles, there was an increase in the poportion of fast oxidative-glycolytic fibers.

  17. Inhibitors of the proteasome reduce the accelerated proteolysis in atrophying rat skeletal muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Tawa, N E; Odessey, R; Goldberg, A L

    1997-01-01

    Several observations have suggested that the enhanced proteolysis and atrophy of skeletal muscle in various pathological states is due primarily to activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. To test this idea, we investigated whether peptide aldehyde inhibitors of the proteasome, N-acetyl-leucyl-leucyl-norleucinal (LLN), or the more potent CBZ-leucyl-leucyl-leucinal (MG132) suppressed proteolysis in incubated rat skeletal muscles. These agents (e.g., MG132 at 10 microM) inhibited nonlysosomal protein breakdown by up to 50% (P < 0.01), and this effect was rapidly reversed upon removal of the inhibitor. The peptide aldehydes did not alter protein synthesis or amino acid pools, but improved overall protein balance in the muscle. Upon treatment with MG132, ubiquitin-conjugated proteins accumulated in the muscle. The inhibition of muscle proteolysis correlated with efficacy against the proteasome, although these agents could also inhibit calpain-dependent proteolysis induced with Ca2+. These inhibitors had much larger effects on proteolysis in atrophying muscles than in controls. In the denervated soleus undergoing atrophy, the increase in ATP-dependent proteolysis was reduced 70% by MG132 (P < 0.001). Similarly, the rise in muscle proteolysis induced by administering thyroid hormones was reduced 40-70% by the inhibitors. Finally, in rats made septic by cecal puncture, the increase in muscle proteolysis was completely blocked by MG132. Thus, the enhanced proteolysis in many catabolic states (including denervation, hyperthyroidism, and sepsis) is due to a proteasome-dependent pathway, and inhibition of proteasome function may be a useful approach to reduce muscle wasting. PMID:9202072

  18. NF-?B signaling in skeletal muscle: prospects for intervention in muscle diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Foteini Mourkioti; Nadia Rosenthal

    2008-01-01

    Muscle remodeling is an important physiological process that promotes adaptive changes in cytoarchitecture and protein composition\\u000a after exercise, aging, or disease conditions. Numerous transcription factors have been reported to regulate skeletal muscle\\u000a homeostasis. NF-?B is a major pleiotropic transcription factor modulating immune, inflammatory, cell survival, and proliferating\\u000a responses; however, its role in muscle development, physiology, and disease has just started

  19. Trichinella spiralis infected skeletal muscle cells arrest in G2\\/M and cease muscle gene expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas E Jasmer

    1993-01-01

    Infection by Trichinella spiralis causes a variety of changes in skeletal muscle cells including the hypertrophy of nuclei and decreased expression of muscle specific proteins. Potential cellular processes leading to these changes were investigated. In syn- chronized muscle infections, (3H)thymidine was incor- porated into infected cell nuclei from 2-5 days post infection. Labeled nuclei were stably integrated into the infected

  20. Exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage and adaptation following repeated bouts of eccentric muscle contractions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Brown; R. B. Child; S. H. Day; A. E. Donnelly

    1997-01-01

    Repeated bouts of eccentric muscle contractions were used to examine indirect indices of exercise-induced muscle damage and adaptation in human skeletal muscle. Twenty-four subjects (18 females, 6 males) aged 20.0–1.4 years (mean - S.D.) performed an initial bout of either 10 (n = 7), 30 (n = 9) or 50 (n = 8) maximum voluntary eccentric contractions of the knee

  1. Indices of skeletal muscle damage and connective tissue breakdown following eccentric muscle contractions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Brown; R. B. Child; S. H. Day; A. E. Donnelly

    1997-01-01

    Indirect indices of exercise-induced human skeletal muscle damage and connective tissue breakdown were studied following\\u000a a single bout of voluntary eccentric muscle contractions. Subjects (six female, two male), mean (SD) age 22 (2) years performed\\u000a a bout of 50 maximum voluntary eccentric contractions of the knee extensors of a single leg. The eccentric exercise protocol\\u000a induced muscle soreness (P?

  2. Prolonged bed rest decreases skeletal muscle and whole body protein synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrando, A. A.; Lane, H. W.; Stuart, C. A.; Davis-Street, J.; Wolfe, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    We sought to determine the extent to which the loss of lean body mass and nitrogen during inactivity was due to alterations in skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Six male subjects were studied during 7 days of diet stabilization and after 14 days of stimulated microgravity (-6 degrees bed rest). Nitrogen balance became more negative (P < 0.03) during the 2nd wk of bed rest. Leg and whole body lean mass decreased after bed rest (P < 0.05). Serum cortisol, insulin, insulin-like growth factor I, and testosterone values did not change. Arteriovenous model calculations based on the infusion of L-[ring-13C6]-phenylalanine in five subjects revealed a 50% decrease in muscle protein synthesis (PS; P < 0.03). Fractional PS by tracer incorporation into muscle protein also decreased by 46% (P < 0.05). The decrease in PS was related to a corresponding decrease in the sum of intracellular amino acid appearance from protein breakdown and inward transport. Whole body protein synthesis determined by [15N]alanine ingestion on six subjects also revealed a 14% decrease (P < 0.01). Neither model-derived nor whole body values for protein breakdown change significantly. These results indicate that the loss of body protein with inactivity is predominantly due to a decrease in muscle PS and that this decrease is reflected in both whole body and skeletal muscle measures.

  3. Mitosis and intermediate-sized filaments in developing skeletal muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Ishikawa; R. Bischoff; H. Holtzer

    1969-01-01

    ABSTRACT A new,class of filaments intermediate,in diameter,between,actin and,myosin,filaments has been demonstrated in skeletal muscle cells cultured from chick embryos. These filaments, which account for the majorarrested in metaphase,by mitotic inhibitors. Definitive thick (about 150 A) or thin (about 60 A) myofilaments,are not found in skeletal myogenic,cells arrested in metaphase. Myogenic,cells arrested in metaphase,do not bind fluorescein-labeled,antibody,directed against myosin or actin.

  4. The creation of a measurable contusion injury in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Deane, Margaret N; Gregory, Michael; Mars, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    The effect that compressed air massage (CAM) has on skeletal muscle has been ascertained by the morphological and morphometric evaluation of healthy vervet monkey and rabbit skeletal muscle. How CAM may influence the process of healing following a contusion injury is not known. To determine how CAM or other physiotherapeutic modalities may influence healing, it is necessary to create a minor injury that is both reproducible and quantifiable at the termination of a pre-determined healing period. An earlier study described changes in the morphology of skeletal muscle following a reproducible contusion injury. This study extended that work in that it attempted to quantify the 'severity' of such an injury. A 201 g, elongated oval-shaped weight was dropped seven times through a 1 m tube onto the left vastus lateralis muscle of four New Zealand white rabbits. Biopsies were obtained 6 days after injury from the left healing juxta-bone and sub-dermal muscle and uninjured (control) right vastus lateralis of each animal. The tissue was fixed in formal saline, embedded in wax, cut and stained with haematoxylin and phosphotungstic haematoxylin. The muscle was examined by light microscopy and quantification of the severity of injury made using a modified, 'in-house' morphological index and by the comparative morphometric measurement of the cross-sectioned epimysium and myofibres in injured and control muscle. The results showed that a single contusion causes multiple, quantifiable degrees of injury from skin to bone - observations of particular importance to others wishing to investigate contusion injury in human or animal models. PMID:25686259

  5. Diaphragmatic lymphatic vessel behavior during local skeletal muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Moriondo, Andrea; Solari, Eleonora; Marcozzi, Cristiana; Negrini, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    The mechanism through which the stresses developed in the diaphragmatic tissue during skeletal muscle contraction sustain local lymphatic function was studied in 10 deeply anesthetized, tracheotomized adult Wistar rats whose diaphragm was exposed after thoracotomy. To evaluate the direct effect of skeletal muscle contraction on the hydraulic intraluminal lymphatic pressures (Plymph) and lymphatic vessel geometry, the maximal contraction of diaphragmatic fibers adjacent to a lymphatic vessel was elicited by injection of 9.2 nl of 1 M KCl solution among diaphragmatic fibers while Plymph was recorded through micropuncture and vessel geometry via stereomicroscopy video recording. In lymphatics oriented perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of muscle fibers and located at <300 ?m from KCl injection, vessel diameter at maximal skeletal muscle contraction (Dmc) decreased to 61.3 ± 1.4% of the precontraction value [resting diameter (Drest)]; however, if injection was at >900 ?m from the vessel, Dmc enlarged to 131.1 ± 2.3% of Drest. In vessels parallel to muscle fibers, Dmc increased to 122.8 ± 2.9% of Drest. During contraction, Plymph decreased as much as 22.5 ± 2.6 cmH2O in all submesothelial superficial vessels, whereas it increased by 10.7 ± 5.1 cmH2O in deeper vessels running perpendicular to contracting muscle fibers. Hence, the three-dimensional arrangement of the diaphragmatic lymphatic network seems to be finalized to efficiently exploit the stresses exerted by muscle fibers during the contracting inspiratory phase to promote lymph formation in superficial submesothelial lymphatics and its further propulsion in deeper intramuscular vessels. PMID:25485903

  6. Secretome profiling of primary human skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Sonja; Raschke, Silja; Knebel, Birgit; Scheler, Mika; Irmler, Martin; Passlack, Waltraud; Muller, Stefan; Hanisch, Franz-Georg; Franz, Thomas; Li, Xinping; Dicken, Hans-Dieter; Eckardt, Kristin; Beckers, Johannes; de Angelis, Martin Hrabe; Weigert, Cora; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Al-Hasani, Hadi; Ouwens, D Margriet; Eckel, Jürgen; Kotzka, Jorg; Lehr, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    The skeletal muscle is a metabolically active tissue that secretes various proteins. These so-called myokines have been proposed to affect muscle physiology and to exert systemic effects on other tissues and organs. Yet, changes in the secretory profile may participate in the pathophysiology of metabolic diseases. The present study aimed at characterizing the secretome of differentiated primary human skeletal muscle cells (hSkMC) derived from healthy, adult donors combining three different mass spectrometry based non-targeted approaches as well as one antibody based method. This led to the identification of 548 non-redundant proteins in conditioned media from hSkmc. For 501 proteins, significant mRNA expression could be demonstrated. Applying stringent consecutive filtering using SignalP, SecretomeP and ER_retention signal databases, 305 proteins were assigned as potential myokines of which 12 proteins containing a secretory signal peptide were not previously described. This comprehensive profiling study of the human skeletal muscle secretome expands our knowledge of the composition of the human myokinome and may contribute to our understanding of the role of myokines in multiple biological processes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge. PMID:23994228

  7. Neurofibromin (Nf1) is required for skeletal muscle development

    PubMed Central

    Kossler, Nadine; Stricker, Sigmar; Rödelsperger, Christian; Robinson, Peter N.; Kim, Johnny; Dietrich, Carola; Osswald, Monika; Kühnisch, Jirko; Stevenson, David A.; Braun, Thomas; Mundlos, Stefan; Kolanczyk, Mateusz

    2011-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a multi-system disease caused by mutations in the NF1 gene encoding a Ras-GAP protein, neurofibromin, which negatively regulates Ras signaling. Besides neuroectodermal malformations and tumors, the skeletal system is often affected (e.g. scoliosis and long bone dysplasia) demonstrating the importance of neurofibromin for development and maintenance of the musculoskeletal system. Here, we focus on the role of neurofibromin in skeletal muscle development. Nf1 gene inactivation in the early limb bud mesenchyme using Prx1-cre (Nf1Prx1) resulted in muscle dystrophy characterized by fibrosis, reduced number of muscle fibers and reduced muscle force. This was caused by an early defect in myogenesis affecting the terminal differentiation of myoblasts between E12.5 and E14.5. In parallel, the muscle connective tissue cells exhibited increased proliferation at E14.5 and an increase in the amount of connective tissue as early as E16.5. These changes were accompanied by excessive mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation. Satellite cells isolated from Nf1Prx1 mice showed normal self-renewal, but their differentiation was impaired as indicated by diminished myotube formation. Our results demonstrate a requirement of neurofibromin for muscle formation and maintenance. This previously unrecognized function of neurofibromin may contribute to the musculoskeletal problems in NF1 patients. PMID:21478499

  8. Skeletal muscle gene expression in space-flown rats.

    PubMed

    Nikawa, Takeshi; Ishidoh, Kazumi; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Ishihara, Ibuki; Ikemoto, Madoka; Kano, Mihoko; Kominami, Eiki; Nonaka, Ikuya; Ogawa, Takayuki; Adams, Gregory R; Baldwin, Kenneth M; Yasui, Natsuo; Kishi, Kyoichi; Takeda, Shin'ichi

    2004-03-01

    Skeletal muscles are vulnerable to marked atrophy under microgravity. This phenomenon is due to the transcriptional alteration of skeletal muscle cells to weightlessness. To further investigate this issue at a subcellular level, we examined the expression of approximately 26,000 gastrocnemius muscle genes in space-flown rats by DNA microarray analysis. Comparison of the changes in gene expression among spaceflight, tail-suspended, and denervated rats revealed that such changes were unique after spaceflight and not just an extension of simulated weightlessness. The microarray data showed two spaceflight-specific gene expression patterns: 1) imbalanced expression of mitochondrial genes with disturbed expression of cytoskeletal molecules, including putative mitochondria-anchoring proteins, A-kinase anchoring protein, and cytoplasmic dynein, and 2) up-regulated expression of ubiquitin ligase genes, MuRF-1, Cbl-b, and Siah-1A, which are rate-limiting enzymes of muscle protein degradation. Distorted expression of cytoskeletal genes during spaceflight resulted in dislocation of the mitochondria in the cell. Several oxidative stress-inducible genes were highly expressed in the muscle of spaceflight rats. We postulate that mitochondrial dislocation during spaceflight has deleterious effects on muscle fibers, leading to atrophy in the form of insufficient energy provision for construction and leakage of reactive oxygen species from the mitochondria. PMID:14715702

  9. Identification of New Dystroglycan Complexes in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Eric K.; Li, Bin; Yoon, Jung Hae; Flanigan, Kevin M.; Martin, Paul T.; Ervasti, James; Montanaro, Federica

    2013-01-01

    The dystroglycan complex contains the transmembrane protein ?-dystroglycan and its interacting extracellular mucin-like protein ?-dystroglycan. In skeletal muscle fibers, the dystroglycan complex plays an important structural role by linking the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin to laminin in the extracellular matrix. Mutations that affect any of the proteins involved in this structural axis lead to myofiber degeneration and are associated with muscular dystrophies and congenital myopathies. Because loss of dystrophin in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) leads to an almost complete loss of dystroglycan complexes at the myofiber membrane, it is generally assumed that the vast majority of dystroglycan complexes within skeletal muscle fibers interact with dystrophin. The residual dystroglycan present in dystrophin-deficient muscle is thought to be preserved by utrophin, a structural homolog of dystrophin that is up-regulated in dystrophic muscles. However, we found that dystroglycan complexes are still present at the myofiber membrane in the absence of both dystrophin and utrophin. Our data show that only a minority of dystroglycan complexes associate with dystrophin in wild type muscle. Furthermore, we provide evidence for at least three separate pools of dystroglycan complexes within myofibers that differ in composition and are differentially affected by loss of dystrophin. Our findings indicate a more complex role of dystroglycan in muscle than currently recognized and may help explain differences in disease pathology and severity among myopathies linked to mutations in DAPC members. PMID:23951345

  10. Hindlimb unloading increases oxidative stress and disrupts antioxidant capacity in skeletal muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Lawler; Wook Song; Scott R. Demaree

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal muscle disuse with space-flight and ground-based models (e.g., hindlimb unloading) results in dramatic skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness. Pathological conditions that cause muscle wasting (i.e., heart failure, muscular dystrophy, sepsis, COPD, cancer) are characterized by elevated “oxidative stress,” where antioxidant defenses are overwhelmed by oxidant production. However, the existence, cellular mechanisms, and ramifications of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle

  11. Deficiency of triad formation in developing skeletal muscle cells lacking junctophilin type 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinji Komazaki; Koichi Ito; Hiroshi Takeshima; Hiroaki Nakamura

    2002-01-01

    Junctophilins (JP-1, JP-2, and JP-3) are transmembrane proteins expressed in the junctional membrane complexes in excitable cells. Both JP-1 and JP-2 are co-expressed in the triads of skeletal muscle, but only JP-2 is expressed in cardiac muscle. We analyzed the roles played by JP-1 and JP-2 in triad formation in skeletal muscle by comparing developing skeletal muscles in wild-type and

  12. Myosin light chain kinase and myosin phosphorylation effect frequency-dependent potentiation of skeletal muscle contraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Zhi; Jeffrey W. Ryder; Jian Huang; Peiguo Ding; Yue Chen; Yingming Zhao; Kristine E. Kamm; James T. Stull

    2005-01-01

    Repetitive stimulation potentiates contractile tension of fast-twitch skeletal muscle. We examined the role of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphorylation in this physiological response by ablating Ca2+\\/calmodulin-dependent skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) gene expression. Western blot and quantitative-PCR showed that MLCK is expressed predominantly in fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibers with insignificant amounts in heart and smooth muscle. In

  13. Textbook Reading Assignment: Sadava Ch. 48 Skeletal Muscular System General: This is an important chapter muscles make up most of your body and are

    E-print Network

    Prestwich, Ken

    : Skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle, myoblast Striated vs. smooth muscle Muscle fiber Tropomyosin Actin Myosin Twitch Tetanus (tetany) Slow twitch, oxidative skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling (EC coupling). Know them in skeletal, cardiac

  14. Spermine oxidase maintains basal skeletal muscle gene expression and fiber size and is strongly repressed by conditions that cause skeletal muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Bongers, Kale S; Fox, Daniel K; Kunkel, Steven D; Stebounova, Larissa V; Murry, Daryl J; Pufall, Miles A; Ebert, Scott M; Dyle, Michael C; Bullard, Steven A; Dierdorff, Jason M; Adams, Christopher M

    2015-01-15

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common and debilitating condition that remains poorly understood at the molecular level. To better understand the mechanisms of muscle atrophy, we used mouse models to search for a skeletal muscle protein that helps to maintain muscle mass and is specifically lost during muscle atrophy. We discovered that diverse causes of muscle atrophy (limb immobilization, fasting, muscle denervation, and aging) strongly reduced expression of the enzyme spermine oxidase. Importantly, a reduction in spermine oxidase was sufficient to induce muscle fiber atrophy. Conversely, forced expression of spermine oxidase increased muscle fiber size in multiple models of muscle atrophy (immobilization, fasting, and denervation). Interestingly, the reduction of spermine oxidase during muscle atrophy was mediated by p21, a protein that is highly induced during muscle atrophy and actively promotes muscle atrophy. In addition, we found that spermine oxidase decreased skeletal muscle mRNAs that promote muscle atrophy (e.g., myogenin) and increased mRNAs that help to maintain muscle mass (e.g., mitofusin-2). Thus, in healthy skeletal muscle, a relatively low level of p21 permits expression of spermine oxidase, which helps to maintain basal muscle gene expression and fiber size; conversely, during conditions that cause muscle atrophy, p21 expression rises, leading to reduced spermine oxidase expression, disruption of basal muscle gene expression, and muscle fiber atrophy. Collectively, these results identify spermine oxidase as an important positive regulator of muscle gene expression and fiber size, and elucidate p21-mediated repression of spermine oxidase as a key step in the pathogenesis of skeletal muscle atrophy. PMID:25406264

  15. Leucine Supplementation Improves Skeletal Muscle Regeneration after Cryolesion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Marcelo G.; Baptista, Igor L.; Carlassara, Eduardo O. C.; Moriscot, Anselmo S.; Aoki, Marcelo S.; Miyabara, Elen H.

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to provide further insight into the role of leucine supplementation in the skeletal muscle regeneration process, focusing on myofiber size and strength recovery. Young (2-month-old) rats were subjected or not to leucine supplementation (1.35 g/kg per day) started 3 days prior to cryolesion. Then, soleus muscles were cryolesioned and continued receiving leucine supplementation until 1, 3 and 10 days later. Soleus muscles from leucine-supplemented animals displayed an increase in myofiber size and a reduction in collagen type III expression on post-cryolesion day 10. Leucine was also effective in reducing FOXO3a activation and ubiquitinated protein accumulation in muscles at post-cryolesion days 3 and 10. In addition, leucine supplementation minimized the cryolesion-induced decrease in tetanic strength and increase in fatigue in regenerating muscles at post-cryolesion day 10. These beneficial effects of leucine were not accompanied by activation of any elements of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin signalling pathway in the regenerating muscles. Our results show that leucine improves myofiber size gain and strength recovery in regenerating soleus muscles through attenuation of protein ubiquitination. In addition, leucine might have therapeutic effects for muscle recovery following injury and in some muscle diseases. PMID:24416379

  16. Skeletal muscle calcineurin: influence of phenotype adaptation and atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangenburg, E. E.; Williams, J. H.; Roy, R. R.; Talmadge, R. J.; Spangenberg, E. E. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Calcineurin (CaN) has been implicated as a signaling molecule that can transduce physiological stimuli (e.g., contractile activity) into molecular signals that initiate slow-fiber phenotypic gene expression and muscle growth. To determine the influence of muscle phenotype and atrophy on CaN levels in muscle, the levels of soluble CaN in rat muscles of varying phenotype, as assessed by myosin heavy chain (MHC)-isoform proportions, were determined by Western blotting. CaN levels were significantly greater in the plantaris muscle containing predominantly fast (IIx and IIb) MHC isoforms, compared with the soleus (predominantly type I MHC) or vastus intermedius (VI, contains all 4 adult MHC isoforms). Three months after a complete spinal cord transection (ST), the CaN levels in the VI muscle were significantly reduced, despite a significant increase in fast MHC isoforms. Surprisingly, the levels of CaN in the VI were highly correlated with muscle mass but not MHC isoform proportions in ST and control rats. These data demonstrate that CaN levels in skeletal muscle are highly correlated to muscle mass and that the normal relationship with phenotype is lost after ST.

  17. The Effect of Statins on Skeletal Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Beth A.; Capizzi, Jeffrey A.; Grimaldi, Adam S.; Clarkson, Priscilla M.; Cole, Stephanie M.; Keadle, Justin; Chipkin, Stuart; Pescatello, Linda S.; Simpson, Kathleen; White, C. Michael; Thompson, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many clinicians believe that statins cause muscle pain, but this has not been observed in clinical trials and the effect of statins on muscle performance has not been carefully studied. Methods and Results The Effect of STatins On Skeletal Muscle Function and Performance (STOMP) study assessed symptoms and measured creatine kinase (CK), exercise capacity, and muscle strength before and after atorvastatin 80 mg or placebo were administered for 6 months to 420 healthy, statin-naive subjects. No individual CK value exceeded 10 times normal, but average CK increased 20.8 ± 141.1 U/L (p<0.0001) with atorvastatin. There were no significant changes in several measures of muscle strength or exercise capacity with atorvastatin, but more atorvastatin than placebo subjects developed myalgia (19 vs 10; p = 0.05). Myalgic subjects on atorvastatin or placebo decreased muscle strength in 5 of 14 and 4 of 14 variables respectively (p = 0.69). Conclusions These results indicate that high-dose atorvastatin for 6 months does not decrease average muscle strength or exercise performance in healthy, previously untreated subjects. Nevertheless, this blinded, controlled trial confirms the undocumented impression that statins increase muscle complaints. Atorvastatin also increased average CK suggesting that statins produce mild muscle injury even among asymptomatic subjects. This increase in CK should prompt studies examining the effects of more prolonged, high-dose statin treatment on muscular performance. Clinical Trial Registration Information: www.clinicaltrials.gov; Identifier: NCT00609063. PMID:23183941

  18. Therapies for sarcopenia and regeneration of old skeletal muscles

    PubMed Central

    Grounds, Miranda D

    2014-01-01

    Age related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function (sarcopenia) reduces independence and the quality of life for individuals, and leads to falls and fractures with escalating health costs for the rapidly aging human population. Thus there is much interest in developing interventions to reduce sarcopenia. One area that has attracted recent attention is the proposed use of myogenic stem cells to improve regeneration of old muscles. This mini-review challenges the fundamental need for myogenic stem cell therapy for sarcopenia. It presents evidence that demonstrates the excellent capacity of myogenic stem cells from very old rodent and human muscles to form new muscles after experimental myofiber necrosis. The many factors required for successful muscle regeneration are considered with a strong focus on integration of components of old muscle bioarchitecture. The fundamental role of satellite cells in homeostasis of normal aging muscles and the incidence of endogenous regeneration in old muscles is questioned. These issues, combined with problems for clinical myogenic stem cell therapies for severe muscle diseases, raise fundamental concerns about the justification for myogenic stem cell therapy for sarcopenia. PMID:25101758

  19. Beating is necessary for transdifferentiation of skeletal muscle-derived cells into cardiomyocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihiro Iijima; Toshio Nagai; Miho Mizukami; Katsuhisa Matsuura; Takehiko Ogura; Hiroshi Wada; Haruhiko Toko; Hiroshi Akazawa; Hiroyuki Takano; Haruaki Nakaya; Issei Komuro

    2003-01-01

    Cell transplantation could be a potential therapy for heart damage. Skeletal myoblasts have been expected to be a good cell source for autologous transplantation; however, the safety and efficacy of their transplantation are still controversial. Recent studies have revealed that skeletal muscle possesses the stem cell population that is distinct from myoblasts. To elucidate whether skeletal muscle stem cells can

  20. Mutations in the skeletal muscle ?-actin gene in patients with actin myopathy and nemaline myopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristen J. Nowak; Duangrurdee Wattanasirichaigoon; Hans H. Goebel; Matthew Wilce; Katarina Pelin; Kati Donner; Rebecca L. Jacob; Christoph Hübner; Konrad Oexle; Janice R. Anderson; Christopher M. Verity; Kathryn N. North; Susan T. Iannaccone; Clemens R. Müller; Peter Nürnberg; Francesco Muntoni; Caroline Sewry; Imelda Hughes; Rebecca Sutphen; Atilano G. Lacson; Kathryn J. Swoboda; Jaqueline Vigneron; Carina Wallgren-Pettersson; Alan H. Beggs; Nigel G. Laing

    1999-01-01

    Muscle contraction results from the force generated between the thin filament protein actin and the thick filament protein myosin, which causes the thick and thin muscle filaments to slide past each other. There are skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle and non-muscle isoforms of both actin and myosin. Inherited diseases in humans have been associated with defects in cardiac actin

  1. Skeletal muscle responses to negative energy balance: effects of dietary protein.

    PubMed

    Carbone, John W; McClung, James P; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2012-03-01

    Sustained periods of negative energy balance decrease body mass due to losses of both fat and skeletal muscle mass. Decreases in skeletal muscle mass are associated with a myriad of negative consequences, including suppressed basal metabolic rate, decreased protein turnover, decreased physical performance, and increased risk of injury. Decreases in skeletal muscle mass in response to negative energy balance are due to imbalanced rates of muscle protein synthesis and degradation. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms contributing to the loss of skeletal muscle during energy deprivation are not well described. Recent studies have demonstrated that consuming dietary protein at levels above the current recommended dietary allowance (0.8 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)) may attenuate the loss of skeletal muscle mass by affecting the intracellular regulation of muscle anabolism and proteolysis. However, the specific mechanism by which increased dietary protein spares skeletal muscle through enhanced molecular control of muscle protein metabolism has not been elucidated. This article reviews the available literature related to the effects of negative energy balance on skeletal muscle mass, highlighting investigations that assessed the influence of varying levels of dietary protein on skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Further, the molecular mechanisms that may contribute to the regulation of skeletal muscle mass in response to negative energy balance and alterations in dietary protein level are described. PMID:22516719

  2. Optical NIR monitoring of skeletal muscle contraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Lago; Andrea Gelmetti; Roberta Pavesi; D. Zambarbieri

    1996-01-01

    NIR spectroscopy allows monitoring of muscle oxygenation and perfusion during contraction. The knowledge of modifications of blood characteristics in body tissues has relevant clinical interest. A compact and reliable device, which makes use of two laser diodes at 750 and 810 nm coupled with the skin surface through optical fibers, was tested. NIR and surface EMG signals during isometric contractions

  3. cap alpha. -skeletal and. cap alpha. -cardiac actin genes are coexpressed in adult human skeletal muscle and heart

    SciTech Connect

    Gunning, P.; Ponte, P.; Blau, H.; Kedes, L.

    1983-11-01

    The authors determined the actin isotypes encoded by 30 actin cDNA clones previously isolated from an adult human muscle cDNA library. Using 3' untranslated region probes, derived from ..cap alpha.. skeletal, ..beta..- and ..gamma..-actin cDNAs and from an ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin genomic clone, they showed that 28 of the cDNAs correspond to ..cap alpha..-skeletal actin transcripts. Unexpectedly, however, the remaining two cDNA clones proved to derive from ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin mRNA. Sequence analysis confirmed that the two skeletal muscle ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin cDNAs are derived from transcripts of the cloned ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin gene. Comparison of total actin mRNA levels in adult skeletal muscle and adult heart revealed that the steady-state levels in skeletal muscle are about twofold greater, per microgram of total cellular RNA, than those in heart. Thus, in skeletal muscle and in heart, both of the sarcomeric actin mRNA isotypes are quite abundant transcripts. They conclude that ..cap alpha..-skeletal and ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin genes are coexpressed as an actin pair in human adult striated muscles. Since the smooth-muscle actins (aortic and stomach) and the cytoplasmic actins (..beta.. and ..gamma..) are known to be coexpressed in smooth muscle and nonmuscle cells, respectively, they postulate that coexpression of actin pairs may be a common feature of mammalian actin gene expression in all tissues.

