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1

Amino Acid Supplementation and Skeletal Muscle Metabolism in Ageing Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, considerable scientific interest has been devoted to amino acid supplementation and its role in regulating skeletal muscle metabolism in health, ageing and disease. This interest has, in part, stemmed from clinical evidence that traditional nutritional supplementation in patients is largely ineffective. In particular, this knowledge has prompted extensive research into the mechanisms responsible for amino acid stimulation

Melinda Sheffield-Moore; Douglas Paddon-Jones; Randall J. Urban

2006-01-01

2

An increase in essential amino acid availability upregulates amino acid transporter expression in human skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Essential amino acids (EAA) stimulate skeletal muscle mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and protein synthesis. It has recently been reported that an increase in amino acid (AA) transporter expression during anabolic conditions is rapamycin-sensitive. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an increase in EAA availability increases AA transporter expression in human skeletal muscle. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis of seven young adult subjects (3 male, 4 female) before and 1–3 h after EAA ingestion (10 g). Blood and muscle samples were analyzed for leucine kinetics using stable isotopic techniques. Quantitative RT-PCR, and immunoblotting were used to determine the mRNA and protein expression, respectively, of AA transporters and members of the general AA control pathway [general control nonrepressed (GCN2), activating transcription factor (ATF4), and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF2) ?-subunit (Ser52)]. EAA ingestion increased blood leucine concentration, delivery of leucine to muscle, transport of leucine from blood into muscle, intracellular muscle leucine concentration, ribosomal protein S6 (Ser240/244) phosphorylation, and muscle protein synthesis. This was followed with increased L-type AA transporter (LAT1), CD98, sodium-coupled neutral AA transporter (SNAT2), and proton-coupled amino acid transporter (PAT1) mRNA expression at 1 h (P < 0.05) and modest increases in LAT1 protein expression (3 h post-EAA) and SNAT2 protein expression (2 and 3 h post-EAA, P < 0.05). Although there were no changes in GCN2 expression and eIF2? phosphorylation, ATF4 protein expression reached significance by 2 h post-EAA (P < 0.05). We conclude that an increase in EAA availability upregulates human skeletal muscle AA transporter expression, perhaps in an mTORC1-dependent manner, which may be an adaptive response necessary for improved AA intracellular delivery. PMID:20304764

Drummond, Micah J.; Glynn, Erin L.; Fry, Christopher S.; Timmerman, Kyle L.; Volpi, Elena

2010-01-01

3

Exercise and Amino Acid Anabolic Cell Signaling and the Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Mass  

PubMed Central

A series of complex intracellular networks influence the regulation of skeletal muscle protein turnover. In recent years, studies have examined how cellular regulators of muscle protein turnover modulate metabolic mechanisms contributing to the loss, gain, or conservation of skeletal muscle mass. Exercise and amino acids both stimulate anabolic signaling potentially through several intracellular pathways including the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 and the mitogen activated protein kinase cell signaling cascades. As novel molecular regulators of muscle integrity continue to be explored, a contemporary analysis of the literature is required to understand the metabolic mechanisms by which contractile forces and amino acids affect cellular process that contribute to long-term adaptations and preservation of muscle mass. This article reviews the literature related to how exercise and amino acid availability affect cellular regulators of skeletal muscle mass, especially highlighting recent investigations that have identified mechanisms by which contractile forces and amino acids modulate muscle health. Furthermore, this review will explore integrated exercise and nutrition strategies that promote the maintenance of muscle health by optimizing exercise, and amino acid-induced cell signaling in aging adults susceptible to muscle loss. PMID:22852061

Pasiakos, Stefan M.

2012-01-01

4

Regulation of protein degradation pathways by amino acids and insulin in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs  

PubMed Central

Background The rapid gain in lean mass in neonates requires greater rates of protein synthesis than degradation. We previously delineated the molecular mechanisms by which insulin and amino acids, especially leucine, modulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis and how this changes with development. In the current study, we identified mechanisms involved in protein degradation regulation. In experiment 1, 6- and 26-d-old pigs were studied during 1) euinsulinemic-euglycemic-euaminoacidemic, 2) euinsulinemic-euglycemic-hyperaminoacidemic, and 3) hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-euaminoacidemic clamps for 2 h. In experiment 2, 5-d-old pigs were studied during 1) euinsulinemic-euglycemic-euaminoacidemic-euleucinemic, 2) euinsulinemic-euglycemic-hypoaminoacidemic-hyperleucinemic, and 3) euinsulinemic-euglycemic-euaminoacidemic-hyperleucinemic clamps for 24 h. We determined in muscle indices of ubiquitin-proteasome, i.e., atrogin-1 (MAFbx) and muscle RING-finger protein-1 (MuRF1) and autophagy-lysosome systems, i.e., unc51-like kinase 1 (UKL1), microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), and lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (Lamp-2). For comparison, we measured ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) activation, components of translation initiation. Results Abundance of atrogin-1, but not MuRF1, was greater in 26- than 6-d-old pigs and was not affected by insulin, amino acids, or leucine. Abundance of ULK1 and LC3 was higher in younger pigs and not affected by treatment. The LC3-II/LC3-I ratio was reduced and ULK1 phosphorylation increased by insulin, amino acids, and leucine. These responses were more profound in younger pigs. Abundance of Lamp-2 was not affected by treatment or development. Abundance of eIF4E, but not rpS6, was higher in 6- than 26-d-old-pigs but unaffected by treatment. Phosphorylation of eIF4E was not affected by treatment, however, insulin, amino acids, and leucine stimulated rpS6 phosphorylation, and the responses decreased with development. Conclusions The rapid growth of neonatal muscle is in part due to the positive balance between the activation of protein synthesis and degradation signaling. Insulin, amino acids, and, particularly, leucine, act as signals to modulate muscle protein synthesis and degradation in neonates. PMID:24438646

2014-01-01

5

Effect of Taurine Supplementation on the Alterations in Amino Acid Content in Skeletal Muscle with Exercise in Rat  

PubMed Central

Taurine included abundantly in skeletal muscle, particularly in the slow-twitch fibers, enhances exercise performance. However, the exact mechanisms for this effect have been unclear. The present study investigated the influence of taurine supplementation on amino acids profile in skeletal muscles as one of mechanisms in the enhancement of exercise performance induced by taurine. In the rats that received taurine solution, amino acids concentrations were comprehensively quantified in two portions with different fiber compositions in the fast-twitch fiber dominant (FFD) gastrocnemius muscle after 2 weeks, and in the gastrocnemius and additional other FFD muscles, liver, and plasma with exhausted exercise after 3 weeks. In the FFD muscles after 2 weeks, a common phenomenon that decreased concentrations of threonine (-16%), serine (-15~-16%), and glycine (-6~-16%) were observed, and they are categorized in the pyruvate precursors for hepatic gluconeogenesis rather than biosynthesis, polar, and side-chain structures. The decreases in the three amino acids were significantly emphasized after an additional week of taurine supplementation in the FFD muscles (p values in three amino acids in these tissues were less than 0.001-0.05), but not in the liver and plasma, accompanied with significantly increase of running time to exhaustion (p <0.05). In contrast, the three amino acids (threonine and serine; p < 0.05, glycine; p < 0.01) and alanine (p < 0.01) in the liver were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, following the exhaustive exercise. In conclusion, the taurine-induced reductions of these amino acids in skeletal muscle might be one of the mechanisms which underpin the enhancement of exercise performance by taurine. Key points Taurine ingestion significantly decreased certain amino acids in skeletal muscles accompanied with enhanced exercise performance. The decreased amino acids in common were threonine, serine, and glycine, but not alanine; pyruvate precursor for gluconeogenesis. The alteration of three amino acids in muscles was maintained after exhausted exercise. The muscular alterations of them might be one of taurine-induced roles on exercise performance. PMID:24149876

Ishikura, Keisuke; Miyazaki, Teruo; Ra, Song-Gyu; Endo, Shoji; Nakamura, Yusuke; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Miyakawa, Shumpei; Ohmori, Hajime

2011-01-01

6

The complete amino acid sequence of chicken skeletal-muscle enolase.  

PubMed Central

The complete amino acid sequence of chicken skeletal-muscle enolase, comprising 433 residues, was determined. The sequence was deduced by automated sequencing of hydroxylamine-cleavage, CNBr-cleavage, o-iodosobenzoic acid-cleavage, clostripain-digest and staphylococcal-proteinase-digest fragments. The presence of several acid-labile peptide bonds and the tenacious aggregation of most CNBr-cleavage fragments meant that a commonly used sequencing strategy involving initial CNBr cleavage was unproductive. Cleavage at the single Asn-Gly peptide bond with hydroxylamine proved to be particularly useful. Comparison of the sequence of chicken enolase with the two yeast enolase isoenzyme sequences shows that the enzyme is strongly conserved, with 60% of the residues identical. The histidine and arginine residues implicated as being important for the activity of yeast enolase are conserved in the chicken enzyme. Secondary-structure predictions are analysed in an accompanying paper [Sawyer, Fothergill-Gilmore & Russell (1986) Biochem. J. 236, 127-130]. PMID:3539098

Russell, G A; Dunbar, B; Fothergill-Gilmore, L A

1986-01-01

7

Free amino acids in brain, liver, and skeletal muscle tissue of voles infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense.  

PubMed

The concentrations of several acidic and neutral amino acids of brain, liver, and skeletal muscle were determined in field voles, Microtus montanus, and compared to values obtained from voles harboring a chronic infection of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. All of the amino acids examined were found at comparable levels in brain tissue from both groups of animals with the exception of tyrosine, which was reduced by approximately 45% in the infected voles. Similarly, the only difference noted in liver tissue was 32% decrease of free tyrosine in the infected animals. With respect to muscle tissue, in addition to a 45% reduction of free tyrosine in the infected voles, decreases of a smaller magnitude were also noted for threonine, glutamate, and valine. The relatively specific alteration of free tyrosine concentrations in the investigated tissues of trypanosome-infected animals suggests an alteration in host metabolism of this amino acid and/or parasite utilization. PMID:338875

Newport, G R; Page, C R

1977-12-01

8

Sepsis-induced changes in amino acid transporters and leucine signaling via mTOR in skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

The present study tested the hypothesis that sepsis-induced leucine (Leu) resistance in skeletal muscle is associated with a down-regulation of amino acid transporters important in regulating Leu flux or an impairment in the formation of the Leu-sensitive mTOR-Ragulator complex. Sepsis in adult male rats decreased basal protein synthesis in gastrocnemius, associated with a reduction in mTOR activation as indicated by decreased 4E-BP1 and S6K1 phosphorylation. The ability of oral Leu to increase protein synthesis and mTOR kinase after 1 h was largely prevented in sepsis. Sepsis increased CAT1, LAT2 and SNAT2 mRNA content two- to fourfold, but only the protein content for CAT1 (20 % decrease) differed significantly. Conversely, sepsis decreased the proton-assisted amino acid transporter (PAT)-2 mRNA by 60 %, but without a coordinate change in PAT2 protein. There was no sepsis or Leu effect on the protein content for RagA-D, LAMTOR-1 and -2, raptor, Rheb or mTOR in muscle. The binding of mTOR, PRAS40 and RagC to raptor did not differ for control and septic muscle in the basal condition; however, the Leu-induced decrease in PRAS40·raptor and increase in RagC·raptor seen in control muscle was absent in sepsis. The intracellular Leu concentration was increased in septic muscle, compared to basal control conditions, and oral Leu further increased the intracellular Leu concentration similarly in both control and septic rats. Hence, while alterations in select amino acid transporters are not associated with development of sepsis-induced Leu resistance, the Leu-stimulated binding of raptor with RagC and the recruitment of mTOR/raptor to the endosome-lysosomal compartment may partially explain the inability of Leu to fully activate mTOR and muscle protein synthesis. PMID:25218136

Laufenberg, Lacee J; Pruznak, Anne M; Navaratnarajah, Maithili; Lang, Charles H

2014-12-01

9

Taurine and Skeletal Muscle Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taurine is abundantly present in skeletal muscle. We give evidence that this amino acid exerts both short-term and long-term actions in the control of ion channel function and calcium homeostasis in striated fibers. Short-term actions can be estimated as the ability of this amino acid to acutely modulate both ion channel gating and the function of the structures involved in

DianaConte Camerino; Domenico Tricarico; Sabata Pierno; Jean-François Desaphy; Antonella Liantonio; Michael Pusch; Rosa Burdi; Claudia Camerino; Bodvael Fraysse; Annamaria De Luca

2004-01-01

10

Skeletal muscle stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite cells are myogenic stem cells responsible for the post-natal growth, repair and maintenance of skeletal muscle. This review focuses on the basic biology of the satellite cell with emphasis on its role in muscle repair and parallels between embryonic myogenesis and muscle regeneration. Recent advances have altered the long-standing view of the satellite cell as a committed myogenic stem

Jennifer CJ Chen; David J Goldhamer

2003-01-01

11

Soy-dairy protein blend and whey protein ingestion after resistance exercise increases amino acid transport and transporter expression in human skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Increasing amino acid availability (via infusion or ingestion) at rest or postexercise enhances amino acid transport into human skeletal muscle. It is unknown whether alterations in amino acid availability, from ingesting different dietary proteins, can enhance amino acid transport rates and amino acid transporter (AAT) mRNA expression. We hypothesized that the prolonged hyperaminoacidemia from ingesting a blend of proteins with different digestion rates postexercise would enhance amino acid transport into muscle and AAT expression compared with the ingestion of a rapidly digested protein. In a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, we studied 16 young adults at rest and after acute resistance exercise coupled with postexercise (1 h) ingestion of either a (soy-dairy) protein blend or whey protein. Phenylalanine net balance and transport rate into skeletal muscle were measured using stable isotopic methods in combination with femoral arteriovenous blood sampling and muscle biopsies obtained at rest and 3 and 5 h postexercise. Phenylalanine transport into muscle and mRNA expression of select AATs [system L amino acid transporter 1/solute-linked carrier (SLC) 7A5, CD98/SLC3A2, system A amino acid transporter 2/SLC38A2, proton-assisted amino acid transporter 1/SLC36A1, cationic amino acid transporter 1/SLC7A1] increased to a similar extent in both groups (P < 0.05). However, the ingestion of the protein blend resulted in a prolonged and positive net phenylalanine balance during postexercise recovery compared with whey protein (P < 0.05). Postexercise myofibrillar protein synthesis increased similarly between groups. We conclude that, while both protein sources enhanced postexercise AAT expression, transport into muscle, and myofibrillar protein synthesis, postexercise ingestion of a protein blend results in a slightly prolonged net amino acid balance across the leg compared with whey protein. PMID:24699854

Reidy, P. T.; Walker, D. K.; Dickinson, J. M.; Gundermann, D. M.; Drummond, M. J.; Timmerman, K. L.; Cope, M. B.; Mukherjea, R.; Jennings, K.; Volpi, E.

2014-01-01

12

Interstitial fluid concentrations of glycerol, glucose, and amino acids in human quadricep muscle and adipose tissue. Evidence for significant lipolysis in skeletal muscle.  

PubMed Central

To determine the relationship between circulating metabolic fuels and their local concentrations in peripheral tissues we measured glycerol, glucose, and amino acids by microdialysis in muscle and adipose interstitium of 10 fasted, nonobese human subjects during (a) baseline, (b) euglycemic hyperinsulinemia (3 mU/kg per min for 3 h) and, (c) local norepinephrine reuptake blockade (NOR). At baseline, interstitial glycerol was strikingly higher (P < 0.0001) in muscle (3710 microM) and adipose tissue (2760 microM) compared with plasma (87 microM), whereas interstitial glucose (muscle 3.3, fat 3.6 mM) was lower (P < 0.01) than plasma levels (4.8 mM). Taurine, glutamine, and alanine levels were higher in muscle than in adipose or plasma (P < 0.05). Euglycemic hyperinsulinemia did not affect interstitial glucose, but induced a fall in plasma glycerol and amino acids paralleled by similar changes in the interstitium of both tissues. Local NOR provoked a fivefold increase in glycerol (P < 0.001) and twofold increase in norepinephrine (P < 0.01) in both muscle and adipose tissues. To conclude, interstitial substrate levels in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue differ substantially from those in the circulation and this disparity is most pronounced for glycerol which is raised in muscle as well as adipose tissue. In muscle, insulin suppressed and NOR increased interstitial glycerol concentrations. Our data suggest unexpectedly high rates of intramuscular lipolysis in humans that may play an important role in fuel metabolism. Images PMID:7615807

Maggs, D G; Jacob, R; Rife, F; Lange, R; Leone, P; During, M J; Tamborlane, W V; Sherwin, R S

1995-01-01

13

Effect of plasma insulin and branched-chain amino acids on skeletal muscle protein synthesis in fasted lambs.  

PubMed

The increase in fractional rate of protein synthesis (Ks) in the skeletal muscle of growing rats during the transition from fasted to fed state has been explained by the synergistic action of a rise in plasma insulin and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). Since growing lambs also exhibit an increase in Ks with level of feed intake, the objective of the present study was to determine if this synergistic relationship between insulin and BCAA also occurs in ruminant animals. Six 30 kg fasted (72 h) lambs (8 months of age) received each of four treatments, which were based on continuous infusion into the jugular vein for 6 h of: (1) saline (155 mmol NaCl/l); (2) a mixture of BCAA (0.778 micromol leucine, 0.640 micromol isoleucine and 0.693 micromol valine/min.kg); (3) 18.7 micromol glucose/min.kg (to induce endogenous insulin secretion); (4) co-infusion of BCAA and glucose. Within each period all animals received the same isotope of phenylalanine (Phe) as follows: (1) L-[1-13C]Phe; (2) L-phenyl-[ring 2H5]-alanine; (3) L-[15N]Phe; (4) L-[ring 2,6-3H]Phe. Blood was sampled serially during infusions to measure plasma concentrations of insulin, glucose and amino acids, and plasma free Phe isotopic activity; biopsies were taken 6 h after the beginning of infusions to determine Ks in m. longissimus dorsi and vastus muscle. Compared with control (saline-infused) lambs, Ks was increased by an average of 40% at the end of glucose infusion, but this effect was not statistically significant in either of the muscles sampled. BCAA infusion, alone or in combination with glucose, also had no significant effect on Ks compared with control sheep. Ks was approximately 60% greater for vastus muscle than for m. longissimus dorsi (P<0.01), regardless of treatment. It is concluded that there are signals other than insulin and BCAA that are responsible for the feed-induced increase in Ks in muscle of growing ruminant animals. PMID:15469643

Wester, T J; Lobley, G E; Birnie, L M; Crompton, L A; Brown, S; Buchan, V; Calder, A G; Milne, E; Lomax, M A

2004-09-01

14

Expression of Heat Shock Protein (Hsp90) Paralogues Is Regulated by Amino Acids in Skeletal Muscle of Atlantic Salmon  

PubMed Central

Heat shock proteins 90 (Hsp90) have an essential role in sarcomere formation and differentiation in skeletal muscle and also act as molecular chaperones during protein folding impacting a wide range of physiological processes. We characterised and provided a phylogenetically consistent nomenclature for the complete repertoire of six Hsp90 paralogues present in duplicated salmonid fish genomes (Hsp90?1a, Hsp90?1b, Hsp90?2a, Hsp90?2b, Hsp90ß1a and Hsp90ß1b). The expression of paralogues in fast skeletal muscle was investigated using in vivo fasting-feeding experiments and primary myogenic cultures. Fasted juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) showed a transient 2 to 8-fold increase in the expression of all 4 Hsp90? paralogues within 24h of satiation feeding. Hsp90?1a and hsp90?1b also showed a pronounced secondary increase in expression after 10 days, concomitant with muscle differentiation and the expression of myogenin and sarcomeric proteins (mlc2, myhc). Hsp90ß1b was constitutively expressed whereas Hsp90ß1a expression was downregulated 10-fold between fasted and fed individuals. Hsp90?1a and Hsp90?1b were upregulated 10 to 15-fold concomitant with myotube formation and muscle differentiation in vitro whereas other Hsp90 paralogues showed no change in expression. In cells starved of amino acid (AA) and serum for 72h the addition of AA, but not insulin-like growth factor 1, increased phosphorylation of mTor and expression of all 4 hsp90? paralogues and associated co-chaperones including hsp30, tbcb, pdia4, pdia6, stga and fk504bp1, indicating a general activation of the protein folding response. In contrast, Hsp90ß1a expression in vitro was unresponsive to AA treatment indicating that some other as yet uncharacterised signal(s) regulate its expression in response to altered nutritional state. PMID:24040223

Garcia de la serrana, Daniel; Johnston, Ian A.

2013-01-01

15

Hydrolyzed protein supplementation improves protein content and peroxidation of skeletal muscle by adjusting the plasma amino acid spectrums in rats after exhaustive swimming exercise: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background This study was designed to evaluate the effects of hydrolyzed protein supplementation upon skeletal muscle total protein and peroxidation in rats following exhaustive swimming exercise. Methods Twenty-four rats were randomized to 4 experimental groups (n?=?6 per group): control group fed standard diet without exercise (SD), exercise (EX), exercise plus standard diet for 72 hours (EX?+?SD), and exercise plus standard diet supplemented with hydrolyzed protein (2 g/kg/d) for 72 hours (EX?+?HP). Immediately following exercise, the EX group was euthanized for collecting plasma and skeletal muscle samples. The EX?+?SD and EX?+?HP groups were fed their respective diets for 72 hour still plasma and skeletal muscle collection. Skeletal muscle samples were used to measure levels of total protein (TP), malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyl (PC). Plasma samples were used to analyze the amino acids spectrum. Results Compared with the EX?+?SD, EX?+?HP presented the significantly increased TP (P?=?0.02) and decreased MDA and PC levels (P?=?0.035). MDA was negatively correlated with the methionine levels. Moreover, EX?+?HP maintained higher levels of plasmaleucine, isoleucine, and methionine than EX?+?SD, which may be associated with the increased skeletal muscle TP levels observed (P?skeletal muscle TP and ameliorate peroxidation damage in rats subjected to exhaustive exercise stress, which may be, at least in part, related with the maintenance of plasma leucine, isoleucine, and methionine levels. PMID:24565110

2014-01-01

16

Skeletal muscle stem cells  

PubMed Central

Satellite cells are myogenic stem cells responsible for the post-natal growth, repair and maintenance of skeletal muscle. This review focuses on the basic biology of the satellite cell with emphasis on its role in muscle repair and parallels between embryonic myogenesis and muscle regeneration. Recent advances have altered the long-standing view of the satellite cell as a committed myogenic stem cell derived directly from the fetal myoblast. The experimental basis for this evolving perspective will be highlighted as will the relationship between the satellite cell and other newly discovered muscle stem cell populations. Finally, advances and prospects for cell-based therapies for muscular dystrophies will be addressed. PMID:14614776

Chen, Jennifer CJ; Goldhamer, David J

2003-01-01

17

Calcium Channels from Cyprinus Carpio Skeletal Muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete amino acid sequence of the L-type calcium channel alpha_1 subunit from the carp (Cyprinus carpio) white skeletal muscle was deduced by cDNA cloning and sequence analysis. The open reading frame encodes 1852 amino acids (M_r 210,060). A 155-amino acid COOH-terminal sequence (after the fourth internal repeat) is evolutionarily preserved (90% homology) and may represent an important functional domain

Manfred Grabner; Klaus Friedrich; Hans-Gunther Knaus; Jorg Striessnig; Fritz Scheffauer; Robert Staudinger; Walter J. Koch; Arnold Schwartz; Hartmut Glossman

1991-01-01

18

Skeletal Muscle Na+ Channel Disorders  

PubMed Central

Five inherited human disorders affecting skeletal muscle contraction have been traced to mutations in the gene encoding the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.4. The main symptoms of these disorders are myotonia or periodic paralysis caused by changes in skeletal muscle fiber excitability. Symptoms of these disorders vary from mild or latent disease to incapacitating or even death in severe cases. As new human sodium channel mutations corresponding to disease states become discovered, the importance of understanding the role of the sodium channel in skeletal muscle function and disease state grows. PMID:22016737

Simkin, Dina; Bendahhou, Said

2011-01-01

19

Isoleucine, a blood glucose-lowering amino acid, increases glucose uptake in rat skeletal muscle in the absence of increases in AMP-activated protein kinase activity.  

PubMed

Leucine and isoleucine were shown to stimulate insulin-independent glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells in vitro. In this study, we examined the effects of leucine and isoleucine on blood glucose in food-deprived rats and on glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle in vivo. Furthermore, we investigated the possible involvement of the energy sensor, 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), in the modulation of glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, which is independent of insulin, and also in leucine- or isoleucine-stimulated glucose uptake. Oral administration of isoleucine, but not leucine, significantly decreased the plasma glucose concentration. An i.v. bolus of 2-[1,2-3H]-deoxyglucose (2-[3H]DG) was administered to calculate glucose uptake. Glucose uptake in the skeletal muscle did not differ after leucine administration, but glucose uptake in the muscles of rats administered isoleucine was 73% greater than in controls, suggesting that isoleucine increases skeletal muscle glucose uptake in vivo. On the contrary, in the skeletal muscles, administration of leucine but not isoleucine significantly increased [U-14C]-glucose incorporation into glycogen compared with controls. AMPK alpha1 activity in skeletal muscle was not affected by leucine or isoleucine administration. However, isoleucine, but not leucine, significantly decreased AMPK alpha2 activity. The decrease in AMPK alpha2 activity was thought to be due to decreases in AMP content and the AMP:ATP ratio, which were related to the isoleucine administration. This is the first report of isoleucine stimulating glucose uptake in rat skeletal muscle in vivo, and these results indicate that there might be a relation between the reduction in blood glucose and the increase in skeletal muscle glucose uptake that occur with isoleucine administration in rats. The alterations in glucose metabolism caused by isoleucine may result in an improvement of the availability of ATP in the absence of increases in AMP-activated protein kinase activity in skeletal muscle. PMID:16140883

Doi, Masako; Yamaoka, Ippei; Nakayama, Mitsuo; Mochizuki, Shinji; Sugahara, Kunio; Yoshizawa, Fumiaki

2005-09-01

20

Repairing skeletal muscle: regenerative potential of skeletal muscle stem cells  

PubMed Central

Skeletal muscle damaged by injury or by degenerative diseases such as muscular dystrophy is able to regenerate new muscle fibers. Regeneration mainly depends upon satellite cells, myogenic progenitors localized between the basal lamina and the muscle fiber membrane. However, other cell types outside the basal lamina, such as pericytes, also have myogenic potency. Here, we discuss the main properties of satellite cells and other myogenic progenitors as well as recent efforts to obtain myogenic cells from pluripotent stem cells for patient-tailored cell therapy. Clinical trials utilizing these cells to treat muscular dystrophies, heart failure, and stress urinary incontinence are also briefly outlined. PMID:20051632

Tedesco, Francesco Saverio; Dellavalle, Arianna; Diaz-Manera, Jordi; Messina, Graziella; Cossu, Giulio

2010-01-01

21

Cloning of a phospholipase C-?1 of rabbit skeletal muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phospholipase C isoform responsible for the increase in the total myoplasmic inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate concentration during tetanic contraction of isolated skeletal muscle and its mechanism of activation is not known. We have cloned and sequenced a phospholipase C cDNA of rabbit skeletal muscle coding for a protein of 745 amino acids with a molecular mass of 84 440 kDa. The

Hendrik Milting; Ludwig M. G. Heilmeyer; Rolf Thieleczek

1996-01-01

22

Skeletal muscle satellite cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evidence now suggests that satellite cells constitute a class of myogenic cells that differ distinctly from other embryonic myoblasts. Satellite cells arise from somites and first appear as a distinct myoblast type well before birth. Satellite cells from different muscles cannot be functionally distinguished from one another and are able to provide nuclei to all fibers without regard to phenotype. Thus, it is difficult to ascribe any significant function to establishing or stabilizing fiber type, even during regeneration. Within a muscle, satellite cells exhibit marked heterogeneity with respect to their proliferative behavior. The satellite cell population on a fiber can be partitioned into those that function as stem cells and those which are readily available for fusion. Recent studies have shown that the cells are not simply spindle shaped, but are very diverse in their morphology and have multiple branches emanating from the poles of the cells. This finding is consistent with other studies indicating that the cells have the capacity for extensive migration within, and perhaps between, muscles. Complexity of cell shape usually reflects increased cytoplasmic volume and organelles including a well developed Golgi, and is usually associated with growing postnatal muscle or muscles undergoing some form of induced adaptive change or repair. The appearance of activated satellite cells suggests some function of the cells in the adaptive process through elaboration and secretion of a product. Significant advances have been made in determining the potential secretion products that satellite cells make. The manner in which satellite cell proliferative and fusion behavior is controlled has also been studied. There seems to be little doubt that cellcell coupling is not how satellite cells and myofibers communicate. Rather satellite cell regulation is through a number of potential growth factors that arise from a number of sources. Critical to the understanding of this form of control is to determine which of the many growth factors that can alter satellite cell behavior in vitro are at work in vivo. Little work has been done to determine what controls are at work after a regeneration response has been initiated. It seems likely that, after injury, growth factors are liberated through proteolytic activity and initiate an activation process whereby cells enter into a proliferative phase. After myofibers are formed, it also seems likely that satellite cell behavior is regulated through diffusible factors arising from the fibers rather than continuous control by circulating factors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

Schultz, E.; McCormick, K. M.

1994-01-01

23

Occurrence of a novel acetylated amino acid, N(alpha)-acetylhistidine, in skeletal muscle of freshwater fish and other ectothermic vertebrates.  

PubMed

The occurrence of N(alpha)-acetylhistidine (NAH) in skeletal muscle of 91 species of freshwater fish and 9 species of other ectothermic vertebrates was investigated, with consideration of phylogenetic relationships. Of the 91 freshwater fish species examined, 13 species (7 cichlids, 5 anabantids, and 1 catfish) contained considerable amounts (>1 micromol/g) of NAH in their skeletal muscles. The highest level (10.37 micromol/g) of NAH was found in the tissue of Betta splendens (Siamese fighting fish). Moreover, the NAH contents in the tissues of Trichogaster trichopterus (three spot gourami), Kryptopterus bicirrhis (glass catfish), Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia), Mikrogeophagus ramirezi (ram cichlid) and Parachromis managuensis (Guapote tigre) were 3.17-6.16 micromol/g. The skeletal muscle of amphibians (5 species) and reptiles (4 species) had a low level (<0.25 micromol/g) of NAH. The present findings clearly demonstrate NAH as the fifth imidazole-related compound, in addition to histidine, carnosine, anserine and ophidine (balenine), recognized as a major non-protein nitrogenous constituent in the skeletal muscle of vertebrate animals. PMID:19100335

Yamada, Shoji; Kawashima, Kazuto; Baba, Kyoko; Oku, Takahiro; Ando, Seiichi

2009-03-01

24

[Regeneration capacity of skeletal muscle].  

PubMed

The organotypic stem cell of skeletal muscle has previously been known as satellite cell. They allow muscle fiber growth during ontogenesis, enable fiber hypertrophy and are responsible for the very efficient repair of muscle fibers. This efficient apparatus is to some degree counterbalanced by an enormous use of the satellite cell pool: fiber atrophy probably is accompanied by loss of myonuclei such that every reversal of atrophy is bound to use new myonuclei i.e. satellite cells. How often in life does this occur? Hard to say. Moreover, the potent repair capacity is challenged by an unexpected vulnerability of skeletal muscle fibers: Passive stretching of contracted muscles may cause multiple "microdamage," disruption of contractile elements or tiny areas of true necrosis (focal necrosis). How often does this happen? Well, for many of us at least once per year when we go up and down mountains during vacation time, followed by sour muscles. Others may decide to change his/her (locomotor) behaviour by severe onset of jogging; it may happen that they suffer kidney failure on Monday due to muscle microdamage and the transfer of myoproteins into the serum over weekend. Also 20 minutes of stepping up and down something like a chair will do: There is a remarkable increase in kreatin kinase and other muscle derived proteins which lasts for days and is bound to reflect some muscle damage. How about sportsmen and worker who repeatedly use their muscles in such a way? We don't have answers yet to most of these questions, but considerable amount of information has been collected over the last years both in animal and--less--in human. What is common in all cases of growth and repair is the proliferation of the satellite cells and their consequent incorporation and fusion with the parent fiber. This way focal damage is repaired often without visible reminders. We would run out of satellite cells were they not stem cells: After division one daughter remains a satellite cell while the other is free to divide. Divide how often? Important for the human cells since the cell ages and proliferates slower and slower till it stops to divide at all, at least in culture. The same is true for the new satellite cell. This we know from recent experiments in which human biopsies derived myogenic cells were grown in vitro and in vivo (by implanting them into skeletal muscles of immunoincompetent mice): Growth correlates negatively with age of the donor. Between age 2 and some 70 years, about two divisions are performed by each satellite cell in human vastus lateralis and biceps brachii muscle in 10 years in the average. Most important for the older among us: at age 76 there are still some 13 divisions left before complete exhaustion. However, there are diseases like Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) in which muscle fibers lack a structural protein with the effect of enhanced vulnerability to mechanical stress. There the enhanced use of the satellite cell pool makes the remaining growth capacity in an 8-years-old child as low as otherwise found at age 80. Some time ago, implantation of genetically intact myoblasts obtained from healthy relatives has been proposed as a treatment of DMD. Every logic would have predicted that some local implantation of whatever numbers of cells was bound to fail rescue the complete masculature or at least the muscles for breathing. The human as guinea pig? Now, even years later, we still collect the basic information on growth of human myoblasts and start thinking of ways for systemic application and quantitatively relevant incorporation of the myogenic stem cell or other--possibly pluripotent--stem cells derived from bone marrow. PMID:12956031

Wernig, A

2003-07-01

25

Skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine skeletal muscle fibers were studied to determine if the defect in malignant hyperthermia involves transverse tubule (TT) to sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) communication. Pelled (mechanically skinned) skeletal muscle fibers from normal and malignant hyperthermia susceptible (MHS) pigs were stimulated with Cl- to ionically depolarize transverse tubules and thereby trigger Ca2+ release from SR. Caffeine was used to directly stimulate the

Sue K. Donaldson; Esther M. Gallant; Daniel A. Huetteman

1989-01-01

26

IN VITRO DEVELOPMENT OF SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present review will discuss new insights of myogenesis that begins when embryonic mononucleated progenitor cells become committed to myogenic lineage and subsequently proliferate and fuse to form multinucleated contracting skeletal muscle fibers, responsible for generation of force and movement. This review will focus mostly on the inf luence of specif ic myogenic transcription factors on skeletal muscle differentiation and

Rosely Oliveira Godinho

27

Diffuse skeletal muscle metastases from sacral chordoma.  

PubMed

Chordomas are rare, slow-growing tumors arising from cellular remnants of the notochord. They account for 1-4% of primary malignant bone tumors and usually occur in the axial skeleton, most commonly the sacrum. Although typically locally recurrent, chordoma metastasis rates as high as 10-42% have been reported. While spread to multiple organ systems has been documented, metastatic disease to skeletal muscle is extremely rare. We present a case of extensive, multifocal skeletal muscle metastases developing in the setting of recurrent sacral chordoma. Our literature search found only one additional case of metastatic chordoma to a single skeletal muscle. PMID:24407557

Carey, Kathleen; Bestic, Joseph; Attia, Steven; Cortese, Cherise; Jain, Manoj

2014-07-01

28

Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle  

PubMed Central

Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is manifested by decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and results from impaired insulin signaling and multiple post-receptor intracellular defects including impaired glucose transport, glucose phosphorylation, and reduced glucose oxidation and glycogen synthesis. Insulin resistance is a core defect in type 2 diabetes, it is also associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Recent studies have reported a mitochondrial defect in oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle in variety of insulin resistant states. In this review, we summarize the cellular and molecular defects that contribute to the development of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. PMID:20445742

Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A.; DeFronzo, Ralph A.

2010-01-01

29

Whole body and skeletal muscle protein turnover in recovery from burns  

PubMed Central

Trauma and critical illness are associated with a stress response that results in increased skeletal muscle protein catabolism, which is thought to facilitate the synthesis of acute phase proteins in the liver as well as proteins involved in immune function. What makes burn injury a unique form of trauma is the existence of vast skin lesions, where the majority of afflicted tissue is often surgically excised post injury. Thereafter, recovery is dependent on the formation of a significant quantity of new skin, meaning that the burned patient requires a large and sustained supply of amino acids to facilitate wound healing. Skeletal muscle has the capacity to store surplus glucose and fatty acids within glycogen and triacylglycerol depots respectively, where glycogen and fatty acids can be mobilized during prolonged periods of caloric restriction or heightened metabolic demand (e.g., exercise), to be catabolized in order to maintain cellular ATP availability. Amino acids, on the other hand, are not generally considered to be stored in such a manner within skeletal muscle, i.e., in a temporary pool independent of structural proteins and cellular organelles etc. Subsequently, in response to severe thermal trauma, skeletal muscle assumes the role of an amino acid reserve where muscle protein breakdown and amino acid release from skeletal muscle serves to buffer plasma amino acid concentrations. Interestingly, it seems like aggressive feeding of the severely burned patient may not necessarily supply amino acids in sufficient abundance to normalize skeletal muscle protein metabolism, suggesting that skeletal muscle becomes an essential store of protein in patients suffering from severe burn trauma. In this article, the effects of burn injury on whole body and skeletal muscle protein metabolism will be discussed in an attempt to distill the current understanding of the impact of this debilitating injury on the redistribution of skeletal muscle protein stores. PMID:23386981

Porter, Craig; Hurren, Nicholas M; Herndon, David N; B?rsheim, Elisabet

2013-01-01

30

Skeletal muscle design to meet functional demands  

PubMed Central

Skeletal muscles are length- and velocity-sensitive force producers, constructed of a vast array of sarcomeres. Muscles come in a variety of sizes and shapes to accomplish a wide variety of tasks. How does muscle design match task performance? In this review, we outline muscle's basic properties and strategies that are used to produce movement. Several examples are provided, primarily for human muscles, in which skeletal muscle architecture and moment arms are tailored to a particular performance requirement. In addition, the concept that muscles may have a preferred sarcomere length operating range is also introduced. Taken together, the case is made that muscles can be fine-tuned to perform specific tasks that require actuators with a wide range of properties. PMID:21502118

Lieber, Richard L.; Ward, Samuel R.

2011-01-01

31

Space travel directly induces skeletal muscle atrophy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space travel causes rapid and pronounced skeletal muscle wasting in humans that reduces their long-term flight capabilities. To develop effective countermeasures, the basis of this atrophy needs to be better understood. Space travel may cause muscle atrophy indirectly by altering circulating levels of factors such as growth hormone, glucocorticoids, and anabolic steroids and/or by a direct effect on the muscle fibers themselves. To determine whether skeletal muscle cells are directly affected by space travel, tissue-cultured avian skeletal muscle cells were tissue engineered into bioartificial muscles and flown in perfusion bioreactors for 9 to 10 days aboard the Space Transportation System (STS, i.e., Space Shuttle). Significant muscle fiber atrophy occurred due to a decrease in protein synthesis rates without alterations in protein degradation. Return of the muscle cells to Earth stimulated protein synthesis rates of both muscle-specific and extracellular matrix proteins relative to ground controls. These results show for the first time that skeletal muscle fibers are directly responsive to space travel and should be a target for countermeasure development.

Vandenburgh, H.; Chromiak, J.; Shansky, J.; Del Tatto, M.; Lemaire, J.

1999-01-01

32

Space travel directly induces skeletal muscle atrophy.  

PubMed

Space travel causes rapid and pronounced skeletal muscle wasting in humans that reduces their long-term flight capabilities. To develop effective countermeasures, the basis of this atrophy needs to be better understood. Space travel may cause muscle atrophy indirectly by altering circulating levels of factors such as growth hormone, glucocorticoids, and anabolic steroids and/or by a direct effect on the muscle fibers themselves. To determine whether skeletal muscle cells are directly affected by space travel, tissue-cultured avian skeletal muscle cells were tissue engineered into bioartificial muscles and flown in perfusion bioreactors for 9 to 10 days aboard the Space Transportation System (STS, i.e., Space Shuttle). Significant muscle fiber atrophy occurred due to a decrease in protein synthesis rates without alterations in protein degradation. Return of the muscle cells to Earth stimulated protein synthesis rates of both muscle-specific and extracellular matrix proteins relative to ground controls. These results show for the first time that skeletal muscle fibers are directly responsive to space travel and should be a target for countermeasure development. PMID:10336885

Vandenburgh, H; Chromiak, J; Shansky, J; Del Tatto, M; Lemaire, J

1999-06-01

33

Skeletal muscle tuberculosis simultaneously involving multiple sites.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a public health problem in both developing and industrialized countries. TB of the skeletal muscle is very rare. We present a case of the simultaneous involvement of skeletal muscles in multiple sites in an 11-year-old immune-competent female patient. All physicians should have adequate knowledge of TB and awareness of its atypical presentations to ensure the proper management of such patients. PMID:22561909

Neogi, Devdatta S; Bandekar, Shivanand M; Chawla, Lokesh

2013-03-01

34

Cooperative Activation of Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Both skeletal and cardiac muscles show a steep force-pCa relationship indicative of cooperative activation, but there are\\u000a differences in some of the underlying mechanisms of this cooperativity. As we have discussed previously (Gordon et al, 2000), these give rise to significant differences in the properties of skeletal and cardiac muscle that are important for their\\u000a various physiological roles and methods

A. M. Gordon; A. J. Rivera; C. K. Wang; M. Regnier

35

Isolation of skeletal muscle nuclei.  

PubMed

A method employing aqueous media for isolation of nuclei from rat skeletal muscle is described. The technique involves (a) mincing and then homogenizing in a 0.32 M sucrose-salt solution with a Potter-Elvehjem type homogenizer using a Delrin (an acetal resin) pestle and a carefully controlled, relatively large pestle-to-glass clearance, (b) filtering through fiberglass and stainless steel screens of predetermined mesh size to remove myofibrils and connective tissue, and (c) centrifuging in a 2.15 M sucrose-salt solution containing 0.7 mM ATP. Electron and phase-contrast microscopic observations show that the nuclei are intact, unencumbered by cytoplasmic tags, and possess well preserved distinct nucleoli, nucleoplasm, and nuclear membranes. Cytoplasmic contamination is minimal and mainly mitochondrial. Chemical assays of the nuclear fraction show that the DNA/protein and RNA/DNA ratios are comparable to those obtained in other tissues. These ratios, as well as the low specific activity obtained for cytochrome c oxidase and the virtual absence of myofibrillar ATPase, indicate a high degree of purity with minimal mitochondrial and myofibrillar contamination. The steps comprising the technique and the reasons for their selection are discussed. PMID:4287141

Edelman, J C; Edelman, P M; Kniggee, K M; Schwartz, I L

1965-11-01

36

Space travel directly induces skeletal muscle atrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space travel causes rapid and pro- nounced skeletal muscle wasting in humans that reduces their long-term flight capabilities. To de- velop effective countermeasures, the basis of this atrophy needs to be better understood. Space travel may cause muscle atrophy indirectly by altering circulating levels of factors such as growth hormone, glucocorticoids, and anabolic steroids and\\/or by a direct effect on

HERMAN VANDENBURGH; JOSEPH CHROMIAK; JANET SHANSKY; MICHAEL DEL TATTO; JULIE LEMAIRE

37

Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle Contractile Activation: Tropomyosin \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

n encountering a saber-tooth tiger, the caveman was faced with two choices: to escape or to defend himself. Either strategy required rapid activation of skeletal muscles and adjustment of the performance of cardiac muscle to increase blood flow to support an increased muscular effort. Although saber-toothed tigers no longer exist, our physiological require- ments are no less demanding for performing

A. M. Gordon; M. Regnier; E. Homsher

38

Laminin-211 in skeletal muscle function  

PubMed Central

A chain is no stronger than its weakest link is an old idiom that holds true for muscle biology. As the name implies, skeletal muscle’s main function is to move the bones. However, for a muscle to transmit force and withstand the stress that contractions give rise to, it relies on a chain of proteins attaching the cytoskeleton of the muscle fiber to the surrounding extracellular matrix. The importance of this attachment is illustrated by a large number of muscular dystrophies caused by interruption of the cytoskeletal-extracellular matrix interaction. One of the major components of the extracellular matrix is laminin, a heterotrimeric glycoprotein and a major constituent of the basement membrane. It has become increasingly apparent that laminins are involved in a multitude of biological functions, including cell adhesion, differentiation, proliferation, migration and survival. This review will focus on the importance of laminin-211 for normal skeletal muscle function. PMID:23154401

Holmberg, Johan; Durbeej, Madeleine

2013-01-01

39

Inactivity amplifies the catabolic response of skeletal muscle to cortisol  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Severe injury or trauma is accompanied by both hypercortisolemia and prolonged inactivity or bed rest (BR). Trauma and BR alone each result in a loss of muscle nitrogen, albeit through different metabolic alterations. Although BR alone can result in a 2-3% loss of lean body mass, the effects of severe trauma can be 2- to 3-fold greater. We investigated the combined effects of hypercortisolemia and prolonged inactivity on muscle protein metabolism in healthy volunteers. Six males were studied before and after 14 days of strict BR using a model based on arteriovenous sampling and muscle biopsy. Fractional synthesis and breakdown rates of skeletal muscle protein were also directly calculated. Each assessment of protein metabolism was conducted during a 12-h infusion of hydrocortisone sodium succinate (120 microg/kg x h), resulting in blood cortisol concentrations that mimic severe injury (approximately 31 microg/dL). After 14 days of strict BR, hypercortisolemia increased phenylalanine efflux from muscle by 3-fold (P < 0.05). The augmented negative amino acid balance was the result of an increased muscle protein breakdown (P < 0.05) without a concomitant change in muscle protein synthesis. Muscle efflux of glutamine and alanine increased significantly after bed rest due to a significant increase in de novo synthesis (P < 0.05). Thus, inactivity sensitizes skeletal muscle to the catabolic effects of hypercortisolemia. Furthermore, these effects on healthy volunteers are analogous to those seen after severe injury.

Ferrando, A. A.; Stuart, C. A.; Sheffield-Moore, M.; Wolfe, R. R.

1999-01-01

40

Denervation and reinnervation of skeletal muscle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review is presented of the physiological and biochemical changes that occur in mammalian skeletal muscle after denervation and reinnervation. These changes are compared with those observed after altered motor function. Also considered is the nature of the trophic influence by which nerves control muscle properties. Topics examined include the membrane and contractile properties of denervated and reinnervated muscle; the cholinergic proteins, such as choline acetyltransferase, acetylcholinesterase, and the acetylcholine receptor; and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.

Mayer, R. F.; Max, S. R.

1983-01-01

41

In vitro studies of skeletal muscle membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The effects of denervation on the macromolecular components of active monovalent cation transport in skeletal muscle have been studied using purified sarcolemma membranes. A comparison of membrane activities of fast-twitch, slow-twitch, and mixed-fiber muscles was made to determine what role, if any, the motor nerve has in regulating this important aspect of muscle metabolism. A dramatic increase in the

Barry W. Festoff; Katherine L. Oliver; N. Bojii Reddy

1977-01-01

42

Myoglobin Function in Exercising Skeletal Muscle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-term perfusion of the isolated dog gastrocnemius-plantaris muscle with hydrogen peroxide resulted in a decrease in steady-state muscle oxygen consumption and isometric tension generation. Hydrogen peroxide converted intracellular myoglobin to products incapable of combination with oxygen, but had no deleterious effect on neuromuscular transmission or on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. It is concluded that functional intracellular myoglobin is important in maintaining oxygen consumption and tension generation in exercising skeletal muscle.

Cole, Randolph P.

1982-04-01

43

Identification of amino acids associated with skeletal muscle growth in late gestation and at weaning in lambs of well-nourished sheep.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the association between intracellular free AA (FAA) profiles in skeletal muscle with muscle growth in twin and singleton fetuses in late pregnancy and at weaning, under an ad libitum feeding regime of the dam. Plasma from singleton- (n = 9) and twin-bearing (n = 10) ewes at d 140 of pregnancy and FAA in the semitendinosus muscle (STM) from the corresponding fetuses were studied. At weaning, intracellular STM FAA concentrations were compared between twins at the same age as singletons (Twin(age); n = 17) and at the same weight as singletons (Twin(wt); n = 17) to that of singletons (n = 20). Twin fetuses were 15% lighter (P = 0.03) with a 20% lighter STM (P = 0.02) compared to singletons. Maternal plasma FAA were similar (P ? 0.17) between singleton- and twin-bearing ewes. Twin fetuses had greater (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of glutamine, histidine, and methionine and lower (P < 0.05) concentrations of aspartate, citrulline, glutamate, and ornithine compared with singletons. In fetal STM, twins had lower (P < 0.05) concentrations of aspartate and valine and greater (P < 0.01) concentration of methionine. Correlations were found between fetal STM weight and intracellular concentrations of arginine (r = 0.66, P < 0.01) and glutamine (r = 0.49, P < 0.01). Compared to singletons at weaning, Twin(age) were 16% lighter (P < 0.01) and the STM weight was proportionately 16% lighter (P < 0.01). For Twin(wt), the magnitude of the difference for STM weight was reduced to 8% lighter (P = 0.02). Compared to singletons, Twin(age) lambs had greater (P < 0.05) intracellular concentrations of glutamine, histidine, threonine, asparagine, alanine, serine, and glutamate but reduced taurine. The differences in FAA concentrations were less between Twin(wt) and singletons than between Twin(age) and singletons. Positive correlations were found between leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, threonine, and tyrosine muscle concentration and STM weight at weaning. Males differed from females in intracellular FAA both in late pregnancy and at weaning. Twins had reduced RNA content during pregnancy and at weaning, suggesting a lower capacity for protein accretion. These data suggest that specific FAA concentrations are associated with differences in muscle growth during late pregnancy, notably arginine and glutamine, and reduced protein synthesis capacity. However, the relevance of specific FAA varies according to stage of development and sex of the lamb. PMID:25349352

Sales, F A; Pacheco, D; Blair, H T; Kenyon, P R; Nicholas, G; Senna Salerno, M; McCoard, S A

2014-11-01

44

Dynamics of the Skeletal Muscle Secretome during Myoblast Differentiation*  

PubMed Central

During recent years, increased efforts have focused on elucidating the secretory function of skeletal muscle. Through secreted molecules, skeletal muscle affects local muscle biology in an auto/paracrine manner as well as having systemic effects on other tissues. Here we used a quantitative proteomics platform to investigate the factors secreted during the differentiation of murine C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. Using triple encoding stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture, we compared the secretomes at three different time points of muscle differentiation and followed the dynamics of protein secretion. We identified and quantitatively analyzed 635 secreted proteins, including 35 growth factors, 40 cytokines, and 36 metallopeptidases. The extensive presence of these proteins that can act as potent signaling mediators to other cells and tissues strongly highlights the important role of the skeletal muscle as a prominent secretory organ. In addition to previously reported molecules, we identified many secreted proteins that have not previously been shown to be released from skeletal muscle cells nor shown to be differentially released during the process of myogenesis. We found 188 of these secreted proteins to be significantly regulated during the process of myogenesis. Comparative analyses of selected secreted proteins revealed little correlation between their mRNA and protein levels, indicating pronounced regulation by posttranscriptional mechanisms. Furthermore, analyses of the intracellular levels of members of the semaphorin family and their corresponding secretion dynamics demonstrated that the release of secreted proteins is tightly regulated by the secretory pathway, the stability of the protein, and/or the processing of secreted proteins. Finally, we provide 299 unique hydroxyproline sites mapping to 48 distinct secreted proteins and have discovered a novel hydroxyproline motif. PMID:20631206

Henningsen, Jeanette; Rigbolt, Kristoffer T. G.; Blagoev, Blagoy; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Kratchmarova, Irina

2010-01-01

45

Skeletal muscle pathology in Huntington's disease  

PubMed Central

Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine stretch within the huntingtin protein (HTT). The neurological symptoms, that involve motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances, are caused by neurodegeneration that is particularly widespread in the basal ganglia and cereberal cortex. HTT is ubiquitously expressed and in recent years it has become apparent that HD patients experience a wide array of peripheral organ dysfunction including severe metabolic phenotype, weight loss, HD-related cardiomyopathy and skeletal muscle wasting. Although skeletal muscles pathology became a hallmark of HD, the mechanisms underlying muscular atrophy in this disorder are unknown. Skeletal muscles account for approximately 40% of body mass and are highly adaptive to physiological and pathological conditions that may result in muscle hypertrophy (due to increased mechanical load) or atrophy (inactivity, chronic disease states). The atrophy is caused by degeneration of myofibers and their replacement by fibrotic tissue is the major pathological feature in many genetic muscle disorders. Under normal physiological conditions the muscle function is orchestrated by a network of intrinsic hypertrophic and atrophic signals linked to the functional properties of the motor units that are likely to be imbalanced in HD. In this article, we highlight the emerging field of research with particular focus on the recent studies of the skeletal muscle pathology and the identification of new disease-modifying treatments. PMID:25339908

Zielonka, Daniel; Piotrowska, Izabela; Marcinkowski, Jerzy T.; Mielcarek, Michal

2014-01-01

46

Human Skeletal Muscle Health with Spaceflight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This lecture will overview the most recent aerobic and resistance exercise programs used by crewmembers while aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for six months and examine its effectiveness for protecting skeletal muscle health. Detailed information on the exercise prescription program, whole muscle size, whole muscle performance, and cellular data obtained from muscle biopsy samples will be presented. Historically, detailed information on the exercise program while in space has not been available. These most recent exercise and muscle physiology findings provide a critical foundation to guide the exercise countermeasure program forward for future long-duration space missions.

