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Sample records for skeletal myosin light

  1. Chromosomal distribution of genes coding for fast twitch skeletal muscle myosin light chains.

    PubMed

    Czosnek, H; Barker, P E; Ruddle, F H; Robert, B

    1985-11-01

    The mouse fast twitch skeletal muscle myosin light chains are encoded by a multigene family which comprises the gene coding for the myosin light chain 2 (Myl2f), and the gene coding for both myosin light chains 1 and 3 (Myl1f/Myl3f). In addition, a Myl1f/Myl3f-related pseudogene is present in the domestic mouse Mus musculus. The members of this gene family were assigned to chromosomes by molecular hybridization, using DNA extracted from a panel of cloned mouse-Chinese hamster somatic hybrid cells and specific DNA probes. The genes coding for the light chains of the myosin molecule are dispersed on several chromosomes, while genes coding for the heavy chain of myosin are located on a single, different chromosome. PMID:3865381

  2. Fiber-type-specific expression of essential (alkali) myosin light chains in human skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Jostarndt, K; Puntschart, A; Hoppeler, H; Billeter, R

    1996-10-01

    We studied the expression patterns of the essential (alkali) myosin light-chain isoforms in adult human skeletal muscles, using in situ hybridization and single-fiber protein analysis. In analogy to other species, we found that the fiber type-specific expression of essential myosin light chains is regulated via the availability of the respective mRNAs in a given fiber. In contrast to other species, the slow isoform 1sa was only expressed in the most oxidative Type I fibers (Subtype IA) in addition to 1sb. These fibers also contained high levels of carbonic anhydrase III. Within the fibers, the essential myosin light-chain mRNAs were located preferentially in the perinuclear regions and to a lesser extent in the intermyofibrillar spaces, a distribution that excludes cotranslational assembly of these light chains into the myofibrils as the main mechanism. In comparing leg and shoulder muscles, we found less distinct fiber typing in the expression patterns of the essential myosin light chains in the leg muscles than in muscles from the shoulder region. PMID:8813079

  3. The genes coding for the muscle contractile proteins, myosin heavy chain, myosin light chain 2, and skeletal muscle actin are located on three different mouse chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Czosnek, H; Nudel, U; Shani, M; Barker, P E; Pravtcheva, D D; Ruddle, F H; Yaffe, D

    1982-01-01

    The chromosomal distribution of murine genes expressed during differentiation of skeletal muscle cells was determined by Southern blot analysis of DNA from mouse-Chinese hamster hybrid cell lines containing incomplete subsets of mouse chromosomes. All detectable myosin heavy chain genes are located on chromosome 11. The gene for the myosin light chain 2 is located on chromosome 7. The skeletal muscle alpha-actin gene and several other actin genes, or pseudogenes, are located on chromosome 3. Additional actin DNA sequences are distributed on other mouse chromosomes. PMID:6897916

  4. Altered kinetics of contraction in skeletal muscle fibers containing a mutant myosin regulatory light chain with reduced divalent cation binding.

    PubMed Central

    Diffee, G M; Patel, J R; Reinach, F C; Greaser, M L; Moss, R L

    1996-01-01

    We examined the kinetic properties of rabbit skinned skeletal muscle fibers in which the endogenous myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) was partially replaced with a mutant RLC (D47A) containing a point mutation within the Ca2+/Mg2+ binding site that severely reduced its affinity for divalent cations. We found that when approximately 50% of the endogenous RLC was replaced by the mutant, maximum tension declined to approximately 60% of control and the rate constant of active tension redevelopment (ktr) after mechanical disruption of cross-bridges was reduced to approximately 70% of control. This reduction in ktr was not an indirect effect on kinetics due to a reduced number of strongly bound myosin heads, because when the strongly binding cross-bridge analog N-ethylmaleimide-modified myosin subfragment1 (NEM-S1) was added to the fibers, there was no effect upon maximum ktr. Fiber stiffness declined after D47A exchange in a manner indicative of a decrease in the number of strongly bound cross-bridges, suggesting that the force per cross-bridge was not significantly affected by the presence of D47A RLC. In contrast to the effects on ktr, the rate of tension relaxation in steadily activated fibers after flash photolysis of the Ca2+ chelator diazo-2 increased by nearly twofold after D47A exchange. We conclude that the incorporation of the nondivalent cation-binding mutant of myosin RLC decreases the proportion of cycling cross-bridges in a force-generating state by decreasing the rate of formation of force-generating bridges and increasing the rate of detachment. These results suggest that divalent cation binding to myosin RLC plays an important role in modulating the kinetics of cross-bridge attachment and detachment. Images FIGURE 2 PMID:8804617

  5. Phosphorylation of human skeletal muscle myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, M.E.; Lingley, M.D.; Stuart, D.S.; Hoffman-Goetz, L.

    1986-03-01

    Phosphorylation of the P-light chains (phosphorylatable light chains) in human skeletal muscle myosin was studied in vitro and in vivo under resting an d contracted conditions. biopsy samples from rested vastus lateralis muscle of male and female subjects were incubated in oxygenated physiological solution at 30/sup 0/C. Samples frozen following a quiescent period showed the presence of only unphosphorylated P-light chains designated LC2f (light chain two of fast myosin) CL2s and LC2s'(light chains two of slow myosin). Treatment with caffeine (10 mM) or direct electrical stimulation resulted in the appearance of three additional bands which were identified as the phosphorylated forms of the P-light chains i.e. LC2f-P, LC2s-P and LC2s'-P. The presence of phosphate was confirmed by prior incubation with (/sup 30/P) orthophosphate. Muscle samples rapidly frozen from resting vastus lateralis muscle revealed the presence of unphosphorylated and phosphorylated P-light chains in approximately equal ratios. Muscle samples rapidly frozen following a maximal 10 second isometric contraction showed virtually only phosphorylated fast and slow P-light chains. These results reveal that the P-light chains in human fast and slow myosin may be rapidly phosphorylated, but the basal level of phosphorylation in rested human muscle considerably exceeds that observed in animal muscles studied in vitro or in situ.

  6. The force dependence of isometric and concentric potentiation in mouse muscle with and without skeletal myosin light chain kinase.

    PubMed

    Gittings, William; Aggarwal, Harish; Stull, James T; Vandenboom, Rene

    2015-01-01

    The isometric potentiation associated with myosin phosphorylation is force dependent. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of a pre-existing period of isometric force on the concentric force potentiation displayed by mouse muscles with and without the ability to phosphorylate myosin. We tested isometric (ISO) and concentric (CON) potentiation, as well as concentric potentiation after isometric force (ISO-CON), in muscles from wild-type (WT) and skeletal myosin light chain kinase-deficient (skMLCK(-/-)) mice. A conditioning stimulus increased (i.e., potentiated) mean concentric force in the ISO-CON and CON conditions to 1.31 0.02 and 1.35 0.02 (WT) and to 1.19 0.02 and 1.21 0.01 (skMLCK(-/-)) of prestimulus levels, respectively (data n = 6-8, p < 0.05). No potentiation of mean isometric force was observed in either genotype. The potentiation of mean concentric force was inversely related to relative tetanic force level (P/Po) in both genotypes. Moreover, concentric potentiation varied greatly within each contraction type and was negatively correlated with unpotentiated force in both genotypes. Thus, although no effect of pre-existing force was observed, strong and inverse relationships between concentric force potentiation and unpotentiated concentric force may suggest an influence of attached and force-generating crossbridges on potentiation magnitude in both WT and skMLCK(-/-) muscles. PMID:25412230

  7. Comparison of orientation and rotational motion of skeletal muscle cross-bridges containing phosphorylated and dephosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain.

    PubMed

    Midde, Krishna; Rich, Ryan; Marandos, Peter; Fudala, Rafal; Li, Amy; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Borejdo, Julian

    2013-03-01

    Calcium binding to thin filaments is a major element controlling active force generation in striated muscles. Recent evidence suggests that processes other than Ca(2+) binding, such as phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) also controls contraction of vertebrate striated muscle (Cooke, R. (2011) Biophys. Rev. 3, 33-45). Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies using nucleotide analog spin label probes showed that dephosphorylated myosin heads are highly ordered in the relaxed fibers and have very low ATPase activity. This ordered structure of myosin cross-bridges disappears with the phosphorylation of RLC (Stewart, M. (2010) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 430-435). The slower ATPase activity in the dephosporylated moiety has been defined as a new super-relaxed state (SRX). It can be observed in both skeletal and cardiac muscle fibers (Hooijman, P., Stewart, M. A., and Cooke, R. (2011) Biophys. J. 100, 1969-1976). Given the importance of the finding that suggests a novel pathway of regulation of skeletal muscle, we aim to examine the effects of phosphorylation on cross-bridge orientation and rotational motion. We find that: (i) relaxed cross-bridges, but not active ones, are statistically better ordered in muscle where the RLC is dephosporylated compared with phosphorylated RLC; (ii) relaxed phosphorylated and dephosphorylated cross-bridges rotate equally slowly; and (iii) active phosphorylated cross-bridges rotate considerably faster than dephosphorylated ones during isometric contraction but the duty cycle remained the same, suggesting that both phosphorylated and dephosphorylated muscles develop the same isometric tension at full Ca(2+) saturation. A simple theory was developed to account for this fact. PMID:23319584

  8. Pre-steady-state kinetics of the activation of rabbit skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase by Ca2+/calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Bowman, B F; Peterson, J A; Stull, J T

    1992-03-15

    Myosin light chain kinase is activated by Ca2+/calmodulin. Insights into the kinetic mechanism of this activation by Ca2+/calmodulin have now been obtained using extrinsically labeled fluorescent calmodulin, a fluorescent peptide substrate, and a stopped-flow spectrophotofluorimeter. We employed spinach calmodulin labeled with the sulfhydryl-selective probe, 2-(4-maleimidoanilino)naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid, to measure changes in the fluorescence intensity of the 2-(4-maleimidoanilino)naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid-calmodulin upon binding to rabbit skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase. The fluorescent peptide substrate KKRAARAC(sulfobenzo-furazan)SNVFS-amide was used to measure kinase activity. Our results showed that the binding interaction could be modeled as a two-step process: a bimolecular reaction with an association rate of 4.6 x 10(7) M-1 s-1 followed by an isomerization with a rate of 2.2 s-1. Phosphorylation of the peptide during stopped-flow experiments could be modeled by a two-step process with a catalytic association rate of 6.5 x 10(6) M-1 s-1 and a turnover rate of 10-20 s-1. Our results also indicated that kinase activity occurred too rapidly for the slower isomerization rate of 2.2 s-1 to be linked specifically to the activation process. PMID:1544916

  9. cDNA recombinant plasmid complementary to mRNAs for light chains 1 and 3 of mouse skeletal muscle myosin.

    PubMed Central

    Robert, B; Weydert, A; Caravatti, M; Minty, A; Cohen, A; Daubas, P; Gros, F; Buckingham, M

    1982-01-01

    A recombinant plasmid with a cDNA sequence transcribed from mouse skeletal muscle RNA is shown to hybridize with mRNAs for myosin light chains LC1F and LC3F. The inserted fragment corresponds exclusively to the 3'-noncoding region of the mRNA. It hybridizes almost exclusively with the two light chain messengers from fast skeletal muscle RNA of adult mouse. Slight hybridization is seen with RNA from heart muscle and embryonic skeletal muscle. The implications of the conservation of the 3'-noncoding regions between the two mRNAs are discussed. Images PMID:6283523

  10. Differences in the transient response of fast and slow skeletal muscle fibers. Correlations between complex modulus and myosin light chains.

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, M; Schachat, F H

    1984-01-01

    Sinusoidal analysis of the mechanochemical properties of skinned muscle fibers under conditions of maximal activation was applied to fibers from several rabbit skeletal muscles (psoas, tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, diaphragm, soleus, semitendinosus). This investigation distinguished between two general classes of fibers, which on the basis of their myosin light chain complements could be classified as fast and slow. In fast fibers (e.g., psoas) we identified the presence of at least three exponential processes (A), (B), (C) of comparable magnitudes. In slow fibers (e.g., soleus) we identified the presence of at least four exponential processes (A)-(D) of very different magnitudes; magnitudes of processes (A) and (B) are very small compared with those of (C) and (D). The apparent rate constants are 8-29-fold slower in slow fibers. Because our sinusoidal characterization takes less than or equal to 22 s and does not involve chemical denaturation or other means of disruption of the myofilament lattice, it allows the different physiological classes of fibers to be characterized and then studied further by other techniques. The perfect correlation between physiological and molecular properties as assayed by gel electrophoresis after sinusoidal analysis demonstrates this and justifies its use in distinguishing between fiber types. Images FIGURE 3 PMID:6743745

  11. Myosin, Transgelin, and Myosin Light Chain Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Lguillette, Renaud; Laviolette, Michel; Bergeron, Celine; Zitouni, Nedjma; Kogut, Paul; Solway, Julian; Kachmar, Linda; Hamid, Qutayba; Lauzon, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Airway smooth muscle (SM) of patients with asthma exhibits a greater velocity of shortening (Vmax) than that of normal subjects, and this is thought to contribute to airway hyperresponsiveness. A greater Vmax can result from increased myosin activation. This has been reported in sensitized human airway SM and in models of asthma. A faster Vmax can also result from the expression of specific contractile proteins that promote faster cross-bridge cycling. This possibility has never been addressed in asthma. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that the expression of genes coding for SM contractile proteins is altered in asthmatic airways and contributes to their increased Vmax. Methods: We quantified the expression of several genes that code for SM contractile proteins in mild allergic asthmatic and control human airway endobronchial biopsies. The function of these contractile proteins was tested using the in vitro motility assay. Measurements and Main Results: We observed an increased expression of the fast myosin heavy chain isoform, transgelin, and myosin light chain kinase in patients with asthma. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the expression of these genes at the protein level. To address the functional significance of this overexpression, we purified tracheal myosin from the hyperresponsive Fisher rats, which also overexpress the fast myosin heavy chain isoform as compared with the normoresponsive Lewis rats, and found a faster rate of actin filament propulsion. Conversely, transgelin did not alter the rate of actin filament propulsion. Conclusions: Selective overexpression of airway smooth muscle genes in asthmatic airways leads to increased Vmax, thus contributing to the airway hyperresponsiveness observed in asthma. PMID:19011151

  12. Dynamics of myosin replacement in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Koichi; Ichimura, Emi; Yasukawa, Yuya; Wakamatsu, Jun-Ichi; Nishimura, Takanori

    2015-11-15

    Highly organized thick filaments in skeletal muscle cells are formed from ?300 myosin molecules. Each thick-filament-associated myosin molecule is thought to be constantly exchanged. However, the mechanism of myosin replacement remains unclear, as does the source of myosin for substitution. Here, we investigated the dynamics of myosin exchange in the myofibrils of cultured myotubes by fluorescent recovery after photobleaching and found that myofibrillar myosin is actively replaced with an exchange half-life of ?3 h. Myosin replacement was not disrupted by the absence of the microtubule system or by actomyosin interactions, suggesting that known cytoskeletal systems are dispensable for myosin substitution. Intriguingly, myosin replacement was independent of myosin binding protein C, which links myosin molecules together to form thick filaments. This implies that an individual myosin molecule rather than a thick filament functions as an exchange unit. Furthermore, the myosin substitution rate was decreased by the inhibition of protein synthesis, suggesting that newly synthesized myosin, as well as preexisting cytosolic myosin, contributes to myosin replacement in myofibrils. Notably, incorporation and release of myosin occurred simultaneously in myofibrils, but rapid myosin release from myofibrils was observed without protein synthesis. Collectively, our results indicate that myosin shuttles between myofibrils and the nonmyofibrillar cytosol to maintain a dynamic equilibrium in skeletal muscle cells. PMID:26377314

  13. The Conformation of Myosin Heads in Relaxed Skeletal Muscle: Implications for Myosin-Based Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Fusi, Luca; Huang, Zhe; Irving, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    In isolated thick filaments from many types of muscle, the two head domains of each myosin molecule are folded back against the filament backbone in a conformation called the interacting heads motif (IHM) in which actin interaction is inhibited. This conformation is present in resting skeletal muscle, but it is not known how exit from the IHM state is achieved during muscle activation. Here, we investigated this by measuring the in situ conformation of the light chain domain of the myosin heads in relaxed demembranated fibers from rabbit psoas muscle using fluorescence polarization from bifunctional rhodamine probes at four sites on the C-terminal lobe of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). The order parameter 〈P2〉 describing probe orientation with respect to the filament axis had a roughly sigmoidal dependence on temperature in relaxing conditions, with a half-maximal change at ∼19°C. Either lattice compression by 5% dextran T500 or addition of 25 μM blebbistatin decreased the transition temperature to ∼14°C. Maximum entropy analysis revealed three preferred orientations of the myosin RLC region at 25°C and above, two with its long axis roughly parallel to the filament axis and one roughly perpendicular. The parallel orientations are similar to those of the so-called blocked and free heads in the IHM and are stabilized by either lattice compression or blebbistatin. In relaxed skeletal muscle at near-physiological temperature and myofilament lattice spacing, the majority of the myosin heads have their light chain domains in IHM-like conformations, with a minority in a distinct conformation with their RLC regions roughly perpendicular to the filament axis. None of these three orientation populations were present during active contraction. These results are consistent with a regulatory transition of the thick filament in skeletal muscle associated with a conformational equilibrium of the myosin heads. PMID:26287630

  14. The myosin light chain enhancer and the skeletal actin promoter share a binding site for factors involved in muscle-specific gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, H; Walsh, K; Harrison, C A; Rosenthal, N

    1991-01-01

    The myosin light chain (MLC) 1/3 enhancer (MLC enhancer), identified at the 3' end of the skeletal MLC1/3 locus, contains a sequence motif that is homologous to a protein-binding site of the skeletal muscle alpha-actin promoter. Gel shift, competition, and footprint assays demonstrated that a CArG motif in the MLC enhancer binds the proteins MAPF1 and MAPF2, previously identified as factors interacting with the muscle regulatory element of the skeletal alpha-actin promoter. Transient transfection assays with constructs containing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene demonstrated that a 115-bp subfragment of the MLC enhancer is able to exert promoter activity when provided with a silent nonmuscle TATA box. A point mutation at the MAPF1/2-binding site interferes with factor binding and abolishes the promoter activity of the 115-bp fragment. The observation that an oligonucleotide encompassing the MAPF1/2 site of the MLC enhancer alone cannot serve as a promoter element suggests that additional factor-binding sites are necessary for this function. The finding that MAPF1 and MAPF2 recognize similar sequence motifs in two muscle genes, simultaneously activated during muscle differentiation, implies that these factors may have a role in coordinating the activation of contractile protein gene expression during myogenesis. Images PMID:2046675

  15. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase efficiently phosphorylates serine 15 of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain

    SciTech Connect

    Josephson, Matthew P.; Sikkink, Laura A.; Penheiter, Alan R.; Burghardt, Thomas P.; Ajtai, Katalin

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (MYL2) is phosphorylated at S15. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) is a ubiquitous kinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is a widely believed that MYL2 is a poor substrate for smMLCK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In fact, smMLCK efficiently and rapidly phosphorylates S15 in MYL2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorylation kinetics measured by novel fluorescence method without radioactivity. -- Abstract: Specific phosphorylation of the human ventricular cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (MYL2) modifies the protein at S15. This modification affects MYL2 secondary structure and modulates the Ca{sup 2+} sensitivity of contraction in cardiac tissue. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) is a ubiquitous kinase prevalent in uterus and present in other contracting tissues including cardiac muscle. The recombinant 130 kDa (short) smMLCK phosphorylated S15 in MYL2 in vitro. Specific modification of S15 was verified using the direct detection of the phospho group on S15 with mass spectrometry. SmMLCK also specifically phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain S15 in porcine ventricular myosin and chicken gizzard smooth muscle myosin (S20 in smooth muscle) but failed to phosphorylate the myosin regulatory light chain in rabbit skeletal myosin. Phosphorylation kinetics, measured using a novel fluorescence method eliminating the use of radioactive isotopes, indicates similar Michaelis-Menten V{sub max} and K{sub M} for regulatory light chain S15 phosphorylation rates in MYL2, porcine ventricular myosin, and chicken gizzard myosin. These data demonstrate that smMLCK is a specific and efficient kinase for the in vitro phosphorylation of MYL2, cardiac, and smooth muscle myosin. Whether smMLCK plays a role in cardiac muscle regulation or response to a disease causing stimulus is unclear but it should be considered a potentially significant kinase in cardiac tissue on the basis of its specificity, kinetics, and tissue expression.

  16. Skeletal muscle myosin is the autoantigen for experimental autoimmune myositis.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Hiroshi; Bhopale, Mahendra K; Constantinescu, Cris S; Schotland, Donald; Rostami, Abdolmohamad

    2003-06-01

    Experimental autoimmune myositis (EAM) is a rodent model for human inflammatory muscle disease (IMD). It can be induced by immunization of rodents with skeletal muscle homogenate and adjuvant. The specific myositogenic autoantigen has not been clearly identified although some evidence points to skeletal muscle myosin. In this report we strengthen this evidence, showing that Lewis rats immunized with purified skeletal muscle myosin develop EAM with the same pattern and severity as EAM induced by whole rabbit skeletal muscle homogenate (WRM). Multiple inflammatory lesions are detected histopathologically in the biceps, quadriceps, and gastrocnemius muscles. Myosin-reactive T cells from animals immunized either with myosin or with WRM have similar patterns of antigen-induced proliferation. The results show that myosin, a component of skeletal muscle, is at least one autoantigen in EAM. PMID:12782010

  17. The expression of myosin genes in developing skeletal muscle in the mouse embryo

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, G.E.; Ontell, M.; Cox, R.; Sassoon, D.; Buckingham, M. )

    1990-10-01

    Using in situ hybridization, we have investigated the temporal sequence of myosin gene expression in the developing skeletal muscle masses of mouse embryos. The probes used were isoform-specific, 35S-labeled antisense cRNAs to the known sarcomeric myosin heavy chain and myosin alkali light chain gene transcripts. Results showed that both cardiac and skeletal myosin heavy chain and myosin light chain mRNAs were first detected between 9 and 10 d post coitum (p.c.) in the myotomes of the most rostral somites. Myosin transcripts appeared in more caudal somites at later stages in a developmental gradient. The earliest myosin heavy chain transcripts detected code for the embryonic skeletal (MHCemb) and beta-cardiac (MHC beta) isoforms. Perinatal myosin heavy chain (MHCpn) transcripts begin to accumulate at 10.5 d p.c., which is much earlier than previously reported. At this stage, MHCemb is the major MHC transcript. By 12.5 d p.c., MHCpn and MHCemb mRNAs are present to an equal extent, and by 15.5 d p.c. the MHCpn transcript is the major MHC mRNA detected. Cardiac MHC beta transcripts are always present as a minor component. In contrast, the cardiac MLC1A mRNA is initially more abundant than that encoding the skeletal MLC1F isoform. By 12.5 d p.c. the two MLC mRNAs are present at similar levels, and by 15.5 d p.c., MLC1F is the predominant MLC transcript detected. Transcripts for the ventricular/slow (MLC1V) and another fast skeletal myosin light chain (MLC3F) are not detected in skeletal muscle before 15 d p.c., which marks the beginning of the fetal stage of muscle development. This is the first stage at which we can detect differences in expression of myosin genes between developing muscle fibers. We conclude that, during the development of the myotome and body wall muscles, different myosin genes follow independent patterns of activation and acculumation.

  18. The role of the myosin ATPase activity in adaptive thermogenesis by skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Roger

    2011-03-01

    Resting skeletal muscle is a major contributor to adaptive thermogenesis, i.e., the thermogenesis that changes in response to exposure to cold or to overfeeding. The identification of the "furnace" that is responsible for increased heat generation in resting muscle has been the subject of a number of investigations. A new state of myosin, the super relaxed state (SRX), with a very slow ATP turnover rate has recently been observed in skeletal muscle (Stewart et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:430-435, 2010). Inhibition of the myosin ATPase activity in the SRX was suggested to be caused by binding of the myosin head to the core of the thick filament in a structural motif identified earlier by electron microscopy. To be compatible with the basal metabolic rate observed in vivo for resting muscle, most myosin heads would have to be in the SRX. Modulation of the population of this state, relative to the normal relaxed state, was proposed to be a major contributor to adaptive thermogenesis in resting muscle. Transfer of only 20% of myosin heads from the SRX into the normal relaxed state would cause muscle thermogenesis to double. Phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain was shown to transfer myosin heads from the SRX into the relaxed state, which would increase thermogenesis. In particular, thermogenesis by myosin has been proposed to play a role in the dissipation of calories during overfeeding. Up-regulation of muscle thermogenesis by pharmaceuticals that target the SRX would provide new approaches to the treatment of obesity or high blood sugar levels. PMID:21516138

  19. Distribution and properties of myosin isozymes in developing avian and mammalian skeletal muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, G F; Lowey, S; Benfield, P A; Hobbs, A W

    1982-02-01

    Isozymes of myosin have been localized with respect to individual fibers in differentiating skeletal muscles of the rat and chicken using immunocytochemistry. The myosin light chain pattern has been analyzed in the same muscles by two-dimensional PAGE. In the muscles of both species, the response to antibodies against fast and slow adult myosin is consistent with the speed of contraction of the muscle. During early development, when speed of contraction is slow in future fast and slow muscles, all the fibers react strongly with anti-slow as well as with anti-fast myosin. As adult contractile properties are acquired, the fibers react with antibodies specific for either fast or slow myosin, but few fibers react with both antibodies. The myosin light chain pattern slow shows a change with development: the initial light chains (LC) are principally of the fast type, LC1(f), and LC2(f), independent of whether the embryonic muscle is destined to become a fast or a slow muscle in the adult. The LC3(f), light chain does not appear in significant amounts until after birth, in agreement with earlier reports. The predominance of fast light chains during early stages of development is especially evident in the rat soleus and chicken ALD, both slow muscles, in which LC1(f), is gradually replaced by the slow light chain, LC1(s), as development proceeds. Other features of the light chain pattern include an "embryonic" light chain in fetal and neonatal muscles of the rat, as originally demonstrated by R.G. Whalen, G.S. Butler- Browne, and F. Gros. (1978. J. Mol. Biol. 126:415-431.); and the presence of approximately 10 percent slow light chains in embryonic pectoralis, a fast white muscle in the adult chicken. The response of differentiating muscle fibers to anti-slow myosin antibody cannot, however, be ascribed solely to the presence of slow light chains, since antibody specific for the slow heavy chain continues to react with all the fibers. We conclude that during early development, the myosin consists of a population of molecules in which the heavy chain can be associated with a fast, slow, or embryonic light chain. Biochemical analysis has shown that this embryonic heavy chain (or chains) is distinct from adult fast or slow myosin (R.G. Whalen, K. Schwartz, P. Bouveret, S.M. Sell, and F. Gros. 1979. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76:5197-5201. J.I. Rushbrook, and A. Stracher. 1979. Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76:4331-4334. P.A. Benfield, S. Lowey, and D.D. LeBlanc. 1981. Biophys. J. 33(2, Pt. 2):243a[Abstr.]). Embryonic myosin, therefore, constitutes a unique class of molecules, whose synthesis ceases before the muscle differentiates into an adult pattern of fiber types. PMID:6174531

  20. Myosin rods are a source of second harmonic generation signals in skeletal muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrmann, Sebastian; Weber, Cornelia; Fink, Rainer H. A.; Vogel, Martin

    2007-02-01

    Intrinsic second harmonic generation (SHG) signals can be used to visualize the three-dimensional structure of cardiac and skeletal muscle with high spatial resolution. Fluorescence labeling of complementary sarcomeric proteins, e.g. actin, indicates that the observed SHG signals arise from the myosin filaments. Recently, the myosin rod domain or LMM - light meromyosin - has been reported to be the dominant source of this SHG signal. However, to date, mostly negative and indirect evidence has been presented to support this assumption. Here, we show, to our knowledge, the first direct evidences that strong SHG signals can be obtained from synthetic paracrystals. These rod shaped filaments are formed from purified LMM. SDS-PAGE protein analysis confirmed that the LMM crystals lack myosin head domains. Some regions of the LMM paracrystals produce a strong SHG signal whereas others did not. The SHG signals were recorded with a laser-scanning microscope (Leica SP2). A ps laser tuned to 880 nm was used to excite the sample through an 63x objective of 1.2 NA. In order to visualize the synthetic filaments - in addition to SHG imaging -, the LMM was labeled with the fluorescent marker 5-IAF. We were able to observe filaments of 1 to 50 ?m in length and of up to 5 ?m in diameter. In conclusion, we can show that the myosin rod domain (LMM) is a dominant source for intrinsic SHG signals. There seems, however, a signal dependence on the paracrystals' morphology. This dependence is being investigated.

  1. Evolution of myosin filament arrangements in vertebrate skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Luther, P K; Squire, J M; Forey, P L

    1996-09-01

    A survey of skeletal muscles throughout craniates shows basic kinds of myosin filament arrangement, simple-lattice and superlattice, within the A-band of each sarcomere. Distribution of simple- and superlattice arrangements across a phylogeny of craniates suggests that the superlattice arrangement is primitive and that Amia and teleosts are derived in showing simple-lattice arrangements. Two taxa examined (Scyliorhinus and Acipenser) show both lattice types within the same organism implying that there is not a simple evolutionary transformation of one to the other fiber arrangement. We discuss the possible functional significance of the different lattice types. We believe that the crossbridges may have greater competition for actin binding sites in simple-lattice muscles compared to the superlattice types. PMID:8765810

  2. A monoclonal antibody to the embryonic myosin heavy chain of rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Gambke, B; Rubinstein, N A

    1984-10-10

    A monoclonal antibody, 2B6, has been prepared against the embryonic myosin heavy chain of rat skeletal muscle. On solid phase radioimmunoassay, 2B6 shows specificity to myosin isozymes known to contain the embryonic myosin heavy chain and on immunoblots of denatured contractile proteins and on competitive radioimmunoassay, it reacts only with the myosin heavy chain of embryonic myosin and not with the myosin heavy chain of neonatal or adult fast and slow myosin isozymes or with other contractile or noncontractile proteins. This specificity is maintained with cat, dog, guinea pig, and human myosins, but not with chicken myosins. 2B6 was used to define which isozymes in the developing animal contained the embryonic myosin heavy chain and to characterize the changes in embryonic myosin heavy chain in fast versus slow muscles during development. Finally, 2B6 was used to demonstrate that thyroid hormone hastens the disappearance of embryonic myosin heavy chain during development, while hypothyroidism retards its decrease. This confirmed our previous conclusion that thyroid hormones orchestrate changes in isozymes during development. PMID:6384219

  3. Genes for skeletal muscle myosin heavy chains are clustered and are not located on the same mouse chromosome as a cardiac myosin heavy chain gene.

    PubMed Central

    Weydert, A; Daubas, P; Lazaridis, I; Barton, P; Garner, I; Leader, D P; Bonhomme, F; Catalan, J; Simon, D; Gunet, J L

    1985-01-01

    Myosin heavy chain (MHC) genes are expressed as several distinct isoforms in a tissue- and stage-specific manner; three skeletal muscle MHC isoforms appear sequentially during development. We have isolated cDNA clones, identified by RNA blot hybridization and by nucleotide sequence determination as coding for portions of the embryonic (pMHC2.2), perinatal (pMHC16.2A), and alpha(V1) cardiac (pMHC141 and pMHC101) MHC isoforms. These four probes and the adult skeletal MHC probe (pMHC32) have been used on Southern blots of genomic DNA to detect restriction fragment length polymorphisms defining the alleles for these genes in mouse species Mus musculus and Mus spretus. In this way, we followed the segregation of skeletal and cardiac MHC genes in 42 offspring resulting from an interspecies backcross. We found that the embryonic, perinatal, and adult skeletal MHC genes are clustered on chromosome 11 near the locus nude, the skeletal and cardiac MHC genes do not cosegregate, and the alpha(V1) cardiac MHC gene is located on chromosome 14 close to Np-1. This result is in contrast to that for other contractile protein genes such as the alkali myosin light chain and the actin multigene families, which are dispersed in the genome. Images PMID:3864153

  4. Characterization of myosin light-chain kinase from bovine adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Serventi, I M; Coffee, C J

    1986-03-01

    Partially purified bovine adrenal medullary myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) possesses a Stoke's radius of 79 A and a sedimentation coefficient of 3.95 +/- 0.45 S, yielding a native molecular weight of 150,000 +/- 17,000 g/mol and a frictional ratio of 2.24. It catalyzes the phosphorylation of the isolated light chain of skeletal muscle myosin and the light chain of intact adrenal medullary myosin, but not phosphorylase b or histone. The activation of MLCK by calmodulin is specific and dose dependent, yielding a K0.5 value of 9.0 nM; the dose response curve with respect to free Ca2+ is biphasic, exhibiting a stimulatory phase at low free Ca2+ concentrations (K0.5 = 0.17 microM) and an inhibitory phase at higher free Ca2+ concentrations (400-3000 microM). Michaelis-Menten kinetics are observed for ATP, yielding a Km for ATP of 25 microM and a Vmax of 23.2 nmol/min/mg. However, positive cooperative kinetics are observed for the skeletal muscle myosin light chain, yielding a Hill coefficient of 3.57, a K0.5 for light chain of 27 microM and a Vmax of 16.6 nmol/min/mg. A stoichiometry of phosphorylation of approximately 1 mol of phosphate/mol of skeletal muscle myosin light chain was observed. Therefore, adrenal medullary MLCK is similar in most, but not all, of its physical and kinetics properties to MLCKs isolated from other sources and may serve to regulate actin-myosin contractile activity in the adrenal medulla. PMID:3754106

  5. A comparison of rat myosin from fast and slow skeletal muscle and the effect of disuse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unsworth, B. R.; Witzmann, F. A.; Fitts, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    Certain enzymatic and structural features of myosin, purified from rat skeletal muscles representative of the fast twitch glycolytic (type IIb), the fast twitch oxidative (type IIa), and the slow twitch oxidative (type I) fiber, were determined and the results were compared with the measured contractile properties. Good correlation was found between the shortening velocities and Ca(2+)-activated ATPase activity for each fiber type. Short term hind limb immobilization caused prolongation of contraction time and one-half relaxation time in the fast twitch muscles and a reduction of these contractile properties in slow twitch soleus. Furthermore, the increased maximum shortening velocity in the immobilized soleus could be correlated with increased Ca(2+)-ATPase, but no change was observed in the enzymatic activity of the fast twitch muscles. No alteration in light chain distribution with disuse was observed in any of the fiber types. The myosin from slow twitch soleus could be distinguished from fast twitch myosins on the basis of the pattern of peptides generated by proteolysis of the heavy chains. Six weeks of hind limb immobilization resulted in both an increased ATPase activity and an altered heavy chain primary structure in the slow twitch soleus muscle.

  6. Structural characterization of the interactions between calmodulin and skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase: Effect of peptide (576-594)G binding on the Ca sup 2+ -binding domains

    SciTech Connect

    Seeholzer, S.H.; Wand, A.J. )

    1989-05-02

    Calcium-containing calmodulin (CaM) and its complex with a peptide corresponding to the calmodulin-binding domain of skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase (skMLCK(576-594)G) have been studied by one- and two-dimensional {sup 1}H NMR techniques. Resonances arising from the antiparallel {beta}-sheet structures associated with the calcium-binding domains of CaM and their counterparts in the CaM-skMLCK(576-594)G complex have been assigned. The assignments were initiated by application of the main chain directed assignment strategy. It is found that, despite significant changes in chemical shifts of resonances arising from amino acid residues in this region upon binding of the peptide, the {beta}-sheets have virtually the same structure in the complex as in CaM. Hydrogen exchange rates of amide NH within the {beta}-sheet structures are significantly slowed upon binding of peptide. These data, in conjunction with the observed nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) patterns and relative intensities and the downfield shifts of associated amide and {alpha} resonances upon binding of peptide, show that the peptide stabilizes the Ca{sup 2+}-bound state of calmodulin. The observed pattern of NOEs within the {beta}-sheets and their structural similarity correspond closely to those predicted by the crystal structure. These findings imply that the apparent inconsistency of the crystal structure with recently reported low-angle X-ray scattering profiles of CaM may lie within the putative central helix bridging the globular domains.

  7. The myosin inhibitor blebbistatin stabilizes the super-relaxed state in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Clyde; Naber, Nariman; Pate, Edward; Cooke, Roger

    2014-10-01

    The super-relaxed state of myosin (SRX), in which the myosin ATPase activity is strongly inhibited, has been observed in a variety of muscle types. It has been proposed that myosin heads in this state are inhibited by binding to the core of the thick filament in a structure known as the interacting-heads motif. The myosin inhibitor blebbistatin has been shown in structural studies to stabilize the binding of myosin heads to the thick filament, and here we have utilized measurements of single ATP turnovers to show that blebbistatin also stabilizes the SRX in both fast and slow skeletal muscle, providing further support for the proposal that myosin heads in the SRX are also in the interacting-heads motif. We find that the SRX is stabilized using blebbistatin even in conditions that normally destabilize it, e.g., rigor ADP. Using blebbistatin we show that spin-labeled nucleotides bound to myosin have an oriented spectrum in the SRX in both slow and fast skeletal muscle. This is to our knowledge the first observation of oriented spin probes on the myosin motor domain in relaxed skeletal muscle fibers. The spectra for skeletal muscle with blebbistatin are similar to those observed in relaxed tarantula fibers in the absence of blebbistatin, demonstrating that the structure of the SRX is similar in different muscle types and in the presence and absence of blebbistatin. The mobility of spin probes attached to nucleotides bound to myosin shows that the conformation of the nucleotide site is closed in the SRX. PMID:25296316

  8. The Myosin Inhibitor Blebbistatin Stabilizes the Super-Relaxed State in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Clyde; Naber, Nariman; Pate, Edward; Cooke, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The super-relaxed state of myosin (SRX), in which the myosin ATPase activity is strongly inhibited, has been observed in a variety of muscle types. It has been proposed that myosin heads in this state are inhibited by binding to the core of the thick filament in a structure known as the interacting-heads motif. The myosin inhibitor blebbistatin has been shown in structural studies to stabilize the binding of myosin heads to the thick filament, and here we have utilized measurements of single ATP turnovers to show that blebbistatin also stabilizes the SRX in both fast and slow skeletal muscle, providing further support for the proposal that myosin heads in the SRX are also in the interacting-heads motif. We find that the SRX is stabilized using blebbistatin even in conditions that normally destabilize it, e.g., rigor ADP. Using blebbistatin we show that spin-labeled nucleotides bound to myosin have an oriented spectrum in the SRX in both slow and fast skeletal muscle. This is to our knowledge the first observation of oriented spin probes on the myosin motor domain in relaxed skeletal muscle fibers. The spectra for skeletal muscle with blebbistatin are similar to those observed in relaxed tarantula fibers in the absence of blebbistatin, demonstrating that the structure of the SRX is similar in different muscle types and in the presence and absence of blebbistatin. The mobility of spin probes attached to nucleotides bound to myosin shows that the conformation of the nucleotide site is closed in the SRX. PMID:25296316

  9. Myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation enhances cardiac ?-myosin in vitro motility under load.

    PubMed

    Karabina, Anastasia; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta; Moore, Jeffrey R

    2015-08-15

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and myofibrillar disarray, and often results in sudden cardiac death. Two HCM mutations, N47K and R58Q, are located in the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). The RLC mechanically stabilizes the myosin lever arm, which is crucial to myosin's ability to transmit contractile force. The N47K and R58Q mutations have previously been shown to reduce actin filament velocity under load, stemming from a more compliant lever arm (Greenberg, 2010). In contrast, RLC phosphorylation was shown to impart stiffness to the myosin lever arm (Greenberg, 2009). We hypothesized that phosphorylation of the mutant HCM-RLC may mitigate distinct mutation-induced structural and functional abnormalities. In vitro motility assays were utilized to investigate the effects of RLC phosphorylation on the HCM-RLC mutant phenotype in the presence of an ?-actinin frictional load. Porcine cardiac ?-myosin was depleted of its native RLC and reconstituted with mutant or wild-type human RLC in phosphorylated or non-phosphorylated form. Consistent with previous findings, in the presence of load, myosin bearing the HCM mutations reduced actin sliding velocity compared to WT resulting in 31-41% reductions in force production. Myosin containing phosphorylated RLC (WT or mutant) increased sliding velocity and also restored mutant myosin force production to near WT unphosphorylated values. These results point to RLC phosphorylation as a general mechanism to increase force production of the individual myosin motor and as a potential target to ameliorate the HCM-induced phenotype at the molecular level. PMID:26116789

  10. Increased expression of Myosin binding protein H in the skeletal muscle of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Conti, Antonio; Riva, Nilo; Pesca, Mariasabina; Iannaccone, Sandro; Cannistraci, Carlo V; Corbo, Massimo; Previtali, Stefano C; Quattrini, Angelo; Alessio, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe and fatal neurodegenerative disease of still unknown pathogenesis. Recent findings suggest that the skeletal muscle may play an active pathogenetic role. To investigate ALS's pathogenesis and to seek diagnostic markers, we analyzed skeletal muscle biopsies with the differential expression proteomic approach. We studied skeletal muscle biopsies from healthy controls (CN), sporadic ALS (sALS), motor neuropathies (MN) and myopathies (M). Pre-eminently among several differentially expressed proteins, Myosin binding protein H (MyBP-H) expression in ALS samples was anomalously high. MyBP-H is a component of the thick filaments of the skeletal muscle and has strong affinity for myosin, but its function is still unclear. High MyBP-H expression level was associated with abnormal expression of Rho kinase 2 (ROCK2), LIM domain kinase 1 (LIMK1) and cofilin2, that might affect the actin-myosin interaction. We propose that MyBP-H expression level serves, as a putative biomarker in the skeletal muscle, to discriminate ALS from motor neuropathies, and that it signals the onset of dysregulation in actin-myosin interaction; this in turn might contribute to the pathogenesis of ALS. PMID:24184715

  11. Functional diversity among a family of human skeletal muscle myosin motors

    PubMed Central

    Resnicow, Daniel I.; Deacon, John C.; Warrick, Hans M.; Spudich, James A.; Leinwand, Leslie A.

    2010-01-01

    Human skeletal muscle fibers express five highly conserved type-II myosin heavy chain (MyHC) genes in distinct spatial and temporal patterns. In addition, the human genome contains an intact sixth gene, MyHC-IIb, which is thought under most circumstances not to be expressed. The physiological and biochemical properties of individual muscle fibers correlate with the predominantly expressed MyHC isoform, but a functional analysis of homogenous skeletal muscle myosin isoforms has not been possible. This is due to the difficulties of separating the multiple isoforms usually coexpressed in muscle fibers, as well as the lack of an expression system that produces active recombinant type II skeletal muscle myosin. In this study we describe a mammalian muscle cell expression system and the functional analysis of all six recombinant human type II skeletal muscle myosin isoforms. The diverse biochemical activities and actin-filament velocities of these myosins indicate that they likely have distinct functions in muscle. Our data also show that ATPase activity and motility are generally correlated for human skeletal muscle myosins. The exception, MyHC-IIb, encodes a protein that is high in ATPase activity but slow in motility; this is the first functional analysis of the protein from this gene. In addition, the developmental isoforms, hypothesized to have low ATPase activity, were indistinguishable from adult-fast MyHC-IIa and the specialized MyHC-Extraocular isoform, that was predicted to be the fastest of all six isoforms but was functionally similar to the slower isoforms. PMID:20080549

  12. Effect of spaceflight on skeletal muscle: mechanical properties and myosin isoform content of a slow muscle.

    PubMed

    Caiozzo, V J; Baker, M J; Herrick, R E; Tao, M; Baldwin, K M

    1994-04-01

    This study examined changes in contractile, biochemical, and histochemical properties of slow antigravity skeletal muscle after a 6-day spaceflight mission. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: flight and ground-based control. Approximately 3 h after the landing, in situ contractile measurements were made on the soleus muscles of the flight animals. The control animals were studied 24 h later. The contractile measurements included force-velocity relationship, force-frequency relationship, and fatigability. Biochemical measurements focused on the myosin heavy chain (MHC) and myosin light chain profiles. Adenosine-triphosphatase histochemistry was performed to identify cross-sectional area of slow and fast muscle fibers and to determine the percent fiber type distribution. The force-velocity relationships of the flight muscles were altered such that maximal isometric tension (Po) was decreased by 24% and maximal shortening velocity was increased by 14% (P < 0.05). The force-frequency relationship of the flight muscles was shifted to the right of the control muscles. At the end of the 2-min fatigue test, the flight muscles generated only 34% of Po, whereas the control muscles generated 64% of Po. The flight muscles exhibited de novo expression of the type IIx MHC isoform as well as a slight decrease in the slow type I and fast type IIa MHC isoforms. Histochemical analyses of flight muscles demonstrated a small increase in the percentage of fast type II fibers and a greater atrophy of the slow type I fibers. The results demonstrate that contractile properties of slow antigravity skeletal muscle are sensitive to the microgravity environment and that changes begin to occur within the 1st wk. These changes were at least, in part, associated with changes in the amount and type of contractile protein expressed. PMID:8045858

  13. Effect of spaceflight on skeletal muscle: Mechanical properties and myosin isoform content of a slow muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caiozzo, Vincent J.; Baker, Michael J.; Herrick, Robert E.; Tao, Ming; Baldwin, Kenneth M.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined changes in contractile, biochemical, and histochemical properties of slow antigravity skeletal muscle after a 6-day spaceflight mission. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: flight and ground-based control. Approximately 3 h after the landing, in situ contractile measurements were made on the soleus muscles of the flight animals. The control animals were studied 24 h later. The contractile measurements included force-velocity relationship, force-frequency relationship, and fatigability. Biochemical measurements focused on the myosin heavy chain (MHC) and myosin light chain profiles. Adenosinetriphosphatase histochemistry was performed to identify cross-sectional area of slow and fast muscle fibers and to determine the percent fiber type distribution. The force-velocity relationships of the flight muscles were altered such that maximal isometric tension P(sub o) was decreased by 24% and maximal shortening velocity was increased by 14% (P less than 0.05). The force-frequency relationship of the flight muscles was shifted to the right of the control muscles. At the end of the 2-min fatigue test, the flight muscles generated only 34% of P(sub o), whereas the control muscles generated 64% of P(sub o). The flight muscles exhibited de novo expression of the type IIx MHC isoform as well as a slight decrease in the slow type I and fast type IIa MHC isoforms. Histochemical analyses of flight muscles demonstrated a small increase in the percentage of fast type II fibers and a greater atrophy of the slow type I fibers. The results demonstrate that contractile properties of slow antigravity skeletal muscle are sensitive to the microgravity environment and that changes begin to occur within the 1st wk. These changes were at least, in part, associated with changes in the amount and type of contractile protein expressed.

  14. Myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation enhances cardiac β-myosin in vitro motility under load

    PubMed Central

    Karabina, Anastasia; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta; Moore, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and myofibrillar disarray, and often results in sudden cardiac death. Two HCM mutations, N47K and R58Q, are located in the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). The RLC mechanically stabilizes the myosin lever arm, which is crucial to myosin’s ability to transmit contractile force. The N47K and R58Q mutations have previously been shown to reduce actin filament velocity under load, stemming from a more compliant lever arm (Greenberg, 2010). In contrast, RLC phosphorylation was shown to impart stiffness to the myosin lever arm (Greenberg, 2009). We hypothesized that phosphorylation of the mutant HCM-RLC may mitigate distinct mutation-induced structural and functional abnormalities. In vitro motility assays were utilized to investigate the effects of RLC phosphorylation on the HCM-RLC mutant phenotype in the presence of an α-actinin frictional load. Porcine cardiac β-myosin was depleted of its native RLC and reconstituted with mutant or wild-type human RLC in phosphorylated or non-phosphorylated form. Consistent with previous findings, in the presence of load, myosin bearing the HCM mutations reduced actin sliding velocity compared to WT resulting in 31–41% reductions in force production. Myosin containing phosphorylated RLC (WT or mutant) increased sliding velocity and also restored mutant myosin force production to near WT unphosphorylated values. These results point to RLC phosphorylation as a general mechanism to increase force production of the individual myosin motor and as a potential target to ameliorate the HCM-induced phenotype at the molecular level. PMID:26116789

  15. Conformation of the myosin motor during force generation in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Irving, M; Piazzesi, G; Lucii, L; Sun, Y B; Harford, J J; Dobbie, I M; Ferenczi, M A; Reconditi, M; Lombardi, V

    2000-06-01

    Myosin motors drive muscle contraction, cytokinesis and cell locomotion, and members of the myosin superfamily have been implicated in an increasingly diverse range of cell functions. Myosin can displace a bound actin filament several nanometers in a single interaction. Crystallographic studies suggest that this 'working stroke' involves bending of the myosin head between its light chain and catalytic domains. Here we used X-ray fiber diffraction to test the crystallographic model and measure the interdomain bending during force generation in an intact single muscle fiber. The observed bending has two components: an elastic distortion and an active rotation that generates force. The average bend of the force-generating myosin heads in a muscle fiber is intermediate between those in crystal structures with different bound nucleotides, and the C-terminus of the head is displaced by 7 nm along the actin filament axis compared with the in vitro conformation seen in the absence of nucleotide. PMID:10881196

  16. Preliminary research on myosin light chain kinase in rabbit liver

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Bin; Zhu, Hua-Qing; Luo, Zhao-Feng; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Yu-Zhen

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To study preliminarily the properties of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in rabbit liver. METHODS: The expression of MLCK was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); the MLCK was obtained from rabbit liver, and its activity was analyzed by ?-32 P incorporation technique to detect the phosphorylation of myosin light chain. RESULTS: MLCK was expressed in rabbit liver, and the activity of the enzyme was similar to rabbit smooth muscle MLCK, and calmodulin- dependent. When the concentration was 0.65 mg L, the activity was at the highest level. CONCLUSION: MLCK expressed in rabbit liver may catalyze the phosphorylation of myosin light chain, which may play important roles in the regulation of hepatic cell functions. PMID:11854919

  17. The role of the N-terminus of the myosin essential light chain in cardiac muscle contraction

    PubMed Central

    Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Xu, Yuanyuan; Jones, Michelle; Guzman, Georgianna; Hernandez, Olga M.; Kerrick, W. Glenn L.; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2011-01-01

    Summary To study the regulation of cardiac muscle contraction by the myosin essential light chain (ELC) and the physiological significance of its N-terminal extension, we generated transgenic (Tg) mice partially replacing the endogenous mouse ventricular ELC with either the human ventricular ELC wild type (Tg-WT) or its 43 amino acid N-terminal truncation mutant (Tg-?43) in the murine hearts. The mutant protein is similar in sequence to the short ELC variant present in skeletal muscle and the ELC protein distribution in Tg-?43 ventricles resembles that of fast skeletal muscle. Cardiac muscle preparations from Tg-?43 mice demonstrate reduced force per cross-sectional area of muscle, which is likely caused by a reduced number of force generating myosin cross-bridges and/or by decreased force per cross-bridge. As the mice grow older, the contractile force per cross-sectional area further decreases in Tg-?43 mice and the mutant hearts develop a phenotype of non-pathologic hypertrophy while still maintaining normal cardiac performance. The myocardium of older Tg-?43 mice also exhibits reduced myosin content. Our results suggest that the role of the N-terminal ELC extension is to maintain the integrity of myosin and to modulate force generation by decreasing myosin neck region compliance and promoting strong cross-bridge formation and/or by enhancing myosin attachment to actin. PMID:19361417

  18. Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) regulates cell migration in a myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Tao, Tao; Wen, Cheng; He, Wei-Qi; Qiao, Yan-Ning; Gao, Yun-Qian; Chen, Xin; Wang, Pei; Chen, Cai-Ping; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Hua-Qun; Ye, An-Pei; Peng, Ya-Jing; Zhu, Min-Sheng

    2014-10-10

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) has long been implicated in the myosin phosphorylation and force generation required for cell migration. Here, we surprisingly found that the deletion of MLCK resulted in fast cell migration, enhanced protrusion formation, and no alteration of myosin light chain phosphorylation. The mutant cells showed reduced membrane tether force and fewer membrane F-actin filaments. This phenotype was rescued by either kinase-dead MLCK or five-DFRXXL motif, a MLCK fragment with potent F-actin-binding activity. Pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that the absence of MLCK led to attenuated formation of transmembrane complexes, including myosin II, integrins and fibronectin. We suggest that MLCK is not required for myosin phosphorylation in a migrating cell. A critical role of MLCK in cell migration involves regulating the cell membrane tension and protrusion necessary for migration, thereby stabilizing the membrane skeleton through F-actin-binding activity. This finding sheds light on a novel regulatory mechanism of protrusion during cell migration. PMID:25122766

  19. Sarcomere-length dependence of myosin filament structure in skeletal muscle fibres of the frog.

    PubMed

    Reconditi, Massimo; Brunello, Elisabetta; Fusi, Luca; Linari, Marco; Martinez, Manuel Fernandez; Lombardi, Vincenzo; Irving, Malcolm; Piazzesi, Gabriella

    2014-03-01

    X-ray diffraction patterns were recorded at beamline ID02 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility from small bundles of skeletal muscle fibres from Rana esculenta at sarcomere lengths between 2.1 and 3.5 μm at 4°C. The intensities of the X-ray reflections from resting fibres associated with the quasi-helical order of the myosin heads and myosin binding protein C (MyBP-C) decreased in the sarcomere length range 2.6-3.0 μm but were constant outside it, suggesting that an OFF conformation of the thick filament is maintained by an interaction between MyBP-C and the thin filaments. During active isometric contraction the intensity of the M3 reflection from the regular repeat of the myosin heads along the filaments decreased in proportion to the overlap between thick and thin filaments, with no change in its interference fine structure. Thus, myosin heads in the regions of the thick filaments that do not overlap with thin filaments are highly disordered during isometric contraction, in contrast to their quasi-helical order at rest. Heads in the overlap region that belong to two-headed myosin molecules that are fully detached from actin are also highly disordered, in contrast to the detached partners of actin-attached heads. These results provide strong support for the concept of a regulatory structural transition in the thick filament involving changes in both the organisation of the myosin heads on its surface and the axial periodicity of the myosin tails in its backbone, mediated by an interaction between MyBP-C and the thin filaments. PMID:24344169

  20. Role of myosin light chain and myosin light chain kinase in advanced glycation end product-induced endothelial hyperpermeability in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fan; Guo, Xiaohua; Xu, Jing; Wang, Weiju; Li, Bingling; Huang, Qiaobing; Su, Lei; Xu, Qiulin

    2016-03-01

    We have previously reported that advanced glycation end products activated Rho-associated protein kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, causing endothelial hyperpermeability. However, the mechanisms involved were not fully clarified. Here, we explored the role of myosin light chain kinase in advanced glycation end product-induced endothelial hyperpermeability. Myosin light chain phosphorylation significantly increased by advanced glycation end products in endothelial cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, indicating that myosin light chain phosphorylation is involved in the advanced glycation end product pathway. Advanced glycation end products also induced myosin phosphatase-targeting subunit 1 phosphorylation, and small interfering RNA knockdown of the receptor for advanced glycation end products, or blocking myosin light chain kinase with its inhibitor, ML-7, or small interfering RNA abated advanced glycation end product-induced myosin light chain phosphorylation. Advanced glycation end product-induced F-actin rearrangement and endothelial hyperpermeability were also diminished by inhibition of receptor for advanced glycation end product or myosin light chain kinase signalling. Moreover, inhibiting myosin light chain kinase with ML-7 or blocking receptor for advanced glycation end product with its neutralizing antibody attenuated advanced glycation end product-induced microvascular hyperpermeability. Our findings suggest a novel role for myosin light chain and myosin light chain kinase in advanced glycation end product-induced endothelial hyperpermeability. PMID:26607798

  1. Force generation by skeletal muscle is controlled by mechanosensing in myosin filaments.

    PubMed

    Linari, Marco; Brunello, Elisabetta; Reconditi, Massimo; Fusi, Luca; Caremani, Marco; Narayanan, Theyencheri; Piazzesi, Gabriella; Lombardi, Vincenzo; Irving, Malcolm

    2015-12-10

    Contraction of both skeletal muscle and the heart is thought to be controlled by a calcium-dependent structural change in the actin-containing thin filaments, which permits the binding of myosin motors from the neighbouring thick filaments to drive filament sliding. Here we show by synchrotron small-angle X-ray diffraction of frog (Rana temporaria) single skeletal muscle cells that, although the well-known thin-filament mechanism is sufficient for regulation of muscle shortening against low load, force generation against high load requires a second permissive step linked to a change in the structure of the thick filament. The resting (switched 'OFF') structure of the thick filament is characterized by helical tracks of myosin motors on the filament surface and a short backbone periodicity. This OFF structure is almost completely preserved during low-load shortening, which is driven by a small fraction of constitutively active (switched 'ON') myosin motors outside thick-filament control. At higher load, these motors generate sufficient thick-filament stress to trigger the transition to its long-periodicity ON structure, unlocking the major population of motors required for high-load contraction. This concept of the thick filament as a regulatory mechanosensor provides a novel explanation for the dynamic and energetic properties of skeletal muscle. A similar mechanism probably operates in the heart. PMID:26560032

  2. Hybrid and non-hybrid actomyosins reconstituted with actin, myosin and tropomyosin from skeletal and catch muscles.

    PubMed

    Shelud'ko, Nikolay S; Vyatchin, Ilya G; Lazarev, Stanislav S; Shevchenko, Ulyana V

    2015-08-21

    In this study, we investigated hybrid and non-hybrid actomyosin models including key contractile proteins: actin, myosin, and tropomyosin. These proteins were isolated from the rabbit skeletal muscle and the catch muscle of the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus. Our results confirmed literature data on an unusual ability of bivalve's tropomyosin to inhibit Mg-ATPase activity of skeletal muscle actomyosin. We have shown that the degree of inhibition depends on the environmental conditions and may vary within a wide range. The inhibitory effect of mussel tropomyosin was not detected in non-hybrid model (mussel myosin + mussel actin + mussel tropomyosin). This effect was revealed only in hybrid models containing mussel tropomyosin + rabbit (or mussel) actin + rabbit myosin. We assume that mussel and rabbit myosins have mismatched binding sites for actin. In addition, mussel tropomyosin interacting with actin is able to close the binding sites of rabbit myosin with actin, which leads to inhibition of Mg-ATPase activity. PMID:26166820

  3. Effect of a myosin regulatory light chain mutation K104E on actin-myosin interactions.

    PubMed

    Duggal, D; Nagwekar, J; Rich, R; Huang, W; Midde, K; Fudala, R; Das, H; Gryczynski, I; Szczesna-Cordary, D; Borejdo, J

    2015-05-15

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) is the most common cause of sudden cardiac death in young individuals. Molecular mechanisms underlying this disorder are largely unknown; this study aims at revealing how disruptions in actin-myosin interactions can play a role in this disorder. Cross-bridge (XB) kinetics and the degree of order were examined in contracting myofibrils from the ex vivo left ventricles of transgenic (Tg) mice expressing FHC regulatory light chain (RLC) mutation K104E. Because the degree of order and the kinetics are best studied when an individual XB makes a significant contribution to the overall signal, the number of observed XBs in an ex vivo ventricle was minimized to ∼20. Autofluorescence and photobleaching were minimized by labeling the myosin lever arm with a relatively long-lived red-emitting dye containing a chromophore system encapsulated in a cyclic macromolecule. Mutated XBs were significantly better ordered during steady-state contraction and during rigor, but the mutation had no effect on the degree of order in relaxed myofibrils. The K104E mutation increased the rate of XB binding to thin filaments and the rate of execution of the power stroke. The stopped-flow experiments revealed a significantly faster observed dissociation rate in Tg-K104E vs. Tg-wild-type (WT) myosin and a smaller second-order ATP-binding rate for the K104E compared with WT myosin. Collectively, our data indicate that the mutation-induced changes in the interaction of myosin with actin during the contraction-relaxation cycle may contribute to altered contractility and the development of FHC. PMID:25770245

  4. Function of the N terminus of the myosin essential light chain of vertebrate striated muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, H L

    1995-01-01

    All but one (LC3-f; a fast skeletal muscle isoform) of the essential light chain isoforms of myosin (ELC) that are expressed in vertebrate striated muscles have an extended N terminus that is found neither in invertebrate ELCs nor in the majority of vertebrate smooth and nonmuscle myosin ELCs. Studies with permeabilized skeletal muscle fibers and in vitro motility assays have demonstrated that the presence of the ELC isoform lacking the N-terminal extension (LC3-f) is correlated with an increased maximal velocity of filament sliding. To examine further this modulatory role of the ELCs, a procedure was developed for the exchange of ELCs that is based on a technique for the removal of regulatory light chains from permeabilized muscle fibers. Different isoforms of the ELCs and mutant ELCs were exchanged into permeabilized skeletal muscle fibers from rabbit psoas muscle. The role of the ELCs of myosin in altering the shortening Vmax of striated muscle was confirmed. Additionally, experiments with mutant ELCs in which lysines at the extreme N terminus were replaced with alanines, demonstrated an increased shortening Vmax that coincided with removal of the positive charges contributed by the lysines. This suggests that charge interactions (i.e., salt bridges) between the N terminus of the ELC and negatively charged amino acids on the surface of actin cause a slowing of filament sliding. Whether this role in altering shortening velocity is the primary function of the extended N terminus of the ELC or whether it is merely a consequence of providing a tether between the thick and thin filaments is discussed. PMID:7787052

  5. Constitutive phosphorylation of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chang, Audrey N; Battiprolu, Pavan K; Cowley, Patrick M; Chen, Guohua; Gerard, Robert D; Pinto, Jose R; Hill, Joseph A; Baker, Anthony J; Kamm, Kristine E; Stull, James T

    2015-04-24

    In beating hearts, phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) at a single site to 0.45 mol of phosphate/mol by cardiac myosin light chain kinase (cMLCK) increases Ca(2+) sensitivity of myofilament contraction necessary for normal cardiac performance. Reduction of RLC phosphorylation in conditional cMLCK knock-out mice caused cardiac dilation and loss of cardiac performance by 1 week, as shown by increased left ventricular internal diameter at end-diastole and decreased fractional shortening. Decreased RLC phosphorylation by conventional or conditional cMLCK gene ablation did not affect troponin-I or myosin-binding protein-C phosphorylation in vivo. The extent of RLC phosphorylation was not changed by prolonged infusion of dobutamine or treatment with a β-adrenergic antagonist, suggesting that RLC is constitutively phosphorylated to maintain cardiac performance. Biochemical studies with myofilaments showed that RLC phosphorylation up to 90% was a random process. RLC is slowly dephosphorylated in both noncontracting hearts and isolated cardiac myocytes from adult mice. Electrically paced ventricular trabeculae restored RLC phosphorylation, which was increased to 0.91 mol of phosphate/mol of RLC with inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP). The two RLCs in each myosin appear to be readily available for phosphorylation by a soluble cMLCK, but MLCP activity limits the amount of constitutive RLC phosphorylation. MLCP with its regulatory subunit MYPT2 bound tightly to myofilaments was constitutively phosphorylated in beating hearts at a site that inhibits MLCP activity. Thus, the constitutive RLC phosphorylation is limited physiologically by low cMLCK activity in balance with low MLCP activity. PMID:25733667

  6. GFP-tagged regulatory light chain monitors single myosin lever-arm orientation in a muscle fiber.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Thomas P; Ajtai, Katalin; Chan, Daniel K; Halstead, Miriam F; Li, Jinhui; Zheng, Ye

    2007-09-15

    Myosin is the molecular motor in muscle-binding actin and executing a power stroke by rotating its lever arm through an angle of approximately 70 degrees to translate actin against resistive force. A green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged human cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (HCRLC) was constructed to study in situ lever arm orientation one molecule at a time by polarized fluorescence emitted from the GFP probe. The recombinant protein physically and functionally replaced the native RLC on myosin lever arms in the thick filaments of permeabilized skeletal muscle fibers. Detecting single molecules in fibers where myosin concentration reaches 300 microM is accomplished using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. With total internal reflection fluorescence, evanescent field excitation, supercritical angle fluorescence detection, and CCD detector pixel size limits detection volume to just a few attoliters. Data analysis manages both the perturbing effect of the TIR interface on probe emission and the effect of high numerical aperture collection of light. The natural myosin concentration gradient in a muscle fiber allows observation of fluorescence polarization from C-term GFP-tagged HCRLC exchanged myosin from regions in the thick filament containing low and high myosin concentrations. In rigor, cross-bridges at low concentration at the end of the thick filament maintain GFP dipole moments at two distinct polar angles relative to the fiber symmetry axis. The lower angle, where the dipole is nearly parallel to fiber axis, is more highly populated than the alternative, larger angle. Cross-bridges at higher concentration in the center of the thick filament are oriented in a homogeneous band at approximately 45 degrees to the fiber axis. The data suggests molecular crowding impacts myosin conformation, implying mutual interactions between cross-bridges alter how the muscle generates force. The GFP-tagged RLC is a novel probe to assess single-lever-arm orientation characteristics in situ. PMID:17513376

  7. N-Terminus of Cardiac Myosin Essential Light Chain Modulates Myosin Step-Size.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yihua; Ajtai, Katalin; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta; Burghardt, Thomas P

    2016-01-12

    Muscle myosin cyclically hydrolyzes ATP to translate actin. Ventricular cardiac myosin (?mys) moves actin with three distinct unitary step-sizes resulting from its lever-arm rotation and with step-frequencies that are modulated in a myosin regulation mechanism. The lever-arm associated essential light chain (vELC) binds actin by its 43 residue N-terminal extension. Unitary steps were proposed to involve the vELC N-terminal extension with the 8 nm step engaging the vELC/actin bond facilitating an extra ?19 degrees of lever-arm rotation while the predominant 5 nm step forgoes vELC/actin binding. A minor 3 nm step is the unlikely conversion of the completed 5 to the 8 nm step. This hypothesis was tested using a 17 residue N-terminal truncated vELC in porcine ?mys (?17?mys) and a 43 residue N-terminal truncated human vELC expressed in transgenic mouse heart (?43?mys). Step-size and step-frequency were measured using the Qdot motility assay. Both ?17?mys and ?43?mys had significantly increased 5 nm step-frequency and coincident loss in the 8 nm step-frequency compared to native proteins suggesting the vELC/actin interaction drives step-size preference. Step-size and step-frequency probability densities depend on the relative fraction of truncated vELC and relate linearly to pure myosin species concentrations in a mixture containing native vELC homodimer, two truncated vELCs in the modified homodimer, and one native and one truncated vELC in the heterodimer. Step-size and step-frequency, measured for native homodimer and at two or more known relative fractions of truncated vELC, are surmised for each pure species by using a new analytical method. PMID:26671638

  8. N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Subunits Are Non-myosin Targets of Myosin Regulatory Light Chain*

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Gaurav; Zhang, Yong; Schimerlik, Michael I.; Hau, Andrew M.; Yang, Jing; Filtz, Theresa M.; Kioussi, Chrissa; Ishmael, Jane E.

    2009-01-01

    Excitatory synapses contain multiple members of the myosin superfamily of molecular motors for which functions have not been assigned. In this study we characterized the molecular determinants of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) binding to two major subunits of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NR). Myosin RLC bound to NR subunits in a manner that could be distinguished from the interaction of RLC with the neck region of non-muscle myosin II-B (NMII-B) heavy chain; NR-RLC interactions did not require the addition of magnesium, were maintained in the absence of the fourth EF-hand domain of the light chain, and were sensitive to RLC phosphorylation. Equilibrium fluorescence spectroscopy experiments indicate that the affinity of myosin RLC for NR1 is high (30 nm) in the context of the isolated light chain. Binding was not favored in the context of a recombinant NMII-B subfragment one, indicating that if the RLC is already bound to NMII-B it is unlikely to form a bridge between two binding partners. We report that sequence similarity in the GXXXR portion of the incomplete IQ2 motif found in NMII heavy chain isoforms likely contributes to recognition of NR2A as a non-myosin target of the RLC. Using site-directed mutagenesis to disrupt NR2A-RLC binding in intact cells, we find that RLC interactions facilitate trafficking of NR1/NR2A receptors to the cell membrane. We suggest that myosin RLC can adopt target-dependent conformations and that a role for this light chain in protein trafficking may be independent of the myosin II complex. PMID:18945678

  9. Removal of the cardiac myosin regulatory light chain increases isometric force production

    PubMed Central

    Pant, Kiran; Watt, James; Greenberg, Michael; Jones, Michelle; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta; Moore, Jeffrey R.

    2009-01-01

    The myosin neck, which is supported by the interactions between light chains and the underlying ?-helical heavy chain, is thought to act as a lever arm to amplify movements originating in the globular motor domain. Here, we studied the role of the cardiac myosin regulatory light chains (RLCs) in the capacity of myosin to produce force using a novel optical-trap-based isometric force in vitro motility assay. We measured the isometric force and actin filament velocity for native porcine cardiac (PC) myosin, RLC-depleted PC (PCdepl) myosin, and PC myosin reconstituted with recombinant bacterially expressed human cardiac RLC (PCrecon). RLC depletion reduced unloaded actin filament velocity by 58% and enhanced the myosin-based isometric force ?2-fold. No significant change between PC and PCdepl preparations was observed in the maximal rate of actin-activated myosin ATPase activity. Reconstitution of PCdepl myosin with human RLC partially restored the velocity and force levels to near untreated values. The reduction in unloaded velocity after RLC extraction is consistent with the myosin neck acting as a lever, while the enhancement in isometric force can be directly related to enhancement of unitary force. The force data are consistent with a model in which the neck region behaves as a cantilevered beam.Pant, K., Watt, J., Greenberg, M., Jones, M., Szczesna-Cordary, D., Moore, J. R. Removal of the cardiac myosin regulatory light chain increases isometric force production. PMID:19470801

  10. Indirect myosin immunocytochemistry for the identification of fibre types in equine skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, A. K.; Rose, R. J.; Pozgaj, I.; Hoh, J. F.

    1992-01-01

    The histochemical ATPase method for muscle fibre typing was first described by Brooke and Kaiser in 1970. However, problems have been found with the subdivision of type II fibres using this technique. To determine whether indirect myosin immunocytochemistry using anti-slow (5-4D), anti-fast (1A10) and anti-fast red (5-2B) monoclonal antibodies with cross reactivity for type I, II and IIa fibres, respectively, in a number of species, could identify three fibre types in equine skeletal muscle, data on fibre type composition and fibre size obtained using the two different techniques were compared. Results indicate that different myosin heavy chains can coexist in single equine muscle fibres. Type I and type II fibres were identified by immunocytochemistry, but subdivision of type II fibres was not possible. Although the percentage of type I and type II fibres was not significantly different for the two techniques, a few fibres reacted with both the 1A10 and 5-4D antibodies.

  11. Enhanced protein electrophoresis technique for separating human skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain isoforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamman, M. M.; Clarke, M. S.; Talmadge, R. J.; Feeback, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Talmadge and Roy (J. Appl. Physiol. 1993, 75, 2337-2340) previously established a sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) protocol for separating all four rat skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms (MHC I, IIa, IIx, IIb); however, when applied to human muscle, the type II MHC isoforms (Ila, IIx) are not clearly distinguished. In this brief paper we describe a modification of the SDS-PAGE protocol which yields distinct and consistent separation of all three adult human MHC isoforms (MHC I, IIa, IIx) in a minigel system. MHC specificity of each band was confirmed by Western blot using three monoclonal IgG antibodies (mAbs) immunoreactive against MHCI (mAb MHCs, Novacastra Laboratories), MHCI+IIa (mAb BF-35), and MHCIIa+IIx (mAb SC-71). Results provide a valuable SDS-PAGE minigel technique for separating MHC isoforms in human muscle without the difficult task of casting gradient gels.

  12. Dynamic light scattering study of the effect of Mg2+ and ATP on synthetic myosin filaments.

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, S; Fujime, S

    1995-01-01

    The dynamic light scattering (DLS) method provides us with information about the apparent diffusion coefficient, Dapp, as well as the static scattering intensity, Is, of particles in solution. For long but thin rods with length L and diameter d, the dependence on L and d of Dapp is quite different from that of Is. By means of DLS we studied synthetic myosin filaments of rabbit skeletal muscle in solution at pH 8.3 and 10 degrees C. It appeared that Mg2+ ions induced thickening and lengthening of the filaments, whereas ATP (and ADP) induced thinning and shortening (depolymerization) of the filaments. When ATP was added to the filament preparation in the presence of Mg2+ ions, it was clearly observed that thinning of the filament (or splitting into subfilaments) occurred before shortening (or depolymerization). PMID:7696513

  13. Leucine induces myofibrillar protein accretion in cultured skeletal muscle through mTOR dependent and -independent control of myosin heavy chain mRNA levels.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Haegens A; Schols AM; van Essen AL; van Loon LJ; Langen RC

    2012-05-01

    SCOPE: Nutritional intervention during muscle wasting aims to attenuate net muscle protein loss. Branched chain amino acids, especially leucine, are able to stimulate the anabolic mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling cascade and protein synthesis. It has been suggested that muscle myofibrillar protein expression is more responsive to amino acid supplementation compared to cytoplasmic proteins, although accretion of myofibrillar proteins has not extensively been investigated. We hypothesized that leucine specifically increases myofibrillar protein synthesis in skeletal muscle.METHODS AND RESULTS: This hypothesis was investigated in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells using physiologically relevant culture conditions. Leucine supplementation specifically increased myofibrillar protein accretion, including myosin heavy chain-slow and -fast and myosin light chain 1 and -3 in C2C12 cells. Neither total protein content, nor de novo protein synthesis was affected, despite leucine-induced increased 4E-BP1 and S6K1 phosphorylation. Leucine supplementation did not affect myogenesis, measured by creatine kinase activity and myoblast fusion, either. Remarkably, leucine-induced increased myofibrillar protein accretion was accompanied by elevated MyHC mRNA levels, which involved mTOR-dependent and -independent regulation of MyHC-4 and MyHC-7 gene-expression, respectively.CONCLUSION: This study clearly demonstrates myofibrillar and not generic protein accretion in skeletal muscle following leucine supplementation, and suggests this involves pre-translational control of MyHC expression by leucine.

  14. Age dependence of myosin heavy chain transitions induced by creatine depletion in rat skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Gregory R.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.

    1995-01-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that myosin heavy chain (MHC) plasticity resulting from creatine depletion is an age-dependent process. At weaning (age 28 days), rat pups were placed on either standard rat chow (normal diet juvenile group) or the same chow supplemented with 1% wt/wt of the creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid (creatine depletion juvenile (CDJ) group). Two groups of adult rats (age approximately 8 wk) were placed on the same diet regimens (normal diet adult and creatine depletion adult (CDA) groups). After 40 days (CDJ and normal diet juvenile groups) and 60 days (CDA and normal diet adult groups), animals were killed and several skeletal muscles were removed for analysis of creatine content or MHC ditribution. In the CDJ group, creatine depletion (78%) was accompanied by significant shifts toward expression of slower MHC isoforms in two slow and three fast skeletal muscles. In contrast, creatine depletion in adult animals did not result in similar shifts toward slow MHC isoform expression in either muscle type. The results of this study indicate that there is a differential effect of creatine depletion on MHC tranitions that appears to be age dependent. These results strongly suggest that investigators contemplating experimental designs involving the use of the creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid should consider the age of the animals to be used.

  15. Inhibiting Myosin-ATPase Reveals Dynamic Range of Mitochondrial Respiratory Control in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Christopher G.R.; Kane, Daniel A.; Lin, Chien-Te; Kozy, Rachel; Cathey, Brook L.; Lark, Daniel S.; Kane, Constance L.; Brophy, Patricia M.; Gavin, Timothy P; Anderson, Ethan J.; Neufer, P. Darrell

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of mitochondrial ADP-stimulated respiratory kinetics in permeabilized skeletal myofibres (PmFB) is increasingly used in clinical diagnostic and basic research settings. However, estimates of the Km for ADP vary considerably (?20-300 ?M) and tend to overestimate respiration at rest. Noting PmFBs spontaneously contract during respiration experiments, we systematically determined the impact of contraction, temperature and oxygenation on ADP-stimulated respiratory kinetics. Blebbistatin (BLEB), a myosin II ATPase inhibitor, blocked contraction under all conditions and yielded high Km values for ADP of >?250 and ?80 ?M in red and white rat PmFB, respectively. In the absence of BLEB, PmFB contracted and the Km for ADP decreased by ?2 to 10-fold in a temperature-dependent manner. PmFB were sensitive to hyperoxia (increased Km) in the absence of BLEB (contracted) at 30C but not 37C. In PmFB from humans, contraction elicited high sensitivity to ADP (m <100 ?M) whereas blocking contraction (+BLEB) and including PCr:Cr = 2 to mimic the resting energetic state yielded a Km for ADP = ?1560 ?M, consistent with estimates of in vivo resting respiratory rates of <1% maximum. These results demonstrate the sensitivity of muscle to ADP varies over a wide range in relation to contractile state and cellular energy charge, providing evidence that enzymatic coupling of energy transfer within skeletal muscle becomes more efficient in the working state. PMID:21554250

  16. Primary structure and cellular localization of chicken brain myosin-V (p190), an unconventional myosin with calmodulin light chains

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Recent biochemical studies of p190, a calmodulin (CM)-binding protein purified from vertebrate brain, have demonstrated that this protein, purified as a complex with bound CM, shares a number of properties with myosins (Espindola, F. S., E. M. Espreafico, M. V. Coelho, A. R. Martins, F. R. C. Costa, M. S. Mooseker, and R. E. Larson. 1992. J. Cell Biol. 118:359-368). To determine whether or not p190 was a member of the myosin family of proteins, a set of overlapping cDNAs encoding the full-length protein sequence of chicken brain p190 was isolated and sequenced. Verification that the deduced primary structure was that of p190 was demonstrated through microsequence analysis of a cyanogen bromide peptide generated from chick brain p190. The deduced primary structure of chicken brain p190 revealed that this 1,830-amino acid (aa) 212,509-D) protein is a member of a novel structural class of unconventional myosins that includes the gene products encoded by the dilute locus of mouse and the MYO2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have named the p190-CM complex "myosin-V" based on the results of a detailed sequence comparison of the head domains of 29 myosin heavy chains (hc), which has revealed that this myosin, based on head structure, is the fifth of six distinct structural classes of myosin to be described thus far. Like the presumed products of the mouse dilute and yeast MYO2 genes, the head domain of chicken myosin-V hc (aa 1-764) is linked to a "neck" domain (aa 765-909) consisting of six tandem repeats of an approximately 23-aa "IQ-motif." All known myosins contain at least one such motif at their head-tail junctions; these IQ-motifs may function as calmodulin or light chain binding sites. The tail domain of chicken myosin-V consists of an initial 511 aa predicted to form several segments of coiled-coil alpha helix followed by a terminal 410-aa globular domain (aa, 1,421-1,830). Interestingly, a portion of the tail domain (aa, 1,094-1,830) shares 58% amino acid sequence identity with a 723-aa protein from mouse brain reported to be a glutamic acid decarboxylase. The neck region of chicken myosin-V, which contains the IQ-motifs, was demonstrated to contain the binding sites for CM by analyzing CM binding to bacterially expressed fusion proteins containing the head, neck, and tail domains. Immunolocalization of myosin-V in brain and in cultured cells revealed an unusual distribution for this myosin in both neurons and nonneuronal cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1469047

  17. Continued Expression of Neonatal Myosin Heavy Chain in Adult Dystrophic Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandman, Everett

    1985-02-01

    The expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms was examined in normal and dystrophic chicken muscle with a monoclonal antibody specific for neonatal myosin. Adult dystrophic muscle continued to contain neonatal myosin long after it disappeared from adult normal muscle. A new technique involving western blotting and peptide mapping demonstrated that the immunoreactive myosin in adult dystrophic muscle was identical to that found in neonatal normal muscle. Immunocytochemistry revealed that all fibers in the dystrophic muscle failed to repress neonatal myosin heavy chain. These studies suggest that muscular dystrophy inhibits the myosin gene switching that normally occurs during muscle maturation.