  4. Increasing mitochondrial muscle fatty acid oxidation induces skeletal muscle remodeling toward an oxidative phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hénique, Carole; Mansouri, Abdelhak; Vavrova, Eliska; Lenoir, Véronique; Ferry, Arnaud; Esnous, Catherine; Ramond, Elodie; Girard, Jean; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Prip-Buus, Carina; Cohen, Isabelle

    2015-06-01

    Adult skeletal muscle is a dynamic, remarkably plastic tissue, which allows myofibers to switch from fast/glycolytic to slow/oxidative types and to increase mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (mFAO) capacity and vascularization in response to exercise training. mFAO is the main muscle energy source during endurance exercise, with carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) being the key regulatory enzyme. Whether increasing muscle mFAO affects skeletal muscle physiology in adulthood actually remains unknown. To investigate this, we used in vivo electrotransfer technology to express in mouse tibialis anterior (TA), a fast/glycolytic muscle, a mutated CPT1 form (CPT1mt) that is active but insensitive to malonyl-CoA, its physiologic inhibitor. In young (2-mo-old) adult mice, muscle CPT1mt expression enhanced mFAO (+40%), but also increased the percentage of oxidative fibers (+28%), glycogen content, and capillary-to-fiber density (+45%). This CPT1mt-induced muscle remodeling, which mimicked exercise-induced oxidative phenotype, led to a greater resistance to muscle fatigue. In the context of aging, characterized by sarcopenia and reduced oxidative capacity, CPT1mt expression in TAs from aged (20-mo-old) mice partially reversed aging-associated sarcopenia and fiber-type transition, and increased muscle capillarity. These findings provide evidence that mFAO regulates muscle phenotype and may be a potential target to combat age-related decline in muscle function.-Hénique, C., Mansouri, A., Vavrova, E., Lenoir, V., Ferry, A., Esnous, C., Ramond, E., Girard, J., Bouillaud, F., Prip-Buus, C., Cohen, I. Increasing mitochondrial muscle fatty acid oxidation induces skeletal muscle remodeling toward an oxidative phenotype. PMID:25713059

  5. Skeletal muscle ?-actin diseases (actinopathies): pathology and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Kristen J; Ravenscroft, Gianina; Laing, Nigel G

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the skeletal muscle ?-actin gene (ACTA1) cause a range of congenital myopathies characterised by muscle weakness and specific skeletal muscle structural lesions. Actin accumulations, nemaline and intranuclear bodies, fibre-type disproportion, cores, caps, dystrophic features and zebra bodies have all been seen in biopsies from patients with ACTA1 disease, with patients frequently presenting with multiple pathologies. Therefore increasingly it is considered that these entities may represent a continuum of structural abnormalities arising due to ACTA1 mutations. Recently an ACTA1 mutation has also been associated with a hypertonic clinical presentation with nemaline bodies. Whilst multiple genes are known to cause many of the pathologies associated with ACTA1 mutations, to date actin aggregates, intranuclear rods and zebra bodies have solely been attributed to ACTA1 mutations. Approximately 200 different ACTA1 mutations have been identified, with 90 % resulting in dominant disease and 10 % resulting in recessive disease. Despite extensive research into normal actin function and the functional consequences of ACTA1 mutations in cell culture, animal models and patient tissue, the mechanisms underlying muscle weakness and the formation of structural lesions remains largely unknown. Whilst precise mechanisms are being grappled with, headway is being made in terms of developing therapeutics for ACTA1 disease, with gene therapy (specifically reducing the proportion of mutant skeletal muscle ?-actin protein) and pharmacological agents showing promising results in animal models and patient muscle. The use of small molecules to sensitise the contractile apparatus to Ca(2+) is a promising therapeutic for patients with various neuromuscular disorders, including ACTA1 disease. PMID:22825594

  6. Negative Impact of Skeletal Muscle Loss after Systemic Chemotherapy in Patients with Unresectable Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Yuji; Baba, Yoshifumi; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Ohuchi, Mayuko; Tokunaga, Ryuma; Kurashige, Junji; Hiyoshi, Yukiharu; Iwagami, Shiro; Yoshida, Naoya; Watanabe, Masayuki; Baba, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Background Skeletal muscle depletion (sarcopenia) is closely associated with limited physical ability and high mortality. This study evaluated the prognostic significance of skeletal muscle status before and after chemotherapy in patients with unresectable colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of 215 consecutive patients with unresectable CRC who underwent systemic chemotherapy. Skeletal muscle cross-sectional area was measured by computed tomography. We evaluated the prognostic value of skeletal muscle mass before chemotherapy and the rate of skeletal muscle change in cross-sectional area after chemotherapy. Results One-hundred-eighty-two patients met our inclusion criteria. There were no significant differences in progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS) associated with skeletal muscle mass before chemotherapy. However, 22 patients with skeletal muscle loss (>5%) after chemotherapy showed significantly shorter PFS and OS compared with those without skeletal muscle loss (PFS, log-rank p = 0.029; OS, log-rank p = 0.009). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that skeletal muscle loss after chemotherapy (hazard ratio, 2.079; 95% confidence interval, 1.194–3.619; p = 0.010) was independently associated with OS. Conclusions Skeletal muscle loss after chemotherapy was an independent, negative prognostic factor in unresectable CRC. PMID:26069972

  7. Proteomic profiling of the contractile apparatus from skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Holland, Ashling; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2013-06-01

    In skeletal muscle fibers, the excitation-contraction-relaxation cycle is a highly evolved process that is mediated by the contractile proteins - myosin and actin - and the regulatory elements - troponin and tropomyosin. Contractile fibers exhibit enormous complexity and heterogeneity on the molecular level, which is reflected by the diversity of protein isoforms that constitute the actomyosin apparatus. The main components of the contractile apparatus exist in high abundance and are relatively soluble, making them ideal candidates for a systematic analysis by liquid chromatography or gel electrophoresis-based proteomics. This review discusses the proteomic profiling of contractile components in adapting, degenerating and aging skeletal muscle tissues. The proteomic identification of altered contractile proteins may be useful for the establishment of biomarker signatures that can be applied in the examination of the physiological adaptability, cellular plasticity and pathological susceptibility of the neuromuscular system. PMID:23777215

  8. ATP citrate lyase improves mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Das, Suman; Morvan, Frederic; Jourde, Benjamin; Meier, Viktor; Kahle, Peter; Brebbia, Pascale; Toussaint, Gauthier; Glass, David J; Fornaro, Mara

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with skeletal muscle pathology, including cachexia, sarcopenia, and the muscular dystrophies. ATP citrate lyase (ACL) is a cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes mitochondria-derived citrate into oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA. Here we report that activation of ACL in skeletal muscle results in improved mitochondrial function. IGF1 induces activation of ACL in an AKT-dependent fashion. This results in an increase in cardiolipin, thus increasing critical mitochondrial complexes and supercomplex activity, and a resultant increase in oxygen consumption and cellular ATP levels. Conversely, knockdown of ACL in myotubes not only reduces mitochondrial complex I, IV, and V activity but also blocks IGF1-induced increases in oxygen consumption. In vivo, ACL activity is associated with increased ATP. Activation of this IGF1/ACL/cardiolipin pathway combines anabolic signaling with induction of mechanisms needed to provide required ATP. PMID:26039450

  9. NOTE: Anisotropic photon migration in human skeletal muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binzoni, T.; Courvoisier, C.; Giust, R.; Tribillon, G.; Gharbi, T.; Hebden, J. C.; Leung, T. S.; Roux, J.; Delpy, D. T.

    2006-03-01

    It is demonstrated in the short head of the human biceps brachii of 16 healthy subjects (12 males and 4 females) that near infrared photon migration is anisotropic. The probability for a photon to travel along the direction of the muscle fibres is higher (~0.4) than that of travelling along a perpendicular axis (~0.3) while in the adipose tissue the probability is the same (~0.33) in all directions. Considering that the muscle fibre orientation is different depending on the type of muscle considered, and that inside a given skeletal muscle the orientation may change, the present findings in part might explain the intrasubject variability observed in the physiological parameters measured by near infrared spectroscopy techniques. In other words, the observed regional differences might not only be physiological differences but also optical artefacts.

  10. Atrophy of rat skeletal muscles in simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feller, D. D.; Ginoza, H. S.; Morey, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    A hypokinetic rat model was used for elucidation of the mechanism of skeletal muscle wasting which occurs in weightlessness. Rats were suspended from a back-harness with the head tilted downward and the hind limbs totally unloaded. A progressive decrease in the size of the soleus muscle from suspended rats was observed as a function of time. The rate of protein degradation of the homogenates from the soleus muscles of suspended and control animals was not significantly different. The rate of cell-free protein synthesis was severely repressed in the atrophied muscle. An initial rise in the levels of plasma glucose and corticosterone was observed on the second day of suspension, but they subsequently returned to normal values.

  11. Skeletal muscle: energy metabolism, fiber types, fatigue and adaptability.

    PubMed

    Westerblad, Håkan; Bruton, Joseph D; Katz, Abram

    2010-11-01

    Skeletal muscles cope with a large range of activities, from being able to support the body weight during long periods of upright standing to perform explosive movements in response to an unexpected threat. This requires systems for energy metabolism that can provide energy during long periods of moderately increased energy consumption as well as being able to rapidly increasing the rate of energy production more than 100-fold in response to explosive contractions. In this short review we discuss how muscles can deal with these divergent demands. We first outline the major energy metabolism pathways in skeletal muscle. Next we describe metabolic differences between different muscle fiber types. Contractile performance declines during intense activation, i.e. fatigue develops, and we discuss likely underlying mechanisms. Finally, we discuss the ability of muscle fibers to adapt to altered demands, and mechanisms behind these adaptations. The accumulated experimental evidence forces us to conclude that most aspects of energy metabolism involve multiple and overlapping signaling pathways, which indicates that the control of energy metabolism is too important to depend on one single molecule or mechanism. PMID:20580710

  12. Tirasemtiv amplifies skeletal muscle response to nerve activation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Richard; Saikali, Khalil G; Chou, Willis; Russell, Alan J; Chen, Michael M; Vijayakumar, Vipin; Stoltz, Randall R; Baudry, Stephane; Enoka, Roger M; Morgans, David J; Wolff, Andrew A; Malik, Fady I

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In this study we tested the hypothesis that tirasemtiv, a selective fast skeletal muscle troponin activator that sensitizes the sarcomere to calcium, could amplify the response of muscle to neuromuscular input in humans. Methods: Healthy men received tirasemtiv and placebo in a randomized, double-blind, 4-period, crossover design. The deep fibular nerve was stimulated transcutaneously to activate the tibialis anterior muscle and produce dorsiflexion of the foot. The force–frequency relationship of tibialis anterior dorsiflexion was assessed after dosing. Results: Tirasemtiv increased force produced by the tibialis anterior in a dose-, concentration-, and frequency-dependent manner with the largest increases [up to 24.5% (SE 3.1), P?skeletal muscle to nerve input in humans. This outcome provides support for further studies of tirasemtiv as a potential therapy in conditions marked by diminished neuromuscular input. Muscle Nerve 50: 925–931, 2014 PMID:24634285

  13. Mechanical stimulation improves tissue-engineered human skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Courtney A.; Smiley, Beth L.; Mills, John; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    2002-01-01

    Human bioartificial muscles (HBAMs) are tissue engineered by suspending muscle cells in collagen/MATRIGEL, casting in a silicone mold containing end attachment sites, and allowing the cells to differentiate for 8 to 16 days. The resulting HBAMs are representative of skeletal muscle in that they contain parallel arrays of postmitotic myofibers; however, they differ in many other morphological characteristics. To engineer improved HBAMs, i.e., more in vivo-like, we developed Mechanical Cell Stimulator (MCS) hardware to apply in vivo-like forces directly to the engineered tissue. A sensitive force transducer attached to the HBAM measured real-time, internally generated, as well as externally applied, forces. The muscle cells generated increasing internal forces during formation which were inhibitable with a cytoskeleton depolymerizer. Repetitive stretch/relaxation for 8 days increased the HBAM elasticity two- to threefold, mean myofiber diameter 12%, and myofiber area percent 40%. This system allows engineering of improved skeletal muscle analogs as well as a nondestructive method to determine passive force and viscoelastic properties of the resulting tissue.

  14. An In Vitro Model of Skeletal Muscle Volume Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Wibberley, Anna; Staunton, Caroline A.; Feetham, Claire H.; Vereninov, Alexey A.; Barrett-Jolley, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hypertonic media causes cells to shrink due to water loss through aquaporin channels. After acute shrinkage, cells either regulate their volume or, alternatively, undergo a number of metabolic changes which ultimately lead to cell death. In many cell types, hypertonic shrinkage is followed by apoptosis. Due to the complex 3D morphology of skeletal muscle and the difficulty in obtaining isolated human tissue, we have begun skeletal muscle volume regulation studies using the human skeletal muscle cell line TE671RD. In this study we investigated whether hypertonic challenge of the human skeletal muscle cell line TE671RD triggered cell death or evoked a cell volume recovery response. Methods The cellular volume of TE671RD cells was calculated from the 2D surface area. Cell death was assessed by both the trypan blue live/dead assay and the TUNEL assay. Results Medium osmolality was increased by addition of up to 200mM sucrose. Addition of 200mM sucrose resulted in mean cell shrinkage of 44±1% after 30mins. At later time points (2 and 4 hrs) two separate cell subpopulations with differing mean cell volume became apparent. The first subpopulation (15±2% of the total cell number) continued to shrink whereas the second subpopulation had an increased cell volume. Cell death was observed in a small proportion of cells (approximately 6-8%). Conclusion We have established that a substantial proportion of TE671RD cells respond to hypertonic challenge with RVI, but that these cells are resistant to hypertonicity triggered cell death. PMID:26029913

  15. Regulation of glucose transport in skeletal muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. JAMES BARNARD; JACX F. YOUNGREN

    The entry of glucose into muscle cells is achieved primarilyviaa carrier-mediatedsystem consist- ing of protein transport molecules. GLUT-i transporter isoform is normally found in the sarcolemmal (SL) mem- brane and is thought to be involved in glucose transport under basal conditions. With insulin stimulation, glucose transport is accelerated by translocating GLUT-4 trans- porters from an intracellular pooi out to the

  16. Leukemia inhibitory factor increases glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Nina; O'Neill, Hayley M; Kleinert, Maximilian; Schjerling, Peter; Vernet, Erik; Steinberg, Gregory R; Richter, Erik A; Jørgensen, Sebastian B

    2015-07-15

    Members of the IL-6 family, IL-6 and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), have been shown to increase glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. However, the metabolic effects of another family member, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), are not well characterized. Effects of LIF on skeletal muscle glucose uptake and palmitate oxidation and signaling were investigated in ex vivo incubated mouse soleus and EDL muscles from muscle-specific AMPK?2 kinase-dead, muscle-specific SOCS3 knockout, and lean and high-fat-fed mice. Inhibitors were used to investigate involvement of specific signaling pathways. LIF increased muscle glucose uptake in dose (50-5,000 pM/l) and time-dependent manners with maximal effects at the 30-min time point. LIF increased Akt Ser(473) phosphorylation (P) in soleus and EDL, whereas AMPK Thr(172) P was unaffected. Incubation with parthenolide abolished LIF-induced glucose uptake and STAT3 Tyr(705) P, whereas incubation with LY-294002 and wortmannin suppressed both basal and LIF-induced glucose uptake and Akt Ser(473) P, indicating that JAK and PI 3-kinase signaling is required for LIF-stimulated glucose uptake. Incubation with rapamycin and AZD8055 indicated that mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC)2, but not mTORC1, also is required for LIF-stimulated glucose uptake. In contrast to CNTF, LIF stimulation did not alter palmitate oxidation. LIF-stimulated glucose uptake was maintained in EDL from obese insulin-resistant mice, whereas soleus developed LIF resistance. Lack of SOCS3 and AMPK?2 did not affect LIF-stimulated glucose uptake. In conclusion, LIF acutely increased muscle glucose uptake by a mechanism potentially involving the PI 3-kinase/mTORC2/Akt pathway and is not impaired in EDL muscle from obese insulin-resistant mice. PMID:25968579

  17. Signalling and the control of skeletal muscle size

    SciTech Connect

    Otto, Anthony [School of Biological Sciences, Hopkins Building, University of Reading, Whiteknights Campus, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 6UB (United Kingdom)] [School of Biological Sciences, Hopkins Building, University of Reading, Whiteknights Campus, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 6UB (United Kingdom); Patel, Ketan, E-mail: ketan.patel@reading.ac.uk [School of Biological Sciences, Hopkins Building, University of Reading, Whiteknights Campus, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 6UB (United Kingdom)] [School of Biological Sciences, Hopkins Building, University of Reading, Whiteknights Campus, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 6UB (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-01

    Skeletal muscle is highly adaptive to environmental stimuli and can alter its mass accordingly. This tissue is almost unique in that it can increase its size through two distinct mechanisms. It can grow through a cellular process mediated by cell fusion, or it can increase its size simply by increasing its protein content. Understanding how these processes are regulated is crucial for the development of potential therapies against debilitating skeletal muscle wasting diseases. Two key signalling molecules, Insulin like Growth Factor (IGF) and GDF-8/myostatin, have emerged in recent years to be potent regulators of skeletal muscle size. In this review we bring together recent data highlighting the important and novel aspects of both molecules and their signalling pathways, culminating in a discussion of the cellular and tissue phenotypic outcomes of their stimulation or antagonism. We emphasise the complex regulatory mechanisms and discuss the temporal and spatial differences that control their action, understanding of which is crucial to further their use as potential therapeutic targets.

  18. Targeting of skeletal muscle in vitro using biotinylated immunoliposomes.

    PubMed Central

    Schnyder, Anita; Krähenbühl, Stefan; Török, Michael; Drewe, Jürgen; Huwyler, Jörg

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, a non-covalent (biotin-streptavidin) coupling procedure for the preparation of pegylated immunoliposomes is presented, which simplifies the attachment of targeting vectors to sterically stabilized liposomes. A biotinylated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-phospholipid [bio-PEG-distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE)] was used as a linker between a streptavidin-conjugated monoclonal antibody (mAb) (i.e. the OX26 mAb raised against the rat transferrin receptor) and 150 nm liposomes. OX26-streptavidin had a biotin binding capacity of two to three biotin molecules per OX26-streptavidin conjugate. Immunostaining experiments with the OX26 mAb followed by fluorescent confocal microscopy revealed immunofluorescence labelling of the transferrin receptor on skeletal muscle, as well as in L6 cells, a continuous cell line derived from rat skeletal muscle. Uptake experiments with L6 cells using the OX26 mAb, fluorescence-labelled OX26-streptavidin or fluorescent OX26-immunoliposomes demonstrated cellular uptake and accumulation within an intracellular compartment of the OX26 mAb and its conjugates. Cellular uptake of OX26 conjugates was sensitive to competition with free OX26 antibody. In summary, these studies describe the design of biotinylated immunoliposomes as a universal drug transport vector and their potential for targeting of the transferrin receptor of skeletal muscle. PMID:14516278

  19. Ex Vivo Assessment of Contractility, Fatigability and Alternans in Isolated Skeletal Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki Ho; Brotto, Leticia; Lehoang, Oanh; Brotto, Marco; Ma, Jianjie; Zhao, Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    Described here is a method to measure contractility of isolated skeletal muscles. Parameters such as muscle force, muscle power, contractile kinetics, fatigability, and recovery after fatigue can be obtained to assess specific aspects of the excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) process such as excitability, contractile machinery and Ca2+ handling ability. This method removes the nerve and blood supply and focuses on the isolated skeletal muscle itself. We routinely use this method to identify genetic components that alter the contractile property of skeletal muscle though modulating Ca2+ signaling pathways. Here, we describe a newly identified skeletal muscle phenotype, i.e., mechanic alternans, as an example of the various and rich information that can be obtained using the in vitro muscle contractility assay. Combination of this assay with single cell assays, genetic approaches and biochemistry assays can provide important insights into the mechanisms of ECC in skeletal muscle. PMID:23149471

  20. Age- and Stroke-Related Skeletal Muscle Changes: A Review for the Geriatric Clinician

    PubMed Central

    Sions, J. Megan; Tyrell, Christine M.; Knarr, Brian A.; Jancosko, Angela; Binder-Macleod, Stuart A.

    2011-01-01

    Independently, aging and stroke each have a significant negative impact on skeletal muscle, but the potential cumulative effects of aging and stroke have not been explored. Optimal interventions for individuals post-stroke may include those that specifically target skeletal muscle. Addressing changes in muscles may minimize activity limitations and enhance participation post-stroke. This paper reviews the impact of aging and stroke on muscle morphology and composition, including fiber atrophy, reductions in muscle cross-sectional area, changes in muscle fiber distributions, and increases in intramuscular fat. Relationships between changes in muscle structure, muscle function, and physical mobility are reviewed. Clinical recommendations that preserve and enhance skeletal muscle in the aging adult and individuals post-stroke are discussed. Future research directions that include systematic comparison of the differences in skeletal muscle between younger and older adults who have sustained a stroke are suggested. PMID:22107952

  1. Inward potassium transport systems in skeletal muscle derived cells are highly sensitive to oxidant exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chandan K. Sen; Irina Kolosova; Osmo Hänninen; Sergei N. Orlov

    1995-01-01

    Strenuous physical exercise causes a remarkable perturbation of K+ homeostasis in skeletal muscle tissue. Potassium efflux is crucial for a number of physiological control processes; however, exercise-induced perturbation of K+ homeostasis in skeletal muscle is suggested to be implicated in the generation of muscle fatigue. Physical exercise is also known to induce oxidative stress; a possible contribution of oxygen free

  2. AUTOMATIC SKELETAL MUSCLE SEGMENTATION THROUGH RANDOM WALKS AND GRAPH-BASED SEED PLACEMENT

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    AUTOMATIC SKELETAL MUSCLE SEGMENTATION THROUGH RANDOM WALKS AND GRAPH-BASED SEED PLACEMENT P University Paris 06, Paris, FR. ABSTRACT In this paper we propose a novel skeletal muscle segmentation method appropriate seed posi- tions with respect to the different muscle classes. This is achieved by taking

  3. Prion Infection of Skeletal Muscle Cells and Papillae in the Tongue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellyn R. Mulcahy; Jason C. Bartz; Anthony E. Kincaid; Richard A. Bessen

    2004-01-01

    The presence of the prion agent in skeletal muscle is thought to be due to the infection of nerve fibers located within the muscle. We report here that the pathological isoform of the prion protein, PrPSc, accumulates within skeletal muscle cells, in addition to axons, in the tongue of hamsters following intralingual and intracerebral inoculation of the HY strain of

  4. Human skeletal muscle cells in ex vivo gene therapy to deliver bone morphogenetic protein-2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Musgrave; R. Pruchnic; P. Bosch; B. H. Ziran; J. Whalen; J. Huard

    2002-01-01

    therapy to deliver BMP-2 and to produce bone in vivo. Two in vitro experiments and one in vivo experiment were used to determine the osteocompetence and BMP-2 secretion capacity of cells isolated from human skeletal muscle. We isolated five different populations of primary muscle cells from human skeletal muscle in three patients. In the first in vitro experiment, production of

  5. Fluorescence Polarization Transients from Rhodamine Isomers on the Myosin Regulatory Light Chain in Skeletal Muscle Fibers

    E-print Network

    Croquette, Vincent

    in Skeletal Muscle Fibers Seth C. Hopkins,* Cibele Sabido-David,# John E.T. Corrie,§ Malcolm Irving,# and Yale to examine orientation changes of two rhodamine probes bound to myosin heads in skeletal muscle fibers of the cross-bridge cycle in muscle contraction (Whittaker et al., 1995; Irving et al., 1995; Gollub et al

  6. Classification: Biological Sciences, Developmental Biology;1 CRIPTO REGULATES SKELETAL MUSCLE REGENERATION AND MODULATES SATELLITE3

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    regeneration, whereas gain of function of Cripto8 accelerates regeneration leading to muscle hypertrophy1 Classification: Biological Sciences, Developmental Biology;1 2 CRIPTO REGULATES SKELETAL MUSCLE, University College London. WC1E1 6DE, United Kingdom2 3 4 Running Title: Role of Cripto in skeletal muscle

  7. SREBP-1 Transcription Factors Regulate Skeletal Muscle Cell Size by Controlling Protein Synthesis through

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SREBP-1 Transcription Factors Regulate Skeletal Muscle Cell Size by Controlling Protein Synthesis and cell size in adult muscle fibre, and contribute to decipher the mechanisms by which SREBP-1 regulate Transcription Factors Regulate Skeletal Muscle Cell Size by Controlling Protein Synthesis through Myogenic

  8. Myf5 haploinsufficiency reveals distinct cell fate potentials for adult skeletal muscle stem cells

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Myf5 haploinsufficiency reveals distinct cell fate potentials for adult skeletal muscle stem cells by The Company of Biologists Ltd doi: 10.1242/jcs.097006 Summary Skeletal muscle stem cell fate in adult mice role of Myf5 in regulating quiescent muscle stem cells has remained elusive. Here we show that most

  9. Dietary nitrate reduces skeletal muscle oxygenation response to physical exercise: a quantitative muscle functional MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Rachel; Gray, Stuart R.; Schwarzbauer, Christian; Dawson, Dana; Frenneaux, Michael; He, Jiabao

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Dietary inorganic nitrate supplementation (probably via conversion to nitrite) increases skeletal muscle metabolic efficiency. In addition, it may also cause hypoxia?dependent vasodilation and this has the potential to augment oxygen delivery to exercising skeletal muscle. However, direct evidence for the latter with spatial localization to exercising muscle groups does not exist. We employed quantitative functional MRI (fMRI) to characterize skeletal muscle oxygen utilization and replenishment by assessment of tissue oxygenation maximal change and recovery change, respectively. Eleven healthy subjects were enrolled, of whom 9 (age 33.3 ± 4.4 years, five males) completed the study. Each subject took part in three MRI visits, with dietary nitrate (7cl concentrated beetroot juice) consumed before the third visit. During each visit fMRIs were conducted concurrently with plantar flexion exercise at workloads of 15% and 25% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). No significant changes were found between visits 1 and 2 in the fMRI measures. A decrease in maximal change was found at 15% MVC in soleus between visits 2 and 3 (5.12 ± 2.36 to 2.55 ± 1.42, P = 0.004) and between visits 1 and 3 (4.43 ± 2.12 to 2.55 ± 1.42, P = 0.043), but not at 25% MVC or within gastrocnemius. There was no difference in recovery change between visits. We found that dietary nitrate supplementation reduces tissue oxygenation alterations during physical exercise in skeletal muscle. This effect is more prominent in muscles with predominantly type 1 fibers and at lower workloads. This indicates that in healthy subjects dietary nitrate predominantly affects skeletal muscle energy efficiency with no change in oxygen delivery. PMID:25052493

  10. Chemerin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qihai; Deng, Yujie; Huang, Chenglin; Liu, Penghao; Yang, Ying; Shen, Weili; Gao, Pingjin

    2015-01-01

    Chemerin is a novel adipocyte-derived factor that induces insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. However, the effect of chemerin on skeletal muscle mitochondrial function has received little attention. In the present study, we investigated whether mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the pathogenesis of chemerin-mediated insulin resistance. In this study, we used recombinant adenovirus to express murine chemerin in C57BL/6 mice. The mitochondrial function and structure were evaluated in isolated soleus muscles from mice. The oxidative mechanism of mitochondrial dysfunction in cultured C2C12 myotubes exposed to recombinant chemerin was analysed by western blotting, immunofluorescence and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The overexpression of chemerin in mice reduced the muscle mitochondrial content and increased mitochondrial autophagy, as determined by the increased conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and higher expression levels of Beclin1 and autophagy-related protein-5 and 7. The chemerin treatment of C2C12 myotubes increased the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, concomitant with a reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and increased the occurrence of mitochondrial protein carbonyls and mitochondrial DNA deletions. Knockdown of the expression of chemokine-like receptor 1 or the use of mitochondria-targeting antioxidant Mito-TEMPO restored the mitochondrial dysfunction induced by chemerin. Furthermore, chemerin exposure in C2C12 myotubes not only reduced the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) but also dephosphorylated forkhead box O3? (FoxO3?). Chemerin-induced mitochondrial autophagy likely through an AKT-FoxO3?-dependent signalling pathway. These findings provide direct evidence that chemerin may play an important role in regulating mitochondrial remodelling and function in skeletal muscle. PMID:25754411

  11. Effects of leucine and its metabolite ?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate on human skeletal muscle protein metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, D J; Hossain, T; Hill, D S; Phillips, B E; Crossland, H; Williams, J; Loughna, P; Churchward-Venne, T A; Breen, L; Phillips, S M; Etheridge, T; Rathmacher, J A; Smith, K; Szewczyk, N J; Atherton, P J

    2013-06-01

    Maintenance of skeletal muscle mass is contingent upon the dynamic equilibrium (fasted losses-fed gains) in protein turnover. Of all nutrients, the single amino acid leucine (Leu) possesses the most marked anabolic characteristics in acting as a trigger element for the initiation of protein synthesis. While the mechanisms by which Leu is 'sensed' have been the subject of great scrutiny, as a branched-chain amino acid, Leu can be catabolized within muscle, thus posing the possibility that metabolites of Leu could be involved in mediating the anabolic effect(s) of Leu. Our objective was to measure muscle protein anabolism in response to Leu and its metabolite HMB. Using [1,2-(13)C2]Leu and [(2)H5]phenylalanine tracers, and GC-MS/GC-C-IRMS we studied the effect of HMB or Leu alone on MPS (by tracer incorporation into myofibrils), and for HMB we also measured muscle proteolysis (by arteriovenous (A-V) dilution). Orally consumed 3.42 g free-acid (FA-HMB) HMB (providing 2.42 g of pure HMB) exhibited rapid bioavailability in plasma and muscle and, similarly to 3.42 g Leu, stimulated muscle protein synthesis (MPS; HMB +70% vs. Leu +110%). While HMB and Leu both increased anabolic signalling (mechanistic target of rapamycin; mTOR), this was more pronounced with Leu (i.e. p70S6K1 signalling 90 min vs. 30 min for HMB). HMB consumption also attenuated muscle protein breakdown (MPB; -57%) in an insulin-independent manner. We conclude that exogenous HMB induces acute muscle anabolism (increased MPS and reduced MPB) albeit perhaps via distinct, and/or additional mechanism(s) to Leu. PMID:23551944

  12. Effects of leucine and its metabolite ?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate on human skeletal muscle protein metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, D J; Hossain, T; Hill, D S; Phillips, B E; Crossland, H; Williams, J; Loughna, P; Churchward-Venne, T A; Breen, L; Phillips, S M; Etheridge, T; Rathmacher, J A; Smith, K; Szewczyk, N J; Atherton, P J

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance of skeletal muscle mass is contingent upon the dynamic equilibrium (fasted losses–fed gains) in protein turnover. Of all nutrients, the single amino acid leucine (Leu) possesses the most marked anabolic characteristics in acting as a trigger element for the initiation of protein synthesis. While the mechanisms by which Leu is ‘sensed’ have been the subject of great scrutiny, as a branched-chain amino acid, Leu can be catabolized within muscle, thus posing the possibility that metabolites of Leu could be involved in mediating the anabolic effect(s) of Leu. Our objective was to measure muscle protein anabolism in response to Leu and its metabolite HMB. Using [1,2-13C2]Leu and [2H5]phenylalanine tracers, and GC-MS/GC-C-IRMS we studied the effect of HMB or Leu alone on MPS (by tracer incorporation into myofibrils), and for HMB we also measured muscle proteolysis (by arteriovenous (A–V) dilution). Orally consumed 3.42 g free-acid (FA-HMB) HMB (providing 2.42 g of pure HMB) exhibited rapid bioavailability in plasma and muscle and, similarly to 3.42 g Leu, stimulated muscle protein synthesis (MPS; HMB +70%vs. Leu +110%). While HMB and Leu both increased anabolic signalling (mechanistic target of rapamycin; mTOR), this was more pronounced with Leu (i.e. p70S6K1 signalling ?90 min vs. ?30 min for HMB). HMB consumption also attenuated muscle protein breakdown (MPB; ?57%) in an insulin-independent manner. We conclude that exogenous HMB induces acute muscle anabolism (increased MPS and reduced MPB) albeit perhaps via distinct, and/or additional mechanism(s) to Leu. PMID:23551944

  13. Optical reflectance in fibrous tissues and skeletal muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranasinghesagara, Janaka C.

    We studied two biological tissues with optically anisotropic structures: high moisture soy protein extrudates and skeletal muscles. High moisture extrusion has been used to produce vegetable meat analogs that resemble real animal meat and have significant health benefits. Since visual and textural properties are key factors for consumer acceptance, assessing fiber formation in the extruded soy protein product is important for quality control purpose. A non-destructive method based on photon migration was developed to measure fiber formation in extruded soy proteins. The measured fiber formation index in intact samples showed good agreement with that obtained from image analysis on peeled samples. By implementing this new method in a fast laser scanning system, we have acquired two dimensional mappings of fiber formation and orientation in the entire sample in real time. In addition to fibrous structures, skeletal muscles have a unique periodic sarcomere structure which produces strong light diffractions. However, inconsistent experimental results have been reported in single fiber diffraction studies. By applying the three-dimensional coupled wave theory in a physical sarcomere model, we found that a variety of experimental observations can be explained if inhomogeneous muscle morphological profiles are considered. We also discovered that the sarcomere structure produced a unique optical reflectance pattern in whole muscle. None of the existing light propagation theories are able to describe this pattern. We developed a Monte Carlo model incorporating the sarcomere diffraction effect. The simulated results quantitatively resemble the unique patterns observed in experiments. We used a set of parameters to quantify the optical reflectance profiles produced by a point incident light in whole muscle. Two parameters, q and B, were obtained by numerically fitting the equi-intensity contours of the reflectance pattern. Two spatial gradients were calculated along the directions parallel and perpendicular to muscle fibers. The mean diffuse intensity was obtained by excluding the specular reflectance. These five parameters provide a comprehensive and complete description of the diffuse reflectance in muscle. In a study of 336 muscle samples, we found these optical parameters were subject to the effects of different muscle physical and biochemical factors. Different types of muscle have significantly different diffuse intensities. Aging shows different effects on the q parameter in different muscles. In addition, the mean diffuse intensity is significantly different (p<0.05) in different animal breeds. Optical parameters showed good correlations with Warner-Bratzler shear force. Further studies on a large sample group are necessary to develop a statistical model to predict muscle physical and chemical properties using these non-destructive optical measurements.