Trappe, Scott

2012-07-01

47

Multiple Sclerosis Affects Skeletal Muscle Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of multiple sclerosis (MS) on skeletal muscle characteristics, such as muscle fiber cross sectional area (CSA), fiber type proportion, muscle strength and whole muscle mass, remains conflicting. Methods In this cross sectional study, body composition and muscle strength of the quadriceps were assessed in 34 MS (EDSS: 2.5±0.19) patients and 18 matched healthy controls (HC). Hereafter a muscle biopsy (m.vastus lateralis) was taken. Results Compared to HC, mean muscle fiber CSA of all fibers, as well as CSA of type I, II and IIa fibers were smaller and muscle strength of the quadriceps was lower in MS patients. Whole body composition was comparable between groups. However, compared to HC, the biopsied leg tended to have a higher fat percentage (p?=?0.1) and a lower lean mass (p?=?0.06) in MS patients. Conclusion MS seems to negatively influence skeletal muscle fiber CSA, muscle strength and muscle mass of the lower limbs of mildly affected MS patients. This emphasises the need for rehabilitation programs focusing on muscle preservation of the lower limb. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01845896 PMID:25264868

Wens, Inez; Dalgas, Ulrik; Vandenabeele, Frank; Krekels, Maartje; Grevendonk, Lotte; Eijnde, Bert O.

2014-01-01

48

Gene Regions Responding to Skeletal Muscle Atrophy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our stated specific aims for this project were: 1) Identify the region(s) of the mouse IIb myosin heavy chain (MHC) promoter necessary for in vivo expression in mouse fast-twitch muscle, and 2) Identify the region(s) of the mouse IIb MHC promoter responsive to immobilization in mouse slow-twitch muscle in vivo. We sought to address these specific aims by introducing various MHC IIb promoter/reporter gene constructs directly into the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles of living mice. Although the method of somatic gene transfer into skeletal muscle by direct injection has been successfully used in our laboratory to study the regulation of the skeletal alpha actin gene in chicken skeletal muscle, we had many difficulties utilizing this procedure in the mouse. Because of the small size of the mouse soleus and the difficulty in obtaining consistent results, we elected not to study this muscle as first proposed. Rather, our MHC IIb promoter deletion experiments were performed in the gastrocnemius. Further, we decided to use hindlimb unloading via tail suspension to induce an upregulation of the MHC IIb gene, rather than immobilization of the hindlimbs via plaster casts. This change was made because tail suspension more closely mimics spaceflight, and this procedure in our lab results in a smaller loss of overall body mass than the mouse hindlimb immobilization procedure. This suggests that the stress level during tail suspension is less than during immobilization. This research has provided an important beginning point towards understanding the molecular regulation of the MHC lIb gene in response to unweighting of skeletal muscle Future work will focus on the regulation of MHC IIb mRNA stability in response to altered loading of skeletal muscle

Booth, Frank W.

1997-01-01

49

THE DETERMINANTS OF TRANSVERSE TUBULAR VOLUME IN RESTING SKELETAL MUSCLE  

E-print Network

). Reversible vacuolation of T-tubules in skeletal muscle: mechanisms and implications for cell biology. International Review of Cytology, 202, 243–98. Lännergren, J., Bruton, J. D., & Westerblad, H. (2000). Vacuole formation in fatigued skeletal muscle...

Sim, Jingwei; Fraser, James A.

2014-01-01

50

Injury and adaptive mechanisms in skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are a major concern in the United States. Overexertion and repetitive motion injuries dominate reporting of lost-time MSD incidents. Over the past three decades, there has been much study on contraction-induced skeletal muscle injury. The effect of the biomechanical loading signature that includes velocity, range of motion, the number of repetitions, force, work-rest cycle, and exposure duration has been studied. More recently, the effect of aging on muscle injury susceptibility and regeneration has been studied. This review will focus on contraction-induced skeletal muscle injury, the effects of repetitions, range of motion, work-rest cycles, and aging on injury susceptibility and regenerative and adaptive pathways. The different physiological phenomena responsive to overt muscle injury versus adaptation will be distinguished. The inherent capability of skeletal muscle to adapt to mechanical loading, given the appropriate exposure signature will also be discussed. Finally, we will submit that repeated high-intensity mechanical loading is a desirable means to attenuate the effects of sarcopenia, and may be the most effective and appealing mode of physical activity to counteract the effects often observed with musculo-skeletal dysfunction in the workplace. PMID:18768331

Cutlip, Robert G; Baker, Brent A; Hollander, Melinda; Ensey, James

2009-06-01

51

Skeletal muscle specific genes networks in cattle  

PubMed Central

While physiological differences across skeletal muscles have been described, the differential gene expression underlying them and the discovery of how they interact to perform specific biological processes are largely to be elucidated. The purpose of the present study was, firstly, to profile by cDNA microarrays the differential gene expression between two skeletal muscle types, Psoas major (PM) and Flexor digitorum (FD), in beef cattle and then to interpret the results in the context of a bovine gene coexpression network, detecting possible changes in connectivity across the skeletal muscle system. Eighty four genes were differentially expressed (DE) between muscles. Approximately 54% encoded metabolic enzymes and structural-contractile proteins. DE genes were involved in similar processes and functions, but the proportion of genes in each category varied within each muscle. A correlation matrix was obtained for 61 out of the 84 DE genes from a gene coexpression network. Different groups of coexpression were observed, the largest one having 28 metabolic and contractile genes, up-regulated in PM, and mainly encoding fast-glycolytic fibre structural components and glycolytic enzymes. In FD, genes related to cell support seemed to constitute its identity feature and did not positively correlate to the rest of DE genes in FD. Moreover, changes in connectivity for some DE genes were observed in the different gene ontologies. Our results confirm the existence of a muscle dependent transcription and coexpression pattern and suggest the necessity of integrating different muscle types to perform comprehensive networks for the transcriptional landscape of bovine skeletal muscle. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10142-010-0175-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20524025

Rueda, Julia; Carabano, Maria J.; Reverter, Antonio; McWilliam, Sean; Gonzalez, Carmen; Diaz, Clara

2010-01-01

52

Overexpression of SMPX in Adult Skeletal Muscle Does not Change Skeletal Muscle Fiber Type or Size  

PubMed Central

Mechanical factors such as stretch are thought to be important in the regulation of muscle phenotype. Small muscle protein X-linked (SMPX) is upregulated by stretch in skeletal muscle and has been suggested to serve both as a transcription factor and a mechanosensor, possibly giving rise to changes in both fiber size and fiber type. We have used in vivo confocal imaging to study the subcellular localization of SMPX in skeletal muscle fibers of adult rats using a SMPX-EGFP fusion protein. The fusion protein was localized predominantly in repetitive double stripes flanking the Z-disc, and was excluded from all nuclei. This localization would be consistent with SMPX being a mechanoreceptor, but not with SMPX playing a role as a transcription factor. In vivo overexpression of ectopic SMPX in skeletal muscle of adult mice gave no significant changes in fiber type distribution or cross sectional area, thus a role of SMPX in regulating muscle phenotype remains unclear. PMID:24936977

Eftest?l, Einar; Alver, Tine Norman; Gundersen, Kristian; Bruusgaard, Jo C.

2014-01-01

53

Human skeletal muscle biochemical diversity  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The molecular components largely responsible for muscle attributes such as passive tension development (titin and collagen), active tension development (myosin heavy chain, MHC) and mechanosensitive signaling (titin) have been well studied in animals but less is known about their roles in humans. The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive analysis of titin, collagen and MHC isoform distributions in a large number of human muscles, to search for common themes and trends in the muscular organization of the human body. In this study, 599 biopsies were obtained from six human cadaveric donors (mean age 83 years). Three assays were performed on each biopsy – titin molecular mass determination, hydroxyproline content (a surrogate for collagen content) and MHC isoform distribution. Titin molecular mass was increased in more distal muscles of the upper and lower limbs. This trend was also observed for collagen. Percentage MHC-1 data followed a pattern similar to collagen in muscles of the upper extremity but this trend was reversed in the lower extremity. Titin molecular mass was the best predictor of anatomical region and muscle functional group. On average, human muscles had more slow myosin than other mammals. Also, larger titins were generally associated with faster muscles. These trends suggest that distal muscles should have higher passive tension than proximal ones, and that titin size variability may potentially act to ‘tune’ the protein's mechanotransduction capability. PMID:22786631

Tirrell, Timothy F.; Cook, Mark S.; Carr, J. Austin; Lin, Evie; Ward, Samuel R.; Lieber, Richard L.

2012-01-01

54

Tissue engineering skeletal muscle for orthopaedic applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With current technology, tissue-engineered skeletal muscle analogues (bioartificial muscles) generate too little active force to be clinically useful in orthopaedic applications. They have been engineered genetically with numerous transgenes (growth hormone, insulinlike growth factor-1, erythropoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor), and have been shown to deliver these therapeutic proteins either locally or systemically for months in vivo. Bone morphogenetic proteins belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily are osteoinductive molecules that drive the differentiation pathway of mesenchymal cells toward the chondroblastic or osteoblastic lineage, and stimulate bone formation in vivo. To determine whether skeletal muscle cells endogenously expressing bone morphogenetic proteins might serve as a vehicle for systemic bone morphogenetic protein delivery in vivo, proliferating skeletal myoblasts (C2C12) were transduced with a replication defective retrovirus containing the gene for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6 (C2BMP-6). The C2BMP-6 cells constitutively expressed recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6 and synthesized bioactive recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6, based on increased alkaline phosphatase activity in coincubated mesenchymal cells. C2BMP-6 cells did not secrete soluble, bioactive recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6, but retained the bioactivity in the cell layer. Therefore, genetically-engineered skeletal muscle cells might serve as a platform for long-term delivery of osteoinductive bone morphogenetic proteins locally.

Payumo, Francis C.; Kim, Hyun D.; Sherling, Michael A.; Smith, Lee P.; Powell, Courtney; Wang, Xiao; Keeping, Hugh S.; Valentini, Robert F.; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

2002-01-01

55

The Reality of Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A source of skeletal muscle precursor cells (myoblasts) is desired for cell transplantation purposes, gene supplementation and tissue engineering. The use of Myoblast Transfer Therapy (MTT) to replace defective genes in myopathies such as Duchenne muscular d y s t r o p h y ( D M D ) i s o f c e n t r a

Tracey Lee-Pullen; Miranda Grounds

2005-01-01

56

Skeletal muscle fibre types in the dog.  

PubMed Central

Using a variety of histochemical methods we have investigated the mATPase reaction of skeletal muscle fibres in the dog. Types I, IIA, IIDog (peculiar to the dog) and IIC fibres were identified. The results reveal that the interpretation of the fibre type composition depends on the methods used. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8226288

Latorre, R; Gil, F; Vazquez, J M; Moreno, F; Mascarello, F; Ramirez, G

1993-01-01

57

Skeletal muscle metabolism in hypokinetic rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Muscle growth, protein metabolism, and amino acid metabolism were studied in various groups of rats. Certain groups were adrenaliectomized; some rats were suspended while others (the controls) were weight bearing. Results show that: (1) metabolic changes in the extensor digitorum longus muscle of suspended rats are due primarily to increased circulating glucocorticoids; (2) metabolic changes in the soleus muscle due to higher steroid levels are probably potentiated by greater numbers of steroid receptors; and (3) not all metabolic responses of the soleus muscle to unloading are due to the elevated levels of glucocorticoids or the increased sensitivity of this muscle to these hormones.

Tischler, M. E.

1984-01-01

58

Denervation and the Aging of Skeletal Muscle  

E-print Network

There are many striking similarities in the reactions of mammalian skeletal muscle to denervation and the normal aging process. In both cases, the tissue environment is far more complex than has commonly been assumed, with satellite cell activation and new muscle fiber formation occurring simultaneously with atrophy and degeneration. Some of the changes that take place during aging can be attributed to denervation. During the normal aging process motor axons begin to die, and the muscle fibers that they supply are either temporarily denervated until they are reinnervated by sprouting from other axons, or they may remain permanently denervated and ultimately disappear. During aging cellular and molecular phenomena that are commonly associated with denervation increase with advancing age. This accelerates greatly in the period just before death, reflecting both increased denervation and an overall homeostatic decompensation in which the developmental controls that lend stability to normal mature muscle appear to break down. Key words: muscle, aging, denervation. Basic Appl Myol 14(3) 135-139, 2004 Aging mammalian skeletal muscle is characterized by a progressive loss of mass and contractile force [10, 23]. In recent years the term, sarcopenia, has been applied to the extreme loss of muscle mass [35]. The underlying basis for sarcopenia has not been clearly defined, and it will likely prove to be multifactorial. One of the factors that will undoubtedly prove to be significant is the neural support of aging muscle. Over recent decades it has become clear that as an individual ages the number of motor axons supplying a

Bruce M. Carlson

59

Symptomatic sarcoidosis of skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Two patients with chronic sarcoid myopathy are described. Both were middle-aged females and both showed the features of pseudohypertrophy. In other aspects they contrasted markedly. In one (A.R.) the sheer volume of granuloma and its effect on muscle fibres was sufficient to explain the muscle weakness and electromyography confirmed a pure myopathy. In the other (J.W.) the muscle granuloma was sparsely distributed and an associated neuropathy contributed importantly to the disability. There was no clinical evidence of sarcoidosis of other organs in one (A.R.) but necropsy showed multisystem involvement. There was clinical and radiographic evidence of widespread sarcoidosis in the other (J.W.). Both patients showed an initial dramatic response to prednisolone. The reported literature of symptomatic muscle sarcoidosis is reviewed briefly. Images PMID:4772718

Douglas, A. C.; Macleod, J. G.; Matthews, J. D.

1973-01-01

60

Cellular players in skeletal muscle regeneration.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle, a tissue endowed with remarkable endogenous regeneration potential, is still under focused experimental investigation mainly due to treatment potential for muscle trauma and muscular dystrophies. Resident satellite cells with stem cell features were enthusiastically described quite a long time ago, but activation of these cells is not yet controlled by any medical interventions. However, after thorough reports of their existence, survival, activation, and differentiation there are still many questions to be answered regarding the intimate mechanism of tissue regeneration. This review delivers an up-to-date inventory of the main known key players in skeletal muscle repair, revealed by various models of tissue injuries in mechanical trauma, toxic lesions, and muscular dystrophy. A better understanding of the spatial and temporal relationships between various cell populations, with different physical or paracrine interactions and phenotype changes induced by local or systemic signalling, might lead to a more efficient approach for future therapies. PMID:24779022

Ceafalan, Laura Cristina; Popescu, Bogdan Ovidiu; Hinescu, Mihail Eugen

2014-01-01

61

Pannexin 1 channels in skeletal muscles  

PubMed Central

Normal myotubes and adult innervated skeletal myofibers express the glycoprotein pannexin1 (Panx1). Six of them form a “gap junction hemichannel-like” structure that connects the cytoplasm with the extracellular space; here they will be called Panx1 channels. These are poorly selective channels permeable to ions, small metabolic substrate, and signaling molecules. So far little is known about the role of Panx1 channels in muscles but skeletal muscles of Panx1?/? mice do not show an evident phenotype. Innervated adult fast and slow skeletal myofibers show Panx1 reactivity in close proximity to dihydropyridine receptors in the sarcolemma of T-tubules. These Panx1 channels are activated by electrical stimulation and extracellular ATP. Panx1 channels play a relevant role in potentiation of muscle contraction because they allow release of ATP and uptake of glucose, two molecules required for this response. In support of this notion, the absence of Panx1 abrogates the potentiation of muscle contraction elicited by repetitive electrical stimulation, which is reversed by exogenously applied ATP. Phosphorylation of Panx1 Thr and Ser residues might be involved in Panx1 channel activation since it is enhanced during potentiation of muscle contraction. Under denervation, Panx1 levels are upregulated and this partially explains the reduction in electrochemical gradient, however its absence does not prevent denervation-induced atrophy but prevents the higher oxidative state. Panx1 also forms functional channels at the cell surface of myotubes and their functional state has been associated with intracellular Ca2+ signals and regulation of myotube plasticity evoked by electrical stimulation. We proposed that Panx1 channels participate as ATP channels and help to keep a normal oxidative state in skeletal muscles. PMID:24782784

Cea, Luis A.; Riquelme, Manuel A.; Vargas, Anibal A.; Urrutia, Carolina; Saez, Juan C.

2014-01-01

62

Vitamin D and Human Skeletal Muscle  

PubMed Central

Vitamin D deficiency is an increasingly described phenomenon worldwide, with well-known impacts on calcium metabolism and bone health. Vitamin D has also been associated with chronic health problems such as bowel and colonic cancer, arthritis, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In recent decades, there has been increased awareness of the impact of vitamin D on muscle morphology and function, but this is not well recognized in the Sports Medicine literature. In the early 20th century, athletes and coaches felt that ultraviolet rays had a positive impact on athletic performance, and increasingly, evidence is accumulating to support this view. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies allude to a functional role for vitamin D in muscle and more recently the discovery of the vitamin D receptor in muscle tissue provides a mechanistic understanding of the function of vitamin D within muscle. The identification of broad genomic and non-genomic roles for vitamin D within skeletal muscle has highlighted the potential impact vitamin D deficiency may have on both underperformance and the risk of injury in athletes. This review describes the current understanding of the role vitamin D plays within skeletal muscle tissue. PMID:19807897

Hamilton, B

2010-01-01

63

Organogenesis of skeletal muscle in tissue culture.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle structure is regulated by many factors, including nutrition, hormones, electrical activity, and tension. The muscle cells are subjected to both passive and active mechanical forces at all stages of development, and these forces play important but poorly understood roles in regulating muscle organogenesis and growth. For example, during embryogenesis, the rapidly growing skeleton places large passive mechanical forces on the attached muscle tissue. These forces not only help to organize the proliferating mononucleated myoblasts into the oriented, multinucleated myofibers of a functional muscle, but also tightly couple the growth rate of muscle to that of bone. Postnatally, the actively contracting, innervated muscle fibers are subjected to different patterns of active and passive tensions that regulate longitudinal and cross-sectional myofiber growth. These mechanically induced organogenic processes have been difficult to study under normal tissue culture conditions, resulting in the development of numerous methods and specialized equipment to simulate the in vivo mechanical environment (1-4). These techniques have led to the engineering of bioartificial muscles (organoids), which display many of the characteristics of in vivo muscle, including parallel arrays of postmitotic fibers organized into fascicle-like structures with tendon-like ends. They are contractile, express adult isoforms of contractile proteins, perform directed work, and can be maintained in culture for long periods. PMID:21370179

Vandenburgh, H; Shansky, J; Del Tatto, M; Chromiak, J

1999-01-01

64

Structural alterations of skeletal muscle in copd  

PubMed Central

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory disease associated with a systemic inflammatory response. Peripheral muscle dysfunction has been well characterized in individuals with COPD and results from a complex interaction between systemic and local factors. Objective: In this narrative review, we will describe muscle wasting in people with COPD, the associated structural changes, muscle regenerative capacity and possible mechanisms for muscle wasting. We will also discuss how structural changes relate to impaired muscle function and mobility in people with COPD. Key Observations: Approximately 30–40% of individuals with COPD experience muscle mass depletion. Furthermore, muscle atrophy is a predictor of physical function and mortality in this population. Associated structural changes include a decreased proportion and size of type-I fibers, reduced oxidative capacity and mitochondrial density mainly in the quadriceps. Observations related to impaired muscle regenerative capacity in individuals with COPD include a lower proportion of central nuclei in the presence or absence of muscle atrophy and decreased maximal telomere length, which has been correlated with reduced muscle cross-sectional area. Potential mechanisms for muscle wasting in COPD may include excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), altered amino acid metabolism and lower expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-gamma-coactivator 1-alpha mRNA. Despite a moderate relationship between muscle atrophy and function, impairments in oxidative metabolism only seems weakly related to muscle function. Conclusion: This review article demonstrates the cellular modifications in the peripheral muscle of people with COPD and describes the evidence of its relationship to muscle function. Future research will focus on rehabilitation strategies to improve muscle wasting and maximize function. PMID:24678302

Mathur, Sunita; Brooks, Dina; Carvalho, Celso R. F.

2014-01-01

65

Tissue Engineered Strategies for Skeletal Muscle Injury  

PubMed Central

Skeletal muscle injuries are common in athletes, occurring with direct and indirect mechanisms and marked residual effects, such as severe long-term pain and physical disability. Current therapy consists of conservative management including RICE protocol (rest, ice, compression and elevation), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and intramuscular corticosteroids. However, current management of muscle injuries often does not provide optimal restoration to preinjury status. New biological therapies, such as injection of platelet-rich plasma and stem-cell-based therapy, are appealing. Although some studies support PRP application in muscle-injury management, reasons for concern persist, and further research is required for a standardized and safe use of PRP in clinical practice. The role of stem cells needs to be confirmed, as studies are still limited and inconsistent. Further research is needed to identify mechanisms involved in muscle regeneration and in survival, proliferation, and differentiation of stem cells. PMID:25098362

Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Loppini, Mattia; Berton, Alessandra; Spiezia, Filippo; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

2012-01-01

66

Development of Sensory Receptors in Skeletal Muscle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There were two major goals for my project. One was to examine the hindlimb walking pattern of offspring from the Flight dams as compared with offspring of the ground control groups from initiation of walking up to two months thereafter. This initial goal was subsequently modified so that additional developmental measures were taken (e.g. body weight, eye opening) as the progeny developed, and the study period was lengthened to eighty days. Also videotapes taken shortly after the pregnant Flight dams returned to Earth were scored for locomotor activity and compared to those for the Synchronous control dams at the same stage of pregnancy. The second goal was to examine skeletal muscle. Selected hindlimb skeletal muscles were to be identified, weighed, and examined for the presence and integrity of muscle receptors, (both muscle spindles and tendon organs), at the level of the light and electron microscope. Muscles were examined from rats that were at fetal (G20), newborn (postnatal day 1 or P1, where P1 = day of birth), and young adult (approx. P100) stages. At the present time data from only the last group of rats (i.e. P100) has been completely examined.

DeSantis, Mark

2000-01-01

67

PGC1?-mediated adaptations in skeletal muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lifestyle-related diseases are rapidly increasing at least in part due to less physical activity. The health beneficial effects\\u000a of regular physical activity include metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle, which are thought to be elicited by cumulative\\u000a effects of transient gene responses to each single exercise, but how is this regulated? A potential candidate in this is the\\u000a transcriptional coactivator peroxisome

Jesper Olesen; Kristian Kiilerich; Henriette Pilegaard

2010-01-01

68

Myosin types in human skeletal muscle fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

By combining enzyme histochemistry for fiber typing with immunohistochemistry for slow and fast myosin a correlation between fiber type and myosin type was sought in human skeletal muscle. Fiber typing was done by staining for myofibrillar ATPases after preincubation at discriminating pH values. Myosin types were discriminated using type specific anti-rabbit myosin antibodies shown to cross-react with human myosin and

R. Billeter; H. Weber; H. Lutz; H. Howald; H. M. Eppenberger; E. Jenny

1980-01-01

69

Effect of limb immobilization on skeletal muscle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current knowledge and questions remaining concerning the effects of limb immobilization on skeletal muscle is reviewed. The most dramatic of these effects is muscle atrophy, which has been noted in cases of muscles fixed at or below their resting length. Immobilization is also accompanied by a substantial decrease in motoneuronal discharges, which results in the conversion of slow-twitch muscle to muscle with fast-twitch characteristics. Sarcolemma effects include no change or a decrease in resting membrane potential, the appearance of extrajunctional acetylcholine receptors, and no change in acetylcholinesterase activity. Evidence of changes in motoneuron after hyperpolarization characteristics suggests that the muscle inactivity is responsible for neuronal changes, rather than vice versa. The rate of protein loss from atrophying muscles is determined solely by the first-order rate constant for degradation. Various other biochemical and functional changes have been noted, including decreased insulin responsiveness and protein synthesis. The model of limb immobilization may also be useful for related studies of muscle adaptation.

Booth, F. W.

1982-01-01

70

Extrarenal potassium adaptation: role of skeletal muscle  

SciTech Connect

Following the ingestion of a high-potassium-content diet for only a few days, the plasma potassium of rats rises only modestly in response to a previously lethal dose of potassium salts. This acquired tolerance, termed potassium adaptation, is principally the result of increased capacity to excrete potassium into the urine. However, a substantial portion of the acute potassium dose is not immediately excreted and is apparently translocated into cells. Previous studies have failed to show an increase in the content of potassium of a variety of tissues from such animals. Using /sup 86/Rb as a potassium analogue, we have shown that the skeletal muscle of potassium-adapted rats takes up significantly greater amounts of potassium in vivo in response to an acute challenge than does that of control animals. Furthermore, the same animals exhibit greater efflux of /sup 86/Rb following the termination of the acute infusion. We have also shown that the Na+-K+-ATPase activity and ouabain-binding capacity of skeletal muscle microsomes are increased by the process of potassium adaptation. We conclude that skeletal muscle is an important participant in potassium adaptation and acts to temporarily buffer acute increases in the extracellular concentration of potassium.

Blachley, J.D.; Crider, B.P.; Johnson, J.H.

1986-08-01

71

Metastases of esophageal carcinoma to skeletal muscle: Single center experience  

PubMed Central

Metastases of esophageal carcinoma to the skeletal muscle are rare, but the incidence may be increasing because of better diagnosis resulting from widespread use of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). A cohort of 205 patients with esophageal carcinoma treated at our center who had PET/CT between 2006 and 2010 was retrospectively evaluated for the presence of skeletal muscle metastases. Four patients had skeletal muscle metastases of esophageal carcinoma, including two patients with squamous cell carcinoma. In another patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus and synchronous skeletal muscle metastases, muscle metastases were subsequently shown to be related to second primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma. In all cases, skeletal muscle metastases were the first manifestation of systemic disease. In three patients palliation was obtained with the combination of external beam radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy or surgical resection. Skeletal muscle metastases are a rare complication of esophageal carcinoma. PMID:23002370

Cincibuch, Jan; Myslivecek, Miroslav; Melichar, Bohuslav; Neoral, Cestmir; Metelkova, Iva; Zezulova, Michaela; Prochazkova-Studentova, Hana; Flodr, Patrik; Zlevorova, Miloslava; Aujesky, Rene; Cwiertka, Karel

2012-01-01

72

Metastases of esophageal carcinoma to skeletal muscle: single center experience.  

PubMed

Metastases of esophageal carcinoma to the skeletal muscle are rare, but the incidence may be increasing because of better diagnosis resulting from widespread use of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). A cohort of 205 patients with esophageal carcinoma treated at our center who had PET/CT between 2006 and 2010 was retrospectively evaluated for the presence of skeletal muscle metastases. Four patients had skeletal muscle metastases of esophageal carcinoma, including two patients with squamous cell carcinoma. In another patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus and synchronous skeletal muscle metastases, muscle metastases were subsequently shown to be related to second primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma. In all cases, skeletal muscle metastases were the first manifestation of systemic disease. In three patients palliation was obtained with the combination of external beam radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy or surgical resection. Skeletal muscle metastases are a rare complication of esophageal carcinoma. PMID:23002370

Cincibuch, Jan; Myslive?ek, Miroslav; Melichar, Bohuslav; Neoral, Cestmír; Metelková, Iva; Zezulová, Michaela; Procházková-Študentová, Hana; Flodr, Patrik; Zlevorová, Miloslava; Aujeský, René; Cwiertka, Karel

2012-09-21

73

GLUT-3 expression in human skeletal muscle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Muscle biopsy homogenates contain GLUT-3 mRNA and protein. Before these studies, it was unclear where GLUT-3 was located in muscle tissue. In situ hybridization using a midmolecule probe demonstrated GLUT-3 within all muscle fibers. Fluorescent-tagged antibody reacting with affinity-purified antibody directed at the carboxy-terminus demonstrated GLUT-3 protein in all fibers. Slow-twitch muscle fibers, identified by NADH-tetrazolium reductase staining, possessed more GLUT-3 protein than fast-twitch fibers. Electron microscopy using affinity-purified primary antibody and gold particle-tagged second antibody showed that the majority of GLUT-3 was in association with triads and transverse tubules inside the fiber. Strong GLUT-3 signals were seen in association with the few nerves that traversed muscle sections. Electron microscopic evaluation of human peripheral nerve demonstrated GLUT-3 within the axon, with many of the particles related to mitochondria. GLUT-3 protein was found in myelin but not in Schwann cells. GLUT-1 protein was not present in nerve cells, axons, myelin, or Schwann cells but was seen at the surface of the peripheral nerve in the perineurium. These studies demonstrated that GLUT-3 mRNA and protein are expressed throughout normal human skeletal muscle, but the protein is predominantly found in the triads of slow-twitch muscle fibers.

Stuart, C. A.; Wen, G.; Peng, B. H.; Popov, V. L.; Hudnall, S. D.; Campbell, G. A.

2000-01-01

74

Phosphorylation of human skeletal muscle myosin  

SciTech Connect

Phosphorylation of the P-light chains (phosphorylatable light chains) in human skeletal muscle myosin was studied in vitro and in vivo under resting an d contracted conditions. biopsy samples from rested vastus lateralis muscle of male and female subjects were incubated in oxygenated physiological solution at 30/sup 0/C. Samples frozen following a quiescent period showed the presence of only unphosphorylated P-light chains designated LC2f (light chain two of fast myosin) CL2s and LC2s'(light chains two of slow myosin). Treatment with caffeine (10 mM) or direct electrical stimulation resulted in the appearance of three additional bands which were identified as the phosphorylated forms of the P-light chains i.e. LC2f-P, LC2s-P and LC2s'-P. The presence of phosphate was confirmed by prior incubation with (/sup 30/P) orthophosphate. Muscle samples rapidly frozen from resting vastus lateralis muscle revealed the presence of unphosphorylated and phosphorylated P-light chains in approximately equal ratios. Muscle samples rapidly frozen following a maximal 10 second isometric contraction showed virtually only phosphorylated fast and slow P-light chains. These results reveal that the P-light chains in human fast and slow myosin may be rapidly phosphorylated, but the basal level of phosphorylation in rested human muscle considerably exceeds that observed in animal muscles studied in vitro or in situ.

Houston, M.E.; Lingley, M.D.; Stuart, D.S.; Hoffman-Goetz, L.

1986-03-01

75

Degradation of skeletal muscle plasma membrane proteins by calpain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Observations described here provide the first demonstration that calpain (Ca2+-dependent cysteine protease) can degrade proteins of skeletal muscle plasma membranes. Frog muscle plasma membrane vesicles were incubated with calpain preparations and alterations of protein composition were revealed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Calpain II (activated by millimolar concentrations of Ca2+) was isolated from frog skeletal muscle, but

S. I. M. Zaidi; H. T. Narahara

1989-01-01

76

Nuclear proliferation (“nucleosis”) in damaged skeletal muscle A critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of myotubes and their role in regeneration of skeletal muscle are discussed. It is pointed out that some recent observations and theories contradict each other. Furthermore, where early regeneration of transplanted skeletal muscle is described, no attention is given to the wanting nerve supply, thus assuming muscle regeneration in the absence of nerve supply.

Rudolf Altschul

1962-01-01

77

Regenerating skeletal muscle in the face of aging and disease.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle is a fundamental organ in the generation of force and movement, the regulation of whole-body metabolism, and the provision of resiliency. Indeed, physical medicine and rehabilitation is recognized for optimizing skeletal muscle health in the context of aging (sarcopenia) and disease (cachexia). Exercise is, and will remain, the cornerstone of therapies to improve skeletal muscle health. However, there are now a number of promising biologic and small molecule interventions currently under development to rejuvenate skeletal muscle, including myostatin inhibitors, selective androgen receptor modulators, and an activator of the fast skeletal muscle troponin complex. The opportunities for skeletal muscle-based regenerative therapies and a selection of emerging pharmacologic interventions are discussed in this review. PMID:24879554

Jasuja, Ravi; LeBrasseur, Nathan K

2014-11-01

78

Skeletal muscle gender dimorphism from proteomics.  

PubMed

Gross contraction in skeletal muscle is primarily determined by a relatively small number of contractile proteins, however this tissue is also remarkably adaptable to environmental factors such as hypertrophy by resistance exercise and atrophy by disuse. It thereby exhibits remodeling and adaptations to stressors (heat, ischemia, heavy metals, etc.). Damage can occur to muscle by a muscle exerting force while lengthening, the so-called eccentric contraction. The contractile proteins can be damaged in such exertions and need to be repaired, degraded and/or resynthesized; these functions are not part of the contractile proteins, but of other much less abundant proteins in the cell. To determine what subset of proteins is involved in the amelioration of this type of damage, a global proteome must be established prior to exercise and then followed subsequent to the exercise to determine the differential protein expression and thereby highlight candidate proteins in the adaptations to damage and its repair. Furthermore, most studies of skeletal muscle have been conducted on the male of the species and hence may not be representative of female muscle. In this article we present a method for extracting proteins reproducibly from male and female muscles, and separating them by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by high resolution digital imaging. This provides a protocol for spots (and subsequently identified proteins) that show a statistically significant (p < 0.05) two-fold increase or decrease, appear or disappear from the control state. These are then excised, digested with trypsin and separated by high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (LC/MS) for protein identification (LC/MS/MS). This methodology (Figure 1) can be used on many tissues with little to no modification (liver, brain, heart etc.). PMID:22215112

Dimova, Kalina; Metskas, Lauren Ann; Kulp, Mohini; Scordilis, Stylianos P

2011-01-01

79

Metabolic and structural impairment of skeletal muscle in heart failure  

PubMed Central

Physiologic endurance exercise performance is primarily limited by cardiac function. In patients with heart failure, there is dissociation between cardiac performance and exercise capacity, suggesting a distinct role of abnormal peripheral organ function, including skeletal muscle function. The impact of heart failure upon skeletal muscle and exercise performance will be discussed with a focus on molecular, structural, and functional derangements in skeletal muscle of patients with heart failure. PMID:23065040

Zizola, Cynthia; Schulze, P. Christian

2013-01-01

80

REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES: IMPACT ON SKELETAL MUSCLE  

PubMed Central

It is well established that contracting muscles produce both reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Although the sources of oxidant production during exercise continue to be debated, growing evidence suggests that mitochondria are not the dominant source. Regardless of the sources of oxidants in contracting muscles, intense and prolonged exercise can result in oxidative damage to both proteins and lipids in the contracting myocytes. Further, oxidants regulate numerous cell signaling pathways and modulate the expression of many genes. This oxidant-mediated change in gene expression involves changes at transcriptional, mRNA stability, and signal transduction levels. Furthermore, numerous products associated with oxidant-modulated genes have been identified and include antioxidant enzymes, stress proteins, and mitochondrial electron transport proteins. Interestingly, low and physiological levels of reactive oxygen species are required for normal force production in skeletal muscle, but high levels of reactive oxygen species result in contractile dysfunction and fatigue. Ongoing research continues to explore the redox-sensitive targets in muscle that are responsible for both redox-regulation of muscle adaptation and oxidant-mediated muscle fatigue. PMID:23737208

Powers, Scott K.; Ji, Li Li; Kavazis, Andreas N.; Jackson, Malcolm J.

2014-01-01

81

Myofibrillogenesis in Skeletal Muscle Cells in Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

The “premyofibril” model of myofibrillogenesis, based on observations in cultured avian muscle cells, proposes that mature myofibrils are preceded by two intermediary structures: premyofibrils and nascent myofibrils. To determine if this model applies to zebrafish skeletal muscle development, we stained developing embryos with antibodies to sarcomeric alpha-actinin and myosin II. In the youngest muscle cells, sarcomeric alpha-actinin and non-muscle myosin II were each localized in linear arrays of small bands that resembled the premyofibrils in avian myocytes. The distribution of muscle–specific myosin II began as scattered short filaments followed in time by overlapping bundles of filaments and organized A-bands in the older somites. Alpha-actinin organization changed from small z-bodies to beaded Z-bands and ordered Z-bands in myofibrils that extended the length of the elongating somites. In older somites with mature myofibrils, premyofibrils were also present at the ends of the mature myofibrils, suggesting that as the cells and somites grew longer, premyofibrils were involved in the elongation of existing mature myofibrils. Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching showed that the exchange of proteins (actin, alpha-actinin, FATZ, myotilin and telethonin) between sarcoplasm and the Z-bands of mature myofibrils in zebrafish resembled that seen for the same proteins in cultured avian myotubes, suggesting that myofibril assembly and maintenance in zebrafish share common properties with avian muscle. PMID:19382198

Sanger, Joseph W.; Wang, Jushuo; Holloway, Beth; Du, Aiping; Sanger, Jean M.

2009-01-01

82

Skeletal muscle biomechanics drives intramuscular transport of locally delivered drugs  

E-print Network

Introduction: Effective local drug delivery to contractile tissues such as skeletal muscle requires a thorough understanding of the impact of mechanical loads on intramuscular pharmacokinetics. Current preparations for ...

Wu, Peter I-Kung

2007-01-01

83

Modeling of the Skeletal Muscle Microcirculation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulations of blood flow in a microvascular network require extensive modeling. This contribution focuses on the reconstruction of a complete network topology from microscopic images of rat skeletal muscle and skeletal muscle fascia. The bifurcating network is composed of a feeding arterial network, a collecting venous network, and bundles of capillaries. Multiple topologies of each network component are recontructed and statistical properties of the network, such as distributions of vessel diameters, vessel lengths, and branching patters are determined. Particular attention has been paid to venous vessel loops that are observed only in the muscle fascia. The flow in the microvessel network is then computed. In the simulations, the microvessels are distensible by pressure, and the arterioles are actively contractile. The blood has non-Newtonian apparent viscosity. Models of each of these properties have previously been determined and are used in the computations. The method of indefinite admittances is used to compute the flow in the network. The apparent viscosity is computed from the local hematocrit, which is found using a combination of breadth first search and Dykstra's algorithms. The computations allow the determination of additional properties of the network, such as flow velocities, shear stresses, and hematocrit.

Jacobitz, Frank; Beth, Christophe; Salado, Jerome

2004-11-01

84

Separation and amino acid composition of three troponin components from bovine muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three troponin components were isolated from bovine skeletal muscle, and their molecular weights and amino acid composition were studied. Crude troponin prepared from bovine muscle was purified by DEAE-Toyopearl chromatography. The purified troponin was dissociated in the order of tropopins C, I and T by CM-Toyopearl chromatography in the presence of 6 M urea. The molecular weights of troponins C,

H. Negishi; E. Yamamoto; T. Kuwata

1996-01-01

85

Analysis of tropomyosin cDNAs isolated from skeletal and smooth muscle mRNA.  

PubMed Central

Several clones containing alpha tropomyosin sequences were isolated from cDNA libraries prepared from quail skeletal or smooth muscle RNA. All of these clones contain identical sequences coding for amino acids 81-257 of alpha skeletal muscle tropomyosin where they overlap, strongly indicating they are derived from the same gene. However, there are differences among these clones in sequences coding for the final 27 amino acids, as well as 3' untranslated sequences. In addition, S1 nuclease and Northern analyses indicate that coding sequences at the 5' end of the tropomyosin mRNA are also differentially expressed in smooth and skeletal muscle. These data point to the likelihood that differential splicing at both the 5' and 3' ends of a single tropomyosin gene results in the appearance of multiple tissue-specific transcripts. Images PMID:3786149

Flach, J; Lindquester, G; Berish, S; Hickman, K; Devlin, R

1986-01-01

86

Isolation of the cDNA encoding rat skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase. Sequence and tissue distribution.  

PubMed

A cDNA clone encoding skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) was isolated from a rat skeletal muscle library using oligonucleotide probes. The total length of the rat skeletal muscle MLCK cDNA was 2823 base pairs with an open reading frame of 1830 base pairs. The deduced sequence of the 610-amino acid protein exhibited 96% amino acid identity to rabbit skeletal muscle MLCK in the carboxyl-terminal portion of the molecule, which contains the catalytic and the calmodulin-binding domains, and 58% identity in the amino-terminal region. Analysis of total rat mRNA revealed a single mRNA species of 3.4 kilobases that was unique to skeletal muscle. Further analysis of skeletal muscle tissue using fast-twitch glycolytic, fast-twitch oxidative glycolytic, and slow-twitch oxidative fibers isolated from rat leg revealed that the mRNA level for MLCK varied among the three fiber types. The results of kinase assays performed on the fibers showed that MLCK activity levels paralleled the MLCK mRNA levels found in each of the three types of skeletal muscle fibers studied. Fast-twitch oxidative glycolytic (gastrocnemius red) and slow-twitch oxidative (soleus) exhibited 60 and 13%, respectively, of the enzymatic activity present in fast-twitch glycolytic (gastrocnemius white) fibers. PMID:2839493

Roush, C L; Kennelly, P J; Glaccum, M B; Helfman, D M; Scott, J D; Krebs, E G

1988-07-25

87

Skeletal muscle responses to unloading in humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study examined the effects of unloading on skeletal muscle structure. Method: Eight subjects walked on crutches for six weeks with a 110 cm elevated sole on the right shoe. This removed weight bearing by the left lower limb. Magnetic resonance imaging of both lower limbs and biopsies of the left m. vastus laterallis (VL) were used to study muscle structure. Results: Unloading decreased (P less than 0.05) muscle cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the knee extensors 16 percent. The knee flexors showed about 1/2 of this response (-7 percent, P less than 0.05). The three vasti muscles each showed decreases (P less than 0.05) of about 15 percent. M. rectus femoris did not change. Mean fiber CSA in VL decreased (P less than 0.05) 14 percent with type 2 and type 1 fibers showing reductions of 15 and 11 percent respectively. The ankle extensors showed a 20 percent decrease (P less than 0.05) in CSA. The reduction for the 'fast' m. gastrocnemius was 27 percent compared to the 18 percent decrease for the 'slow' soleus. Summary: The results suggest that decreases in muscle CSA are determined by the relative change in impact loading history because atrophy was (1) greater in extensor than flexor muscles, (2) at least as great in fast as compared to slow muscles or fibers, and (3) not dependent on single or multi-joint function. They also suggest that the atrophic responses to unloading reported for lower mammals are quantitatively but not qualitatively similar to those of humans.

Dudley, G.; Tesch, P.; Hather, B.; Adams, G.; Buchanan, P.

1992-01-01

88

Dynamics of skeletal muscle lipid pools.  

PubMed

Intramyocellular triacylglycerol (IMTG) is emerging as an important energy fuel source during muscle contraction and are adaptively increased in response to exercise, without adverse physiological effects. Paradoxically, elevated IMTG content in obese and type 2 diabetics has been linked to insulin resistance, highlighting the importance of IMTG pools in physiology and pathology. Two separate views suggest that IMTG dynamics are determinant for skeletal muscle fat oxidation, and that disruption of IMTG dynamics facilitates the accumulation of lipotoxic intermediates such as diacylglycerols and ceramides that interfere with insulin signaling. Thus, understanding the factors that control IMTG dynamics is crucial. Here we discuss recent literature describing the regulation of IMTG pools with a particular emphasis on lipases and lipid droplet (LD)-associated proteins. PMID:23988586

Badin, Pierre-Marie; Langin, Dominique; Moro, Cedric

2013-12-01

89

Satellite cell proliferation in adult skeletal muscle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Novel methods of retroviral-mediated gene transfer for the in vivo corporation and stable expression of eukaryotic or prokaryotic foreign genes in tissues of living animals is described. More specifically, methods of incorporating foreign genes into mitotically active cells are disclosed. The constitutive and stable expression of E. coli .beta.-galactosidase gene under the promoter control of the Moloney murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat is employed as a particularly preferred embodiment, by way of example, establishes the model upon which the incorporation of a foreign gene into a mitotically-active living eukaryotic tissue is based. Use of the described methods in therapeutic treatments for genetic diseases, such as those muscular degenerative diseases, is also presented. In muscle tissue, the described processes result in genetically-altered satellite cells which proliferate daughter myoblasts which preferentially fuse to form a single undamaged muscle fiber replacing damaged muscle tissue in a treated animal. The retroviral vector, by way of example, includes a dystrophin gene construct for use in treating muscular dystrophy. The present invention also comprises an experimental model utilizable in the study of the physiological regulation of skeletal muscle gene expression in intact animals.

Booth, Frank W. (Inventor); Thomason, Donald B. (Inventor); Morrison, Paul R. (Inventor); Stancel, George M. (Inventor)

1995-01-01

90

INTRODUCTION Vertebrate skeletal muscle fibers can be subdivided into  

E-print Network

, mutants with disrupted notochord development have a loss of muscle pioneers, and muscle pioneer loss of Engrailed-expressing muscle pioneers. In addition, mutant embryos have partial cyclopiaINTRODUCTION Vertebrate skeletal muscle fibers can be subdivided into multiple fiber types based

Devoto, Stephen H.

91

Impaired Adaptive Response to Mechanical Overloading in Dystrophic Skeletal Muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dystrophin contributes to force transmission and has a protein-scaffolding role for a variety of signaling complexes in skeletal muscle. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the muscle adaptive response following mechanical overloading (ML) would be decreased in MDX dystrophic muscle lacking dystrophin. We found that the gains in muscle maximal force production and fatigue resistance in response

Pierre Joanne; Christophe Hourdé; Julien Ochala; Yvain Caudéran; Fadia Medja; Alban Vignaud; Etienne Mouisel; Wahiba Hadj-Said; Ludovic Arandel; Luis Garcia; Aurélie Goyenvalle; Rémi Mounier; Daria Zibroba; Kei Sakamato; Gillian Butler-Browne; Onnik Agbulut; Arnaud Ferry

2012-01-01

92

Growth factor involvement in tension-induced skeletal muscle growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New muscle tissue culture techniques were developed to grow embryonic skeletal myofibers which are able to differentiate into more adultlike myofibers. Studies on mechanical simulation of cultured muscle cell growth will now be more directly applicable to mechanically-induced growth in adult muscle, and lead to better models for understanding muscle tissue atrophy caused by disuse in the microgravity of space.

Vandenburgh, Herman W.

1987-01-01

93

Loss of dystrophin causes aberrant mechanotransduction in skeletal muscle fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dystrophin is a cytoskeletal protein found at the inner surface of skeletal and cardiac muscle fibers. We hypothesize that deficiency of dystrophin increases muscle compliance and causes an aberrant mechanotrans- duction in muscle fibers. To test this hypothesis, we measured the length-tension relationships and deter- mined intracellular signaling leading to the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in diaphragm muscle

ASHOK KUMAR; NIRAJ KHANDELWAL; RAHUL MALYA; MICHAEL B. REID; ALADIN M. BORIEK

2004-01-01

94

Overnight branched-chain amino acid infusion causes sustained suppression of muscle proteolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-term (3 to 4 hours) infusion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) has been shown to suppress muscle protein breakdown. Whether these effects are sustained with chronic elevations of BCAA is not known. In the present study, we examined the effect of an overnight (16-hour) systemic BCAA infusion on whole-body and skeletal muscle amino acid metabolism, as assessed by simultaneously measured

Rita J. Louard; Eugene J. Barrett; Robert A. Gelfand

1995-01-01

95

AICAR inhibits ceramide biosynthesis in skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Background The worldwide prevalence of obesity has lead to increased efforts to find therapies to treat obesity-related pathologies. Ceramide is a well-established mediator of several health problems that arise from adipose tissue expansion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether AICAR, an AMPK-activating drug, selectively reduces skeletal muscle ceramide synthesis. Methods Murine myotubes and rats were challenged with palmitate and high-fat diet, respectively, to induce ceramide accrual, in the absence or presence of AICAR. Transcript levels of the rate-limiting enzyme in ceramide biosynthesis, serine palmitoyltransferase 2 (SPT2) were measured, in addition to lipid analysis. Student’s t-test and ANOVA were used to assess the association between outcomes and groups. Results Palmitate alone induced an increase in serine palmitoyltransferase 2 (SPT2) expression and an elevation of ceramide levels in myotubes. Co-incubation with palmitate and AICAR prevented both effects. However, ceramide and SPT2 increased with the addition of compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. In rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD), soleus SPT2 expression increased compared with normal chow-fed littermates. Moreover, rats on HFD that received daily AICAR injections had lower SPT2 levels and reduced muscle ceramide content compared with those on HFD only. Conclusions These results suggest that AICAR reduces ceramide synthesis by targeting SPT2 transcription, likely via AMPK activation as AMPK inhibition prevented the AICAR-induced improvements. Given the role of skeletal muscle ceramide in insulin resistance, it is tempting to speculate that interventions that activate AMPK may lead to long-term ceramide reduction and improved metabolic function. PMID:23134616

2012-01-01

96

Autophagic cellular responses to physical exercise in skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved biological process that functions to recycle protein aggregate and malfunctioned organelles. The activation of autophagy can be stimulated by a number of ways including infection, caloric restriction, and physical exercise. In addition to cellular metabolism and cell survival/death machinery, autophagy plays an important role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis in skeletal muscle especially during physical exercise in which energy demand can be extremely high. By degrading macromolecules and subcellular organelles through the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes, useful materials such as amino acids can be released and re-used to sustain normal metabolism in cells. Autophagy is suggested to be involved in glucose and lipid metabolism and is proposed to be a critical physiological process in the regulation of intracellular metabolism. The effects of physical exercise on autophagy have been investigated. Although physical exercise has been demonstrated to be an autophagic inducer, cellular autophagic responses to exercise in skeletal muscle appear to be varied in different exercise protocols and disease models. It is also not known whether the exercise-induced beneficial health consequences involve the favorable modulation of cellular autophagy. Furthermore, the cellular mechanisms of exercise-induced autophagy still remain largely unclear. In this review article, we discuss the general principle of autophagy, cellular signaling of autophagy, autophagic responses to acute and chronic aerobic exercise, and the potential cross-talks among autophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis, and ubiquitination. This article aims to stimulate further studies in exercise and autophagy. PMID:24549475

Tam, Bjorn T; Siu, Parco M

2014-05-01

97

A comparison of skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle actions of dantrolene sodium--a skeletal muscle relaxant.  

PubMed

Dantroline sodium, a skeletal muscle relaxant, has been proposed to inhibit the relase of Ca++ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Such a mechanism suggests that other muscle contractile systems operating with the same Ca++ denominator should also be affected by the drug. In the present studies dantrolene sodium effects on smooth, cardiac and skeletal muscle have been evaluated with in situ and in vitro techniques. In anesthetized dogs in situ skeletal muscle contractions were inhibitied in a dose-dependent manner, but cardiac muscle contractions were not. Effects on intestinal smooth muscle responses were highly variable and of short duration. In vitro, ED50 values were developed with dantrolene sodium (0.15-120 mg/l) in DMSO for each tissue. Skeletal muscle was the most sensitive (ED50 = 4.1 mg/l), cardiac muscle contractions were not inhibited by the drug and intestinal smooth muscle (ED50 = 59.0 mg/l) was approximately 1/14 as sensitive as skeletal muscle. It is concluded that skeletal muscle is uniquely sensitive to dantrolene sodium. A hypothesis for this specific action is offered. PMID:1015907

Ellis, K O; Butterfield, J L; Wessels, F L; Carpenter, J F

1976-11-01

98

Simulated Microgravity and Radiation Exposure Effects on the Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Protein Synthesis  

E-print Network

thought is that a primary mechanism for muscle atrophy is a reduction in skeletal muscle protein synthesis. This dissertation examines the ability of skeletal muscle to recover muscle protein synthesis with slight perturbation, such as ambulatory reloading...

Wiggs, Michael

2012-10-19

99

Skeletal muscle metabolism in hypokinetic rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This grant focused on the mechanisms of metabolic changes associated with unweighting atrophy and reduced growth of hind limb muscles of juvenile rats. Metabolic studies included a number of different areas. Amino acid metabolic studies placed particular emphasis on glutamine and branched-chain amino acid metabolism. These studies were an outgrowth of understanding stress effects and the role of glucocorticoids in these animals. Investigations on protein metabolism were largely concerned with selective loss of myofibrillar proteins and the role of muscle proteolysis. These investigations lead to finding important differences from denervation and atrophy and to define the roles of cytosolic versus lysosomal proteolysis in these atrophy models. A major outgrowth of these studies was demonstrating an ability to prevent atrophy of the unweighted muscle for at least 24 hours. A large amount of work concentrated on carbohydrate metabolism and its regulation by insulin and catecholamines. Measurements focused on glucose transport, glycogen metabolism, and glucose oxidation. The grant was used to develop an important new in situ approach for studying protein metabolism, glucose transport, and hormonal effects which involves intramuscular injection of various agents for up to 24 hours. Another important consequence of this project was the development and flight of Physiological-Anatomical Rodent Experiment-1 (PARE-1), which was launched aboard Space Shuttle Discovery in September 1991. Detailed descriptions of these studies can be found in the 30 peer-reviewed publications, 15 non-reviewed publications, 4 reviews and 33 abstracts (total 82 publications) which were or are scheduled to be published as a result of this project. A listing of these publications grouped by area (i.e. amino acid metabolism, protein metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and space flight studies) are included.

Tischler, Marc E.

1993-01-01

100

Potassium initiates vasodilatation induced by a single skeletal muscle contraction in hamster cremaster muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid onset of vasodilatation within seconds of a single contraction suggests that the vasodilators involved may be products of skeletal muscle activation, such as potassium (K+). To test the hypothesis that K+ was in part responsible for the rapid dilatation produced by muscle contraction we stimulated four to five skeletal muscle fibres in the anaesthetized hamster cremaster preparation in

Marika L. Armstrong; Ashok K. Dua; Coral L. Murrant

2007-01-01

101

Time course of gene expression during mouse skeletal muscle hypertrophy  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive transcriptome analysis during skeletal muscle hypertrophy to identify signaling pathways that are operative throughout the hypertrophic response. Global gene expression patterns were determined from microarray results on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 during plantaris muscle hypertrophy induced by synergist ablation in adult mice. Principal component analysis and the number of differentially expressed genes (cutoffs ?2-fold increase or ?50% decrease compared with control muscle) revealed three gene expression patterns during overload-induced hypertrophy: early (1 day), intermediate (3, 5, and 7 days), and late (10 and 14 days) patterns. Based on the robust changes in total RNA content and in the number of differentially expressed genes, we focused our attention on the intermediate gene expression pattern. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed a downregulation of genes encoding components of the branched-chain amino acid degradation pathway during hypertrophy. Among these genes, five were predicted by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis or previously shown to be regulated by the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor-15, which was also downregulated during hypertrophy. Moreover, the integrin-linked kinase signaling pathway was activated during hypertrophy, and the downregulation of muscle-specific micro-RNA-1 correlated with the upregulation of five predicted targets associated with the integrin-linked kinase pathway. In conclusion, we identified two novel pathways that may be involved in muscle hypertrophy, as well as two upstream regulators (Kruppel-like factor-15 and micro-RNA-1) that provide targets for future studies investigating the importance of these pathways in muscle hypertrophy. PMID:23869057

Lee, Jonah D.; England, Jonathan H.; Esser, Karyn A.; McCarthy, John J.