  18. Involvement of myosin light-chain kinase in endothelial cell retraction

    SciTech Connect

    Wysolmerski, R.B.; Lagunoff, D. )

    1990-01-01

    Permeabilized bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cell monolayers were used to investigate the mechanism of endothelial cell retraction. Postconfluent endothelial cells permeabilized with saponin retracted upon exposure to ATP and Ca{sup 2+}. Retraction was accompanied by thiophosphorylation of 19,000-Da myosin light chains when adenosine 5'-(gamma-({sup 35}S)thio)triphosphate was included in the medium. Both retraction and thiophosphorylation of myosin light chains exhibited a graded quantitative dependence on Ca{sup 2+}. When permeabilized monolayers were extracted in buffer D containing 100 mM KCl and 30 mM MgCl2 for 30 min, the cells failed to retract upon exposure to ATP and Ca{sup 2+}, and no thiophosphorylation of myosin light chains occurred. The ability both to retract and to thiophosphorylate myosin light chains was restored by the addition to the permeabilized, extracted cells of myosin light-chain kinase and calmodulin together but not by either alone. These studies indicate that endothelial cell retraction, as does smooth muscle contraction, depends on myosin light-chain kinase phosphorylation of myosin light chains.

  19. Mechanism of action of endothelin in rat cardiac muscle: cross-bridge kinetics and myosin light chain phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Rossmanith, G H; Hoh, J F; Turnbull, L; Ludowyke, R I

    1997-01-01

    1. The molecular mechanism of inotropic action of endothelin was investigated in rat ventricular muscle by studying its effects on characteristics of isometric twitch, barium-induced steady contracture and the level of incorporation of 32Pi into myosin light chain 2. 2. Exposure of rat papillary muscle to endothelin caused an increase in isometric twitch force but did not alter the twitch-time parameters. 3. Endothelin did not significantly change the maximum contracture tension but did cause an increase in contracture tension at submaximal levels of activation, without changes in the tension-to-stiffness ratio and kinetics of attached cross-bridges. Kinetics of attached cross-bridges were deduced during steady contracture from complex-stiffness values, and in particular from the frequency at which muscle stiffness assumes a minimum value, fmin. Endothelin did not alter fmin. 4. Endothelin caused an increase in the level of incorporation of 32Pi into myosin light chain 2 without a concurrent change in the level of incorporation of 32Pi into troponin I. 5. We conclude that the inotropic action of endothelin is not due to an increase in the kinetics of attached cross-bridges, nor due to a change in the force per unit cross-bridge, but may result from an increased divalent cation sensitivity caused by elevated myosin light chain 2 phosphorylation, resembling post-tetanic potentiation in fast skeletal muscle fibres. Images Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:9409484

  20. Myosin light chain kinases and phosphatase in mitosis and cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Matsumura, Fumio; Yamakita, Yoshihiko; Yamashiro, Shigeko

    2011-01-01

    Summary At mitosis, cells undergo drastic alterations in morphology and cytoskeletal organization including cell rounding during prophase, mitotic spindle assembly during prometaphase and metaphase, chromatid segregation in anaphase, and cytokinesis during telophase. It is well established that myosin II is a motor responsible for cytokinesis. Recent reports have indicated that myosin II is also involved in spindle assembly and karyokinesis. In this review, we summarize current understanding of the functions of myosin II in mitosis and cytokinesis of higher eukaryotes, and discuss the roles of possible upstream molecules that control myosin II in these mitotic events. PMID:21396909

  1. Regulatory and structural motifs of chicken gizzard myosin light chain kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Olson, N J; Pearson, R B; Needleman, D S; Hurwitz, M Y; Kemp, B E; Means, A R

    1990-01-01

    The amino acid sequence for chicken smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) was deduced from a full-length cDNA. This has allowed definition of both the complete sequence of the inactive 64-kDa proteolytic fragment, which contains the pseudosubstrate autoregulatory sequence, and of the active 61-kDa Ca2+/calmodulin-independent fragment, which lacks the autoregulatory domain. Comparison of the two sequences shows that the autoregulatory domain extends from Asn-780 to Arg-808. The peptide Leu-774 to Ser-787 does not inhibit smMLCK, whereas peptides of similar or shorter length from the pseudosubstrate region (Ser-787 to Val-807) are potent inhibitors. These data define the autoregulatory region as being contained within and probably identical to the pseudosubstrate domain. The catalytic and regulatory regions are flanked by several copies of 100-amino acid segments containing one of two consensus motifs. These motifs are absent from mammalian skeletal muscle MLCK or from Dictyostelium discoideum MLCK but are present in the Caenorhabditis elegans unc-22 gene product and the titin molecule of skeletal muscle myofibrils. These results indicate that the amino acid sequence of smMLCK encodes multiple functional motifs in addition to the catalytic domain. PMID:2315320

  2. Inhibition of myosin light-chain phosphorylation inverts the birefringence response of porcine airway smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Smolensky, Alexander V; Gilbert, Susan H; Harger-Allen, Margaret; Ford, Lincoln E

    2007-01-01

    Muscle birefringence, caused mainly by parallel thick filaments, increases in smooth muscle during stimulation, signalling thick filament formation upon activation. The reverse occurs in skeletal muscle, where a decrease in birefringence has been correlated with crossbridge movement away from the thick filaments. When force generation by trachealis muscle was inhibited with wortmannin, which inhibits myosin light-chain phosphorylation and thick-filament formation, but not the calcium increase caused by stimulation, the birefringence response inverted, suggesting crossbridge movement similar to that of skeletal muscle. Resistance to quick stretches was much greater in stimulated muscle than in unstimulated muscle before wortmannin treatment and no different in stimulated and unstimulated muscle after force inhibition by wortmannin. Before wortmannin treatment, stimulation reduced thick-filament cross-sectional areas in electron micrographs by 44%. After force inhibition by wortmannin, filament areas were not significantly different in stimulated and unstimulated muscle and not significantly different from those of relaxed muscle without wortmannin treatment. These results suggest that myofibrillar-space calcium causes crossbridges to move away from the thick filaments without firmly attaching to thin filaments. PMID:17095560

  3. Myosin heavy chain expression in rodent skeletal muscle: effects of exposure to zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, F.; Herrick, R. E.; Adams, G. R.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1993-01-01

    This study ascertained the effects of 9 days of zero gravity on the relative (percentage of total) and calculated absolute (mg/muscle) content of isomyosin expressed in both antigravity and locomotor skeletal muscle of ground control (CON) and flight-exposed (FL) rats. Results showed that although there were no differences in body weight between FL and CON animals, a significant reduction in muscle mass occurred in the vastus intermedius (VI) (P < 0.05) but not in the vastus lateralis (VL) or the tibialis anterior. Both total muscle protein and myofibril protein content were not different between the muscle regions examined in the FL and CON groups. In the VI, there were trends for reductions in the relative content of type I and IIa myosin heavy chains (MHCs) that were offset by increases in the relative content of both type IIb and possibly type IIx MHC protein (P > 0.05). mRNA levels were consistent with this pattern (P < 0.05). The same pattern held true for the red region of the VL as examined at both the protein and mRNA level (P < 0.05). When the atrophy process was examined, there were net reductions in the absolute content of both type I and IIa MHCs that were offset by calculated increases in type IIb MHC in both VI and red VL. Collectively, these findings suggest that there are both absolute and relative changes occurring in MHC expression in the "red" regions of antigravity skeletal muscle during exposure to zero gravity that could affect muscle function.

  4. Molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle weakness in human cancer: reduced myosin-actin cross-bridge formation and kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark S.; Callahan, Damien M.; Sweeny, Andrew P.; Nunez, Ivette; Grunberg, Steven M.; Der-Torossian, Hirak; Couch, Marion E.; Dittus, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Many patients with cancer experience physical disability following diagnosis, although little is known about the mechanisms underlying these functional deficits. To characterize skeletal muscle adaptations to cancer in humans, we evaluated skeletal muscle structure and contractile function at the molecular, cellular, whole-muscle, and whole-body level in 11 patients with cancer (5 cachectic, 6 noncachectic) and 6 controls without disease. Patients with cancer showed a 25% reduction in knee extensor isometric torque after adjustment for muscle mass (P < 0.05), which was strongly related to diminished power output during a walking endurance test (r = 0.889; P < 0.01). At the cellular level, single fiber isometric tension was reduced in myosin heavy chain (MHC) IIA fibers (P = 0.05) in patients with cancer, which was explained by a reduction (P < 0.05) in the number of strongly bound cross-bridges. In MHC I fibers, myosin-actin cross-bridge kinetics were reduced in patients, as evidenced by an increase in myosin attachment time (P < 0.01); and reductions in another kinetic parameter, myosin rate of force production, predicted reduced knee extensor isometric torque (r = 0.689; P < 0.05). Patients with cancer also exhibited reduced mitochondrial density (?50%; P < 0.001), which was related to increased myosin attachment time in MHC I fibers (r = ?0.754; P < 0.01). Finally, no group differences in myofilament protein content or ultrastructure were noted that explained the observed functional alterations. Collectively, our results suggest reductions in myofilament protein function as a potential molecular mechanism contributing to muscle weakness and physical disability in human cancer. PMID:23412895

  5. Interaction of thyroid state and denervation on skeletal myosin heavy chain expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, F.; Arnold, C.; Zeng, M.; Baldwin, K.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the effects of altered thyroid state and denervation (Den) on skeletal myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression in the plantaris and soleus muscles. Rats were subjected to unilateral denervation (Den) and randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) euthyroid; (2) hyperthyroid; (3) and hypothyroid. Denervation caused severe muscle atrophy and muscle-type specific MHC transformation. Denervation transformed the soleus to a faster muscle, and its effects required the presence of circulating thyroid hormone. In contrast, denervation transformed the plantaris to a slower muscle independently of thyroid state. Furthermore, thyroid hormone effects did not depend upon innervation status in the soleus, while they required the presence of the nerve in the plantaris. Collectively, these findings suggest that both thyroid hormone and intact nerve (a) differentially affect MHC transformations in fast and slow muscle; and (b) are important factors in regulating the optimal expression of both type I and IIB MHC genes. This research suggests that for patients with nerve damage and/or paralysis, both muscle mass and biochemical properties can also be affected by the thyroid state.

  6. Effect of Porcine Akirin2 on Skeletal Myosin Heavy Chain Isoform Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoling; Luo, Yanliu; Zhou, Bo; Huang, Zhiqing; Jia, Gang; Liu, Guangmang; Zhao, Hua; Yang, Zhouping; Zhang, Ruinan

    2015-01-01

    Akirin2 plays an important role in skeletal myogenesis. In this study, we found that porcine Akirin2 (pAkirin2) mRNA level was significantly higher in fast extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscles than in slow soleus (SOL) muscle of pigs. Overexpression of pAkirin2 increased the number of myosin heavy chain (MHC)-positive cells, indicating that pAkirin2 promoted myoblast differentiation. We also found that overexpression of pAkirin2 increased the mRNA expressions of MHCI and MHCIIa and decreased the mRNA expression of MHCIIb. Myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) are the major downstream effectors of calcineurin. Here we also observed that the mRNA expressions of MEF2C and NFATc1 were notably elevated by pAkirin2 overexpression. Together, our data indicate that the role of pAkirin2 in modulating MHCI and MHCIIa expressions may be achieved through calcineurin/NFATc1 signaling pathway. PMID:25686036

  7. The Superfast Human Extraocular Myosin Is Kinetically Distinct from the Fast Skeletal IIa, IIb, and IId Isoforms*

    PubMed Central

    Bloemink, Marieke J.; Deacon, John C.; Resnicow, Daniel I.; Leinwand, Leslie A.; Geeves, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Humans express five distinct myosin isoforms in the sarcomeres of adult striated muscle (fast IIa, IId, the slow/cardiac isoform I/?, the cardiac specific isoform ?, and the specialized extraocular muscle isoform). An additional isoform, IIb, is present in the genome but is not normally expressed in healthy human muscles. Muscle fibers expressing each isoform have distinct characteristics including shortening velocity. Defining the properties of the isoforms in detail has been limited by the availability of pure samples of the individual proteins. Here we study purified recombinant human myosin motor domains expressed in mouse C2C12 muscle cells. The results of kinetic analysis show that among the closely related adult skeletal isoforms, the affinity of ADP for actinmyosin (KAD) is the characteristic that most readily distinguishes the isoforms. The three fast muscle myosins have KAD values of 118, 80, and 55 ?m for IId, IIa, and IIb, respectively, which follows the speed in motility assays from fastest to slowest. Extraocular muscle is unusually fast with a far weaker KAD = 352 ?m. Sequence comparisons and homology modeling of the structures identify a few key areas of sequence that may define the differences between the isoforms, including a region of the upper 50-kDa domain important in signaling between the nucleotide pocket and the actin-binding site. PMID:23908353

  8. Drosophila UNC-45 prevents heat-induced aggregation of skeletal muscle myosin and facilitates refolding of citrate synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Melkani, Girish C.; Lee, Chi F.; Cammarato, Anthony; Bernstein, Sanford I.

    2010-05-28

    UNC-45 belongs to the UCS (UNC-45, CRO1, She4p) domain protein family, whose members interact with various classes of myosin. Here we provide structural and biochemical evidence that Escherichia coli-expressed Drosophila UNC-45 (DUNC-45) maintains the integrity of several substrates during heat-induced stress in vitro. DUNC-45 displays chaperone function in suppressing aggregation of the muscle myosin heavy meromyosin fragment, the myosin S-1 motor domain, {alpha}-lactalbumin and citrate synthase. Biochemical evidence is supported by electron microscopy, which reveals the first structural evidence that DUNC-45 prevents inter- or intra-molecular aggregates of skeletal muscle heavy meromyosin caused by elevated temperatures. We also demonstrate for the first time that UNC-45 is able to refold a denatured substrate, urea-unfolded citrate synthase. Overall, this in vitro study provides insight into the fate of muscle myosin under stress conditions and suggests that UNC-45 protects and maintains the contractile machinery during in vivo stress.

  9. Myosin Heavy Chain Gene Expression in Developing Neonatal Skeletal Muscle: Involvement of the Nerve, Gravity, and Thyroid State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, K. M.; Adams, G.; Haddad, F.; Zeng, M.; Qin, A.; Qin, L.; McCue, S.; Bodell, P.

    1999-01-01

    The myosin heavy chain (MHC) gene family encodes at least six MHC proteins (herein designated as neonatal, embryonic, slow type I (beta), and fast IIa, IIx, and IIb) that are expressed in skeletal muscle in a muscle-specific and developmentally-regulated fashion. At birth, both antigravity (e.g. soleus) and locomotor (e.g., plantaris) skeletal muscles are undifferentiated relative to the adult MHC phenotype such that the neonatal and embryonic MHC isoforms account for 80 - 90% of the MHC pool in a fast locomotor muscle; whereas, the embryonic and slow, type I isoforms account for approx. 90% of the pool in a typical antigravity muscle. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of an intact nerve, gravity and thyroid hormone (T3), as well as certain interactions of these interventions, on MHC gene expression in developing neonatal skeletal muscles of rodents.

  10. A Global, Myosin Light Chain Kinase-dependent Increase in Myosin II Contractility Accompanies the Metaphase–Anaphase Transition in Sea Urchin Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Lucero, Amy; Stack, Christianna; Bresnick, Anne R.

    2006-01-01

    Myosin II is the force-generating motor for cytokinesis, and although it is accepted that myosin contractility is greatest at the cell equator, the temporal and spatial cues that direct equatorial contractility are not known. Dividing sea urchin eggs were placed under compression to study myosin II-based contractile dynamics, and cells manipulated in this manner underwent an abrupt, global increase in cortical contractility concomitant with the metaphase–anaphase transition, followed by a brief relaxation and the onset of furrowing. Prefurrow cortical contractility both preceded and was independent of astral microtubule elongation, suggesting that the initial activation of myosin II preceded cleavage plane specification. The initial rise in contractility required myosin light chain kinase but not Rho-kinase, but both signaling pathways were required for successful cytokinesis. Last, mobilization of intracellular calcium during metaphase induced a contractile response, suggesting that calcium transients may be partially responsible for the timing of this initial contractile event. Together, these findings suggest that myosin II-based contractility is initiated at the metaphase–anaphase transition by Ca2+-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) activity and is maintained through cytokinesis by both MLCK- and Rho-dependent signaling. Moreover, the signals that initiate myosin II contractility respond to specific cell cycle transitions independently of the microtubule-dependent cleavage stimulus. PMID:16837551

  11. Molecular determinants of force production in human skeletal muscle fibers: effects of myosin isoform expression and cross-sectional area

    PubMed Central

    Bedrin, Nicholas G.; Ades, Philip A.; Palmer, Bradley M.; Toth, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle contractile performance is governed by the properties of its constituent fibers, which are, in turn, determined by the molecular interactions of the myofilament proteins. To define the molecular determinants of contractile function in humans, we measured myofilament mechanics during maximal Ca2+-activated and passive isometric conditions in single muscle fibers with homogenous (I and IIA) and mixed (I/IIA and IIA/X) myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms from healthy, young adult male (n = 5) and female (n = 7) volunteers. Fibers containing only MHC II isoforms (IIA and IIA/X) produced higher maximal Ca2+-activated forces over the range of cross-sectional areas (CSAs) examined than MHC I fibers, resulting in higher (24–42%) specific forces. The number and/or stiffness of the strongly bound myosin-actin cross bridges increased in the higher force-producing MHC II isoforms and, in all isoforms, better predicted force than CSA. In men and women, cross-bridge kinetics, in terms of myosin attachment time and rate of myosin force production, were independent of CSA, although women had faster (7–15%) kinetics. The relative proportion of cross bridges and/or their stiffness was reduced as fiber size increased, causing a decline in specific force. Results from our examination of molecular mechanisms across the range of physiological CSAs explain the variation in specific force among the different fiber types in human skeletal muscle, which may have relevance to understanding how various physiological and pathophysiological conditions modulate single-fiber and whole muscle contractility. PMID:25567808

  12. Myosin heavy chain composition of different skeletal muscles in Large White and Meishan pigs.

    PubMed

    Lefaucheur, L; Milan, D; Ecolan, P; Le Callennec, C

    2004-07-01

    Four major sarcomeric myosin heavy chains (MyHC) (i.e., I, IIa, IIx, and IIb) are expressed in pig skeletal muscle during postnatal development. The objective of the current study was to compare MyHC composition at mRNA and protein levels in LM, a fast-twitch glycolytic muscle, and rhomboideus (RM), a mixed slow- and fast-twitch oxido-glycolytic muscle, between two pig breeds exhibiting dramatic differences in postnatal muscle growth and meat quality. Eight Large White (LW) and eight Meishan (MS) females were fed under the same standard conditions, and slaughtered at an average BW of 62 kg (131 and 142 d in LW and MS pigs, respectively). In addition to conventional fiber typing by histoenzymology, MyHC composition was analyzed by combining immunocytochemistry, in situ hybridization, and a newly developed real-time PCR assay. Enzyme activities of lactate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, and beta-hydroxy-acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase were used as markers of glycolytic, oxidative and beta-oxidation capacities, respectively. Results showed that conventional fiber typing in three classes by histoenzymology was insufficient in LM. For the first time, four monoclonal antibodies specific of each MyHC isoform, working in immunocytochemistry, were used. Our results are consistent with the sequential I<-->IIa<-->IIx<-->IIb MyHC transition rule. Breed effect on MyHC composition differed between muscle types. In LM of MS pigs, a shift from IIb to IIx, and to a lesser extent, to IIa, occurred without affecting type I MyHC. In RM, where IIb is absent, a shift from IIx to type I occurred, with a slight decrease in the IIa isoform. Effects were very similar at the mRNA and protein levels, suggesting a transcriptional regulation. In both muscles, MS pigs exhibited a decrease in the relative fiber type specific expression of the fastest isoform (i.e., IIb in LM and IIx in RM). The shift toward a slower phenotype in MS pigs was consistent with a less glycolytic and more oxidative metabolism, potentially using more lipids as fuel. A dramatic increase in cross-sectional area of type I fibers in RM (+27%) and a decrease in that of the fastest IIb fibers in LM (-25%) were observed in MS pigs. Overall, interpretation of earlier data regarding muscle fiber type has been flawed by inaccurate fiber typing in most pig skeletal muscles. PMID:15309939

  13. Myosin heavy chain isoform content and energy metabolism can be uncoupled in pig skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Park, S K; Gunawan, A M; Scheffler, T L; Grant, A L; Gerrard, D E

    2009-02-01

    Genetic selection for improved growth and overall meatiness has resulted in the occurrence of 2 major mutations in pigs, the Rendement Napole (RN) and Halothane (Hal) gene mutations. At the tissue level, these mutations influence energy metabolism in skeletal muscle and muscle fiber type composition, yet also influence total body composition. The RN mutation affects the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase gamma subunit and results in increased glycogen deposition in the muscle, whereas the Hal mutation alters sarcoplasmic calcium release mechanisms and results in altered energy metabolism. From a meat quality standpoint, these mutations independently influence the extent and rate of muscle energy metabolism postmortem, respectively. Even though these mutations alter overall muscle energy metabolism and histochemically derived muscle fiber type independently, their effects have not been yet fully elucidated in respect to myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform content and those enzymes responsible for defining energetics of the tissue. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the collective effects of the RN and Hal genes on genes and gene products associated with different muscle fiber types in pig skeletal muscle. To overcome potential pitfalls associated with traditional muscle fiber typing, real-time PCR, gel electrophoresis, and Western blotting were used to evaluate MyHC composition and several energy-related gene expressions in muscles from wild-type, RN, Hal, and Hal-RN mutant pigs. The MyHC mRNA levels displayed sequential transitions from IIb to IIx and IIa in pigs bearing the RN mutation. In addition, our results showed MyHC protein isoform abundance is correlated with mRNA level supporting the hypothesis that MyHC genes are transcriptionally controlled. However, transcript abundance of genes involved in energy metabolism, including lactate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, glycogen synthase, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, was not different between genotypes. These data show that the RN and Hal gene mutations alter muscle fiber type composition and suggest that muscle fiber energy metabolism and speed of contraction, the 2 determinants of muscle fiber type, can be uncoupled. PMID:18820156

  14. Myosin heavy chain 2A and ?-Actin expression in human and murine skeletal muscles at feeding; particularly amino acids

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Protein dynamics during non-steady state conditions as feeding are complex. Such studies usually demand combinations of methods to give conclusive information, particularly on myofibrillar proteins with slow turnover. Therefore, time course transcript analyses were evaluated as possible means to monitor changes in myofibrillar biosynthesis in skeletal muscles in conditions with clinical nutrition; i.e. long term exposure of nutrients. Methods Muscle tissue from overnight intravenously fed surgical patients were used as a model combined with muscle tissue from starved and refed mice as well as cultured L6 muscle cells. Transcripts of acta 1 (?-actin), mhc2A (myosin) and slc38 a2/Snat 2 (amino acid transporter) were quantified (qPCR) as markers of muscle protein dynamics. Results Myosin heavy chain 2A transcripts decreased significantly in skeletal muscle tissue from overnight parenterally fed patients but did not change significantly in orally refed mice. Alpha-actin transcripts did not change significantly in muscle cells from fed patients, mice or cultured L6 cells during provision of AA. The AA transporter Snat 2 decreased in L6 cells refed by all AA and by various combinations of AA but did not change during feeding in muscle tissue from patients or mice. Conclusion Our results confirm that muscle cells are sensitive to alterations in extracellular concentrations of AA for induction of protein synthesis and anabolism. However, transcripts of myofibrillar proteins and amino acid transporters showed complex alterations in response to feeding with provision of amino acids. Therefore, muscle tissue transcript levels of actin and myosin do not reflect protein accretion in skeletal muscles at feeding. PMID:23190566

  15. Myosin light-chain phosphatase regulates basal actomyosin oscillations during morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Valencia-Expósito, Andrea; Grosheva, Inna; Míguez, David G.; González-Reyes, Acaimo; Martín-Bermudo, María D.

    2016-01-01

    Contractile actomyosin networks generate forces that drive tissue morphogenesis. Actomyosin contractility is controlled primarily by reversible phosphorylation of the myosin-II regulatory light chain through the action of myosin kinases and phosphatases. While the role of myosin light-chain kinase in regulating contractility during morphogenesis has been largely characterized, there is surprisingly little information on myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP) function in this context. Here, we use live imaging of Drosophila follicle cells combined with mathematical modelling to demonstrate that the MLCP subunit flapwing (flw) is a key regulator of basal myosin oscillations and cell contractions underlying egg chamber elongation. Flw expression decreases specifically on the basal side of follicle cells at the onset of contraction and flw controls the initiation and periodicity of basal actomyosin oscillations. Contrary to previous reports, basal F-actin pulsates similarly to myosin. Finally, we propose a quantitative model in which periodic basal actomyosin oscillations arise in a cell-autonomous fashion from intrinsic properties of motor assemblies. PMID:26888436

  16. Myosin light-chain phosphatase regulates basal actomyosin oscillations during morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Expósito, Andrea; Grosheva, Inna; Míguez, David G; González-Reyes, Acaimo; Martín-Bermudo, María D

    2016-01-01

    Contractile actomyosin networks generate forces that drive tissue morphogenesis. Actomyosin contractility is controlled primarily by reversible phosphorylation of the myosin-II regulatory light chain through the action of myosin kinases and phosphatases. While the role of myosin light-chain kinase in regulating contractility during morphogenesis has been largely characterized, there is surprisingly little information on myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP) function in this context. Here, we use live imaging of Drosophila follicle cells combined with mathematical modelling to demonstrate that the MLCP subunit flapwing (flw) is a key regulator of basal myosin oscillations and cell contractions underlying egg chamber elongation. Flw expression decreases specifically on the basal side of follicle cells at the onset of contraction and flw controls the initiation and periodicity of basal actomyosin oscillations. Contrary to previous reports, basal F-actin pulsates similarly to myosin. Finally, we propose a quantitative model in which periodic basal actomyosin oscillations arise in a cell-autonomous fashion from intrinsic properties of motor assemblies. PMID:26888436

  17. Segregation of cardiac and skeletal muscle-specific regulatory elements of the beta-myosin heavy chain gene.

    PubMed Central

    Rindt, H; Knotts, S; Robbins, J

    1995-01-01

    The beta-myosin heavy chain (beta-MyHC) gene is expressed in cardiac and slow skeletal muscles. To examine the regulatory sequences that are required for the gene's expression in the two compartments in vivo, we analyzed the expression pattern of a transgene consisting of the beta-MyHC gene 5' upstream region linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene. By using 5600 bp of 5' upstream region, the transgene was expressed at high levels in the slow skeletal muscles. Decreased levels of thyroid hormone led to the up-regulation of the transgene in both cardiac and skeletal muscles, mimicking the behavior of the endogenous beta-MyHC gene. After deleting the distal 5000 bp, the level of reporter gene expression was strongly reduced. However, decreased levels of thyroid hormone led to an 80-fold skeletal muscle-specific increase in transgene expression, even upon the ablation of a conserved cis-regulatory element termed MCAT, which under normal (euthyroid) conditions abolishes muscle-specific expression. In contrast, cardiac-specific induction was not detected with the deletion construct. These observations indicate that the cardiac and skeletal muscle regulatory elements can be functionally segregated on the beta-MyHC gene promoter. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7878016

  18. Variations in contractile properties of rabbit single muscle fibres in relation to troponin T isoforms and myosin light chains.

    PubMed Central

    Greaser, M L; Moss, R L; Reiser, P J

    1988-01-01

    1. The maximal velocity of shortening (Vmax), tension-pCa relationships and the contractile and regulatory protein composition were determined in single, chemically skinned fibres from adult rabbit plantaris muscles. 2. Three groups of fibres were identified based on their protein compositions. One group had exclusively the slow-type myosin heavy chain (MHC) and myosin light chains (LC) and had low velocities. Another group of fibres had mixtures of fast-type and slow-type MHCs and LCs and had intermediate shortening velocities. The third group of fibres had fast-type myosin heavy and light chains and high velocities. 3. The low-velocity fibres had a mean velocity (+/- S.E.M.) of 0.86 +/- 0.03 muscle lengths/s (ML/s) at 15 degrees C. The remaining fibres formed a continuum with respect to Vmax from 1.37 to 3.94 ML/s. These results indicate that a much greater diversity exists among single fibres from adult mammalian skeletal muscle than previously recognized. The intermediate- and high-velocity fibres formed a continuum (from slow to fast) with respect to the amount of myosin light chain 3 (LC3). That is, Vmax increased with the relative LC3 content in single fibres in the intermediate- and high-velocity groups in a quantitative, statistically significant manner. 4. Three isoforms of fast-type troponin T were identified among the intermediate- and high-velocity fibres. These fibres also contained fast-type troponin C and troponin I. As was the case with the relative LC3 content, these fibres also formed a continuum with respect to the relative proportions of the three isoforms of fast-type troponin T. It appears that different isoforms of troponin T are responsible for a slightly higher Ca2+ sensitivity of tension development in the high-velocity fibres compared to the intermediate fibres. The continuum in troponin T isoform composition paralleled an increase in Vmax among these fibres. 5. The low-velocity fibres had the highest Ca2+ sensitivity of the three groups and had exclusively the slow-type isoforms of the regulatory proteins in the troponin complex. 6. The co-ordinated variations in troponin T and LC3 compositions among the intermediate- and high-velocity fibres are discussed as a possible means for the further differentiation of the contractile properties of the fibres in these two groups, beyond that provided by myosin heavy chain isoforms alone. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:3254423

  19. Minimum requirements for inhibition of smooth-muscle myosin light-chain kinase by synthetic peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, J T; Floyd, D M; Lee, V G; Little, D K; Moreland, S

    1989-01-01

    Although the amino acid residues that are important for peptide substrates of myosin light-chain kinase have been reported, those that are important for peptide inhibitors of this enzyme have not previously been investigated. Synthetic peptides based on the sequence Lys11-Lys12-Arg13-Ala-Ala-Arg16-Ala-Thr-Ser19 -Asn-Val21-Phe22-Ala of the chicken gizzard myosin light chain were tested as inhibitors of pig carotid-artery myosin light-chain kinase. The basic amino acid residues of the known myosin light-chain kinase inhibitor Lys-Lys-Arg-Ala-Ala-Arg-Ala-Thr-Ser-NH2 (IC50 = 14 microM) [Pearson, Misconi & Kemp (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 25-27] were shown to be the important residues that contribute to inhibitor potency, as evidence by the finding that the hexapeptide Lys-Lys-Arg-Ala-Ala-Arg-NH2 had an IC50 value of 22 microM. This indicates that binding of the phosphorylatable serine residue to myosin light-chain kinase, which is of obvious importance for a substrate, does not enhance the potency of an inhibitor. With the aim of preparing more potent inhibitors, peptides Lys-Lys-Arg-Ala-Ala-Arg-Ala-Ala-Xaa-NH2 were prepared with a variety of amino acids substituted for the phosphorylatable serine residue. None of these peptides was a more potent inhibitor than the serine peptide. PMID:2920029

  20. The Relay/Converter Interface Influences Hydrolysis of ATP by Skeletal Muscle Myosin II.

    PubMed

    Bloemink, Marieke J; Melkani, Girish C; Bernstein, Sanford I; Geeves, Michael A

    2016-01-22

    The interface between relay and converter domain of muscle myosin is critical for optimal myosin performance. Using Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle S1, we performed a kinetic analysis of the effect of mutations in the converter and relay domain. Introduction of a mutation (R759E) in the converter domain inhibits the steady-state ATPase of myosin S1, whereas an additional mutation in the relay domain (N509K) is able to restore the ATPase toward wild-type values. The R759E S1 construct showed little effect on most steps of the actomyosin ATPase cycle. The exception was a 25-30% reduction in the rate constant of the hydrolysis step, the step coupled to the cross-bridge recovery stroke that involves a change in conformation at the relay/converter domain interface. Significantly, the double mutant restored the hydrolysis step to values similar to the wild-type myosin. Modeling the relay/converter interface suggests a possible interaction between converter residue 759 and relay residue 509 in the actin-detached conformation, which is lost in R759E but is restored in N509K/R759E. This detailed kinetic analysis of Drosophila myosin carrying the R759E mutation shows that the interface between the relay loop and converter domain is important for fine-tuning myosin kinetics, in particular ATP binding and hydrolysis. PMID:26586917

  1. The Relay/Converter Interface Influences Hydrolysis of ATP by Skeletal Muscle Myosin II*

    PubMed Central

    Bloemink, Marieke J.; Melkani, Girish C.; Bernstein, Sanford I.; Geeves, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    The interface between relay and converter domain of muscle myosin is critical for optimal myosin performance. Using Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle S1, we performed a kinetic analysis of the effect of mutations in the converter and relay domain. Introduction of a mutation (R759E) in the converter domain inhibits the steady-state ATPase of myosin S1, whereas an additional mutation in the relay domain (N509K) is able to restore the ATPase toward wild-type values. The R759E S1 construct showed little effect on most steps of the actomyosin ATPase cycle. The exception was a 25–30% reduction in the rate constant of the hydrolysis step, the step coupled to the cross-bridge recovery stroke that involves a change in conformation at the relay/converter domain interface. Significantly, the double mutant restored the hydrolysis step to values similar to the wild-type myosin. Modeling the relay/converter interface suggests a possible interaction between converter residue 759 and relay residue 509 in the actin-detached conformation, which is lost in R759E but is restored in N509K/R759E. This detailed kinetic analysis of Drosophila myosin carrying the R759E mutation shows that the interface between the relay loop and converter domain is important for fine-tuning myosin kinetics, in particular ATP binding and hydrolysis. PMID:26586917

  2. Effects of Myosin “Essential” Light Chain A1 on the Aggregation Properties of the Myosin Head

    PubMed Central

    Markov, D.I.; Nikolaeva, O.P.

    2010-01-01

    We compared the thermal aggregation properties of two isoforms of the isolated myosin head (myosin subfragment 1, S1) containing different “essential” (or “alkali”) light chains, A1 or A2. Temperature dependencies for the aggregation of these two S1 isoforms, as measured by the increase in turbidity, were compared with the temperature dependencies of their thermal denaturation obtained from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments. At relatively high ionic strength (in the presence of 100 mM KCl) close to its physiological values in muscle fibers, we have found no appreciable difference between the two S1 isoforms in their thermally induced aggregation. Under these conditions, the aggregation of both S1 isoforms was independent of the protein concentration and resulted from their irreversible denaturation, which led to the cohesion of denatured S1 molecules. In contrast, a significant difference between these S1 isoforms was revealed in their aggregation measured at low ionic strength. Under these conditions, the aggregation of S1 containing a light chain A1 (but not A2) was strongly dependent on protein concentration, the increase of which (from 0.125 to 2.0 mg/ml) shifted the aggregation curve by ~10 degrees towards the lower temperatures. It has been concluded that the aggregation properties of this S1 isoform at low ionic strength is basically determined by intermolecular interactions of the N–terminal extension of the A1 light chain (which is absent in the A2 light chain) with other S1 molecules. These interactions seem to be independent of the S1 thermal denaturation, and they may take place even at low temperature. PMID:22649644

  3. Crystal Structure of a Phosphorylated Light Chain Domain of Scallop Smooth-Muscle Myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, V.S.; Robinson, H.; O-Neall-Hennessey, E.; Reshetnikova, L.; Brown, J. H.; Szent-Gyorgyi, A. G.; Cohen, C.

    2011-11-02

    We have determined the crystal structure of a phosphorylated smooth-muscle myosin light chain domain (LCD). This reconstituted LCD is of a sea scallop catch muscle myosin with its phosphorylatable regulatory light chain (RLC SmoA). In the crystal structure, Arg{sup 16}, an arginine residue that is present in this isoform but not in vertebrate smooth-muscle RLC, stabilizes the phosphorylation site. This arginine interacts with the carbonyl group of the phosphorylation-site serine in the unphosphorylated LCD (determined previously), and with the phosphate group when the serine is phosphorylated. However, the overall conformation of the LCD is essentially unchanged upon phosphorylation. This result provides additional evidence that phosphorylation of the RLC is unlikely to act as an on-switch in regulation of scallop catch muscle myosin.

  4. Tissue specificity of 3'-untranslated sequence of myosin light chain gene: unexpected interspecies homology with repetitive DNA.

    PubMed

    Saidapet, C; Khandekar, P; Mendola, C; Siddiqui, M A

    1984-09-01

    Using the 3' noncoding and coding sequences of chick heart myosin light chain mRNA cloned into Escherichia coli as probes, it was observed that, while the coding sequence shared homology with myosin light-chain mRNAs from other sources, the 3' noncoding sequence was specific for chick heart muscle. This property was used to detect chick heart-specific myosin light-chain gene activity in chick blastoderms of very early developmental stages where cells of different muscle origins cannot be distinguished morphologically. However, in spite of the tissue-specific divergence of the 3' noncoding sequence of myosin light-chain gene, which is present in a single copy in the chick genome, a surprising homology with DNA from such a diverse source like Dictyostelium discoideum was noted. The sequence homologous to chick myosin light-chain DNA was apparently present in a high repetition frequency in the Dictyostelium genome. PMID:6385857

  5. A Small-Molecule Inhibitor of T. gondii Motility Induces the Posttranslational Modification of Myosin Light Chain-1 and Inhibits Myosin Motor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Heaslip, Aoife T.; Leung, Jacqueline M.; Carey, Kimberly L.; Catti, Federica; Warshaw, David M.; Westwood, Nicholas J.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Ward, Gary E.

    2010-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that enters cells by a process of active penetration. Host cell penetration and parasite motility are driven by a myosin motor complex consisting of four known proteins: TgMyoA, an unconventional Class XIV myosin; TgMLC1, a myosin light chain; and two membrane-associated proteins, TgGAP45 and TgGAP50. Little is known about how the activity of the myosin motor complex is regulated. Here, we show that treatment of parasites with a recently identified small-molecule inhibitor of invasion and motility results in a rapid and irreversible change in the electrophoretic mobility of TgMLC1. While the precise nature of the TgMLC1 modification has not yet been established, it was mapped to the peptide Val46-Arg59. To determine if the TgMLC1 modification is responsible for the motility defect observed in parasites after compound treatment, the activity of myosin motor complexes from control and compound-treated parasites was compared in an in vitro motility assay. TgMyoA motor complexes containing the modified TgMLC1 showed significantly decreased motor activity compared to control complexes. This change in motor activity likely accounts for the motility defects seen in the parasites after compound treatment and provides the first evidence, in any species, that the mechanical activity of Class XIV myosins can be modulated by posttranslational modifications to their associated light chains. PMID:20084115

  6. Cloning and molecular characterization of a myosin light chain gene from Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Han, Li-Na; Zhang, Qiong; Wang, Qiu-Ling; Chang, Qing; Zhuang, Hua; Liu, Jia; Li, Man; Yu, Dan; Kang, Zhen-Sheng

    2014-02-01

    The fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), the causal agent of wheat stripe rust, is an obligate biotrophic basidiomycete. Many studies have found that myosins play important roles during fungal growth and propagation. However, there are few reports on the myosins of Pst. In this study, we cloned and obtained the myosin light chain gene PsMLC1 from Pst and characterized its expression. Furthermore, the function of PsMLC1 was identified by mutant complementation. As a result, we found that expression of PsMLC1 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe mostly complemented the defects of the cdc4 mutant, indicating that PsMLC1 belongs to the myosin light chain family member. Expression studies showed that the transcript levels of PsMLC1 little changed before 24 h post inoculation then was suddenly down-regulated during Pst infection of wheat. By using ML-7, we observed that inactivity of PsMLC1 greatly reduced the germination rate of urediniospores. These results suggest that PsMLC1 is essential for the early stages of Pst infection of wheat but unnecessary for the later stages of infection. This work elucidates the function of the myosins in Pst and may provide some theoretical basis for controlling strip rust. PMID:24046204

  7. Imaging skeletal muscle with linearly polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Ranasinghesagara, J.; Yao, G.

    2008-04-01

    We developed a polarization sensitive imaging system that can acquire reflectance images in turbid samples using incident light of different polarization states. Using this system, we studied polarization imaging on bovine sternomandibularis muscle strips using light of two orthogonal linearly polarized states. We found the obtained polarization sensitive reflectance images had interesting patterns depending on the polarization states. In addition, we computed four elements of the Mueller matrix from the acquired images. As a comparison, we also obtained polarization images of a 20% Intralipid"R" solution and compared the results with those from muscle samples. We found that the polarization imaging patterns from Intralipid solution can be described with a model based on single-scattering approximation. However, the polarization images in muscle had distinct patterns and can not be explained by this simple model. These results implied that the unique structural properties of skeletal muscle play important roles in modulating the propagation of polarized light.

  8. Purification, Characterization and Analysis of the Allergenic Properties of Myosin Light Chain in Procambarus clarkia.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Myosin light chain (MLC) plays a vital role in cell and muscle functions and has been identified as an allergen in close species. In this study, MLC with the molecular mass of 18kDa was purified from crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) muscle fibrils. Its physicochemical characterization showed that the...

  9. Differential regulation of actin and myosin isoenzyme synthesis in functionally overloaded skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, P; Gagnon, J; Essig, D A; Reid, S K; Prior, G; Zak, R

    1990-01-01

    Overload hypertrophy of the chicken anterior latissimus dorsi muscle is accompanied by a replacement of one myosin isoenzyme (slow myosin-1, SM1) by another (slow myosin-2, SM2). To investigate the molecular mechanisms by which these changes occur, we measured the fractional synthesis rates (ks) in vivo of individual myosin-heavy-chain isoenzymes, total actin and total protein during the first 72 h of muscle growth. Although the ks of total protein and actin were doubled at 24 h, the ks for SM1 and SM2 were depressed. However, the ks of both isomyosins were nearly tripled by 72 h. Despite the increase in muscle size observed at 72 h, the amount of SM1 was reduced by half, indicating increased degradation of SM1. Results of translation of polyribosomes in vitro paralleled the results obtained in vivo. The proportion of total polyadenylylated mRNA in total RNA was increased at 48 and 72 h, but unchanged at 24 h despite the increase in protein synthesis at 24 h. Nuclease-protection analyses indicate that the level of specific SM1 and SM2 mRNAs change in a reciprocal fashion during overload. We conclude that gene-specific and temporal differences exist in the regulatory mechanisms that control overload-induced muscle growth. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2302182

  10. Ventricular Myosin Modifies In Vitro Step-Size When Phosphorylated

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yihua; Ajtai, Katalin; Burghardt, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac and skeletal muscle myosins have the central role in contraction transducing ATP free energy into the mechanical work of moving actin. Myosin has a motor domain containing ATP and actin binding sites and a lever-arm that undergoes rotation impelling bound actin. The lever-arm converts torque generated in the motor into the linear displacement known as step-size. The myosin lever-arm is stabilized by bound essential and regulatory light chains (ELC and RLC). RLC phosphorylation at S15 is linked to modified lever-arm mechanical characteristics contributing to myosin filament based contraction regulation and to the response of the muscle to disease. Myosin step-size was measured using a novel quantum dot (Qdot) assay that previously confirmed a 5 nm step-size for fast skeletal myosin and multiple unitary steps, most frequently 5 and 8 nm, and a rare 3 nm displacement for ? cardiac myosin (?Mys). S15 phosphorylation in ?Mys is now shown to change step-size distribution by advancing the 8 nm step frequency. After phosphorylation, the 8 nm step is the dominant myosin step-size resulting in significant gain in the average step-size. An increase in myosin step-size will increase the amount of work produced per ATPase cycle. The results indicate that RLC phosphorylation modulates work production per ATPase cycle suggesting the mechanism for contraction regulation by the myosin filament. PMID:24726887

  11. A 170 kDa polypeptide from mung bean shares multiple epitopes with rabbit skeletal myosin and binds ADP-agarose.

    PubMed

    Qiao, L; Jablonsky, P P; Elliott, J; Williamson, R E

    1994-11-01

    A 170 kDa polypeptide that has been partially purified from mung beans is retained by ADP-agarose even in the absence of divalent cations when most non-myosin ATPases and kinases do not bind. Attempts to demonstrate a myosin-like ATPase activity were inconclusive, however, and the protein accounts at most for only a small part of the total K+ EDTA ATPase activity of mung bean extracts. All four monoclonal antibodies raised to the 170 kDa polypeptide react with rabbit skeletal muscle myosin and localize the 170 kDa polypeptide in mung bean root tip cells to the actin-containing phragmoplast and to sites dispersed throughout the cytoplasm which probably include some but not all actin cables. These 4 monoclonals and 3 commercially available antimyosin monoclonals all recognise rabbit skeletal myosin and 160-170 kDa proteins that are present in two other angiosperms tested. In addition, a 158 kDa protein of mung bean reacts with only one antibody and does not bind ADP-agarose. We conclude that strong but not yet conclusive evidence points to the 160-170 kDa proteins of angiosperms being a widely conserved form of myosin heavy chain. PMID:7534549

  12. Tumor Stiffness Is Unrelated to Myosin Light Chain Phosphorylation in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Madeline; Greene, Madelyne; Chernaya, Olga; Hu, Wen-Yang; Chew, Teng-Leong; Mahmud, Nadim; Kadkol, Shrihari S.; Glover, Sarah; Prins, Gail; Strakova, Zuzana; de Lanerolle, Primal

    2013-01-01

    Many tumors are stiffer than their surrounding tissue. This increase in stiffness has been attributed, in part, to a Rho-dependent elevation of myosin II light chain phosphorylation. To characterize this mechanism further, we studied myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), the main enzyme that phosphorylates myosin II light chains. We anticipated that increases in MLCK expression and activity would contribute to the increased stiffness of cancer cells. However, we find that MLCK mRNA and protein levels are substantially less in cancer cells and tissues than in normal cells. Consistent with this observation, cancer cells contract 3D collagen matrices much more slowly than normal cells. Interestingly, inhibiting MLCK or Rho kinase did not affect the 3D gel contractions while blebbistatin partially and cytochalasin D maximally inhibited contractions. Live cell imaging of cells in collagen gels showed that cytochalasin D inhibited filopodia-like projections that formed between cells while a MLCK inhibitor had no effect on these projections. These data suggest that myosin II phosphorylation is dispensable in regulating the mechanical properties of tumors. PMID:24224004

  13. Myosin Light Chainactivating Phosphorylation Sites Are Required for Oogenesis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Pascale; Karess, Roger

    1997-01-01

    The Drosophila spaghetti squash (sqh) gene encodes the regulatory myosin light chain (RMLC) of nonmuscle myosin II. Biochemical analysis of vertebrate nonmuscle and smooth muscle myosin II has established that phosphorylation of certain amino acids of the RMLC greatly increases the actin-dependent myosin ATPase and motor activity of myosin in vitro. We have assessed the in vivo importance of these sites, which in Drosophila correspond to serine-21 and threonine-20, by creating a series of transgenes in which these specific amino acids were altered. The phenotypes of the transgenes were examined in an otherwise null mutant background during oocyte development in Drosophila females. Germ line cystoblasts entirely lacking a functional sqh gene show severe defects in proliferation and cytokinesis. The ring canals, cytoplasmic bridges linking the oocyte to the nurse cells in the egg chamber, are abnormal, suggesting a role of myosin II in their establishment or maintenance. In addition, numerous aggregates of myosin heavy chain accumulate in the sqh null cells. Mutant sqh transgene sqh-A20, A21 in which both serine-21 and threonine-20 have been replaced by alanines behaves in most respects identically to the null allele in this system, with the exception that no heavy chain aggregates are found. In contrast, expression of sqh-A21, in which only the primary phosphorylation target serine-21 site is altered, partially restores functionality to germ line myosin II, allowing cystoblast division and oocyte development, albeit with some cytokinesis failure, defects in the rapid cytoplasmic transport from nurse cells to cytoplasm characteristic of late stage oogenesis, and some damaged ring canals. Substituting a glutamate for the serine-21 (mutant sqh-E21) allows oogenesis to be completed with minimal defects, producing eggs that can develop normally to produce fertile adults. Flies expressing sqh-A20, in which only the secondary phosphorylation site is absent, appear to be entirely wild type. Taken together, this genetic evidence argues that phosphorylation at serine-21 is critical to RMLC function in activating myosin II in vivo, but that the function can be partially provided by phosphorylation at threonine-20. PMID:9412474

  14. Purification and characterization of a sea urchin egg Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent kinase with myosin light chain phosphorylating activity.

    PubMed

    Chou, Y H; Rebhun, L I

    1986-04-25

    The crude actomyosin precipitate from sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) egg extracts contains Ca2+-sensitive myosin light chain kinase activity. Activity can be further increased by exogenous calmodulin (CaM). Egg myosin light chain kinase activity is purified from total egg extract by fractionating on three different chromatographic columns: DEAE ion exchange, gel filtration on Sephacryl-300, and Affi-Gel-CaM affinity. The purified egg kinase depends totally on Ca2+ and CaM for activity. Unphosphorylated egg myosin has very little actin-activated ATPase. After phosphorylation of the phosphorylable light chain by either egg kinase or gizzard myosin light chain kinase, the actin-activated ATPase of egg myosin is enhanced several fold. However, the egg kinase bears some unique characteristics which are very different from conventional myosin light chain kinases of differentiated tissues. The purified egg kinase has a native molecular mass of 405 kDa, while on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis it shows a single subunit of 56 kDa. The affinity of egg kinase for CaM (Ka = 0.4 microM) is relatively weaker than that of the gizzard myosin light chain kinase. The egg kinase autophosphorylates in the presence of Ca2+ and CaM and has a rather broad substrate specificity. The possible relationship between this egg Ca2+-CaM-dependent kinase and the Ca2+-CaM-dependent kinases from brain and liver is discussed. PMID:2937787

  15. Myosin light chain kinase from vascular smooth muscle inhibits the ATP-dependent interaction between actin and myosin by binding to actin.

    PubMed

    Sato, M; Ye, L H; Kohama, K

    1995-07-01

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) was prepared from smooth muscle of bovine aorta. MLCK inhibited the ATP-dependent movement of actin filaments on a glass surface coated with smooth muscle myosin that had been phosphorylated. The inhibitory effect was abolished by calmodulin in the presence of Ca2+ (Ca-CaM). The abolition was also observed when the concentration of actin filaments was increased. The inhibitory effect and its abolition were related to the actin-binding activity of MLCK, that is antagonized by Ca-CaM. PMID:8537296

  16. Myosin light chain kinase regulates cell polarization independently of membrane tension or Rho kinase

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Sunny S.; Diz-Muoz, Alba; Weiner, Orion D.; Fletcher, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Cells polarize to a single front and rear to achieve rapid actin-based motility, but the mechanisms preventing the formation of multiple fronts are unclear. We developed embryonic zebrafish keratocytes as a model system for investigating establishment of a single axis. We observed that, although keratocytes from 2 d postfertilization (dpf) embryos resembled canonical fan-shaped keratocytes, keratocytes from 4 dpf embryos often formed multiple protrusions despite unchanged membrane tension. Using genomic, genetic, and pharmacological approaches, we determined that the multiple-protrusion phenotype was primarily due to increased myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) expression. MLCK activity influences cell polarity by increasing myosin accumulation in lamellipodia, which locally decreases protrusion lifetime, limiting lamellipodial size and allowing for multiple protrusions to coexist within the context of membrane tension limiting protrusion globally. In contrast, Rho kinase (ROCK) regulates myosin accumulation at the cell rear and does not determine protrusion size. These results suggest a novel MLCK-specific mechanism for controlling cell polarity via regulation of myosin activity in protrusions. PMID:25918227

  17. Interaction of protein-bound polysaccharide (PSK) with smooth muscle myosin regulatory light chain.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Toshihiro; Kunimatsu, Mitoshi

    2003-06-01

    The interaction of a protein-bound polysaccharide (PSK) isolated from Basidiomycetes with smooth muscle myosin components was evaluated by limited digestion, urea/glycerol gel electrophoresis, affinity chromatography and overlay assay using a peptide array. PSK was bound to the regulatory light chain (RLC) of myosin, but not to the essential light chain. The binding to PSK was definitely observed for unphosphorylated RLC, compared to phosphorylated one. From the amino acid sequence of the RLC, 490 peptides were synthesized on a cellulose membrane. Overlay assays showed that the PSK-binding on the molecule of RLC were localized in the N- and C-terminal basic regions and these sites were conserved in RLC from the human smooth muscle and nonmuscle cells. PMID:12808284

  18. Sequence of the NH/sub 2/-terminal 204-residue fragment of the heavy chain of rabbit skeletal muscle myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, S.W.; Elzinga, M.

    1983-11-10

    The amino acid sequence of the M/sub r/ = 23,000 peptide that is generated by limited tryptic digestion of rabbit skeletal muscle heavy meromyosin was detrmined. This fragment represents the NH/sub 2/-terminal 204 residues of the heavy chain of myosin, and its sequence is Ac-S-S-D-A-D-M-A-V/I-F-G-E-A-A-P-Y-L-R-K-S-20-E-K-E-R-I-E-A-Q-N-K-P-F-D-A-K/MML-N-S-V-F-40-V-A/V-D-P-K-E-S-Y/I-V-K-A/E-T-V-Q-S-R-E-G-G-60-K-V-T-V/A-K-T-E-A-G-A-S-V-T-V-K-E-D-Q-V-F-80-P-M-N-P-P-K-Y-D-K-I-E-D-M-A-M-M-T-H-L-H-E-100-P-A-V-L-Y--N-L-K-E-R-Y-A-A-W-M-I-Y-T-Y-S-120-G-L-F-C-V-T-V-N-P-Y-TML-W-L-P-V-Y-N-A-E-V-140-V-T-A-Y-R-G-K-K-R-Q-E-A-P-P-H-I-F-S-I-S-160-D-N-A-Y-Q-F-M-L-T-D-R-E-N-Q-S-I-L-I-T-G-E-180-S-G-A-G-K-T-V-N-T-K-R-V-I-Q-Y-F-A-T-I-A-200-I/V-T-G-D-K. This peptide contains the lysine residue (Lys 83) whose reaction with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonate alters the enzymatic activity of mysoin, as well as two types of methylated lysines. Position 34 is occupied by element of-N-monomethyllysine and lysine in an approximate 60:40 ratio, while position 129 is fully occupied by one of the two element of-N-trimethyllysines in myosin heavy chain. There is evidence suggesting that this fragment contains residues that contribute to the ATP-binding site of myosin; the sequence surrounding the element of-N-trimethyllysine is devoid of charges and could form a hydrophobic pocket for binding of the adenine moiety while the element of-N-trimetyllysine, which carries a positive charge at all pH values, could bind an ATP phosphate group.

  19. Inhibition of myosin light chain kinase reduces brain edema formation after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Luh, Clara; Kuhlmann, Christoph R; Ackermann, Bianca; Timaru-Kast, Ralph; Luhmann, Heiko J; Behl, Christian; Werner, Christian; Engelhard, Kristin; Thal, Serge C

    2010-02-01

    The role of the endothelial contractile apparatus in the process of brain edema formation after brain trauma is not characterized. Phosphorylation of myosin light chains by myosin light chain kinases (MLCK) activates endothelial contractile elements and results in a rearrangement of the cytoskeleton. This may enhance post-traumatic blood-brain barrier dysfunction. In order to investigate the role of the MLCK on brain edema formation and blood-brain barrier permeability after brain injury, mice were anesthetized and subjected to a controlled cortical impact (CCI). MLCK expression is significantly up-regulated after CCI with a maximum 12 h post-injury. Specific inhibition of MLCK by ML-7 resulted in a reduction of phosphorylation of myosin light chains and improved blood-brain-barrier integrity. Accordingly, ML-7 attenuated post-traumatic brain edema formation and intracranial hypertension 24 h after CCI. Prevention of brain edema formation did not translate into improved neurological outcome or reduced brain lesion. In conclusion, the results confirm that the endothelial contractile apparatus is activated by CCI and opens the endothelial barrier leading to vasogenic brain edema formation. Lack of neurological and histological improvement suggests that specific targeting of vasogenic brain edema at the endothelial level is not sufficient to limit secondary brain damage and has, therefore, to be combined with other potential neuroprotective strategies. PMID:19943851

  20. Regulatory Light Chain Mutants Linked to Heart Disease Modify the Cardiac Myosin Lever-Arm

    PubMed Central

    Burghardt, Thomas P.; Sikkink, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Myosin is the chemomechanical energy transducer in striated heart muscle. The myosin cross-bridge applies impulsive force to actin while consuming ATP chemical energy to propel myosin thick filaments relative to actin thin filaments in the fiber. Transduction begins with ATP hydrolysis in the cross-bridge driving rotary movement of a lever-arm converting torque into linear displacement. Myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) binds to the lever-arm and modifies its ability to translate actin. Gene sequencing implicated several RLC mutations in heart disease and three of them are investigated here using photoactivatable GFP tagged RLC (RLC-PAGFP) exchanged into permeabilized papillary muscle fibers. Single lever-arm probe orientation is detected in the crowded environment of the muscle fiber by using the RLC-PAGFP with dipole orientation deduced from the 3-spatial dimension fluorescence emission pattern of the single molecule. Symmetry and selection rules locate dipoles in their half sarcomere, identify those at minimum free-energy, and specify active dipole contraction intermediates. Experiments were performed in a microfluidic chamber designed for isometric contraction, total internal reflection fluorescence detection, and 2-photon excitation second harmonic generation to evaluate sarcomere length. The RLC-PAGFP reports apparently discretized lever-arm orientation intermediates in active isometric fibers that on average produce the stall force. Disease linked mutants introduced to RLC move intermediate occupancy further down the free-energy gradient implying lever-arms rotate more to reach stall force because mutant RLC increases lever-arm shear strain. Lower free-energy intermediate occupancy involves less energy conversion efficiency in the fiber relating a specific myosin function modification to the disease implicated mutant. PMID:23343568

  1. Distinct tissue distributions and subcellular localizations of differently phosphorylated forms of the myosin regulatory light chain in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Ward, Robert E

    2011-01-01

    Nonmuscle myosin II (myosin hereafter) has well-established roles in generating contractile force on actin filaments during morphogenetic processes in all metazoans. Myosin activation is regulated by phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC, encoded by spaghettisquash or sqh in Drosophila) first on Ser21 and subsequently on Thr20. These phosphorylation events are positively controlled by a variety of kinases including myosin light chain kinase, Rho kinase, citron kinase, and AMP kinase and are negatively regulated by myosin phosphatase. The activation of myosin is thus highly regulated and likely developmentally controlled. In order to monitor the activity of myosin during development, we have generated antibodies against the monophosphorylated (Sqh1P) and diphosphorylated (Sqh2P) forms of Sqh. We first show that the antibodies are highly specific. We then used these antibodies to monitor myosin activation in wild type Drosophila tissues. Interestingly, Sqh1P and Sqh2P show distinct patterns of expression in embryos. Sqh1P is expressed nearly ubiquitously and outlines cells consistent with a junctional localization, whereas Sqh2P is strongly expressed on the apical surfaces and in filopodia of tissues undergoing extensive cell shape change or cell movements including the invaginating fore- and hindgut, the invaginating tracheal system, the dorsal pouch and the dorsal most row of epidermal (DME) cells during dorsal closure. In imaginal discs, Sqh1P predominantly localizes in the adherens junction, whereas Sqh2P locates to the apical domain. These antibodies thus have the potential to be very useful in monitoring myosin activation for functional studies of morphogenesis in Drosophila. PMID:20920606

  2. Molecular cloning and mRNA expression analysis of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) from fast skeletal muscle of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Wuying; Fu, Guihong; Bing, Shiyu; Meng, Tao; Zhou, Ruixue; Cheng, Jia; Zhao, Falan; Zhang, Hongfang; Zhang, Jianshe

    2010-03-01

    The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) is one of the major structural and contracting proteins of muscle. We have isolated the cDNA clone encoding MyHC of the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. The sequence comprises 5 934 bp, including a 5 814 bp open reading frame encoding an amino acid sequence of 1 937 residues. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 69% homology to rabbit fast skeletal MyHC and 73%-76% homology to the MyHCs from the mandarin fish, walleye pollack, white croaker, chum salmon, and carp. The putative sequences of subfragment-1 and the light meromyosin region showed 61.4%-80% homology to the corresponding regions of other fish MyHCs. The tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific expressions of the MyHC gene were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. The MyHC gene showed the highest expression in the muscles compared with the kidney, spleen and intestine. Developmentally, there was a gradual increase in MyHC mRNA expression from the neural formation stage to the tail bud stage. The highest expression was detected in hatching larva. Our work on the MyHC gene from the grass carp has provided useful information for fish molecular biology and fish genomics.

  3. Fluorescent modification and orientation of myosin sulfhydryl 2 in skeletal muscle fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Ajtai, K.; Burghardt, T.P. )

    1989-03-07

    The authors describe a protocol for the selective covalent labeling of the sulfhydryl 2 (SH2) on the myosin cross-bridge in glycerinated muscle fibers using the sulfhydryl-selective label 4-(N-((iodoacetoxy)ethyl)-N-methylamino)-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (IANBD). The protocol promotes the specificity of IANBD by using the ability to protect sulfhydryl 1 (SH1) from modification by binding the cross-bridge to the actin filament and using cross-bridge-bound MgADP to promote the accessibility of SH2. They determined the specificity of the probe using fluorescence gel scanning of fiber-extracted proteins to isolate the probe on myosin subfragment 1 (S1), limited proteolysis of the purified S1 to isolate the probe on the 20-kilodalton fragment of S1, and titration of the free SH1's on purified S1 using the radiolabeled SH1-specific reagent ({sup 14}C)iodoacetamide or enzymatic activity measurements. They characterized the angular distribution of the IANBD on cross-bridges in fibers when the fibers are in rigor, in relaxation, in the presence of MgADP, and in isometric contraction using wavelength-dependent fluorescence polarization. They find that the SH2 probe distinguishes the different states of the fiber such that rigor and MgADP are ordered and maintain a similar orientation throughout the excitation wavelength domain. The relaxed cross-bridge is ordered and has an orientation that is distinct from the orientation of the cross-bridge in rigor and MgADP over the entire wavelength domain. The active isometric cross-bridge is also oriented differently from the other states, suggesting the presence of a predominant actin-bound cross-bridge state that precedes the power stroke during muscle contraction.

  4. Impact of resistance exercise during bed rest on skeletal muscle sarcopenia and myosin isoform distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamman, M. M.; Clarke, M. S.; Feeback, D. L.; Talmadge, R. J.; Stevens, B. R.; Lieberman, S. A.; Greenisen, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    Because resistance exercise (REx) and bed-rest unloading (BRU) are associated with opposing adaptations, our purpose was to test the efficacy of REx against the effects of 14 days of BRU on the knee-extensor muscle group. Sixteen healthy men were randomly assigned to no exercise (NoEx; n = 8) or REx (n = 8). REx performed five sets of leg press exercise with 80-85% of one repetition maximum (1 RM) every other day during BRU. Muscle samples were removed from the vastus lateralis muscle by percutaneous needle biopsy. Myofiber distribution was determined immunohistochemically with three monoclonal antibodies against myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms (I, IIa, IIx). MHC distribution was further assessed by quantitative gel electrophoresis. Dynamic 1-RM leg press and unilateral maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) were determined. Maximal neural activation (root mean squared electromyogram) and rate of torque development (RTD) were measured during MVC. Reductions (P < 0.05) in type I (15%) and type II (17%) myofiber cross-sectional areas were found in NoEx but not in REx. Electrophoresis revealed no changes in MHC isoform distribution. The percentage of type IIx myofibers decreased (P < 0.05) in REx from 9 to 2% and did not change in NoEx. 1 RM was reduced (P < 0.05) by 9% in NoEx but was unchanged in REx. MVC fell by 15 and 13% in NoEx and REx, respectively. The agonist-to-antagonist root mean squared electromyogram ratio decreased (P < 0.05) 19% in REx. RTD slowed (P < 0.05) by 54% in NoEx only. Results indicate that REx prevented BRU-induced myofiber atrophy and also maintained training-specific strength. Unlike spaceflight, BRU did not induce shifts in myosin phenotype. The reported benefits of REx may prove useful in prescribing exercise for astronauts in microgravity.

  5. The Effects of Neuregulin on Cardiac Myosin Light Chain Kinase Gene-Ablated Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Audrey N.; Huang, Jian; Battiprolu, Pavan K.; Hill, Joseph A.; Kamm, Kristine E.; Stull, James T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Activation of ErbB2/4 receptor tyrosine kinases in cardiomyocytes by neuregulin treatment is associated with improvement in cardiac function, supporting its use in human patients with heart failure despite the lack of a specific mechanism. Neuregulin infusion in rodents increases cardiac myosin light chain kinase (cMLCK) expression and cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphorylation which may improve actin-myosin interactions for contraction. We generated a cMLCK knockout mouse to test the hypothesis that cMLCK is necessary for neuregulin-induced improvement in cardiac function by increasing RLC phosphorylation. Principal Findings The cMLCK knockout mice have attenuated RLC phosphorylation and decreased cardiac performance measured as fractional shortening. Neuregulin infusion for seven days in wildtype mice increased cardiac cMLCK protein expression and RLC phosphorylation while increasing Akt phosphorylation and decreasing phospholamban phosphorylation. There was no change in fractional shortening. In contrast, neuregulin infusion in cMLCK knockout animals increased cardiac performance in the absence of cMLCK without increasing RLC phosphorylation. In addition, CaMKII signaling appeared to be enhanced in neuregulin-treated knockout mice. Conclusions Thus, Neuregulin may improve cardiac performance in the failing heart without increasing cMLCK and RLC phosphorylation by activating other signaling pathways. PMID:23776695

  6. Thermal Denaturation and Aggregation of Myosin Subfragment 1 Isoforms with Different Essential Light Chains

    PubMed Central

    Markov, Denis I.; Zubov, Eugene O.; Nikolaeva, Olga P.; Kurganov, Boris I.; Levitsky, Dmitrii I.

    2010-01-01

    We compared thermally induced denaturation and aggregation of two isoforms of the isolated myosin head (myosin subfragment 1, S1) containing different “essential” (or “alkali”) light chains, A1 or A2. We applied differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to investigate the domain structure of these two S1 isoforms. For this purpose, a special calorimetric approach was developed to analyze the DSC profiles of irreversibly denaturing multidomain proteins. Using this approach, we revealed two calorimetric domains in the S1 molecule, the more thermostable domain denaturing in two steps. Comparing the DSC data with temperature dependences of intrinsic fluorescence parameters and S1 ATPase inactivation, we have identified these two calorimetric domains as motor domain and regulatory domain of the myosin head, the motor domain being more thermostable. Some difference between the two S1 isoforms was only revealed by DSC in thermal denaturation of the regulatory domain. We also applied dynamic light scattering (DLS) to analyze the aggregation of S1 isoforms induced by their thermal denaturation. We have found no appreciable difference between these S1 isoforms in their aggregation properties under ionic strength conditions close to those in the muscle fiber (in the presence of 100 mM KCl). Under these conditions kinetics of this process was independent of protein concentration, and the aggregation rate was limited by irreversible denaturation of the S1 motor domain. PMID:21151434

  7. Depolarization induces Rho-Rho kinase-mediated myosin light chain phosphorylation in kidney tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Szászi, Katalin; Sirokmány, Gábor; Di Ciano-Oliveira, Caterina; Rotstein, Ori D; Kapus, András

    2005-09-01

    Myosin-based contractility plays important roles in the regulation of epithelial functions, particularly paracellular permeability. However, the triggering factors and the signaling pathways that control epithelial myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation have not been elucidated. Herein we show that plasma membrane depolarization provoked by distinct means, including high extracellular K(+), the lipophilic cation tetraphenylphosphonium, or the ionophore nystatin, induced strong diphosphorylation of MLC in kidney epithelial cells. In sharp contrast to smooth muscle, depolarization of epithelial cells did not provoke a Ca(2+) signal, and removal of external Ca(2+) promoted rather than inhibited MLC phosphorylation. Moreover, elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) did not induce significant MLC phosphorylation, and the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor ML-7 did not prevent the depolarization-induced MLC response, suggesting that MLCK is not a regulated element in this process. Instead, the Rho-Rho kinase (ROK) pathway is the key mediator because 1) depolarization stimulated Rho and induced its peripheral translocation, 2) inhibition of Rho by Clostridium difficile toxin B or C3 transferase abolished MLC phosphorylation, and 3) the ROK inhibitor Y-27632 suppressed the effect. Importantly, physiological depolarizing stimuli were able to activate the same pathway: L-alanine, the substrate of the electrogenic Na(+)-alanine cotransporter, stimulated Rho and induced Y-27632-sensitive MLC phosphorylation in a Na(+)-dependent manner. Together, our results define a novel mode of the regulation of MLC phosphorylation in epithelial cells, which is depolarization triggered and Rho-ROK-mediated but Ca(2+) signal independent. This pathway may be a central mechanism whereby electrogenic transmembrane transport processes control myosin phosphorylation and thereby regulate paracellular transport. PMID:15857905

  8. Maleimidobenzoyl-G-actin: Structural properties and interaction with skeletal myosin subfragment-1

    SciTech Connect

    Bettache, N.; Bertrand, R.; Kassab, R. )

    1990-09-25

    The authors have investigated various structural and interaction properties of maleimidobenzoyl-G-actin (MBS-actin), a new, internally cross-linked G-actin derivative that does not exhibit, at moderate protein concentration, the salt-and myosin subfragment 1 (S-1)--induced polymerizations of G-actin and reacts reversibly and covalently in solution with S-1 at or near the F-actin binding region of the heavy chain. The far-ultraviolet CD spectrum and {alpha}-helix content of the MBS-actin were identical with those displayed by native G-actin. {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} measurements showed the same content of tightly bound Ca{sup 2+} in MBS-actin as in G-actin and the EDTA treatment of the modified protein promoted the same red shift of the intrinsic fluorescence spectrum as observed with native G-actin. Incubation of concentrated MBS-actin solutions with 100 mM KCl+5 mM MgCl{sub 2} led to the polymerization of the actin derivative when the critical monomer concentration reached 1.6mg/mL, at 25{degree}C, pH 8.0. The MBS-F-actin formed activated the Mg{sup 2+}-ATPase of S-1 to the same extent as native F-actin. The MBS-G-actin exhibited a DNase I inhibitor activity very close to that found with native G-actin and was to be at all affected by its specific covalent conjugation to S-1. This finding led them to isolate, for the first time, by gel filtration, a ternary complex comprising DNase I tightly bound to MBS-actin cross-linked to the S-1 heavy chain, demonstrating that S-1 and DNase I bind at distinct sites on G-actin. Collectively, the data illustrate further the nativeness of the MBS-G-actin and its potential use in solution studies of the actin-myosin head interactions.

  9. Expression profiles of myostatin, myogenin, and Myosin heavy chain in skeletal muscles of two rabbit breeds differing in growth rate.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Liangde; Xie, Xiaohong; Zhang, Xiangyu; Lei, Min; Li, Congyan; Ren, Yongjun; Zheng, Jie; Guo, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Cuixia; Yang, Chao; Zheng, Yucai

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare mRNA levels of myostatin (MSTN), myogenin (MyoG), and fiber type compositions in terms of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) in skeletal muscles of two rabbit breeds with different body sizes and growth rates. Longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles of 16 Californian rabbits (CW) and 16 Germany great line of ZIKA rabbits (GZ) were collected at the ages of 35d and 84d (slaughter age). The results showed that the live weights of GZ rabbits of 35d and 84d old were approximately 36% and 26% greater than those of CW rabbits, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that at the age of 84d GZ rabbits contained significantly lower MSTN mRNA level and higher MyoG mRNA level in both longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles than CW rabbits, and mRNA levels of MSTN and MyoG exhibited opposite changes from the age of 35d to 84d, suggesting that GZ rabbits were subjected to less growth inhibition from MSTN at slaughter age, which occurred most possibly in skeletal muscles. Four types of fiber were identified by real-time PCR in rabbit muscles, with MyHC-1 and MyHC-2D, MyHC-2B were the major types in biceps femoris and longissimus dorsi muscles, respectively. At the age of 84d, GZ rabbits contained greater proportion of MyHC-1 and decreased proportion of MyHC-2D and decreased lactate dehydrogenase activity in biceps femoris than CW rabbits, and the results were exactly opposite in longissimus dorsi, suggesting that GZ rabbits show higher oxidative capacity in biceps femoris muscle than CW rabbits. In conclusion, the trends of mRNA levels of MSTN and fiber types in GZ rabbits' skeletal muscles might be consistent with the putative fast growth characteristic of GZ rabbits compared to CW rabbits. PMID:24813217

  10. Laser Raman Light-Scattering Observations of Conformational Changes in Myosin Induced by Inorganic Salts

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Terence W.; Peticolas, Warner L.; Robson, Richard M.

    1978-01-01

    The Raman spectra of aqueous solutions of myosin and mixtures of myosin in solutions of the salts CaCl2, MgCl2, and LiBr have been taken. The spectrum of the solvent background has been subtracted by means of a computer, leaving only the Raman peaks of the protein. From an analysis of the Raman bands in the regions at 900, 940, 1,240-1,300, and 1,650-1,670 cm-1, it seems likely that CaCl2 effects an ?-to ?-transition in myosin, probably owing to the interaction of the Ca2+ ion, LiBr appears to denature the protein leading to increased random coil structure, and MgCl2 appears to have an effect intermediate between the two other salts. These results are reported for concentrations as low as 10-5 M of CaCl2 and MgCl2. This investigation indicates the usefulness of the Raman light-scattering technique for the study of protein conformational changes. PMID:698341

  11. Conformational changes at the highly reactive cystein and lysine regions of skeletal muscle myosin induced by formation of transition state analogues.

    PubMed

    Maruta, S; Homma, K; Ohki, T

    1998-09-01

    Myosin forms stable ternary complexes with Mg2+-ADP and phosphate analogues of aluminum fluoride (AlF4-), beryllium fluoride (BeFn), and scandium fluoride (ScFn). These complexes are distinct from each other and may mimic different transient states in the ATPase cycle [Maruta et al. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 7093-7100]. Regions of skeletal muscle myosin containing the highly reactive residues Cys 707 (SH1), Cys 697 (SH2), and lysine 83 (RLR) dramatically alter their local conformation when myosin hydrolyzes ATP, and these changes may reflect formation of a series of transient intermediates during ATP hydrolysis. We used the fluorescent probes 4-fluoro-7-sulfamoylbezofurazan, 2-(4'-maleimidylanilino)naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid, and trinitrobenzene-sulfonate, which bind to SH1, SH2, and RLR, respectively, to examine differences in local conformations within myosin.ADP.phosphate analogue (BeFn, Vi, AlF4-, and ScFn) complexes. It was observed that the ternary complexes had SH1 conformations similar to those seen on S-1 in the presence of ATP. In contrast, local conformations in the SH2 and RLR regions of S-1.ADP.BeFn were different from those in corresponding regions of S-1.ADP.AlF4- or ScFn. These results suggest that SH1 and SH2 move distinctly during ATP hydrolysis and that the local conformations of the SH2 and RLR regions more sensitively reflect different transient states. PMID:9722668

  12. The embryonic myosin R672C mutation that underlies Freeman-Sheldon syndrome impairs cross-bridge detachment and cycling in adult skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Racca, Alice W; Beck, Anita E; McMillin, Margaret J; Korte, F Steven; Bamshad, Michael J; Regnier, Michael

    2015-06-15

    Distal arthrogryposis is the most common known heritable cause of congenital contractures (e.g. clubfoot) and results from mutations in genes that encode proteins of the contractile complex of skeletal muscle cells. Mutations are most frequently found in MYH3 and are predicted to impair the function of embryonic myosin. We measured the contractile properties of individual skeletal muscle cells and the activation and relaxation kinetics of isolated myofibrils from two adult individuals with an R672C substitution in embryonic myosin and distal arthrogryposis syndrome 2A (DA2A) or Freeman-Sheldon syndrome. In R672C-containing muscle cells, we observed reduced specific force, a prolonged time to relaxation and incomplete relaxation (elevated residual force). In R672C-containing muscle myofibrils, the initial, slower phase of relaxation had a longer duration and slower rate, and time to complete relaxation was greatly prolonged. These observations can be collectively explained by a small subpopulation of myosin cross-bridges with greatly reduced detachment kinetics, resulting in a slower and less complete deactivation of thin filaments at the end of contractions. These findings have important implications for selecting and testing directed therapeutic options for persons with DA2A and perhaps congenital contractures in general. PMID:25740846

  13. Identification of an active site peptide of skeletal myosin after photoaffinity labeling with N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-2-aminoethyl diphosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Y; Yount, R G

    1985-01-01

    The active site of skeletal myosin has been photoaffinity labeled (approximately equal to 50%) by the ADP analog N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-2-aminoethyl triphosphate (NANDP) following the cobalt phenanthroline active site trapping procedure of Wells and Yount [Wells, J. A. & Yount, R. G. (1979) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76, 4966-4970]. Extensive proteolytic digestion of [3H]NANDP-labeled myosin subfragment one yielded two major peptides, P1 and P2, which were purified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. These peptides represented 50% of all labeled amino acids and contained 1 mol of the unusual amino acid epsilon-N-trimethyllysine. Analysis of P2 by Edman techniques gave a sequence Val-Asn-Pro-Tyr-Lys(Me3)-X-Leu-Pro-Val-Tyr, which corresponds to an identical sequence for residues 125-134 determined by Tong and Elzinga [Tong, S. W. & Elzinga, M. (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 13100-13110] for a segment of rabbit skeletal myosin heavy chain in which X is Trp-130. P1 was identical to P2 except it contained an additional three amino acids, Asn-Pro-Gln, at the COOH-terminal end. Amino acid composition, sequence data, spectral measurements, and location of radioactive label in both P1 and P2 all indicate Trp-130 is the major site of labeling by NANDP. The adjacent epsilon-N-trimethyllysine may provide part of the binding site for the triphosphate portion of ATP. PMID:3157189

  14. Tea catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppresses myosin II regulatory light chain phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Umeda, Daisuke; Tachibana, Hirofumi; Yamada, Koji

    2004-01-01

    Phosphorylation of myosin II regulatory light chain (MRLC) is critical event for many cellular processes including muscle contraction, mytosis, migration, and exocytosis. Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) is a major polyphenolic compound of green tea and has various physiological functions. We found that EGCG disrupted stress fibers and suppressed the MRLC phosphorylation in HeLa cells. To elucidate the mechanism for the suppressive effect on the phosphorylation, we examined the effect of various inhibitors for kinases that modulate MRLC phosphorylation. None of the inhibitors mimic the activity of EGCG. These results suggest that EGCG is a compound that can suppress MRLC phosphorylation. PMID:15630232

  15. Evidence for three fast myosin heavy chain isoforms in type II skeletal muscle fibers in the adult llama (Lama glama).