  14. Skeletal muscle volume following dehydration induced by exercise in heat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Intracellular skeletal muscle water is redistributed into the extracellular compartment during periods of dehydration, suggesting an associated decline in muscle volume. The purpose of this study was to evaluate skeletal muscle volume in active (knee extensors (KE)) and less active (biceps/triceps brachii, deltoid) musculature following dehydration induced by exercise in heat. Methods Twelve participants (seven men, five women) cycled in the heat under two conditions: (1) dehydration (DHYD) resulting in 3% and 5% losses of estimated total body water (ETBW), which was assessed by changes in body mass, and (2) fluid replacement (FR) where 3% and 5% losses of ETBW were counteracted by intermittent (20 to 30 min) fluid ingestion via a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage. During both conditions, serum osmolality and skeletal muscle volume (assessed by magnetic resonance imaging) were measured at baseline and at the 3% and 5% ETBW loss measurement points. Results In DHYD, serum osmolality increased at 3% (p?=?0.005) and 5% (p?muscle volume declined from 1,464?±?446 ml to 1,406?±?425 ml (3.9%, p?muscles. There were no changes in volume for the biceps/triceps (p?=?0.35) or deltoid (p?=?0.92) during DHYD. FR prevented the loss of KE muscle volume at 3% (1,430?±?435 ml, p?=?0.074) and 5% (1,431?±?439 ml, p?=?0.156) ETBW loss time points compared to baseline (1,445?±?436 ml). Conclusions Following exercise in the heat, the actively contracting muscles lost volume, while replacing lost fluids intermittently during exercise in heat prevented this decline. These results support the use of muscle volume as a marker of water loss. PMID:23849266

  15. Metabolomic Analysis of the Skeletal Muscle of Mice Overexpressing PGC-1?

    PubMed Central

    Tadaishi, Miki; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Ezaki, Osamu; Kamei, Yasutomi; Miura, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? coactivator 1? (PGC-1?) is a coactivator of various nuclear receptors and other transcription factors whose expression increases in the skeletal muscle during exercise. We have previously made transgenic mice overexpressing PGC-1? in the skeletal muscle (PGC-1?-Tg mice). PGC-1? upregulates the expression of genes associated with red fibers, mitochondrial function, fatty acid oxidation, and branched chain amino acid (BCAA) degradation. However, global analyses of the actual metabolic products have not been investigated. In this study, we conducted metabolomic analysis of the skeletal muscle in PGC-1?-Tg mice by capillary electrophoresis with electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis showed clearly distinguishable changes in the metabolites between PGC-1?-Tg and wild-type control mice. Changes were observed in metabolite levels of various metabolic pathways such as the TCA cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, nucleotide synthesis, purine nucleotide cycle, and amino acid metabolism, including BCAA and ?-alanine. Namely, metabolic products of the TCA cycle increased in PGC-1?-Tg mice, with increased levels of citrate (2.3-fold), succinate (2.2-fold), fumarate (2.8-fold), and malate (2.3-fold) observed. Metabolic products associated with the pentose phosphate pathway and nucleotide biosynthesis also increased in PGC-1?-Tg mice. Meanwhile, BCAA levels decreased (Val, 0.7-fold; Leu, 0.8-fold; and Ile, 0.7-fold), and Glu (3.1-fold) and Asp (2.2-fold) levels increased. Levels of ?-alanine and related metabolites were markedly decreased in PGC-1?-Tg mice. Coordinated regulation of the TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism, including BCAA, suggests that PGC-1? plays important roles in energy metabolism. Moreover, our metabolomics data showing the activation of the purine nucleotide pathway, malate–aspartate shuttle, as well as creatine metabolism, which are known to be active during exercise, further suggests that PGC-1? regulates metabolism in exercise. Thus, we demonstrated the roles of PGC-1? in the skeletal muscle at the metabolite level. PMID:26114427

  16. Metabolomic Analysis of the Skeletal Muscle of Mice Overexpressing PGC-1?.

    PubMed

    Hatazawa, Yukino; Senoo, Nanami; Tadaishi, Miki; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Ezaki, Osamu; Kamei, Yasutomi; Miura, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? coactivator 1? (PGC-1?) is a coactivator of various nuclear receptors and other transcription factors whose expression increases in the skeletal muscle during exercise. We have previously made transgenic mice overexpressing PGC-1? in the skeletal muscle (PGC-1?-Tg mice). PGC-1? upregulates the expression of genes associated with red fibers, mitochondrial function, fatty acid oxidation, and branched chain amino acid (BCAA) degradation. However, global analyses of the actual metabolic products have not been investigated. In this study, we conducted metabolomic analysis of the skeletal muscle in PGC-1?-Tg mice by capillary electrophoresis with electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis showed clearly distinguishable changes in the metabolites between PGC-1?-Tg and wild-type control mice. Changes were observed in metabolite levels of various metabolic pathways such as the TCA cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, nucleotide synthesis, purine nucleotide cycle, and amino acid metabolism, including BCAA and ?-alanine. Namely, metabolic products of the TCA cycle increased in PGC-1?-Tg mice, with increased levels of citrate (2.3-fold), succinate (2.2-fold), fumarate (2.8-fold), and malate (2.3-fold) observed. Metabolic products associated with the pentose phosphate pathway and nucleotide biosynthesis also increased in PGC-1?-Tg mice. Meanwhile, BCAA levels decreased (Val, 0.7-fold; Leu, 0.8-fold; and Ile, 0.7-fold), and Glu (3.1-fold) and Asp (2.2-fold) levels increased. Levels of ?-alanine and related metabolites were markedly decreased in PGC-1?-Tg mice. Coordinated regulation of the TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism, including BCAA, suggests that PGC-1? plays important roles in energy metabolism. Moreover, our metabolomics data showing the activation of the purine nucleotide pathway, malate-aspartate shuttle, as well as creatine metabolism, which are known to be active during exercise, further suggests that PGC-1? regulates metabolism in exercise. Thus, we demonstrated the roles of PGC-1? in the skeletal muscle at the metabolite level. PMID:26114427

  17. Exercise influences circadian gene expression in equine skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Murphy, B A; Wagner, A L; McGlynn, O F; Kharazyan, F; Browne, J A; Elliott, J A

    2014-07-01

    Circadian rhythms are endogenously generated 24-h oscillations that coordinate numerous aspects of mammalian physiology, metabolism and behaviour. The existence of a molecular circadian clock in equine skeletal muscle has previously been demonstrated. This study investigates how the circadian 24-h expression of exercise-relevant genes in skeletal muscle is influenced by a regular exercise regime. Mid-gluteal, percutaneous muscle biopsies were obtained over a 24-h period from six Thoroughbred mares before and after an 8-week exercise programme. Real-time qPCR assays were used to assess the expression patterns of core clock genes ARNTL, PER2, NR1D1, clock-controlled gene DBP, and muscle genes MYF6, UCP3, VEGFA, FOXO1, MYOD1, PPARGC1A, PPARGC1B, FBXO32 and PDK4. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant interaction between circadian time and exercise for muscle genes MYF6, UCP3, MYOD1 and PDK4. A significant effect of time was observed for all genes with the exception of VEGFA, where a main effect of exercise was observed. By cosinor analysis, the core clock genes, ARNTL (P?<0.01) and NR1D1 (P?<0.05), showed 24-h rhythmicity both pre- and post-exercise, while PER2 expression was rhythmic post-exercise (P?<0.05) but not pre-exercise. The expression profiles of muscle genes MYOD1 and MYF6 showed significant fits to a 24-h cosine waveform indicative of circadian rhythmicity post-exercise only (P?<0.01). This study suggests that the metabolic capacity of muscle is influenced by scheduled exercise and that optimal athletic performance may be achieved when exercise times and competition times coincide. PMID:24888677

  18. Impact of Oxidative Stress on Exercising Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Steinbacher, Peter; Eckl, Peter

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that muscle contractions during exercise lead to elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skeletal muscle. These highly reactive molecules have many deleterious effects, such as a reduction of force generation and increased muscle atrophy. Since the discovery of exercise-induced oxidative stress several decades ago, evidence has accumulated that ROS produced during exercise also have positive effects by influencing cellular processes that lead to increased expression of antioxidants. These molecules are particularly elevated in regularly exercising muscle to prevent the negative effects of ROS by neutralizing the free radicals. In addition, ROS also seem to be involved in the exercise-induced adaptation of the muscle phenotype. This review provides an overview of the evidences to date on the effects of ROS in exercising muscle. These aspects include the sources of ROS, their positive and negative cellular effects, the role of antioxidants, and the present evidence on ROS-dependent adaptations of muscle cells in response to physical exercise. PMID:25866921

  19. The role of skeletal troponin T in the regulation of skeletal muscle contraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Abraham Panavelil

    1998-01-01

    Troponin T (TnT) is one of three proteins (including TnI and TnC) that form the troponin complex (Tn), which plays a critical role in the activation of the actomyosin ATPase responsible for the regulation of skeletal muscle contraction. Sequence analysis of the TnT gene predicts as many as 64 different isoforms, due to the presence of 6 alternatively spliced exons

  20. Ectopic expression of myostatin induces atrophy of adult skeletal muscle by decreasing muscle gene expression.

    PubMed

    Durieux, Anne-Cécile; Amirouche, Adel; Banzet, Sébastien; Koulmann, Nathalie; Bonnefoy, Régis; Pasdeloup, Marielle; Mouret, Catherine; Bigard, Xavier; Peinnequin, André; Freyssenet, Damien

    2007-07-01

    Myostatin is a master regulator of myogenesis and early postnatal skeletal muscle growth. However, myostatin has been also involved in several forms of muscle wasting in adulthood, suggesting a functional role for myostatin in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass in adult. In the present study, localized ectopic expression of myostatin was achieved by gene electrotransfer of a myostatin expression vector into the tibialis anterior muscle of adult Sprague Dawley male rats. The corresponding empty vector was electrotransfected in contralateral muscle. Ectopic myostatin mRNA was abundantly present in muscles electrotransfected with myostatin expression vector, whereas it was undetectable in contralateral muscles. Overexpression of myostatin elicited a significant decrease in muscle mass (10 and 20% reduction 7 and 14 d after gene electrotransfer, respectively), muscle fiber cross-sectional area (15 and 30% reduction 7 and 14 d after gene electrotransfer, respectively), and muscle protein content (20% reduction). No decrease in fiber number was observed. Overexpression of myostatin markedly decreased the expression of muscle structural genes (myosin heavy chain IIb, troponin I, and desmin) and the expression of myogenic transcription factors (MyoD and myogenin). Incidentally, mRNA level of caveolin-3 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha was also significantly decreased 14 d after myostatin gene electrotransfer. To conclude, our study demonstrates that myostatin-induced muscle atrophy elicits the down-regulation of muscle-specific gene expression. Our observations support an important role for myostatin in muscle atrophy in physiological and physiopathological situations where myostatin expression is induced. PMID:17395701

  1. Brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 promotes skeletal muscle regeneration through satellite cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Somik; Yin, Hongshan; Nam, Deokhwa; Li, Yong; Ma, Ke

    2015-02-01

    Circadian clock is an evolutionarily conserved timing mechanism governing diverse biological processes and the skeletal muscle possesses intrinsic functional clocks. Interestingly, although the essential clock transcription activator, Brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 (Bmal1), participates in maintenance of muscle mass, little is known regarding its role in muscle growth and repair. In this report, we investigate the in vivo function of Bmal1 in skeletal muscle regeneration using two muscle injury models. Bmal1 is highly up-regulated by cardiotoxin injury, and its genetic ablation significantly impairs regeneration with markedly suppressed new myofiber formation and attenuated myogenic induction. A similarly defective regenerative response is observed in Bmal1-null mice as compared to wild-type controls upon freeze injury. Lack of satellite cell expansion accounts for the regeneration defect, as Bmal1(-/-) mice display significantly lower satellite cell number with nearly abolished induction of the satellite cell marker, Pax7. Furthermore, satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts devoid of Bmal1 display reduced growth and proliferation ex vivo. Collectively, our results demonstrate, for the first time, that Bmal1 is an integral component of the pro-myogenic response that is required for muscle repair. This mechanism may underlie its role in preserving adult muscle mass and could be targeted therapeutically to prevent muscle-wasting diseases. PMID:25218946

  2. Severe nemaline myopathy caused by mutations of the stop codon of the skeletal muscle alpha actin gene ( ACTA1)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Wallefeld; Sabine Krause; Kristen J. Nowak; Danielle Dye; Rita Horváth; Zoltán Molnár; Miklós Szabó; Kazuhiro Hashimoto; Cristina Reina; Jose De Carlos; Jordi Rosell; Ana Cabello; Carmen Navarro; Ichizo Nishino; Hanns Lochmüller; Nigel G. Laing

    2006-01-01

    Most nemaline myopathy patients have mutations in the nebulin (NEB) or skeletal muscle ?-actin (ACTA1) genes. Here we report for the first time three patients with severe nemaline myopathy and mutations of the ACTA1 stop codon: TAG>TAT (tyrosine), TAG>CAG (glutamine) and TAG>TGG (tryptophan). All three mutations will cause inclusion of an additional 47 amino acids, translated from the 3? UTR

  3. Cellular mechanisms and local progenitor activation to regulate skeletal muscle mass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mattia Quattrocelli; Stefania Crippa; Ilaria Perini; Flavio Ronzoni; Maurilio Sampaolesi

    2009-01-01

    Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is a result of increased load, such as functional and stretch-overload. Activation of satellite\\u000a cells and proliferation, differentiation and fusion are required for hypertrophy of overloaded skeletal muscles. On the contrary,\\u000a a dramatic loss of skeletal muscle mass determines atrophy settings. The epigenetic changes involved in gene regulation at\\u000a DNA and chromatin level are critical for the

  4. Skeletal muscle respiratory uncoupling prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bing Li; Lorraine A. Nolte; Jeong-Sun Ju; Dong Ho Han; Trey Coleman; John O. Holloszy; Clay F. Semenkovich

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether uncoupling respiration from oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle is a suitable treatment for obesity and type 2 diabetes, we generated transgenic mice expressing the mitochondrial uncoupling protein (Ucp) in skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle oxygen consumption was 98% higher in Ucp-L mice (with low expression) and 246% higher in Ucp-H mice (with high expression) than in wild-type mice.

  5. Age-Related Changes in the Molecular Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Mass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron P. Russell; Bertrand Lèger

    \\u000a Maintaining skeletal muscle mass and function throughout the entire lifespan is a prerequisite for good health and independent\\u000a living. While skeletal muscle has an amazing ability for self-renewal and regeneration, its capacity to perform these tasks\\u000a declines with age. The age-related loss in skeletal muscle mass and function, known as sarcopenia, is a major contributor\\u000a to the increase in falls

  6. A Small Volatile Bacterial Molecule Triggers Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Murine Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Tzika, A. Aria; Constantinou, Caterina; Bandyopadhaya, Arunava; Psychogios, Nikolaos; Lee, Sangseok; Mindrinos, Michael; Martyn, J. A. Jeevendra; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Rahme, Laurence G.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria integrate distinct signals that reflect specific threats to the host, including infection, tissue damage, and metabolic dysfunction; and play a key role in insulin resistance. We have found that the Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing infochemical, 2-amino acetophenone (2-AA), produced during acute and chronic infection in human tissues, including in the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, acts as an interkingdom immunomodulatory signal that facilitates pathogen persistence, and host tolerance to infection. Transcriptome results have led to the hypothesis that 2-AA causes further harm to the host by triggering mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. As normal skeletal muscle function is essential to survival, and is compromised in many chronic illnesses, including infections and CF-associated muscle wasting, we here determine the global effects of 2-AA on skeletal muscle using high-resolution magic-angle-spinning (HRMAS), proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics, in vivo 31P NMR, whole-genome expression analysis and functional studies. Our results show that 2-AA when injected into mice, induced a biological signature of insulin resistance as determined by 1H NMR analysis-, and dramatically altered insulin signaling, glucose transport, and mitochondrial function. Genes including Glut4, IRS1, PPAR-?, PGC1 and Sirt1 were downregulated, whereas uncoupling protein UCP3 was up-regulated, in accordance with mitochondrial dysfunction. Although 2-AA did not alter high-energy phosphates or pH by in vivo 31P NMR analysis, it significantly reduced the rate of ATP synthesis. This affect was corroborated by results demonstrating down-regulation of the expression of genes involved in energy production and muscle function, and was further validated by muscle function studies. Together, these results further demonstrate that 2-AA, acts as a mediator of interkingdom modulation, and likely effects insulin resistance associated with a molecular signature of mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. Reduced energy production and mitochondrial dysfunctional may further favor infection, and be an important step in the establishment of chronic and persistent infections. PMID:24098655

  7. Myogenesis and postnatal skeletal muscle cell growth as influenced by selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Rehfeldt; I. Fiedler; G. Dietl; K. Ender

    2000-01-01

    The major component of a given muscle is the constituent muscle fibres. Lean growth and ultimate muscle mass are therefore largely determined by the number of muscle fibres and the size of those fibres. During myogenesis, myoblasts develop from mesenchymal precursor cells by proliferation and myogenic commitment. Myoblasts subsequently fuse to form multinucleated myofibres. Postnatal growth of skeletal muscle is

  8. Biosynthesis of titin in cultured skeletal muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, W.B.; Kim, I.S.; Struve, A.; Fulton, A.B. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (USA))

    1989-11-01

    Although significant progress has been made regarding the structure and function of titin, little data exist on the biosynthesis of this large protein in developing muscle. Using pulse-labeling with ({sup 35}S)methionine and immunoprecipitation with an anti-titin mAb, we have examined the biosynthesis of titin in synchronized cultures of skeletal muscle cells derived from day 12 chicken embryos. We find that: (a) titin synthesis increases greater than 4-fold during the first week in culture and during this same time period, synthesis of muscle-specific myosin heavy chain increases greater than 12-fold; (b) newly synthesized titin has a t1/2 of approximately 70 h; (c) titin is resistant to extraction with Triton X-100 both during and immediately after its synthesis. These observations suggest that newly synthesized titin molecules are stable proteins that rapidly associate with the cytoskeleton of developing myotubes.

  9. Analysis of Superoxide Production in Single Skeletal Muscle Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Thompson, LaDora V.; Navratil, Marian; Arriaga, Edgar A.

    2010-01-01

    Due to their high energetic profile skeletal muscle fibers are prone to damage by endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby causing alterations in muscle function. Unfortunately, the complexity of skeletal muscle makes it difficult to measure and understand ROS production by fibers since other components (e.g. extracellular collagen and vascular vessels) may also generate ROS. Single cell imaging techniques are promising approaches to monitor ROS production in single muscle fibers, but usually the detection schemes for ROS are not specific. Single cell analysis by capillary electrophoresis (a.k.a. chemical cytometry) has the potential to separate and detect specific ROS reporters, but the approach is only suitable for small spherical cells that fit within the capillary lumen. Here, we report a novel method for the analysis of superoxide in single fibers maintained in culture for up to 48 hours. Cultured muscle fibers in individual nanoliter-volume wells were treated with triphenylphosphonium hydroethidine (TPP-HE), which forms the superoxide specific reporter hydroxytriphenylphosphonium ethidium (OH-TPP-E+). After lysis of each fiber in their corresponding nano-well, the contents of each well were processed and analyzed by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence detection (MEKC-LIF) making it possible to detect superoxide found in single fibers. Superoxide basal levels as well as changes due to fiber treatment with the scavenger, tiron, and the inducer, antimycin A were easily monitored demonstrating the feasibility of the method. Future uses of the method include parallel single-fiber measurements aiming at comparing pharmacological treatments on the same set of fibers and investigating ROS production in response to muscle disease, disuse, exercise and aging. PMID:20446672

  10. Exercise differentially regulates renalase expression in skeletal muscle and kidney.

    PubMed

    Czarkowska-Paczek, Bozena; Zendzian-Piotrowska, Malgorzata; Gala, Kamila; Sobol, Maria; Paczek, Leszek

    2013-01-01

    Renalase is a newly discovered amine oxidase and may lower blood pressure by metabolizing catecholamines. We have hypothesized that exercise and training may regulate renalase expression to control blood pressure. In this study, we investigated changes in renalase expression after exercise and training in white and red portion of the gastrocnemius muscle, kidney, and serum in rats. Rats were either untrained or subjected to six weeks of endurance training, which predominantly recruits red fibers. Rats from each group were sacrificed before (n = 10), immediately after (n = 10), or three hours (n = 10) following exercise. Renalase mRNA and protein levels were measured by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. There were no significant changes in renalase expression after prolonged training or acute exercise in the serum or red muscle of rats. However, in white muscle, renalase mRNA and protein levels decreased after acute exercise in untrained rats, whereas, in trained rats, its protein level remained unchanged, despite a decrease in mRNA. Thus, exercise influenced renalase expression only in white muscle fibers that are not predominantly recruited during exercise. The reduction of renalase protein in white muscle suggests that renalase may contribute to blood redistribution between contracting and non-contracting fibers during exercise. In the kidney, renalase protein levels decreased after training, while mRNA levels increased. The reduction in renalase protein levels may contribute to functional kidney hypoperfusion, which has been observed after training. In conclusion, exercise differentially regulates renalase expression in skeletal muscle and kidney. PMID:24366404

  11. Interrelationship between bone substitution materials and skeletal muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Kunert-Keil, Christiane; Botzenhart, Ute; Gedrange, Tomasz; Gredes, Tomasz

    2015-05-01

    Bone density and quantity are primary conditions for the insertion and stability of dental implants. In cases of a lack of adequate maxillary or mandibulary bone, bone augmentation will be necessary. The use of synthetic bioactive bone substitution materials is of increasing importance as alternatives to autogenously bone grafts. It is well known that bone can influence muscle function and muscle function can influence bone structures. Muscles have a considerable potential of adaptation and muscle tissue surrounding an inserted implant or bone surrogate can integrate changes in mechanical load of the muscle and hereupon induce signaling cascades with protein synthesis and arrangement of the cytoskeleton. The Musculus latissimus dorsi is very often used for the analyses of the in vivo biocompatibility of newly designed biomaterials. Beside macroscopically and histologically examination, biocompatibility can be assessed by analyses of the biomaterial influence of gene expression. This review discusses changes in the fiber type distribution, myosin heavy chain isoform composition, histological appearance and vascularization of the skeletal muscle after implantation of bone substitution materials. Especially, the effects of bone surrogates should be described at the molecular-biological and cellular level. PMID:25159858

  12. Dexamethasone regulates glutamine synthetase expression in rat skeletal muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Max, Stephen R.; Konagaya, Masaaki; Konagaya, Yoko; Thomas, John W.; Banner, Carl; Vitkovic, Ljubisa

    1986-01-01

    The regulation of glutamine synthetase by glucocorticoids in rat skeletal muscles was studied. Administration of dexamethasone strikingly enhanced glutamine synthetase activity in plantaris and soleus muscles. The dexamethasone-mediated induction of glutamine synthetase activity was blocked to a significant extent by orally administered RU38486, a glucocorticoid antagonist, indicating the involvement of intracellular glucocorticoid receptors in the induction. Northern blot analysis revealed that dexamethasone-mediated enhancement of glutamine synthetase activity involves dramatically increased levels of glutamine synthetase mRNA. The induction of glutamine synthetase was selective in that glutaminase activity of soleus and plantaris muscles was not increased by dexamethasone. Furthermore, dexamethasone treatment resulted in only a small increase in glutamine synthetase activity in the heart. Accordingly, there was only a slight change in glutamine synthetase mRNA level in this tissue. Thus, glucocorticoids regulate glutamine synthetase gene expression in rat muscles at the transcriptional level via interaction with intracellular glutamine production by muscle and to mechanisms underlying glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy.

  13. Leucine incorporation into mixed skeletal muscle protein in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, K.S.; Halliday, D.; Griggs, R.C. (Univ. of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, NY (USA) Clinical Research Centre, Harrow (England))

    1988-02-01

    Fractional mixed skeletal muscle protein synthesis (FMPS) was estimated in 10 postabsorptive healthy men by determining the increment in the abundance of ({sup 13}C)-leucine in quadriceps muscle protein during an intravenous infusion of L-(1-{sup 13}C)leucine. Whole-body muscle protein synthesis (MPS) was calculated based on the estimation of muscle mass from creatinine excretion and compared with whole-body protein synthesis (WBPS) calculated from the nonoxidative portion of leucine flux. A significant correlation was found between MPS. The contribution of MPS to WBPS was 27 {plus minus} 1%, which is comparable to the reports in other species. Morphometric analyses of adjacent muscle samples in eight subjects demonstrated that the biopsy specimens consisted of 86.5 {plus minus} 2% muscular as opposed to other tissues. Because fiber type composition varies between biopsies, the authors examined the relationship between proportions of each fiber type and FMPS. Variation in the composition of biopsies and in fiber-type proportion did not affect the estimation of muscle protein synthesis rate. They conclude that stable isotope techniques using serial needle biopsies permit the direct measurement of FMPS in humans and that this estimation is correlated with an indirect estimation of WBPS.

  14. Hedgehog can drive terminal differentiation of amniote slow skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaopeng; Blagden, Christopher S; Bildsoe, Heidi; Bonnin, Marie Ange; Duprez, Delphine; Hughes, Simon M

    2004-01-01

    Background Secreted Hedgehog (Hh) signalling molecules have profound influences on many developing and regenerating tissues. Yet in most vertebrate tissues it is unclear which Hh-responses are the direct result of Hh action on a particular cell type because Hhs frequently elicit secondary signals. In developing skeletal muscle, Hhs promote slow myogenesis in zebrafish and are involved in specification of medial muscle cells in amniote somites. However, the extent to which non-myogenic cells, myoblasts or differentiating myocytes are direct or indirect targets of Hh signalling is not known. Results We show that Sonic hedgehog (Shh) can act directly on cultured C2 myoblasts, driving Gli1 expression, myogenin up-regulation and terminal differentiation, even in the presence of growth factors that normally prevent differentiation. Distinct myoblasts respond differently to Shh: in some slow myosin expression is increased, whereas in others Shh simply enhances terminal differentiation. Exposure of chick wing bud cells to Shh in culture increases numbers of both muscle and non-muscle cells, yet simultaneously enhances differentiation of myoblasts. The small proportion of differentiated muscle cells expressing definitive slow myosin can be doubled by Shh. Shh over-expression in chick limb bud reduces muscle mass at early developmental stages while inducing ectopic slow muscle fibre formation. Abundant later-differentiating fibres, however, do not express extra slow myosin. Conversely, Hh loss of function in the limb bud, caused by implanting hybridoma cells expressing a functionally blocking anti-Hh antibody, reduces early slow muscle formation and differentiation, but does not prevent later slow myogenesis. Analysis of Hh knockout mice indicates that Shh promotes early somitic slow myogenesis. Conclusions Taken together, the data show that Hh can have direct pro-differentiative effects on myoblasts and that early-developing muscle requires Hh for normal differentiation and slow myosin expression. We propose a simple model of how direct and indirect effects of Hh regulate early limb myogenesis. PMID:15238161

  15. Autophagy Signaling in Skeletal Muscle of Infarcted Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jannig, Paulo R.; Moreira, Jose B. N.; Bechara, Luiz R. G.; Bozi, Luiz H. M.; Bacurau, Aline V.; Monteiro, Alex W. A.; Dourado, Paulo M.; Wisløff, Ulrik; Brum, Patricia C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Heart failure (HF)-induced skeletal muscle atrophy is often associated to exercise intolerance and poor prognosis. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying HF-induced muscle atrophy may contribute to the development of pharmacological strategies to prevent or treat such condition. It has been shown that autophagy-lysosome system is an important mechanism for maintenance of muscle mass. However, its role in HF-induced myopathy has not been addressed yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate autophagy signaling in myocardial infarction (MI)-induced muscle atrophy in rats. Methods/Principal Findings Wistar rats underwent MI or Sham surgeries, and after 12 weeks were submitted to echocardiography, exercise tolerance and histology evaluations. Cathepsin L activity and expression of autophagy-related genes and proteins were assessed in soleus and plantaris muscles by fluorimetric assay, qRT-PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. MI rats displayed exercise intolerance, left ventricular dysfunction and dilation, thereby suggesting the presence of HF. The key findings of the present study were: a) upregulation of autophagy-related genes (GABARAPL1, ATG7, BNIP3, CTSL1 and LAMP2) was observed only in plantaris while muscle atrophy was observed in both soleus and plantaris muscles, and b) Cathepsin L activity, Bnip3 and Fis1 protein levels, and levels of lipid hydroperoxides were increased specifically in plantaris muscle of MI rats. Conclusions Altogether our results provide evidence for autophagy signaling regulation in HF-induced plantaris atrophy but not soleus atrophy. Therefore, autophagy-lysosome system is differentially regulated in atrophic muscles comprising different fiber-types and metabolic characteristics. PMID:24427319

  16. Membrane glycoproteins of differentiating skeletal muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, K.R.; Remy, C.N.; Smith, P.B.

    1987-05-01

    The composition of N-linked glycoprotein oligosaccharides was studied in myoblasts and myotubes of the C2 muscle cell line. Oligosaccharides were radioactively labelled for 15 hr with (TH) mannose and plasma membranes isolated. Ten glycopeptides were detected by SDS-PAGE and fluorography. The extent of labelling was 4-6 fold greater in myoblasts vs myotubes. A glycopeptide of Mr > 100,000 was found exclusively in myoblast membranes. Lectin chromatography revealed that the proportion of tri-, tetranntenary, biantennary and high mannose chains was similar throughout differentiation. The high mannose chain fraction was devoid of hybrid chains. The major high mannose chain contained nine mannose residues. The higher level of glycopeptide labelling in myoblasts vs myotubes corresponded to a 5-fold greater rate of protein synthesis. Pulse-chase experiments were used to follow the synthesis of the Dol-oligosaccharides. Myoblasts and myotubes labelled equivalently the glucosylated tetradecasaccharide but myoblasts labelled the smaller intermediates 3-4 greater than myotubes. Myoblasts also exhibited a 2-3 fold higher Dol-P dependent glycosyl transferase activity for chain elongation and Dol-sugar synthesis. Together these results show that the degree of protein synthesis and level of Dol-P are contributing factors in the higher capacity of myoblasts to produce N-glycoproteins compared to myotubes.