2013-01-01

102

Imaging of skeletal muscle in vitamin D deficiency  

PubMed Central

Elderly people are prone to accidental falls and one of the main risk factor is considered muscle weakness. Several studies focused on muscle weakness and muscle morphology changes in the elderly that may be associated with vitamin D deficiency. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is higher than previously though representing an important issue for public health and prevention. There is an increased interest in vitamin D effects in skeletal muscle and imaging modalities are particularly involved in this field. In patients with vitamin D deficiency, ultrasound, computed tomography, densitometry and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can efficiently describe changes in muscle morphology and size. Moreover, new imaging modalities, such as MRI spectroscopy, may improve knowledge about the metabolic effects of vitamin D in skeletal muscle. In this narrative review we will discuss the role of skeletal muscle imaging in vitamin D-deficient individuals. The aim of this paper is to improve and encourage the role of radiologists in this field. PMID:24778774

Bignotti, Bianca; Cadoni, Angela; Martinoli, Carlo; Tagliafico, Alberto

2014-01-01

103

Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells from Animals I. Basic Cell Biology  

PubMed Central

Skeletal muscle stem cells from food-producing animals are of interest to agricultural life scientists seeking to develop a better understanding of the molecular regulation of lean tissue (skeletal muscle protein hypertrophy) and intramuscular fat (marbling) development. Enhanced understanding of muscle stem cell biology and function is essential for developing technologies and strategies to augment the metabolic efficiency and muscle hypertrophy of growing animals potentially leading to greater efficiency and reduced environmental impacts of animal production, while concomitantly improving product uniformity and consumer acceptance and enjoyment of muscle foods. PMID:20827399

Dodson, Michael V.; Hausman, Gary J.; Guan, LeLuo; Du, Min; Rasmussen, Theodore P.; Poulos, Sylvia P.; Mir, Priya; Bergen, Werner G.; Fernyhough, Melinda E.; McFarland, Douglas C.; Rhoads, Robert P.; Soret, Beatrice; Reecy, James M.; Velleman, Sandra G.; Jiang, Zhihua

2010-01-01

104

Stereochemical and Skeletal Diversity Arising from Amino Propargylic Alcohols  

PubMed Central

An efficient synthetic pathway to the possible stereoisomers of skeletally diverse heterocyclic small molecules is presented. The change in shape brought about by different intramolecular cyclizations of diastereoisomeric amino propargylic alcohols is quantified using principal moment-of-inertia (PMI) shape analysis. PMID:20481457

2010-01-01

105

Isolated hearts treated with skeletal muscle homogenates exhibit altered function.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle fiber damage and necrosis can result in the release of intracellular molecules into the extracellular environment. These molecules, termed damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), can act as signals capable of initiating immune and/or inflammatory responses through interactions with pattern recognition receptors. To investigate whether skeletal muscle DAMPs interact with the heart and alter cardiac function, isolated rat hearts were perfused for 75 min with buffer containing 1 ?g/ml of either soleus (slow), white gastrocnemius (WG, fast), or heat-stressed white gastrocnemius (HSWG) skeletal muscle homogenates. Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and rates of pressure increase/decrease (± dP/dt) were measured using the Langendorff technique. Compared to controls, no changes in LVDP or +dP/dt were observed over the 75-min perfusion when homogenates from the WG muscles were added. In contrast, at 30 min and thereafter, a decreased LVDP and +dP/dt was observed in the hearts treated with soleus muscle homogenates. The hearts treated with HSWG homogenates also showed a decrease in LVDP from 45 min until the end of perfusion. These results suggest that molecules present in slow muscle and heat-stressed muscle are capable of altering cardiac function. Thus, muscle fiber type and/or heat shock protein content of skeletal muscles may be factors that influence cardiac function following skeletal muscle damage. PMID:23526129

Di Battista, Alex P; Locke, Marius

2013-09-01

106

Molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase and pseudocholinesterase in chicken skeletal muscles  

E-print Network

Molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase and pseudocholinesterase in chicken skeletal muscles of molecular forms of chicken muscle acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and likewise of pseudocholinesterase (1/t on muscle cells, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), due to its concentration at the motor endplates, has

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

107

Contractile characteristics of skeletal muscles depleted of phosphocreatine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contractile characteristics of skeletal muscle were evaluated after phosphocreatine depletion was accomplished by feeding weanling female rats a ground Chow diet containing 1% of ß-guanidinopropionic acid for 10 weeks. Except for a slight decrease in initial strength and a 30% decrease in wet weight, phosphocreatine depleted plantaris muscles exhibited no abnormalities. By contrast, phosphocreatine depleted soleus muscles exhibited several

Jerrold S. Petrofsky; Coy D. Fitch

1980-01-01

108

Physiological Organization and Plasticity of Cat's Skeletal Muscle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the main aims of the investigation was to study the long-term effects of activity on isometric contractile properties of skeletal muscles. The experiments were performed on hindlimb muscles of cats. As a background for the analysis of muscle plasti...

O. Eerbeek

1990-01-01

109

AMP-activated protein kinase regulates nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase expression in skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Deacetylases such as sirtuins (SIRTs) convert NAD to nicotinamide (NAM). Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (Nampt) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the NAD salvage pathway responsible for converting NAM to NAD to maintain cellular redox state. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) increases SIRT activity by elevating NAD levels. As NAM directly inhibits SIRTs, increased Nampt activation or expression could be a metabolic stress response. Evidence suggests that AMPK regulates Nampt mRNA content, but whether repeated AMPK activation is necessary for increasing Nampt protein levels is unknown. To this end, we assessed whether exercise training- or 5-amino-1-?-D-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR)-mediated increases in skeletal muscle Nampt abundance are AMPK dependent. One-legged knee-extensor exercise training in humans increased Nampt protein by 16% (P < 0.05) in the trained, but not the untrained leg. Moreover, increases in Nampt mRNA following acute exercise or AICAR treatment (P < 0.05 for both) were maintained in mouse skeletal muscle lacking a functional AMPK ?2 subunit. Nampt protein was reduced in skeletal muscle of sedentary AMPK ?2 kinase dead (KD), but 6.5 weeks of endurance exercise training increased skeletal muscle Nampt protein to a similar extent in both wild-type (WT) (24%) and AMPK ?2 KD (18%) mice. In contrast, 4 weeks of daily AICAR treatment increased Nampt protein in skeletal muscle in WT mice (27%), but this effect did not occur in AMPK ?2 KD mice. In conclusion, functional ?2-containing AMPK heterotrimers are required for elevation of skeletal muscle Nampt protein, but not mRNA induction. These findings suggest AMPK plays a post-translational role in the regulation of skeletal muscle Nampt protein abundance, and further indicate that the regulation of cellular energy charge and nutrient sensing is mechanistically related. PMID:23918774

Brandauer, Josef; Vienberg, Sara G; Andersen, Marianne A; Ringholm, Stine; Risis, Steve; Larsen, Per S; Kristensen, Jonas M; Frřsig, Christian; Leick, Lotte; Fentz, Joachim; Jřrgensen, Sebastian; Kiens, Bente; Wojtaszewski, Jřrgen F P; Richter, Erik A; Zierath, Juleen R; Goodyear, Laurie J; Pilegaard, Henriette; Treebak, Jonas T

2013-10-15

110

Extracellular matrix adaptation of tendon and skeletal muscle to exercise  

PubMed Central

The extracellular matrix (ECM) of connective tissues enables linking to other tissues, and plays a key role in force transmission and tissue structure maintenance in tendons, ligaments, bone and muscle. ECM turnover is influenced by physical activity, and both collagen synthesis and metalloprotease activity increase with mechanical loading. This can be shown by determining propeptide and proteinase activity by microdialysis, as well as by verifying the incorporation of infused stable isotope amino acids in biopsies. Local tissue expression and release of growth factors for ECM such as IGF-1, TGF-beta and IL-6 is enhanced following exercise. For tendons, metabolic activity (e.g. detected by positron emission tomography scanning), circulatory responses (e.g. as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy and dye dilution) and collagen turnover are markedly increased after exercise. Tendon blood flow is regulated by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-mediated pathways, and glucose uptake is regulated by specific pathways in tendons that differ from those in skeletal muscle. Chronic loading in the form of physical training leads both to increased collagen turnover as well as to some degree of net collagen synthesis. These changes modify the mechanical properties and the viscoelastic characteristics of the tissue, decrease its stress-susceptibility and probably make it more load-resistant. The mechanical properties of tendon fascicles vary within a given human tendon, and even show gender differences. The latter is supported by findings of gender-related differences in the activation of collagen synthesis with exercise. These findings may provide the basis for understanding tissue overloading and injury in both tendons and skeletal muscle. PMID:16637870

Kjćr, Michael; Magnusson, Peter; Krogsgaard, Michael; Mřller, Jens Boysen; Olesen, Jens; Heinemeier, Katja; Hansen, Mette; Haraldsson, Bjarki; Koskinen, Satu; Esmarck, Birgitte; Langberg, Henning

2006-01-01

111

Training-induced apoptosis in skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Apoptosis or programmed cell death is a genetically controlled response of cells to commit suicide and is associated with DNA fragmentation or laddering. The common inducers of apoptosis include Ca2+i and oxygen free radicals/oxidative stress, which are also implicated in the pathogenesis of exercise-induced myopathies. To examine training-induced apoptosis, Thoroughbred horses were subjected to 3 months training programme on a treadmill. At the end of the training programme venous blood samples were taken for a creatine kinase (CK) assay. In addition, muscle biopsy samples were obtained for a membrane lipid peroxidation measurement by malondialdehyde (MDA) assay and for apoptosis detection. Apoptosis was studied by visualising the apoptotic myocytes on the paraffin sections by the modified TUNEL method. DNA laddering was evaluated by subjecting the DNA obtained from the biopsies to 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. There was a significant increase (P<0.05) of protein-bound MDA, and a nonsignificant trend (P = 0.14) for the control group to have higher levels of CK compared to the trained group. Under light microscopy, percentage of the TUNEL positive cells was higher (P<0.001) in the training group. This result was corroborated with the findings of DNA fragmentation by gel electrophoresis, which showed higher ladders of DNA band at the same group. In conclusion, these results clearly demonstrate that there is training-induced apoptosis in skeletal muscle. It is probable that apoptosis allows the work/recovery/rebound/supercompensation cycle, when unaccustomed muscle cells activate programmed cell death and are replaced by new and stronger cells, which is the mechanism for training-induced increases in fitness. PMID:12405700

Boffi, F M; Cittar, J; Balskus, G; Muriel, M; Desmaras, E

2002-09-01

112

Expression of the genes coding for the skeletal muscle and cardiac actions in the heart.  

PubMed Central

Several types of evidence indicate that the gene coding for the skeletal muscle actin is expressed in the rat heart: 1) A recombinant plasmid containing an insert with a nucleotide sequence identical to that of the homologous region of skeletal muscle actin gene was isolated from a cDNA library prepared on rat cardiac mRNA template. 2) Using specific probes it was found that the hearts of newborn rats contain a significant amount of skeletal muscle actin mRNA. The quantity of this mRNA in the heart decreases during development. 3) The skeletal muscle actin gene is DNAase I sensitive in nuclei from rat heart tissue. A plasmid containing a cDNA insert homologous to a part of the cardiac actin mRNA was isolated and sequenced. It was found that in spite of the great similarity between the amino acid sequence of the skeletal muscle and cardiac actins, the nucleotide sequences of the two mRNAs are considerably divergent. There is only limited sequence homology between the 3' untranslated regions of the two mRNAs. However, there is an extensive sequence homology between the 3' untranslated regions of the rat and human cardiac mRNAs, suggesting a functional role for this region of the gene or mRNA. Images PMID:6546444

Mayer, Y; Czosnek, H; Zeelon, P E; Yaffe, D; Nudel, U

1984-01-01

113

Dissemination of Walker 256 carcinoma cells to rat skeletal muscle  

SciTech Connect

After injection of 10/sup 6/ Walker 256 carcinoma cells labelled with /sup 125/I-5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine into the tail vein, peak concentration in skeletal muscle was 46 cells/g at 60 minutes, which was lower than 169202, 1665, 555, 198 and 133 cells/g, respectively, at 30 or 60 minutes in lung, liver, spleen, kidney and heart. Because skeletal muscle constitutes 37.4% of body weight, the total number of tumor cells was 2323 cells, which was much greater than in spleen, kidney and heart with 238, 271, and 85 cells, respectively, and only less than in lung and liver, at 222857 and 11700 cells, respectively. The total number in skeletal muscle became greater than in liver at 4 hours and than in lung at 24 hours. Ten minutes after injection of 7.5 x 10/sup 6/ Walker 256 carcinoma cells into the abdominal aorta of rats, a mean of 31 colony-forming cells were recovered from the gastrocnemius, while 106 cells were recovered from the lung after injection into the tail vein. These results indicate that a large number of viable tumor cells can be arrested in skeletal muscle through circulation. The rare remote metastasis of malignancies into skeletal muscle despite constantly circulating tumor cells does not appear to be due to poor dissemination of tumor cells into muscle but due to unhospitable environment of skeletal muscle.

Ueoka, H.; Hayashi, K.; Namba, T.; Grob, D.

1986-03-05

114

The extracellular compartments of frog skeletal muscle.  

PubMed Central

1. Detailed studies of solute efflux from frog sartorius muscle and single muscle fibres were carried out in order to characterize a 'special region' (Harris, 1963) in the extracellular space of muscle and determine whether this 'special region' is the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 2. The efflux of radioactive Na, Cl, glusose, 3-O-methylglucose, xylose, glycine, leucine, cycloleucine, Rb, K, inulin (mol. wt. 5000) and dextran (mol. wt. 17,000) from previously loaded muscles was studied. In all cases except dextran the curve had three components, a rapid (A) component which could be equated with efflux from the extracellular space proper, a slow (C) component representing cellular solute and an intermediate (B) component. The distribution space for the B component was 8% of muscle volume in summer frogs and 12% in winter frogs and appeared to be equal for all compounds studied. We tested the hypothesis that the B component originated from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 3. The C component was missing from the dextran curves. Both dextran and inulin entered the compartment of origin of the B component (compartment B) to the same extent as small molecules. 4. For all compounds studies, the efflux rate constant for the A component could be predicted from the diffusion coefficient. For the B component the efflux rate constant was 6--10 times slower than that for the A component but was still proportional to the diffusion coefficient for the solute in question. 5. When Na and sucrose efflux from single fibres was followed, a B component was usually observed. The average distribution space for this component was small, averaging 1.5% of fibre volume. There was no difference between the average efflux rate constants for Na and sucrose. 6. In an appendix, the constraints placed on the properties of a hypothetical channel between the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the T-system by the linear electrical parameters of frog skeletal muscle are derived. It is shown that the conductance of such a channel must be less than 0.06 x 10(-3) mohs/cm2 of fibre membrane. 7. The conductance between compartment B and the extracellular space can be calculated from the efflux rate constants for Na, K and Cl. The value obtained was 5 x 10(-3) mhos/cm2 of fibre membrane or 100 times the limiting value for the conductance of the T-SR junction. 8. The finding that there is a B component in the efflux curves for large molecular weight substances like inulin and dextran and the small size of the B component in efflux curves from single muscle fibres indicate that the 'speical region' of the extra-cellular space of frog muscle is not the sarcoplasmic reticulum. This conclusion is confirmed by a calculation of the conductance between the B compartment and the extracellular space. The value obtained is incompatible with predicted electrical properteis of the SR-T-tubule junction... PMID:313982

Neville, M C; Mathias, R T

1979-01-01

115

Na+-K+ Pump Regulation and Skeletal Muscle Contractility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The present review is written with the specific purpose of analyzing how regulation of the activity and the capacity of the Na+-K+ pumps influences excitability and contractile performance in skeletal muscle.

MD Torben Clausen (University of Aarhus Department of Physiology)

2003-10-01

116

The effects of obesity on skeletal muscle regeneration  

PubMed Central

Obesity and metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus are accompanied by increased lipid deposition in adipose and non-adipose tissues including liver, pancreas, heart and skeletal muscle. Recent publications report impaired regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle following injury in obese mice. Although muscle regeneration has not been thoroughly studied in obese and type 2 diabetic humans and mechanisms leading to decreased muscle regeneration in obesity remain elusive, the initial findings point to the possibility that muscle satellite cell function is compromised under conditions of lipid overload. Elevated toxic lipid metabolites and increased pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as insulin and leptin resistance that occur in obese animals may contribute to decreased regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle. In addition, obesity-associated alterations in the metabolic state of skeletal muscle fibers and satellite cells may directly impair the potential for satellite cell-mediated repair. Here we discuss recent studies that expand our understanding of how obesity negatively impacts skeletal muscle maintenance and regeneration. PMID:24381559

Akhmedov, Dmitry; Berdeaux, Rebecca

2013-01-01

117

Maintaining skeletal muscle mass: lessons learned from hibernation.  

PubMed

Muscle disuse and starvation are often associated with a catabolic response leading to a dramatic loss of skeletal muscle mass. Hibernating animals represent a unique situation where muscle mass is maintained despite prolonged periods of immobilization and lack of nutrition. We analysed the molecular pathways upregulated during hibernation in an obligate hibernator, the 13-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus). Although Akt has an established role in skeletal muscle maintenance, we found that activated Akt was decreased in skeletal muscle of hibernating squirrels. Another serine-threonine kinase, serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1), was upregulated during hibernation and contributed to protection from loss of muscle mass via downregulation of proteolysis and autophagy and via an increase in protein synthesis. We extended our observations to non-hibernating animals and demonstrated that SGK1-null mice developed muscle atrophy. These mice displayed an exaggerated response to immobilization and starvation. Furthermore, SGK1 overexpression prevented immobilization-induced muscle atrophy. Taken together, our results identify SGK1 as a novel therapeutic target to combat skeletal muscle loss in acquired and inherited forms of muscle atrophy. PMID:24443348

Ivakine, Evgueni A; Cohn, Ronald D

2014-04-01

118

Skeletal muscle and bone: effect of sex steroids and aging  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Both estrogen and testosterone are present in males and females. Both hormones contribute to the well being of skeletal muscle and bone in men and women, and there is evidence that the loss of sex hormones is associated with the age-related decline in bone and skeletal muscle mass. Hormonal supplementation of older adults to restore estrogen and testosterone levels to those of young men and women is not without penalty.

PhD Marybeth Brown (University of Missouri-Columbia Dept of Physical Therapy)

2008-02-14

119

Fatty acid-binding protein in bovine skeletal muscle  

E-print Network

FATTY ACID-BINDING PROTEIN IN BOVINE SKELETAL MUSCLE A Thesis by KIMBERLY KIRBY MOORE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1989 Major Subject: Nutrition FATTY ACID-BINDING PROTEIN IN BOVINE SKELETAL MUSCLE A Thesis by KIMBERLY KIRBY MOORE Approved as to style and content by: Ste en B. Smith (Chair of Committee) Karen S. Kubena (Member) Gary C. Smith (Head...

Moore, Kimberly Kirby

2012-06-07

120

The response of human skeletal muscle tissue to hypoxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypoxia refers to environmental or clinical settings that potentially threaten tissue oxygen homeostasis. One unique aspect\\u000a of skeletal muscle is that, in addition to hypoxia, oxygen balance in this tissue may be further compromised when exercise\\u000a is superimposed on hypoxia. This review focuses on the cellular and molecular responses of human skeletal muscle to acute\\u000a and chronic hypoxia, with emphasis

Carsten Lundby; Jose A. L. Calbet; Paul Robach

2009-01-01

121

Measurement of Na +,K +ATPase Activity in Human Skeletal Muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few published measures of Na+,K+-ATPase activity in human skeletal muscle. This study investigated the suitability of the K+-stimulated 3-O-methylfluorescein phosphatase assay for measurement of Na+,K+-ATPase activity in human skeletal muscle. Factors investigated include enzyme kinetics, sample treatment, and ligand concentration. The addition of ouabain blocked maximal K+-stimulated 3-O-methylfluorescein phosphatase (3-O-MFPase) activity, confirming the specificity of the assay. Activity

Steve F. Fraser; Michael J. McKenna

1998-01-01

122

Dihydropyridine Receptor-Ryanodine Receptor Uncoupling in Aged Skeletal Muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle functional impairment and structural changes with advanced age are only partially\\u000a understood. In the present study, we support and expand our theory about alterations in sarcolemmal excitation-sarcoplasmic\\u000a reticulum Ca2+ release-contraction uncoupling as a primary skeletal muscle alteration and major determinant of weakness and fatigue in mammalian\\u000a species including humans. To test the hypothesis that

M. Renganathan; M. L. Messi; O. Delbono

1997-01-01

123

Alterations in Mitochondria and Their Impact in Aging Skeletal Muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a There is an abundance of studies examining the involvement of mitochondria in aging, including their role in the functional\\u000a and structural deterioration of skeletal muscle with aging. Despite years of study, the precise involvement of mitochondria\\u000a in the aging of skeletal muscle remains to be fully understood. This chapter provides some context for the current knowledge\\u000a in this area and

Russell T. Hepple

124

Skeletal muscle interleukin-6 regulation in hyperthermia.  

PubMed

We previously reported that IL-6 production is acutely elevated in skeletal muscles exposed to ?41°C, but the regulatory pathways are poorly understood. The present study characterizes the heat-induced transcriptional control of IL-6 in C2C12 muscle fibers. Hyperthermia exposure (42°C for 1 h) induced transcription from an IL-6 promoter-luciferase reporter plasmid. Heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1), a principal mediator of the heat shock response, was then tested for its role in IL-6 regulation. Overexpression of a constitutively active HSF-1 construct increased basal (37°C) promoter activity, whereas overexpression of a dominant negative HSF-1 reduced IL-6 promoter activity during basal and hyperthermia conditions. Since hyperthermia also induces stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) signaling, we tested whether mutation of a transcription site downstream of SAPK, (i.e., activator protein-1, AP-1) influences IL-6 transcription in hyperthermia. The mutation had no effect on baseline reporter activity but completely inhibited heat-induced activity. We then tested whether pharmacologically induced states of protein stress, characteristic of cellular responses to hyperthermia and known to induce SAPKs and HSF-1, would induce IL-6 production in the absence of heat. The proteasome was inhibited with MG-132 in one set of experiments, and the unfolded protein response was stimulated with dithiothreitol, thapsigargin, tunicamycin, or castanospermine in other experiments. All treatments stimulated IL-6 protein secretion in the absence of hyperthermia. These studies demonstrate that IL-6 regulation in hyperthermia is directly controlled by HSF-1 and AP-1 signaling and that the IL-6 response in C2C12 myotubes is sensitive to categories of protein stress that reflect accumulation of damaged or unfolded proteins. PMID:23636453

Welc, Steven S; Judge, Andrew R; Clanton, Thomas L

2013-08-15

125

Renal function alterations during skeletal muscle disuse in simulated microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project was to examine the alterations in renal functions during skeletal muscle disuse in simulated microgravity. Although this area could cover a wide range of investigative efforts, the limited funding resulted in the selection of two projects. These projects would result in data contributing to an area of research deemed high priority by NASA and would address issues of the alterations in renal response to vasoactive stimuli during conditions of skeletal muscle disuse as well as investigate the contribution of skeletal muscle disuse, conditions normally found in long term human exposure to microgravity, to the balance of fluid and macromolecules within the vasculature versus the interstitium. These two projects selected are as follows: investigate the role of angiotensin 2 on renal function during periods of simulated microgravity and skeletal muscle disuse to determine if the renal response is altered to changes in circulating concentrations of angiotensin 2 compared to appropriate controls; and determine if the shift of fluid balance from vasculature to the interstitium, the two components of extracellular fluid volume, that occur during prolonged exposure to microgravity and skeletal muscle disuse is a result, in part, to alterations in the fluid and macromolecular balance in the peripheral capillary beds, of which the skeletal muscle contains the majority of recruitment capillaries. A recruitment capillary bed would be most sensitive to alterations in Starling forces and fluid and macromolecular permeability.

Tucker, Bryan J.

1992-01-01

126

Emergent Dilated Cardiomyopathy Caused by Targeted Repair of Dystrophic Skeletal Muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal disease characterized by deterioration of striated muscle, affecting skeletal and cardiac muscles. Recently, several therapeutic approaches have shown promise for repairing dystrophic skeletal muscles. However, these methods often leave the dystrophic heart untreated. Here we show that, in comparison to fully dystrophin-deficient animals, targeted transgenic repair of skeletal muscle, but not cardiac muscle,

DeWayne Townsend; Soichiro Yasuda; Sheng Li; Jeffrey S Chamberlain; Joseph M Metzger

2008-01-01

127

Systems analysis of biological networks in skeletal muscle function.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle function depends on the efficient coordination among subcellular systems. These systems are composed of proteins encoded by a subset of genes, all of which are tightly regulated. In the cases where regulation is altered because of disease or injury, dysfunction occurs. To enable objective analysis of muscle gene expression profiles, we have defined nine biological networks whose coordination is critical to muscle function. We begin by describing the expression of proteins necessary for optimal neuromuscular junction function that results in the muscle cell action potential. That action potential is transmitted to proteins involved in excitation-contraction coupling enabling Ca(2+) release. Ca(2+) then activates contractile proteins supporting actin and myosin cross-bridge cycling. Force generated by cross-bridges is transmitted via cytoskeletal proteins through the sarcolemma and out to critical proteins that support the muscle extracellular matrix. Muscle contraction is fueled through many proteins that regulate energy metabolism. Inflammation is a common response to injury that can result in alteration of many pathways within muscle. Muscle also has multiple pathways that regulate size through atrophy or hypertrophy. Finally, the isoforms associated with fast muscle fibers and their corresponding isoforms in slow muscle fibers are delineated. These nine networks represent important biological systems that affect skeletal muscle function. Combining high-throughput systems analysis with advanced networking software will allow researchers to use these networks to objectively study skeletal muscle systems. PMID:23188744

Smith, Lucas R; Meyer, Gretchen; Lieber, Richard L

2013-01-01

128

ATP metabolism in skeletal muscle arterioles  

PubMed Central

Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the metabolism of Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in skeletal muscle resistance arterioles and to determine whether this metabolism is altered during the rapid growth phase of the rat. We attempted to quantify ATP metabolism in gastrocnemius first?order arterioles from 8?, 10?, and 12?week?old rats. We measured ATP metabolism using an ATPase/GTPase assay with whole vessel segments as well as using a real?time adenosine biosensor following electric field stimulation. Our first method of measuring ATP metabolism allowed us to measure the amount of free phosphate produced with ATP as a substrate. When ecto?nucleotidase activity was inhibited by ARL67156, pyridoxal phosphate?6?azophenly?2?, 4??disulfonic acid (PPADS), or suramin prior to adding ATP, we found that the rate of phosphate production was significantly reduced by 27%, 21%, and 22%, respectively (P < 0.05). Our second method of measuring ATP metabolism allowed us to measure the amount of adenosine produced following electric field stimulation of the arteriole with and without nucleotidase inhibitors. Surprisingly, we found that adenosine overflow was not attenuated by nucleotidase inhibitors. We concluded that ecto?phosphodieterase/phyrophophatase (E?NPP), ecto?diadenosine polyphosphatase (ApnA), NTPDase1 and 2, and E5NT may be present on the gastrocnemius 1A arteriole and do play a role in ATP metabolism. Between the ages of 8 weeks and 12 weeks, however, overall ATP metabolism may not change. PMID:24744886

Stone, Audrey J.; Evanson, Kirk W.; Kluess, Heidi A.

2014-01-01

129

ATP metabolism in skeletal muscle arterioles.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the metabolism of Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in skeletal muscle resistance arterioles and to determine whether this metabolism is altered during the rapid growth phase of the rat. We attempted to quantify ATP metabolism in gastrocnemius first-order arterioles from 8-, 10-, and 12-week-old rats. We measured ATP metabolism using an ATPase/GTPase assay with whole vessel segments as well as using a real-time adenosine biosensor following electric field stimulation. Our first method of measuring ATP metabolism allowed us to measure the amount of free phosphate produced with ATP as a substrate. When ecto-nucleotidase activity was inhibited by ARL67156, pyridoxal phosphate-6-azophenly-2', 4'-disulfonic acid (PPADS), or suramin prior to adding ATP, we found that the rate of phosphate production was significantly reduced by 27%, 21%, and 22%, respectively (P < 0.05). Our second method of measuring ATP metabolism allowed us to measure the amount of adenosine produced following electric field stimulation of the arteriole with and without nucleotidase inhibitors. Surprisingly, we found that adenosine overflow was not attenuated by nucleotidase inhibitors. We concluded that ecto-phosphodieterase/phyrophophatase (E-NPP), ecto-diadenosine polyphosphatase (ApnA), NTPDase1 and 2, and E5NT may be present on the gastrocnemius 1A arteriole and do play a role in ATP metabolism. Between the ages of 8 weeks and 12 weeks, however, overall ATP metabolism may not change. PMID:24744886

Stone, Audrey J; Evanson, Kirk W; Kluess, Heidi A

2014-01-01

130

Myostatin and the skeletal muscle atrophy and hypertrophy signaling pathways.  

PubMed

Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-? superfamily, is a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth and is conserved in many species, from rodents to humans. Myostatin inactivation can induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy, while its overexpression or systemic administration causes muscle atrophy. As it represents a potential target for stimulating muscle growth and/or preventing muscle wasting, myostatin regulation and functions in the control of muscle mass have been extensively studied. A wealth of data strongly suggests that alterations in skeletal muscle mass are associated with dysregulation in myostatin expression. Moreover, myostatin plays a central role in integrating/mediating anabolic and catabolic responses. Myostatin negatively regulates the activity of the Akt pathway, which promotes protein synthesis, and increases the activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system to induce atrophy. Several new studies have brought new information on how myostatin may affect both ribosomal biogenesis and translation efficiency of specific mRNA subclasses. In addition, although myostatin has been identified as a modulator of the major catabolic pathways, including the ubiquitin-proteasome and the autophagy-lysosome systems, the underlying mechanisms are only partially understood. The goal of this review is to highlight outstanding questions about myostatin-mediated regulation of the anabolic and catabolic signaling pathways in skeletal muscle. Particular emphasis has been placed on (1) the cross-regulation between myostatin, the growth-promoting pathways and the proteolytic systems; (2) how myostatin inhibition leads to muscle hypertrophy; and (3) the regulation of translation by myostatin. PMID:25080109

Rodriguez, J; Vernus, B; Chelh, I; Cassar-Malek, I; Gabillard, J C; Hadj Sassi, A; Seiliez, I; Picard, B; Bonnieu, A

2014-11-01

131

Estimation of skeletal muscle mass from body creatine content  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedures have been developed for studying the effect of changes in gravitational loading on skeletal muscle mass through measurements of the body creatine content. These procedures were developed for studies of gravitational scale effects in a four-species model, comprising the hamster, rat, guinea pig, and rabbit, which provides a sufficient range of body size for assessment of allometric parameters. Since intracellular muscle creatine concentration varies among species, and with age within a given species, the concentration values for metabolically mature individuals of these four species were established. The creatine content of the carcass, skin, viscera, smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle was determined for each species. In addition, the skeletal muscle mass of the major body components was determined, as well as the total and fat-free masses of the body and carcass, and the percent skeletal muscle in each. It is concluded that these procedures are particularly useful for studying the effect of gravitational loading on the skeletal muscle content of the animal carcass, which is the principal weight-bearing organ of the body.

Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.

1982-01-01

132

Skeletal muscle hypertrophy and structure and function of skeletal muscle fibres in male body builders  

PubMed Central

Needle biopsy samples were taken from vastus lateralis muscle (VL) of five male body builders (BB, age 27.4 ± 0.93 years; mean ±s.e.m.), who had being performing hypertrophic heavy resistance exercise (HHRE) for at least 2 years, and from five male active, but untrained control subjects (CTRL, age 29.9 ± 2.01 years). The following determinations were performed: anatomical cross-sectional area and volume of the quadriceps and VL muscles in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); myosin heavy chain isoform (MHC) distribution of the whole biopsy samples by SDS-PAGE; cross-sectional area (CSA), force (Po), specific force (Po/CSA) and maximum shortening velocity (Vo) of a large population (n= 524) of single skinned muscle fibres classified on the basis of MHC isoform composition by SDS-PAGE; actin sliding velocity (Vf) on pure myosin isoforms by in vitro motility assays. In BB a preferential hypertrophy of fast and especially type 2X fibres was observed. The very large hypertrophy of VL in vivo could not be fully accounted for by single muscle fibre hypertrophy. CSA of VL in vivo was, in fact, 54% larger in BB than in CTRL, whereas mean fibre area was only 14% larger in BB than in CTRL. MHC isoform distribution was shifted towards 2X fibres in BB. Po/CSA was significantly lower in type 1 fibres from BB than in type 1 fibres from CTRL whereas both type 2A and type 2X fibres were significantly stronger in BB than in CTRL. Vo of type 1 fibres and Vf of myosin 1 were significantly lower in BB than in CTRL, whereas no difference was observed among fast fibres and myosin 2A. The findings indicate that skeletal muscle of BB was markedly adapted to HHRE through extreme hypertrophy, a shift towards the stronger and more powerful fibre types and an increase in specific force of muscle fibres. Such adaptations could not be fully accounted for by well known mechanisms of muscle plasticity, i.e. by the hypertrophy of single muscle fibre (quantitative mechanism) and by a regulation of contractile properties of muscle fibres based on MHC isoform content (qualitative mechanism). Two BB subjects took anabolic steroids and three BB subjects did not. The former BB differed from the latter BB mostly for the size of their muscles and muscle fibres. PMID:16339176

D'Antona, Giuseppe; Lanfranconi, Francesca; Pellegrino, Maria Antonietta; Brocca, Lorenza; Adami, Raffaella; Rossi, Rosetta; Moro, Giorgio; Miotti, Danilo; Canepari, Monica; Bottinelli, Roberto

2006-01-01

133

Premature Aging in Skeletal Muscle Lacking Serum Response Factor  

PubMed Central

Aging is associated with a progressive loss of muscle mass, increased adiposity and fibrosis that leads to sarcopenia. At the molecular level, muscle aging is known to alter the expression of a variety of genes but very little is known about the molecular effectors involved. SRF (Serum Response Factor) is a crucial transcription factor for muscle-specific gene expression and for post-natal skeletal muscle growth. To assess its role in adult skeletal muscle physiology, we developed a post-mitotic myofiber-specific and tamoxifen-inducible SRF knockout model. Five months after SRF loss, no obvious muscle phenotype was observed suggesting that SRF is not crucial for myofiber maintenance. However, mutant mice progressively developed IIB myofiber-specific atrophy accompanied by a metabolic switch towards a more oxidative phenotype, muscular lipid accumulation, sarcomere disorganization and fibrosis. After injury, mutant muscles exhibited an altered regeneration process, showing smaller regenerated fibers and persistent fibrosis. All of these features are strongly reminiscent of abnormalities encountered in aging skeletal muscle. Interestingly, we also observed an important age associated decrease in SRF expression in mice and human muscles. Altogether, these results suggest that a naturally occurring SRF down-regulation precedes and contributes to the muscle aging process. Indeed, triggering SRF loss in the muscles of mutant mice results in an accelerated aging process. PMID:19079548

Lahoute, Charlotte; Sotiropoulos, Athanassia; Favier, Marilyne; Guillet-Deniau, Isabelle; Charvet, Claude; Ferry, Arnaud; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Metzger, Daniel; Tuil, David; Daegelen, Dominique

2008-01-01

134

Gender difference of androgen actions on skeletal muscle transcriptome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sarcopenia is related to metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Hormone replacement therapies with androgens improve muscle functions by molecular mechanisms that are still unknown, at least partly because the skeletal muscle transcriptome has been less characterized in females. We performed the serial analysis of gene expression method in six experimental groups, intact (male and female), ovariectomy (OVX), OVXCdihydrotestosterone (DHT) injection

Mayumi Yoshioka; A. Boivin; C. Bolduc; J. St-Amand

2007-01-01

135

Physiologic and biochemical aspects of skeletal muscle denervation and reinnervation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some of the physiologic and biochemical changes that occur in mammalian skeletal muscle following denervation and reinnervation are considered and some comparisons are made with changes observed following altered motor function. The nature of the trophic influence by which nerves control muscle properties are discussed, including the effects of choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase and the role of the acetylcholine receptor.

Max, S. R.; Mayer, R. F.

1984-01-01

136

New Directions in Biology & Disease of Skeletal Muscle  

E-print Network

of this meeting is to facilitate research progress with the goal of translation to therapy for muscular diseases. MCNALLY, CHAIR) 8:30-8:50 Elizabeth McNally Nuclear membrane proteins in heart and muscle disease 8New Directions in Biology & Disease of Skeletal Muscle 2008 The Westin at Canal Place New Orleans

Bushman, Frederic

137

Ractopamine induces differential gene expression in porcine skeletal muscles1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ractopamine (RAC) improves growth by increasing lean accretion and decreasing fat deposi- tion through repartitioning nutrients from adipose tis- sue to skeletal muscle. Although the process is not com- pletely understood, RAC alters the proportion of muscle fiber type composition toward a faster-contracting phe- notype. Because one of the primary determinants of contractile speed is the relative abundance of myosin

A. M. Gunawan; B. T. Richert; A. P. Schinckel; A. L. Grant; D. E. Gerrard

2010-01-01

138

Statistical mechanics of myosin molecular motors in skeletal muscles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical mechanics provides the link between microscopic properties of matter and its bulk properties. The grand canonical ensemble formalism was applied to contracting rat skeletal muscles, the soleus (SOL, n=30) and the extensor digitalis longus (EDL, n=30). Huxley's equations were used to calculate force (?) per single crossbridge (CB), probabilities of six steps of the CB cycle, and peak muscle

Y. Lecarpentier; F.-X. Blanc; J. Quillard; J.-L. Hébert; X. Krokidis; C. Coirault

2005-01-01

139

Crystalloid bodies in skeletal muscle of hypothyroid myopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crystalloid bodies in skeletal muscle fibers have been described in myopathic and non-myopathic conditions. They have been interpreted as viral, glycogen, protein-glycogen complex, artifacts and of unknown nature. This report described similar crystalloid bodies in the postmortem muscle samples of two patients with hypothyroid myopathy. The crystalloid bodies were preferentially located in the I band and Z line region and

K.-L. Ho

1987-01-01

140

Natriuretic peptides enhance the oxidative capacity of human skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Cardiac natriuretic peptides (NP) are major activators of human fat cell lipolysis and have recently been shown to control brown fat thermogenesis. Here, we investigated the physiological role of NP on the oxidative metabolism of human skeletal muscle. NP receptor type A (NPRA) gene expression was positively correlated to mRNA levels of PPAR? coactivator-1? (PGC1A) and several oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) genes in human skeletal muscle. Further, the expression of NPRA, PGC1A, and OXPHOS genes was coordinately upregulated in response to aerobic exercise training in human skeletal muscle. In human myotubes, NP induced PGC-1? and mitochondrial OXPHOS gene expression in a cyclic GMP-dependent manner. NP treatment increased OXPHOS protein expression, fat oxidation, and maximal respiration independent of substantial changes in mitochondrial proliferation and mass. Treatment of myotubes with NP recapitulated the effect of exercise training on muscle fat oxidative capacity in vivo. Collectively, these data show that activation of NP signaling in human skeletal muscle enhances mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and fat oxidation. We propose that NP could contribute to exercise training-induced improvement in skeletal muscle fat oxidative capacity in humans. PMID:23114600

Engeli, Stefan; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Badin, Pierre-Marie; Bourlier, Virginie; Louche, Katie; Viguerie, Nathalie; Thalamas, Claire; Montastier, Emilie; Larrouy, Dominique; Harant, Isabelle; de Glisezinski, Isabelle; Lieske, Stefanie; Reinke, Julia; Beckmann, Bibiana; Langin, Dominique; Jordan, Jens; Moro, Cedric

2012-12-01

141

Natriuretic peptides enhance the oxidative capacity of human skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Cardiac natriuretic peptides (NP) are major activators of human fat cell lipolysis and have recently been shown to control brown fat thermogenesis. Here, we investigated the physiological role of NP on the oxidative metabolism of human skeletal muscle. NP receptor type A (NPRA) gene expression was positively correlated to mRNA levels of PPAR? coactivator-1? (PGC1A) and several oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) genes in human skeletal muscle. Further, the expression of NPRA, PGC1A, and OXPHOS genes was coordinately upregulated in response to aerobic exercise training in human skeletal muscle. In human myotubes, NP induced PGC-1? and mitochondrial OXPHOS gene expression in a cyclic GMP–dependent manner. NP treatment increased OXPHOS protein expression, fat oxidation, and maximal respiration independent of substantial changes in mitochondrial proliferation and mass. Treatment of myotubes with NP recapitulated the effect of exercise training on muscle fat oxidative capacity in vivo. Collectively, these data show that activation of NP signaling in human skeletal muscle enhances mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and fat oxidation. We propose that NP could contribute to exercise training–induced improvement in skeletal muscle fat oxidative capacity in humans. PMID:23114600

Engeli, Stefan; Birkenfeld, Andreas L.; Badin, Pierre-Marie; Bourlier, Virginie; Louche, Katie; Viguerie, Nathalie; Thalamas, Claire; Montastier, Emilie; Larrouy, Dominique; Harant, Isabelle; de Glisezinski, Isabelle; Lieske, Stefanie; Reinke, Julia; Beckmann, Bibiana; Langin, Dominique; Jordan, Jens; Moro, Cedric

2012-01-01

142

Method for Decellularizing Skeletal Muscle Without Detergents or Proteolytic Enzymes  

PubMed Central

Decellularized skeletal muscle is a promising model that can be used to study cell–matrix interactions and changes that occur in muscle extracellular matrix (ECM) in myopathies and muscle wasting diseases. The goal of this study is to develop a novel method to decellularize skeletal muscle that maintains the native biochemical composition and structure of the ECM. This method consists of sequential incubation of mouse tibialis anterior muscles in latrunculin B, high ionic strength salt solution, and DNase I and avoids use of proteases or detergents that degrade the ECM. Characterization of the decellularized muscles using hematoxylin and eosin staining along with DNA quantification suggested complete removal of DNA, whereas biochemical analyses indicated no loss of collagens and only a slight reduction in glycosaminoglycans. Western blot analysis of decellularized tissues showed removal of the vast majority of the contractile proteins actin and myosin, and morphological analysis using scanning electron microscopy suggested removal of myofibers from decellularized muscle tissues. Passive mechanical testing of decellularized muscle bundles revealed the typical nonlinear behavior, similar to that of intact muscle. Together, these results suggest that the protocol developed successfully decellularizes skeletal muscle without altering its composition and mechanical function. PMID:20973753

Gillies, Allison R.; Smith, Lucas R.; Lieber, Richard L.

2011-01-01

143

Polychlorobiphenyls inhibit skeletal muscle differentiation in culture.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous and persistent pollutants whose role in developmental toxicity is of great concern. The observation that the offspring of PCB-exposed mothers (both in humans and rodents) display reduced body mass prompted us to investigate the effects of commercial mixtures of PCB congeners (Aroclor 1232, 1254, and 1262) on differentiation of both a myogenic cell line and primary myogenic cell cultures. The fusion of L6 myoblasts into multinucleated myotubes and the increase of creatine kinase (CK) activity were dose-dependently inhibited by Aroclor 1254 at concentrations (0.1-4 microg/ml) that caused no effect on cell density. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated that Aroclor 1254 also prevented the accumulation of contractile filaments while inducing hypertrophy of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and appearance of membrane-filled autophagosomes. Half-maximal inhibition (IC50) of CK activity accumulation occurred at 0.01 microg/ml for Aroclor 1262, 2 microg/ml for Aroclor 1254, and 8 microg/ml for Aroclor 1232. Aroclor-dependent inhibition of myogenic differentiation was also shown by the reduced expression and nuclear accumulation of beta-galactosidase in primary cultures of fetal myoblasts from transgenic mice expressing this reporter gene under the control of the myosin light chain promoter. These data show that skeletal muscle differentiation is specifically impaired by PCBs and may explain the reported depression of body mass growth in PCB-exposed offspring at birth. Furthermore, myogenic cell cultures are highly sensitive to PCBs and allow the detection of biological effects of environmental levels of these pollutants. PMID:11559021

Coletti, D; Palleschi, S; Silvestroni, L; Cannavň, A; Vivarelli, E; Tomei, F; Molinaro, M; Adamo, S

2001-09-15

144

Gene expression profiling of skeletal muscle of nursing piglets.  

PubMed

To gain insight into the regulation mechanism associated with the rapid gain in skeletal muscle during neonatal period, gene expression profiles of skeletal muscle of nursing pigs was investigated using Affymetrix Porcine GeneChip. A total of 1094 transcripts were detected as differential expression over time course tested (p<0.01, q<0.05). With combinative use of partitioning around medoid and hierarchical clustering, three clusters of transcripts with distinct temporal expression were defined. Gene functional categories and pathways, particularly involved in cell signaling, cell cycle, cell adhesion, ECM-receptor interaction, glycolysis, protein synthesis and degradation, and intracellular transport, were identified. Moreover, we showed 49 of the differentially expressed genes within published QTL regions or with marked deletion effects. Our study demonstrates previously uncharacterized changes in transcription accompanying early postnatal growth of skeletal muscle of pigs. It has highlighted potential cascades and important candidates for further investigation on controlling of postnatal muscle growth. PMID:20975821

Jiang, Caode; Shi, Ping; Li, Shun; Dong, Ranran; Tian, Jiawei; Wei, Jin; Luo, Shuang

2010-01-01

145

Application of redox proteomics to skeletal muscle aging and exercise.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle represents a physiologically relevant model for the application of redox proteomic techniques to dissect its response to exercise and aging. Contracting skeletal muscles generate ROS (reactive oxygen species) and RNS (reactive nitrogen species) necessary for the regulation of many proteins involved in excitation-contraction coupling. The magnitude and species of ROS/RNS generated by contracting muscles will have downstream effects on specific protein targets and cellular redox signalling. Redox modifications on specific proteins are essential for the adaptive response to exercise and skeletal muscle can develop a dysregulated redox response during aging. In the present article, we discuss how redox proteomics can be applied to identify and quantify the reversible modifications on susceptible cysteine residues within those redox-sensitive proteins, and the integration of oxidative and non-oxidative protein modifications in relation to the functional proteome. PMID:25109987

McDonagh, Brian; Sakellariou, Giorgos K; Jackson, Malcolm J

2014-08-01

146

Cardiac, skeletal muscle and serum irisin responses to with or without water exercise in young and old male rats: cardiac muscle produces more irisin than skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Irisin converts white adipose tissue (WAT) into brown adipose tissue (BAT), as regulated by energy expenditure. The relationship between irisin concentrations after exercise in rats compared humans after exercise remains controversial. We therefore: (1) measured irisin expression in cardiac and skeletal muscle, liver, kidney, peripheral nerve sheath and skin tissues, as also serum irisin level in 10 week-old rats without exercise, and (2) measured tissue supernatant irisin levels in cardiac and skeletal muscle, and in response to exercise in young and old rats to establishing which tissues produced most irisin. Young (12 months) and old rats (24 months) with or without 10min exercise (water floating) and healthy 10 week-old Sprague-Dawley rats without exercise were used. Irisin was absent from sections of skeletal muscle of unexercised rats, the only part being stained being the perimysium. In contrast, cardiac muscle tissue, peripheral myelin sheath, liver, kidneys, and skin dermis and hypodermis were strongly immunoreactivity. No irisin was seen in skeletal muscle of unexercised young and old rats, but a slight amount was detected after exercise. Strong immunoreactivity occurred in cardiac muscle of young and old rats with or without exercise, notably in pericardial connective tissue. Serum irisin increased after exercise, being higher in younger than older rats. Irisin in tissue supernatants (cardiac and skeletal muscle) was high with or without exercise. High supernatant irisin could come from connective tissues around skeletal muscle, especially nerve sheaths located within it. Skeletal muscle is probably not a main irisin source. PMID:24345335

Aydin, Suna; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Aydin, Suleyman; Eren, Mehmet Nesimi; Celik, Ahmet; Yilmaz, Musa; Kalayci, Mehmet; Sahin, ?brahim; Gungor, Orhan; Gurel, Ali; Ogeturk, Murat; Dabak, Ozlem

2014-02-01

147

High skeletal muscle adenylate cyclase in malignant hyperthermia.  

PubMed Central

Malignant hyperthermia occurs in humans with several congenital myopathies, usually in response to general anesthesia. Commonly, individuals who develop this syndrome lack symptoms of muscle disease, and their muscle lacks specific pathological changes. A biochemical marker for this myopathy has not previously been available; we found activity of adenylate cyclase and content of cyclic AMP to be abnormally high in skeletal muscle. Secondary modification of protein phosphorylation could explain observed abnormalities of phosphorylase activation and sarcoplasmic reticulum function. PMID:6271806

Willner, J H; Cerri, C G; Wood, D S

1981-01-01

148

Sirt1 increases skeletal muscle precursor cell proliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to understand the mechanisms that control muscle precursor cell (MPC) proliferation for the development of countermeasures to offset the deleterious effects of the aging-related loss of skeletal muscle mass (and myonuclei) and the impaired ability of old muscle to regrow and regenerate. Over-expression of the NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase Sirt1 increased MPC proliferation and cell cycle progression as

Christopher R. Rathbone; Frank W. Booth; Simon J. Lees

2009-01-01

149

Force Transmission between Synergistic Skeletal Muscles through Connective Tissue Linkages  

PubMed Central

The classic view of skeletal muscle is that force is generated within its muscle fibers and then directly transmitted in-series, usually via tendon, onto the skeleton. In contrast, recent results suggest that muscles are mechanically connected to surrounding structures and cannot be considered as independent actuators. This article will review experiments on mechanical interactions between muscles mediated by such epimuscular myofascial force transmission in physiological and pathological muscle conditions. In a reduced preparation, involving supraphysiological muscle conditions, it is shown that connective tissues surrounding muscles are capable of transmitting substantial force. In more physiologically relevant conditions of intact muscles, however, it appears that the role of this myofascial pathway is small. In addition, it is hypothesized that connective tissues can serve as a safety net for traumatic events in muscle or tendon. Future studies are needed to investigate the importance of intermuscular force transmission during movement in health and disease. PMID:20396618

Maas, Huub; Sandercock, Thomas G.

2010-01-01

150

Thyroid hormones and skeletal muscle -- new insights and potential implications  

PubMed Central

Thyroid hormone signalling regulates crucial biological functions, including energy expenditure, thermogenesis, development and growth. The skeletal muscle is a major target of thyroid hormone signalling. The type two (DIO2) and three (DIO3) iodothyronine deiodinases have been identified in skeletal muscle. DIO2 expression is tightly regulated and catalyzes outer ring monodeiodination of the secreted prohormone tetraiodothyronine (T4) to generate the active hormone triiodothyronine (T3). T3 may remain in the myocyte to signal through nuclear receptors or exit the cell to mix with the extracellular pool. By contrast, DIO3 inactivates T3 through removal of an inner ring iodine. Regulation of the expression and activity of deiodinases constitutes a cell-autonomous, pre-receptor mechanism for controlling the intracellular concentration of T3. This local control of T3 activity is crucial during the various phases of myogenesis. Here, we review the roles of T3 in skeletal muscle development and homeostasis, with a focus on the emerging local deiodinase-mediated control of T3 signalling. Moreover, we discuss these novel findings in the context of both muscle homeostasis and pathology, and examine how they can be therapeutically harnessed to improve satellite cell-mediated muscle repair in patients with skeletal muscle disorders, muscle atrophy or injury. PMID:24322650

Salvatore, Domenico; Simonides, Warner S.; Dentice, Monica; Zavacki, Ann Marie; Larsen, P. Reed

2014-01-01

151

Hypodynamic and hypokinetic condition of skeletal muscles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data are presented in regard to the effect of unilateral brachial amputation on the physiological characteristics of two functionally different muscles, the brachial muscle (flexor of the brachium) and the medial head of the brachial triceps muscle (extensor of the brachium), which in rats represents a separate muscle. Hypokinesia and hypodynamia were studied.

Katinas, G. S.; Oganov, V. S.; Potapov, A. N.

1980-01-01

152

Growth Factors and Tension-Induced Skeletal Muscle Growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The project investigated biochemical mechanisms to enhance skeletal muscle growth, and developed a computer based mechanical cell stimulator system. The biochemicals investigated in this study were insulin/(Insulin like Growth Factor) IGF-1 and Steroids. In order to analyze which growth factors are essential for stretch-induced muscle growth in vitro, we developed a defined, serum-free medium in which the differentiated, cultured avian muscle fibers could be maintained for extended periods of time. The defined medium (muscle maintenance medium, MM medium) maintains the nitrogen balance of the myofibers for 3 to 7 days, based on myofiber diameter measurements and myosin heavy chain content. Insulin and IGF-1, but not IGF-2, induced pronounced myofiber hypertrophy when added to this medium. In 5 to 7 days, muscle fiber diameters increase by 71 % to 98% compared to untreated controls. Mechanical stimulation of the avian muscle fibers in MM medium increased the sensitivity of the cells to insulin and IGF-1, based on a leftward shift of the insulin dose/response curve for protein synthesis rates. (54). We developed a ligand binding assay for IGF-1 binding proteins and found that the avian skeletal muscle cultures produced three major species of 31, 36 and 43 kD molecular weight (54) Stretch of the myofibers was found to have no significant effect on the efflux of IGF-1 binding proteins, but addition of exogenous collagen stimulated IGF-1 binding protein production 1.5 to 5 fold. Steroid hormones have a profound effect on muscle protein turnover rates in vivo, with the stress-related glucocorticoids inducing rapid skeletal muscle atrophy while androgenic steroids induce skeletal muscle growth. Exercise in humans and animals reduces the catabolic effects of glucocorticoids and may enhance the anabolic effects of androgenic steroids on skeletal muscle. In our continuing work on the involvement of exogenrus growth factors in stretch-induced avian skeletal muscle growth, we have performed experiments to determine whether mechanical stimulation of cultured avian muscle cells alters their response to anabolic steroids or glucocorticoids. In static cultures, testosterone had no effect on muscle cell growth, but 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone and the synthetic steroid stanozolol increased cell growth by up to 18% and 30%, respectively, after a three day exposure. We completed development of a new IBM-based mechanical cell stimulator system to provide greater flexibility in operating and monitoring our experiments. Our previous long term studies on myofiber growth were designed around a perfusion system of our own design. We have recently changed to performing these studies using a modified CELLCO cartridge bioreactor system Z since it has been certified as the ground-based model for the Shuttle's Space Tissue Loss (STL) F= Cell Culture Module. The current goals of this aspect of the project are three fold: 1) to design a Z cell culture system for studying avian skeletal myofiber atrophy on the Shuttle and Space Station; 0 2) to expand the use of bioreactors to cells which do not grow in either suspension or attached to the hollow fibers; and 3) to combine the bioreactor system with our computerized mechanical cell stimulator to have a better in vitro model to study tension/gravity/stretch regulation of skeletal muscle size. Preliminary studies also reported on involved : (1) how release of tension can induce rapid atrophy of tissues cultured avian skeletal muscle cells, and (2) a mechanism to transfer and maintain avian skeletal muscle organoids in modified cartridges in the Space Tissue Loss Module.