    PubMed

    Graziotti, G H; Ríos, C M; Rivero, J L

    2001-08-01

    Skeletal muscle fiber types classified on the basis of their content of different myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms were analyzed in samples from hindlimb muscles of adult sedentary llamas (Lama glama) by correlating immunohistochemistry with specific anti-MHC monoclonal antibodies, myofibrillar ATPase (mATPase) histochemistry, and quantitative histochemistry of fiber metabolic and size properties. The immunohistochemical technique allowed the separation of four pure (i.e., expressing a unique MHC isoform) muscle fiber types: one slow-twitch (Type I) and three fast-twitch (Type II) phenotypes. The same four major fiber types could be objectively discriminated with two serial sections stained for mATPase after acid (pH 4.5) and alkaline (pH 10.5) preincubations. The three fast-twitch fiber types were tentatively designated as IIA, IIX, and IIB on the basis of the homologies of their immunoreactivities, acid denaturation of their mATPase activity, size, and metabolic properties expressed at the cellular level with the corresponding isoforms of rat and horse muscles. Acid stability of their mATPase activity increased in the rank order IIA>IIX>IIB. The same was true for size and glycolytic capacity, whereas oxidative capacity decreased in the same rank order IIA>IIX>IIB. In addition to these four pure fibers (I, IIA, IIX, and IIB), four other fiber types with hybrid phenotypes containing two (I+IIA, IIAX, and IIXB) or three (IIAXB) MHCs were immunohistochemically delineated. These frequent phenotypes (40% of the semitendinosus muscle fiber composition) had overlapped mATPase staining intensities with their corresponding pure fiber types, so they could not be delineated by mATPase histochemistry. Expression of the three fast adult MHC isoforms was spatially regulated around islets of Type I fibers, with concentric circles of fibers expressing MHC-IIA, then MHC-IIX, and peripherally MHC-IIB. This study demonstrates that three adult fast Type II MHC isoproteins are expressed in skeletal muscle fibers of the llama. The general assumption that the very fast MHC-IIB isoform is expressed only in small mammals can be rejected. PMID:11457931

  16. Autoregulatory Control of Smooth Muscle Myosin Light Chain Kinase Promoter by Notch Signaling.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sanchita; Proweller, Aaron

    2016-02-01

    Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (SM-MLCK) is the key enzyme responsible for phosphorylation of regulatory myosin light chain (MLC20), resulting in actin-myosin cross-bridging and force generation in vascular smooth muscle required for physiological vasoreactivity and blood pressure control. In this study, we investigated the combinatorial role of myocardin/serum response factor (SRF) and Notch signaling in the transcriptional regulation of MLCK gene expression. Promoter reporter analyses in rat A10 smooth muscle cells revealed a bimodal pattern of MLCK promoter activity and gene expression upon stimulation with constitutively active Notch1 in presence of myocardin or by Jagged1 ligand stimulation. An initial Notch1-induced increase in MLCK transcription was followed by loss in promoter sensitivity, which could be restored with further Notch1 dose escalation. Real-time PCR analyses revealed that endogenous levels of Hairy Related Transcription (HRT) factor 2 (HRT2) peaked concurrently with inhibitory concentrations of Notch1. Forced expression of HRT2 demonstrated simultaneous repression of both myocardin- and Notch1-induced MLCK promoter activity. HRT2-mediated repression was further confirmed by HRT2 truncations and siHRT2 treatments that rescued MLCK promoter activity and gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies revealed both Jagged1 ligand- and Notch1-enhanced myocardin/SRF complex formation at the promoter CArG element. In contrast, heightened levels of HRT2 concomitantly disrupted myocardin/SRF and Notch transcription complex formation at respective CArG and CSL binding elements. Taken together, SM-MLCK promoter activity appears highly sensitive to the relative levels of Notch1 signaling, HRT2, and myocardin. These findings identify a novel Notch-dependent HRT2 autoregulatory circuit coordinating transcriptional regulation of SM-MLCK. PMID:26703474

  17. Myosin?II heavy chain and formin mediate the targeting of myosin essential light chain to the division site before and during cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhonghui; Okada, Satoshi; Cai, Guoping; Zhou, Bing; Bi, Erfei

    2015-01-01

    MLC1 is a haploinsufficient gene encoding the essential light chain for Myo1, the sole myosin?II heavy chain in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mlc1 defines an essential hub that coordinates actomyosin ring function, membrane trafficking, and septum formation during cytokinesis by binding to IQGAP, myosin?II, and myosin?V. However, the mechanism of how Mlc1 is targeted to the division site during the cell cycle remains unsolved. By constructing a GFP?tagged MLC1 under its own promoter control and using quantitative live?cell imaging coupled with yeast mutants, we found that septin ring and actin filaments mediate the targeting of Mlc1 to the division site before and during cytokinesis, respectively. Both mechanisms contribute to and are collectively required for the accumulation of Mlc1 at the division site during cytokinesis. We also found that Myo1 plays a major role in the septin?dependent Mlc1 localization before cytokinesis, whereas the formin Bni1 plays a major role in the actin filamentdependent Mlc1 localization during cytokinesis. Such a two?tiered mechanism for Mlc1 localization is presumably required for the ordered assembly and robustness of cytokinesis machinery and is likely conserved across species. PMID:25631819

  18. Planarian myosin essential light chain is involved in the formation of brain lateral branches during regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuying; Chen, Xuhui; Yuan, Zuoqing; Zhou, Luming; Pang, Qiuxiang; Mao, Bingyu; Zhao, Bosheng

    2015-08-01

    The myosin essential light chain (ELC) is a structure component of the actomyosin cross-bridge, however, the functions in the central nervous system (CNS) development and regeneration remain poorly understood. Planarian Dugesia japonica has revealed fundamental mechanisms and unique aspects of neuroscience and neuroregeneration. In this study, the cDNA DjElc, encoding a planarian essential light chain of myosin, was identified from the planarian Dugesia japonica cDNA library. It encodes a deduced protein with highly conserved functionally domains EF-Hand and Ca(2+) binding sites that shares significant similarity with other members of ELC. Whole mount in situ hybridization studies show that DjElc expressed in CNS during embryonic development and regeneration of adult planarians. Loss of function of DjElc by RNA interference during planarian regeneration inhibits brain lateral branches regeneration completely. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that DjElc is required for maintenance of neurons and neurite outgrowth, particularly for involving the brain later branch regeneration. PMID:25585662

  19. Myosin Regulatory Light Chain (RLC) Phosphorylation Change as a Modulator of Cardiac Muscle Contraction in Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Toepfer, Christopher; Caorsi, Valentina; Kampourakis, Thomas; Sikkel, Markus B.; West, Timothy G.; Leung, Man-Ching; Al-Saud, Sara A.; MacLeod, Kenneth T.; Lyon, Alexander R.; Marston, Steven B.; Sellers, James R.; Ferenczi, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphorylation alters cardiac muscle mechanics is important because it is often altered in cardiac disease. The effect this protein phosphorylation has on muscle mechanics during a physiological range of shortening velocities, during which the heart generates power and performs work, has not been addressed. We have expressed and phosphorylated recombinant Rattus norvegicus left ventricular RLC. In vitro we have phosphorylated these recombinant species with cardiac myosin light chain kinase and zipper-interacting protein kinase. We compare rat permeabilized cardiac trabeculae, which have undergone exchange with differently phosphorylated RLC species. We were able to enrich trabecular RLC phosphorylation by 40% compared with controls and, in a separate series, lower RLC phosphorylation to 60% of control values. Compared with the trabeculae with a low level of RLC phosphorylation, RLC phosphorylation enrichment increased isometric force by more than 3-fold and peak power output by more than 7-fold and approximately doubled both maximum shortening speed and the shortening velocity that generated peak power. We augmented these measurements by observing increased RLC phosphorylation of human and rat HF samples from endocardial left ventricular homogenate. These results demonstrate the importance of increased RLC phosphorylation in the up-regulation of myocardial performance and suggest that reduced RLC phosphorylation is a key aspect of impaired contractile function in the diseased myocardium. PMID:23530050

  20. Genetics Home Reference: Myosin storage myopathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the major component of the thick filament in muscle cell structures called sarcomeres. Sarcomeres, which are made up ... cardiac ; cell ; contraction ; gait ; gene ; inclusion body ; inherited ; muscle cell ; mutation ; myosin ; myosin heavy chain ; prevalence ; protein ; skeletal ...

  1. Resistance training in patients with peripheral arterial disease: effects on myosin isoforms, fiber type distribution, and capillary supply to skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    McGuigan, M R; Bronks, R; Newton, R U; Sharman, M J; Graham, J C; Cody, D V; Kraemer, W J

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a progressive resistance training program on myosin heavy chain isoform expression, fiber type, and capillarization in patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. Patients were randomized to either a training group (n = 11, mean +/- SD, 70 +/- 6 years, 4 men, 7 women) or a control group (n = 9, 66 +/- 6 years, 5 men, 4 women). The training sessions were completed 3 times/week, using 2 sets of various exercises, each performed for 8-15 repetitions. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after 24 weeks from the medial gastrocnemius. Following the 24-week training program, the training group had significantly decreased the percentage of myosin heavy chain type IIB. The proportion of type IIB/AB fibers as measured by using myosin adenosine triphosphatase histochemistry decreased significantly in the training group. There were significant increases in type I and type II fiber areas, and capillary density also increased significantly in the training group. There were significant increases in 10 repetition maximum leg press and calf press strengths in the trained subjects. There were no significant changes in any of the measurements in the control group. It is concluded that progressive resistance training results in significant increases in muscle strength and alters skeletal muscle composition of subjects with peripheral arterial disease. PMID:11445595

  2. Myosin light chain kinase plays an essential role in S. flexneri dissemination.

    PubMed

    Rathman, M; de Lanerolle, P; Ohayon, H; Gounon, P; Sansonetti, P

    2000-10-01

    Shigella flexneri, the causitive agent of bacillary dysentery, has been shown to disseminate in colonic epithelial cells via protrusions that extend from infected cells and are endocytosed by adjacent cells. This phenomenon occurs in the region of the eukaryotic cell's adherens junctions and is inhibited by pharmacological reagents or host cell mutations that completely disrupt the junctional complex. In this study, inhibitors of the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) were shown to dramatically decrease intercellular spread of S. flexneri but to have no inhibitory effect on bacterial entry, multiplication or actin-based motility within the host cell. Furthermore, cell-to-cell spread of Listeria monocytogenes, another bacterial pathogen that uses an actin-based mechanism to move within the eukaryotic cytoplasm and to spread from cell to cell, was not affected by the MLCK inhibitors, indicating that (1) the inhibition of S. flexneri cell-to-cell spread in treated cells is not due to a complete break down of cell-cell contacts, which was subsequently confirmed by confocal microscopy, and (2) MLCK plays a role in a S. flexneri-specific mechanism of dissemination. Myosin has been shown to play a role in a variety of membrane-based phenomena. The work presented here suggests that activation of this molecule via phosphorylation by MLCK, at the very least participates in the formation of the bacteria-containing protrusion, and could also contribute to the endocytosis of this structure by neighboring cells. PMID:10984429

  3. A myosin-Va tail fragment sequesters dynein light chains leading to apoptosis in melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Izidoro-Toledo, T C; Borges, A C; Arajo, D D; Leito Mazzi, D P S; Nascimento, F O; Sousa, J F; Alves, C P; Paiva, A P B; Trindade, D M; Patussi, E V; Peixoto, P M; Kinnally, K W; Espreafico, E M

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies proposed that myosin-Va regulates apoptosis by sequestering pro-apoptotic Bmf to the actin cytoskeleton through dynein light chain-2 (DLC2). Adhesion loss or other cytoskeletal perturbations would unleash Bmf, allowing it to bind and inhibit pro-survival Bcl2 proteins. Here, we demonstrated that overexpression of a myosin-Va medial tail fragment (MVaf) harboring the binding site for DLC2 dramatically decreased melanoma cell viability. Morphological and molecular changes, including surface blebbing, mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, cytochrome-c and Smac release, as well as caspase-9/-3 activation and DNA fragmentation indicated that melanoma cells died of apoptosis. Immobilized MVaf interacted directly with DLCs, but complexed MVaf/DLCs did not interact with Bmf. Overexpression of DLC2 attenuated MVaf-induced apoptosis. Thus, we suggest that, MVaf induces apoptosis by sequestering DLC2 and DLC1, thereby unleashing the pair of sensitizer and activator BH3-only proteins Bmf and Bim. Murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking Bim and Bmf or Bax and Bak were less sensitive to apoptosis caused by MVaf expression than wild-type MEFs, strengthening the putative role of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in this response. Finally, MVaf expression attenuated B16-F10 solid tumor growth in mice, suggesting that this peptide may be useful as an apoptosis-inducing tool for basic and translational studies. PMID:23519116

  4. Phosphorylation of Nonmuscle myosin II-A regulatory light chain resists Sendai virus fusion with host cells

    PubMed Central

    Das, Provas; Saha, Shekhar; Chandra, Sunandini; Das, Alakesh; Dey, Sumit K.; Das, Mahua R.; Sen, Shamik; Sarkar, Debi P.; Jana, Siddhartha S.

    2015-01-01

    Enveloped viruses enter host cells through membrane fusion and the cells in turn alter their shape to accommodate components of the virus. However, the role of nonmuscle myosin II of the actomyosin complex of host cells in membrane fusion is yet to be understood. Herein, we show that both (−) blebbistatin, a specific inhibitor of nonmuscle myosin II (NMII) and small interfering RNA markedly augment fusion of Sendai virus (SeV), with chinese hamster ovary cells and human hepatocarcinoma cells. Inhibition of RLC phosphorylation using inhibitors against ROCK, but not PKC and MRCK, or overexpression of phospho-dead mutant of RLC enhances membrane fusion. SeV infection increases cellular stiffness and myosin light chain phosphorylation at two hour post infection. Taken together, the present investigation strongly indicates that Rho-ROCK-NMII contractility signaling pathway may provide a physical barrier to host cells against viral fusion. PMID:25993465

  5. Helicobacter pylori CagA Disrupts Epithelial Patterning by Activating Myosin Light Chain

    PubMed Central

    Muyskens, Jonathan B.; Guillemin, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is a leading cause of ulcers and gastric cancer. We show that expression of the H. pylori virulence factor CagA in a model Drosophila melanogaster epithelium induces morphological disruptions including ectopic furrowing. We find that CagA alters the distribution and increases the levels of activated myosin regulatory light chain (MLC), a key regulator of epithelial integrity. Reducing MLC activity suppresses CagA-induced disruptions. A CagA mutant lacking EPIYA motifs (CagAEPISA) induces less epithelial disruption and is not targeted to apical foci like wild-type CagA. In a cell culture model in which CagAEPISA and CagA have equivalent subcellular localization, CagAEPISA is equally potent in activating MLC. Therefore, in our transgenic system, CagA is targeted by EPIYA motifs to a specific apical region of the epithelium where it efficiently activates MLC to disrupt epithelial integrity. PMID:21445303

  6. Adrenomedullin improves intestinal epithelial barrier function by downregulating myosin light chain phosphorylation in ulcerative colitis rats.

    PubMed

    Yi, Zaifeng; Fan, Heng; Liu, Xingxing; Tang, Qing; Zuo, Dongmei; Yang, Jia

    2015-09-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM) is a pivotal endogenous vasoactive peptide, which can maintain epithelial barrier function in inflammatory bowel disease. Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)?dependent phosphorylated myosin light chain kinase (p?MLC) is a key regulator of intestinal barrier function. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of AM on the intestinal epithelial barrier in a rat model of ulcerative colitis (UC) induced by 2,4,6?trinitro?benzene?sulfonic acid (TNBS). A total of 21 male Sprague?Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following three groups and administered different agents for 7 days: The normal group (water and saline), model group (TNBS and saline) and the AM group (TNBS and AM; 1.0 g). The weight of rats was recorded every day. Serum tumor necrosis factor?? (TNF??) and interleukin?6 (IL?6) levels were detected using ELISA kits. Colon tissue was collected for the assessment of histological alterations. The protein expression of MLCK, p?MLC and zonula occludens?1 (ZO?1) was examined by western blot analysis. Intestinal epithelial tight junctions were examined using transmission electron microscopy. The results demonstrated that in colitis model rats, the expression of TNF??, IL?6, MLCK and p?MLC significantly increased compared with normal rats. In addition, the expression of ZO?1 decreased (P<0.05) and intestinal epithelial cell permeability increased. Following AM administration, TNF??, IL?6, MLCK and p?MLC expression significantly decreased compared with the model rats, the expression of ZO?1 increased (P<0.05) and intestinal epithelial cell permeability reduced. These data indicate a protective effect of AM on intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction via suppression of inflammatory cytokines and downregulation of MLCK?p?MLC in TNBS?induced UC. In conclusion, AM/MLCK?p?MLC may be an important signaling pathway in the occurrence and development of UC. PMID:26043783

  7. Lens fiber cell elongation and differentiation is associated with a robust increase in myosin light chain phosphorylation in the developing mouse.

    PubMed

    Maddala, Rupalatha; Skiba, Nikolai; Vasantha Rao, Ponugoti

    2007-10-01

    Myosin II, a molecular motor, plays a critical role in cell migration, cell shape changes, cell adhesion, and cytokinesis. To understand the role of myosin II in lens fiber cell elongation and differentiation, we determined the distribution pattern of nonmuscle myosin IIA, IIB, and phosphorylated regulatory myosin light chain-2 (phospho-MLC) in frozen sections of the developing mouse lens by immunofluorescence analysis. While myosin IIA was distributed uniformly throughout the differentiating lens, including the epithelium and fibers, myosin IIB was localized predominantly to the epithelium and the posterior tips of the lens fibers. In contrast, immunostaining with a di-phospho-MLC antibody localized intensely and precisely to the elongating and differentiating primary and secondary lens fibers, co-localizing with actin filaments. An in situ analysis of Rho GTPase activation revealed that Rho-GTP was distributed uniformly throughout the embryonic lens, including epithelium and fibers. Inhibition of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) activity by ML-7 in organ cultured mouse lenses led to development of nuclear lens opacity in association with abnormal fiber cell organization. Taken together, these data reveal a distinct spatial distribution pattern of myosin II isoforms in the developing lens and a robust activation of MLC phosphorylation in the differentiating lens fibers. Moreover, the regulation of MLC phosphorylation by MLCK appears to be critical for crystallin organization and for maintenance of lens transparency and lens membrane function. PMID:17459090

  8. Identification and changes in the pattern of expression of slow-skeletal-muscle-like myosin heavy chains in a developing fast muscle.

    PubMed

    Dhoot, G K

    1988-01-01

    Immunochemical studies of chicken pectoralis major, a fast muscle, have demonstrated large amounts of myosin heavy chains (MHCs) of the slow-skeletal-muscle type during early stages of embryonic development. A large majority of the myotubes present in early embryonic muscle stained for this class of MHC. As development progressed, its synthesis was suppressed in most of the muscle, except in the deeper presumptive red-strip region. The level of this MHC in the embryonic muscle appeared to be reduced by its suppression in a proportion of the existing cells, by the addition of many presumptive fast cells that never expressed this MHC, and by atrophy or degeneration of a small proportion of the slow MHC-positive cells. Further suppression of this MHC in a proportion of the histochemically typed slow cells present in the red-strip region did not occur until quite late in the post-hatch period. PMID:3384226

  9. Changes in the structure of calmodulin induced by a peptide based on the calmodulin-binding domain of myosin light chain kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Heidorn, D.B.; Seeger, P.A.; Rokop, S.E.; Blumenthal, D.K.; Means, A.R.; Crespi, H.; Trewhella, J. )

    1989-08-08

    Small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering data were used to study the solution structure of calmodulin complexed with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 577-603 of rabbit skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase. The X-ray data indicate that, in the presence of Ca{sup 2+}, the calmodulin-peptide complex has a structure that is considerably more compact than uncomplexed calmodulin. The radius of gyration, R{sub g}, for the complex is approximately 20% smaller than that of uncomplexed Ca{sup 2+}{center dot}calmodulin, and the maximum dimension, d{sub max}, for the complex is also about 20% smaller. The peptide-induced conformational rearrangement of calmodulin is (Ca{sup 2+}) dependent. The length distribution function for the complex is more symmetric than that for uncomplexed Ca{sup 2+}{center dot}calmodulin, indicating that more of the mass is distributed toward the center of mass for the complex, compared with the dumbbell-shaped Ca{sup 2+}{center dot}calmodulin. The solvent contrast dependence of R{sub g} for neutron scattering indicates that the peptide is located more toward the center of the complex, while the calmodulin is located more peripherally, and that the centers of mass of the calmodulin and the peptide are not coincident. The scattering data support the hypothesis that the interconnecting helix region observed in the crystal structure for calmodulin is quite flexible in solution, allowing the two lobes of calmodulin to form close contacts on binding the peptide. This flexibility of the central helix may play a critical role in activating target enzymes such as myosin light chain kinase.

  10. Constitutive phosphorylation of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain prevents development of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Chen-Ching; Muthu, Priya; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Liang, Jingsheng; Huang, Wenrui; Irving, Thomas C.; Kanashiro-Takeuchi, Rosemeire M.; Hare, Joshua M.; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)-dependent phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain (RLC) of cardiac myosin is known to play a beneficial role in heart disease, but the idea of a phosphorylation-mediated reversal of a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) phenotype is novel. Our previous studies on transgenic (Tg) HCM-RLC mice revealed that the D166V (Aspartate166 ?Valine) mutation-induced changes in heart morphology and function coincided with largely reduced RLC phosphorylation in situ. We hypothesized that the introduction of a constitutively phosphorylated Serine15 (S15D) into the hearts of D166V mice would prevent the development of a deleterious HCM phenotype. In support of this notion, MLCK-induced phosphorylation of D166V-mutated hearts was found to rescue some of their abnormal contractile properties. Tg-S15D-D166V mice were generated with the human cardiac RLC-S15D-D166V construct substituted for mouse cardiac RLC and were subjected to functional, structural, and morphological assessments. The results were compared with Tg-WT and Tg-D166V mice expressing the human ventricular RLC-WT or its D166V mutant, respectively. Echocardiography and invasive hemodynamic studies demonstrated significant improvements of intact heart function in S15D-D166V mice compared with D166V, with the systolic and diastolic indices reaching those monitored in WT mice. A largely reduced maximal tension and abnormally high myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity observed in D166V-mutated hearts were reversed in S15D-D166V mice. Low-angle X-ray diffraction study revealed that altered myofilament structures present in HCM-D166V mice were mitigated in S15D-D166V rescue mice. Our collective results suggest that expression of pseudophosphorylated RLC in the hearts of HCM mice is sufficient to prevent the development of the pathological HCM phenotype. PMID:26124132

  11. Constitutive phosphorylation of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain prevents development of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in mice.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chen-Ching; Muthu, Priya; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Liang, Jingsheng; Huang, Wenrui; Irving, Thomas C; Kanashiro-Takeuchi, Rosemeire M; Hare, Joshua M; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2015-07-28

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)-dependent phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain (RLC) of cardiac myosin is known to play a beneficial role in heart disease, but the idea of a phosphorylation-mediated reversal of a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) phenotype is novel. Our previous studies on transgenic (Tg) HCM-RLC mice revealed that the D166V (Aspartate166 ? Valine) mutation-induced changes in heart morphology and function coincided with largely reduced RLC phosphorylation in situ. We hypothesized that the introduction of a constitutively phosphorylated Serine15 (S15D) into the hearts of D166V mice would prevent the development of a deleterious HCM phenotype. In support of this notion, MLCK-induced phosphorylation of D166V-mutated hearts was found to rescue some of their abnormal contractile properties. Tg-S15D-D166V mice were generated with the human cardiac RLC-S15D-D166V construct substituted for mouse cardiac RLC and were subjected to functional, structural, and morphological assessments. The results were compared with Tg-WT and Tg-D166V mice expressing the human ventricular RLC-WT or its D166V mutant, respectively. Echocardiography and invasive hemodynamic studies demonstrated significant improvements of intact heart function in S15D-D166V mice compared with D166V, with the systolic and diastolic indices reaching those monitored in WT mice. A largely reduced maximal tension and abnormally high myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity observed in D166V-mutated hearts were reversed in S15D-D166V mice. Low-angle X-ray diffraction study revealed that altered myofilament structures present in HCM-D166V mice were mitigated in S15D-D166V rescue mice. Our collective results suggest that expression of pseudophosphorylated RLC in the hearts of HCM mice is sufficient to prevent the development of the pathological HCM phenotype. PMID:26124132

  12. Myosins 1 and 6, myosin light chain kinase, actin and microtubules cooperate during antibody-mediated internalisation and trafficking of membrane-expressed viral antigens in feline infectious peritonitis virus infected monocytes.

    PubMed

    Dewerchin, Hannah L; Desmarets, Lowiese M; Noppe, Ytse; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2014-01-01

    Monocytes infected with feline infectious peritonitis virus, a coronavirus, express viral proteins in their plasma membranes. Upon binding of antibodies, these proteins are quickly internalised through a new clathrin- and caveolae-independent internalisation pathway. By doing so, the infected monocytes can escape antibody-dependent cell lysis. In the present study, we investigated which kinases and cytoskeletal proteins are of importance during internalisation and subsequent intracellular transport. The experiments showed that myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin 1 are crucial for the initiation of the internalisation. With co-localisation stainings, it was found that MLCK and myosin 1 co-localise with antigens even before internalisation started. Myosin 6 co-localised with the internalising complexes during passage through the cortical actin, were it might play a role in moving or disintegrating actin filaments, to overcome the actin barrier. One minute after internalisation started, vesicles had passed the cortical actin, co-localised with microtubules and association with myosin 6 was lost. The vesicles were further transported over the microtubules and accumulated at the microtubule organising centre after 10 to 30 min. Intracellular trafficking over microtubules was mediated by MLCK, myosin 1 and a small actin tail. Since inhibiting MLCK with ML-7 was so efficient in blocking the internalisation pathway, this target can be used for the development of a new treatment for FIPV. PMID:24517254

  13. Myosins 1 and 6, myosin light chain kinase, actin and microtubules cooperate during antibody-mediated internalisation and trafficking of membrane-expressed viral antigens in feline infectious peritonitis virus infected monocytes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Monocytes infected with feline infectious peritonitis virus, a coronavirus, express viral proteins in their plasma membranes. Upon binding of antibodies, these proteins are quickly internalised through a new clathrin- and caveolae-independent internalisation pathway. By doing so, the infected monocytes can escape antibody-dependent cell lysis. In the present study, we investigated which kinases and cytoskeletal proteins are of importance during internalisation and subsequent intracellular transport. The experiments showed that myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin 1 are crucial for the initiation of the internalisation. With co-localisation stainings, it was found that MLCK and myosin 1 co-localise with antigens even before internalisation started. Myosin 6 co-localised with the internalising complexes during passage through the cortical actin, were it might play a role in moving or disintegrating actin filaments, to overcome the actin barrier. One minute after internalisation started, vesicles had passed the cortical actin, co-localised with microtubules and association with myosin 6 was lost. The vesicles were further transported over the microtubules and accumulated at the microtubule organising centre after 10 to 30min. Intracellular trafficking over microtubules was mediated by MLCK, myosin 1 and a small actin tail. Since inhibiting MLCK with ML-7 was so efficient in blocking the internalisation pathway, this target can be used for the development of a new treatment for FIPV. PMID:24517254

  14. Cytokinesis is not controlled by calmodulin or myosin light chain kinase in the Caenorhabditis elegans early embryo

    PubMed Central

    Batchelder, Ellen L.; Thomas–Virnig, Christina L.; Hardin, Jeffery D.; White, John G.

    2007-01-01

    Furrow ingression in animal cell cytokinesis is controlled by phosphorylation of myosin II regulatory light chain (mRLC). In C. elegans embryos, Rho-dependent Kinase (RhoK) is involved in, but not absolutely required for, this phosphorylation. The calmodulin effector Myosin Light Chain Kinase (MLCK) can also phosphorylate mRLC and is widely regarded as a candidate for redundant function with RhoK. However, our results show that RNAi against C. elegans calmodulin and candidate MLCKs had no effect on cytokinesis in wild type or RhoK mutant embryos, ruling out the calmodulin/MLCK pathway as the missing regulator of cytokinesis in the C. elegans early embryo. PMID:17716666

  15. Myosin light chain phosphorylation in sup 32 P-labeled rabbit aorta stimulated by phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate and phenylephrine

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, H.A.; Oren, J.W.; Benscoter, H.A. )

    1989-12-15

    The mechanism(s) of force development in vascular smooth muscle following pharmacological activation of protein kinase C by phorbol esters are not known. In this study, we examined the myosin light chain phosphorylation response following stimulation by phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDB) or phenylephrine in rabbit aorta which had been incubated with 32PO4 in order to label ATP pools. Through tryptic phosphopeptide mapping of myosin light chain from intact tissue and comparison to controls using purified components, we inferred that Ca2+-dependent force stimulated by PDB was associated with small increases in serine-19 phosphorylation, consistent with a contractile mechanism involving indirect activation of myosin light chain kinase. Additional residues, consistent with the in vitro substrate specificity of protein kinase C, were also observed to be phosphorylated in response to PDB and represented proportionately a larger fraction of the total phosphorylated myosin light chain in Ca2+-depleted tissues. Stimulation by an alpha 1-adrenergic agonist (phenylephrine) resulted in phosphorylation of residues which were consistent with an activation mechanism involving myosin light chain kinase only. These results indicate that in rabbit aorta the contractile effects of PDB may be partially mediated by Ca2+-dependent activation of myosin light chain kinase. However, the data do not rule out a component of the PDB-stimulated contractile response which is independent of myosin light chain phosphorylation on the serine-19 residue. In addition, activation by a more physiological stimulus, phenylephrine, does not result in protein kinase C-mediated myosin light chain phosphorylation.

  16. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Associated Lys104Glu Mutation in the Myosin Regulatory Light Chain Causes Diastolic Disturbance in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wenrui; Liang, Jingsheng; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Muthu, Priya; Duggal, Divya; Farman, Gerrie P.; Sorensen, Lars; Pozios, Iraklis; Abraham, Theodore P.; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Borejdo, Julian; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    We have examined, for the first time, the effects of the familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)- associated Lys104Glu mutation in the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). Transgenic mice expressing the Lys104Glu substitution (Tg-MUT) were generated and the results compared to Tg-WT (wild-type human ventricular RLC) mice. Echocardiography with pulse wave Doppler in 6 month-old Tg-MUT showed early signs of diastolic disturbance with significantly reduced E/A transmitral velocities ratio. Invasive hemodynamics in 6 month-old Tg-MUT mice also demonstrated a borderline significant prolonged isovolumic relaxation time (Tau) and a tendency for slower rate of pressure decline, suggesting alterations in diastolic function in Tg-MUT. Six month-old mutant animals had no LV hypertrophy; however, at >13 months they displayed significant hypertrophy and fibrosis. In skinned papillary muscles from 5-6 month-old mice a mutation induced reduction in maximal tension and slower muscle relaxation rates were observed. Mutated cross-bridges showed increased rates of binding to the thin filaments and a faster rate of the power stroke. In addition, ~2-fold lower level of RLC phosphorylation was observed in the mutant compared to Tg-WT. In line with the higher mitochondrial content seen in Tg-MUT hearts, the MUT-myosin ATPase activity was significantly higher than WT-myosin, indicating increased energy consumption. In the in vitro motility assay, MUT-myosin produced higher actin sliding velocity under zero load, but the velocity drastically decreased with applied load in the MUT vs. WT myosin. Our results suggest that diastolic disturbance (impaired muscle relaxation, lower E/A) and inefficiency of energy use (reduced contractile force and faster ATP consumption) may underlie the Lys104Glu-mediated HCM phenotype. PMID:24992035

  17. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated Lys104Glu mutation in the myosin regulatory light chain causes diastolic disturbance in mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenrui; Liang, Jingsheng; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Muthu, Priya; Duggal, Divya; Farman, Gerrie P; Sorensen, Lars; Pozios, Iraklis; Abraham, Theodore P; Moore, Jeffrey R; Borejdo, Julian; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2014-09-01

    We have examined, for the first time, the effects of the familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)-associated Lys104Glu mutation in the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). Transgenic mice expressing the Lys104Glu substitution (Tg-MUT) were generated and the results were compared to Tg-WT (wild-type human ventricular RLC) mice. Echocardiography with pulse wave Doppler in 6month-old Tg-MUT showed early signs of diastolic disturbance with significantly reduced E/A transmitral velocities ratio. Invasive hemodynamics in 6month-old Tg-MUT mice also demonstrated a borderline significant prolonged isovolumic relaxation time (Tau) and a tendency for slower rate of pressure decline, suggesting alterations in diastolic function in Tg-MUT. Six month-old mutant animals had no LV hypertrophy; however, at >13months they displayed significant hypertrophy and fibrosis. In skinned papillary muscles from 5 to 6month-old mice a mutation induced reduction in maximal tension and slower muscle relaxation rates were observed. Mutated cross-bridges showed increased rates of binding to the thin filaments and a faster rate of the power stroke. In addition, ~2-fold lower level of RLC phosphorylation was observed in the mutant compared to Tg-WT. In line with the higher mitochondrial content seen in Tg-MUT hearts, the MUT-myosin ATPase activity was significantly higher than WT-myosin, indicating increased energy consumption. In the in vitro motility assay, MUT-myosin produced higher actin sliding velocity under zero load, but the velocity drastically decreased with applied load in the MUT vs. WT myosin. Our results suggest that diastolic disturbance (impaired muscle relaxation, lower E/A) and inefficiency of energy use (reduced contractile force and faster ATP consumption) may underlie the Lys104Glu-mediated HCM phenotype. PMID:24992035

  18. Purification, Characterization, and Analysis of the Allergenic Properties of Myosin Light Chain in Procambarus clarkii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Xia; Chen, Heng-Li; Maleki, Soheila J; Cao, Min-Jie; Zhang, Ling-Jing; Su, Wen-Jin; Liu, Guang-Ming

    2015-07-15

    Myosin light chain (MLC) plays a vital role in cell and muscle functions and has been identified as an allergen in shrimp. In this study, MLC with a molecular mass of 18 kDa was purified from crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) muscle. Its physicochemical characterization showed that the purified MLC is a glycoprotein with 4.3% carbohydrate, highly stable to heat, acid-alkali, and digestion, and weakly retains IgE-binding activity when its secondary structure was altered. Serological assays suggested that conformational epitopes predominate over linear epitopes in the purified MLC. Two isoforms of the MLC gene (MLC1 and MLC2) were cloned, and the purified MLC was identified as MLC1. Analysis of the secondary and tertiary structures of the MLCs indicated that MLC1 has four conformational epitopes and three linear epitopes, whereas MLC2 had a major conformational epitope and three linear epitopes. These results are significant for understanding hypersensitization of humans to crayfish. PMID:26083097

  19. G protein-mediated inhibition of myosin light-chain phosphatase in vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Kitazawa, T; Masuo, M; Somlyo, A P

    1991-01-01

    The mechanism of G protein-mediated sensitization of the contractile apparatus of smooth muscle to Ca2+ was studied in receptor-coupled alpha-toxin-permeabilized rabbit portal vein smooth muscle. To test the hypothesis that Ca2+ sensitization is due to inhibition of myosin light-chain (MLC) phosphatase activity, we measured the effect of guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate and phenylephrine on the rate of MLC dephosphorylation in muscles preactivated with Ca2+ and incubated in Ca(2+)- and ATP-free solution containing 1-(5-chloronaphthalene-1-sulfonyl)-1H-hexahydro-1,4-diazepine (ML-9) to block MLC kinase activity. Guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate alone (300 microM) or in combination (3 microM) with phenylephrine decreased the rates of relaxation and dephosphorylation of MLC to about half of control values; this inhibition is sufficient to account for maximal G protein-mediated Ca2+ sensitization of MLC phosphorylation. The rate of thiophosphorylation of MLC with adenosine 5'-[gamma-thio]-triphosphate was not affected by guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate. We suggest that inhibition of protein phosphatase(s) by G protein(s) may have important regulatory functions. PMID:1656467

  20. [Innervation, activity rhythm and accumulation of myosin light chains in a fast muscle of chickens].

    PubMed

    Gardahaut, M F; Khaskiye, A; Rouaud, T; Renaud, D; Le Douarin, G

    1988-01-01

    The fast posterior latissimus dorsi muscle (PLD) of the chick ceases to accumulate slow myosin light chains (MLC) during neonatal development. On day 18 of embryonic life slow MLC represented only 2% of total MLC, and LC3F was first detected. In chick embryo, spinal cord stimulation at a slow rhythm modifies PLD differentiation toward the slow type: LC3F did not accumulate and slow MLC increased. In contrast, stimulation at a fast rhythm accelerated LC3F accumulation. PLD denervation on day 2 after hatching inhibited the synthesis of LC3F. Direct stimulation at a fast rhythm led to post-hatching development into normal fast type while a slow rhythm influenced the development of denervated PLD towards the slow type. In innervated PLD, the effect of stimulation at a slow rhythm was less important than in denervated PLD. These results suggest that the rhythm of the neural and/or contractile activity plays an important role in the MLC expression during embryonic and post-natal development of the chicken fast muscle. PMID:3187186

  1. The role of dietary protein intake and resistance training on Myosin heavy chain expression.

    PubMed

    Wilborn, Colin D; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2004-01-01

    During resistance training the muscle undergoes many changes. Possibly the most profound and significant changes are those that occur in the muscles contractile proteins. Increases in these contractile proteins are one of the primary factors contributing to myofibrillar hypertrophy. The most abundant muscle protein is myosin, which comprises 25% of the total muscle protein. Due to the large amount of skeletal muscle that is composed of myosin, changes in this fiber may have profound effects on skeletal muscle size and strength. The myosin molecule is made up of 6 subunits, 2 very large heavy chains, and 4 smaller light chains. The myosin heavy chain (MHC) accounts for 25-30% of all muscle proteins making its size an important factor in skeletal muscle growth. In conjunction with resistance training, dietary protein intake must be adequate to illicit positive adaptations. Although many studies have evaluated the role of dietary protein intake on skeletal muscle changes, few have evaluated the MHC specifically. Research has clearly defined the need for dietary protein and resistance training to facilitate positive changes in skeletal muscle. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the current literature on the effects of dietary protein and resistance training on the expression of the myosin heavy chain. PMID:18500947

  2. Myosin Binding Protein-C Slow Phosphorylation is Altered in Duchenne Dystrophy and Arthrogryposis Myopathy in Fast-Twitch Skeletal Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, Maegen A.; Ward, Christopher W.; Gurnett, Christina; Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos, Aikaterini

    2015-01-01

    Myosin Binding Protein-C slow (sMyBP-C), encoded by MYBPC1, comprises a family of regulatory proteins of skeletal muscles that are phosphorylated by PKA and PKC. MYBPC1 missense mutations are linked to the development of Distal Arthrogryposis-1 (DA-1). Although structure-function details for this myopathy are evolving, function is undoubtedly driven by sequence variations and post-translational modifications in sMyBP-C. Herein, we examined the phosphorylation profile of sMyBP-C in mouse and human fast-twitch skeletal muscles. We used Flexor Digitorum Brevis (FDB) isolated from young (~2-months old) and old (~14-months old) wild type and mdx mice, and human Abductor Hallucis (AH) and gastrocnemious muscles carrying the DA-1 mutations. Our results indicate both constitutive and differential phosphorylation of sMyBP-C in aged and diseased muscles. We report a 735% reduction in the phosphorylation levels of select sites in old wild type and young or old mdx FDB mouse muscles, compared to young wild type tissue. Similarly, we observe a 3070% decrease in the phosphorylation levels of all PKA and PKC phospho-sites in the DA-1 AH, but not gastrocnemius, muscle. Overall, our studies show that the phosphorylation pattern of sMyBP-C is differentially regulated in response to age and disease, suggesting that phosphorylation plays important roles in these processes. PMID:26287277

  3. Phosphorylation of myosin light chain kinase from vascular smooth muscle by cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, D R; Konicki, M V; Coolican, S A

    1985-09-01

    The enzyme, myosin light chain kinase, has been purified to homogeneity from bovine aortic vascular smooth muscle. Approximately 10 mg of enzyme could be obtained from 1 kg of fresh aortas with an overall yield of 26% of the original activity. The vascular myosin light chain kinase has a molecular weight of 160 000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Antiserum raised to the aortic myosin light chain kinase in rabbits strongly inhibited phosphotransferase activity. In addition, the antiserum was used to identify myosin kinase in a crude homogenate of vascular smooth muscle by radioimmunoblotting. A single species of the enzyme (Mr = 160 000) was identified. The bovine aortic myosin kinase could be phosphorylated by both cyclic AMP- and GMP-dependent protein kinases. Approximately 2 mols PO4/mole of enzyme could be incorporated by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in the absence of calmodulin. If Ca2+ and calmodulin were included in the reaction mixture, phosphate incorporation by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase was reduced to 1 mol and phosphorylation by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase was completely inhibited. These results were confirmed by tryptic peptide mapping. Two distinct phosphopeptides were identified: site-1 and site-2. Both could be phosphorylated by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase but only site-1 was phosphorylated by the cyclic GMP-dependent enzyme. In the presence of Ca2+ and calmodulin, phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase was restricted to site-1. The effect of phosphorylation on myosin light chain kinase activity was determined. Only phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase was found to alter the requirement of myosin kinase for calmodulin. The K0.5 (i.e. the concentration of calmodulin required for half-maximal enzyme activation) for calmodulin was 5 nM for the unphosphorylated myosin kinase. With 2 mol PO4/mol myosin kinase incorporated, the K0.5 for calmodulin was increased to 82 nM. When only 1 mol PO4/mol myosin kinase was incorporated, no effect on calmodulin requirement was observed. Moreover, single site phosphorylation had no effect on other activity parameters, including Km for ATP and for light chains. Our studies suggest that cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase may play an important role in the regulation of vascular myosin kinase activity. Moreover, our results indicate that cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase does not affect calmodulin-activation of myosin kinase or several other activity parameters. PMID:2995688

  4. Drosophila PATJ supports adherens junction stability by modulating Myosin light chain activity

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Arnab; Nagy-Zsvér-Vadas, Zsanett

    2012-01-01

    The assembly and consolidation of the adherens junctions (AJs) are key events in the establishment of an intact epithelium. However, AJs are further modified to obtain flexibility for cell migration and morphogenetic movements. Intact AJs in turn are a prerequisite for the establishment and maintenance of apical–basal polarity in epithelial cells. In this study, we report that the conserved PDZ (PSD95, Discs large, ZO-1) domain–containing protein PATJ (Pals1-associated tight junction protein) was not per se crucial for the maintenance of apical–basal polarity in Drosophila melanogaster epithelial cells but rather regulated Myosin localization and phosphorylation. PATJ directly bound to the Myosin-binding subunit of Myosin phosphatase and decreased Myosin dephosphorylation, resulting in activated Myosin. Thereby, PATJ supports the stability of the Zonula Adherens. Notably, weakening of AJ in a PATJ mutant epithelium led first to a loss of Myosin from the AJ, subsequently to a disassembly of the AJ, and finally, to a loss of apical–basal polarity and disruption of the tissue. PMID:23128243

  5. Commensal bacterial endocytosis in epithelial cells is dependent on myosin light chain kinase-activated brush border fanning by interferon-?.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Ling; Peng, Wei-Hao; Kuo, Wei-Ting; Huang, Ching-Ying; Ni, Yen-Hsuan; Lu, Kuo-Shyan; Turner, Jerrold R; Yu, Linda C H

    2014-08-01

    Abnormal bacterial adherence and internalization in enterocytes have been documented in Crohn disease, celiac disease, surgical stress, and intestinal obstruction and are associated with low-level interferon (IFN)-? production. How commensals gain access to epithelial soma through densely packed microvilli rooted on the terminal web (TW) remains unclear. We investigated molecular and ultrastructural mechanisms of bacterial endocytosis, focusing on regulatory roles of IFN-? and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in TW myosin phosphorylation and brush border fanning. Mouse intestines were sham operated on or obstructed for 6 hours by loop ligation with intraluminally administered ML-7 (a MLCK inhibitor) or Y27632 (a Rho-associated kinase inhibitor). After intestinal obstruction, epithelial endocytosis and extraintestinal translocation of bacteria were observed in the absence of tight junctional damage. Enhanced TW myosin light chain phosphorylation, arc formation, and brush border fanning coincided with intermicrovillous bacterial penetration, which were inhibited by ML-7 and neutralizing anti-IFN-? but not Y27632. The phenomena were not seen in mice genetically deficient for long MLCK-210 or IFN-?. Stimulation of human Caco-2BBe cells with IFN-? caused MLCK-dependent TW arc formation and brush border fanning, which preceded caveolin-mediated bacterial internalization through cholesterol-rich lipid rafts. In conclusion, epithelial MLCK-activated brush border fanning by IFN-? promotes adherence and internalization of normally noninvasive enteric bacteria. Transcytotic commensal penetration may contribute to initiation or relapse of chronic inflammation. PMID:24911373

  6. Expression of the Myosin Heavy Chain IIB Gene in Porcine Skeletal Muscle: The Role of the CArG-Box Promoter Response Element

    PubMed Central

    Brown, David M.; Brameld, John M.; Parr, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Due to its similarity to humans, the pig is increasingly being considered as a good animal model for studying a range of human diseases. Despite their physiological similarities, differential expression of the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) IIB gene (MYH4) exists in the skeletal muscles of these species, which is associated with a different muscle phenotype. The expression of different MyHC isoforms is a critical determinant of the contractile and metabolic characteristics of the muscle fibre. We aimed to elucidate whether a genomic mechanism was responsible for the drastically different expression of MYH4 between pigs and humans, thus improving our understanding of the pig as a model for human skeletal muscle research. We utilized approximately 1 kb of the MYH4 promoter from a domestic pig and a human (which do and do not express MYH4, respectively) to elucidate the role of the promoter sequence in regulating the high expression of MYH4 in porcine skeletal muscle. We identified a 3 bp genomic difference within the proximal CArG and E-box region of the MYH4 promoter of pigs and humans that dictates the differential activity of these promoters during myogenesis. Subtle species-specific genomic differences within the CArG-box region caused differential protein-DNA interactions at this site and is likely accountable for the differential MYH4 promoter activity between pigs and humans. We propose that the genomic differences identified herein explain the differential activity of the MYH4 promoter of pigs and humans, which may contribute to the differential expression patterns displayed in these otherwise physiologically similar mammals. Further, we report that both the pig and human MYH4 promoters can be induced by MyoD over-expression, but the capacity to activate the MYH4 promoter is largely influenced by the 3 bp difference located within the CArG-box region of the proximal MYH4 promoter. PMID:25469802

  7. Differential roles of regulatory light chain and myosin binding protein-C phosphorylations in the modulation of cardiac force development

    PubMed Central

    Colson, Brett A; Locher, Matthew R; Bekyarova, Tanya; Patel, Jitandrakumar R; Fitzsimons, Daniel P; Irving, Thomas C; Moss, Richard L

    2010-01-01

    Phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) by myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) by protein kinase A (PKA) independently accelerate the kinetics of force development in ventricular myocardium. However, while MLCK treatment has been shown to increase the Ca2+ sensitivity of force (pCa50), PKA treatment has been shown to decrease pCa50, presumably due to cardiac troponin I phosphorylation. Further, MLCK treatment increases Ca2+-independent force and maximum Ca2+-activated force, whereas PKA treatment has no effect on either force. To investigate the structural basis underlying the kinase-specific differential effects on steady-state force, we used synchrotron low-angle X-ray diffraction to compare equatorial intensity ratios (I1,1/I1,0) to assess the proximity of myosin cross-bridge mass relative to actin and to compare lattice spacings (d1,0) to assess the inter-thick filament spacing in skinned myocardium following treatment with either MLCK or PKA. As we showed previously, PKA phosphorylation of cMyBP-C increases I1,1/I1,0 and, as hypothesized, treatment with MLCK also increased I1,1/I1,0, which can explain the accelerated rates of force development during activation. Importantly, interfilament spacing was reduced by ?2 nm (? 3.5%) with MLCK treatment, but did not change with PKA treatment. Thus, RLC or cMyBP-C phosphorylation increases the proximity of cross-bridges to actin, but only RLC phosphorylation affects lattice spacing, which suggests that RLC and cMyBP-C modulate the kinetics of force development by similar structural mechanisms; however, the effect of RLC phosphorylation to increase the Ca2+ sensitivity of force is mediated by a distinct mechanism, most probably involving changes in interfilament spacing. PMID:20123786

  8. cGMP-mediated phosphorylation of heat shock protein 20 may cause smooth muscle relaxation without myosin light chain dephosphorylation in swine carotid artery

    PubMed Central

    Rembold, Christopher M; Foster, D Brian; Strauss, John D; Wingard, Christopher J; Van Eyk, Jennifer E

    2000-01-01

    Nitrovasodilators such as nitroglycerine, via production of nitric oxide and an increase in [cGMP], can induce arterial smooth muscle relaxation without proportional reduction in myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation or myoplasmic [Ca2+]. These findings suggest that regulatory systems, other than MLC phosphorylation and Ca2+, partially mediate nitroglycerine-induced relaxation.In swine carotid artery, we found that a membrane-permeant cGMP analogue induced relaxation without MLC dephosphorylation, suggesting that cGMP mediated the relaxation.Nitroglycerine-induced relaxation was associated with a reduction in O2 consumption, suggesting that the interaction between phosphorylated myosin and the thin filament was inhibited.Nitroglycerine-induced relaxation was associated with a 10-fold increase in the phosphorylation of a protein on Ser16. We identified this protein as heat shock protein 20 (HSP20), a member of a family of proteins known to bind to thin filaments.When homogenates of nitroglycerine-relaxed tissues were centrifuged at 6000 g, phosphorylated HSP20 preferentially sedimented in the pellet, suggesting that phosphorylation of HSP20 may increase its affinity for the thin filament.We noted that a domain of HSP20 is partially homologous to the minimum inhibitory sequence of skeletal troponin I. The peptide HSP20110-121, which contains this domain, bound to actin-containing filaments only in the presence of tropomyosin, a characteristic of troponin I. High concentrations of HSP20110-121 abolished Ca2+-activated force in skinned swine carotid artery. HSP20110-121 also partially decreased actin-activated myosin S1 ATPase activity.These data suggest that cGMP-mediated phosphorylation of HSP20 on Ser16 may have a role in smooth muscle relaxation without MLC dephosphorylation. HSP20 contains an actin-binding sequence at amino acid residues 110121 that inhibited force production in skinned carotid artery. We hypothesize that phosphorylation of HSP20 regulates force independent of MLC phosphorylation via binding of HSP20 to thin filaments and inhibition of cross-bridge cycling. PMID:10790164

  9. New Isoform of Cardiac Myosin Light Chain Kinase and the Role of Cardiac Myosin Phosphorylation in α1-Adrenoceptor Mediated Inotropic Response

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Masaya; Okamoto, Ryuji; Ito, Masaaki; Goto, Itaru; Fujita, Satoshi; Konishi, Katsuhisa; Mizutani, Hideo; Dohi, Kaoru; Hartshorne, David J.; Itoh, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Cardiac myosin light chain kinase (cMLCK) plays an obligatory role in maintaining the phosphorylation levels of regulatory myosin light chain (MLC2), which is thought to be crucial for regulation of cardiac function. To test this hypothesis, the role played by ventricular MLC2 (MLC2v) phosphorylation was investigated in the phenylephrine-induced increase in twitch tension using the naturally-occurring mouse strain, C57BL/6N, in which cMLCK is down regulated. Methods and Results By Western blot and nanoLC-MS/MS analysis, cMLCKs with molecular mass of 61-kDa (cMLCK-2) and/or 86-kDa were identified in mice heart. Among various mouse strains, C57BL/6N expressed cMLCK-2 alone and the closest relative strain C57BL/6J expressed both cMLCKs. The levels of MLC2v phosphorylation was significantly lower in C57BL/6N than in C57BL/6J. The papillary muscle twitch tension induced by electrical field stimulation was smaller in C57BL/6N than C57BL/6J. Phenylephrine had no effect on MLC2v phosphorylation in either strains but increased the twitch tension more potently in C57BL/6J than in C57BL/6N. Calyculin A increased papillary muscle MLC2v phosphorylation to a similar extent in both strains but increased the phenylephrine-induced inotropic response only in C57BL/6N. There was a significant positive correlation between the phenylephrine-induced inotropic response and the levels of MLC2v phosphorylation within ranges of 15–30%. Conclusions We identified a new isoform of cMLCK with a molecular mass of 61kDa(cMLCK-2) in mouse heart. In the C57BL/6N strain, only cMLCK-2 was expressed and the basal MLC2v phosphorylation levels and the phenylephrine-induced inotropic response were both smaller. We suggest that a lower phenylephrine-induced inotropic response may be caused by the lower basal MLC2v phosphorylation levels in this strain. PMID:26512720

  10. The influence of pressure on the self-assembly of the thick filament from the myosin of vertebrate skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Davis, J S

    1981-08-01

    The thick-filament-monomeric-myosin equilibrium was prepared from pure myosin at pH 8.1. The application of hydrostatic pressure to the self-assembly equilibrium resulted in a biphasic dissociation curve in which a linear decrease in turbidity (a measure of weight added to or lost from the filament) was followed by a transition to a second pressure-insensitive phase. The first phase represents the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the growth or propagation phase of filament assembly. Here is was shown that hydrostatic pressure served to shorten the filaments in concert towards the bare zone whilst maintaining the narrow length distribution seen at atmospheric pressure; the filament concentration remained constant during the experiment. A more precise definition of the delta-v for the assembly of monomer into filament was obtained than had hitherto been possible. The positioning of the bare zone at the centre of the filament seems to be one of the more obvious functions of the length-regulation mechanism. It also appears that all the basic structural elements of the native thick filament are potentially present in the pH 8.1 homopolymer; its length can be increased by physiological concentrations of MgCl2 and decreased by pressure. The monodisperse native filament could then be formed by a fine tuning of the basic length-regulation mechanism of the homopolymer by the co-polymerization of the other thick-filament proteins. PMID:7198909

  11. The Plasmodium Class XIV Myosin, MyoB, Has a Distinct Subcellular Location in Invasive and Motile Stages of the Malaria Parasite and an Unusual Light Chain*

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, Noor A.; Green, Judith L.; Wall, Richard J.; Knuepfer, Ellen; Moon, Robert W.; Schulte-Huxel, Christina; Stanway, Rebecca R.; Martin, Stephen R.; Howell, Steven A.; Douse, Christopher H.; Cota, Ernesto; Tate, Edward W.; Tewari, Rita; Holder, Anthony A.

    2015-01-01

    Myosin B (MyoB) is one of the two short class XIV myosins encoded in the Plasmodium genome. Class XIV myosins are characterized by a catalytic head, a modified neck, and the absence of a tail region. Myosin A (MyoA), the other class XIV myosin in Plasmodium, has been established as a component of the glideosome complex important in motility and cell invasion, but MyoB is not well characterized. We analyzed the properties of MyoB using three parasite species as follows: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium berghei, and Plasmodium knowlesi. MyoB is expressed in all invasive stages (merozoites, ookinetes, and sporozoites) of the life cycle, and the protein is found in a discrete apical location in these polarized cells. In P. falciparum, MyoB is synthesized very late in schizogony/merogony, and its location in merozoites is distinct from, and anterior to, that of a range of known proteins present in the rhoptries, rhoptry neck or micronemes. Unlike MyoA, MyoB is not associated with glideosome complex proteins, including the MyoA light chain, myosin A tail domain-interacting protein (MTIP). A unique MyoB light chain (MLC-B) was identified that contains a calmodulin-like domain at the C terminus and an extended N-terminal region. MLC-B localizes to the same extreme apical pole in the cell as MyoB, and the two proteins form a complex. We propose that MLC-B is a MyoB-specific light chain, and for the short class XIV myosins that lack a tail region, the atypical myosin light chains may fulfill that role. PMID:25802338

  12. Vascular O-GlcNAcylation augments reactivity to constrictor stimuli by prolonging phosphorylated levels of the myosin light chain.

    PubMed

    Lima, V V; Lobato, N S; Filgueira, F P; Webb, R C; Tostes, R C; Giachini, F R

    2014-10-01

    O-GlcNAcylation is a modification that alters the function of numerous proteins. We hypothesized that augmented O-GlcNAcylation levels enhance myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and reduce myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) activity, leading to increased vascular contractile responsiveness. The vascular responses were measured by isometric force displacement. Thoracic aorta and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from rats were incubated with vehicle or with PugNAc, which increases O-GlcNAcylation. In addition, we determined whether proteins that play an important role in the regulation of MLCK and MLCP activity are directly affected by O-GlcNAcylation. PugNAc enhanced phenylephrine (PE) responses in rat aortas (maximal effect, 14.2 2 vs 7.9 1 mN for vehicle, n=7). Treatment with an MLCP inhibitor (calyculin A) augmented vascular responses to PE (13.4 2 mN) and abolished the differences in PE-response between the groups. The effect of PugNAc was not observed when vessels were preincubated with ML-9, an MLCK inhibitor (7.3 2 vs 7.5 2 mN for vehicle, n=5). Furthermore, our data showed that differences in the PE-induced contractile response between the groups were abolished by the activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AICAR; 6.1 2 vs 7.4 2 mN for vehicle, n=5). PugNAc increased phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT-1) and protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitor protein of 17 kDa (CPI-17), which are involved in RhoA/Rho-kinase-mediated inhibition of myosin phosphatase activity. PugNAc incubation produced a time-dependent increase in vascular phosphorylation of myosin light chain and decreased phosphorylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase, which decreased the affinity of MLCK for Ca(2+)/calmodulin. Our data suggest that proteins that play an important role in the regulation of MLCK and MLCP activity are directly affected by O-GlcNAcylation, favoring vascular contraction. PMID:25140811

  13. Vascular O-GlcNAcylation augments reactivity to constrictor stimuli by prolonging phosphorylated levels of the myosin light chain

    PubMed Central

    Lima, V.V.; Lobato, N.S.; Filgueira, F.P.; Webb, R.C.; Tostes, R.C.; Giachini, F.R.

    2014-01-01

    O-GlcNAcylation is a modification that alters the function of numerous proteins. We hypothesized that augmented O-GlcNAcylation levels enhance myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and reduce myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) activity, leading to increased vascular contractile responsiveness. The vascular responses were measured by isometric force displacement. Thoracic aorta and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from rats were incubated with vehicle or with PugNAc, which increases O-GlcNAcylation. In addition, we determined whether proteins that play an important role in the regulation of MLCK and MLCP activity are directly affected by O-GlcNAcylation. PugNAc enhanced phenylephrine (PE) responses in rat aortas (maximal effect, 14.22 vs 7.91 mN for vehicle, n=7). Treatment with an MLCP inhibitor (calyculin A) augmented vascular responses to PE (13.42 mN) and abolished the differences in PE-response between the groups. The effect of PugNAc was not observed when vessels were preincubated with ML-9, an MLCK inhibitor (7.32 vs 7.52 mN for vehicle, n=5). Furthermore, our data showed that differences in the PE-induced contractile response between the groups were abolished by the activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AICAR; 6.12 vs 7.42 mN for vehicle, n=5). PugNAc increased phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT-1) and protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitor protein of 17 kDa (CPI-17), which are involved in RhoA/Rho-kinase-mediated inhibition of myosin phosphatase activity. PugNAc incubation produced a time-dependent increase in vascular phosphorylation of myosin light chain and decreased phosphorylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase, which decreased the affinity of MLCK for Ca2+/calmodulin. Our data suggest that proteins that play an important role in the regulation of MLCK and MLCP activity are directly affected by O-GlcNAcylation, favoring vascular contraction. PMID:25140811

  14. Structural and functional aspects of the myosin essential light chain in cardiac muscle contraction

    SciTech Connect

    Muthu, Priya; Wang, Li; Yuan, Chen-Ching; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Huang, Wenrui; Hernandez, Olga M.; Kawai, Masataka; Irving, Thomas C.; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2012-04-02

    The myosin essential light chain (ELC) is a structural component of the actomyosin cross-bridge, but its function is poorly understood, especially the role of the cardiac specific N-terminal extension in modulating actomyosin interaction. Here, we generated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing the A57G (alanine to glycine) mutation in the cardiac ELC known to cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC). The function of the ELC N-terminal extension was investigated with the Tg-{Delta}43 mouse model, whose myocardium expresses a truncated ELC. Low-angle X-ray diffraction studies on papillary muscle fibers in rigor revealed a decreased interfilament spacing ({approx} 1.5 nm) and no alterations in cross-bridge mass distribution in Tg-A57G mice compared to Tg-WT, expressing the full-length nonmutated ELC. The truncation mutation showed a 1.3-fold increase in I{sub 1,1}/I{sub 1,0}, indicating a shift of cross-bridge mass from the thick filament backbone toward the thin filaments. Mechanical studies demonstrated increased stiffness in Tg-A57G muscle fibers compared to Tg-WT or Tg-{Delta}43. The equilibrium constant for the cross-bridge force generation step was smallest in Tg-{Delta}43. These results support an important role for the N-terminal ELC extension in prepositioning the cross-bridge for optimal force production. Subtle changes in the ELC sequence were sufficient to alter cross-bridge properties and lead to pathological phenotypes.

  15. Constraints on intron evolution in the gene encoding the myosin alkali light chain in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Leicht, B.G.; Muse, S.V.; Hanczyc, M.

    1995-01-01

    Interspecific comparisons of intron sequences reveal conserved blocks of invariant nucleotides and several other departures from the strictly neutral model of molecular evolution. To distinguish the past action of evolutionary forces in introns known to have regulatory information, we examined nucleotide sequence variation at 991 sites in a random sample of 16 Drosophila melanogaster alleles of the gene encoding the myosin alkali light chain (Mlc1). The Mlc1 gene of D. melanogaster encodes two Mlc1 isoforms via developmentally regulated alternative pre-mRNA splicing. Analyses of these data reveal that introns 4 and 5, which flank the alternatively spliced exon 5, have reduced levels of both intraspecific polymorphism and interspecific divergence relative to intron 3. No polymorphism was observed in any of the exons examined in D. melanogaster. A genealogical analysis clearly demonstrates the occurrence of intragenic recombination in the ancestral history of Mlc1. Recombination events are estimated to be 13 times more likely than mutation events over the span of the sequenced region. Although there is little evidence for pairwise linkage disequilibrium in the Mlc1 region, higher order disequilibrium. does seem to be present in the 5{prime} half of the portion of the gene that was examined. Predictions of the folding free energy of the pre-mRNA reveal that sampled alleles have a significantly higher (less stable) free energy than do randomly permuted sequences. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that introns surrounding an alternatively spliced exon are subjected to additional constraints, perhaps due to specific aspects of secondary structure required for appropriate splicing of the pre-mRNA molecule. 48 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Remodeling of the heart in hypertrophy in animal models with myosin essential light chain mutations

    PubMed Central

    Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Yuan, Chen-Ching; Liang, Jingsheng; Huang, Wenrui; Rojas, Ana I.; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy represents one of the most important cardiovascular problems yet the mechanisms responsible for hypertrophic remodeling of the heart are poorly understood. In this report we aimed to explore the molecular pathways leading to two different phenotypes of cardiac hypertrophy in transgenic mice carrying mutations in the human ventricular myosin essential light chain (ELC). Mutation-induced alterations in the heart structure and function were studied in two transgenic (Tg) mouse models carrying the A57G (alanine to glycine) substitution or lacking the N-terminal 43 amino acid residues (?43) from the ELC sequence. The first model represents an HCM disease as the A57G mutation was shown to cause malignant HCM outcomes in humans. The second mouse model is lacking the region of the ELC that was shown to be important for a direct interaction between the ELC and actin during muscle contraction. Our earlier studies demonstrated that >7 month old Tg-?43 mice developed substantial cardiac hypertrophy with no signs of histopathology or fibrosis. Tg mice did not show abnormal cardiac function compared to Tg-WT expressing the full length human ventricular ELC. Previously reported pathological morphology in Tg-A57G mice included extensive disorganization of myocytes and interstitial fibrosis with no abnormal increase in heart mass observed in >6 month-old animals. In this report we show that strenuous exercise can trigger hypertrophy and pathologic cardiac remodeling in Tg-A57G mice as early as 3 months of age. In contrast, no exercise-induced changes were noted for Tg-?43 hearts and the mice maintained a non-pathological cardiac phenotype. Based on our results, we suggest that exercise-elicited heart remodeling in Tg-A57G mice follows the pathological pathway leading to HCM, while it induces no abnormal response in Tg-?43 mice. PMID:25295008

  17. Expression of calmodulin and myosin light chain kinase during larval settlement of the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhang-Fan; Wang, Hao; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Barnacles are one of the most common organisms in intertidal areas. Their life cycle includes seven free-swimming larval stages and sessile juvenile and adult stages. The transition from the swimming to the sessile stages, referred to as larval settlement, is crucial for their survivor success and subsequent population distribution. In this study, we focused on the involvement of calmodulin (CaM) and its binding proteins in the larval settlement of the barnacle, Balanus ( = Amphibalanus) amphitrite. The full length of CaM gene was cloned from stage II nauplii of B. amphitrite (referred to as Ba-CaM), encoding 149 amino acid residues that share a high similarity with published CaMs in other organisms. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that Ba-CaM was highly expressed in cyprids, the stage at which swimming larvae are competent to attach and undergo metamorphosis. In situ hybridization revealed that the expressed Ba-CaM gene was localized in compound eyes, posterior ganglion and cement glands, all of which may have essential functions during larval settlement. Larval settlement assays showed that both the CaM inhibitor compound 48/80 and the CaM-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor ML-7 effectively blocked barnacle larval settlement, whereas Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors did not show any clear effects. The subsequent real-time PCR assay showed a higher expression level of Ba-MLCK gene in larval stages than in adults, suggesting an important role of Ba-MLCK gene in larval development and competency. Overall, the results suggest that CaM and CaM-dependent MLCK function during larval settlement of B. amphitrite. PMID:22348072

  18. Myosin light chain phosphorylation in contraction of gastric antral smooth muscle from neonate and adult rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ierardi, J A; Paul, D A; Ryan, J P

    1996-01-01

    The decreased contractility of gastric antral smooth muscle in the neonate has been attributed to reduced levels of activator calcium. It is generally accepted that calcium-dependent myosin light chain phosphorylation (MLCP) is the key step in the initiation of force development in smooth muscle. In this study, we investigated the relationship between MLCP and force development in gastric antral smooth muscle from neonatal (4-6 d old) and adult rabbits. We tested the hypothesis that the reduced force development of circular smooth muscle from the neonate would be accompanied by decreased levels of MLCP, as compared with data from adult animals. Full thickness muscle strips oriented parallel to the circular muscle layer were examined for their contractile response to acetylcholine (ACh) (10(-8) M to 10(-3) M) or 10(-4) M ACh only. In the latter study, tissues were rapidly frozen in a dry ice-acetone slurry for subsequent MLCP determination. MLCP was determined at times corresponding to 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 s of stimulation. For each age group, maximal active force developed at an ACh concentration of 10(-4) M and was significantly greater in tissues from adults (1.86 +/- 0.24 N/m2, adult; 0.95 +/- 0.05 N/m2, neonate; p < 0.05). In contrast, no significant differences were observed with respect to basal or agonist-stimulated levels of MLCP. The data suggest that factors other than levels of MLCP contribute to the reduced force-generating capacity of antral smooth muscle from the neonate. PMID:8825402

  19. Expression of Calmodulin and Myosin Light Chain Kinase during Larval Settlement of the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhang-Fan; Wang, Hao; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Barnacles are one of the most common organisms in intertidal areas. Their life cycle includes seven free-swimming larval stages and sessile juvenile and adult stages. The transition from the swimming to the sessile stages, referred to as larval settlement, is crucial for their survivor success and subsequent population distribution. In this study, we focused on the involvement of calmodulin (CaM) and its binding proteins in the larval settlement of the barnacle, Balanus ( = Amphibalanus) amphitrite. The full length of CaM gene was cloned from stage II nauplii of B. amphitrite (referred to as Ba-CaM), encoding 149 amino acid residues that share a high similarity with published CaMs in other organisms. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that Ba-CaM was highly expressed in cyprids, the stage at which swimming larvae are competent to attach and undergo metamorphosis. In situ hybridization revealed that the expressed Ba-CaM gene was localized in compound eyes, posterior ganglion and cement glands, all of which may have essential functions during larval settlement. Larval settlement assays showed that both the CaM inhibitor compound 48/80 and the CaM-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor ML-7 effectively blocked barnacle larval settlement, whereas Ca2+/CaM-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors did not show any clear effects. The subsequent real-time PCR assay showed a higher expression level of Ba-MLCK gene in larval stages than in adults, suggesting an important role of Ba-MLCK gene in larval development and competency. Overall, the results suggest that CaM and CaM-dependent MLCK function during larval settlement of B. amphitrite. PMID:22348072

  20. Contraction parameters, myosin composition and metabolic enzymes of the skeletal muscles of the etruscan shrew Suncus etruscus and of the common European white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula (Insectivora: soricidae).

    PubMed

    Peters, T; Kubis, H P; Wetzel, P; Sender, S; Asmussen, G; Fons, R; Jrgens, K D

    1999-09-01

    In the Etruscan shrew, the isometric twitch contraction times of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles are shorter than in any other mammal, allowing these muscles to contract at outstandingly high contraction frequencies. This species has the highest mass-specific metabolic rate of all mammals and requires fast skeletal muscles not only for locomotion but also for effective heat production and for an extremely high ventilation rate. No differences could be detected in the fibre type pattern, the myosin heavy and light chain composition, or in the activity of the metabolic enzymes lactate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase of the two limb muscles, the EDL and the soleus, which in larger mammalian species exhibit distinct differences in contractile proteins and metabolic enzymes. All properties determined in EDL and soleus muscles of Suncus etruscus, as well as in the larger Crocidura russula, are typical for fast-oxidative fibres, and the same holds for several other skeletal muscles including the diaphragm muscle of S. etruscus. Nevertheless, the EDL and soleus muscles showed different mechanical properties in the two shrew species. Relaxation times and, in C. russula, time to peak force are shorter in the EDL than in the soleus muscle. This is in accordance with the time course of the Ca(2+) transients in these muscles. Such a result could be due to different parvalbumin concentrations, to a different volume fraction of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in the two muscles or to different Ca(2+)-ATPase activities. Alternatively, the lower content of cytosolic creatine kinase (CK) in the soleus compared with the EDL muscle could indicate that the observed difference in contraction times between these shrew muscles is due to the CK-controlled activity of their sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase. PMID:10460733

  1. 5'-flanking sequences of zebrafish fast myosin heavy chain genes regulate unique expression in the anterior, medial subsection and posterior tail somites of the skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Asaduzzaman, M; Shakur Ahammad, A K; Asakawa, S; Kinoshita, S; Watabe, S

    2016-01-01

    In zebrafish, fast muscle-specific myosin heavy chain genes have their unique expression patterns in a well-defined and restricted region of the skeletal muscle. However, the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms involved have remained unclear. Here, we examined the regulation of spatio-temporal expression patterns of myhz1 (myhz1.1, myhz1.2 and myhz1.3) and myhz2 during their development by using transient gene and stable transgenic techniques. Embryos microinjected with different length 5'-flanking sequences of myhz1 conjugated with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene showed EGFP expression in the anterior and medial subsections of somites, but not in the tail somite region. In contrast, embryos microinjected with different length 5'-flanking sequences of myhz2 showed EGFP expression exclusively at the posterior tail somite domain. Promoter deletion analyses demonstrated that reduced EGFP fluorescence typically is correlated with smaller 5'-flanking sequences. The immunohistochemical observation revealed that zebrafish larvae provided with the transient gene and those from stable transgenic lines consistently expressed EGFP in the fast muscle fibers. r-VISTA plot identified one common conserved region of about 140bp among myhz1.1, myhz1.2 and myhz1.3. Deletion of this conserved region from the 5'-flanking sequence of each myhz1 markedly reduced EGFP expression in its unique spatial somite region. Deletion mutation analysis demonstrated that myhz2 expression in the tail somite region might be mediated by Tbx (familyoftranscriptionfactorshavingacommonDNA-bindingsequenceknown asT-box) binding elements. In summary, 5'-flanking sequences of myhz1 and myhz2 regulate their unique expression patterns in a well-defined and restricted somite region of the skeletal muscle in zebrafish. PMID:26335505

  2. Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering: A Maturation Model Promoting Long Term Survival of Myotubes, Structural Development of the Excitation - Contraction Coupling Apparatus and Neonatal Myosin Heavy Chain Expression

    PubMed Central

    Das, Mainak; Rumsey, John W; Bhargava, Neelima; Stancescu, Maria; Hickman, James J

    2009-01-01

    The use of defined in vitro systems to study the developmental and physiological characteristics of a variety of cell types is increasing, due in large part to their ease of integration with tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and high-throughput screening applications. In this study, myotubes derived from fetal rat hind limbs were induced to develop several aspects of mature muscle including: sarcomere assembly, development of the excitation-contraction coupling apparatus and myosin heavy chain (MHC) class switching. Utilizing immunocytochemical analysis, anisotropic and isotropic band formation (striations) within the myotubes was established, indicative of sarcomere formation. In addition, clusters of ryanodine receptors were colocalized with dihydropyridine complex proteins which signaled development of the excitation-contraction coupling apparatus and transverse tubule biogenesis. The myotubes also exhibited MHC class switching from embryonic to neonatal MHC. Lastly, the myotubes survived significantly longer in culture (7090 days) than myotubes from our previously developed system (2025 days). These results were achieved by modifying the culture timeline as well as the development of a new medium formulation. This defined model system for skeletal muscle maturation supports the goal of developing physiologically relevant muscle constructs for use in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine as well as for high-throughput screening applications. PMID:19625080

  3. A Toxoplasma gondii class XIV myosin, expressed in Sf9 cells with a parasite co-chaperone, requires two light chains for fast motility.

    PubMed

    Bookwalter, Carol S; Kelsen, Anne; Leung, Jacqueline M; Ward, Gary E; Trybus, Kathleen M

    2014-10-31

    Many diverse myosin classes can be expressed using the baculovirus/Sf9 insect cell expression system, whereas others have been recalcitrant. We hypothesized that most myosins utilize Sf9 cell chaperones, but others require an organism-specific co-chaperone. TgMyoA, a class XIVa myosin from the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is required for the parasite to efficiently move and invade host cells. The T. gondii genome contains one UCS family myosin co-chaperone (TgUNC). TgMyoA expressed in Sf9 cells was soluble and functional only if the heavy and light chain(s) were co-expressed with TgUNC. The tetratricopeptide repeat domain of TgUNC was not essential to obtain functional myosin, implying that there are other mechanisms to recruit Hsp90. Purified TgMyoA heavy chain complexed with its regulatory light chain (TgMLC1) moved actin in a motility assay at a speed of ∼1.5 μm/s. When a putative essential light chain (TgELC1) was also bound, TgMyoA moved actin at more than twice that speed (∼3.4 μm/s). This result implies that two light chains bind to and stabilize the lever arm, the domain that amplifies small motions at the active site into the larger motions that propel actin at fast speeds. Our results show that the TgMyoA domain structure is more similar to other myosins than previously appreciated and provide a molecular explanation for how it moves actin at fast speeds. The ability to express milligram quantities of a class XIV myosin in a heterologous system paves the way for detailed structure-function analysis of TgMyoA and identification of small molecule inhibitors. PMID:25231988

  4. A Toxoplasma gondii Class XIV Myosin, Expressed in Sf9 Cells with a Parasite Co-chaperone, Requires Two Light Chains for Fast Motility*

    PubMed Central

    Bookwalter, Carol S.; Kelsen, Anne; Leung, Jacqueline M.; Ward, Gary E.; Trybus, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Many diverse myosin classes can be expressed using the baculovirus/Sf9 insect cell expression system, whereas others have been recalcitrant. We hypothesized that most myosins utilize Sf9 cell chaperones, but others require an organism-specific co-chaperone. TgMyoA, a class XIVa myosin from the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is required for the parasite to efficiently move and invade host cells. The T. gondii genome contains one UCS family myosin co-chaperone (TgUNC). TgMyoA expressed in Sf9 cells was soluble and functional only if the heavy and light chain(s) were co-expressed with TgUNC. The tetratricopeptide repeat domain of TgUNC was not essential to obtain functional myosin, implying that there are other mechanisms to recruit Hsp90. Purified TgMyoA heavy chain complexed with its regulatory light chain (TgMLC1) moved actin in a motility assay at a speed of ?1.5 ?m/s. When a putative essential light chain (TgELC1) was also bound, TgMyoA moved actin at more than twice that speed (?3.4 ?m/s). This result implies that two light chains bind to and stabilize the lever arm, the domain that amplifies small motions at the active site into the larger motions that propel actin at fast speeds. Our results show that the TgMyoA domain structure is more similar to other myosins than previously appreciated and provide a molecular explanation for how it moves actin at fast speeds. The ability to express milligram quantities of a class XIV myosin in a heterologous system paves the way for detailed structure-function analysis of TgMyoA and identification of small molecule inhibitors. PMID:25231988

  5. Enhanced paracellular transport of insulin can be achieved via transient induction of myosin light chain phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Taverner, Alistair; Dondi, Ruggero; Almansour, Khaled; Laurent, Floriane; Owens, Siân-Eleri; Eggleston, Ian M.; Fotaki, Nikoletta; Mrsny, Randall J.