  17. Contractile activation in frog skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Costantin, L L

    1974-06-01

    Contractile activation was studied in frog single muscle fibers treated with tetrodotoxin to block action potentials. The membrane potential in a short segment of the fiber was controlled with a two-electrode voltage clamp, and the contractile response of superficial myofibrils in this segment was observed microscopically. The strength-duration relation for contractile activation was similar to that reported by Adrian, Chandler, and Hodgkin (1969); at 3.9 degrees C, the contraction threshold was -44 mV for long depolarizing pulses (100-ms) and increased to +64 mV for 2-ms depolarizations. Hyperpolarizing postpulses shifted the threshold for 2-ms pulses to more positive values, and a similar, but smaller, effect was produced by hyperpolarizing prepulses. The decay of excitability following subthreshold pulses showed two apparently distinct components; at 3.9 degrees C, excitability fell to 50% of its initial value within 4 ms, while the subsequent decline of excitability proceeded with a half-time of about 20 ms. PMID:4545389

  18. Muscle-specific Drp1 overexpression impairs skeletal muscle growth via translational attenuation.

    PubMed

    Touvier, T; De Palma, C; Rigamonti, E; Scagliola, A; Incerti, E; Mazelin, L; Thomas, J-L; D'Antonio, M; Politi, L; Schaeffer, L; Clementi, E; Brunelli, S

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial fission and fusion are essential processes in the maintenance of the skeletal muscle function. The contribution of these processes to muscle development has not been properly investigated in vivo because of the early lethality of the models generated so far. To define the role of mitochondrial fission in muscle development and repair, we have generated a transgenic mouse line that overexpresses the fission-inducing protein Drp1 specifically in skeletal muscle. These mice displayed a drastic impairment in postnatal muscle growth, with reorganisation of the mitochondrial network and reduction of mtDNA quantity, without the deficiency of mitochondrial bioenergetics. Importantly we found that Drp1 overexpression activates the stress-induced PKR/eIF2?/Fgf21 pathway thus leading to an attenuated protein synthesis and downregulation of the growth hormone pathway. These results reveal for the first time how mitochondrial network dynamics influence muscle growth and shed light on aspects of muscle physiology relevant in human muscle pathologies. PMID:25719247

  19. Citrulline malate supplementation increases muscle efficiency in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Giannesini, Benoît; Le Fur, Yann; Cozzone, Patrick J; Verleye, Marc; Le Guern, Marie-Emmanuelle; Bendahan, David

    2011-09-30

    Citrulline malate (CM; CAS 54940-97-5, Stimol®) is known to limit the deleterious effect of asthenic state on muscle function, but its effect under healthy condition remains poorly documented. The aim of this longitudinal double-blind study was to investigate the effect of oral ingestion of CM on muscle mechanical performance and bioenergetics in normal rat. Gastrocnemius muscle function was investigated strictly non-invasively using nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. A standardized rest-stimulation- (5.7 min of repeated isometric contractions electrically induced by transcutaneous stimulation at a frequency of 3.3 Hz) recovery-protocol was performed twice, i.e., before (t(0)-24 h) and after (t(0)+48 h) CM (3 g/kg/day) or vehicle treatment. CM supplementation did not affect PCr/ATP ratio, [PCr], [Pi], [ATP] and intracellular pH at rest. During the stimulation period, it lead to a 23% enhancement of specific force production that was associated to significant decrease in both PCr (28%) and oxidative (32%) costs of contraction, but had no effect on the time-courses of phosphorylated compounds and intracellular pH. Furthermore, both the rate of PCr resynthesis during the post-stimulation period (VPCr(rec)) and the oxidative ATP synthesis capacity (Q(max)) remained unaffected by CM treatment. These data demonstrate that CM supplementation under healthy condition has an ergogenic effect associated to an improvement of muscular contraction efficiency. PMID:21664351

  20. Experimental evaluation of fiber orientation based material properties of skeletal muscle in tension.

    PubMed

    Kuthe, Chetan D; Uddanwadiker, R V; Ramteke, Alankar

    2014-06-01

    Biomechanical researches are essential to develop new techniques to improve the clinical relevance. Skeletal muscle generates the force which results in the motion of human body, so it is essential to study the mechanical and structural properties of skeletal muscle. Many researchers have carried out mechanical study of skeletal muscle with in-vivo testing. This work aims to examine anisotropic mechanical behavior of skeletal muscle with in vitro test (tensile test). It is important to understand the mechanical and structural behavior of skeletal muscle when it is subjected to external loading; the research aims to determine the structural properties of skeletal muscle by tensile.testing. Tensile testing is performed on 5 samples of skeletal muscle of a goat at the rate of 1 mm/min with fiber orientation along the length and 45 degrees inclined to the length. It is found that muscle is stiffer in the direction parallel to the muscle fiber than at 45 degrees to the muscle fibers. The tensile strength of the skeletal muscle along the fiber direction is 0.44 MPa at maximum load of 110 N and for direction 45 degrees inclined to the muscle fibers, the strength is 0.234 MPa at max load 43 N. The displacement of Muscle sample against the maximum load is small along the length of the muscle fiber i.e. under longitudinal elongation [15.257 mm] as compared to 45 degrees inclined to the length of skeletal muscle [17.775 mm] and under cross fiber elongation [19.7291 mm by FEA]. The testing is not performed for 90 degrees fiber orientation due to unavailability of soft tissue in cross fiber direction of the required specification, but finite element analysis is done on the skeletal muscle for the cross fiber orientation. As the fiber orientation within skeletal muscle differs with respect to the length of the muscle, the stiffness of skeletal muscle is also changing effectively. Hence skeletal muscle exhibits the anisotropic mechanical behavior. PMID:25831858

  1. Protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs is enhanced by administration of ?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Scott M; El-Kadi, Samer W; Suryawan, Agus; Boutry, Claire; Orellana, Renán A; Nguyen, Hanh V; Davis, Steven R; Davis, Teresa A

    2014-01-01

    Many low-birth-weight infants experience failure to thrive. The amino acid leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of the neonate, but less is known about the effects of the leucine metabolite ?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate (HMB). To determine the effects of HMB on protein synthesis and the regulation of translation initiation and degradation pathways, overnight-fasted neonatal pigs were infused with HMB at 0, 20, 100, or 400 ?mol·kg body wt(-1)·h(-1) for 1 h (HMB 0, HMB 20, HMB 100, or HMB 400). Plasma HMB concentrations increased with infusion and were 10, 98, 316, and 1,400 nmol/ml in the HMB 0, HMB 20, HMB 100, and HMB 400 pigs. Protein synthesis rates in the longissimus dorsi (LD), gastrocnemius, soleus, and diaphragm muscles, lung, and spleen were greater in HMB 20 than in HMB 0, and in the LD were greater in HMB 100 than in HMB 0. HMB 400 had no effect on protein synthesis. Eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)4E·eIF4G complex formation and ribosomal protein S6 kinase-1 and 4E-binding protein-1 phosphorylation increased in LD, gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles with HMB 20 and HMB 100 and in diaphragm with HMB 20. Phosphorylation of eIF2? and elongation factor 2 and expression of system A transporter (SNAT2), system L transporter (LAT1), muscle RING finger 1 protein (MuRF1), muscle atrophy F-box (atrogin-1), and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3-II) were unchanged. Results suggest that supplemental HMB enhances protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonates by stimulating translation initiation. PMID:24192287

  2. MicroRNAs in skeletal muscle: their role and regulation in development, disease and function

    PubMed Central

    Güller, Isabelle; Russell, Aaron P

    2010-01-01

    Maintaining skeletal muscle function throughout the lifespan is a prerequisite for good health and independent living. For skeletal muscle to consistently function at optimal levels, the efficient activation of processes that regulate muscle development, growth, regeneration and metabolism is required. Numerous conditions including neuromuscular disorders, physical inactivity, chronic disease and ageing are associated with perturbations in skeletal muscle function. A loss or reduction in skeletal muscle function often leads to increased morbidity and mortality either directly, or indirectly, via the development of secondary diseases such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Identifying mechanisms which influence the processes regulating skeletal muscle function is a key priority. The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) provides a new avenue that will extend our knowledge of factors controlling skeletal muscle function. miRNAs may also improve our understanding and application of current therapeutic approaches as well as enable the identification of new therapeutic strategies and targets aimed at maintaining and/or improving skeletal muscle health. This review brings together the latest developments in skeletal muscle miRNA biology and focuses on their role and regulation under physiological and patho-physiological conditions with an emphasis on: myogenesis, hypertrophy, atrophy and regeneration; exercise and nutrition; muscle disease, ageing, diabetes and obesity. PMID:20724363

  3. Greater lean tissue and skeletal muscle mass are associated with higher bone mineral content in children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To compare the relationship of skeletal muscle mass with bone mineral content in an ethnically diverse group of 6 to 18 year old boys and girls. Methods 175 healthy children (103 boys; 72 girls) had assessments of body mass, height, and Tanner stage. Whole body bone mineral content, non-bone lean body mass (nbLBM), skeletal muscle mass, and fat mass were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Muscle mass was estimated from an equation using appendicular lean soft tissue measured by DXA, weight and height. Estimates of skeletal muscle mass and adipose tissue were also assessed by whole body multi-slice magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Linear regression was used to determine whether skeletal muscle mass assessed by DXA or by MRI were better predictors of bone mineral content compared with nbLBM after adjusting for sex, age, race or ethnicity, and Tanner stage. Results Greater skeletal muscle mass was associated with greater bone mineral content (p < 0.001). The skeletal muscle mass assessed by MRI provided a better fitting regression model (determined by R2 statistic) compared with assessment by DXA for predicting bone mineral content. The proportion of skeletal muscle mass in nbLBM was significantly associated with greater bone mineral content adjusted for total nbLBM. Conclusions This study is among the first to describe and compare the relationship of skeletal muscle to bone using both MRI and DXA estimates. The results demonstrate that the use of MRI provides a modestly better fitting model for the relationship of skeletal muscle to bone compared with DXA. Skeletal muscle had an impact on bone mineral content independent of total non-bone lean body mass. In addition, Hispanics had greater bone mineral content compared to other race and ethnic groups after adjusting for sex, age, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle mass, and height. PMID:20459832

  4. Inducible Cre transgenic mouse strain for skeletal muscle-specific gene targeting

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of the Cre/loxP system for gene targeting has been proven to be a powerful tool for understanding gene function. The purpose of this study was to create and characterize an inducible, skeletal muscle-specific Cre transgenic mouse strain. Methods To achieve skeletal muscle-specific expression, the human ?-skeletal actin promoter was used to drive expression of a chimeric Cre recombinase containing two mutated estrogen receptor ligand-binding domains. Results Western blot analysis, PCR and ?-galactosidase staining confirmed that Cre-mediated recombination was restricted to limb and craniofacial skeletal muscles only after tamoxifen administration. Conclusions A transgenic mouse was created that allows inducible, gene targeting of floxed genes in adult skeletal muscle of different developmental origins. This new mouse will be of great utility to the skeletal muscle community. PMID:22564549

  5. Differential microvascular response to disuse in rat hindlimb skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Tyml, K; Mathieu-Costello, O; Cheng, L; Noble, E G

    1999-10-01

    The aim of the study was to address discrepant findings in the literature regarding coupling between decreased functional demand during disuse and reduced capillarity. We previously reported [K. Tyml, O. Mathieu-Costello, and E. Noble. Microvasc. Res. 49: 17-32, 1995] that severe disuse of rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle caused by a 2-wk application of tetrodotoxin (TTX) on the sciatic nerve is not accompanied by capillary loss. Using the same animal model, the present study examined whether this absence of coupling could be explained in terms of 1) too short a duration of disuse and 2) muscle-specific response to disuse. Fischer 344 rats were exposed to either no treatment (control) or to 2- or 8-wk TTX applications. Fiber size, capillary density per fiber cross-sectional area, and capillary-to-fiber (C/F) ratio were determined by morphometry in the EDL muscle (control, 2- and 8-wk groups) and in the superficial portion of medial gastrocnemius (Gas) muscle (control, 2 wk). In both muscles, microvascular blood flow was evaluated by intravital microscopy [red blood cell velocity in capillaries (V(RBC))] and by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Regardless of duration of TTX application or muscle type, TTX-induced disuse resulted in a significant reduction of fiber area (44-71%). However, capillary density increased in EDL muscle (both at 2 and 8 wk) but not in Gas muscle. C/F ratio decreased in EDL muscle at 8 wk (18%) and in Gas muscle (39%). This indicates that the effect on capillarity depended on duration of disuse and on muscle type. V(RBC) and LDF signal were significantly larger in EDL than in Gas muscle. Analysis of change in capillarity vs. V(RBC) suggested that the outcome of disuse may be modulated by blood flow. We conclude that the duration of skeletal muscle disuse per se does not dictate capillary loss, and we hypothesize that discrepant findings of coupling between functional demand and capillarity could be due to the presence/absence of flow-related angiogenesis superimposed on the capillary removal process during disuse. PMID:10517784

  6. Carbonic anhydrase in guinea pig skeletal muscle mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Storey, B T; Lin, L C; Tompkins, B; Forster, R E

    1989-04-01

    The presence of carbonic anhydrase activity was demonstrated in guinea pig skeletal muscle mitochondria purified by Percoll gradient centrifugation such that contamination by sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles was less than 5%. Assay of purified heavy sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles for carbonic anhydrase activity showed these to have somewhat less activity than the mitochondria, so that any contribution by sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles to mitochondrial activity would be negligible. In agreement with this observation, rabbit skeletal muscle mitochondria prepared by the Percoll method had no detectable activity. Assay of the guinea pig muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity in the presence of Triton X-100 showed a sixfold greater activity than in its absence, indicating a matrix location for the carbonic anhydrase. The enzyme is highly sensitive to the sulfonamide inhibitor ethoxzolamide, with Ki = 8.7 nM. The activation energy obtained from the rate constant for CO2 hydration, kenz with units (mg/ml)-1 s-1, over the range 4 to 37 degrees C was 12.8 kcal/mol. These properties are those expected for a carbonic anhydrase of the CA II class of isozymes, rather than for CA I, CA III, and the liver mitochondrial enzyme CA V. PMID:2494941

  7. Determination of MiRNA Targets in Skeletal Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhan-Peng; Espinoza-Lewis, Ramón; Wang, Da-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small ?22 nucleotide noncoding RNAs which regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level by either destabilizing and consequently degrading their targeted mRNAs or by repressing their translation. Emerging evidence has demonstrated that miRNAs are essential for normal mammalian development, homeostasis, and many other functions. In addition, deleterious changes in miRNA expression were associated with human diseases. Several muscle-specific miRNAs, including miR-1, miR-133, miR-206, and miR-208, have been shown to be important for normal myo-blast differentiation, proliferation, and muscle remodeling in response to stress. They have also been implicated in various cardiac and skeletal muscular diseases. miRNA-based gene therapies hold great potential for the treatment of cardiac and skeletal muscle diseases. Herein, we describe methods commonly applied to study the biological role of miRNAs, as well as techniques utilized to manipulate miRNA expression and to investigate their target regulation. PMID:22130855

  8. Optogenetic control of contractile function in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Bruegmann, Tobias; van Bremen, Tobias; Vogt, Christoph C; Send, Thorsten; Fleischmann, Bernd K; Sasse, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Optogenetic stimulation allows activation of cells with high spatial and temporal precision. Here we show direct optogenetic stimulation of skeletal muscle from transgenic mice expressing the light-sensitive channel Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). Largest tetanic contractions are observed with 5-ms light pulses at 30?Hz, resulting in 84% of the maximal force induced by electrical stimulation. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by selectively stimulating with a light guide individual intralaryngeal muscles in explanted larynges from ChR2-transgenic mice, which enables selective opening and closing of the vocal cords. Furthermore, systemic injection of adeno-associated virus into wild-type mice provides sufficient ChR2 expression for optogenetic opening of the vocal cords. Thus, direct optogenetic stimulation of skeletal muscle generates large force and provides the distinct advantage of localized and cell-type-specific activation. This technology could be useful for therapeutic purposes, such as restoring the mobility of the vocal cords in patients suffering from laryngeal paralysis. PMID:26035411

  9. Optogenetic control of contractile function in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Bruegmann, Tobias; van Bremen, Tobias; Vogt, Christoph C.; Send, Thorsten; Fleischmann, Bernd K.; Sasse, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Optogenetic stimulation allows activation of cells with high spatial and temporal precision. Here we show direct optogenetic stimulation of skeletal muscle from transgenic mice expressing the light-sensitive channel Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). Largest tetanic contractions are observed with 5-ms light pulses at 30?Hz, resulting in 84% of the maximal force induced by electrical stimulation. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by selectively stimulating with a light guide individual intralaryngeal muscles in explanted larynges from ChR2-transgenic mice, which enables selective opening and closing of the vocal cords. Furthermore, systemic injection of adeno-associated virus into wild-type mice provides sufficient ChR2 expression for optogenetic opening of the vocal cords. Thus, direct optogenetic stimulation of skeletal muscle generates large force and provides the distinct advantage of localized and cell-type-specific activation. This technology could be useful for therapeutic purposes, such as restoring the mobility of the vocal cords in patients suffering from laryngeal paralysis. PMID:26035411

  10. The Hippo signal transduction network in skeletal and cardiac muscle.

    PubMed

    Wackerhage, Henning; Del Re, Dominic P; Judson, Robert N; Sudol, Marius; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2014-08-01

    The discovery of the Hippo pathway can be traced back to two areas of research. Genetic screens in fruit flies led to the identification of the Hippo pathway kinases and scaffolding proteins that function together to suppress cell proliferation and tumor growth. Independent research, often in the context of muscle biology, described Tead (TEA domain) transcription factors, which bind CATTCC DNA motifs to regulate gene expression. These two research areas were joined by the finding that the Hippo pathway regulates the activity of Tead transcription factors mainly through phosphorylation of the transcriptional coactivators Yap and Taz, which bind to and activate Teads. Additionally, many other signal transduction proteins crosstalk to members of the Hippo pathway forming a Hippo signal transduction network. We discuss evidence that the Hippo signal transduction network plays important roles in myogenesis, regeneration, muscular dystrophy, and rhabdomyosarcoma in skeletal muscle, as well as in myogenesis, organ size control, and regeneration of the heart. Understanding the role of Hippo kinases in skeletal and heart muscle physiology could have important implications for translational research. PMID:25097035

  11. Nrf2 Protects Against TWEAK-mediated Skeletal Muscle Wasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sawaf, Othman; Fragoulis, Athanassios; Rosen, Christian; Kan, Yuet Wai; Sönmez, Tolga Taha; Pufe, Thomas; Wruck, Christoph Jan

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle (SM) regeneration after injury is impaired by excessive inflammation. Particularly, the inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a potent inducer of skeletal muscle wasting and fibrosis. In this study we investigated the role of Nrf2, a major regulator of oxidative stress defence, in SM ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and TWEAK induced atrophy. We explored the time-dependent expression of TWEAK after I/R in SM of Nrf2-wildtype (WT) and knockout (KO) mice. Nrf2-KO mice expressed significant higher levels of TWEAK as compared to WT mice. Consequently, Nrf2-KO mice present an insufficient regeneration as compared to Nrf2-WT mice. Moreover, TWEAK stimulation activates Nrf2 in the mouse myoblast cell line C2C12. This Nrf2 activation inhibits TWEAK induced atrophy in C2C12 differentiated myotubes. In summary, we show that Nrf2 protects SM from TWEAK-induced cell death in vitro and that Nrf2-deficient mice therefore have poorer muscle regeneration.

  12. An Introductory Biology Lab That Uses Enzyme Histochemistry to Teach Students About Skeletal Muscle Fiber Types

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Lauren J. Sweeney (Bryn Mawr College Department of Biology)

    2004-03-01

    Journal article discussing new lab that utilizes enzyme histochemistry and morphological observations to draw conclusions about the composition of functionally different types of muscle fibers present in skeletal muscle

  13. Immunohistochemical fiber typing, ultrastructure, and morphometry of harbor seal skeletal muscle 

    E-print Network

    Watson, Rebecca Reiko

    2004-09-30

    , and the few fiber typing studies performed on pinniped skeletal muscles are not consistent with an aerobic physiological profile. Thus, the objectives of this study were to (1) reexamine the fiber type distribution throughout the primary locomotory muscles...

  14. Skeletal Muscle Lipid Deposition and Insulin Resistance: Impact of Dietary Fatty Acids and Exercise

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence has mounted indicating that elevated intramuscular triacylglycerol levels are associated with diminished insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. This lipid accumulation is most likely due to enhanced fatty acid uptake into the muscle coupled with diminished mitochondrial lipid oxidation. Th...

  15. Skeletal muscle signature of a champion sprint runner.

    PubMed

    Trappe, Scott; Luden, Nicholas; Minchev, Kiril; Raue, Ulrika; Jemiolo, Bozena; Trappe, Todd A

    2015-06-15

    We had the unique opportunity to study the skeletal muscle characteristics, at the single fiber level, of a world champion sprint runner who is the current indoor world record holder in the 60-m hurdles (7.30 s) and former world record holder in 110-m hurdles (12.91 s). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis at rest and 4 h after a high-intensity exercise challenge (4 × 7 repetitions of resistance exercise). Single muscle fiber analyses were conducted for fiber type distribution (myosin heavy chain, MHC), fiber size, contractile function (strength, speed, and power) and mRNA expression (before and after the exercise bout). The world-class sprinter's leg muscle had a high abundance (24%) of the pure MHC IIx muscle fibers with a total fast-twitch fiber population of 71%. Power output of the MHC IIx fibers (35.1 ± 1.4 W/l) was 2-fold higher than MHC IIa fibers (17.1 ± 0.5 W/l) and 14-fold greater than MHC I fibers (2.5 ± 0.1 W/l). Additionally, the MHC IIx fibers were highly responsive to intense exercise at the transcriptional level for genes involved with muscle growth and remodeling (Fn14 and myostatin). To our knowledge, the abundance of pure MHC IIx muscle fibers is the highest observed in an elite sprinter. Further, the power output of the MHC IIa and MHC IIx muscle fibers was greater than any human values reported to date. These data provide a myocellular basis for the high level of sprinting success achieved by this individual. PMID:25749440

  16. Altered Macrophage Phenotype Transition Impairs Skeletal Muscle Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hanzhou; Melton, David W.; Porter, Laurel; Sarwar, Zaheer U.; McManus, Linda M.; Shireman, Paula K.

    2015-01-01

    Monocyte/macrophage polarization in skeletal muscle regeneration is ill defined. We used CD11b-diphtheria toxin receptor transgenic mice to transiently deplete monocytes/macrophages at multiple stages before and after muscle injury induced by cardiotoxin. Fat accumulation within regenerated muscle was maximal when ablation occurred at the same time as cardiotoxin-induced injury. Early ablation (day 1 after cardiotoxin) resulted in the smallest regenerated myofiber size together with increased residual necrotic myofibers and fat accumulation. However, muscle regeneration after late (day 4) ablation was similar to controls. Levels of inflammatory cells in injured muscle following early ablation and associated with impaired muscle regeneration were determined by flow cytometry. Delayed, but exaggerated, monocyte [CD11b+(CD90/B220/CD49b/NK1.1/Ly6G)?(F4/80/I-Ab/CD11c)?Ly6C+/?] accumulation occurred; interestingly, Ly6C+ and Ly6C? monocytes were present concurrently in ablated animals and control mice. In addition to monocytes, proinflammatory, Ly6C+ macrophage accumulation following early ablation was delayed compared to controls. In both groups, CD11b+F4/80+ cells exhibited minimal expression of the M2 markers CD206 and CD301. Nevertheless, early ablation delayed and decreased the transient accumulation of CD11b+F4/80+Ly6C?CD301? macrophages; in control animals, the later tissue accumulation of these cells appeared to correspond to that of anti-inflammatory macrophages, determined by cytokine production and arginase activity. In summary, impairments in muscle regeneration were associated with exaggerated monocyte recruitment and reduced Ly6C? macrophages; the switch of macrophage/monocyte subsets is critical to muscle regeneration. PMID:24525152

  17. Chemokine-like receptor 1 regulates skeletal muscle cell myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Mark E.; Muruganandan, Shanmugam; Ernst, Matthew C.; Parlee, Sebastian D.; Zabel, Brian A.; Butcher, Eugene C.; Sinal, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The chemokine-like receptor-1 (CMKLR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by chemerin, a secreted plasma leukocyte attractant and adipokine. Previous studies identified that CMKLR1 is expressed in skeletal muscle in a stage-specific fashion during embryogenesis and in adult mice; however, its function in skeletal muscle remains unclear. Based on the established function of CMKLR1 in cell migration and differentiation, we investigated the hypothesis that CMKLR1 regulates the differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes. In C2C12 mouse myoblasts, CMKLR1 expression increased threefold with differentiation into multinucleated myotubes. Decreasing CMKLR1 expression by adenoviral-delivered small-hairpin RNA (shRNA) impaired the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into mature myotubes and reduced the mRNA expression of myogenic regulatory factors myogenin and MyoD while increasing Myf5 and Mrf4. At embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5), CMKLR1 knockout (CMKLR1?/?) mice appeared developmentally delayed and displayed significantly lower wet weights and a considerably diminished myotomal component of somites as revealed by immunolocalization of myosin heavy chain protein compared with wild-type (CMKLR1+/+) mouse embryos. These changes were associated with increased Myf5 and decreased MyoD protein expression in the somites of E12.5 CMKLR1?/? mouse embryos. Adult male CMKLR1?/? mice had significantly reduced bone-free lean mass and weighed less than the CMKLR1+/+ mice. We conclude that CMKLR1 is essential for myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells in vitro, and the CMKLR1 null mice have a subtle skeletal muscle deficit beginning from embryonic life that persists during postnatal life. PMID:22460713

  18. Scheduled Exercise Phase Shifts the Circadian Clock in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Gretchen; Esser, Karyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose It has been well established in mammals that circadian behavior as well as the molecular clockwork can be synchronized to the light-dark (LD) cycle via the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus (SCN). In addition to light, it has been demonstrated that non-photic time cues, such as restricting the time of food availability, can alter circadian behavior and clock gene expression in selected peripheral tissues such as liver. Studies have also suggested that scheduled physical activity (exercise) can alter circadian rhythms in behavior and clock gene expression, however currently the effects of exercise alone are largely unknown and have not been explored in skeletal muscle. Methods Period2?Luciferase (Per2?Luc) mice were maintained under 12 hours of light followed by 12 hours of darkness (12L:12D) then exposed to 2 hours of voluntary or involuntary exercise during the light phase for 4 weeks. Control mice were left in home cages or moved to the exercise environment (sham). A second group of mice had restricted access to food (4 hours per day for 2 weeks) in order to compare the effects of two non-photic cues on PER2?LUC bioluminescence. Skeletal muscles, lung and SCN tissue explants were cultured for 5-6 days to study molecular rhythms. Results In the exercised mice, the phase of peak PER2?LUC bioluminescence was shifted in the skeletal muscle and lung explants but not the SCN suggesting a specific synchronizing effect of exercise on the molecular clockwork in peripheral tissues. Conclusions These data provide evidence that the molecular circadian clock in peripheral tissues can respond to the time of exercise suggesting that physical activity contributes important timing information for synchronization of circadian clocks throughout the body. PMID:22460470

  19. Detubulation abolishes membrane potential stabilization in amphibian skeletal muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana X.-I. Chin; James A. Fraser; Juliet A. Usher-smith; Jeremy N. Skepper; Christopher L.-H. Huang

    2004-01-01

    A recently reported stabilization (`splinting') of the resting membrane potential (E\\u000a m) observed in amphibian skeletal muscle fibres despite extracellular hyperosmotic challenge has been attributed to high resting\\u000a ratios of membrane Cl? to K+ permeability (P\\u000a Cl\\/P\\u000a K) combined with elevations of their intracellular Cl? concentrations, [Cl?]i, above electrochemical equilibrium by diuretic-sensitive cation--Cl?, Na--Cl (NCC) and\\/or Na--K--2Cl (NKCC), co-transporter activity.

  20. Tissue-Engineered Skeletal Muscle Organoids for Reversible Gene Therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman; DelTatto, Michael; Shansky, Janet; Lemaire, Julie; Chang, Albert; Payumo, Francis; Lee, Peter; Goodyear, Amy; Raven, Latasha

    1996-01-01

    Genetically modified murine skeletal myoblasts were tissue engineered in vitro into organ-like structures (organoids) containing only postmitotic myofibers secreting pharmacological levels of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). Subcutaneous organoid Implantation under tension led to the rapid and stable appearance of physiological sera levels of rhGH for up to 12 weeks, whereas surgical removal led to its rapid disappearance. Reversible delivery of bioactive compounds from postimtotic cells in tissue engineered organs has several advantages over other forms of muscle gene therapy.

  1. Tissue-Engineered Skeletal Muscle Organoids for Reversible Gene Therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman; DelTatto, Michael; Shansky, Janet; Lemaire, Julie; Chang, Albert; Payumo, Francis; Lee, Peter; Goodyear, Amy; Raven, Latasha

    1996-01-01

    Genetically modified murine skeletal myoblasts were tissue engineered in vitro into organ-like structures (organoids) containing only postmitotic myoribers secreting pharmacological levels of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). Subcutaneous organoid implantation under tension led to the rapid and stable appearance of physiological sera levels of rhGH for up to 12 weeks, whereas surgical removal led to its rapid disappearance. Reversible delivery of bioactive compounds from postmitotic cells in tissue engineered organs has several advantages over other forms of muscle gene therapy.

  2. Chronic enteral leucine supplementation of a low protein diet increases skeletal muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs by stimulating mTOR-dependent translation initiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leucine appears to be the key amino acid that positively regulates mTOR signalling. We hypothesized that prolonged feeding (24 hours) of a Leu supplemented low protein (LP) diet in neonatal pigs will increase protein synthesis in skeletal muscle to a rate similar to that of a high protein diet (HP)....

  3. Skeletal muscle contractions stimulate cGMP formation and attenuate vascular smooth muscle myosin phosphorylation via nitric oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim S. Lau; Robert W. Grange; Wen-Jinn Chang; Kristine E. Kamm; Ingrid Sarelius; James T. Stull

    1998-01-01

    Nitric oxide generated by neuronal nitric oxide synthase in contracting skeletal muscle fibers may regulate vascular relaxation via a cGMP-mediated pathway. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase content is greatly reduced in skeletal muscles from mdx mice. cGMP formation increased in contracting extensor digitorum longus muscles in vitro from C57 control, but not mdx mice. The increase in cGMP content was abolished

  4. Receptor tyrosine kinase specific for the skeletal muscle lineage: Expression in embryonic muscle, at the neuromuscular junction, and after injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Valenzuela; Trevor N. Stitt; Peter S. DiStefano; Eduardo Rojas; Karen Mattsson; Debra L. Compton; Lorna Nunez; John S. Park; Jennifer L. Stark; David R. Gies; Susan Thomas; Michelle M. Le Beau; Anthony A. Fernald; Neal G. Copeland; Nancy A. Jenkins; Steven J. Burden; David J. Glass; George D. Yancopoulos

    1995-01-01

    While a number of growth factors have been described that are highly specific for particular cell lineages, neither a factor nor a receptor uniquely specific to the skeletal muscle lineage has previously been described. Here we identify a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) specific to skeletal muscle, which we term “MuSK” for muscle-specific kinase. MuSK is expressed at low levels in

  5. Regulatory circuitry of TWEAK-Fn14 system and PGC-1? in skeletal muscle atrophy program.

    PubMed

    Hindi, Sajedah M; Mishra, Vivek; Bhatnagar, Shephali; Tajrishi, Marjan M; Ogura, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Burkly, Linda C; Zheng, Timothy S; Kumar, Ashok

    2014-03-01

    Skeletal muscle wasting attributed to inactivity has significant adverse functional consequences. Accumulating evidence suggests that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1? (PGC-1?) and TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK)-Fn14 system are key regulators of skeletal muscle mass in various catabolic states. While the activation of TWEAK-Fn14 signaling causes muscle wasting, PGC-1? preserves muscle mass in several conditions, including functional denervation and aging. However, it remains unknown whether there is any regulatory interaction between PGC-1? and TWEAK-Fn14 system during muscle atrophy. Here we demonstrate that TWEAK significantly reduces the levels of PGC-1? and mitochondrial content (?50%) in skeletal muscle. Levels of PGC-1? are significantly increased in skeletal muscle of TWEAK-knockout (KO) and Fn14-KO mice compared to wild-type mice on denervation. Transgenic (Tg) overexpression of PGC-1? inhibited progressive muscle wasting in TWEAK-Tg mice. PGC-1? inhibited the TWEAK-induced activation of NF-?B (?50%) and dramatically reduced (?90%) the expression of atrogenes such as MAFbx and MuRF1. Intriguingly, muscle-specific overexpression of PGC-1? also prevented the inducible expression of Fn14 in denervated skeletal muscle. Collectively, our study demonstrates that TWEAK induces muscle atrophy through repressing the levels of PGC-1?. Overexpression of PGC-1? not only blocks the TWEAK-induced atrophy program but also diminishes the expression of Fn14 in denervated skeletal muscle. PMID:24327607

  6. Monoamine oxidase-A is a major target gene for glucocorticoids in human skeletal muscle cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irini Manoli; Hanh Le; Salvatore Alesci; Kimberly K. McFann; Yan A. Su; Tomoshige Kino; George P. Chrousos; Marc R. Blackman

    2005-01-01

    Skeletal myopathy is a common complication of endogenous and exogenous glucocorticoid excess, yet its pathogenetic mechanisms remain unclear. There is accumulating evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are involved in this process. To explore the glucocorticoid-induced transcriptional adaptations that may affect mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle, we studied gene expression profiles in dexamethasone-treated primary human skeletal myocytes using a

  7. Role of the occult insulin receptors in the regulation of atrophy and hypertrophy of skeletal muscles

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, M.J.