Vandenburgh, Herman H.

1994-01-01

153

Effective fiber hypertrophy in satellite cell-depleted skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

An important unresolved question in skeletal muscle plasticity is whether satellite cells are necessary for muscle fiber hypertrophy. To address this issue, a novel mouse strain (Pax7-DTA) was created which enabled the conditional ablation of >90% of satellite cells in mature skeletal muscle following tamoxifen administration. To test the hypothesis that satellite cells are necessary for skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the plantaris muscle of adult Pax7-DTA mice was subjected to mechanical overload by surgical removal of the synergist muscle. Following two weeks of overload, satellite cell-depleted muscle showed the same increases in muscle mass (approximately twofold) and fiber cross-sectional area with hypertrophy as observed in the vehicle-treated group. The typical increase in myonuclei with hypertrophy was absent in satellite cell-depleted fibers, resulting in expansion of the myonuclear domain. Consistent with lack of nuclear addition to enlarged fibers, long-term BrdU labeling showed a significant reduction in the number of BrdU-positive myonuclei in satellite cell-depleted muscle compared with vehicle-treated muscle. Single fiber functional analyses showed no difference in specific force, Ca(2+) sensitivity, rate of cross-bridge cycling and cooperativity between hypertrophied fibers from vehicle and tamoxifen-treated groups. Although a small component of the hypertrophic response, both fiber hyperplasia and regeneration were significantly blunted following satellite cell depletion, indicating a distinct requirement for satellite cells during these processes. These results provide convincing evidence that skeletal muscle fibers are capable of mounting a robust hypertrophic response to mechanical overload that is not dependent on satellite cells. PMID:21828094

McCarthy, John J; Mula, Jyothi; Miyazaki, Mitsunori; Erfani, Rod; Garrison, Kelcye; Farooqui, Amreen B; Srikuea, Ratchakrit; Lawson, Benjamin A; Grimes, Barry; Keller, Charles; Van Zant, Gary; Campbell, Kenneth S; Esser, Karyn A; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E; Peterson, Charlotte A

2011-09-01

154

Effective fiber hypertrophy in satellite cell-depleted skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

An important unresolved question in skeletal muscle plasticity is whether satellite cells are necessary for muscle fiber hypertrophy. To address this issue, a novel mouse strain (Pax7-DTA) was created which enabled the conditional ablation of >90% of satellite cells in mature skeletal muscle following tamoxifen administration. To test the hypothesis that satellite cells are necessary for skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the plantaris muscle of adult Pax7-DTA mice was subjected to mechanical overload by surgical removal of the synergist muscle. Following two weeks of overload, satellite cell-depleted muscle showed the same increases in muscle mass (approximately twofold) and fiber cross-sectional area with hypertrophy as observed in the vehicle-treated group. The typical increase in myonuclei with hypertrophy was absent in satellite cell-depleted fibers, resulting in expansion of the myonuclear domain. Consistent with lack of nuclear addition to enlarged fibers, long-term BrdU labeling showed a significant reduction in the number of BrdU-positive myonuclei in satellite cell-depleted muscle compared with vehicle-treated muscle. Single fiber functional analyses showed no difference in specific force, Ca2+ sensitivity, rate of cross-bridge cycling and cooperativity between hypertrophied fibers from vehicle and tamoxifen-treated groups. Although a small component of the hypertrophic response, both fiber hyperplasia and regeneration were significantly blunted following satellite cell depletion, indicating a distinct requirement for satellite cells during these processes. These results provide convincing evidence that skeletal muscle fibers are capable of mounting a robust hypertrophic response to mechanical overload that is not dependent on satellite cells. PMID:21828094

McCarthy, John J.; Mula, Jyothi; Miyazaki, Mitsunori; Erfani, Rod; Garrison, Kelcye; Farooqui, Amreen B.; Srikuea, Ratchakrit; Lawson, Benjamin A.; Grimes, Barry; Keller, Charles; Van Zant, Gary; Campbell, Kenneth S.; Esser, Karyn A.; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.; Peterson, Charlotte A.

2011-01-01

155

The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. {yields} We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. {yields} Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. {yields} Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient-related hormones such as leptin may be able to reverse muscle atrophy and alter the expression of atrophy-related miRNAs in aging skeletal muscle.

Hamrick, Mark W., E-mail: mhamrick@mail.mcg.edu [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States) [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); He, Hong-Zhi [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States) [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Shiver, Austin [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States) [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Qi, Rui-Qun [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States) [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Zhou, Li [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States) [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Isales, Carlos M. [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States) [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); and others

2010-09-24

156

Skeletal muscle as a regulator of the longevity protein, Klotho  

PubMed Central

Klotho is a powerful longevity protein that has been linked to the prevention of muscle atrophy, osteopenia, and cardiovascular disease. Similar anti-aging effects have also been ascribed to exercise and physical activity. While an association between muscle function and Klotho expression has been previously suggested from longitudinal cohort studies, a direct relationship between circulating Klotho and skeletal muscle has not been investigated. In this paper, we present a review of the literature and preliminary evidence that, together, suggests Klotho expression may be modulated by skeletal muscle activity. Our pilot clinical findings performed in young and aged individuals suggest that circulating Klotho levels are upregulated in response to an acute exercise bout, but that the response may be dependent on fitness level. A similar upregulation of circulating Klotho is also observed in response to an acute exercise in young and old mice, suggesting that this may be a good model for mechanistically probing the role of physical activity on Klotho expression. Finally, we highlight overlapping signaling pathways that are modulated by both Klotho and skeletal muscle and propose potential mechanisms for cross-talk between the two. It is hoped that this review will stimulate further consideration of the relationship between skeletal muscle activity and Klotho expression, potentially leading to important insights into the well-documented systemic anti-aging effects of exercise. PMID:24987372

Avin, Keith G.; Coen, Paul M.; Huang, Wan; Stolz, Donna B.; Sowa, Gwendolyn A.; Dube, John J.; Goodpaster, Bret H.; O'Doherty, Robert M.; Ambrosio, Fabrisia

2014-01-01

157

Changes in skeletal muscle gene expression following clenbuterol administration  

PubMed Central

Background Beta-adrenergic receptor agonists (BA) induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy, yet specific mechanisms that lead to this effect are not well understood. The objective of this research was to identify novel genes and physiological pathways that potentially facilitate BA induced skeletal muscle growth. The Affymetrix platform was utilized to identify gene expression changes in mouse skeletal muscle 24 hours and 10 days after administration of the BA clenbuterol. Results Administration of clenbuterol stimulated anabolic activity, as indicated by decreased blood urea nitrogen (BUN; P < 0.01) and increased body weight gain (P < 0.05) 24 hours or 10 days, respectively, after initiation of clenbuterol treatment. A total of 22,605 probesets were evaluated with 52 probesets defined as differentially expressed based on a false discovery rate of 10%. Differential mRNA abundance of four of these genes was validated in an independent experiment by quantitative PCR. Functional characterization of differentially expressed genes revealed several categories that participate in biological processes important to skeletal muscle growth, including regulators of transcription and translation, mediators of cell-signalling pathways, and genes involved in polyamine metabolism. Conclusion Global evaluation of gene expression after administration of clenbuterol identified changes in gene expression and overrepresented functional categories of genes that may regulate BA-induced muscle hypertrophy. Changes in mRNA abundance of multiple genes associated with myogenic differentiation may indicate an important effect of BA on proliferation, differentiation, and/or recruitment of satellite cells into muscle fibers to promote muscle hypertrophy. Increased mRNA abundance of genes involved in the initiation of translation suggests that increased levels of protein synthesis often associated with BA administration may result from a general up-regulation of translational initiators. Additionally, numerous other genes and physiological pathways were identified that will be important targets for further investigations of the hypertrophic effect of BA on skeletal muscle. PMID:17181869

Spurlock, Diane M; McDaneld, Tara G; McIntyre, Lauren M

2006-01-01

158

Growth factor involvement in tension-induced skeletal muscle growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term manned space travel will require a better understanding of skeletal muscle atrophy which results from microgravity. Astronaut strength and dexterity must be maintained for normal mission operations and for emergency situations. Although exercise in space slows the rate of muscle loss, it does not prevent it. A biochemical understanding of how gravity/tension/exercise help to maintain muscle size by altering protein synthesis and/or degradation rate should ultimately allow pharmacological intervention to prevent muscle atrophy in microgravity. The overall objective is to examine some of the basic biochemical processes involved in tension-induced muscle growth. With an experimental in vitro system, the role of exogenous and endogenous muscle growth factors in mechanically stimulated muscle growth are examined. Differentiated avian skeletal myofibers can be 'exercised' in tissue culture using a newly developed dynamic mechanical cell stimulator device which simulates different muscle activity patterns. Patterns of mechanical activity which significantly affect muscle growth and metabolic characteristics were found. Both exogenous and endogenous growth factors are essential for tension-induced muscle growth. Exogenous growth factors found in serum, such as insulin, insulin-like growth factors, and steroids, are important regulators of muscle protein turnover rates and mechanically-induced muscle growth. Endogenous growth factors are synthesized and released into the culture medium when muscle cells are mechanically stimulated. At least one family of mechanically induced endogenous factors, the prostaglandins, help to regulate the rates of protein turnover in muscle cells. Endogenously synthesized IGF-1 is another. The interaction of muscle mechanical activity and these growth factors in the regulation of muscle protein turnover rates with our in vitro model system is studied.

Vandenburgh, Herman H.

1993-01-01

159

Fast Skeletal Muscle Troponin Activation Increases Force of Mouse Fast Skeletal Muscle and Ameliorates Weakness Due to Nebulin-Deficiency  

PubMed Central

The effect of the fast skeletal muscle troponin activator, CK-2066260, on calcium-induced force development was studied in skinned fast skeletal muscle fibers from wildtype (WT) and nebulin deficient (NEB KO) mice. Nebulin is a sarcomeric protein that when absent (NEB KO mouse) or present at low levels (nemaline myopathy (NM) patients with NEB mutations) causes muscle weakness. We studied the effect of fast skeletal troponin activation on WT muscle and tested whether it might be a therapeutic mechanism to increase muscle strength in nebulin deficient muscle. We measured tension–pCa relations with and without added CK-2066260. Maximal active tension in NEB KO tibialis cranialis fibers in the absence of CK-2066260 was ?60% less than in WT fibers, consistent with earlier work. CK-2066260 shifted the tension-calcium relationship leftwards, with the largest relative increase (up to 8-fold) at low to intermediate calcium levels. This was a general effect that was present in both WT and NEB KO fiber bundles. At pCa levels above ?6.0 (i.e., calcium concentrations <1 µM), CK-2066260 increased tension of NEB KO fibers to beyond that of WT fibers. Crossbridge cycling kinetics were studied by measuring ktr (rate constant of force redevelopment following a rapid shortening/restretch). CK-2066260 greatly increased ktr at submaximal activation levels in both WT and NEB KO fiber bundles. We also studied the sarcomere length (SL) dependence of the CK-2066260 effect (SL 2.1 µm and 2.6 µm) and found that in the NEB KO fibers, CK-2066260 had a larger effect on calcium sensitivity at the long SL. We conclude that fast skeletal muscle troponin activation increases force at submaximal activation in both wildtype and NEB KO fiber bundles and, importantly, that this troponin activation is a potential therapeutic mechanism for increasing force in NM and other skeletal muscle diseases with loss of muscle strength. PMID:23437068

Lee, Eun-Jeong; De Winter, Josine M.; Buck, Danielle; Jasper, Jeffrey R.; Malik, Fady I.; Labeit, Siegfried; Ottenheijm, Coen A.; Granzier, Henk

2013-01-01

160

PPAR? regulates satellite cell proliferation and skeletal muscle regeneration  

PubMed Central

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a class of nuclear receptors that play important roles in development and energy metabolism. Whereas PPAR? has been shown to regulate mitochondrial biosynthesis and slow-muscle fiber types, its function in skeletal muscle progenitors (satellite cells) is unknown. Since constitutive mutation of Ppar? leads to embryonic lethality, we sought to address this question by conditional knockout (cKO) of Ppar? using Myf5-Cre/Ppar?flox/flox alleles to ablate PPAR? in myogenic progenitor cells. Although Ppar?-cKO mice were born normally and initially displayed no difference in body weight, muscle size or muscle composition, they later developed metabolic syndrome, which manifested as increased body weight and reduced response to glucose challenge at age nine months. Ppar?-cKO mice had 40% fewer satellite cells than their wild-type littermates, and these satellite cells exhibited reduced growth kinetics and proliferation in vitro. Furthermore, regeneration of Ppar?-cKO muscles was impaired after cardiotoxin-induced injury. Gene expression analysis showed reduced expression of the Forkhead box class O transcription factor 1 (FoxO1) gene in Ppar?-cKO muscles under both quiescent and regenerating conditions, suggesting that PPAR? acts through FoxO1 in regulating muscle progenitor cells. These results support a function of PPAR? in regulating skeletal muscle metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and they establish a novel role of PPAR? in muscle progenitor cells and postnatal muscle regeneration. PMID:22040534

2011-01-01

161

A comparative histochemical and morphometric study of canine skeletal muscle.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were differences in skeletal muscle properties in the hindlimb muscles of different types of dogs. Muscle samples were obtained from the gracilis, sartorius cranial head, sartorius caudal head and tibialis anterior muscles of mixed-breed and hound-type dogs and Beagles. Fiber type, fiber size and capillary morphometry determinations of each muscle from each dog were made from sections stained for myofibrillar ATPase activity. Individual animals were bilaterally symmetric for all measured variables. Fiber type, fiber size and capillary geometry varied between dogs of a given type and muscles within a given dog. There were no differences between dog types for fiber type or fiber size; significant variation in log(muscle)/log(body) mass ratios between dog types was observed for all muscles. The results indicate that for a given muscle, significant variation can occur in skeletal muscle characteristics between different types of dogs and that these differences can be independent of differences in exercise history. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2523755

Kuzon, W M; Rosenblatt, J D; Pynn, B R; Marchetti, P J; Plyley, M J; McKee, N H

1989-01-01

162

Correcting radiofrequency inhomogeneity effects in skeletal muscle magnetisation transfer maps.  

PubMed

The potential of MRI to provide quantitative measures of neuromuscular pathology for use in therapeutic trials is being increasingly recognised. Magnetisation transfer (MT) imaging shows particular promise in this context, being sensitive to pathological changes, particularly in skeletal muscle, where measurements correlate with clinically measured muscle strength. Radiofrequency (RF) transmit field (B(1)) inhomogeneities can be particularly problematic in measurements of the MT ratio (MTR) and may obscure genuine muscle MTR changes caused by disease. In this work, we evaluate, for muscle imaging applications, a scheme previously proposed for the correction of RF inhomogeneity artefacts in cerebral MTR maps using B(1) information acquired in the same session. We demonstrate the theoretical applicability of this scheme to skeletal muscle using a two-pool model of pulsed quantitative MT. The correction scheme is evaluated practically in MTR imaging of the lower limbs of 28 healthy individuals and in two groups of patients with representative neuromuscular diseases: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A and inclusion body myositis. The correction scheme was observed to reduce both the within-subject and between-subject variability in the calf and thigh muscles of healthy subjects and patient groups in histogram- and region-of-interest-based approaches. This method of correcting for RF inhomogeneity effects in MTR maps using B(1) data may markedly improve the sensitivity of MTR mapping indices as measures of pathology in skeletal muscle. PMID:21796708

Sinclair, C D J; Morrow, J M; Hanna, M G; Reilly, M M; Yousry, T A; Golay, X; Thornton, J S

2012-02-01

163

Maternal nutrient restriction affects properties of skeletal muscle in offspring  

PubMed Central

Maternal nutrient restriction (NR) affects fetal development with long-term consequences on postnatal health of offspring, including predisposition to obesity and diabetes. Most studies have been conducted in fetuses in late gestation, and little information is available on the persistent impact of NR from early to mid-gestation on properties of offspring skeletal muscle, which was the aim of this study. Pregnant ewes were subjected to 50% NR from day 28–78 of gestation and allowed to deliver. The longissimus dorsi muscle was sampled from 8-month-old offspring. Maternal NR during early to mid-gestation decreased the number of myofibres in the offspring and increased the ratio of myosin IIb to other isoforms by 17.6 ± 4.9% (P < 0.05) compared with offspring of ad libitum fed ewes. Activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, a key enzyme controlling fatty acid oxidation, was reduced by 24.7 ± 4.5% (P < 0.05) in skeletal muscle of offspring of NR ewes and would contribute to increased fat accumulation observed in offspring of NR ewes. Intramuscular triglyceride content (IMTG) was increased in skeletal muscle of NR lambs, a finding which may be linked to predisposition to diabetes in offspring of NR mothers, since enhanced IMTG predisposes to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Proteomic analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis demonstrated downregulation of several catabolic enzymes in 8-month-old offspring of NR ewes. These data demonstrate that the early to mid-gestation period is important for skeletal muscle development. Impaired muscle development during this stage of gestation affects the number and composition of fibres in offspring which may lead to long-term physiological consequences, including predisposition to obesity and diabetes. PMID:16763001

Zhu, Mei J; Ford, Stephen P; Means, Warrie J; Hess, Bret W; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Du, Min

2006-01-01

164

Systems-based Discovery of Tomatidine as a Natural Small Molecule Inhibitor of Skeletal Muscle Atrophy*  

PubMed Central

Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common and debilitating condition that lacks an effective therapy. To address this problem, we used a systems-based discovery strategy to search for a small molecule whose mRNA expression signature negatively correlates to mRNA expression signatures of human skeletal muscle atrophy. This strategy identified a natural small molecule from tomato plants, tomatidine. Using cultured skeletal myotubes from both humans and mice, we found that tomatidine stimulated mTORC1 signaling and anabolism, leading to accumulation of protein and mitochondria, and ultimately, cell growth. Furthermore, in mice, tomatidine increased skeletal muscle mTORC1 signaling, reduced skeletal muscle atrophy, enhanced recovery from skeletal muscle atrophy, stimulated skeletal muscle hypertrophy, and increased strength and exercise capacity. Collectively, these results identify tomatidine as a novel small molecule inhibitor of muscle atrophy. Tomatidine may have utility as a therapeutic agent or lead compound for skeletal muscle atrophy. PMID:24719321

Dyle, Michael C.; Ebert, Scott M.; Cook, Daniel P.; Kunkel, Steven D.; Fox, Daniel K.; Bongers, Kale S.; Bullard, Steven A.; Dierdorff, Jason M.; Adams, Christopher M.

2014-01-01

165

Altered cross-bridge properties in skeletal muscle dystrophies  

PubMed Central

Force and motion generated by skeletal muscle ultimately depends on the cyclical interaction of actin with myosin. This mechanical process is regulated by intracellular Ca2+ through the thin filament-associated regulatory proteins i.e.; troponins and tropomyosin. Muscular dystrophies are a group of heterogeneous genetic affections characterized by progressive degeneration and weakness of the skeletal muscle as a consequence of loss of muscle tissue which directly reduces the number of potential myosin cross-bridges involved in force production. Mutations in genes responsible for skeletal muscle dystrophies (MDs) have been shown to modify the function of contractile proteins and cross-bridge interactions. Altered gene expression or RNA splicing or post-translational modifications of contractile proteins such as those related to oxidative stress, may affect cross-bridge function by modifying key proteins of the excitation-contraction coupling. Micro-architectural change in myofilament is another mechanism of altered cross-bridge performance. In this review, we provide an overview about changes in cross-bridge performance in skeletal MDs and discuss their ultimate impacts on striated muscle function. PMID:25352808

Guellich, Aziz; Negroni, Elisa; Decostre, Valerie; Demoule, Alexandre; Coirault, Catherine

2014-01-01

166

Functional classification of skeletal muscle networks. II. Applications to pathophysiology  

PubMed Central

In our preceding companion paper (Wang Y, Winters J, Subramaniam S. J Appl Physiol. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01514.2011), we used extensive expression profile data on normal human subjects, in combination with legacy knowledge to classify skeletal muscle function into four models, namely excitation-activation, mechanical, metabolic, and signaling-production model families. In this paper, we demonstrate how this classification can be applied to study two well-characterized myopathies: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Using skeletal muscle profile data from ALS and DMD patients compared with that from normal subjects, normal young in the case of DMD, we delineate molecular mechanisms that are causative and consequential to skeletal muscle dysfunction. In ALS, our analysis establishes the metabolic role and specifically identifies the mechanisms of calcium dysregulation and defects in mitochondrial transport of materials as important for muscle dysfunction. In DMD, we illustrate how impaired mechanical function is strongly coordinated with other three functional networks, resulting in transformation of the skeletal muscle into hybrid forms as a compensatory mechanism. Our functional models also provide, in exquisite detail, the mechanistic role of myriad proteins in these four families in normal and disease function. PMID:23085957

Wang, Yu; Winters, Jack

2012-01-01

167

Homer protein family regulation in skeletal muscle and neuromuscular adaptation.  

PubMed

Scaffolding adaptor proteins of the Homer family have recently been implicated in regulation of a large number of physiological processes owing to their remarkable ability to coordinate a complex network of different molecular players within the same signaling pathway. However, because of their unique molecular properties that also allow functional modulation of a plethora of different interacting protein partners, Homers seem to play additional and important roles in the integration of several molecular players belonging to different signaling pathways and thus allowing crosstalk. The role of the Homer protein family has been previously extensively investigated in neuronal tissue where it was first discovered as a new protein family being upregulated in response to brain seizures (Brakeman P.R., et al., Nature 1997, 386, 284-288.). Recently, the role of Homers was also proposed in skeletal muscle physiology. For instance, it has been shown that Homers regulate both the myogenic differentiation program and the open probability (Po) of several ion channels. Furthermore, by knocking out Homer1, one of the three Homer genes, mice carrying such deletion displayed a pronounced skeletal muscle myopathy associated with altered transient receptor potential activity and calcium homeostasis. Homer expression has now been further characterized at the neuromuscular junction in skeletal muscle. Apart from their known role at central synapses, Homers are important physiological determinants in differentiation, development, and adaptation in skeletal muscle and the neuromuscular system and thus integrating motor neuron control, for example, with downstream calcium signaling pathways in muscle fibers. PMID:23913637

Salanova, Michele; Volpe, Pompeo; Blottner, Dieter

2013-09-01

168

Human skeletal muscle responses to spaceflight and possible countermeasures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current status of knowledge concerning the effects of unweighting skeletal muscle is summarized. The results of both ground-based and space-based animal studies are reviewed which show that there is rapid loss in muscle mass, primarily in slow-twitch muscle, of the rat during unweighting of muscle. There is also a shift in the myosin isoforms with muscles such that slow-twitch muscles take on many of the characteristics of fast-twitch muscles. Ground-based studies in human suggest that programs of electrical stimulation can be developed to simulate normal muscular contractions. Attempts to develop countermeasures to the adverse effects of space travel on muscular functions in humans have not been successful to date.

Gollnick, Philip D.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Saltin, Bengt

1990-01-01

169

Diffusion-Tensor MRI Based Skeletal Muscle Fiber Tracking  

PubMed Central

A skeletal muscle's function is strongly influenced by the internal organization and geometric properties of its fibers, a property known as muscle architecture. Diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging-based fiber tracking provides a powerful tool for non-invasive muscle architecture studies, has three-dimensional sensitivity, and uses a fixed frame of reference. Significant advances have been made in muscle fiber tracking technology, including defining seed points for fiber tracking, quantitatively characterizing muscle architecture, implementing denoising procedures, and testing validity and repeatability. Some examples exist of how these data can be integrated with those from other advanced MRI and computational methods to provide novel insights into muscle function. Perspectives are offered regarding future directions in muscle diffusion-tensor imaging, including needs to develop an improved understanding for the microstructural basis for reduced and anisotropic diffusion, establish the best practices for data acquisition and analysis, and integrate fiber tracking with other physiological data.

Damon, Bruce M.; Buck, Amanda K. W.; Ding, Zhaohua

2014-01-01

170

Engineered Human Muscle Tissue from Skeletal Muscle Derived Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Cardiac Cells  

PubMed Central

During development, cardiac and skeletal muscle share major transcription factors and sarcomere proteins which were generally regarded as specific to either cardiac or skeletal muscle but not both in terminally differentiated adult cardiac or skeletal muscle. Here, we investigated whether artificial muscle constructed from human skeletal muscle derived stem cells (MDSCs) recapitulates developmental similarities between cardiac and skeletal muscle. We constructed 3-dimensional collagen-based engineered muscle tissue (EMT) using MDSCs (MDSC-EMT) and compared the biochemical and contractile properties with EMT using induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cardiac cells (iPS-EMT). Both MDSC-EMT and iPS-EMT expressed cardiac specific troponins, fast skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain, and connexin-43 mimicking developing cardiac or skeletal muscle. At the transcriptional level, MDSC-EMT and iPS-EMT upregulated both cardiac and skeletal muscle-specific genes and expressed Nkx2.5 and Myo-D proteins. MDSC-EMT displayed intracellular calcium ion transients and responses to isoproterenol. Contractile force measurements of MDSC-EMT demonstrated functional properties of immature cardiac and skeletal muscle in both tissues. Results suggest that the EMT from MDSCs mimics developing cardiac and skeletal muscle and can serve as a useful in vitro functioning striated muscle model for investigation of stem cell differentiation and therapeutic options of MDSCs for cardiac repair. PMID:24734224

Tchao, Jason; Kim, Jong Jin; Lin, Bo; Salama, Guy; Lo, Cecilia W.; Yang, Lei; Tobita, Kimimasa

2014-01-01

171

On the Importance of Exchangeable NH Protons in Creatine for the Magnetic Coupling of Creatine Methyl Protons in Skeletal Muscle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The methyl protons of creatine in skeletal muscle exhibit a strong off-resonance magnetization transfer effect. The mechanism of this process is unknown. We previously hypothesized that the exchangeable amide/amino protons of creatine might be involved. To test this the characteristics of the creatine magnetization transfer effect were investigated in excised rat hindleg skeletal muscle that was equilibrated in either H 2O or D 2O solutions containing creatine. The efficiency of off-resonance magnetization transfer to the protons of mobile creatine in excised muscle was similar to that previously reported in intact muscle in vivo. Equilibrating the isolated muscle in D 2O solution had no effect on the magnetic coupling to the immobile protons. It is concluded that exchangeable protons play a negligible role in the magnetic coupling of creatine methyl protons in muscle.

Kruiskamp, M. J.; Nicolay, K.

2001-03-01

172

Glutamatergic reinnervation through peripheral nerve graft dictates assembly of glutamatergic synapses at rat skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Acetylcholine is the main neurotransmitter at the mammalian neuromuscular junction (NMJ) where nicotinic acetylcholine receptors mediate the signaling between nerve terminals and muscle fibers. We show that under glutamatergic transmission, rat NMJ switches from cholinergic type synapse to glutamatergic synapse. Connecting skeletal muscle to the lateral white matter of the spinal cord by grafting the distal stump of the transected motor nerve produced functional muscle reinnervation. The restored neuromuscular activity became resistant to common curare blockers but sensitive to the glutamate alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor antagonist. Analysis of the regenerated nerve disclosed new glutamatergic axons and the disappearance of cholinergic fibers. Many axons belonged to the supraspinal neurons located in the red nucleus and the brainstem nuclei. Finally, the innervated muscle displayed high expression and clustering of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor subunits glutamate receptors 1 and 2. Our data suggest that supraspinal neurons can target skeletal muscle, which retains the plasticity to generate functional glutamatergic NMJ. PMID:15937120

Brunelli, Giorgio; Spano, Pierfranco; Barlati, Sergio; Guarneri, Bruno; Barbon, Alessandro; Bresciani, Roberto; Pizzi, Marina

2005-06-14

173

Glutamatergic reinnervation through peripheral nerve graft dictates assembly of glutamatergic synapses at rat skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Acetylcholine is the main neurotransmitter at the mammalian neuromuscular junction (NMJ) where nicotinic acetylcholine receptors mediate the signaling between nerve terminals and muscle fibers. We show that under glutamatergic transmission, rat NMJ switches from cholinergic type synapse to glutamatergic synapse. Connecting skeletal muscle to the lateral white matter of the spinal cord by grafting the distal stump of the transected motor nerve produced functional muscle reinnervation. The restored neuromuscular activity became resistant to common curare blockers but sensitive to the glutamate ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor antagonist. Analysis of the regenerated nerve disclosed new glutamatergic axons and the disappearance of cholinergic fibers. Many axons belonged to the supraspinal neurons located in the red nucleus and the brainstem nuclei. Finally, the innervated muscle displayed high expression and clustering of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor subunits glutamate receptors 1 and 2. Our data suggest that supraspinal neurons can target skeletal muscle, which retains the plasticity to generate functional glutamatergic NMJ. PMID:15937120

Brunelli, Giorgio; Spano, PierFranco; Barlati, Sergio; Guarneri, Bruno; Barbon, Alessandro; Bresciani, Roberto; Pizzi, Marina

2005-01-01

174

Skeletal muscle dysfunction in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.  

PubMed

Despite improvements in survival with disease-targeted therapies, the majority of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have persistent exercise intolerance that results from impaired cardiac function and skeletal muscle dysfunction. Our intent was to understand the molecular mechanisms mediating skeletal muscle dysfunction in PAH. A total of 12 patients with PAH and 10 matched control subjects were assessed. Patients with PAH demonstrated diminished exercise capacity (lower oxygen uptake max, lower anaerobic threshold and higher minute ventilation/CO2) compared with control subjects. Quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area was significantly smaller in patients with PAH. The vastus lateralis muscle was biopsied to enable muscle fiber morphometric assessment and to determine expression levels/activation of proteins regulating (1) muscle mass, (2) mitochondria biogenesis and shaping machinery, and (3) excitation-contraction coupling. Patients with PAH demonstrated a decreased type I/type II muscle fiber ratio, with a smaller cross-sectional area in the type I fibers. Diminished AKT and p70S6 kinase phosphorylation, with increased atrogin-1 and muscle RING-finger protein-1 transcript levels, were evident in the PAH muscle, suggesting engagement of cellular signaling networks stimulating ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated proteolysis of muscle, with concurrent depression of networks mediating muscle hypertrophy. Although there were no differences in expression/activation of proteins associated with mitochondrial biogenesis or fission (MTCO2 [cytochrome C oxidase subunit II]/succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein subunit A, mitochondrial transcription factor A, nuclear respiratory factor-1/dynamin-related protein 1 phosphorylation), protein levels of a positive regulator of mitochondrial fusion, Mitofusin2, were significantly lower in patients with PAH. Patients with PAH demonstrated increased phosphorylation of ryanodine receptor 1 receptors, suggesting that altered sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(++) sequestration may impair excitation-contraction coupling in the PAH muscle. These data suggest that muscle dysfunction in PAH results from a combination of muscle atrophy and intrinsically impaired contractility. PMID:23972212

Batt, Jane; Ahmed, Samar Shadly; Correa, Judy; Bain, Alexandra; Granton, John

2014-01-01

175

Transcriptional regulation of decreased protein synthesis during skeletal muscle unloading  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The regulatory role of transcriptional alterations in unloaded skeletal muscles was investigated by determining levels of total muscle RNA and mRNA fractions in soleus, gastrocnemius, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of rats subjected to whole-body suspension for up to 7 days. After 7 days, total RNA and mRNA contents were lower in soleus and gastrocnemius, compared with controls, but the concentrations of both RNAs per g muscle were unaltered. Alpha-actin mRNA (assessed by dot hybridization) was significantly reduced in soleus after 1, 3, and 7 days of suspension and in gastrocnemius after 3 and 7 days, but was unchanged in EDL. Protein synthesis directed by RNA extracted from soleus and EDL indicated marked alteration in mRNAs coding for several small proteins. Results suggest that altered transcription and availability of specific mRNAs contribute significantly to the regulation of protein synthesis during skeletal muscle unloading.

Howard, G.; Steffen, J. M.; Geoghegan, T. E.

1989-01-01

176

Low frequency sounds from sustained contraction of human skeletal muscle.  

PubMed Central

Low frequency audible vibrations are produced by human skeletal muscles undergoing sustained contraction. The effect is easily demonstrable with an electronic stethoscope which amplifies sound below 50 Hz. Autocorrelation analysis of the signal shows that it is periodic with a frequency 25 +/- 2.5 Hz. The quality of the sound is the same for all the skeletal muscles tested and is unaffected by changes in tension, ambient temperature, and blood flow. Electrically-stimulated contraction produces a sound which is indistinguishable from voluntary contraction. The amplitude of the sound increases linearly with tension. The sound signals are uncorrelated both in frequency and phase with electromyographic signals obtained simultaneously while the muscle is contacted. Arguments are presented to show that the sounds may be an intrinsic property of muscle contraction. PMID:7260260

Oster, G; Jaffe, J S

1980-01-01

177

Selenium Regulates Gene Expression of Selenoprotein W in Chicken Skeletal Muscle System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selenoprotein W (SelW) is abundantly expressed in skeletal muscles of mammals and necessary for the metabolism of skeletal\\u000a muscles. However, its expression pattern in skeletal muscle system of birds is still uncovered. Herein, to investigate the\\u000a distribution of SelW mRNA in chicken skeletal muscle system and its response to different selenium (Se) status, 1-day-old\\u000a chickens were exposed to various concentrations

Hongfeng Ruan; Ziwei Zhang; Qiong Wu; Haidong Yao; Jinlong Li; Shu Li; Shiwen Xu

178

Syncoilin is required for generating maximum isometric stress in skeletal muscle but dispensable for muscle cytoarchitecture  

PubMed Central

Syncoilin is a striated muscle-specific intermediate filament-like protein, which is part of the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DPC) at the sarcolemma and provides a link between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton through its interaction with ?-dystrobrevin and desmin. Its upregulation in various neuromuscular diseases suggests that syncoilin may play a role in human myopathies. To study the functional role of syncoilin in cardiac and skeletal muscle in vivo, we generated syncoilin-deficient (syncoilin?/?) mice. Our detailed analysis of these mice up to 2 yr of age revealed that syncoilin is entirely dispensable for cardiac and skeletal muscle development and maintenance of cellular structure but is required for efficient lateral force transmission during skeletal muscle contraction. Notably, syncoilin?/? skeletal muscle generates less maximal isometric stress than wild-type (WT) muscle but is as equally susceptible to eccentric contraction-induced injury as WT muscle. This suggests that syncoilin may play a supportive role for desmin in the efficient coupling of mechanical stress between the myofibril and fiber exterior. It is possible that the reduction in isometric stress production may predispose the syncoilin skeletal muscle to a dystrophic condition. PMID:18367591

Zhang, Jianlin; Bang, Marie-Louise; Gokhin, David S.; Lu, Yingchun; Cui, Li; Li, Xiaodong; Gu, Yusu; Dalton, Nancy D.; Scimia, Maria Cecilia; Peterson, Kirk L.; Lieber, Richard L.; Chen, Ju

2009-01-01

179

Skeletal Muscle Immortalized pathological human myoblasts  

E-print Network

muscular dystrophy, congenital muscular dystrophy, and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B had greatly after transplantation into regenerating muscle of immunodeficient mice. Conclusions: Dystrophic cellular

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

180

The TSR junction in contracting single skeletal muscle fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A~SXRACX The junction between the T system and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of frog skeletal muscle was examined in resting and contracting muscles. Pillars, defined as pairs of electron-opaque lines bounding an electron-lucent interior, were seen spanning the gap between T membrane and SR. Feet, defined previously in images of heavily stained preparations, appear with electron-opaque interiors and as such are

BRENDA R. EISENBERG; ROBERT S. EISENBERG

1982-01-01

181

Expression and Functional Roles of Angiopoietin-2 in Skeletal Muscles  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAngiopoietin-1 (ANGPT1) and angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2) are angiogenesis factors that modulate endothelial cell differentiation, survival and stability. Recent studies have suggested that skeletal muscle precursor cells constitutively express ANGPT1 and adhere to recombinant ANGPT1 and ANGPT2 proteins. It remains unclear whether or not they also express ANGPT2, or if ANGPT2 regulates the myogenesis program of muscle precursors. In this study, ANGPT2

Mahroo Mofarrahi; Sabah N. A. Hussain

2011-01-01

182

Ultrastructural alterations in skeletal muscle fibers of rats after exercise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrastructural alterations in skeletal muscle fibers were electron microscopically studied in rats forced to run on the treadmill until all-out. When they were mild and limited to relatively small areas, the reconstruction of filaments ensued within 10 days without infiltration of cells. When they were severe and extensive, phagocytes infiltrated in the lesions and removed degenerative sacroplasmic debris from muscle fibers. A little later, myoblasts appeared and regeneration was accomplished in 30 days in much the same manner as in myogenesis.

Akuzawa, M.; Hataya, M.

1982-01-01

183

Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry (SOCE) Contributes to Normal Skeletal Muscle Contractility in young but not in aged skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Muscle atrophy alone is insufficient to explain the significant decline in contractile force of skeletal muscle during normal aging. One contributing factor to decreased contractile force in aging skeletal muscle could be compromised excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling, without sufficient available Ca2+ to allow for repetitive muscle contractility, skeletal muscles naturally become weaker. Using biophysical approaches, we previously showed that store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is compromised in aged skeletal muscle but not in young ones. While important, a missing component from previous studies is whether or not SOCE function correlates with contractile function during aging. Here we test the contribution of extracellular Ca2+ to contractile function of skeletal muscle during aging. First, we demonstrate graded coupling between SR Ca2+ release channel-mediated Ca2+ release and activation of SOCE. Inhibition of SOCE produced significant reduction of contractile force in young skeletal muscle, particularly at high frequency stimulation, and such effects were completely absent in aged skeletal muscle. Our data indicate that SOCE contributes to the normal physiological contractile response of young healthy skeletal muscle and that defective extracellular Ca2+ entry through SOCE contributes to the reduced contractile force characteristic of aged skeletal muscle. PMID:21666285

Brotto, Leticia S.; Bougoin, Sylvain; Nosek, Thomas M.; Reid, Michael; Hardin, Brian; Pan, Zui; Ma, Jianjie; Parness, Jerome

2011-01-01

184

Role of nitric oxide in muscle regeneration following eccentric muscle contractions in rat skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

We examined the role of nitric oxide (NO) in muscle repair and regeneration following repetitive eccentric contractions (ECC). A standardized exercise protocol was used to create eccentric contraction-induced injury to the left tibialis anterior muscle of 48 male Wistar rats (body wt 250-350 g), using a customized isokinetic test device and a bout of 40 ECCs under electrical stimulation. A nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME; 35 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), was included in the diet for half the animals (n = 24) beginning 3 days prior to the ECC and continuing throughout the experiment, whereas the other half (n = 24) received a control diet. ECC/+L-NAME and ECC/-L-NAME were killed after the ECC protocol at 0, 1, 3 and 7 days (n = 6 on each day). An unexercised contralateral limb with and without L-NAME infusion served as a respective control muscle at each time point. Muscle NO content, skeletal muscle damage, leukocyte infiltration, calpain activity, and MyoD and myogenin expression were assessed. NO has both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory properties, and several possible roles for NO in skeletal muscle damage have been postulated. NO content was greater in the ECC/-L-NAME group at all time points (p < 0.05) compared to ECC/+L-NAME. Additionally, significant differences in NO content were observed on day 0 (p < 0.05), and day 3 (p < 0.05), ECC/+L-NAME versus ECC/-L-NAME. One day following the bout of ECC, and NO levels were increased in the ECC/-L-NAME group. Three days following ECC, there was greater myofiber damage (measured by ?-glucuronidase activity) and leukocyte invasion in the ECC/-L-NAME group as compared to the ECC/+L-NAME group. One day after ECC, calpain activity was significantly increased in ECC/-L-NAME compared with control muscles (p < 0.05). On days 3 and 7, Myo-D and myogenin gene expression was increased in both groups; however, the degree of regeneration was less in the ECC/+L-NAME-treated animals. These data suggest that NO dynamics have important implications in the regulation of various factors during skeletal muscle regeneration following damaging eccentric muscle contractions. PMID:23606218

Sakurai, Tomonobu; Kashimura, Osamu; Kano, Yutaka; Ohno, Hideki; Ji, Li Li; Izawa, Tetsuya; Best, Thomas M

2013-07-01

185

Energetic aspects of skeletal muscle contraction: implications of fiber types.  

PubMed

In this chapter fundamental energetic properties of skeletal muscles as elucidated from isolated muscle preparations are described. Implications of these intrinsic properties for the energetic characterization of different fiber types and for the understanding of locomotion have been considered. Emphasis was placed on the myriad of physical and chemical techniques that can be employed to understand muscle energetics and on the interrelationship of results from different techniques. The anaerobic initial processes which liberate energy during contraction and relaxation are discussed in detail. The high-energy phosphate (approximately P) utilized during contraction and relaxation can be distributed between actomyosin ATPase or cross-bridge cycling (70%) and the Ca2+ ATPase of the sacroplasmic reticulum (30%). Muscle shortening increases the rate of approximately P hydrolysis, and stretching a muscle during contraction suppresses the rate of approximately P hydrolysis. The economy of an isometric contraction is defined as the ratio of isometric mechanical response to energetic cost and is shown to be a fundamental intrinsic parameter describing muscle energetics. Economy of contraction varies across the animal kingdom by over three orders of magnitude and is different in different mammalian fiber types. In mammalian skeletal muscles differences in economy of contraction can be attributed mainly to differences in the specific actomyosin and Ca2+ ATPase of muscles. Furthermore, there is an inverse relationship between economy of contraction and maximum velocity of muscle shortening (Vmax) and maximum power output. This is a fundamental relationship. Muscles cannot be economical at developing and maintaining force and also exhibit rapid shortening. Interestingly, there appears to be a subtle system of unknown nature that modulates the Vmax and economy of contraction. Efficiency of a work-producing contraction is defined and contrasted to the economy of contraction. Unlike economy, maximum efficiency of work production varies little across the animal kingdom. There are difficulties associated with the measurement of maximum efficiency of contraction, and it has yet to be determined unequivocally if the maximum efficiency of contraction varies in different fiber types. The intrinsic properties of force per cross-sectional area, economy, and Vmax determine the basic energetic properties of skeletal muscles. Nonetheless, the mechanics and energetics of skeletal muscles in the body are profoundly influenced by muscle architecture, attachment of muscles to the skeleton, and motor unit organization.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3159582

Rall, J A

1985-01-01

186

SREBP-1 Transcription Factors Regulate Skeletal Muscle Cell Size by Controlling Protein Synthesis through  

E-print Network

@univ-lyon1.fr Introduction Loss of skeletal muscle mass occurs during aging (sarcopenia), disease (cachexiaSREBP-1 Transcription Factors Regulate Skeletal Muscle Cell Size by Controlling Protein Synthesis tissues where they regulate several metabolic processes like fatty acid synthesis. In skeletal muscle

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

187

Dystrophin-associated Proteins Are Greatly Reduced in Skeletal Muscle from mdx Mice  

E-print Network

-associated proteins were greatly reduced (80-90%) in mdx mouse skeletal muscle. The specificity of the loss-associated proteins are significantly reduced in mdx skeletal muscle and suggest that the loss of dystrophinDystrophin-associated Proteins Are Greatly Reduced in Skeletal Muscle from mdx Mice Kay

Campbell, Kevin P.

188

Increased Ischemia-Reperfusion Blood Flow Impairs the Skeletal Muscle Contractile Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The ultimate aim of replantations and transplantations of skeletal muscle is to improve impaired function. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of varying durations of ischemia to postischemic blood flow in the skeletal muscle and the contribution of modulation of postischemic blood flow to skeletal muscle function and viability, using an ischemic revascularized hind limb

Kenshiro Ikebe; Teiji Kato; Makio Yamaga; Jun Hirose; Toru Tsuchida; Katsumasa Takagi

2001-01-01

189

Characterization of a 6K oligonucleotide turkey skeletal muscle microarray.  

PubMed

Consumer demand for lean, inexpensive meat products has driven the domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) industry to unprecedented production; however, this has coincided with an increase in growth-induced myopathies and meat quality defects. With the aim of developing a new tool for the study of turkey growth and development at the muscle transcriptome level, a 6K oligonucleotide microarray was constructed, the Turkey Skeletal Muscle Long Oligo (TSKMLO) microarray. Skeletal muscle samples were collected at three critical stages in muscle development: 18-day embryo (hyperplasia), 1-day post-hatch (hypertrophy), and 16-week (market age) from two genetic lines of turkeys: RBC2, a line maintained without selection pressure, and F, a line selected from the RBC2 line for increased 16-week body weight. Oligonucleotides were designed from sequences obtained from skeletal muscle cDNA libraries from the three developmental stages. Several unique controls, including mismatch and distance controls and scrambled sequences, were designed for 30 genes. Quality control hybridizations were completed, confirming the validity and repeatability of the array. Control features were evaluated across two larger experiments comparing developmental stage within genetic line or genetic line within each developmental stage, totaling 70 arrays. Mismatch and scrambled sequences appeared to be useful controls of specific hybridization for most genes. In addition, quantitative real-time RT-PCR confirmed microarray results. This creation and assessment of the TSKMLO array provides a valuable community resource for the study of gene expression changes related to turkey muscle growth and development. PMID:20528844

Sporer, K R B; Chiang, W; Tempelman, R J; Ernst, C W; Reed, K M; Velleman, S G; Strasburg, G M

2011-02-01

190

Skeletal muscle mitochondrial depletion and dysfunction in chronic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with impaired exercise capacity, skeletal muscle dysfunction, and oxidative stress. Mitochondria are the primary source for energy production and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondrial state 3 respiration, mitochondrial complex I enzyme activity, and tissue porin/actin ratio were determined in the gastrocnemius muscle of male SD rats 14 weeks after 5/6 nephrectomy (CKD) or sham-operation (control). The CKD group exhibited azotemia, hypertension, significant reduction (-39%) of state 3 mitochondrial respiration, and a significant increase in the mitochondrial complex I enzyme activity. The latter is the first step in oxidative phosphorylation, a process linked to production of ROS. These abnormalities were associated with a significant reduction in muscle porin/? actin ratio denoting substantial reduction of mitochondrial mass in skeletal muscle of animals with CKD. CKD results in impaired mitochondrial respiration, reduced muscle mitochondrial mass, depressed energy production and increased ROS generation in the skeletal muscle. These events can simultaneously contribute to the reduction of exercise capacity and oxidative stress in CKD. PMID:23936591

Yazdi, Puya G; Moradi, Hamid; Yang, Jia-Ying; Wang, Ping H; Vaziri, Nasratola D

2013-01-01

191

Skeletal muscle oxygenation during incremental exercise.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between muscle oxygenation level at exhaustion and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in an incremental cycling exercise. Nine male subjects took part in an incremental exhaustive cycling exercise, and then cuff occlusion was performed. Changes in oxy-(deltaHbO2) and deoxy-(deltaHb) hemoglobin concentrations in the vastus lateralis muscle were measured with a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Muscle oxygenation during incremental exercise was expressed as a percentage (%Moxy) of the maximal range observed during an arterial occlusion as the lower reference point. A systematic decrease was observed in %Moxy with increasing intensity. A significant relationship was observed between %Moxy at exhaustion and VO2max (p < 0.01). We concluded that the one of the limiting factor of VO2max is the muscle oxygen diffusion capacity, and %Moxy during exercise could be one of the indexes of muscle oxygen diffusion capacity. PMID:16026037

Shibuya, Ken-ichi; Tanaka, Junya

2003-12-01

192

Distinct Troponin C Isoform Requirements in Cardiac and Skeletal Muscle  

PubMed Central

The zebrafish mutant silent partner is characterized by a dysmorphic, non-contractile ventricle resulting in an inability to generate normal blood flow. We have identified the genetic lesion in the zebrafish homolog of the slow twitch skeletal/cardiac troponin C gene. Although human troponin C1 (TNNC1) is expressed in both cardiac and skeletal muscle, duplication of this gene in zebrafish has resulted in tissue specific partitioning of troponin C expression and function. Mutation of the zebrafish paralog tnnc1a, which is expressed predominantly in the heart, results in a loss of contractility and myofibrillar organization within ventricular cardiomyocytes, while skeletal muscle remains functional and intact. We further show that defective contractility in the developing heart results in abnormal atrial and ventricular chamber morphology. Together, our results suggest that tnnc1a is required both for the function and structural integrity of the contractile machinery in cardiomyocytes, helping to clarify potential mechanisms of troponin C mediated cardiomyopathy. PMID:20925115

Sogah, Vanessa M.; Serluca, Fabrizio C.; Fishman, Mark C.; Yelon, Deborah L.; MacRae, Calum A.; Mably, John D.