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium functions to effectively restrict the causal uptake of luminal contents but has been demonstrated to transiently increase paracellular permeability properties to provide an additional entry route for dietary macromolecules. We have examined a method to emulate this endogenous mechanism as a means of enhancing the oral uptake of insulin. Two sets of stable Permeant Inhibitor of Phosphatase (PIP) peptides were rationally designed to stimulate phosphorylation of intracellular epithelial myosin light chain (MLC) and screened using Caco-2 monolayers in vitro. Apical application of PIP peptide 640, designed to disrupt protein–protein interactions between protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and its regulator CPI-17, resulted in a reversible and non-toxic transient reduction in Caco-2 monolayer trans-epithelial electric resistance (TEER) and opening of the paracellular route to 4 kDa fluorescent dextran but not 70 kDa dextran in vitro. Apical application of PIP peptide 250, designed to impede MYPT1-mediated regulation of PP1, also decreased TEER in a reversible and non-toxic manner but transiently opened the paracellular route to both 4 and 70 kDa fluorescent dextrans. Direct injection of PIP peptides 640 or 250 with human insulin into the lumen of rat jejunum caused a decrease in blood glucose levels that was PIP peptide and insulin dose-dependent and correlated with increased pMLC levels. Systemic levels of insulin suggested approximately 3–4% of the dose injected into the intestinal lumen was absorbed, relative to a subcutaneous injection. Measurement of insulin levels in the portal vein showed a time window of absorption that was consistent with systemic concentration-time profiles and approximately 50% first-pass clearance by the liver. Monitoring the uptake of a fluorescent form of insulin suggested its uptake occurred via the paracellular route. Together, these studies add validation to the presence of an endogenous mechanism used by the intestinal epithelium to dynamically regulate its paracellular permeability properties and better define the potential to enhance the oral delivery of biopharmaceuticals via a transient regulation of an endogenous mechanism controlling the intestinal paracellular barrier. PMID:25980620

  6. Ca2+, caldesmon, and myosin light chain kinase exchange with calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Kasturi, R; Vasulka, C; Johnson, J D

    1993-04-15

    Wheat calmodulin (CaM) was labeled at Cys-27 with the sulfhydryl-specific fluorescent probe 2-(4'-maleimidoanilino)-naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid (MIANS), to form MIANS.CaM. In the presence of Ca2+, MIANS.CaM undergoes a large fluorescence increase when it binds myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and caldesmon (CaD), but little fluorescence change when it binds CaM antagonists or Ca2+. MLCK associates with MIANS.CaM at a rate of 2.8 x 10(7) M-1 s-1 and dissociates at 0.031 s-1 (Kd = 1.1 nM). Protein kinase A phosphorylation of MLCK (P-MLCK) produces a 3.5-fold decrease in its association rate with CaM and a 6-fold increase in its dissociation rate (Kd = 23 nM). CaD associates with MIANS.CaM with a rate of 5.3 x 10(8) M-1 s-1 and dissociates at 57 s-1 (Kd = 108 nM). EGTA disrupts the CaM.MLCK, CaM.P-MLCK, and the CaM.CaD complexes at rates of 3.5 s-1, 6.5 s-1, and 13.5 s-1, respectively. MLCK, therefore, dissociates from CaM more quickly by Ca2+ removal while the lower affinity CaD is dissociated more quickly by competition from higher affinity CaM target proteins than by Ca2+ removal. MLCK binding to CaM slowed Ca2+ dissociation from CaM's C-terminal Ca(2+)-binding sites from 30 s-1 to 6 s-1 while CaD had little effect on Ca2+ dissociation from these sites. During a Ca2+ transient, CaM could exchange with MLCK and CaD rapidly enough for these proteins to be directly involved in the contraction/relaxation cycle of smooth muscle. PMID:8463316

  7. Effects of hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathy mutations on power output by human ?-cardiac myosin.

    PubMed

    Spudich, James A; Aksel, Tural; Bartholomew, Sadie R; Nag, Suman; Kawana, Masataka; Yu, Elizabeth Choe; Sarkar, Saswata S; Sung, Jongmin; Sommese, Ruth F; Sutton, Shirley; Cho, Carol; Adhikari, Arjun S; Taylor, Rebecca; Liu, Chao; Trivedi, Darshan; Ruppel, Kathleen M

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most frequently occurring inherited cardiovascular disease, with a prevalence of more than one in 500 individuals worldwide. Genetically acquired dilated cardiomyopathy is a related disease that is less prevalent. Both are caused by mutations in the genes encoding the fundamental force-generating protein machinery of the cardiac muscle sarcomere, including human ?-cardiac myosin, the motor protein that powers ventricular contraction. Despite numerous studies, most performed with non-human or non-cardiac myosin, there is no clear consensus about the mechanism of action of these mutations on the function of human ?-cardiac myosin. We are using a recombinantly expressed human ?-cardiac myosin motor domain along with conventional and new methodologies to characterize the forces and velocities of the mutant myosins compared with wild type. Our studies are extending beyond myosin interactions with pure actin filaments to include the interaction of myosin with regulated actin filaments containing tropomyosin and troponin, the roles of regulatory light chain phosphorylation on the functions of the system, and the possible roles of myosin binding protein-C and titin, important regulatory components of both cardiac and skeletal muscles. PMID:26792326

  8. MAPK3/1 (ERK1/2) and Myosin Light Chain Kinase in Mammalian Eggs Affect Myosin-II Function and Regulate the Metaphase II State in a Calcium- and Zinc-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    McGinnis, Lauren A; Lee, Hyo J; Robinson, Douglas N; Evans, Janice P

    2015-06-01

    Vertebrate eggs are arrested at metaphase of meiosis II, a state classically known as cytostatic factor arrest. Maintenance of this arrest until the time of fertilization and then fertilization-induced exit from metaphase II are crucial for reproductive success. Another key aspect of this meiotic arrest and exit is regulation of the metaphase II spindle, which must be appropriately localized adjacent to the egg cortex during metaphase II and then progress into successful asymmetric cytokinesis to produce the second polar body. This study examined the mitogen-activated protein kinases MAPK3 and MAPK1 (also known as ERK1/2) as regulators of these two related aspects of mammalian egg biology, specifically testing whether this MAPK pathway affected myosin-II function and whether myosin-II perturbation would produce some of the same effects as MAPK pathway perturbation. Inhibition of the MEK1/2-MAPK pathway with U0126 leads to reduced levels of phosphorylated myosin-regulatory light chain (pMRLC) and causes a reduction in cortical tension, effects that are mimicked by treatment with the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor ML-7. These data indicate that one mechanism by which the MAPK pathway acts in eggs is by affecting myosin-II function. We further show that MAPK or MLCK inhibition induces loss of normal cortical spindle localization or parthenogenetic egg activation. This parthenogenesis is dependent on cytosolic and extracellular calcium and can be rescued by hyperloading eggs with zinc, suggesting that these effects of inhibition of MLCK or the MAPK pathway are linked with dysregulation of ion homeostasis. PMID:25904014

  9. TNF causes changes in glomerular endothelial permeability and morphology through a Rho and myosin light chain kinase-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chang; Wu, Xiaoyan; Hack, Bradley K; Bao, Lihua; Cunningham, Patrick N

    2015-12-01

    A key function of the endothelium is to serve as a regulated barrier between tissue compartments. We have previously shown that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays a crucial role in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute kidney injury, in part by causing injury to the renal endothelium through its receptor TNFR1. Here, we report that TNF increased permeability to albumin in primary culture mouse renal endothelial cells, as well as human glomerular endothelial cells. This process occurred in association with changes in the actin cytoskeleton and was associated with gaps between previously confluent cells in culture and decreases in the tight junction protein occludin. This process was dependent on myosin light chain activation, as seen by its prevention with Rho-associated kinase and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitors. Surprisingly, permeability was not blocked by inhibition of apoptosis with caspase inhibitors. Additionally, we found that the renal glycocalyx, which plays an important role in barrier function, was also degraded by TNF in a Rho and MLCK dependent fashion. TNF treatment caused a decrease in the size of endothelial fenestrae, dependent on Rho and MLCK, although the relevance of this to changes in permeability is uncertain. In summary, TNF-induced barrier dysfunction in renal endothelial cells is crucially dependent upon the Rho/MLCK signaling pathway. PMID:26634902

  10. Phosphorylation is required for myosin regulatory light chain (PmMRLC) to control yellow head virus infection in shrimp hemocytes.

    PubMed

    Taengchaiyaphum, Suparat; Havanapan, Phattara-orn; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Lo, Chu-Fang; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya; Krittanai, Chartchai

    2013-05-01

    The cellular signal-transduction process is largely controlled by protein phosphorylation. Shrimp infected with yellow head virus show dramatic changes in their hemocyte phosphoproteomic patterns, and aberrant activation of phosphorylation-based signaling networks has been implicated in a number of diseases. In this study, we focused on phosphorylation of Penaeus monodon myosin regulatory light chain (PmMRLC) that is induced at an early hour post YHV infection and is concomitant with cellular actin remodeling. In shrimp cell cultures, this phosphorylation was inhibited by the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitors ML-7 and ML-9, suggesting that PmMLC phosphorylation is MLCK pathway-dependent. Blocking PmMRLC phosphorylation resulted in increased replication of YHV and reduction of phagocytic activities of shrimp hemocytes called semigranular cells (SGC) and granular cells (GC). Injection of MLCK inhibitors prior to YHV challenge resulted in dose-dependent elevation in quantity of YHV-positive GC and cytoplasmic YHV protein, coincident with high shrimp mortality. Altogether, we demonstrated that PmMRLC phosphorylation increases after YHV infection in shrimp and that inhibition of the phosphorylation leads to increased YHV replication, reduced hemocyte phagocytic activity (probably through actin remodeling) and subsequent shrimp death. Thus, further studies on the MLCK activation pathway may lead to new strategies in development and implementation of therapy for YHV infections in shrimp. PMID:23337109

  11. Differential roles of regulatory light chain and myosin binding protein-C phosphorylations in the modulation of cardiac force development

    SciTech Connect

    Colson, Brett A.; Locher, Matthew R.; Bekyarova, Tanya; Patel, Jitandrakumar R.; Fitzsimons, Daniel P.; Irving, Thomas C.; Moss, Richard L.

    2010-05-25

    Phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) by myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) by protein kinase A (PKA) independently accelerate the kinetics of force development in ventricular myocardium. However, while MLCK treatment has been shown to increase the Ca{sup 2+} sensitivity of force (pCa{sub 50}), PKA treatment has been shown to decrease pCa{sub 50}, presumably due to cardiac troponin I phosphorylation. Further, MLCK treatment increases Ca{sup 2+}-independent force and maximum Ca{sup 2+}-activated force, whereas PKA treatment has no effect on either force. To investigate the structural basis underlying the kinase-specific differential effects on steady-state force, we used synchrotron low-angle X-ray diffraction to compare equatorial intensity ratios (I{sub 1,1}/I{sub 1,0}) to assess the proximity of myosin cross-bridge mass relative to actin and to compare lattice spacings (d{sub 1,0}) to assess the inter-thick filament spacing in skinned myocardium following treatment with either MLCK or PKA. As we showed previously, PKA phosphorylation of cMyBP-C increases I{sub 1,1}/I{sub 1,0} and, as hypothesized, treatment with MLCK also increased I{sub 1,1}/I{sub 1,0}, which can explain the accelerated rates of force development during activation. Importantly, interfilament spacing was reduced by {approx}2 nm ({Delta} 3.5%) with MLCK treatment, but did not change with PKA treatment. Thus, RLC or cMyBP-C phosphorylation increases the proximity of cross-bridges to actin, but only RLC phosphorylation affects lattice spacing, which suggests that RLC and cMyBP-C modulate the kinetics of force development by similar structural mechanisms; however, the effect of RLC phosphorylation to increase the Ca{sup 2+} sensitivity of force is mediated by a distinct mechanism, most probably involving changes in interfilament spacing.

  12. Phosphorylation and the N-terminal extension of the regulatory light chain help orient and align the myosin heads in Drosophila flight muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Farman, Gerrie P.; Miller, Mark S.; Reedy, Mary C.; Soto-Adames, Felipe N.; Vigoreaux, Jim O.; Maughan, David W.; Irving, Thomas C.

    2010-02-02

    X-ray diffraction of the indirect flight muscle (IFM) in living Drosophila at rest and electron microscopy of intact and glycerinated IFM was used to compare the effects of mutations in the regulatory light chain (RLC) on sarcomeric structure. Truncation of the RLC N-terminal extension (Dmlc2{sup {Delta}2-46}) or disruption of the phosphorylation sites by substituting alanines (Dmlc2{sup S66A, S67A}) decreased the equatorial intensity ratio (I{sub 20}/I{sub 10}), indicating decreased myosin mass associated with the thin filaments. Phosphorylation site disruption (Dmlc2{sup S66A, S67A}), but not N-terminal extension truncation (Dmlc2{sup {Delta}2-46}), decreased the 14.5 nm reflection intensity, indicating a spread of the axial distribution of the myosin heads. The arrangement of thick filaments and myosin heads in electron micrographs of the phosphorylation mutant (Dmlc2{sup S66A, S67A}) appeared normal in the relaxed and rigor states, but when calcium activated, fewer myosin heads formed cross-bridges. In transgenic flies with both alterations to the RLC (Dmlc2{sup {Delta}2-46; S66A, S67A}), the effects of the dual mutation were additive. The results suggest that the RLC N-terminal extension serves as a 'tether' to help pre-position the myosin heads for attachment to actin, while phosphorylation of the RLC promotes head orientations that allow optimal interactions with the thin filament.

  13. Regulation of calcium channels in smooth muscle: New insights into the role of myosin light chain kinase

    PubMed Central

    Martinsen, A; Dessy, C; Morel, N

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) plays a crucial role in artery contraction, which regulates blood pressure and blood flow distribution. In addition to this role, MLCK contributes to Ca2+ flux regulation in vascular smooth muscle (VSM) and in non-muscle cells, where cytoskeleton has been suggested to help Ca2+ channels trafficking. This conclusion is based on the use of pharmacological inhibitors of MLCK and molecular and cellular techniques developed to down-regulate the enzyme. Dissimilarities have been observed between cells and whole tissues, as well as between large conductance and small resistance arteries. A differential expression in MLCK and ion channels (either voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels or non-selective cationic channels) could account for these observations, and is in line with the functional properties of the arteries. A potential involvement of MLCK in the pathways modulating Ca2+ entry in VSM is described in the present review. PMID:25483583

  14. Involvement of NADPH oxidases and non-muscle myosin light chain in senescence of endothelial progenitor cells in hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting-Bo; Zhang, Jie-Jie; Liu, Bin; Liu, Wei-Qi; Wu, Yan; Xiong, Xiao-Ming; Luo, Xiu-Ju; Ma, Qi-Lin; Peng, Jun

    2016-03-01

    NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in endothelial dysfunction of hyperlipidemia, and non-muscle myosin regulatory light chain (nmMLC20) is reported to have a transcriptional function in regulation of gene expression. The purposes of this study are to determine whether NOX-derived ROS can promote endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) senescence and whether nmMLC20 can regulate NOX expression through a phosphorylation-dependent manner. The rats were subjected to 8weeks of high-fat diet feeding to establish a hyperlipidemic model, which showed an increase in plasma lipids and the accelerated senescence and reduced number of circulating EPCs, accompanied by an increase in myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and NOX activities, p-nmMLC20 level, NOX (NOX2, NOX4) expression, and H2O2 content. Next, EPCs isolated from normal rats were incubated with ox-LDL (100?g/mL) for 24h to establish a senescent model in vitro. Consistent with our in vivo findings, ox-LDL treatment increased the senescence of EPCs concomitant with an increase in MLCK and NOX activities, p-nmMLC20 level (in total or nuclear proteins), NOX expression, and H2O2 content; these phenomena were reversed by MLCK inhibitor. NOX inhibitor achieved similar results to that of MLCK inhibitor except that there is no effect on MLCK activity and p-nmMLC20 level. Furthermore, knockdown of nmMLC20, NOX2, or NOX4 led to a down-regulation in NOX and a reduction in ox-LDL-induced EPC senescence. These results suggest that NOX-derived ROS promotes the senescence of circulating EPCs in hyperlipidemia and nmMLC20 may play a transcriptional role in the upregulation of NOX through a phosphorylation-dependent manner. PMID:26685858

  15. Direct photoaffinity labeling by nucleotides of the apparent catalytic site on the heavy chains of smooth muscle and Acanthamoeba myosins

    SciTech Connect

    Maruta, H.; Korn, E.D.

    1981-01-10

    The heavy chains of Acanthamoeba myosins, IA, IB and II, turkey gizzard myosin, and rabbit skeletal muscle myosin subfragment-1 were specifically labeled by radioactive ATP, ADP, and UTP, each of which is a substrate or product of myosin ATPase activity, when irradiated with uv light at 0/sup 0/C. With UTP, as much as 0.45 mol/mol of Acanthamoeba myosin IA heavy chain and 1 mol/mol of turkey gizzard myosin heavy chain was incorporated. Evidence that the ligands were associated with the catalytic site included the observations that reaction occurred only with nucleotides that are substrates or products of the ATPase activity; that the reaction was blocked by pyrophosphate which is an inhibitor of the ATPase activity; that ATP was bound as ADP; and that label was probably restricted to a single peptide following limited subtilisin proteolysis of labeled Acanthamoeba myosin IA heavy chain and extensive cleavage with CNBr and trypsin of labeled turkey gizzard myosin heavy chain.

  16. Effects of a myosin light chain kinase inhibitor on the optics and accommodation of the avian crystalline lens

    PubMed Central

    Luck, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Purpose While many studies investigate the cytoskeletal properties of the lens with respect to cataract development, examinations of how these molecular structures interact are few. Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), actin, and myosin are present on the crystalline lenses of chickens. The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether contractile proteins found on the lens play a role in the optical functions of the lens at rest, and during accommodation. Methods Eyes of 6-day old white Leghorn chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) were enucleated, with the ciliary nerve intact. One eye was treated with the MLCK inhibitor 1-(5-iodonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl)-1H-hexahydro-1,4-diazepine hydrochloride (ML-7) and the other eye with vehicle only. Three concentrations of ML-7 were used: 1M, 10M, and 100M. The back vertex focal lengths (BVFLs) were measured before, during, and after accommodation using an optical laser scanning monitor (Scantox). To further confirm ML-7 activity, western blotting was performed to detect whether MLCK was inhibited. Results Western blots confirmed that MLCK was inhibited at all three ML-7 concentrations. Ten M ML-7 treatments led to longer BVFLs at rest (p=0.0338), while 100 M treatments led to opposite changes, resulting in shorter BVFLs (p=0.0220). While 1 M treatments did not lead to significant optical changes (p=0.4416), BVFLs were similar in pattern to those of the 10 M group. ML-7 had no effects on accommodative amplitudes (p=0.7848). Conclusions Inhibition of MLCK by ML-7 led to differential changes in BVFLs that presumably affected lenticular integrity. No apparent effect on accommodative amplitudes was observed. PMID:22065929

  17. The effects of slow skeletal troponin I expression in the murine myocardium are influenced by development-related shifts in myosin heavy chain isoform

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Steven J; Chandra, Murali

    2012-01-01

    Troponin I (TnI) and myosin heavy chain (MHC) are two contractile regulatory proteins that undergo major shifts in isoform expression as cardiac myocytes mature from embryonic to adult stages. To date, many studies have investigated individual effects of embryonic vs. cardiac isoforms of either TnI or MHC on cardiac muscle function and contractile dynamics. Thus, we sought to determine whether concomitant expression of the embryonic isoforms of both TnI and MHC had functional effects that were not previously observed. Adult transgenic (TG) mice that express the embryonic isoform of TnI, slow skeletal TnI (ssTnI), were treated with propylthiouracil (PTU) to revert MHC expression from adult (α-MHC) to embryonic (β-MHC) isoforms. Cardiac muscle fibres from these mice contained ∼80%β-MHC and ∼34% ssTnI of total MHC or TnI, respectively, allowing us to test the functional effects of ssTnI in the presence of β-MHC. Detergent-skinned cardiac muscle fibre bundles were used to study how the interplay between MHC and TnI modulate muscle length-mediated effect on crossbridge (XB) recruitment dynamics, Ca2+-activated tension, and ATPase activity. One major finding was that the model-predicted XB recruitment rate (b) was enhanced significantly by ssTnI, and this speeding effect of ssTnI on XB recruitment rate was much greater (3.8-fold) when β-MHC was present. Another major finding was that the previously documented ssTnI-mediated increase in myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity (pCa50) was blunted when β-MHC was present. ssTnI expression increased pCa50 by 0.33 in α-MHC fibres, whereas ssTnI increased pCa50 by only 0.05 in β-MHC fibres. Our study provides new evidence for significant interplay between MHC and TnI isoforms that is essential for tuning cardiac contractile function. Thus, MHC–TnI interplay may provide a developmentally dependent mechanism to enhance XB recruitment dynamics at a time when Ca2+-handling mechanisms are underdeveloped, and to prevent excessive ssTnI-dependent inotropy (increased Ca2+ sensitivity) in the embryonic myocardium. PMID:22966157

  18. Heterogeneity of myofibrillar proteins in lobster fast and slow muscles: variants of troponin, paramyosin, and myosin light chains comprise four distinct protein assemblages

    SciTech Connect

    Mykles, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Fast and slow muscles from the claws and abdomen of the American lobster Homarus americanus were examined for adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity and for differences in myofibrillar proteins. Both myosin and actomyosin ATPase were correlated with fiber composition and contractile speed. Four distinct patterns of myofibrilla proteins observed in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels were distinguished by different assemblages of regulatory and contractile protein variants. A total of three species of troponin-T, five species of troponin-I, and three species of troponin-C were observed. Lobster myosins contained two groups of light chains (LC), termed alpha and beta. There were three ..cap alpha..-LC variants and two ..beta..-LC variants. There were no apparent differences in myosin heavy chain, actin, and tropomyosin. Only paramyosin showed a pattern completely consistent with muscle fiber type: slow fibers contained a species (105 kD) slightly smaller than the principle variant (110 kD) in fast fibers. It is proposed that the type of paramyosin present could provide a biochemical marker to identify the fiber composition of muscles that have not been fully characterized. The diversity of troponin and myosin LC variants suggests that subtle differences in physiological performance exist within the broader categories of fast- and slow-twitch muscles. 31 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Structure transition in myosin association with the change of concentration: solubility equilibrium under specified KCl and pH condition.

    PubMed

    Tsunashima, Yoshisuke; Akutagawa, Tohru

    2004-10-15

    We observed, for the first time, the elementary process for the ordered self-assembly formation of myosin in solution. It was realized exclusively under the specific condition of 200 mM KCl, 5 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.08, at 15-20 degrees C, which is called the transition-generating condition (TGC). Described more in detail: pure myosin extracted from rabbit skeletal muscle exhibited the structural transition in its association form only when the myosin concentration c was changed under TGC. The myosin solubility was saturated in both edges of the total myosin concentration c > 10.0 mg/mL (solubility region II) and c < or = 0.25 mg/mL (solubility region I). In the intermediate region, the association structure of myosin changed stepwise with decreasing c. The steps were classified into four regions: region I (c < or = 0.25 mg/mL), II (0.25 < or = c < or = 0.50 mg/mL), III (0.50 < or = c < or = 5.0 mg/mL), and IV (c > 5.0 mg/mL). In each region except II, the plot of the relative soluble myosin concentration c(aq)/c against c(-1) gave a straight line of different slopes, certifying that myosin constructs self-assemblies by the closed association mechanism and that the self-assembly takes dual structures in each region. In region II, a drastic transition occurred in the self-assembled dual structures. Here, a highly associated (insoluble) giant assembly would break into soluble assemblies composed of several myosin molecules. The solubility region I originates a driving force for this structural transition. The basic binding unit of the self-assembly would be a parallel myosin-dimer constructed by the intermolecular axial staggers of 14.3 and 43 nm, as is observed by X-ray diffraction for the thick filament assembly or light meromyosin paracrystals. Myosin could take a single rod-like chain form only in an extremely low concentration region of c < or = c(aq,0) (= 0.053 mg/mL). The association behavior revealed in the present study suggests strongly that the complementary charge cluster and its electrostatic interaction between parallel myosin rods play a crucial role for the ordered self-assembly formation and that the specific electrostatic atmosphere of the solution under TGC is essential to the association mechanism in skeletal muscle myosin, or the thick filament formation of the mammals. PMID:15378484

  20. Protease-susceptible sites and properties of fragments of aortic smooth-muscle myosin.

    PubMed Central

    King, L; Jiang, M J; Huang, T S; Sheu, G C

    1995-01-01

    We have examined the protease susceptibility of aortic myosin, the thermal unfolding profiles of myosin rod and light meromyosin (LMM) and the solubility properties of the LMM fragments. Two major protease-susceptible sites were found, located at the head-rod junction and the heavy meromyosin (HMM)-LMM junction. Both tryptic and chymotryptic digestion of aortic myosin rod produced the LMM (80-85 kDa) and short subfragment 2 (S-2) (40-45 kDa) segments, which were similar to those of gizzard myosin rod and differed from the short LMM (70 kDa) and long S-2 (58 kDa) segments produced from skeletal-muscle rod. The thermal unfolding profile of aortic myosin rods exhibited three helix-unfolding transitions, at 47.5, 51 and 54 degrees C, similar to those of gizzard rods yet different from those of skeletal-muscle rods. There was a dramatic difference in the solubility of aortic LMM fragments of various molecular mass, as for gizzard smooth-muscle LMM and rabbit skeletal-muscle LMM. LMM fragments of molecular mass 77 kDa or more were completely insoluble in low-ionic-strength buffer, whereas LMM fragments of molecular mass 73 kDa or less were completely soluble in low-ionic-strength buffer. Proteolytic digestion patterns of LMM showed two additional protease-susceptible sites located 13 and 30 kDa from the ends of the LMM molecule. This suggests the existence of flexible regions within the LMM molecule, which may be responsible for the folded form of aortic myosin. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:8526864

  1. Giardia duodenalis Surface Cysteine Proteases Induce Cleavage of the Intestinal Epithelial Cytoskeletal Protein Villin via Myosin Light Chain Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Amol; Cotton, James A.; Dixon, Brent R.; Gedamu, Lashitew; Yates, Robin M.; Buret, Andre G.

    2015-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis infections are among the most common causes of waterborne diarrhoeal disease worldwide. At the height of infection, G. duodenalis trophozoites induce multiple pathophysiological processes within intestinal epithelial cells that contribute to the development of diarrhoeal disease. To date, our understanding of pathophysiological processes in giardiasis remains incompletely understood. The present study reveals a previously unappreciated role for G. duodenalis cathepsin cysteine proteases in intestinal epithelial pathophysiological processes that occur during giardiasis. Experiments first established that Giardia trophozoites indeed produce cathepsin B and L in strain-dependent fashion. Co-incubation of G. duodenalis with human enterocytes enhanced cathepsin production by Assemblage A (NF and S2 isolates) trophozoites, but not when epithelial cells were exposed to Assemblage B (GSM isolate) trophozoites. Direct contact between G. duodenalis parasites and human intestinal epithelial monolayers resulted in the degradation and redistribution of the intestinal epithelial cytoskeletal protein villin; these effects were abolished when parasite cathepsin cysteine proteases were inhibited. Interestingly, inhibition of parasite proteases did not prevent degradation of the intestinal tight junction-associated protein zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1), suggesting that G. duodenalis induces multiple pathophysiological processes within intestinal epithelial cells. Finally, this study demonstrates that G. duodenalis-mediated disruption of villin is, at least, in part dependent on activation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). Taken together, this study indicates a novel role for parasite cathepsin cysteine proteases in the pathophysiology of G. duodenalis infections. PMID:26334299

  2. MyoD and myogenin act on the chicken myosin light-chain 1 gene as distinct transcriptional factors.

    PubMed Central

    Asakura, A; Fujisawa-Sehara, A; Komiya, T; Nabeshima, Y; Nabeshima, Y

    1993-01-01

    Expression of MyoD, myogenin, MRF4, and Myf-5 converts nonmuscle cells to muscle cells. In an attempt to analyze the roles of these factors, we have investigated their effects on transcription driven by the promoter of the chicken myosin alkaline light-chain (MLC1) gene. The activation by CMD1 or c-myogenin (chicken MyoD or myogenin, respectively) was dependent on the existence of a muscle-specific regulatory region located from positions -2096 to -1743. Its distal half, containing a pair of E boxes (CANNTG), had been previously characterized as an enhancer responsive to CMD1 but not to c-myogenin. In this study, we report the identification of another enhancer in the muscle-specific regulatory region which is preferentially responsive to c-myogenin. Deletion and mutation analyses indicated that this enhancer requires a single E box and its flanking sequences. Furthermore, analysis of chimeric proteins of CMD1 and c-myogenin indicated that regions outside the basic helix-loop-helix domain of c-myogenin are involved in the specificity of the enhancer. These results show that CMD1 and c-myogenin act on the MLC1 gene by recognizing different upstream DNA sequences and that direct or indirect interactions between the regions outside the basic helix-loop-helix domain and flanking sequences of E boxes are involved in the target sequence specificity. Images PMID:8413304

  3. Commensal Bacterial Endocytosis in Epithelial Cells Is Dependent on Myosin Light Chain Kinase–Activated Brush Border Fanning by Interferon-γ

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Ling; Peng, Wei-Hao; Kuo, Wei-Ting; Huang, Ching-Ying; Ni, Yen-Hsuan; Lu, Kuo-Shyan; Turner, Jerrold R.; Yu, Linda C.H.

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal bacterial adherence and internalization in enterocytes have been documented in Crohn disease, celiac disease, surgical stress, and intestinal obstruction and are associated with low-level interferon (IFN)-γ production. How commensals gain access to epithelial soma through densely packed microvilli rooted on the terminal web (TW) remains unclear. We investigated molecular and ultrastructural mechanisms of bacterial endocytosis, focusing on regulatory roles of IFN-γ and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in TW myosin phosphorylation and brush border fanning. Mouse intestines were sham operated on or obstructed for 6 hours by loop ligation with intraluminally administered ML-7 (a MLCK inhibitor) or Y27632 (a Rho-associated kinase inhibitor). After intestinal obstruction, epithelial endocytosis and extraintestinal translocation of bacteria were observed in the absence of tight junctional damage. Enhanced TW myosin light chain phosphorylation, arc formation, and brush border fanning coincided with intermicrovillous bacterial penetration, which were inhibited by ML-7 and neutralizing anti–IFN-γ but not Y27632. The phenomena were not seen in mice genetically deficient for long MLCK-210 or IFN-γ. Stimulation of human Caco-2BBe cells with IFN-γ caused MLCK-dependent TW arc formation and brush border fanning, which preceded caveolin-mediated bacterial internalization through cholesterol-rich lipid rafts. In conclusion, epithelial MLCK-activated brush border fanning by IFN-γ promotes adherence and internalization of normally noninvasive enteric bacteria. Transcytotic commensal penetration may contribute to initiation or relapse of chronic inflammation. PMID:24911373

  4. Remote control of myosin and kinesin motors using light-activated gearshifting

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Muneaki; Chen, Lu; Howes, Stuart C.; Schindler, Tony D.; Nogales, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Cytoskeletal motors perform critical force generation and transport functions in eukaryotic cells1,2. Engineered modifications of motor function provide direct tests of protein structure-function relationships and potential tools for controlling cellular processes or for harnessing molecular transport in artificial systems3,4. Here, we report the design and characterization of a panel of cytoskeletal motors that reversibly change gears—speed up, slow down or switch directions—when exposed to blue light. Our genetically encoded structural designs incorporate a photoactive protein domain to enable light-dependent conformational changes in an engineered lever arm. Using in vitro motility assays, we demonstrate robust spatiotemporal control over motor function and characterize the kinetics of the optical gearshifting mechanism. We have used a modular approach to create optical gearshifting motors for both actin-based and microtubule-based transport. PMID:25086603

  5. Remote control of myosin and kinesin motors using light-activated gearshifting.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Muneaki; Chen, Lu; Howes, Stuart C; Schindler, Tony D; Nogales, Eva; Bryant, Zev

    2014-09-01

    Cytoskeletal motors perform critical force generation and transport functions in eukaryotic cells. Engineered modifications of motor function provide direct tests of protein structure-function relationships and potential tools for controlling cellular processes or for harnessing molecular transport in artificial systems. Here, we report the design and characterization of a panel of cytoskeletal motors that reversibly change gears--speed up, slow down or switch directions--when exposed to blue light. Our genetically encoded structural designs incorporate a photoactive protein domain to enable light-dependent conformational changes in an engineered lever arm. Using in vitro motility assays, we demonstrate robust spatiotemporal control over motor function and characterize the kinetics of the optical gearshifting mechanism. We have used a modular approach to create optical gearshifting motors for both actin-based and microtubule-based transport. PMID:25086603

  6. Remote control of myosin and kinesin motors using light-activated gearshifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Muneaki; Chen, Lu; Howes, Stuart C.; Schindler, Tony D.; Nogales, Eva; Bryant, Zev

    2014-09-01

    Cytoskeletal motors perform critical force generation and transport functions in eukaryotic cells. Engineered modifications of motor function provide direct tests of protein structure-function relationships and potential tools for controlling cellular processes or for harnessing molecular transport in artificial systems. Here, we report the design and characterization of a panel of cytoskeletal motors that reversibly change gears—speed up, slow down or switch directions—when exposed to blue light. Our genetically encoded structural designs incorporate a photoactive protein domain to enable light-dependent conformational changes in an engineered lever arm. Using in vitro motility assays, we demonstrate robust spatiotemporal control over motor function and characterize the kinetics of the optical gearshifting mechanism. We have used a modular approach to create optical gearshifting motors for both actin-based and microtubule-based transport.

  7. Clearing skeletal muscle with CLARITY for light microscopy imaging.

    PubMed

    Milgroom, Andrew; Ralston, Evelyn

    2016-04-01

    Viewing subcellular details over large tissue volumes is becoming an essential condition of the success of large-scale projects aimed at visualizing cell connections in whole organs or tissues. However, tissue opacity remains an obstacle to deep tissue imaging. This situation has brought renewed interest for techniques of tissue clearing; new protocols, such as CLARITY (Clear Lipid-exchanged Acrylamide-hybridized Rigid Imaging/Immunostaining/In situ hybridization-compatible Tissue-hYdrogel), have recently been developed. So far, most of the tests of these techniques have been applied to brain or other soft tissues. Here we show that CLARITY clears mouse hindlimb skeletal muscles and maintains the basic structural features of muscle and its fibers. However, tagging with fluorescent markers was not successful. PMID:26732743

  8. Non–Muscle Myosin Light Chain Kinase Isoform Is a Viable Molecular Target in Acute Inflammatory Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Mirzapoiazova, Tamara; Moitra, Jaideep; Moreno-Vinasco, Liliana; Sammani, Saad; Turner, Jerry R.; Chiang, Eddie T.; Evenoski, Carrie; Wang, Ting; Singleton, Patrick A.; Huang, Yong; Lussier, Yves A.; Watterson, D. Martin; Dudek, Steven M.; Garcia, Joe G. N.

    2011-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and mechanical ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), major causes of acute respiratory failure with elevated morbidity and mortality, are characterized by significant pulmonary inflammation and alveolar/vascular barrier dysfunction. Previous studies highlighted the role of the non–muscle myosin light chain kinase isoform (nmMLCK) as an essential element of the inflammatory response, with variants in the MYLK gene that contribute to ALI susceptibility. To define nmMLCK involvement further in acute inflammatory syndromes, we used two murine models of inflammatory lung injury, induced by either an intratracheal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS model) or mechanical ventilation with increased tidal volumes (the VILI model). Intravenous delivery of the membrane-permeant MLC kinase peptide inhibitor, PIK, produced a dose-dependent attenuation of both LPS-induced lung inflammation and VILI (∼50% reductions in alveolar/vascular permeability and leukocyte influx). Intravenous injections of nmMLCK silencing RNA, either directly or as cargo within angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) antibody–conjugated liposomes (to target the pulmonary vasculature selectively), decreased nmMLCK lung expression (∼70% reduction) and significantly attenuated LPS-induced and VILI-induced lung inflammation (∼40% reduction in bronchoalveolar lavage protein). Compared with wild-type mice, nmMLCK knockout mice were significantly protected from VILI, with significant reductions in VILI-induced gene expression in biological pathways such as nrf2-mediated oxidative stress, coagulation, p53-signaling, leukocyte extravasation, and IL-6–signaling. These studies validate nmMLCK as an attractive target for ameliorating the adverse effects of dysregulated lung inflammation. PMID:20139351

  9. Microsecond rotational dynamics of spin-labeled myosin regulatory light chain induced by relaxation and contraction of scallop muscle.

    PubMed

    Roopnarine, O; Szent-Gyrgyi, A G; Thomas, D D

    1998-10-13

    We have used saturation transfer electron paramagnetic resonance (ST-EPR) to study the rotational dynamics of spin-labeled regulatory light chain (RLC) in scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) muscle fibers. The single cysteine (Cys 51) in isolated clam (Mercenaria) RLC was labeled with an indanedione spin label (InVSL). RLC was completely and specifically extracted from scallop striated muscle fibers, eliminating the Ca sensitivity of ATPase activity and isometric force, which were both completely restored by stoichiometric incorporation of labeled RLC. The EPR spectrum of the isolated RLC revealed nanosecond rotational motions within the RLC, which were completely eliminated when the labeled RLC was bound to myosin heads in myofibrils or fibers in rigor. This is the most strongly immobilized RLC-bound probe reported to date and thus offers the most reliable detection of the overall rotational motion of the LC domain. Conventional EPR spectra of oriented fibers indicated essentially complete probe disorder, independent of ATP and Ca, eliminating orientational dependence and thus making this probe ideal for unambiguous measurement of microsecond rotational motions of the LC domain by ST-EPR. ST-EPR spectra of fibers in rigor indicated an effective rotational correlation time (taureff) of 140 +/- 5 microseconds, similar to that observed for the same spin label bound to the catalytic domain. Relaxation by ATP induced microsecond rotational motion (taureff = 70 +/- 4 microseconds), and this motion was slightly slower upon Ca activation of isometric contraction (taureff = 100 +/- 5 microseconds). These motions in relaxation and contraction are similar to, but slower than, the motions previously reported for the same spin label bound to the catalytic domain. These results support a model for force generation involving rotational motion of the LC domain relative to the catalytic domain and dynamic disorder-to-order transitions in both domains. PMID:9772169

  10. Molecular cloning, characterisation and mRNA expression analysis of the sheep myosin light chain 1 gene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunlan; Wang, Guizhi; Ji, Zhibin; Liu, Zhaohua; Hou, Lei; Liu, Guanqing; Wang, Jianmin

    2015-09-10

    The complete cDNA sequence of the sheep MYL1 (Myosin light chain 1) gene was cloned using RT-PCR, 5' RACE and 3' RACE. We obtained two alternatively spliced isoforms of the MYL1 gene, MYL1a and MYL1b, which are 849 and 1046bp in length and encode proteins composed of 150 and 192 amino acid residues, respectively. And the GenBank accession numbers of MYL1a and MYL1b full-length cDNA sequences that we cloned are KJ700419 and KJ710701, respectively. Neither protein was predicted to have a signal peptide, but both were predicted to have several N-glycosylation and phosphorylation sites. More than half of the secondary structure of these proteins was predicted to be ?-helical. The human MYL2 protein (1m8q.1.C) is the most similar in tertiary structure. Sequence alignment showed that the sheep MYL1a protein shares more than 92% amino acid sequence similar with Mus musculus, Homo sapiens, Rattus norvegicus, Sus scrofa and Gallus gallus and that the MYL1b protein shares more than 93% amino acid sequence similar with M. musculus, H. sapiens, R. norvegicus, Bos taurus and Oryctolagus cuniculus. Transcription profile analyses of various tissues indicated that the sheep MYL1a and MYL1b mRNAs were highly but differentially expressed in the longissimus dorsi. Moreover, the expression levels of these genes in the longissimus dorsi differed between Dorper and Small-tailed Han sheep. These results serve as a foundation for further investigations of the function of the sheep MYL1 gene. PMID:25911560

  11. Effect of metabolic inhibition on intracellular Ca2+, phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain and force in rat smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Taggart, M J; Menice, C B; Morgan, K G; Wray, S

    1997-01-01

    1. The effect of the inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), phosphorylation of the 20 kDa regulatory light chain of myosin (MLC20) and contractility was investigated in isolated longitudinal smooth muscle from rat uteri. 2. Cyanide (2 mM) application to normally polarized preparations resulted in an elevation of basal [Ca2+]i but an inhibition of [Ca2+]i transients and the accompanying contractions. 3. Depolarization with high-K+ solution (40 mM KCI) resulted in elevation of [Ca2+]i and maintained force production. Phosphorylation of MLC20 was transiently increased followed by a steady-state augmentation above resting levels. 4. Carbachol (100 microM) produced a transient elevation of [Ca2+]i and force of depolarized tissues followed by a steady-state augmentation of both parameters. PGF2 alpha (1 microM) did not significantly potentiate [Ca2+]i or force in depolarized preparations. Both carbachol and PGF2 alpha potentiated phosphorylation of MLC20 in depolarized tissues. 5. Addition of cyanide to depolarized preparations, in the presence or absence of carbachol or PGF2 alpha, resulted in significant attenuation of force under each condition. The magnitude and normalized rates of force inhibition by cyanide were not significantly different for each stimulus condition. MLC20 phosphorylation levels were unaltered by cyanide treatment. However, cyanide increased the maintained level of [Ca2+]i under each experimental protocol. 6. It is concluded that the inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation with cyanide results in dissociation of both the [Ca2+]i-force and MLC20 phosphorylation-force relationships in rat uterine smooth muscle. PMID:9080376

  12. Compressive Stress Induces Dephosphorylation of the Myosin Regulatory Light Chain via RhoA Phosphorylation by the Adenylyl Cyclase/Protein Kinase A Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Takemoto, Kenji; Ishihara, Seiichiro; Mizutani, Takeomi; Kawabata, Kazushige; Haga, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical stress that arises due to deformation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) either stretches or compresses cells. The cellular response to stretching has been actively studied. For example, stretching induces phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC) via the RhoA/RhoA-associated protein kinase (ROCK) pathway, resulting in increased cellular tension. In contrast, the effects of compressive stress on cellular functions are not fully resolved. The mechanisms for sensing and differentially responding to stretching and compressive stress are not known. To address these questions, we investigated whether phosphorylation levels of MRLC were affected by compressive stress. Contrary to the response in stretching cells, MRLC was dephosphorylated 5 min after cells were subjected to compressive stress. Compressive loading induced activation of myosin phosphatase mediated via the dephosphorylation of myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 (Thr853). Because myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 (Thr853) is phosphorylated only by ROCK, compressive loading may have induced inactivation of ROCK. However, GTP-bound RhoA (active form) increased in response to compressive stress. The compression-induced activation of RhoA and inactivation of its effector ROCK are contradictory. This inconsistency was due to phosphorylation of RhoA (Ser188) that reduced affinity of RhoA to ROCK. Treatment with the inhibitor of protein kinase A that phosphorylates RhoA (Ser188) induced suppression of compression-stimulated MRLC dephosphorylation. Incidentally, stretching induced phosphorylation of MRLC, but did not affect phosphorylation levels of RhoA (Ser188). Together, our results suggest that RhoA phosphorylation is an important process for MRLC dephosphorylation by compressive loading, and for distinguishing between stretching and compressing cells. PMID:25734240

  13. A novel pressure-jump apparatus for the microvolume analysis of protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions: its application to nucleotide binding to skeletal-muscle and smooth-muscle myosin subfragment-1.

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, David S; Holtermann, Georg; Ellison, Patricia; Cremo, Christine; Geeves, Michael A

    2002-01-01

    Reactions involving proteins frequently involve large changes in volume, which allows the equilibrium position to be perturbed by changes in pressure. Rapid changes in pressure can thus be used to initiate relaxation in pressure; however, this approach is seldom used, because it requires specialized equipment. We have built a microvolume (50 microl) pressure-jump apparatus, powered by a piezoelectric actuator, based on the original design of Clegg and Maxfield [(1976) Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 1383-1393]. This equipment can apply pressure changes of +/-20 MPa (maximally) in time periods as short as 80 micros and follow the resulting change in fluorescence signals. The system is relatively simple to use with fast (approx. 1 min) exchange of samples. In the present study, we show that this system can perturb the binding of 2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ADP to myosin subfragment-1(S1) from skeletal and smooth muscles. The kinetic data are consistent with previous work, and in addition show that, although 2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl)-ADP binds with a similar affinity to both proteins, the increase in molar volume for the skeletal-muscle S1 binding to ADP is half of that for the smooth-muscle protein. This high-volume change for smooth-muscle S1 may be related to the ability of ADP to induce a 23 degrees tilt in the tail of S1 bound to actin. PMID:12010120

  14. Regulation of myosin expression during myotome formation.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Loren D; Cann, Gordon M; Nikovits, William; Conlon, Sandra; Espinoza, Nora R; Stockdale, Frank E

    2003-08-01

    The first skeletal muscle fibers to form in vertebrate embryos appear in the somitic myotome. PCR analysis and in situ hybridization with isoform-specific probes reveal differences in the temporal appearance and spatial distribution of fast and slow myosin heavy chain mRNA transcripts within myotomal fibers. Embryonic fast myosin heavy chain was the first isoform expressed, followed rapidly by slow myosin heavy chains 1 and 3, with slow myosin heavy chain 2 appearing several hours later. Neonatal fast myosin heavy chain is not expressed in myotomal fibers. Although transcripts of embryonic fast myosin heavy chain were always distributed throughout the length of myotomal fibers, the mRNA for each slow myosin heavy chain isoform was initially restricted to the centrally located myotomal fiber nuclei. As development proceeded, slow myosin heavy chain transcripts spread throughout the length of myotomal fibers in order of their appearance. Explants of segments from embryos containing neural tube, notochord and somites 7-10, when incubated overnight, become innervated by motor neurons from the neural tube and express all four myosin heavy chain genes. Removal of the neural tube and/or notochord from explants prior to incubation or addition of d-tubocurare to intact explants prevented expression of slow myosin chain 2 but expression of genes encoding the other myosin heavy chain isoforms was unaffected. Thus, expression of slow myosin heavy chain 2 is dependent on functional innervation, whereas expression of embryonic fast and slow myosin heavy chain 1 and 3 are innervation independent. Implantation of sonic-hedgehog-soaked beads in vivo increased the accumulation of both fast and slow myosin heavy chain transcripts, as well as overall myotome size and individual fiber size, but had no effect on myotomal fiber phenotype. Transcripts encoding embryonic fast myosin heavy chain first appear ventrolaterally in the myotome, whereas slow myosin heavy chain transcripts first appear in fibers positioned midway between the ventrolateral and dorsomedial lips of the myotome. Therefore, models of epaxial myotome formation must account for the positioning of the oldest fibers in the more ventral-lateral region of the myotome and the youngest fibers in the dorsomedial region. PMID:12810587

  15. Rho-associated kinase plays a role in rabbit urethral smooth muscle contraction, but not via enhanced myosin light chain phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Michael P; Thornbury, Keith; Cole, William C; Sergeant, Gerard; Hollywood, Mark; McHale, Noel

    2011-01-01

    The involvement of Rho-associated kinase (ROK) in activation of rabbit urethral smooth muscle contraction was investigated by examining the effects of two structurally distinct inhibitors of ROK, Y27632 and H1152, on the contractile response to electric field stimulation, membrane depolarization with KCl, and ?1-adrenoceptor stimulation with phenylephrine. Both compounds inhibited contractions elicited by all three stimuli. The protein kinase C inhibitor GF109203X, on the other hand, had no effect. Urethral smooth muscle strips were analyzed for phosphorylation of three potential direct or indirect substrates of ROK: 1) myosin regulatory light chains (LC20) at S19, 2) the myosin-targeting subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase (MYPT1) at T697 and T855, and 3) cofilin at S3. The following results were obtained: 1) under resting tension, LC20 was phosphorylated to 0.650.02 mol Pi/mol LC20 (n=21) at S19; 2) LC20 phosphorylation did not change in response to KCl or phenylephrine; 3) ROK inhibition had no effect on LC20 phosphorylation in the absence or presence of contractile stimuli; 4) under resting conditions, MYPT1 was partially phosphorylated at T697 and T855 and cofilin at S3; 5) phosphorylation of MYPT1 and cofilin was unaffected by KCl or phenylephrine; and 6) KCl- and phenylephrine-induced contraction-relaxation cycles did not correlate with actin polymerization-depolymerization. We conclude that ROK plays an important role in urethral smooth muscle contraction, but not via inhibition of MLCP or polymerization of actin. PMID:20861082

  16. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced activation of RhoA in airway smooth muscle cells: role in the Ca2+ sensitization of myosin light chain20 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Irene; Cobban, Hannah J; Vandenabeele, Peter; MacEwan, David J; Nixon, Graeme F

    2003-03-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), an inflammatory cytokine, has a potentially important role in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma and may contribute to airway hyper-responsiveness. Recent evidence has revealed that TNF can increase the Ca(2+) sensitivity of agonist-stimulated myosin light chain(20) (MLC(20)) phosphorylation and contractility in guinea pig airway smooth muscle (ASM). In the present study, the potential intracellular pathways responsible for this TNF-induced Ca(2+) sensitization were investigated. In permeabilized cultured guinea pig ASM cells, recombinant human TNF stimulated an increase in Ca(2+)-activated MLC(20) phosphorylation under Ca(2+) "clamp" conditions. This increased MLC(20) phosphorylation was inhibited by preincubation with the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y27632. TNF also increased the proportion of GTP-bound RhoA, as measured using rhotekin Rho-binding domain, in a time course compatible with a role in the TNF-induced Ca(2+) sensitization. In cultured human ASM cells, recombinant human TNF also activated RhoA with a similar time course. In addition, TNF stimulated phosphorylation of the regulatory subunit of the myosin phosphatase, which was inhibited by Y27632. Although human ASM cells expressed both receptor subtypes, TNF-R1 and TNF-R2, the activation of RhoA was predominantly via stimulation of the TNF-R1, although RhoA did not immunoprecipitate with the TNF-R1. In conclusion, the TNF-induced increase in the Ca(2+) sensitivity of MLC(20) phosphorylation is through stimulation of the TNF-R1 receptor and via a RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway leading to inhibition of the myosin light chain phosphatase. This intracellular mechanism may contribute to TNF-induced airway hyper-responsiveness. PMID:12606782

  17. A composite approach towards a complete model of the myosin rod.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, E Nihal; Taylor, Keenan C; Andreas, Michael P; Ajay, Guatam; Heinze, Nathan T; Cui, Qiang; Rayment, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Sarcomeric myosins have the remarkable ability to form regular bipolar thick filaments that, together with actin thin filaments, constitute the fundamental contractile unit of skeletal and cardiac muscle. This has been established for over 50?years and yet a molecular model for the thick filament has not been attained. In part this is due to the lack of a detailed molecular model for the coiled-coil that constitutes the myosin rod. The ability to self-assemble resides in the C-terminal section of myosin known as light meromyosin (LMM) which exhibits strong salt-dependent aggregation that has inhibited structural studies. Here we evaluate the feasibility of generating a complete model for the myosin rod by combining overlapping structures of five sections of coiled-coil covering 164 amino acid residues which constitute 20% of LMM. Each section contains ?7-9 heptads of myosin. The problem of aggregation was overcome by incorporating the globular folding domains, Gp7 and Xrcc4 which enhance crystallization. The effect of these domains on the stability and conformation of the myosin rod was examined through biophysical studies and overlapping structures. In addition, a computational approach was developed to combine the sections into a contiguous model. The structures were aligned, trimmed to form a contiguous model, and simulated for >700 ns to remove the discontinuities and achieve an equilibrated conformation that represents the native state. This experimental and computational strategy lays the foundation for building a model for the entire myosin rod. Proteins 2016; 84:172-189. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26573747

  18. Slow myosin ATP turnover in the super-relaxed state in tarantula muscle.

    PubMed

    Naber, Nariman; Cooke, Roger; Pate, Edward

    2011-09-01

    We measured the nucleotide turnover rate of myosin in tarantula leg muscle fibers by observing single turnovers of the fluorescent nucleotide analog 2'-/3'-O-(N'-methylanthraniloyl)adenosine-5'-O-triphosphate, as monitored by the decrease in fluorescence when 2'-/3'-O-(N'-methylanthraniloyl)adenosine-5'-O-triphosphate (mantATP) is replaced by ATP in a chase experiment. We find a multiexponential process with approximately two-thirds of the myosin showing a very slow nucleotide turnover time constant (?30 min). This slow-turnover state is termed the super-relaxed state (SRX). If fibers are incubated in 2'-/3'-O-(N'-methylanthraniloyl)adenosine-5'-O-diphosphate and chased with ADP, the SRX is not seen, indicating that trinucleotide-relaxed myosins are responsible for the SRX. Phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain eliminates the fraction of myosin with a very long lifetime. The data imply that the very long-lived SRX in tarantula fibers is a highly novel adaptation for energy conservation in an animal that spends extremely long periods of time in a quiescent state employing a lie-in-wait hunting strategy. The presence of the SRX measured here correlates well with the binding of myosin heads to the core of the thick filament in a structure known as the "interacting-heads motif," observed previously by electron microscopy. Both the structural array and the long-lived SRX require relaxed filaments or relaxed fibers, both are lost upon myosin phosphorylation, and both appear to be more stable in tarantula than in vertebrate skeletal or vertebrate cardiac preparations. PMID:21763701

  19. Light diffraction study of single skeletal muscle fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Baskin, R J; Roos, K P; Yeh, Y

    1979-01-01

    Light diffraction patterns from isolated frog semitendinosus muscle fibers were examined. When transilluminated by laser light, the muscle striations produce a diffraction pattern consisting of a series of lines that are projected as points onto an optical detector by a lens system. Diffraction data may be sequentially stored every 18 ms for later processing by digital computer systems. First- and second-order diffraction line intensities were examined from intact, chemically skinned, and glycerinated single fibers. The diffraction line intensities demonstrated a strong length dependence upon passive stretch from reference length to 3.6 micrometer. The first-order intensity linearly increased an average of 15-fold over the range examined. The magnitude of the second order intensity was less than the first order and showed an exponential rise with increasing length. Both first- and second-order intensities decreased upon muscle activation. Data from chemically skinned and glycerinated single fibers were not significantly different from intact fibers, indicating that the membrane structure has little effect upon the diffraction phenomenon in muscle. Theoretical model systems are examined in an attempt to find the basis of these results. Neither an analysis based on a diffraction grating with variable spacing nor the unit cell model of Fujime provides an explanation for the observed length dependency of intensity. Though the origin of the intensity decrease upon stimulation is not known, we have suggested that it could result from lateral misalignment of myofibrils and can occur upon activation. PMID:318066

  20. Carbachol ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal epithelial tight junction damage by down-regulating NF-{kappa}{beta} and myosin light-chain kinase pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Jianguo

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol reduced the lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal barrier breakdown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol ameliorated the lipopolysaccharide-induced ileal tight junction damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol prevented the LPS-induced NF-{kappa}{beta} and myosin light-chain kinase activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol exerted its beneficial effects in an {alpha}7 nicotinic receptor-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Carbachol is a cholinergic agonist that protects the intestines after trauma or burn injury. The present study determines the beneficial effects of carbachol and the mechanisms by which it ameliorates the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal barrier breakdown. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 10 mg/kg LPS. Results showed that the gut barrier permeability was reduced, the ultrastructural disruption of tight junctions (TJs) was prevented, the redistribution of zonula occludens-1 and claudin-2 proteins was partially reversed, and the nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-{kappa}{beta}) and myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) activation in the intestinal epithelium were suppressed after carbachol administration in LPS-exposed rats. Pretreatment with the {alpha}7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ({alpha}7nAchR) antagonist {alpha}-bungarotoxin blocked the protective action of carbachol. These results suggested that carbachol treatment can protect LPS-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction. Carbachol exerts its beneficial effect on the amelioration of the TJ damage by inhibiting the NF-{kappa}{beta} and MLCK pathways in an {alpha}7nAchR-dependent manner.

  1. Cross-bridge Kinetics in Myofibrils Containing Familial Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy R58Q Mutation in the Regulatory Light Chain of Myosin

    PubMed Central

    Mettikolla, P.; Calander, N.; Luchowski, R.; Gryczynski, I.; Gryczynski, Z.; Zhao, J.; Szczesna-Cordary, D.; Borejdo, J.

    2011-01-01

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) is a heritable form of cardiac hypertrophy caused by single-point mutations in genes encoding sarcomeric proteins including ventricular myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). FHC often leads to malignant outcomes and sudden cardiac death. The FHC mutations are believed to alter the kinetics of the interaction between actin and myosin resulting in inefficient energy utilization and compromised function of the heart. We studied the effect of the FHC-linked R58Q-RLC mutation on the kinetics of transgenic (Tg)-R58Q cardiac myofibrils. Kinetics was determined from the rate of change of orientation of actin monomers during muscle contraction. Actin monomers change orientation because myosin cross-bridges deliver to it periodic force impulses. An individual impulse (but not time average of impulses) carries the information about the kinetics of actomyosin interaction. To observe individual impulses it was necessary to scale down the experiments to the level of a few molecules. A small population (~4 molecules) was selected by using (deliberately) inefficient fluorescence labeling and observing fluorescent molecules by a confocal microscope. We show that the kinetic rates are significantly smaller in the contracting cardiac myofibrils from Tg-R58Q mice then in control Tg-wild type (WT). We also demonstrate a lower force per cross-section of muscle fiber in Tg-R58Q versus Tg-WT mice. We conclude that the R58Q mutation-induced decrease in cross-bridge kinetics underlines the mechanism by which Tg-R58Q fibers develop low force and thus compromise the ability of the mutated heart to efficiently pump blood. PMID:21723297

  2. The basic helix-loop-helix protein upstream stimulating factor regulates the cardiac ventricular myosin light-chain 2 gene via independent cis regulatory elements.

    PubMed Central

    Navankasattusas, S; Sawadogo, M; van Bilsen, M; Dang, C V; Chien, K R

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies have documented that 250 bp of the rat cardiac ventricular myosin light-chain 2 (MLC-2v) promoter is sufficient to confer cardiac muscle-specific expression on a luciferase reporter gene in both transgenic mice and primary cultured neonatal rat myocardial cells. Utilizing ligation-mediated PCR to perform in vivo dimethyl sulfate footprinting, the present study has identified protein-DNA interaction within the position from -176 to -165. This region, identified as MLE1, contains a core sequence, CACGTG, which conforms to the consensus E-box site and is identical to the upstream stimulating factor (USF)-binding site of the adenovirus major late promoter. Transient assays of luciferase reporter genes containing point mutations of the site demonstrate the importance of this cis regulatory element in the transcriptional activation of this cardiac muscle gene in ventricular muscle cells. The protein complex that occupies this site is capable of binding to HF-1a and PRE B sites which are known to be required for cardiac muscle-specific expression of rat MLC-2v and alpha-myosin heavy-chain genes, respectively. This study provides direct evidence that USF, a member of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper family, binds to MLE1, HF-1a, and PRE B sites and suggests that it is a component of protein complexes that may coordinately control the expression of MLC-2v and alpha-myosin heavy-chain genes. The current study also provides evidence that USF can positively and negatively regulate the MLC-2v gene via independent cis regulatory elements. Images PMID:7935447

  3. Identification of T. gondii Myosin Light Chain-1 as a Direct Target of TachypleginA-2, a Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Parasite Motility and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Jacqueline M.; Tran, Fanny; Pathak, Ravindra B.; Poupart, Séverine; Heaslip, Aoife T.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Westwood, Nicholas J.; Ward, Gary E.

    2014-01-01

    Motility of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii plays an important role in the parasite’s life cycle and virulence within animal and human hosts. Motility is driven by a myosin motor complex that is highly conserved across the Phylum Apicomplexa. Two key components of this complex are the class XIV unconventional myosin, TgMyoA, and its associated light chain, TgMLC1. We previously showed that treatment of parasites with a small-molecule inhibitor of T. gondii invasion and motility, tachypleginA, induces an electrophoretic mobility shift of TgMLC1 that is associated with decreased myosin motor activity. However, the direct target(s) of tachypleginA and the molecular basis of the compound-induced TgMLC1 modification were unknown. We show here by “click” chemistry labelling that TgMLC1 is a direct and covalent target of an alkyne-derivatized analogue of tachypleginA. We also show that this analogue can covalently bind to model thiol substrates. The electrophoretic mobility shift induced by another structural analogue, tachypleginA-2, was associated with the formation of a 225.118 Da adduct on S57 and/or C58, and treatment with deuterated tachypleginA-2 confirmed that the adduct was derived from the compound itself. Recombinant TgMLC1 containing a C58S mutation (but not S57A) was refractory to click labelling and no longer exhibited a mobility shift in response to compound treatment, identifying C58 as the site of compound binding on TgMLC1. Finally, a knock-in parasite line expressing the C58S mutation showed decreased sensitivity to compound treatment in a quantitative 3D motility assay. These data strongly support a model in which tachypleginA and its analogues inhibit the motility of T. gondii by binding directly and covalently to C58 of TgMLC1, thereby causing a decrease in the activity of the parasite’s myosin motor. PMID:24892871

  4. Differential localization of myosin and myosin phosphatase subunits in smooth muscle cells and migrating fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Murata, K; Hirano, K; Villa-Moruzzi, E; Hartshorne, D J; Brautigan, D L

    1997-01-01

    Myosin II light chains (MLC20) are phosphorylated by a Ca2+/calmodulin-activated kinase and dephosphorylated by a phosphatase that has been purified as a trimer containing the delta isoform of type 1 catalytic subunit (PP1C delta), a myosin-binding 130-kDa subunit (M130) and a 20-kDa subunit. The distribution of M130 and PP1C as well as myosin II was examined in smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts by immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoblotting after differential extraction. Myosin and M130 colocalized with actin stress fibers in permeabilized cells. However, in nonpermeabilized cells the staining for myosin and M130 was different, with myosin mostly at the periphery of the cell and the M130 appearing diffusely throughout the cytoplasm. Accordingly, most M130 was recovered in a soluble fraction during permeabilization of cells, but the conditions used affected the solubility of both M130 and myosin. The PP1C alpha isoform colocalized with M130 and also was in the nucleus, whereas the PP1C delta isoform was localized prominently in the nucleus and in focal adhesions. In migrating cells, M130 concentrated in the tailing edge and was depleted from the leading half of the cell, where double staining showed myosin II was present. Because the tailing edge of migrating cells is known to contain phosphorylated myosin, inhibition of myosin LC20 phosphatase, probably by phosphorylation of the M130 subunit, may be required for cell migration. Images PMID:9247646

  5. Structure of the Small Dictyostelium discoideum Myosin Light Chain MlcB Provides Insights into MyoB IQ Motif Recognition*

    PubMed Central

    Liburd, Janine; Chitayat, Seth; Crawley, Scott W.; Munro, Kim; Miller, Emily; Denis, Chris M.; Spencer, Holly L.; Ct, Graham P.; Smith, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum MyoB is a class I myosin involved in the formation and retraction of membrane projections, cortical tension generation, membrane recycling, and phagosome maturation. The MyoB-specific, single-lobe EF-hand light chain MlcB binds the sole IQ motif of MyoB with submicromolar affinity in the absence and presence of Ca2+. However, the structural features of this novel myosin light chain and its interaction with its cognate IQ motif remain uncharacterized. Here, we describe the NMR-derived solution structure of apoMlcB, which displays a globular four-helix bundle. Helix 1 adopts a unique orientation when compared with the apo states of the EF-hand calcium-binding proteins calmodulin, S100B, and calbindin D9k. NMR-based chemical shift perturbation mapping identified a hydrophobic MyoB IQ binding surface that involves amino acid residues in helices I and IV and the functional N-terminal Ca2+ binding loop, a site that appears to be maintained when MlcB adopts the holo state. Complementary mutagenesis and binding studies indicated that residues Ile-701, Phe-705, and Trp-708 of the MyoB IQ motif are critical for recognition of MlcB, which together allowed the generation of a structural model of the apoMlcB-MyoB IQ complex. We conclude that the mode of IQ motif recognition by the novel single-lobe MlcB differs considerably from that of stereotypical bilobal light chains such as calmodulin. PMID:24790102

  6. Structure of the small Dictyostelium discoideum myosin light chain MlcB provides insights into MyoB IQ motif recognition.

    PubMed

    Liburd, Janine; Chitayat, Seth; Crawley, Scott W; Munro, Kim; Miller, Emily; Denis, Chris M; Spencer, Holly L; Ct, Graham P; Smith, Steven P

    2014-06-13

    Dictyostelium discoideum MyoB is a class I myosin involved in the formation and retraction of membrane projections, cortical tension generation, membrane recycling, and phagosome maturation. The MyoB-specific, single-lobe EF-hand light chain MlcB binds the sole IQ motif of MyoB with submicromolar affinity in the absence and presence of Ca(2+). However, the structural features of this novel myosin light chain and its interaction with its cognate IQ motif remain uncharacterized. Here, we describe the NMR-derived solution structure of apoMlcB, which displays a globular four-helix bundle. Helix 1 adopts a unique orientation when compared with the apo states of the EF-hand calcium-binding proteins calmodulin, S100B, and calbindin D9k. NMR-based chemical shift perturbation mapping identified a hydrophobic MyoB IQ binding surface that involves amino acid residues in helices I and IV and the functional N-terminal Ca(2+) binding loop, a site that appears to be maintained when MlcB adopts the holo state. Complementary mutagenesis and binding studies indicated that residues Ile-701, Phe-705, and Trp-708 of the MyoB IQ motif are critical for recognition of MlcB, which together allowed the generation of a structural model of the apoMlcB-MyoB IQ complex. We conclude that the mode of IQ motif recognition by the novel single-lobe MlcB differs considerably from that of stereotypical bilobal light chains such as calmodulin. PMID:24790102

  7. Multiple positive and negative 5' regulatory elements control the cell-type-specific expression of the embryonic skeletal myosin heavy-chain gene.

    PubMed Central

    Bouvagnet, P F; Strehler, E E; White, G E; Strehler-Page, M A; Nadal-Ginard, B; Mahdavi, V

    1987-01-01

    To identify the DNA sequences that regulate the expression of the sarcomeric myosin heavy-chain (MHC) genes in muscle cells, a series of deletion constructs of the rat embryonic MHC gene was assayed for transient expression after introduction into myogenic and nonmyogenic cells. The sequences in 1.4 kilobases of 5'-flanking DNA were found to be sufficient to direct expression of the MHC gene constructs in a tissue-specific manner (i.e., in differentiated muscle cells but not in undifferentiated muscle and nonmuscle cells). Three main distinct regulatory domains have been identified: (i) the upstream sequences from positions -1413 to -174, which determine the level of expression of the MHC gene and are constituted of three positive regulatory elements and two negative ones; (ii) a muscle-specific regulatory element from positions -173 to -142, which restricts the expression of the MHC gene to muscle cells; and (iii) the promoter region, downstream from position -102, which directs transcription initiation. Introduction of the simian virus 40 enhancer into constructs where subportions of or all of the upstream sequences are deleted (up to position -173) strongly increases the level of expression of such truncated constructs but without changing their muscle specificity. These upstream sequences, which can be substituted for by the simian virus 40 enhancer, function in an orientation-, position-, and promoter-dependent fashion. The muscle-specific element is also promoter specific but does not support efficient expression of the MHC gene. The MHC promoter in itself is not muscle specific. These results underline the importance of the concerted action of multiple regulatory elements that are likely to represent targets for DNA-binding-regulatory proteins. Images PMID:2830491

  8. Orthovanadate-Induced Vasoconstriction of Rat Mesenteric Arteries Is Mediated by Rho Kinase-Dependent Inhibition of Myosin Light Chain Phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kazuya; Matsuzaki, Mai; Sasahara, Tomoya; Shin, Mariko; Yayama, Katsutoshi

    2015-01-01

    Orthovanadate (OVA), a protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, induces vasoconstriction in a Rho kinase-dependent manner. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism underlying OVA-induced vasoconstriction of rat mesenteric arteries. OVA-induced constriction of mesenteric arterial rings treated with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 0.1?mM), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, was significantly blocked by the Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 (R-(+)-trans-N-(4-pyridyl)-4-(1-aminoethyl)-cyclohexanecarboxamide, 10?M), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) inhibitor FR180204 (5-(2-phenyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-3-yl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridazin-3-ylamine, 10?M), Erk1/2 kinase (MEK) inhibitor PD98059 (2'-amino-3'-methoxyflavone, 10?M), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor AG1478 (4-(3-chloroanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline, 10?M), and Src inhibitor PP2 (4-amino-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(t-butyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine, 3?M). However, the myosin light chain kinase inhibitor ML-7 (1-(5-iodonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl)-homopiperazine, 10?M) did not affect OVA-induced constriction. Phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1, an index of Rho kinase activity) was abrogated by inhibitors of Src, EGFR MEK, Erk1/2, and Rho kinase. OVA-stimulated Erk1/2 phosphorylation was blocked by inhibitors of EGFR, Src, MEK, and Erk1/2 but not affected by an inhibitor of Rho kinase. OVA-induced Src phosphorylation was abrogated by an Src inhibitor but not affected by inhibitors of EGFR, MEK, Erk1/2, and Rho kinase. In addition, the metalloproteinase inhibitor TAPI-0 (N-(R)-[2-(hydroxyaminocarbonyl)methyl]-4-methylpentanoyl-L-naphthylalanyl-L-alanine amide, 10?M) and an inhibitor of heparin/epidermal growth factor binding (CRM 197, 10?g/mL) did not affect OVA-induced contraction of rat mesenteric arterial rings. These results suggest that OVA induces vasoconstriction in rat mesenteric arteries via Src, EGFR, MEK, and Erk1/2 activation, leading to the inactivation of myosin light chain phosphatase through phosphorylation of MYPT1. PMID:26521832

  9. Myosin filament 3D structure in mammalian cardiac muscle?

    PubMed Central

    AL-Khayat, Hind A.; Morris, Edward P.; Kensler, Robert W.; Squire, John M.

    2008-01-01

    A number of cardiac myopathies (e.g. familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy) are linked to mutations in cardiac muscle myosin filament proteins, including myosin and myosin binding protein C (MyBP-C). To understand the myopathies it is necessary to know the normal 3D structure of these filaments. We have carried out 3D single particle analysis of electron micrograph images of negatively stained isolated myosin filaments from rabbit cardiac muscle. Single filament images were aligned and divided into segments about 2נ430 long, each of which was treated as an independent particle. The resulting 40 resolution 3D reconstruction showed both axial and azimuthal (no radial) myosin head perturbations within the 430 repeat, with successive crown rotations of approximately 60, 60 and 0, rather than the regular 40 for an unperturbed helix. However, it is shown that the projecting density peaks appear to start at low radius from origins closer to those expected for an unperturbed helical filament, and that the azimuthal perturbation especially increases with radius. The head arrangements in rabbit cardiac myosin filaments are very similar to those in fish skeletal muscle myosin filaments, suggesting a possible general structural theme for myosin filaments in all vertebrate striated muscles (skeletal and cardiac). PMID:18472277

  10. Effect of Serum from Chickens Treated with Clenbuterol on Myosin Accumulation, Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Population, and Cyclic AMP Synthesis in Embryonic Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cell Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Ronald B.; Bridge, Kristin Y.; Wuethrich, Andrew J.; Hancock, Deana L.

    2002-01-01

    Broiler chickens at 35 d of age were fed 1 ppm clenbuterol for 14 d. This level of dietary clenbuterol led to 5-7% increases in the weights of leg and breast muscle tissue. At the end of the 14-d period, serum was prepared from both control and clenbuterol-treated chickens, and was then employed as a component of cell culture media at a final concentration of 20% (v/v). Muscle cell cultures were prepared from both the leg and the breast muscle groups of 12-d chick embryos. Treatment groups included control chicken serum to which 10 nM, 50 nM, and 1 uM clenbuterol had been added, as well as cells grown in media containing 10% horse serum. Cultures were subjected to each treatment for 3 d, beginning on the seventh d in culture. Neither the percent fusion nor the number of nuclei in myotubes was significantly affected by any of the treatments. The quantity of myosin heavy chains (MHCs) was not increased by serum from clenbuterol-treated chickens in either breast or leg muscle cultures; however, the MHC quantity was 50-150% higher in cultures grown in control chicken serum to which 10 and 50 nM clenbuterol had also been added. The B-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) population was 4000-7000 betaARs per cell in cultures grown in chicken serum with leg muscle cultures having approximately 25-30% more receptors than breast muscle Culture. Receptor population was not significantly affected by the presence of clenbuterol or by the presence of serum from clenbuterol-treated chickens. In contrast, the betaAR Population in leg and breast muscle cultures grown in the presence of 10% horse serum was 16,000-18,000 betaARs per cell. Basal concentration of cyclic adenosine 3':5'monophosphate (cAMP) was not significantly affected by the treatments. When cultures grown in chicken serum were stimulated for 10 min with 1 uM isoproterenol, limited increases of 12-20% in cAMP Concentration above the. basal levels were observed. However, when cultures grown in the presence of horse serum were stimulated with 1 uM isoproterenol, cAMP concentration was stimulated 5- to 9-fold above the basal levels. Thus, not only did cells, grown in horse serum have a higher PAR population, but also each receptor had a higher capacity for cAMP synthesis following isoproterenol stimulation. Finally, the hypothesis that clenbuterol exerts its action on muscle protein content by changes in cAMP concentration was tested. No correlation was apparent between basal cAMP concentration and MHC content.