    1980-10-01

    Insulin levels in the plasma are variable, as are insulin receptor numbers on the surface of skeletal muscles. Increased blood supply to the muscle during exercise delivers more insulin to the muscles even though insulin levels are suppressed by epinephrine. Increasing muscle temperatures result in an increased insulin effect, if enough receptors are available for binding. In exhaustive exercise, insulin levels are minimal but the movement of glucose across the cell membrane increases. Since insulin-receptor affinity decreases at high temperature, the only way this increased movement of glucose can be accomplished is by increased insulin binding. Thus more receptors must be available to capture the insulin. Epinephrine levels drop drastically after exercise. Insulin levels increase and the cell can import glucose, amino acids, and nucleotides. As the cell temperature decreases after exercise, insulin binding increases but the total effect decreases because the many surface receptors disappear again over a period of time. If the muscle is immobilized, the number of surface receptors decreases. There is less insulin effect and as a result the muscle atrophies. Acetylcholine (ACh) causes the proper arrangement of the myofibrils in the foetus, and has some effect on the rate of atrophy in an immobilized muscle. It also appears to maintain the cell membrane organization. Disuse atrophy is caused by a decrease in cell size, while exercise hypertrophy is caused by an increase in cell size. Growth hormone (STH) is therefore ruled out as the exercise hypertrophy controlling factor, since STH causes cell division and not hypertrophy. Testosterone can also be ruled out as the controlling factor in the development of hypertrophy and atrophy of muscles. Estrogen can likewise be ruled out. (ERB)

  8. Distant cis-regulatory elements in human skeletal muscle differentiation.

    PubMed

    McCord, Rachel Patton; Zhou, Vicky W; Yuh, Tiffany; Bulyk, Martha L

    2011-12-01

    Identifying gene regulatory elements and their target genes in human cells remains a significant challenge. Despite increasing evidence of physical interactions between distant regulatory elements and gene promoters in mammalian cells, many studies consider only promoter-proximal regulatory regions. We identify putative cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) in human skeletal muscle differentiation by combining myogenic TF binding data before and after differentiation with histone modification data in myoblasts. CRMs that are distant (>20 kb) from muscle gene promoters are common and are more likely than proximal promoter regions to show differentiation-specific changes in myogenic TF binding. We find that two of these distant CRMs, known to activate transcription in differentiating myoblasts, interact physically with gene promoters (PDLIM3 and ACTA1) during differentiation. Our results highlight the importance of considering distal CRMs in investigations of mammalian gene regulation and support the hypothesis that distant CRM-promoter looping contacts are a general mechanism of gene regulation. PMID:21907276

  9. Structural dynamics of troponin during activation of skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Fusi, Luca; Brunello, Elisabetta; Sevrieva, Ivanka R.; Sun, Yin-Biao; Irving, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Time-resolved changes in the conformation of troponin in the thin filaments of skeletal muscle were followed during activation in situ by photolysis of caged calcium using bifunctional fluorescent probes in the regulatory and the coiled-coil (IT arm) domains of troponin. Three sequential steps in the activation mechanism were identified. The fastest step (1,100 s?1) matches the rate of Ca2+ binding to the regulatory domain but also dominates the motion of the IT arm. The second step (120 s?1) coincides with the azimuthal motion of tropomyosin around the thin filament. The third step (15 s?1) was shown by three independent approaches to track myosin head binding to the thin filament, but is absent in the regulatory head. The results lead to a four-state structural kinetic model that describes the molecular mechanism of muscle activation in the thin filament–myosin head complex under physiological conditions. PMID:24616505

  10. Further considerations on in vitro skeletal muscle cell death

    PubMed Central

    Battistelli, Michela; Salucci, Sara; Burattini, Sabrina; Falcieri, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    Summary The present review discusses the apoptotic behavior induced by chemical and physical triggers in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells, comparing myoblast to myotube sensitivity, and investigating it by means of morphological, biochemical and cytofluorimetric analyses. After all treatments, myotubes, differently from myoblasts, showed a poor sensitivity to cell death. Intriguingly, in cells exposed to staurosporine, etoposide and UVB radiation, apoptotic and normal nuclei within the same fibercould be revealed. The presence of nuclear-dependent “territorial” death domains in the syncytium could explain a delayed cell death of myotubes compared to mononucleated cells. Moreover, autophagic granules abundantly appeared in myotubes after each treatment. Autophagy could protect muscle cell integrity against chemical and physical stimuli, making C2C12 myotubes, more resistant to cell death induction. PMID:24596689

  11. Further considerations on in vitro skeletal muscle cell death.

    PubMed

    Battistelli, Michela; Salucci, Sara; Burattini, Sabrina; Falcieri, Elisabetta

    2013-10-01

    The present review discusses the apoptotic behavior induced by chemical and physical triggers in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells, comparing myoblast to myotube sensitivity, and investigating it by means of morphological, biochemical and cytofluorimetric analyses. After all treatments, myotubes, differently from myoblasts, showed a poor sensitivity to cell death. Intriguingly, in cells exposed to staurosporine, etoposide and UVB radiation, apoptotic and normal nuclei within the same fibercould be revealed. The presence of nuclear-dependent "territorial" death domains in the syncytium could explain a delayed cell death of myotubes compared to mononucleated cells. Moreover, autophagic granules abundantly appeared in myotubes after each treatment. Autophagy could protect muscle cell integrity against chemical and physical stimuli, making C2C12 myotubes, more resistant to cell death induction. PMID:24596689

  12. Exercise promotes BCAA catabolism: effects of BCAA supplementation on skeletal muscle during exercise.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Yoshiharu; Murakami, Taro; Nakai, Naoya; Nagasaki, Masaru; Harris, Robert A

    2004-06-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are essential amino acids that can be oxidized in skeletal muscle. It is known that BCAA oxidation is promoted by exercise. The mechanism responsible for this phenomenon is attributed to activation of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex, which catalyzes the second-step reaction of the BCAA catabolic pathway and is the rate-limiting enzyme in the pathway. This enzyme complex is regulated by a phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle. The BCKDH kinase is responsible for inactivation of the complex by phosphorylation, and the activity of the kinase is inversely correlated with the activity state of the BCKDH complex, which suggests that the kinase is the primary regulator of the complex. We found recently that administration of ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) in rats caused activation of the hepatic BCKDH complex in association with a decrease in the kinase activity, which suggests that promotion of fatty acid oxidation upregulates the BCAA catabolism. Long-chain fatty acids are ligands for PPARalpha, and the fatty acid oxidation is promoted by several physiological conditions including exercise. These findings suggest that fatty acids may be one of the regulators of BCAA catabolism and that the BCAA requirement is increased by exercise. Furthermore, BCAA supplementation before and after exercise has beneficial effects for decreasing exercise-induced muscle damage and promoting muscle-protein synthesis; this suggests the possibility that BCAAs are a useful supplement in relation to exercise and sports. PMID:15173434

  13. Cloning and characterization of fiber type-specific ryanodine receptor isoforms in skeletal muscles of fish

    E-print Network

    Block, Barbara A.

    Cloning and characterization of fiber type-specific ryanodine receptor isoforms in skeletal muscles. Block. Cloning and characterization of fiber type-specific ryanodine receptor isoforms in skeletal muscles of fish. Am. J. Physiol. 275 (Cell Physiol. 44): C401­C415, 1998.--We have cloned a group of c

  14. Oral Therapy of Skeletal Muscle Spasm with Combined Orphenadrine-Fluphenazine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Pennington Warter; Ward M. Schultz; James L Brady

    1963-01-01

    The oral use of combined orphenadrine fluphenazine (Orpitil®) for relief of skeletal muscle spasm or stiffness was evaluated in 111 patients with acute and chronic musculoskeletal and neuromuscular disorders. Given usually in a dosage of one tablet twice daily, the combination was a therapeutically effective and generally well tolerated skeletal muscle spasmolytic.The results of exploratory trials in 47 patients admitted

  15. Genetic selection of mice for high voluntary wheel running: effect on skeletal muscle glucose uptake

    E-print Network

    Garland Jr., Theodore

    Genetic selection of mice for high voluntary wheel running: effect on skeletal muscle glucose: effect on skeletal muscle glucose uptake. J Appl Physiol 91: 1289­1297, 2001.--Effects of genetic glucose uptake were stud- ied in mice with the following treatments for 8 wk: 1) access to unlocked wheels

  16. Insulin binding to skeletal muscle membranes in growing ruminating sheep fed different diets

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Insulin binding to skeletal muscle membranes in growing ruminating sheep fed different diets J was to investigate insulin receptors in skeletal muscle of growing (30-36 kg) ruminating sheep given a control diet to contain sarcoplasmic reticulum. 1251 -insulin binding to purified membranes was studied at 4 and 30 °C

  17. Purified Ryanodine Receptor from Rabbit Skeletal Muscle Is the Calcium-Release

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Kevin P.

    Purified Ryanodine Receptor from Rabbit Skeletal Muscle Is the Calcium-Release Channel of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 ABSTRACT The ryanodine receptor of rabbit skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic/mg and a binding affinity (Kd) of 7.0 nM. Using planar bilayer recording techniques, we show that the purified

  18. Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes: Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Glucose Uptake in Skeletal Muscle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Kristin I.; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise is a well-established tool to prevent and combat type 2 diabetes. Exercise improves whole body metabolic health in people with type 2 diabetes, and adaptations to skeletal muscle are essential for this improvement. An acute bout of exercise increases skeletal muscle glucose uptake, while chronic exercise training improves mitochondrial…

  19. Nuclear genetic control of mitochondrial translation in skeletal muscle revealed in patients

    E-print Network

    Shoubridge, Eric

    Nuclear genetic control of mitochondrial translation in skeletal muscle revealed in patients in a developmentally regulated nuclear factor important for mitochondrial translation in skeletal muscle. INTRODUCTION The enzymatic system responsible for the generation of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation of ADP, located

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Gene Transfer to Mouse Heart and Skeletal Muscles Using

    E-print Network

    Kay, Mark A.

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Gene Transfer to Mouse Heart and Skeletal Muscles Using a Minicircle Expressing to be improved. A novel vector system that shows great promise is the minicircle (MC) vector being smaller than, expressing the human vascular endothelial growth factor (hVEGF), to mouse heart and skeletal muscles

  1. Regulation of fatty acid uptake and metabolism in L6 skeletal muscle cells by resistin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rengasamy Palanivel; Gary Sweeney

    2005-01-01

    Resistin has been proposed as a potential link between obesity and insulin resistance. It is also well established that altered metabolism of fatty acids by skeletal muscle can lead to insulin resistance and lipotoxicity. However, little is known about the effect of resistin on long chain fatty acid uptake and metabolism in skeletal muscle. Here we show that treating rat

  2. Age-associated Changes in the Response of Skeletal Muscle Cells to Exercise and Regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miranda D. Grounds

    ABSTRACT: This paper looks at the effects of aging on the response of skeletal mus- cle to exercise from the perspective of the behavior of muscle precursor cells (widely termed satellite cells or myoblasts) and regeneration. The paper starts by outlining the ways in which skeletal muscle can respond to damage resulting from exercise or other trauma. The age-related changes

  3. Myosin Synthesis Increased by Electrical Stimulation of Skeletal Muscle Cell Cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annie Brevet; Elaine Pinto; John Peacock; Frank E. Stockdale

    1976-01-01

    When cultures of skeletal muscle cells of the chick embryo are subjected to repetitive, electrical stimulation, the contractions increase the amount of protein produced by these cells. The increase is greater for contractile proteins such as myosin heavy chain than for total cellular protein. This demonstrates that in a culture system of skeletal muscle cells that have differentiated in the

  4. THE FINE STRUCTURE OF EMBRYONIC CHICK SKELETAL MUSCLE CELLS DIFFERENTIATED IN VITRO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Shimada; D. A. FISCHMAN; A. A. MOSCONA

    1967-01-01

    Dissociated myoblasts from 12-day chick embryos were cultured in monolayer, and the differentiation of skeletal muscle cells was studied by electron microscopy. The results have revealed a striking ultrastructural similarity between the in vivo and the in vitro developing muscle, particularly with respect to the myofibrils and sarcoplasmic reticulum. This study demonstrates that all the characteristic organelles of mature skeletal

  5. Intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species by contracting skeletal muscle cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis McArdle; David M. Pattwell; Aphrodite Vasilaki; Anne McArdle; Malcolm J. Jackson

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species in skeletal muscle cells at rest and during and following a period of contractile activity. Intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species was examined directly in skeletal muscle myotubes using 2?,7?-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCFH) as an intracellular probe. Preliminary experiments confirmed that DCFH located to the myotubes but

  6. Reduced Arteriolar Responses to Skeletal Muscle Contraction after Ingestion of a High Salt Diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Marvar; Timothy R. Nurkiewicz; Matthew A. Boegehold

    2005-01-01

    We previously reported that in skeletal muscle arterioles of rats fed a very high salt (HS; 7%) diet, the bioavailability of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) is reduced through scavenging by reactive oxygen species. Because arteriolar NO can play an important role in local blood flow control, we investigated whether arteriolar responses to increased tissue metabolism become compromised in skeletal muscle

  7. Pericytes of human skeletal muscle are myogenic precursors distinct from satellite cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arianna Dellavalle; Maurilio Sampaolesi; Rossana Tonlorenzi; Enrico Tagliafico; Benedetto Sacchetti; Laura Perani; Anna Innocenzi; Beatriz G. Galvez; Graziella Messina; Roberta Morosetti; Sheng Li; Marzia Belicchi; Giuseppe Peretti; Jeffrey S. Chamberlain; Woodring E. Wright; Yvan Torrente; Stefano Ferrari; Paolo Bianco; Giulio Cossu

    2007-01-01

    Cells derived from blood vessels of human skeletal muscle can regenerate skeletal muscle, similarly to embryonic mesoangioblasts. However, adult cells do not express endothelial markers, but instead express markers of pericytes, such as NG2 proteoglycan and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and can be prospectively isolated from freshly dissociated ALP+ cells. Unlike canonical myogenic precursors (satellite cells), pericyte-derived cells express myogenic markers

  8. The role of skeletal muscle in liver glutathione metabolism during acetaminophen overdose.

    PubMed

    Bilinsky, L M; Reed, M C; Nijhout, H F

    2015-07-01

    Marked alterations in systemic glutamate-glutamine metabolism characterize the catabolic state, in which there is an increased breakdown and decreased synthesis of skeletal muscle protein. Among these alterations are a greatly increased net release of glutamine (Gln) from skeletal muscle into blood plasma and a dramatic depletion of intramuscular Gln. Understanding the catabolic state is important because a number of pathological conditions with very different etiologies are characterized by its presence; these include major surgery, sepsis, trauma, and some cancers. Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is also accompanied by dramatic changes in systemic glutamate-glutamine metabolism including large drops in liver glutathione (for which glutamate is a precursor) and plasma Gln. We have constructed a mathematical model of glutamate and glutamine metabolism in rat which includes liver, blood plasma and skeletal muscle. We show that for the normal rat, the model solutions fit experimental data including the diurnal variation in liver glutathione (GSH). We show that for the rat chronically dosed with dexamethasone (an artificial glucocorticoid which induces a catabolic state) the model can be used to explain empirically observed facts such as the linear decline in intramuscular Gln and the drop in plasma glutamine. We show that for the Wistar rat undergoing APAP overdose the model reproduces the experimentally observed rebound of liver GSH to normal levels by the 24-h mark. We show that this rebound is achieved in part by the action of the cystine-glutamate antiporter, an amino acid transporter not normally expressed in liver but induced under conditions of oxidative stress. Finally, we explain why supplementation with Gln, a Glu precursor, assists in the preservation of liver GSH during APAP overdose despite the fact that under normal conditions only Cys is rate-limiting for GSH formation. PMID:25890031

  9. Creating and Simulating Skeletal Muscle from the Visible Human Data Set

    E-print Network

    Blemker, Silvia Salinas

    that incorporates muscle fiber fields as well as passive and active components. The simulation takes advantageCreating and Simulating Skeletal Muscle from the Visible Human Data Set Joseph Teran, Eftychios, and computer graphics. The accuracy of the muscle, bone, and tendon geometry as well as the accuracy of muscle

  10. Cancer usurps skeletal muscle as an energy repository.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi; Yoneda, Junya; Ohmori, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Shimbo, Kazutaka; Eto, Sachise; Kato, Yumiko; Miyano, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Sasahira, Tomonori; Chihara, Yoshitomo; Kuniyasu, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells produce energy through aerobic glycolysis, but contributions of host tissues to cancer energy metabolism are unclear. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the cancer-host energy production relationship, in particular, between cancer energy production and host muscle. During the development and progression of colorectal cancer, expression of the secreted autophagy-inducing stress protein HMGB1 increased in the muscle of tumor-bearing animals. This effect was associated with decreased expression of pyruvate kinase PKM1 and pyruvate kinase activity in muscle via the HMGB1 receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE). However, muscle mitochondrial energy production was maintained. In contrast, HMGB1 addition to colorectal cancer cells increased lactate fermentation. In the muscle, HMGB1 addition induced autophagy by decreasing levels of active mTOR and increasing autophagy-associated proteins, plasma glutamate, and (13)C-glutamine incorporation into acetyl-CoA. In a mouse model of colon carcinogenesis, a temporal increase in HMGB1 occurred in serum and colonic mucosa with an increase in autophagy associated with altered plasma free amino acid levels, increased glutamine, and decreased PKM1 levels. These differences were abolished by administration of an HMGB1 neutralizing antibody. Similar results were obtained in a mouse xenograft model of human colorectal cancer. Taken together, our findings suggest that HMGB1 released during tumorigenesis recruits muscle to supply glutamine to cancer cells as an energy source. PMID:24197136

  11. Potential therapeutic effects of branched-chain amino acids supplementation on resistance exercise-based muscle damage in humans

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) supplementation has been considered an interesting nutritional strategy to improve skeletal muscle protein turnover in several conditions. In this context, there is evidence that resistance exercise (RE)-derived biochemical markers of muscle soreness (creatine kinase (CK), aldolase, myoglobin), soreness, and functional strength may be modulated by BCAA supplementation in order to favor of muscle adaptation. However, few studies have investigated such effects in well-controlled conditions in humans. Therefore, the aim of this short report is to describe the potential therapeutic effects of BCAA supplementation on RE-based muscle damage in humans. The main point is that BCAA supplementation may decrease some biochemical markers related with muscle soreness but this does not necessarily reflect on muscle functionality. PMID:22168756

  12. Potential therapeutic effects of branched-chain amino acids supplementation on resistance exercise-based muscle damage in humans.

    PubMed

    da Luz, Claudia R; Nicastro, Humberto; Zanchi, Nelo E; Chaves, Daniela Fs; Lancha, Antonio H

    2011-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) supplementation has been considered an interesting nutritional strategy to improve skeletal muscle protein turnover in several conditions. In this context, there is evidence that resistance exercise (RE)-derived biochemical markers of muscle soreness (creatine kinase (CK), aldolase, myoglobin), soreness, and functional strength may be modulated by BCAA supplementation in order to favor of muscle adaptation. However, few studies have investigated such effects in well-controlled conditions in humans. Therefore, the aim of this short report is to describe the potential therapeutic effects of BCAA supplementation on RE-based muscle damage in humans. The main point is that BCAA supplementation may decrease some biochemical markers related with muscle soreness but this does not necessarily reflect on muscle functionality. PMID:22168756

  13. Age-dependent capacity to accelerate protein synthesis dictates the extent of compensatory growth in skeletal muscle following undernutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In both humans and animals, impaired growth during early life compromises adult lean body mass and muscle strength despite skeletal muscle’s large regenerative capacity. To identify the significance of developmental age on skeletal muscle’s capacity for catch-up growth following an episode of under ...

  14. Skeletal Muscle Fascicle Arrangements Can Be Reconstructed Using a Laplacian Vector Field Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hon Fai; Blemker, Silvia S.

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscles are characterized by a large diversity in anatomical architecture and function. Muscle force and contraction are generated by contractile fiber cells grouped in fascicle bundles, which transmit the mechanical action between origin and insertion attachments of the muscle. Therefore, an adequate representation of fascicle arrangements in computational models of skeletal muscles is important, especially when investigating three-dimensional muscle deformations in finite element models. However, obtaining high resolution in vivo measurements of fascicle arrangements in skeletal muscles is currently still challenging. This motivated the development of methods in previous studies to generate numerical representations of fascicle trajectories using interpolation templates. Here, we present an alternative approach based on the hypothesis of a rotation and divergence free (Laplacian) vector field behavior which reflects observed physical characteristics of fascicle trajectories. To obtain this representation, the Laplace equation was solved in anatomical reconstructions of skeletal muscle shapes based on medical images using a uniform flux boundary condition on the attachment areas. Fascicle tracts were generated through a robust flux based tracing algorithm. The concept of this approach was demonstrated in two-dimensional synthetic examples of typical skeletal muscle architectures. A detailed evaluation was performed in an example of the anatomical human tibialis anterior muscle which showed an overall agreement with measurements from the literature. The utility and capability of the proposed method was further demonstrated in other anatomical examples of human skeletal muscles with a wide range of muscle shapes and attachment morphologies. PMID:24204878

  15. In vivo expression of G-protein 12 dimer in adult mouse skeletal muscle alters L-type calcium current and excitation-contraction coupling

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 In vivo expression of G-protein 12 dimer in adult mouse skeletal muscle alters L-type calcium, Grenoble, France. Running title: G-proteins in skeletal muscle Key words: skeletal muscle, G-protein coupled receptors are expressed in skeletal muscle but their roles in muscle physiology and downstream

  16. Module-based multiscale simulation of angiogenesis in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mathematical modeling of angiogenesis has been gaining momentum as a means to shed new light on the biological complexity underlying blood vessel growth. A variety of computational models have been developed, each focusing on different aspects of the angiogenesis process and occurring at different biological scales, ranging from the molecular to the tissue levels. Integration of models at different scales is a challenging and currently unsolved problem. Results We present an object-oriented module-based computational integration strategy to build a multiscale model of angiogenesis that links currently available models. As an example case, we use this approach to integrate modules representing microvascular blood flow, oxygen transport, vascular endothelial growth factor transport and endothelial cell behavior (sensing, migration and proliferation). Modeling methodologies in these modules include algebraic equations, partial differential equations and agent-based models with complex logical rules. We apply this integrated model to simulate exercise-induced angiogenesis in skeletal muscle. The simulation results compare capillary growth patterns between different exercise conditions for a single bout of exercise. Results demonstrate how the computational infrastructure can effectively integrate multiple modules by coordinating their connectivity and data exchange. Model parameterization offers simulation flexibility and a platform for performing sensitivity analysis. Conclusions This systems biology strategy can be applied to larger scale integration of computational models of angiogenesis in skeletal muscle, or other complex processes in other tissues under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:21463529

  17. Lysophosphatidic acid mediates pleiotropic responses in skeletal muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jean-Baptiste, Gael [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Que. (Canada); Yang Zhao [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Que. (Canada); Khoury, Chamel [Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Que. (Canada); Greenwood, Michael T. [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Que. (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Que. (Canada); E-mail: michael.greenwood@mcgill.ca

    2005-10-07

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a potent modulator of growth, cell survival, and apoptosis. Although all four LPA receptors are expressed in skeletal muscle, very little is known regarding the role they play in this tissue. We used RT-PCR to demonstrate that cultured skeletal muscle C2C12 cells endogenously express multiple LPA receptor subtypes. The demonstration that LPA mediates the activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinase and Akt/PKB in C2C12 cells is consistent with the widely observed mitogenic properties of LPA. In spite of these observations, LPA did not induce proliferation in C2C12 cells. Paradoxically, we found that prolonged treatment of C2C12 cells with LPA led to caspase 3 and PARP cleavage as well as the activation of stress-associated MAP kinases JNK and p38. In spite of these typically pro-apoptotic responses, LPA did not induce cell death. Blocking ERK1/2 and Akt/PKB activation with specific pharmacological inhibitors, nevertheless, stimulated LPA-mediated apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that both mitogenic and apoptotic responses serve to counterbalance the effects of LPA in cultured C2C12 cells.

  18. Nitric oxide agents impair insulin-mediated signal transduction in rat skeletal muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simone Badal; Paul D Brown; Dalip Ragoobirsingh

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence demonstrates that exogenously administered nitric oxide (NO) can induce insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. We have investigated the modulatory effects of two NO donors, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D, L-penicillamine (SNAP) and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) on the early events in insulin signaling in rat skeletal myocytes. RESULTS: Skeletal muscle cells from 6–8 week old Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with SNAP or GSNO (25

  19. Therapeutic strategies for preventing skeletal muscle fibrosis after injury

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Koyal; Corona, Benjamin T.; Walters, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle repair after injury includes a complex and well-coordinated regenerative response. However, fibrosis often manifests, leading to aberrant regeneration and incomplete functional recovery. Research efforts have focused on the use of anti-fibrotic agents aimed at reducing the fibrotic response and improving functional recovery. While there are a number of mediators involved in the development of post-injury fibrosis, TGF-?1 is the primary pro-fibrogenic growth factor and several agents that inactivate TGF-?1 signaling cascade have emerged as promising anti-fibrotic therapies. A number of these agents are FDA approved for other conditions, clearing the way for rapid translation into clinical treatment. In this article, we provide an overview of muscle's host response to injury with special emphasis on the cellular and non-cellular mediators involved in the development of fibrosis. This article also reviews the findings of several pre-clinical studies that have utilized anti-fibrotic agents to improve muscle healing following most common forms of muscle injuries. Although some studies have shown positive results with anti-fibrotic treatment, others have indicated adverse outcomes. Some concerns and questions regarding the clinical potential of these anti-fibrotic agents have also been presented. PMID:25954202

  20. GDF11 Increases with Age and Inhibits Skeletal Muscle Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Egerman, Marc A; Cadena, Samuel M; Gilbert, Jason A; Meyer, Angelika; Nelson, Hallie N; Swalley, Susanne E; Mallozzi, Carolyn; Jacobi, Carsten; Jennings, Lori L; Clay, Ieuan; Laurent, Gaëlle; Ma, Shenglin; Brachat, Sophie; Lach-Trifilieff, Estelle; Shavlakadze, Tea; Trendelenburg, Anne-Ulrike; Brack, Andrew S; Glass, David J

    2015-07-01

    Age-related frailty may be due to decreased skeletal muscle regeneration. The role of TGF-? molecules myostatin and GDF11 in regeneration is unclear. Recent studies showed an age-related decrease in GDF11 and that GDF11 treatment improves muscle regeneration, which were contrary to prior studies. We now show that these recent claims are not reproducible and the reagents previously used to detect GDF11 are not GDF11 specific. We develop a GDF11-specific immunoassay and show a trend toward increased GDF11 levels in sera of aged rats and humans. GDF11 mRNA increases in rat muscle with age. Mechanistically, GDF11 and myostatin both induce SMAD2/3 phosphorylation, inhibit myoblast differentiation, and regulate identical downstream signaling. GDF11 significantly inhibited muscle regeneration and decreased satellite cell expansion in mice. Given early data in humans showing a trend for an age-related increase, GDF11 could be a target for pharmacologic blockade to treat age-related sarcopenia. PMID:26001423

  1. Fed levels of amino acids are required for the somatotropin-induced increase in muscle protein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Fiona A.; Suryawan, Agus; Orellana, Renán A.; Nguyen, Hanh V.; Jeyapalan, Asumthia S.; Gazzaneo, Maria C.; Davis, Teresa A.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic somatotropin (pST) treatment in pigs increases muscle protein synthesis and circulating insulin, a known promoter of protein synthesis. Previously, we showed that the pST-mediated rise in insulin could not account for the pST-induced increase in muscle protein synthesis when amino acids were maintained at fasting levels. This study aimed to determine whether the pST-induced increase in insulin promotes skeletal muscle protein synthesis when amino acids are provided at fed levels and whether the response is associated with enhanced translation initiation factor activation. Growing pigs were treated with pST (0 or 180 ?g·kg?1·day?1) for 7 days, and then pancreatic-glucose-amino acid clamps were performed. Amino acids were raised to fed levels in the presence of either fasted or fed insulin concentrations; glucose was maintained at fasting throughout. Muscle protein synthesis was increased by pST treatment and by amino acids (with or without insulin) (P < 0.001). In pST-treated pigs, fed, but not fasting, amino acid concentrations further increased muscle protein synthesis rates irrespective of insulin level (P < 0.02). Fed amino acids, with or without raised insulin concentrations, increased the phosphorylation of S6 kinase (S6K1) and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1), decreased inactive 4EBP1·eIF4E complex association, and increased active eIF4E·eIF4G complex formation (P < 0.02). pST treatment did not alter translation initiation factor activation. We conclude that the pST-induced stimulation of muscle protein synthesis requires fed amino acid levels, but not fed insulin levels. However, under the current conditions, the response to amino acids is not mediated by the activation of translation initiation factors that regulate mRNA binding to the ribosomal complex. PMID:18682537

  2. Mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle during experimental Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Báez, Alejandra L; Reynoso, María N; Lo Presti, María S; Bazán, Paola C; Strauss, Mariana; Miler, Noemí; Pons, Patricia; Rivarola, Héctor W; Paglini-Oliva, Patricia

    2015-06-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi invasion and replication in cardiomyocytes and other tissues induce cellular injuries and cytotoxic reactions, with the production of inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide, both sources of reactive oxygen species. The myocyte response to oxidative stress involves the progression of cellular changes primarily targeting mitochondria. Similar alterations could be taking place in mitochondria from the skeletal muscle; if that is the case, a simple skeletal muscle biopsy would give information about the cardiac energetic production that could be used as a predictor of the chagasic cardiopathy evolution. Therefore, in the present paper we studied skeletal muscle mitochondrial structure and the enzymatic activity of citrate synthase and respiratory chain complexes I to IV (CI-CIV), in Albino Swiss mice infected with T. cruzi, Tulahuen strain and SGO Z12 and Lucky isolates, along the infection. Changes in the mitochondrial structure were detected in 100% of the mitochondria analyzed from the infected groups: they all presented at least 1 significant abnormality such as increase in their matrix or disorganization of their cristae, which are probably related to the enzymatic dysfunction. When we studied the Krebs cycle functionality through the measurement of the specific citrate synthase activity, we found it to be significantly diminished during the acute phase of the infection in Tulahuen and SGO Z12 infected groups with respect to the control one; citrate synthase activity from the Lucky group was significantly increased (p<0.05). The activity of this enzyme was reduced in all the infected groups during the chronic asymptomatic phase (p<0.001) and return to normal values (Tulahuen and SGO Z12) or increased its activity (Lucky) by day 365 post-infection (p.i.). When the mitochondrial respiratory chain was analyzed from the acute to the chronic phase of the infection through the measurement of the activity of complexes I to IV, the activity of CI remained similar to control in Tulahuen and Lucky groups, but was significantly augmented in the SGO Z12 one in the acute and chronic phases (p<0.05). CII increased its activity in Tulahuen and Lucky groups by day 75 p.i. and in SGO Z12 by day 365 p.i. (p<0.05). CIII showed a similar behavior in the 3 infected groups, remaining similar to control values in the first two stages of the infection and significantly increasing later on (p<0.0001). CIV showed an increase in its activity in Lucky throughout all stages of infection (p<0.0001) and an increase in Tulahuen by day 365days p.i. (p<0.0001); SGO Z12 on the other hand, showed a decreased CIV activity at the same time. The structural changes in skeletal muscle mitochondria and their altered enzyme activity began in the acute phase of infection, probably modifying the ability of mitochondria to generate energy; these changes were not compensated in the rest of the phases of the infection. Chagas is a systemic disease, which produces not only heart damage but also permanent skeletal muscle alterations. PMID:25835781

  3. J Biol Chem. Author manuscript Triadins are not triad-specific proteins: two new skeletal muscle triadins

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    skeletal muscle triadins possibly involved in the architecture of sarcoplasmic reticulum Vassilopoulos St isoforms from rat skeletal muscle, Trisk 49 and Trisk 32, named according to their theoretical molecular to characterize both new triadins. Both are expressed in adult rat skeletal muscle, and their expression in slow

  4. Characterization of RyR1-slow, a ryanodine receptor specific to slow-twitch skeletal muscle

    E-print Network

    Block, Barbara A.

    Characterization of RyR1-slow, a ryanodine receptor specific to slow-twitch skeletal muscle JEFFERY, a ryanodine receptor specific to slow-twitch skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 279: R1889­R1898, 2000.--Two distinct skeletal muscle ryanodine receptors (RyR1s) are expressed

  5. ABSTRACT: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) involves the use of electrical current to facilitate contraction of skeletal muscle. However,

    E-print Network

    Dixon, Warren

    to facilitate contraction of skeletal muscle. However, little is known concerning the effects of varying skeletal muscle in vivo. Ten subjects under- went NMES-elicited contractions of varying pulse frequencies of skeletal muscle. It is commonly used dur- ing rehabilitation to accomplish a variety of goals and often

  6. Spatial Ca(2+) distribution in contracting skeletal and cardiac muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zoghbi, M E; Bolaños, P; Villalba-Galea, C; Marcano, A; Hernández, E; Fill, M; Escobar, A L

    2000-01-01

    The spatiotemporal distribution of intracellular Ca(2+) release in contracting skeletal and cardiac muscle cells was defined using a snapshot imaging technique. Calcium imaging was performed on intact skeletal and cardiac muscle cells during contractions induced by an action potential (AP). The sarcomere length of the skeletal and cardiac cells was approximately 2 micrometer. Imaging Rhod-2 fluorescence only during a very brief (7 ns) snapshot of excitation light minimized potential image-blurring artifacts due to movement and/or diffusion. In skeletal muscle cells, the AP triggered a large fast Ca(2+) transient that peaked in less than 3 ms. Distinct subsarcomeric Ca(2+) gradients were evident during the first 4 ms of the skeletal Ca(2+) transient. In cardiac muscle, the AP-triggered Ca(2+) transient was much slower and peaked in approximately 100 ms. In contrast to the skeletal case, there were no detectable subsarcomeric Ca(2+) gradients during the cardiac Ca(2+) transient. Theoretical simulations suggest that the subsarcomeric Ca(2+) gradients seen in skeletal muscle were detectable because of the high speed and synchrony of local Ca(2+) release. Slower asynchronous recruitment of local Ca(2+) release units may account for the absence of detectable subsarcomeric Ca(2+) gradients in cardiac muscle. The speed and synchrony of local Ca(2+) gradients are quite different in AP-activated contracting cardiac and skeletal muscle cells at normal resting sarcomere lengths. PMID:10620283

  7. Generation of skeletal muscle from transplanted embryonic stem cells in dystrophic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Bhagavati, Satyakam [Department of Neurology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, 450 Clarkson Ave, NY 11203 (United States)]. E-mail: satyakamb@hotmail.com; Xu Weimin [Department of Neurology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, 450 Clarkson Ave, NY 11203 (United States)

    2005-07-29

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells have great therapeutic potential because of their capacity to proliferate extensively and to form any fully differentiated cell of the body, including skeletal muscle cells. Successful generation of skeletal muscle in vivo, however, requires selective induction of the skeletal muscle lineage in cultures of ES cells and following transplantation, integration of appropriately differentiated skeletal muscle cells with recipient muscle. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a severe progressive muscle wasting disease due to a mutation in the dystrophin gene and the mdx mouse, an animal model for DMD, are characterized by the absence of the muscle membrane associated protein, dystrophin. Here, we show that co-culturing mouse ES cells with a preparation from mouse muscle enriched for myogenic stem and precursor cells, followed by injection into mdx mice, results occasionally in the formation of normal, vascularized skeletal muscle derived from the transplanted ES cells. Study of this phenomenon should provide valuable insights into skeletal muscle development in vivo from transplanted ES cells.