2010-01-01

193

INTRODUCTION In mammalian skeletal muscle, increases in exercise intensity are  

E-print Network

of substrate use to sustain exercise. A series of studies comparing dogs and goats found that, although238 INTRODUCTION In mammalian skeletal muscle, increases in exercise intensity are sustained) and glycogenolysis (breakdown of glycogen) with intensity of exercise occurs even in aerobically trained individuals

Garland Jr., Theodore

194

Expression of glucocorticoid receptors in the regenerating human skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Many stress conditions are accompanied by skeletal muscle dysfunction and regeneration, which is essentially a recapitulation of the embryonic development. However, regeneration usually occurs under conditions of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland axis activation and therefore increased glucocorticoid (GC) levels. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR), the main determinant of cellular responsiveness to GCs, exists in two isoforms (GRalpha and GRbeta) in humans. While the role of GRalpha is well characterized, GRbeta remains an elusive player in GC signalling. To elucidate basic characteristics of GC signalling in the regenerating human skeletal muscle we assessed GRalpha and GRbeta expression pattern in cultured human myoblasts and myotubes and their response to 24-hour dexamethasone (DEX) treatment. There was no difference in GRalpha mRNA and protein expression or DEX-mediated GRalpha down-regulation in myoblasts and myotubes. GRbeta mRNA level was very low in myoblasts and remained unaffected by differentiation and/or DEX. GRbeta protein could not be detected. These results indicate that response to GCs is established very early during human skeletal muscle regeneration and that it remains practically unchanged before innervation is established. Very low GRbeta mRNA expression and inability to detect GRbeta protein suggests that GRbeta is not a major player in the early stages of human skeletal muscle regeneration. PMID:21777031

Filipovi?, D; Pirkmajer, S; Mis, K; Mars, T; Grubic, Z

2011-01-01

195

Apoptotic adaptations from exercise training in skeletal and cardiac muscles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of exercise on apoptosis in postmitotic tissues is not known. In this study, we investigated the effect of regular moderate physical activity (i.e., exercise training) on the extent of apoptosis in rat skeletal and cardiac muscles. Adult Sprague Dawley rats were trained (TR) 5 days weekly for 8 wk on treadmill. Sedentary rats served as controls (CON). An

Parco M. Siu; Randall W. Bryner; Julie K. Martyn; Stephen E. Alway

2004-01-01

196

Skeletal muscle dysfunction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a debilitating disease characterized by inflammation-induced airflow limitation and parenchymal destruction. In addition to pulmonary manifestations, patients with COPD develop systemic problems, including skeletal muscle and other organ-specific dysfunctions, nutritional abnormalities, weight loss, and adverse psychological responses. Patients with COPD often complain of dyspnea on exertion, reduced exercise capacity, and develop a progressive decline in lung function with increasing age. These symptoms have been attributed to increases in the work of breathing and in impairments in gas exchange that result from airflow limitation and dynamic hyperinflation. However, there is mounting evidence to suggest that skeletal muscle dysfunction, independent of lung function, contributes significantly to reduced exercise capacity and poor quality of life in these patients. Limb and ventilatory skeletal muscle dysfunction in COPD patients has been attributed to a myriad of factors, including the presence of low grade systemic inflammatory processes, nutritional depletion, corticosteroid medications, chronic inactivity, age, hypoxemia, smoking, oxidative and nitrosative stresses, protein degradation and changes in vascular density. This review briefly summarizes the contribution of these factors to overall skeletal muscle dysfunction in patients with COPD, with particular attention paid to the latest advances in the field. PMID:19281080

Kim, Ho Cheol; Mofarrahi, Mahroo; Hussain, Sabah NA

2008-01-01

197

A case of anaplastic large cell lymphoma of skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a high grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) that is comprised of the malignant proliferation of large lymphoid cells, which express CD30. Primary ALCL of the skeletal muscle is extremely uncommon. A 51-year-old Japanese female presented at our hospital with a 2-month history of severe pain and swelling of the right leg. A gallium-67 SPECT/CT scan showed a large mass involving the skeletal muscles from the gluteus to femoris. A biopsy of the mass demonstrated diffuse infiltration of medium and large neoplastic cells with round or lobulated hyperchromatic pleomorphic nuclei. A subset of Reed-Sternberg-like cells was also identified. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were strongly positive for CD4 and CD30, but negative for CD3, CD8, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), CD20, CD79?, CD21 and CD23. Based on the histological examination, this patient was diagnosed to have ALK-negative ALCL of the skeletal muscle. Further studies are needed to clarify the biological behavior of primary skeletal muscle ALCL. PMID:25292453

Kubo, Yosuke; Aoi, Jun; Johno, Takamitsu; Makino, Takamitsu; Sakai, Keisuke; Masuguchi, Shinichi; Fukushima, Satoshi; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Inoue, Yuji; Ihn, Hironobu

2014-11-01

198

Advancements in stem cells treatment of skeletal muscle wasting  

PubMed Central

Muscular dystrophies (MDs) are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders, in which progressive muscle wasting and weakness is often associated with exhaustion of muscle regeneration potential. Although physiological properties of skeletal muscle tissue are now well known, no treatments are effective for these diseases. Muscle regeneration was attempted by means transplantation of myogenic cells (from myoblast to embryonic stem cells) and also by interfering with the malignant processes that originate in pathological tissues, such as uncontrolled fibrosis and inflammation. Taking into account the advances in the isolation of new subpopulation of stem cells and in the creation of artificial stem cell niches, we discuss how these emerging technologies offer great promises for therapeutic approaches to muscle diseases and muscle wasting associated with aging. PMID:24575052

Meregalli, Mirella; Farini, Andrea; Sitzia, Clementina; Torrente, Yvan

2014-01-01

199

Developing bones are differentially affected by compromised skeletal muscle formation  

PubMed Central

Mechanical forces are essential for normal adult bone function and repair, but the impact of prenatal muscle contractions on bone development remains to be explored in depth in mammalian model systems. In this study, we analyze skeletogenesis in two ‘muscleless’ mouse mutant models in which the formation of skeletal muscle development is disrupted; Myf5nlacZ/nlacZ:MyoD?/? and Pax3Sp/Sp (Splotch). Ossification centers were found to be differentially affected in the muscleless limbs, with significant decreases in bone formation in the scapula, humerus, ulna and femur, but not in the tibia. In the scapula and humerus, the morphologies of ossification centers were abnormal in muscleless limbs. Histology of the humerus revealed a decreased extent of the hypertrophic zone in mutant limbs but no change in the shape of this region. The elbow joint was also found to be clearly affected with a dramatic reduction in the joint line, while no abnormalities were evident in the knee. The humeral deltoid tuberosity was significantly reduced in size in the Myf5nlacZ/nlacZ:MyoD?/? mutants while a change in shape but not in size was found in the humeral tuberosities of the Pax3Sp/Sp mutants. We also examined skeletal development in a ‘reduced muscle’ model, the Myf5nlacZ/+:MyoD?/? mutant, in which skeletal muscle forms but with reduced muscle mass. The reduced muscle phenotype appeared to have an intermediate effect on skeletal development, with reduced bone formation in the scapula and humerus compared to controls, but not in other rudiments. In summary, we have demonstrated that skeletal development is differentially affected by the lack of skeletal muscle, with certain rudiments and joints being more severely affected than others. These findings indicate that the response of skeletal progenitor cells to biophysical stimuli may depend upon their location in the embryonic limb, implying a complex interaction between mechanical forces and location-specific regulatory factors affecting bone and joint development. PMID:19948261

Nowlan, Niamh C.; Bourdon, Celine; Dumas, Gerard; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim; Prendergast, Patrick J.; Murphy, Paula

2010-01-01

200

Elevated nuclear Foxo1 suppresses excitability of skeletal muscle fibers  

PubMed Central

Forkhead box O 1 (Foxo1) controls the expression of proteins that carry out processes leading to skeletal muscle atrophy, making Foxo1 of therapeutic interest in conditions of muscle wasting. The transcription of Foxo1-regulated proteins is dependent on the translocation of Foxo1 to the nucleus, which can be repressed by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) treatment. The role of Foxo1 in muscle atrophy has been explored at length, but whether Foxo1 nuclear activity affects skeletal muscle excitation-contraction (EC) coupling has not yet been examined. Here, we use cultured adult mouse skeletal muscle fibers to investigate the effects of Foxo1 overexpression on EC coupling. Fibers expressing Foxo1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) exhibit an inability to contract, impaired propagation of action potentials, and ablation of calcium transients in response to electrical stimulation compared with fibers expressing GFP alone. Evaluation of the transverse (T)-tubule system morphology, the membranous system involved in the radial propagation of the action potential, revealed an intact T-tubule network in fibers overexpressing Foxo1-GFP. Interestingly, long-term IGF-1 treatment of Foxo1-GFP fibers, which maintains Foxo1-GFP outside the nucleus, prevented the loss of normal calcium transients, indicating that Foxo1 translocation and the atrogenes it regulates affect the expression of proteins involved in the generation and/or propagation of action potentials. A reduction in the sodium channel Nav1.4 expression in fibers overexpressing Foxo1-GFP was also observed in the absence of IGF-1. We conclude that increased nuclear activity of Foxo1 prevents the normal muscle responses to electrical stimulation and that this indicates a novel capability of Foxo1 to disable the functional activity of skeletal muscle. PMID:23804205

Hernandez-Ochoa, Erick O.; Schachter, Tova Neustadt

2013-01-01

201

Functional classification of skeletal muscle networks. I. Normal physiology.  

PubMed

Extensive measurements of the parts list of human skeletal muscle through transcriptomics and other phenotypic assays offer the opportunity to reconstruct detailed functional models. Through integration of vast amounts of data present in databases and extant knowledge of muscle function combined with robust analyses that include a clustering approach, we present both a protein parts list and network models for skeletal muscle function. The model comprises the four key functional family networks that coexist within a functional space; namely, excitation-activation family (forward pathways that transmit a motoneuronal command signal into the spatial volume of the cell and then use Ca(2+) fluxes to bind Ca(2+) to troponin C sites on F-actin filaments, plus transmembrane pumps that maintain transmission capacity); mechanical transmission family (a sophisticated three-dimensional mechanical apparatus that bidirectionally couples the millions of actin-myosin nanomotors with external axial tensile forces at insertion sites); metabolic and bioenergetics family (pathways that supply energy for the skeletal muscle function under widely varying demands and provide for other cellular processes); and signaling-production family (which represents various sensing, signal transduction, and nuclear infrastructure that controls the turn over and structural integrity and regulates the maintenance, regeneration, and remodeling of the muscle). Within each family, we identify subfamilies that function as a unit through analysis of large-scale transcription profiles of muscle and other tissues. This comprehensive network model provides a framework for exploring functional mechanisms of the skeletal muscle in normal and pathophysiology, as well as for quantitative modeling. PMID:23085959

Wang, Yu; Winters, Jack; Subramaniam, Shankar

2012-12-15

202

Functional classification of skeletal muscle networks. I. Normal physiology  

PubMed Central

Extensive measurements of the parts list of human skeletal muscle through transcriptomics and other phenotypic assays offer the opportunity to reconstruct detailed functional models. Through integration of vast amounts of data present in databases and extant knowledge of muscle function combined with robust analyses that include a clustering approach, we present both a protein parts list and network models for skeletal muscle function. The model comprises the four key functional family networks that coexist within a functional space; namely, excitation-activation family (forward pathways that transmit a motoneuronal command signal into the spatial volume of the cell and then use Ca2+ fluxes to bind Ca2+ to troponin C sites on F-actin filaments, plus transmembrane pumps that maintain transmission capacity); mechanical transmission family (a sophisticated three-dimensional mechanical apparatus that bidirectionally couples the millions of actin-myosin nanomotors with external axial tensile forces at insertion sites); metabolic and bioenergetics family (pathways that supply energy for the skeletal muscle function under widely varying demands and provide for other cellular processes); and signaling-production family (which represents various sensing, signal transduction, and nuclear infrastructure that controls the turn over and structural integrity and regulates the maintenance, regeneration, and remodeling of the muscle). Within each family, we identify subfamilies that function as a unit through analysis of large-scale transcription profiles of muscle and other tissues. This comprehensive network model provides a framework for exploring functional mechanisms of the skeletal muscle in normal and pathophysiology, as well as for quantitative modeling. PMID:23085959

Wang, Yu; Winters, Jack

2012-01-01

203

Androgens Regulate Gene Expression in Avian Skeletal Muscles  

PubMed Central

Circulating androgens in adult reproductively active male vertebrates influence a diversity of organ systems and thus are considered costly. Recently, we obtained evidence that androgen receptors (AR) are expressed in several skeletal muscles of three passeriform birds, the golden-collared manakin (Manacus vitellinus), zebra finch (Taenopygia guttata), and ochre-bellied flycatcher (Mionectes oleagieus). Because skeletal muscles that control wing movement make up the bulk of a bird’s body mass, evidence for widespread effects of androgen action on these muscles would greatly expand the functional impact of androgens beyond their well-characterized effects on relatively discrete targets throughout the avian body. To investigate this issue, we use quantitative PCR (qPCR) to determine if androgens alter gene mRNA expression patterns in wing musculature of wild golden-collared manakins and captive zebra finches. In manakins, the androgen testosterone (T) up-regulated expression of parvalbumin (PV) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), two genes whose products enhance cellular Ca2+ cycling and hypertrophy of skeletal muscle fibers. In T-treated zebra finches, the anti-androgen flutamide blunted PV and IGF-I expression. These results suggest that certain transcriptional effects of androgen action via AR are conserved in passerine skeletal muscle tissue. When we examined wing muscles of manakins, zebra finches and ochre-bellied flycatchers, we found that expression of PV and IGF-I varied across species and in a manner consistent with a function for AR-dependent gene regulation. Together, these findings imply that androgens have the potential to act on avian muscle in a way that may enhance the physicality required for successful reproduction. PMID:23284699

Fuxjager, Matthew J.; Barske, Julia; Du, Sienmi; Day, Lainy B.; Schlinger, Barney A.

2012-01-01

204

Suppression of muscle protein turnover and amino acid degradation by dietary protein deficiency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To define the adaptations that conserve amino acids and muscle protein when dietary protein intake is inadequate, rats (60-70 g final wt) were fed a normal or protein-deficient (PD) diet (18 or 1% lactalbumin), and their muscles were studied in vitro. After 7 days on the PD diet, both protein degradation and synthesis fell 30-40% in skeletal muscles and atria. This fall in proteolysis did not result from reduced amino acid supply to the muscle and preceded any clear decrease in plasma amino acids. Oxidation of branched-chain amino acids, glutamine and alanine synthesis, and uptake of alpha-aminoisobutyrate also fell by 30-50% in muscles and adipose tissue of PD rats. After 1 day on the PD diet, muscle protein synthesis and amino acid uptake decreased by 25-40%, and after 3 days proteolysis and leucine oxidation fell 30-45%. Upon refeeding with the normal diet, protein synthesis also rose more rapidly (+30% by 1 day) than proteolysis, which increased significantly after 3 days (+60%). These different time courses suggest distinct endocrine signals for these responses. The high rate of protein synthesis and low rate of proteolysis during the first 3 days of refeeding a normal diet to PD rats contributes to the rapid weight gain ("catch-up growth") of such animals.

Tawa, N. E. Jr; Goldberg, A. L.

1992-01-01

205

Localization and function of Xin? in mouse skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

The Xin repeat-containing proteins were originally found in the intercalated discs of cardiac muscle with implicated roles in cardiac development and function. A pair of paralogous genes, Xin? (Xirp1) and Xin? (Xirp2), is present in mammals. Ablation of the mouse Xin? (mXin?) did not affect heart development but caused late-onset adulthood cardiac hypertrophy and cardiomyopathy with conductive defects. Both mXin? and mXin? are also found in the myotendinous junction (MTJ) of skeletal muscle. Here we investigated the structural and functional significance of mXin? in skeletal muscle. In addition to MTJ and the contact sites between muscle and perimysium, mXin? but not mXin? was found in the blood vessel walls, whereas both proteins were absent in neuromuscular junctions and nerve fascicles. Coimmunoprecipitation suggested association of mXin? with talin, vinculin, and filamin, but not ?-catenin, in adult skeletal muscle, consistent with our previous report of colocalization of mXin? with vinculin. Loss of mXin? in mXin?-null mice had subtle effects on the MTJ structure and the levels of several MTJ components. Diaphragm muscle of mXin?-null mice showed hypertrophy. Compared with wild-type controls, mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle lacking mXin? exhibited no overt change in contractile and relaxation velocities or maximum force development but better tolerance to fatigue. Loaded fatigue contractions generated stretch injury in wild-type EDL muscle as indicated by a fragmentation of troponin T. This effect was blunted in mXin?-null EDL muscle. The results suggest that mXin? play a role in MTJ conductance of contractile and stretching forces. PMID:23485711

Feng, Han-Zhong; Wang, Qinchuan; Reiter, Rebecca S.; Lin, Jenny L.-C.; Lin, Jim J.-C.

2013-01-01

206

Mitochondrial Involvement and Impact in Aging Skeletal Muscle  

PubMed Central

Atrophy is a defining feature of aging skeletal muscle that contributes to progressive weakness and an increased risk of mobility impairment, falls, and physical frailty in very advanced age. Amongst the most frequently implicated mechanisms of aging muscle atrophy is mitochondrial dysfunction. Recent studies employing methods that are well-suited to interrogating intrinsic mitochondrial function find that mitochondrial respiration and reactive oxygen species emission changes are inconsistent between aging rat muscles undergoing atrophy and appear normal in human skeletal muscle from septuagenarian physically active subjects. On the other hand, a sensitization to permeability transition seems to be a general property of atrophying muscle with aging and this effect is even seen in atrophying muscle from physically active septuagenarian subjects. In addition to this intrinsic alteration in mitochondrial function, factors extrinsic to the mitochondria may also modulate mitochondrial function in aging muscle. In particular, recent evidence implicates oxidative stress in the aging milieu as a factor that depresses respiratory function in vivo (an effect that is not present ex vivo). Furthermore, in very advanced age, not only does muscle atrophy become more severe and clinically relevant in terms of its impact, but also there is evidence that this is driven by an accumulation of severely atrophied denervated myofibers. As denervation can itself modulate mitochondrial function and recruit mitochondrial-mediated atrophy pathways, future investigations need to address the degree to which skeletal muscle mitochondrial alterations in very advanced age are a consequence of denervation, rather than a primary organelle defect, to refine our understanding of the relevance of mitochondria as a therapeutic target at this more advanced age. PMID:25309422

Hepple, Russell T.

2014-01-01

207

Metabolic benefits of resistance training and fast glycolytic skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Skeletal muscle exhibits remarkable plasticity with respect to its metabolic properties. Recent work has shown that interventions such as resistance training, genetic alterations and pharmacological strategies that increase muscle mass and glycolytic capacity, and not necessarily oxidative competence, can improve body composition and systemic metabolism. We review here recent advances in our understanding of the signaling and transcriptional regulatory pathways of this strategy and review new evidence obtained from mice and humans that supports the notion that increasing muscle mass and glycolytic capacity may effectively counter insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:21045171

Walsh, Kenneth; Arany, Zoltan

2011-01-01

208

Influence of spaceflight on rat skeletal muscle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of a 7-day spaceflight (aboard NASA's SL-3) on the size and the metabolism of single fibers from several rat muscles was investigated along with the specificity of these responses as related to the muscle type and the size of fibers. It was found that the loss of mass after flight was varied from 36 percent in the soleus to 15 percent in the extensor digitorum longus. Results of histochemical analyses showed that the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity in muscles of flight-exposed rats was maintained at the control levels, whereas the alpha-glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) activity was either maintained or increased. The analyses of the metabolic profiles of ATPase, SDH, and GPD indicated that, in some muscles, there was an increase in the poportion of fast oxidative-glycolytic fibers.

Martin, Thomas P.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Grindeland, Richard E.

1988-01-01

209

Skeletal muscle responses to lower limb suspension in humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The morphological responses of human skeletal muscle to unweighting were assessed by analyzing multiple transaxial magnetic resonance (MR) images of both lower limbs and skeletal muscle biopsies of the unweighted lower limb before and after six weeks of unilaterial (left) lower limb suspension (ULLS). Results indicated that, as a results of 6 weeks of unweighting (by the subjects walking on crutches using only one limb), the cross sectional area (CSA) of the thigh muscle of the unweighted left limb decreased 12 percent, while the CSA of the right thigh muscle did not change. The decrease was due to a twofold greater response of the knee extensors than the knee flexors. The pre- and post-ULLS biopsies of the left vastus lateralis showed a 14 percent decrease in average fiber CSA due to unweighting. The number of capillaries surrounding the different fiber types was unchanged after ULLS. Results showed that the adaptive responses of human skeletal muscle to unweighting are qualitatively, but not quantitatively, similar to those of lower mammals and not necessarily dependent on the fiber-type composition.

Hather, Bruce M.; Adams, Gregory R.; Tesch, Per A.; Dudley, Gary A.

1992-01-01

210

Improved Cell Culture Method for Growing Contracting Skeletal Muscle Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved method for culturing immature muscle cells (myoblasts) into a mature skeletal muscle overcomes some of the notable limitations of prior culture methods. The development of the method is a major advance in tissue engineering in that, for the first time, a cell-based model spontaneously fuses and differentiates into masses of highly aligned, contracting myotubes. This method enables (1) the construction of improved two-dimensional (monolayer) skeletal muscle test beds; (2) development of contracting three-dimensional tissue models; and (3) improved transplantable tissues for biomedical and regenerative medicine applications. With adaptation, this method also offers potential application for production of other tissue types (i.e., bone and cardiac) from corresponding precursor cells.

Marquette, Michele L.; Sognier, Marguerite A.

2013-01-01

211

Atomoxetine prevents dexamethasone-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in mice.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle atrophy remains a clinical problem in numerous pathologic conditions. ?2-Adrenergic receptor agonists, such as formoterol, can induce mitochondrial biogenesis (MB) to prevent such atrophy. Additionally, atomoxetine, an FDA-approved norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, was positive in a cellular assay for MB. We used a mouse model of dexamethasone-induced skeletal muscle atrophy to investigate the potential role of atomoxetine and formoterol to prevent muscle mass loss. Mice were administered dexamethasone once daily in the presence or absence of formoterol (0.3 mg/kg), atomoxetine (0.1 mg/kg), or sterile saline. Animals were euthanized at 8, 16, and 24 hours or 8 days later. Gastrocnemius muscle weights, changes in mRNA and protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1 ? (PGC-1?) isoforms, ATP synthase ?, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 ? subcomplex, 8, ND1, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), myostatin, muscle Ring-finger protein-1 (muscle atrophy), phosphorylated forkhead box protein O 3a (p-FoxO3a), Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and ribosomal protein S6 (rp-S6; muscle hypertrophy) in naive and muscle-atrophied mice were measured. Atomoxetine increased p-mTOR 24 hours after treatment in naďve mice, but did not change any other biomarkers. Formoterol robustly activated the PGC-1?-4-IGF1-Akt-mTOR-rp-S6 pathway and increased p-FoxO3a as early as 8 hours and repressed myostatin at 16 hours. In contrast to what was observed with acute treatment, chronic treatment (7 days) with atomoxetine increased p-Akt and p-FoxO3a, and sustained PGC-1? expression and skeletal muscle mass in dexamethasone-treated mice, in a manner comparable to formoterol. In conclusion, chronic treatment with a low dose of atomoxetine prevented dexamethasone-induced skeletal muscle wasting and supports a potential role in preventing muscle atrophy. PMID:25292181

Jesinkey, Sean R; Korrapati, Midhun C; Rasbach, Kyle A; Beeson, Craig C; Schnellmann, Rick G

2014-12-01

212

Modulation effects of cordycepin on the skeletal muscle contraction of toad gastrocnemius muscle.  

PubMed

Isolated toad gastrocnemius muscle is a typical skeletal muscle tissue that is frequently used to study the motor system because it is an important component of the motor system. This study investigates the effects of cordycepin on the skeletal muscle contractile function of isolated toad gastrocnemius muscles by electrical field stimulation. Results showed that cordycepin (20 mg/l to 100 mg/l) significantly decreased the contractile responses in a concentration-dependent manner. Cordycepin (50 mg/l) also produced a rightward shift of the contractile amplitude-stimulation intensity relationship, as indicated by the increases in the threshold stimulation intensity and the saturation stimulation intensity. However, the most notable result was that the maximum amplitude of the muscle contractile force was significantly increased under cordycepin application (122±3.4% of control). This result suggests that the skeletal muscle contractile function and muscle physical fitness to the external stimulation were improved by the decreased response sensitivity in the presence of cordycepin. Moreover, cordycepin also prevented the repetitive stimulation-induced decrease in muscle contractile force and increased the recovery amplitude and recovery ratio of muscle contraction. However, these anti-fatigue effects of cordycepin on muscle contraction during long-lasting muscle activity were absent in Ca2+-free medium or in the presence of all Ca2+ channels blocker (0.4 mM CdCl2). These results suggest that cordycepin can positively affect muscle performance and provide ergogenic and prophylactic benefits in decreasing skeletal muscle fatigue. The mechanisms involving excitation-coupled Ca2+ influxes are strongly recommended. PMID:24447979

Yao, Li-Hua; Meng, Wei; Song, Rong-Feng; Xiong, Qiu-Ping; Sun, Wei; Luo, Zhi-Qiang; Yan, Wen-Wen; Li, Yu-Ping; Li, Xin-Ping; Li, Hai-Hang; Xiao, Peng

2014-03-01

213

Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation for Skeletal Muscle Function  

PubMed Central

Lack of neural innervation due to neurological damage renders muscle unable to produce force. Use of electrical stimulation is a medium in which investigators have tried to find a way to restore movement and the ability to perform activities of daily living. Different methods of applying electrical current to modify neuromuscular activity are electrical stimulation (ES), neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), and functional electrical stimulation (FES). This review covers the aspects of electrical stimulation used for rehabilitation and functional purposes. Discussed are the various parameters of electrical stimulation, including frequency, pulse width/duration, duty cycle, intensity/amplitude, ramp time, pulse pattern, program duration, program frequency, and muscle group activated, and how they affect fatigue in the stimulated muscle. PMID:22737049

Doucet, Barbara M.; Lam, Amy; Griffin, Lisa

2012-01-01

214

The impact of sarcopenia and exercise training on skeletal muscle satellite cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been well-established that the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength, or sarcopenia, impairs skeletal muscle function and reduces functional performance at a more advanced age. Skeletal muscle satellite cells (SC), as precursors of new myonuclei, have been suggested to be involved in the development of sarcopenia. In accordance with the type II muscle fiber atrophy observed in

Tim Snijders; Lex B. Verdijk; Luc. J. C. van Loon

2009-01-01

215

Disruption of DAG1 in differentiated skeletal muscle reveals a role for dystroglycan in muscle regeneration.  

PubMed

Striated muscle-specific disruption of the dystroglycan (DAG1) gene results in loss of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex in differentiated muscle and a remarkably mild muscular dystrophy with hypertrophy and without tissue fibrosis. We find that satellite cells, expressing dystroglycan, support continued efficient regeneration of skeletal muscle along with transient expression of dystroglycan in regenerating muscle fibers. We demonstrate a similar phenomenon of reexpression of functional dystroglycan in regenerating muscle fibers in a mild form of human muscular dystrophy caused by disruption of posttranslational dystroglycan processing. Thus, maintenance of regenerative capacity by satellite cells expressing dystroglycan is likely responsible for mild disease progression in mice and possibly humans. Therefore, inadequate repair of skeletal muscle by satellite cells represents an important mechanism affecting the pathogenesis of muscular dystrophy. PMID:12230980

Cohn, Ronald D; Henry, Michael D; Michele, Daniel E; Barresi, Rita; Saito, Fumiaki; Moore, Steven A; Flanagan, Jason D; Skwarchuk, Mark W; Robbins, Michael E; Mendell, Jerry R; Williamson, Roger A; Campbell, Kevin P

2002-09-01

216

Metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle overexpressing GLUT4: effects on muscle and physical activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the long-term metabolic and functional consequences of increased GLUT4 con- tent, intracellular substrate utilization was investigated in isolated muscles of transgenic mice overexpressing GLUT4 selectively in fast-twitch skeletal muscles. Rates of glycolysis, glycogen synthesis, glucose oxidation, and free fatty acid (FFA) oxidation as well as glycogen content were assessed in isolated EDL (fast-twitch) and soleus (slow-twitch) muscles from

TSU-SHUEN TSAO; JING LI; KENNETH S. CHANG; ANTINE E. STENBIT; DANA GALUSKA; JUDY E. ANDERSON; JULEEN R. ZIERATH; ROGER J. MCCARTER; MAUREEN J. CHARRON

2001-01-01

217

Indices of skeletal muscle damage and connective tissue breakdown following eccentric muscle contractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indirect indices of exercise-induced human skeletal muscle damage and connective tissue breakdown were studied following\\u000a a single bout of voluntary eccentric muscle contractions. Subjects (six female, two male), mean (SD) age 22 (2) years performed\\u000a a bout of 50 maximum voluntary eccentric contractions of the knee extensors of a single leg. The eccentric exercise protocol\\u000a induced muscle soreness (P?

S. J. Brown; R. B. Child; S. H. Day; A. E. Donnelly

1997-01-01

218

NF-?B signaling in skeletal muscle: prospects for intervention in muscle diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muscle remodeling is an important physiological process that promotes adaptive changes in cytoarchitecture and protein composition\\u000a after exercise, aging, or disease conditions. Numerous transcription factors have been reported to regulate skeletal muscle\\u000a homeostasis. NF-?B is a major pleiotropic transcription factor modulating immune, inflammatory, cell survival, and proliferating\\u000a responses; however, its role in muscle development, physiology, and disease has just started

Foteini Mourkioti; Nadia Rosenthal

2008-01-01

219

Human skeletal muscle fiber type specific protein content.  

PubMed

The aim of this project was to develop a method to assess fiber type specific protein content across the continuum of human skeletal muscle fibers. Individual vastus lateralis muscle fibers (n = 264) were clipped into two portions: one for sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) fiber typing and one for Western blot protein identification. Following fiber type determination, fiber segments were combined into fiber type specific pools (?20 fibers/pool) and measured for total protein quantity, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), citrate synthase (CS), and total p38 content. GAPDH content was 64, 54, 160, and 138% more abundant in myosin heavy chain (MHC) I/IIa, MHC IIa, MHC IIa/IIx, and MHC IIx fibers, respectively, when compared with MHC I. Inversely, CS content was 528, 472, 242, and 47% more abundant in MHC I, MHC I/IIa, MHC IIa, and MHC IIa/IIx fibers, respectively, when compared with MHC IIx. Total p38 content was 87% greater in MHC IIa versus MHC I fibers. These data and this approach establish a reliable method for human skeletal muscle fiber type specific protein analysis. Initial results show that particular proteins exist in a hierarchal fashion throughout the continuum of human skeletal muscle fiber types, further highlighting the necessity of fiber type specific analysis. PMID:22469996

Galpin, Andrew J; Raue, Ulrika; Jemiolo, Bozena; Trappe, Todd A; Harber, Matthew P; Minchev, Kiril; Trappe, Scott

2012-06-15

220

Human Skeletal Muscle Fiber Type Specific Protein Content  

PubMed Central

The aim of this project was to develop a method to assess fiber type specific protein content across the continuum of human skeletal muscle fibers. Individual vastus lateralis muscle fibers (n = 264) were clipped into two portions, one for SDS-PAGE fiber typing and one for Western blot protein identification. Following fiber type determination, fiber segments were combined into fiber type specific pools (~20 fibers/pool) and measured for total protein quantity, GAPDH, citrate synthase, and total p38 content. GAPDH content was 64%, 54%, 160%, and 138% more abundant in MHC I/IIa, MHC IIa, MHC IIa/IIx, and MHC IIx fibers when compared to MHC I. Inversely, citrate synthase content was 528%, 472%, 242%, and 47% more abundant in MHC I, MHC I/IIa, MHC IIa, and MHC IIa/IIx fibers when compared to MHC IIx. Total p38 content was 87% greater in MHC IIa versus MHC I fibers. These data and approach establish a reliable method for human skeletal muscle fiber type specific protein analysis. Initial results show particular proteins exist in a hierarchal fashion throughout the continuum of human skeletal muscle fiber types, further highlighting the necessity of fiber type specific analysis. PMID:22469996

Galpin, Andrew J.; Raue, Ulrika; Jemiolo, Bozena; Trappe, Todd A.; Harber, Matthew P.; Minchev, Kiril; Trappe, Scott

2012-01-01

221

Cardiovascular regulation by skeletal muscle reflexes in health and disease  

PubMed Central

Heart rate and blood pressure are elevated at the onset and throughout the duration of dynamic or static exercise. These neurally mediated cardiovascular adjustments to physical activity are regulated, in part, by a peripheral reflex originating in contracting skeletal muscle termed the exercise pressor reflex. Mechanically sensitive and metabolically sensitive receptors activating the exercise pressor reflex are located on the unencapsulated nerve terminals of group III and group IV afferent sensory neurons, respectively. Mechanoreceptors are stimulated by the physical distortion of their receptive fields during muscle contraction and can be sensitized by the production of metabolites generated by working skeletal myocytes. The chemical by-products of muscle contraction also stimulate metaboreceptors. Once activated, group III and IV sensory impulses are transmitted to cardiovascular control centers within the brain stem where they are integrated and processed. Activation of the reflex results in an increase in efferent sympathetic nerve activity and a withdrawal of parasympathetic nerve activity. These actions result in the precise alterations in cardiovascular hemodynamics requisite to meet the metabolic demands of working skeletal muscle. Coordinated activity by this reflex is altered after the development of cardiovascular disease, generating exaggerated increases in sympathetic nerve activity, blood pressure, heart rate, and vascular resistance. The basic components and operational characteristics of the reflex, the techniques used in human and animals to study the reflex, and the emerging evidence describing the dysfunction of the reflex with the advent of cardiovascular disease are highlighted in this review. PMID:21841019

Murphy, Megan N.; Mizuno, Masaki; Mitchell, Jere H.

2011-01-01

222

Defining skeletal muscle resident progenitors and their cell fate potentials.  

PubMed

The satellite cell is the major tissue-resident stem cell underlying muscle regeneration; however, multiple non-satellite myogenic progenitors as well as non-myogenic populations that support the muscle regenerative process have been identified. PW1 is expressed in satellite cells as well as in a subset of interstitial cells with myogenic potential termed PICs (PW1+ interstitial cells). Microarray profiling revealed that PICs express a broad range of genes common to mesenchymal stem cells, whereas satellite cells express genes consistent with a committed myogenic progenitor. Isolated PICs from both young and adult muscles can differentiate into smooth and skeletal muscle and fat whereas satellite cells are restricted to a skeletal muscle fate. We demonstrate that the adipogenic potential of PICs corresponds to a subpopulation that expresses platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFR?) and overlaps with the recently described interstitial adipogenic progenitors. By contrast, PICs with myogenic potential do not express PDGFR?. Moreover, we observe a discrete and transient population of juvenile PICs based upon SCA1 expression that disappears by 3 weeks of postnatal development coincident with a switch in the cellular and genetic mechanisms underlying postnatal muscle growth. PMID:23739133

Pannérec, Alice; Formicola, Luigi; Besson, Vanessa; Marazzi, Giovanna; Sassoon, David A

2013-07-01

223

Neurofibromin (Nf1) is required for skeletal muscle development.  

PubMed

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a multi-system disease caused by mutations in the NF1 gene encoding a Ras-GAP protein, neurofibromin, which negatively regulates Ras signaling. Besides neuroectodermal malformations and tumors, the skeletal system is often affected (e.g. scoliosis and long bone dysplasia) demonstrating the importance of neurofibromin for development and maintenance of the musculoskeletal system. Here, we focus on the role of neurofibromin in skeletal muscle development. Nf1 gene inactivation in the early limb bud mesenchyme using Prx1-cre (Nf1(Prx1)) resulted in muscle dystrophy characterized by fibrosis, reduced number of muscle fibers and reduced muscle force. This was caused by an early defect in myogenesis affecting the terminal differentiation of myoblasts between E12.5 and E14.5. In parallel, the muscle connective tissue cells exhibited increased proliferation at E14.5 and an increase in the amount of connective tissue as early as E16.5. These changes were accompanied by excessive mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation. Satellite cells isolated from Nf1(Prx1) mice showed normal self-renewal, but their differentiation was impaired as indicated by diminished myotube formation. Our results demonstrate a requirement of neurofibromin for muscle formation and maintenance. This previously unrecognized function of neurofibromin may contribute to the musculoskeletal problems in NF1 patients. PMID:21478499

Kossler, Nadine; Stricker, Sigmar; Rödelsperger, Christian; Robinson, Peter N; Kim, Johnny; Dietrich, Carola; Osswald, Monika; Kühnisch, Jirko; Stevenson, David A; Braun, Thomas; Mundlos, Stefan; Kolanczyk, Mateusz

2011-07-15

224

Regulation of mitofusin-2 expression in skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Fusion and fission of mitochondria regulate their morphology and distribution. Mitofusin-2 (Mfn2) is a mitochondrial protein involved in such fusion. Recent observations indicate that Mfn2 is a multifunctional protein that participates in cell proliferation and metabolism and that it is required for normal endoplasmic reticulum morphology. In relation to the metabolic role of Mfn2, alterations in activity have been reported to modify cell respiration, substrate oxidation, and oxidative phosphorylation subunit expression in cultured nonmuscle and muscle cells. Mfn2 expression in skeletal muscle is subject to regulation and conditions characterized by reduced mitochondrial activity, such as obesity or type 2 diabetes, and are associated with repressed Mfn2. In contrast, cold-exposure treatment with beta3-adrenergic agonists or exercise induce the expression of this gene in muscle. Estrogen-related receptor-alpha transcription factor is a key regulator of Mfn2 transcription and recruits peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC)-1beta and PGC-1alpha. These 2 nuclear coactivators are potent, positive regulators of Mfn2 expression in muscle cells, and ablation of PGC-1beta causes Mfn2 downregulation in skeletal muscle and in the heart. We propose that PGC-1beta is a regulator of normal expression of Mfn2 in muscle, whereas PGC-1alpha participates in the stimulation of Mfn2 expression under a variety of conditions characterized by enhanced energy expenditure. PMID:19448711

Zorzano, Antonio

2009-06-01

225

Skeletal muscle extraaortic counterpulsation. A true arterial counterpulsation.  

PubMed

Reduction of left ventricular work load during systole, a critical component of arterial counterpulsation, has not previously been documented for skeletal muscle-powered extraaortic counterpulsation. To assess its capacity for afterload reduction, a skeletal muscle extraaortic counterpulsator was connected to the thoracic aorta and counterpulsated. Canine hearts (n = 7) were instrumented with left ventricular Millar catheters (Millar Instruments, Inc., Houston, Tex.) for pressure measurements and with piezoelectric ultrasonic crystals for measurement of the left ventricular minor axis dimension and wall thickness. During systole, skeletal muscle extraaortic counterpulsation resulted in a significant change in all three determinants of left ventricular circumferential wall stress compared with control conditions (no counterpulsation). Pressure decreased (peak systole, 100 +/- 5 versus 75 +/- 6 mm Hg; p less than 0.05 by paired t test), minor axis dimension decreased (end systole, 46.4 +/- 1.1 versus 45.8 +/- 1.1 mm; p less than 0.05 by paired t test), and wall thickness increased (end systole, 10.4 +/- 0.7 versus 10.6 +/- 0.7 mm; p less than 0.05 by paired t test). Left ventricular wall stress/dimension work loops showed a shift downward and to the left, a shift consistent with afterload reduction. The mean systolic left ventricular wall stress was significantly reduced, from 67.3 +/- 10.6 to 47.7 +/- 8.1 10(3) dyne/cm2 (p less than 0.05 by paired t test). Skeletal muscle extraaortic counterpulsation increased the diastolic aortic pressure from 72 +/- 6 to 105 +/- 8 mm Hg (p less than 0.05 by paired t test). Our data, which documented the counterpulsator's direct effects on left ventricular functional mechanics, showed that skeletal muscle extraaortic counterpulsation is capable of both diastolic augmentation of arterial pressure and systolic unloading of the left ventricle. Skeletal muscle extraaortic counterpulsation has potential application for ventricular unloading in the treatment of chronic end-stage heart failure. PMID:1943195

Lee, K F; Hanan, S A; Tuchy, G E; Rebeyka, I M; Yeh, T; Borges, M R; Abd-Elfattah, A S; Wechsler, A S

1991-11-01

226

A role for FGF-6 in skeletal muscle regeneration  

PubMed Central

Fibroblast growth factor-6 (FGF-6) belongs to a family of cytokines that control cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and morphogenetic events. Individual FGFs are either expressed widely or in a restricted pattern during embryonic, fetal, and adult life. FGF-6 exhibits a restricted expression profile predominantly in the myogenic lineage. Important functions in wound healing and tissue regeneration have been proposed for various FGFs in the past, although data from knockout mice have not supported this view. We have inactivated the FGF-6 gene in mice to investigate the role of FGF-6 in skeletal muscle development and regeneration. Wild-type mice up-regulate FGF-6 after skeletal muscle injuries and completely restore experimentally damaged skeletal muscle. In contrast, FGF-6(?/?) mutant mice show a severe regeneration defect with fibrosis and myotube degeneration. The number of MyoD- and Myogenin-expressing activated satellite cells after injury were significantly reduced in mutants. This reduction was not caused by a reduced pool of quiescent satellite cells but presumably by a lack of activation or proliferation. Interbreeding of FGF-6(?/?) mutants with mdx mice leads to striking dystrophic changes in skeletal muscles of double homozygous mice characterized by myotube degeneration, the presence of large amounts of mononuclear cells, and deposition of collagen. RNA analysis revealed an up-regulation of MyoD mRNA in mdx but not in FGF-6(?/?)/mdx double mutant mice. We conclude that FGF-6 is a critical component of the muscle regeneration machinery in mammals, possibly by stimulating or activating satellite cells. PMID:9284044

Floss, Thomas; Arnold, Hans-Henning; Braun, Thomas

1997-01-01

227

Orphan nuclear receptors: therapeutic opportunities in skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Nuclear hormone receptors (NRs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors that bind DNA and translate physiological signals into gene regulation. The therapeutic utility of NRs is underscored by the diversity of drugs created to manage dysfunctional hormone signaling in the context of reproductive biology, inflammation, dermatology, cancer, and metabolic disease. For example, drugs that target nuclear receptors generate over $10 billion in annual sales. Almost two decades ago, gene products were identified that belonged to the NR superfamily on the basis of DNA and protein sequence identity. However, the endogenous and synthetic small molecules that modulate their action were not known, and they were denoted orphan NRs. Many of the remaining orphan NRs are highly enriched in energy-demanding major mass tissues, including skeletal muscle, brown and white adipose, brain, liver, and kidney. This review focuses on recently adopted and orphan NR function in skeletal muscle, a tissue that accounts for approximately 35% of the total body mass and energy expenditure, and is a major site of fatty acid and glucose utilization. Moreover, this lean tissue is involved in cholesterol efflux and secretes that control energy expenditure and adiposity. Consequently, muscle has a significant role in insulin sensitivity, the blood lipid profile, and energy balance. Accordingly, skeletal muscle plays a considerable role in the progression of dyslipidemia, diabetes, and obesity. These are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, which is the the foremost cause of global mortality (>16.7 million deaths in 2003). Therefore, it is not surprising that orphan NRs and skeletal muscle are emerging as therapeutic candidates in the battle against dyslipidemia, diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. PMID:16825600

Smith, Aaron G; Muscat, George E O

2006-08-01

228

A role for FGF-6 in skeletal muscle regeneration.  

PubMed

Fibroblast growth factor-6 (FGF-6) belongs to a family of cytokines that control cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and morphogenetic events. Individual FGFs are either expressed widely or in a restricted pattern during embryonic, fetal, and adult life. FGF-6 exhibits a restricted expression profile predominantly in the myogenic lineage. Important functions in wound healing and tissue regeneration have been proposed for various FGFs in the past, although data from knockout mice have not supported this view. We have inactivated the FGF-6 gene in mice to investigate the role of FGF-6 in skeletal muscle development and regeneration. Wild-type mice up-regulate FGF-6 after skeletal muscle injuries and completely restore experimentally damaged skeletal muscle. In contrast, FGF-6(-/-) mutant mice show a severe regeneration defect with fibrosis and myotube degeneration. The number of MyoD- and Myogenin-expressing activated satellite cells after injury were significantly reduced in mutants. This reduction was not caused by a reduced pool of quiescent satellite cells but presumably by a lack of activation or proliferation. Interbreeding of FGF-6(-/-) mutants with mdx mice leads to striking dystrophic changes in skeletal muscles of double homozygous mice characterized by myotube degeneration, the presence of large amounts of mononuclear cells, and deposition of collagen. RNA analysis revealed an up-regulation of MyoD mRNA in mdx but not in FGF-6(-/-)/mdx double mutant mice. We conclude that FGF-6 is a critical component of the muscle regeneration machinery in mammals, possibly by stimulating or activating satellite cells. PMID:9284044

Floss, T; Arnold, H H; Braun, T

1997-08-15

229

Abcg2 labels multiple cell types in skeletal muscle and participates in muscle regeneration  

PubMed Central

Skeletal muscle contains progenitor cells (satellite cells) that maintain and repair muscle. It also contains muscle side population (SP) cells, which express Abcg2 and may participate in muscle regeneration or may represent a source of satellite cell replenishment. In Abcg2-null mice, the SP fraction is lost in skeletal muscle, although the significance of this loss was previously unknown. We show that cells expressing Abcg2 increased upon injury and that muscle regeneration was impaired in Abcg2-null mice, resulting in fewer centrally nucleated myofibers, reduced myofiber size, and fewer satellite cells. Additionally, using genetic lineage tracing, we demonstrate that the progeny of Abcg2-expressing cells contributed to multiple cell types within the muscle interstitium, primarily endothelial cells. After injury, Abcg2 progeny made a minor contribution to regenerated myofibers. Furthermore, Abcg2-labeled cells increased significantly upon injury and appeared to traffic to muscle from peripheral blood. Together, these data suggest an important role for Abcg2 in positively regulating skeletal muscle regeneration. PMID:21949413

Doyle, Michelle J.; Zhou, Sheng; Tanaka, Kathleen Kelly; Pisconti, Addolorata; Farina, Nicholas H.; Sorrentino, Brian P.

2011-01-01

230

Ishemia-Reperfusion enhances GAPDH nitration in aging skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Aging and skeletal muscle ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury leads to decreased contractile force generation that increases severely with age. Our studies show that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) protein expression is significantly decreased at 3 and 5 days reperfusion in the young mouse muscle and at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days in the aged muscle. Using PCR, we have shown that GAPDH mRNA levels in young and old muscle increase at 5 days reperfusion compared to control, suggesting that the protein deficit is not transcriptional. Furthermore, while total tyrosine nitration did not increase in the young muscle, GAPDH nitration increased significantly at 1 and 3 days reperfusion. In contrast, total tyrosine nitration in aged muscle increased significantly at 1, 3, and 5 days of reperfusion, with increases in GAPDH nitration at the same time points. We conclude that GAPDH protein levels decrease following I/R, that this is not transcriptionally mediated, that the aged muscle experiences greater oxidative stress, protein modification and GAPDH degradation, possibly contributing to decreased muscle function. We propose that tyrosine nitration enhances GAPDH degradation following I/R and that the persistent decrease of GAPDH in aged muscle is due to the prolonged increase in oxidative modification in this age group. PMID:22027257

Bailey, C. Eric; Hammers, David W.; DeFord, James H.; Dimayuga, Vincent L.; Amaning, James K.; Farrar, Roger; Papaconstantinou, John

2011-01-01

231

Skeletal muscle calcineurin: influence of phenotype adaptation and atrophy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calcineurin (CaN) has been implicated as a signaling molecule that can transduce physiological stimuli (e.g., contractile activity) into molecular signals that initiate slow-fiber phenotypic gene expression and muscle growth. To determine the influence of muscle phenotype and atrophy on CaN levels in muscle, the levels of soluble CaN in rat muscles of varying phenotype, as assessed by myosin heavy chain (MHC)-isoform proportions, were determined by Western blotting. CaN levels were significantly greater in the plantaris muscle containing predominantly fast (IIx and IIb) MHC isoforms, compared with the soleus (predominantly type I MHC) or vastus intermedius (VI, contains all 4 adult MHC isoforms). Three months after a complete spinal cord transection (ST), the CaN levels in the VI muscle were significantly reduced, despite a significant increase in fast MHC isoforms. Surprisingly, the levels of CaN in the VI were highly correlated with muscle mass but not MHC isoform proportions in ST and control rats. These data demonstrate that CaN levels in skeletal muscle are highly correlated to muscle mass and that the normal relationship with phenotype is lost after ST.

Spangenburg, E. E.; Williams, J. H.; Roy, R. R.; Talmadge, R. J.; Spangenberg, E. E. (Principal Investigator)

2001-01-01

232

Leucine Supplementation Improves Skeletal Muscle Regeneration after Cryolesion in Rats  

PubMed Central

This study was undertaken in order to provide further insight into the role of leucine supplementation in the skeletal muscle regeneration process, focusing on myofiber size and strength recovery. Young (2-month-old) rats were subjected or not to leucine supplementation (1.35 g/kg per day) started 3 days prior to cryolesion. Then, soleus muscles were cryolesioned and continued receiving leucine supplementation until 1, 3 and 10 days later. Soleus muscles from leucine-supplemented animals displayed an increase in myofiber size and a reduction in collagen type III expression on post-cryolesion day 10. Leucine was also effective in reducing FOXO3a activation and ubiquitinated protein accumulation in muscles at post-cryolesion days 3 and 10. In addition, leucine supplementation minimized the cryolesion-induced decrease in tetanic strength and increase in fatigue in regenerating muscles at post-cryolesion day 10. These beneficial effects of leucine were not accompanied by activation of any elements of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin signalling pathway in the regenerating muscles. Our results show that leucine improves myofiber size gain and strength recovery in regenerating soleus muscles through attenuation of protein ubiquitination. In addition, leucine might have therapeutic effects for muscle recovery following injury and in some muscle diseases. PMID:24416379

Pereira, Marcelo G.; Baptista, Igor L.; Carlassara, Eduardo O. C.; Moriscot, Anselmo S.; Aoki, Marcelo S.; Miyabara, Elen H.

2014-01-01

233

Prolonged bed rest decreases skeletal muscle and whole body protein synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We sought to determine the extent to which the loss of lean body mass and nitrogen during inactivity was due to alterations in skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Six male subjects were studied during 7 days of diet stabilization and after 14 days of stimulated microgravity (-6 degrees bed rest). Nitrogen balance became more negative (P < 0.03) during the 2nd wk of bed rest. Leg and whole body lean mass decreased after bed rest (P < 0.05). Serum cortisol, insulin, insulin-like growth factor I, and testosterone values did not change. Arteriovenous model calculations based on the infusion of L-[ring-13C6]-phenylalanine in five subjects revealed a 50% decrease in muscle protein synthesis (PS; P < 0.03). Fractional PS by tracer incorporation into muscle protein also decreased by 46% (P < 0.05). The decrease in PS was related to a corresponding decrease in the sum of intracellular amino acid appearance from protein breakdown and inward transport. Whole body protein synthesis determined by [15N]alanine ingestion on six subjects also revealed a 14% decrease (P < 0.01). Neither model-derived nor whole body values for protein breakdown change significantly. These results indicate that the loss of body protein with inactivity is predominantly due to a decrease in muscle PS and that this decrease is reflected in both whole body and skeletal muscle measures.

Ferrando, A. A.; Lane, H. W.; Stuart, C. A.; Davis-Street, J.; Wolfe, R. R.

1996-01-01

234

STAT3 Activation in Skeletal Muscle Links Muscle Wasting and the Acute Phase Response in Cancer Cachexia  

PubMed Central

Background Cachexia, or weight loss despite adequate nutrition, significantly impairs quality of life and response to therapy in cancer patients. In cancer patients, skeletal muscle wasting, weight loss and mortality are all positively associated with increased serum cytokines, particularly Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the presence of the acute phase response. Acute phase proteins, including fibrinogen and serum amyloid A (SAA) are synthesized by hepatocytes in response to IL-6 as part of the innate immune response. To gain insight into the relationships among these observations, we studied mice with moderate and severe Colon-26 (C26)-carcinoma cachexia. Methodology/Principal Findings Moderate and severe C26 cachexia was associated with high serum IL-6 and IL-6 family cytokines and highly similar patterns of skeletal muscle gene expression. The top canonical pathways up-regulated in both were the complement/coagulation cascade, proteasome, MAPK signaling, and the IL-6 and STAT3 pathways. Cachexia was associated with increased muscle pY705-STAT3 and increased STAT3 localization in myonuclei. STAT3 target genes, including SOCS3 mRNA and acute phase response proteins, were highly induced in cachectic muscle. IL-6 treatment and STAT3 activation both also induced fibrinogen in cultured C2C12 myotubes. Quantitation of muscle versus liver fibrinogen and SAA protein levels indicates that muscle contributes a large fraction of serum acute phase proteins in cancer. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that the STAT3 transcriptome is a major mechanism for wasting in cancer. Through IL-6/STAT3 activation, skeletal muscle is induced to synthesize acute phase proteins, thus establishing a molecular link between the observations of high IL-6, increased acute phase response proteins and muscle wasting in cancer. These results suggest a mechanism by which STAT3 might causally influence muscle wasting by altering the profile of genes expressed and translated in muscle such that amino acids liberated by increased proteolysis in cachexia are synthesized into acute phase proteins and exported into the blood. PMID:21799891

Kunzevitzky, Noelia; Guttridge, Denis C.; Khuri, Sawsan; Koniaris, Leonidas G.; Zimmers, Teresa A.

2011-01-01

235

Adaptations of mouse skeletal muscle to low intensity vibration training  

PubMed Central

Purpose We tested the hypothesis that low intensity vibration training in mice improves contractile function of hindlimb skeletal muscles and promotes exercise-related cellular adaptations. Methods We subjected C57BL/6J mice to 6 wk, 5 d·wk?1, 15 min·d?1 of sham or low intensity vibration (45 Hz, 1.0 g) while housed in traditional cages (Sham-Active, n=8; Vibrated-Active, n=10) or in small cages to restrict physical activity (Sham-Restricted, n=8; Vibrated-Restricted, n=8). Contractile function and resistance to fatigue were tested in vivo (anterior and posterior crural muscles) and ex vivo on the soleus muscle. Tibialis anterior and soleus muscles were evaluated histologically for alterations in oxidative metabolism, capillarity, and fiber types. Epididymal fat pad and hindlimb muscle masses were measured. Two-way ANOVAs were used to determine effects of vibration and physical inactivity. Results Vibration training resulted in a 10% increase in maximal isometric torque (P=0.038) and 16% faster maximal rate of relaxation (P=0.030) of the anterior crural muscles. Posterior crural muscles were unaffected by vibration, with the exception of greater rates of contraction in Vibrated-Restricted mice compared to Vibrated-Active and Sham-Restricted mice (P=0.022). Soleus muscle maximal isometric tetanic force tended to be greater (P=0.057) and maximal relaxation was 20% faster (P=0.005) in Vibrated compared to Sham mice. Restriction of physical activity induced muscle weakness but was not required for vibration to be effective in improving strength or relaxation. Vibration training did not impact muscle fatigability or any indicator of cellular adaptation investigated (P?0.431). Fat pad but not hindlimb muscle masses were affected by vibration training. Conclusion Vibration training in mice improved muscle contractility, specifically strength and relaxation rates, with no indication of adverse effects to muscle function or cellular adaptations. PMID:23274599

McKeehen, James N.; Novotny, Susan A.; Baltgalvis, Kristen A.; Call, Jarrod A.; Nuckley, David J.; Lowe, Dawn A.

2013-01-01

236

Complexity of age-related change in skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Age-related changes in skeletal muscle mass, fiber area, and contractile function were examined in pathogen-free rats at 6, 12, 28 and 36 mos of age. The intent of this study was to clarify age-related decline, particularly in contractile force, and to determine if the decline in contractile tension with age is due to alterations at the neuromuscular junction. A variable amount of age-associated reduction in muscle mass was noted for the soleus (18%), extensor digitorum longus (EDL-16%), plantaris (37%), and gastrocnemius (38%) muscles. The decline in fiber area for these four muscles was between 5 and 16% greater than the loss in muscle wet weight. A variable amount of change in peak contractile force between 6 and 36 mos was observed for the soleus (62%), EDL (48%), and plantaris (34%). For soleus and EDL, the decline in peak tetanic tension exceeded the decline in muscle mass and fiber area. Most of the declines for the animals used in this study did not become significant until after the age of 28 mo. The marked reduction in peak tetanic tension, fiber area, and muscle mass between 28 and 36 mos indicates an accelerated age-related decline in this time period. The reduced peak twitch and peak tetanic tension in the oldest animals was not due to likely age-related changes at the neuromuscular junction. Peak values for tetanic tension were similar, whether tension was elicited via direct muscle stimulation or through stimulation of the nerve. Results underscore the complexity of age-related change and suggest that multiple mechanisms contribute to the decline of skeletal muscle. PMID:8612095

Brown, M; Hasser, E M

1996-03-01

237

Optical NIR monitoring of skeletal muscle contraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NIR spectroscopy allows monitoring of muscle oxygenation and perfusion during contraction. The knowledge of modifications of blood characteristics in body tissues has relevant clinical interest. A compact and reliable device, which makes use of two laser diodes at 750 and 810 nm coupled with the skin surface through optical fibers, was tested. NIR and surface EMG signals during isometric contractions both in normal and ischaemic conditions were analyzed. A set of parameters from the 750/810 spectroscopic curve was analyzed. Two different categories depending on the recovery rate from maximal voluntary contraction to basal oxygenation conditions were found. This behavior can give information about metabolic modifications during muscle fatigue. Interesting results in testing isokinetic rehabilitation training were also obtained.