  11. Loss of Prox1 in striated muscle causes slow to fast skeletal muscle fiber conversion and dilated cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Petchey, Louisa K.; Risebro, Catherine A.; Vieira, Joaquim M.; Roberts, Tom; Bryson, John B.; Greensmith, Linda; Lythgoe, Mark F.; Riley, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    Correct regulation of troponin and myosin contractile protein gene isoforms is a critical determinant of cardiac and skeletal striated muscle development and function, with misexpression frequently associated with impaired contractility or disease. Here we reveal a novel requirement for Prospero-related homeobox factor 1 (Prox1) during mouse heart development in the direct transcriptional repression of the fast-twitch skeletal muscle genes troponin T3, troponin I2, and myosin light chain 1. A proportion of cardiac-specific Prox1 knockout mice survive beyond birth with hearts characterized by marked overexpression of fast-twitch genes and postnatal development of a fatal dilated cardiomyopathy. Through conditional knockout of Prox1 from skeletal muscle, we demonstrate a conserved requirement for Prox1 in the repression of troponin T3, troponin I2, and myosin light chain 1 between cardiac and slow-twitch skeletal muscle and establish Prox1 ablation as sufficient to cause a switch from a slow- to fast-twitch muscle phenotype. Our study identifies conserved roles for Prox1 between cardiac and skeletal muscle, specifically implicated in slow-twitch fiber-type specification, function, and cardiomyopathic disease. PMID:24938781

  12. Fast and slow myosins as markers of muscle injury

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, M; Guiu-Comadevall, M; Cadefau, J A; Parra, J; Balius, R; Estruch, A; Rodas, G; Bedini, J L; Cuss, R

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The diagnosis of muscular lesions suffered by athletes is usually made by clinical criteria combined with imaging of the lesion (ultrasonography and/or magnetic resonance) and blood tests to detect the presence of non-specific muscle markers. This study was undertaken to evaluate injury to fast and slow-twitch fibres using specific muscle markers for these fibres. Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 51 non-sports people and 38 sportsmen with skeletal muscle injury. Western blood analysis was performed to determine fast and slow myosin and creatine kinase (CK) levels. Skeletal muscle damage was diagnosed by physical examination, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance and biochemical markers. Results: The imaging tests were found to be excellent for detecting and confirming grade II and III lesions. However, grade I lesions were often unconfirmed by these techniques. Grade I lesions have higher levels of fast myosin than slow myosin with a very small increase in CK levels. Grade II and III lesions have high values of both fast and slow myosin. Conclusions: The evaluation of fast and slow myosin in the blood 48 h after the lesion occurs is a useful aid for the detection of type I lesions in particular, since fast myosin is an exclusive skeletal muscle marker. The correct diagnosis of grade I lesions can prevent progression of the injury in athletes undergoing continual training sessions and competitions, thus aiding sports physicians in their decision making. PMID:18070807

  13. Physical and enzymatic properties of myosin from porcine brain.

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, D S; Frederiksen, D W

    1980-01-01

    Porcine brain myosin is a cytoplasmic protein similar to, but distinct from, its muscle counterpart. It has a high K+-ATPase activity at high ionic strength in EDTA and a low Mg+2-ATPase activity that is activated fivefold by either porcine brain or rabbit skeletal muscle actin. The molecule consists of three classes of subunits, with molecular weights of approximately 195,000 , 19,000, and 16,000. Brain myosin contains less glutamic acid, less lysine, and more threonine, serine, proline, and tyrosine than skeletal muscle myosin. The brain myosin extinction coefficient at 278 nm is 0.810 cm2/mg. Hydrodynamic studies yield an S020,w of 4.95S, a D020,w of 1.07 x 10(-7) cm2/s for brain myosin, and indicate that the molecules aggregate at high ionic strength. The molecular weight of the molecule, as calculated from extrapolation of D020,w/S20,w to zero concentration, is 444,000. The intrinsic viscosity of brain myosin is 0.191 ml/mg. These data are consistent with a highly asymmetric molecular species. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicates that brain myosin is 58-60% alpha-helical in the presence of Ca+2 ions, and that removal of Ca+2 causes a small change in the spectrum. PMID:6114756

  14. Differential signalling by muscarinic receptors in smooth muscle: m2-mediated inactivation of myosin light chain kinase via Gi3, Cdc42/Rac1 and p21-activated kinase 1 pathway, and m3-mediated MLC20 (20 kDa regulatory light chain of myosin II) phosphorylation via Rho-associated kinase/myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 and protein kinase C/CPI-17 pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Karnam S; Zhou, Huiping; Grider, John R; Brautigan, David L; Eto, Masumi; Makhlouf, Gabriel M

    2003-01-01

    Signalling via m3 and m2 receptors in smooth muscles involved activation of two G-protein-dependent pathways by each receptor. m2 receptors were coupled via Gbetagammai3 with activation of phospholipase C-beta3, phosphoinositide 3-kinase and Cdc42/Rac1 (where Cdc stands for cell division cycle) and p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), resulting in phosphorylation and inactivation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). Each step was inhibited by methoctramine and pertussis toxin. PAK1 activity was abolished in cells expressing both Cdc42-DN (where DN stands for dominant negative) and Rac1-DN. MLCK phosphorylation was inhibited by PAK1 antibody, and in cells expressing Cdc42-DN and Rac1-DN. m3 receptors were coupled via Galpha(q/11) with activation of phospholipase C-beta1 and via RhoA with activation of Rho-associated kinase (Rho kinase), phospholipase D and protein kinase C (PKC). Rho kinase and phospholipase D activities were inhibited by C3 exoenzyme and in cells expressing RhoA-DN. PKC activity was inhibited by bisindolylmaleimide, and in cells expressing RhoA-DN; PKC activity was also inhibited partly by Y27632 (44+/-5%). PKC-induced phosphorylation of PKC-activated 17 kDa inhibitor protein of type 1 phosphatase (CPI-17) at Thr38 was abolished by bisindolylmaleimide and inhibited partly by Y27632 (28+/-3%). Rho-kinase-induced phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase targeting subunit (MYPT1) and was abolished by Y27632. Sustained phosphorylation of 20 kDa regulatory light chain of myosin II (MLC20) and contraction were abolished by bisindolylmaleimide Y27632 and C3 exoenzyme and in cells expressing RhoA-DN. The results suggest that Rho-kinase-dependent phosphorylation of MYPT1 and PKC-dependent phosphorylation and enhancement of CPI-17 binding to the catalytic subunit of MLC phosphatase (MLCP) act co-operatively to inhibit MLCP activity, leading to sustained stimulation of MLC20 phosphorylation and contraction. Because Y27632 inhibited both Rho kinase and PKC activities, it could not be used to ascertain the contribution of MYPT1 to inhibition of MLCP activity. m2-dependent phosphorylation and inactivation of MLCK precluded its involvement in sustained MLC20 phosphorylation and contraction. PMID:12733988

  15. Analysis of tarantula skeletal muscle protein sequences and identification of transcriptional isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jingui; Sun, Yongqiao; Zhao, Fa-Qing; Yu, Jun; Craig, Roger; Hu, Songnian

    2009-01-01

    Background Tarantula has been used as a model system for studying skeletal muscle structure and function, yet data on the genes expressed in tarantula muscle are lacking. Results We constructed a cDNA library from Aphonopelma sp. (Tarantula) skeletal muscle and got 2507 high-quality 5'ESTs (expressed sequence tags) from randomly picked clones. EST analysis showed 305 unigenes, among which 81 had more than 2 ESTs. Twenty abundant unigenes had matches to skeletal muscle-related genes including actin, myosin, tropomyosin, troponin-I, T and C, paramyosin, muscle LIM protein, muscle protein 20, a-actinin and tandem Ig/Fn motifs (found in giant sarcomere-related proteins). Matches to myosin light chain kinase and calponin were also identified. These results support the existence of both actin-linked and myosin-linked regulation in tarantula skeletal muscle. We have predicted full-length as well as partial cDNA sequences both experimentally and computationally for myosin heavy and light chains, actin, tropomyosin, and troponin-I, T and C, and have deduced the putative peptides. A preliminary analysis of the structural and functional properties was also carried out. Sequence similarities suggested multiple isoforms of most myofibrillar proteins, supporting the generality of multiple isoforms known from previous muscle sequence studies. This may be related to a mix of muscle fiber types. Conclusion The present study serves as a basis for defining the transcriptome of tarantula skeletal muscle, for future in vitro expression of tarantula proteins, and for interpreting structural and functional observations in this model species. PMID:19298669

  16. Co-Localization to Chromosome Bands 99e1-3 of the Drosophila Melanogaster Myosin Light Chain-2 Gene and a Haplo-Insufficient Locus That Affects Flight Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Warmke, J. W.; Kreuz, A. J.; Falkenthal, S.

    1989-01-01

    Using overlapping synthetic deficiencies, we find that a haplo-insufficient locus affecting flight behavior and the myosin light chain-2 gene co-map to the Drosophila melanogaster polytene chromosome interval 99D9-E1 to 99E2-3. From screening over 9000 EMS-treated chromosomes, we obtained alleles of two complementation groups that map to this same interval. One of these complementation groups, Ifm(3)99Eb, exhibits dominant flightless behavior; thus, flightless behavior of the deficiency is in all likelihood due to hemizygosity of this single locus. Rescue of flightless behavior by a duplication indicates that the single allele, E38, of the Ifm(3)99Eb complementation group is a hypomorph. Based upon its map position and a reduction in concentration of myosin light chain-2 mRNA in heterozygotes, we propose that Ifm(3)99Eb(E38) is a mutant allele of the myosin light chain-2 gene. Our genetic analysis also resulted in the identification of four dominant flightless alleles of an unlinked locus, l(3)nc99Eb, that exhibits dominant lethal synergism with Ifm(3)99Eb. PMID:2471669

  17. Myosin expression and specialization among the earliest muscle fibers of the developing avian limb.

    PubMed

    Crow, M T; Stockdale, F E

    1986-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies specific to the light- and heavy-chain subunits of chicken skeletal muscle myosin have been used to identify fast and slow myosin-containing fibers in the thigh muscles of embryonic and adult chickens and to determine when in development diversification of muscle fiber types first occurs. Primary generation fibers which expressed different MLC and MHC types were evident within the dorsal and ventral premuscle masses and in the first muscles to form in the limb. These early embryonic muscle fiber types became distributed among and within the individual muscles of the thigh in a characteristic spatial pattern which served as a "blueprint" for guiding future muscle development and predicting the future fiber composition of the muscle. Despite the continuous addition of muscle fibers to the limb throughout development, the pattern remained unchanged. Neither the time of appearance, initial specialization, nor characteristic distribution of these primary fiber types within the limb was altered during the early embryonic period by chronic neuromuscular paralysis induced by D-tubocurarine. In contrast, muscles at later stages of embryonic development were markedly affected by such treatments and underwent atrophy and loss of differential staining characteristics. These results demonstrate that diversification of fibers in terms of myosin content is one of the earliest events in the formation of these muscles and suggest that the development of avian muscles be divided into two phases: an embryonic phase during which fibers of differing myosin content appear independently of innervation to become distributed in a specific topographic pattern within each muscle as it forms, followed by a fetal phase during which innervation becomes essential for maintaining this pattern and modulating the myosin content of its fibers. PMID:3943663

  18. Effect of light and brine shrimp on skeletal ? 13C in the Hawaiian coral Porites compressa: a tank experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grottoli, Andra G.

    2002-06-01

    Previous experimental fieldwork showed that coral skeletal ? 13C values decreased when solar intensity was reduced, and increased in the absence of zooplankton. However, actual seasonal changes in solar irradiance levels are typically less pronounced than those used in the previous experiment and the effect of increases in the consumption of zooplankton in the coral diet on skeletal ? 13C remains relatively unknown. In the present study, the effects of four different light and heterotrophy regimes on coral skeletal ? 13C values were measured. Porites compressa corals were grown in outdoor flow-through tanks under 112%, 100%, 75%, and 50% light conditions at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, Hawaii. In addition, corals were fed either zero, low, medium, or high concentrations of brine shrimp. Decreases in light from 100% resulted in significant decreases in ? 13C that is most likely due to a corresponding decrease in photosynthesis. Increases in light to 112% also resulted in a decrease in ? 13C values. This latter response may be a consequence of photoinhibition. The overall curved response in ? 13C values was described by a significant quadratic function. Increases in brine shrimp concentrations resulted in increased skeletal ? 13C levels. This unexpected outcome appears to be attributable to enhanced nitrogen supply associated with the brine shrimp diet which led to increased zooxanthellae concentrations, increased photosynthesis rates, and thus increased ? 13C values. This result highlights the potential influence of nutrients from heterotrophically acquired carbon in maintaining the zooxanthellae-host symbiosis in balance. In addition, evidence is presented that suggests that coral skeletal growth and ? 13C are decoupled. These results increase our knowledge of how light and heterotrophy affects the ? 13C of coral skeletons.

  19. Structure–Function Analysis of the Non-Muscle Myosin Light Chain Kinase (nmMLCK) Isoform by NMR Spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling: Influence of MYLK Variants

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Kui; Ramirez, Benjamin; Mapes, Brandon; Shen, Grace R.; Gokhale, Vijay; Brown, Mary E.; Santarsiero, Bernard; Ishii, Yoshitaka; Dudek, Steven M.; Wang, Ting; Garcia, Joe G. N.

    2015-01-01

    The MYLK gene encodes the multifunctional enzyme, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), involved in isoform-specific non-muscle and smooth muscle contraction and regulation of vascular permeability during inflammation. Three MYLK SNPs (P21H, S147P, V261A) alter the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the non-muscle isoform of MLCK (nmMLCK) and are highly associated with susceptibility to acute lung injury (ALI) and asthma, especially in individuals of African descent. To understand the functional effects of SNP associations, we examined the N-terminal segments of nmMLCK by 1H-15N heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC) spectroscopy, a 2-D NMR technique, and by in silico molecular modeling. Both NMR analysis and molecular modeling indicated SNP localization to loops that connect the immunoglobulin-like domains of nmMLCK, consistent with minimal structural changes evoked by these SNPs. Molecular modeling analysis identified protein-protein interaction motifs adversely affected by these MYLK SNPs including binding by the scaffold protein 14-3-3, results confirmed by immunoprecipitation and western blot studies. These structure-function studies suggest novel mechanisms for nmMLCK regulation, which may confirm MYLK as a candidate gene in inflammatory lung disease and advance knowledge of the genetic underpinning of lung-related health disparities. PMID:26111161

  20. Loading of nuclear autoantigens prototypically recognized by systemic lupus erythematosus sera into late apoptotic vesicles requires intact microtubules and myosin light chain kinase activity

    PubMed Central

    Zirngibl, M; Frnrohr, B G; Janko, C; Munoz, L E; Voll, R E; Gregory, C D; Schett, G; Herrmann, M

    2015-01-01

    Most cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are characterized by an impaired clearance of apoptotic cells in various tissues. Non-cleared apoptotic waste is considered an immunogen driving the autoimmune response in patients with SLE. During the execution of apoptosis, membrane blebs are formed and filled with cellular components. Here, we evaluate the cytoskeletal pathway(s) responsible for the loading of SLE prototypic nuclear autoantigens into the apoptotic cell-derived membranous vesicles (ACMV) generated during late phases of apoptosis. HeLa cells expressing a fusion protein of histone H2B with green fluorescent protein (GFP) were irradiated with ultraviolet (UV)-B to induce apoptosis. The appearance and trafficking of chromatin-derived material was monitored by fluorescence microscopy. Specific inhibitors of cytoskeletal pathways were employed to identify the motile elements involved in translocation and trafficking of the nuclear components. We observed that immediately after their appearance the ACMV did not contain histone H2BGFP; in this phase the fluorescence was contained in the nuclear remnants and the cytoplasm. Within consecutive minutes the ACMV were loaded with chromatin-derived material, whereas the loading of simultaneously created ACMV with histone H2BGFP was not uniform. Some ACMV were preferentially filled and, consequently, showed a remarkably higher histone H2BGFP accumulation. Inhibitors of the cytoskeleton revealed that functional microtubules and myosin light chain kinase are required for nuclear shrinkage and loading of nuclear material into the ACMV, respectively. PMID:24673456

  1. The Rho-GTPase effector ROCK regulates meiotic maturation of the bovine oocyte via myosin light chain phosphorylation and cofilin phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Lee, So-Rim; Xu, Yong-Nan; Jo, Yu-Jin; Namgoong, Suk; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2015-11-01

    Oocyte meiosis involves a unique asymmetric division involving spindle movement from the central cytoplasm to the cortex, followed by polar body extrusion. ROCK is a Rho-GTPase effector involved in various cellular functions in somatic cells as well as oocyte meiosis. ROCK was previously shown to promote actin organization by phosphorylating several downstream targets, including LIM domain kinase (LIMK), phosphorylated cofilin (p-cofilin), and myosin light chain (MLC). In this study, we investigated the roles of ROCK and MLC during bovine oocyte meiosis. We found that ROCK was localized around the nucleus at the oocyte's germinal-vesicle (GV) stage, but spreads to the rest of the cytoplasm in later developmental stages. On the other hand, phosphorylated MLC (p-MLC) localized at the cortex, and its abundance decreased by the metaphase-II stage. Disrupting ROCK activity, via RNAi or the chemical inhibitor Y-27632, blocked both cell cycle progression and polar body extrusion. ROCK inhibition also resulted in decreased cortical actin, p-cofilin, and p-MLC levels. Similar to the phenotype associated with inhibition of ROCK activity, inhibition of MLC kinase by the chemical inhibitor ML-7 caused defects in polar body extrusion. Collectively, our results suggest that the ROCK/MLC/actomyosin as well as ROCK/LIMK/cofilin pathways regulate meiotic spindle migration and cytokinesis during bovine oocyte maturation. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 82: 849-858, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26175189

  2. Loading of nuclear autoantigens prototypically recognized by systemic lupus erythematosus sera into late apoptotic vesicles requires intact microtubules and myosin light chain kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Zirngibl, M; Frnrohr, B G; Janko, C; Munoz, L E; Voll, R E; Gregory, C D; Schett, G; Herrmann, M

    2015-01-01

    Most cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are characterized by an impaired clearance of apoptotic cells in various tissues. Non-cleared apoptotic waste is considered an immunogen driving the autoimmune response in patients with SLE. During the execution of apoptosis, membrane blebs are formed and filled with cellular components. Here, we evaluate the cytoskeletal pathway(s) responsible for the loading of SLE prototypic nuclear autoantigens into the apoptotic cell-derived membranous vesicles (ACMV) generated during late phases of apoptosis. HeLa cells expressing a fusion protein of histone H2B with green fluorescent protein (GFP) were irradiated with ultraviolet (UV)-B to induce apoptosis. The appearance and trafficking of chromatin-derived material was monitored by fluorescence microscopy. Specific inhibitors of cytoskeletal pathways were employed to identify the motile elements involved in translocation and trafficking of the nuclear components. We observed that immediately after their appearance the ACMV did not contain histone H2B(GFP) ; in this phase the fluorescence was contained in the nuclear remnants and the cytoplasm. Within consecutive minutes the ACMV were loaded with chromatin-derived material, whereas the loading of simultaneously created ACMV with histone H2B(GFP) was not uniform. Some ACMV were preferentially filled and, consequently, showed a remarkably higher histone H2B(GFP) accumulation. Inhibitors of the cytoskeleton revealed that functional microtubules and myosin light chain kinase are required for nuclear shrinkage and loading of nuclear material into the ACMV, respectively. PMID:24673456

  3. Non-muscle myosin light chain promotes endothelial progenitor cells senescence and dysfunction in pulmonary hypertensive rats through up-regulation of NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Li, Tao; Peng, Jing-Jie; Zhang, Jie-Jie; Liu, Wei-Qi; Luo, Xiu-Ju; Ma, Qi-Lin; Gong, Zhi-Cheng; Peng, Jun

    2016-03-15

    Non-muscle myosin regulatory light chain (nmMLC20) is reported to exert transcriptional function in regulation of gene expression, and NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived reactive oxygen species contribute to vascular remodeling of pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). This study aims to determine if nmMLC20 can promote endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) senescence and dysfunction through up-regulation of NOX in PAH rats. The rats were exposed to10% hypoxia for 3 weeks to establish a PAH model, which showed an increase in right ventricle systolic pressure, right ventricular and pulmonary vascular remodeling, and the accelerated senescence and impaired functions in EPCs, accompanied by an increase in Rho-kinase (ROCK) and NOX activities, p-nmMLC20 level, NOX expression and H2O2 content; these phenomena were reversed by fasudil, a selective inhibitor of ROCK. Next, normal EPCs were cultured under hypoxia to induce senescence in vitro. Consistent with the in vivo findings, hypoxia increased the senescence and dysfunction of EPCs concomitant with an increase in ROCK and NOX activities, p-nmMLC20 level, NOX expression and H2O2 content; these phenomena were reversed by fasudil. Knockdown of nmMLC20 showed similar results to that of fasudil except no effect on ROCK activity. Based on these observations, we conclude that nmMLC20 could promote the senescence and dysfunctions of EPCs in PAH through up-regulation of NOX in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. PMID:26872992

  4. The inhibitory region of troponin-I alters the ability of F-actin to interact with different segments of myosin.

    PubMed

    Patchell, Valerie B; Gallon, Clare E; Hodgkin, Matthew A; Fattoum, Abdellatif; Perry, S Victor; Levine, Barry A

    2002-10-01

    Peptides corresponding to the N-terminus of skeletal myosin light chain 1 (rsMLC1 1-37) and the short loop of human cardiac beta-myosin (hcM398-414) have been shown to interact with skeletal F-actin by NMR and fluorescence measurements. Skeletal tropomyosin strengthens the binding of the myosin peptides to actin but does not interact with the peptides. The binding of peptides corresponding to the inhibitory region of cardiac troponin I (e.g. hcTnI128-153) to F-actin to form a 1 : 1 molar complex is also strengthened in the presence of tropomyosin. In the presence of inhibitory peptide at relatively lower concentrations the myosin peptides and a troponin I peptide C-terminal to the inhibitory region, rcTnI161-181, all dissociate from F-actin. Structural and fluorescence evidence indicate that the troponin I inhibitory region and the myosin peptides do not bind in an identical manner to F-actin. It is concluded that the binding of the inhibitory region of troponin I to F-actin produces a conformational change in the actin monomer with the result that interaction at different locations of F-actin is impeded. These observations are interpreted to indicate that a major conformational change occurs in actin on binding to troponin I that is fundamental to the regulatory process in muscle. The data are discussed in the context of tropomyosin's ability to stabilize the actin filament and facilitate the transmission of the conformational change to actin monomers not in direct contact with troponin I. PMID:12383268

  5. Interaction in endothelium of non-muscular myosin light-chain kinase and the NF-?B pathway is critical to lipopolysaccharide-induced vascular hyporeactivity.

    PubMed

    Recoquillon, Sylvain; Carusio, Nunzia; Lagrue-Lakhal, Anne-Hlne; Tual-Chalot, Simon; Filippelli, Amelia; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Martinez, M Carmen

    2015-10-01

    During sepsis, endothelial barrier dysfunction contributes to cardiovascular failure, mainly through the release of oxidative metabolites by penetrant leukocytes. We reported the non-muscular isoform of myosin light chain kinase (nmMLCK) playing a pivotal role in endotoxin shock injury associated with oxidative and nitrative stresses, and vascular hyporeactivity. The present study was aimed at understanding the molecular mechanism of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced vascular alterations as well as studying a probable functional association of nmMLCK with nuclear factor ?-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B). Aortic rings from mice were exposed invitro to LPS and, then, vascular reactivity was measured. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAoECs) were incubated with LPS, and interaction of nmMLCK with NF-?B was analysed. We provide evidence that nmMLCK deletion prevents vascular hyporeactivity induced by invitro LPS treatment but not endothelial dysfunction in the aorta. Deletion of nmMLCK inhibits LPS-induced NF-?B activation and increases nitric oxide (NO) release via induction of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) within the vascular wall. Also, removal of endothelium prevented both NF-?B and iNOS expression in aortic rings. Among the proinflammatory factors released by LPS-treated endothelial cells, interleukin-6 accounts for the induction of iNOS on smooth muscle cells in response to LPS. Of particular interest is the demonstration that, in HAoECs, LPS-induced NF-?B activation occurs via increased MLCK activity sensitive to the MLCK inhibitor, ML-7, and physical interactions between nmMLCK and NF-?B. We report for the first time on NF-?B as a novel partner of nmMLCK within endothelial cells. The present study demonstrates a pivotal role of nmMLCK in vascular inflammatory pathologies. PMID:26201020

  6. Oridonin suppress cell migration via regulation of nonmuscle myosin IIA.

    PubMed

    Li, Yin-Chao; Sun, Mo-Ran; Zhao, Yi-Hong; Fu, Xian-Zu; Xu, Hai-Wei; Liu, Ji-Feng

    2014-10-01

    Oridonin, which is isolated from Chinese herb Rabdosia rubescens (Hemsl.) Hara, has been implicated in regulation of tumor cell migration and invasion. In this study, treatment with oridonin enhanced the phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (T18/S19) that regulates the ATPase activity of myosin IIA. Meanwhile, stress fibers were significantly more prominent after oridonin incubation, which impaired cell migration in transwell migration assays. All of these effects may be caused by the decreased interaction between myosin IIA and myosin phosphatase complex, but not kinases. Our data provide clear evidence of this novel pharmacological function for oridonin in treating cancer cell migration. PMID:25297007

  7. Thyroid Hormone Signaling in Male Mouse Skeletal Muscle Is Largely Independent of D2 in Myocytes.

    PubMed

    Werneck-de-Castro, Joao P; Fonseca, Tatiana L; Ignacio, Daniele L; Fernandes, Gustavo W; Andrade-Feraud, Cristina M; Lartey, Lattoya J; Ribeiro, Marcelo B; Ribeiro, Miriam O; Gereben, Balazs; Bianco, Antonio C

    2015-10-01

    The type 2 deiodinase (D2) activates the prohormone T4 to T3. D2 is expressed in skeletal muscle (SKM), and its global inactivation (GLOB-D2KO mice) reportedly leads to skeletal muscle hypothyroidism and impaired differentiation. Here floxed Dio2 mice were crossed with mice expressing Cre-recombinase under the myosin light chain 1f (cre-MLC) to disrupt D2 expression in the late developmental stages of skeletal myocytes (SKM-D2KO). This led to a loss of approximately 50% in D2 activity in neonatal and adult SKM-D2KO skeletal muscle and about 75% in isolated SKM-D2KO myocytes. To test the impact of Dio2 disruption, we measured soleus T3 content and found it to be normal. We also looked at the expression of T3-responsive genes in skeletal muscle, ie, myosin heavy chain I, α-actin, myosin light chain, tropomyosin, and serca 1 and 2, which was preserved in neonatal SKM-D2KO hindlimb muscles, at a time that coincides with a peak of D2 activity in control animals. In adult soleus the baseline level of D2 activity was about 6-fold lower, and in the SKM-D2KO soleus, the expression of only one of five T3-responsive genes was reduced. Despite this, adult SKM-D2KO animals performed indistinguishably from controls on a treadmill test, running for approximately 16 minutes and reached a speed of about 23 m/min; muscle strength was about 0.3 mN/m·g body weight in SKM-D2KO and control ankle muscles. In conclusion, there are multiple sources of D2 in the mouse SKM, and its role is limited in postnatal skeletal muscle fibers. PMID:26214036

  8. Alternative S2 Hinge Regions of the Myosin Rod Affect Myofibrillar Structure and Myosin Kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Mark S.; Dambacher, Corey M.; Knowles, Aileen F.; Braddock, Joan M.; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C.; Swank, Douglas M.; Bernstein, Sanford I.; Maughan, David W.

    2009-07-01

    The subfragment 2/light meromyosin 'hinge' region has been proposed to significantly contribute to muscle contraction force and/or speed. Transgenic replacement of the endogenous fast muscle isovariant hinge A (exon 15a) in Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle with the slow muscle hinge B (exon 15b) allows examination of the structural and functional changes when only this region of the myosin molecule is different. Hinge B was previously shown to increase myosin rod length, increase A-band and sarcomere length, and decrease flight performance compared to hinge A. We applied additional measures to these transgenic lines to further evaluate the consequences of modifying this hinge region. Structurally, the longer A-band and sarcomere lengths found in the hinge B myofibrils appear to be due to the longitudinal addition of myosin heads. Functionally, hinge B, although a significant distance from the myosin catalytic domain, alters myosin kinetics in a manner consistent with this region increasing myosin rod length. These structural and functional changes combine to decrease whole fly wing-beat frequency and flight performance. Our results indicate that this hinge region plays an important role in determining myosin kinetics and in regulating thick and thin filament lengths as well as sarcomere length.

  9. Sp1-mediated nonmuscle myosin light chain kinase expression and enhanced activity in vascular endothelial growth factorinduced vascular permeability

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Despite the important role played by the nonmuscle isoform of myosin light chain kinase (nmMLCK) in vascular barrier regulation and the implication of both nmMLCK and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the role played by nmMLCK in VEGF-induced vascular permeability is poorly understood. In this study, the role played by nmMLCK in VEGF-induced vascular hyperpermeability was investigated. Human lung endothelial cell barrier integrity in response to VEGF is examined in both the absence and the presence of nmMLCK small interfering RNAs. Levels of nmMLCK messenger RNA (mRNA), protein, and promoter activity expression were monitored after VEGF stimulation in lung endothelial cells. nmMYLK promoter activity was assessed using nmMYLK promoter luciferase reporter constructs with a series of nested deletions. nmMYLK transcriptional regulation was further characterized by examination of a key transcriptional factor. nmMLCK plays an important role in VEGF-induced permeability. We found that activation of the VEGF signaling pathway in lung endothelial cells increases MYLK gene product at both mRNA and protein levels. Increased nmMLCK mRNA and protein expression is a result of increased nmMYLK promoter activity, regulated in part by binding of the Sp1 transcription factor on triggering by the VEGF signaling pathway. Taken together, these findings suggest that MYLK is an important ARDS candidate gene and a therapeutic target that is highly influenced by excessive VEGF concentrations in the inflamed lung. PMID:26697178

  10. Angiotensin II induces reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and myosin light-chain phosphorylation in podocytes through rho/ROCK-signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siyuan; Chen, Cheng; Su, Ke; Zha, Dongqing; Liang, Wei; Hillebrands, J L; Goor, Harry van; Ding, Guohua

    2016-03-01

    Aims In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of angiotensin II (Ang II) on actin cytoskeleton reorganization and myosin light-chain (MLC) phosphorylation in podocytes to demonstrate whether the Rho/Rho-associated coiled kinase (ROCK) pathway is involved podocyte injury. Methods Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and treated with Ang II, saline or telmisartan. Morphological changes were studied at 28 days after treatment. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to determine the renal expression of p-MLC and ROCK2. Cultured podocytes were treated with Ang II (10(-7?)M) with or without Rho-kinase inhibitor (Y27632, 10(-6?)M) for variable time periods. F-actin was visualized with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated phalloidin or tetraethyl rhodamine isothiocyanate (TRITC)-conjugated phalloidin. p-MLC expression was evaluated by immunofluorescence and Western blot. The activation of Rho/ROCK was evaluated by Western blot. Results The expression of p-MLC in glomeruli increased significantly in rats treated with Ang II when compared to the control rats as shown by Western blot (p?

  11. PKC activation increases Ca2+ sensitivity of permeabilized lymphatic muscle via myosin light chain 20 phosphorylation-dependent and -independent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Patrick J.; Nepiyushchikh, Zhanna V.; Chakraborty, Sanjukta; Wang, Wei; Davis, Michael J.; Zawieja, David C.

    2014-01-01

    The contractile activity of muscle cells lining the walls of collecting lymphatics is responsible for generating and regulating flow within the lymphatic system. Activation of PKC signaling contributes to the regulation of smooth muscle contraction by enhancing sensitivity of the contractile apparatus to Ca2+. It is currently unknown whether PKC signaling contributes to the regulation of lymphatic muscle contraction. We hypothesized that the activation of PKC signaling would increase the sensitivity of the lymphatic myofilament to Ca2+. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effects of PKC activation with phorbol esters [PMA or phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu)] on the contractile behavior of ?-toxin-permeabilized rat mesenteric and cervical lymphatics or the thoracic duct. The addition of PMA or PDBu induced a significant increase in the contractile force of submaximally activated ?-toxin-permeabilized lymphatic muscle independent of a change in intracellular Ca2+ concentration, and the Ca2+-force relationship of lymphatic muscle was significantly left shifted, indicating greater myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity. Phorbol esters increased the maximal rate of force development, whereas the rate of relaxation was reduced. Western blot and immunohistochemistry data indicated that the initial rapid increase in tension development after stimulation by PDBu was associated with myosin light chain (MLC)20 phosphorylation; however, the later, steady-state Ca2+ sensitization of permeabilized lymphatic muscle was not associated with increased phosphorylation of MLC20 at Ser19, 17-kDa C-kinase-potentiated protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor at Thr38, or caldesmon at Ser789. Thus, these data indicate that PKC-dependent Ca2+ sensitization of lymphatic muscle may involve MLC20 phosphorylation-dependent and -independent mechanism(s). PMID:24414065

  12. Thiol groups of gizzard myosin heavy chains

    SciTech Connect

    Bailin, G.

    1986-05-01

    Proteolysis of phosphorylated and /sup 3/H-labeled dinitrophenylated chicken gizzard myosin with trypsin released major fragments of M/sub r/ 25,000, 50,000 and 66,000 in a 1:1 ratio. They contained 57% of the dinitrophenyl (N/sub 2/ph) group bound to thiols of the heavy chains; 28% of the label was bound to the light chains. The fragments of M/sub r/ 25,000 and M/sub r/ 66,000 were dinitrophenylated predominantly when the K/sup +/-ATPase activity was inhibited. Thiolysis of phosphorylated and dinitrophenylated myosin with 2-mercaptoethanol removed 60% and 25% of the N/sub 2/ph group from the N-terminal and M/sub r/ 66,000 fragments of the heavy chain, respectively, when 48% of the K/sup +/-ATPase activity was restored. Papain proteolysis of the tryptic digest of modified myosin released a C-terminal segment from the fragment of M/sub r/ 66,000 and it contained most of the remaining label. Proteolysis of /sup 3/H-labeled dinitrophenylated myosin alone resulted in the same digestion pattern but less of the label was bound to the heavy chain fragments. In this case, restoration of enzymic activity occurred in thiolyzed dinitrophenylated myosin when the N/sub 2/ph group was removed from the light chains, predominantly. Conformational changes in gizzard myosin, mediated by phosphorylation, altered the reactivity of the thiols in specific fragments of the heavy chain. Thiol groups of the N- and C-terminal heavy chain regions are involved in maintaining the ATPase activity of myosin.

  13. Light-emitting diode therapy increases collagen deposition during the repair process of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Claudia Aparecida Viana; Alves, Agnelo Neves; Terena, Stella Maris Lins; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Nunes, Fábio Daumas; da Silva, Daniela de Fátima Teixeira; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil; Deana, Alessandro Melo; Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli

    2016-04-01

    This study analyzed the effects of light-emitting diode (LED) therapy on the morphology of muscle tissue as well as collagen remodeling and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) activity in the skeletal muscle of rats following acute injury. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: (1) control, (2) sham, (3) untreated cryoinjury, and (4) cryoinjury treated with LED. Cryoinjury was induced by two applications of a metal probe cooled in liquid nitrogen directly onto the belly of the tibialis anterior muscle. For treatment, the LED equipment (wavelength 850 nm, output power 30 mW, and total energy 3.2 J) was used daily. The study periods were 1, 3, and 7 days after cryoinjury. Morphological aspects were evaluated through hematoxylin-eosin staining. The amount of collagen fibers was evaluated using Picro Sirius Red staining under polarized light. The gelatinase activity of MMP-2 was evaluated using zymography. The results showed significant reductions in inflammatory infiltrate after 3 days and an increased number of immature muscle fibers after 7 days. Furthermore, treatment induced a reduction in the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2 after 1, 3, and 7 days in comparison to the untreated injury groups and increased the collagen deposition after 3 and 7 days in the treated groups. LED therapy at 850 nm induced a significant reduction in inflammation, decreased MMP-2 activity, and increased the amount of immature muscle and collagen fibers during the muscle repair process following acute injury. PMID:26873500

  14. Light and X-ray diffraction studies on chick skeletal muscle under controlled physiological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Ichiro

    1974-01-01

    1. The sarcomere length (s) of ehick slow and fast muscles (anterior and posterior latissimus dorsi (ant. lat. dorsi and post. lat. dorsi)) was measured by the method of light diffraction. In resting ant. lat. dorsi, s changed from 176 to 230 ?m during stretch from minimum to maximum muscle lengths in situ, and in resting post. lat. dorsi from 218 to 263 ?m. 2. Resting tension started to rise in ant. lat. dorsi when s exceeded 17-18 ?m, but in post. lat. dorsi not until s exceeded 26-27 ?m. 3. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that ant. lat. dorsi contains collagen filaments; collagen reflexions were not seen in patterns obtained from post. lat. dorsi with the same exposure time. 4. The relation between active tension and sarcomere length was similar for ant. and post. lat. dorsi. The maximum active tension was observed when s = 205-215 ?m in ant. lat. dorsi, and when s = 210-225 ?m in post. lat. dorsi. 5. X-ray diffraction patterns from both muscles showed that the periodic structures of the thick and thin filaments are similar to those in frog and rabbit skeletal muscles. 6. The volume of the myofilament lattice in resting ant. lat. dorsi was 306 ( 014) 109 3, in resting post. lat. dorsi 298 ( 009) 109 3. These values are close to that of frog skeletal muscle. The lattice volume remained constant in ant. lat. dorsi and post. lat. dorsi over the range of sarcomere lengths found in situ. 7. The equatorial diffraction patterns from the ant. lat. dorsi in rigor (glycerol extracted) were different from that of the resting muscle, and suggested that a large number of cross-bridges were attached to the thin filaments during rigor. During potassium contracture, however, the diffraction pattern remained similar to that from the resting ant. lat. dorsi. ImagesPlate 1Plate 2 PMID:4852995

  15. Phosphate and ADP differently inhibit coordinated smooth muscle myosin groups.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Lennart; Balassy, Zsombor; Zitouni, Nedjma B; Mackey, Michael C; Lauzon, Anne-Marie

    2015-02-01

    Actin filaments propelled in vitro by groups of skeletal muscle myosin motors exhibit distinct phases of active sliding or arrest, whose occurrence depends on actin length (L) within a range of up to 1.0 ?m. Smooth muscle myosin filaments are exponentially distributed with ?150 nm average length in vivo--suggesting relevance of the L-dependence of myosin group kinetics. Here, we found L-dependent actin arrest and sliding in in vitro motility assays of smooth muscle myosin. We perturbed individual myosin kinetics with varying, physiological concentrations of phosphate (Pi, release associated with main power stroke) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP, release associated with minor mechanical step). Adenosine triphosphate was kept constant at physiological concentration. Increasing [Pi] lowered the fraction of time for which actin was actively sliding, reflected in reduced average sliding velocity (?) and motile fraction (fmot, fraction of time that filaments are moving); increasing [ADP] increased the fraction of time actively sliding and reduced the velocity while sliding, reflected in reduced ? and increased fmot. We introduced specific Pi and ADP effects on individual myosin kinetics into our recently developed mathematical model of actin propulsion by myosin groups. Simulations matched our experimental observations and described the inhibition of myosin group kinetics. At low [Pi] and [ADP], actin arrest and sliding were reflected by two distinct chemical states of the myosin group. Upon [Pi] increase, the probability of the active state decreased; upon [ADP] increase, the probability of the active state increased, but the active state became increasingly similar to the arrested state. PMID:25650929

  16. Phosphate and ADP Differently Inhibit Coordinated Smooth Muscle Myosin Groups

    PubMed Central

    Hilbert, Lennart; Balassy, Zsombor; Zitouni, Nedjma B.; Mackey, Michael C.; Lauzon, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Actin filaments propelled in vitro by groups of skeletal muscle myosin motors exhibit distinct phases of active sliding or arrest, whose occurrence depends on actin length (L) within a range of up to 1.0 μm. Smooth muscle myosin filaments are exponentially distributed with ≈150 nm average length in vivo—suggesting relevance of the L-dependence of myosin group kinetics. Here, we found L-dependent actin arrest and sliding in in vitro motility assays of smooth muscle myosin. We perturbed individual myosin kinetics with varying, physiological concentrations of phosphate (Pi, release associated with main power stroke) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP, release associated with minor mechanical step). Adenosine triphosphate was kept constant at physiological concentration. Increasing [Pi] lowered the fraction of time for which actin was actively sliding, reflected in reduced average sliding velocity (ν) and motile fraction (fmot, fraction of time that filaments are moving); increasing [ADP] increased the fraction of time actively sliding and reduced the velocity while sliding, reflected in reduced ν and increased fmot. We introduced specific Pi and ADP effects on individual myosin kinetics into our recently developed mathematical model of actin propulsion by myosin groups. Simulations matched our experimental observations and described the inhibition of myosin group kinetics. At low [Pi] and [ADP], actin arrest and sliding were reflected by two distinct chemical states of the myosin group. Upon [Pi] increase, the probability of the active state decreased; upon [ADP] increase, the probability of the active state increased, but the active state became increasingly similar to the arrested state. PMID:25650929

  17. Myosin-I nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, P G; Albanesi, J P; Bahler, M; Bement, W M; Berg, J S; Burgess, D R; Burnside, B; Cheney, R E; Corey, D P; Coudrier, E; de Lanerolle, P; Hammer, J A; Hasson, T; Holt, J R; Hudspeth, A J; Ikebe, M; Kendrick-Jones, J; Korn, E D; Li, R; Mercer, J A; Milligan, R A; Mooseker, M S; Ostap, E M; Petit, C; Pollard, T D; Sellers, J R; Soldati, T; Titus, M A

    2001-11-26

    We suggest that the vertebrate myosin-I field adopt a common nomenclature system based on the names adopted by the Human Genome Organization (HUGO). At present, the myosin-I nomenclature is very confusing; not only are several systems in use, but several different genes have been given the same name. Despite their faults, we believe that the names adopted by the HUGO nomenclature group for genome annotation are the best compromise, and we recommend universal adoption. PMID:11724811

  18. Calcium-dependent regulation of the motor activity of recombinant full-length Physarum myosin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Kawamichi, Hozumi; Tanaka, Hideyuki; Yoshiyama, Shinji; Kohama, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Akio

    2012-08-01

    We successfully synthesized full-length and the mutant Physarum myosin and heavy meromyosin (HMM) constructs associated with Physarum regulatory light chain and essential light chain (PhELC) using Physarum myosin heavy chain in Sf-9 cells, and examined their Ca(2+)-mediated regulation. Ca(2+) inhibited the motility and ATPase activities of Physarum myosin and HMM. The Ca(2+) effect is also reversible at the in vitro motility of Physarum myosin. We demonstrated that full-length myosin increases the Ca(2+) inhibition more effectively than HMM. Furthermore, Ca(2+) did not affect the motility and ATPase activities of the mutant Physarum myosin with PhELC that lost Ca(2+)-binding ability. Therefore, we conclude that PhELC plays a critical role in Ca(2+)-dependent regulation of Physarum myosin. PMID:22648562

  19. Myosin IIB and F-actin control apical vacuolar morphology and histamine-induced trafficking of H-K-ATPase-containing tubulovesicles in gastric parietal cells

    PubMed Central

    Crothers, James M.; Rosen, Jared E.; Nakada, Stephanie L.; Rakholia, Milap; Okamoto, Curtis T.; Forte, John G.; Machen, Terry E.

    2014-01-01

    Selective inhibitors of myosin or actin function and confocal microscopy were used to test the role of an actomyosin complex in controlling morphology, trafficking, and fusion of tubulovesicles (TV) containing H-K-ATPase with the apical secretory canaliculus (ASC) of primary-cultured rabbit gastric parietal cells. In resting cells, myosin IIB and IIC, ezrin, and F-actin were associated with ASC, whereas H-K-ATPase localized to intracellular TV. Histamine caused fusion of TV with ASC and subsequent expansion resulting from HCl and water secretion; F-actin and ezrin remained associated with ASC whereas myosin IIB and IIC appeared to dissociate from ASC and relocalize to the cytoplasm. ML-7 (inhibits myosin light chain kinase) caused ASC of resting cells to collapse and most myosin IIB, F-actin, and ezrin to dissociate from ASC. TV were unaffected by ML-7. Jasplakinolide (stabilizes F-actin) caused ASC to develop large blebs to which actin, myosin II, and ezrin, as well as tubulin, were prominently localized. When added prior to stimulation, ML-7 and jasplakinolide prevented normal histamine-stimulated transformations of ASC/TV and the cytoskeleton, but they did not affect cells that had been previously stimulated with histamine. These results indicate that dynamic pools of actomyosin are required for maintenance of ASC structure in resting cells and for trafficking of TV to ASC during histamine stimulation. However, the dynamic pools of actomyosin are not required once the histamine-stimulated transformation of TV/ASC and cytoskeleton has occurred. These results also show that vesicle trafficking in parietal cells shares mechanisms with similar processes in renal collecting duct cells, neuronal synapses, and skeletal muscle. PMID:24578340

  20. The working stroke of the myosin II motor in muscle is not tightly coupled to release of orthophosphate from its active site

    PubMed Central

    Caremani, Marco; Melli, Luca; Dolfi, Mario; Lombardi, Vincenzo; Linari, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle shortens faster against a lower load. This forcevelocity relationship is the fundamental determinant of muscle performance in vivo and is due to ATP-driven working strokes of myosin II motors, during their cyclic interactions with the actin filament in each half-sarcomere. Crystallographic studies suggest that the working stroke is associated with the release of phosphate (Pi) and consists of 70 deg tilting of a light-chain domain that connects the catalytic domain of the myosin motor to the myosin tail and filament. However, the coupling of the working stroke with Pi release is still an unsolved question. Using nanometremicrosecond mechanics on skinned muscle fibres, we impose stepwise drops in force on an otherwise isometric contraction and record the isotonic velocity transient, to measure the mechanical manifestation of the working stroke of myosin motors and the rate of its regeneration in relation to the half-sarcomere load and [Pi]. We show that the rate constant of the working stroke is unaffected by [Pi], while the subsequent transition to steady velocity shortening is accelerated. We propose a new chemo-mechanical model that reproduces the transient and steady state responses by assuming that: (i) the release of Pi from the catalytic site of a myosin motor can occur at any stage of the working stroke, and (ii) a myosin motor, in an intermediate state of the working stroke, can slip to the next actin monomer during filament sliding. This model explains the efficient action of muscle molecular motors working as an ensemble in the half-sarcomere. PMID:23878374

  1. The Role of Structural Dynamics of Actin in Class-Specific Myosin Motility

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Taro Q. P.; Morimatsu, Masatoshi; Iwane, Atsuko H.; Yanagida, Toshio; Uyeda, Taro Q. P.

    2015-01-01

    The structural dynamics of actin, including the tilting motion between the small and large domains, are essential for proper interactions with actin-binding proteins. Gly146 is situated at the hinge between the two domains, and we previously showed that a G146V mutation leads to severe motility defects in skeletal myosin but has no effect on motility of myosin V. The present study tested the hypothesis that G146V mutation impaired rotation between the two domains, leading to such functional defects. First, our study showed that depolymerization of G146V filaments was slower than that of wild-type filaments. This result is consistent with the distinction of structural states of G146V filaments from those of the wild type, considering the recent report that stabilization of actin filaments involves rotation of the two domains. Next, we measured intramolecular FRET efficiencies between two fluorophores in the two domains with or without skeletal muscle heavy meromyosin or the heavy meromyosin equivalent of myosin V in the presence of ATP. Single-molecule FRET measurements showed that the conformations of actin subunits of control and G146V actin filaments were different in the presence of skeletal muscle heavy meromyosin. This altered conformation of G146V subunits may lead to motility defects in myosin II. In contrast, distributions of FRET efficiencies of control and G146V subunits were similar in the presence of myosin V, consistent with the lack of motility defects in G146V actin with myosin V. The distribution of FRET efficiencies in the presence of myosin V was different from that in the presence of skeletal muscle heavy meromyosin, implying that the roles of actin conformation in myosin motility depend on the type of myosin. PMID:25945499

  2. The role of structural dynamics of actin in class-specific myosin motility.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Taro Q P; Morimatsu, Masatoshi; Iwane, Atsuko H; Yanagida, Toshio; Uyeda, Taro Q P

    2015-01-01

    The structural dynamics of actin, including the tilting motion between the small and large domains, are essential for proper interactions with actin-binding proteins. Gly146 is situated at the hinge between the two domains, and we previously showed that a G146V mutation leads to severe motility defects in skeletal myosin but has no effect on motility of myosin V. The present study tested the hypothesis that G146V mutation impaired rotation between the two domains, leading to such functional defects. First, our study showed that depolymerization of G146V filaments was slower than that of wild-type filaments. This result is consistent with the distinction of structural states of G146V filaments from those of the wild type, considering the recent report that stabilization of actin filaments involves rotation of the two domains. Next, we measured intramolecular FRET efficiencies between two fluorophores in the two domains with or without skeletal muscle heavy meromyosin or the heavy meromyosin equivalent of myosin V in the presence of ATP. Single-molecule FRET measurements showed that the conformations of actin subunits of control and G146V actin filaments were different in the presence of skeletal muscle heavy meromyosin. This altered conformation of G146V subunits may lead to motility defects in myosin II. In contrast, distributions of FRET efficiencies of control and G146V subunits were similar in the presence of myosin V, consistent with the lack of motility defects in G146V actin with myosin V. The distribution of FRET efficiencies in the presence of myosin V was different from that in the presence of skeletal muscle heavy meromyosin, implying that the roles of actin conformation in myosin motility depend on the type of myosin. PMID:25945499

  3. Structural and molecular conformation of myosin in intact muscle fibers by second harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nucciotti, V.; Stringari, C.; Sacconi, L.; Vanzi, F.; Linari, M.; Piazzesi, G.; Lombardi, V.; Pavone, F. S.

    2009-02-01

    Recently, the use of Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) for imaging biological samples has been explored with regard to intrinsic SHG in highly ordered biological samples. As shown by fractional extraction of proteins, myosin is the source of SHG signal in skeletal muscle. SHG is highly dependent on symmetries and provides selective information on the structural order and orientation of the emitting proteins and the dynamics of myosin molecules responsible for the mechano-chemical transduction during contraction. We characterise the polarization-dependence of SHG intensity in three different physiological states: resting, rigor and isometric tetanic contraction in a sarcomere length range between 2.0 ?m and 4.0 ?m. The orientation of motor domains of the myosin molecules is dependent on their physiological states and modulate the SHG signal. We can discriminate the orientation of the emitting dipoles in four different molecular conformations of myosin heads in intact fibers during isometric contraction, in resting and rigor. We estimate the contribution of the myosin motor domain to the total second order bulk susceptibility from its molecular structure and its functional conformation. We demonstrate that SHG is sensitive to the fraction of ordered myosin heads by disrupting the order of myosin heads in rigor with an ATP analog. We estimate the fraction of myosin motors generating the isometric force in the active muscle fiber from the dependence of the SHG modulation on the degree of overlap between actin and myosin filaments during an isometric contraction.

  4. The role of myosin phosphorylation in anaphase chromosome movement.

    PubMed

    Sheykhani, Rozhan; Shirodkar, Purnata V; Forer, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with the role of myosin phosphorylation in anaphase chromosome movement. Y27632 and ML7 block two different pathways for phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC). Both stopped or slowed chromosome movement when added to anaphase crane-fly spermatocytes. To confirm that the effects of the pharmacological agents were on the presumed targets, we studied cells stained with antibodies against mono- or bi-phosphorylated myosin. For all chromosomes whose movements were affected by a drug, the corresponding spindle fibres of the affected chromosomes had reduced levels of 1P- and 2P-myosin. Thus the drugs acted on the presumed target and myosin phosphorylation is involved in anaphase force production. Calyculin A, an inhibitor of MRLC dephosphorylation, reversed and accelerated the altered movements caused by Y27632 and ML-7, suggesting that another phosphorylation pathway is involved in phosphorylation of spindle myosin. Staurosporine, a more general phosphorylation inhibitor, also reduced the levels of MRLC phosphorylation and caused anaphase chromosomes to stop or slow. The effects of staurosporine on chromosome movements were not reversed by Calyculin A, confirming that another phosphorylation pathway is involved in phosphorylation of spindle myosin. PMID:23566798

  5. Actin-myosin contractility is responsible for the reduced viability of dissociated human embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guokai; Hou, Zhonggang; Gulbranson, Daniel; Thomson, James A.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Human ES cells are the pluripotent precursor of the three embryonic germ layers. Human ES cells exhibit basal-apical polarity, junctional complexes, integrin-dependent matrix adhesion, and E-cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesion, all characteristics shared by the epiblast epithelium of the intact mammalian embryo. After disruption of epithelial structures, programmed cell death is commonly observed. If individualized human ES cells are prevented from reattaching and forming colonies, their viability is significantly reduced. Here we show that actin-myosin contraction is a critical effector of the cell death response to human ES cell dissociation. Inhibition of myosin heavy chain ATPase, downregulation of myosin heavy chain, and downregulation of myosin light chain all increase survival and cloning efficiency of individualized human ES cells. ROCK inhibition decreases phosphorylation of myosin light chain, suggesting that inhibition of actin-myosin contraction is also the mechanism through which ROCK inhibitors increase cloning efficiency of human ES cells. PMID:20682449

  6. Electron microscopic evidence for the myosin head lever arm mechanism in hydrated myosin filaments using the gas environmental chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Minoda, Hiroki; CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 ; Okabe, Tatsuhiro; Inayoshi, Yuhri; Miyakawa, Takuya; Miyauchi, Yumiko; Tanokura, Masaru; Katayama, Eisaku; Wakabayashi, Takeyuki; Akimoto, Tsuyoshi; Sugi, Haruo

    2011-02-25

    Research highlights: {yields} We succeeded in recording structural changes of hydrated myosin cross-bridges. {yields} We succeeded in position-marking the cross-bridges with site-directed antibodies. {yields} We recorded cross-bridge movement at different regions in individual cross-bridge. {yields} The movement was smallest at the cross-bridge-subfragment two boundary. {yields} The results provide evidence for the cross-bridge lever arm mechanism. -- Abstract: Muscle contraction results from an attachment-detachment cycle between the myosin heads extending from myosin filaments and the sites on actin filaments. The myosin head first attaches to actin together with the products of ATP hydrolysis, performs a power stroke associated with release of hydrolysis products, and detaches from actin upon binding with new ATP. The detached myosin head then hydrolyses ATP, and performs a recovery stroke to restore its initial position. The strokes have been suggested to result from rotation of the lever arm domain around the converter domain, while the catalytic domain remains rigid. To ascertain the validity of the lever arm hypothesis in muscle, we recorded ATP-induced movement at different regions within individual myosin heads in hydrated myosin filaments, using the gas environmental chamber attached to the electron microscope. The myosin head were position-marked with gold particles using three different site-directed antibodies. The amplitude of ATP-induced movement at the actin binding site in the catalytic domain was similar to that at the boundary between the catalytic and converter domains, but was definitely larger than that at the regulatory light chain in the lever arm domain. These results are consistent with the myosin head lever arm mechanism in muscle contraction if some assumptions are made.

  7. Diffuse X-ray scatter from myosin heads in oriented synthetic filaments.

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, F R; Lowy, J; Cooke, P H; Bartels, E M; Elliott, G F; Hughes, R A

    1987-01-01

    X-ray results are presented concerning the structural state of myosin heads of synthetic filaments in threads. These were made from purified rabbit skeletal muscle myosin and studied by x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy by Cooke et al. (Cooke, P. H., E. M. Bartels, G. F. Elliott, and R. A. Hughes, 1987, Biophys. J., 51:947-957). X-ray patterns show a meridional peak at a spacing of 14.4 nm. We concentrate here on the only other feature of the axial pattern: this is a central region of diffuse scatter, which we find to be similar to that obtained from myosin heads in solution (Mendelson, R. A., K. M. Kretzschmar, 1980, Biochemistry, 19:4103-4108). This means that the myosin heads have very large random displacements in all directions from their average positions, and that they are practically randomly oriented. The myosin heads do not contribute to the 14.4-nm peak, which must come entirely from the backbone. Comparison with x-ray data from the unstriated Taenia coli muscle of the guinea pig indicates that in this muscle at least 75% of the diffuse scatter comes from disordered myosin heads. The results confirm that the diffuse scatter in x-ray patterns from specimens that contain myosin filaments can yield information about the structural behavior of the myosin heads. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:3607214

  8. Qdot Labeled Actin Super Resolution Motility Assay Measures Low Duty Cycle Muscle Myosin Step-Size

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yihua; Ajtai, Katalin; Burghardt, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Myosin powers contraction in heart and skeletal muscle and is a leading target for mutations implicated in inheritable muscle diseases. During contraction, myosin transduces ATP free energy into the work of muscle shortening against resisting force. Muscle shortening involves relative sliding of myosin and actin filaments. Skeletal actin filaments were fluorescence labeled with a streptavidin conjugate quantum dot (Qdot) binding biotin-phalloidin on actin. Single Qdots were imaged in time with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy then spatially localized to 1-3 nanometers using a super-resolution algorithm as they translated with actin over a surface coated with skeletal heavy meromyosin (sHMM) or full length ?-cardiac myosin (MYH7). Average Qdot-actin velocity matches measurements with rhodamine-phalloidin labeled actin. The sHMM Qdot-actin velocity histogram contains low velocity events corresponding to actin translation in quantized steps of ~5 nm. The MYH7 velocity histogram has quantized steps at 3 and 8 nm in addition to 5 nm, and, larger compliance than sHMM depending on MYH7 surface concentration. Low duty cycle skeletal and cardiac myosin present challenges for a single molecule assay because actomyosin dissociates quickly and the freely moving element diffuses away. The in vitro motility assay has modestly more actomyosin interactions and methylcellulose inhibited diffusion to sustain the complex while preserving a subset of encounters that do not overlap in time on a single actin filament. A single myosin step is isolated in time and space then characterized using super-resolution. The approach provides quick, quantitative, and inexpensive step-size measurement for low duty cycle muscle myosin. PMID:23383646

  9. Cortical recruitment of nonmuscle myosin II in early syncytial Drosophila embryos

    PubMed Central

    Royou, Anne; Sullivan, William; Karess, Roger

    2002-01-01

    The nuclei of early syncytial Drosophila embryos migrate dramatically toward the poles. The cellular mechanisms driving this process, called axial expansion, are unclear, but myosin II activity is required. By following regulatory myosin light chain (RLC)green fluorescent protein dynamics in living embryos, we observed cycles of myosin recruitment to the cortex synchronized with mitotic cycles. Cortical myosin is first seen in a patch at the anterocentral part of the embryo at cycle 4. With each succeeding cycle, the patch expands poleward, dispersing at the beginning of each mitosis and reassembling at the end of telophase. Each cycle of actin and myosin recruitment is accompanied by a cortical contraction. The cortical myosin cycle does not require microtubules but correlates inversely with Cdc2/cyclinB (mitosis-promoting factor) activity. A mutant RLC lacking inhibitory phosphorylation sites was fully functional with no effect on the cortical myosin cycle, indicating that Cdc2 must be modulating myosin activity by some other mechanism. An inhibitor of Rho kinase blocks the cortical myosin recruitment cycles and provokes a concomitant failure of axial expansion. These studies suggest a model in which cycles of myosin-mediated contraction and relaxation, tightly linked to Cdc2 and Rho kinase activity, are directly responsible for the axial expansion of the syncytial nuclei. PMID:12105185

  10. Urocortin-induced decrease in Ca2+ sensitivity of contraction in mouse tail arteries is attributable to cAMP-dependent dephosphorylation of MYPT1 and activation of myosin light chain phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Lubomirov, Lubomir T; Reimann, Katrin; Metzler, Doris; Hasse, Veronika; Stehle, Robert; Ito, Masaaki; Hartshorne, David J; Gagov, Hristo; Pfitzer, Gabriele; Schubert, Rudolf

    2006-05-12

    Urocortin, a vasodilatory peptide related to corticotropin-releasing factor, may be an endogenous regulator of blood pressure. In vitro, rat tail arteries are relaxed by urocortin by a cAMP-mediated decrease in myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity through a still unclear mechanism. Here we show that contraction of intact mouse tail arteries induced with 42 mmol/L KCl or 0.5 micromol/L noradrenaline was associated with a approximately 2-fold increase in the phosphorylation of the regulatory subunit of myosin phosphatase (SMPP-1M), MYPT1, at Thr696, which was reversed in arteries relaxed with urocortin. Submaximally (pCa 6.1) contracted mouse tail arteries permeabilized with alpha-toxin were relaxed with urocortin by 39+/-3% at constant [Ca2+], which was associated with a decrease in myosin light chain (MLC20Ser19), MYPT1Thr696, and MYPT1Thr850 phosphorylation by 60%, 28%, and 52%, respectively. The Rho-associated kinase (ROK) inhibitor Y-27632 decreased MYPT1 phosphorylation by a similar extent. Inhibition of PP-2A with 3 nmol/L okadaic acid had no effect on MYPT1 phosphorylation, whereas inhibition of PP-1 with 3 micromol/L okadaic acid prevented dephosphorylation. Urocortin increased the rate of dephosphorylation of MLC20Ser19 approximately 2.2-fold but had no effect on the rate of contraction under conditions of, respectively, inhibited kinase and phosphatase activities. The effect of urocortin on MLC20Ser19 and MYPT1 phosphorylation was blocked by Rp-8-CPT-cAMPS and mimicked by Sp-5,6-DCl-cBIMPS. In summary, these results provide evidence that Ca(2+)-independent relaxation by urocortin can be attributed to a cAMP-mediated increased activity of SMPP-1M which at least in part is attributable to a decrease in the inhibitory phosphorylation of MYPT1. PMID:16574904

  11. Actin cores of hair-cell stereocilia support myosin motility.

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, G M; Corey, D P; Block, S M

    1990-01-01

    The actin cores of hair-cell stereocilia were tested as a substrate for the movement of myosin-coated beads in an in vitro assay. Large numbers of stereocilia from bullfrog sacculi and semicircular canals were isolated by blotting onto coverglasses and were demembranated to expose the polar actin tracks of their cytoskeletal cores. Silica or polystyrene beads, coated with thick filaments of chicken skeletal muscle myosin, were added to this core preparation in the presence of ATP. Myosin-coated beads could reach some of the cores by diffusion alone, but the efficiency and precision of the assay were improved considerably by the use of "optical tweezers" (a gradient-force optical trap) to deposit the beads directly on the cores. Beads applied in this fashion bound and moved unidirectionally at 1-2 microns/s, escaping the retarding force of the trap. Actin filaments within the stereocilia are cross-linked by fimbrin, but this did not appear to interfere with the motility of myosin. Beads coated with optic-lobe kinesin were also tested for movement; these bound and moved unidirectionally at 0.1-0.2 microns/s when applied to microtubule-based kinociliary cores, but not when applied to actin-based stereociliary cores. Our results are consistent with, and lend support to, a model for hair cell adaptation in which a molecular motor such as myosin maintains tension on the mechanically gated transduction channels. Optical tweezers and video-enhanced differential interference contrast optics provide high efficiency and improved optical resolution for the in vitro analysis of myosin motility. Images PMID:2236074

  12. Light effects on the isotopic fractionation of skeletal oxygen and carbon in the cultured zooxanthellate coral, Acropora: implications for coral-growth rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juillet-Leclerc, A.; Reynaud, S.

    2009-11-01

    Skeletal isotopic and metabolic measurements of the branching coral Acropora cultured in constant conditions and subjected to two light intensities were revisited. We individually compared the data recorded at low light (LL) and high light (HL) for 24 colonies, all derived from the same parent colony. Metabolic and isotopic responses to the different light levels were highly variable. High light led to productivity enhancement, reduction of surface extension, doubling of aragonite deposited weight and increased ?18O levels in all nubbins; responses in respiration and ?13C were not clear. The partitioning of the colonies into two groups, one showing a ?13C increase and the other a ?13C decrease with increased light, revealed common behaviors. Samples showing an increase in ?13C were associated with the co-variation of low surface extension and high productivity while samples showing a decrease in ?13C were associated with the co-variation of higher surface extension and limited productivity. This experiment, which allowed for the separation of temperature and light effects on the coral, highlighted the significant light influences on both skeletal ?18O and ?13C. The high scattering of inter-colony ?18O observed at one site could be due to the differing photosynthetic responses of symbiotic algal assemblages. The ?13C responses could also be related to differing algal distributions in different skeletal portions. Our results were compared to observations by Gladfelter on Acropora cervicornis (1982). Both set of results highlight the relationships between coral-growth rates, micro-structures and photosynthetic activity. It appears that extension growth and accretion are two separate growth modes, and accretion is light-enhanced while extension is light-repressed. There are multiple consequences of these findings for paleoclimatic reconstructions involving corals.

  13. Selective degradation of mRNA: the role of short-lived proteins in differential destabilization of insulin-induced creatine phosphokinase and myosin heavy chain mRNAs during rat skeletal muscle L6 cell differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Pontecorvi, A; Tata, J R; Phyillaier, M; Robbins, J

    1988-01-01

    This investigation concerns the combined effects of removal and readdition of insulin and inhibition of protein and RNA synthesis on the stability of insulin-induced mRNAs during and after differentiation of rat L6A1 myoblast cells in culture. Addition of insulin accompanying the withdrawal of the mitogenic stimulus of serum to myoblasts caused an 80-fold increase in creatine phosphokinase (CK) activity which was largely accounted for by a similar increase in the amount of CK mRNA. The latter was co-ordinately induced with myosin heavy chain (MHC) mRNA but not malic enzyme (ME) mRNA. Measurements of steady-state levels of mRNA showed that removal of insulin caused CK mRNA, but not MHC mRNA, to be rapidly degraded, the effect being reversed upon readdition of the hormone. Direct measurement of 3H-labeled CK, MHC and beta-actin mRNAs confirmed the selective stabilization and destabilization of CK mRNA by the hormone. Conditions were established for a time-window during which cycloheximide (Cx) produced a virtually total arrest of protein synthesis in myotubes that was reversible upon removal of the inhibitor. Under these conditions, Cx selectively prevented the degradation of CK mRNA in a reversible manner. Actinomycin D (Act D) also arrested the loss of this mRNA. Under the same conditions of mRNA stabilization during de-induction, a superinduction of CK mRNA, but not MHC mRNA, was observed if the two inhibitors were added during induction in the continuous presence of insulin. We conclude that a short-lived protein(s), encoded by a short-lived mRNA(s), selectively regulates the stability of reversibly inducible mRNA. Images PMID:3044783

  14. Redox-sensitive residue in the actin-binding interface of myosin

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Rebecca J.; Cornea, Sinziana; Oseid, Daniel E.; Binder, Benjamin P.; Klein, Jennifer C.; Thomas, David D.

    2014-01-01

    We have examined the chemical and functional reversibility of oxidative modification in myosin. Redox regulation has emerged as a crucial modulator of protein function, with particular relevance to aging. We previously identified a single methionine residue in Dictyostelium discoideum (Dicty) myosin II (M394, near the myosin cardiomyopathy loop in the actin-binding interface) that is functionally sensitive to oxidation. We now show that oxidation of M394 is reversible by methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr), restoring actin-activated ATPase activity. Sequence alignment reveals that M394 of Dicty myosin II is a cysteine residue in all human isoforms of skeletal and cardiac myosin. Using Dicty myosin II as a model for site-specific redox sensitivity of this Cys residue, the M394C mutant can be glutathionylated in vitro, resulting in reversible inhibition of actin-activated ATPase activity, with effects similar to those of methionine oxidation at this site. This work illustrates the potential for myosin to function as a redox sensor in both non-muscle and muscle cells, modulating motility/contractility in response to oxidative stress. PMID:25264102

  15. Redox-sensitive residue in the actin-binding interface of myosin.

    PubMed

    Moen, Rebecca J; Cornea, Sinziana; Oseid, Daniel E; Binder, Benjamin P; Klein, Jennifer C; Thomas, David D

    2014-10-24

    We have examined the chemical and functional reversibility of oxidative modification in myosin. Redox regulation has emerged as a crucial modulator of protein function, with particular relevance to aging. We previously identified a single methionine residue in Dictyostelium discoideum (Dicty) myosin II (M394, near the myosin cardiomyopathy loop in the actin-binding interface) that is functionally sensitive to oxidation. We now show that oxidation of M394 is reversible by methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr), restoring actin-activated ATPase activity. Sequence alignment reveals that M394 of Dicty myosin II is a cysteine residue in all human isoforms of skeletal and cardiac myosin. Using Dicty myosin II as a model for site-specific redox sensitivity of this Cys residue, the M394C mutant can be glutathionylated in vitro, resulting in reversible inhibition of actin-activated ATPase activity, with effects similar to those of methionine oxidation at this site. This work illustrates the potential for myosin to function as a redox sensor in both non-muscle and muscle cells, modulating motility/contractility in response to oxidative stress. PMID:25264102

  16. GH administration changes myosin heavy chain isoforms in skeletal muscle but does not augment muscle strength or hypertrophy, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training in healthy elderly men.

    PubMed

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Andersen, Jesper Lvind; Beyer, Nina; Isaksson, Fredrik; Larsson, Benny; Rasmussen, Michael Hjby; Juul, Anders; Blow, Jens; Kjaer, Michael

    2002-02-01

    GH administration, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training (RT), has attracted interest as a means of increasing muscle mass and strength in the elderly. In the present study, 31 healthy, elderly men [age, 74 +/- 1 yr (mean +/- SEM)] were assigned to either RT [3 sessions/wk, 3-5 sets of 8-12 repetition maximum (RM)/session] + placebo (n = 8), RT + GH (n = 8), GH (n = 8), or placebo (n = 7) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded (RT + placebo and RT + GH) or single-blinded (GH or placebo) design. Measurements of: 1) isokinetic quadriceps muscle strength; 2) quadriceps muscle power; 3) quadriceps muscle fiber type, size, and myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition; 4) quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) [nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI)]; 5) body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning); and 6) GH-related serum markers were performed at baseline and after 12 wk. The final GH dose was 1.77 +/- 0.18 IU x d(-1) (approximately 7.2 +/- 0.8 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1)). GH alone had no effect on isokinetic quadriceps muscle strength, power, CSA, or fiber size. However, a substantial increase in MHC 2X isoform was observed with GH administration alone, and this may be regarded as a change into a more youthful MHC composition, possibly induced by the rejuvenating of systemic IGF-I levels. RT + placebo caused substantial increases in quadriceps isokinetic strength, power, and CSA; but these RT induced improvements were not further augmented by additional GH administration. In the RT + GH group, there was a significant decrease in MHC 1 and 2X isoforms, whereas MHC 2A increased. RT, therefore, seems to overrule the changes in MHC composition induced by GH administration alone. Changes in body composition confirmed previous reports of decreased fat mass, increased fat-free mass, and unchanged bone mineral content with GH administration. A high incidence of side effects was reported. Our results do not support a role for GH as a means of increasing muscle strength or mass, either alone or combined with RT, in healthy elderly men; although GH administration alone may induce changes in MHC composition. PMID:11836279

  17. Quasi-elastic light-scattering studies of single skeletal muscle fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Haskell, R C; Carlson, F D

    1981-01-01

    Measurements were made of the intensity autocorrelation function, g(2)[tau], of light scattered from intact frog muscle fibers. During the tension plateau of an isometric tenanus, scattered field statistics were approximately Gaussian and intensity fluctuations were quasi-stationary. The half time, tau 1/2, for the decay of g(2)[tau] was typically 70 ms at a scattering angle of 30 degrees. The decay rate, 1/tau 1/2, of g(2)[tau] varied roughly linearly with the projection of the scattering vector on the fiber axis. 1/tau 1/2 was greater during the tension creep phase of tetani of highly stretched fibers, but was roughly independent of sarcomere length during the tension plateau. g(2)[tau] measured during rest or on diffraction pattern maxima during isometric contraction were flat with low amplitudes. These results are consistent with a model of a 200-mu m segment of an isometrically contracting fiber in which scattering material possesses relative axial velocities of 1-2 mu m/s accompanied by relative axial displacements greater than 0.1 mu m. The slow (1-2 mu m/s) motion of one portion of the fiber relative to another observed under the microscope (500X) during isometric contraction is consistent with the light-scattering results. Structural fluctuations on the scale of the myofibrillar sarcomere which may arise from asynchronous cycling of cross-bridges must involve relative axial velocities less than 3 mu m/s or relative axial displacements less than 0.05 mu m. PMID:6974014

  18. Functional conservation between rodents and chicken of regulatory sequences driving skeletal muscle gene expression in transgenic chickens

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Regulatory elements that control expression of specific genes during development have been shown in many cases to contain functionally-conserved modules that can be transferred between species and direct gene expression in a comparable developmental pattern. An example of such a module has been identified at the rat myosin light chain (MLC) 1/3 locus, which has been well characterised in transgenic mouse studies. This locus contains two promoters encoding two alternatively spliced isoforms of alkali myosin light chain. These promoters are differentially regulated during development through the activity of two enhancer elements. The MLC3 promoter alone has been shown to confer expression of a reporter gene in skeletal and cardiac muscle in transgenic mice and the addition of the downstream MLC enhancer increased expression levels in skeletal muscle. We asked whether this regulatory module, sufficient for striated muscle gene expression in the mouse, would drive expression in similar domains in the chicken. Results We have observed that a conserved downstream MLC enhancer is present in the chicken MLC locus. We found that the rat MLC1/3 regulatory elements were transcriptionally active in chick skeletal muscle primary cultures. We observed that a single copy lentiviral insert containing this regulatory cassette was able to drive expression of a lacZ reporter gene in the fast-fibres of skeletal muscle in chicken in three independent transgenic chicken lines in a pattern similar to the endogenous MLC locus. Reporter gene expression in cardiac muscle tissues was not observed for any of these lines. Conclusions From these results we conclude that skeletal expression from this regulatory module is conserved in a genomic context between rodents and chickens. This transgenic module will be useful in future investigations of muscle development in avian species. PMID:20184756

  19. Earning stripes: myosin binding protein-C interactions with actin.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Sabine J; Bezold, Kristina L; Harris, Samantha P

    2014-03-01

    Myosin binding protein-C (MyBP-C) was first discovered as an impurity during the purification of myosin from skeletal muscle. However, soon after its discovery, MyBP-C was also shown to bind actin. While the unique functional implications for a protein that could cross-link thick and thin filaments together were immediately recognized, most early research nonetheless focused on interactions of MyBP-C with the thick filament. This was in part because interactions of MyBP-C with the thick filament could adequately explain most (but not all) effects of MyBP-C on actomyosin interactions and in part because the specificity of actin binding was uncertain. However, numerous recent studies have now established that MyBP-C can indeed bind to actin through multiple binding sites, some of which are highly specific. Many of these interactions involve critical regulatory domains of MyBP-C that are also reported to interact with myosin. Here we review current evidence supporting MyBP-C interactions with actin and discuss these findings in terms of their ability to account for the functional effects of MyBP-C. We conclude that the influence of MyBP-C on muscle contraction can be explained equally well by interactions with actin as by interactions with myosin. However, because data showing that MyBP-C binds to either myosin or actin has come almost exclusively from in vitro biochemical studies, the challenge for future studies is to define which binding partner(s) MyBP-C interacts with in vivo. PMID:24442149

  20. A myosin isoform repressed in hypertrophied ALD muscle of the chicken reappears during regeneration following cold injury.

    PubMed

    Stewart, A F; Kennedy, J M; Bandman, E; Zak, R

    1989-10-01

    A library of monoclonal antibodies specific for myosin heavy chain (HC) was used to study myosin expression in regenerating fibers. The response to cold injury of slow skeletal ALD muscle previously induced to eliminate SM1 myosin by weight overload was compared to that of its contralateral control. Native gel electrophoresis combined with immunoblotting demonstrated that slow SM1 myosin HC eliminated from hypertrophic muscle reappeared both at the site of active regeneration and unexpectedly, also distal to the site of injury. The regeneration response of hypertrophied muscles was similar to that of the controls. In addition to SM1 myosin HC, ventricular-like and embryonic/fast isoforms were also expressed in both muscles during the early stages of regeneration and disappeared as the muscle fibers matured. These observations demonstrate that regenerating slow muscle fibers reexpress myosins' characteristic of developing muscle irrespective of the myosin phenotype prior to injury. The reappearance of repressed myosin HC in the hypertrophied ALD muscle is consistent with the presence of newly differentiated myonuclei. PMID:2776974

  1. Changes of intracellular milieu with fatigue or hypoxia depress contraction of skinned rabbit skeletal and cardiac muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Godt, R E; Nosek, T M

    1989-01-01

    1. Maximal calcium-activated force (Fmax) and calcium sensitivity were markedly decreased in detergent-skinned fibres from skeletal and cardiac muscle by solutions that mimicked the total milieu changes associated with fatigue and hypoxia. Further experiments determined the relative contribution of each of the individual changes in milieu. 2. Both Ca2+ sensitivity and Fmax of skeletal and cardiac fibres were decreased with increased [H+] or inorganic phosphate (Pi). These effects were greater in cardiac muscle. 3. Decreasing MgATP over the range observed with fatigue and hypoxia (6.8-4.7 mM) had no effect on Fmax or Ca2+ sensitivity of either muscle type. 4. Decreasing phosphocreatine (PCr: 15-1 mM) increased Fmax but had little effect on Ca2+ sensitivity in both muscle types. In cardiac fibres, the effect on Fmax could be mimicked by inhibition of endogenous creatine kinase. 5. ADP (0.7 mM) increased Fmax and Ca2+ sensitivity, while AMP (0.06 mM) slightly increased Fmax but had no effect on Ca2+ sensitivity of either skeletal or cardiac fibres. 6. Creatine (25 mM) had no significant effect on either Ca2+ sensitivity or Fmax of skeletal and cardiac muscle fibres. At higher levels (50 mM), however, creatine depressed Fmax and slightly altered Ca2+ sensitivity. 7. Thiophosphorylation of myosin P light chains (phosphorylatable light chains of myosin) in rabbit psoas fibres had no effect on Ca2+ sensitivity, yet slightly but significantly increased Fmax under fatigue conditions. 8. Reducing the affinity for ATP hydrolysis (by adding ADP, AMP and creatine) over the range calculated for fatigue/hypoxia (60-45 kJ/mol) produced the enhancement in Fmax expected from added ADP and AMP in cardiac but not skeletal muscle, indicating that changes in affinity influence Fmax of skeletal muscle. Reducing affinity produced little change in Ca2+ sensitivity of skeletal muscle. In contrast, the change produced in cardiac muscle was greater than that expected from addition of ADP and AMP; i.e. decreasing affinity increases calcium sensitivity of the heart. 9. Simple summation of all significant changes expected from each constituent altered by fatigue/hypoxia adequately predicted the observed changes in Fmax and Ca2+ sensitivity in both cardiac and skeletal muscle fibres with but one exception (the change in Ca2+ sensitivity of skeletal muscle at pH 7 was slightly overestimated). PMID:2600830

  2. Reversible association of myosin with the platelet cytoskeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachmias, Vivianne T.; Kavaler, Joshua; Jacubowitz, Sam

    1985-01-01

    Platelets circulating in the human blood stream are smooth disk-shaped structures. The disks change within seconds of exposure to ADP or thrombin to irregular spheres bearing filopodia and pseudopodia. It is well-established that platelets also change shape (although more slowly) when chilled to 5C1-5 and revert to disks on rewarming1,3. This cold-induced shape change may be due to the depolymerization of the submembranous microtubule ring. However, we found that chilling in the presence of Taxol, which stabilizes the microtubules, still results in shape change. Chilled platelets show an increase in the amount of myosin in the Triton-X insoluble residue or `cytoskeleton'6-9 which is correlated in time both with phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain and with the induced shape change. We suggest here that the slow cold-induced change from disks to spheres is due primarily to a gradual activation of myosin.

  3. Actomyosin content of Physarum plasmodia and detection of immunological cross-reactions with myosins from related species.