  8. Skeletal muscle NAMPT is induced by exercise in humans

    PubMed Central

    Costford, Sheila R.; Bajpeyi, Sudip; Pasarica, Magdalena; Albarado, Diana C.; Thomas, Shantele C.; Xie, Hui; Church, Timothy S.; Jubrias, Sharon A.; Conley, Kevin E.

    2010-01-01

    In mammals, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is responsible for the first and rate-limiting step in the conversion of nicotinamide to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). NAD+ is an obligate cosubstrate for mammalian sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), a deacetylase that activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?), which in turn can activate mitochondrial biogenesis. Given that mitochondrial biogenesis is activated by exercise, we hypothesized that exercise would increase NAMPT expression, as a potential mechanism leading to increased mitochondrial content in muscle. A cross-sectional analysis of human subjects showed that athletes had about a twofold higher skeletal muscle NAMPT protein expression compared with sedentary obese, nonobese, and type 2 diabetic subjects (P < 0.05). NAMPT protein correlated with mitochondrial content as estimated by complex III protein content (R2 = 0.28, P < 0.01), MRS-measured maximal ATP synthesis (R2 = 0.37, P = 0.002), and V?o2max (R2 = 0.63, P < 0.0001). In an exercise intervention study, NAMPT protein increased by 127% in sedentary nonobese subjects after 3 wk of exercise training (P < 0.01). Treatment of primary human myotubes with forskolin, a cAMP signaling pathway activator, resulted in an ?2.5-fold increase in NAMPT protein expression, whereas treatment with ionomycin had no effect. Activation of AMPK via AICAR resulted in an ?3.4-fold increase in NAMPT mRNA (P < 0.05) as well as modest increases in NAMPT protein (P < 0.05) and mitochondrial content (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that exercise increases skeletal muscle NAMPT expression and that NAMPT correlates with mitochondrial content. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the pathways regulating NAMPT as well as its downstream effects. PMID:19887595

  9. Human skeletal muscle xenograft as a new preclinical model for muscle disorders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanfan; King, Oliver D; Rahimov, Fedik; Jones, Takako I; Ward, Christopher W; Kerr, Jaclyn P; Liu, Naili; Emerson, Charles P; Kunkel, Louis M; Partridge, Terence A; Wagner, Kathryn R

    2014-06-15

    Development of novel therapeutics requires good animal models of disease. Disorders for which good animal models do not exist have very few drugs in development or clinical trial. Even where there are accepted, albeit imperfect models, the leap from promising preclinical drug results to positive clinical trials commonly fails, including in disorders of skeletal muscle. The main alternative model for early drug development, tissue culture, lacks both the architecture and, usually, the metabolic fidelity of the normal tissue in vivo. Herein, we demonstrate the feasibility and validity of human to mouse xenografts as a preclinical model of myopathy. Human skeletal muscle biopsies transplanted into the anterior tibial compartment of the hindlimbs of NOD-Rag1(null) IL2r?(null) immunodeficient host mice regenerate new vascularized and innervated myofibers from human myogenic precursor cells. The grafts exhibit contractile and calcium release behavior, characteristic of functional muscle tissue. The validity of the human graft as a model of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy is demonstrated in disease biomarker studies, showing that gene expression profiles of xenografts mirror those of the fresh donor biopsies. These findings illustrate the value of a new experimental model of muscle disease, the human muscle xenograft in mice, as a feasible and valid preclinical tool to better investigate the pathogenesis of human genetic myopathies and to more accurately predict their response to novel therapeutics. PMID:24452336

  10. Muscle disease caused by mutations in the skeletal muscle alpha-actin gene (ACTA1)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Sparrowa; Kristen J. Nowakb; Hayley J. Durlingb; Alan H. Beggse; Carina Wallgren-Petterssonf; Norma Romerog; Ikuya Nonakah; Nigel G. Laingb

    Mutations in the skeletal muscle alpha-actin gene (ACTA1) associated with congenital myopathy with excess of thin myofilaments, nemaline myopathy and intranuclear rod myopathy were first described in 1999. At that time, only 15 different missense mutations were known in ACTA1. More than 60 mutations have now been identified. This review analyses this larger spectrum of mutations in ACTA1. It investigates

  11. Muscle disease caused by mutations in the skeletal muscle alpha-actin gene ( ACTA1)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Sparrow; Kristen J. Nowak; Hayley J. Durling; Alan H. Beggs; Carina Wallgren-Pettersson; Norma Romero; Ikuya Nonaka; Nigel G. Laing

    2003-01-01

    Mutations in the skeletal muscle alpha-actin gene (ACTA1) associated with congenital myopathy with excess of thin myofilaments, nemaline myopathy and intranuclear rod myopathy were first described in 1999. At that time, only 15 different missense mutations were known in ACTA1. More than 60 mutations have now been identified. This review analyses this larger spectrum of mutations in ACTA1. It investigates

  12. Responses of skeletal muscle to unloading, a review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. E.; Jaspers, S. R.; Henriksen, E. J.; Jacob, S.

    1985-01-01

    Suspension models were used to study muscle response to reduced activity. During 6 days of tail casting, the soleus (SOL) atrophies while the extensor digitorum longus grows relatively normally. After discounting those changes in both muscles due primarily to increased secretion of adrenal hormones, the following conclusions regarding the specific responses of the SOL could be drawn: (1) Atrophy is probably due primarily to increased protein degradation; (2) Decreased synthesis of glutamine may result from reduced availability of ammonia due to diminished use of ATP; (3) Greater muscle glycogen seems to reflect an increased response to insulin of glucose uptake which leads to greater glucose metabolism; and (4) Faster catabolism of branched-chain amino acids can be attributed to enhanced flux through ketoacid dehydrogenase. Studies by others using tail casted suspended rats showed in the SOL: (1) a gradual switch from type 1 to type 2 fibers; (2) increased acid protease activity; and (3) altered muscle function and contractile duration. Using harness suspended rats, others showed in the SOL: (1) significant atrophy; (2) increased numbers of glucocorticoid receptors; and (3) no change in muscle fatigability.

  13. Responses of skeletal muscle to unloading - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. E.; Jaspers, S. R.; Henriksen, E. J.; Jacob, S.

    1985-01-01

    Suspension models were used to study muscle response to reduced activity. During 6 days of tail casting, the soleus (SOL) atrophies while the extensor digitorum longus grows relatively normally. After discounting those changes in both muscles due primarily to increased secretion of adrenal hormones, the following conclusions regarding the specific responses of the SOL could be drawn: (1) Atrophy is probably due primarily to increased protein degradation; (2) Decreased synthesis of glutamine may result from reduced availability of ammonia due to diminished use of ATP; (3) Greater muscle glycogen seems to reflect an increased response to insulin of glucose uptake which leads to greater glucose metabolism; and (4) Faster catabolism of branched-chain amino acids can be attributed to enhanced flux through ketoacid dehydrogenase. Studies by others using tail casted suspended rats showed in the SOL: (1) a gradual switch from type 1 to type 2 fibers; (2) increased acid protease activity; and (3) altered muscle function and contractile duration. Using harness suspended rats, others showed in the SOL: (1) significant atrophy; (2) increased numbers of glucocorticoid receptors; and (3) no change in muscle fatigability.

  14. Deep Proteomics of Mouse Skeletal Muscle Enables Quantitation of Protein Isoforms, Metabolic Pathways, and Transcription Factors*

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Atul S.; Murgia, Marta; Nagaraj, Nagarjuna; Treebak, Jonas T.; Cox, Jürgen; Mann, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle constitutes 40% of individual body mass and plays vital roles in locomotion and whole-body metabolism. Proteomics of skeletal muscle is challenging because of highly abundant contractile proteins that interfere with detection of regulatory proteins. Using a state-of-the art MS workflow and a strategy to map identifications from the C2C12 cell line model to tissues, we identified a total of 10,218 proteins, including skeletal muscle specific transcription factors like myod1 and myogenin and circadian clock proteins. We obtain absolute abundances for proteins expressed in a muscle cell line and skeletal muscle, which should serve as a valuable resource. Quantitation of protein isoforms of glucose uptake signaling pathways and in glucose and lipid metabolic pathways provides a detailed metabolic map of the cell line compared with tissue. This revealed unexpectedly complex regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase and insulin signaling in muscle tissue at the level of enzyme isoforms. PMID:25616865

  15. Skeletal Muscle-Specific CPT1 Deficiency Elevates Lipotoxic Intermediates but Preserves Insulin Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wanchun; Hu, Siping; Wang, Wenhua; Zhou, Xiaohui

    2013-01-01

    Objective. By specific knockout of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1b (CPT1b) in skeletal muscles, we explored the effect of CPT1b deficiency on lipids and insulin sensitivity. Methods. Mice with specific knockout of CPT1b in skeletal muscles (CPT1b M?/?) were used for the experiment group, with littermate C57BL/6 as controls (CPT1b). General and metabolic profiles were measured and compared between groups. mRNA expression and CPT1 activity were measured in skeletal muscle tissues and compared between groups. Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO), triglycerides (TAGs), diglycerides (DAGs), and ceramides were examined in skeletal muscles in two groups. Phosphorylated AKT (pAkt) and glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) were determined with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Insulin tolerance test, glucose tolerance test, and pyruvate oxidation were performed in both groups. Results. CPT1b M?/? model was successfully established, with impaired muscle CPT1 activity. Compared with CPT1b mice, CPT1b M?/? mice had similar food intake but lower body weight or fat mass and higher lipids but similar glucose or insulin levels. Their mitochondrial FAO of skeletal muscles was impaired. There were lipids accumulations (TAGs, DAGs, and ceramides) in skeletal muscle. However, pAkt and Glut4, insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and pyruvate oxidation were preserved. Conclusion. Skeletal muscle-specific CPT1 deficiency elevates lipotoxic intermediates but preserves insulin sensitivity. PMID:24319696

  16. Phosphorescence quenching microrespirometry of skeletal muscle in situ

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Aleksander S.; Tevald, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an optical method for the evaluation of the oxygen consumption (V?o2) in microscopic volumes of spinotrapezius muscle. Using phosphorescence quenching microscopy (PQM) for the measurement of interstitial Po2, together with rapid pneumatic compression of the organ, we recorded the oxygen disappearance curve (ODC) in the muscle of the anesthetized rats. A 0.6-mm diameter area in the tissue, preloaded with the phosphorescent oxygen probe, was excited once a second by a 532-nm Q-switched laser with pulse duration of 15 ns. Each of the evoked phosphorescence decays was analyzed to obtain a sequence of Po2 values that constituted the ODC. Following flow arrest and tissue compression, the interstitial Po2 decreased rapidly and the initial slope of the ODC was used to calculate the V?o2. Special analysis of instrumental factors affecting the ODC was performed, and the resulting model was used for evaluation of V?o2. The calculation was based on the observation of only a small amount of residual blood in the tissue after compression. The contribution of oxygen photoconsumption by PQM and oxygen inflow from external sources was evaluated in specially designed tests. The average oxygen consumption of the rat spinotrapezius muscle was V?o2 = 123.4 ± 13.4 (SE) nl O2/cm3·s (N = 38, within 6 muscles) at a baseline interstitial Po2 of 50.8 ± 2.9 mmHg. This technique has opened the opportunity for monitoring respiration rates in microscopic volumes of functioning skeletal muscle. PMID:20971766

  17. Oversecretion of interleukin-15 from skeletal muscle reduces adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, LeBris S.; Anderson, Barbara G.; Strait-Bodey, Lena; Stroud, Ashley M.; Argilés, Josép M.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoarthritis, and some forms of cancer. Many of the adverse health consequences of excess fat deposition are caused by increased secretion of proinflammatory adipokines by adipose tissue. Reciprocal muscle-to-fat signaling factors, or myokines, are starting to be identified. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a cytokine that is highly expressed in muscle tissue and that, on the basis of cell culture experiments, has been proposed to act as a circulating myokine that inhibits adipose tissue deposition. To test this hypothesis in vivo, two lines of transgenic mice that overexpressed IL-15 mRNA and protein in skeletal muscle tissue were constructed. By substitution of the inefficient native IL-15 signal peptide with a more efficient signal peptide, one of the transgenic mouse lines also exhibited elevated secretion of IL-15 in the circulation. Overexpression of IL-15 in muscle tissue without secretion in the bloodstream resulted in no differences in body composition. Elevated circulating levels of IL-15 resulted in significant reductions in body fat and increased bone mineral content, without appreciably affecting lean body mass or levels of other cytokines. Elevated circulating levels of IL-15 also inhibited adiposity induced by consumption of a high-fat/high-energy diet in male, but not female, transgenic mice. Female mice with elevated serum IL-15 exhibited increased deposition of lean body mass on a low-fat/low-energy diet and a high-fat/high-energy diet. These findings indicate that muscle-derived circulating IL-15 can modulate adipose tissue deposition and support addition of IL-15 to the growing list of potential myokines that are increasingly being implicated in regulation of body composition. PMID:19001550

  18. Long-term caloric restriction abrogates the age-related decline in skeletal muscle aerobic function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell T. Hepple; David J. Baker; Jan J. Kaczor; Daniel J. Krause

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of long-term caloric restriction (CR) on the age-associated decline of skeletal muscle aerobic function. Skeletal muscle maximal aerobic performance (VO2max) was assessed in ad libitum (AL) and CR rats aged 8-10 months and 35 months using a pump-perfused hindlimb model to match oxygen delivery to muscle mass between groups. Whereas

  19. In Situ Detection of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D Receptor In human Skeletal Muscle Tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Bischoff; M. Borchers; F. Gudat; U. Duermueller; R. Theiler; H. B. Stähelin; W. Dick

    2001-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that intracellular vitamin D receptors are present in skeletal muscle tissue mediating vitamin D hormone response. The aim of the work reported here was to investigate the in situ expression of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 receptor in human skeletal muscle tissue. Intraoperative periarticular muscle biopsies were taken from 20 female orthopaedic patients (17 middle-aged and elderly patients receiving

  20. Biophysical stimuli induced by passive movements compensate for lack of skeletal muscle during embryonic skeletogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niamh C. Nowlan; Gerard Dumas; Shahragim Tajbakhsh; Patrick J. Prendergast; Paula Murphy

    In genetically modified mice with abnormal skeletal muscle development, bones and joints are differentially affected by the\\u000a lack of skeletal muscle. We hypothesise that unequal levels of biophysical stimuli in the developing humerus and femur can\\u000a explain the differential effects on these rudiments when muscle is absent. We find that the expression patterns of four mechanosensitive\\u000a genes important for endochondral

  1. Impairment of Insulin Signaling in Human Skeletal Muscle Cells by Co-Culture With Human Adipocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela Dietze; Marlis Koenen; Karin Rohrig; Hiroyoshi Horikoshi; Hans Hauner; Jurgen Eckel

    2002-01-01

    Adipocyte factors play a major role in the induction of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. To analyze this cross-talk, we established a system of co-culture of human fat and skeletal muscle cells. Cells of three muscle donors were kept in co-culture with cells of various fat cell donors, and insulin signaling was subse- quently analyzed in myocytes. Insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation

  2. Beta-adrenergic Receptor Gene Expression in Bovine Skeletal Muscle Cells in Culture1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristin Y. Bridge; Charles K. Smith; Ronald B. Young

    2010-01-01

    Beta-adrenergic receptors ( bAR) are abundant in fetal, neonatal, and adult skeletal mus- cles of cattle; however, only minimal levels of func- tional bAR were detected in multinucleated muscle cell cultures prepared from 90- to 150-d fetal bovine skeletal muscle. Two other lines of evidence were consistent with low levels of bAR expression in bovine muscle cultures. First, treating the

  3. Molecular aspects of the regulation of skeletal muscle contraction by troponin C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita Sue Zot

    1988-01-01

    Skeletal muscle contraction is regulated by the binding of Ca$\\\\sp{2+}$ to the troponin C subunit of the thin filament protein troponin. The role of troponin C (TnC) in the regulation of skeletal muscle contraction was studied with regard to three different aspects: (1) the effect of free Mg$\\\\sp{2+}$ on the Ca$\\\\sp{2+}$-dependence of muscle activity and on the binding of Ca$\\\\sp{2+}$

  4. Mechanisms of nascent fiber formation during avian skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCormick, K. M.; Schultz, E.

    1992-01-01

    This study examined two putative mechanisms of new fiber formation in postnatal skeletal muscle, namely longitudinal fragmentation of existing fibers and de novo formation. The relative contributions of these two mechanisms to fiber formation in hypertrophying anterior latissimus dorsi (ALD) muscle were assessed by quantitative analysis of their nuclear populations. Muscle hypertrophy was induced by wing-weighting for 1 week. All nuclei formed during the weighting period were labeled by continuous infusion of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), a thymidine analog, and embryonic-like fibers were identified using an antibody to ventricular-like embryonic (V-EMB) myosin. The number of BrdU-labeled and unlabeled nuclei in V-EMB-positive fibers were counted. Wing-weighting resulted in significant muscle enlargement and the appearance of many V-EMB+ fibers. The majority of V-EMB+ fibers were completely independent of mature fibers and had a nuclear density characteristics of developing fibers. Furthermore, nearly 100% of the nuclei in independent V-EMB+ fibers were labeled. These findings strongly suggest that most V-EMB+ fibers were nascent fibers formed de novo during the weighting period by satellite cell activation and fusion. Nascent fibers were found primarily in the space between fascicles where they formed a complex anastomosing network of fibers running at angles to one another. Although wing-weighting induced an increase in the number of branched fibers, there was no evidence that V-EMB+ fibers were formed by longitudinal fragmentation. The location of newly formed fibers in wing-weighted and regenerating ALD muscle was compared to determine whether satellite cells in the ALD muscle were unusual in that, if stimulated to divide, they would form fibers in the inter- and intrafascicular space. In contrast to wing-weighted muscle, nascent fibers were always found closely associated with necrotic fibers. These results suggest that wing-weighting is not simply another model of regeneration, but rather produces a unique environment which induces satellite cell migration and subsequent fiber formation in the interfascicular space. De novo fiber formation is apparently the principal mechanism for the hyperplasia reported to occur in the ALD muscle undergoing hypertrophy induced by wing-weighting.

  5. Glucose deprivation promotes activation of mTOR signaling pathway and protein synthesis in rat skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Miniaci, Maria Concetta; Dattolo, Maria Gabriella; Irace, Carlo; Capuozzo, Antonella; Santamaria, Rita; Scotto, Pietro

    2015-06-01

    Signaling through mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been shown to play a central role in the regulation of skeletal muscle growth induced by a wide range of stimuli either mechanical or metabolic, such as growth factors and amino acids. Here, we demonstrate that mTOR and its downstream target, the ribosomal S6 kinase (p70(S6K)), are activated in L6 myocytes by a short-term glucose deprivation. Such response is specific of skeletal muscle and is likely responsible for the increased rate of protein synthesis and expression of the muscle-specific proteins during recovery from glucose deprivation. Nitric oxide and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) are upstream positive regulators of mTOR since their pharmacological inhibition prevents the activation of p70(S6K) in response to glucose deprivation. We therefore propose a model of response to a brief period of glucose deprivation that may occur in skeletal muscle cells during resistance exercise and that may lead to protein accretion when blood flow recovers and all nutrients are again available. PMID:25074488

  6. alpha-Skeletal muscle actin nemaline myopathy mutants cause cell death in cultured muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Vandamme, Drieke; Lambert, Ellen; Waterschoot, Davy; Cognard, Christian; Vandekerckhove, Joël; Ampe, Christophe; Constantin, Bruno; Rommelaere, Heidi

    2009-07-01

    Nemaline myopathy is a neuromuscular disorder, characterized by muscle weakness and hypotonia and is, in 20% of the cases, caused by mutations in the gene encoding alpha-skeletal muscle actin, ACTA1. It is a heterogeneous disease with various clinical phenotypes and severities. In patients the ultrastructure of muscle cells is often disturbed by nemaline rods and it is thought this is the cause for muscle weakness. To search for possible defects during muscle cell differentiation we expressed alpha-actin mutants in myoblasts and allowed these cells to differentiate into myotubes. Surprisingly, we observed two striking new phenotypes in differentiating myoblasts: rounding up of cells and bleb formation, two features reminiscent of apoptosis. Indeed expression of these mutants induced cell death with apoptotic features in muscle cell culture, using AIF and endonuclease G, in a caspase-independent but calpain-dependent pathway. This is the first report on a common cellular defect induced by NM causing actin mutants, independent of their biochemical phenotypes or rod and aggregate formation capacity. These data suggest that lack of type II fibers or atrophy observed in nemaline myopathy patients may be also due to an increased number of dying muscle cells. PMID:19393268

  7. The effects of muscle contraction and insulin on glucose-transporter translocation in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Brozinick, J T; Etgen, G J; Yaspelkis, B B; Ivy, J L

    1994-01-01

    The effect of electrically induced muscle contraction, insulin (10 m-units/ml) and electrically-induced muscle contraction in the presence of insulin on insulin-regulatable glucose-transporter (GLUT-4) protein distribution was studied in female Sprague-Dawley rats during hindlimb perfusion. Plasma-membrane cytochalasin B binding increased approximately 2-fold, whereas GLUT-4 protein concentration increased approximately 1.5-fold above control with contractions, insulin, or insulin + contraction. Microsomal-membrane cytochalasin B binding and GLUT-4 protein concentration decreased by approx. 30% with insulin or insulin + contraction, but did not significantly decrease with contraction alone. The rate of muscle glucose uptake was assessed by determining the rate of 2-deoxy[3H]glucose accumulation in the soleus, plantaris, and red and white portions of the gastrocnemius. Both contraction and insulin increased glucose uptake significantly and to the same degree in the muscles examined. Insulin + contraction increased glucose uptake above that of insulin or contraction alone, but this effect was only statistically significant in the soleus, plantaris and white gastrocnemius. The combined effects of insulin + contraction of glucose uptake were not fully additive in any of the muscles investigated. These results suggest that (1) insulin and muscle contraction are mobilizing two separate pools of GLUT-4 protein, and (2) the increase in skeletal-muscle glucose uptake due to insulin + contraction is not due to an increase in plasma-membrane GLUT-4 protein concentration above that observed for insulin or contraction alone. PMID:8110191

  8. Frizzled-9 impairs acetylcholine receptor clustering in skeletal muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Avilés, Evelyn C.; Pinto, Cristina; Hanna, Patricia; Ojeda, Jorge; Pérez, Viviana; De Ferrari, Giancarlo V.; Zamorano, Pedro; Albistur, Miguel; Sandoval, Daniel; Henríquez, Juan P.

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative evidence indicates that Wnt pathways play crucial and diverse roles to assemble the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), a peripheral synapse characterized by the clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChR) on postsynaptic densities. The molecular determinants of Wnt effects at the NMJ are still to be fully elucidated. We report here that the Wnt receptor Frizzled-9 (Fzd9) is expressed in developing skeletal muscles during NMJ synaptogenesis. In cultured myotubes, gain- and loss-of-function experiments revealed that Fzd9-mediated signaling impairs the AChR-clustering activity of agrin, an organizer of postsynaptic differentiation. Overexpression of Fzd9 induced the cytosolic accumulation of ?-catenin, a key regulator of Wnt signaling. Consistently, Fzd9 and ?-catenin localize in the postsynaptic domain of embryonic NMJs in vivo. Our findings represent the first evidence pointing to a crucial role of a Fzd-mediated, ?-catenin-dependent signaling on the assembly of the vertebrate NMJ. PMID:24860427

  9. Bench to Bedside Primer: Skeletal Muscle and Sarcopenia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Daniel Bartsch (Billings Senior High School)

    2011-10-07

    This bench-to-bedside is a four-page Â?primerÂ? (a booklet of basic principles) that highlights skeletal muscle physiology. This primer should be readable by your students or the general public to help inform them about the organ system, diseases that affect it, and basic and clinical research being done on it. It could also be used as a teaching model your students could follow in creating their own bench-to-beside primer.This teaching resource was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÂ?s 2011 Frontiers Online in Physiology Program. For more information on this program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

  10. Voltage-sensor mutations in channelopathies of skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Stephen C

    2010-01-01

    Mutations of voltage-gated ion channels cause several channelopathies of skeletal muscle, which present clinically with myotonia, periodic paralysis, or a combination of both. Expression studies have revealed both loss-of-function and gain-of-function defects for the currents passed by mutant channels. In many cases, these functional changes could be mechanistically linked to the defects of fibre excitability underlying myotonia or periodic paralysis. One remaining enigma was the basis for depolarization-induced weakness in hypokalaemic periodic paralysis (HypoPP) arising from mutations in either sodium or calcium channels. Curiously, 14 of 15 HypoPP mutations are at arginines in S4 voltage sensors, and recent observations show that these substitutions support an alternative pathway for ion conduction, the gating pore, that may be the source of the aberrant depolarization during an attack of paralysis. PMID:20156847

  11. Regulation of gene expression in vertebrate skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Carvajal, Jaime J., E-mail: jaime.carvajal@icr.ac.uk; Rigby, Peter W.J., E-mail: peter.rigby@icr.ac.uk

    2010-11-01

    During embryonic development the integration of numerous synergistic signalling pathways turns a single cell into a multicellular organism with specialized cell types and highly structured, organized tissues. To achieve this, cells must grow, proliferate, differentiate and die according to their spatiotemporal position. Unravelling the mechanisms by which a cell adopts the correct fate in response to its local environment remains one of the fundamental goals of biological research. In vertebrates skeletal myogenesis is coordinated by the activation of the myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) in response to signals that are interpreted by their associated regulatory elements in different precursor cells during development. The MRFs trigger a cascade of transcription factors and downstream structural genes, ultimately resulting in the generation of one of the fundamental histotypes. In this review we discuss the regulation of the different MRFs in relation to their position in the myogenic cascade, the changes in the general transcriptional machinery during muscle differentiation and the emerging importance of miRNA regulation in skeletal myogenesis.

  12. Effect of starvation on branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase activity in rat heart and skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Holecek, M

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in the activity of branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD) in skeletal muscle and the heart during brief and prolonged starvation. Fed control rats and rats starved for 2, 4 and 6 days were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium before heart and hindlimb muscles were frozen in situ by liquid nitrogen. Basal (an estimate of in vivo activity) and total (an estimate of enzyme amount) BCKAD activities were determined by measuring the release of 14CO2 from alpha-keto[1-(14)C]isocaproate. The activity state of BCKAD complex was calculated as basal activity in percentages of total activity. Both basal and total activities and the activity state of the BCKAD were lower in skeletal muscles than in the heart. In both tissues, starvation for 2 or 4 days caused a decrease in the basal activity and activity state of BCKAD. On the contrary, in the heart and muscles of animals starved for 6 days a marked increase in basal activity and activity state of BCKAD was observed. The total BCKAD activity was increasing gradually during starvation both in muscles and the heart. The increase was significant in muscles on the 4th and 6th day of starvation. The demonstrated changes in BCKAD activity indicate significant alterations in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) and protein metabolism during starvation. The decreased BCKAD activity in skeletal muscle and heart observed on the 2nd and 4th day of starvation prevents the loss of essential BCAA and is an important factor involved in protein sparing. The increased activity of BCKAD on the 6th day of starvation indicates activated oxidation of BCAA and accelerated protein breakdown. PMID:11300223

  13. Prevalence study of genetically defined skeletal muscle channelopathies in England

    PubMed Central

    Horga, Alejandro; Raja Rayan, Dipa L.; Matthews, Emma; Sud, Richa; Fialho, Doreen; Durran, Siobhan C.M.; Burge, James A.; Portaro, Simona; Davis, Mary B.; Haworth, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To obtain minimum point prevalence rates for the skeletal muscle channelopathies and to evaluate the frequency distribution of mutations associated with these disorders. Methods: Analysis of demographic, clinical, electrophysiologic, and genetic data of all patients assessed at our national specialist channelopathy service. Only patients living in the United Kingdom with a genetically defined diagnosis of nondystrophic myotonia or periodic paralysis were eligible for the study. Prevalence rates were estimated for England, December 2011. Results: A total of 665 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, of which 593 were living in England, giving a minimum point prevalence of 1.12/100,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03–1.21). Disease-specific prevalence figures were as follows: myotonia congenita 0.52/100,000 (95% CI 0.46–0.59), paramyotonia congenita 0.17/100,000 (95% CI 0.13–0.20), sodium channel myotonias 0.06/100,000 (95% CI 0.04–0.08), hyperkalemic periodic paralysis 0.17/100,000 (95% CI 0.13–0.20), hypokalemic periodic paralysis 0.13/100,000 (95% CI 0.10–0.17), and Andersen-Tawil syndrome (ATS) 0.08/100,000 (95% CI 0.05–0.10). In the whole sample (665 patients), 15 out of 104 different CLCN1 mutations accounted for 60% of all patients with myotonia congenita, 11 out of 22 SCN4A mutations for 86% of paramyotonia congenita/sodium channel myotonia pedigrees, and 3 out of 17 KCNJ2 mutations for 42% of ATS pedigrees. Conclusion: We describe for the first time the overall prevalence of genetically defined skeletal muscle channelopathies in England. Despite the large variety of mutations observed in patients with nondystrophic myotonia and ATS, a limited number accounted for a large proportion of cases. PMID:23516313

  14. The determinants of transverse tubular volume in resting skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Sim, Jingwei; Fraser, James A

    2014-12-15

    The transverse tubular (t)-system of skeletal muscle couples sarcolemmal electrical excitation with contraction deep within the fibre. Exercise, pathology and the composition of the extracellular fluid (ECF) can alter t-system volume (t-volume). T-volume changes are thought to contribute to fatigue, rhabdomyolysis and disruption of excitation-contraction coupling. However, mechanisms that underlie t-volume changes are poorly understood. A multicompartment, history-independent computer model of rat skeletal muscle was developed to define the minimum conditions for t-volume stability. It was found that the t-system tends to swell due to net ionic fluxes from the ECF across the access resistance. However, a stable t-volume is possible when this is offset by a net efflux from the t-system to the cell and thence to the ECF, forming a net ion cycle ECF?t-system?sarcoplasm?ECF that ultimately depends on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Membrane properties that maximize this circuit flux decrease t-volume, including PNa(t) > PNa(s), PK(t) < PK(s) and N(t) < N(s) [P, permeability; N, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase density; (t), t-system membrane; (s), sarcolemma]. Hydrostatic pressures, fixed charges and/or osmoles in the t-system can influence the magnitude of t-volume changes that result from alterations in this circuit flux. Using a parameter set derived from literature values where possible, this novel theory of t-volume was tested against data from previous experiments where t-volume was measured during manipulations of ECF composition. Predicted t-volume changes correlated satisfactorily. The present work provides a robust, unifying theoretical framework for understanding the determinants of t-volume. PMID:25384782

  15. The determinants of transverse tubular volume in resting skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Jingwei; Fraser, James A

    2014-01-01

    The transverse tubular (t)-system of skeletal muscle couples sarcolemmal electrical excitation with contraction deep within the fibre. Exercise, pathology and the composition of the extracellular fluid (ECF) can alter t-system volume (t-volume). T-volume changes are thought to contribute to fatigue, rhabdomyolysis and disruption of excitation–contraction coupling. However, mechanisms that underlie t-volume changes are poorly understood. A multicompartment, history-independent computer model of rat skeletal muscle was developed to define the minimum conditions for t-volume stability. It was found that the t-system tends to swell due to net ionic fluxes from the ECF across the access resistance. However, a stable t-volume is possible when this is offset by a net efflux from the t-system to the cell and thence to the ECF, forming a net ion cycle ECF?t-system?sarcoplasm?ECF that ultimately depends on Na+/K+-ATPase activity. Membrane properties that maximize this circuit flux decrease t-volume, including PNa(t) > PNa(s), PK(t) < PK(s) and N(t) < N(s) [P, permeability; N, Na+/K+-ATPase density; (t), t-system membrane; (s), sarcolemma]. Hydrostatic pressures, fixed charges and/or osmoles in the t-system can influence the magnitude of t-volume changes that result from alterations in this circuit flux. Using a parameter set derived from literature values where possible, this novel theory of t-volume was tested against data from previous experiments where t-volume was measured during manipulations of ECF composition. Predicted t-volume changes correlated satisfactorily. The present work provides a robust, unifying theoretical framework for understanding the determinants of t-volume. PMID:25384782

  16. Skeletal Muscle Function during Exercise—Fine-Tuning of Diverse Subsystems by Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Suhr, Frank; Gehlert, Sebastian; Grau, Marijke; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is responsible for altered acute and chronic workload as induced by exercise. Skeletal muscle adaptations range from immediate change of contractility to structural adaptation to adjust the demanded performance capacities. These processes are regulated by mechanically and metabolically induced signaling pathways, which are more or less involved in all of these regulations. Nitric oxide is one of the central signaling molecules involved in functional and structural adaption in different cell types. It is mainly produced by nitric oxide synthases (NOS) and by non-enzymatic pathways also in skeletal muscle. The relevance of a NOS-dependent NO signaling in skeletal muscle is underlined by the differential subcellular expression of NOS1, NOS2, and NOS3, and the alteration of NO production provoked by changes of workload. In skeletal muscle, a variety of highly relevant tasks to maintain skeletal muscle integrity and proper signaling mechanisms during adaptation processes towards mechanical and metabolic stimulations are taken over by NO signaling. The NO signaling can be mediated by cGMP-dependent and -independent signaling, such as S-nitrosylation-dependent modulation of effector molecules involved in contractile and metabolic adaptation to exercise. In this review, we describe the most recent findings of NO signaling in skeletal muscle with a special emphasis on exercise conditions. However, to gain a more detailed understanding of the complex role of NO signaling for functional adaptation of skeletal muscle (during exercise), additional sophisticated studies are needed to provide deeper insights into NO-mediated signaling and the role of non-enzymatic-derived NO in skeletal muscle physiology. PMID:23538841

  17. Effects of spaceflight on murine skeletal muscle gene expression.

    PubMed

    Allen, David L; Bandstra, Eric R; Harrison, Brooke C; Thorng, Seiha; Stodieck, Louis S; Kostenuik, Paul J; Morony, Sean; Lacey, David L; Hammond, Timothy G; Leinwand, Leslie L; Argraves, W Scott; Bateman, Ted A; Barth, Jeremy L

    2009-02-01

    Spaceflight results in a number of adaptations to skeletal muscle, including atrophy and shifts toward faster muscle fiber types. To identify changes in gene expression that may underlie these adaptations, we used both microarray expression analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction to quantify shifts in mRNA levels in the gastrocnemius from mice flown on the 11-day, 19-h STS-108 shuttle flight and from normal gravity controls. Spaceflight data also were compared with the ground-based unloading model of hindlimb suspension, with one group of pure suspension and one of suspension followed by 3.5 h of reloading to mimic the time between landing and euthanization of the spaceflight mice. Analysis of microarray data revealed that 272 mRNAs were significantly altered by spaceflight, the majority of which displayed similar responses to hindlimb suspension, whereas reloading tended to counteract these responses. Several mRNAs altered by spaceflight were associated with muscle growth, including the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit p85alpha, insulin response substrate-1, the forkhead box O1 transcription factor, and MAFbx/atrogin1. Moreover, myostatin mRNA expression tended to increase, whereas mRNA levels of the myostatin inhibitor FSTL3 tended to decrease, in response to spaceflight. In addition, mRNA levels of the slow oxidative fiber-associated transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-associated receptor (PPAR)-gamma coactivator-1alpha and the transcription factor PPAR-alpha were significantly decreased in spaceflight gastrocnemius. Finally, spaceflight resulted in a significant decrease in levels of the microRNA miR-206. Together these data demonstrate that spaceflight induces significant changes in mRNA expression of genes associated with muscle growth and fiber type. PMID:19074574

  18. Effects of spaceflight on murine skeletal muscle gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Allen, David L.; Bandstra, Eric R.; Harrison, Brooke C.; Thorng, Seiha; Stodieck, Louis S.; Kostenuik, Paul J.; Morony, Sean; Lacey, David L.; Hammond, Timothy G.; Leinwand, Leslie L.; Argraves, W. Scott; Bateman, Ted A.; Barth, Jeremy L.