Lago, Paolo; Gelmetti, Andrea; Pavesi, Roberta; Zambarbieri, Daniela

1996-12-01

238

Slow myosin in developing rat skeletal muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through S1 nuclease mapping using a specific cDNA probe, we demonstrate that the slow myosin heavy-chain (MHC) gene, characteristic of adult soleus, is expressed in bulk hind limb muscle obtained from the 18-d rat fetus. We support these results by use of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) which is highly specific to the adult slow MHC. Immuno- blots of MHC peptide

M. Narusawa; R. B. Fitzsimons; S. Izumo; B. Nadal-Ginard; N. A. Rubinstein; A. M. Kelly

1987-01-01

239

Injectable skeletal muscle matrix hydrogel promotes neovascularization and muscle cell infiltration in a hindlimb ischemia model  

PubMed Central

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) currently affects approximately 27 million patients in Europe and North America, and if untreated, may progress to the stage of critical limb ischemia (CLI), which has implications for amputation and potential mortality. Unfortunately, few therapies exist for treating the ischemic skeletal muscle in these conditions. Biomaterials have been used to increase cell transplant survival as well as deliver growth factors to treat limb ischemia; however, existing materials do not mimic the native skeletal muscle microenvironment they are intended to treat. Furthermore, no therapies involving biomaterials alone have been examined. The goal of this study was to develop a clinically relevant injectable hydrogel derived from decellularized skeletal muscle extracellular matrix and examine its potential for treating PAD as a stand-alone therapy by studying the material in a rat hindlimb ischemia model. We tested the mitogenic activity of the scaffold’s degradation products using an in vitro assay and measured increased proliferation rates of smooth muscle cells and skeletal myoblasts compared to collagen. In a rat hindlimb ischemia model, the femoral artery was ligated and resected, followed by injection of 150 ?l of skeletal muscle matrix or collagen one week post-injury. We demonstrate that the skeletal muscle matrix increased arteriole and capillary density, as well as recruited more desmin-positive and MyoD-positive cells compared to collagen. Our results indicate that this tissue specific injectable hydrogel may be a potential therapy for treating ischemia related to PAD, as well as have potential beneficial effects on restoring muscle mass that is typically lost in CLI. PMID:22665162

DeQuach, Jessica A.; Lin, Joy E.; Cam, Cynthia; Hu, Diane; Salvatore, Michael A.; Sheikh, Farah

2012-01-01

240

Validation of Shear Wave Elastography in Skeletal Muscle  

PubMed Central

Skeletal muscle is a very dynamic tissue, thus accurate quantification of skeletal muscle stiffness throughout its functional range is crucial to improve the physical functioning and independence following pathology. Shear wave elastography (SWE) is an ultrasound-based technique that characterizes tissue mechanical properties based on the propagation of remotely induced shear waves. The objective of this study is to validate SWE throughout the functional range of motion of skeletal muscle for three ultrasound transducer orientations. We hypothesized that combining traditional materials testing (MTS) techniques with SWE measurements will show increased stiffness measures with increasing tensile load, and will correlate well with each other for trials in which the transducer is parallel to underlying muscle fibers. To evaluate this hypothesis, we monitored the deformation throughout tensile loading of four porcine brachialis whole-muscle tissue specimens, while simultaneously making SWE measurements of the same specimen. We used regression to examine the correlation between Young's modulus from MTS and shear modulus from SWE for each of the transducer orientations. We applied a generalized linear model to account for repeated testing. Model parameters were estimated via generalized estimating equations. The regression coefficient was 0.1944, with a 95% confidence interval of (0.1463 – 0.2425) for parallel transducer trials. Shear waves did not propagate well for both the 45° and perpendicular transducer orientations. Both parallel SWE and MTS showed increased stiffness with increasing tensile load. This study provides the necessary first step for additional studies that can evaluate the distribution of stiffness throughout muscle. PMID:23953670

Eby, Sarah F.; Song, Pengfei; Chen, Shigao; Chen, Qingshan; Greenleaf, James F.; An, Kai-Nan

2013-01-01

241

Imaging of calcium transients in skeletal muscle fibers.  

PubMed Central

Epifluorescence images of Ca2+ transients elicited by electrical stimulation of single skeletal muscle fibers were studied with fast imaging techniques that take advantage of the large fluorescence signals emitted at relatively long wavelengths by the dyes fluo-3 and rhod-2 in response to binding of Ca2+ ions, and of the suitable features of a commercially available CCD video camera. The localized release of Ca2+ in response to microinjection of InsP3 was also monitored to demonstrate the adequate space and time resolutions of the imaging system. The time resolution of the imager system, although limited to the standard video frequency response, still proved to be adequate to investigate the fast Ca2+ release process in skeletal muscle fibers at low temperatures. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:2015378

Vergara, J; DiFranco, M; Compagnon, D; Suarez-Isla, B A

1991-01-01

242

Calsequestrin expression and calcium binding is increased in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat skeletal muscle though not in cardiac muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Altered mechanisms of Ca2+ transport may underlie the contractile dysfunctions that have been frequently reported to occur in diabetic cardiac and skeletal muscle tissues. Calsequestrin, a high-capacity Ca2+-binding protein, is involved in the regulation of the excitation-contraction-relaxation cycle of both skeletal and cardiac muscle fibres. We have investigated the expression of calsequestrin and Ca2+ binding in cardiac and skeletal muscle

F. Howarth; L. Glover; K. Culligan; M. Qureshi; K. Ohlendieck

2002-01-01

243

Effect of hindlimb immobilization on the fatigability of skeletal muscle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of 6 weeks of disuse atrophy produced by hindlimb immobilization was studied in situ (33.5 C) in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles of rats. The results indicate that disuse causes preferential alterations in the isometric contractile properties of slow-twitch, as opposed to fast-twitch, skeletal muscles. During continuous contractile activity, atrophied muscles were found to have lower ATP levels and an apparent increase in their dependence on anaerobic metabolism, as reflected by the more extensive depletion of glycogen and enhanced lactate formation. Although the atrophied muscles were determined to have fewer cross bridges and thus generated lower tension, the pattern of decline in active cross-bridge formation and tetanic tension during contractile activity was found to proceed in a manner similar to controls.

Witzmann, F. A.; Kim, D. H.; Fitts, R. H.

1983-01-01

244

[Activity of the skeletal muscle proteolytic systems during functional unloading].  

PubMed

The recovery of the skeletal muscle structure and function after prolonged disuse is the problem of the rehabilitation and space medicine great concern. Hypokinesia affects mainly the postural muscles responsible for the support reaction. Atrophy developed under disuse is the result of the protein synthesis and proteolysis balance shift. Several signaling systems regulating proteolysis are known now, though only recently researchers paid attention to the question whether these systems work identically in the muscles atrophied under different stimuli (denervation, starvation etc.). In this review we aimed to summarize and analyze cumulative data concerning the work of the different proteolytic systems during the atrophy caused by hypokinesia and/or hypogravity. Also we discuss here the latest data about the interconnection of the signaling systems regulating the structural and functional muscle proteins degradation and synthesis under disuse. PMID:23101376

Kachaeva, E V; Ushakov, I B; Shenkman, B S

2012-01-01

245

Muscle Atrophy in Response to Cytotoxic Chemotherapy Is Dependent on Intact Glucocorticoid Signaling in Skeletal Muscle  

PubMed Central

Cancer cachexia is a syndrome of weight loss that results from the selective depletion of skeletal muscle mass and contributes significantly to cancer morbidity and mortality. The driver of skeletal muscle atrophy in cancer cachexia is systemic inflammation arising from both the cancer and cancer treatment. While the importance of tumor derived inflammation is well described, the mechanism by which cytotoxic chemotherapy contributes to cancer cachexia is relatively unexplored. We found that the administration of chemotherapy to mice produces a rapid inflammatory response. This drives activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which increases the circulating level of corticosterone, the predominant endogenous glucocorticoid in rodents. Additionally, chemotherapy administration results in a significant loss of skeletal muscle mass 18 hours after administration with a concurrent induction of genes involved with the ubiquitin proteasome and autophagy lysosome systems. However, in mice lacking glucocorticoid receptor expression in skeletal muscle, chemotherapy-induced muscle atrophy is completely blocked. This demonstrates that cytotoxic chemotherapy elicits significant muscle atrophy driven by the production of endogenous glucocorticoids. Further, it argues that pharmacotherapy targeting the glucocorticoid receptor, given in concert with chemotherapy, is a viable therapeutic strategy in the treatment of cancer cachexia. PMID:25254959

Braun, Theodore P.; Szumowski, Marek; Levasseur, Peter R.; Grossberg, Aaron J.; Zhu, XinXia; Agarwal, Anupriya; Marks, Daniel L.

2014-01-01

246

Skeletal Muscle Responses to Negative Energy Balance: Effects of Dietary Protein12  

PubMed Central

Sustained periods of negative energy balance decrease body mass due to losses of both fat and skeletal muscle mass. Decreases in skeletal muscle mass are associated with a myriad of negative consequences, including suppressed basal metabolic rate, decreased protein turnover, decreased physical performance, and increased risk of injury. Decreases in skeletal muscle mass in response to negative energy balance are due to imbalanced rates of muscle protein synthesis and degradation. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms contributing to the loss of skeletal muscle during energy deprivation are not well described. Recent studies have demonstrated that consuming dietary protein at levels above the current recommended dietary allowance (0.8 g·kg?1·d?1) may attenuate the loss of skeletal muscle mass by affecting the intracellular regulation of muscle anabolism and proteolysis. However, the specific mechanism by which increased dietary protein spares skeletal muscle through enhanced molecular control of muscle protein metabolism has not been elucidated. This article reviews the available literature related to the effects of negative energy balance on skeletal muscle mass, highlighting investigations that assessed the influence of varying levels of dietary protein on skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Further, the molecular mechanisms that may contribute to the regulation of skeletal muscle mass in response to negative energy balance and alterations in dietary protein level are described. PMID:22516719

Carbone, John W.; McClung, James P.; Pasiakos, Stefan M.

2012-01-01

247

Molecular Characterization of NAD:Arginine ADP-Ribosyltransferase from Rabbit Skeletal Muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mono-ADP-ribosylation is a reversible modification of proteins, with NAD:arginine ADP-ribosyltransferases (EC 2.4.2.31) and ADP-ribosylarginine hydrolases (EC 3.2.2.19) catalyzing the opposing reactions in an ADP-ribosylation cycle. A membrane-associated arginine-specific (mono)-ADP-ribosyltransferase was purified 215,000-fold from rabbit skeletal muscle. On the basis of the amino acid sequences of HPLC-purified tryptic peptides, degenerate oligonucleotide primers were synthesized and used in a polymerase chain reaction

Anna Zolkiewska; Maria S. Nightingale; Joel Moss

1992-01-01

248

Receptor Expression in Rat Skeletal Muscle Cell Cultures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One on the most persistent problems with long-term space flight is atrophy of skeletal muscles. Skeletal muscle is unique as a tissue in the body in that its ability to undergo atrophy or hypertrophy is controlled exclusively by cues from the extracellular environment. The mechanism of communication between muscle cells and their environment is through a group of membrane-bound and soluble receptors, each of which carries out unique, but often interrelated, functions. The primary receptors include acetyl choline receptors, beta-adrenergic receptors, glucocorticoid receptors, insulin receptors, growth hormone (i.e., somatotropin) receptors, insulin-like growth factor receptors, and steroid receptors. This project has been initiated to develop an integrated approach toward muscle atrophy and hypertrophy that takes into account information on the populations of the entire group of receptors (and their respective hormone concentrations), and it is hypothesized that this information can form the basis for a predictive computer model for muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. The conceptual basis for this project is illustrated in the figure below. The individual receptors are shown as membrane-bound, with the exception of the glucocorticoid receptor which is a soluble intracellular receptor. Each of these receptors has an extracellular signalling component (e.g., innervation, glucocorticoids, epinephrine, etc.), and following the interaction of the extracellular component with the receptor itself, an intracellular signal is generated. Each of these intracellular signals is unique in its own way; however, they are often interrelated.

Young, Ronald B.

1996-01-01

249

A Mathematical Analysis of Obstructed Diffusion within Skeletal Muscle  

PubMed Central

Abstract Molecules are transported through the myofilament lattice of skeletal muscle fibers during muscle activation. The myofilaments, along with the myosin heads, sarcoplasmic reticulum, t-tubules, and mitochondria, obstruct the diffusion of molecules through the muscle fiber. In this work, we studied the process of obstructed diffusion within the myofilament lattice using Monte Carlo simulation, level-set and homogenization theory. We found that these intracellular obstacles significantly reduce the diffusion of material through skeletal muscle and generate diffusion anisotropy that is consistent with experimentally observed slower diffusion in the radial than the longitudinal direction. Our model also predicts that protein size has a significant effect on the diffusion of material through muscle, which is consistent with experimental measurements. Protein diffusion on the myofilament lattice is also anomalous (i.e., it does not obey Brownian motion) for proteins that are close in size to the myofilament spacing. The obstructed transport of Ca2+ and ATP-bound Ca2+ through the myofilament lattice also generates smaller Ca2+ transients. In addition, we used homogenization theory to discover that the nonhomogeneous distribution in the troponin binding sites has no effect on the macroscopic Ca2+ dynamics. The nonuniform sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase pump distribution also introduces small asymmetries in the myoplasmic Ca2+ transients. PMID:19527637

Shorten, P.R.; Sneyd, J.

2009-01-01

250

Protein Kinase (AMPK) and PGC1? in Skeletal Muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skeletal muscle is the major site of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and oxidation processes which are controlled, in part, by activation of the cellular energy-sensor, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In addition, the transcription coactivator, peroxisome- proliferator activated receptor ? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?), has been considered to be a master regulator of cellular metabolism. Recently, nitric oxide (NO) was shown to be involved

Karla Davila; Vitor A. Lira; David S. Criswell

2009-01-01

251

Exercise-induced phospho-proteins in skeletal muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to identify exercise-induced signaling events in skeletal muscle have been influenced by ground-breaking discoveries in the insulin action field. Initial discoveries demonstrating that exercise enhances insulin sensitivity raised the possibility that contraction directly modulates insulin receptor signaling events. Although the acute effects of exercise on glucose metabolism are clearly insulin-independent, the canonical insulin signaling cascade has been used as

A S Deshmukh; J A Hawley; J R Zierath; JR Zierath

2008-01-01

252

Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Skeletal Muscle Plasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skeletal muscles are used for a wide variety of motor tasks ranging from maintaining posture to whistling, from jumping to\\u000a breathing, from running at ?40Km\\/h for 10s (100 meters) to running at half the speed for ?2h (i.e., the marathon, 42,195Km).\\u000a The capacity to accomplish such variable motor tasks relies on the very fine motor control performed by the nervous

Monica Canepari; Roberto Bottinelli

253

Cardiac Assistance From Skeletal Muscle: Should We Be Downhearted?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ardiac assistance from skeletal muscle offers an attractive solution to the problem of end-stage heart failure. Unlike transplantation, it does not carry the risks, debilitating side-effects and costs of long-term immunosuppression therapy. A donor patient (or ani- mal) is not needed, and the patient's own heart is retained under conditions that offer the potential for myocardial recovery. This is an

Stanley Salmons

2005-01-01

254

Delayed Rectification and Anomalous Rectification in Frog's Skeletal Muscle Membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B s T R A C T Delayed rectification was elicited in frog's skeletal muscles bathed in choline-Ringer's solution, in normal Ringer's solution with tetrodotoxin, in 40 mM NasSO~ solution with tetrodotoxin, and even in 40 mM K,SO4 solution when the membrane had been previously hyperpolarized. However, after a sustained depolarization current-voltage relations in 40 mM K2SO4 and in

SHIGEHIRO NAKAJIMA; SHIZUKO IWASAKI; KUNIHIKO OBATA

2009-01-01

255

Visualization of capillaries in skeletal muscle by the ATPase reaction.  

PubMed

A simple and reliable technique for the visualization of capillaries in skeletal muscel of dogs, guinea pigs and rats is decribed. 10--20 micrometer frozen sections were incubated in a medium containing Ca2+ and ATP following acid preincubation (pH 3.8--4.2). The capillaries stained in black and were readily seen surrounding the muscle fibers. Serial sections were also treated for alkaline phosphatase. Values for capillary density using both methods were not different. PMID:142963

Sillau, A H; Banchero, N

1977-07-19

256

Testosterone modulates gene expression pathways regulating nutrient accumulation, glucose metabolism and protein turnover in mouse skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Testosterone regulates energy metabolism and skeletal muscle mass in males, but the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. This study investigated the response of skeletal muscle to castration and testosterone replacement in 8-week-old male mice. Using microarray analyses of mRNA levels in gastrocnemius muscle, 91 genes were found to be negatively regulated by testosterone and 68 genes were positively regulated. The mRNA levels of the insulin signalling suppressor molecule Grb10 and the glycogen synthesis inhibitors, protein phosphatase inhibitor-1 and phosphorylase kinase-?, were negatively regulated by testosterone. The insulin-sensitive glucose and amino acid transporters, Glut3 and SAT2, the lipodystrophy gene, Lpin1 and protein targeting to glycogen were positively regulated. These changes would be expected to increase nutrient availability and sensing within skeletal muscle, increase metabolic rate and carbohydrate utilization and promote glycogen accumulation. The observed positive regulation of atrogin-1 (Fbxo32) by testosterone could be explained by the phosphorylation of Akt and Foxo3a, as determined by Western blotting. Testosterone prevented the castration-induced increase in interleukin-1?, the decrease in interferon-? and the atrophy of the levator ani muscle, which were all correlated with testosterone-regulated gene expression. These findings identify specific mechanisms by which testosterone may regulate skeletal muscle glucose and protein metabolism. PMID:20403060

Haren, M T; Siddiqui, A M; Armbrecht, H J; Kevorkian, R T; Kim, M J; Haas, M J; Mazza, A; Kumar, Vijaya B; Green, M; Banks, W A; Morley, J E

2011-02-01

257

Signalling and the control of skeletal muscle size  

SciTech Connect

Skeletal muscle is highly adaptive to environmental stimuli and can alter its mass accordingly. This tissue is almost unique in that it can increase its size through two distinct mechanisms. It can grow through a cellular process mediated by cell fusion, or it can increase its size simply by increasing its protein content. Understanding how these processes are regulated is crucial for the development of potential therapies against debilitating skeletal muscle wasting diseases. Two key signalling molecules, Insulin like Growth Factor (IGF) and GDF-8/myostatin, have emerged in recent years to be potent regulators of skeletal muscle size. In this review we bring together recent data highlighting the important and novel aspects of both molecules and their signalling pathways, culminating in a discussion of the cellular and tissue phenotypic outcomes of their stimulation or antagonism. We emphasise the complex regulatory mechanisms and discuss the temporal and spatial differences that control their action, understanding of which is crucial to further their use as potential therapeutic targets.

Otto, Anthony [School of Biological Sciences, Hopkins Building, University of Reading, Whiteknights Campus, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 6UB (United Kingdom)] [School of Biological Sciences, Hopkins Building, University of Reading, Whiteknights Campus, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 6UB (United Kingdom); Patel, Ketan, E-mail: ketan.patel@reading.ac.uk [School of Biological Sciences, Hopkins Building, University of Reading, Whiteknights Campus, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 6UB (United Kingdom)] [School of Biological Sciences, Hopkins Building, University of Reading, Whiteknights Campus, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 6UB (United Kingdom)

2010-11-01

258

An allometric analysis of the number of muscle spindles in mammalian skeletal muscles.  

PubMed

An allometric analysis of the number of muscle spindles in relation to muscle mass in mammalian (mouse, rat, guinea-pig, cat, human) skeletal muscles is presented. It is shown that the trend to increasing number as muscle mass increases follows an isometric (length) relationship between species, whereas within a species, at least for the only essentially complete sample (human), the number of spindles scales, on average, with the square root rather than the cube root of muscle mass. An attempt is made to reconcile these apparently discrepant relationships. Use of the widely accepted spindle density (number of spindles g(-1) of muscle) as a measure of relative abundance of spindles in different muscles is shown to be grossly misleading. It is replaced with the residuals of the linear regression of ln spindle number against ln muscle mass. Significant differences in relative spindle abundance as measured by residuals were found between regional groups of muscles: the greatest abundance is in axial muscles, including those concerned with head position, whereas the least is in muscles of the shoulder girdle. No differences were found between large and small muscles operating in parallel, or between antigravity and non-antigravity muscles. For proximal vs. distal muscles, spindles were significantly less abundant in the hand than the arm, but there was no difference between the foot and the leg. PMID:16761976

Banks, R W

2006-06-01

259

Expression of TPM1?, a Novel Sarcomeric Isoform of the TPM1 Gene, in Mouse Heart and Skeletal Muscle  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the expression of TPM1? and TPM1? in mouse striated muscles. TPM1? and TMP1? were amplified from the cDNA of mouse heart by using conventional RT-PCR. We have cloned the PCR amplified DNA and determined the nucleotide sequences. Deduced amino acid sequences show that there are three amino acid changes in mouse exon 2a when compared with the human TPM1?. However, the deduced amino acid sequences of human TPM1? and mouse TPM1? are identical. Conventional RT-PCR data as well as qRT-PCR data, calculating both absolute copy number and relative expression, revealed that the expression of TPM1? is significantly lower compared to TPM1? in both mouse heart and skeletal muscle. It was also found that the expression level of TPM1? transcripts in mouse heart is higher than it is in skeletal muscle. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the expression of TPM1? in mammalian skeletal muscle. PMID:24876965

Dube, Syamalima; Panebianco, Lauren; Matoq, Amr A.; Chionuma, Henry N.; Denz, Christopher R.; Poiesz, Bernard J.; Dube, Dipak K.

2014-01-01

260

Optical reflectance in fibrous tissues and skeletal muscles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied two biological tissues with optically anisotropic structures: high moisture soy protein extrudates and skeletal muscles. High moisture extrusion has been used to produce vegetable meat analogs that resemble real animal meat and have significant health benefits. Since visual and textural properties are key factors for consumer acceptance, assessing fiber formation in the extruded soy protein product is important for quality control purpose. A non-destructive method based on photon migration was developed to measure fiber formation in extruded soy proteins. The measured fiber formation index in intact samples showed good agreement with that obtained from image analysis on peeled samples. By implementing this new method in a fast laser scanning system, we have acquired two dimensional mappings of fiber formation and orientation in the entire sample in real time. In addition to fibrous structures, skeletal muscles have a unique periodic sarcomere structure which produces strong light diffractions. However, inconsistent experimental results have been reported in single fiber diffraction studies. By applying the three-dimensional coupled wave theory in a physical sarcomere model, we found that a variety of experimental observations can be explained if inhomogeneous muscle morphological profiles are considered. We also discovered that the sarcomere structure produced a unique optical reflectance pattern in whole muscle. None of the existing light propagation theories are able to describe this pattern. We developed a Monte Carlo model incorporating the sarcomere diffraction effect. The simulated results quantitatively resemble the unique patterns observed in experiments. We used a set of parameters to quantify the optical reflectance profiles produced by a point incident light in whole muscle. Two parameters, q and B, were obtained by numerically fitting the equi-intensity contours of the reflectance pattern. Two spatial gradients were calculated along the directions parallel and perpendicular to muscle fibers. The mean diffuse intensity was obtained by excluding the specular reflectance. These five parameters provide a comprehensive and complete description of the diffuse reflectance in muscle. In a study of 336 muscle samples, we found these optical parameters were subject to the effects of different muscle physical and biochemical factors. Different types of muscle have significantly different diffuse intensities. Aging shows different effects on the q parameter in different muscles. In addition, the mean diffuse intensity is significantly different (p<0.05) in different animal breeds. Optical parameters showed good correlations with Warner-Bratzler shear force. Further studies on a large sample group are necessary to develop a statistical model to predict muscle physical and chemical properties using these non-destructive optical measurements.

Ranasinghesagara, Janaka C.

261

Laser-inflicted injury of zebrafish embryonic skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Various experimental approaches have been used in mouse to induce muscle injury with the aim to study muscle regeneration, including myotoxin injections (bupivacaine, cardiotoxin or notexin), muscle transplantations (denervation-devascularization induced regeneration), intensive exercise, but also murine muscular dystrophy models such as the mdx mouse (for a review of these approaches see). In zebrafish, genetic approaches include mutants that exhibit muscular dystrophy phenotypes (such as runzel or sapje) and antisense oligonucleotide morpholinos that block the expression of dystrophy-associated genes. Besides, chemical approaches are also possible, e.g. with Galanthamine, a chemical compound inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, thereby resulting in hypercontraction, which eventually leads to muscular dystrophy. However, genetic and pharmacological approaches generally affect all muscles within an individual, whereas the extent of physically inflicted injuries are more easily controlled spatially and temporally. Localized physical injury allows the assessment of contralateral muscle as an internal control. Indeed, we recently used laser-mediated cell ablation to study skeletal muscle regeneration in the zebrafish embryo, while another group recently reported the use of a two-photon laser (822 nm) to damage very locally the plasma membrane of individual embryonic zebrafish muscle cells. Here, we report a method for using the micropoint laser (Andor Technology) for skeletal muscle cell injury in the zebrafish embryo. The micropoint laser is a high energy laser which is suitable for targeted cell ablation at a wavelength of 435 nm. The laser is connected to a microscope (in our setup, an optical microscope from Zeiss) in such a way that the microscope can be used at the same time for focusing the laser light onto the sample and for visualizing the effects of the wounding (brightfield or fluorescence). The parameters for controlling laser pulses include wavelength, intensity, and number of pulses. Due to its transparency and external embryonic development, the zebrafish embryo is highly amenable for both laser-induced injury and for studying the subsequent recovery. Between 1 and 2 days post-fertilization, somitic skeletal muscle cells progressively undergo maturation from anterior to posterior due to the progression of somitogenesis from the trunk to the tail. At these stages, embryos spontaneously twitch and initiate swimming. The zebrafish has recently been recognized as an important vertebrate model organism for the study of tissue regeneration, as many types of tissues (cardiac, neuronal, vascular etc.) can be regenerated after injury in the adult zebrafish. PMID:23407156

Otten, Cécile; Abdelilah-Seyfried, Salim

2013-01-01

262

Apoptosis-Inducing Factor Regulates Skeletal Muscle Progenitor Cell Number and Muscle Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF) is a highly conserved, ubiquitous flavoprotein localized in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. In vivo, AIF provides protection against neuronal and cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by oxidative stress. Conversely in vitro, AIF has been demonstrated to have a pro-apoptotic role upon induction of the mitochondrial death pathway, once AIF translocates to the nucleus where it facilitates chromatin condensation and large scale DNA fragmentation. Given that the aif hypomorphic harlequin (Hq) mutant mouse model displays severe sarcopenia, we examined skeletal muscle from the aif hypomorphic mice in more detail. Adult AIF-deficient skeletal myofibers display oxidative stress and a severe form of atrophy, associated with a loss of myonuclei and a fast to slow fiber type switch, both in “slow” muscles such as soleus, as well as in “fast” muscles such as extensor digitorum longus, most likely resulting from an increase of MEF2 activity. This fiber type switch was conserved in regenerated soleus and EDL muscles of Hq mice subjected to cardiotoxin injection. In addition, muscle regeneration in soleus and EDL muscles of Hq mice was severely delayed. Freshly cultured myofibers, soleus and EDL muscle sections from Hq mice displayed a decreased satellite cell pool, which could be rescued by pretreating aif hypomorphic mice with the manganese-salen free radical scavenger EUK-8. Satellite cell activation seems to be abnormally long in Hq primary culture compared to controls. However, AIF deficiency did not affect myoblast cell proliferation and differentiation. Thus, AIF protects skeletal muscles against oxidative stress-induced damage probably by protecting satellite cells against oxidative stress and maintaining skeletal muscle stem cell number and activation. PMID:22076146

Djeghloul, Dounia; Lecolle, Sylvie; Bertrand, Anne T.; Biondi, Olivier; De Windt, Leon J.; Chanoine, Christophe

2011-01-01

263

Dietary nitrate reduces skeletal muscle oxygenation response to physical exercise: a quantitative muscle functional MRI study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Dietary inorganic nitrate supplementation (probably via conversion to nitrite) increases skeletal muscle metabolic efficiency. In addition, it may also cause hypoxia?dependent vasodilation and this has the potential to augment oxygen delivery to exercising skeletal muscle. However, direct evidence for the latter with spatial localization to exercising muscle groups does not exist. We employed quantitative functional MRI (fMRI) to characterize skeletal muscle oxygen utilization and replenishment by assessment of tissue oxygenation maximal change and recovery change, respectively. Eleven healthy subjects were enrolled, of whom 9 (age 33.3 ± 4.4 years, five males) completed the study. Each subject took part in three MRI visits, with dietary nitrate (7cl concentrated beetroot juice) consumed before the third visit. During each visit fMRIs were conducted concurrently with plantar flexion exercise at workloads of 15% and 25% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). No significant changes were found between visits 1 and 2 in the fMRI measures. A decrease in maximal change was found at 15% MVC in soleus between visits 2 and 3 (5.12 ± 2.36 to 2.55 ± 1.42, P = 0.004) and between visits 1 and 3 (4.43 ± 2.12 to 2.55 ± 1.42, P = 0.043), but not at 25% MVC or within gastrocnemius. There was no difference in recovery change between visits. We found that dietary nitrate supplementation reduces tissue oxygenation alterations during physical exercise in skeletal muscle. This effect is more prominent in muscles with predominantly type 1 fibers and at lower workloads. This indicates that in healthy subjects dietary nitrate predominantly affects skeletal muscle energy efficiency with no change in oxygen delivery. PMID:25052493

Bentley, Rachel; Gray, Stuart R.; Schwarzbauer, Christian; Dawson, Dana; Frenneaux, Michael; He, Jiabao

2014-01-01

264

Formation and optogenetic control of engineered 3D skeletal muscle bioactuators  

E-print Network

Densely arrayed skeletal myotubes are activated individually and as a group using precise optical stimulation with high spatiotemporal resolution. Skeletal muscle myoblasts are genetically encoded to express a light-activated ...

Sakar, Mahmut Selman

265

MicroRNA transcriptome profiles during swine skeletal muscle development  

PubMed Central

Background MicroRNA (miR) are a class of small RNAs that regulate gene expression by inhibiting translation of protein encoding transcripts. To evaluate the role of miR in skeletal muscle of swine, global microRNA abundance was measured at specific developmental stages including proliferating satellite cells, three stages of fetal growth, day-old neonate, and the adult. Results Twelve potential novel miR were detected that did not match previously reported sequences. In addition, a number of miR previously reported to be expressed in mammalian muscle were detected, having a variety of abundance patterns through muscle development. Muscle-specific miR-206 was nearly absent in proliferating satellite cells in culture, but was the highest abundant miR at other time points evaluated. In addition, miR-1 was moderately abundant throughout developmental stages with highest abundance in the adult. In contrast, miR-133 was moderately abundant in adult muscle and either not detectable or lowly abundant throughout fetal and neonate development. Changes in abundance of ubiquitously expressed miR were also observed. MiR-432 abundance was highest at the earliest stage of fetal development tested (60 day-old fetus) and decreased throughout development to the adult. Conversely, miR-24 and miR-27 exhibited greatest abundance in proliferating satellite cells and the adult, while abundance of miR-368, miR-376, and miR-423-5p was greatest in the neonate. Conclusion These data present a complete set of transcriptome profiles to evaluate miR abundance at specific stages of skeletal muscle growth in swine. Identification of these miR provides an initial group of miR that may play a vital role in muscle development and growth. PMID:19208255

McDaneld, Tara G; Smith, Timothy PL; Doumit, Matthew E; Miles, Jeremy R; Coutinho, Luiz L; Sonstegard, Tad S; Matukumalli, Lakshmi K; Nonneman, Dan J; Wiedmann, Ralph T

2009-01-01

266

Ex Vivo Assessment of Contractility, Fatigability and Alternans in Isolated Skeletal Muscles  

PubMed Central

Described here is a method to measure contractility of isolated skeletal muscles. Parameters such as muscle force, muscle power, contractile kinetics, fatigability, and recovery after fatigue can be obtained to assess specific aspects of the excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) process such as excitability, contractile machinery and Ca2+ handling ability. This method removes the nerve and blood supply and focuses on the isolated skeletal muscle itself. We routinely use this method to identify genetic components that alter the contractile property of skeletal muscle though modulating Ca2+ signaling pathways. Here, we describe a newly identified skeletal muscle phenotype, i.e., mechanic alternans, as an example of the various and rich information that can be obtained using the in vitro muscle contractility assay. Combination of this assay with single cell assays, genetic approaches and biochemistry assays can provide important insights into the mechanisms of ECC in skeletal muscle. PMID:23149471

Park, Ki Ho; Brotto, Leticia; Lehoang, Oanh; Brotto, Marco; Ma, Jianjie; Zhao, Xiaoli

2012-01-01

267

Viscoelastic properties of passive skeletal muscle in compression: Stress-relaxation behaviour and constitutive modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compressive properties of skeletal muscle are important in impact biomechanics, rehabilitation engineering and surgical simulation. However, the mechanical behaviour of muscle tissue in compression remains poorly characterised. In this paper, the time-dependent properties of passive skeletal muscle were investigated using a combined experimental and theoretical approach. Uniaxial ramp and hold compression tests were performed in vitro on fresh porcine

M. Van Loocke; C. G. Lyons; C. K. Simms

2008-01-01

268

Human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells retain stem cell properties after expansion in myosphere culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human skeletal muscle contains an accessible adult stem-cell compartment in which differentiated myofibers are maintained and replaced by a self-renewing stem cell pool. Previously, studies using mouse models have established a critical role for resident stem cells in skeletal muscle, but little is known about this paradigm in human muscle. Here, we report the reproducible isolation of a population of

Yan Wei; Yuan Li; Chao Chen; Katharina Stoelzel; Andreas M. Kaufmann; Andreas E. Albers

2011-01-01

269

LongSAGE analysis of skeletal muscle at three prenatal stages in Tongcheng and Landrace pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Obese and lean pig breeds show obvious differences in muscle growth; however, the molecular mechanism underlying phenotype variation remains unknown. Prenatal muscle development programs postnatal performance. Here, we describe a genome-wide analysis of differences in prenatal skeletal muscle between Tongcheng (a typical indigenous Chinese breed) and Landrace (a leaner Western breed) pigs. RESULTS: We generated transcriptome profiles of skeletal

Zhonglin Tang; Yong Li; Ping Wan; Xiaoping Li; Shuhong Zhao; Bang Liu; Bin Fan; Mengjin Zhu; Mei Yu; Kui Li

2007-01-01

270

A role of tensin in skeletal-muscle regeneration.  

PubMed Central

Regeneration of skeletal muscle requires the activation, proliferation, differentiation and fusion of satellite cells to generate new muscle fibres. This study was designed to determine the role of tensin in this process. Cardiotoxin was used to induce regeneration in the anterior tibial muscles of tensin-knockout and wild-type mice. From histological analysis, we found that the regeneration process lasted longer in knockout than in wild-type mice. To investigate the mechanism involved in this delay, we examined each regeneration step in animals and cultured primary cells. We found fewer proliferating myogenic cells identified by bromodeoxyuridine and desmin double labelling in knockout mice on the first 2 days after injury. Expression of myosin, paxillin, dystrophin and dystrophin-associated proteins were delayed in knockout mice. Withdrawal from the cell cycle was less efficient in isolated knockout myoblasts, and the fusion capacity was reduced in these cells as well. These defects in regeneration most likely contributed to the 9-fold increase of centrally nucleated fibres occurring in the non-injected knockout mice. Our results demonstrated clearly that tensin plays a role in skeletal-muscle regeneration. PMID:11389681

Ishii, A; Lo, S H

2001-01-01

271

Defective Homocysteine Metabolism: Potential Implications for Skeletal Muscle Malfunction  

PubMed Central

Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is a systemic medical condition and has been attributed to multi-organ pathologies. Genetic, nutritional, hormonal, age and gender differences are involved in abnormal homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism that produces HHcy. Homocysteine is an intermediate for many key processes such as cellular methylation and cellular antioxidant potential and imbalances in Hcy production and/or catabolism impacts gene expression and cell signaling including GPCR signaling. Furthermore, HHcy might damage the vagus nerve and superior cervical ganglion and affects various GPCR functions; therefore it can impair both the parasympathetic and sympathetic regulation in the blood vessels of skeletal muscle and affect long-term muscle function. Understanding cellular targets of Hcy during HHcy in different contexts and its role either as a primary risk factor or as an aggravator of certain disease conditions would provide better interventions. In this review we have provided recent Hcy mediated mechanistic insights into different diseases and presented potential implications in the context of reduced muscle function and integrity. Overall, the impact of HHcy in various skeletal muscle malfunctions is underappreciated; future studies in this area will provide deeper insights and improve our understanding of the association between HHcy and diminished physical function. PMID:23873298

Veeranki, Sudhakar; Tyagi, Suresh C.

2013-01-01

272

Skeletal muscle plasticity with marathon training in novice runners.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate leg muscle adaptation in runners preparing for their first marathon. Soleus and vastus lateralis (VL) biopsies were obtained from six recreational runners (23 ± 1 years, 61 ± 3 kg) before (T1), after 13 weeks of run training (T2), and after 3 weeks of taper and marathon (T3). Single muscle fiber size, contractile function (strength, speed, and power) and oxidative enzyme activity [citrate synthase (CS)] were measured at all three time points, and fiber type distribution was determined before and after the 16-week intervention. Training increased VO(2max) ?9% (P<0.05). All soleus parameters were unchanged. VL MHC I fiber diameter increased (+8%; P<0.05) from T1 to T2. VL MHC I V(o) (-12%), MHC I power (-22%) and MHC IIa power (-29%) were reduced from T1 to T2 (P<0.05). No changes in VL single fiber contractile properties were observed from T2 to T3. No change was observed in soleus CS activity, whereas VL CS activity increased 66% (P<0.05). Our observations indicate that modest marathon training elicits very specific skeletal muscle adaptations that likely support the ability to perform 42.2 km of continuous running - further strengthening the existing body of evidence for skeletal muscle specificity. PMID:21477203

Luden, N; Hayes, E; Minchev, K; Louis, E; Raue, U; Conley, T; Trappe, S

2012-10-01

273

Skeletal muscle vasodilatation during maximal exercise in health and disease  

PubMed Central

Maximal exercise vasodilatation results from the balance between vasoconstricting and vasodilating signals combined with the vascular reactivity to these signals. During maximal exercise with a small muscle mass the skeletal muscle vascular bed is fully vasodilated. During maximal whole body exercise, however, vasodilatation is restrained by the sympathetic system. This is necessary to avoid hypotension since the maximal vascular conductance of the musculature exceeds the maximal pumping capacity of the heart. Endurance training and high-intensity intermittent knee extension training increase the capacity for maximal exercise vasodilatation by 20–30%, mainly due to an enhanced vasodilatory capacity, as maximal exercise perfusion pressure changes little with training. The increase in maximal exercise vascular conductance is to a large extent explained by skeletal muscle hypertrophy and vascular remodelling. The vasodilatory capacity during maximal exercise is reduced or blunted with ageing, as well as in chronic heart failure patients and chronically hypoxic humans; reduced vasodilatory responsiveness and increased sympathetic activity (and probably, altered sympatholysis) are potential mechanisms accounting for this effect. Pharmacological counteraction of the sympathetic restraint may result in lower perfusion pressure and reduced oxygen extraction by the exercising muscles. However, at the same time fast inhibition of the chemoreflex in maximally exercising humans may result in increased vasodilatation, further confirming a restraining role of the sympathetic nervous system on exercise-induced vasodilatation. This is likely to be critical for the maintenance of blood pressure in exercising patients with a limited heart pump capacity. PMID:23027820

Calbet, Jose A L; Lundby, Carsten

2012-01-01

274

Sphingolipid Metabolism, Oxidant Signaling, and Contractile Function of Skeletal Muscle  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance Sphingolipids are a class of bioactive lipids that regulate diverse cell functions. Ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate accumulate in tissues such as liver, brain, and lung under conditions of cellular stress, including oxidative stress. The activity of some sphingolipid metabolizing enzymes, chiefly the sphingomyelinases, is stimulated during inflammation and in response to oxidative stress. Ceramide, the sphingomyelinase product, as well as the ceramide metabolite, sphingosine-1-phosphate, can induce the generation of more reactive oxygen species, propagating further inflammation. Recent Advances This review article summarizes information on sphingolipid biochemistry and signaling pertinent to skeletal muscle and describes the potential influence of sphingolipids on contractile function. Critical Issues It encompasses topics related to (1) the pathways for complex sphingolipid biosynthesis and degradation, emphasizing sphingolipid regulation in various muscle fiber types and subcellular compartments; (2) the emerging evidence that implicates ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate as regulators of muscle oxidant activity, and (3) sphingolipid effects on contractile function and fatigue. Future Directions We propose that prolonged inflammatory conditions alter ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate levels in skeletal muscle and that these changes promote the weakness, premature fatigue, and cachexia that plague individuals with heart failure, cancer, diabetes, and other chronic inflammatory diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 2501–2517. PMID:21453197

Nikolova-Karakashian, Mariana N.

2011-01-01

275

STEREOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF MAMMALIAN SKELETAL MUSCLE  

PubMed Central

A quantitative analysis of the volumes, surface areas, and dimensions of the ultrastructural components in the soleus muscle fibers of the guinea pig was made by using point counting methods of stereology. Muscle fibers have structural orientation (anisotropy) and have spatial gradients of the structures within the fiber; therefore the standard stereological methods were modified where necessary. The entire analysis was repeated at two section orientations to test the modifications and identical results obtained from both. The volume of lipid droplets was 0.20 ± 0.06% (mean ± standard error, n = 5 animals) and the nuclei volume was 0.86 ± 0.20% of the fiber volume. The total mitochondrial volume was 4.85 ± 0.66% of the fiber volume with about one-third being found in an annulus within 1 µm of the sarcolemma. The mitochondrial volume in the remaining core of the fiber was 3.6 ± 0.4%. The T system has a volume of 0.14 ± 0.01% and a surface area of 0.064 ± 0.005 µm2/µm3 of the fiber volume. The surface area of the sarcolemma is 0.116 ± 0.013 µm2/µm3 which is twice the T system surface area. The volume of the entire sarcoplasmic reticulum is 3.52 ± 0.33% and the surface area is 0.97 ± 0.09 µm2/µm3. The sarcoplasmic reticulum is composed of the terminal cisternae whose volume is 1.04 ± 0.19% and surface area is 0.24 ± 0.05 µm2/µm3. The tubules of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in the I band and A band have volumes of 1.97 ± 0.24% and 0.51 ± 0.08%, and the surface areas of the I and A band reticulum are 0.56 ± 0.07 µm2/µm3 and 0.16 ± 0.04 µm2/µm3, respectively. The Z line width, myofibril and fiber diameters were measured. PMID:4824293

Eisenberg, Brenda R.; Kuda, Aileen M.; Peter, James B.

1974-01-01

276

Bovine skeletal muscle calpastatin: cloning, sequence analysis, and steady-state mRNA expression.  

PubMed

Calpastatin is a specific inhibitor of the calpains. Calpains play a key role in postmortem tenderization of meat and have been hypothesized to be involved in muscle protein degradation in living tissue. Isolation, cloning of complementary DNA, and nucleotide sequencing of bovine calpastatin from the longissimus muscle have been completed. Two clones were identified that encompass the entire coding sequence. Clone pCR41, derived by reverse transcription-PCR, covers domains L and 1; clone pBSA1, obtained from cDNA library screening, covers domains 2 through 4 in addition to the 3'-nontranslated region. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the cDNA for bovine calpastatin revealed an average nucleotide sequence identity of approximately 70 to 80% compared with published calpastatin nucleotide sequences of human, rabbit, and pig. Exon 3, corresponding to a highly conserved 22-amino acid region, was deleted from bovine calpastatin domain L. The calculated molecular weight of bovine skeletal muscle calpastatin of 706 amino acid residues (M(r) 75,842) corresponds to the value of purified bovine skeletal muscle calpastatin as determined by SDS-PAGE (M(r) 68,000). Northern blot analysis revealed the presence of multiple calpastatin mRNA transcripts having estimated sizes of 3.8, 3.0, and 1.5 kb in beef and 3.8, 3.0, 2.5, and 1.5 kb in sheep. Calpastatin mRNA expression was increased with beta-adrenergic agonist-induced muscle hypertrophy. PMID:8181976

Killefer, J; Koohmaraie, M

1994-03-01

277

Effects of leucine and its metabolite ?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate on human skeletal muscle protein metabolism  

PubMed Central

Maintenance of skeletal muscle mass is contingent upon the dynamic equilibrium (fasted losses–fed gains) in protein turnover. Of all nutrients, the single amino acid leucine (Leu) possesses the most marked anabolic characteristics in acting as a trigger element for the initiation of protein synthesis. While the mechanisms by which Leu is ‘sensed’ have been the subject of great scrutiny, as a branched-chain amino acid, Leu can be catabolized within muscle, thus posing the possibility that metabolites of Leu could be involved in mediating the anabolic effect(s) of Leu. Our objective was to measure muscle protein anabolism in response to Leu and its metabolite HMB. Using [1,2-13C2]Leu and [2H5]phenylalanine tracers, and GC-MS/GC-C-IRMS we studied the effect of HMB or Leu alone on MPS (by tracer incorporation into myofibrils), and for HMB we also measured muscle proteolysis (by arteriovenous (A–V) dilution). Orally consumed 3.42 g free-acid (FA-HMB) HMB (providing 2.42 g of pure HMB) exhibited rapid bioavailability in plasma and muscle and, similarly to 3.42 g Leu, stimulated muscle protein synthesis (MPS; HMB +70%vs. Leu +110%). While HMB and Leu both increased anabolic signalling (mechanistic target of rapamycin; mTOR), this was more pronounced with Leu (i.e. p70S6K1 signalling ?90 min vs. ?30 min for HMB). HMB consumption also attenuated muscle protein breakdown (MPB; ?57%) in an insulin-independent manner. We conclude that exogenous HMB induces acute muscle anabolism (increased MPS and reduced MPB) albeit perhaps via distinct, and/or additional mechanism(s) to Leu. PMID:23551944

Wilkinson, D J; Hossain, T; Hill, D S; Phillips, B E; Crossland, H; Williams, J; Loughna, P; Churchward-Venne, T A; Breen, L; Phillips, S M; Etheridge, T; Rathmacher, J A; Smith, K; Szewczyk, N J; Atherton, P J

2013-01-01

278

Changes in human skeletal muscle length during stimulated eccentric muscle actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following eccentric exercise, increases in muscle length alter the length-tension relation of skeletal muscle. However, its\\u000a unclear if this change occurs during eccentric exercise. Therefore, 70 eccentric actions of the knee extensors of one leg\\u000a (with superimposed electrical stimulation) were performed at 100°\\/s, from full extension to full flexion. Angle-specific eccentric\\u000a force was recorded throughout. Force decreased at all angles

Stephen J. Brown; Alan Donnelly

2011-01-01

279

Cardiac Myosin Binding Protein-C Plays No Regulatory Role in Skeletal Muscle Structure and Function  

PubMed Central

Myosin binding protein-C (MyBP-C) exists in three major isoforms: slow skeletal, fast skeletal, and cardiac. While cardiac MyBP-C (cMyBP-C) expression is restricted to the heart in the adult, it is transiently expressed in neonatal stages of some skeletal muscles. However, it is unclear whether this expression is necessary for the proper development and function of skeletal muscle. Our aim was to determine whether the absence of cMyBP-C alters the structure, function, or MyBP-C isoform expression in adult skeletal muscle using a cMyBP-C null mouse model (cMyBP-C(t/t)). Slow MyBP-C was expressed in both slow and fast skeletal muscles, whereas fast MyBP-C was mostly restricted to fast skeletal muscles. Expression of these isoforms was unaffected in skeletal muscle from cMyBP-C(t/t) mice. Slow and fast skeletal muscles in cMyBP-C(t/t) mice showed no histological or ultrastructural changes in comparison to the wild-type control. In addition, slow muscle twitch, tetanus tension, and susceptibility to injury were all similar to the wild-type controls. Interestingly, fMyBP-C expression was significantly increased in the cMyBP-C(t/t) hearts undergoing severe dilated cardiomyopathy, though this does not seem to prevent dysfunction. Additionally, expression of both slow and fast isoforms was increased in myopathic skeletal muscles. Our data demonstrate that i) MyBP-C isoforms are differentially regulated in both cardiac and skeletal muscles, ii) cMyBP-C is dispensable for the development of skeletal muscle with no functional or structural consequences in the adult myocyte, and iii) skeletal isoforms can transcomplement in the heart in the absence of cMyBP-C. PMID:23936073

Lin, Brian; Govindan, Suresh; Lee, Kyounghwan; Zhao, Piming; Han, Renzhi; Runte, K. Elisabeth; Craig, Roger; Palmer, Bradley M.; Sadayappan, Sakthivel

2013-01-01

280

Human skeletal muscle protein breakdown during spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human spaceflight is associated with a loss of body protein. Excretion of 3-methylhistidine (3-MH) in the urine is a useful measurement of myofibrillar protein breakdown. Bed rest, particularly with 6 degrees head-down tilt, is an accepted ground-based model for human spaceflight. The objectives of this report were to compare 3-MH excretion from two Life Sciences shuttle missions (duration 9.5 and 15 days, n = 9) and from 17 days of bed rest (n = 7) with 6 degrees head-down tilt. The bed rest study was designed to mimic an actual Life Sciences spaceflight and so incorporated an extensive battery of physiological tests focused on the musculoskeletal system. Results showed that nitrogen retention, based on excretion of nitrogen in the urine, was reduced during both bed rest [from 22 +/- 1 to 1 +/- 5 mg N x kg(-1) x day(-1) (n = 7; P < 0.05)] and spaceflight [from 57 +/- 9 to 19 +/- 3 mg N x kg(-1) x day(-1) (n = 9; P < 0.05)]. 3-MH excretion was unchanged with either bed rest [pre-bed rest 5.30 +/- 0.29 vs. bed rest 5.71 +/- 0.30 micromol 3-MH x kg(-1) x day(-1), n = 7; P = not significant (NS)] or spaceflight [preflight 4.98 +/- 0.37 vs. 4.59 +/- 0.39 micromol 3-MH x kg(-1) x day(-1) in-flight, n = 9; P = NS]. We conclude that 1) 3-MH excretion was unaffected by spaceflight on the shuttle or with bed rest plus exercise, and 2) because protein breakdown (elevated 3-MH) was increased on Skylab but not on the shuttle, it follows that muscle protein breakdown is not an inevitable consequence of spaceflight.

Stein, T. P.; Schluter, M. D.