    PubMed

    Kessler, D; Nachmias, V T; Loewy, A G

    1976-05-01

    The content of myosin in plasmodia of the myxomycete Physarum polycephalum was measured by an immunological technique, quantitative microcomplement (C') fixation. Migrating plasmodia (starved after growth on rolled oats) contained 0.60 +/- 0.08 (SD) mg myosin per g fresh plasmodia. Myosin comprised 0.77% +/- 0.05 (SD) of the total plasmodial protein. When total plasmodial proteins were separated by electrophoresis on SDS-polyacrylamide gels, a large amount of protein appeared in a band comigrating with muscle actin. Densitometry performed after Coomassie blue staining indicated that as much as 15-25% of the total protein in the plasmodium could be actin. This gives an actin/myosin ratio by weight in the myxomycete plasmodium as high as 19-33, a very "actin-rich" actomyosin compared with rabbit skeletal muscle actomyosin with an actin/myosin ratio of 0.6. Starvation stimulates rapid migration and is correlated with a higher percent of both myosin and actin in the total protein of the plasmodium compared with normally growing cultures. Immunological cross-reaction of myosins from a variety of species was measured by C' fixation using an antiserum produced against purified native myosin from P. polycephalum. Although myxomycete and vertebrate striated muscle myosins have very similar morphological and biochemical properties, and apparently possess similar binding properties to F-actin, only myosins from myxomycetes in the order Physarales, rather closely related to P. polycephalum, gave detectable cross-reactions. This finding suggests that many amino acid sequences in myosin have been variable during evolution. PMID:944188

  4. In vitro and in vivo single myosin step-sizes in striated muscle.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Thomas P; Sun, Xiaojing; Wang, Yihua; Ajtai, Katalin

    2015-12-01

    Myosin in muscle transduces ATP free energy into the mechanical work of moving actin. It has a motor domain transducer containing ATP and actin binding sites, and, mechanical elements coupling motor impulse to the myosin filament backbone providing transduction/mechanical-coupling. The mechanical coupler is a lever-arm stabilized by bound essential and regulatory light chains. The lever-arm rotates cyclically to impel bound filamentous actin. Linear actin displacement due to lever-arm rotation is the myosin step-size. A high-throughput quantum dot labeled actin in vitro motility assay (Qdot assay) measures motor step-size in the context of an ensemble of actomyosin interactions. The ensemble context imposes a constant velocity constraint for myosins interacting with one actin filament. In a cardiac myosin producing multiple step-sizes, a "second characterization" is step-frequency that adjusts longer step-size to lower frequency maintaining a linear actin velocity identical to that from a shorter step-size and higher frequency actomyosin cycle. The step-frequency characteristic involves and integrates myosin enzyme kinetics, mechanical strain, and other ensemble affected characteristics. The high-throughput Qdot assay suits a new paradigm calling for wide surveillance of the vast number of disease or aging relevant myosin isoforms that contrasts with the alternative model calling for exhaustive research on a tiny subset myosin forms. The zebrafish embryo assay (Z assay) performs single myosin step-size and step-frequency assaying in vivo combining single myosin mechanical and whole muscle physiological characterizations in one model organism. The Qdot and Z assays cover "bottom-up" and "top-down" assaying of myosin characteristics. PMID:26728749

  5. Light effects on the isotopic fractionation of skeletal oxygen and carbon in the cultured zooxanthellate coral, Acropora: implications for coral-growth rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juillet-Leclerc, A.; Reynaud, S.

    2010-03-01

    Skeletal isotopic and metabolic measurements of the branching coral Acropora cultured in constant conditions and subjected to two light intensities were revisited. We individually compared the data recorded at low light (LL) and high light (HL) for 24 colonies, all derived from the same parent colony. Metabolic and isotopic responses to the different light levels were highly variable. High light led to productivity enhancement, reduction of surface extension, doubling of aragonite deposited weight and increased ?18O levels in all nubbins; responses in respiration and ?13C were not clear. The partitioning of the colonies cultured at HL into two groups, one showing a ?13C enrichment and the other a ?13C decrease revealed common behaviors. Samples showing an increase in ?13C were associated with the co-variation of low surface extension and high productivity while samples showing a decrease in ?13C were associated with the co-variation of higher surface extension and limited productivity. This experiment, which allowed for the separation of temperature and light effects on the coral, highlighted the significant light influences on both skeletal ?18O and ?13C. The high scattering of inter-colony ?18O observed at one site could be due to the differing photosynthetic responses of symbiotic algal assemblages. We compared our results with observations by Gladfelter on Acropora cervicornis (1982). Both set of results highlight the relationships between coral-growth rates, micro-structures and photosynthetic activity. It appears that extension growth and skeleton thickening are two separate growth modes, and thickening is light-enhanced while extension is light-suppressed. There are multiple consequences of these findings for paleoclimatic reconstructions involving corals.

  6. Muscle-specific regulation of a transfected rabbit myosin heavy chain beta gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Cribbs, L L; Shimizu, N; Yockey, C E; Levin, J E; Jakovcic, S; Zak, R; Umeda, P K

    1989-06-25

    We have examined the transcriptional regulation of the rabbit myosin heavy chain (HC) beta gene by using DNA-mediated transfection experiments. To analyze the activity of the myosin HC beta promoter in a myogenic background, cultured myoblasts from 12-day-old chick embryonic breast muscle were transfected with a chimeric gene containing 781 base pairs of the promoter region fused to the gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT). As indicated by the transient expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, the activity of the promoter in myoblast cultures increased at least 32-fold following differentiation and was selectively inhibited when myogenesis was blocked with 5-bromodeoxyuridine. Furthermore, RNase protection experiments showed that the in vivo myosin HC beta transcriptional initiation (or cap) site was utilized in the transfected skeletal muscle cells and also that the regulation of the exogenous promoter was similar to the induction of the endogenous skeletal alpha-actin gene. The results indicated that the exogenous promoter is regulated in a tissue- and stage-specific manner. By creating progressive 5' deletions of the promoter, we showed that only the region extending -294 base pairs upstream from the cap site is necessary for the muscle-specific expression. Linker-scanner mutagenesis of this region indicated that the positive regulation in differentiated skeletal muscle is mediated by at least two distinct elements within the 5'-flanking region of the myosin HC beta gene. PMID:2567293

  7. Myosin isoforms in red and white muscles of some marine teleost fishes.

    PubMed

    Martinez, I; Ofstad, R; Olsen, R L

    1990-12-01

    The myosin content from red and white muscles of three marine fish species, saithe (Pollachius virens. L.), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus, L.), both members of the family Gadidae, and capeline (Mallotus villosus, M.) of the family Osmeridae, was analyzed electrophoretically. Analysis of the native myosin by electrophoresis under non-dissociating conditions revealed two isoforms in red muscles, and three or four in white muscles. The white muscles of the two closely related species had a similar pattern of isoforms. Myosin from the slow red muscles had two types of light chain, LC1S and LC2S, and myosin from the fast white muscles three, LC1F, LC2F, and LC3F. The pattern of light chains in both types of muscles was species-dependent. All the light chains from fish myosins were more acidic than those of the rat diaphragm used as standard. One main type of heavy chain was detected in each kind of muscle. In white muscles of saithe there was an extra band, present in minor amounts. The heavy chains from white muscle myosin had lower electrophoretic mobilities than those from red muscle, and the mobilities of all of them were intermediate between those of the heavy chains type IIa and I of rat diaphragm myosin. In our opinion, there are probably more isomyosins in fish muscles than those detected in the present work and their presence is obscured by comigration with the main types. PMID:2150675

  8. Protein Phosphatase 1 ? Paralogs Encode the Zebrafish Myosin Phosphatase Catalytic Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Jayashankar, Vaishali; Nguyen, Michael J.; Carr, Brandon W.; Zheng, Dale C.; Rosales, Joseph B.; Rosales, Joshua B.; Weiser, Douglas C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The myosin phosphatase is a highly conserved regulator of actomyosin contractility. Zebrafish has emerged as an ideal model system to study the in vivo role of myosin phosphatase in controlling cell contractility, cell movement and epithelial biology. Most work in zebrafish has focused on the regulatory subunit of the myosin phosphatase called Mypt1. In this work, we examined the critical role of Protein Phosphatase 1, PP1, the catalytic subunit of the myosin phosphatase. Methodology/Principal Findings We observed that in zebrafish two paralogous genes encoding PP1?, called ppp1cba and ppp1cbb, are both broadly expressed during early development. Furthermore, we found that both gene products interact with Mypt1 and assemble an active myosin phosphatase complex. In addition, expression of this complex results in dephosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain and large scale rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. Morpholino knock-down of ppp1cba and ppp1cbb results in severe defects in morphogenetic cell movements during gastrulation through loss of myosin phosphatase function. Conclusions/Significance Our work demonstrates that zebrafish have two genes encoding PP1?, both of which can interact with Mypt1 and assemble an active myosin phosphatase. In addition, both genes are required for convergence and extension during gastrulation and correct dosage of the protein products is required. PMID:24040418

  9. Kinetic model for isometric contraction in smooth muscle on the basis of myosin phosphorylation hypothesis.

    PubMed Central

    Kato, S; Osa, T; Ogasawara, T

    1984-01-01

    A kinetic model was proposed to simulate an isometric contraction curve in smooth muscle on the basis of the myosin phosphorylation hypothesis. The Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent activation of myosin light-chain kinase and the phosphorylation-dephosphorylation reaction of myosin were mathematically treated. Solving the kinetic equations at a steady state, we could calculate the relationship between the Ca2+ concentration and the myosin phosphorylation. Assuming that two-head-phosphorylated myosin has an actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity and that this state corresponds to an active state, we computed the time courses of the myosin phosphorylation and the active state for various Ca2+ transients. The time course of the active state was converted into that of isometric tension by use of Sandow's model composed of a contractile element and a series elastic component. The model could simulate not only the isometric contraction curves for any given Ca2+ transient but also the following experimental results: the calmodulin-dependent shift of the Ca2+ sensitivity of isometric tension observed in skinned muscle fibers, the disagreement between the Ca2+ sensitivity of myosin phosphorylation and that of isometric tension at a steady state, and the disagreement between the time course of myosin phosphorylation and that of isometric tension development. PMID:6547623

  10. Interactions between the Leucine-zipper Motif of cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase and the C-terminal Region of the Targeting Subunit of Myosin Light Chain Phosphatase*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunhee; Hayes, David B.; Langsetmo, Knut; Sundberg, Eric J.; Tao, Terence C.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Nitric oxide induces vasodilation by elevating the production of cGMP, an activator of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). PKG subsequently causes smooth muscle relaxation in part via activation of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP). To date, the interaction between PKG and the targeting subunit of MLCP (MYPT1) is not fully understood. Earlier studies by one group of workers showed that the binding of PKG to MYPT1 is mediated by the leucine-zipper motifs at the N- and C-termini, respectively, of the two proteins. Another group, however, reported that binding of PKG to MYPT1 did not require the leucine-zipper motif of MYPT1. In this work we fully characterized the interaction between PKG and MYPT1 using biophysical techniques. For this purpose we constructed a recombinant PKG peptide corresponding to a predicted coiled coil region that contains the leucine-zipper motif. We further constructed various C-terminal MYPT1 peptides bearing various combinations of a predicted coiled coil region, extensions preceding this coiled coil region, and the leucine-zipper motif. Our results show, firstly, that while the leucine-zipper motif at the N-terminus of PKG forms a homodimeric coiled coil, the one at the C-terminus of MYPT1 is monomeric and non-helical. Secondly, the leucine-zipper motif of PKG binds to that of MYPT1 to form a heterodimer. Thirdly, when the leucine-zipper motif of MYPT1 is absent, the PKG leucine-zipper motif binds to the coiled coil region and upstream segments of MYPT1 via formation of a heterotetramer. These results provide rationalization of some of the findings by others using alternative binding analyses. PMID:17904578

  11. Heavy chain of Acanthamoeba myosine IB is a fusion of myosin-like and non-myosin-like sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, G.; Korn, E.D.; Hammer, J.A. III

    1987-10-01

    Acanthamoeba castellanii myosins IA and IB demonstrate the catalytic properties of a myosin and can support analogues of contractile and motile activity in vitro, but their single, low molecular weight heavy chains, roughly globular shapes, and inabilities to self-assemble into filaments make them structurally atypical myosins. The authors present the complete amino acid sequence of the 128-kDa myosin IB heavy chain, which they deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the gene and which reveals that the polypeptide is a fusion of myosin-like and non-myosin-like sequences. Specifically, the amino-terminal approx. 76 kDa of amino acid sequence is highly similar to the globular head sequences of conventional myosins. By contrast, the remaining approx. 51 kDa of sequence shows no similarity to any portion of conventional myosin sequences, contains regions that are rich in glycine, proline, and alanine residues, and lacks the distinctive sequence characteristics of an ..cap alpha..-helical, coiled-coil structure. They conclude, therefore, that the protein is composed of a myosin globular head fused not to the typical coiled-coil rod-like myosin tail structure but rather to an unusual carboxyl-terminal domain. These results support the conclusion that filamentous myosin is not required for force generation and provide a further perspective on the structural requirements for myosin function. Finally, they find a striking conservation of intron/exon structure between this gene and a vertebrate muscle myosin gene. They discuss this observation in relation to the evolutionary origin of the myosin IB gene and the antiquity of myosin gene intron/exon structure.

  12. Directional Mechanosensing in Myosin VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yubo; Tehver, Riina

    2013-03-01

    Myosin is a family of versatile motor proteins that perform various tasks, such as organelle transport, anchoring and cell deformation. Although the general mechanism of the motors has been fairly well established, details on dynamic aspects like force response of the motor, and force propagation are yet to be fully understood. In this poster, we present the response of the ATP binding region to force exerted on the tail domain in order to test the proposed tension-dependent gating mechanism of myosin VI processive motion. We employed the Self-Organized Polymer model in a computer simulation to explore the effect. Current results show that the ATP binding domain of myosin VI indeed exhibits tension dependence - both structurally and dynamically.

  13. Myosin II Motors and F-Actin Dynamics Drive the Coordinated Movement of the Centrosome and Soma during CNS Glial-Guided Neuronal Migration

    SciTech Connect

    Solecki, Dr. David; Trivedi, Dr. Niraj; Govek, Eve-Ellen; Kerekes, Ryan A; Gleason, Shaun Scott; Hatten, Mary E

    2009-01-01

    Lamination of cortical regions of the vertebrate brain depends on glial-guided neuronal migration. The conserved polarity protein Par6{alpha} localizes to the centrosome and coordinates forward movement of the centrosome and soma in migrating neurons. The cytoskeletal components that produce this unique form of cell polarity and their relationship to polarity signaling cascades are unknown. We show that F-actin and Myosin II motors are enriched in the neuronal leading process and that Myosin II activity is necessary for leading process actin dynamics. Inhibition of Myosin II decreased the speed of centrosome and somal movement, whereas Myosin II activation increased coordinated movement. Ectopic expression or silencing of Par6{alpha} inhibited Myosin II motors by decreasing Myosin light-chain phosphorylation. These findings suggest leading-process Myosin II may function to 'pull' the centrosome and soma forward during glial-guided migration by a mechanism involving the conserved polarity protein Par6{alpha}.

  14. Stabilization of Helivcal Order in the Thick Filaments by Blebbistatin: Further Evidence of Coexisting Multiple Conformations of Myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, S.; White, H; Offer, G; Yu, L

    2009-01-01

    The degree of helical order of the thick filament of mammalian skeletal muscle is highly dependent on temperature and the nature of the ligand. Previously, we showed that there was a close correlation between the conformation of the myosin heads on the surface of the thick filaments and the extent of their helical order. Helical order required the heads to be in the closed conformation. In addition, we showed that, with the same ligand bound at the active site, three conformations of myosin coexisted in equilibrium. Hitherto, however, there was no detectable helical order as measured by x-ray diffraction under the temperatures studied for myosin with MgADP and the nucleotide-free myosin, raising the possibility that the concept of multiple conformations has limited validity. In this study, blebbistatin was used to stabilize the closed conformation of myosin. The degree of helical order is substantially improved with MgATP at low temperature or with MgADP or in the absence of nucleotide. The thermodynamic parameters of the disorder?order transition and the characteristics of the ordered array were not significantly altered by binding blebbistatin. The simplest explanation is that the binding of blebbistatin increases the proportion of myosin in the closed conformation from being negligible to substantial. These results provide further evidence for the coexistence of multiple conformations of myosin under a wide range of conditions and for the closed conformation being directly coupled to helical order.

  15. A new state of cardiac myosin with very slow ATP turnover: a potential cardioprotective mechanism in the heart.

    PubMed

    Hooijman, Pleuni; Stewart, Melanie A; Cooke, Roger

    2011-04-20

    The mechanisms that control cardiac contractility are complex. Recent work we conducted in vertebrate skeletal muscle identified a new state of myosin, the super-relaxed state (SRX), which had a very low metabolic rate. To determine whether this state also exists in cardiac muscle we used quantitative epi-fluorescence to measure single nucleotide turnovers by myosin in bundles of relaxed permeable rabbit ventricle cells. We measured two turnover times--one compatible with the normal relaxed state, and one much slower which was shown to arise from myosin heads in the SRX. In both skeletal and cardiac muscle, the SRX appears to play a similar role in relaxed cells, providing a state with a very low metabolic rate. However, in active muscle the properties of the SRX differ dramatically. We observed a rapid transition of myosin heads out of the SRX in active skeletal fibers, whereas the population of the SRX remained constant in active cardiac cells. This property allows the SRX to play a very different role in cardiac muscle than in skeletal muscle. The SRX could provide a mechanism for decreasing the metabolic load on the heart, being cardioprotective, particularly in time of stress such as ischemia. PMID:21504733

  16. Genetic deletion of myostatin from the heart prevents skeletal muscle atrophy in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Heineke, Joerg; Auger-Messier, Mannix; Xu, Jian; Sargent, Michelle; York, Allen; Welle, Stephen; Molkentin, Jeffery D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cardiac cachexia is characterized by an exaggerated loss of skeletal muscle, weakness, and exercise intolerance, although the etiology of these effects remains unknown. Here we hypothesized that the heart functions as an endocrine organ in promoting systemic cachexia by secreting peptide factors such as myostatin. Myostatin is a cytokine of the transforming growth factor ?(TGF?) superfamily that is known to control muscle wasting. Methods and Results We used a Cre/loxP system to ablate myostatin (Mstn gene) expression in a celltype-specific manner. As expected, elimination of Mstn selectively in skeletal muscle with a myosin light chain 1f (MLC1f)-cre allele induced robust hypertrophy in all skeletal muscle. However, heart-specific deletion of Mstn with a Nkx2.5-cre allele did not alter baseline heart size or secondarily affect skeletal muscle size, but the characteristic wasting and atrophy of skeletal muscle that typifies heart failure was not observed in these heart-specific null mice, indicating that myocardial myostatin expression controls muscle atrophy in heart failure. Indeed, myostatin levels in the plasma were significantly increased in wildtype mice subjected to pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy, but not in Mstn heart-specific deleted mice. Moreover, cardiac-specific overexpression of myostatin, which increased circulating levels of myostatin by 34-fold, caused a reduction in weight of the quadriceps, gastrocnemius, soleus, and even the heart itself. Lastly, to investigate myostatin as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of muscle wasting in heart failure, we infused a myostatin blocking antibody (JA-16), which promoted greater maintenance of muscle mass in heart failure. Conclusions Myostatin released from cardiomyocytes induces skeletal muscle wasting in heart failure. Targeted inhibition of myostatin in cardiac cachexia might be a therapeutic option in the future. PMID:20065166

  17. Filamentous smooth muscle myosin is regulated by phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The enzymatic activity of filamentous dephosphorylated smooth muscle myosin has been difficult to determine because the polymer disassembles to the folded conformation in the presence of MgATP. Monoclonal antirod antibodies were used here to "fix" dephosphorylated myosin in the filamentous state. The steady-state actin-activated ATPase of phosphorylated filaments was 30-100-fold higher than that of antibody- stabilized dephosphorylated filaments, suggesting that phosphorylation can activate ATPase activity independent of changes in assembly. The degree of regulation may exceed 100-fold, because steady-state measurements slightly overestimate the rate of product release from dephosphorylated filaments. Single-turnover experiments in the absence of actin showed that although dephosphorylated folded myosin released products at the low rate of 0.0005 s-1 (Cross, R. A., K. E. Cross, A. Sobieszek. 1986. EMBO [Eur. Mol. Biol. Organ.] J. 5:2637-2641) the rate of product release from dephosphorylated filaments was only 3-12-fold higher, depending on the ionic strength. The addition of actin did not increase this rate to any appreciable extent. Dephosphorylated filaments and dephosphorylated heavy meromyosin (Sellers, J. R. 1985. J. Biol. Chem. 260:15815-15819) thus have similar low rates of phosphate release both in the presence and absence of actin. These results show that light chain phosphorylation alone, without invoking other mechanisms, is an effective switch for regulating the activity of smooth muscle myosin filaments. PMID:2531749

  18. Dynamics of myosin II organization into contractile networks and fibers at the medial cell cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Wei

    The cellular morphology of adhered cells depends crucially on the formation of a contractile meshwork of parallel and cross-linked stress fibers along the contacting surface. The motor activity and mini-filament assembly of non-muscle myosin II is an important component of cell-level cytoskeletal remodeling during mechanosensing. To monitor the dynamics of non-muscle myosin II, we used confocal microscopy to image cultured HeLa cells that stably express myosin regulatory light chain tagged with GFP (MRLC-GFP). MRLC-GFP was monitored in time-lapse movies at steady state and during the response of cells to varying concentrations of blebbistatin (which disrupts actomyosin stress fibers). Using image correlation spectroscopy analysis, we quantified the kinetics of disassembly and reassembly of actomyosin networks and compared to studies by other groups. This analysis suggested the following processes: myosin minifilament assembly and disassembly; aligning and contraction; myosin filament stabilization upon increasing contractile tension. Numerical simulations that include those processes capture some of the main features observed in the experiments. This study provides a framework to help interpret how different cortical myosin remodeling kinetics may contribute to different cell shape and rigidity depending on substrate stiffness. We discuss methods to monitor myosin reorganization using non-linear imaging methods.

  19. Dynamics of myosin II organization into cortical contractile networks and fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Wei; Wei, Ming-Tzo; Ou-Yang, Daniel; Jedlicka, Sabrina; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2014-03-01

    The morphology of adhered cells critically depends on the formation of a contractile meshwork of parallel and cross-linked stress fibers along the contacting surface. The motor activity and mini-filament assembly of non-muscle myosin II is an important component of cell-level cytoskeletal remodeling during mechanosensing. To monitor the dynamics of myosin II, we used confocal microscopy to image cultured HeLa cells that stably express myosin regulatory light chain tagged with GFP (MRLC-GFP). MRLC-GFP was monitored in time-lapse movies at steady state and during the response of cells to varying concentrations of blebbistatin which disrupts actomyosin stress fibers. Using image correlation spectroscopy analysis, we quantified the kinetics of disassembly and reassembly of actomyosin networks and compared them to studies by other groups. This analysis suggested that the following processes contribute to the assembly of cortical actomyosin into fibers: random myosin mini-filament assembly and disassembly along the cortex; myosin mini-filament aligning and contraction; stabilization of cortical myosin upon increasing contractile tension. We developed simple numerical simulations that include those processes. The results of simulations of cells at steady state and in response to blebbistatin capture some of the main features observed in the experiments. This study provides a framework to help interpret how different cortical myosin remodeling kinetics may contribute to different cell shape and rigidity depending on substrate stiffness.

  20. Immunochemical analysis of C-protein isoform transitions during the development of chicken skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Obinata, T; Reinach, F C; Bader, D M; Masaki, T; Kitani, S; Fischman, D A

    1984-01-01

    Isoforms of C-protein in adult chickens which differ in fast (pectoralis major, PM) and slow (anterior latissimus dorsi, ALD) skeletal muscles can be distinguished immunochemically with monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) specific for the respective fast (MF-1) and slow (ALD-66) protein variants (Reinach et al., 1982 and 1983). The expression of these C-proteins during chick muscle development in vivo has been analyzed by immunoblot and immunofluorescence procedures. Neither MF-1 nor ALD-66 reacted with whole-cell lysates or myofibrils from PM of 12-day-old embryos. However, both McAbs bound to peptides of 145 kDa in PM from late embryonic and young posthatched chickens. All of the myofibers in these muscles reacted with both antibodies, but the binding of the anti-slow McAb (ALD-66) diminished progressively with age and was completely negative with PM by 2 weeks after hatching. In contrast, the ALD muscle from 17 days in ovo thru adulthood only reacted with ALD-66; no binding of MF-1 could be detected at these stages. Since both fast and slow myosin light chains (LC) coexist within embryonic pectoralis and ALD muscles (e.g., G. F. Gauthier, S. Lowey, P. A. Benfield, and A. W. Hobbs, 1982, J. Cell Biol. 92, 471-484) yet segregate to specific fast and slow muscle fibers at different stages of development, the temporal transitions of C-protein and myosin LC were compared during myogenesis. "Slow-type" C-protein appeared after the disappearance of slow myosin light chains, whereas the accumulation of the "fast-type" light chains occurred before the expression of "fast-type" C-protein. The pattern of isoform transitions appears to be far more complex than previously suspected. PMID:6141116

  1. Sex-Based Differences in Skeletal Muscle Kinetics and Fiber-Type Composition

    PubMed Central

    Haizlip, K. M.; Harrison, B. C.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have identified over 3,000 genes that are differentially expressed in male and female skeletal muscle. Here, we review the sex-based differences in skeletal muscle fiber composition, myosin heavy chain expression, contractile function, and the regulation of these physiological differences by thyroid hormone, estrogen, and testosterone. The findings presented lay the basis for the continued work needed to fully understand the skeletal muscle differences between males and females. PMID:25559153

  2. Electron microscopic recording of myosin head power stroke in hydrated myosin filaments

    PubMed Central

    Sugi, Haruo; Chaen, Shigeru; Akimoto, Tsuyoshi; Minoda, Hiroki; Miyakawa, Takuya; Miyauchi, Yumiko; Tanokura, Masaru; Sugiura, Seiryo

    2015-01-01

    Muscle contraction results from cyclic attachment and detachment between myosin heads and actin filaments, coupled with ATP hydrolysis. Despite extensive studies, however, the amplitude of myosin head power stroke still remains to be a mystery. Using the gas environmental chamber, we have succeeded in recording the power stroke of position-marked myosin heads in hydrated mixture of actin and myosin filaments in a nearly isometric condition, in which myosin heads do not produce gross myofilament sliding, but only stretch adjacent elastic structures. On application of ATP, individual myosin heads move by ~3.3 nm at the distal region, and by ~2.5 nm at the proximal region of myosin head catalytic domain. After exhaustion of applied ATP, individual myosin heads return towards their initial position. At low ionic strength, the amplitude of myosin head power stroke increases to >4 nm at both distal and proximal regions of myosin heads catalytic domain, being consistent with the report that the force generated by individual myosin heads in muscle fibers is enhanced at low ionic strength. The advantages of the present study over other in vitro motility assay systems, using myosin heads detached from myosin filaments, are discussed. PMID:26498981

  3. Response of slow and fast muscle to hypothyroidism: maximal shortening velocity and myosin isoforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caiozzo, V. J.; Herrick, R. E.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1992-01-01

    This study examined both the shortening velocity and myosin isoform distribution of slow- (soleus) and fast-twitch (plantaris) skeletal muscles under hypothyroid conditions. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups: control (n = 7) or hypothyroid (n = 7). In both muscles, the relative contents of native slow myosin (SM) and type I myosin heavy chain (MHC) increased in response to the hypothyroid treatment. The effects were such that the hypothyroid soleus muscle expressed only the native SM and type I MHC isoforms while repressing native intermediate myosin and type IIA MHC. In the plantaris, the relative content of native SM and type I MHC isoforms increased from 5 to 13% and from 4 to 10% of the total myosin pool, respectively. Maximal shortening velocity of the soleus and plantaris as measured by the slack test decreased by 32 and 19%, respectively, in response to hypothyroidism. In contrast, maximal shortening velocity as estimated by force-velocity data decreased only in the soleus (-19%). No significant change was observed for the plantaris.

  4. Skip residues modulate the structural properties of the myosin rod and guide thick filament assembly

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Keenan C.; Buvoli, Massimo; Korkmaz, Elif Nihal; Buvoli, Ada; Zheng, Yuqing; Heinze, Nathan T.; Cui, Qiang; Leinwand, Leslie A.; Rayment, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The rod of sarcomeric myosins directs thick filament assembly and is characterized by the insertion of four skip residues that introduce discontinuities in the coiled-coil heptad repeats. We report here that the regions surrounding the first three skip residues share high structural similarity despite their low sequence homology. Near each of these skip residues, the coiled-coil transitions to a nonclose-packed structure inducing local relaxation of the superhelical pitch. Moreover, molecular dynamics suggest that these distorted regions can assume different conformationally stable states. In contrast, the last skip residue region constitutes a true molecular hinge, providing C-terminal rod flexibility. Assembly of myosin with mutated skip residues in cardiomyocytes shows that the functional importance of each skip residue is associated with rod position and reveals the unique role of the molecular hinge in promoting myosin antiparallel packing. By defining the biophysical properties of the rod, the structures and molecular dynamic calculations presented here provide insight into thick filament formation, and highlight the structural differences occurring between the coiled-coils of myosin and the stereotypical tropomyosin. In addition to extending our knowledge into the conformational and biological properties of coiled-coil discontinuities, the molecular characterization of the four myosin skip residues also provides a guide to modeling the effects of rod mutations causing cardiac and skeletal myopathies. PMID:26150528

  5. Mouse Myosin-19 Is a Plus-end-directed, High-duty Ratio Molecular Motor*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zekuan; Ma, Xiao-Nan; Zhang, Hai-Man; Ji, Huan-Hong; Ding, Hao; Zhang, Jie; Luo, Dan; Sun, Yujie; Li, Xiang-dong

    2014-01-01

    Class XIX myosin (Myo19) is a vertebrate-specific unconventional myosin, responsible for the transport of mitochondria. To characterize biochemical properties of Myo19, we prepared recombinant mouse Myo19-truncated constructs containing the motor domain and the IQ motifs using the baculovirus/Sf9 expression system. We identified regulatory light chain (RLC) of smooth muscle/non-muscle myosin-2 as the light chain of Myo19. The actin-activated ATPase activity and the actin-gliding velocity of Myo19-truncated constructs were about one-third and one-sixth as those of myosin-5a, respectively. The apparent affinity of Myo19 to actin was about the same as that of myosin-5a. The RLCs bound to Myo19 could be phosphorylated by myosin light chain kinase, but this phosphorylation had little effect on the actin-activated ATPase activity and the actin-gliding activity of Myo19-truncated constructs. Using dual fluorescence-labeled actin filaments, we determined that Myo19 is a plus-end-directed molecular motor. We found that, similar to that of the high-duty ratio myosin, such as myosin-5a, ADP release rate was comparable with the maximal actin-activated ATPase activity of Myo19, indicating that ADP release is a rate-limiting step for the ATPase cycle of acto-Myo19. ADP strongly inhibited the actin-activated ATPase activity and actin-gliding activity of Myo19-truncated constructs. Based on the above results, we concluded that Myo19 is a high-duty ratio molecular motor moving to the plus-end of the actin filament. PMID:24825904

  6. Myosin V from Drosophila reveals diversity of motor mechanisms within the myosin V family.

    PubMed

    Tth, Judit; Kovcs, Mihly; Wang, Fei; Nyitray, Lszl; Sellers, James R

    2005-08-26

    Myosin V is the best characterized vesicle transporter in vertebrates, but it has been unknown as to whether all members of the myosin V family share a common, evolutionarily conserved mechanism of action. Here we show that myosin V from Drosophila has a strikingly different motor mechanism from that of vertebrate myosin Va, and it is a nonprocessive, ensemble motor. Our steady-state and transient kinetic measurements on single-headed constructs reveal that a single Drosophila myosin V molecule spends most of its mechanochemical cycle time detached from actin, therefore it has to function in processive units that comprise several molecules. Accordingly, in in vitro motility assays, double-headed Drosophila myosin V requires high surface concentrations to exhibit a continuous translocation of actin filaments. Our comparison between vertebrate and fly myosin V demonstrates that the well preserved function of myosin V motors in cytoplasmic transport can be accomplished by markedly different underlying mechanisms. PMID:15980429

  7. Molecular mechanism regulating myosin and cardiac functions by ELC.

    PubMed

    Lossie, Janine; Khncke, Clemens; Mahmoodzadeh, Shokoufeh; Steffen, Walter; Canepari, Monica; Maffei, Manuela; Taube, Martin; Larchevque, Oriane; Baumert, Philipp; Haase, Hannelore; Bottinelli, Roberto; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera; Morano, Ingo

    2014-07-18

    The essential myosin light chain (ELC) is involved in modulation of force generation of myosin motors and cardiac contraction, while its mechanism of action remains elusive. We hypothesized that ELC could modulate myosin stiffness which subsequently determines its force production and cardiac contraction. Therefore, we generated heterologous transgenic mouse (TgM) strains with cardiomyocyte-specific expression of ELC with human ventricular ELC (hVLC-1; TgM(hVLC-1)) or E56G-mutated hVLC-1 (hVLC-1(E56G); TgM(E56G)). hVLC-1 or hVLC-1(E56G) expression in TgM was around 39% and 41%, respectively of total VLC-1. Laser trap and in vitro motility assays showed that stiffness and actin sliding velocity of myosin with hVLC-1 prepared from TgM(hVLC-1) (1.67 pN/nm and 2.3 ?m/s, respectively) were significantly higher than myosin with hVLC-1(E56G) prepared from TgM(E56G) (1.25 pN/nm and 1.7 ?m/s, respectively) or myosin with mouse VLC-1 (mVLC-1) prepared from C57/BL6 (1.41 pN/nm and 1.5 ?m/s, respectively). Maximal left ventricular pressure development of isolated perfused hearts in vitro prepared from TgM(hVLC-1) (80.0 mmHg) were significantly higher than hearts from TgM(E56G) (66.2 mmHg) or C57/BL6 (59.33.9 mmHg). These findings show that ELCs decreased myosin stiffness, in vitro motility, and thereby cardiac functions in the order hVLC-1>hVLC-1(E56G)?mVLC-1. They also suggest a molecular pathomechanism of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy caused by hVLC-1 mutations. PMID:24911555

  8. Myosin lever arm directs collective motion on cellular actin network

    PubMed Central

    Hariadi, Rizal F.; Cale, Mario; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj

    2014-01-01

    The molecular motor myosin teams up to drive muscle contraction, membrane traffic, and cell division in biological cells. Myosin function in cells emerges from the interaction of multiple motors tethered to a scaffold, with surrounding actin filaments organized into 3D networks. Despite the importance of myosin function, the influence of intermotor interactions on collective motion remains poorly understood. In this study, we used precisely engineered myosin assemblies to examine emergence in collective myosin movement. We report that tethering multiple myosin VI motors, but not myosin V motors, modifies their movement trajectories on keratocyte actin networks. Single myosin V and VI dimers display similar skewed trajectories, albeit in opposite directions, when traversing the keratocyte actin network. In contrast, tethering myosin VI motors, but not myosin V motors, progressively straightens the trajectories with increasing myosin number. Trajectory shape of multimotor scaffolds positively correlates with the stiffness of the myosin lever arm. Swapping the flexible myosin VI lever arm for the relatively rigid myosin V lever increases trajectory skewness, and vice versa. A simplified model of coupled motor movement demonstrates that the differences in flexural rigidity of the two myosin lever arms is sufficient to account for the differences in observed behavior of groups of myosin V and VI motors. In accordance with this model trajectory, shapes for scaffolds containing both myosin V and VI are dominated by the myosin with a stiffer lever arm. Our findings suggest that structural features unique to each myosin type may confer selective advantages in cellular functions. PMID:24591646

  9. Myosin II transport, organization, and phosphorylation: evidence for cortical flow/solation-contraction coupling during cytokinesis and cell locomotion.

    PubMed Central

    DeBiasio, R L; LaRocca, G M; Post, P L; Taylor, D L

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism of cytokinesis has been difficult to define because of the short duration and the temporal-spatial dynamics involved in the formation, activation, force production, and disappearance of the cleavage furrow. We have investigated the structural and chemical dynamics of myosin II in living Swiss 3T3 cells from prometaphase through the separation and migration of daughter cells. The structural and chemical dynamics of myosin II have been defined using the semiautomated, multimode light microscope, together with a fluorescent analogue of myosin II and a fluorescent biosensor of myosin II regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphorylation at serine 19. The correlation of image data from live cells using different modes of light microscopy allowed interpretations not possible from single-mode investigations. Myosin II transported toward the equatorial plane from adjacent regions, forming three-dimensional fibers that spanned the volume of the equator during anaphase and telophase. A global phosphorylation of myosin II at serine 19 of the RLC was initiated at anaphase when cortical myosin II transport started. The phosphorylation of myosin II remained high near the equatorial plane through telophase and into cytokinesis, whereas the phosphorylation of myosin II at serine 19 of the RLC decreased at the poles. The timing and pattern of phosphorylation was the same as the shortening of myosin II-based fibers in the cleavage furrow. Myosin II-based fibers shortened and transported out of the cleavage furrow into the tails of the two daughter cells late in cytokinesis. The patterns of myosin II transport, phosphorylation, and shortening of fibers in the migrating daughter cells were similar to that previously defined for cells migrating in a wound in vitro. The temporal-spatial patterns and dynamics of myosin II transport, phosphorylation at serine 19 of the RLC, and the shortening and disappearance of myosin II-based fibers support the proposal that a combination of the cortical flow hypothesis and the solation-contraction coupling hypothesis explain key aspects of cytokinesis and polarized cell locomotion. Images PMID:8856669

  10. Coupled expression of troponin T and troponin I isoforms in single skeletal muscle fibers correlates with contractility

    PubMed Central

    BROTTO, MARCO A.; BIESIADECKI, BRANDON J.; BROTTO, LETICIA S.; NOSEK, THOMAS M; JIN, J.-P.

    2005-01-01

    (Summary) Brotto, Marco A., Brandon J. Biesiadecki, Leticia S. Brotto, Thomas M. Nosek, and J.-P. Jin. Striated muscle contraction is powered by actin-activated myosin ATPase. This process is regulated by Ca2+ via the troponin complex. Slow and fast twitch fibers of vertebrate skeletal muscle express type I and type II myosin, respectively, and these myosin isoenzymes confer different ATPase activities, contractile velocities and force. Skeletal muscle troponin has also diverged into fast and slow isoforms, but their functional significance is not fully understood. To investigate the expression of troponin isoforms in mammalian skeletal muscle and their functional relationship to that of the myosin isoforms, we concomitantly studied myosin and troponin T (TnT) and troponin I (TnI) isoform contents and isometric contractile properties in single fibers of rat skeletal muscle. We characterized a large number of Triton skinned single fibers from soleus, diaphragm, gastrocnemius and extensor digitorum longus muscles and selected fibers with combinations of a single myosin isoform and a single class (slow or fast) of TnT and TnI isoform to investigate their role in determining contractility. Type IIa, IIx and IIb myosin fibers produced higher isometric force than that of type I fibers. Despite the polyploidy of adult skeletal muscle fibers, the expression of fast or slow isoforms of TnT and TnI is tightly coupled. Fibers containing slow troponin had higher Ca2+ sensitivity than that of the fast troponin fibers, while fibers containing fast troponin showed a higher cooperativity of Ca2+ activation than that of the slow troponin fibers. The results demonstrate distinctive, but coordinated, regulation of troponin and myosin isoform expression in skeletal muscle and their contribution to the contractile properties. PMID:16192301

  11. Evaluation of Acanthamoeba Myosin-IC as a Potential Therapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Reyes-Batlle, María; Piñero, José E.; Valladares, Basilio; Maciver, Sutherland K.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are facultative pathogens of humans, causing a sight-threatening keratitis and a fatal encephalitis. We have targeted myosin-IC by using small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing as a therapeutic approach, since it is known that the function of this protein is vital for the amoeba. In this work, specific siRNAs against the Acanthamoeba myosin-IC gene were developed. Treated and control amoebae were cultured in growth and encystment media to evaluate the induced effects after myosin-IC gene knockdown, as we have anticipated that cyst formation may be impaired. The effects of myosin-IC gene silencing were inhibition of cyst formation, inhibition of completion of cytokinesis, inhibition of osmoregulation under osmotic stress conditions, and death of the amoebae. The finding that myosin-IC silencing caused incompletion of cytokinesis is in agreement with earlier suggestions that the protein plays a role in cell locomotion, which is necessary to pull daughter cells apart after mitosis in a process known as “traction-mediated cytokinesis”. We conclude that myosin-IC is a very promising potential drug target for the development of much-needed antiamoebal drugs and that it should be further exploited for Acanthamoeba therapy. PMID:24468784

  12. Temperature effect on the chemomechanical regulation of substeps within the power stroke of a single Myosin II

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chenling; Chen, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Myosin IIs in the skeletal muscle are highly efficient nanoscale machines evolved in nature. Understanding how they function can not only bring insights into various biological processes but also provide guidelines to engineer synthetic nanoscale motors working in the vicinity of thermal noise. Though it was clearly demonstrated that the behavior of a skeletal muscle fiber, or that of a single myosin was strongly affected by the temperature, how exactly the temperature affects the kinetics of a single myosin is not fully understood. By adapting the newly developed transitional state model, which successfully explained the intriguing motor force regulation during skeletal muscle contraction, here we systematically explain how exactly the power stroke of a single myosin proceeds, with the consideration of the chemomechanical regulation of sub-steps within the stroke. The adapted theory is then utilized to investigate the temperature effect on various aspects of the power stroke. Our analysis suggests that, though swing rates, the isometric force, and the maximal stroke size all strongly vary with the temperature, the temperature can have a very small effect on the releasable elastic energy within the power stroke. PMID:26786569

  13. Temperature effect on the chemomechanical regulation of substeps within the power stroke of a single Myosin II.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chenling; Chen, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Myosin IIs in the skeletal muscle are highly efficient nanoscale machines evolved in nature. Understanding how they function can not only bring insights into various biological processes but also provide guidelines to engineer synthetic nanoscale motors working in the vicinity of thermal noise. Though it was clearly demonstrated that the behavior of a skeletal muscle fiber, or that of a single myosin was strongly affected by the temperature, how exactly the temperature affects the kinetics of a single myosin is not fully understood. By adapting the newly developed transitional state model, which successfully explained the intriguing motor force regulation during skeletal muscle contraction, here we systematically explain how exactly the power stroke of a single myosin proceeds, with the consideration of the chemomechanical regulation of sub-steps within the stroke. The adapted theory is then utilized to investigate the temperature effect on various aspects of the power stroke. Our analysis suggests that, though swing rates, the isometric force, and the maximal stroke size all strongly vary with the temperature, the temperature can have a very small effect on the releasable elastic energy within the power stroke. PMID:26786569

  14. Structural basis of the relaxed state of a Ca2+-regulated myosin filament and its evolutionary implications

    PubMed Central

    Woodhead, John L.; Zhao, Fa-Qing; Craig, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Myosin filaments of muscle are regulated either by phosphorylation of their regulatory light chains or Ca2+ binding to the essential light chains, contributing to onoff switching or modulation of contraction. Phosphorylation-regulated filaments in the relaxed state are characterized by an asymmetric interaction between the two myosin heads, inhibiting their actin binding or ATPase activity. Here, we have tested whether a similar interaction switches off activity in myosin filaments regulated by Ca2+ binding. Cryo-electron microscopy and single-particle image reconstruction of Ca2+-regulated (scallop) filaments reveals a helical array of myosin head-pair motifs above the filament surface. Docking of atomic models of scallop myosin head domains into the motifs reveals that the heads interact in a similar way to those in phosphorylation-regulated filaments. The results imply that the two major evolutionary branches of myosin regulationinvolving phosphorylation or Ca2+ bindingshare a common structural mechanism for switching off thick-filament activity in relaxed muscle. We suggest that the Ca2+-binding mechanism evolved from the more ancient phosphorylation-based system to enable rapid response of myosin-regulated muscles to activation. Although the motifs are similar in both systems, the scallop structure is more tilted and higher above the filament backbone, leading to different intermolecular interactions. The reconstruction reveals how the myosin tail emerges from the motif, connecting the heads to the filament backbone, and shows that the backbone is built from supramolecular assemblies of myosin tails. The reconstruction provides a native structural context for understanding past biochemical and biophysical studies of this model Ca2+-regulated myosin. PMID:23650385

  15. Catch-slip bonds can be dispensable for motor force regulation during skeletal muscle contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chenling; Chen, Bin

    2015-07-01

    It is intriguing how multiple molecular motors can perform coordinated and synchronous functions, which is essential in various cellular processes. Recent studies on skeletal muscle might have shed light on this issue, where rather precise motor force regulation was partly attributed to the specific stochastic features of a single attached myosin motor. Though attached motors can randomly detach from actin filaments either through an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis cycle or through "catch-slip bond" breaking, their respective contribution in motor force regulation has not been clarified. Here, through simulating a mechanical model of sarcomere with a coupled Monte Carlo method and finite element method, we find that the stochastic features of an ATP hydrolysis cycle can be sufficient while those of catch-slip bonds can be dispensable for motor force regulation.

  16. Role of the lever arm in the processive stepping of myosin V

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Thomas J.; Morris, Carl; Spudich, James A.; Sweeney, H. Lee

    2002-01-01

    Myosin V is a two-headed molecular motor that binds six light chains per heavy chain, which creates unusually long lever arms. This motor moves processively along its actin track in discrete 36-nm steps. Our model is that one head of the two-headed myosin V tightly binds to actin and swings its long lever arm through a large angle, providing a stroke. We created single-headed constructs with different-size lever arms and show that stroke size is proportional to lever arm length. In a two-headed molecule, the stroke provides the directional bias, after which the unbound head diffuses to find its binding site, 36 nm forward. Our two-headed construct with all six light chains per head reconstitutes the 36-nm processive step seen in tissue-purified myosin V. Two-headed myosin V molecules with only four light chains per head are still processive, but their step size is reduced to 24 nm. A further reduction in the length of the lever arms to one light chain per head results in a motor that is unable to walk processively. This motor produces single small ?6-nm strokes, and ATPase and pyrene actin quench measurements show that only one of the heads of this dimer rapidly binds to actin for a given binding event. These data show that for myosin V with its normal proximal tail domain, both heads and a long lever arm are required for large, processive steps. PMID:12386339

  17. Myosin II Dynamics during Embryo Morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasza, Karen

    2013-03-01

    During embryonic morphogenesis, the myosin II motor protein generates forces that help to shape tissues, organs, and the overall body form. In one dramatic example in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo, the epithelial tissue that will give rise to the body of the adult animal elongates more than two-fold along the head-to-tail axis in less than an hour. This elongation is accomplished primarily through directional rearrangements of cells within the plane of the tissue. Just prior to elongation, polarized assemblies of myosin II accumulate perpendicular to the elongation axis. The contractile forces generated by myosin activity orient cell movements along a common axis, promoting local cell rearrangements that contribute to global tissue elongation. The molecular and mechanical mechanisms by which myosin drives this massive change in embryo shape are poorly understood. To investigate these mechanisms, we generated a collection of transgenic flies expressing variants of myosin II with altered motor function and regulation. We found that variants that are predicted to have increased myosin activity cause defects in tissue elongation. Using biophysical approaches, we found that these myosin variants also have decreased turnover dynamics within cells. To explore the mechanisms by which molecular-level myosin dynamics are translated into tissue-level elongation, we are using time-lapse confocal imaging to observe cell movements in embryos with altered myosin activity. We are utilizing computational approaches to quantify the dynamics and directionality of myosin localization and cell rearrangements. These studies will help elucidate how myosin-generated forces control cell movements within tissues. This work is in collaboration with J. Zallen at the Sloan-Kettering Institute.

  18. The Myosin Super-Relaxed State is Disrupted by Estradiol Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Colson, Brett A.; Petersen, Karl J.; Collins, Brittany C.; Lowe, Dawn A.; Thomas, David D.

    2014-01-01

    We have used quantitative epifluorescence microscopy of fluorescent ATP to measure single-nucleotide turnover in skinned skeletal muscle fibers from mouse models of female aging and hormone treatment. Aging causes declines in muscle strength, often leading to frailty, disability, and loss of independence for the elderly. Female muscle is additionally affected by age due to reduction of ovarian hormone production with menopause. Estradiol (E2) is the key hormonal signal to skeletal muscle in females, and strength loss is attenuated by E2 treatment. To investigate E2 mechanisms on skeletal muscle, single fibers were isolated from sham-operated or ovariectomized (OVX) mice, with or without E2 treatment, and were incubated with mantATP. We measured decay of mantATP fluorescence in an ATP-chase experiment, as pioneered by Cooke and coworkers, who unveiled a novel regulated state of muscle myosin characterized by slow nucleotide turnover on the order of minutes, termed the super-relaxed state (SRX). We detected a slow phase of nucleotide turnover in approximately one-third of the myosin heads from sham fibers, consistent with SRX. Turnover was substantially faster in OVX fibers, with a turnover time constant for the slow phase of 65 8 s as compared to 102 7 s for sham fibers. 60-day E2 treatment in OVX mice substantially reversed this effect on SRX, while acute exposure of isolated muscles from OVX mice to E2 had no effect. We conclude that E2-mediated signaling reversibly regulates slow ATP turnover by myosin. Age- and hormone-related muscle functional losses may be targetable at the level of myosin structure/function for strategies to offset weakness and metabolic changes that occur with age. PMID:25446114

  19. The myosin super-relaxed state is disrupted by estradiol deficiency.

    PubMed

    Colson, Brett A; Petersen, Karl J; Collins, Brittany C; Lowe, Dawn A; Thomas, David D

    2015-01-01

    We have used quantitative epifluorescence microscopy of fluorescent ATP to measure single-nucleotide turnover in skinned skeletal muscle fibers from mouse models of female aging and hormone treatment. Aging causes declines in muscle strength, often leading to frailty, disability, and loss of independence for the elderly. Female muscle is additionally affected by age due to reduction of ovarian hormone production with menopause. Estradiol (E2) is the key hormonal signal to skeletal muscle in females, and strength loss is attenuated by E2 treatment. To investigate E2 mechanisms on skeletal muscle, single fibers were isolated from sham-operated or ovariectomized (OVX) mice, with or without E2 treatment, and were incubated with 2'-(or-3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl) adenosine 5'-triphosphate (mantATP). We measured decay of mantATP fluorescence in an ATP-chase experiment, as pioneered by Cooke and coworkers, who unveiled a novel regulated state of muscle myosin characterized by slow nucleotide turnover on the order of minutes, termed the super-relaxed state (SRX). We detected a slow phase of nucleotide turnover in a portion of the myosin heads from sham fibers, consistent with SRX. Turnover was substantially faster in OVX fibers, with a turnover time constant for the slow phase of 65 8s as compared to 102 7s for sham fibers. 60-days E2 treatment in OVX mice substantially reversed this effect on SRX, while acute exposure of isolated muscles from OVX mice to E2 had no effect. We conclude that E2-mediated signaling reversibly regulates slow ATP turnover by myosin. Age- and hormone-related muscle functional losses may be targetable at the level of myosin structure/function for strategies to offset weakness and metabolic changes that occur with age. PMID:25446114

  20. P-cadherin counteracts myosin II-B function: implications in melanoma progression

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malignant transformation of melanocytes is frequently attended by a switch in cadherin expression profile as shown for E- and N-cadherin. For P-cadherin, downregulation in metastasizing melanoma has been demonstrated, and over-expression of P-cadherin in melanoma cell lines has been shown to inhibit invasion. The strong invasive and metastatic nature of cutaneous melanoma implies a deregulated interplay between intercellular adhesion and migration-related molecules Results In this study we performed a microarray analysis to compare the mRNA expression profile of an invasive BLM melanoma cell line (BLM LIE) and the non-invasive P-cadherin over-expression variant (BLM P-cad). Results indicate that nonmuscle myosin II-B is downregulated in BLM P-cad. Moreover, myosin II-B plays a major role in melanoma migration and invasiveness by retracting the tail during the migratory cycle, as shown by the localization of myosin II-B stress fibers relative to Golgi and the higher levels of phosphorylated myosin light chain. Analysis of P-cadherin and myosin II-B in nodular melanoma sections and in a panel of melanoma cell lines further confirmed that there is an inverse relationship between both molecules. Conclusions Therefore, we conclude that P-cadherin counteracts the expression and function of myosin II-B, resulting in the suppression of the invasive and migratory behaviour of BLM melanoma cells PMID:20860798

  1. Calcium-induced mechanical change in the neck domain alters the activity of plant myosin XI.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Motoki; Kojima, Hiroaki; Yokota, Etsuo; Nakamori, Rinna; Anson, Michael; Shimmen, Teruo; Oiwa, Kazuhiro

    2012-08-31

    Plant myosin XI functions as a motor that generates cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells. Although cytoplasmic streaming is known to be regulated by intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, the molecular mechanism underlying this control is not fully understood. Here, we investigated the mechanism of regulation of myosin XI by Ca(2+) at the molecular level. Actin filaments were easily detached from myosin XI in an in vitro motility assay at high Ca(2+) concentration (pCa 4) concomitant with the detachment of calmodulin light chains from the neck domains. Electron microscopic observations showed that myosin XI at pCa 4 shortened the neck domain by 30%. Single-molecule analysis revealed that the step size of myosin XI at pCa 4 was shortened to 27 nm under low load and to 22 nm under high load compared with 35 nm independent of the load for intact myosin XI. These results indicate that modulation of the mechanical properties of the neck domain is a key factor for achieving the Ca(2+)-induced regulation of cytoplasmic streaming. PMID:22740687

  2. Regulation of the actin-myosin interaction by titin.

    PubMed

    Niederlnder, Nicolas; Raynaud, Fabrice; Astier, Catherine; Chaussepied, Patrick

    2004-11-01

    Titin is known to interact with actin thin filaments within the I-band region of striated muscle sarcomeres. In this study, we have used a titin fragment of 800 kDa (T800) purified from striated skeletal muscle to measure the effect of this interaction on the functional properties of the actin-myosin complex. MALDI-TOF MS revealed that T800 contains the entire titin PEVK (Pro, Glu, Val, Lys-rich) domain. In the presence of tropomyosin-troponin, T800 increased the sliding velocity (both average and maximum values) of actin filaments on heavy-meromyosin (HMM)-coated surfaces and dramatically decreased the number of stationary filaments. These results were correlated with a 30% reduction in actin-activated HMM ATPase activity and with an inhibition of HMM binding to actin N-terminal residues as shown by chemical cross-linking. At the same time, T800 did not affect the efficiency of the Ca(2+)-controlled on/off switch, nor did it alter the overall binding energetics of HMM to actin, as revealed by cosedimentation experiments. These data are consistent with a competitive effect of PEVK domain-containing T800 on the electrostatic contacts at the actin-HMM interface. They also suggest that titin may participate in the regulation of the active tension generated by the actin-myosin complex. PMID:15560799

  3. The non-linear elasticity of the muscle sarcomere and the compliance of myosin motors

    PubMed Central

    Fusi, Luca; Brunello, Elisabetta; Reconditi, Massimo; Piazzesi, Gabriella; Lombardi, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Force in striated muscle is due to attachment of the heads of the myosin, the molecular motors extending from the myosin filament, to the actin filament in each half-sarcomere, the functional unit where myosin motors act in parallel. Mechanical and X-ray structural evidence indicates that at the plateau of isometric contraction (force T0), less than half of the elastic strain of the half-sarcomere is due to the strain in the array of myosin motors (s), with the remainder being accounted for by the compliance of filaments acting as linear elastic elements in series with the motor array. Early during the development of isometric force, however, the half-sarcomere compliance has been found to be less than that expected from the linear elastic model assumed above, and this non-linearity may affect the estimate of s. This question is investigated here by applying nanometremicrosecond-resolution mechanics to single intact fibres from frog skeletal muscle at 4C, to record the mechanical properties of the half-sarcomere throughout the development of force in isometric contraction. The results are interpreted with mechanical models to estimate the compliance of the myosin motors. Our conclusions are as follows: (i)?early during the development of an isometric tetanus, an elastic element is present in parallel with the myosin motors, with a compliance of ?200?nm?MPa?1 (?20?times larger than the compliance of the motor array at T0); and (ii)?during isometric contraction, s is 1.66??0.05?nm, which is not significantly different from the value estimated with the linear elastic model. PMID:24344166

  4. The myosin converter domain modulates muscle performance.

    PubMed

    Swank, Douglas M; Knowles, Aileen F; Suggs, Jennifer A; Sarsoza, Floyd; Lee, Annie; Maughan, David W; Bernstein, Sanford I

    2002-04-01

    Myosin is the molecular motor that powers muscle contraction as a result of conformational changes during its mechanochemical cycle. We demonstrate that the converter, a compact structural domain that differs in sequence between Drosophila melanogaster myosin isoforms, dramatically influences the kinetic properties of myosin and muscle fibres. Transgenic replacement of the converter in the fast indirect flight muscle with the converter from an embryonic muscle slowed muscle kinetics, forcing a compensatory reduction in wing beat frequency to sustain flight. Conversely, replacing the embryonic converter with the flight muscle converter sped up muscle kinetics and increased maximum power twofold, compared to flight muscles expressing the embryonic myosin isoform. The substitutions also dramatically influenced in vitro actin sliding velocity, suggesting that the converter modulates a rate-limiting step preceding cross-bridge detachment. Our integrative analysis demonstrates that isoform-specific differences in the myosin converter allow different muscle types to meet their specific locomotion demands. PMID:11901423

  5. Three-dimensional structural dynamics of myosin V by single-molecule fluorescence polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forkey, Joseph N.; Quinlan, Margot E.; Alexander Shaw, M.; Corrie, John E. T.; Goldman, Yale E.

    2003-03-01

    The structural change that generates force and motion in actomyosin motility has been proposed to be tilting of the myosin light chain domain, which serves as a lever arm. Several experimental approaches have provided support for the lever arm hypothesis; however, the extent and timing of tilting motions are not well defined in the motor protein complex of functioning actomyosin. Here we report three-dimensional measurements of the structural dynamics of the light chain domain of brain myosin V using a single-molecule fluorescence polarization technique that determines the orientation of individual protein domains with 20-40-ms time resolution. Single fluorescent calmodulin light chains tilted back and forth between two well-defined angles as the myosin molecule processively translocated along actin. The results provide evidence for lever arm rotation of the calmodulin-binding domain in myosin V, and support a `hand-over-hand' mechanism for the translocation of double-headed myosin V molecules along actin filaments. The technique is applicable to the study of real-time structural changes in other biological systems.

  6. Unc45b Forms a Cytosolic Complex with Hsp90 and Targets the Unfolded Myosin Motor Domain

    PubMed Central

    Srikakulam, Rajani; Liu, Li; Winkelmann, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Myosin folding and assembly in striated muscle is mediated by the general chaperones Hsc70 and Hsp90 and a myosin specific co-chaperone, UNC45. Two UNC45 genes are found in vertebrates, including a striated muscle specific form, Unc45b. We have investigated the role of Unc45b in myosin folding. Epitope tagged murine Unc45b (Unc45bFlag) was expressed in muscle and non-muscle cells and bacteria, isolated and characterized. The protein is a soluble monomer in solution with a compact folded rod-shaped structure of ?19 nm length by electron microscopy. When over-expressed in striated muscle cells, Unc45bFlag fractionates as a cytosolic protein and isolates as a stable complex with Hsp90. Purified Unc45bFlag re-binds Hsp90 and forms a stable complex in solution. The endogenous Unc45b in muscle cell lysates is also found associated with Hsp90. The Unc45bFlag/Hsp90 complex binds the partially folded myosin motor domain when incubated with myosin subfragments synthesized in a reticulocyte lysate. This binding is independent of the myosin rod or light chains. Unc45bFlag does not bind native myosin subfragments consistent with a chaperone function. More importantly, Unc45bFlag enhances myosin motor domain folding during de novo motor domain synthesis indicating that it has a direct role in myosin maturation. Thus, mammalian Unc45b is a cytosolic protein that forms a stable complex with Hsp90, selectively binds the unfolded conformation of the myosin motor domain, and promotes motor domain folding. PMID:18478096

  7. Cross-reactivity of termite myosin; a potential allergen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Myosin and myosin isoforms are common food allergens in crustaceans; such as, shrimp, lobster, and crab. Allergy to Shellfish is a prevalent and potentially long lasting disorder that can severely affect health and quality of life. Myosin and myosin isoforms of dust mites and cockroaches are simil...

  8. Structural studies of myosin:nucleotide complexes: a revised model for the molecular basis of muscle contraction.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, A J; Smith, C A; Thoden, J; Smith, R; Sutoh, K; Holden, H M; Rayment, I

    1995-01-01

    The structures of the MgADP-beryllium fluoride and MgADP-aluminum fluoride complexes of the truncated myosin head from Dictyostelium myosin II are reported. These reveal the location of the nucleotide complex and define the amino acid residues that form the active site. The tertiary structure of the beryllium fluoride complex is essentially identical to that seen previously in the three-dimensional structure of chicken skeletal muscle myosin. By contrast, significant domain movements are observed in the aluminum fluoride complex. These structural findings form the basis of a revised model for the structural basis of the contractile cycle. It is now suggested that the narrow cleft that splits the central 50-kDa segment of the heavy chain provides not only the communication route between the nucleotide-binding pocket and actin but also transmits the conformational change necessary for movement. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:7787065

  9. Myosin II Activity Softens Cells in Suspension.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chii J; Ekpenyong, Andrew E; Golfier, Stefan; Li, Wenhong; Chalut, Kevin J; Otto, Oliver; Elgeti, Jens; Guck, Jochen; Lautenschlger, Franziska

    2015-04-21

    The cellular cytoskeleton is crucial for many cellular functions such as cell motility and wound healing, as well as other processes that require shape change or force generation. Actin is one cytoskeleton component that regulates cell mechanics. Important properties driving this regulation include the amount of actin, its level of cross-linking, and its coordination with the activity of specific molecular motors like myosin. While studies investigating the contribution of myosin activity to cell mechanics have been performed on cells attached to a substrate, we investigated mechanical properties of cells in suspension. To do this, we used multiple probes for cell mechanics including a microfluidic optical stretcher, a microfluidic microcirculation mimetic, and real-time deformability cytometry. We found that nonadherent blood cells, cells arrested in mitosis, and naturally adherent cells brought into suspension, stiffen and become more solidlike upon myosin inhibition across multiple timescales (milliseconds to minutes). Our results hold across several pharmacological and genetic perturbations targeting myosin. Our findings suggest that myosin II activity contributes to increased whole-cell compliance and fluidity. This finding is contrary to what has been reported for cells attached to a substrate, which stiffen via active myosin driven prestress. Our results establish the importance of myosin II as an active component in modulating suspended cell mechanics, with a functional role distinctly different from that for substrate-adhered cells. PMID:25902426

  10. Phototherapy in skeletal muscle performance and recovery after exercise: effect of combination of super-pulsed laser and light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Antonialli, Fernanda Colella; De Marchi, Thiago; Tomazoni, Shaiane Silva; Vanin, Adriane Aver; dos Santos Grandinetti, Vanessa; de Paiva, Paulo Roberto Vicente; Pinto, Henrique Dantas; Miranda, Eduardo Foschini; de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho, Paulo; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies with phototherapy have shown positive results in enhancement of performance and improvement of recovery when applied before exercise. However, several factors still remain unknown such as therapeutic windows, optimal treatment parameters, and effects of combination of different light sources (laser and LEDs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of phototherapy with the combination of different light sources on skeletal muscle performance and post-exercise recovery, and to establish the optimal energy dose. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial with participation of 40 male healthy untrained volunteers was performed. A single phototherapy intervention was performed immediately after pre-exercise (baseline) maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) with a cluster of 12 diodes (4 of 905nm lasers-0.3125mW each, 4 of 875nm LEDs-17.5mW each, and 4 of 670nm LEDs-15mW each- manufactured by Multi Radiance Medical) and dose of 10, 30, and 50J or placebo in six sites of quadriceps. MVC, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and creatine kinase (CK) activity were analyzed. Assessments were performed before, 1min, 1, 24, 48, 72, and 96h after eccentric exercise protocol employed to induce fatigue. Phototherapy increased (p?skeletal muscle damage. PMID:24942380

  11. Skeletal muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  12. Ca2+ sensitivity of regulated cardiac thin filament sliding does not depend on myosin isoform

    PubMed Central

    Schoffstall, Brenda; Brunet, Nicolas M; Williams, Shanedah; Miller, Victor F; Barnes, Alyson T; Wang, Fang; Compton, Lisa A; McFadden, Lori A; Taylor, Dianne W; Seavy, Margaret; Dhanarajan, Rani; Chase, P Bryant

    2006-01-01

    Myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms in vertebrate striated muscles are distinguished functionally by differences in chemomechanical kinetics. These kinetic differences may influence the cross-bridge-dependent co-operativity of thin filament Ca2+ activation. To determine whether Ca2+ sensitivity of unloaded thin filament sliding depends upon MHC isoform kinetics, we performed in vitro motility assays with rabbit skeletal heavy meromyosin (rsHMM) or porcine cardiac myosin (pcMyosin). Regulated thin filaments were reconstituted with recombinant human cardiac troponin (rhcTn) and α-tropomyosin (rhcTm) expressed in Escherichia coli. All three subunits of rhcTn were coexpressed as a functional complex using a novel construct with a glutathione S-transferase (GST) affinity tag at the N-terminus of human cardiac troponin T (hcTnT) and an intervening tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease site that allows purification of rhcTn without denaturation, and removal of the GST tag without proteolysis of rhcTn subunits. Use of this highly purified rhcTn in our motility studies resulted in a clear definition of the regulated motility profile for both fast and slow MHC isoforms. Maximum sliding speed (pCa 5) of regulated thin filaments was roughly fivefold faster with rsHMM compared with pcMyosin, although speed was increased by 1.6- to 1.9-fold for regulated over unregulated actin with both MHC isoforms. The Ca2+ sensitivity of regulated thin filament sliding speed was unaffected by MHC isoform. Our motility results suggest that the cellular changes in isoform expression that result in regulation of myosin kinetics can occur independently of changes that influence thin filament Ca2+ sensitivity. PMID:17008370

  13. UCS proteins: chaperones for myosin and co-chaperones for Hsp90.

    PubMed

    Ni, Weiming; Odunuga, Odutayo O

    2015-01-01

    The UCS (UNC-45/CRO1/She4p) family of proteins has emerged as chaperones that are specific for the folding, assembly and function of myosin. These proteins participate in various important myosin-dependent cellular processes that include myofibril organization and muscle functions, cell differentiation, cardiac and skeletal muscle development, cytokinesis and endocytosis. Mutations in the genes that code for UCS proteins cause serious defects in these actomyosin-based processes. Homologs of UCS proteins can be broadly divided into (1) animal UCS proteins, generally known as UNC-45 proteins, which contain an N-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain in addition to the canonical UCS domain, and (2) fungal UCS proteins, which lack the TPR domain. Structurally, except for TPR domain, both sub-classes of UCS proteins comprise of several irregular armadillo (ARM) repeats that are divided into two-domain architecture: a combined central-neck domain and a C-terminal UCS domain. Structural analyses suggest that UNC-45 proteins form elongated oligomers that serve as scaffolds to recruit Hsp90 and/or Hsp70 to form a multi-protein chaperoning complex that assists myosin heads to fold and simultaneously organize them into myofibrils. Similarly, fungal UCS proteins may dimerize to promote folding of non-muscle myosins as well as determine their step size along actin filaments. These findings confirm UCS proteins as a new class of myosin-specific chaperones and co-chaperones for Hsp90. This chapter reviews the implications of the outcome of studies on these proteins in cellular processes such as muscle formation, and disease states such as myopathies and cancer. PMID:25487020

  14. Atg1-mediated myosin II activation regulates autophagosome formation during starvation-induced autophagy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hong-Wen; Wang, Yu-Bao; Wang, Shiu-Lan; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Lin, Shu-Yu; Chen, Guang-Chao

    2011-02-16

    Autophagy is a membrane-mediated degradation process of macromolecule recycling. Although the formation of double-membrane degradation vesicles (autophagosomes) is known to have a central role in autophagy, the mechanism underlying this process remains elusive. The serine/threonine kinase Atg1 has a key role in the induction of autophagy. In this study, we show that overexpression of Drosophila Atg1 promotes the phosphorylation-dependent activation of the actin-associated motor protein myosin II. A novel myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)-like protein, Spaghetti-squash activator (Sqa), was identified as a link between Atg1 and actomyosin activation. Sqa interacts with Atg1 through its kinase domain and is a substrate of Atg1. Significantly, myosin II inhibition or depletion of Sqa compromised the formation of autophagosomes under starvation conditions. In mammalian cells, we found that the Sqa mammalian homologue zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK) and myosin II had a critical role in the regulation of starvation-induced autophagy and mammalian Atg9 (mAtg9) trafficking when cells were deprived of nutrients. Our findings provide evidence of a link between Atg1 and the control of Atg9-mediated autophagosome formation through the myosin II motor protein. PMID:21169990

  15. Characterization of human cardiac myosin heavy chain genes

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi-Takihara, K.; Sole, M.J.; Liew, J.; Ing, D.; Liew, C.C. )

    1989-05-01

    The authors have isolated and analyzed the structure of the genes coding for the {alpha} and {beta} forms of the human cardiac myosin heavy chain (MYHC). Detailed analysis of four overlapping MYHC genomic clones shows that the {alpha}-MYHC and {beta}-MYHC genes constitute a total length of 51 kilobases and are tandemly linked. The {beta}-MYHC-encoding gene, predominantly expressed in the normal human ventricle and also in slow-twitch skeletal muscle, is located 4.5 kilobases upstream of the {alpha}-MYHC-encoding gene, which is predominantly expressed in normal human atrium. The authors have determined the nucleotide sequences of the {beta} form of the MYHC gene, which is 100% homologous to the cardiac MYHC cDNA clone (pHMC3). It is unlikely that the divergence of a few nucleotide sequences from the cardiac {beta}-MYHC cDNA clone (pHMC3) reported in a MYHC cDNA clone (PSMHCZ) from skeletal muscle is due to a splicing mechanism. This finding suggests that the same {beta} form of the cardiac MYHC gene is expressed in both ventricular and slow-twitch skeletal muscle. The promoter regions of both {alpha}- and {beta}-MYHC genes, as well as the first four coding regions in the respective genes, have also been sequenced. The sequences in the 5{prime}-flanking region of the {alpha}- and {beta}-MYHC-encoding genes diverge extensively from one another, suggesting that expression of the {alpha}- and {beta}-MYHC genes is independently regulated.

  16. Partial purification of two myosin heavy chain kinases from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Kuczmarski, E R

    1986-12-01

    Myosin heavy chain kinase activity was identified in the high speed supernate of lysed Dictyostelium amoebae and was precipitated by 30-50% ammonium sulphate. In low ionic strength buffer, the activity bound tightly to a Cibacron Blue Sepharose column and eluted as a single peak with 1.0 M NaCl. Gel filtration chromatography resolved the kinase into two activities, each of which phosphorylated the tail portion of purified Dictyostelium myosin. One of these activities phosphorylated both serine and threonine residues of the heavy chain, while the other activity only phosphorylated threonine residues. Peptide mapping studies indicated that in vivo and in vitro phosphorylation sites were identical. The heavy chain kinases required Mg2+ for activity but were unaffected by Ca2+ or calmodulin. The heavy chain kinases did not phosphorylate Dictyostelium light chain, and also did not phosphorylate myosins from striated, smooth, or other nonmuscle sources. PMID:3027120

  17. Myofibrillogenesis in Skeletal Muscle Cells in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Sanger, Joseph W.; Wang, Jushuo; Holloway, Beth; Du, Aiping; Sanger, Jean M.

    2009-01-01

    The “premyofibril” model of myofibrillogenesis, based on observations in cultured avian muscle cells, proposes that mature myofibrils are preceded by two intermediary structures: premyofibrils and nascent myofibrils. To determine if this model applies to zebrafish skeletal muscle development, we stained developing embryos with antibodies to sarcomeric alpha-actinin and myosin II. In the youngest muscle cells, sarcomeric alpha-actinin and non-muscle myosin II were each localized in linear arrays of small bands that resembled the premyofibrils in avian myocytes. The distribution of muscle–specific myosin II began as scattered short filaments followed in time by overlapping bundles of filaments and organized A-bands in the older somites. Alpha-actinin organization changed from small z-bodies to beaded Z-bands and ordered Z-bands in myofibrils that extended the length of the elongating somites. In older somites with mature myofibrils, premyofibrils were also present at the ends of the mature myofibrils, suggesting that as the cells and somites grew longer, premyofibrils were involved in the elongation of existing mature myofibrils. Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching showed that the exchange of proteins (actin, alpha-actinin, FATZ, myotilin and telethonin) between sarcoplasm and the Z-bands of mature myofibrils in zebrafish resembled that seen for the same proteins in cultured avian myotubes, suggesting that myofibril assembly and maintenance in zebrafish share common properties with avian muscle. PMID:19382198

  18. Evaluation of the Relative Performance of Drug-Induced Skeletal Muscle Injury Biomarkers in Rats.

    PubMed

    Burch, Peter M; Greg Hall, David; Walker, Elizabeth G; Bracken, William; Giovanelli, Richard; Goldstein, Richard; Higgs, Richard E; King, Nicholas M P; Lane, Pamela; Sauer, John-Michael; Michna, Laura; Muniappa, Nagaraja; Pritt, Michael L; Vlasakova, Katerina; Watson, David E; Wescott, Debra; Zabka, Tanja S; Glaab, Warren E

    2016-03-01

    Novel skeletal muscle (SKM) injury biomarkers that have recently been identified may outperform or add value to the conventional SKM injury biomarkers aspartate transaminase (AST) and creatine kinase (CK). The relative performance of these novel biomarkers of SKM injury including skeletal troponin I (sTnI), myosin light chain 3 (Myl3), CK M Isoform (Ckm), and fatty acid binding protein 3 (Fabp3) was assessed in 34 rat studies including both SKM toxicants and compounds with toxicities in tissues other than SKM. sTnI, Myl3, Ckm, and Fabp3 all outperformed CK or AST and/or added value for the diagnosis of drug-induced SKM injury (ie, myocyte degeneration/necrosis). In addition, when used in conjunction with CK and AST, sTnI, Myl3, CKm, and Fabp3 individually and collectively improved diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, as well as diagnostic certainty, for SKM injury and responded in a sensitive manner to low levels of SKM degeneration/necrosis in rats. These findings support the proposal that sTnI, Myl3, Ckm, and Fabp3 are suitable for voluntary use, in conjunction with CK and AST, in regulatory safety studies in rats to monitor drug-induced SKM injury and the potential translational use of these exploratory biomarkers in early clinical trials to ensure patient safety. PMID:26721300

  19. Primary structure of myosin from the striated adductor muscle of the Atlantic scallop, Pecten maximus, and expression of the regulatory domain.

    PubMed

    Janes, D P; Patel, H; Chantler, P D

    2000-01-01

    We have determined the complete cDNA and deduced amino acid sequences of the heavy chain, regulatory light chain and essential light chain which constitute the molecular structure of myosin from the striated adductor muscle of the scallop, Pecten maximus. The deduced amino acid sequences of P. maximus regulatory light chain, essential light chain and heavy chain comprise 156, 156 and 1940 amino acids, respectively. These myosin peptide sequences, obtained from the most common of the eastern Atlantic scallops, are compared with those from three other molluscan myosins: the striated adductor muscles of Argopecten irradians and Placopecten magellanicus, and myosin from the siphon retractor muscle of the squid, Loligo pealei. The Pecten heavy chain sequence resembles those of the other two scallop sequences to a much greater extent as compared with the squid sequence, amino acid identities being 97.5% (A. irradians), 95.6% (P. magellanicus) and 73.6% (L. pealei), respectively. Myosin heavy chain residues that are known to be important for regulation are conserved in Pecten maximus. Using these Pecten sequences, we have overexpressed the regulatory light chain, and a combination of essential light chain and myosin heavy chain fragment, separately, in E. coli BL21 (DE3) prior to recombination, thereby producing Pecten regulatory domains without recourse to proteolytic digestion. The expressed regulatory domain was shown to undergo a calcium-dependent increase (approximately 7%) in intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence with a mid-point at a pCa of 6.6. PMID:11129432

  20. Impact of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-linked mutations in the NH2 terminus of the RLC on ?-myosin cross-bridge mechanics.

    PubMed

    Farman, Gerrie P; Muthu, Priya; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta; Moore, Jeffrey R

    2014-12-15

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is associated with mutations in sarcomeric proteins, including the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). Here we studied the impact of three HCM mutations located in the NH2 terminus of the RLC on the molecular mechanism of ?-myosin heavy chain (MHC) cross-bridge mechanics using the in vitro motility assay. To generate mutant ?-myosin, native RLC was depleted from porcine cardiac MHC and reconstituted with mutant (A13T, F18L, and E22K) or wild-type (WT) human cardiac RLC. We characterized the mutant myosin force and motion generation capability in the presence of a frictional load. Compared with WT, all three mutants exhibited reductions in maximal actin filament velocity when tested under low or no frictional load. The actin-activated ATPase showed no significant difference between WT and HCM-mutant-reconstituted myosins. The decrease in velocity has been attributed to a significantly increased duty cycle, as was measured by the dependence of actin sliding velocity on myosin surface density, for all three mutant myosins. These results demonstrate a mutation-induced alteration in acto-myosin interactions that may contribute to the pathogenesis of HCM. PMID:25324513

  1. Impact of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-linked mutations in the NH2 terminus of the RLC on ?-myosin cross-bridge mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Farman, Gerrie P.; Muthu, Priya; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is associated with mutations in sarcomeric proteins, including the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). Here we studied the impact of three HCM mutations located in the NH2 terminus of the RLC on the molecular mechanism of ?-myosin heavy chain (MHC) cross-bridge mechanics using the in vitro motility assay. To generate mutant ?-myosin, native RLC was depleted from porcine cardiac MHC and reconstituted with mutant (A13T, F18L, and E22K) or wild-type (WT) human cardiac RLC. We characterized the mutant myosin force and motion generation capability in the presence of a frictional load. Compared with WT, all three mutants exhibited reductions in maximal actin filament velocity when tested under low or no frictional load. The actin-activated ATPase showed no significant difference between WT and HCM-mutant-reconstituted myosins. The decrease in velocity has been attributed to a significantly increased duty cycle, as was measured by the dependence of actin sliding velocity on myosin surface density, for all three mutant myosins. These results demonstrate a mutation-induced alteration in acto-myosin interactions that may contribute to the pathogenesis of HCM. PMID:25324513

  2. Formation of contractile networks and fibers in the medial cell cortex through myosin-II turnover, contraction, and stress-stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Wei; Wei, Ming-Tzo; Ou-Yang, Daniel H.; Jedlicka, Sabrina S.; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of adhered cells depends crucially on the formation of a contractile meshwork of parallel and cross-linked fibers along the contacting surface. The motor activity and minifilament assembly of non-muscle myosin-II is an important component of cortical cytoskeletal remodeling during mechanosensing. We used experiments and computational modeling to study cortical myosin-II dynamics in adhered cells. Confocal microscopy was used to image the medial cell cortex of HeLa cells stably expressing myosin regulatory light chain tagged with GFP (MRLC-GFP). The distribution of MRLC-GFP fibers and focal adhesions was classified into three types of network morphologies. Time-lapse movies show: myosin foci appearance and disappearance; aligning and contraction; stabilization upon alignment. Addition of blebbistatin, which perturbs myosin motor activity, leads to a reorganization of the cortical networks and to a reduction of contractile motions. We quantified the kinetics of contraction, disassembly and reassembly of myosin networks using spatio-temporal image correlation spectroscopy (STICS). Coarse-grained numerical simulations include bipolar minifilaments that contract and align through specified interactions as basic elements. After assuming that minifilament turnover decreases with increasing contractile stress, the simulations reproduce stress-dependent fiber formation in between focal adhesions above a threshold myosin concentration. The STICS correlation function in simulations matches the function measured in experiments. This study provides a framework to help interpret how different cortical myosin remodeling kinetics may contribute to different cell shape and rigidity depending on substrate stiffness. PMID:25641802

  3. Genetics Home Reference: Myosin storage myopathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in heart (cardiac) muscle and in type I skeletal muscle fibers, one of two types of fibers that ... filaments. The altered proteins accumulate in type I skeletal muscle fibers, forming the protein clumps characteristic of the ...