    2009-01-01

    Spaceflight results in a number of adaptations to skeletal muscle, including atrophy and shifts toward faster muscle fiber types. To identify changes in gene expression that may underlie these adaptations, we used both microarray expression analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction to quantify shifts in mRNA levels in the gastrocnemius from mice flown on the 11-day, 19-h STS-108 shuttle flight and from normal gravity controls. Spaceflight data also were compared with the ground-based unloading model of hindlimb suspension, with one group of pure suspension and one of suspension followed by 3.5 h of reloading to mimic the time between landing and euthanization of the spaceflight mice. Analysis of microarray data revealed that 272 mRNAs were significantly altered by spaceflight, the majority of which displayed similar responses to hindlimb suspension, whereas reloading tended to counteract these responses. Several mRNAs altered by spaceflight were associated with muscle growth, including the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit p85?, insulin response substrate-1, the forkhead box O1 transcription factor, and MAFbx/atrogin1. Moreover, myostatin mRNA expression tended to increase, whereas mRNA levels of the myostatin inhibitor FSTL3 tended to decrease, in response to spaceflight. In addition, mRNA levels of the slow oxidative fiber-associated transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-associated receptor (PPAR)-? coactivator-1? and the transcription factor PPAR-? were significantly decreased in spaceflight gastrocnemius. Finally, spaceflight resulted in a significant decrease in levels of the microRNA miR-206. Together these data demonstrate that spaceflight induces significant changes in mRNA expression of genes associated with muscle growth and fiber type. PMID:19074574

  19. Niacin supplementation induces type II to type I muscle fiber transition in skeletal muscle of sheep

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It was recently shown that niacin supplementation counteracts the obesity-induced muscle fiber transition from oxidative type I to glycolytic type II and increases the number of type I fibers in skeletal muscle of obese Zucker rats. These effects were likely mediated by the induction of key regulators of fiber transition, PPAR? (encoded by PPARD), PGC-1? (encoded by PPARGC1A) and PGC-1? (encoded by PPARGC1B), leading to type II to type I fiber transition and upregulation of genes involved in oxidative metabolism. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether niacin administration also influences fiber distribution and the metabolic phenotype of different muscles [M. longissimus dorsi (LD), M. semimembranosus (SM), M. semitendinosus (ST)] in sheep as a model for ruminants. For this purpose, 16 male, 11 wk old Rhoen sheep were randomly allocated to two groups of 8 sheep each administered either no (control group) or 1 g niacin per day (niacin group) for 4 wk. Results After 4 wk, the percentage number of type I fibers in LD, SM and ST muscles was greater in the niacin group, whereas the percentage number of type II fibers was less in niacin group than in the control group (P?muscles were greater (P?muscle fiber transition from type II to type I, and thereby an oxidative metabolic phenotype of skeletal muscle in sheep as a model for ruminants. The enhanced capacity of skeletal muscle to utilize fatty acids in ruminants might be particularly useful during metabolic states in which fatty acids are excessively mobilized from adipose tissue, such as during the early lactating period in high producing cows. PMID:24267720

  20. Functional and morphological effects of resistance exercise on disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Nicastro, H; Zanchi, N E; Luz, C R da; Lancha, A H

    2011-11-01

    Abstract quality of life. Since there is no currently effective and safe treatment available for skeletal muscle atrophy, the search for new alternatives is necessary. Resistance exercise (RE) seems to be an important tool in the treatment of disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy by promoting positive functional (strength and power) and structural (hypertrophy and phenotypic changes) adaptive responses. Human and animal studies using different types of resistance exercise (flywheel, vascular occlusion, dynamic, isometric, and eccentric) have obtained results of great importance. However, since RE is a complex phenomenon, lack of strict control of its variables (volume, frequency, intensity, muscle action, rest intervals) limits the interpretation of the impact of the manipulation on skeletal muscle remodeling and function under disuse. The aim of this review is to critically describe the functional and morphological role of resistance exercise in disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy with emphasis on the principles of training. PMID:21952737

  1. Skeletal muscle adiposity is associated with physical activity, exercise capacity and fibre shift in COPD.

    PubMed

    Maddocks, Matthew; Shrikrishna, Dinesh; Vitoriano, Simone; Natanek, Samantha A; Tanner, Rebecca J; Hart, Nicholas; Kemp, Paul R; Moxham, John; Polkey, Michael I; Hopkinson, Nicholas S

    2014-11-01

    Quadriceps muscle phenotype varies widely between patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cannot be determined without muscle biopsy. We hypothesised that measures of skeletal muscle adiposity could provide noninvasive biomarkers of muscle quality in this population. In 101 patients and 10 age-matched healthy controls, mid-thigh cross-sectional area, percentage intramuscular fat and skeletal muscle attenuation were calculated using computed tomography images and standard tissue attenuation ranges: fat -190- -30 HU; skeletal muscle -29-150 HU. Mean±sd percentage intramuscular fat was higher in the patient group (6.7±3.5% versus 4.3±1.2%, p = 0.03). Both percentage intramuscular fat and skeletal muscle attenuation were associated with physical activity level, exercise capacity and type I fibre proportion, independent of age, mid-thigh cross-sectional area and quadriceps strength. Combined with transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide, these variables could identify >80% of patients with fibre type shift with >65% specificity (area under the curve 0.83, 95% CI 0.72-0.95). Skeletal muscle adiposity assessed by computed tomography reflects multiple aspects of COPD related muscle dysfunction and may help to identify patients for trials of interventions targeted at specific muscle phenotypes. PMID:24993908

  2. Long-term Skeletal Muscle Protection After Gene Transfer in a Mouse Model of LGMD-2D

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Kevin P.

    Long-term Skeletal Muscle Protection After Gene Transfer in a Mouse Model of LGMD-2D Christina in maintaining skeletal muscle membrane stability. LGMD type-2D is caused by mutations in alpha-sarcoglycan (sgca). Here we describe muscle-specific gene delivery of the human sgca gene into dystrophic muscle using

  3. Differential sympathetic neural control of oxygenation in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, J; Thomas, G D; Harris, S A; Parsons, W J; Victor, R G

    1996-01-01

    Metabolic products of skeletal muscle contraction activate metaboreceptor muscle afferents that reflexively increase sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) targeted to both resting and exercising skeletal muscle. To determine effects of the increased sympathetic vasoconstrictor drive on muscle oxygenation, we measured changes in tissue oxygen stores and mitochondrial cytochrome a,a3 redox state in rhythmically contracting human forearm muscles with near infrared spectroscopy while simultaneously measuring muscle SNA with microelectrodes. The major new finding is that the ability of reflex-sympathetic activation to decrease muscle oxygenation is abolished when the muscle is exercised at an intensity > 10% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). During high intensity handgrip, (45% MVC), contraction-induced decreases in muscle oxygenation remained stable despite progressive metaboreceptor-mediated reflex increases in SNA. During mild to moderate handgrips (20-33% MVC) that do not evoke reflex-sympathetic activation, experimentally induced increases in muscle SNA had no effect on oxygenation in exercising muscles but produced robust decreases in oxygenation in resting muscles. The latter decreases were evident even during maximal metabolic vasodilation accompanying reactive hyperemia. We conclude that in humans sympathetic neural control of skeletal muscle oxygenation is sensitive to modulation by metabolic events in the contracting muscles. These events are different from those involved in either metaboreceptor muscle afferent activation or reactive hyperemia. PMID:8755671

  4. Activation of the dopamine 1 and dopamine 5 receptors increase skeletal muscle mass and force production under non-atrophying and atrophying conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah L Reichart; Richard T Hinkle; Frank R Lefever; Elizabeth T Dolan; Jeffrey A Dietrich; David R Sibley; Robert J Isfort

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Control of skeletal muscle mass and force production is a complex physiological process involving numerous regulatory systems. Agents that increase skeletal muscle cAMP levels have been shown to modulate skeletal muscle mass and force production. The dopamine 1 receptor and its closely related homolog, the dopamine 5 receptor, are G-protein coupled receptors that are expressed in skeletal muscle and

  5. Isolation and characterization of a novel gene sfig in rat skeletal muscle up-regulated by spaceflight (STS-90).

    PubMed

    Kano, Mihoko; Kitano, Takako; Ikemoto, Madoka; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Asanoma, Yuki; Ogawa, Takayuki; Takeda, Shinichi; Nonaka, Ikuya; Adams, Gregory R; Baldwin, Kenneth M; Oarada, Motoko; Kishi, Kyoichi; Nikawa, Takeshi

    2003-02-01

    We obtained the skeletal muscle of rats exposed to weightless conditions during a 16-day-spaceflight (STS-90). By using a differential display technique, we identified 6 up-regulated and 3 down-regulated genes in the gastrocnemius muscle of the spaceflight rats, as compared to the ground control. The up-regulated genes included those coding Casitas B-lineage lymphoma-b, insulin growth factor binding protein-1, titin and mitochondrial gene 16 S rRNA and two novel genes (function unknown). The down-regulated genes included those encoding RNA polymerase II elongation factor-like protein, NADH dehydrogenase and one novel gene (function unknown). In the present study, we isolated and characterized one of two novel muscle genes that were remarkably up-regulated by spaceflight. The deduced amino acid sequence of the spaceflight-induced gene (sfig) comprises 86 amino acid residues and is well conserved from Drosophila to Homo sapiens. A putative leucine-zipper structure located at the N-terminal region of sfig suggests that this gene may encode a transcription factor. The up-regulated expression of this gene, confirmed by Northern blot analysis, was observed not only in the muscles of spaceflight rats but also in the muscles of tail-suspended rats, especially in the early stage of tail-suspension when gastrocnemius muscle atrophy initiated. The gene was predominantly expressed in the kidney, liver, small intestine and heart. When rat myoblastic L6 cells were grown to 100% confluence in the cell culture system, the expression of sfig was detected regardless of the cell differentiation state. These results suggest that spaceflight has many genetic effects on rat skeletal muscle. PMID:12630567

  6. Formation and Optogenetic Control of Engineered 3D Skeletal Muscle Bioactuators†

    PubMed Central

    Sakar, Mahmut Selman; Neal, Devin; Boudou, Thomas; Borochin, Michael A.; Li, Yinqing; Weiss, Ron; Kamm, Roger D.; Chen, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    Densely arrayed skeletal myotubes are activated individually and as a group using precise optical stimulation with high spatiotemporal resolution. Skeletal muscle myoblasts are genetically encoded to express light-activated cation channel, Channelrhodopsin-2, which allows for spatiotemporal coordination of the multitude of skeletal myotubes that contract in response to pulsed blue light. Furthermore, ensembles of mature functional 3D muscle microtissues have been formed from the optogenetically encoded myoblasts using a high-throughput device. The device, called “skeletal muscle on a chip”, not only provides the myoblasts with controlled stress and constraints necessary for muscle alignment, fusion and maturation, but also facilitates to measure forces and characterize the muscle tissue. We measured the specific static and dynamic stresses generated by the microtissues, and characterized the morphology and alignment of the myotubes within the constructs. The device allows for testing the effect of a wide range of parameters (cell source, matrix composition, microtissue geometry, auxotonic load, growth factors, and exercise) on the maturation, structure, and function of the engineered muscle tissues in a combinatorial manner. Our studies integrate tools from optogenetics and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology with skeletal muscle tissue engineering to open up opportunities to generate soft robots actuated by multitude of spatiotemporally coordinated 3D skeletal muscle microtissues. PMID:22976544

  7. Journal of Biomechanics 41 (2008) 532540 Imaging two-dimensional displacements and strains in skeletal muscle

    E-print Network

    Blemker, Silvia Salinas

    2008-01-01

    ) geometries, incorporate the nonlinear active and passive constitutive properties of muscle tissue in skeletal muscle during joint motion by cine DENSE MR Xiaodong Zhonga , Frederick H. Epsteina,b , Bruce S in the biceps brachii muscle. Six healthy volunteers underwent cine DENSE MRI during repeated elbow flexion

  8. Diffuse optical signals in response to peripheral nerve stimulation reflect skeletal muscle

    E-print Network

    Fantini, Sergio

    Diffuse optical signals in response to peripheral nerve stimulation reflect skeletal muscle- artifactual vascular motion induced by muscle contraction to the biological origin of this signal. Under non muscle motion while leaving the electrophysiological health of the nerve intact. In human studies

  9. 3-D Printed Electrically and Optically Paced Skeletal Muscle Based Biological Machines Caroline Cvetkovic, Bioengineering

    E-print Network

    Kilian, Kristopher A.

    3-D Printed Electrically and Optically Paced Skeletal Muscle Based Biological Machines Caroline-bots' are integrated cellular machines whose movement relies on the contraction of muscle cells. Previous work has demonstrated the contraction force of cardiomyocytes (cardiac muscle cells) on a hydrogel with collagen

  10. A rapid algorithm for processing digital physiologic signals: Application to skeletal muscle contractions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roop C. Jayaraman; Matthew T. Latourette; James E. Siebert; Robert W. Wiseman

    2006-01-01

    Quantifying mechanical output is fundamental to understanding metabolism that fuels muscle contraction and more recent attempts to understand signal transduction and gene regulation. The latter requires long-term application of exercise protocols that result in large amounts of data on muscle performance. The purpose of this study was to develop software for automated quantification of skeletal muscle contractions. An in situ

  11. Light microscopical investigations on structural changes of skeletal muscle as artifacts after postmortem stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Henssge; Huijun Wang; B Hoppe

    2002-01-01

    Samples of skeletal muscle were taken from 20 human corpses where mechanical or electrical stimulation had been carried out up to 8h postmortem (hpm) in order to estimate the time since death. The stimulation had caused an idiomuscular bulge or tetanic contraction of the muscle tissue at this location. The muscle samples were examined for structural changes of the fibers

  12. Research Article Skeletal muscle stem cells express anti-apoptotic ErbB

    E-print Network

    Golding, Jon

    Research Article Skeletal muscle stem cells express anti-apoptotic ErbB receptors during activation a Department of Biological Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, UK b Muscle Cell cells of adult muscle) must survive the initial activation from quiescence. Using an in vitro model

  13. RESEARCH Open Access TNF-a-and tumor-induced skeletal muscle

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    accumulation induced by TNF-a or tumor development participates in the mechanism of muscle-cell atrophyRESEARCH Open Access TNF-a- and tumor-induced skeletal muscle atrophy involves sphingolipid Lefai1 and Georges Némoz1* Abstract Background: Muscle atrophy associated with various

  14. A mathematical model on stress-strain of the epimysium of skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Xi, Man; Yun, Guohong; Narsu, B

    2015-01-21

    A mathematical model based on the distribution of collagen fibers in ground substance is established to investigate epimysium of skeletal muscle. Under the condition of pinned boundary, incompressible soft biological tissues and the mixed ratio of composite materials, the macro-mechanical properties of the skeletal muscle epimysium are investigated by the proposed model, utilizing the principle of virtual work and the nonlinear theory of elasticity in this study. The effect of physical and geometrical parameters of skeletal muscle epimysium on the stress-strain relationship is also discussed in detail. The result of the investigation concurs with the experimental observations, which demonstrate the effectiveness and validity of the established model. PMID:25167791

  15. Exercise and type 2 diabetes: molecular mechanisms regulating glucose uptake in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Kristin I; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2014-12-01

    Exercise is a well-established tool to prevent and combat type 2 diabetes. Exercise improves whole body metabolic health in people with type 2 diabetes, and adaptations to skeletal muscle are essential for this improvement. An acute bout of exercise increases skeletal muscle glucose uptake, while chronic exercise training improves mitochondrial function, increases mitochondrial biogenesis, and increases the expression of glucose transporter proteins and numerous metabolic genes. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms that mediate the effects of exercise to increase glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. PMID:25434013

  16. TWEAK promotes exercise intolerance by decreasing skeletal muscle oxidative phosphorylation capacity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and its receptor Fn14 are the major regulators of skeletal muscle mass in many catabolic conditions. However, their role in muscle metabolism remains largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the role of TWEAK on exercise capacity and skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and oxidative metabolism. Methods We employed wild-type and TWEAK-knockout (KO) mice and primary myotube cultures and performed biochemical, bioenergetics, and morphometric assays to evaluate the effects of TWEAK on exercise tolerance and muscle mitochondrial function and angiogenesis. Results TWEAK-KO mice showed improved exercise tolerance compared to wild-type mice. Electron microscopy analysis showed that the abundance of subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondria is significantly increased in skeletal muscle of TWEAK-KO mice compared to wild-type mice. Furthermore, age-related loss in skeletal muscle oxidative capacity was rescued in TWEAK-KO mice. Expression of a key transcriptional regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1? (PGC-1?) and several other molecules involved in oxidative metabolism were significantly higher in skeletal muscle of TWEAK-KO mice. Moreover, treatment of primary myotubes with soluble TWEAK inhibited the expression of PGC-1? and mitochondrial genes and decreased mitochondrial respiratory capacity. Deletion of TWEAK also improved angiogenesis and transcript levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in skeletal muscle of mice. Conclusions These results demonstrate that TWEAK decreases mitochondrial content and oxidative phosphorylation and inhibits angiogenesis in skeletal muscle. Neutralization of TWEAK is a potential approach for improving exercise capacity and oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle. PMID:23835416

  17. Influence of Amino Acids, Dietary Protein, and Physical Activity on Muscle Mass Development in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Dideriksen, Kasper; Reitelseder, Søren; Holm, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Ingestion of protein is crucial for maintenance of a variety of body functions and within the scope of this review we will specifically focus on the regulation of skeletal muscle mass. A quantitative limitation exists as to how much muscle protein the body can synthesize in response to protein intake. Ingestion of excess protein exerts an unwanted load to the body and therefore, it is important to find the least amount of protein that provides the maximal hypertrophic stimulus. Hence, research has focused on revealing the relationship between protein intake (dose) and its resulting stimulation of muscle protein synthesis (response). In addition to the protein amount, the protein digestibility and, hence, the availability of its constituent amino acids is decisive for the response. In this regard, recent studies have provided in-depth knowledge about the time-course of the muscle protein synthetic response dependent on the characteristics of the protein ingested. The effect of protein intake on muscle protein accretion can further be stimulated by prior exercise training. In the ageing population, physical training may counteract the development of “anabolic resistance” and restore the beneficial effect of protein feeding. Presently, our knowledge is based on measures obtained in standardized experimental settings or during long-term intervention periods. However, to improve coherence between these types of data and to further improve our knowledge of the effects of protein ingestion, other investigative approaches than those presently used are requested. PMID:23486194

  18. Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinase (PIKfyve) is an AMPK target participating in contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Lai, Yu-Chiang; Hill, Elaine V; Tyteca, Donatienne; Carpentier, Sarah; Ingvaldsen, Ada; Vertommen, Didier; Lantier, Louise; Foretz, Marc; Dequiedt, Franck; Courtoy, Pierre J; Erneux, Christophe; Viollet, Benoît; Shepherd, Peter R; Tavaré, Jeremy M; Jensen, Jørgen; Rider, Mark H

    2013-10-15

    PIKfyve (FYVE domain-containing phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinase), the lipid kinase that phosphorylates PtdIns3P to PtdIns(3,5)P2, has been implicated in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. We investigated whether PIKfyve could also be involved in contraction/AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase)-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Incubation of rat epitrochlearis muscles with YM201636, a selective PIKfyve inhibitor, reduced contraction- and AICAriboside (5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide riboside)-stimulated glucose uptake. Consistently, PIKfyve knockdown in C2C12 myotubes reduced AICAriboside-stimulated glucose transport. Furthermore, muscle contraction increased PtdIns(3,5)P2 levels and PIKfyve phosphorylation. AMPK phosphorylated PIKfyve at Ser307 both in vitro and in intact cells. Following subcellular fractionation, PIKfyve recovery in a crude intracellular membrane fraction was increased in contracting versus resting muscles. Also in opossum kidney cells, wild-type, but not S307A mutant, PIKfyve was recruited to endosomal vesicles in response to AMPK activation. We propose that PIKfyve activity is required for the stimulation of skeletal muscle glucose uptake by contraction/AMPK activation. PIKfyve is a new AMPK substrate whose phosphorylation at Ser307 could promote PIKfyve translocation to endosomes for PtdIns(3,5)P2 synthesis to facilitate GLUT4 (glucose transporter 4) translocation. PMID:23905686

  19. Muscle-derived stem cells isolated as non-adherent population give rise to cardiac, skeletal muscle and neural lineages

    SciTech Connect

    Arsic, Nikola; Mamaeva, Daria; Lamb, Ned J. [Cell Biology Unit, Institute for Human Genetics, CNRS, 141 rue de la Cardonille, Montpellier (France); Fernandez, Anne [Cell Biology Unit, Institute for Human Genetics, CNRS, 141 rue de la Cardonille, Montpellier (France)], E-mail: af@acrux.igh.cnrs.fr

    2008-04-01

    Stem cells with the ability to differentiate in specialized cell types can be extracted from a wide array of adult tissues including skeletal muscle. Here we have analyzed a population of cells isolated from skeletal muscle on the basis of their poor adherence on uncoated or collagen-coated dishes that show multi-lineage differentiation in vitro. When analysed under proliferative conditions, these cells express stem cell surface markers Sca-1 (65%) and Bcrp-1 (80%) but also MyoD (15%), Neuronal {beta} III-tubulin (25%), GFAP (30%) or Nkx2.5 (1%). Although capable of growing as non-attached spheres for months, when given an appropriate matrix, these cells adhere giving rise to skeletal muscle, neuronal and cardiac muscle cell lineages. A similar cell population could not be isolated from either bone marrow or cardiac tissue suggesting their specificity to skeletal muscle. When injected into damaged muscle, these non-adherent muscle-derived cells are retrieved expressing Pax7, in a sublaminar position characterizing satellite cells and participate in forming new myofibers. These data show that a non-adherent stem cell population can be specifically isolated and expanded from skeletal muscle and upon attachment to a matrix spontaneously differentiate into muscle, cardiac and neuronal lineages in vitro. Although competing with resident satellite cells, these cells are shown to significantly contribute to repair of injured muscle in vivo supporting that a similar muscle-derived non-adherent cell population from human muscle may be useful in treatment of neuromuscular disorders.

  20. PRDM16 Controls a Brown Fat/Skeletal Muscle Switch

    PubMed Central

    Seale, Patrick; Bjork, Bryan; Yang, Wenli; Kajimura, Shingo; Kuang, Shihuan; Scime, Anthony; Devarakonda, Srikripa; Chin, Sherry; Conroe, Heather M.; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Rudnicki, Michael A.; Beier, David R.; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Brown fat can increase energy expenditure and protect against obesity through a specialized program of uncoupled respiration. We show here by in vivo fate mapping that brown but not white fat cells arise from precursors that express myf5, a gene previously thought to be expressed only in the myogenic lineage. Notably, the transcriptional regulator, PRDM16 controls a bidirectional cell fate switch between skeletal myoblasts and brown fat cells. Loss of PRDM16 from brown fat precursors causes a loss of brown fat characteristics and promotes muscle differentiation. Conversely, ectopic expression of PRDM16 in myoblasts induces their differentiation into brown fat cells. PRDM16 stimulates brown adipogenesis by binding to PPAR? and activating its transcriptional function. Finally, PRDM16-deficient brown fat displays an abnormal morphology, reduced thermogenic gene expression and elevated expression of muscle-specific genes. Taken together, these data indicate that PRDM16 specifies the brown fat lineage from a progenitor that expresses myoblast markers and is not involved in white adipogenesis. PMID:18719582

  1. Do multiple ionic interactions contribute to skeletal muscle fatigue?

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, S P; Lindinger, M I

    2008-01-01

    During intense exercise or electrical stimulation of skeletal muscle the concentrations of several ions change simultaneously in interstitial, transverse tubular and intracellular compartments. Consequently the functional effects of multiple ionic changes need to be considered together. A diminished transsarcolemmal K+ gradient per se can reduce maximal force in non-fatigued muscle suggesting that K+ causes fatigue. However, this effect requires extremely large, although physiological, K+ shifts. In contrast, moderate elevations of extracellular [K+] ([K+]o) potentiate submaximal contractions, enhance local blood flow and influence afferent feedback to assist exercise performance. Changed transsarcolemmal Na+, Ca2+, Cl? and H+ gradients are insufficient by themselves to cause much fatigue but each ion can interact with K+ effects. Lowered Na+, Ca2+ and Cl? gradients further impair force by modulating the peak tetanic force–[K+]o and peak tetanic force–resting membrane potential relationships. In contrast, raised [Ca2+]o, acidosis and reduced Cl? conductance during late fatigue provide resistance against K+-induced force depression. The detrimental effects of K+ are exacerbated by metabolic changes such as lowered [ATP]i, depleted carbohydrate, and possibly reactive oxygen species. We hypothesize that during high-intensity exercise a rundown of the transsarcolemmal K+ gradient is the dominant cellular process around which interactions with other ions and metabolites occur, thereby contributing to fatigue. PMID:18591187

  2. De Novo Prion Aggregates Trigger Autophagy in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Joshi-Barr, Shivanjali; Bett, Cyrus; Chiang, Wei-Chieh; Trejo, Margarita; Goebel, Hans H.; Sikorska, Beata; Liberski, Pawel; Raeber, Alex; Lin, Jonathan H.; Masliah, Eliezer

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In certain sporadic, familial, and infectious prion diseases, the prion protein misfolds and aggregates in skeletal muscle in addition to the brain and spinal cord. In myocytes, prion aggregates accumulate intracellularly, yet little is known about clearance pathways. Here we investigated the clearance of prion aggregates in muscle of transgenic mice that develop prion disease de novo. In addition to neurodegeneration, aged mice developed a degenerative myopathy, with scattered myocytes containing ubiquitinated, intracellular prion inclusions that were adjacent to myocytes lacking inclusions. Myocytes also showed elevated levels of the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone Grp78/BiP, suggestive of impaired protein degradation and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Additionally, autophagy was induced, as indicated by increased levels of beclin-1 and LC3-II. In C2C12 myoblasts, inhibition of autophagosome maturation or lysosomal degradation led to enhanced prion aggregation, consistent with a role for autophagy in prion aggregate clearance. Taken together, these findings suggest that the induction of autophagy may be a central strategy for prion aggregate clearance in myocytes. IMPORTANCE PMID:24307586

  3. Murine models of atrophy, cachexia, and sarcopenia in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Romanick, Mark; Brown-Borg, Holly M.

    2013-01-01

    With the extension of life span over the past several decades, the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength that characterizes sarcopenia is becoming more evident and thus, has a more significant impact on society. To determine ways to intervene and delay, or even arrest the physical frailty and dependence that accompany sarcopenia, it is necessary to identify those biochemical pathways that define this process. Animal models that mimic one or more of the physiological pathways involved with this phenomenon are very beneficial in providing an understanding of the cellular processes at work in sarcopenia. The ability to influence pathways through genetic manipulation gives insight into cellular responses and their impact on the physical expression of sarcopenia. This review evaluates several murine models that have the potential to elucidate biochemical processes integral to sarcopenia. Identifying animal models that reflect sarcopenia or its component pathways will enable researchers to better understand those pathways that contribute to age-related skeletal muscle mass loss, and in turn, develop interventions that will prevent, retard, arrest, or reverse this phenomenon. PMID:23523469

  4. Diffusion characteristics of ethylene glycol in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Luís M; Carvalho, Maria Inês; Nogueira, Elisabete M; Tuchin, Valery V

    2015-05-01

    Part of the optical clearing study in biological tissues concerns the determination of the diffusion characteristics of water and optical clearing agents in the subject tissue. Such information is sufficient to characterize the time dependence of the optical clearing mechanisms—tissue dehydration and refractive index (RI) matching. We have used a simple method based on collimated optical transmittance measurements made from muscle samples under treatment with aqueous solutions containing different concentrations of ethylene glycol (EG), to determine the diffusion time values of water and EG in skeletal muscle. By representing the estimated mean diffusion time values from each treatment as a function of agent concentration in solution, we could identify the real diffusion times for water and agent. These values allowed for the calculation of the correspondent diffusion coefficients for those fluids. With these results, we have demonstrated that the dehydration mechanism is the one that dominates optical clearing in the first minute of treatment, while the RI matching takes over the optical clearing operations after that and remains for a longer time of treatment up to about 10 min, as we could see for EG and thin tissue samples of 0.5 mm. PMID:25525766

  5. Bioevaluation of plasma polymerized films in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Nichols, M F; Hahn, A W; Easley, J R; Mayhan, K G

    1979-03-01

    Plasma polymerized ethylene (PPE), styrene (PPS), and chlorotrifluoroethylene (PPCTFE) were synthesized by exposing the monomeric gases to an inductively coupled radio frequency "glow-discharge" field. The polymer films were deposited on poly(dimethyl) siloxane (medical grade Silastic), which was then surgically implanted in rat paravertebral muscle for periods up to 84 weeks. The biocompatibility of the plasma deposited films and uncoated Silastic was evaluated by qualitative (graded inflammatory cell response) and quantitative (connnective tissue capsule thickness) techniques as a function of time. The morphological features of the connective tissue capsule and the plasma polymerized films were examined by SEM after 75 weeks of implantation. Results showed that the acute inflammatory cell migration around PPS and PPCTFE was at a maximum in 2 weeks, decaying to control levels in 4 to 8 weeks. The PPE response was judged as less than the control response up to 4 weeks. After 8 weeks no qualitative difference could be detected between the plasma polymerized films and Silastic. On the other hand, a quantifiable change in fibrous capsule response as a function of time and material was noted until 24 weeks. From these data we conclude that these types of films do not elicit an untoward foreign body reaction at a skeletal muscle implant site in rats. PMID:429396

  6. Filamentous structures in skeletal muscle: anchors for the subsarcolemmal space.

    PubMed

    Khairani, Astrid Feinisa; Tajika, Yuki; Takahashi, Maiko; Ueno, Hitoshi; Murakami, Tohru; Soenggono, Arifin; Yorifuji, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    In skeletal muscle fibers, intermediate filaments and actin filaments provide structural support to the myofibrils and the sarcolemma. For many years, it was poorly understood from ultrastructural observations that how these filamentous structures were kept anchored. The present study was conducted to determine the architecture of filamentous anchoring structures in the subsarcolemmal space and the intermyofibrils. The diaphragms (Dp) of adult wild type and mdx mice (mdx is a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy) were subjected to tension applied perpendicular to the long axis of the muscle fibers, with or without treatment with 1% Triton X-100 or 0.03% saponin. These experiments were conducted to confirm the presence and integrity of the filamentous anchoring structures. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that these structures provide firm transverse connections between the sarcolemma and peripheral myofibrils. Most of the filamentous structures appeared to be inserted into subsarcolemmal densities, forming anchoring connections between the sarcolemma and peripheral myofibrils. In some cases, actin filaments were found to run longitudinally in the subsarcolemmal space to connect to the sarcolemma or in some cases to connect to the intermyofibrils as elongated thin filaments. These filamentous anchoring structures were less common in the mdx Dp. Our data suggest that the transverse and longitudinal filamentous structures form an anchoring system in the subsarcolemmal space and the intermyofibrils. PMID:24519712

  7. Purification and characterization of troponin C from pike muscle: a comparative spectroscopic study with rabbit skeletal muscle troponin C.