1997-01-01

281

Hyperinsulinemia and skeletal muscle fatty acid trafficking.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that insulin alters plasma free fatty acid (FFA) trafficking into intramyocellular (im) long-chain acylcarnitines (imLCAC) and triglycerides (imTG). Overnight-fasted adults (n = 41) received intravenous infusions of [U-ąłC]palmitate (0400-0900 h) and [U-ąłC]oleate (0800-1400 h) to label imTG and imLCAC. A euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (1.0 mU·kg fat-free mass?ą·min?ą) clamp (0800-1400 h) and two muscle biopsies (0900 h, 1400 h) were performed. The patterns of [U-ąłC]palmitate incorporation into imTG-palmitate and palmitoylcarnitine were similar to those we reported in overnight postabsorptive adults (saline control); the intramyocellular palmitoylcarnitine enrichment was not different from and correlated with imTG-palmitate enrichment for both the morning (r = 0.38, P = 0.02) and afternoon (r = 0.44, P = 0.006) biopsy samples. Plasma FFA concentrations, flux, and the incorporation of plasma oleate into imTG-oleate during hyperinsulinemia were ~1/10th of that observed in the previous saline control studies (P < 0.001). At the time of the second biopsy, the enrichment in oleoylcarnitine was <25% of that in imTG-oleate and was not correlated with imTG-oleate enrichment. The intramyocellular nonesterified fatty acid-palmitate-to-imTG-palmitate enrichment ratio was greater (P < 0.05) in women than men, suggesting that sex differences in intramyocellular palmitate trafficking may occur under hyperinsulinemic conditions. We conclude that plasma FFA trafficking into imTG during hyperinsulinemia is markedly suppressed, and these newly incorporated FFA fatty acids do not readily enter the LCAC preoxidative pools. Hyperinsulinemia does not seem to inhibit the entry of fatty acids from imTG pools that were labeled under fasting conditions, possibly reflecting the presence of two distinct imTG pools that are differentially regulated by insulin. PMID:23820622

Kanaley, Jill A; Shadid, Samyah; Sheehan, Michael T; Guo, ZengKui; Jensen, Michael D

2013-08-15

282

Three-dimensionally printed biological machines powered by skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Combining biological components, such as cells and tissues, with soft robotics can enable the fabrication of biological machines with the ability to sense, process signals, and produce force. An intuitive demonstration of a biological machine is one that can produce motion in response to controllable external signaling. Whereas cardiac cell-driven biological actuators have been demonstrated, the requirements of these machines to respond to stimuli and exhibit controlled movement merit the use of skeletal muscle, the primary generator of actuation in animals, as a contractile power source. Here, we report the development of 3D printed hydrogel "bio-bots" with an asymmetric physical design and powered by the actuation of an engineered mammalian skeletal muscle strip to result in net locomotion of the bio-bot. Geometric design and material properties of the hydrogel bio-bots were optimized using stereolithographic 3D printing, and the effect of collagen I and fibrin extracellular matrix proteins and insulin-like growth factor 1 on the force production of engineered skeletal muscle was characterized. Electrical stimulation triggered contraction of cells in the muscle strip and net locomotion of the bio-bot with a maximum velocity of ? 156 ?m s(-1), which is over 1.5 body lengths per min. Modeling and simulation were used to understand both the effect of different design parameters on the bio-bot and the mechanism of motion. This demonstration advances the goal of realizing forward-engineered integrated cellular machines and systems, which can have a myriad array of applications in drug screening, programmable tissue engineering, drug delivery, and biomimetic machine design. PMID:24982152

Cvetkovic, Caroline; Raman, Ritu; Chan, Vincent; Williams, Brian J; Tolish, Madeline; Bajaj, Piyush; Sakar, Mahmut Selman; Asada, H Harry; Saif, M Taher A; Bashir, Rashid

2014-07-15

283

Three-dimensionally printed biological machines powered by skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Combining biological components, such as cells and tissues, with soft robotics can enable the fabrication of biological machines with the ability to sense, process signals, and produce force. An intuitive demonstration of a biological machine is one that can produce motion in response to controllable external signaling. Whereas cardiac cell-driven biological actuators have been demonstrated, the requirements of these machines to respond to stimuli and exhibit controlled movement merit the use of skeletal muscle, the primary generator of actuation in animals, as a contractile power source. Here, we report the development of 3D printed hydrogel “bio-bots” with an asymmetric physical design and powered by the actuation of an engineered mammalian skeletal muscle strip to result in net locomotion of the bio-bot. Geometric design and material properties of the hydrogel bio-bots were optimized using stereolithographic 3D printing, and the effect of collagen I and fibrin extracellular matrix proteins and insulin-like growth factor 1 on the force production of engineered skeletal muscle was characterized. Electrical stimulation triggered contraction of cells in the muscle strip and net locomotion of the bio-bot with a maximum velocity of ?156 ?m s?1, which is over 1.5 body lengths per min. Modeling and simulation were used to understand both the effect of different design parameters on the bio-bot and the mechanism of motion. This demonstration advances the goal of realizing forward-engineered integrated cellular machines and systems, which can have a myriad array of applications in drug screening, programmable tissue engineering, drug delivery, and biomimetic machine design. PMID:24982152

Cvetkovic, Caroline; Raman, Ritu; Chan, Vincent; Williams, Brian J.; Tolish, Madeline; Bajaj, Piyush; Sakar, Mahmut Selman; Asada, H. Harry; Saif, M. Taher A.; Bashir, Rashid

2014-01-01

284

[Transdisciplinary Approach for Sarcopenia. The effects of exercise on skeletal muscle hypertrophy and satellite cells].  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle has a high degree of plasticity. The mass of skeletal muscle maintains owing to muscle protein synthesis and the regeneration by satellite cells. Skeletal muscle atrophy with aging (sarcopenia) is developed by decline of muscle protein synthesis and dysfunction of satellite cells. It is urgently necessary for today's highly aged society to elucidate the mechanism of sarcopenia and to establish prevention measure. This review shows that the positive effects of "exercise" on muscle protein synthesis and satellite cell function including their main molecular mechanism. PMID:25266091

Fujimaki, Shin; Takemasa, Tohru; Kuwabara, Tomoko

2014-10-01

285

Identification of telocytes in skeletal muscle interstitium: implication for muscle regeneration.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle interstitium is crucial for regulation of blood flow, passage of substances from capillaries to myocytes and muscle regeneration. We show here, probably, for the first time, the presence of telocytes (TCs), a peculiar type of interstitial (stromal) cells, in rat, mouse and human skeletal muscle. TC features include (as already described in other tissues) a small cell body and very long and thin cell prolongations-telopodes (Tps) with moniliform appearance, dichotomous branching and 3D-network distribution. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed close vicinity of Tps with nerve endings, capillaries, satellite cells and myocytes, suggesting a TC role in intercellular signalling (via shed vesicles or exosomes). In situ immunolabelling showed that skeletal muscle TCs express c-kit, caveolin-1 and secrete VEGF. The same phenotypic profile was demonstrated in cell cultures. These markers and TEM data differentiate TCs from both satellite cells (e.g. TCs are Pax7 negative) and fibroblasts (which are c-kit negative). We also described non-satellite (resident) progenitor cell niche. In culture, TCs (but not satellite cells) emerge from muscle explants and form networks suggesting a key role in muscle regeneration and repair, at least after trauma. PMID:21609392

Popescu, L M; Manole, Emilia; Serboiu, Crengu?a S; Manole, C G; Suciu, Laura C; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela; Popescu, B O

2011-06-01

286

Dexamethasone regulates glutamine synthetase expression in rat skeletal muscles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The regulation of glutamine synthetase by glucocorticoids in rat skeletal muscles was studied. Administration of dexamethasone strikingly enhanced glutamine synthetase activity in plantaris and soleus muscles. The dexamethasone-mediated induction of glutamine synthetase activity was blocked to a significant extent by orally administered RU38486, a glucocorticoid antagonist, indicating the involvement of intracellular glucocorticoid receptors in the induction. Northern blot analysis revealed that dexamethasone-mediated enhancement of glutamine synthetase activity involves dramatically increased levels of glutamine synthetase mRNA. The induction of glutamine synthetase was selective in that glutaminase activity of soleus and plantaris muscles was not increased by dexamethasone. Furthermore, dexamethasone treatment resulted in only a small increase in glutamine synthetase activity in the heart. Accordingly, there was only a slight change in glutamine synthetase mRNA level in this tissue. Thus, glucocorticoids regulate glutamine synthetase gene expression in rat muscles at the transcriptional level via interaction with intracellular glutamine production by muscle and to mechanisms underlying glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy.

Max, Stephen R.; Konagaya, Masaaki; Konagaya, Yoko; Thomas, John W.; Banner, Carl; Vitkovic, Ljubisa

1986-01-01

287

Autophagy Signaling in Skeletal Muscle of Infarcted Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Heart failure (HF)-induced skeletal muscle atrophy is often associated to exercise intolerance and poor prognosis. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying HF-induced muscle atrophy may contribute to the development of pharmacological strategies to prevent or treat such condition. It has been shown that autophagy-lysosome system is an important mechanism for maintenance of muscle mass. However, its role in HF-induced myopathy has not been addressed yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate autophagy signaling in myocardial infarction (MI)-induced muscle atrophy in rats. Methods/Principal Findings Wistar rats underwent MI or Sham surgeries, and after 12 weeks were submitted to echocardiography, exercise tolerance and histology evaluations. Cathepsin L activity and expression of autophagy-related genes and proteins were assessed in soleus and plantaris muscles by fluorimetric assay, qRT-PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. MI rats displayed exercise intolerance, left ventricular dysfunction and dilation, thereby suggesting the presence of HF. The key findings of the present study were: a) upregulation of autophagy-related genes (GABARAPL1, ATG7, BNIP3, CTSL1 and LAMP2) was observed only in plantaris while muscle atrophy was observed in both soleus and plantaris muscles, and b) Cathepsin L activity, Bnip3 and Fis1 protein levels, and levels of lipid hydroperoxides were increased specifically in plantaris muscle of MI rats. Conclusions Altogether our results provide evidence for autophagy signaling regulation in HF-induced plantaris atrophy but not soleus atrophy. Therefore, autophagy-lysosome system is differentially regulated in atrophic muscles comprising different fiber-types and metabolic characteristics. PMID:24427319

Jannig, Paulo R.; Moreira, Jose B. N.; Bechara, Luiz R. G.; Bozi, Luiz H. M.; Bacurau, Aline V.; Monteiro, Alex W. A.; Dourado, Paulo M.; Wisl?ff, Ulrik; Brum, Patricia C.

2014-01-01

288

Glutamine metabolism in rat skeletal muscle wounded with lambda-carrageenan  

SciTech Connect

Wounding with lambda-carrageenan results in a marked decrease in the intracellular-free glutamine content of rat skeletal muscle. The potential mechanisms for this finding, including alterations in glutamine release, glutamine utilization, and glutamine synthesis, were investigated in rats under pentobarbitol anesthesia. Wounding did not increase glutamine release from muscle during incubation or isolated hindlimb perfusion. Wounded muscle utilized more glutamine than nonwounded muscle, as measured both by the production of (/sup 14/C)O/sub 2/ and of -glutamate from labeled glutamine. Maximal glutamine synthetase activity was increased by wounding. The increase in glutamine synthetase activity in wounded muscle was prevented by adrenalectomy and restored by replacement doses of corticosterone in wounded adrenalectomized animals. The decrease in muscle free glutamine induced by wounding is therefore not mediated by an increase in the release of this amino acid, nor by a reduction in the tissue capacity for glutamine synthesis, but by an increase in glutamine utilization at the site of injury. This difference is apparently determined by the utilization of glutamine by the cellular components of the inflammatory infiltrate, which were shown to be capable of active glutaminolysis.

Albina, J.E.; Henry, W.; King, P.A.; Shearer, J.; Mastrofrancesco, B.; Goldstein, L.; Caldwell, M.D.

1987-01-01

289

Skeletal muscle contractility is preserved in COPD patients with normal fat-free mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: Peripheral muscle dysfunction often occurs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The muscle dysfunction may be caused by a loss of force-generating capacity, resulting from a loss of muscle mass, as well as by other alterations in contractile properties of skeletal muscle. METHODS: The maximal isometric voluntary strength and fatigability were determined in hand-grip and quadriceps muscles

H. Degens; J. M. Sanchez Horneros; Y. F. Heijdra; P. N. R. Dekhuijzen; M. T. E. Hopman

2005-01-01

290

Genetic architecture of gene expression in ovine skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Background In livestock populations the genetic contribution to muscling is intensively monitored in the progeny of industry sires and used as a tool in selective breeding programs. The genes and pathways conferring this genetic merit are largely undefined. Genetic variation within a population has potential, amongst other mechanisms, to alter gene expression via cis- or trans-acting mechanisms in a manner that impacts the functional activities of specific pathways that contribute to muscling traits. By integrating sire-based genetic merit information for a muscling trait with progeny-based gene expression data we directly tested the hypothesis that there is genetic structure in the gene expression program in ovine skeletal muscle. Results The genetic performance of six sires for a well defined muscling trait, longissimus lumborum muscle depth, was measured using extensive progeny testing and expressed as an Estimated Breeding Value by comparison with contemporary sires. Microarray gene expression data were obtained for longissimus lumborum samples taken from forty progeny of the six sires (4-8 progeny/sire). Initial unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis revealed strong genetic architecture to the gene expression data, which also discriminated the sire-based Estimated Breeding Value for the trait. An integrated systems biology approach was then used to identify the major functional pathways contributing to the genetics of enhanced muscling by using both Estimated Breeding Value weighted gene co-expression network analysis and a differential gene co-expression network analysis. The modules of genes revealed by these analyses were enriched for a number of functional terms summarised as muscle sarcomere organisation and development, protein catabolism (proteosome), RNA processing, mitochondrial function and transcriptional regulation. Conclusions This study has revealed strong genetic structure in the gene expression program within ovine longissimus lumborum muscle. The balance between muscle protein synthesis, at the levels of both transcription and translation control, and protein catabolism mediated by regulated proteolysis is likely to be the primary determinant of the genetic merit for the muscling trait in this sheep population. There is also evidence that high genetic merit for muscling is associated with a fibre type shift toward fast glycolytic fibres. This study provides insight into mechanisms, presumably subject to strong artificial selection, that underpin enhanced muscling in sheep populations. PMID:22171619

2011-01-01

291

Nrf2 Protects Against TWEAK-mediated Skeletal Muscle Wasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Skeletal muscle (SM) regeneration after injury is impaired by excessive inflammation. Particularly, the inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a potent inducer of skeletal muscle wasting and fibrosis. In this study we investigated the role of Nrf2, a major regulator of oxidative stress defence, in SM ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and TWEAK induced atrophy. We explored the time-dependent expression of TWEAK after I/R in SM of Nrf2-wildtype (WT) and knockout (KO) mice. Nrf2-KO mice expressed significant higher levels of TWEAK as compared to WT mice. Consequently, Nrf2-KO mice present an insufficient regeneration as compared to Nrf2-WT mice. Moreover, TWEAK stimulation activates Nrf2 in the mouse myoblast cell line C2C12. This Nrf2 activation inhibits TWEAK induced atrophy in C2C12 differentiated myotubes. In summary, we show that Nrf2 protects SM from TWEAK-induced cell death in vitro and that Nrf2-deficient mice therefore have poorer muscle regeneration.

Al-Sawaf, Othman; Fragoulis, Athanassios; Rosen, Christian; Kan, Yuet Wai; Sönmez, Tolga Taha; Pufe, Thomas; Wruck, Christoph Jan

2014-01-01

292

The Hippo signal transduction network in skeletal and cardiac muscle.  

PubMed

The discovery of the Hippo pathway can be traced back to two areas of research. Genetic screens in fruit flies led to the identification of the Hippo pathway kinases and scaffolding proteins that function together to suppress cell proliferation and tumor growth. Independent research, often in the context of muscle biology, described Tead (TEA domain) transcription factors, which bind CATTCC DNA motifs to regulate gene expression. These two research areas were joined by the finding that the Hippo pathway regulates the activity of Tead transcription factors mainly through phosphorylation of the transcriptional coactivators Yap and Taz, which bind to and activate Teads. Additionally, many other signal transduction proteins crosstalk to members of the Hippo pathway forming a Hippo signal transduction network. We discuss evidence that the Hippo signal transduction network plays important roles in myogenesis, regeneration, muscular dystrophy, and rhabdomyosarcoma in skeletal muscle, as well as in myogenesis, organ size control, and regeneration of the heart. Understanding the role of Hippo kinases in skeletal and heart muscle physiology could have important implications for translational research. PMID:25097035

Wackerhage, Henning; Del Re, Dominic P; Judson, Robert N; Sudol, Marius; Sadoshima, Junichi

2014-08-01

293

Nrf2 Protects Against TWEAK-mediated Skeletal Muscle Wasting  

PubMed Central

Skeletal muscle (SM) regeneration after injury is impaired by excessive inflammation. Particularly, the inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a potent inducer of skeletal muscle wasting and fibrosis. In this study we investigated the role of Nrf2, a major regulator of oxidative stress defence, in SM ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and TWEAK induced atrophy. We explored the time-dependent expression of TWEAK after I/R in SM of Nrf2-wildtype (WT) and knockout (KO) mice. Nrf2-KO mice expressed significant higher levels of TWEAK as compared to WT mice. Consequently, Nrf2-KO mice present an insufficient regeneration as compared to Nrf2-WT mice. Moreover, TWEAK stimulation activates Nrf2 in the mouse myoblast cell line C2C12. This Nrf2 activation inhibits TWEAK induced atrophy in C2C12 differentiated myotubes. In summary, we show that Nrf2 protects SM from TWEAK-induced cell death in vitro and that Nrf2-deficient mice therefore have poorer muscle regeneration. PMID:24406502

Al-Sawaf, Othman; Fragoulis, Athanassios; Rosen, Christian; Kan, Yuet Wai; Sonmez, Tolga Taha; Pufe, Thomas; Wruck, Christoph Jan

2014-01-01

294

The effect of radiation dose on mouse skeletal muscle remodeling  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of two clinically relevant radiation doses on the susceptibility of mouse skeletal muscle to remodeling. Materials and methods. Alterations in muscle morphology and regulatory signaling were examined in tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles after radiation doses that differed in total biological effective dose (BED). Female C57BL/6 (8-wk) mice were randomly assigned to non-irradiated control, four fractionated doses of 4 Gy (4x4 Gy; BED 37 Gy), or a single 16 Gy dose (16 Gy; BED 100 Gy). Mice were sacrificed 2 weeks after the initial radiation exposure. Results The 16 Gy, but not 4x4 Gy, decreased total muscle protein and RNA content. Related to muscle regeneration, both 16 Gy and 4x4 Gy increased the incidence of central nuclei containing myofibers, but only 16 Gy increased the extracellular matrix volume. However, only 4x4 Gy increased muscle 4-hydroxynonenal expression. While both 16 Gy and 4x4 Gy decreased IIB myofiber mean cross-sectional area (CSA), only 16 Gy decreased IIA myofiber CSA. 16 Gy increased the incidence of small diameter IIA and IIB myofibers, while 4x4 Gy only increased the incidence of small diameter IIB myofibers. Both treatments decreased the frequency and CSA of low succinate dehydrogenase activity (SDH) fibers. Only 16 Gy increased the incidence of small diameter myofibers having high SDH activity. Neither treatment altered muscle signaling related to protein turnover or oxidative metabolism. Conclusions Collectively, these results demonstrate that radiation dose differentially affects muscle remodeling, and these effects appear to be related to fiber type and oxidative metabolism.

Hardee, Justin P.; Puppa, Melissa J.; Fix, Dennis K.; Gao, Song; Hetzler, Kimbell L.; Bateman, Ted A.; Carson, James A.

2014-01-01

295

Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Oxidative Capacity and Muscle Mass by SIRT3  

PubMed Central

We have previously reported that the expression of mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 is high in the slow oxidative muscle and that the expression of muscle SIRT3 level is increased by dietary restriction or exercise training. To explore the function of SIRT3 in skeletal muscle, we report here the establishment of a transgenic mouse model with muscle-specific expression of the murine SIRT3 short isoform (SIRT3M3). Calorimetry study revealed that the transgenic mice had increased energy expenditure and lower respiratory exchange rate (RER), indicating a shift towards lipid oxidation for fuel usage, compared to control mice. The transgenic mice exhibited better exercise performance on treadmills, running 45% further than control animals. Moreover, the transgenic mice displayed higher proportion of slow oxidative muscle fibers, with increased muscle AMPK activation and PPAR? expression, both of which are known regulators promoting type I muscle fiber specification. Surprisingly, transgenic expression of SIRT3M3 reduced muscle mass up to 30%, likely through an up-regulation of FOXO1 transcription factor and its downstream atrophy gene MuRF-1. In summary, these results suggest that SIRT3 regulates the formation of oxidative muscle fiber, improves muscle metabolic function, and reduces muscle mass, changes that mimic the effects of caloric restriction. PMID:24454908

Khalek, Waed Abdel; Ward, Jack Lee; Yang, Henry; Chabi, Beatrice; Wrutniak-Cabello, Chantal; Tong, Qiang

2014-01-01

296

Inducible Cre transgenic mouse strain for skeletal muscle-specific gene targeting  

PubMed Central

Background The use of the Cre/loxP system for gene targeting has been proven to be a powerful tool for understanding gene function. The purpose of this study was to create and characterize an inducible, skeletal muscle-specific Cre transgenic mouse strain. Methods To achieve skeletal muscle-specific expression, the human ?-skeletal actin promoter was used to drive expression of a chimeric Cre recombinase containing two mutated estrogen receptor ligand-binding domains. Results Western blot analysis, PCR and ?-galactosidase staining confirmed that Cre-mediated recombination was restricted to limb and craniofacial skeletal muscles only after tamoxifen administration. Conclusions A transgenic mouse was created that allows inducible, gene targeting of floxed genes in adult skeletal muscle of different developmental origins. This new mouse will be of great utility to the skeletal muscle community. PMID:22564549

2012-01-01

297

Effects of cannabinoid receptors on skeletal muscle oxidative pathways.  

PubMed

The endocannabinoids, a recently discovered endogenous, lipid derived, signaling system regulating energy metabolism, have effects on central and peripheral energy metabolism predominantly via the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1). CB1 is expressed centrally in the hypothalamus and nucleus accumbens and peripherally in adipocytes and skeletal muscle. This study determined the effect of endocannabinoids on the expression of genes regulating energy metabolism in human skeletal muscle. Primary cultures of myotubes (lean and obese; n=3/group) were treated with the cannabinoid receptor agonist, anandamide (AEA) (0.2 and 5microM) and the CB1 specific antagonist AM251 (0.2 and 5microM) separately and in combination for 24h. The expression of mRNA for AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) alpha 1 (alpha1) and alpha 2 (alpha2), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) were determined using 'Real Time' RT-PCR. AMPKalpha1 mRNA increased in lean and obese myotubes in response to AM251 (P<0.05). AEA inhibited the effect of AM251 on AMPKalpha1 mRNA levels in myotubes from lean and obese subjects (P<0.05); the dose-response curve was shifted to the left in the obese. In response to AM251, irrespective of the presence of AEA, PDK4 expression was decreased in lean and obese myotubes (P<0.05). Taken together these data suggest that endocannabinoids regulate pathways affecting skeletal muscle oxidation, effects particularly evident in myotubes from obese individuals. PMID:17270342

Cavuoto, P; McAinch, A J; Hatzinikolas, G; Cameron-Smith, D; Wittert, G A

2007-03-15

298

TRIM32 Regulates Skeletal Muscle Stem Cell Differentiation and Is Necessary for Normal Adult Muscle Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2H (LGMD2H) is an inherited autosomal recessive disease of skeletal muscle caused by a mutation in the TRIM32 gene. Currently its pathogenesis is entirely unclear. Typically the regeneration process of adult skeletal muscle during growth or following injury is controlled by a tissue specific stem cell population termed satellite cells. Given that TRIM32 regulates the fate of mammalian neural progenitor cells through controlling their differentiation, we asked whether TRIM32 could also be essential for the regulation of myogenic stem cells. Here we demonstrate for the first time that TRIM32 is expressed in the skeletal muscle stem cell lineage of adult mice, and that in the absence of TRIM32, myogenic differentiation is disrupted. Moreover, we show that the ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 controls this process through the regulation of c-Myc, a similar mechanism to that previously observed in neural progenitors. Importantly we show that loss of TRIM32 function induces a LGMD2H-like phenotype and strongly affects muscle regeneration in vivo. Our studies implicate that the loss of TRIM32 results in dysfunctional muscle stem cells which could contribute to the development of LGMD2H. PMID:22299041

Wu, Xiaoli; Miller, Pamela; Stelzer, Sandra; Wen, Yefei; Kuang, Shihuan; Wrogemann, Klaus; Patel, Ketan; Ding, Hao; Schwamborn, Jens C.

2012-01-01

299

Adaptations of human skeletal muscle fibers to spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human skeletal muscle fibers seem to share most of the same interrelationships among myosin ATPase activity, myosin heavy chain (MHC) phenotype, mitochondrial enzyme activities, glycolytic enzyme activities, and cross-sectional area (CSA) as found in rat, cat, and other species. One difference seems to be that fast fibers with high mitochrondrial content occur less frequently in humans than in the rat or cat. Recently, we have reported that the type of MHC expressed and the size of the muscle fibers in humans that have spent 11 days in space change significantly. Specifically, about 8% more fibers express fast MHCs and all phenotypes atrophy in the vastus lateralis (VL) post compared to preflight. In the present paper we examine the relationships among the population of myonuclei, MHC type, and CSA of single human muscle fibers before and after spaceflight. These are the first data that define the relationship among the types of MHC expressed, myonuclei number, and myonuclei domain of single fibers in human muscle. We then compare these data to similar measures in the cat. In addition, the maximal torque that can be generated by the knee extensors and their fatigability before and after spaceflight are examined. These data provide some indication of the potential physiologica consequences of the muscle adaptations that occur in humans in response to spaceflight.

Day, M. Kathleen; Allen, David L.; Mohajerani, Laleh; Greenisen, Michael C.; Roy, Roland R.; Edgerton, V. Reggie

1995-01-01

300

Tissue-Engineered Skeletal Muscle Organoids for Reversible Gene Therapy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Genetically modified murine skeletal myoblasts were tissue engineered in vitro into organ-like structures (organoids) containing only postmitotic myofibers secreting pharmacological levels of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). Subcutaneous organoid Implantation under tension led to the rapid and stable appearance of physiological sera levels of rhGH for up to 12 weeks, whereas surgical removal led to its rapid disappearance. Reversible delivery of bioactive compounds from postimtotic cells in tissue engineered organs has several advantages over other forms of muscle gene therapy.

Vandenburgh, Herman; DelTatto, Michael; Shansky, Janet; Lemaire, Julie; Chang, Albert; Payumo, Francis; Lee, Peter; Goodyear, Amy; Raven, Latasha

1996-01-01

301

Tissue-Engineered Skeletal Muscle Organoids for Reversible Gene Therapy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Genetically modified murine skeletal myoblasts were tissue engineered in vitro into organ-like structures (organoids) containing only postmitotic myoribers secreting pharmacological levels of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). Subcutaneous organoid implantation under tension led to the rapid and stable appearance of physiological sera levels of rhGH for up to 12 weeks, whereas surgical removal led to its rapid disappearance. Reversible delivery of bioactive compounds from postmitotic cells in tissue engineered organs has several advantages over other forms of muscle gene therapy.

Vandenburgh, Herman; DelTatto, Michael; Shansky, Janet; Lemaire, Julie; Chang, Albert; Payumo, Francis; Lee, Peter; Goodyear, Amy; Raven, Latasha

1996-01-01

302

Tissue-engineered skeletal muscle organoids for reversible gene therapy.  

PubMed

Genetically modified murine skeletal myoblasts were tissue engineered in vitro into organ-like structures (organoids) containing only postmitotic myofibers secreting pharmacological levels of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). Subcutaneous organoid implantation under tension led to the rapid and stable appearance of physiological sera levels of rhGH for up to 12 weeks, whereas surgical removal led to its rapid disappearance. Reversible delivery of bioactive compounds from postmitotic cells in tissue engineered organs has several advantages over other forms of muscle gene therapy. PMID:8934233

Vandenburgh, H; Del Tatto, M; Shansky, J; Lemaire, J; Chang, A; Payumo, F; Lee, P; Goodyear, A; Raven, L

1996-11-10

303

Effect of spaceflight on skeletal muscle: Mechanical properties and myosin isoform content of a slow muscle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study examined changes in contractile, biochemical, and histochemical properties of slow antigravity skeletal muscle after a 6-day spaceflight mission. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: flight and ground-based control. Approximately 3 h after the landing, in situ contractile measurements were made on the soleus muscles of the flight animals. The control animals were studied 24 h later. The contractile measurements included force-velocity relationship, force-frequency relationship, and fatigability. Biochemical measurements focused on the myosin heavy chain (MHC) and myosin light chain profiles. Adenosinetriphosphatase histochemistry was performed to identify cross-sectional area of slow and fast muscle fibers and to determine the percent fiber type distribution. The force-velocity relationships of the flight muscles were altered such that maximal isometric tension P(sub o) was decreased by 24% and maximal shortening velocity was increased by 14% (P less than 0.05). The force-frequency relationship of the flight muscles was shifted to the right of the control muscles. At the end of the 2-min fatigue test, the flight muscles generated only 34% of P(sub o), whereas the control muscles generated 64% of P(sub o). The flight muscles exhibited de novo expression of the type IIx MHC isoform as well as a slight decrease in the slow type I and fast type IIa MHC isoforms. Histochemical analyses of flight muscles demonstrated a small increase in the percentage of fast type II fibers and a greater atrophy of the slow type I fibers. The results demonstrate that contractile properties of slow antigravity skeletal muscle are sensitive to the microgravity environment and that changes begin to occur within the 1st wk. These changes were at least, in part, associated with changes in the amount and type of contractile protein expressed.

Caiozzo, Vincent J.; Baker, Michael J.; Herrick, Robert E.; Tao, Ming; Baldwin, Kenneth M.

1994-01-01

304

An Introductory Biology Lab That Uses Enzyme Histochemistry to Teach Students About Skeletal Muscle Fiber Types  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Journal article discussing new lab that utilizes enzyme histochemistry and morphological observations to draw conclusions about the composition of functionally different types of muscle fibers present in skeletal muscle

Dr. Lauren J. Sweeney (Bryn Mawr College Department of Biology); Dr. Peter D. Brodfuehrer (Bryn Mawr College Dept. of Biology); Dr. Beth L. Raughley (Bryn Mawr College Department of Biology)

2004-03-01

305

Investigation of Rat Skeletal Muscles Following Short-Term Spaceflight Aboard Cosmos-1667 Biosatellite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using morphological and histochemical methods, skeletal muscles (soleus, gastrocnemius, quadriceps, and biceps) of Wistar-SPF rats flown for 7 days on Cosmos-1667 were investigated. The short-term exposure to microgravity led to muscle atrophy which prima...

Y. I. Ilyinakakuyeva

1988-01-01

306

Skeletal muscle satellite cells cultured in simulated microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite cells are postnatal myoblasts responsible for providing additional nuclei to growing or regenerating muscle cells. Satellite cells retain the capacity to proliferate and differentiate in vitro and therefore provide a useful model to study postnatal muscle development. Most culture systems used to study postnatal muscle development are limited by the two-dimensional (2-D) confines of the culture dish. Limiting proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells in 2-D could potentially limit cell-cell contacts important for developing the level of organization in skeletal muscle obtained in vivo. Culturing satellite cells on microcarrier beads suspended in the High-Aspect-Ratio-Vessel (HARV) designed by NASA provides a low shear, three-dimensional (3-D) environment to study muscle development. Primary cultures established from anterior tibialis muscles of growing rats (approximately 200 gm) were used for all studies and were composed of greater than 75 % satellite cells. Different inoculation densities did not affect the proliferative potential of satellite cells in the HARV. Plating efficiency, proliferation, and glucose utilization were compared between 2-D flat culture and 3-D HARV culture. Plating efficiency (cells attached - cells plated x 100) was similar between the two culture systems. Proliferation was reduced in HARV cultures and this reduction was apparent for both satellite cells and non-satellite cells. Furthermore, reduction in proliferation within the HARV could not be attributed to reduced substrate availability since glucose levels in media from HARV and 2-D cell culture were similar. Morphologically, microcarrier beads within the HARVS were joined together by cells into three-dimensional aggregates composed of greater than 10 beads/aggregate. Aggregation of beads did not occur in the absence of cells. Myotubes were often seen on individual beads or spanning the surface of two beads. In summary, proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells on microcarrier beads within the HARV bioreactor results in a three dimensional level of organization that could provide a more suitable model to study postnatal muscle development.

Molnar, Greg; Hartzell, Charles R.; Schroedl, Nancy A.; Gonda, Steve R.

1993-01-01

307

Complex polysaccharide inclusions in the skeletal muscle of stranded cetaceans.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle samples were examined post-mortem in 148 cetaceans over a 12-year period. Histological analysis included haematoxylin and eosin (HE) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining with and without diastase digestion. In addition, histological muscle sections were immunostained for ubiquitin and fast and slow heavy-chain myosin isoforms. PAS-positive, diastase-resistant inclusions were detected in 26 animals from 11 different species. Older cetaceans were preferentially affected. These intrafibre inclusions varied from large aggregates to multiple coarse granules and were typically associated with type II fibres. All diastase-resistant inclusions were positive for ubiquitin. These features resembled those inclusions described as complex polysaccharide in horses. Based on these histological findings and the ubiquitin staining pattern, a morphological diagnosis of complex polysaccharide storage myopathy is proposed. PMID:22079146

Sierra, E; Fernández, A; Espinosa de Los Monteros, A; Jaber, J R; Andrada, M; Herráez, P

2012-07-01

308

Structural dynamics of troponin during activation of skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Time-resolved changes in the conformation of troponin in the thin filaments of skeletal muscle were followed during activation in situ by photolysis of caged calcium using bifunctional fluorescent probes in the regulatory and the coiled-coil (IT arm) domains of troponin. Three sequential steps in the activation mechanism were identified. The fastest step (1,100 s?1) matches the rate of Ca2+ binding to the regulatory domain but also dominates the motion of the IT arm. The second step (120 s?1) coincides with the azimuthal motion of tropomyosin around the thin filament. The third step (15 s?1) was shown by three independent approaches to track myosin head binding to the thin filament, but is absent in the regulatory head. The results lead to a four-state structural kinetic model that describes the molecular mechanism of muscle activation in the thin filament–myosin head complex under physiological conditions. PMID:24616505

Fusi, Luca; Brunello, Elisabetta; Sevrieva, Ivanka R.; Sun, Yin-Biao; Irving, Malcolm

2014-01-01

309

Computer aided mechanogenesis of skeletal muscle organs from single cells in vitro  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Complex mechanical forces generated in the growing embryo play an important role in organogenesis. Computerized application of similar forces to differentiating skeletal muscle myoblasts in vitro generate three dimensional artificial muscle organs. These organs contain parallel networks of long unbranched myofibers organized into fascicle-like structures. Tendon development is initiated and the muscles are capable of performing directed, functional work. Kinetically engineered organs provide a new method for studying the growth and development of normal and diseased skeletal muscle.

Vandenburgh, Herman H.; Swasdison, Somporn; Karlisch, Patricia

1990-01-01

310

Arginase Promotes Skeletal Muscle Arteriolar Endothelial Dysfunction in Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Endothelial dysfunction is a characteristic feature in diabetes that contributes to the development of vascular disease. Recently, arginase has been implicated in triggering endothelial dysfunction in diabetic patients and animals by competing with endothelial nitric oxide synthase for substrate l-arginine. While most studies have focused on the coronary circulation and large conduit blood vessels, the role of arginase in mediating diabetic endothelial dysfunction in other vascular beds has not been fully investigated. In the present study, we determined whether arginase contributes to endothelial dysfunction in skeletal muscle arterioles of diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by streptozotocin injection. Four weeks after streptozotocin administration, blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and vascular arginase activity were significantly increased. In addition, a significant increase in arginase I and II mRNA expression was detected in gracilis muscle arterioles of diabetic rats compared to age-matched, vehicle control animals. To examine endothelial function, first-order gracilis muscle arterioles were isolated, cannulated in a pressure myograph system, exposed to graded levels of luminal flow, and internal vessel diameter measured. Increases in luminal flow (0–50??L/min) caused progressive vasodilation in arterioles isolated from control, normoglycemic animals. However, flow-induced vasodilation was absent in arterioles obtained from streptozotocin-treated rats. Acute in vitro pretreatment of blood vessels with the arginase inhibitors N?-hydroxy-nor-l-arginine or S-(2-boronoethyl)-l-cysteine restored flow-induced responses in arterioles from diabetic rats and abolished differences between diabetic and control animals. Similarly, acute in vitro pretreatment with l-arginine returned flow-mediated vasodilation in vessels from diabetic animals to that of control rats. In contrast, d-arginine failed to restore flow-induced dilation in arterioles isolated from diabetic animals. Administration of sodium nitroprusside resulted in a similar degree of dilation in arterioles isolated from control or diabetic rats. In conclusion, the present study identifies arginase as an essential mediator of skeletal muscle arteriolar endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. The ability of arginase to induce endothelial dysfunction in skeletal muscle arterioles may further compromise glucose utilization and facilitate the development of hypertension in diabetes. PMID:23730303

Johnson, Fruzsina K.; Johnson, Robert A.; Peyton, Kelly J.; Shebib, Ahmad R.; Durante, William

2013-01-01

311

Robust Internal Elastic Lamina Fenestration in Skeletal Muscle Arteries  

PubMed Central

Holes within the internal elastic lamina (IEL) of blood vessels are sites of fenestration allowing for passage of diffusible vasoactive substances and interface of endothelial cell membrane projections with underlying vascular smooth muscle. Endothelial projections are sites of dynamic Ca2+ events leading to endothelium dependent hyperpolarization (EDH)-mediated relaxations and the activity of these events increase as vessel diameter decreases. We tested the hypothesis that IEL fenestration is greater in distal vs. proximal arteries in skeletal muscle, and is unlike other vascular beds (mesentery). We also determined ion channel protein composition within the endothelium of intramuscular and non-intramuscular skeletal muscle arteries. Popliteal arteries, subsequent gastrocnemius feed arteries, and first and second order intramuscular arterioles from rat hindlimb were isolated, cut longitudinally, fixed, and imaged using confocal microscopy. Quantitative analysis revealed a significantly larger total fenestration area in second and first order arterioles vs. feed and popliteal arteries (58% and 16% vs. 5% and 3%; N?=?10 images/artery), due to a noticeably greater average size of holes (9.5 and 3.9 µm2 vs 1.5 and 1.9 µm2). Next, we investigated via immunolabeling procedures whether proteins involved in EDH often embedded in endothelial cell projections were disparate between arterial segments. Specific proteins involved in EDH, such as inositol trisphosphate receptors, small and intermediate conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, and the canonical (C) transient receptor potential (TRP) channel TRPC3 were present in both popliteal and first order intramuscular arterioles. However due to larger IEL fenestration in first order arterioles, a larger spanning area of EDH proteins is observed proximal to the smooth muscle cell plasma membrane. These observations highlight the robust area of fenestration within intramuscular arterioles and indicate that the anatomical architecture and endothelial cell hyperpolarizing apparatus for distinct vasodilatory signaling is potentially present. PMID:23359815

Sullivan, Michelle N.; Francis, Michael; Dinenno, Frank A.; Earley, Scott

2013-01-01

312

Susceptibility of Skeletal Muscle to Coxsackie A2 Virus Infection: Effects of Botulinum Toxin and Denervation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coxsackie A viruses can infect denervated but not innervated mature skeletal muscles. The role of synaptic transmission in preventing susceptibility to Coxsackievirus infection was studied by surgically denervating leg muscles of mice or injecting the muscles with botulinum toxin to block quantal release of acetylcholine. Control muscles were injected with heat-inactivated toxin. Subsequent injection of Coxsackie A2 virus resulted in extensive virus replication and tissue destruction in the denervated and botulinum toxin-treated muscles, while the control muscles showed only minimal changes. This suggests that the susceptibility of skeletal muscle to Coxsackievirus infection is regulated by synaptic transmission.

Andrew, Clifford G.; Drachman, Daniel B.; Pestronk, Alan; Narayan, Opendra

1984-02-01

313

Effect of physiologic hyperinsulinemia on skeletal muscle protein synthesis and breakdown in man  

SciTech Connect

Although insulin stimulates protein synthesis and inhibits protein breakdown in skeletal muscle in vitro, the actual contribution of these actions to its anabolic effects in man remains unknown. Using the forearm perfusion method together with systemic infusion of L-(ring-2,6-3H)phenylalanine and L-(1-/sup 14/C)leucine, we measured steady state amino acid exchange kinetics across muscle in seven normal males before and in response to a 2-h intraarterial infusion of insulin. Postabsorptively, the muscle disposal (Rd) of phenylalanine (43 +/- 5 nmol/min per 100 ml forearm) and leucine (113 +/- 13) was exceeded by the concomitant muscle production (Ra) of these amino acids (57 +/- 5 and 126 +/- 9 nmol/min per dl, respectively), resulting in their net release from the forearm (-14 +/- 4 and -13 +/- 5 nmol/min per dl, respectively). In response to forearm hyperinsulinemia (124 +/- 11 microU/ml), the net balance of phenylalanine and leucine became positive (9 +/- 3 and 61 +/- 8 nmol/min per dl, respectively (P less than 0.005 vs. basal). Despite the marked increase in net balance, the tissue Rd for both phenylalanine (42 +/- 2) and leucine (124 +/- 9) was unchanged from baseline, while Ra was markedly suppressed (to 33 +/- 5 and 63 +/- 9 nmol/min per dl, respectively, P less than 0.01). Since phenylalanine is not metabolized in muscle (i.e., its only fates are incorporation into or release from protein) these results strongly suggest that in normal man, physiologic elevations in insulin promote net muscle protein anabolism primarily by inhibiting protein breakdown, rather than by stimulating protein synthesis.

Gelfand, R.A.; Barrett, E.J.

1987-07-01

314

Genomic organization of the human skeletal muscle sodium channel gene  

SciTech Connect

Voltage-dependent sodium channels are essential for normal membrane excitability and contractility in adult skeletal muscle. The gene encoding the principal sodium channel [alpha]-subunit isoform in human skeletal muscle (SCN4A) has recently been shown to harbor point mutations in certain hereditary forms of periodic paralysis. The authors have carried out an analysis of the detailed structure of this gene including delination of intron-exon boundaries by genomic DNA cloning and sequence analysis. The complete coding region of SCN4A is found in 32.5 kb of genomic DNA and consists of 24 exons (54 to >2.2 kb) and 23 introns (97 bp-4.85 kb). The exon organization of the gene shows no relationship to the predicted functional domains of the channel protein and splice junctions interrupt many of the transmembrane segments. The genomic organization of sodium channels may have been partially conserved during evolution as evidenced by the observation that 10 of the 24 splice junctions in SCN4A are positioned in homologous locations in a putative sodium channel gene in Drosophila (para). The information presented here should be extremely useful both for further identifying sodium channel mutations and for gaining a better understanding of sodium channel evolution. 39 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

George, A.L. Jr.; Iyer, G.S.; Kleinfield, R.; Kallen, R.G.; Barchi, R.L. (Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia (United States))

1993-03-01

315

Adipokines promote lipotoxicity in human skeletal muscle cells.  

PubMed

Studies have shown the implication of specific adipokines or fatty acids (FA) in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. However, the interplay of adipokines with FA remains poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the combined effects of adipokines and low concentrations of palmitic acid (PA, 100 µmol/l) on skeletal muscle metabolism. Human skeletal muscle cells were incubated with adipocyte-conditioned medium (CM), PA or PA+CM, and FA transporter and FA metabolism were analysed. CM-incubation increased CD36 level (1.8 fold) and PA-uptake (1.4 fold). However, only co-application of PA+CM resulted in profound lipid accumulation (5.3 fold), 60% reduction of PA-oxidation and 3.5 fold increased diacylglycerol content. Our results support a novel role for adipokines in the pathogenesis of T2D by increasing the lipotoxic potential of PA, notably of low concentrations. This implies an increased lipotoxic risk already at an early stage of weight gain, when lipolysis has not yet contributed to increased plasma free FA levels. PMID:22691105

Taube, Annika; Lambernd, Silja; van Echten-Deckert, Gerhild; Eckardt, Kristin; Eckel, Juergen

2012-07-01

316

Large fibre size in skeletal muscle is metabolically advantageous.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle fibre size is highly variable, and while diffusion appears to limit maximal fibre size, there is no paradigm for the control of minimal size. The optimal fibre size hypothesis posits that the reduced surface area to volume in larger fibres reduces the metabolic cost of maintaining the membrane potential, and so fibres attain an optimal size that minimizes metabolic cost while avoiding diffusion limitation. Here we examine changes during hypertrophic fibre growth in metabolic cost and activity of the Na?-K?-ATPase in white skeletal muscle from crustaceans and fishes. We provide evidence for a major tenet of the optimal fibre size hypothesis by demonstrating that larger fibres are metabolically cheaper to maintain, and the cost of maintaining the membrane potential is proportional to fibre surface area to volume. The influence of surface area to volume on metabolic cost is apparent during growth in 16 species spanning a 20-fold range in fibre size, suggesting that this principle may apply widely. PMID:23851638

Jimenez, Ana Gabriela; Dillaman, Richard M; Kinsey, Stephen T

2013-01-01

317

Module-based multiscale simulation of angiogenesis in skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Background Mathematical modeling of angiogenesis has been gaining momentum as a means to shed new light on the biological complexity underlying blood vessel growth. A variety of computational models have been developed, each focusing on different aspects of the angiogenesis process and occurring at different biological scales, ranging from the molecular to the tissue levels. Integration of models at different scales is a challenging and currently unsolved problem. Results We present an object-oriented module-based computational integration strategy to build a multiscale model of angiogenesis that links currently available models. As an example case, we use this approach to integrate modules representing microvascular blood flow, oxygen transport, vascular endothelial growth factor transport and endothelial cell behavior (sensing, migration and proliferation). Modeling methodologies in these modules include algebraic equations, partial differential equations and agent-based models with complex logical rules. We apply this integrated model to simulate exercise-induced angiogenesis in skeletal muscle. The simulation results compare capillary growth patterns between different exercise conditions for a single bout of exercise. Results demonstrate how the computational infrastructure can effectively integrate multiple modules by coordinating their connectivity and data exchange. Model parameterization offers simulation flexibility and a platform for performing sensitivity analysis. Conclusions This systems biology strategy can be applied to larger scale integration of computational models of angiogenesis in skeletal muscle, or other complex processes in other tissues under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:21463529

2011-01-01

318

Large fiber size in skeletal muscle is metabolically advantageous  

PubMed Central

Skeletal muscle fiber size is highly variable, and while diffusion appears to limit maximal fiber size, there is no paradigm for the control of minimal size. The optimal fiber size hypothesis posits that the reduced surface area to volume (SA:V) in larger fibers reduces the metabolic cost of maintaining the membrane potential, and so fibers attain an optimal size that minimizes metabolic cost while avoiding diffusion limitation. Here we examine changes during hypertrophic fiber growth in metabolic cost and activity of the Na+-K+-ATPase in white skeletal muscle from crustaceans and fishes. We provide evidence for a major tenet of the optimal fiber size hypothesis by demonstrating that larger fibers are metabolically cheaper to maintain, and the cost of maintaining the membrane potential is proportional to fiber SA:V. The influence of SA:V on metabolic cost is apparent during growth in 16 species spanning a 20-fold range in fiber size, suggesting that this principle may apply widely. PMID:23851638

Jimenez, Ana Gabriela; Dillaman, Richard M.; Kinsey, Stephen T.

2013-01-01

319

Quality of healing: defining, quantifying, and enhancing skeletal muscle healing.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle injury is common in everyday physical activity and athletics, as well as in orthopedic trauma and disease. The overall functional disability resulting from muscle injury is directly related to the intrinsic healing properties of muscle and extrinsic treatment options designed to maximize repair and/or regeneration of muscle tissue all while minimizing pathologic healing pathways. It is important to understand the injury and repair pathways in order to improve the speed and quality of recovery. Recent military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have highlighted the importance of successfully addressing muscular injury and showed the need for novel treatment options that will maximize functional regeneration of the damaged tissue. These severe, wartime injuries, when juxtaposed to peacetime, sports-related injuries, provide us with interesting case examples of the two extreme forms of muscular damage. Comparing and contrasting the differences in these healing pathways will likely provide helpful cues that will help physicians recapitulate the near complete repair and regeneration in less traumatic injuries in addition to more severe cases. PMID:24813360

Shin, Emily H; Caterson, Edward J; Jackson, Wesley M; Nesti, Leon J

2014-05-01

320

A simplified immunohistochemical classification of skeletal muscle fibres in mouse.  

PubMed

The classification of muscle fibres is of particular interest for the study of the skeletal muscle properties in a wide range of scientific fields, especially animal phenotyping. It is therefore important to define a reliable method for classifying fibre types. The aim of this study was to establish a simplified method for the immunohistochemical classification of fibres in mouse. To carry it out, we first tested a combination of several anti myosin heavy chain (MyHC) antibodies in order to choose a minimum number of antibodies to implement a semi-automatic classification. Then, we compared the classification of fibres to the MyHC electrophoretic pattern on the same samples. Only two anti MyHC antibodies on serial sections with the fluorescent labeling of the Laminin were necessary to classify properly fibre types in Tibialis Anterior and Soleus mouse muscles in normal physiological conditions. This classification was virtually identical to the classification realized by the electrophoretic separation of MyHC. This immunohistochemical classification can be applied to the total area of Tibialis Anterior and Soleus mouse muscles. Thus, we provide here a useful, simple and time-efficient method for immunohistochemical classification of fibres, applicable for research in mouse. PMID:24998919

Kammoun, M; Cassar-Malek, I; Meunier, B; Picard, B

2014-01-01

321

Role of the occult insulin receptors in the regulation of atrophy and hypertrophy of skeletal muscles  

SciTech Connect

Insulin levels in the plasma are variable, as are insulin receptor numbers on the surface of skeletal muscles. Increased blood supply to the muscle during exercise delivers more insulin to the muscles even though insulin levels are suppressed by epinephrine. Increasing muscle temperatures result in an increased insulin effect, if enough receptors are available for binding. In exhaustive exercise, insulin levels are minimal but the movement of glucose across the cell membrane increases. Since insulin-receptor affinity decreases at high temperature, the only way this increased movement of glucose can be accomplished is by increased insulin binding. Thus more receptors must be available to capture the insulin. Epinephrine levels drop drastically after exercise. Insulin levels increase and the cell can import glucose, amino acids, and nucleotides. As the cell temperature decreases after exercise, insulin binding increases but the total effect decreases because the many surface receptors disappear again over a period of time. If the muscle is immobilized, the number of surface receptors decreases. There is less insulin effect and as a result the muscle atrophies. Acetylcholine (ACh) causes the proper arrangement of the myofibrils in the foetus, and has some effect on the rate of atrophy in an immobilized muscle. It also appears to maintain the cell membrane organization. Disuse atrophy is caused by a decrease in cell size, while exercise hypertrophy is caused by an increase in cell size. Growth hormone (STH) is therefore ruled out as the exercise hypertrophy controlling factor, since STH causes cell division and not hypertrophy. Testosterone can also be ruled out as the controlling factor in the development of hypertrophy and atrophy of muscles. Estrogen can likewise be ruled out. (ERB)

McLeod, M.J.

1980-10-01

322

Three-dimensional optical coherence micro-elastography of skeletal muscle tissue  

PubMed Central

In many muscle pathologies, impairment of skeletal muscle function is closely linked to changes in the mechanical properties of the muscle constituents. Optical coherence micro-elastography (OCME) uses optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of tissue under a quasi-static, compressive mechanical load to map variations in tissue mechanical properties on the micro-scale. We present the first study of OCME on skeletal muscle tissue. We show that this technique can resolve features of muscle tissue including fibers, fascicles and tendon, and can also detect necrotic lesions in skeletal muscle from the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. In many instances, OCME provides better or additional contrast complementary to that provided by OCT. These results suggest that OCME could provide new understanding and opportunity for assessment of skeletal muscle pathologies.

Chin, Lixin; Kennedy, Brendan F.; Kennedy, Kelsey M.; Wijesinghe, Philip; Pinniger, Gavin J.; Terrill, Jessica R.; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Sampson, David D.

2014-01-01

323

Exercise: Effects on Hexokinase Activity in Red and White Skeletal Muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single bouts of exercise increase hexokinase activity in red and white skeletal muscle of guinea pigs. Multiple bouts of exercise cause two-fold increases. In contrast to other enzymes associated with glycolysis, hexokinase activity is higher in red than in white skeletal muscle.

J. B. Peter; R. N. Jeffress; D. R. Lamb

1968-01-01

324

Cloning and characterization of fiber type-specific ryanodine receptor isoforms in skeletal muscles of fish  

E-print Network

Cloning and characterization of fiber type-specific ryanodine receptor isoforms in skeletal muscles. Block. Cloning and characterization of fiber type-specific ryanodine receptor isoforms in skeletal muscles of fish. Am. J. Physiol. 275 (Cell Physiol. 44): C401­C415, 1998.--We have cloned a group of c

Block, Barbara A.

325

Myf5 haploinsufficiency reveals distinct cell fate potentials for adult skeletal muscle stem cells  

E-print Network

Myf5 haploinsufficiency reveals distinct cell fate potentials for adult skeletal muscle stem cells , Vincent Mouly6 and Shahragim Tajbakhsh1,§ 1 Stem Cells and Development, Department of Developmental by The Company of Biologists Ltd doi: 10.1242/jcs.097006 Summary Skeletal muscle stem cell fate in adult mice

Boyer, Edmond

326

Morphological characteristics of changes in limb skeletal muscle tissue during experimental postischemic recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous communication the writers gave data on changes in skeletal muscles in the ischemic period of acute arterial occlusion of the limbs, and the microscopic picture and functional morphology of the ischemic skeletal muscles 2 h after restoration of the blood flow to the limbs were stugied. Early postischemic recirculation is undoubtedly the most reliable test of viability

V. S. Savel'ev; G. A. Chekareva; O. D. Mishnev; O. A. Bogdanov

1985-01-01

327

Coptidis Rhizoma Water Extract Stimulates 5?-AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Rat Skeletal Muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimCoptidis Rhizoma (CR), the dried rhizomes of Asian herbs (including Coptis chinensis Franch), has been used to treat diabetes mellitus for thousands of years. We explored the possibility that CR acts directly on skeletal muscle, the major organ responsible for glucose homeostasis, and activates 5?-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a signaling intermediary leading to metabolic enhancement of skeletal muscle.