  4. Transgene integration into the human AAVS1 locus enhances myosin II-dependent contractile force by reducing expression of myosin binding subunit 85.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Takeomi; Li, Rui; Haga, Hisashi; Kawabata, Kazushige

    2015-09-18

    The adeno-associated virus site 1 (AAVS1) locus in the human genome is a strong candidate for gene therapy by insertion of an exogenous gene into the locus. The AAVS1 locus includes the coding region for myosin binding subunit 85 (MBS85). Although the function of MBS85 is not well understood, myosin II-dependent contractile force may be affected by altered expression of MBS85. The effect of altered expression of MBS85 on cellular contractile force should be examined prior to the application of gene therapy. In this study, we show that transgene integration into AAVS1 and consequent reduction of MBS85 expression changes myosin II-dependent cellular contractile force. We established a human fibroblast cell line with exogenous DNA knocked-in to AAVS1 (KI cells) using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system. Western blotting analysis showed that KI cells had significantly reduced MBS85 expression. KI cells also showed greater cellular contractile force than control cells. The increased contractile force was associated with phosphorylation of the myosin II regulatory light chain (MRLC). Transfection of KI cells with an MBS85 expression plasmid restored cellular contractile force and phosphorylation of MRLC to the levels in control cells. These data suggest that transgene integration into the human AAVS1 locus induces an increase in cellular contractile force and thus should be considered as a gene therapy to effect changes in cellular contractile force. PMID:26260320

  5. The unique enzymatic and mechanistic properties of plant myosins.

    PubMed

    Henn, Arnon; Sadot, Einat

    2014-12-01

    Myosins are molecular motors that move along actin-filament tracks. Plants express two main classes of myosins, myosin VIII and myosin XI. Along with their relatively conserved sequence and functions, plant myosins have acquired some unique features. Myosin VIII has the enzymatic characteristics of a tension sensor and/or a tension generator, similar to functions found in other eukaryotes. Interestingly, class XI plant myosins have gained a novel function that consists of propelling the exceptionally rapid cytoplasmic streaming. This specific class includes the fastest known translocating molecular motors, which can reach an extremely high velocity of about 60?ms(-1). However, the enzymatic properties and mechanistic basis for these remarkable manifestations are not yet fully understood. Here we review recent progress in understanding the uniqueness of plant myosins, while emphasizing the unanswered questions. PMID:25435181

  6. Single Myosin Cross-Bridge Orientation in Cardiac Papillary Muscle Detects Lever-Arm Shear Strain in Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Burghardt, Thomas P.; Josephson, Matthew P.; Ajtai, Katalin

    2011-01-01

    Myosin motors transduce ATP free energy into mechanical work. Transduction models allocate specific functions to motor structural domains beginning with ATP hydrolysis in the active site and ending in a lever-arm rotating power-stroke. Myosin light chains, regulatory (RLC) and essential (ELC), bind IQ-domains on the lever-arm and track its movement. Strong evidence exists that light chains stabilize the lever-arm and that light chain mutation undermines stability. Human ventricular RLC tagged with photoactivatable GFP (HCRLC-PAGFP) replaces native RLC in porcine papillary muscle fibers, restores native contractility, and situates PAGFP for single molecule orientation tracking within the crowded fiber lattice. The spatial emission pattern from single photoactivated PAGFP tagged myosins was observed in z-stacks fitted simultaneously to maximize accuracy in estimated dipole orientation. Emitter dipole polar and azimuthal angle pair scatter plots identified an area where steric and molecular crowding constraints depopulated orientations unfavorable for actin interaction. Transitions between pre- and post-power-stroke states represent the lever-arm trajectory sampled by the data and quantify lever-arm shear strain in transduction at three tension levels. These data identify forces acting on myosin in the in situ fiber system due to crowding, steric hindrance, and actomyosin interaction. They induce lever-arm shear strain observed with single molecule orientation detection. A single myosin work histogram reveals discretized power-stroke substates reminiscent of the HuxleySimmons model for myosin based contraction [Huxley and Simmons (1971) Nature 233, 533]. RLC or ELC mutation, should it impact lever-arm shear strain, will be detected as changes in single myosin shear strain or power-stroke substate distribution. PMID:21819137

  7. Single myosin cross-bridge orientation in cardiac papillary muscle detects lever-arm shear strain in transduction.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Thomas P; Josephson, Matthew P; Ajtai, Katalin

    2011-09-13

    Myosin motors transduce ATP free energy into mechanical work. Transduction models allocate specific functions to motor structural domains beginning with ATP hydrolysis in the active site and ending in a lever-arm rotating power-stroke. Myosin light chains, regulatory (RLC) and essential (ELC), bind IQ-domains on the lever-arm and track its movement. Strong evidence exists that light chains stabilize the lever-arm and that light chain mutation undermines stability. Human ventricular RLC tagged with photoactivatable GFP (HCRLC-PAGFP) replaces native RLC in porcine papillary muscle fibers, restores native contractility, and situates PAGFP for single molecule orientation tracking within the crowded fiber lattice. The spatial emission pattern from single photoactivated PAGFP tagged myosins was observed in z-stacks fitted simultaneously to maximize accuracy in estimated dipole orientation. Emitter dipole polar and azimuthal angle pair scatter plots identified an area where steric and molecular crowding constraints depopulated orientations unfavorable for actin interaction. Transitions between pre- and post-power-stroke states represent the lever-arm trajectory sampled by the data and quantify lever-arm shear strain in transduction at three tension levels. These data identify forces acting on myosin in the in situ fiber system due to crowding, steric hindrance, and actomyosin interaction. They induce lever-arm shear strain observed with single molecule orientation detection. A single myosin work histogram reveals discretized power-stroke substates reminiscent of the Huxley-Simmons model for myosin based contraction [Huxley and Simmons ( 1971 ) Nature 233 , 533]. RLC or ELC mutation, should it impact lever-arm shear strain, will be detected as changes in single myosin shear strain or power-stroke substate distribution. PMID:21819137

  8. Phosphorylated peptides occur in a non-helical portion of the tail of a catch muscle myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Castellani, L.; Elliott, B.W. Jr.; Cohen, C.

    1987-05-01

    Myosin from a molluscan catch muscle (the Anterior Byssus Retractor (ABRM) of Mytilus edulis) is unusual in being phosphorylated in the rod by an endogenous heavy-chain kinase. This phosphorylation enhances myosin solubility at low ionic strength and induces molecular folding of the myosin tail. Papain and chymotryptic cleavage of this myosin, phosphorylated with (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP, indicates that the phosphorylated residues are associated with the carboxy-terminal end of the light meromyosin. Ion-exchange and reverse-phase HPLC of radiolabeled chymotryptic peptides allow the isolation of two different peptides with high specific activity. One of these peptides is rich in lysine and arginine residues, a finding consistent with the observation that basic residues often determine the substrate specificity of protein kinases. The second peptide contains proline residues. Taken together, these results suggest that, as in the case of Acanthamoeba myosin, phosphorylation occurs in a nonhelical portion of the rod that may also control solubility. Identification of the residues that are phosphorylated and their location in the rod may reveal how the phosphorylation-dependent changes observed in the myosin in vitro are related to changes in intermolecular interactions in the thick filaments in vivo.

  9. Plant-Specific Myosin XI, a Molecular Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Tominaga, Motoki; Nakano, Akihiko

    2012-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, organelle movement, positioning, and communications are critical for maintaining cellular functions and are highly regulated by intracellular trafficking. Directional movement of motor proteins along the cytoskeleton is one of the key regulators of such trafficking. Most plants have developed a unique actinmyosin system for intracellular trafficking. Although the composition of myosin motors in angiosperms is limited to plant-specific myosin classes VIII and XI, there are large families of myosins, especially in class XI, suggesting functional diversification among class XI members. However, the molecular properties and regulation of each myosin XI member remains unclear. To achieve a better understanding of the plant-specific actinmyosin system, the characterization of myosin XI members at the molecular level is essential. In the first half of this review, we summarize the molecular properties of tobacco 175-kDa myosin XI, and in the later half, we focus on myosin XI members in Arabidopsis thaliana. Through detailed comparison of the functional domains of these myosins with the functional domain of myosin V, we look for possible diversification in enzymatic and mechanical properties among myosin XI members concomitant with their regulation. PMID:22973289

  10. Biological motors: Conventional and Unconventional Myosins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Yale E.

    2006-03-01

    Molecular motors are smart, soft machines that regulate their dynamics and energy consumption for efficient tuning to their cell-biological role and mechanics of their cargo. The efficiency is derived partly from harnessing the chaotic thermal fluctuations nano-scale machines experience, rather than struggle against them. Reciprocal coupling between the enzymatic chemistry, structural changes, and mechanical steps is expected from the thermodynamics of an energy-transducing nano-machine. Strong evidence for this bidirectional coupling exists for muscle (conventional) myosin and unconventional myosins. The structural dynamics of myosin leading to translocation along actin are detectable by Optical Trap Mechanical Nanometry (OTNM), Single-Molecule Fluorescence Polarization Microscopy (SMFPM), Fluorescence Imaging at One Nanometer Accuracy (FIONA) and various combinations of these methods. We are in an Acronym Rich Environment (ARE). Progress and puzzles make this a lively research area.

  11. The contributions of filaments and cross-bridges to sarcomere compliance in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Brunello, Elisabetta; Caremani, Marco; Melli, Luca; Linari, Marco; Fernandez-Martinez, Manuel; Narayanan, Theyencheri; Irving, Malcolm; Piazzesi, Gabriella; Lombardi, Vincenzo; Reconditi, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Force generation in the muscle sarcomere is driven by the head domain of the myosin molecule extending from the thick filament to form cross-bridges with the actin-containing thin filament. Following attachment, a structural working stroke in the head pulls the thin filament towards the centre of the sarcomere, producing, under unloaded conditions, a filament sliding of ?11 nm. The mechanism of force generation by the myosin head depends on the relationship between cross-bridge force and movement, which is determined by compliances of the cross-bridge (Ccb) and filaments. By measuring the force dependence of the spacing of the high-order myosin- and actin-based X-ray reflections from sartorius muscles of Rana esculenta we find a combined filament compliance (Cf) of 13.1 1.2 nm MPa?1, close to recent estimates from single fibre mechanics (12.8 0.5 nm MPa?1). Ccb calculated using these estimates is 0.37 0.12 nm pN?1, a value fully accounted for by the compliance of the myosin head domain, 0.38 0.06 nm pN?1, obtained from the intensity changes of the 14.5 nm myosin-based X-ray reflection in response to 3 kHz oscillations imposed on single muscle fibres in rigor. Thus, a significant contribution to Ccb from the myosin tail that joins the head to the thick filament is excluded. The low Ccb value indicates that the myosin head generates isometric force by a small sub-step of the 11 nm stroke that drives filament sliding at low load. The implications of these results for the mechanism of force generation by myosins have general relevance for cardiac and non-muscle myosins as well as for skeletal muscle. PMID:25015916

  12. Inhibitory Regulation of Higher-Plant Myosin by Ca2+ Ions1

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Etsuo; Muto, Shoshi; Shimmen, Teruo

    1999-01-01

    Myosin isolated from the pollen tubes of lily (Lilium longiflorum) is composed of a 170-kD heavy chain (E. Yokota and T. Shimmen [1994] Protoplasma 177: 153162). Both the motile activity in vitro and the F-actin-stimulated ATPase activity of this myosin were inhibited by Ca2+ at concentrations higher than 10?6 m. In the Ca2+ range between 10?6 and 10?5 m, inhibition of the motile activity was reversible. In contrast, inhibition by more than 10?5 m Ca2+ was not reversible upon Ca2+ removal. An 18-kD polypeptide that showed the same mobility in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as that of spinach calmodulin (CaM) was present in this myosin fraction. This polypeptide showed a mobility shift in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Furthermore, this polypeptide was recognized by antiserum against spinach CaM. By immunoprecipitation using antiserum against the 170-kD heavy chain, the 18-kD polypeptide was coprecipitated with the 170-kD heavy chain, provided that the Ca2+ concentration was low, indicating that this 18-kD polypeptide is bound to the 170-kD myosin heavy chain. However, the 18-kD polypeptide was dissociated from the 170-kD heavy chain at high Ca2+ concentrations, which irreversibly inhibited the motile activity of this myosin. From these results, it is suggested that the 18-kD polypeptide, which is likely to be CaM, is associated with the 170-kD heavy chain as a light chain. It is also suggested that this polypeptide is involved in the regulation of this myosin by Ca2+. This is the first biochemical basis, to our knowledge, for Ca2+ regulation of cytoplasmic streaming in higher plants. PMID:9880365

  13. Visualizing Key Hinges and a Potential Major Source of Compliance in the Lever Arm of Myosin

    SciTech Connect

    J Brown; V Senthil Kumar; E ONeall-Hennessey; L Reshetnikova; H Robinson; M Nguyen-McCarty; A Szent-Gyorgyi; C Cohen

    2011-12-31

    We have determined the 2.3-{angstrom}-resolution crystal structure of a myosin light chain domain, corresponding to one type found in sea scallop catch ('smooth') muscle. This structure reveals hinges that may function in the 'on' and 'off' states of myosin. The molecule adopts two different conformations about the heavy chain 'hook' and regulatory light chain (RLC) helix D. This conformational change results in extended and compressed forms of the lever arm whose lengths differ by 10 {angstrom}. The heavy chain hook and RLC helix D hinges could thus serve as a potential major and localized source of cross-bridge compliance during the contractile cycle. In addition, in one of the molecules of the crystal, part of the RLC N-terminal extension is seen in atomic detail and forms a one-turn alpha-helix that interacts with RLC helix D. This extension, whose sequence is highly variable in different myosins, may thus modulate the flexibility of the lever arm. Moreover, the relative proximity of the phosphorylation site to the helix D hinge suggests a potential role for conformational changes about this hinge in the transition between the on and off states of regulated myosins.

  14. Visualizing key hinges and a potential major source of compliance in the lever arm of myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.H.; Robinson, H.; Senthil Kumar, V. S.; O'Neall-Hennessey, E.; Reshetnikova, L.; Nguyen-McCarty, M.; Szent-Gyorgyi, A. G.; Cohen, C.

    2011-01-04

    We have determined the 2.3-{angstrom}-resolution crystal structure of a myosin light chain domain, corresponding to one type found in sea scallop catch ('smooth') muscle. This structure reveals hinges that may function in the 'on' and 'off' states of myosin. The molecule adopts two different conformations about the heavy chain 'hook' and regulatory light chain (RLC) helix D. This conformational change results in extended and compressed forms of the lever arm whose lengths differ by 10 {angstrom}. The heavy chain hook and RLC helix D hinges could thus serve as a potential major and localized source of cross-bridge compliance during the contractile cycle. In addition, in one of the molecules of the crystal, part of the RLC N-terminal extension is seen in atomic detail and forms a one-turn alpha-helix that interacts with RLC helix D. This extension, whose sequence is highly variable in different myosins, may thus modulate the flexibility of the lever arm. Moreover, the relative proximity of the phosphorylation site to the helix D hinge suggests a potential role for conformational changes about this hinge in the transition between the on and off states of regulated myosins.

  15. Skeletal muscle plasticity induced by seasonal acclimatization involves IGF1 signaling: implications in ribosomal biogenesis and protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo N; Zuloaga, Rodrigo; Valdes, Juan Antonio; Molina, Alfredo; Alvarez, Marco

    2014-10-01

    One of the most fundamental biological processes in living organisms that are affected by environmental fluctuations is growth. In fish, skeletal muscle accounts for the largest proportion of body mass, and the growth of this tissue is mainly controlled by the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system. By using the carp (Cyprinus carpio), a fish that inhabits extreme conditions during winter and summer, we assessed the skeletal muscle plasticity induced by seasonal acclimatization and the relation of IGF signaling with protein synthesis and ribosomal biogenesis. The expression of igf1 in muscle decreased during winter in comparison with summer, whereas the expression for both paralogues of igf2 did not change significantly between seasons. The expression of igf1 receptor a (igf1ra), but not of igf1rb, was down-regulated in muscle during the winter as compared to the summer. A decrease in protein contents and protein phosphorylation for IGF signaling molecules in muscle was observed in winter-acclimatized carp. This was related with a decreased expression in muscle for markers of myogenesis (myoblast determination factor (myod), myogenic factor 5 (myf5), and myogenin (myog)); protein synthesis (myosin heavy chain (mhc) and myosin light chain (mlc3 and mlc1b)); and ribosomal biogenesis (pre-rRNA and ribosomal proteins). IGF signaling, and key markers of ribosomal biogenesis, protein synthesis, and myogenesis were affected by seasonal acclimatization, with differential regulation in gene expression and signaling pathway activation observed in muscle between both seasons. This suggests that these molecules are responsible for the muscle plasticity induced by seasonal acclimatization in carp. PMID:25088252

  16. Alternative S2 hinge regions of the myosin rod differentially affect muscle function, myofibril dimensions and myosin tail length

    PubMed Central

    Suggs, Jennifer A.; Cammarato, Anthony; Kronert, William A.; Nikkhoy, Massoud; Dambacher, Corey M.; Megighian, Aram; Bernstein, Sanford I.

    2007-01-01

    Muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) rod domains intertwine to form alpha-helical coiled-coil dimers; these subsequently multimerize into thick filaments via electrostatic interactions. The subfragment 2/light meromyosin hinge region of the MHC rod, located in the C-terminal third of heavy meromyosin, may form a less stable coiled-coil than flanking regions. Partial melting of this region has been proposed to result in a helix to random-coil transition. A portion of the Drosophila melanogaster MHC hinge is encoded by mutually exclusive alternative exons 15a and 15b, the use of which correlates with fast (hinge A) or slow (hinge B) muscle physiological properties. To test the functional significance of alternative hinge regions, we constructed transgenic fly lines in which fast muscle isovariant hinge A was switched for slow muscle hinge B in the MHC isoforms of indirect flight and jump muscles. Substitution of the slow muscle hinge B impaired flight ability, increased sarcomere lengths by approximately 13% and resulted in minor disruption to indirect flight muscle sarcomeric structure compared with a transgenic control. With age, residual flight ability decreased rapidly and myofibrils developed peripheral defects. Computational analysis indicates that hinge B has a greater coiled-coil propensity and thus reduced flexibility compared to hinge A. Intriguingly, the MHC rod with hinge B was ~5 nm longer than myosin with hinge A, consistent with the more rigid coiled-coil conformation predicted for hinge B. Our study demonstrates that hinge B cannot functionally substitute for hinge A in fast muscle types, likely as a result of differences in the molecular structure of the rod, subtle changes in myofibril structure and decreased ability to maintain sarcomere structure in indirect flight muscle myofibrils. Thus alternative hinges are important in dictating the distinct functional properties of myosin isoforms and the muscles in which they are expressed. PMID:17316684

  17. The apparently negatively cooperative phosphorylation of smooth muscle myosin at low ionic strength is related to its filamentous state.

    PubMed

    Sellers, J R; Chock, P B; Adelstein, R S

    1983-12-10

    The correlation curve between phosphorylation and MgATPase activity suggests that the 20,000-dalton light chain of both heads of a smooth muscle myosin or heavy meromyosin (HMM) molecule must be phosphorylated before the MgATPase activity of either head can be activated by actin. The two heads of HMM appear to be phosphorylated randomly at equal rates, while those of myosin are phosphorylated in a negatively cooperative manner (Persechini, A., and Hartshorne, D.J. (1981) Science, 213, 1383-1385; Ikebe, M., Ogihara, S., and Tonomura, Y. (1982) J. Biochem. 91, 1809-1812). We have investigated the cause of this difference between HMM and myosin. We find that if myosin is first phosphorylated at high ionic strength (0.6 M KCl), where it is monomeric, and then assayed for MgATPase activity (in 0.05 M KCl), the data support a model where the two heads are phosphorylated randomly with equal rates (i.e. similarly to HMM). The correlation curves between MgATPase activity and dephosphorylation of fully phosphorylated myosin, both in a filamentous and monomeric state, are also best explained by a model where dephosphorylation of one head is sufficient to deactivate the entire molecule. With monomeric myosin, the dephosphorylation appears to occur randomly with equal rates, whereas with filamentous myosin the dephosphorylation appears to be negatively cooperative. The correlation between dephosphorylation of HMM and its MgATPase activity is more complex and is consistent with a positively cooperative dephosphorylation. Direct analyses of the time courses of phosphorylation of HMM and monomeric myosin show that a single exponential is sufficient to fit the data through greater than 90% of the reaction. However, when phosphorylation is carried out at low ionic strength (0.02 M KCl), where myosin is present as filaments, the time course consists of two exponential functions where the rate constant for the phosphorylation of one myosin head is 6-10 times greater than that for the other head which is located on the same molecule. This suggests that when myosin is polymerized into filaments the two previously indistinguishable heads either become nonequivalent or are subject to head-head interactions leading to a negatively cooperative phosphorylation reaction. PMID:6139378

  18. Muscle protein analysis. II. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of normal and diseased human skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Giometti, C.S.; Barany, M.; Danon, M.J.; Anderson, N.G.

    1980-07-01

    High-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to analyze the major proteins of normal and pathological human-muscle samples. The normal human-muscle pattern contains four myosin light chains: three that co-migrate with the myosin light chains from rabbit fast muscle (extensor digitorum longus), and one that co-migrates with the light chain 2 from rabbit slow muscle (soleus). Of seven Duchenne muscular dystrophy samples, four yielded patterns with decreased amounts of actin and myosin relative to normal muscle, while three samples gave patterns comparable to that for normal muscle. Six samples from patients with myotonic dystrophy also gave normal patterns. In nemaline rod myopathy, in contrast, the pattern was deficient in two of the fast-type myosin light chains.

  19. Altered cross-bridge properties in skeletal muscle dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Guellich, Aziz; Negroni, Elisa; Decostre, Valrie; Demoule, Alexandre; Coirault, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Force and motion generated by skeletal muscle ultimately depends on the cyclical interaction of actin with myosin. This mechanical process is regulated by intracellular Ca2+ through the thin filament-associated regulatory proteins i.e.; troponins and tropomyosin. Muscular dystrophies are a group of heterogeneous genetic affections characterized by progressive degeneration and weakness of the skeletal muscle as a consequence of loss of muscle tissue which directly reduces the number of potential myosin cross-bridges involved in force production. Mutations in genes responsible for skeletal muscle dystrophies (MDs) have been shown to modify the function of contractile proteins and cross-bridge interactions. Altered gene expression or RNA splicing or post-translational modifications of contractile proteins such as those related to oxidative stress, may affect cross-bridge function by modifying key proteins of the excitation-contraction coupling. Micro-architectural change in myofilament is another mechanism of altered cross-bridge performance. In this review, we provide an overview about changes in cross-bridge performance in skeletal MDs and discuss their ultimate impacts on striated muscle function. PMID:25352808

  20. Structural dynamics of the skeletal muscle fiber by second harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nucciotti, V.; Stringari, C.; Sacconi, L.; Vanzi, F.; Linari, M.; Piazzesi, G.; Lombardi, V.; Pavone, F. S.

    2008-02-01

    The high degree of structural order in skeletal muscle allows imaging of this tissue by Second Harmonic Generation (SHG). As previously found (Vanzi et al., J. Muscle Cell Res. Motil. 2006) by fractional extraction of proteins, myosin is the source of SHG signal. A full characterization of the polarization-dependence of the SHG signal can provide very selective information on the orientation of the emitting proteins and their dynamics during contraction. We developed a line scan polarization method, allowing measurements of a full polarization curve in intact muscle fibers from skeletal muscle of the frog to characterize the SHG polarization dependence on different physiological states (resting, rigor and isometric tetanic contraction). The polarization data have been interpreted by means of a model in terms of the average orientation of SHG emitters.The different physiological states are characterized by distinct patterns of SHG polarization. The variation of the orientation of emitting molecules in relation to the physiological state of the muscle demonstrates that one part of SHG signal arises from the globular head of the myosin molecule that cross-links actin and myosin filaments. The dependence of the SHG modulation on the degree of overlap between actin and myosin filaments during an isometric contraction, provides the constraints to estimate the fraction of myosin heads generating the isometric force in the active muscle fiber.

  1. Unconventional myosins in cell movement, membrane traffic, and signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Mermall, V; Post, P L; Mooseker, M S

    1998-01-23

    In the past few years genetic, biochemical, and cytolocalization data have implicated members of the myosin superfamily of actin-based molecular motors in a variety of cellular functions including membrane trafficking, cell movements, and signal transduction. The importance of myosins is illustrated by the identification of myosin genes as targets for disease-causing mutations. The task at hand is to decipher how the multitude of myosins function at both the molecular and cellular level-a task facilitated by our understanding of myosin structure and function in muscle. PMID:9438839

  2. The Fraction of Myosin Motors That Participate in Isometric Contraction ofRabbit Muscle Fibers at Near-Physiological Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Tsaturyan, AndreyK.; Bershitsky, SergeyY.; Koubassova, NataliaA.; Fernandez, Manuel; Narayanan, Theyencheri; Ferenczi, MichaelA.

    2011-01-01

    The duty ratio, or the part of the working cycle in which a myosin molecule is strongly attached to actin, determines motor processivity and is required to evaluate the force generated by each molecule. In muscle, it is equal to the fraction of myosin heads that are strongly, or stereospecifically, bound to the thin filaments. Estimates of this fraction during isometric contraction based on stiffness measurements or the intensities of the equatorial or meridional x-ray reflections vary significantly. Here, we determined this value using the intensity of the first actin layer line, A1, in the low-angle x-ray diffraction patterns of permeable fibers from rabbit skeletal muscle. We calibrated the A1 intensity by considering that the intensity in the relaxed and rigor states corresponds to 0% and 100% of myosin heads bound to actin, respectively. The fibers maximally activated with Ca2+ at 4C were heated to 3134C with a Joule temperature jump (T-jump). Rigor and relaxed-state measurements were obtained on the same fibers. The intensity of the inner part of A1 during isometric contraction compared with that in rigor corresponds to 4143% stereospecifically bound myosin heads at near-physiological temperature, or an average force produced by a head of ?6.3 pN. PMID:21767493

  3. Antibodies directed against N-terminal residues on actin do not block acto-myosin binding

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.; Kalnoski, M.; Yunossi, Z.; Bulinski, J.C.; Reisler, E.

    1987-09-22

    Several studies using a variety of approaches have suggested a possible role for the amino-terminal residues of skeletal muscle actin in acto-myosin interaction. In order to assess the significance of acto-S-1 contacts involving the N-terminal segment of actin, the authors have prepared polyclonal antisera against a synthetic /sup 14/C-peptide corresponding to the seven amino-terminal residues of rabbit skeletal muscle actin (..cap alpha..-N-terminal peptide). Affinity-purified immunoglobulin (Ig) G (and Fab) prepared from these antisera reacts strongly and specifically with the amino-terminal segment of both G- and F-actin but not with myosin subfragment 1 (S-1). This specificity was determined by Western blot analysis of actin and its proteolytic fragments and the inhibition of the above reactivity by the ..cap alpha..-N-terminal peptide. The ..cap alpha..-N-terminal peptide did not interact with S-1 in solution, affect S-1 and actin-activated S-1 MgATPase, or cause dissociation of the acto-S-1 complex. In separate experiments F-actin could be cosedimented with S-1 and affinity-purified IgG or Fab by using an air-driven ultracentrifuge. Densitometric analysis of sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gels of pellet and supernatant fractions from such experiments demonstrated the binding of both S-1 and IgG or Fab to the same F-actin protomer. The results suggest that, while the acidic N-terminal amino acids of actin may contact the myosin head, these residues cannot be the main determinants of acto-S-1 interaction.

  4. Delta-like 1 homolog (dlk1): a marker for rhabdomyosarcomas implicated in skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Jrgensen, Louise H; Sellathurai, Jeeva; Davis, Erica E; Thedchanamoorthy, Tania; Al-Bader, Rua W A; Jensen, Charlotte H; Schrder, Henrik D

    2013-01-01

    Dlk1, a member of the Epidermal Growth Factor family, is expressed in multiple tissues during development, and has been detected in carcinomas and neuroendocrine tumors. Dlk1 is paternally expressed and belongs to a group of imprinted genes associated with rhabdomyosarcomas but not with other primitive childhood tumors to date. Here, we investigate the possible roles of Dlk1 in skeletal muscle tumor formation. We analyzed tumors of different mesenchymal origin for expression of Dlk1 and various myogenic markers and found that Dlk1 was present consistently in myogenic tumors. The coincident observation of Dlk1 with a highly proliferative state in myogenic tumors led us to subsequently investigate the involvement of Dlk1 in the control of the adult myogenic programme. We performed an injury study in Dlk1 transgenic mice, ectopically expressing ovine Dlk1 (membrane bound C2 variant) under control of the myosin light chain promotor, and detected an early, enhanced formation of myotubes in Dlk1 transgenic mice. We then stably transfected the mouse myoblast cell line, C2C12, with full-length Dlk1 (soluble A variant) and detected an inhibition of myotube formation, which could be reversed by adding Dlk1 antibody to the culture supernatant. These results suggest that Dlk1 is involved in controlling the myogenic programme and that the various splice forms may exert different effects. Interestingly, both in the Dlk1 transgenic mice and the DLK1-C2C12 cells, we detected reduced myostatin expression, suggesting that the effect of Dlk1 on the myogenic programme might involve the myostatin signaling pathway. In support of a relationship between Dlk1 and myostatin we detected reciprocal expression of these two transcripts during different cell cycle stages of human myoblasts. Together our results suggest that Dlk1 is a candidate marker for skeletal muscle tumors and might be involved directly in skeletal muscle tumor formation through a modulatory effect on the myogenic programme. PMID:23577150

  5. Preparation and Characterization of Myosin Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Elizabeth; Eftink, Maurice R.

    1985-01-01

    Students complete five experimental projects at the end of a senior-level biochemistry course which involves the isolation and characterization of myosin and its water-soluble subfragments. Procedures used and results obtained are provided for such projects as viscosity and ATPase measurements and gel electrophoresis experiments. (JN)

  6. Mechanics of the power stroke in myosin II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcucci, L.; Truskinovsky, L.

    2010-05-01

    Power stroke in skeletal muscles is a result of a conformational change in the globular portion of the molecular motor myosin II. In this paper we show that the fast tension recovery data reflecting the inner working of the power stroke mechanism can be quantitatively reproduced by a Langevin dynamics of a simple mechanical system with only two structural states. The proposed model is a generalization of the two state model of Huxley and Simmons. The main idea is to replace the rigid bistable device of Huxley and Simmons with an elastic bistable snap spring. In this setting the attached configuration of a cross bridge is represented not only by the discrete energy minima but also by a continuum of intermediate states where the fluctuation induced dynamics of the system takes place. We show that such soft-spin approach explains the load dependence of the power stroke amplitude and removes the well-known contradiction inside the conventional two state model regarding the time scale of the power stroke.

  7. A Novel Three-Filament Model of Force Generation in Eccentric Contraction of Skeletal Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Schappacher-Tilp, Gudrun; Leonard, Timothy; Desch, Gertrud; Herzog, Walter

    2015-01-01

    We propose and examine a three filament model of skeletal muscle force generation, thereby extending classical cross-bridge models by involving titin-actin interaction upon active force production. In regions with optimal actin-myosin overlap, the model does not alter energy and force predictions of cross-bridge models for isometric contractions. However, in contrast to cross-bridge models, the three filament model accurately predicts history-dependent force generation in half sarcomeres for eccentric and concentric contractions, and predicts the activation-dependent forces for stretches beyond actin-myosin filament overlap. PMID:25816319

  8. Skeletal Scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, I. Ross

    1979-01-01

    Skeletal scintigraphy, using phosphates or diphosphonates labeled with technetium 99m, is a sensitive method of detecting bone abnormalities. The most important and most frequent role of bone scanning is evaluating the skeletal areas in patients who have a primary cancer, especially a malignant condition that has a tendency to spread to bone areas. The bone scan is superior to bone radiographs in diagnosing these abnormalities; 15 percent to 25 percent of patients with breast, prostate or lung cancer, who have normal roentgenograms, also have abnormal scintigrams due to metastases. The majority of bone metastases appear as hot spots on the scan and are easily recognized. The incidence of abnormal bone scans in patients with early stages (I and II) of breast cancer varies from 6 percent to 26 percent, but almost invariably those patients with scan abnormalities have a poor prognosis and should be considered for additional therapies. Progression or regression of bony lesions can be defined through scanning, and abnormal areas can be identified for biopsy. The incidence of metastases in solitary scan lesions in patients with known primary tumors varies from 20 percent to 64 percent. Bone scintigraphy shows positive uptake in 95 percent of cases with acute osteomyelitis. Stress fractures and trauma suspected in battered babies can be diagnosed by scanning before there is radiological evidence. The procedure is free from acute or long-term side effects and, except in cases of very young patients, sedation is seldom necessary. Although the test is sensitive, it is not specific and therefore it is difficult to overemphasize the importance of clinical, radiographic, biochemical and scanning correlation in each patient. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:390886

  9. Role of the tail in the regulated state of myosin 2

    PubMed Central

    Jung, HyunSuk; Billington, Neil; Thirumurugan, Kavitha; Salzameda, Bridget; Cremo, Christine R.; Chalovich, Joseph M.; Chantler, Peter D.; Knight, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Myosin 2 from vertebrate smooth muscle or non-muscle sources is in equilibrium between compact, inactive monomers and thick filaments under physiological conditions. In the inactive monomer, the two heads pack compactly together and the long tail is folded into three closely-packed segments that are associated chiefly with one of the heads. The molecular basis of the folding of the tail remains unexplained. Using electron microscopy, we show that compact monomers of smooth muscle myosin 2 have the same structure in both the native state and following specific, intramolecular photo-cross-linking between Cys109 of the regulatory light chain (RLC) and segment 3 of the tail. Non-specific cross-linking between lysine residues of the folded monomer by glutaraldehyde also does not perturb the compact conformation, and stabilises it against unfolding at high ionic strength. Sequence comparisons across phyla and myosin 2 isoforms suggest that folding of the tail is stabilised by ionic interactions between the positively-charged N-terminal sequence of the RLC and a negatively-charged region near the start of tail segment 3, and that phosphorylation of the RLC could perturb these interactions. Our results support the view that interactions between the heads and the distal tail perform a critical role in regulating activity of myosin 2 molecules through stabilising the compact monomer conformation. PMID:21419133

  10. New roles for the LKB1-NUAK pathway in controlling myosin phosphatase complexes and cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Zagórska, Anna; Deak, Maria; Campbell, David G; Banerjee, Sourav; Hirano, Mariko; Aizawa, Shinichi; Prescott, Alan R; Alessi, Dario R

    2010-01-01

    The AMPK-related kinases NUAK1 and NUAK2 are activated by the tumor suppressor LKB1. We found that NUAK1 interacts with several myosin phosphatases, including the myosin phosphatase targeting-1 (MYPT1)-protein phosphatase-1beta (PP1beta) complex, through conserved Gly-Ile-Leu-Lys motifs that are direct binding sites for PP1beta. Phosphorylation of Ser(445), Ser(472), and Ser(910) of MYPT1 by NUAK1 promoted the interaction of MYPT1 with 14-3-3 adaptor proteins, thereby suppressing phosphatase activity. Cell detachment induced phosphorylation of endogenous MYPT1 by NUAK1, resulting in 14-3-3 binding to MYPT1 and enhanced phosphorylation of myosin light chain-2. Inhibition of the LKB1-NUAK1 pathway impaired cell detachment. Our data indicate that NUAK1 controls cell adhesion and functions as a regulator of myosin phosphatase complexes. Thus, LKB1 can influence the phosphorylation of targets not only through the AMPK family of kinases but also by controlling phosphatase complexes. PMID:20354225

  11. Ca2+-Dependent Regulations and Signaling in Skeletal Muscle: From Electro-Mechanical Coupling to Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Gehlert, Sebastian; Bloch, Wilhelm; Suhr, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) plays a pivotal role in almost all cellular processes and ensures the functionality of an organism. In skeletal muscle fibers, Ca2+ is critically involved in the innervation of skeletal muscle fibers that results in the exertion of an action potential along the muscle fiber membrane, the prerequisite for skeletal muscle contraction. Furthermore and among others, Ca2+ regulates also intracellular processes, such as myosin-actin cross bridging, protein synthesis, protein degradation and fiber type shifting by the control of Ca2+-sensitive proteases and transcription factors, as well as mitochondrial adaptations, plasticity and respiration. These data highlight the overwhelming significance of Ca2+ ions for the integrity of skeletal muscle tissue. In this review, we address the major functions of Ca2+ ions in adult muscle but also highlight recent findings of critical Ca2+-dependent mechanisms essential for skeletal muscle-regulation and maintenance. PMID:25569087

  12. Does Interaction between the Motor and Regulatory Domains of the Myosin Head Occur during ATPase Cycle? Evidence from Thermal Unfolding Studies on Myosin Subfragment 1

    PubMed Central

    Logvinova, Daria S.; Markov, Denis I.; Nikolaeva, Olga P.; Sluchanko, Nikolai N.; Ushakov, Dmitry S.; Levitsky, Dmitrii I.

    2015-01-01

    Myosin head (myosin subfragment 1, S1) consists of two major structural domains, the motor (or catalytic) domain and the regulatory domain. Functioning of the myosin head as a molecular motor is believed to involve a rotation of the regulatory domain (lever arm) relative to the motor domain during the ATPase cycle. According to predictions, this rotation can be accompanied by an interaction between the motor domain and the C-terminus of the essential light chain (ELC) associated with the regulatory domain. To check this assumption, we applied differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) combined with temperature dependences of fluorescence to study changes in thermal unfolding and the domain structure of S1, which occur upon formation of the ternary complexes S1-ADP-AlF4- and S1-ADP-BeFx that mimic S1 ATPase intermediate states S1**-ADP-Pi and S1*-ATP, respectively. To identify the thermal transitions on the DSC profiles (i.e. to assign them to the structural domains of S1), we compared the DSC data with temperature-induced changes in fluorescence of either tryptophan residues, located only in the motor domain, or recombinant ELC mutants (light chain 1 isoform), which were first fluorescently labeled at different positions in their C-terminal half and then introduced into the S1 regulatory domain. We show that formation of the ternary complexes S1-ADP-AlF4- and S1-ADP-BeFx significantly stabilizes not only the motor domain, but also the regulatory domain of the S1 molecule implying interdomain interaction via ELC. This is consistent with the previously proposed concepts and also adds some new interesting details to the molecular mechanism of the myosin ATPase cycle. PMID:26356744

  13. Does Interaction between the Motor and Regulatory Domains of the Myosin Head Occur during ATPase Cycle? Evidence from Thermal Unfolding Studies on Myosin Subfragment 1.

    PubMed

    Logvinova, Daria S; Markov, Denis I; Nikolaeva, Olga P; Sluchanko, Nikolai N; Ushakov, Dmitry S; Levitsky, Dmitrii I

    2015-01-01

    Myosin head (myosin subfragment 1, S1) consists of two major structural domains, the motor (or catalytic) domain and the regulatory domain. Functioning of the myosin head as a molecular motor is believed to involve a rotation of the regulatory domain (lever arm) relative to the motor domain during the ATPase cycle. According to predictions, this rotation can be accompanied by an interaction between the motor domain and the C-terminus of the essential light chain (ELC) associated with the regulatory domain. To check this assumption, we applied differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) combined with temperature dependences of fluorescence to study changes in thermal unfolding and the domain structure of S1, which occur upon formation of the ternary complexes S1-ADP-AlF4- and S1-ADP-BeFx that mimic S1 ATPase intermediate states S1**-ADP-Pi and S1*-ATP, respectively. To identify the thermal transitions on the DSC profiles (i.e. to assign them to the structural domains of S1), we compared the DSC data with temperature-induced changes in fluorescence of either tryptophan residues, located only in the motor domain, or recombinant ELC mutants (light chain 1 isoform), which were first fluorescently labeled at different positions in their C-terminal half and then introduced into the S1 regulatory domain. We show that formation of the ternary complexes S1-ADP-AlF4- and S1-ADP-BeFx significantly stabilizes not only the motor domain, but also the regulatory domain of the S1 molecule implying interdomain interaction via ELC. This is consistent with the previously proposed concepts and also adds some new interesting details to the molecular mechanism of the myosin ATPase cycle. PMID:26356744

  14. Differentially expressed proteins associated with myogenesis and adipogenesis in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue between bulls and steers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiankun; Lee, Hong-Gu; Han, Jung-A; Kang, Sang Kee; Lee, Nam Kyung; Baik, Myunggi; Choi, Yun-Jaie

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to identify some proteins associated with testosterone-related differences in myogenesis and adipogenesis between bulls and steers. Global proteins were monitored in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue from bulls (n = 20) and steers (n = 20), respectively. We identified four differentially expressed (twofold or more) proteins in skeletal muscle from bulls, myosin light chain 1 (MLC1), ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein 1 (ANKRD1) and heat shock protein beta 1 (HSPB1) that were up-regulated and cofilin 2 (CFL2) that was down-regulated, and also identified two down-regulated proteins in adipose tissue, transaldolase 1 (TALDO1) and L: -lactate dehydrogenase B chain (LDHB). In vitro, after myogenic differentiation of a bovine cell line, the mRNA expression of HSPB1 not only increased approximately tenfold in response to differentiation but threefold in response to testosterone addition, respectively, but that of ANKRD1 and CFL2 did not significantly change in response to myogenic differentiation or testosterone addition. Likewise, after adipogenic differentiation of a bovine cell line, the mRNA expression of TALDO1 and LDHB did not significantly vary in response to adipogenic differentiation or testosterone addition. Therefore, we suggest that HSPB1 could have an important role during testosterone-related myogenesis. PMID:21594731

  15. Direct real-time detection of the actin-activated power stroke within the myosin catalytic domain.

    PubMed

    Muretta, Joseph M; Petersen, Karl J; Thomas, David D

    2013-04-30

    We have used transient kinetics, nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and kinetics simulations to resolve a structural transition in the Dictyostelium myosin II relay helix during the actin-activated power stroke. The relay helix plays a critical role in force generation in myosin, coupling biochemical changes in the ATPase site with the force-transducing rotation of the myosin light-chain domain. Previous research in the absence of actin showed that ATP binding to myosin induces a dynamic equilibrium between a bent prepower stroke state of the relay helix and a straight postpower stroke state, which dominates in the absence of ATP or when ADP is bound. We now ask whether actin binding reverses this transition and if so, how this reversal is coordinated with actin-activated phosphate release. We labeled a Cys-lite Dictyostelium myosin II motor domain with donor and acceptor probes at two engineered Cys residues designed to detect relay helix bending. We then performed transient time-resolved FRET following stopped-flow mixing of actin with labeled myosin, preincubated with ATP. We determined the kinetics of actin-activated phosphate release, using fluorescent phosphate-binding protein. The results show that actin binding to the myosin.ADP.P complex straightens the relay helix before phosphate dissociation. This actin-activated relay helix straightening is reversible, but phosphate irreversibly dissociates from the postpower stroke state, preventing reversal of the power stroke. Thus, relay helix straightening gates phosphate dissociation, whereas phosphate dissociation provides the thermodynamic driving force underlying force production. PMID:23589853

  16. Gene Regions Responding to Skeletal Muscle Atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Frank W.

    1997-01-01

    Our stated specific aims for this project were: 1) Identify the region(s) of the mouse IIb myosin heavy chain (MHC) promoter necessary for in vivo expression in mouse fast-twitch muscle, and 2) Identify the region(s) of the mouse IIb MHC promoter responsive to immobilization in mouse slow-twitch muscle in vivo. We sought to address these specific aims by introducing various MHC IIb promoter/reporter gene constructs directly into the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles of living mice. Although the method of somatic gene transfer into skeletal muscle by direct injection has been successfully used in our laboratory to study the regulation of the skeletal alpha actin gene in chicken skeletal muscle, we had many difficulties utilizing this procedure in the mouse. Because of the small size of the mouse soleus and the difficulty in obtaining consistent results, we elected not to study this muscle as first proposed. Rather, our MHC IIb promoter deletion experiments were performed in the gastrocnemius. Further, we decided to use hindlimb unloading via tail suspension to induce an upregulation of the MHC IIb gene, rather than immobilization of the hindlimbs via plaster casts. This change was made because tail suspension more closely mimics spaceflight, and this procedure in our lab results in a smaller loss of overall body mass than the mouse hindlimb immobilization procedure. This suggests that the stress level during tail suspension is less than during immobilization. This research has provided an important beginning point towards understanding the molecular regulation of the MHC lIb gene in response to unweighting of skeletal muscle Future work will focus on the regulation of MHC IIb mRNA stability in response to altered loading of skeletal muscle

  17. Structural dynamics of troponin during activation of skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Fusi, Luca; Brunello, Elisabetta; Sevrieva, Ivanka R.; Sun, Yin-Biao; Irving, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Time-resolved changes in the conformation of troponin in the thin filaments of skeletal muscle were followed during activation in situ by photolysis of caged calcium using bifunctional fluorescent probes in the regulatory and the coiled-coil (IT arm) domains of troponin. Three sequential steps in the activation mechanism were identified. The fastest step (1,100 s?1) matches the rate of Ca2+ binding to the regulatory domain but also dominates the motion of the IT arm. The second step (120 s?1) coincides with the azimuthal motion of tropomyosin around the thin filament. The third step (15 s?1) was shown by three independent approaches to track myosin head binding to the thin filament, but is absent in the regulatory head. The results lead to a four-state structural kinetic model that describes the molecular mechanism of muscle activation in the thin filamentmyosin head complex under physiological conditions. PMID:24616505

  18. Myocyte contractility can be maintained by storing cells with the myosin ATPase inhibitor 2,3 butanedione monoxime

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Charles S; Mechas, Charles; Campbell, Kenneth S

    2015-01-01

    Isolated intact myocytes can be used to investigate contractile mechanisms and to screen new therapeutic compounds. These experiments typically require euthanizing an animal and isolating fresh cells each day or analyzing cultured myocytes, which quickly lose their rod-shaped morphology. Recent data suggest that the viability of canine myocytes can be prolonged using low temperature and N-benzyl-p-toluene sulfonamide (an inhibitor of skeletal myosin ATPase). We performed similar studies in rat myocytes in order to test whether the cardiac myosin ATPase inhibitors 2,3-Butanedione monoxime (BDM) and blebbistatin help to maintain cell-level function over multiple days. Myocytes were isolated from rats and separated into batches that were stored at 4C in a HEPES-buffered solution that contained 0.5mmol L?1 Ca2+ and (1) no myosin ATPase inhibitors; (2) 10mmol L?1 BDM; or (3) 3?mol L?1 blebbistatin. Functional viability of myocytes was assessed up to 3days after the isolation by measuring calcium transients and unloaded shortening profiles induced by electrical stimuli in inhibitor-free Tyrode's solution. Cells stored without myosin ATPase inhibitors had altered morphology (fewer rod-shaped cells, shorter diastolic sarcomere lengths, and membrane blebbing) and were not viable for contractile assays after 24h. Cells stored in BDM maintained morphology and contractile function for 48h. Storage in blebbistatin maintained cell morphology for 72h but inhibited contractility. These data show that storing cells with myosin ATPase inhibitors can extend the viability of myocytes that will be used for functional assays. This may help to refine and reduce the use of animals in experiments. PMID:26116551

  19. Prdm1 (Blimp-1) and the Expression of Fast and Slow Myosin Heavy Chain Isoforms during Avian Myogenesis In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Girgenrath, Mahasweta; Miller, Jeffrey Boone

    2010-01-01

    Background Multiple types of fast and slow skeletal muscle fibers form during early embryogenesis in vertebrates. In zebrafish, formation of the earliest slow myofibers in fin muscles requires expression of the zinc-finger transcriptional repressor Prdm1 (also known as Blimp1). To further understand how the role of Prdm1 in early myogenesis may vary through evolution and during development, we have now analyzed Prdm1 expression in the diverse types of myotubes that form in culture from somitic, embryonic, and fetal chicken myoblasts. Principal Findings In cultures of somitic, embryonic limb, and fetal limb chicken cells, we found that Prdm1 was expressed in all of the differentiated muscle cells that formed, including those that expressed only fast myosin heavy chain isoforms, as well as those that co-expressed both fast and slow myosin heavy chain isoforms. Prdm1 was also expressed in Pax7-positive myoblasts, as well as in non-myogenic cells in the cultures. Furthermore, though all differentiated cells in control somite cultures co-expressed fast and slow myosin heavy chains, antisense knockdown of Prdm1 expression inhibited the formation of these co-expressing cells in somite cultures. Conclusions In chicken myogenic cell cultures, Prdm1 was expressed in most Pax7-positive myoblasts and in all differentiated muscle cells, irrespective of the developmental stage of cell donor or the pattern of fast and slow myosin heavy chains expressed in the differentiated cells that were formed. Thus, Prdm1 was expressed in myogenic cells prior to terminal differentiation; and, after differentiation, Prdm1 expression was not limited to cells that expressed slow myosin heavy chain isoforms. In addition, Prdm1 appeared to be required for differentiation of the somitic myocytes, which are the earliest myocytes to form in the avian embryo. PMID:20376350

  20. Mechanical output of myosin II motors is regulated by myosin filament size and actin network mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stam, Samantha; Alberts, Jonathan; Gardel, Margaret; Munro, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    The interactions of bipolar myosin II filaments with actin arrays are a predominate means of generating forces in numerous physiological processes including muscle contraction and cell migration. However, how the spatiotemporal regulation of these forces depends on motor mechanochemistry, bipolar filament size, and local actin mechanics is unknown. Here, we simulate myosin II motors with an agent-based model in which the motors have been benchmarked against experimental measurements. Force generation occurs in two distinct regimes characterized either by stable tension maintenance or by stochastic buildup and release; transitions between these regimes occur by changes to duty ratio and myosin filament size. The time required for building force to stall scales inversely with the stiffness of a network and the actin gliding speed of a motor. Finally, myosin motors are predicted to contract a network toward stiffer regions, which is consistent with experimental observations. Our representation of myosin motors can be used to understand how their mechanical and biochemical properties influence their observed behavior in a variety of in vitro and in vivo contexts.

  1. Aging of Skeletal Muscle Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Miljkovic, Natasa; Lim, Jae-Young; Miljkovic, Iva

    2015-01-01

    Aging has become an important topic for scientific research because life expectancy and the number of men and women in older age groups have increased dramatically in the last century. This is true in most countries of the world including the Republic of Korea and the United States. From a rehabilitation perspective, the most important associated issue is a progressive decline in functional capacity and independence. Sarcopenia is partly responsible for this decline. Many changes underlying the loss of muscle mass and force-generating capacity of skeletal muscle can be understood at the cellular and molecular levels. Muscle size and architecture are both altered with advanced adult age. Further, changes in myofibers include impairments in several physiological domains including muscle fiber activation, excitation-contraction coupling, actin-myosin cross-bridge interaction, energy production, and repair and regeneration. A thorough understanding of these alterations can lead to the design of improved preventative and rehabilitative interventions, such as personalized exercise training programs. PMID:25932410

  2. Actin depolymerisation and crosslinking join forces with myosin II to contract actin coats on fused secretory vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Miklavc, Pika; Ehinger, Konstantin; Sultan, Ayesha; Felder, Tatiana; Paul, Patrick; Gottschalk, Kay-Eberhard; Frick, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In many secretory cells actin and myosin are specifically recruited to the surface of secretory granules following their fusion with the plasma membrane. Actomyosin-dependent compression of fused granules is essential to promote active extrusion of cargo. However, little is known about molecular mechanisms regulating actin coat formation and contraction. Here, we provide a detailed kinetic analysis of the molecules regulating actin coat contraction on fused lamellar bodies in primary alveolar type II cells. We demonstrate that ROCK1 and myosin light chain kinase 1 (MLCK1, also known as MYLK) translocate to fused lamellar bodies and activate myosin II on actin coats. However, myosin II activity is not sufficient for efficient actin coat contraction. In addition, cofilin-1 and ?-actinin translocate to actin coats. ROCK1-dependent regulated actin depolymerisation by cofilin-1 in cooperation with actin crosslinking by ?-actinin is essential for complete coat contraction. In summary, our data suggest a complementary role for regulated actin depolymerisation and crosslinking, and myosin II activity, to contract actin coats and drive secretion. PMID:25637593

  3. Actin depolymerisation and crosslinking join forces with myosin II to contract actin coats on fused secretory vesicles.

    PubMed

    Miklavc, Pika; Ehinger, Konstantin; Sultan, Ayesha; Felder, Tatiana; Paul, Patrick; Gottschalk, Kay-Eberhard; Frick, Manfred

    2015-03-15

    In many secretory cells actin and myosin are specifically recruited to the surface of secretory granules following their fusion with the plasma membrane. Actomyosin-dependent compression of fused granules is essential to promote active extrusion of cargo. However, little is known about molecular mechanisms regulating actin coat formation and contraction. Here, we provide a detailed kinetic analysis of the molecules regulating actin coat contraction on fused lamellar bodies in primary alveolar type II cells. We demonstrate that ROCK1 and myosin light chain kinase 1 (MLCK1, also known as MYLK) translocate to fused lamellar bodies and activate myosin II on actin coats. However, myosin II activity is not sufficient for efficient actin coat contraction. In addition, cofilin-1 and ?-actinin translocate to actin coats. ROCK1-dependent regulated actin depolymerisation by cofilin-1 in cooperation with actin crosslinking by ?-actinin is essential for complete coat contraction. In summary, our data suggest a complementary role for regulated actin depolymerisation and crosslinking, and myosin II activity, to contract actin coats and drive secretion. PMID:25637593

  4. Biochemical and histochemical adaptations of skeletal muscle to rat suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Templeton, G. H.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of rat suspension on soleus disuse and atrophy was investigated to measure changes in fiber area and number and to determine if suspension elicited changes in lysosomal protease activity and rate of calcium uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The infuence of rat suspension on myosin light chain phosphorylation and succinate dehydrogenase activity are determined.

  5. Skeletal muscle plasticity: cellular and molecular responses to altered physical activity paradigms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Kenneth M.; Haddad, Fadia

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this article is to examine our current understanding of the chain of events known to be involved in the adaptive process whereby specific genes and their protein products undergo altered expression; specifically, skeletal muscle adaptation in response to altered loading states will be discussed, with a special focus on the regulation of the contractile protein, myosin heavy chain gene expression. This protein, which is both an important structural and regulatory protein comprising the contractile apparatus, can be expressed as different isoforms, thereby having an impact on the functional diversity of the muscle. Because the regulation of the myosin gene family is under the control of a complex set of processes including, but not limited to, activity, hormonal, and metabolic factors, this protein will serve as a cellular "marker" for studies of muscle plasticity in response to various mechanical perturbations in which the quantity and type of myosin isoform, along with other important cellular proteins, are altered in expression.

  6. Location of the head-tail junction of myosin

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The tails of double-headed myosin molecules consist of an alpha- helical/coiled-coil structure composed of two identical polypeptides with a heptad repeat of hydrophobic amino acids that starts immediately after a conserved proline near position 847. Both muscle and nonmuscle myosins have this heptad repeat and it has been assumed that proline 847 is physically located at the head-tail junction. We present two lines of evidence that this assumption is incorrect. First, we localized the binding sites of several monoclonal antibodies on Acanthamoeba myosin-II both physically, by electron microscopy, and chemically, with a series of truncated myosin-II peptides produced in bacteria. These data indicate that the head-tail junction is located near residue 900. Second, we compared the lengths of two truncated recombinant myosin-II tails with native myosin-II. The distances from the NH2 termini to the tips of these short tails confirms the rise per residue (0.148 nm/residue) and establishes that the 86-nm tail of myosin-II must start near residue 900. We propose that the first 53 residues of heptad repeat of Acanthamoeba myosin-II and other myosins are located in the heads and the proteolytic separation of S-1 from rod occurs within the heads. PMID:2715178

  7. Regulation of nonmuscle myosin II during 3-methylcholanthrene induced dedifferentiation of C2C12 myotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, Sumit K.; Saha, Shekhar; Das, Provas; Das, Mahua R.; Jana, Siddhartha S.

    2014-08-01

    3-Methylcholanthrene (3MC) induces tumor formation at the site of injection in the hind leg of mice within 110 days. Recent reports reveal that the transformation of normal muscle cells to atypical cells is one of the causes for tumor formation, however the molecular mechanism behind this process is not well understood. Here, we show in an in vitro study that 3MC induces fragmentation of multinucleate myotubes into viable mononucleates. These mononucleates form colonies when they are seeded into soft agar, indicative of cellular transformation. Immunoblot analysis reveals that phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC{sub 20}) is 5.6±0.5 fold reduced in 3MC treated myotubes in comparison to vehicle treated myotubes during the fragmentation of myotubes. In contrast, levels of myogenic factors such as MyoD, Myogenin and cell cycle regulators such as Cyclin D, Cyclin E1 remain unchanged as assessed by real-time PCR array and reverse transcriptase PCR analysis, respectively. Interestingly, addition of the myosin light chain kinase inhibitor, ML-7, enhances the fragmentation, whereas phosphatase inhibitor perturbs the 3MC induced fragmentation of myotubes. These results suggest that decrease in RLC{sub 20} phosphorylation may be associated with the fragmentation step of dedifferentiation. - Highlights: • 3-Methylcholanthrene induces fragmentation of C2C12-myotubes. • Dedifferentiation can be divided into two steps – fragmentation and proliferation. • Fragmentation is associated with rearrangement of nonmuscle myosin II. • Genes associated with differentiation and proliferation are not altered during fragmentation. • Phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain is reduced during fragmentation.

  8. Lighting.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-09-01

    Since lighting accounts for about one-third of the energy used in commercial buildings, there is opportunity to conserve. There are two ways to reduce lighting energy use: modify lighting systems so that they used less electricity and/or reduce the number of hours the lights are used. This booklet presents a number of ways to do both. Topics covered include: reassessing lighting levels, reducing lighting levels, increasing bulb & fixture efficiency, using controls to regulate lighting, and taking advantage of daylight.

  9. FT-IR studies on light olefin skeletal isomerization catalysis: II. The interaction of C4 olefins and alcohols with HZSM5 zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Trombetta, M.; Busca, G.; Rossini, S.

    1997-06-01

    The catalytic activity of the zeolite HZSM5 in n-butene conversion was investigated under conditions similar to those of a commercial process for skeletal isomerization. The catalyst was found to be very active in n-butene conversion, but selectivity to isobutene was low due to a predominance of cracking, coking, and oligomerization side reactions. The interaction of 1-butene, cis-2-butene, trans-2-butene, isobutene, sec-butanol, and tert-butanol was also investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy in the temperature range 150-673 K. 47 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Developmental Changes is Expression of Beta-Adrenergic Receptors in Cultures of C2C12 Skeletal Muscle Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Ronald B.; Bridge, K. Y.; Vaughn, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    beta-Adrenergic receptor (bAR) agonists have been reported to modulate growth in several mammalian and avian species, and bAR agonists presumably exert their physiological action on skeletal muscle cells through this receptor. Because of the importance of bAR regulation on muscle protein metabolism in muscle cells, the objectives of this study were to determine the developmental expression pattern of the bAR population in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells, and to analyze changes in both the quantity and isoform expression of the major muscle protein, myosin. The number of bAR in mononucleated C2C12 cells was approximately 8,000 bAR per cell, which is comparable with the population reported in several other nonmuscle cell types. However, the bar population increased after myoblast fusion to greater than 50,000 bAR per muscle cell equivalent. The reasons for this apparent over-expression of bAR in C2C12 cells is not known. The quantity of myosin also increased after C2C12 myoblast fusion, but the quantity of myosin was less than that reported in primary muscle cell cultures. Finally, at least five different isoforms of myosin heavy chain could be resolved in C2C12 cells, and three of these exhibited either increased or decreased developmental regulation relative to the others. Thus, C2C12 myoblasts undergo developmental regulation of bAR population and myosin heavy chain isoform expression.

  11. FT-IR studies on light olefin skeletal isomerization catalysis: I. The interaction of C4 olefins and alcohols with pure {gamma}-alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Trombetta, M.; Busca, G.; Rossini, S.A.

    1997-06-01

    The skeletal isomerization of n-butene to isobutene and the interaction of the four butene isomers and of sec-butanol and tert-butanol with a pure y-alumina sample were investigated. {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is quite active (>34% conversion) and a selective catalyst for n-butene to isobutene isomerization at 753 K (>80% selectivity). FT-IR spectroscopic experiments show that the C{sub 4} olefins are involved in two different interactions on the alumina surface at room temperature: (I) H-bonding over surface hydroxy groups and (H) reactive adsorption giving rise to allyl species. Both species have been fully characterized spectroscopically for all four butene isomers. At higher temperatures, carboxylates appear, some of which are aromatic. Alcohol adsorption shows that 2-butoxy and tert-butoxy groups decompose to give gaseous n-butene and isobutene, respectively, near 473 K. Moreover, traces of tert-butoxy species are observed starting from 2-butoxides. H-bonded olefin species are assumed to be precursors for carbenium ions that give rise to double-bond and skeletal isomerization at high temperature. Butoxy groups are proposed to act as the unstable intermediate adsorbed forms for carbenium ions. Allyl species are identified as intermediates in double-bond isomerization at low temperature and in the formation of by-products and coking agents (aromatics and carboxylates) at high temperature. 55 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Skeletal muscle molecular alterations precede whole-muscle dysfunction in NYHA Class II heart failure patients

    PubMed Central

    Godard, Michael P; Whitman, Samantha A; Song, Yao-Hua; Delafontaine, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Background Heart failure (HF), a debilitating disease in a growing number of adults, exerts structural and neurohormonal changes in both cardiac and skeletal muscles. However, these alterations and their affected molecular pathways remain uncharacterized. Disease progression is known to transform skeletal muscle fiber composition by unknown mechanisms. In addition, perturbation of specific hormonal pathways, including those involving skeletal muscle insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 (IGFB-5) appears to occur, likely affecting muscle metabolism and regeneration. We hypothesized that changes in IGF-1 and IGFB-5 mRNA levels correlate with the transformation of single–skeletal muscle fiber myosin heavy chain isoforms early in disease progression, making these molecules valuable markers of skeletal muscle changes in heart failure. Materials and methods To investigate these molecules during “early” events in HF patients, we obtained skeletal muscle biopsies from New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class II HF patients and controls for molecular analyses of single fibers, and we also quantified isometric strength and muscle size. Results There were more (P < 0.05) single muscle fibers coexpressing two or more myosin heavy chains in the HF patients (30% ± 7%) compared to the control subjects (13% ± 2%). IGF-1 and IGFBP-5 expression was fivefold and 15-fold lower in patients with in HF compared to control subjects (P < 0.05), respectively. Strikingly, there was a correlation in IGF-1 expression and muscle cross-sectional area (P < 0.05) resulting in a decrease in whole-muscle quality (P < 0.05) in the HF patients, despite no significant decrease in isometric strength or whole-muscle size. Conclusion These data indicate that molecular alterations in myosin heavy chain isoforms, IGF-1, and IGFB-5 levels precede the gross morphological and functional deficits that have previously been associated with HF, and may be used as a predictor of functional outcome in patients. PMID:23204842

  13. The myosin chaperone UNC45B is involved in lens development and autosomal dominant juvenile cataract.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Lars; Comyn, Sophie; Mang, Yuan; Lind-Thomsen, Allan; Myhre, Layne; Jean, Francesca; Eiberg, Hans; Tommerup, Niels; Rosenberg, Thomas; Pilgrim, David

    2014-11-01

    Genome-wide linkage analysis, followed by targeted deep sequencing, in a Danish multigeneration family with juvenile cataract revealed a region of chromosome 17 co-segregating with the disease trait. Affected individuals were heterozygous for two potentially protein-disrupting alleles in this region, in ACACA and UNC45B. As alterations of the UNC45B protein have been shown to affect eye development in model organisms, effort was focused on the heterozygous UNC45B missense mutation. UNC45B encodes a myosin-specific chaperone that, together with the general heat shock protein HSP90, is involved in myosin assembly. The mutation changes p.Arg805 to Trp in the UCS domain, an amino acid that is highly conserved from yeast to human. UNC45B is strongly expressed in the heart and skeletal muscle tissue, but here we show expression in human embryo eye and zebrafish lens. The zebrafish mutant steif, carrying an unc45b nonsense mutation, has smaller eyes than wild-type embryos and shows accumulation of nuclei in the lens. Injection of RNA encoding the human wild-type UNC45B protein into the steif homozygous embryo reduced the nuclei accumulation and injection of human mutant UNC45B cDNA in wild-type embryos resulted in development of a phenotype similar to the steif mutant. The p.Arg805Trp alteration in the mammalian UNC45B gene suggests that developmental cataract may be caused by a defect in non-muscle myosin assembly during maturation of the lens fiber cells. PMID:24549050

  14. The myosin chaperone UNC45B is involved in lens development and autosomal dominant juvenile cataract

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Lars; Comyn, Sophie; Mang, Yuan; Lind-Thomsen, Allan; Myhre, Layne; Jean, Francesca; Eiberg, Hans; Tommerup, Niels; Rosenberg, Thomas; Pilgrim, David

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide linkage analysis, followed by targeted deep sequencing, in a Danish multigeneration family with juvenile cataract revealed a region of chromosome 17 co-segregating with the disease trait. Affected individuals were heterozygous for two potentially protein-disrupting alleles in this region, in ACACA and UNC45B. As alterations of the UNC45B protein have been shown to affect eye development in model organisms, effort was focused on the heterozygous UNC45B missense mutation. UNC45B encodes a myosin-specific chaperone that, together with the general heat shock protein HSP90, is involved in myosin assembly. The mutation changes p.Arg805 to Trp in the UCS domain, an amino acid that is highly conserved from yeast to human. UNC45B is strongly expressed in the heart and skeletal muscle tissue, but here we show expression in human embryo eye and zebrafish lens. The zebrafish mutant steif, carrying an unc45b nonsense mutation, has smaller eyes than wild-type embryos and shows accumulation of nuclei in the lens. Injection of RNA encoding the human wild-type UNC45B protein into the steif homozygous embryo reduced the nuclei accumulation and injection of human mutant UNC45B cDNA in wild-type embryos resulted in development of a phenotype similar to the steif mutant. The p.Arg805Trp alteration in the mammalian UNC45B gene suggests that developmental cataract may be caused by a defect in non-muscle myosin assembly during maturation of the lens fiber cells. PMID:24549050

  15. Reduced passive force in skeletal muscles lacking protein arginylation.

    PubMed

    Leite, Felipe S; Minozzo, Fbio C; Kalganov, Albert; Cornachione, Anabelle S; Cheng, Yu-Shu; Leu, Nicolae A; Han, Xuemei; Saripalli, Chandra; Yates, John R; Granzier, Henk; Kashina, Anna S; Rassier, Dilson E

    2016-01-15

    Arginylation is a posttranslational modification that plays a global role in mammals. Mice lacking the enzyme arginyltransferase in skeletal muscles exhibit reduced contractile forces that have been linked to a reduction in myosin cross-bridge formation. The role of arginylation in passive skeletal myofibril forces has never been investigated. In this study, we used single sarcomere and myofibril measurements and observed that lack of arginylation leads to a pronounced reduction in passive forces in skeletal muscles. Mass spectrometry indicated that skeletal muscle titin, the protein primarily linked to passive force generation, is arginylated on five sites located within the A band, an important area for protein-protein interactions. We propose a mechanism for passive force regulation by arginylation through modulation of protein-protein binding between the titin molecule and the thick filament. Key points are as follows: 1) active and passive forces were decreased in myofibrils and single sarcomeres isolated from muscles lacking arginyl-tRNA-protein transferase (ATE1). 2) Mass spectrometry revealed five sites for arginylation within titin molecules. All sites are located within the A-band portion of titin, an important region for protein-protein interactions. 3) Our data suggest that arginylation of titin is required for proper passive force development in skeletal muscles. PMID:26511365

  16. Myosin-X: a MyTH-FERM myosin at the tips of filopodia

    PubMed Central

    Kerber, Michael L.; Cheney, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Myosin-X (Myo10) is an unconventional myosin with MyTH4-FERM domains that is best known for its striking localization to the tips of filopodia and its ability to induce filopodia. Although the head domain of Myo10 enables it to function as an actin-based motor, its tail contains binding sites for several molecules with central roles in cell biology, including phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate, microtubules and integrins. Myo10 also undergoes fascinating long-range movements within filopodia, which appear to represent a newly recognized system of transport. Myo10 is also unusual in that it is a myosin with important roles in the spindle, a microtubule-based structure. Exciting new studies have begun to reveal the structure and single-molecule properties of this intriguing myosin, as well as its mechanisms of regulation and induction of filopodia. At the cellular and organismal level, growing evidence demonstrates that Myo10 has crucial functions in numerous processes ranging from invadopodia formation to cell migration. PMID:22124140

  17. Cross-bridge cooperativity during isometric contraction and unloaded shortening of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Barnett, V A

    2001-01-01

    Whether the two heads of skeletal muscle myosin work independently or cooperatively remains an open question in muscle biophysics. While individual myosin heads are sufficient for ATPase activity (Reisler (1980) J Mol Biol 138: 93-107) and force production (Harada et al. (1987) Nature 326: 805-808), it has also been reported that in situ, the two heads of a myosin molecule work cooperatively (Chaen et al. (1986) J Biol Chem 261(29): 13,632-13,636). To examine the role of cross-bridge cooperativity on isometric contraction and unloaded shortening we progressively inactivated myosin cross-bridges via titration with para-phenylenedimaleimide. The resting fiber ATPase was measured to provide an estimate of the fraction of active cross-bridges remaining during the titration. Isometric force and unloaded shortening velocity decline more rapidly than the resting ATPase as the titration proceeds. This is inconsistent with models for independent force generation and suggests cooperative action of myosin cross-bridges when muscle is isometrically contracting or shortening under zero load. However the degree of cooperativity depends on the type of muscle activity. While isometric force declines in a manner consistent with pair-wise cooperative action of myosin heads, unloaded shortening velocity declines more rapidly (greater cooperativity). Therefore, myosin cross-bridges in situ may be capable of at least two types of cooperative interactions, pair-wise cooperativity (when isometric) and another form of cooperativity that is sensitive to longer range interactions transmitted from other cross-bridges in the ensemble (during unloaded shortening). PMID:11964067

  18. Myogenic Growth Factor Present in Skeletal Muscle is Purified by Heparin-Affinity Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardami, Elissavet; Spector, Dennis; Strohman, Richard C.

    1985-12-01

    A myogenic growth factor has been purified from a skeletal muscle, the anterior latissimus dorsi, of adult chickens. In the range of 1-10 ng, this factor stimulates DNA synthesis as well as protein and muscle-specific myosin accumulation in myogenic cell cultures. Purification is achieved through binding of the factor to heparin. The factor is distinct from transferrin and works synergistically with transferrin in stimulating myogenesis in vitro.

  19. Unconventional myosin traffic in cells reveals a selective actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Brawley, Crista M.; Rock, Ronald S.

    2009-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells have a self-organizing cytoskeleton where motors transport cargoes along cytoskeletal tracks. To understand the sorting process, we developed a system to observe single-molecule motility in a cellular context. We followed myosin classes V, VI, and X on triton-extracted actin cytoskeletons from Drosophila S2, mammalian COS-7, and mammalian U2OS cells. We find that these cells vary considerably in their global traffic patterns. The S2 and U2OS cells have regions of actin that either enhance or inhibit specific myosin classes. U2OS cells allow for 1 motor class, myosin VI, to move along stress fiber bundles, while motility of myosin V and X are suppressed. Myosin X motors are recruited to filopodia and the lamellar edge in S2 cells, whereas myosin VI motility is excluded from the same regions. Furthermore, we also see different velocities of myosin V motors in central regions of S2 cells, suggesting regional control of motor motility by the actin cytoskeleton. We also find unexpected features of the actin cytoskeletal network, including a population of reversed filaments with the barbed-end toward the cell center. This myosin motor regulation demonstrates that native actin cytoskeletons are more than just a collection of filaments. PMID:19478066

  20. Regulation of myosin II activity by actin architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weirich, Kimberly; Stam, Samantha; McCall, Patrick; Munro, Edwin; Gardel, Margaret

    2015-03-01

    Networks of actin filaments containing myosin II motors generate forces and motions that promote biological processes such as cell division, motility, and cargo transport. In cells, actin filaments are arranged in various structures from disordered meshworks to tight bundles. Clusters of myosin II motors, known as myosin filaments, crosslink and generate force on neighboring actin filaments. We hypothesized that the local actin architecture controls the magnitude and duration of force generated by myosin II motors. We used fluorescence imaging to directly measure the mobility of myosin II filaments on actin networks and bundles with varying actin filament polarity, orientation, spacing, and length. On unipolar bundles, myosin exhibits fast, unidirectional motion consistent with their unloaded gliding speed. On mixed polarity bundles, myosin speed is reduced by one order of magnitude and marked by direction switching and trapping. Increasing filament spacing and bundle flexibility reduces the duration of trapping and enhances the mobility of motors. Simulations indicate that stable trapping is a signature of large generated forces while increased mobility indicates force release. Our data underscore that the efficiency of force generation by myosin motors in an actin network depends sensitively on its architecture and suggests actin crosslinking proteins are tuned to optimize actomyosin contractility.

  1. Analysis of the myosins encoded in the recently completed Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, A. S.; Day, I. S.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Three types of molecular motors play an important role in the organization, dynamics and transport processes associated with the cytoskeleton. The myosin family of molecular motors move cargo on actin filaments, whereas kinesin and dynein motors move cargo along microtubules. These motors have been highly characterized in non-plant systems and information is becoming available about plant motors. The actin cytoskeleton in plants has been shown to be involved in processes such as transportation, signaling, cell division, cytoplasmic streaming and morphogenesis. The role of myosin in these processes has been established in a few cases but many questions remain to be answered about the number, types and roles of myosins in plants. RESULTS: Using the motor domain of an Arabidopsis myosin we identified 17 myosin sequences in the Arabidopsis genome. Phylogenetic analysis of the Arabidopsis myosins with non-plant and plant myosins revealed that all the Arabidopsis myosins and other plant myosins fall into two groups - class VIII and class XI. These groups contain exclusively plant or algal myosins with no animal or fungal myosins. Exon/intron data suggest that the myosins are highly conserved and that some may be a result of gene duplication. CONCLUSIONS: Plant myosins are unlike myosins from any other organisms except algae. As a percentage of the total gene number, the number of myosins is small overall in Arabidopsis compared with the other sequenced eukaryotic genomes. There are, however, a large number of class XI myosins. The function of each myosin has yet to be determined.

  2. Calponin-calmodulin interaction: properties and effects on smooth and skeletal muscle actin binding and actomyosin ATPases.