    PubMed

    McCubbin, W D; Oikawa, K; Sykes, B D; Kay, C M

    1982-11-01

    The conformation of troponin C (TN-C) isolated from the white muscle of pike (Esox lucius), in the Ca2+ and metal-free states, was studied by circular dichroism, absorption difference spectroscopy, solvent perturbation difference spectroscopy, intrinsic fluorescence, thiol titration, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In addition, the molecular weight of the protein was determined by sedimentation equilibrium and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The composition of the protein was established by amino acid analysis. The resulting data were compared with those from the widely studied analogue isolated from rabbit skeletal muscle. The results indicate near equivalence in many of the properties of pike and rabbit TN-C, such as molecular weight, the magnitude of the calcium-induced conformational change, and urea- or thermal-induced denaturability. However, the pike protein has five additional potential carboxyl groups, and there is good evidence from NMR, solvent perturbation, and fluorescence studies for the presence of a buried tyrosine residue in the apo state. PMID:7150538

  8. Skeletal Muscle Expression of the Adhesion-GPCR CD97: CD97 Deletion Induces an Abnormal Structure of the Sarcoplasmatic Reticulum but Does Not Impair Skeletal Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Zyryanova, Tatiana; Schneider, Rick; Adams, Volker; Sittig, Doreen; Kerner, Christiane; Gebhardt, Claudia; Ruffert, Henrik; Glasmacher, Stefan; Hepp, Pierre; Punkt, Karla; Neuhaus, Jochen; Hamann, Jörg; Aust, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    CD97 is a widely expressed adhesion class G-protein-coupled receptor (aGPCR). Here, we investigated the presence of CD97 in normal and malignant human skeletal muscle as well as the ultrastructural and functional consequences of CD97 deficiency in mice. In normal human skeletal muscle, CD97 was expressed at the peripheral sarcolemma of all myofibers, as revealed by immunostaining of tissue sections and surface labeling of single myocytes using flow cytometry. In muscle cross-sections, an intracellular polygonal, honeycomb-like CD97-staining pattern, typical for molecules located in the T-tubule or sarcoplasmatic reticulum (SR), was additionally found. CD97 co-localized with SR Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA), a constituent of the longitudinal SR, but not with the receptors for dihydropyridine (DHPR) or ryanodine (RYR), located in the T-tubule and terminal SR, respectively. Intracellular expression of CD97 was higher in slow-twitch compared to most fast-twitch myofibers. In rhabdomyosarcomas, CD97 was strongly upregulated and in part more N-glycosylated compared to normal skeletal muscle. All tumors were strongly CD97-positive, independent of the underlying histological subtype, suggesting high sensitivity of CD97 for this tumor. Ultrastructural analysis of murine skeletal myofibers confirmed the location of CD97 in the SR. CD97 knock-out mice had a dilated SR, resulting in a partial increase in triad diameter yet not affecting the T-tubule, sarcomeric, and mitochondrial structure. Despite these obvious ultrastructural changes, intracellular Ca2+ release from single myofibers, force generation and fatigability of isolated soleus muscles, and wheel-running capacity of mice were not affected by the lack of CD97. We conclude that CD97 is located in the SR and at the peripheral sarcolemma of human and murine skeletal muscle, where its absence affects the structure of the SR without impairing skeletal muscle function. PMID:24949957

  9. A Physiologically Based, Multi-Scale Model of Skeletal Muscle Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Röhrle, O.; Davidson, J. B.; Pullan, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Models of skeletal muscle can be classified as phenomenological or biophysical. Phenomenological models predict the muscle’s response to a specified input based on experimental measurements. Prominent phenomenological models are the Hill-type muscle models, which have been incorporated into rigid-body modeling frameworks, and three-dimensional continuum-mechanical models. Biophysically based models attempt to predict the muscle’s response as emerging from the underlying physiology of the system. In this contribution, the conventional biophysically based modeling methodology is extended to include several structural and functional characteristics of skeletal muscle. The result is a physiologically based, multi-scale skeletal muscle finite element model that is capable of representing detailed, geometrical descriptions of skeletal muscle fibers and their grouping. Together with a well-established model of motor-unit recruitment, the electro-physiological behavior of single muscle fibers within motor units is computed and linked to a continuum-mechanical constitutive law. The bridging between the cellular level and the organ level has been achieved via a multi-scale constitutive law and homogenization. The effect of homogenization has been investigated by varying the number of embedded skeletal muscle fibers and/or motor units and computing the resulting exerted muscle forces while applying the same excitatory input. All simulations were conducted using an anatomically realistic finite element model of the tibialis anterior muscle. Given the fact that the underlying electro-physiological cellular muscle model is capable of modeling metabolic fatigue effects such as potassium accumulation in the T-tubular space and inorganic phosphate build-up, the proposed framework provides a novel simulation-based way to investigate muscle behavior ranging from motor-unit recruitment to force generation and fatigue. PMID:22993509

  10. Transplantated Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Embryonic Stem Cells Promote Muscle Regeneration and Accelerate Functional Recovery of Injured Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ninagawa, Nana Takenaka; Isobe, Eri; Hirayama, Yuri; Murakami, Rumi; Komatsu, Kazumi; Nagai, Masataka; Kobayashi, Mami; Kawabata, Yuka

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We previously established that mesenchymal stem cells originating from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells (E-MSCs) showed markedly higher potential for differentiation into skeletal muscles in vitro than common mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Further, the E-MSCs exhibited a low risk for teratoma formation. Here we evaluate the potential of E-MSCs for differentiation into skeletal muscles in vivo and reveal the regeneration and functional recovery of injured muscle by transplantation. E-MSCs were transplanted into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle 24?h following direct clamping. After transplantation, the myogenic differentiation of E-MSCs, TA muscle regeneration, and re-innervation were morphologically analyzed. In addition, footprints and gaits of each leg under spontaneous walking were measured by CatWalk XT, and motor functions of injured TA muscles were precisely analyzed. Results indicate that >60% of transplanted E-MSCs differentiated into skeletal muscles. The cross-sectional area of the injured TA muscles of E-MSC–transplanted animals increased earlier than that of control animals. E-MSCs also promotes re-innervation of the peripheral nerves of injured muscles. Concerning function of the TA muscles, we reveal that transplantation of E-MSCs promotes the recovery of muscles. This is the first report to demonstrate by analysis of spontaneous walking that transplanted cells can accelerate the functional recovery of injured muscles. Taken together, the results show that E-MSCs have a high potential for differentiation into skeletal muscles in vivo as well as in vitro. The transplantation of E-MSCs facilitated the functional recovery of injured muscles. Therefore, E-MSCs are an efficient cell source in transplantation. PMID:23914336

  11. Robust conversion of marrow cells to skeletal muscle with formation of marrow-derived muscle cell colonies: A multifactorial process

    SciTech Connect

    Abedi, Mehrdad; Greer, Deborah A.; Colvin, Gerald A.; Demers, Delia A.; Dooner, Mark S.; Harpel, Jasha A.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Lambert, Jean-Francois; Quesenberry, Peter J.

    2004-01-10

    Murine marrow cells are capable of repopulating skeletal muscle fibers. A point of concern has been the robustness of such conversions. We have investigated the impact of type of cell delivery, muscle injury, nature of delivered cell, and stem cell mobilizations on marrow to muscle conversion. We transplanted GFP transgenic marrow into irradiated C57BL/6 mice and then injured anterior tibialis muscle by cardiotoxin. One month after injury, sections were analyzed by standard and deconvolutional microscopy for expression of muscle and hematopietic markers. Irradiation was essential to conversion although whether by injury or induction of chimerism is not clear. Cardiotoxin and to a lesser extent PBS injected muscles showed significant number of GFP+ muscle fibers while uninjected muscles showed only rare GFP+ cells. Marrow conversion to muscle was increased by two cycles of G-CSF mobilization and to a lesser extent with G-CSF and steel or GM-CSF. Transplantation of female GFP to male C57 BL/6 and GFP to Rosa26 mice showed fusion of donor cells to recipient muscle. High numbers of donor derived muscle colonies and up to12 percent GFP positive muscle cells were seen after mobilization or direct injection. These levels of donor muscle chimerism approach levels which could be clinically significant in developing strategies for the treatment of muscular dystrophies. In summary, the conversion of marrow to skeletal muscle cells is based on cell fusion and is critically dependent on injury. This conversion is also numerically significant and increases with mobilization.

  12. MicroRNAs in skeletal muscle and their regulation with exercise, ageing, and disease

    PubMed Central

    Zacharewicz, Evelyn; Lamon, Séverine; Russell, Aaron P.

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle makes up approximately 40% of the total body mass, providing structural support and enabling the body to maintain posture, to control motor movements and to store energy. It therefore plays a vital role in whole body metabolism. Skeletal muscle displays remarkable plasticity and is able to alter its size, structure and function in response to various stimuli; an essential quality for healthy living across the lifespan. Exercise is an important stimulator of extracellular and intracellular stress signals that promote positive adaptations in skeletal muscle. These adaptations are controlled by changes in gene transcription and protein translation, with many of these molecules identified as potential therapeutic targets to pharmacologically improve muscle quality in patient groups too ill to exercise. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are recently identified regulators of numerous gene networks and pathways and mainly exert their effect by binding to their target messenger RNAs (mRNAs), resulting in mRNA degradation or preventing protein translation. The role of exercise as a regulatory stimulus of skeletal muscle miRNAs is now starting to be investigated. This review highlights our current understanding of the regulation of skeletal muscle miRNAs with exercise and disease as well as how they may control skeletal muscle health. PMID:24137130

  13. Reducing plasma HIV RNA improves muscle amino acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Yarasheski, Kevin E.; Smith, Samuel R.; Powderly, William G.

    2011-01-01

    We reported (Yarasheski KE, Zachwieja JJ, Gischler J, Crow-ley J, Horgan MM, and Powderly WG. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 275: E577–E583, 1998) that AIDS muscle wasting was associated with an inappropriately low rate of muscle protein synthesis and an elevated glutamine rate of appearance (Ra Gln). We hypothesized that high plasma HIV RNA caused dysregulation of muscle amino acid metabolism. We determined whether a reduction in HIV RNA (?1 log) increased muscle protein synthesis rate and reduced Ra Gln and muscle proteasome activity in 10 men and 1 woman (22–57 yr, 60–108 kg, 17–33 kg muscle) with advanced HIV (CD4 = 0–311 cells/?l; HIV RNA = 10–375 × 103 copies/ml). We utilized stable isotope tracer methodologies ([13C]Leu and [15N]Gln) to measure the fractional rate of mixed muscle protein synthesis and plasma Ra Gln in these subjects before and 4 mo after initiating their first or a salvage antiretroviral therapy regimen. After treatment, median CD4 increased (98 vs. 139 cells/?l, P = 0.009) and median HIV RNA was reduced (155,828 vs. 100 copies/ml, P = 0.003). Mixed muscle protein synthesis rate increased (0.062 ± 0.005 vs. 0.078 ± 0.006%/h, P = 0.01), Ra Gln decreased (387 ± 33 vs. 323 ± 15 ?mol·kg fat-free mass?1·h?1, P = 0.04), and muscle proteasome chymotrypsin-like catalytic activity was reduced 14% (P = 0.03). Muscle mass was only modestly increased (1 kg, P = not significant). We estimated that, for each 10,000 copies/ml reduction in HIV RNA, ~3 g of additional muscle protein are synthesized per day. These findings suggest that reducing HIV RNA increases muscle protein synthesis and reduces muscle proteolysis, but muscle protein synthesis relative to whole body protein synthesis rate is not restored to normal, so muscle mass is not substantially increased. PMID:15367396

  14. Akt1-mediated fast/glycolytic skeletal muscle growth attenuates renal damage in experimental kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Hanatani, Shinsuke; Izumiya, Yasuhiro; Araki, Satoshi; Rokutanda, Taku; Kimura, Yuichi; Walsh, Kenneth; Ogawa, Hisao

    2014-12-01

    Muscle wasting is frequently observed in patients with kidney disease, and low muscle strength is associated with poor outcomes in these patients. However, little is known about the effects of skeletal muscle growth per se on kidney diseases. In this study, we utilized a skeletal muscle-specific, inducible Akt1 transgenic (Akt1 TG) mouse model that promotes the growth of functional skeletal muscle independent of exercise to investigate the effects of muscle growth on kidney diseases. Seven days after Akt1 activation in skeletal muscle, renal injury was induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in Akt1 TG and wild-type (WT) control mice. The expression of atrogin-1, an atrophy-inducing gene in skeletal muscle, was upregulated 7 days after UUO in WT mice but not in Akt1 TG mice. UUO-induced renal interstitial fibrosis, tubular injury, apoptosis, and increased expression of inflammatory, fibrosis-related, and adhesion molecule genes were significantly diminished in Akt1 TG mice compared with WT mice. An increase in the activating phosphorylation of eNOS in the kidney accompanied the attenuation of renal damage by myogenic Akt1 activation. Treatment with the NOS inhibitor L-NAME abolished the protective effect of skeletal muscle Akt activation on obstructive kidney disease. In conclusion, Akt1-mediated muscle growth reduces renal damage in a model of obstructive kidney disease. This improvement appears to be mediated by an increase in eNOS signaling in the kidney. Our data support the concept that loss of muscle mass during kidney disease can contribute to renal failure, and maintaining muscle mass may improve clinical outcome. PMID:25012168

  15. Analysis of the callipyge phenotype through skeletal muscle development; association of Dlk1 with muscle precursor cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason D. White; Tony Vuocolo; Matthew McDonagh; Miranda D. Grounds; Gregory S. Harper; Noelle E. Cockett; Ross Tellam

    2008-01-01

    The callipyge mutation in sheep in the form of the paternal heterozygote results in skeletal muscle hypertrophy, which is most pronounced in the hindquarters. Overexpression of one of the genes in the region of the causative single-nucleotide polymorphism, Dlk1, is postulated to be a primary cause of the muscle hypertrophy although the mechanism is not clear. This study examined the

  16. Analysis of the callipyge phenotype through skeletal muscle development; association of Dlk1 with muscle precursor cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason D. White; Tony Vuocolo; Matthew McDonagh; Miranda D. Grounds; Gregory S. Harper; Noelle E. Cockett; Ross Tellam

    2007-01-01

    The callipyge mutation in sheep in the form of the paternal heterozygote results in skeletal muscle hypertrophy, which is most pronounced in the hind- quarters. Overexpression of one of the genes in the re- gion of the causative single-nucleotide polymorphism, Dlk1, is postulated to be a primary cause of the muscle hypertrophy although the mechanism is not clear. This study

  17. Development of a porcine skeletal muscle cDNA microarray: analysis of differential transcript expression in phenotypically distinct muscles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qianfan Bai; Christine McGillivray; Nuno da Costa; Saffron Dornan; Gary Evans; Michael James Stear; Kin-Chow Chang

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microarray profiling has the potential to illuminate the molecular processes that govern the phenotypic characteristics of porcine skeletal muscles, such as hypertrophy or atrophy, and the expression of specific fibre types. This information is not only important for understanding basic muscle biology but also provides underpinning knowledge for enhancing the efficiency of livestock production. RESULTS: We report on the

  18. Fasting Increases Human Skeletal Muscle Net Phenylalanine Release and This Is Associated with Decreased mTOR Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Vendelbo, Mikkel Holm; Møller, Andreas Buch; Christensen, Britt; Nellemann, Birgitte; Clasen, Berthil Frederik Forrest; Nair, K. Sreekumaran; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Jessen, Niels; Møller, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Aim Fasting is characterised by profound changes in energy metabolism including progressive loss of body proteins. The underlying mechanisms are however unknown and we therefore determined the effects of a 72-hour-fast on human skeletal muscle protein metabolism and activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a key regulator of cell growth. Methods Eight healthy male volunteers were studied twice: in the postabsorptive state and following 72 hours of fasting. Regional muscle amino acid kinetics was measured in the forearm using amino acid tracers. Signaling to protein synthesis and breakdown were assessed in skeletal muscle biopsies obtained during non-insulin and insulin stimulated conditions on both examination days. Results Fasting significantly increased forearm net phenylalanine release and tended to decrease phenylalanine rate of disappearance. mTOR phosphorylation was decreased by ?50% following fasting, together with reduced downstream phosphorylation of 4EBP1, ULK1 and rpS6. In addition, the insulin stimulated increase in mTOR and rpS6 phosphorylation was significantly reduced after fasting indicating insulin resistance in this part of the signaling pathway. Autophagy initiation is in part regulated by mTOR through ULK1 and fasting increased expression of the autophagic marker LC3B-II by ?30%. p62 is degraded during autophagy but was increased by ?10% during fasting making interpretation of autophagic flux problematic. MAFbx and MURF1 ubiquitin ligases remained unaltered after fasting indicating no change in protesomal protein degradation. Conclusions Our results show that during fasting increased net phenylalanine release in skeletal muscle is associated to reduced mTOR activation and concomitant decreased downstream signaling to cell growth. PMID:25020061

  19. Effects of taurine analogues on chloride channel conductance of rat skeletal muscle fibers: a structure-activity relationship investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Pierno; D. Tricarico; A. Luca; F. Campagna; A. Carotti; G. Casini; D. Conte Camerino

    1994-01-01

    In rat skeletal muscle, taurine was proposed to interact with a low affinity binding site on sarcolemmal phospholipids near chloride channel, increasing chloride conductance (GCI). In an attempt to evaluate the structure-activity relationship between taurine and its binding site, a series of N-azacycloalkenyl analogues of taurine (A: N-(1'aza-cyclopenten-2'yl)-2-aminoethane sulfonic acid; B: N-(1'-aza-cyclopenten-2'-yl)-2-aminoethane sulfonic acid; C: N-(1'aza-cyclopenten-2'-yl)-3-amino-propane sulfonic acid; D: N-(1'aza-cyclopenten-2'-yl)-3-aminopropane

  20. Effects of aging and exercise training on structural and vasoconstrictor properties of skeletal muscle arterioles 

    E-print Network

    Donato, Anthony John

    2004-11-15

    in the structural properties of the resistance vasculature. We hypothesized that stiffness and vasoconstriction would be greater in skeletal muscle arterioles from old rats, and that endurance exercise training would ameliorate the associated with aging alterations...

  1. Protein Diffusion in Living Skeletal Muscle Fibers: Dependence on Protein Size, Fiber Type, and Contraction

    E-print Network

    Voigt, Chris

    Protein Diffusion in Living Skeletal Muscle Fibers: Dependence on Protein Size, Fiber Type Hochschule Hannover, 30623 Hannover, Germany ABSTRACT Sarcoplasmic protein diffusion was studied under different conditions, using microinjection in combination with microspectrophotometry. Six globular proteins

  2. Effect of Methylmercury Exposure on Heart and Skeletal Muscle Development in Zebrafish Embryos (Danio Rerio) 

    E-print Network

    Aguilar, Sonny

    2014-09-04

    rate, movement, and length along with abnormal/disorganized skeletal muscle, and heart related problems. To better understand the neurotoxic mechanisms of MeHg on zebrafish development, we investigated overall embryo growth, various aspects of heart...

  3. Regulation of skeletal muscle mitochondrial function by nuclear receptors: implications for health and disease.

    PubMed

    Perez-Schindler, Joaquin; Philp, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Skeletal muscle metabolism is highly dependent on mitochondrial function, with impaired mitochondrial biogenesis associated with the development of metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Mitochondria display substantial plasticity in skeletal muscle, and are highly sensitive to levels of physical activity. It is thought that physical activity promotes mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle through increased expression of genes encoded in both the nuclear and the mitochondrial genome; however, how this process is co-ordinated at the cellular level is poorly understood. Nuclear receptors (NRs) are key signalling proteins capable of integrating environmental factors and mitochondrial function, thereby providing a potential link between exercise and mitochondrial biogenesis. The aim of this review is to highlight the function of NRs in skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and discuss the therapeutic potential of NRs for the management and treatment of chronic metabolic disease. PMID:26186742

  4. Creating and Simulating Skeletal Muscle from the Visible Human Data Set

    E-print Network

    Frey, Pascal

    1 Creating and Simulating Skeletal Muscle from the Visible Human Data Set J. Teran,1 E. Sifakis, 1@cs.stanford.edu Abstract Simulation of the musculoskeletal system has important applications in biomechanics, biomedical

  5. Determination of skin vibration amplitude in the process of human skeletal muscle contraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonid V. Tanin; V. A. Dmitriev; S. A. Aleksandrov

    1995-01-01

    We consider laser radiation scattering by the diffuse skin surface. The skeletal human muscle transmitting its vibrations to the skin is thought of as a system of vibrating strings with a variable length.

  6. A role for nephrin, a renal protein, in vertebrate skeletal muscle cell fusion

    E-print Network

    Kalluri, Raghu

    Skeletal muscle is formed via fusion of myoblasts, a well-studied process in Drosophila. In vertebrates however, this process is less well understood, and whether there is evolutionary conservation with the proteins studied ...

  7. Effect of maternal fasting on ovine fetal and maternal branched-chain amino acid transaminase activities.

    PubMed

    Liechty, E A; Barone, S; Nutt, M

    1987-01-01

    Activities of branched-chain amino acid transaminase were assayed in maternal skeletal muscle, liver and fetal skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, liver, kidney and placenta obtained from fed and 5-day-fasted late gestation ewes. Very high activities were found in placenta; fetal skeletal muscle also had high activity. Fetal brain had intermediate activity, followed by cardiac muscle and kidney. Fetal liver possessed negligible activity. Activities were low in both maternal liver and skeletal muscle. Trends were seen for fasting to increase activities in fetal placenta, skeletal muscle, brain, kidney, heart and maternal liver, but these changes were statistically significant only for fetal brain and placental tissue. Fetal skeletal muscle activity was 100 times that of maternal skeletal muscle. These data imply differences in the metabolism of the branched-chain amino acids by fetal and adult ruminants and expand the thesis that branched-chain amino acids are important to the metabolism of the ovine fetus. PMID:3651524

  8. Inhibition of the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor calcium release channel by nitric oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    László G. Mészáros; Igor Minarovic; Alexandra Zahradnikova

    1996-01-01

    NO donors were found to reduce the rate of Ca2+ release from isolated skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and the open probability of single ryanodine receptor Ca2+ release channels (RyRCs) in planar lipid bilayers, and these effects were prevented by the NO quencher hemoglobin and reversed by 2-mercaptoethanol. Ca2+ release assessed in skeletal muscle homogenates was also reduced by NO

  9. Growth and differentiation potential of main- and side-population cells derived from murine skeletal muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuro Tamaki; Akira Akatsuka; Yoshinori Okada; Yumi Matsuzaki; Hideyuki Okano; Minoru Kimura

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal muscle-derived CD34+\\/45? (Sk-34) cells were identified as a new candidate for stem cells. However, the relationship between Sk-34 cells and side-population (SP) cells is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Sk-34 cells prepared from murine skeletal muscles consist wholly of main-population (MP) cells. The Sk-34 cells included only a few SP cells (1:1000, SP:MP). Colony-forming units of Sk-34 cells of

  10. Three myosin heavy chain isoforms in type 2 skeletal muscle fibres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Schiaffino; Luisa Gorza; Saverio Sartore; Leopoldo Saggin; Simonetta Ausoni; Monica Vianello; Kristian Gundersen; Terje LØmo

    1989-01-01

    Summary Mammalian skeletal muscles consist of three main fibre types, type 1, 2A and 2B fibres, with different myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition. We have now identified another fibre type, called type 2X fibre, characterized by a specific MHC isoform. Type 2X fibres, which are widely distributed in rat skeletal muscles, can be distinguished from 2A and 2B fibres by

  11. Collagen matrices from sponge to nano: new perspectives for tissue engineering of skeletal muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justus P Beier; Dorothee Klumpp; Markus Rudisile; Roland Dersch; Joachim H Wendorff; Oliver Bleiziffer; Andreas Arkudas; Elias Polykandriotis; Raymund E Horch; Ulrich Kneser

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tissue engineering of vascularised skeletal muscle is a promising method for the treatment of soft tissue defects in reconstructive surgery. In this study we explored the characteristics of novel collagen and fibrin matrices for skeletal muscle tissue engineering. We analyzed the characteristics of newly developed hybrid collagen-I-fibrin-gels and collagen nanofibers as well as collagen sponges and OPLA®-scaffolds. Collagen-fibrin gels

  12. Skeletal muscle wasting in cachexia and sarcopenia: molecular pathophysiology and impact of exercise training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karsten Lenk; Gerhard Schuler; Volker Adams

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in the human body, and the maintenance of its mass is essential to ensure basic\\u000a function as locomotion, strength and respiration. The decision to synthesize or to break down skeletal muscle proteins is\\u000a regulated by a network of signaling pathways that transmit external stimuli to intracellular factors regulating gene transcription.\\u000a The tightly regulated

  13. A pRb-independent mechanism preserves the postmitotic state in terminally differentiated skeletal muscle cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grazia Camarda; Francesca Siepi; Deborah Pajalunga; Camilla Bernardini; Rossella Rossi; Alessandra Montecucco; Ettore Meccia; Marco Crescenzi

    2004-01-01

    n skeletal muscle differentiation, the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) is absolutely necessary to establish defini- tive mitotic arrest. It is widely assumed that pRb is equally essential to sustain the postmitotic state, but this contention has never been tested. Here, we show that terminal proliferation arrest is maintained in skeletal muscle cells by a pRb-independent mechanism. Acute Rb excision from conditional

  14. Tumor necrosis factor-? exerts interleukin-6-dependent and -independent effects on cultured skeletal muscle cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Belén Alvarez; LeBris S Quinn; S??lvia Busquets; Maria T Quiles; Francisco J López-Soriano; Josep M Argilés

    2002-01-01

    In vivo studies have shown that cancer-associated skeletal muscle wasting (cachexia) is mediated by two cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). It has been unclear from these studies whether TNF exerts direct effects on skeletal muscle and\\/or whether these effects are mediated via IL-6. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that TNF induces IL-6 mRNA expression in

  15. Timecourse of vasodilation at the onset of repetitive skeletal muscle contractions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marika L. Armstrong; Ashok Dua; Coral L. Murrant

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT To characterize the vasodilatory response in the transition from a single skeletal contraction to a series of contractions,we measured the response of hamster cremaster muscle arterioles associated with 4-5 skeletal muscle fibres stimulated to contract for 1, 2, 3, or 4 contractions (250ms train duration) at 4s intervals (15 contractions per minute (CPM)) for up to 12s, at stimulus

  16. The dynamic response and shock-recovery of porcine skeletal muscle tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilgeroth, James Michael; Hazell, Paul; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth James

    2012-03-01

    A soft-capture system allowing for one-dimensional shock loading and release of soft tissues via the plate-impact technique has been developed. In addition, we present the numerical simulation of a shock-recovery experiment involving porcine skeletal muscle and further investigate the effects of the transient wave on the structure of the tissue via transmission electron microscope (TEM). This paper forms part of an ongoing research programme on the dynamic behaviour of skeletal muscle tissue.

  17. Extracellular ATP signaling during differentiation of C2C12 skeletal muscle cells: role in proliferation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiziana Martinello; Maria Cristina Baldoin; Laura Morbiato; Maddalena Paganin; Elena Tarricone; Giorgio Schiavo; Elisa Bianchini; Dorianna Sandonà; Romeo Betto

    2011-01-01

    Evidence shows that extracellular ATP signals influence myogenesis, regeneration and physiology of skeletal muscle. Present\\u000a work was aimed at characterizing the extracellular ATP signaling system of skeletal muscle C2C12 cells during differentiation.\\u000a We show that mechanical and electrical stimulation produces substantial release of ATP from differentiated myotubes, but not\\u000a from proliferating myoblasts. Extracellular ATP-hydrolyzing activity is low in myoblasts and

  18. New factors contributing to dynamic calcium regulation in the skeletal muscle triad—a crowded place

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Friedrich; Rainer H. A. Fink; Frederic von Wegner

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a highly organized tissue that has to be optimized for fast signalling events conveying electrical excitation\\u000a to contractile response. The site of electro-chemico-mechanical coupling is the skeletal muscle triad where two membrane systems,\\u000a the extracellular t-tubules and the intracellular sarcoplasmic reticulum, come into very close contact. Structure fits function\\u000a here and the signalling proteins DHPR and RyR1

  19. Elevated levels of TWEAK in skeletal muscle promote visceral obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shuichi; Ogura, Yuji; Tajrishi, Marjan M; Kumar, Ashok

    2015-03-01

    Skeletal muscle is responsible for the majority of glucose disposal in body. Impairment in skeletal muscle glucose handling capacity leads to the state of insulin resistance. The TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) cytokine has now emerged as a major regulator of skeletal muscle mass and function. However, the role of TWEAK in skeletal muscle metabolic function remains less understood. Here, we demonstrate that with progressive age, skeletal muscle-specific TWEAK-transgenic (TWEAK-Tg) mice gain increased body weight (?16%) and fat mass (?64%) and show glucose intolerance and insulin insensitivity. TWEAK-Tg mice also exhibit adipocyte hypertrophy in the epididymal fat. Oxygen uptake, voluntary physical activity, and exercise capacity were significantly reduced in TWEAK-Tg mice compared with controls. Overexpression of TWEAK inhibited (?31%) 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and reduced (?31%) the levels of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) without affecting the Akt pathway. TWEAK also inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (?32%) and repressed the levels of GLUT4 (?50%) in cultured myotubes from C57BL6 mice. TWEAK represses the levels of Krüppel-like factor 15; myocyte enhancer factor 2, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1?, which are required for the activation of the GLUT4 locus. Collectively our study demonstrates that elevated levels of TWEAK in skeletal muscle cause metabolic abnormalities. Inhibition of TWEAK could be a potential approach to prevent weight gain and type 2 diabetes. PMID:25466899

  20. Rescue of skeletal muscle alpha-actin-null mice by cardiac (fetal) alpha-actin.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Kristen J; Ravenscroft, Gianina; Jackaman, Connie; Filipovska, Aleksandra; Davies, Stefan M; Lim, Esther M; Squire, Sarah E; Potter, Allyson C; Baker, Elizabeth; Clément, Sophie; Sewry, Caroline A; Fabian, Victoria; Crawford, Kelly; Lessard, James L; Griffiths, Lisa M; Papadimitriou, John M; Shen, Yun; Morahan, Grant; Bakker, Anthony J; Davies, Kay E; Laing, Nigel G

    2009-06-01

    Skeletal muscle alpha-actin (ACTA1) is the major actin in postnatal skeletal muscle. Mutations of ACTA1 cause mostly fatal congenital myopathies. Cardiac alpha-actin (ACTC) is the major striated actin in adult heart and fetal skeletal muscle. It is unknown why ACTC and ACTA1 expression switch during development. We investigated whether ACTC can replace ACTA1 in postnatal skeletal muscle. Two ACTC transgenic mouse lines were crossed with Acta1 knockout mice (which all die by 9 d after birth). Offspring resulting from the cross with the high expressing line survive to old age, and their skeletal muscles show no gross pathological features. The mice are not impaired on grip strength, rotarod, or locomotor activity. These findings indicate that ACTC is sufficiently similar to ACTA1 to produce adequate function in postnatal skeletal muscle. This raises the prospect that ACTC reactivation might provide a therapy for ACTA1 diseases. In addition, the mouse model will allow analysis of the precise functional differences between ACTA1 and ACTC. PMID:19468071