Xiao Ma; Tatsuro Egawa; Rieko Oshima; Eriko Kurogi; Hiroko Tanabe; Satoshi Tsuda; Tatsuya Hayashi

2011-01-01

328

Sphingosine 1-phosphate axis: a new leader actor in skeletal muscle biology  

PubMed Central

Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid involved in the regulation of biological processes such as proliferation, differentiation, motility, and survival. Here we review the role of S1P in the biology and homeostasis of skeletal muscle. S1P derives from the catabolism of sphingomyelin and is produced by sphingosine phosphorylation catalyzed by sphingosine kinase (SK). S1P can act either intracellularly or extracellularly through specific ligation to its five G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) named S1P receptors (S1PR). Many experimental findings obtained in the last 20 years demonstrate that S1P and its metabolism play a multifaceted role in the regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration. Indeed, this lipid is known to activate muscle-resident satellite cells, regulating their proliferation and differentiation, as well as mesenchymal progenitors such as mesoangioblasts that originate outside skeletal muscle, both involved in tissue repair following an injury or disease. The molecular mechanism of action of S1P in skeletal muscle cell precursors is highly complex, especially because S1P axis is under the control of a number of growth factors and cytokines, canonical regulators of skeletal muscle biology. Moreover, this lipid is crucially involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle contractile properties, responsiveness to insulin, fatigue resistance and tropism. Overall, on the basis of these findings S1P signaling appears to be an appealing pharmacological target for improving skeletal muscle repair. Nevertheless, further understanding is required on the regulation of S1P downstream signaling pathways and the expression of S1PR. This article will resume our current knowledge on S1P signaling in skeletal muscle, hopefully stimulating further investigation in the field, aimed at individuating novel molecular targets for ameliorating skeletal muscle regeneration and reducing fibrosis of the tissue after a trauma or due to skeletal muscle diseases. PMID:24324439

Donati, Chiara; Cencetti, Francesca; Bruni, Paola

2013-01-01

329

Protein composition of white skeletal muscle from mesopelagic fishes having different water and protein contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consequences for white skeletal muscle of the whole body variation in water and protein content were examined in 11 mesopelagic fishes taken off the coast of Oregon, USA, in 1983. For such muscles, water content varied from 71 to 91% of muscle wet weight, and protein content ranged from 56 to 141 mg g-1 muscle wet weight, depending on

J. F. Siebenaller; P. H. Yancey

1984-01-01

330

Increased Plin2 Expression in Human Skeletal Muscle Is Associated with Sarcopenia and Muscle Weakness  

PubMed Central

Human aging is associated with a progressive loss of muscle mass and strength and a concomitant fat accumulation in form of inter-muscular adipose tissue, causing skeletal muscle function decline and immobilization. Fat accumulation can also occur as intra-muscular triglycerides (IMTG) deposition in lipid droplets, which are associated with perilipin proteins, such as Perilipin2 (Plin2). It is not known whether Plin2 expression changes with age and if this has consequences on muscle mass and strength. We studied the expression of Plin2 in the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle of both healthy subjects and patients affected by lower limb mobility limitation of different age. We found that Plin2 expression increases with age, this phenomenon being particularly evident in patients. Moreover, Plin2 expression is inversely correlated with quadriceps strength and VL thickness. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon, we focused on IGF-1/p53 network/signalling pathway, involved in muscle physiology. We found that Plin2 expression strongly correlates with increased p53 activation and reduced IGF-1 expression. To confirm these observations made on humans, we studied mice overexpressing muscle-specific IGF-1, which are protected from sarcopenia. These mice resulted almost negative for the expression of Plin2 and p53 at two years of age. We conclude that fat deposition within skeletal muscle in form of Plin2-coated lipid droplets increases with age and is associated with decreased muscle strength and thickness, likely through an IGF-1- and p53-dependent mechanism. The data also suggest that excessive intramuscular fat accumulation could be the initial trigger for p53 activation and consequent loss of muscle mass and strength. PMID:23977392

Conte, Maria; Vasuri, Francesco; Trisolino, Giovanni; Bellavista, Elena; Santoro, Aurelia; Degiovanni, Alessio; Martucci, Ermanno; D’Errico-Grigioni, Antonia; Caporossi, Daniela; Capri, Miriam; Maier, Andrea B.; Seynnes, Olivier; Barberi, Laura; Musarň, Antonio; Narici, Marco V.; Franceschi, Claudio; Salvioli, Stefano

2013-01-01

331

Skeletal Muscle Fascicle Arrangements Can Be Reconstructed Using a Laplacian Vector Field Simulation  

PubMed Central

Skeletal muscles are characterized by a large diversity in anatomical architecture and function. Muscle force and contraction are generated by contractile fiber cells grouped in fascicle bundles, which transmit the mechanical action between origin and insertion attachments of the muscle. Therefore, an adequate representation of fascicle arrangements in computational models of skeletal muscles is important, especially when investigating three-dimensional muscle deformations in finite element models. However, obtaining high resolution in vivo measurements of fascicle arrangements in skeletal muscles is currently still challenging. This motivated the development of methods in previous studies to generate numerical representations of fascicle trajectories using interpolation templates. Here, we present an alternative approach based on the hypothesis of a rotation and divergence free (Laplacian) vector field behavior which reflects observed physical characteristics of fascicle trajectories. To obtain this representation, the Laplace equation was solved in anatomical reconstructions of skeletal muscle shapes based on medical images using a uniform flux boundary condition on the attachment areas. Fascicle tracts were generated through a robust flux based tracing algorithm. The concept of this approach was demonstrated in two-dimensional synthetic examples of typical skeletal muscle architectures. A detailed evaluation was performed in an example of the anatomical human tibialis anterior muscle which showed an overall agreement with measurements from the literature. The utility and capability of the proposed method was further demonstrated in other anatomical examples of human skeletal muscles with a wide range of muscle shapes and attachment morphologies. PMID:24204878

Choi, Hon Fai; Blemker, Silvia S.

2013-01-01

332

Endogenous erythropoietin signaling facilitates skeletal muscle repair and recovery following pharmacologically induced damage  

PubMed Central

Erythropoietin acts by binding to its cell surface receptor on erythroid progenitor cells to stimulate erythrocyte production. Erythropoietin receptor expression in nonhematopoietic tissue, including skeletal muscle progenitor cells, raises the possibility of a role for erythropoietin beyond erythropoiesis. Mice with erythropoietin receptor restricted to hematopoietic tissue were used to assess contributions of endogenous erythropoietin to promote skeletal myoblast proliferation and survival and wound healing in a mouse model of cardiotoxin induced muscle injury. Compared with wild-type controls, these mice had fewer skeletal muscle Pax-7+ satellite cells and myoblasts that do not proliferate in culture, were more susceptible to skeletal muscle injury and reduced maximum load tolerated by isolated muscle. In contrast, mice with chronic elevated circulating erythropoietin had more Pax-7+ satellite cells and myoblasts with increased proliferation and survival in culture, decreased muscle injury, and accelerated recovery of maximum load tolerated by isolated muscle. Skeletal muscle myoblasts also produced endogenous erythropoietin that increased at low O2. Erythropoietin promoted proliferation, survival, and wound recovery in myoblasts via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway. Therefore, endogenous and exogenous erythropoietin contribute to increasing satellite cell number following muscle injury, improve myoblast proliferation and survival, and promote repair and regeneration in this mouse induced muscle injury model independent of its effect on erythrocyte production.—Jia, Y., Suzuki, N., Yamamoto, M., Gassmann, M., Noguchi, C. T. Endogenous erythropoietin signaling facilitates skeletal muscle repair and recovery following pharmacologically induced damage. PMID:22490927

Jia, Yi; Suzuki, Norio; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Gassmann, Max; Noguchi, Constance Tom

2012-01-01

333

Phosphate ion channels in sarcoplasmic reticulum of rabbit skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Phosphate ions (Pi) enter intracellular Ca2+ stores and precipitate Ca2+. Since transport pathways for Pi across the membrane of intracellular calcium stores have not been identified and anion channels could provide such a pathway, we have examined the Pi conductance of single anion channels from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of rabbit skeletal muscle using the lipid bilayer technique. Two anion channels in skeletal muscle SR, the small conductance (SCl) and big conductance (BCl) chloride channels, were both found to have a Pi conductance of 10 pS in 50 mm Pi. The SCl channel is a divalent anion channel which can pass HPO42? as well as SO42? (60 pS in 100 mm free SO42?). The BCl channel is primarily a monovalent anion channel. The SCl and BCl channels are permeable to a number of small monovalent anions, showing minor selectivity between Cl?, I? and Br? (Cl? > I? > Br?) and relative impermeability to cations and large polyatomic anions (Cs+, Na+, choline+, Tris+, Hepes? and CH3O3S?). The Pi conductance of SCl and BCl channels suggests that both channel types could sustain the observed Pi fluxes across the SR membrane. Comparison of the blocking effects of the phosphonocarboxylic acids, ATP and DIDS, on the anion channels with their effects on Pi transport suggests that the SCl channel is the more likely candidate for the SR Pi transport mechanism. The SCl channel, with previously unknown function, provides a regulated pathway for Pi across the SR membrane which would promote Pi entry and thereby changes in the rapidly releasable Ca2+ store during onset and recovery from muscle fatigue. Anion channels may provide a pathway for Pi movement into and out of Ca2+ stores in general. PMID:11559770

Laver, Derek R; Lenz, Gerlinde K E; Dulhunty, Angela F

2001-01-01

334

Force enhancement of skeletal muscle used for dynamic cardiomyoplasty and as a skeletal muscle ventricle.  

PubMed

Some patients with pre end-stage congestive heart disease do not receive a significant hemodynamic benefit from dynamic cardiomyoplasty because, during prolonged preoperative immobilization, their latissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) becomes extremely weak. It is the authors' hypothesis that the local administration of an anabolic steroid into an electrically stimulated LDM will produce a thicker and stronger muscle with significant resistance to fatigue. The electrical stimulation training protocol of sheep continued for 8 weeks. For localized anabolic steroid administration an osmotic pump was placed in a subcutaneous pocket and the catheter was introduced into the LDM. The contractile force of electrically stimulated and unstimulated control muscle was studied. Control data were calculated as 100% and all other data were corrected to control. After 4 weeks there was no decrease in contractile force. The change seen was from 88 to 100% with different preloads (10, 15, and 20 g/kg) and amplitudes of impulses (5 and 10 V). After 8 weeks, the LDM was more powerful than before electrical stimulation, with a change of 97-133%. Usually after 8 weeks of electrical stimulation alone, contractile force decreases to 70-75%. During a fatigue test (30 min, 100 bursts per minute, 10-25 Hz, ripple frequency, 10 V impulse amplitude) after 4 and 8 weeks of our protocol, the LDM lost only 12% of its initial force, whereas control muscle lost 40%. Thus local anabolic steroid administration makes the LDM stronger and more useful for cardiomyoplasty. PMID:8573855

Chekanov, V S; Tchekanov, G V; Rieder, M A; Silverstein, E L; Cheng, Q; Smith, L M; Zander, G L; Jacobs, G B; McConchie, S; Christensen, C W

1995-01-01

335

Glutathione Regulation of Tumor Necrosis Factor-?-Induced NF-?B Activation in Skeletal Muscle-Derived L6 Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

TNF? is implicated in several skeletal muscle pathologies including muscle wasting of cachexia. Muscle wasting and other conditions such as physical exercise and immobilization are also associated with disturbances in muscle glutathione status. Hence, it was of interest to investigate the role of endogenous glutathione status in TNF? induced NF-?B activation in skeletal muscle-derived cells. TNF? proved to be a

Chandan K. Sen; Savita Khanna; Abraham Z. Reznick; Sashwati Roy; Lester Packer

1997-01-01

336

FOXO1 activates glutamine synthetase gene in mouse skeletal muscles through a region downstream of 3'-UTR: possible contribution to ammonia detoxification.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle is a reservoir of energy in the form of protein, which is degraded under catabolic conditions, resulting in the formation of amino acids and ammonia as a byproduct. The expression of FOXO1, a forkhead-type transcription factor, increases during starvation and exercise. In agreement, transgenic FOXO1-Tg mice that overexpress FOXO1 in skeletal muscle exhibit muscle atrophy. The aim of this study was to examine the role of FOXO1 in amino acid metabolism. The mRNA and protein expressions of glutamine synthetase (GS) were increased in skeletal muscle of FOXO1-Tg mice. Fasting induced FOXO1 and GS expression in wild-type mice but hardly increased GS expression in muscle-specific FOXO1 knockout (FOXO1-KO) mice. Activation of FOXO1 also increased GS mRNA and protein expression in C2C12 myoblasts. Using a transient transfection reporter assay, we observed that FOXO1 activated the GS reporter construct. Mutation of a putative FOXO1-binding consensus sequence in the downstream genomic region of GS decreased basal and FOXO1-dependent reporter activity significantly. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that FOXO1 was recruited to the 3' region of GS in C2C12 myoblasts. These results suggest that FOXO1 directly upregulates GS expression. GS is considered to mediate ammonia clearance in skeletal muscle. In agreement, an intravenous ammonia challenge increased blood ammonia concentrations to a twofold higher level in FOXO1-KO than in wild-type mice, demonstrating that the capacity for ammonia disposal correlated inversely with the expression of GS in muscle. These data indicate that FOXO1 plays a role in amino acid metabolism during protein degradation in skeletal muscle. PMID:25074987

Kamei, Yasutomi; Hattori, Maki; Hatazawa, Yukino; Kasahara, Tomomi; Kanou, Masanobu; Kanai, Sayaka; Yuan, Xunmei; Suganami, Takayoshi; Lamers, Wouter H; Kitamura, Tadahiro; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

2014-09-15

337

Responses of skeletal muscle to unloading, a review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Suspension models were used to study muscle response to reduced activity. During 6 days of tail casting, the soleus (SOL) atrophies while the extensor digitorum longus grows relatively normally. After discounting those changes in both muscles due primarily to increased secretion of adrenal hormones, the following conclusions regarding the specific responses of the SOL could be drawn: (1) Atrophy is probably due primarily to increased protein degradation; (2) Decreased synthesis of glutamine may result from reduced availability of ammonia due to diminished use of ATP; (3) Greater muscle glycogen seems to reflect an increased response to insulin of glucose uptake which leads to greater glucose metabolism; and (4) Faster catabolism of branched-chain amino acids can be attributed to enhanced flux through ketoacid dehydrogenase. Studies by others using tail casted suspended rats showed in the SOL: (1) a gradual switch from type 1 to type 2 fibers; (2) increased acid protease activity; and (3) altered muscle function and contractile duration. Using harness suspended rats, others showed in the SOL: (1) significant atrophy; (2) increased numbers of glucocorticoid receptors; and (3) no change in muscle fatigability.

Tischler, M. E.; Jaspers, S. R.; Henriksen, E. J.; Jacob, S.

1985-01-01

338

Responses of skeletal muscle to unloading - A review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Suspension models were used to study muscle response to reduced activity. During 6 days of tail casting, the soleus (SOL) atrophies while the extensor digitorum longus grows relatively normally. After discounting those changes in both muscles due primarily to increased secretion of adrenal hormones, the following conclusions regarding the specific responses of the SOL could be drawn: (1) Atrophy is probably due primarily to increased protein degradation; (2) Decreased synthesis of glutamine may result from reduced availability of ammonia due to diminished use of ATP; (3) Greater muscle glycogen seems to reflect an increased response to insulin of glucose uptake which leads to greater glucose metabolism; and (4) Faster catabolism of branched-chain amino acids can be attributed to enhanced flux through ketoacid dehydrogenase. Studies by others using tail casted suspended rats showed in the SOL: (1) a gradual switch from type 1 to type 2 fibers; (2) increased acid protease activity; and (3) altered muscle function and contractile duration. Using harness suspended rats, others showed in the SOL: (1) significant atrophy; (2) increased numbers of glucocorticoid receptors; and (3) no change in muscle fatigability.

Tischler, M. E.; Jaspers, S. R.; Henriksen, E. J.; Jacob, S.

1985-01-01

339

Roles of nonmyogenic mesenchymal progenitors in pathogenesis and regeneration of skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Adult skeletal muscle possesses a remarkable regenerative ability that is dependent on satellite cells. However, skeletal muscle is replaced by fatty and fibrous connective tissue in several pathological conditions. Fatty and fibrous connective tissue becomes a major cause of muscle weakness and leads to further impairment of muscle function. Because the occurrence of fatty and fibrous connective tissue is usually associated with severe destruction of muscle, the idea that dysregulation of the fate switch in satellite cells may underlie this pathological change has emerged. However, recent studies identified nonmyogenic mesenchymal progenitors in skeletal muscle and revealed that fatty and fibrous connective tissue originates from these progenitors. Later, these progenitors were also demonstrated to be the major contributor to heterotopic ossification in skeletal muscle. Because nonmyogenic mesenchymal progenitors represent a distinct cell population from satellite cells, targeting these progenitors could be an ideal therapeutic strategy that specifically prevents pathological changes of skeletal muscle, while preserving satellite cell-dependent regeneration. In addition to their roles in pathogenesis of skeletal muscle, nonmyogenic mesenchymal progenitors may play a vital role in muscle regeneration by regulating satellite cell behavior. Conversely, muscle cells appear to regulate behavior of nonmyogenic mesenchymal progenitors. Thus, these cells regulate each other reciprocally and a proper balance between them is a key determinant of muscle integrity. Furthermore, nonmyogenic mesenchymal progenitors have been shown to maintain muscle mass in a steady homeostatic condition. Understanding the nature of nonmyogenic mesenchymal progenitors will provide valuable insight into the pathophysiology of skeletal muscle. In this review, we focus on nonmyogenic mesenchymal progenitors and discuss their roles in muscle pathogenesis, regeneration, and homeostasis. PMID:24605102

Uezumi, Akiyoshi; Ikemoto-Uezumi, Madoka; Tsuchida, Kunihiro

2014-01-01

340

Phosphorescence quenching microrespirometry of skeletal muscle in situ  

PubMed Central

We have developed an optical method for the evaluation of the oxygen consumption (V?o2) in microscopic volumes of spinotrapezius muscle. Using phosphorescence quenching microscopy (PQM) for the measurement of interstitial Po2, together with rapid pneumatic compression of the organ, we recorded the oxygen disappearance curve (ODC) in the muscle of the anesthetized rats. A 0.6-mm diameter area in the tissue, preloaded with the phosphorescent oxygen probe, was excited once a second by a 532-nm Q-switched laser with pulse duration of 15 ns. Each of the evoked phosphorescence decays was analyzed to obtain a sequence of Po2 values that constituted the ODC. Following flow arrest and tissue compression, the interstitial Po2 decreased rapidly and the initial slope of the ODC was used to calculate the V?o2. Special analysis of instrumental factors affecting the ODC was performed, and the resulting model was used for evaluation of V?o2. The calculation was based on the observation of only a small amount of residual blood in the tissue after compression. The contribution of oxygen photoconsumption by PQM and oxygen inflow from external sources was evaluated in specially designed tests. The average oxygen consumption of the rat spinotrapezius muscle was V?o2 = 123.4 ± 13.4 (SE) nl O2/cm3·s (N = 38, within 6 muscles) at a baseline interstitial Po2 of 50.8 ± 2.9 mmHg. This technique has opened the opportunity for monitoring respiration rates in microscopic volumes of functioning skeletal muscle. PMID:20971766

Golub, Aleksander S.; Tevald, Michael A.

2011-01-01

341

Can changes in microcirculation explain capillary growth in skeletal muscle?  

PubMed Central

Capillary growth (increase in capillary/fibre (C/F) ratio by 20%) was elicited in skeletal muscles either by long-term increase in blood flow (5 weeks administration of prazosin in drinking water, 50 mg/l) or 7 days electrical stimulation (8 h/day at 10 Hz). Mechanisms that could explain it ((a) increased interaction of blood components with endothelial cells (due to increased haematocrit or decreased intermittency of flow); (b) increased velocity of flow and thus shear stress; (c) increased capillary diameters and thus wall tension) were studied in vivo. Red blood cell velocity (Vrbc), vessel diameters and intermittency of capillary flow were measured in superficially located capillaries in rat tibialis anterior muscles about 18 hours after the last treatment, in prazosin treated and chronically stimulated animals, and also in animals where red blood cell interaction with capillary endothelium was increased by elevating haematocrit from 43.2 +/- 1.7% to 60.9 +/- 0.72% by 11 weeks administration of CoCl2. Animals of comparable size and sex were used as controls. Capillaries in chronically stimulated muscles had increased Vrbc at rest (0.42 +/- 0.06 mm/s vs 0.27 +/- 0.04 in control muscles) and somewhat wider diameters, although the intermittency of flow was not different from control muscles. Capillaries in prazosin treated rats had a lower intermittency of flow, similar diameters and considerably higher Vrbc (0.53 +/- 0.06 mm/s) than control animals. CoCl2 treatment resulted in a similar intermittency of flow, did not alter capillary diameters or Vrbc and did not result in an increase in C/F ratio.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8471536

Dawson, J. M.; Hudlicka, O.

1993-01-01

342

Activity and Calcineurin-independent Nuclear Shuttling of NFATc1, but Not NFATc3, in Adult Skeletal Muscle Fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The transcription factor NFATc1 may ,be involved ,in slow ,skeletal muscle ,gene expression. NFATc1 translocates from ,cytoplasm ,to nuclei ,during slow ,fiber type electrical stimulation of skeletal muscle fibers due to activation of the ,Ca, dependent phosphatase calcineurin, resulting in NFAT dephosphorylation and consequent exposure ofits nuclear localization signal. Here we find ,that unstimulated adult skeletal muscle fibers exhibit

Tiansheng Shen; Yewei Liu; Zoltán Cseresnyés; Arie Hawkins; William R. Randall; Martin F. Schneider

2006-01-01

343

Characterisation of connective tissue from the hypertrophic skeletal muscle of myostatin null mice  

PubMed Central

Myostatin is a potent inhibitor of muscle development. Genetic deletion of myostatin in mice results in muscle mass increase, with muscles often weighing three times their normal values. Contracting muscle transfers tension to skeletal elements through an elaborate connective tissue network. Therefore, the connective tissue of skeletal muscle is an integral component of the contractile apparatus. Here we examine the connective tissue architecture in myostatin null muscle. We show that the hypertrophic muscle has decreased connective tissue content compared with wild-type muscle. Secondly, we show that the hypertrophic muscle fails to show the normal increase in muscle connective tissue content during ageing. Therefore, genetic deletion of myostatin results in an increase in contractile elements but a decrease in connective tissue content. We propose a model based on the contractile profile of muscle fibres that reconciles this apparent incompatible tissue composition phenotype. PMID:22463481

Elashry, Mohamed I; Collins-Hooper, Henry; Vaiyapuri, Sakthivel; Patel, Ketan

2012-01-01

344

Evidence for a Role of the Lumenal M3-M4 Loop in Skeletal Muscle Ca 2+ Release Channel (Ryanodine Receptor) Activity and Conductance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the hypothesis that part of the lumenal amino acid segment between the two most C-terminal membrane segments of the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RyR1) is important for channel activity and conductance. Eleven mutants were generated and expressed in HEK293 cells focusing on amino acid residue I4897 homologous to the selectivity filter of K+ channels and six other residues

Ling Gao; David Balshaw; Le Xu; Ashutosh Tripathy; Chunlin Xin; Gerhard Meissner

2000-01-01

345

CYTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF FIBER TYPES IN SKELETAL MUSCLE  

PubMed Central

A comparative investigation of the mammalian diaphragm has revealed a correlation between certain cytological aspects of red and white muscle fibers and functional activity. This skeletal muscle presents the advantage of a similar and constant function among the mammals, but its functional activity varies in a quantitative manner. Both the rate of breathing (and hence the rate of contraction of the diaphragm) and metabolic activity are known to be inversely related to body size; and this study has demonstrated a relationship between cytological characteristics of the diaphragm and body size of the animal. Small fibers rich in mitochondria (red fibers) are characteristic of small mammals, which have high metabolic activity and fast breathing rates; and large fibers with relatively low mitochondrial content predominate in large mammals, which have lower metabolic activity and slower breathing rates. In mammals with body size intermediate between these two groups (including the laboratory rat), the diaphragm consists of varying mixtures of fiber types. In general, the mitochondrial content of diaphragm fibers is inversely related to body size. It appears, then, that the red fiber reflects a high degree of metabolic activity or a relatively high rate of contraction within the range exhibited by this muscle. PMID:5950272

Gauthier, Geraldine F.; Padykula, Helen A.

1966-01-01

346

Statistical mechanics of myosin molecular motors in skeletal muscles.  

PubMed

Statistical mechanics provides the link between microscopic properties of matter and its bulk properties. The grand canonical ensemble formalism was applied to contracting rat skeletal muscles, the soleus (SOL, n = 30) and the extensor digitalis longus (EDL, n = 30). Huxley's equations were used to calculate force (pi) per single crossbridge (CB), probabilities of six steps of the CB cycle, and peak muscle efficiency (Eff(max)). SOL and EDL were shown to be in near-equilibrium (CB cycle affinity 2.5 kJ/mol) and stationary state (linearity between CB cycle affinity and myosin ATPase rate). The molecular partition function (z) was higher in EDL (1.126+/-0.005) than in SOL (1.050+/-0.003). Both pi and Eff(max) were lower in EDL (8.3+/-0.1 pN and 38.1+/-0.2%, respectively) than in SOL (9.2+/-0.1 pN and 42.3+/-0.2%, respectively). The most populated step of the CB cycle was the last detached state (D3) (probability P(D3): 0.890+/-0.004 in EDL and 0.953+/-0.002 in SOL). In each muscle group, both pi and Eff(max) linearly decreased with z and statistical entropy and increased with P(D3). We concluded that statistical mechanics and Huxley's formalism provided a powerful combination for establishing an analytical link between chemomechanical properties of CBs, molecular partition function and statistical entropy. PMID:15882700

Lecarpentier, Y; Blanc, F-X; Quillard, J; Hébert, J-L; Krokidis, X; Coirault, C

2005-08-01

347

Making Skeletal Muscle from Progenitor and Stem Cells: Development versus Regeneration  

PubMed Central

For locomotion, vertebrate animals use the force generated by contractile skeletal muscles. These muscles form an actin/myosin-based bio-machinery that is attached to skeletal elements to effect body movement and maintain posture. The mechanics, physiology, and homeostasis of skeletal muscles in normal and disease states are of significant clinical interest. How muscles originate from progenitors during embryogenesis has attracted considerable attention from developmental biologists. How skeletal muscles regenerate and repair themselves after injury by the use of stem cells is an important process to maintain muscle homeostasis throughout lifetime. In recent years, much progress has been made towards uncovering the origins of myogenic progenitors and stem cells as well as the regulation of these cells during development and regeneration. PMID:22737183

Li, Lydia; Rozo, Michelle E.; Lepper, Christoph

2012-01-01

348

Uncoupled skeletal muscle mitochondria contribute to hypermetabolism in severely burned adults.  

PubMed

Elevated metabolic rate is a hallmark of the stress response to severe burn injury. This response is mediated in part by adrenergic stress and is responsive to changes in ambient temperature. We hypothesize that uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle mitochondria contributes to increased metabolic rate in burn survivors. Here, we determined skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in healthy and severely burned adults. Indirect calorimetry was used to estimate metabolic rate in burn patients. Quadriceps muscle biopsies were collected on two separate occasions (11 ± 5 and 21 ± 8 days postinjury) from six severely burned adults (68 ± 19% of total body surface area burned) and 12 healthy adults. Leak, coupled, and uncoupled mitochondrial respiration was determined in permeabilized myofiber bundles. Metabolic rate was significantly greater than predicted values for burn patients at both time points (P < 0.05). Skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, citrate synthase activity, a marker of mitochondrial abundance, and mitochondrial sensitivity to oligomycin were all lower in burn patients vs. controls at both time points (P < 0.05). A greater proportion of maximal mitochondrial respiration was linked to thermogenesis in burn patients compared with controls (P < 0.05). Increased metabolic rate in severely burned adults is accompanied by derangements in skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. Skeletal muscle mitochondria from burn victims are more uncoupled, indicating greater heat production within skeletal muscle. Our findings suggest that skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to increased metabolic rate in burn victims. PMID:25074988

Porter, Craig; Herndon, David N; Břrsheim, Elisabet; Chao, Tony; Reidy, Paul T; Borack, Michael S; Rasmussen, Blake B; Chondronikola, Maria; Saraf, Manish K; Sidossis, Labros S

2014-09-01

349

Hyperplasia and cellularity changes in IGF-1-overexpressing skeletal muscle of crucian carp.  

PubMed

The zebrafish skeletal muscle-specific promoter mylz2 was used to cause crucian carp overexpression of the zebrafish IGF-1 cDNA. In stable transgenic germline F1 progenies, a 5-fold increase in the level of IGF-1 in skeletal muscle was observed. Evident skeletal muscle hyperplasia was observed in the transgenic fish through histologic analysis. By analyzing the RNA sequencing transcriptome of the skeletal muscle of IGF-1 transgenic fish and nontransgenic control fish at 15 months of age, 10 966 transcripts with significant expression levels were identified with definite gene descriptions based on the corresponding zebrafish genome information. Based on the results of our RNA sequencing transcriptome profiling analysis and the results of the real-time quantitative PCR analysis performed to confirm the skeletal muscle transcriptomics analysis, several pathways, including IGF-1 signaling, aerobic metabolism, and protein degradation, were found to be activated in the IGF-1-overexpressing transgenic fish. Intriguingly, our transcriptional expression and protein assays indicated that the overexpression of IGF-1 stimulated a significant shift in the myofiber type toward a more oxidative slow muscle type. Although the body weight was surprisingly decreased by IGF-1 transgenic expression, significantly higher oxygen consumption rates were measured in IGF-1-overexpressing transgenic fish compared with their nontransgenic control fish. These results indicate that the sustained overexpression of IGF-1 in crucian carp skeletal muscle promotes myofiber hyperplasia and cellularity changes, which elicit alterations in the body energy metabolism and skeletal muscle growth. PMID:24617525

Li, Dongliang; Lou, Qiyong; Zhai, Gang; Peng, Xuyan; Cheng, Xiaoxia; Dai, Xiangyan; Zhuo, Zijian; Shang, Guohui; Jin, Xia; Chen, Xiaowen; Han, Dong; He, Jiangyan; Yin, Zhan

2014-06-01

350

Impact of quality as well as quantity of skeletal muscle on outcomes after liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Intramuscular fat accumulation has come to be associated with loss of muscle strength and function, one of the components of sarcopenia. However, the impact of preoperative quality of skeletal muscle on outcomes after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is unclear. The present study evaluated the intramuscular adipose tissue content (IMAC) and psoas muscle mass index (PMI) in 200 adult patients undergoing LDLT at our institution between January 2008 and October 2013. Correlations of IMAC with other factors, overall survival rates in patients classified according to IMAC or PMI, and risk factors for poor survival after LDLT were analyzed. IMAC was significantly correlated with age (r?=?0.229, P?=?0.03) and PMI (r?=?-0.236, P?=?0.02) in males and with age (r?=?0.349, P?amino acid (BCAA)-to-tyrosine ratio (r?=?-0.250, P?=?0.01) in females. The overall survival rates in patients with high IMAC or low PMI were significantly lower than those for patients with normal IMAC or PMI (P?skeletal muscle could be incorporated into new selection criteria for LDLT. Perioperative nutritional therapy and rehabilitation could be important for good outcomes after LDLT. Liver Transpl 20:1413-1419, 2014. © 2014 AASLD. PMID:25088484

Hamaguchi, Yuhei; Kaido, Toshimi; Okumura, Shinya; Fujimoto, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Kohei; Mori, Akira; Hammad, Ahmed; Tamai, Yumiko; Inagaki, Nobuya; Uemoto, Shinji

2014-11-01

351

AMPK activation increases fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle by activating PPAR? and PGC1  

Microsoft Academic Search

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation increases fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle by decreasing malonyl CoA concentrations. However, this may not explain the long-term effects of AMPK activation. Here we show that AMPK activation by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) increases mRNA expression of PPAR? target genes and PGC-1 in cultured muscle cells and mouse skeletal muscle, and that inhibition of PPAR?

Woo Je Lee; Mina Kim; Hye-Sun Park; Hyoun Sik Kim; Min Jae Jeon; Ki Sook Oh; Eun Hee Koh; Jong Chul Won; Min-Seon Kim; Goo Taeg Oh; Michung Yoon; Ki-Up Lee; Joong-Yeol Park

2006-01-01

352

Systems Biology of Skeletal Muscle: Fiber Type as an Organizing Principle  

PubMed Central

Skeletal muscle force generation and contraction are fundamental to countless aspects of human life. The complexity of skeletal muscle physiology is simplified by fiber type classification where differences are observed from neuromuscular transmission to release of intracellular Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the resulting recruitment and cycling of cross-bridges. This review uses fiber type classification as an organizing and simplifying principle to explore the complex interactions between the major proteins involved in muscle force generation and contraction. PMID:22811254

Greising, Sarah M; Gransee, Heather M; Mantilla, Carlos B; Sieck, Gary C

2012-01-01

353

Systems biology of skeletal muscle: fiber type as an organizing principle.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle force generation and contraction are fundamental to countless aspects of human life. The complexity of skeletal muscle physiology is simplified by fiber type classification where differences are observed from neuromuscular transmission to release of intracellular Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the resulting recruitment and cycling of cross-bridges. This review uses fiber type classification as an organizing and simplifying principle to explore the complex interactions between the major proteins involved in muscle force generation and contraction. PMID:22811254

Greising, Sarah M; Gransee, Heather M; Mantilla, Carlos B; Sieck, Gary C

2012-01-01

354

Cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration: are all mitochondria created equal?  

PubMed

Unlike cardiac and skeletal muscle, little is known about vascular smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration. Therefore, the present study examined mitochondrial respiratory rates in smooth muscle of healthy human feed arteries and compared with that of healthy cardiac and skeletal muscles. Cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscles were harvested from a total of 22 subjects (53 ± 6 yr), and mitochondrial respiration was assessed in permeabilized fibers. Complex I + II, state 3 respiration, an index of oxidative phosphorylation capacity, fell progressively from cardiac to skeletal to smooth muscles (54 ± 1, 39 ± 4, and 15 ± 1 pmol·s(-1)·mg(-1), P < 0.05, respectively). Citrate synthase (CS) activity, an index of mitochondrial density, also fell progressively from cardiac to skeletal to smooth muscles (222 ± 13, 115 ± 2, and 48 ± 2 ?mol·g(-1)·min(-1), P < 0.05, respectively). Thus, when respiration rates were normalized by CS (respiration per mitochondrial content), oxidative phosphorylation capacity was no longer different between the three muscle types. Interestingly, complex I state 2 normalized for CS activity, an index of nonphosphorylating respiration per mitochondrial content, increased progressively from cardiac to skeletal to smooth muscles, such that the respiratory control ratio, state 3/state 2 respiration, fell progressively from cardiac to skeletal to smooth muscles (5.3 ± 0.7, 3.2 ± 0.4, and 1.6 ± 0.3 pmol·s(-1)·mg(-1), P < 0.05, respectively). Thus, although oxidative phosphorylation capacity per mitochondrial content in cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscles suggest all mitochondria are created equal, the contrasting respiratory control ratio and nonphosphorylating respiration highlight the existence of intrinsic functional differences between these muscle mitochondria. This likely influences the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation and could potentially alter ROS production. PMID:24906913

Park, Song-Young; Gifford, Jayson R; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Trinity, Joel D; Hyngstrom, John R; Garten, Ryan S; Diakos, Nikolaos A; Ives, Stephen J; Dela, Flemming; Larsen, Steen; Drakos, Stavros; Richardson, Russell S

2014-08-01

355

Analysis of tarantula skeletal muscle protein sequences and identification of transcriptional isoforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Tarantula has been used as a model system for studying skeletal muscle structure and function, yet data on the genes expressed in tarantula muscle are lacking. RESULTS: We constructed a cDNA library from Aphonopelma sp. (Tarantula) skeletal muscle and got 2507 high-quality 5'ESTs (expressed sequence tags) from randomly picked clones. EST analysis showed 305 unigenes, among which 81 had

Jingui Zhu; Yongqiao Sun; Fa-Qing Zhao; Jun Yu; Roger Craig; Songnian Hu

2009-01-01

356

Pericytes: multitasking cells in the regeneration of injured, diseased, and aged skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Pericytes are perivascular cells that envelop and make intimate connections with adjacent capillary endothelial cells. Recent studies show that they may have a profound impact in skeletal muscle regeneration, innervation, vessel formation, fibrosis, fat accumulation, and ectopic bone formation throughout life. In this review, we summarize and evaluate recent advances in our understanding of pericytes' influence on adult skeletal muscle pathophysiology. We also discuss how further elucidating their biology may offer new approaches to the treatment of conditions characterized by muscle wasting.

Birbrair, Alexander; Zhang, Tan; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria L.; Mintz, Akiva; Delbono, Osvaldo

2014-01-01

357

Functional and structural adaptations of skeletal muscle to microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our purpose is to summarize the major effects of space travel on skeletal muscle with particular emphasis on factors that alter function. The primary deleterious changes are muscle atrophy and the associated decline in peak force and power. Studies on both rats and humans demonstrate a rapid loss of cell mass with microgravity. In rats, a reduction in muscle mass of up to 37% was observed within 1 week. For both species, the antigravity soleus muscle showed greater atrophy than the fast-twitch gastrocnemius. However, in the rat, the slow type I fibers atrophied more than the fast type II fibers, while in humans, the fast type II fibers were at least as susceptible to space-induced atrophy as the slow fiber type. Space flight also resulted in a significant decline in peak force. For example, the maximal voluntary contraction of the human plantar flexor muscles declined by 20-48% following 6 months in space, while a 21% decline in the peak force of the soleus type I fibers was observed after a 17-day shuttle flight. The reduced force can be attributed both to muscle atrophy and to a selective loss of contractile protein. The former was the primary cause because, when force was expressed per cross-sectional area (kNm(-2)), the human fast type II and slow type I fibers of the soleus showed no change and a 4% decrease in force, respectively. Microgravity has been shown to increase the shortening velocity of the plantar flexors. This increase can be attributed both to an elevated maximal shortening velocity (V(0)) of the individual slow and fast fibers and to an increased expression of fibers containing fast myosin. Although the cause of the former is unknown, it might result from the selective loss of the thin filament actin and an associated decline in the internal drag during cross-bridge cycling. Despite the increase in fiber V(0), peak power of the slow type I fiber was reduced following space flight. The decreased power was a direct result of the reduced force caused by the fiber atrophy. In addition to fiber atrophy and the loss of force and power, weightlessness reduces the ability of the slow soleus to oxidize fats and increases the utilization of muscle glycogen, at least in rats. This substrate change leads to an increased rate of fatigue. Finally, with return to the 1g environment of earth, rat studies have shown an increased occurrence of eccentric contraction-induced fiber damage. The damage occurs with re-loading and not in-flight, but the etiology has not been established.

Fitts, R. H.; Riley, D. R.; Widrick, J. J.

2001-01-01

358

Skeletal muscle satellite cells cultured in simulated microgravity.  

PubMed

Satellite cells are postnatal myoblasts responsible for providing additional nuclei to growing or regenerating muscle cells. Satellite cells retain the capacity to proliferate and differentiate in vitro and, therefore, provide a useful model to study postnatal muscle development. Most culture systems used to study postnatal muscle development are limited by the two-dimensional (2-D) confines of the culture dish. Limiting proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells in 2-D could potentially limit cell-cell contacts important for developing the level of organization in skeletal muscle obtained in vivo. Culturing satellite cells on microcarrier beads suspended in the High-Aspect-Ratio-Vessel (HARV) designed by NASA provides a low shear, three-dimensional (3-D) environment to study muscle development. Primary cultures established from anterior tibialis muscles of growing rats (approximately 200 gm) were used for all studies and were composed of greater than 75% satellite cells. Different inoculation densities did not affect the proliferative potential of satellite cells in the HARV. Plating efficiency, proliferation, and glucose utilization were compared between 2-D culture and 3-D HARV culture. Plating efficiency (cells attached divided by cells plated x 100) was similar between the two culture systems. Proliferation was reduced in HARV cultures and this reduction was apparent for both satellite cells and nonsatellite cells. Furthermore, reduction in proliferation within the HARV could not be attributed to reduced substrate availability because glucose levels in medium from HARV and 2-D cell culture were similar. Morphologically, microcarrier beads within the HARV were joined together by cells into 3-D aggregates composed of greater than 10 beads/aggregate. Aggregation of beads did not occur in the absence of cells. Myotubes were often seen on individual beads or spanning the surface of two beads. In summary, proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells on microcarrier beads within the HARV bioreactor results in a 3-D level of organization that could provide a more suitable model to study postnatal muscle development than is currently available with standard culture methods. PMID:9196898

Molnar, G; Schroedl, N A; Gonda, S R; Hartzell, C R

1997-05-01

359

Skeletal muscle capillary function: contemporary observations and novel hypotheses.  

PubMed

The capillary bed constitutes a vast surface that facilitates exchange of O2, substrates and metabolites between blood and organs. In contracting skeletal muscle, capillary blood flow and O2 diffusing capacity, as well as O2 flux, may increase two orders of magnitude above resting values. Chronic diseases, such as heart failure and diabetes, and also sepsis impair these processes, leading to compromised energetic, metabolic and, ultimately, contractile function. Among researchers seeking to understand blood-myocyte exchange in health and the basis for dysfunction in disease, there is a fundamental disconnect between microcirculation specialists and many physiologists and physiologist clinicians. While the former observe capillaries and capillary function directly (muscle intravital microscopy), the latter generally use indirect methodologies (e.g. post-mortem tissue analysis, 1-methyl xanthine, contrast-enhanced ultrasound, permeability-surface area product) and interpret their findings based upon August Krogh's observations made nearly a century ago. 'Kroghian' theory holds that only a small fraction of capillaries support red blood cell (RBC) flux in resting muscle, leaving the vast majority to be 'recruited' (i.e. to initiate RBC flux) during contractions, which would constitute the basis for increasing surface area for capillary exchange and reducing capillary-mitochondrial diffusion distances. Experimental techniques each have their strengths and weaknesses, and often the correct or complete answer to a problem emerges from integration across multiple technologies. Today, Krogh's entrenched 'capillary recruitment' hypothesis is challenged by direct observations of capillaries in contracting muscle, which is something that he and his colleagues could not do. Moreover, in the peer-reviewed scientific literature, application of a range of contemporary physiological technologies, including intravital microscopy of contracting muscle, magnetic resonance, near-infrared spectroscopy and phosphorescence quenching, combined with elegant in situ and in vivo models, suggest that the role of the capillary bed, at least in contracting muscle, is subserved without the necessity for de novo capillary recruitment of previously non-flowing capillaries. When viewed within the context of the capillary recruitment hypothesis, this evidence casts serious doubt on the interpretation of those data that are based upon Kroghian theory and indirect methodologies. Thus, today a wealth of evidence calls for a radical revision of blood-muscle exchange theory to one in which most capillaries support RBC flux at rest and, during contractions, capillary surface area is 'recruited' along the length of previously flowing capillaries. This occurs, in part, by elevating capillary haematocrit and extending the length of the capillary available for blood-myocyte exchange (i.e. longitudinal recruitment). Our understanding of blood-myocyte O2 and substrate/metabolite exchange in health and the mechanistic basis for dysfunction in disease demands no less. PMID:23995101

Poole, David C; Copp, Steven W; Ferguson, Scott K; Musch, Timothy I

2013-12-01

360

Ectopic expression of IGF-I and Shh by skeletal muscle inhibits disuse-mediated skeletal muscle atrophy and bone osteopenia in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loss of normal weight-bearing activity, which occurs during bed rest, limb immobilization, and spaceflight, stimulates a catabolic response within the musculoskeletal system, which results in a loss of skeletal muscle mass and bone mineral. The mechanism by which loading of muscle and bone is sensed and translated into signals controlling tissue formation remains a major question in the field

Mohammed Borhan Alzghoul; Dave Gerrard; Bruce A. Watkins; Kevin Hannon

2003-01-01

361

Frizzled-9 impairs acetylcholine receptor clustering in skeletal muscle cells  

PubMed Central

Cumulative evidence indicates that Wnt pathways play crucial and diverse roles to assemble the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), a peripheral synapse characterized by the clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChR) on postsynaptic densities. The molecular determinants of Wnt effects at the NMJ are still to be fully elucidated. We report here that the Wnt receptor Frizzled-9 (Fzd9) is expressed in developing skeletal muscles during NMJ synaptogenesis. In cultured myotubes, gain- and loss-of-function experiments revealed that Fzd9-mediated signaling impairs the AChR-clustering activity of agrin, an organizer of postsynaptic differentiation. Overexpression of Fzd9 induced the cytosolic accumulation of ?-catenin, a key regulator of Wnt signaling. Consistently, Fzd9 and ?-catenin localize in the postsynaptic domain of embryonic NMJs in vivo. Our findings represent the first evidence pointing to a crucial role of a Fzd-mediated, ?-catenin-dependent signaling on the assembly of the vertebrate NMJ. PMID:24860427

Aviles, Evelyn C.; Pinto, Cristina; Hanna, Patricia; Ojeda, Jorge; Perez, Viviana; De Ferrari, Giancarlo V.; Zamorano, Pedro; Albistur, Miguel; Sandoval, Daniel; Henriquez, Juan P.

2014-01-01

362

Skeletal muscle tissue transcriptome differences in lean and obese female beagle dogs.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle is a large and insulin-sensitive tissue that is an important contributor to metabolic homeostasis and energy expenditure. Many metabolic processes are altered with obesity, but the contribution of muscle tissue in this regard is unclear. A limited number of studies have compared skeletal muscle gene expression of lean and obese dogs. Using microarray technology, our objective was to identify genes and functional classes differentially expressed in skeletal muscle of obese (14.6 kg; 8.2 body condition score; 44.5% body fat) vs. lean (8.6 kg; 4.1 body condition score; 22.9% body fat) female beagle adult dogs. Alterations in 77 transcripts was observed in genes pertaining to the functional classes of signaling, transport, protein catabolism and proteolysis, protein modification, development, transcription and apoptosis, cell cycle and differentiation. Genes differentially expressed in obese vs. lean dog skeletal muscle indicate oxidative stress and altered skeletal muscle cell differentiation. Many genes traditionally associated with lipid, protein and carbohydrate metabolism were not altered in obese vs. lean dogs, but genes pertaining to endocannabinoid metabolism, insulin signaling, type II diabetes mellitus and carnitine transport were differentially expressed. The relatively small response of skeletal muscle could indicate that changes are occurring at a post-transcriptional level, that other tissues (e.g., adipose tissue) were buffering skeletal muscle from metabolic dysfunction or that obesity-induced changes in skeletal muscle require a longer period of time and that the length of our study was not sufficient to detect them. Although only a limited number of differentially expressed genes were detected, these results highlight genes and functional classes that may be important in determining the etiology of obesity-induced derangement of skeletal muscle function. PMID:23488938

Grant, R W; Vester Boler, B M; Ridge, T K; Graves, T K; Swanson, K S

2013-08-01

363

Regulation of gene expression in vertebrate skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

During embryonic development the integration of numerous synergistic signalling pathways turns a single cell into a multicellular organism with specialized cell types and highly structured, organized tissues. To achieve this, cells must grow, proliferate, differentiate and die according to their spatiotemporal position. Unravelling the mechanisms by which a cell adopts the correct fate in response to its local environment remains one of the fundamental goals of biological research. In vertebrates skeletal myogenesis is coordinated by the activation of the myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) in response to signals that are interpreted by their associated regulatory elements in different precursor cells during development. The MRFs trigger a cascade of transcription factors and downstream structural genes, ultimately resulting in the generation of one of the fundamental histotypes. In this review we discuss the regulation of the different MRFs in relation to their position in the myogenic cascade, the changes in the general transcriptional machinery during muscle differentiation and the emerging importance of miRNA regulation in skeletal myogenesis. PMID:20633554

Carvajal, Jaime J; Rigby, Peter W J

2010-11-01

364

Regulation of gene expression in vertebrate skeletal muscle  

SciTech Connect

During embryonic development the integration of numerous synergistic signalling pathways turns a single cell into a multicellular organism with specialized cell types and highly structured, organized tissues. To achieve this, cells must grow, proliferate, differentiate and die according to their spatiotemporal position. Unravelling the mechanisms by which a cell adopts the correct fate in response to its local environment remains one of the fundamental goals of biological research. In vertebrates skeletal myogenesis is coordinated by the activation of the myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) in response to signals that are interpreted by their associated regulatory elements in different precursor cells during development. The MRFs trigger a cascade of transcription factors and downstream structural genes, ultimately resulting in the generation of one of the fundamental histotypes. In this review we discuss the regulation of the different MRFs in relation to their position in the myogenic cascade, the changes in the general transcriptional machinery during muscle differentiation and the emerging importance of miRNA regulation in skeletal myogenesis.

Carvajal, Jaime J., E-mail: jaime.carvajal@icr.ac.uk; Rigby, Peter W.J., E-mail: peter.rigby@icr.ac.uk

2010-11-01

365

Emergent dilated cardiomyopathy caused by targeted repair of dystrophic skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal disease characterized by deterioration of striated muscle, affecting skeletal and cardiac muscles. Recently, several therapeutic approaches have shown promise for repairing dystrophic skeletal muscles. However, these methods often leave the dystrophic heart untreated. Here we show that, in comparison to fully dystrophin-deficient animals, targeted transgenic repair of skeletal muscle, but not cardiac muscle, in otherwise dystrophin-deficient (mdx) mice paradoxically elicited a fivefold increase in cardiac injury and dilated cardiomyopathy in these animals in vivo. Skeletal muscle repair was shown to increase the voluntary activity of the mdx mice as quantified by voluntary running on the exercise wheel. Because the dystrophin-deficient heart is highly sensitive to increased stress, we hypothesize that increased activity (enabled by the repaired skeletal muscle) provided the stimulus for heightened cardiac injury and heart remodeling. In support of this hypothesis, the primary cellular compliance defect in dystrophin-deficient cardiac myocytes was found to be unchanged by skeletal muscle repair in the mdx mice. These findings provide new information on the evolution of cardiac disease in dystrophin-deficient animals and underscore the importance of implementing global striated muscle therapies for muscular dystrophy. PMID:18414480

Townsend, DeWayne; Yasuda, Soichiro; Li, Sheng; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S; Metzger, Joseph M

2008-05-01

366

Prevalence study of genetically defined skeletal muscle channelopathies in England  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To obtain minimum point prevalence rates for the skeletal muscle channelopathies and to evaluate the frequency distribution of mutations associated with these disorders. Methods: Analysis of demographic, clinical, electrophysiologic, and genetic data of all patients assessed at our national specialist channelopathy service. Only patients living in the United Kingdom with a genetically defined diagnosis of nondystrophic myotonia or periodic paralysis were eligible for the study. Prevalence rates were estimated for England, December 2011. Results: A total of 665 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, of which 593 were living in England, giving a minimum point prevalence of 1.12/100,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03–1.21). Disease-specific prevalence figures were as follows: myotonia congenita 0.52/100,000 (95% CI 0.46–0.59), paramyotonia congenita 0.17/100,000 (95% CI 0.13–0.20), sodium channel myotonias 0.06/100,000 (95% CI 0.04–0.08), hyperkalemic periodic paralysis 0.17/100,000 (95% CI 0.13–0.20), hypokalemic periodic paralysis 0.13/100,000 (95% CI 0.10–0.17), and Andersen-Tawil syndrome (ATS) 0.08/100,000 (95% CI 0.05–0.10). In the whole sample (665 patients), 15 out of 104 different CLCN1 mutations accounted for 60% of all patients with myotonia congenita, 11 out of 22 SCN4A mutations for 86% of paramyotonia congenita/sodium channel myotonia pedigrees, and 3 out of 17 KCNJ2 mutations for 42% of ATS pedigrees. Conclusion: We describe for the first time the overall prevalence of genetically defined skeletal muscle channelopathies in England. Despite the large variety of mutations observed in patients with nondystrophic myotonia and ATS, a limited number accounted for a large proportion of cases. PMID:23516313

Horga, Alejandro; Raja Rayan, Dipa L.; Matthews, Emma; Sud, Richa; Fialho, Doreen; Durran, Siobhan C.M.; Burge, James A.; Portaro, Simona; Davis, Mary B.; Haworth, Andrea

2013-01-01

367

Titin force is enhanced in actively stretched skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

The sliding filament theory of muscle contraction is widely accepted as the means by which muscles generate force during activation. Within the constraints of this theory, isometric, steady-state force produced during muscle activation is proportional to the amount of filament overlap. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated enhanced titin-based force in myofibrils that were actively stretched to lengths which exceeded filament overlap. This observation cannot be explained by the sliding filament theory. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the enhanced state of titin during active stretch. Specifically, we confirm that this enhanced state of force is observed in a mouse model and quantify the contribution of calcium to this force. Titin-based force was increased by up to four times that of passive force during active stretch of isolated myofibrils. Enhanced titin-based force has now been demonstrated in two distinct animal models, suggesting that modulation of titin-based force during active stretch is an inherent property of skeletal muscle. Our results also demonstrated that 15% of the enhanced state of titin can be attributed to direct calcium effects on the protein, presumably a stiffening of the protein upon calcium binding to the E-rich region of the PEVK segment and selected Ig domain segments. We suggest that the remaining unexplained 85% of this extra force results from titin binding to the thin filament. With this enhanced force confirmed in the mouse model, future studies will aim to elucidate the proposed titin-thin filament interaction in actively stretched sarcomeres. PMID:25147246

Powers, Krysta; Schappacher-Tilp, Gudrun; Jinha, Azim; Leonard, Tim; Nishikawa, Kiisa; Herzog, Walter

2014-10-15

368

Protein composition of endurance trained human skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests that myofibers from endurance trained skeletal muscle display unique contractile parameters. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To further elucidate the influence of endurance training on myofiber contractile function, we examined factors that may impact myofilament interactions (i.?e., water content, concentration of specific protein fractions, actin and myosin content) or directly modulate myosin heavy chain (MHC) function (i.?e., myosin light chain (MLC) composition) in muscle biopsy samples from highly-trained competitive (RUN) and recreational (REC) runners. Muscle water content was lower (P<0.05) in RUN (73±1%) compared to REC (75±1%) and total muscle and myofibrillar protein concentration was higher (P<0.05) in RUN, which may indicate differences in myofilament spacing. Content of the primary contractile proteins, myosin (0.99±0.08 and 1.01±0.07?AU) and actin (1.33±0.09 and 1.27±0.09?AU) in addition to the myosin to actin ratio (0.75±0.04 and 0.80±0.06?AU) was not different between REC and RUN, respectively, when expressed relative to the amount of myofibrillar protein. At the single-fiber level, slow-twitch MHC I myofibers from RUN contained less (P<0.05) MLC 1 and greater (P<0.05) amounts of MLC 3 than REC, while MLC composition was similar in fast-twitch MHC IIa myofibers between REC and RUN. These data suggest that the distinctive myofiber contractile profile in highly-trained runners may be partially explained by differences in the content of the primary contractile proteins and provides unique insight into the modulation of contractile function with extreme loading -patterns. PMID:24234010

Reidy, P T; Hinkley, J M; Trappe, T A; Trappe, S W; Harber, M P

2014-06-01

369

Effects of spaceflight on murine skeletal muscle gene expression  

PubMed Central

Spaceflight results in a number of adaptations to skeletal muscle, including atrophy and shifts toward faster muscle fiber types. To identify changes in gene expression that may underlie these adaptations, we used both microarray expression analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction to quantify shifts in mRNA levels in the gastrocnemius from mice flown on the 11-day, 19-h STS-108 shuttle flight and from normal gravity controls. Spaceflight data also were compared with the ground-based unloading model of hindlimb suspension, with one group of pure suspension and one of suspension followed by 3.5 h of reloading to mimic the time between landing and euthanization of the spaceflight mice. Analysis of microarray data revealed that 272 mRNAs were significantly altered by spaceflight, the majority of which displayed similar responses to hindlimb suspension, whereas reloading tended to counteract these responses. Several mRNAs altered by spaceflight were associated with muscle growth, including the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit p85?, insulin response substrate-1, the forkhead box O1 transcription factor, and MAFbx/atrogin1. Moreover, myostatin mRNA expression tended to increase, whereas mRNA levels of the myostatin inhibitor FSTL3 tended to decrease, in response to spaceflight. In addition, mRNA levels of the slow oxidative fiber-associated transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-associated receptor (PPAR)-? coactivator-1? and the transcription factor PPAR-? were significantly decreased in spaceflight gastrocnemius. Finally, spaceflight resulted in a significant decrease in levels of the microRNA miR-206. Together these data demonstrate that spaceflight induces significant changes in mRNA expression of genes associated with muscle growth and fiber type. PMID:19074574

Allen, David L.; Bandstra, Eri