    PubMed

    Winder, S J; Walsh, M P; Vasulka, C; Johnson, J D

    1993-12-01

    Smooth muscle calponin bound to the biologically active fluorescent calmodulin [2-(4'-maleimidoanilino)naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid-calmodulin] (MIANS.CaM) with a Kd of 80 nM and produced a 3.4-fold fluorescence enhancement. PKC-phosphorylated calponin (1.3 mol of Pi/mol) bound to CaM with approximately 15-fold lower affinity. Calponin inhibited CaM (10 nM) activation of the Ca(2+)-/CaM-activated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) with an IC50 of 138 nM. The calponin-CaM interaction was Ca(2+)-dependent: half-maximal binding of calponin to MIANS.CaM occurred at pCa 6.6 with a Hill coefficient of 2.4. Stopped-flow fluorescence kinetic analysis demonstrated that EGTA chelation of Ca2+ from CaM disrupted the MIANS.CaM-calponin complex at a rate of 1 s-1. Calponin bound MIANS.CaM at a rate of (6.0 +/- 1.8) x 10(6) M-1s-1, and melittin and unlabeled brain CaM both disrupted the MIANS.CaM-calponin complex at a rate of 0.3 +/- 0.1 s-1. These studies suggest that calponin binds CaM with 80-fold lower affinity than myosin light-chain kinase and that calponin associates with CaM much slower than it associates with caldesmon or myosin light-chain kinase. The physiological relevance of the CaM-calponin interaction was evaluated by analysis of the effects of Ca(2+)-CaM on (i) the interaction of calponin with actin and (ii) calponin-mediated inhibition of actin-activated myosin MgATPase activity. Ca(2+)-CaM half-maximally inhibited calponin (2 microM) binding to smooth and skeletal muscle actins (9 microM) at 5.4 and 11 microM CaM, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8241189

  3. O-GlcNAcylation, contractile protein modifications and calcium affinity in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Cieniewski-Bernard, Caroline; Lambert, Matthias; Dupont, Erwan; Montel, Valrie; Stevens, Laurence; Bastide, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    O-GlcNAcylation, a generally undermined atypical protein glycosylation process, is involved in a dynamic and highly regulated interplay with phosphorylation. Akin to phosphorylation, O-GlcNAcylation is also involved in the physiopathology of several acquired diseases, such as muscle insulin resistance or muscle atrophy. Recent data underline that the interplay between phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation acts as a modulator of skeletal muscle contractile activity. In particular, the O-GlcNAcylation level of the phosphoprotein myosin light chain 2 seems to be crucial in the modulation of the calcium activation properties, and should be responsible for changes in calcium properties observed in functional atrophy. Moreover, since several key structural proteins are O-GlcNAc-modified, and because of the localization of the enzymes involved in the O-GlcNAcylation/de-O-GlcNAcylation process to the nodal Z disk, a role of O-GlcNAcylation in the modulation of the sarcomeric structure should be considered. PMID:25400587

  4. Differentiation of the anterior latissimus dorsi muscle of the chicken examined by anti-myosin monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y T; Shafiq, S A

    1987-07-01

    Two new monoclonal antibodies (McAbs), ALD-180 and ALD-88, produced against the myosin of the slow anterior latissimus dorsi (ALD) muscle of the chicken are described. Their specificity for myosin heavy chain (MHC) was established by radioimmunoassay, immunoautoradiography, and immunofluorescence. They were used in conjunction with McAbs MF-14 and MF-30 (which have been characterized previously to be directed against MHC of the fast skeletal muscle) to examine the developmental changes of the chicken ALD muscle. At the 16-day embryonic, early posthatch, and adult stages the ALD muscle fibers differed in their reaction pattern with the McAbs; at the embryonic stage all fibers reacted strongly with ALD-180 and weakly with ALD-88 and MF-30; at the early posthatch stage there was a checkerboard pattern with many fibers not reacting with any of these three McAbs; and at the adult stage all fibers reacted strongly with ALD-180 and ALD-88 and weakly with MF-30. The MF-14 antibody did not react with ALD muscle at any developmental stage. The mature pattern of immunoreactivity of the ALD muscle fibers with the antibodies was established only after 9 weeks posthatch, and during this 9-week period the immunofluorescence changes were nonsynchronous. Based on immunocytochemical evidence of changes in myosin isoform expression, this study clearly demonstrates a distinctive neonatal (early posthatch) stage in the development of the chicken slow muscle. PMID:3302095

  5. Making skeletal muscle from progenitor and stem cells: development versus regeneration.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chen-Ming; Li, Lydia; Rozo, Michelle E; Lepper, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    For locomotion, vertebrate animals use the force generated by contractile skeletal muscles. These muscles form an actin/myosin-based biomachinery that is attached to skeletal elements to affect body movement and maintain posture. The mechanics, physiology, and homeostasis of skeletal muscles in normal and disease states are of significant clinical interest. How muscles originate from progenitors during embryogenesis has attracted considerable attention from developmental biologists. How skeletal muscles regenerate and repair themselves after injury by the use of stem cells is an important process to maintain muscle homeostasis throughout lifetime. In recent years, much progress has been made toward uncovering the origins of myogenic progenitors and stem cells as well as the regulation of these cells during development and regeneration. PMID:22737183

  6. Making Skeletal Muscle from Progenitor and Stem Cells: Development versus Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lydia; Rozo, Michelle E.; Lepper, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    For locomotion, vertebrate animals use the force generated by contractile skeletal muscles. These muscles form an actin/myosin-based bio-machinery that is attached to skeletal elements to effect body movement and maintain posture. The mechanics, physiology, and homeostasis of skeletal muscles in normal and disease states are of significant clinical interest. How muscles originate from progenitors during embryogenesis has attracted considerable attention from developmental biologists. How skeletal muscles regenerate and repair themselves after injury by the use of stem cells is an important process to maintain muscle homeostasis throughout lifetime. In recent years, much progress has been made towards uncovering the origins of myogenic progenitors and stem cells as well as the regulation of these cells during development and regeneration. PMID:22737183

  7. Skeletal muscle changes after hemiparetic stroke and potential beneficial effects of exercise intervention strategies

    PubMed Central

    Hafer-Macko, Charlene E.; Ryan, Alice S.; Ivey, Frederick M.; Macko, Richard F.

    2010-01-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of disability in the United States. New evidence reveals significant structural and metabolic changes in skeletal muscle after stroke. Muscle alterations include gross atrophy and shift to fast myosin heavy chain in the hemiparetic (contralateral) leg muscle; both are related to gait deficit severity. The underlying molecular mechanisms of this atrophy and muscle phenotype shift are not known. Inflammatory markers are also present in contralateral leg muscle after stroke. Individuals with stroke have a high prevalence of insulin resistance and diabetes. Skeletal muscle is a major site for insulin-glucose metabolism. Increasing evidence suggests that inflammatory pathway activation and oxidative injury could lead to wasting, altered function, and impaired insulin action in skeletal muscle. The health benefits of exercise in disabled populations have now been recognized. Aerobic exercise improves fitness, strength, and ambulatory performance in subjects with chronic stroke. Therapeutic exercise may modify or reverse skeletal muscle abnormalities. PMID:18566944

  8. On the kinetics that moves Myosin V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, Christian; O'Kelly de Galway, Winny

    2015-10-01

    Molecular motor proteins such as Myosin V, Dynein or Kinesin are no ratchets, at least not with a flashing asymmetric potential; the crucial asymmetry is in the dynamical activity. We make that explicit in terms of a simple Markov model, emphasizing the kinetic (and non-thermodynamic) aspects of stochastic transport. The analysis shows the presence of a fluctuation symmetry in that part of the dynamical activity which is antisymmetric under reversal of trailing and leading head of the motor. The direction of the motor motion is determined by it.

  9. Neuromuscular Development and Regulation of Myosin Expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodine, Sue

    1997-01-01

    The proposed experiments were designed to determine whether the absence of gravity during embryogenesis influences the postnatal development of the neuromuscular system. Further, we examined the effects of reduced gravity on hindlimb muscles of the pregnant rats. Microgravity may have short and long-term effects on the development of muscle fiber type differentiation and force producing capabilities. Microgravity will reduce muscle fiber size and cause a shift in myosin heavy chain expression from slow to fast in hindlimb muscles of the adult pregnant rats.

  10. Blebbistatin, a myosin II inhibitor, suppresses contraction and disrupts contractile filaments organization of skinned taenia cecum from guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masaru; Yumoto, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Hideyuki; Wang, Hon Hui; Katayama, Takeshi; Yoshiyama, Shinji; Black, Jason; Thatcher, Sean E; Kohama, Kazuhiro

    2010-05-01

    To explore the precise mechanisms of the inhibitory effects of blebbistatin, a potent inhibitor of myosin II, on smooth muscle contraction, we studied the blebbistatin effects on the mechanical properties and the structure of contractile filaments of skinned (cell membrane permeabilized) preparations from guinea pig taenia cecum. Blebbistatin at 10 microM or higher suppressed Ca(2+)-induced tension development at any given Ca(2+) concentration but had little effects on the Ca(2+)-induced myosin light chain phosphorylation. Blebbistatin also suppressed the 10 and 2.75 mM Mg(2+)-induced, "myosin light chain phosphorylation-independent" tension development at more than 10 microM. Furthermore, blebbistatin induced conformational change of smooth muscle myosin (SMM) and disrupted arrangement of SMM and thin filaments, resulting in inhibition of actin-SMM interaction irrespective of activation with Ca(2+). In addition, blebbistatin partially inhibited Mg(2+)-ATPase activity of native actomyosin from guinea pig taenia cecum at around 10 microM. These results suggested that blebbistatin suppressed skinned smooth muscle contraction through disruption of structure of SMM by the agent. PMID:20164381

  11. Genetic suppression of a phosphomimic myosin II identifies system-level factors that promote myosin II cleavage furrow accumulation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yixin; West-Foyle, Hoku; Surcel, Alexandra; Miller, Christopher; Robinson, Douglas N

    2014-12-15

    How myosin II localizes to the cleavage furrow in Dictyostelium and metazoan cells remains largely unknown despite significant advances in understanding its regulation. We designed a genetic selection using cDNA library suppression of 3xAsp myosin II to identify factors involved in myosin cleavage furrow accumulation. The 3xAsp mutant is deficient in bipolar thick filament assembly, fails to accumulate at the cleavage furrow, cannot rescue myoII-null cytokinesis, and has impaired mechanosensitive accumulation. Eleven genes suppressed this dominant cytokinesis deficiency when 3xAsp was expressed in wild-type cells. 3xAsp myosin II's localization to the cleavage furrow was rescued by constructs encoding rcdBB, mmsdh, RMD1, actin, one novel protein, and a 14-3-3 hairpin. Further characterization showed that RMD1 is required for myosin II cleavage furrow accumulation, acting in parallel with mechanical stress. Analysis of several mutant strains revealed that different thresholds of myosin II activity are required for daughter cell symmetry than for furrow ingression dynamics. Finally, an engineered myosin II with a longer lever arm (2xELC), producing a highly mechanosensitive motor, could also partially suppress the intragenic 3xAsp. Overall, myosin II accumulation is the result of multiple parallel and partially redundant pathways that comprise a cellular contractility control system. PMID:25318674

  12. Genetic suppression of a phosphomimic myosin II identifies system-level factors that promote myosin II cleavage furrow accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yixin; West-Foyle, Hoku; Surcel, Alexandra; Miller, Christopher; Robinson, Douglas N.

    2014-01-01

    How myosin II localizes to the cleavage furrow in Dictyostelium and metazoan cells remains largely unknown despite significant advances in understanding its regulation. We designed a genetic selection using cDNA library suppression of 3xAsp myosin II to identify factors involved in myosin cleavage furrow accumulation. The 3xAsp mutant is deficient in bipolar thick filament assembly, fails to accumulate at the cleavage furrow, cannot rescue myoII-null cytokinesis, and has impaired mechanosensitive accumulation. Eleven genes suppressed this dominant cytokinesis deficiency when 3xAsp was expressed in wild-type cells. 3xAsp myosin II's localization to the cleavage furrow was rescued by constructs encoding rcdBB, mmsdh, RMD1, actin, one novel protein, and a 14-3-3 hairpin. Further characterization showed that RMD1 is required for myosin II cleavage furrow accumulation, acting in parallel with mechanical stress. Analysis of several mutant strains revealed that different thresholds of myosin II activity are required for daughter cell symmetry than for furrow ingression dynamics. Finally, an engineered myosin II with a longer lever arm (2xELC), producing a highly mechanosensitive motor, could also partially suppress the intragenic 3xAsp. Overall, myosin II accumulation is the result of multiple parallel and partially redundant pathways that comprise a cellular contractility control system. PMID:25318674

  13. EF-hand proteins and the regulation of actin-myosin interaction in the eutardigrade Hypsibius klebelsbergi (tardigrada).

    PubMed

    Prasath, Thiruketheeswaran; Greven, Hartmut; D'Haese, Jochen

    2012-06-01

    Many tardigrade species resist harsh environmental conditions by entering anhydrobiosis or cryobiosis. Desiccation as well as freeze resistance probably leads to changes of the ionic balance that includes the intracellular calcium concentration. In order to search for protein modifications affecting the calcium homoeostasis, we studied the regulatory system controlling actin-myosin interaction of the eutardigrade Hypsibius klebelsbergi and identified full-length cDNA clones for troponin C (TnC, 824 bp), calmodulin (CaM, 1,407 bp), essential myosin light chain (eMLC, 1,015 bp), and regulatory myosin light chain (rMLC, 984 bp) from a cDNA library. All four proteins belong to the EF-hand superfamily typified by a calcium coordinating helix-loop-helix motif. Further, we cloned and obtained recombinant TnC and both MLCs. CaM and TnC revealed four and two potential calcium-binding domains, respectively. Gel mobility shift assays demonstrated calcium-induced conformational transition of TnC. From both MLCs, only the rMLC showed one potential N-terminal EF-hand domain. Additionally, sequence properties suggest phosphorylation of this myosin light chain. Based on our results, we suggest a dual-regulated system at least in somatic muscles for tardigrades with a calcium-dependent tropomyosin-troponin complex bound to the actin filaments and a phosphorylation of the rMLC turning on and off both actin and myosin. Our results indicate no special modifications of the molecular structure and function of the EF-hand proteins in tardigrades. Phylogenetic trees of 131 TnCs, 96 rMLCs, and 62 eMLCs indicate affinities to Ecdysozoa, but also to some other taxa suggesting that our results reflect the complex evolution of these proteins rather than phylogenetic relationships. PMID:25363580

  14. Neural-Thyroid Interaction on Skeletal Isomyosin in Zero Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Kenneth M.

    2000-01-01

    The primary goal of the project was to develop a ground based model to first study the role of the nerve and of thyroid hormone (T3) in the regulation of body growth and skeletal muscle growth and differentiation in rodents. A primary objective was to test the hypothesis that normal weight bearing activity is essential for the development of antigravity, slow twitch skeletal muscle and the corresponding slow myosin heavy chain (MHC) gene; whereas, T3 was obligatory for general body and muscle growth and the establishment of fast MHC phenotype in typically fast locomoter muscles. These ground based experiments would provide both the efficacy and background for a spaceflight experiment (referred to as the Neurolab Mission) jointly sponsored by the NIH and NASA.

  15. Advances in research on the prenatal development of skeletal muscle in animals in relation to the quality of muscle-based food. I. Regulation of myogenesis and environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Rehfeldt, C; Te Pas, M F W; Wimmers, K; Brameld, J M; Nissen, P M; Berri, C; Valente, L M P; Power, D M; Picard, B; Stickland, N C; Oksbjerg, N

    2011-04-01

    Skeletal muscle development in vertebrates - also termed myogenesis - is a highly integrated process. Evidence to date indicates that the processes are very similar across mammals, poultry and fish, although the timings of the various steps differ considerably. Myogenesis is regulated by the myogenic regulatory factors and consists of two to three distinct phases when different fibre populations appear. The critical times when myogenesis is prone to hormonal or environmental influences depend largely on the developmental stage. One of the main mechanisms for both genetic and environmental effects on muscle fibre development is via the direct action of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor (GH-IGF) axis. In mammals and poultry, postnatal growth and function of muscles relate mainly to the hypertrophy of the fibres formed during myogenesis and to their fibre-type composition in terms of metabolic and contractile properties, whereas in fish hyperplasia still plays a major role. Candidate genes that are important in skeletal muscle development, for instance, encode for IGFs and IGF-binding proteins, myosin heavy chain isoforms, troponin T, myosin light chain and others have been identified. In mammals, nutritional supply in utero affects myogenesis and the GH-IGF axis may have an indirect action through the partitioning of nutrients towards the gravid uterus. Impaired myogenesis resulting in low skeletal myofibre numbers is considered one of the main reasons for negative long-term consequences of intrauterine growth retardation. Severe undernutrition in utero due to natural variation in litter or twin-bearing species or insufficient maternal nutrient supply may impair myogenesis and adversely affect carcass quality later in terms of reduced lean and increased fat deposition in the progeny. On the other hand, increases in maternal feed intake above standard requirement seem to have no beneficial effects on the growth of the progeny with myogenesis not or only slightly affected. Initial studies on low and high maternal protein feeding are published. Although there are only a few studies, first results also reveal an influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle development in fish and poultry. Finally, environmental temperature has been identified as a critical factor for growth and development of skeletal muscle in both fish and poultry. PMID:22439993

  16. Detection and Imaging of Non-Contractile Inclusions and Sarcomeric Anomalies in Skeletal Muscle by Second Harmonic Generation Combined with Two-Photon Excited Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Ralston, E.; Swaim, B.; Czapiga, M.; Hwu, W.-L.; Chien, Y.-H.; Pittis, M.G.; Bembi, B.; Schwartz, O.; Plotz, P.; Raben, N.

    2008-01-01

    The large size of the multinucleated muscle fibers of skeletal muscle makes their examination for structural and pathological defects a challenge. Sections and single fibers are accessible to antibodies and other markers but imaging of such samples does not provide a three-dimensional view of the muscle. Regrettably, bundles of fibers cannot be stained or imaged easily. Two-photon microscopy techniques overcome these obstacles. Second harmonic generation (SHG) by myosin filaments and two-photon excited fluorescence (2PEF) of mitochondrial and lysosomal components provide detailed structural information on unstained tissue. Furthermore, the infrared exciting light can penetrate several layers of muscle fibers and the minimal processing is particularly valuable for fragile biopsies. Here we demonstrate the usefulness of SHG, combined with 2PEF, to reveal enlarged lysosomes and accumulations of non-contractile material in muscles from the mouse model for the lysosomal storage disorder Pompe Disease (PD), and in biopsies from adult and infant PD patients. SHG and 2PEF also detect sarcomeric defects that may presage the loss of myofibrils in atrophying muscle and signify loss of elasticity. The combination of SHG and 2PEF should be useful in the analysis and diagnosis of a wide range of skeletal muscle pathologies. PMID:18468456

  17. Identification and Localization of Myosin Superfamily Members in Fish Retina and Retinal Pigmented Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Lin-Jones, Jennifer; Sohlberg, Lorraine; Dos, Andra; Breckler, Jennifer; Hillman, David W.; Burnside, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Myosins are cytoskeletal motors critical for generating the forces necessary for establishing cell structure and mediating actin-dependent cell motility. In each cell type a multitude of myosins are expressed, each myosin contributing to aspects of morphogenesis, transport, or motility occurring in that cell type. To examine the roles of myosins in individual retinal cell types, we first used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening to identify myosins expressed in retina and retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), followed by immunohistochemistry to examine the cellular and subcellular localizations of seven of these expressed myosins. In the myosin PCR screen of cDNA from striped bass retina and striped bass RPE, we amplified 17 distinct myosins from eight myosin classes from retinal cDNA and 11 distinct myosins from seven myosin classes from RPE cDNA. By using antibodies specific for myosins IIA, IIB, IIIA, IIIB, VI, VIIA, and IXB, we examined the localization patterns of these myosins in retinas and RPE of fish, and in isolated inner/outer segment fragments of green sunfish photoreceptors. Each of the myosins exhibited unique expression patterns in fish retina. Individual cell types expressed multiple myosin family members, some of which colocalized within a particular cell type. Because much is known about the functions and properties of these myosins from studies in other systems, their cellular and subcellular localization patterns in the retina help us understand which roles they might play in the vertebrate retina and RPE. PMID:19137585

  18. Wave biomechanics of the skeletal muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, O. V.; Sarvazyan, A. P.

    2006-12-01

    Results of acoustic measurements in skeletal muscle are generalized. It is shown that assessment of the pathologies and functional condition of the muscular system is possible with the use of shear waves. The velocity of these waves in muscles is much smaller than the velocity of sound; therefore, a higher symmetry type is formed for them. In the presence of a preferential direction (along muscle fibers), it is characterized by only two rather than five (as in usual media with the same anisotropy) moduli of elasticity. A covariant form of the corresponding wave equation is presented. It is shown that dissipation properties of skeletal muscles can be controlled by contracting them isometrically. Pulsed loads (shocks) and vibrations are damped differently, depending on their frequency spectrum. Characteristic frequencies on the order of tens and hundreds of hertz are attenuated due to actin-myosin bridges association/dissociation dynamics in the contracted muscle. At higher (kilohertz) frequencies, when the muscle is tensed, viscosity of the tissue increases by a factor of several tens because of the increase in friction experienced by fibrillar structures as they move relative to the surrounding liquid; the tension of the fibers changes the hydrodynamic conditions of the flow around them. Finally, at higher frequencies, the attenuation is associated with the rheological properties of biological molecules, in particular, with their conformational dynamics in the wave field. Models that describe the controlled shock dissipation mechanisms are proposed. Corresponding solutions are found, including those that allow for nonlinear effects.

  19. Stochastic dynamics and mechanosensitivity of myosin II minifilaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Philipp J.; Erdmann, Thorsten; Schwarz, Ulrich S.

    2014-09-01

    Tissue cells are in a state of permanent mechanical tension that is maintained mainly by myosin II minifilaments, which are bipolar assemblies of tens of myosin II molecular motors contracting actin networks and bundles. Here we introduce a stochastic model for myosin II minifilaments as two small myosin II motor ensembles engaging in a stochastic tug-of-war. Each of the two ensembles is described by the parallel cluster model that allows us to use exact stochastic simulations and at the same time to keep important molecular details of the myosin II cross-bridge cycle. Our simulation and analytical results reveal a strong dependence of myosin II minifilament dynamics on environmental stiffness that is reminiscent of the cellular response to substrate stiffness. For small stiffness, minifilaments form transient crosslinks exerting short spikes of force with negligible mean. For large stiffness, minifilaments form near permanent crosslinks exerting a mean force which hardly depends on environmental elasticity. This functional switch arises because dissociation after the power stroke is suppressed by force (catch bonding) and because ensembles can no longer perform the power stroke at large forces. Symmetric myosin II minifilaments perform a random walk with an effective diffusion constant which decreases with increasing ensemble size, as demonstrated for rigid substrates with an analytical treatment.

  20. Ubiquitin Ligase, MuRF-1 regulates myosin heavy chain type IIa transcripts during muscle atrophy under microgravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, Sachiko

    Skeletal muscles are vulnerable to marked atrophy under microgravity conditions. We previously reported that gastrocnemius muscle atrophy by spaceflight was specifically sensitive to the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway. We also screened more over 26,000 skeletal muscle genes in rats exposed to real weightlessness and found that the expression of Ubiquitin Ligase, Muscle specific Ring Finger-1 (MuRF-1) upregulated under microgravity. In the present study, we examined the role of MuRF-1 in microgravity-induced muscle atrophy. The amounts of MuRF-1 transcripts significantly increased in skeletal muscle after denervation, an in vivo model of microgravity-induced unloading. MuRF-1 deficient (MuRF-1-/-) mice significantly inhibited reduction of muscle weight for muscle atrophy, compared with wild type mice. Interestingly, MuRF-1-/- mice significantly inhibited upregulation of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) type IIa transcrips, while wild type mice significantly increased expression of MyHC type IIa transcripts in denervated skeletal muscle. Our present results suggest that MuRF-1 may play an important role in regulation of MyHC type IIa during muscle atrophy under microgravity conditions.

  1. Second harmonic generation imaging of skeletal muscle tissue and myofibrils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campagnola, Paul J.; Mohler, William H.; Plotnikov, Sergey; Millard, Andrew C.

    2006-02-01

    Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) imaging microscopy is used to examine the morphology and structural properties of intact muscle tissue. Using biochemical and optical analysis, we characterize the molecular structure underlying SHG from the complex muscle sarcomere. We find that SHG from isolated myofibrils is abolished by extraction of myosin, but is unaffected by removal or addition of actin filaments. We thus determined that the SHG emission arises from domains of the sarcomere containing thick filaments. By fitting the SHG polarization anisotropy to theoretical response curves, we find an orientation for the harmonophore that corresponds well to the pitch angle of the myosin rod ?-helix with respect to the thick filament axis. Taken together, these data indicate that myosin rod domains are the key structures giving rise to SHG from striated muscle. Using SHG imaging microscopy, we have also examined the effect of optical clearing with glycerol to achieve greater penetration into specimens of skeletal muscle tissue. We find that treatment with 50% glycerol results in a 2.5 fold increase in achievable SHG imaging depth. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis shows quantitatively that the periodicity of the sarcomere structure is unaltered by the clearing process. Also, comparison of the SHG angular polarization dependence shows no change in the supramolecular organization of acto-myosin complexes. We suggest that the primary mechanism of optical clearing in muscle with glycerol treatment results from the reduction of cytoplasmic protein concentration and concomitant decrease in the secondary inner filter effect on the SHG signal. The pronounced lack of dependence of glycerol concentration on the imaging depth indicates that refractive index matching plays only a minor role in the optical clearing of muscle.

  2. Hedgehog can drive terminal differentiation of amniote slow skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaopeng; Blagden, Christopher S; Bildsoe, Heidi; Bonnin, Marie Ange; Duprez, Delphine; Hughes, Simon M

    2004-01-01

    Background Secreted Hedgehog (Hh) signalling molecules have profound influences on many developing and regenerating tissues. Yet in most vertebrate tissues it is unclear which Hh-responses are the direct result of Hh action on a particular cell type because Hhs frequently elicit secondary signals. In developing skeletal muscle, Hhs promote slow myogenesis in zebrafish and are involved in specification of medial muscle cells in amniote somites. However, the extent to which non-myogenic cells, myoblasts or differentiating myocytes are direct or indirect targets of Hh signalling is not known. Results We show that Sonic hedgehog (Shh) can act directly on cultured C2 myoblasts, driving Gli1 expression, myogenin up-regulation and terminal differentiation, even in the presence of growth factors that normally prevent differentiation. Distinct myoblasts respond differently to Shh: in some slow myosin expression is increased, whereas in others Shh simply enhances terminal differentiation. Exposure of chick wing bud cells to Shh in culture increases numbers of both muscle and non-muscle cells, yet simultaneously enhances differentiation of myoblasts. The small proportion of differentiated muscle cells expressing definitive slow myosin can be doubled by Shh. Shh over-expression in chick limb bud reduces muscle mass at early developmental stages while inducing ectopic slow muscle fibre formation. Abundant later-differentiating fibres, however, do not express extra slow myosin. Conversely, Hh loss of function in the limb bud, caused by implanting hybridoma cells expressing a functionally blocking anti-Hh antibody, reduces early slow muscle formation and differentiation, but does not prevent later slow myogenesis. Analysis of Hh knockout mice indicates that Shh promotes early somitic slow myogenesis. Conclusions Taken together, the data show that Hh can have direct pro-differentiative effects on myoblasts and that early-developing muscle requires Hh for normal differentiation and slow myosin expression. We propose a simple model of how direct and indirect effects of Hh regulate early limb myogenesis. PMID:15238161

  3. Comparison between cold water immersion therapy (CWIT) and light emitting diode therapy (LEDT) in short-term skeletal muscle recovery after high-intensity exercise in athletes--preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Leal Junior, Ernesto Cesar; de Godoi, Vanessa; Mancalossi, Jos Luis; Rossi, Rafael Paolo; De Marchi, Thiago; Parente, Mrcio; Grosselli, Douglas; Generosi, Rafael Abeche; Basso, Maira; Frigo, Lucio; Tomazoni, Shaiane Silva; Bjordal, Jan Magnus; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro Brando

    2011-07-01

    In the last years, phototherapy has becoming a promising tool to improve skeletal muscle recovery after exercise, however, it was not compared with other modalities commonly used with this aim. In the present study we compared the short-term effects of cold water immersion therapy (CWIT) and light emitting diode therapy (LEDT) with placebo LEDT on biochemical markers related to skeletal muscle recovery after high-intensity exercise. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial was performed with six male young futsal athletes. They were treated with CWIT (5C of temperature [SD 1]), active LEDT (69 LEDs with wavelengths 660/850nm, 10/30mW of output power, 30 s of irradiation time per point, and 41.7J of total energy irradiated per point, total of ten points irradiated) or an identical placebo LEDT 5min after each of three Wingate cycle tests. Pre-exercise, post-exercise, and post-treatment measurements were taken of blood lactate levels, creatine kinase (CK) activity, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. There were no significant differences in the work performed during the three Wingate tests (p?>?0.05). All biochemical parameters increased from baseline values (p?

  4. Skeletal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Paolo; Robey, Pamela G.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal stem cells (SSCs) reside in the postnatal bone marrow and give rise to cartilage, bone, hematopoiesis-supportive stroma and marrow adipocytes in defined in vivo assays. These lineages emerge in a specific sequence during embryonic development and post natal growth, and together comprise a continuous anatomical system, the bone-bone marrow organ. SSCs conjoin skeletal and hematopoietic physiology, and are a tool for understanding and ameliorating skeletal and hematopoietic disorders. Here and in the accompanying poster, we concisely discuss the biology of SSCs in the context of the development and postnatal physiology of skeletal lineages, to which their use in medicine must remain anchored. PMID:25758217

  5. A birefringence study of changes in myosin orientation during relaxation of skinned muscle fibers induced by photolytic ATP release.

    PubMed Central

    Peckham, M; Ferenczi, M A; Irving, M

    1994-01-01

    The birefringence of isolated skinned fibers from rabbit psoas muscle was measured continuously during relaxation from rigor produced by photolysis of caged ATP at sarcomere length 2.8-2.9 microns, ionic strength 0.1 M, 15 degrees C. Birefringence, the difference in refractive index between light components polarized parallel and perpendicular to the fiber axis, depends on the average degree of alignment of the myosin head domain with the fiber axis. After ATP release birefringence increased by 5.8 +/- 0.7% (mean +/- SE, n = 6) with two temporal components. A small fast component had an amplitude of 0.9 +/- 0.2% and rate constant of 63 s-1. By the completion of this component, the instantaneous stiffness had decreased to about half the rigor value, and the force response to a step stretch showed a rapid (approximately 1000 s-1) recovery phase. Subsequently a large slow birefringence component with rate constant 5.1 s-1 accompanied isometric force relaxation. Inorganic phosphate (10 mM) did not affect the fast birefringence component but accelerated the slow component and force relaxation. The fast birefringence component was probably caused by formation of myosin.ATP or myosin.ADP.Pi states that are weakly bound to actin. The average myosin head orientation at the end of this component is slightly more parallel to the fiber axis than in rigor. PMID:7811926

  6. Principles of Unconventional Myosin Function and Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, M. Amanda; Finan, Dina; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj; Spudich, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Unconventional myosins are a superfamily of actin-based motors implicated in diverse cellular processes. In recent years, much progress has been made in describing their biophysical properties, and headway has been made into analyzing their cellular functions. Here, we focus on the principles that guide in vivo motor function and targeting to specific cellular locations. Rather than describe each motor comprehensively, we outline the major themes that emerge from research across the superfamily and use specific examples to illustrate each. In presenting the data in this format, we seek to identify open questions in each field as well as to point out commonalities between them. To advance our understanding of myosins’ roles in vivo, clearly we must identify their cellular cargoes and the protein complexes that regulate motor attachment to fully appreciate their functions on the cellular and developmental levels. PMID:21639800

  7. Constitutive phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase targeting subunit-1 in smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Ho; Chang, Audrey N; Huang, Jian; He, Weiqi; Sweeney, H Lee; Zhu, Minsheng; Kamm, Kristine E; Stull, James T

    2014-07-15

    Smooth muscle contraction initiated by myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphorylation is dependent on the relative activities of Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP). We have investigated the physiological role of the MLCP regulatory subunit MYPT1 in bladder smooth muscle containing a smooth muscle-specific deletion of MYPT1 in adult mice. Deep-sequencing analyses of mRNA and immunoblotting revealed that MYPT1 depletion reduced the amount of PP1cδ with no compensatory changes in expression of other MYPT1 family members. Phosphatase activity towards phosphorylated smooth muscle heavy meromyosin was proportional to the amount of PP1cδ in total homogenates from wild-type or MYPT1-deficient tissues. Isolated MYPT1-deficient tissues from MYPT1(SM-/-) mice contracted with moderate differences in response to KCl and carbachol treatments, and relaxed rapidly with comparable rates after carbachol removal and only 1.5-fold slower after KCl removal. Measurements of phosphorylated proteins in the RLC signalling and actin polymerization modules during contractions revealed moderate changes. Using a novel procedure to quantify total phosphorylation of MYPT1 at Thr696 and Thr853, we found substantial phosphorylation in wild-type tissues under resting conditions, predicting attenuation of MLCP activity. Reduced PP1cδ activity in MYPT1-deficient tissues may be similar to the attenuated MLCP activity in wild-type tissues resulting from constitutively phosphorylated MYPT1. Constitutive phosphorylation of MYPT1 Thr696 and Thr853 may thus represent a physiological mechanism acting in concert with agonist-induced MYPT1 phosphorylation to inhibit MLCP activity. In summary, MYPT1 deficiency may not cause significant derangement of smooth muscle contractility because the effective MLCP activity is not changed. PMID:24835173

  8. Constitutive phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase targeting subunit-1 in smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ming-Ho; Chang, Audrey N; Huang, Jian; He, Weiqi; Sweeney, H Lee; Zhu, Minsheng; Kamm, Kristine E; Stull, James T

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscle contraction initiated by myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphorylation is dependent on the relative activities of Ca2+–calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP). We have investigated the physiological role of the MLCP regulatory subunit MYPT1 in bladder smooth muscle containing a smooth muscle-specific deletion of MYPT1 in adult mice. Deep-sequencing analyses of mRNA and immunoblotting revealed that MYPT1 depletion reduced the amount of PP1cδ with no compensatory changes in expression of other MYPT1 family members. Phosphatase activity towards phosphorylated smooth muscle heavy meromyosin was proportional to the amount of PP1cδ in total homogenates from wild-type or MYPT1-deficient tissues. Isolated MYPT1-deficient tissues from MYPT1SM−/− mice contracted with moderate differences in response to KCl and carbachol treatments, and relaxed rapidly with comparable rates after carbachol removal and only 1.5-fold slower after KCl removal. Measurements of phosphorylated proteins in the RLC signalling and actin polymerization modules during contractions revealed moderate changes. Using a novel procedure to quantify total phosphorylation of MYPT1 at Thr696 and Thr853, we found substantial phosphorylation in wild-type tissues under resting conditions, predicting attenuation of MLCP activity. Reduced PP1cδ activity in MYPT1-deficient tissues may be similar to the attenuated MLCP activity in wild-type tissues resulting from constitutively phosphorylated MYPT1. Constitutive phosphorylation of MYPT1 Thr696 and Thr853 may thus represent a physiological mechanism acting in concert with agonist-induced MYPT1 phosphorylation to inhibit MLCP activity. In summary, MYPT1 deficiency may not cause significant derangement of smooth muscle contractility because the effective MLCP activity is not changed. PMID:24835173

  9. Dual role of myosin II during Drosophila imaginal disc metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Aldaz, Silvia; Escudero, Luis M; Freeman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The motor protein non-muscle myosin II is a major driver of the movements that sculpt three-dimensional organs from two-dimensional epithelia. The machinery of morphogenesis is well established but the logic of its control remains unclear in complex organs. Here we use live imaging and ex vivo culture to report a dual role of myosin II in regulating the development of the Drosophila wing. First, myosin II drives the contraction of a ring of cells that surround the squamous peripodial epithelium, providing the force to fold the whole disc through about 90. Second, myosin II is needed to allow the squamous cells to expand and then retract at the end of eversion. The combination of genetics and live imaging allows us to describe and understand the tissue dynamics, and the logic of force generation needed to transform a relatively simple imaginal disc into a more complex and three-dimensional adult wing. PMID:23612302

  10. Emergent Systems Energy Laws for Predicting Myosin Ensemble Processivity

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Paul; Moore, Jeffrey; Schunn, Christian; Cagan, Jonathan; LeDuc, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In complex systems with stochastic components, systems laws often emerge that describe higher level behavior regardless of lower level component configurations. In this paper, emergent laws for describing mechanochemical systems are investigated for processive myosin-actin motility systems. On the basis of prior experimental evidence that longer processive lifetimes are enabled by larger myosin ensembles, it is hypothesized that emergent scaling laws could coincide with myosin-actin contact probability or system energy consumption. Because processivity is difficult to predict analytically and measure experimentally, agent-based computational techniques are developed to simulate processive myosin ensembles and produce novel processive lifetime measurements. It is demonstrated that only systems energy relationships hold regardless of isoform configurations or ensemble size, and a unified expression for predicting processive lifetime is revealed. The finding of such laws provides insight for how patterns emerge in stochastic mechanochemical systems, while also informing understanding and engineering of complex biological systems. PMID:25885169

  11. Localization of myosin-V in the centrosome

    PubMed Central

    Espreafico, Enilza M.; Coling, Donald E.; Tsakraklides, Vasiliki; Krogh, Karin; Wolenski, Joseph S.; Kalinec, Gilda; Kachar, Bechara

    1998-01-01

    The perinuclear localization of myosin-V was investigated in a variety of cultured mammalian cells and in primary cultures of rat hippocampus. In all cells investigated, myosin-V immunoreactivity was associated with the centrosome. In interphase cells, myosin-V was found in pericentriolar material, and in both mother and daughter centrioles. These results were obtained by using two different fixation protocols with three different affinity-purified antibodies that recognized a single band in Western blots. During cell division, myosin-V staining was intense throughout the cytoplasm and was concentrated in a trail between migrating centrioles and in the mitotic spindle poles and spindle fibers. The centrosome targeting site was determined to reside within the globular tail domain, because centrosome association also was observed in living cells transfected with DNA encoding the tail domain fused with a green fluorescent protein tag, but not in cells transfected with the vector encoding green fluorescent protein by itself. PMID:9671730

  12. Non-muscle myosin II takes centre stage in cell adhesion and migration

    PubMed Central

    Vicente-Manzanares, Miguel; Ma, Xuefei; Adelstein, Robert S.; Horwitz, Alan Rick

    2010-01-01

    Non-muscle myosin II (NM II) is an actin-binding protein that has actin cross-linking and contractile properties and is regulated by the phosphorylation of its light and heavy chains. The three mammalian NM II isoforms have both overlapping and unique properties. Owing to its position downstream of convergent signalling pathways, NM II is central in the control of cell adhesion, cell migration and tissue architecture. Recent insight into the role of NM II in these processes has been gained from loss-of-function and mutant approaches, methods that quantitatively measure actin and adhesion dynamics and the discovery of NM II mutations that cause monogenic diseases. PMID:19851336

  13. Skeletal limb abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    Skeletal limb abnormalities refers to a variety of bone structure problems in the arms or legs (limbs). ... The term skeletal limb abnormalities is most often used to describe defects in the legs or arms that are due to a problem with your ...

  14. Melanophilin Stimulates Myosin-5a Motor Function by Allosterically Inhibiting the Interaction between the Head and Tail of Myosin-5a

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Lin-Lin; Cao, Qing-Juan; Zhang, Hai-Man; Zhang, Jie; Cao, Yang; Li, Xiang-dong

    2015-01-01

    The tail-inhibition model is generally accepted for the regulation of myosin-5a motor function. Inhibited myosin-5a is in a folded conformation in which its globular tail domain (GTD) interacts with its head and inhibits its motor function, and high Ca2+ or cargo binding may reduce the interaction between the GTD and the head of myosin-5a, thus activating motor activity. Although it is well established that myosin-5a motor function is regulated by Ca2+, little is known about the effects of cargo binding. We previously reported that melanophilin (Mlph), a myosin-5a cargo-binding protein, is capable of activating myosin-5a motor function. Here, we report that Mlph-GTBDP, a 26 amino-acid-long peptide of Mlph, is sufficient for activating myosin-5a motor function. We demonstrate that Mlph-GTBDP abolishes the interaction between the head and GTD of myosin-5a, thereby inducing a folded-to-extended conformation transition for myosin-5a and activating its motor function. Mutagenesis of the GTD shows that the GTD uses two distinct, non-overlapping regions to interact with Mlph-GTBDP and the head of myosin-5a. We propose that the GTD is an allosteric protein and that Mlph allosterically inhibits the interaction between the GTD and head of myosin-5a, thereby activating myosin-5a motor function. PMID:26039755

  15. Walking mechanism of the intracellular cargo transporter myosin V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Stephan; Smith-Palmer, Jayne; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Sellers, James R.; Veigel, Claudia

    2006-08-01

    Motor proteins of the myosin, kinesin and dynein families transport vesicles and other cargo along tracks of actin filaments or microtubules through the cytoplasm of cells. The mechanism by which myosin V, a motor involved in several types of intracellular transport, moves processively along actin filaments, has recently been the subject of many single molecule biophysical studies. Details of the molecular mechanisms by which this molecular motor operates are starting to emerge.

  16. Skeletal muscle relaxants.

    PubMed

    See, Sharon; Ginzburg, Regina

    2008-02-01

    Health care providers prescribe skeletal muscle relaxants for a variety of indications. However, the comparative efficacy of these drugs is not well known. Skeletal muscle relaxants consist of both antispasticity and antispasmodic agents, a distinction prescribers often overlook. The antispasticity agents-baclofen, tizanidine, dantrolene, and diazepam-aid in improving muscle hypertonicity and involuntary jerks. Antispasmodic agents, such as cyclobenzaprine, are primarily used to treat musculoskeletal conditions. Much of the evidence from clinical trials regarding skeletal muscle relaxants is limited because of poor methodologic design, insensitive assessment methods, and small numbers of patients. Although trial results seem to support the use of these agents for their respective indications, efficacy data from comparator trials did not particularly favor one skeletal muscle relaxant over another. Therefore, the choice of a skeletal muscle relaxant should be based on its adverse-effect profile, tolerability, and cost. PMID:18225966

  17. An invertebrate smooth muscle with striated muscle myosin filaments.

    PubMed

    Sulbarán, Guidenn; Alamo, Lorenzo; Pinto, Antonio; Márquez, Gustavo; Méndez, Franklin; Padrón, Raúl; Craig, Roger

    2015-10-20

    Muscle tissues are classically divided into two major types, depending on the presence or absence of striations. In striated muscles, the actin filaments are anchored at Z-lines and the myosin and actin filaments are in register, whereas in smooth muscles, the actin filaments are attached to dense bodies and the myosin and actin filaments are out of register. The structure of the filaments in smooth muscles is also different from that in striated muscles. Here we have studied the structure of myosin filaments from the smooth muscles of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni. We find, surprisingly, that they are indistinguishable from those in an arthropod striated muscle. This structural similarity is supported by sequence comparison between the schistosome myosin II heavy chain and known striated muscle myosins. In contrast, the actin filaments of schistosomes are similar to those of smooth muscles, lacking troponin-dependent regulation. We conclude that schistosome muscles are hybrids, containing striated muscle-like myosin filaments and smooth muscle-like actin filaments in a smooth muscle architecture. This surprising finding has broad significance for understanding how muscles are built and how they evolved, and challenges the paradigm that smooth and striated muscles always have distinctly different components. PMID:26443857

  18. Contribution of myosin II activity to cell spreading dynamics.

    PubMed

    Nisenholz, Noam; Paknikar, Aishwarya; Köster, Sarah; Zemel, Assaf

    2016-01-14

    Myosin II activity and actin polymerization at the leading edge of the cell are known to be essential sources of cellular stress. However, a quantitative account of their separate contributions is still lacking; so is the influence of the coupling between the two phenomena on cell spreading dynamics. We present a simple analytic elastic theory of cell spreading dynamics that quantitatively demonstrates how actin polymerization and myosin activity cooperate in the generation of cellular stress during spreading. Consistent with experiments, myosin activity is assumed to polarize in response to the stresses generated during spreading. The characteristic response time and the overall spreading time are predicted to determine different evolution profiles of cell spreading dynamics. These include, a (regular) monotonic increase of cell projected area with time, a non-monotonic (overshooting) profile with a maximum, and damped oscillatory modes. In addition, two populations of myosin II motors are distinguished based on their location in the lamella; those located above the major adhesion zone at the cell periphery are shown to facilitate spreading whereas those in deeper regions of the lamella are shown to oppose spreading. We demonstrate that the attenuation of myosin activity in the two regions may result in reciprocal effects on spreading. These findings provide important new insight into the function of myosin II motors in the course of spreading. PMID:26481613

  19. Precipitation of kidney myosin IIA and IIB by freezing.

    PubMed

    Dias, Decivaldo dos Santos; da Cruz, Grabriel Costa Nunes; de Sousa, Marcelo Valle; Coelho, Milton Vieira

    2011-03-01

    Actomyosin precipitation is a critical step in the purification of myosins. In this work, the objective was to precipitate rat kidney actomyosin and isolate myosin by freezing and thawing the soluble fraction. Kidney was homogenized in imidazole buffer, centrifuged at 45000 g for 30 min, and the supernatant was frozen at -20C for 48 h. The supernatant was thawed at 4C, centrifuged at 45000 g for 30 min and the precipitate washed twice with imidazole buffer pH 7.0 (with and without Triton X-100, respectively). The resulting precipitate presented a polypeptide profile in SDS/PAGE characteristic of actomyosin and expressed Mg- and K/EDTA-ATPase activity. The actomyosin complex was solubilized with ATP and Mg, and the main polypeptide, p200, was purified in a DEAE-Sepharose column. p200 was marked with anti-myosin II, co-sedimented with F-actin in the absence, but not in the presence, of ATP and was identified by MS/MS with a high Mascot score for myosin IIA. The analysis identified peptides exclusive of myosin IIB, but detected no peptides exclusive of myosin IIC. PMID:21080907

  20. Minimal Mechanochemical Model for the Processivity of Myosin VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yubo; Lowe, Ian; Tehver, Riina

    2014-03-01

    Myosin VI is an ATPase responsible for force generation in cells. It dimerizes upon actin binding, and is proposed to walk along the actin filament. Single headed reaction mechanism of myosin VI is well understood but much of its walking mechanism remains unclear. We aim to construct a minimum model for the myosin VI walking mechanism and explore the minimal requirements for processivity. We constructed a kinetic model for the stepping mechanism of Myosin VI using minimum assumptions. The kinetics of the myosin VI dimer is modeled as a three state linear reaction network with reaction rates extracted from relevant experiments. The time limiting step in in-vitro experiments (low APT concentration) is the diffusion of detached head. In this process the myosin dimer is modeled as a tethered polymer with a flexible joint at the dimerization site. The relevance of this polymer model is checked with coarse-grained simulation. We found that the motor maintains processivity for a wide range of kinetic parameters, however long persistence length for the lever arm is crucial for processivity especially under resistive load.

  1. Analytical Comparison of Natural and Pharmaceutical Ventricular Myosin Activators

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ventricular myosin (?Mys) is the motor protein in cardiac muscle generating force using ATP hydrolysis free energy to translate actin. In the cardiac muscle sarcomere, myosin and actin filaments interact cyclically and undergo rapid relative translation facilitated by the low duty cycle motor. It contrasts with high duty cycle processive myosins for which persistent actin association is the priority. The only pharmaceutical ?Mys activator, omecamtive mecarbil (OM), upregulates cardiac contractility in vivo and is undergoing testing for heart failure therapy. In vitro ?Mys step-size, motility velocity, and actin-activated myosin ATPase were measured to determine duty cycle in the absence and presence of OM. A new parameter, the relative step-frequency, was introduced and measured to characterize ?Mys motility due to the involvement of its three unitary step-sizes. Step-size and relative step-frequency were measured using the Qdot assay. OM decreases motility velocity 10-fold without affecting step-size, indicating a large increase in duty cycle converting ?Mys to a near processive myosin. The OM conversion dramatically increases force and modestly increases power over the native ?Mys. Contrasting motility modification due to OM with that from the natural myosin activator, specific ?Mys phosphorylation, provides insight into their respective activation mechanisms and indicates the boilerplate screening characteristics desired for pharmaceutical ?Mys activators. New analytics introduced here for the fast and efficient Qdot motility assay create a promising method for high-throughput screening of motor proteins and their modulators. PMID:25068717

  2. Insulin-Like Growth Factor IMediated Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy Is Characterized by Increased mTOR-p70S6K Signaling without Increased Akt Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yao-Hua; Godard, Michael; Li, Yangxin; Richmond, Scott R.; Rosenthal, Nadia; Delafontaine, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Background Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is an anabolic hormone that is known to induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy. However, the signaling pathways mediating IGF-I's hypertrophic effect in vivo are unknown. Method The phosphorylation of 46 proteins was investigated by Kinetworks proteomic analysis in the gastrocnemius muscle of transgenic mice overexpressing IGF-I myosin light chain/muscle specific IGF-I (MLC/mIgf-I) and wild-type littermates. Results In the hypertrophic muscle of MLC/mIgf-I mice, we observed increased phosphorylation of phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1; 53% increase), the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR; 112% increase), and p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K) (254% increase) but no significant change in Akt phosphorylation (4% decrease). Furthermore, we found reduced phosphorylation of MAP kinase kinase 1 and 2 (MEK1/2) (60% decrease) and of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases 3 and 6 (MKK3/6) (50% decrease) in muscle from transgenic mice, suggesting that the hypertrophic and mitogenic effects of IGF-I are mediated via distinct signaling pathways in skeletal muscle and that inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway may be required for the IGF-Iinduced hypertrophic effect. Single-fiber analysis revealed a trend toward a higher percentage of the fast twitch fibers (IIb and IIx) in the transgenic mice. Conclusion Persistent overexpression of IGF-I in mice skeletal muscle results in hypertrophy, which is likely mediated via the mTOR/p70S6K pathway, potentially via an Akt-independent signaling pathway. PMID:15921033

  3. Interaction of F-actin with synthetic peptides spanning the loop region of human cardiac beta-myosin heavy chain containing Arg403.

    PubMed

    Bartegi, A; Roustan, C; Chavanieu, A; Kassab, R; Fattoum, A

    1997-12-01

    The atomic model of the F-actin-myosin subfragment 1 complex (acto-S-1) from skeletal muscle suggests that the transition of the complex from a weakly to a strongly binding state, generating mechanical force during the contractile cycle, may involve the attachment of the upper 50-kDa subdomain of myosin subfragment 1 (S-1) to the interface between subdomains 1 and 3 of actin. For the human cardiac myosin, this putative interaction would take place at the ordered loop including Arg403 of the beta-heavy chain sequence, a residue whose mutation into Gln is known to elicit a severe hypertrophic cardiomyopathy caused by a decrease of the rate of the actomyosin ATPase activity. Moreover, in several nonmuscle myosins the replacement of a Glu residue within the homolog loop by Ser or Thr also results in the reduction of the actomyosin ATPase rate that is alleviated by phosphorylation. As an approach to the characterization of the unknown interaction properties of F-actin with this particular S-1 loop region, we have synthesized four 17-residue peptides corresponding to the sequence Gly398-Gly414 of the human beta-cardiac myosin. Three peptides included Arg403 (GG17) or Gln403 (GG17Q) or Ser409 (GG17S) and the fourth peptide (GG17sc) was a scrambled version of the normal GG17 sequence. Using fluorescence polarization, cosedimentation analyses and photocross-linking, we show that the three former peptides, but not the scrambled sequence, directly associate in solution to F-actin, at a nearly physiological ionic strength, with almost identical affinities (Kd approximately 40 microM). The binding strength of the F-actin-GG17 peptide complex was increased fivefold (Kd = 8 microM) in the presence of subsaturating concentrations of added skeletal S-1 relative to actin, without apparent competition between the peptide and S-1. Each of the three actin-binding peptides inhibited the steady-state actin-activated MgATPase of skeletal S-1 by specifically decreasing about twofold the Vmax of the reaction without changing the actin affinity for the S-1-ATP intermediate. Cosedimentation assays indicated the binding of about 0.65 mol peptide/mol actin under conditions inducing 70% inhibition. Collectively, the data point to a specific and stoichiometric interaction of the peptides with F-actin that uncouples its binding to S-1 from ATP hydrolysis, probably by interfering with the proper attachment of the S-1 loop segment to the interdomain connection of actin. PMID:9428702

  4. Parathyroid hormone promotes the disassembly of cytoskeletal actin and myosin in cultured osteoblastic cells: Mediation by cyclic AMP

    SciTech Connect

    Egan, J.J.; Gronowicz, G.; Rodan, G.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) alters the shape of osteoblastic cells both in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we examined the effect of PTH on cytoskeletal actin and myosin, estimated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of Triton X-100 (1%) nonextractable proteins. After 2-5 minutes, PTH caused a rapid and transient decrease of 50-60% in polymerized actin and myosin associated with the Triton X-100 nonextractable cytoskeleton. Polymerized actin returned to control levels by 30 min. The PTH effect was dose-dependent with an IC50 of about 1 nM, and was partially inhibited by the (3-34) PTH antagonist. PTH caused a rapid transient rise in cyclic AMP (cAMP) in these cells that peaked at 4 min, while the nadir in cytoskeletal actin and myosin was recorded around 5 min. The intracellular calcium chelator Quin-2/AM (10 microM) also decreased cytoskeletal actin and myosin, to the same extent as did PTH (100 nM). To distinguish between cAMP elevation and Ca++ reduction as mediators of PTH action, we measured the phosphorylation of the 20 kD (PI 4.9) myosin light chain in cells preincubated with (32P)-orthophosphate. The phosphorylation of this protein decreased within 2-3 min after PTH addition and returned to control levels after 5 min. The calcium ionophore A-23187 did not antagonize this PTH effect. Visualization of microfilaments with rhodamine-conjugated phalloidin showed that PTH altered the cytoskeleton by decreasing the number of stress fibers. These changes in the cytoskeleton paralleled changes in the shape of the cells from a spread configuration to a stellate form with retracting processes. The above findings indicate that the alteration in osteoblast shape produced by PTH involve relatively rapid and transient changes in cytoskeletal organization that appear to be mediated by cAMP.

  5. Impaired agonist-dependent myosin phosphorylation and decreased RhoA in rat portal hypertensive mesenteric vasculature.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Ying; Shirasawa, Yuichi; Chen, Xuesong; Yu, Hong; Benoit, Joseph N

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of portal hypertension on agonist-induced myosin phosphorylation and RhoA expression in vascular smooth muscle. A possible link to cAMP-dependent events was also examined. Portal hypertension was produced by stenosis of the portal vein. Vessel segments were treated with or without 50 microM of the PKA inhibitor Rp-cAMPS for 30 min and subsequently stimulated with 10(-4) M phenylephrine. Myosin regulatory light-chain phosphorylation was detected by immunoblotting. Total RNA from first-order mesenteric arteries and portal veins was isolated and amplified by RT-PCR using RhoA and GAPDH primers. RhoA protein expression was also measured in first-order mesenteric arteries using Western blot analysis. Myosin phosphorylation in maximally stimulated first-order mesenteric arteries was significantly lower in portal hypertensive animals (19.9 +/- 2.86%) when compared with sham-operated control (43.8 +/- 3.53%). Inhibition of PKA selectively increased myosin phosphorylation to 34.7 +/- 4.18%. Rp-cAMPS did not affect the phosphorylation of the portal veins or superior mesenteric arteries. RhoA mRNA and membrane-associated RhoA protein expression in portal hypertensive first-order mesenteric arteries were significantly lower when compared with controls. Acute inhibition of PKA had no effect on RhoA mRNA expression. However, it restored membrane-associated RhoA protein expression in portal hypertensive vessels to control levels. The results suggest that reductions in membrane-associated RhoA expression, which appear to be regulated by cAMP-dependent events, lead to reduced myosin phosphorylation and may underlie the reduced vasoconstrictor effectiveness in the resistance vasculature of portal hypertensive intestine. PMID:15513955

  6. Regenerating tail muscles in lizard contain Fast but not Slow Myosin indicating that most myofibers belong to the fast twitch type for rapid contraction.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, L

    2015-10-01

    During tail regeneration in lizards a large mass of muscle tissue is formed in form of segmental myomeres of similar size located under the dermis of the new tail. These muscles accumulate glycogen and a fast form of myosin typical for twitch myofibers as it is shown by light and ultrastructural immunocytochemistry using an antibody directed against a Fast Myosin Heavy Chain. High resolution immunogold labeling shows that an intense labeling for fast myosin is localized over the thick filaments of the numerous myofibrils in about 70% of the regenerated myofibers while the labeling becomes less intense in the remaining muscle fibers. The present observations indicate that at least two subtypes of Fast Myosin containing muscle fibers are regenerated, the prevalent type was of the fast twitch containing few mitochondria, sparse glycogen, numerous smooth endoplasmic reticulum vesicles. The second, and less frequent type was a Fast-Oxidative-Glycolitic twitch fiber containing more mitochondria, a denser cytoplasm and myofibrils. Since their initial differentiation, myoblasts, myotubes and especially the regenerated myofibers do not accumulate any immuno-detectable Slow Myosin Heavy Chain. The study indicates that most of the segmental muscles of the regenerated tail serve for the limited bending of the tail during locomotion and trashing after amputation of the regenerated tail, a phenomenon that facilitates predator escape. PMID:26164738

  7. An Unusual Transduction Pathway in Human Tonic Smooth Muscle Myosin

    PubMed Central

    Halstead, Miriam F.; Ajtai, Katalin; Penheiter, Alan R.; Spencer, Joshua D.; Zheng, Ye; Morrison, Emma A.; Burghardt, Thomas P.

    2007-01-01

    The motor protein myosin binds actin and ATP, producing work by causing relative translation of the proteins while transducing ATP free energy. Smooth muscle myosin has one of four heavy chains encoded by the MYH11 gene that differ at the C-terminus and in the active site for ATPase due to alternate splicing. A seven-amino-acid active site insert in phasic muscle myosin is absent from the tonic isoform. Fluorescence increase in the nucleotide sensitive tryptophan (NST) accompanies nucleotide binding and hydrolysis in several myosin isoforms implying it results from a common origin within the motor. A wild-type tonic myosin (smA) construct of the enzymatic head domain (subfragment 1 or S1) has seven tryptophan residues and nucleotide-induced fluorescence enhancement like other myosins. Three smA mutants probe the molecular basis for the fluorescence enhancement. W506+ contains one tryptophan at position 506 homologous to the NST in other myosins. W506F has the native tryptophans except phenylalanine replaces W506, and W506+(Y499F) is W506+ with phenylalanine replacing Y499. W506+ lacks nucleotide-induced fluorescence enhancement probably eliminating W506 as the NST. W506F has impaired ATPase activity but retains nucleotide-induced fluorescence enhancement. Y499F replacement in W506+ partially rescues nucleotide sensitivity demonstrating the role of Y499 as an NST facilitator. The exceptional response of W506 to active site conformation opens the possibility that phasic and tonic isoforms differ in how influences from active site ATPase propagate through the protein network. PMID:17704147

  8. Protective Effects of Clenbuterol against Dexamethasone-Induced Masseter Muscle Atrophy and Myosin Heavy Chain Transition

    PubMed Central

    Umeki, Daisuke; Ohnuki, Yoshiki; Mototani, Yasumasa; Shiozawa, Kouichi; Suita, Kenji; Fujita, Takayuki; Nakamura, Yoshiki; Saeki, Yasutake; Okumura, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Glucocorticoid has a direct catabolic effect on skeletal muscle, leading to muscle atrophy, but no effective pharmacotherapy is available. We reported that clenbuterol (CB) induced masseter muscle hypertrophy and slow-to-fast myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform transition through direct muscle β2-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Thus, we hypothesized that CB would antagonize glucocorticoid (dexamethasone; DEX)-induced muscle atrophy and fast-to-slow MHC isoform transition. Methodology We examined the effect of CB on DEX-induced masseter muscle atrophy by measuring masseter muscle weight, fiber diameter, cross-sectional area, and myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition. To elucidate the mechanisms involved, we used immunoblotting to study the effects of CB on muscle hypertrophic signaling (insulin growth factor 1 (IGF1) expression, Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, and calcineurin pathway) and atrophic signaling (Akt/Forkhead box-O (FOXO) pathway and myostatin expression) in masseter muscle of rats treated with DEX and/or CB. Results and Conclusion Masseter muscle weight in the DEX-treated group was significantly lower than that in the Control group, as expected, but co-treatment with CB suppressed the DEX-induced masseter muscle atrophy, concomitantly with inhibition of fast-to-slow MHC isoforms transition. Activation of the Akt/mTOR pathway in masseter muscle of the DEX-treated group was significantly inhibited compared to that of the Control group, and CB suppressed this inhibition. DEX also suppressed expression of IGF1 (positive regulator of muscle growth), and CB attenuated this inhibition. Myostatin protein expression was unchanged. CB had no effect on activation of the Akt/FOXO pathway. These results indicate that CB antagonizes DEX-induced muscle atrophy and fast-to-slow MHC isoform transition via modulation of Akt/mTOR activity and IGF1 expression. CB might be a useful pharmacological agent for treatment of glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy. PMID:26053620

  9. Staircase in mammalian muscle without light chain phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Rassier, D E; Tubman, L A; MacIntosh, B R

    1999-01-01

    In disuse atrophied skeletal muscle, the staircase response is virtually absent and light chain phosphorylation does not occur. The purpose of the present study was to determine if staircase could be restored in atrophied muscle with continued absence of myosin light chain phosphorylation, by reducing what appears to be an otherwise enhanced calcium release. Control (untreated) and sham-operated female Sprague-Dawley rats were compared with animals after 2 weeks of complete inactivity induced by tetrodotoxin (TTX) application to the left sciatic nerve. In situ isometric contractile responses of rat gastrocnemius muscle were analyzed before and after administration of dantrolene sodium (DS), a drug which is known to inhibit Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle. Twitch active force (AF) was attenuated by DS from 2.2 +/- 0.2 N, 2.7 +/- 0.1 N and 2.4 +/- 0.2 N to 0.77 +/- 0.2 N, 1.05 +/- 0.1 N and 1.01 +/- 0.2 N in TTX (N = 5), sham (N = 11) and control (N = 7) muscles, respectively. Following dantrolene treatment, 10 s of 10-Hz stimulation increased AF to 1.32 +/- 0.2 N, 1.52 +/- 0.1 N and 1.45 +/- 0.2 N for the TTX, sham and control groups, respectively, demonstrating a positive staircase response. Regulatory light chain (R-LC) phosphorylation was lower for TTX-treated (5.5 +/- 5.5%) than for control (26.1 +/- 5.3%) and sham (20.0 +/- 5%) groups. There was no significant change from resting levels for any of the groups after DS treatment (P = 0.88). This study shows that treatment with dantrolene permits staircase in atrophied muscle as well as control muscle, by a mechanism which appears to be independent of R-LC phosphorylation. PMID:10347779

  10. Denervation Causes Fiber Atrophy and Myosin Heavy Chain Co-Expression in Senescent Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, Sharon L.; Rygiel, Karolina; Purves-Smith, Fennigje M.; Solbak, Nathan M.; Turnbull, Douglas M.; Hepple, Russell T.

    2012-01-01

    Although denervation has long been implicated in aging muscle, the degree to which it is causes the fiber atrophy seen in aging muscle is unknown. To address this question, we quantified motoneuron soma counts in the lumbar spinal cord using choline acetyl transferase immunhistochemistry and quantified the size of denervated versus innervated muscle fibers in the gastrocnemius muscle using the in situ expression of the denervation-specific sodium channel, Nav1.5, in young adult (YA) and senescent (SEN) rats. To gain insights into the mechanisms driving myofiber atrophy, we also examined the myofiber expression of the two primary ubiquitin ligases necessary for muscle atrophy (MAFbx, MuRF1). MN soma number in lumbar spinal cord declined 27% between YA (638±34 MNs×mm−1) and SEN (469±13 MNs×mm−1). Nav1.5 positive fibers (1548±70 μm2) were 35% smaller than Nav1.5 negative fibers (2367±78 μm2; P<0.05) in SEN muscle, whereas Nav1.5 negative fibers in SEN were only 7% smaller than fibers in YA (2553±33 μm2; P<0.05) where no Nav1.5 labeling was seen, suggesting denervation is the primary cause of aging myofiber atrophy. Nav1.5 positive fibers had higher levels of MAFbx and MuRF1 (P<0.05), consistent with involvement of the proteasome proteolytic pathway in the atrophy of denervated muscle fibers in aging muscle. In summary, our study provides the first quantitative assessment of the contribution of denervation to myofiber atrophy in aging muscle, suggesting it explains the majority of the atrophy we observed. This striking result suggests a renewed focus should be placed on denervation in seeking understanding of the causes of and treatments for aging muscle atrophy. PMID:22235261

  11. Enzymatic changes in myosin regulatory proteins may explain vasoplegia in terminally ill patients with sepsis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wentao; Kou, Yong; Gao, Feng-Lan; Ouyang, Xiu-He

    2016-01-01

    The current study was conducted with the hypothesis that failure of maintenance of the vascular tone may be central to failure of the peripheral circulation and spiralling down of blood pressure in sepsis. Namely, we examined the balance between expression of myosin light chain (MLC) phosphatase and kinase, enzymes that regulate MLCs dephosphorylation and phosphorylation with a direct effect on pharmacomechanical coupling for smooth muscle relaxation and contraction respectively. Mechanical recordings and enzyme immunoassays of vascular smooth muscle lysates were used as the major methods to examine arterial biopsy samples from terminally ill sepsis patients. The results of the present study provide evidence that genomic alteration of expression of key regulatory proteins in vascular smooth muscles may be responsible for the relentless downhill course in sepsis. Down-regulation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and up-regulation of MLCK may explain the loss of tone and failure to mount contractile response in vivo during circulation. The mechanical studies demonstrated the inability of the arteries to develop tone when stimulated by phenylephrine in vitro. The results of our study provide indirect hint that control of inflammation is a major therapeutic approach in sepsis, and may facilitate to ameliorate the progressive cardiovascular collapse. PMID:26772992

  12. Correlations between myosin heavy chain isoforms and mechanical parameters in rat myometrium.

    PubMed Central

    Hewett, T E; Martin, A F; Paul, R J

    1993-01-01

    1. The relations between mechanical parameters and myosin heavy chain isoforms were studied in myometrial smooth muscle from ovariectomized rats (O) and oestrogen-treated, ovariectomized rats (E). 2. Treatment of the rats for three days with beta-oestradiol (2 micrograms kg-1 day-1) 2-4 weeks postsurgery, produced maximal changes in uterine mass and myosin content of approximately threefold. 3. Myosin heavy chain isoform SM1 (204 kDa) was increased from 65.5 +/- 0.8% to 72.9 +/- 0.6% of the total isoform species (P < 0.001, n = 24, O and E respectively) after oestrogen treatment. 4. To avoid complications associated with activation processes, mechanical parameters were measured in permeabilized myometrial fibre bundles activated at a calcium concentration of 12.6 microM. After oestrogen treatment the maximum velocity of shortening (Vmax) measured by the slack test increased from 0.044 +/- 0.006 of the reference length (Lo) s-1 to 0.101 +/- 0.006 Lo s-1, and maximal isometric force (Pmax) increased from 23.3 +/- 4.4 mN mm-2 to 74.1 +/- 13.9 mN mm-2 (P < 0.001, n = 24, respectively). Series elasticity and the half-time to peak force were not significantly altered. 5. Both Vmax and Pmax correlated significantly with percentage SM1 in O and E fibre bundles (r = 0.61 and 0.56, n = 48 fibres; or r = 0.87 and 0.89, n = 8 grouped data per rat). Vmax, however, was only weakly correlated with Pmax (r = 0.39, n = 48). 6. To assess the relative significance of the correlation between Vmax and the percentage of SM1 and that between Vmax and Pmax, we used a multiple regression analysis with the model Vmax = intercept + beta 1 x % SM1 + beta 2 x Pmax, where intercept, beta 1 and beta 2 are regression parameters. This analysis (n = 48) indicated that Vmax was significantly dependent on the percentage of SM1 (P < 0.0002) but not on Pmax (P < 0.61). 7. There were no significant differences in the levels of myosin light chain phosphorylation between O and E fibre bundles, indicating that light chain phosphorylation is unlikely to be the basis for the differences in mechanical parameters demonstrated by these fibres. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8487199

  13. Maternal nutrient restriction affects properties of skeletal muscle in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mei J; Ford, Stephen P; Means, Warrie J; Hess, Bret W; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Du, Min

    2006-01-01

    Maternal nutrient restriction (NR) affects fetal development with long-term consequences on postnatal health of offspring, including predisposition to obesity and diabetes. Most studies have been conducted in fetuses in late gestation, and little information is available on the persistent impact of NR from early to mid-gestation on properties of offspring skeletal muscle, which was the aim of this study. Pregnant ewes were subjected to 50% NR from day 2878 of gestation and allowed to deliver. The longissimus dorsi muscle was sampled from 8-month-old offspring. Maternal NR during early to mid-gestation decreased the number of myofibres in the offspring and increased the ratio of myosin IIb to other isoforms by 17.6 4.9% (P < 0.05) compared with offspring of ad libitum fed ewes. Activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, a key enzyme controlling fatty acid oxidation, was reduced by 24.7 4.5% (P < 0.05) in skeletal muscle of offspring of NR ewes and would contribute to increased fat accumulation observed in offspring of NR ewes. Intramuscular triglyceride content (IMTG) was increased in skeletal muscle of NR lambs, a finding which may be linked to predisposition to diabetes in offspring of NR mothers, since enhanced IMTG predisposes to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Proteomic analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis demonstrated downregulation of several catabolic enzymes in 8-month-old offspring of NR ewes. These data demonstrate that the early to mid-gestation period is important for skeletal muscle development. Impaired muscle development during this stage of gestation affects the number and composition of fibres in offspring which may lead to long-term physiological consequences, including predisposition to obesity and diabetes. PMID:16763001

  14. Functions of plant-specific myosin XI: from intracellular motility to plant postures.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Haruko; Tamura, Kentaro; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2015-12-01

    The plant-specific protein motor class myosin XI is known to function in rapid bulk flow of the cytoplasm (cytoplasmic streaming) and in organellar movements. Recent studies unveiled a wide range of physiological functions of myosin XI motors, from intracellular motility to organ movements. Arabidopsis thaliana has 13 members of myosin XI class. In vegetative organs, myosins XIk, XI1, and XI2 primarily contribute to dynamics and spatial configurations of endoplasmic reticulum that develops a tubular network in the cell periphery and thick strand-like structures in the inner cell regions. Myosin XI-i forms a nucleocytoplasmic linker and is responsible for nuclear movement and shape. In addition to these intracellular functions, myosin XIf together with myosin XIk is involved in the fundamental nature of plants; the actin-myosin XI cytoskeleton regulates organ straightening to adjust plant posture. PMID:26432645

  15. Reciprocal and dynamic polarization of planar cell polarity core components and myosin.

    PubMed

    Newman-Smith, Erin; Kourakis, Matthew J; Reeves, Wendy; Veeman, Michael; Smith, William C

    2015-01-01

    The Ciona notochord displays planar cell polarity (PCP), with anterior localization of Prickle (Pk) and Strabismus (Stbm). We report that a myosin is polarized anteriorly in these cells and strongly colocalizes with Stbm. Disruption of the actin/myosin machinery with cytochalasin or blebbistatin disrupts polarization of Pk and Stbm, but not of myosin complexes, suggesting a PCP-independent aspect of myosin localization. Wash out of cytochalasin restored Pk polarization, but not if done in the presence of blebbistatin, suggesting an active role for myosin in core PCP protein localization. On the other hand, in the pk mutant line, aimless, myosin polarization is disrupted in approximately one third of the cells, indicating a reciprocal action of core PCP signaling on myosin localization. Our results indicate a complex relationship between the actomyosin cytoskeleton and core PCP components in which myosin is not simply a downstream target of PCP signaling, but also required for PCP protein localization. PMID:25866928

  16. Comprehensive physical mechanism of two-headed biomotor myosin V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuzhi; Wang, Zhisong

    2009-12-01

    Two-headed biomotor myosin V autonomously coordinates its two identical heads in fuel consumption and mechanical stepping, so that the dimerized motor as a whole gains the capability of processive, unidirectional movement along cytoskeletal filament. How the dimer-level functions like sustained direction rectification and autonomous coordination emerge out of physical principles poses an outstanding question pertinent to motor protein biology as well as the nascent field of bioinspired nanomotors. Here the comprehensive physical mechanism for myosin V motor is identified by a dimer-level free-energy analysis that is methodologically calibrated against experimental data. A hallmark of the identified mechanism is a mechanically mediated symmetry breaking that occurs at the dimer level and prevails against ubiquitous thermal fluctuations. Another character is the onset of substantial free-energy gaps between major dimer-track binding configurations. The symmetry breaking is the basis for myosin V's directional rectification, and the energy gaps facilitate autonomous head-head coordination. The mechanism explains the experimental finding that myosin V makes ATP-independent consecutive steps under high opposing loads but not under pushing loads. Interestingly, myosin V and another major biomotor kinesin 1 are found to share essentially the same core mechanism but for distinctly different working regimes.

  17. Structural Basis for Myosin V Discrimination Between Distinct Cargoes

    SciTech Connect

    Pashkova,N.; Jin, Y.; Ramaswamy, S.; Weisman, L.

    2006-01-01

    Myosin V molecular motors move cargoes on actin filaments. A myosin V may move multiple cargoes to distinct places at different times. The cargoes attach to the globular tail of myosin V via cargo-specific receptors. Here we report the crystal structure at 2.2 {angstrom} of the myosin V globular tail. The overall tertiary structure has not been previously observed. There are several patches of highly conserved regions distributed on the surface of the tail. These are candidate attachment sites for cargo-specific receptors. Indeed, we identified a region of five conserved surface residues that are solely required for vacuole inheritance. Likewise, we identified a region of five conserved surface residues that are required for secretory vesicle movement, but not vacuole movement. These two regions are at opposite ends of the oblong-shaped cargo-binding domain, and moreover are offset by 180{sup o}. The fact that the cargo-binding areas are distant from each other and simultaneously exposed on the surface of the globular tail suggests that major targets for the regulation of cargo attachment are organelle-specific myosin V receptors.

  18. Separation of large mammalian ventricular myosin differing in ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Heinz; Maisch, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    To investigate a possible heterogeneity of human ventricular myosin, papillary muscles of patients with valvular dysfunction were examined using a modified native gel electrophoresis. Myosin was separated into 2 components termed VA and VB, whereby the VA to VB proportion appeared to depend on the ventricular load. The proportion of the faster migrating band VA was correlated (P<0.05) with end-diastolic pressure and the aortic pressure-cardiac index product. The regression based on these variables accounted for 67% of the variation in VA (R2=0.67). The VA proportion was, however, not significantly correlated with cardiac norepinephrine concentration. The ATPase activity of the 2 components of myosin was assessed from the Ca3(PO4)2 precipitation by incubating the gel in the presence of ATP and CaCl2. The ATPase activity of VA was 60% of that of VB. The VA and VB forms were observed also in the cat (31.4% VA), dog (32.1% VA), pig (28.5% VA), wild pig (33.7% VA), and roe deer (30.5% VA). VA and VB were not detected in the rat exhibiting the 3 isoforms V1, V2, and V3, rabbit (100% V3), and hare (86% V1). The data demonstrate a heterogeneity of large mammalian ventricular myosin, whereby an increased cardiac load appeared to be associated with a higher myosin VA proportion that exhibited a reduced ATPase activity. PMID:17612641

  19. Post-mortem timing of skeletal muscle biochemical and mechanical degradation.

    PubMed

    Tuttle, Lori J; Alperin, Marianna; Lieber, Richard L

    2014-04-11

    Fresh cadaveric human tissue is a valuable resource that is used to address important clinical questions. However, it is unknown how post-mortem time impacts skeletal muscle mechanical and biochemical properties. We simulated morgue conditions in rabbits and tested the passive mechanical properties of muscle bundles, and the degradation of myosin heavy chain, collagen, and titin at specific intervals up to 7 days post-mortem. While a great deal of inter-specimen variability was observed, it was independent of post-mortem time. Passive mechanics, myosin heavy chain, and collagen content were all unaffected while the titin protein degraded up to 80% over 7 days post-mortem. These data indicate that fresh cadaveric tissue may be used for passive mechanical testing and that certain biochemical properties are unchanged up to 7 days after death. PMID:24589021

  20. Inferring crossbridge properties from skeletal muscle energetics.

    PubMed

    Barclay, C J; Woledge, R C; Curtin, N A

    2010-01-01

    Work is generated in muscle by myosin crossbridges during their interaction with the actin filament. The energy from which the work is produced is the free energy change of ATP hydrolysis and efficiency quantifies the fraction of the energy supplied that is converted into work. The purpose of this review is to compare the efficiency of frog skeletal muscle determined from measurements of work output and either heat production or chemical breakdown with the work produced per crossbridge cycle predicted on the basis of the mechanical responses of contracting muscle to rapid length perturbations. We review the literature to establish the likely maximum crossbridge efficiency for frog skeletal muscle (0.4) and, using this value, calculate the maximum work a crossbridge can perform in a single attachment to actin (33 x 10(-21) J). To see whether this amount of work is consistent with our understanding of crossbridge mechanics, we examine measurements of the force responses of frog muscle to fast length perturbations and, taking account of filament compliance, determine the crossbridge force-extension relationship and the velocity dependences of the fraction of crossbridges attached and average crossbridge strain. These data are used in combination with a Huxley-Simmons-type model of the thermodynamics of the attached crossbridge to determine whether this type of model can adequately account for the observed muscle efficiency. Although it is apparent that there are still deficiencies in our understanding of how to accurately model some aspects of ensemble crossbridge behaviour, this comparison shows that crossbridge energetics are consistent with known crossbridge properties. PMID:19836411

  1. Nucleotide-Dependent Shape Changes in the Reverse Direction Motor, Myosin VI

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chun Feng; Sader, Kasim; White, Howard; Kendrick-Jones, John; Trinick, John

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the shape of myosin VI, the actin minus-end directed motor, by negative stain and metal shadow electron microscopy. Single particle processing was used to make two-dimensional averages of the stain images, which greatly increases the clarity and allows detailed comparisons with crystal structures. A total of 169,964 particle images were obtained from two different constructs in six different states (four nucleotide states and with and without Ca2+). The shape of truncated apo myosin VI was very similar to the apo crystal structure, with the lever arm bent strongly backward and around the motor domain. In the full-length molecule, the C-terminal part of the tail has an additional bend taking it back across the motor domain, which may reflect a regulated state. Addition of ATP, ADP, or ATP-?S resulted in a large change, straightening the molecule from the bent shape and swinging the lever by ?140. Although these nucleotides would not be expected to produce the pre-powerstroke state, myosin VI in their presence was most similar to the truncated crystal structure with bound ADP-VO4, which is thought to show the pre-powerstroke shape. The nucleotide data were therefore substantially different from expectation based on crystal structures. The full-length molecule was almost completely monomeric; only ?1% were dimers, joined through the ends of the tail. Addition of calcium ions appeared to result in release of the second calmodulin light chain. In negatively stained molecules there was little indication of extended ?-helical structure in the tail, but molecules viewed by metal shadowing had a tail ?3 longer, 29 vs. 9 nm, part of which is likely to be a single ?-helix. PMID:21081082

  2. Broad disorder and the allosteric mechanism of myosin II regulation by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Vileno, Bertrand; Chamoun, Jean; Liang, Hua; Brewer, Paul; Haldeman, Brian D; Facemyer, Kevin C; Salzameda, Bridget; Song, Likai; Li, Hui-Chun; Cremo, Christine R; Fajer, Piotr G

    2011-05-17

    Double electron electron resonance EPR methods was used to measure the effects of the allosteric modulators, phosphorylation, and ATP, on the distances and distance distributions between the two regulatory light chain of myosin (RLC). Three different states of smooth muscle myosin (SMM) were studied: monomers, the short-tailed subfragment heavy meromyosin, and SMM filaments. We reconstituted myosin with nine single cysteine spin-labeled RLC. For all mutants we found a broad distribution of distances that could not be explained by spin-label rotamer diversity. For SMM and heavy meromyosin, several sites showed two heterogeneous populations in the unphosphorylated samples, whereas only one was observed after phosphorylation. The data were consistent with the presence of two coexisting heterogeneous populations of structures in the unphosphorylated samples. The two populations were attributed to an on and off state by comparing data from unphosphorylated and phosphorylated samples. Models of these two states were generated using a rigid body docking approach derived from EM [Wendt T, Taylor D, Trybus KM, Taylor K (2001) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:4361-4366] (PNAS, 2001, 98:4361-4366), but our data revealed a new feature of the